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Sample records for licorice glycyrrhiza uralensis

  1. Isoliquiritigenin isolated from licorice Glycyrrhiza uralensis prevents 6-hydroxydopamine-induced apoptosis in dopaminergic neurons.

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    Hwang, Cheol Kyu; Chun, Hong Sung

    2012-01-01

    Licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) is a medicinal herb containing various bioactive components implicated in antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and neuroprotective effects, but the effects of licorice against Parkinson's disease (PD)-related dopaminergic cell death have not been studied. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of isoliquiritigenin (ISL) isolated from Glycyrrhiza uralensis on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced neurotoxicity in a dopaminergic cell line, SN4741. ISL (1 µM) significantly attenuated 6-OHDA (50 µM)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) generation and apoptotic cell death. ISL pretreatment effectively suppressed 6-OHDA-mediated upregulation of Bax, p-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p-p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, cytochrome c release, and caspase 3 activation. In addition, ISL significantly attenuated 6-OHDA-induced Bcl-2, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) reduction. Pharmacological inhibitors of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) pathway reversed ISL-mediated neuroprotection against 6-OHDA toxicity in SN4741 cells. These results provide the first evidence that ISL can protect dopaminergic cells under oxidative stress conditions by regulating the apoptotic process.

  2. Constituent properties of licorices derived from Glycyrrhiza uralensis, G. glabra, or G. inflata identified by genetic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Kenji; Shiba, Mao; Nakamura, Rie; Morota, Takashi; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2007-07-01

    Constituent properties of licorices derived from Glycyrrhiza uralensis, G. glabra, and G. inflata are revealed by comparing 117 of licorice identified using four genetic markers; internal tracscribed spacer (ITS) on nuclear ribosomal DNA, rbcL gene, matK gene, and trnH-trnK1 intergenic region on chloroplast DNA. Regarding six main constituents of licorice; glycyrrhizin, liquiritin, liquiritin apioside, isoliquiritin, isoliquiritin apioside, and liquiritigenin, the constituent property of G. glabra resembles to that of G. inflata. On the other hand, the constituent property of G. uralensis is not similar to that of G. glabra or G. inflata and is characterized by a wide content variation of the six constituents compared to those of G. glabra and/or G. inflata. The mean contents of liquiritin, isoliquiritin, or liquilitigenin in G. uralensis are significantly higher than those of G. glabra or G. inflata. Therefore, the licorice species should be selected depending on these constituent properties for the traditional Chinese medicines or the Japanese Kampo medicines. Additionally, glycycoumarin, glabridin, and licochalcone A were reconfirmed as the species-specific typical constituents of G. uralensis, G. glabra, and G. inflata respectively. Therefore, it is resulted that the determination of the three species-specific constituents may be useful for the species identification of licorice. However, since 6% of licorice examined and hybrids were exceptions to the rule, their genetic information is necessary for the accurate species identification of licorice.

  3. Effects of space flight on DNA mutation and secondary metabolites of licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.) seeds were flown on a recoverable satellite for 18 days(the average radiation dose in the flight recovery module was 0.102 mGy/d, the distance from flight apogee to earth was 350 km, gravity 10-6). After returning to earth, the seeds were germinated and grown to maturity. The parallel ground-based seeds were also planted under the same conditions. The leaves of licorice were used for inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis and the two main secondary me-tabolites in one-year-old roots were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Among 22 random primers used in this experiment, 6 primers generated different DNA band types. Analysis of HPLC showed that the content of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) and liquiritin (LQ) in the roots from seeds flown in space was respectively 2.19, 1.18 times higher than that of the control group. The results demonstrated that the extraterrestrial environment induced mutagenic effects on licorice and affected its secondary metabolites. These changes indicated that extraterrestrial orbit is possible means of breeding of licorice so as to preserve this endangered medicinal plant.

  4. Effects of space flight on DNA mutation and secondary metabolites of licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO WenYuan; LI KeFeng; YAN Shuo; GAO XiuMei; HU LiMin

    2009-01-01

    Licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.) seeds were flown on a recoverable satellite for 18 days(the average radiation dose in the flight recovery module was 0.102 mGy/d, the distance from flight apogee to earth was 350 km, gravity 10~(-6)). After returning to earth, the seeds were germinated and grown to maturity. The parallel ground-based seeds were also planted under the same conditions. The leaves of licorice were used for inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis and the two main secondary metabolites in one-year-old roots were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).Among 22 random primers used in this experiment, 6 primers generated different DNA band types. Analysis of HPLC showed that the content of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) and liquiritin (LQ) in the roots from seeds flown in space was respectively 2.19, 1.18 times higher than that of the control group. The results demonstrated that the extraterrestrial environment induced mutagenic effects on licorice and affected its secondary metabolites. These changes indicated that extraterrestrial orbit is possible means of breeding of licorice so as to preserve this endangered medicinal plant.

  5. Correlation analysis between the rate of respiration in the root and the active components in licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Peijun; Sun, Zhirong; Liu, Wenlan; Chen, Long; DU, Yuan; Wei, Xinxin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between root respiration and the percentage of active components in licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.), in order to provide a foundation for the regulation and modulation of the quality of G. uralensis. Respiration efflux of annual and biennial G. uralensis was determined using a Li-7000 CO2/H2O analyzer. The root systems were scanned at a resolution of 3,000 dpi using an Epson Expression 10000XL scanner. Root growth was determined by analyzing the scanned images using WinRHIZO version Pro2007d software and the rate of respiration in the root was subsequently calculated. In addition, the percentages of the five major active components in licorice, glycyrrhizic acid, glycyrrhizin, isoliquiritin, liquiritigenin and isoliquiritigenin, were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The correlation between the root respiration and the percentage of the active components was investigated. Significant seasonal changes were observed in the rates of respiration of first and zero-class roots. In annual and biennial G. uralensis, the maximum and minimum values for rate of respiration were present in July (Pactive components and the rate of respiration were -0.304 (glycyrrhizin), -0.129 (liquiritigenin), -0.441 (glycyrrhizic acid; Pactive components in G. uralensis may be beneficial to ensuring the quality of cultivated G. uralensis.

  6. Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius and Licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Root Extract Combinations Increase Hepatocarcinoma Cell (Hep-G2 Viability

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    David G. Popovich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined cytoactive effects of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius and licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis root extracts were investigated in a hepatocarcinoma cell line (Hep-G2. An isobolographic analysis was utilized to express the possibility of synergistic, additive or antagonistic interaction between the two extracts. Both ginseng and licorice roots are widely utilized in traditional Chinese medicine preparations to treat a variety of ailments. However, the effect of the herbs in combination is currently unknown in cultured Hep-G2 cells. Ginseng (GE and licorice (LE extracts were both able to reduce cell viability. The LC50 values, after 72 h, were found to be 0.64 ± 0.02 mg/mL (GE and 0.53 ± 0.02 mg/mL (LE. An isobologram was plotted, which included five theoretical LC50s calculated, based on the fixed fraction method of combination ginseng to licorice extracts to establish a line of additivity. All combinations of GE to LE (1/5, 1/3, 1/2, 2/3, 4/5 produced an effect on Hep-G2 cell viability but they were all found to be antagonistic. The LC50 of fractions 1/3, 1/2, 2/3 were 23%, 21% and 18% above the theoretical LC50. Lactate dehydrogenase release indicated that as the proportion of GE to LE increased beyond 50%, the influence on membrane permeability increased. Cell-cycle analysis showed a slight but significant arrest at the G1 phase of cell cycle for LE. Both GE and LE reduced Hep-G2 viability independently; however, the combinations of both extracts were found to have an antagonistic effect on cell viability and increased cultured Hep-G2 survival.

  7. Irradiation effects on color and functional properties of persimmon (Diospyros kaki L. folium) leaf extract and licorice (Glycyrrhiza Uralensis Fischer) root extract during storage

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    Jo, Cheorun; Son, J.H.; Shin, M.G.; Byun, M.W. E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr

    2003-06-01

    Irradiation effects on color and functional properties of persimmon (Diospyros kaki L. folium) leaf extract and licorice (Glycyrrhiza Uralensis Fischer) root extract were studied. Persimmon leaf and licorice root extracts were irradiated using {sup 60}Co gamma irradiator at 0 and 20 kGy absorbed dose and stored at 4 deg. C or -20 deg. C for 2 weeks. Tyrosinase inhibition effect (TIE) of both extracts was not different by 20 kGy-irradiation but reduced during storage. Electron donating ability (EDA) of the persimmon leaf extract was generally consistent, but that of licorice root extract was reduced by irradiation except for 1 week of storage. Both TIE and EDA of persimmon leaf extract were higher than that of licorice root. Hunter color L*-, a*-, and b*-values were changed, resulting in a desirable brighter color by irradiation. During storage, the bright yellow color of irradiated sample changed to brown gradually, and especially the changes in the refrigeration condition (4 deg. C) was faster than frozen (-20 deg. C). Results indicate that irradiation can be a useful method to produce value-added natural ingredients with functions such as persimmon leaf or licorice root for food or cosmetic industry in addition to elimination of microbial load.

  8. Impact of Ion Implantation on Licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch) Growth and Antioxidant Activity Under Drought Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingnan; Tong, Liping; Shen, Tongwei; Li, Jie; Wu, Lijun; Yu, Zengliang

    2007-06-01

    Low energy ion beams are known to have stimulation effects on plant generation and to improve plants' intrinsic quality. In the present study, the growth and physiological index of licorice implanted with 0, 8, 10, 12 and 14× (2.6×1015) ions/cm2 were investigated under well-watered and drought-stress conditions. The results showed that a proper dose of ion implantation was particularly efficient in stimulating the licorice growth and improving the plant biomass significantly in both the well-watered and drought-stress conditions. The physiological results of licorice measured by leaf water potential, lipid oxidation, soluble protein and antioxidant system showed a significant correlation between ion implantation and water regime except for leaf water potential. Therefore, the study indicated that ion implantation can enhance licorice's drought tolerance by increasing the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging ability to lower oxidative damage to lipids in plants. Ion beam implantation, therefore, provides an alternative method to enhance licorice drought tolerance.

  9. Impact of Ion Implantation on Licorice ( Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch ) Growth and Antioxidant Activity Under Drought Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jingnan; TONG Liping; SHEN Tongwei; LI Jie; WU Lijun; YU Zengliang

    2007-01-01

    Low energy ion beams are known to have stimulation effects on plant generation and to improve plants' intrinsic quality. In the present study, the growth and physiological index of licorice implanted with 0, 8, 10, 12 and 14× (2.6×l015) ions/cm2 were investigated under well-watered and drought-stress conditions. The results showed that a proper dose of ion implantation was particularly efficient in stimulating the licorice growth and improving the plant biomass significantly in both the well-watered and drought-stress conditions. The physiological results of licorice measured by leaf water potential, lipid oxidation, soluble protein and antioxidant system showed a significant correlation between ion implantation and water regime except for leaf water potential. Therefore, the study indicated that ion implantation can enhance licorice's drought tolerance by increasing the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and DPPH (l,l-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging ability to lower oxidative damage to lipids in plants. Ion beam implantation, therefore, provides an alternative method to enhance licorice drought tolerance.

  10. Separation and characterization of phenolic compounds and triterpenoid saponins in licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) using mobile phase-dependent reversed-phase×reversed-phase comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

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    Qiao, Xue; Song, Wei; Ji, Shuai; Wang, Qi; Guo, De-an; Ye, Min

    2015-07-10

    Licorice is one of the most popular herbal medicines worldwide. It contains a big array of phenolic compounds (flavonoids, coumarins, and diphenylethanones). Due to high structural diversity, low abundance, and co-elution with licorice saponins, these phenolic compounds are difficult to be separated by conventional chromatography. In this study, a mobile phase-dependent reversed-phase×reversed phase comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (RP×RP 2DLC) method was established to separate phenolic compounds in licorice (the roots of Glycyrrhiza uralensis). Organic solvents in the mobile phase were optimized to improve orthogonality of the first and second dimensions, and a synchronized gradient mode was used to improve chromatographic resolution. Finally, licorice extracts were eluted with methanol/water/formic acid in the first dimension (Acquity CSH C18 column), and acetonitrile/water/formic acid in the second dimension (Poroshell Phenyl-Hexyl column). By using this 2DLC system, a total of 311 compounds were detected within 40min. The practical and effective peak capacity was 1329 and 524, respectively, and the orthogonality was 79.8%. The structures of 21 selected unknown compounds were tentatively characterized by mass spectrometry, and 8 of them were discovered from G. uralensis for the first time. The mobile phase-dependent 2DLC/MS system could benefit the separation and characterization of natural products in complicated herbal extracts.

  11. Effect of genotype and environment on five bioactive components of cultivated licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis FISCH.) populations in northern China.

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    Yu, Fulai; Wang, Qiuling; Wei, Shengli; Wang, Dan; Fang, Yuqiang; Liu, Fengbo; Zhao, Zhigang; Hou, Junling; Wang, Wenquan

    2014-10-30

    Methods to improve the bioactive component content of cultivated licorice have become the bottleneck of industrial licorice extraction for pharmaceutical use. To evaluate the effects of genotype, environment and their interaction on major bioactive components, we analyzed the five bioactive components: liquiritin (LQ), liquiritigenin (LQG), glycyrrhizin (GL), isoliquiritin (ILQ) and isoliquiritigenin (ILQG) of four diverse licorice varieties grown in four distinct environments in northern China during 2010-11. Analysis of variance showed that environmental and genotypic effects were significant (PBiplot of the principal component analysis showed that for quality breeding, G2 (WNT-1) and G3 (JX-1) are two relatively preferable genotypes, and E2 (Chifeng) location is suitable for accumulation of the bioactive components of these two genotypes. Stepwise regression analysis showed that sunshine and rainfall are the dominant environmental factors for licorice bioactive component accumulation; increased duration of sunshine is advantageous to GL accumulation whereas declining rainfall is conducive to LQG and ILQG accumulation. These results provide a theoretical basis for initiating licorice breeding programs with increased bioactive components and improved quality.

  12. Effect of genotype and environment on five bioactive components of cultivated licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) populations in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fulai; Wang, Qiuling; Wei, Shengli; Wang, Dan; Fang, Yuqiang; Liu, Fengbo; Zhao, Zhigang; Hou, Junling; Wang, Wenquan

    2015-01-01

    Methods to improve the bioactive component content of cultivated licorice have become the bottleneck of industrial licorice extraction for pharmaceutical use. To evaluate the effects of genotype, environment and their interaction on major bioactive components, we analyzed the five bioactive components: liquiritin (LQ), liquiritigenin (LQG), glycyrrhizin (GL), isoliquiritin (ILQ) and isoliquiritigenin (ILQG) of four diverse licorice varieties grown in four distinct environments in northern China during 2010-11. Analysis of variance showed that environmental and genotypic effects were significant (pBiplot of the principal component analysis showed that for quality breeding, G2 (WNT-1) and G3 (JX-1) are two relatively preferable genotypes, and E2 (Chifeng) location is suitable for accumulation of the bioactive components of these two genotypes. Stepwise regression analysis showed that sunshine and rainfall are the dominant environmental factors for licorice bioactive component accumulation; increased duration of sunshine is advantageous to GL accumulation whereas declining rainfall is conducive to LQG and ILQG accumulation. These results provide a theoretical basis for initiating licorice breeding programs with increased bioactive components and improved quality.

  13. A New Dihydroflavone Glycoside from Glycyrrhiza uralensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Xia LIU; Wen Han LIN; Jun Shan YANG

    2004-01-01

    A new dihydroflavone glycoside was isolated from the underground parts of Glycyrrhiza uralensis.Its structure was elucidated as 7-hydroxyl-4'-O-β-D-(6"-O-α-hydroxylpropionyl) glucopyranosyl dihydroflavone by spectral methods.

  14. Transcriptome Analysis and Development of SSR Molecular Markers in Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.

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    Yaling Liu

    Full Text Available Licorice is an important traditional Chinese medicine with clinical and industrial applications. Genetic resources of licorice are insufficient for analysis of molecular biology and genetic functions; as such, transcriptome sequencing must be conducted for functional characterization and development of molecular markers. In this study, transcriptome sequencing on the Illumina HiSeq 2500 sequencing platform generated a total of 5.41 Gb clean data. De novo assembly yielded a total of 46,641 unigenes. Comparison analysis using BLAST showed that the annotations of 29,614 unigenes were conserved. Further study revealed 773 genes related to biosynthesis of secondary metabolites of licorice, 40 genes involved in biosynthesis of the terpenoid backbone, and 16 genes associated with biosynthesis of glycyrrhizic acid. Analysis of unigenes larger than 1 Kb with a length of 11,702 nt presented 7,032 simple sequence repeats (SSR. Sixty-four of 69 randomly designed and synthesized SSR pairs were successfully amplified, 33 pairs of primers were polymorphism in in Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., Glycyrrhiza inflata Bat., Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and Glycyrrhiza pallidiflora Maxim. This study not only presents the molecular biology data of licorice but also provides a basis for genetic diversity research and molecular marker-assisted breeding of licorice.

  15. Comparison of biological activities of Glycyrrhiza glabra and G. uralensis

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    Park Chun-Geon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological activities of Glycyrrhiza (GLs extracts (GL-1, Glycyrrhiza glabra from Eumseong, Korea; GL-2, G. uralensis from Eumseong, Korea; GL-3, G. uralensis from Yeongcheon, Korea; GL-4, G. uralensis from Neimenggu, China: GL-5, G. uralensis purchased from Korea Medicine Herbal Association, Korea were investigated. G. uralensis (GLs-2, -3, -4, and -5 extracts exhibited higher free radical scavenging activity against DPPH and OH radicals than G. glabra (GL-1. In addition, all GLs had antibacterial activity against E. coli, S. aureus, and H. pylori. GL-3 inhibited the growth of E. coli and S. aureus, while GL-1 had antibacterial activity against H. pylori. All GL extracts tested inhibited the lipopolysaccharide- and interferon-γ-induced inflammatory activity of RAW 264.7 cells. G. glabra and G. uralensis reduced NO generation. GL-3 also inhibited the growth of AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma cells. GLs-3 and -4 showed the inhibition of rat lens aldose reductase. GL-4 had a higher total content of glycyrrhizin (1, glycyrrhetinic acid (2, glabridin (3, and isoliquiritigenin (4. G. uralensis (GLs-2, -3, -4, and -5 is thus more effective than G. glabra (GL-1.

  16. Culture of transgenic Glycyrrhiza uralensis hairy root with licorice squalene synthase (SQS) gene%乌拉尔甘草转鲨烯合成酶基因毛状根系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢虹玉; 刘敬梅; 张海超; 高山林

    2009-01-01

    A squalene synthase gene cloned (GuSQS1,accession number in GenBank database:AM182329)from Glycyrrhiza uralensis was transferred into G. uralensis via Agrobacterium rhizogencs A4 for investigating biosynthesis pathway and enhancing synthesis of glycyrrhizic acid (GA).Hypocotyl explants from G. uralensis were infected with A.rhizogenes A4 containing GuSQS1 gene to induce the hairy roots.The hairy root lines established were selected in medium containing 0.8 mg·L~(-1) phosphinothricin (PPT) and analyzed by PCR and southern blotting.The transgenic hairy roots were cultured in liquid MS medium.GA contents in transgenic hairy roots were detected by HPLC.Results showed that maximal GA content in transgenic hairy root lines was 3.6 times as high as in wild type hairy roots.%目的:为了研究甘草酸的合成调控途径及提高甘草酸合成水平.方法:将已克隆的乌拉尔甘草鲨烯合成酶基因(GuSQS1,GenBank登录号为:AM182329)通过发根农杆菌Agrobacterium rhizogenes A4的介导,转化甘草下胚轴并诱导毛状根的形成.建立的毛状根系经0.8 mg·L~(-1)的除草剂(PPT)抗性筛选、PCR和Southern blotting检测分析后,得到的转基因毛状根系经HPLC检测甘草酸(GA)含量.结果与结论:转基因毛状根中甘草酸的最高含量约为野生型毛状根的3.6倍.

  17. Agonistic and antagonistic estrogens in licorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, R.; Vincken, J.P.; Mol, L.A.M.; The, S.A.M.; Bovee, T.F.H.; Luijendijk, T.J.C.; Verbruggen, M.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2011-01-01

    The roots of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) are a rich source of flavonoids, in particular, prenylated flavonoids, such as the isoflavan glabridin and the isoflavene glabrene. Fractionation of an ethyl acetate extract from licorice root by centrifugal partitioning chromatography yielded 51 fractions,

  18. Genotype, environment and their interactions of major bioactive components in 2-year licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) population%种质与环境对二年生甘草群体主要生物活性成分的影响

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    于福来; 王文全; 侯俊玲; 周香珍; 韩亚男; 王丹

    2013-01-01

    Objective:This study aimed at analyzing the effect of genotype (G),environment (E and their interactions (G × E) on the major bioactive components of 2-year licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) population,in order to provide a theoretical basis for the licorice breeding with high content of bioactive components and quality improvement.Method:Four genotype licorice populations were transplanted under four different environments by using complete randomized block design with three replicates,and four major bioactive components,including glycyrrhizin (GL),total saponins (T S),liquiritin (LQ) and total flavonoids (TF) were determined by UV and by HPLC.Result:The major bioactive components of licorice were influenced by genotype and environment,and the genotype had more effect on all of the bioactive components.The contents of GL and LQ were codetermined by genotype and environment factors.Conclusion:There exist different selective effects on different growth region for quality breeding in cultivated population of licorice.%目的:探讨种质与环境及互作效应对二年生甘草群体主要生物活性成分含量的影响,为甘草高活性成分品种选育与品质改良提供理论依据.方法:采用随机区组设计,将4个甘草种质分别布置在4个不同产地进行栽培对比试验,通过UV和HPLC对甘草药材中总皂苷、总黄酮、甘草酸、甘草苷含量进行测定.结果:种质和环境因素对甘草药材成分性状的影响同时存在,且种质对所有成分含量影响最大,甘草酸和甘草苷含量受种质与环境因素共同主导.结论:对栽培甘草进行品质育种时,应分产区进行选择,以提高选育效果.

  19. Biosynthesis-Based Quantitative Analysis of 151 Secondary Metabolites of Licorice To Differentiate Medicinal Glycyrrhiza Species and Their Hybrids.

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    Song, Wei; Qiao, Xue; Chen, Kuan; Wang, Ying; Ji, Shuai; Feng, Jin; Li, Kai; Lin, Yan; Ye, Min

    2017-03-07

    Secondary metabolites are usually the bioactive components of medicinal plants. The difference in the secondary metabolisms of closely related plant species and their hybrids has rarely been addressed. In this study, we conducted a holistic secondary metabolomics analysis of three medicinal Glycyrrhiza species (G. uralensis, G. glabra, and G. inflata), which are used as the popular herbal medicine licorice. The Glycyrrhiza species (genotype) for 95 batches of samples were identified by DNA barcodes of the internal transcribed spacer and trnV-ndhC regions, and the chemotypes were revealed by LC/UV- or LC/MS/MS-based quantitative analysis of 151 bioactive secondary metabolites, including 17 flavonoid glycosides, 24 saponins, and 110 free phenolic compounds. These compounds represented key products in the biosynthetic pathways of licorice. For the 76 homozygous samples, the three Glycyrrhiza species showed significant biosynthetic preferences, especially in coumarins, chalcones, isoflavanes, and flavonols. In total, 27 species-specific chemical markers were discovered. The 19 hybrid samples indicated that hybridization could remarkably alter the chemical composition and that the male parent contributed more to the offspring than the female parent did. This is hitherto the largest-scale targeted secondary metabolomics study of medicinal plants and the first report on uniparental inheritance in plant secondary metabolism. The results are valuable for biosynthesis, inheritance, and quality control studies of licorice and other medicinal plants.

  20. Conditions and Stimulation for Germination in Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation of seed quality is the key to seed distributing and seeding of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch, as an important species for pharmacy and soil conservation. Here, we study the effects of light and temperature on seed germination and mechanical and chemical scarification on breaking the seed coat. Seeds were collected in 2004, 2005, and 2006, placed in Petri dishes, and incubated at constant temperature 20, 25, and 30℃, and alternating temperature 15-25, 20-30, 15-30, and 20-35℃ under either an 8 h photoperiod or total darkness for 28 consecutive days. Different methods were used to break the dormancy owing to hard seededness in this species such as chemical scarification by immersing in concentrated sulphuric acid for 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, and 60 min, in 0.2% KNO3 solution to saturate the seedbed, and prechilling for 7 d at 7℃ and mechanical scarification by cutting. The results showed that alternating temperature at 20-30℃ with 8 h photoperiod and 16 h darkness was optimum for G. Uralensis seed germinating in the laboratory. Hard seeds were broken by concentrated sulphuric acid soaking or mechanical scarification by cutting. Germination of seeds harvested in two different years was both promoted by immersing for 30-45 min in concentrated sulphuric acid. KNO3 solution was ineffective for reducing hard seeds. During seed germinating, the first count was on the 7th day and the last count was on the 14th day.

  1. Anti-rotaviral effects of Glycyrrhiza uralensis extract in piglets with rotavirus diarrhea

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    Alfajaro Mia Madel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since rotavirus is one of the leading pathogens that cause severe gastroenteritis and represents a serious threat to human and animal health, researchers have been searching for cheap, safe, and effective anti-rotaviral drugs. There is a widespread of interest in using natural products as antiviral agents, and among them, licorice derived from Glycyrrhiza spp. has exerted antiviral properties against several viruses. In this study, anti-rotaviral efficacy of Glycyrrhiza uralensis extract (GUE as an effective and cheaper remedy without side-effects was evaluated in colostrums-deprived piglets after induction of rotavirus diarrhea. Methods Colostrums-deprived piglets were inoculated with porcine rotavirus K85 (G5P[7] strain. On the onset of diarrhea, piglets were treated with different concentration of GUE. To evaluate the antiviral efficacy of GUE, fecal consistency score, fecal virus shedding and histological changes of the small intestine, mRNA expression levels of inflammation-related cytokines (IL8, IL10, IFN-β, IFN-γ and TNF-α, signaling molecules (p38 and JNK, and transcription factor (NFκB in the small intestine and spleen were determined. Results Among the dosages (100-400 mg/ml administrated to animals, 400 mg/ml of GUE cured diarrhea, and markedly improved small intestinal lesion score and fecal virus shedding. mRNA expression levels of inflammation-related cytokines (IL8, IL10, IFN-β, IFN-γ and TNF-α, signaling molecules (p38 and JNK, and transcription factor (NFκB in the small intestine and spleen were markedly increased in animals with RVA-induced diarrhea, but dose- dependently decreased in GUE treated animals after RVA-induced diarrhea. Conclusions GUE cures rotaviral enteritis by coordinating antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects. Therapy of this herbal medicine can be a viable medication for curing rotaviral enteritis in animals and humans.

  2. Glycyrrhiza uralensis water extract enhances dendritic cell maturation and antitumor efficacy of HPV dendritic cell-based vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aipire, Adila; Li, Jinyu; Yuan, Pengfei; He, Jiang; Hu, Yelang; Liu, Lu; Feng, Xiaoli; Li, Yijie; Zhang, Fuchun; Yang, Jianhua; Li, Jinyao

    2017-01-01

    Licorice has been used as herbal medicine and natural sweetener. Here, we prepared Glycyrrhiza uralensis water extract (GUWE) and investigated the effect of GUWE on the maturation and function of dendritic cells (DCs) and its adjuvant effect on DC-based vaccine. We observed that GUWE dose-dependently promoted DC maturation and cytokine secretion through TLR4 signaling pathway. The capacity of DC to stimulate allogenic splenocyte proliferation was also enhanced by GUWE treatment. Compared with control group, GUWE treated DCs pulsed with human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 E6/E7 peptides significantly inhibited the tumor growth in both early and late therapeutic groups. In early therapeutic group, the frequencies of induced regulatory T cells (iTregs: CD4+CD25−Fopx3+) and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were significantly decreased and increased, respectively. HPV-16-specific CD8+ T cell responses were significantly induced and negatively correlated with iTreg frequencies and tumor weight. These results indicated the immunoregulatory activities of licorice. PMID:28272545

  3. Glycyrrhiza uralensis water extract enhances dendritic cell maturation and antitumor efficacy of HPV dendritic cell-based vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aipire, Adila; Li, Jinyu; Yuan, Pengfei; He, Jiang; Hu, Yelang; Liu, Lu; Feng, Xiaoli; Li, Yijie; Zhang, Fuchun; Yang, Jianhua; Li, Jinyao

    2017-03-08

    Licorice has been used as herbal medicine and natural sweetener. Here, we prepared Glycyrrhiza uralensis water extract (GUWE) and investigated the effect of GUWE on the maturation and function of dendritic cells (DCs) and its adjuvant effect on DC-based vaccine. We observed that GUWE dose-dependently promoted DC maturation and cytokine secretion through TLR4 signaling pathway. The capacity of DC to stimulate allogenic splenocyte proliferation was also enhanced by GUWE treatment. Compared with control group, GUWE treated DCs pulsed with human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 E6/E7 peptides significantly inhibited the tumor growth in both early and late therapeutic groups. In early therapeutic group, the frequencies of induced regulatory T cells (iTregs: CD4(+)CD25(-)Fopx3(+)) and CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were significantly decreased and increased, respectively. HPV-16-specific CD8(+) T cell responses were significantly induced and negatively correlated with iTreg frequencies and tumor weight. These results indicated the immunoregulatory activities of licorice.

  4. Agonistic and antagonistic estrogens in licorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rudy; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Mol, Loes A M; The, Susan A M; Bovee, Toine F H; Luijendijk, Teus J C; Verbruggen, Marian A; Gruppen, Harry

    2011-07-01

    The roots of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) are a rich source of flavonoids, in particular, prenylated flavonoids, such as the isoflavan glabridin and the isoflavene glabrene. Fractionation of an ethyl acetate extract from licorice root by centrifugal partitioning chromatography yielded 51 fractions, which were characterized by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and screened for activity in yeast estrogen bioassays. One third of the fractions displayed estrogenic activity towards either one or both estrogen receptors (ERs; ERα and ERβ). Glabrene-rich fractions displayed an estrogenic response, predominantly to the ERα. Surprisingly, glabridin did not exert agonistic activity to both ER subtypes. Several fractions displayed higher responses than the maximum response obtained with the reference compound, the natural hormone 17β-estradiol (E(2)). The estrogenic activities of all fractions, including this so-called superinduction, were clearly ER-mediated, as the estrogenic response was inhibited by 20-60% by known ER antagonists, and no activity was found in yeast cells that did not express the ERα or ERβ subtype. Prolonged exposure of the yeast to the estrogenic fractions that showed superinduction did, contrary to E(2), not result in a decrease of the fluorescent response. Therefore, the superinduction was most likely the result of stabilization of the ER, yeast-enhanced green fluorescent protein, or a combination of both. Most fractions displaying superinduction were rich in flavonoids with single prenylation. Glabridin displayed ERα-selective antagonism, similar to the ERα-selective antagonist RU 58668. Whereas glabridin was able to reduce the estrogenic response of E(2) by approximately 80% at 6 × 10(-6) M, glabrene-rich fractions only exhibited agonistic responses, preferentially on ERα.

  5. [Study on geographical variation of morphologic and germination characteristic of different Glycyrrhiza uralensis provenance seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Sheng-Li; Wang, Wen-Quan; Qin, Shu-Ying; Liu, Chang-Li; Zhang, Zhao-Ying; Di, Ming

    2008-04-01

    To study the geographical variation of morphologic and germination characteristic of different Glycyrrhiza uralensis provenance seeds, approach the geographical variation mode and ecology mechanism, and laid theoretical foundation for districting and allocating of G. uralensis seeds. Field investigation and laboratory analysis were applied. Seed shape and kilosseed weight were sampled randomly, germination rate germination force by general methods. The morphologic characteristic of G. uralensis seeds showed roughly longitude variation tendency that the seeds increased gradually from west to east. While the germination characteristic showed roughly altitude variation tendency that the seeds germination rate and germination force increased with the increase of the altitude, and the average germination rate was the same with the seeds morphologic characteristic. The results of analysis correlated with the climatic factors show that the morphologic characteristic of G. uralensis was positive correlated with annual rain-fall of the habitat, and the germination rate was quickened by drought, high temperature and strong sunshine. The morphologic and germination characteristic and of G. uralensis seeds present distinguished geographical variation, and the formation of the variation was related to the ecological environment in which the seed provenance adapted.

  6. Chemical constituents of triterpenoid saponins from Glycyrrhiza uralensis%乌拉尔甘草皂苷类成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶伟伟; 段金廒; 杨念云; 李建萍; 唐于平; 严辉

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究乌拉尔甘草Glycyrrhiza uralensis根及根茎的化学成分.方法 应用溶剂法和色谱法进行分离纯化,利用波谱技术鉴定化合物结构;并测试化合物的细胞毒活性.结果 从乌拉尔甘草50%乙醇提取物中分离得到14个皂苷类化合物,分别鉴定为uralsaponin C(1)、uralsaponin D(2)、licorice-saponin A3 (3)、uralsaponin F (4)、22β-acetoxyl-glycyrrizin (5)、24-hydroxyl-licorice-saponin E2 (6)、licorice-saponin E2 (7)、licorice-saponin G2 (8)、22β-acetoxyl-glyrrhaldehyde (9)、3β-O-[β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl]-glycyrretol (10)、araboglycyrrhizin(11)、licorice-saponin J2 (12)、甘草酸(13)、单葡糖醛酸基甘草次酸(14).化合物1~14对3种人源肿瘤细胞MGC-803、SW620、SMMC-7721的半数抑制率(IC50)均大于100 μmol/L,化合物2、6~8、13的水解后苷元对3种人源肿瘤细胞的抑制率为18.3~41.6 μmol/L.结论 化合物14是一个新的天然产物,化合物11为首次从该植物中分离得到;化合物1~14对3种人源肿瘤细胞MGC-803、SW620、SMMC-7721均无显著的细胞毒活性,化合物2、6~8、13水解后苷元细胞毒活性增强.%Objective To study the chemical constituents from the roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza uralensis.Methods The compounds were separated and purified by solvent and chromatographic methods.Their structures were identified by spectroscopic techniques.Results Fourteen triterpenoid saponins isolated from 50% ethanol extract of the roots and rhizomes of G uralensis were identified as uralsaponin C (1),uralsaponin D (2),licorice-saponin A3 (3),uralsaponin F (4),22β-acetoxyl-glycyrrizin (5),24-hydroxyl-licorice-saponin E2 (6),licorice-saponin E2 (7),licorice-saponin G2 (8),22β-acetoxyl-glyrrhaldehyde (9),3β-O-[β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl]-glycyrretol (10),araboglycyrrhizin (11),licorice-saponin J2 (12),glycyrrhizin (13),and glycyrrhetic acid monoglucuronide (14

  7. Cloning and characterization of the gene encoding β-amyrin synthase in the glycyrrhizic acid biosynthetic pathway in Glycyrrhiza uralensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghao Chen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Glycyrrhiza uralensis is considered to be one of the most important herbs in traditional Chinese medicine due to its numerous pharmacological effects particularly its ability to relieve cough and act as a mucolytic. Based on previous research, these effects are mediated by a number of active ingredients, especially glycyrrhizic acid (GA. In the present study, a gene encoding β-amyrin synthase (β-AS involved in GA biosynthesis in G. uralensis has been cloned and expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The cloned enzyme showed similar activity to native enzymes isolated from other Glycyrrhiza species to catalyze the conversion of 2,3-oxidosqualene into β-amyrin. In fact the β-AS gene is particularly important in the GA biosynthetic pathway in G. uralensis. The complete sequence of the enzyme was determined and a phylogenetic tree based on the β-AS gene of G. uralensis and 20 other species was created. This showed that Glycyrrhiza glabra had the closest kinship with G. uralensis. The results of this work will be useful in determining how to improve the efficacy of G. uralensis by improving its GA content and in exploring the biosynthesis of GA in vitro.

  8. Purification, partial characterization and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from Glycyrrhiza uralensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ci-Hai; Yu, Yue; Liang, Yi-Zeng; Chen, Xiao-Qing

    2015-08-01

    Glycyrrhiza uralensis, an important Chinese medicine, has a long history of use in China. In this study, three water-soluble polysaccharides fractions (GUPs-1, GUPs-2 and GUPs-3) were isolated and purified from the root of G. uralensis by DEAE-52 and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. Physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of the three purified polysaccharides were investigated. The molecular weights of GUPs-1, GUPs-2 and GUPs-3 were 10,160, 11,680 and 13,360 Da, and the ratios of glucose were 23.4%, 14% and 1.13%, respectively. The antioxidant activities of the three purified polysaccharides followed the order: GUPs-1>GUPs-2>GUPs-3. GUPs with lower molecular weight and higher ratio of glucose, basically exhibited higher antioxidant activities at the same concentration. This indicated that the molecular weight and the ratio of monosaccharide composition of the GUPs could affect the antioxidant activities.

  9. 21 CFR 184.1408 - Licorice and licorice derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...)(1) Licorice (glycyrrhiza) root is the dried and ground rhizome and root portions of Glycyrrhiza glabra or other species of Glycyrrhiza. Licorice extract is that portion of the licorice root that...

  10. Correlation between root respiration and the levels of biomass and glycyrrhizic acid in Glycyrrhiza uralensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenlan; Sun, Zhirong; Qu, Jixu; Yang, Chunning; Zhang, Xiaomin; Wei, Xinxin

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between root respiration and the levels of biomass and glycyrrhizic acid in Glycyrrhiza uralensis. Root respiration was determined using a biological oxygen analyzer. Respiration-related enzymes including glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase plus 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, phosphohexose isomerase and succinate dehydrogenase, and respiratory pathways were evaluated. Biomass was determined by a drying-weighing method. In addition, the percentage of glycyrrhizic acid was detected using high-performance liquid chromatography. The association between root respiration and the levels of biomass and glycyrrhizic acid was investigated. The glycolysis pathway (EMP), tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and pentose phosphate (PPP) pathway acted concurrently in the roots of G. uralensis. Grey correlation analysis showed that TCA had the strongest correlation (correlation coefficient, 0.8003) with biomass. Starch and acetyl coenzyme A had the closest association with above-ground biomass, while soluble sugar correlated less strongly with above-ground biomass. Grey correlation analysis between biochemical pathways and the intermediates showed that pyruvic acid had the strongest correlation with EMP, while acetyl coenzyme A correlated most strongly with TCA. Among the intermediates and pathways, pyruvic acid and EMP exhibited the greatest correlation with glycyrrhizic acid, while acetyl coenzyme A and TCA correlated with glycyrrhizic acid less closely. The results of this study may aid the cultivation of G. uralensis. However, these results require verification in further studies.

  11. Aspergillus niger Enhance Bioactive Compounds Biosynthesis As Well As Expression of Functional Genes in Adventitious Roots of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Wang, Juan; Li, Jinxin; Liu, Dahui; Li, Hongfa; Gao, Wenyuan; Li, Jianli; Liu, Shujie

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, the culture conditions for the accumulation of Glycyrrhiza uralensis adventitious root metabolites in balloon-type bubble bioreactors (BTBBs) have been optimized. The results of the culture showed that the best culture conditions were a cone angle of 90° bioreactor and 0.4-0.6-0.4-vvm aeration volume. Aspergillus niger can be used as a fungal elicitor to enhance the production of defense compounds in plants. With the addition of a fungal elicitor (derived from Aspergillus niger), the maximum accumulation of total flavonoids (16.12 mg g(-1)) and glycyrrhetinic acid (0.18 mg g(-1)) occurred at a dose of 400 mg L(-1) of Aspergillus niger resulting in a 3.47-fold and 1.8-fold increase over control roots. However, the highest concentration of polysaccharide (106.06 mg g(-1)) was achieved with a mixture of elicitors (Aspergillus niger and salicylic acid) added to the medium, resulting in a 1.09-fold increase over Aspergillus niger treatment alone. Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)) analysis was performed, showing that seven compounds were present after treatment with the elicitors, including uralsaponin B, licorice saponin B2, liquiritin, and (3R)-vestitol, only identified in the mixed elicitor treatment group. It has also been found that elicitors (Aspergillus niger and salicylic acid) significantly upregulated the expression of the cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), β-amyrin synthase (β-AS), squalene epoxidase (SE) and a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP72A154) genes, which are involved in the biosynthesis of bioactive compounds, and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) activity.

  12. Comparison of quality and yield of different genotype Glycyrrhiza uralensis%不同基因型甘草品质及产量的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴娜; 张颖; 王景安

    2011-01-01

    A culture experiment was conducted to compare the quality and yield of different genotype Glycyrrhiza uralensis for selecting the fine licorice lines of G. uralensis by measuring the biomass, glycyrrhizic acid contents, flavoniods, polysaccharide, soluble sugars, amino acid and protein. This study showed that the yield and the glycyrrhizic acid content of the strains with good quality and high yield were 3 and 1.6 times that of the strains with poor quality and low yield, respectively. The comprehensive analysis showed that the plant height was not correlative relationship with the quality and stem color, while the yields of high-green plants were higher than that of low-purple ones.%以甘草(Glycyrrhiza uralensis)为试验材料,用营养液培养的方法,研究了不同基因型甘草生物量、甘草酸等药用成分及可溶性糖、氨基酸、蛋白质等含量的差异,为筛选优良甘草株系提供材料和科学依据。试验结果显示,选出的品质好、产量高的株系,其甘草酸含量是含量最低者的1.6倍,产量是最低产量株系的近3倍。综合分析认为,高大绿茎植株的产量高于矮小紫茎植株,但甘草品质的优劣与植株高矮及茎秆颜色没有必然联系。

  13. 甘草%Licorice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈蕙芳

    2006-01-01

    @@ 又名 Alcacua, Alcazuz, Chinese Licorice, Gan Cao, Gan Zao, Glycyrrhiza, Lakritze, Licorice Root, Liquiritiae radix, Liquirizia, Liquorice, Orozuz, Phytoestrogen,Reglisse, Regliz, Russian Licorice, Spanish Licorice,Subholz, Sweet Root.

  14. Studies on Triterpenoids and Flavones in Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. By HPLC-ESI-MSn and FT-ICR-MSn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xiangyu; LI Huilin; SONG Fengrui; LIU Chunming; LIU Zhiqiang; LIU Shuying

    2009-01-01

    Seven compounds, four flavones and three triterpenoids from Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. Extract are identified by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization multi-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MSn). The fragmentation pathways of these compounds are investigated by ESI-MSn and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance multiple-stage tandem mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MSn). Comparing the reten-tion times (tR) and mass spectra with those of reference compounds, seven components are identified in Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. And their MSn data proposed plausible schemes for their fragmentation. All the experimental results show that ESI-MSn and FT-ICR-MSn are powerful tools for the structural characterization of triterpenoids and fla-vones.

  15. Anti-tumor effect of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch%甘草的抗肿瘤作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田莉; 高晓黎

    2004-01-01

    甘草为豆科植物甘草(Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.)、胀果甘草(Glycyrrhiza inflata Bat.)或光果甘草(Glycyrrhiza glabra L.)的干燥根及根茎,药用历史悠久。甘草中已分离得到100多种黄酮类化合物、60多种三萜类化合物以及香豆素类、18种氨基酸、多种生物碱、多糖、雌性激素和有机酸等。甘草具有止咳化痰,抗消化道溃疡,保肝,抗过敏,抗炎,降脂

  16. Licoricidin, an Active Compound in the Hexane/Ethanol Extract of Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Inhibits Lung Metastasis of 4T1 Murine Mammary Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Park

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Licorice extracts containing glycyrrhizin exhibit anti-carcinogenic properties. Because glycyrrhizin induces severe hypokalemia and hypertension, we prepared a hexane/ethanol extract of Glycyrrhiza uralensis (HEGU that lacks glycyrrhizin, and showed that HEGU induces apoptosis and G1 cell cycle arrest and inhibits migration of DU145 human prostate cancer cells. Our previous in vitro studies identified two active components in HEGU: isoangustone A, which induces apoptosis and G1 cycle arrest, and licoricidin, which inhibits metastasis. This study examined whether HEGU and licoricidin inhibit metastasis using the 4T1 mammary cancer model. Both HEGU and licoricidin treatment reduced pulmonary metastasis and the expression of CD45, CD31, HIF-1α, iNOS, COX-2, and VEGF-A in tumor tissues. Additionally, a decrease in protein expression of VEGF-R2, VEGF-C, VEGF-R3, and LYVE-1 was noted in tumor tissues of licoricidin-treated mice. Furthermore, the blood concentrations of MMP-9, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and VEGF-A were decreased in HEGU-treated mice. In vitro 4T1 cell culture results showed that both HEGU and licoricidin inhibited cell migration, MMP-9 secretion, and VCAM expression. The present study demonstrates that the licoricidin in HEGU inhibits lung metastasis of 4T1 mammary carcinoma cells, which may be mediated via inhibition of cancer cell migration, tumor angiogenesis, and lymphangiogenesis.

  17. Effect of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch polysaccharide on growth performance and immunologic function in mice in Ural City, Xinjiang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Zhu, Xiao-Qing; Yang, Li; Luo, Yan; Wang, Meng-Yuan; Liu, Xiao-Ting; Liang, Ke-Xun; Gu, Xin-Li

    2016-11-01

    To discuss the effect of Glycyrrhiza uralensis (G. uralensis) Fisch polysaccharide on growth performance and immunologic function in mice in Ural City, Xinjiang and to provide important data supporting the application of Glycyrrhiza polysaccharide. A total of 100 Kunming mice aged 3 weeks old were randomly divided into 5 groups with 20 mice in each group (10 were females and 10 were males). About 0.5 mL normal saline was given to the mice of control group every day and 0.5 mL G. uralensis Fisch polysaccharide was given to the mice of other groups at the concentration of 1, 20, 50 and 100 mg/mL, respectively. The growth performance (average body weight, average daily feed intake and feed efficiency), immune organ indexes (spleen index and thymus index) and immunologic function (serum IL-2, CD4(+)/CD8(+) and the activity of NK cells) of mice in each group were detected continuously. The average body weight, feed efficiency, serum IL-2, CD4(+)/CD8(+) and the activity of NK cells of mice were increased with the increase of administrated time after administrating G. uralensis Fisch polysaccharide and were reached up the largest level on Day 28. At the same time, each index was proportional to the given dose and was significantly higher than those of control group and reached up the largest level at the administrated dose of 100 mg/mL. After administrating G. uralensis Fisch polysaccharide, the spleen index and thymus index of mice were increased with the increase of administrated dose and the spleen index and thymus index of mice administrated with the dose of 100 mg/mL were maximum which was more than 1.51 times and 1.43 times of that in control group, respectively and the comparative differences showed statistical significance (P  0.05). G. uralensis Fisch polysaccharide can significantly improve the growth performance and immunologic function of mice and laid a research basis for the clinical application of G. uralensis Fisch polysaccharide. Copyright

  18. Anti-depression effect of licorice flavonoids from Glycyrrhiza uralensis through promotion of central serotonergic neural function in mice%甘草总黄酮提取部位抗小鼠抑郁活性可能与其增强中枢5-羟色胺能神经功能有关

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程瑞凤; 王英华; 彭晓东; 景晶; 华冰; 薛旻秋; 陆钊罡; 赵伟鸿; 樊紫周; 果嘉; 杨卫东

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTlVE To investigate the antidepressant effect and reIated mechanism of the totaI fIavonoids extract parts( Iicorice fIavonoids,LF)from Glycyrrhiza uralensisFisch. cuItivated IocaIIy in Ningxia. METHODS Forced swimming test( FST)and taiI suspension test( TST)were adopted to study the antidepressant pharmacoIogicaI effect in the acute stress-induced depression modeI in mice. The Km mice were intragastricaIIy administered with LF(5,30 and 180 mg·kg-1 )once daiIy,for 21 con-secutive days. One hour after the first,seventh and Iast administrations,the mice were submitted to FST by recording the immobiIity period within the Iast 4 min of the totaI 6 min in both tests and the resuIts were expressed as decrease in immobiIity period with respect to vehicIe controI. In TST,the other group of Km mice was used to evaIuate the antidepressant effect in same protocoI. In the antagonism of reserpine-induced symptoms test( ART),ICR mice were administered intragastricaIIy with LF( 50,150 and 400 mg·kg-1 )once daiIy for 7 consecutive days. One hour after the Iast administration,the mice received reserpine(4 mg·kg-1 ,ip),and ptosis or akinesia was measured 1 h after reserpine injection whiIe rectaI temperature was measured 4 h after the reserpine injection respectiveIy. The same protocoI was adopted in yohimbine toxicity potentiation test(YTT)as in ART. Thirty minutes fter the Iast adminis-tration,the mice received the threshoId IethaI dosage of yohimbine(30 mg·kg-1 ,sc)respectiveIy,and the death number of the mice was caIcuIated in 24 h after the yohimbine administration. In the 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan(5-HTP)induced head-twitches test(HTT)in mice,after being administered intragastricaIIy with LF(50,150 and 400 mg·kg-1 )once daiIy for 7 consecutive days,the mice received pargiIine (100 mg·kg-1 ,ip)the next day,and 30 min Iater,5-HTP(10 mg·kg-1 ,ip)was intraperitoneaIIy injec-ted to induced the head twitch respectiveIy,and the times of head twitch in a 30 min period after 5

  19. [Effect of Tongfeng trace elements nutrient balance agent on growth, physiological characteristics and content of active constituents of Glycyrrhiza uralensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Wan, Chunyang; Wang, Wenquan; Gu, Bin; Li, Jiajia; Wang, Wenjie; Hou, Songnian; Han, Zhongwen

    2011-08-01

    To investigate the effects of Tongfeng trace elements nutrient balance agent on the various growth indicators, physiological indicators, and the contents of liquiritin and glycyrrhizic acid in one-year old Glycyrrhiza uralensis. The plants of G. uralensis growing in Chifeng of Inner Mongolia and medicinal garden of Beijing University of Chinese Medicine were fertilized for two times, respectively. The photosynthetic physiological indicators were measured by LI-6400 photosynthetic instrument. The pigments and antioxidase activities of the leaves were determined. Then contents of liquiritin and glycyrrhizic acid in the plants were determined by HPLC. The application of this trace element nutrient balance agent could significantly improve the height, chla and chlb, and the photosynthetic physiology indicator such as P(n), C(i), and G(s). Similarly, it could significantly increase the fresh weight of shoots and dry weight of the roots. Compared with control block (CK), the fertilizer which was diluted by 300 times (T(1)) and 600 times (T(2)) significantly increased the content of glycyrrhizic acid by 24.72% and 20. 23%. There was significant difference between different treatments (P elements nutrient balance agent could promote growth, physiology and the content of active constituents of G. uralensis, especially the effect of T(1) was superior to T(2).

  20. Qualitative identification of dibenzoylmethane in licorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra) using gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancia, Marisela D; Reid, Michelle E; DuBose, Evan S; Campbell, James A; Jackson, Kimberly M

    2014-01-01

    Licorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra), an herbal Chinese medicine, has shown medicinal uses in therapeutics and cancer prevention. Dibenzoylmethane (DBM; 1, 3-diphenyl-1, 3-propadinedione), a small beta-diketone, has been reported to be a minor constituent of licorice and a known deregulator of the human prostate cancer cell cycle. Characterization of the phytochemical profiles of licorice root forms including commercially available DBM will advance our search in identifying novel reagents for prostate cancer therapeutics. Gas chromatography- triple quadrupole-mass spectrometric analysis was used for detecting DBM in licorice root extracts. DBM and all licorice forms exhibited a component with a retention time of 14.5 minutes. The major fragment ions detected were at m/z 77, 105, 147, 223 and 224 at the identified retention time by selected reaction monitoring/SRM. These data confirm the presence of DBM from its natural source (G. glabra), and the GC-MS/SRM method helps in the identification of this minor component in a complex biological matrix.

  1. Planting depth and rhizome size effects on below ground growth of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    reza vali allah poor

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of planting depth and rhizome sizes on below ground growth of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L. at research glasshouse of Mashhad Unversity in 2001. Factorial experiment containing 2 factors of planting depth (10, 20 and 40‌cm and rhizome sizes (1,2 and 3 buds or 4,7 and 10 gr with two replications in completely randomized block design was employed. Development of different variables during growing season including root and mother rhizome dry weight were measured.The highest and the lowest root dry weight (RDWhave been seen in depth of 20 and 40 cm‌, respectively. About 100 days after planting (DAP, RDW increaseed very slowly but thenafter increased faster‌. Rhizome of any sizes in‌ 20 cm, gave the highest RDW‌. Three-bud rhizomes produced the highest RDW and 1-bud rhizome produced the lowest. Mother rhizome dry weight (MRDW reduced untill 60 days after planting. After 75th day, MRDW has increased and all plants started to fill their mother rhizome and finally rhizome of depth 20 cm produced the highest dry weight. In 160 days after planting, mother rhizomes started to lose their weight‌. 1and 3 -bud mother rhizome produce the lowest and highest MRDW, respectively.

  2. Up-regulation of licochalcone A biosynthesis and secretion by Tween 80 in hairy root cultures of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Chao; Liu, Jing-Mei; Chen, Hai-Min; Gao, Chun-Chun; Lu, Hong-Yu; Zhou, Hua; Li, Yi; Gao, Shan-Lin

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of Tween 80 as elicitor on licochalcone A from hairy root cultures of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. After a 15-days treatment with 2% Tween 80, hairy roots still grew well and produced higher levels of licochalcone A and total flavonoids than the control (without treatment). Licochalcone A content and total flavonoid content were 3.103 and 127.095 mg per flask (9- and 11-fold higher), respectively, compared with controls. Secretion of licochalcone A and total flavonoids into the culture medium was remarkably high, up to 98 and 94% of the total production, respectively. The enhanced flavonoid production was associated with elevated mRNA levels and enzyme activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL), and cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H). These results clearly demonstrated that Tween 80 treatment permeabilized the roots to enhance secretion, but also acted as an efficient elicitor of licochalcone A and total flavonoid production in hairy roots of G. uralensis Fisch.

  3. 乌拉尔甘草中的化学成分%Chemical constituents from root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱绪民; 邸迎彤; 彭树林; 王明奎; 丁立生

    2003-01-01

    Object To investigate the chemical constituents from the roots of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. Methods The constituents were isolated on normal and reversed silica gel column chromatography and their structures were identified by spectral evidence. Results A new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponin and twelve known compounds, including two triterpenoid saponins, two cumarins and eight flavonoids, were isolated. Conclusion The new compound was elucidated as 3-O-[β-D-(6-methyl) glucuronopyranosyl (1→2)-D-glucuronopyranosyl]-24-hydroxy-glabrolide on the basis of ESI-MS, 1HNMR,13CNMR, HMQC and HMBC spectral evidence.%目的分析乌拉尔甘草Glycyrrhiza uralensis的化学成分.方法采用正、反相硅胶柱层析分离,应用波谱方法进行结构鉴定.结果从甘草中共分离出3个三萜皂苷、2个香豆素和8个黄酮类化合物,其中一个三萜皂苷为新化合物.结论通过ESI-MS,1HNMR,13CNMR,HMQC和HMBC分析,将新三萜皂苷的结构鉴定为3-O-[β-D-葡萄糖醛酸甲酯-(1→2)-β-D-葡萄糖醛酸]-24-羟基-甘草内酯.

  4. 利用数据库对甘草属植物化学成分的分类和分布分析%Classification and distribution analysis of components in Glycyrrhiza using licorice compounds database

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向诚; 乔雪; 叶敏; 果德安

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the chemical components of licorice deeply and systematically, a licorice compounds database was established after the comprehensive summary of the compounds in Glycyrrhiza. The database was used to classify the licorice components anew in order to statistically analyze the distribution of each type of compounds and the compounds in the medical Glycyrrhiza plants. The results indicated that 422 compounds had been reported in Glycyrrhiza so far, and they could be categorized into 5 classes as flavoids, coumarins, triterpenoids, stilbenoids, and some others. Up to now, 170 compounds were isolated from G. uralensis, 134 compounds from G. glabra, 52 compunds from G. inflata, and 31 from G. yunnanensis. It is the first time to add categorization "stilbenoids", and "dibenzoylmethanes" classified as chalcones. In the meantime, the database is supposed to be convenient for further study.%为系统深入地研究甘草的化学成分,本文在对甘草属植物化学成分进行全面总结的基础上,建立了甘草化合物数据库,并利用该库对化学成分重新分类,对各类化合物的分布和药用甘草的化学成分进行统计.结果显示至今甘草属植物共报道化合物422个,按结构可以分为黄酮类、香豆素类、三萜皂苷和苷元类、二苯乙烯类等4大类,以及少量其他类型化合物.目前从乌拉尔甘草中分离得到的化合物共170个,光果甘草中共134个,胀果甘草中共52个,云南甘草中共31个.本文首次增加了“二苯乙烯类”的分类类别,并将“二苄甲烷型”归为查尔酮.同时建立的数据库方便了今后对甘草的研究.

  5. 甘草细胞在搅拌式生物反应器中的放大培养%Ampliifcation Culture of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Cell in Stirring Bioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雅丽; 孟婷婷; 王毛毛; 李晓雪; 李蓉蓉; 郭晓强

    2015-01-01

    Based on the establishment of a stable Glycyrrhiza uralensis (licorice) cells ampliifcation culture system in stirring bioreactor, the growth characteristics of cell suspension culture in stirring bioreactor were studied, including the cell growth, cell membrane permeability, the pH change of the culture system and licorice lfavonoids synthesis, and compared with the shake lfask culture. The results showed that cell biomass accumu-lation in the bioreactor was less than that in shake lfask under the same conditions, and the whole cultivation period was shortened. At the same time in the culture period, pH was slightly lower than that in the shake lfask, the H2O2 concentration in cells was 1.8 times of that in shake lfask, and the production of licorice lfavonoids was 1.5 times of that in the shake lfask. These indicated that the cultivation environment with mechanical agita-tion and lfuid shear in the bioreactor inhibited the cells growth at a certain level, but stimulated secondary me-tabolites licorice lfavonoids synthesis cell in higher levels.%在建立了稳定的甘草细胞搅拌式生物反应器放大培养体系的基础上,本文研究了甘草细胞在搅拌式反应器中悬浮培养的生长特性,包括细胞生长、细胞膜的透性、培养体系的pH变化及甘草黄酮合成情况等,并与摇瓶培养作比较。结果发现,同等条件下,反应器中培养细胞生物量的积累低于摇瓶培养,整个培养周期较摇瓶培养缩短。培养过程中同一时间段反应器中的pH值略低于摇瓶中的pH,细胞中H2O2的浓度是摇瓶中的1.8倍,甘草黄酮的产量是摇瓶培养的1.5倍,表明反应器中机械搅拌与流体剪切的培养环境对细胞生长起到一定程度的抑制作用,但刺激了细胞次生代谢产物甘草黄酮较高水平的合成。

  6. Characterization of the Key Aroma Compounds in Raw Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) by Means of Molecular Sensory Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Juliane; Granvogl, Michael; Schieberle, Peter

    2016-11-09

    Application of the molecular sensory science concept including aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the basis of gas chromatography-olfactometry combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry elucidated the key odorants of raw licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.). Fifty aroma-active compounds were located via AEDA; 16 thereof were identified in raw licorice for the first time. γ-Nonalactone, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H)-one, and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde showed the highest flavor dilution (FD) factor of 1024. Forty-three compounds were quantitated by means of stable isotope dilution analysis (SIDA; 6 more compounds were quantitated using labeled standards with structures similar to the respective analytes) and odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentration to the respective odor threshold) were calculated revealing OAVs ≥1 for 39 compounds. Thereby, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, 5-isopropyl-2-methylphenol, hexanal, and linalool showed the highest OAVs. On the basis of the obtained results, an aqueous reconstitution model was prepared by mixing these 39 odorants in their naturally occurring concentrations. The recombinate elicited an aroma profile very similar to the profile of raw licorice, proving that all key aroma compounds were correctly identified and quantitated.

  7. Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of Glycyrrhiza uralensis root extracts produced using artificial hydroponic and artificial hydroponic-field hybrid cultivation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, H; Nose, M; Ohtsuki, N; Hisaka, S; Takiguchi, H; Tada, A; Sugimoto, N; Fuchino, H; Inui, T; Kawano, N; Hayashi, S; Hishida, A; Kudo, T; Sugiyama, K; Abe, Y; Mutsuga, M; Kawahara, N; Yoshimatsu, K

    2017-01-01

    Glycyrrhiza uralensis roots used in this study were produced using novel cultivation systems, including artificial hydroponics and artificial hydroponic-field hybrid cultivation. The equivalency between G. uralensis root extracts produced by hydroponics and/or hybrid cultivation and a commercial Glycyrrhiza crude drug were evaluated for both safety and efficacy, and there were no significant differences in terms of mutagenicity on the Ames tests. The levels of cadmium and mercury in both hydroponic roots and crude drugs were less than the limit of quantitation. Arsenic levels were lower in all hydroponic roots than in the crude drug, whereas mean lead levels in the crude drug were not significantly different from those in the hydroponically cultivated G. uralensis roots. Both hydroponic and hybrid-cultivated root extracts showed antiallergic activities against contact hypersensitivity that were similar to those of the crude drug extracts. These study results suggest that hydroponic and hybrid-cultivated roots are equivalent in safety and efficacy to those of commercial crude drugs. Further studies are necessary before the roots are applicable as replacements for the currently available commercial crude drugs produced from wild plant resources.

  8. Effects of ethanol extracts in licorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra L. on activity of liver enzymes in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Eidi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Fabaceae is a well-known herb that it used in traditional medicine due to pharmacological activities. Licorice in herbal medicine is used as a tonic, expectorant and demulcent factor. This plant has antioxidant, immunostimulant, anti-allergenic and anti-ulcer activities. The aim of present study was to, comparisons of effect of ethanol extracts licorice root with glibenclamide on activity of liver enzymes in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: In the present study, oral administration of licorice extract (50, 200 and 400 mg/kg per body wt. and glibenclamide (600 µg/kg were performed as the standard antidiabetic medicine, during 30 days. Then, the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT in normal and diabetic rats were evaluated. Data were analyzed by using SPSS-10 software and the ANOVA test was used. Results: Oral administrations of licorice extract significantly decreased activity of AST and ALT in serum of diabetic rats but not in normal rats. The licorice extract as same as glibenclamide significantly decreased activity of liver enzymes. Conclusion: It is concluded that the licorice can be considered as a suitable candidate for future studies on diabetes mellitus.

  9. Effect of Ar Ion Beam Implantation on Morphological and Physiological Characteristics of Liquorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch) Under Short-Term Artificial Drought Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiangsheng; WU Lijun; YU Lixiang; WEI Shenglin; LIU Jingnan; YU Zengliang

    2007-01-01

    Ar+ ion beam with low energy of 30 keV was implanted into liquorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch) seeds at the doses of 0,600,900 and 1200 × (2.6×1013) ions/cm2,respectively.The seeds were sowed in pots and after one month the plants were subjected to different drought conditions for two months.Then the plants'morphological and physiological characteristics,antioxidation enzymes and levels of endogenous hormones were investigated.The results showed that ion implantation at a proper dose can greatly enhance the liquorice seedlings'resistance against drought stress.

  10. Identification of glabridin as a bioactive compound in licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) extract that activates human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebhun, John F; Glynn, Kelly M; Missler, Stephen R

    2015-10-01

    Licorice, the root and stolons of the Glycyrrhiza plant (Fabaceae), has been used for centuries as a food additive (sweetener), in cosmetics, and in traditional medicine. In this research, we provide evidence that licorice extract activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and, as identified through HPLC fractionation and mass spectroscopy, one of the activating phytochemicals is glabridin. Glabridin was shown to bind to and activate PPARγ. It was also shown to activate PPARγ-regulated gene expression in human hepatoma cells similar to known PPARγ ligands and that the expression was blocked by a PPARγ specific antagonist.

  11. [De novo sequencing and analysis of root transcriptome to reveal regulation of gene expression by moderate drought stress in Glycyrrhiza uralensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-rong; Sang, Xue-yu; Qu, Meng; Tang, Xiao-min; Cheng, Xuan-xuan; Pan, Li-ming; Yang, Quan

    2015-12-01

    Moderate drought stress has been found to promote the accumulation of active ingredients in Glycyrrhiza uralensis root and hence improve the medicinal quality. In this study, the transcriptomes of 6-month-old moderate drought stressed and control G. uralensis root (the relative water content in soil was 40%-45% and 70%-75%, respectively) were sequenced using Illumina HiSeq 2000. A total of 80,490 490 and 82 588 278 clean reads, 94,828 and 305,100 unigenes with N50 sequence of 1,007 and 1,125 nt were obtained in drought treated and control transcriptome, respectively. Differentially expressed genes analysis revealed that the genes of some cell wall enzymes such as β-xylosidase, legumain and GDP-L-fucose synthase were down-regulated indicating that moderate drought stress might inhibit the primary cell wall degradation and programmed cell death in root cells. The genes of some key enzymes involved in terpenoid and flavonoid biosynthesis were up-regulated by moderate drought stress might be the reason for the enhancement for the active ingredients accumulation in G. uralensis root. The promotion of the biosynthesis and signal transduction of auxin, ethylene and cytokinins by moderate drought stress might enhance the root formation and cell proliferation. The promotion of the biosynthesis and signal transduction of abscisic acid and jasmonic acid by moderate drought stress might enhance the drought stress tolerance in G. uralensis. The inhibition of the biosynthesis and signal transduction of gibberellin and brassinolide by moderate drought stress might retard the shoot growth in G. uralensis.

  12. Enrichment of the Glycyrrhizic Acid from Licorice Roots (Glycyrrhiza glabra L. by Isoelectric Focused Adsorptive Bubble Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyyüp Karaoğul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to enrich glycyrrhizic acid ammonium salt known as one of the main compounds of licorice roots (Glycyrrhiza glabra L. by isoelectric focused adsorptive bubble separation technique with different foaming agents. In the experiments, four bubble separation parameters were used with β-lactoglobulin, albumin bovine, and starch (soluble preferred as foaming agents and without additives. The enrichment of glycyrrhizic acid ammonium salt into the foam was influenced by different additive substances. The results showed that highest enrichment values were obtained from β-lactoglobulin as much as 368.3 times. The lowest enrichment values (5.9 times were determined for the application without additive. After enrichment, each experiment of glycyrrhizic acid ammonium salt confirmed that these substances could be quantitatively enriched into the collection vessel with isoelectric focused adsorptive bubble separation technique. The transfer of glycyrrhizic acid ammonium salt into the foam from standard solution in the presence of additive was more efficient than aqueous licorice extract.

  13. Preparative isolation and analysis of alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitors from Glycyrrhiza uralensis root using ultrafiltration combined with high-performance liquid chromatography and high-speed countercurrent chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Miao; Liu, Liangliang; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2014-07-01

    A simple, rapid, and effective assay based on ultrafiltration combined with high-performance liquid chromatography and high-speed countercurrent chromatography was developed for screening and purifying alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitors from Glycyrrhiza uralensis root extract. Experiments were carried out to optimize binding conditions including alcohol dehydrogenase concentration, incubation time, temperature, and pH. By comparing the chromatograms, three compounds were found possessing alcohol dehydrogenase binding activity in Glycyrrhiza uralensis root. Under the target-guidance of ultrafiltration combined with the high-performance liquid chromatography experiment, liquiritin (1), isoliquiritin (2), and liquiritigenin (3) were separated by high-speed countercurrent chromatography using ethyl acetate/methanol/water (5:1:4) as the solvent system. The alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitory activities of these three isolated compounds were assessed; compound 2 showed strongest inhibitory activity with an IC50 of 8.95 μM. The results of the present study indicated that the combinative method using ultrafiltration, high-performance liquid chromatography and high-speed countercurrent chromatography could be widely applied for the rapid screening and isolation of enzyme inhibitors from complex mixtures.

  14. Aim for production of Glycyrrhizae Radix in Japan (3): development of a new licorice cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Kazuo; Shibano, Makio

    2014-04-01

    The development of cultivars is indispensable for the establishment of a method aimed at producing licorice in Japan. The cultivar should have the following attributes: (1) the underground parts should grow vigorously; (2) the glycyrrhizin (GL) content must be 2.5 % or greater; and (3) the architecture of the aerial parts should be erect. A new cultivar suitable for the domestic production of licorice was developed by crossbreeding between strain A-19 (with a high GL content) as the mother and strain G-6 (with vigorous growth) as the father. After 2 years of cultivation, strain C-2 exhibited vigorous growth; the fresh weight and stem diameter were 148.8 g and 0.89 mm, respectively. Moreover, the dry-weight GL and total flavonoid contents of the new cultivar (strain C-2) from cultured plants were 3.61 and 1.365 %, respectively.

  15. Glabridin as a major active isoflavan from Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) reverses learning and memory deficits in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanein, Parisa

    2011-06-01

    Cognitive impairment occurs in diabetes mellitus. Glabridin as a major active flavonoids in Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) improves learning and memory in mice. In the present study, we investigated the effect of chronic treatment with glabridin (5, 25 and 50 mg/kg, p.o.) on cognitive function in control and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.Animals were divided into untreated control, glabridin-treated control (5, 25 and 50 mg/kg), untreated diabetic and glabridin treated diabetic (5, 25 and 50 mg/kg) groups. Treatments were begun at the onset of hyperglycemia. Passive avoidance learning (PAL) and memory was assessed 30 days later. Diabetes caused cognition deficits in the PAL and memory paradigm. While oral glabridin administration (25 and 50 mg/kg) improved learning and memory in non-diabetic rats, it reversed learning and memory deficits of diabetic rats. Low dose glabridin (5 mg/kg) did not alter cognitive function in non-diabetic and diabetic groups. Glabridin treatment partially improved the reduced body weight and hyperglycemia of diabetic rats although the differences were not significant. The combination of antioxidant, neuroprotective and anticholinesterase properties of glabridin may all be responsible for the observed effects. These results show that glabridin prevented the deleterious effects of diabetes on learning and memory in rats. Further studies are warranted for clinical use of glabridin in the management of demented diabetic patients.

  16. Metabolite Profiling and Classification of DNA-Authenticated Licorice Botanicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmler, Charlotte; Anderson, Jeffrey R; Gauthier, Laura; Lankin, David C; McAlpine, James B; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F

    2015-08-28

    Raw licorice roots represent heterogeneous materials obtained from mainly three Glycyrrhiza species. G. glabra, G. uralensis, and G. inflata exhibit marked metabolite differences in terms of flavanones (Fs), chalcones (Cs), and other phenolic constituents. The principal objective of this work was to develop complementary chemometric models for the metabolite profiling, classification, and quality control of authenticated licorice. A total of 51 commercial and macroscopically verified samples were DNA authenticated. Principal component analysis and canonical discriminant analysis were performed on (1)H NMR spectra and area under the curve values obtained from UHPLC-UV chromatograms, respectively. The developed chemometric models enable the identification and classification of Glycyrrhiza species according to their composition in major Fs, Cs, and species specific phenolic compounds. Further key outcomes demonstrated that DNA authentication combined with chemometric analyses enabled the characterization of mixtures, hybrids, and species outliers. This study provides a new foundation for the botanical and chemical authentication, classification, and metabolomic characterization of crude licorice botanicals and derived materials. Collectively, the proposed methods offer a comprehensive approach for the quality control of licorice as one of the most widely used botanical dietary supplements.

  17. 甘草黄酮的抗抑郁作用及对海马脑区神经再生的保护作用%Antidepressant activities of flavonoids from Glycyrrhiza uralensis and its neurogenesis protective effect in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊紫周; 赵伟鸿; 果嘉; 程瑞凤; 赵金英; 杨卫东; 王英华; 李巍; 彭晓东

    2012-01-01

    观察宁夏地区栽培甘草( Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.)中获得的甘草总黄酮提取部位(licorice flavonoids,LF)对大鼠慢性不可预见性应激抑郁模型(chronic unpredicted stress model of depression,CUs)的干预作用及对模型造成的海马齿状回(dentate gyrus,DG)颗粒细胞层下区(subgranular zone,SGZ)神经再生(neurogenesis)能力损害的保护作用,研究LF抗抑郁作用及可能的机制.通过对大鼠实施9种不同的刺激建立慢性应激抑郁模型,造模28天的同时采用不同剂量的LF(300、100和30 mg·kg-1)连续干预.采用旷场实验(open field test,OFT)、强迫游泳实验(forced swimming test,FST)和悬尾实验(tail suspension test,TST)判断LF的抗抑郁作用,放免法测定血清皮质酮含量,共聚焦显微镜对海马齿状回SGZ中5-溴脱氧尿嘧啶核苷(5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine,BrdU)标记的新生祖细胞(progenitor)进行分析、计数.与模型组相比,LF能够增加旷场实验中抑郁模型大鼠的直立次数、穿格数及减少粪便粒数;减少强迫游泳实验和悬尾实验中抑郁模型大鼠的不动时间;300 mg·kg-1剂量LF能降低血清皮质酮水平,同时恢复大鼠海马齿状回SGZ中BrdU标记的新生祖细胞数量.结果提示,甘草总黄酮提取部位对慢性不可预测应激引起的大鼠抑郁行为具有良好的抗抑郁药理活性,并且在较大剂量下能对应激引起的海马神经再生损害起到保护作用.%Adult rats chronic unpredictable stress model of depression (CUS) was adopted to elucidate the antidepressant pharmacological activity and related neurogenesis protective effect of the total flavonoids extract (licorice flavonoids, LF) from the Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. cultivated locally in Ningxia. The rats were exposed to 9 kinds of unpredictable sequence of stressors and were given flavonoids (300 mg·kg-1, 100 mg·kg-1 and 30 mg·kg-1) for 28 days. The antidepressant effect was elucidated by open field test

  18. Metabolite profiling of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) from different locations using comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled to diode array and tandem mass spectrometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Lidia; Ibáñez, Elena; Russo, Mariateresa; di Sanzo, Rosa; Rastrelli, Luca; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Celano, Rita; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Herrero, Miguel

    2016-03-24

    Profiling of the main metabolites from several licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) samples collected at different locations is carried out in this work by using comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC × LC) coupled to diode array (DAD) and mass spectrometry (MS) detectors. The optimized method was based on the application of a HILIC-based separation in the first dimension combined with fast RP-based second dimension separation. This set-up was shown to possess powerful separation capabilities allowing separating as much as 89 different metabolites in a single sample. Identification and grouping of metabolites according to their chemical class were achieved using the DAD, MS and MS/MS data. Triterpene saponins were the most abundant metabolites followed by glycosylated flavanones and chalcones, whereas glycyrrhizic acid, as expected, was confirmed as the main component in all the studied samples. LC × LC-DAD-MS/MS was able to resolve these complex licorice samples providing with specific metabolite profiles to the different licorice samples depending on their geographical origin. Namely, from 19 to 50 specific compounds were exclusively determined in the 2D-chromatograms from the different licorice samples depending on their geographical origin, which can be used as a typical pattern that could potentially be related to their geographical location and authentication.

  19. Natural products in Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) rhizome imaged at the cellular level by atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem mass spectrometry imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bin; Bhandari, Dhaka Ram; Janfelt, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The rhizome of Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) was analyzed by high-resolution mass spectrometry imaging and tandem mass spectrometry imaging. An atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging ion source was combined with an orbital trapping mass spectrometer in order...... to obtain high-resolution imaging in mass and space. Sections of the rhizome were imaged with a spatial resolution of 10 μm in the positive ion mode, and a large number of secondary metabolites were localized and identified based on their accurate mass and MS/MS fragmentation patterns. Major tissue...

  20. Evaluation of estrogenic activity of licorice species in comparison with hops used in botanicals for menopausal symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atieh Hajirahimkhan

    Full Text Available The increased cancer risk associated with hormone therapies has encouraged many women to seek non-hormonal alternatives including botanical supplements such as hops (Humulus lupulus and licorice (Glycyrrhiza spec. to manage menopausal symptoms. Previous studies have shown estrogenic properties for hops, likely due to the presence of 8-prenylnarigenin, and chemopreventive effects mainly attributed to xanthohumol. Similarly, a combination of estrogenic and chemopreventive properties has been reported for various Glycyrrhiza species. The major goal of the current study was to evaluate the potential estrogenic effects of three licorice species (Glycyrrhiza glabra, G. uralensis, and G. inflata in comparison with hops. Extracts of Glycyrrhiza species and spent hops induced estrogen responsive alkaline phosphatase activity in endometrial cancer cells, estrogen responsive element (ERE-luciferase in MCF-7 cells, and Tff1 mRNA in T47D cells. The estrogenic activity decreased in the order H. lupulus > G. uralensis > G. inflata > G. glabra. Liquiritigenin was found to be the principle phytoestrogen of the licorice extracts; however, it exhibited lower estrogenic effects compared to 8-prenylnaringenin in functional assays. Isoliquiritigenin, the precursor chalcone of liquiritigenin, demonstrated significant estrogenic activities while xanthohumol, a metabolic precursor of 8-prenylnaringenin, was not estrogenic. Liquiritigenin showed ERβ selectivity in competitive binding assay and isoliquiritigenin was equipotent for ER subtypes. The estrogenic activity of isoliquiritigenin could be the result of its cyclization to liquiritigenin under physiological conditions. 8-Prenylnaringenin had nanomolar estrogenic potency without ER selectivity while xanthohumol did not bind ERs. These data demonstrated that Glycyrrhiza species with different contents of liquiritigenin have various levels of estrogenic activities, suggesting the importance of precise labeling of

  1. Evaluation of estrogenic activity of licorice species in comparison with hops used in botanicals for menopausal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Simmler, Charlotte; Yuan, Yang; Anderson, Jeffrey R; Chen, Shao-Nong; Nikolić, Dejan; Dietz, Birgit M; Pauli, Guido F; van Breemen, Richard B; Bolton, Judy L

    2013-01-01

    The increased cancer risk associated with hormone therapies has encouraged many women to seek non-hormonal alternatives including botanical supplements such as hops (Humulus lupulus) and licorice (Glycyrrhiza spec.) to manage menopausal symptoms. Previous studies have shown estrogenic properties for hops, likely due to the presence of 8-prenylnarigenin, and chemopreventive effects mainly attributed to xanthohumol. Similarly, a combination of estrogenic and chemopreventive properties has been reported for various Glycyrrhiza species. The major goal of the current study was to evaluate the potential estrogenic effects of three licorice species (Glycyrrhiza glabra, G. uralensis, and G. inflata) in comparison with hops. Extracts of Glycyrrhiza species and spent hops induced estrogen responsive alkaline phosphatase activity in endometrial cancer cells, estrogen responsive element (ERE)-luciferase in MCF-7 cells, and Tff1 mRNA in T47D cells. The estrogenic activity decreased in the order H. lupulus > G. uralensis > G. inflata > G. glabra. Liquiritigenin was found to be the principle phytoestrogen of the licorice extracts; however, it exhibited lower estrogenic effects compared to 8-prenylnaringenin in functional assays. Isoliquiritigenin, the precursor chalcone of liquiritigenin, demonstrated significant estrogenic activities while xanthohumol, a metabolic precursor of 8-prenylnaringenin, was not estrogenic. Liquiritigenin showed ERβ selectivity in competitive binding assay and isoliquiritigenin was equipotent for ER subtypes. The estrogenic activity of isoliquiritigenin could be the result of its cyclization to liquiritigenin under physiological conditions. 8-Prenylnaringenin had nanomolar estrogenic potency without ER selectivity while xanthohumol did not bind ERs. These data demonstrated that Glycyrrhiza species with different contents of liquiritigenin have various levels of estrogenic activities, suggesting the importance of precise labeling of botanical

  2. 3种甘草种子苗和根茎苗在同一生境下的生长差异%Growth differences of seed seedlings and rootstock seedlings for 3 kinds of Glycyrrhiza L. in the same habitat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳芬; 潘伯荣; 童莉; 王瑛; 田村幸吉

    2013-01-01

    在同一生境下用种子苗、根茎苗繁殖光果甘草(Glycyrrhiza glabra L.)、胀果甘草(Glycyrrhiza inlfata Bat.)、乌拉尔甘草(Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.),并对其地上部分(株高)和地下部分(根数、根粗、根茎数和根茎粗)进行比较研究。结果表明:(1)3种甘草地上部分、地下部分生长特征大部分种子苗优于根茎苗。(2)3种甘草生长特性表现不一致。在株高方面,种子苗和根茎苗均为胀果甘草表现最优;在根数方面,种子苗和根茎苗均为乌拉尔甘草最优;在根茎数和根粗方面,种子苗为乌拉尔甘草最优,根茎苗为胀果甘草最优;在根茎粗方面,种子苗为乌拉尔甘草最优,根茎苗为胀果甘草最优。(3)3种甘草种子苗、根茎苗根粗和根茎粗均与株高呈相关关系。%Under the same habitat Glycyrrhiza glabra l., Glycyrrhiza inlfata Bat., and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. were propagated by seed seedlings and rootstock seedling. Their aerial part (plant height) and underground part (root number, root diameter, rootstock number and rootstock diameter) were compared. The results showed that:(1) the growth features of aerial part and underground part of most seed seedling of three kinds of licorice were better than that of root seedlings. (2) the growth characteristic of three kinds of licorice were different. In terms of plant height, seed seedling and rootstock seedlings of Glycyrrhiza inlfata were optimal;In terms of root number, seed seedling and rootstock seedlings of Glycyrrhiza uralensis were optimal;In terms of rootstock number and root diameter, seed seedling of Glycyrrhiza uralensis were optimal, rootstock seedlings of Glycyrrhiza inlfata were optimal;In terms of rootstock diameter, seed seedling of Glycyrrhiza uralensis were optimal, rootstock seedling of Glycyrrhiza inflata were optimal. (3) the root diameter, rootstock diameter of seed seedlings and rootstock seedlings of three kinds of licorice

  3. Hypnotic effects and GABAergic mechanism of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) ethanol extract and its major flavonoid constituent glabrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Suengmok; Park, Ji-Hae; Pae, Ae Nim; Han, Daeseok; Kim, Dongsoo; Cho, Nam-Chul; No, Kyoung Tai; Yang, Hyejin; Yoon, Minseok; Lee, Changho; Shimizu, Makoto; Baek, Nam-In

    2012-06-01

    Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra, GG) is one of the most frequently used herbal medicines worldwide, and its various biological activities have been widely studied. GG is reported to have neurological properties such as antidepressant, anxiolytic, and anticonvulsant effects. However, its hypnotic effects and the mechanism of GG and its active compounds have not yet been demonstrated. In this study, GG ethanol extract (GGE) dose-dependently potentiated pentobarbital-induced sleep and increased the amount of non-rapid eye movement sleep in mice without decreasing delta activity. The hypnotic effect of GGE was completely inhibited by flumazenil, which is a well-known γ-aminobutyric acid type A-benzodiazepine (GABA(A)-BZD) receptor antagonist, similar to other GABA(A)-BZD receptor agonists (e.g., diazepam and zolpidem). The major flavonoid glabrol was isolated from the flavonoid-rich fraction of GGE; it inhibited [(3)H] flumazenil binding to the GABA(A)-BZD receptors in rat cerebral cortex membrane with a binding affinity (K(i)) of 1.63 μM. The molecular structure and pharmacophore model of glabrol and liquiritigenin indicate that the isoprenyl groups of glabrol may play a key role in binding to GABA(A)-BZD receptors. Glabrol increased sleep duration and decreased sleep latency in a dose-dependent manner (5, 10, 25, and 50mg/kg); its hypnotic effect was also blocked by flumazenil. The results imply that GGE and its flavonoid glabrol induce sleep via a positive allosteric modulation of GABA(A)-BZD receptors.

  4. Unequivocal glycyrrhizin isomer determination and comparative in vitro bioactivities of root extracts in four Glycyrrhiza species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Farag

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycyrrhiza glabra, commonly known as licorice, is a popular herbal supplement used for the treatment of chronic inflammatory conditions and as sweetener in the food industry. This species contains a myriad of phytochemicals including the major saponin glycoside glycyrrhizin (G of Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA aglycone. In this study, 2D-ROESY NMR technique was successfully applied for distinguishing 18α and 18β glycyrrhetinic acid (GA. ROESY spectra acquired from G. glabra, Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Glycyrrhiza inflata crude extracts revealed the presence of G in its β-form. Anti-inflammatory activity of four Glycyrrhiza species, G, glabra, G. uralensis, G. inflata, and G. echinata roots was assessed against COX-1 inhibition revealing that phenolics rather than glycyrrhizin are biologically active in this assay. G. inflata exhibits a strong cytotoxic effect against PC3 and HT29 cells lines, whereas other species are inactive. This study presents an effective NMR method for G isomer assignment in licorice extracts that does not require any preliminary chromatography or any other purification step.

  5. The effect of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Licorice (Glycyrrhiza Glabra Rhizome on the Mechanical Activity of the Colon of Male Rats and its Interaction with Adrenergic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Ghayedi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Back ground & aim: Glycyrrhiza glabra (Licorice is a native medicinal plant of Iran which its rhizome has been traditionally used for treatment of bowel spasm and diarrhea. Accordingly, the present study aimed to determine the effect of the hydro-alcoholic extract of licorice rhizome on mechanical activity of isolated colon of male rats. Methods: In the present experimental study, the colon tissue of 10 adult male rats were dissected and divided into two groups: experimental and control. Each group consisted of 10 strips of tissue. Then, the mechanical activity of tissue strips were recorded by power lab A-D instrument in basal condition, and after administration of phenylephrine and epinephrine and propranolol in the presence and absence of licorice rhizome extract (with effective dose 0.036 mg/ml. Moreover, the mechanical activity of control group strips were recorded at the same condition with extract solvent (ethanol %70. Data were analyzed statistically with using the SPSS software version 19 using Independent-Samples t-test. Result: The mechanical activity of tissue in presence of extract and epinephrine significantly decreased (p≤0.05 compared to the control group. While the mechanical activity in the presence of extract and propranolol significantly increased (p≤0.05 compared to the control group. However, no significant modification was observed in the mechanical activity of the tissue  in the presence of phenylephrine and extract compared to the control group.  Conclusion: According to the present study, it could be concluded that hydro-alcoholic extract of licorice maybe has modifying effect on colon motility via synergist effect with beta adrenergic receptors and independent of the alpha adrenergic receptors.

  6. Synthesis of amino-silane modified magnetic silica adsorbents and application for adsorption of flavonoids from Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic separation technology was applied in the separation of flavonoids from the licorice root in this work. Licorice flavonoids (LF) displayed a remarkable array of biological and pharmacological activities. The magnetic adsorbents with functional -NH2 groups were synthesized by immobilization of amino-silane on the surface of the magnetic silica supports, which were prepared by co-precipitation method. The adsorption and desorption characteristics of the magnetic adsorbents for the separation of LF have been evaluated. The purity of an enriched extract with this method was 16.7% while the crude extract only had about 6.8% purity. Therefore, it can be concluded that these kinds of magnetic adsorbents have selectivity to the flavonoids to some extent. The affinity selectivity of the adsorbents is based on the formation of hydrogen bonding between the -NH2 on the magnetic adsorbents and -OH,-CO on the flavonoids.

  7. Synthesis of amino-silane modified magnetic silica adsorbents and application for adsorption of flavonoids from Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bo; XING JianMin; LANG YuQi; LIU HuiZhou

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic separation technology was applied in the separation of flavonoids from the licorice root in this work.Licorice flavonoids (LF) displayed a remarkable array of biological and pharmacological ac-tivities.The magnetic adsorbents with functional --NH2 groups were synthesized by immobilization of amino-silane on the surface of the magnetic silica supports, which were prepared by co-precipitation method.The adsorption and desorption characteristics of the magnetic adsorbents for the separation of LF have been evaluated.The purity of an enriched extract with this method was 16.7% while the crude extract only had about 6.8% purity.Therefore, it can be concluded that these kinds of magnetic adsorbents have selectivity to the flavonoids to some extent.The affinity selectivity of the adsorbents is based on the formation of hydrogen bonding between the --NH2 on the magnetic adsorbents and --OH, -CO on the flavonoids.

  8. Induction and in Vitro Culture of Hairy Roots of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch%乌拉尔甘草毛状根的诱导及离体培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭生虎; 王敬东; 马洪爱

    2014-01-01

    To obtain medicinal components and protect the wild resource of Glycyrrhiza uralensis, two Agrobacterium rhizogenes ATCC15834 and A4 were used to induce the hairy root from cotyledons, hypocotyls and seedlings of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. Hairy root was obtained successfully and the system of hairy root induction was established. There were about 248 bp-rolA gene and 490 bp-rolC detected from the hairy-root by PCR and capillary gel electrophoresis which indicated that the gene segments of Agrobacterium rhizogenes had been integrated and expressed in hairy root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. The hairy root induction rate was 79.5%by needle stabbing. The hairy roots grew faster and with much more branches in 1/2MS medium. When cultured for 25 days, the average fresh weight growth rate was 19.13 times. Establishment of hairy root culture system of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch provided a foundation for the industrial production of active drug component in bioreactors.%为获得甘草的药用成分和保护甘草野生资源,利用发根农杆菌ATCC15834、A4侵染乌拉尔甘草幼苗、子叶、下胚轴,获得毛状根,建立了乌拉尔甘草毛状根培养系统,经PCR和毛细管凝胶电泳检测,在248 bp有rolA基因,在490 bp有rolC基因,证实发根农杆菌基因片段在甘草毛状根的基因组中整合并得到表达,其中无菌实生苗毛状根诱导率达79.5%,毛状根分枝较多,生长速度快,在不添加激素的1/2MS液体培养基中生长明显,培养25天后,鲜重平均增殖达19.13倍,乌拉尔甘草毛状根培养体系的建立为进一步利用生物反应器规模化培养甘草药用活性成分提供了参考。

  9. 甘草RAPD-PCR反应体系正交优化研究%Optimization of RAPD-PCR Reaction System for Glycyrrhiza uralensis Based on Orthogonal Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张增福; 董建力; 李明

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to obtain the optimum RAPD-PCR reaction system for Glycyrrhiza uralensis. [ Method] Orthogonal design was adopted to screen the suitable concentration of major factors (dNTPs, primer, Taq polymerase, DNA template) in PCR reaction system. [ Result] The optimal protocol was accomplished by orthogonal design in 25 μl reaction volume containing 10 × PCR buffer solution(include MgCl2) 2.5 μl, 10 mmol/L dNTPs 2.5 μl, 50 ng DNA template 2.0 μl, 10 μmol/L primer 2. 0 μl, 5 U/μl Taq polymerase 0.4 μl; the optimum annealing temperature was 34 ℃. [ Conclusion] Orthogonal design was an effective method for the optimization of RAPD-PCR reaction system for C. Uralensis.%[目的]建立一套适合甘草分子学研究的RAPD-PCR反应体系.[方法]以甘草种质为试材,采用正交试验法设计,对影响RAPD-PCR扩增的主要因素dNTPs、引物、Taq酶和DNA模板进行优化筛选.[结果]总体积25μl的甘草RAPD-PCR最佳反应体系为:10 ×PCR缓冲液(含MgCl2 )2.5 μl,10 mmol/L dNTPs 2.5 μl,50 ng DNA 2.0μl,10 μmol/L引物2.0μl,5 U/μl Taq酶0.4μl.对引物的退火温度进行了梯度筛选,34℃时扩增效果较好.[结论]进行甘草RAPD-PCR反应体系的正交优化非常有效.

  10. The comparative effect of heating and irradiation on the physicochemical and sensory properties of licorice roots powders (Glycyrrhiza Glabra L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfouz AL-BACHIR

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to investigate the changes in the physicochemical and sensory properties of the licorice root powders extracts as a function of heating, steaming, gamma irradiation and storage periods. Physical and chemical analyses of the extracts were performed after 0 and 12 months of storage, whereas, sensory evaluation was done only two days after irradiation. The results showed that the extraction yield of licorice root measured as organic dissolved solids was significantly increased by heating and decreased by steaming, but there was no significant difference between irradiated and non-irradiated samples. Reduced sugar, glycyrrhizin components, pH values, and color of the extracts were found to be decreased due to heating and steaming. Also the heating and steaming increased the total sugar and viscosity of the licorice root extracts. No differences were verified in the overall sensorial (color, flavor, texture, and taste, physical (color and viscosity, and chemical (total sugar, reduced sugar, glycyrrhizin components, and pH values properties of licorice root extracts after irradiation with 10 kGy.

  11. Natural products in Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) rhizome imaged at the cellular level by atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Bhandari, Dhaka Ram; Janfelt, Christian; Römpp, Andreas; Spengler, Bernhard

    2014-10-01

    The rhizome of Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) was analyzed by high-resolution mass spectrometry imaging and tandem mass spectrometry imaging. An atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging ion source was combined with an orbital trapping mass spectrometer in order to obtain high-resolution imaging in mass and space. Sections of the rhizome were imaged with a spatial resolution of 10 μm in the positive ion mode, and a large number of secondary metabolites were localized and identified based on their accurate mass and MS/MS fragmentation patterns. Major tissue-specific metabolites, including free flavonoids, flavonoid glycosides and saponins, were successfully detected and visualized in images, showing their distributions at the cellular level. The analytical power of the technique was tested in the imaging of two isobaric licorice saponins with a mass difference of only 0.02 Da. With a mass resolving power of 140 000 and a bin width of 5 ppm in the image processing, the two compounds were well resolved in full-scan mode, and appeared with different distributions in the tissue sections. The identities of the compounds and their distributions were validated in a subsequent MS/MS imaging experiment, thereby confirming their identities and excluding possible analyte interference. The use of high spatial resolution, high mass resolution and tandem mass spectrometry in imaging experiments provides significant information about the biosynthetic pathway of flavonoids and saponins in legume species, combing the spatially resolved chemical information with morphological details at the microscopic level. Furthermore, the technique offers a scheme capable of high-throughput profiling of metabolites in plant tissues.

  12. Study on Induction and in Vitro Cultivation of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Hairy Root and Its Flavonoids Production%甘草毛状根诱导培养及其黄酮含量检测的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢虹玉; 刘敬梅; 张海超; 高山林

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨影响甘草毛状根的诱导培养的因素及其总黄酮含量.方法 利用发根农杆茵的遗传和液体培养技术,研究了甘草(Glycyrrhiza uralensis)毛状根的诱导和离体培养及其黄酮的产生情况.结果 不同发根农杆菌中,A4菌株侵染效果最好,约96%的子叶节外植体产生毛状根;不同外植体中,子叶节的转化效果最高,毛状根产生只需3~4 d;在毛状根的液体培养过程中,接种量为0.3 g,培养客积为500 mL时生长速率最快,毛状根湿重增长41倍;毛状根能产生药用成分甘草黄酮,根系中最高黄酮含量高于商品甘草,达干重的2.042%,约为未转化植株根的4.3倍;毛状根中的黄酮还分泌到培养液中,最高量为每100 mL培养液1.36 mg.结论 较为系统地研究了甘草毛状根的诱导培养条件和总黄酮量,为今后规模培养甘草毛状根生产药用甘草黄酮提供了可能性.%OBJECTIVE To study the influencing factors of induction and cultivation of Glycyrrhiza uralensis hairy root and its flavonoids production. METHODS By using genetic transformation of Agrohactierium rhizogenes and liquid cultivation technique, the induction and cultivation of Glycyrrhiza uralensis hairy root and its flavonoids production were investigated. RESULTS Different inducement frequencies of hairy roots were found among different A. rhizogene strains. A4 exhibited the strongest infection ability with explants. The percentage of rooted cotyledonary node explants after infection was more than 96%. The inducement frequency from cotyledonary nodes was the highest among different explants. Hairy root could be initiated from cotyledonary node explants 3 -4 d after inoculation with the strain of A. rhizogene A4. The largest growth rate during hairy root cultivation in vitro was shown with inoculum size of 0. 3 g and volume of 500 mL The wet weight of hairy root after liquid culture was 41 times higher than before. The hairy root could produce

  13. The potential of e-nose aroma profiling for identifying the geographical origin of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Mariateresa; Serra, Demetrio; Suraci, Francesca; Di Sanzo, Rosa; Fuda, Salvatore; Postorino, Santo

    2014-12-15

    Licorice roots cultivated commercially in distinct geographical areas such as China, Iran, Italy (Abruzzo, Basilicata, Calabria and Sicily) and Turkey were classified using an artificial olfactive system (e-nose) based on metal oxide semiconductor sensors (MOS). The resultant instrumental data were processed using a multivariate statistical analysis method in order to classify the raw samples according to its origin. The e-nose odourprintings were obtained by a canonical discriminant analysis carried out with the aim of relating the specific data-sets corresponding to whole licorice roots aroma with the e-nose reference dataset. E-nose results were compared to those obtained by SPME/GC-MS. The HS-SPME/GC/MS analysis was used as a control system to check for the actual existence of differences in the chemical composition of sample headspace. These results imply the possibility to use an electronic nose as a tool for a quick, effective and non-destructive authentication of licorice roots.

  14. Orthogonal Analysis Underscores the Relevance of Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Licorice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmler, Charlotte; Nikolić, Dejan; Lankin, David C; Yu, Yang; Friesen, J Brent; van Breemen, Richard B; Lecomte, Alicia; Le Quémener, Céline; Audo, Grégoire; Pauli, Guido F

    2014-08-22

    Licorice botanicals are produced from the roots of Glycyrrhiza species (Fabaceae), encompassing metabolites of both plant and rhizobial origin. The composition in both primary and secondary metabolites (1°/2°Ms) reflects the physiologic state of the plant at harvest. Interestingly, the relative abundance of 1°Ms vs 2°Ms in licorice extracts remains undetermined. A centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) method was developed to purify liquiritin derivatives that represent major bioactive 2°Ms and to concentrate the polar 1°Ms from the crude extract of Glycyrrhiza uralensis. One objective was to determine the purity of the generated reference materials by orthogonal UHPLC-UV/LC-MS and qHNMR analyses. The other objectives were to evaluate the presence of 1°Ms in purified 2°Ms and define their mass balance in a crude botanical extract. Whereas most impurities could be assigned to well-known 1°Ms, p-hydroxybenzylmalonic acid, a new natural tyrosine analogue, was also identified. Additionally, in the most polar fraction, sucrose and proline represented 93% (w/w) of all qHNMR-quantified 1°Ms. Compared to the 2°Ms, accounting for 11.9% by UHPLC-UV, 1°Ms quantified by qHNMR defined an additional 74.8% of G. uralensis extract. The combined orthogonal methods enable the mass balance characterization of licorice extracts and highlight the relevance of 1°Ms, and accompanying metabolites, for botanical quality control.

  15. A comparative study on scavenging reactive oxygen species of Glycyrrhiza glabra and G. Uralensis%光果甘草与乌拉尔甘草清除活性氧能力的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢毛成; 丁家宜; 李刚

    2003-01-01

    采用化学发光法测定了光果甘草(Glycyrrhiza glabra L.)与乌拉尔甘草(G. uralensis Fisch.)中总黄酮和总皂甙对3种重要活性氧(O2 +÷、*OH和H2O2)的清除能力, 发现它们对3种活性氧均有很强的清除能力,其中光果甘草对活性氧的清除能力超过乌拉尔甘草;黄酮类化合物对3种活性氧的清除能力强于皂甙类化合物.因此, 若以清除活性氧为应用目标,应尽量使用光果甘草.

  16. Tumorigenic effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals are alleviated by licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) root extract through suppression of AhR expression in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xiao Ting; de la Cruz, Joseph; Hwang, Seong Gu; Hong, Heeok

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have been reported to interfere with estrogen signaling. Exposure to these chemicals decreases the immune response and causes a wide range of diseases in animals and humans. Recently, many studies showed that licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) root extract (LRE) commonly called "gamcho" in Korea exhibits antioxidative, chemoprotective, and detoxifying properties. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of action of LRE and to determine if and how LRE can alleviate the toxicity of EDCs. LRE was prepared by vacuum evaporation and freeze-drying after homogenization of licorice root powder that was soaked in 80% ethanol for 72 h. We used 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) as a representative EDC, which is known to induce tumors or cancers; MCF-7 breast cancer cells, used as a tumor model, were treated with TCDD and various concentrations of LRE (0, 50, 100, 200, 400 μg/mL) for 24, 48, and 72 h. As a result, TCDD stimulated MCF-7 cell proliferation, but LRE significantly inhibited TCDD-induced MCF-7 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The expression of TCDD toxicity-related genes, i.e., aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), AhR nuclear translocator, and cytochrome P450 1A1, was also down-regulated by LRE in a dose-dependent manner. Analysis of cell cycle distribution after treatment of MCF-7 cells with TCDD showed that LRE inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 cells via G2/M phase arrest. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis also revealed that LRE dose-dependently increased the expression of the tumor suppressor genes p53 and p27 and down-regulated the expression of cell cycle-related genes. These data suggest that LRE can mitigate the tumorigenic effects of TCDD in breast cancer cells by suppression of AhR expression and cell cycle arrest. Thus, LRE can be used as a potential toxicity-alleviating agent against EDC-mediated diseases.

  17. Inhibition of lipid oxidation and rancidity in precooked pork patties by radical-scavenging licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiang; Zhang, Xin; True, Alma D; Zhou, Lirong; Xiong, Youling L

    2013-11-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of licorice extract (LE) to curtail lipid oxidation and protect sensory attributes of ground pork during refrigerated and frozen storage. Pork patties (20% fat) were formulated with 0%, 0.02%, 0.05%, and 0.1% (meat basis) LE or rosemary extract (RE) as comparison or 0.01% (fat basis) BHA with 0 or 1.5% NaCl. Raw and precooked (75 °C) patties were packaged in polyvinylchloride overwrapped trays and stored at 2 °C up to 7 and 14 d, respectively, or at -20 °C up to 6 mo. Lipid oxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances [TBARS]) and sensory attributes of stored patty samples were evaluated, radical scavenging activity of the LE was measured, and the active phenolic compounds were identified. Cooking yield (<85%) was similar among antioxidant treatments, and lipid oxidation was minimal in refrigerated or frozen raw samples. However, TBARS values in refrigerated precooked control patties (0.22 mg/kg) rose to 9.3 to 9.4 mg/kg after 14 d, compared to 3.4 to 4.4 and 4.4 to 6.9 mg/kg in patties treated with 0.1% LE and RE, respectively. In frozen precooked samples, TBARS (0.22 mg/kg) increased to 1.3 mg/kg (P < 0.05) in control patties after 6 mo and had no significant change in patties treated with 0.1% LE or 0.01% butylated hydroxyanisol. Sensory panel evaluation confirmed strong inhibition of rancidity production by LE, corroborating its remarkable antiradical activity due to the presence of multiple phenolics. The results indicate that licorice has great potential as a natural antioxidative additive to extend the shelf-life of precooked pork.

  18. 光果甘草与乌拉尔甘草开花与传粉方式对生殖及种间关系的影响%Effect of Flowering Mode and Pollination on Reproductive Success and the Relationship between Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田润炜; 陆嘉惠; 谢良碧; 秦忠立; 李学禹

    2012-01-01

    通过对光果甘草和乌拉尔甘草花期物候和访花昆虫行为的观察及人工授粉实验,探讨开花模式及传粉方式对生殖成功及种间关系的影响.结果表明:(1)两种甘草的种群水平花期重叠时间长达21 d,均表现出“集中大量开花”模式,但乌拉尔甘草呈现分批渐次开花趋势,这对提高生殖成功率,避免近交衰退,维持物种的稳定具有重要意义.(2)两种甘草的访花昆虫在种类和数量上有所不同,但具有共同传粉者——宽板尖腹蜂、意大利蜂和紫木蜂.(3)以乌拉尔甘草为母本、光果甘草为父本的种间杂交结实率为48.3%;以光果甘草为母本、乌拉尔甘草为父本的种间杂交结实率为39.4%,说明种间杂交亲和,不存在生殖障碍.研究认为,花期重叠、共有传粉昆虫及种间杂交亲和使光果甘草与乌拉尔甘草自然种群杂交种的形成成为可能.%Effect of flowering mode and pollination on reproductive success and interspecific relationship of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. were studied by flowering phenology observation, pollinator observation, hand-pollination experiments. (1) Their overlapping time of the florescence was 21 days, both G. glabra L. and G. uralensis Fisch demonstrated "concentrate a large number of flowering mode", but G. uralensis Fisch. was batches gradually flowering. And that'have great significance for improve the reproductive success rate, avoid inbreeding depression and maintain the stability of the species. (2)Their pollination insects are different in numbers and varieties, but Coelixys afra Lepeletier,Apis mel-lifera Linnaeus and Xylocopa valga Gerstaecker pollinate for both of them. (3) The rate of fruitage in crossing combination of "♀G, uralensis×♂G. glabra" was 48. 3% , the "♀G. glabra× ♂G. uralensis" was 39. 4%. This means that hybridization between G, glabra L. and G. uralensis Fisch. are compatible and nd reproductive

  19. Data mining and frequency analysis for licorice as a "Two-Face" herb in Chinese Formulae based on Chinese Formulae Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianming; Shang, Erxin; Zhao, Jinlong; Fan, Xinsheng; Duan, Jinao; Qian, Dawei; Tao, Weiwei; Tang, Yuping

    2014-09-25

    Liquorice is the root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. or Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Leguminosae. Licorice is described as 'National Venerable Master' in Chinese medicine and plays paradoxical roles, i.e. detoxification/strengthen efficacy and inducing/enhancing toxicity. Therefore, licorice was called "Two-Face" herb in this paper. The aim of this study is to discuss the paradoxical roles and the perspective usage of this "Two-Face" herb using data mining and frequency analysis. More than 96,000 prescriptions from Chinese Formulae Database were selected. The frequency and the prescription patterns were analyzed using Microsoft SQL Server 2000. Data mining methods (frequent itemsets) were used to analyze the regular patterns and compatibility laws of the constituent herbs in the selected prescriptions. The result showed that licorice (Radix glycyrrhizae) was the most frequently used herb in Chinese Formulae Database, other frequently used herbs including Radix Angelicae Sinensis (Dang gui), Radix et rhizoma ginseng (Ren shen), etc. Toxic herbs such as Radix aconiti lateralis praeparata (Fu zi), Rhizoma pinelliae (Ban xia) and Cinnabaris (Zhu sha) are top 3 herbs that most frequently used in combination with licorice. Radix et rhizoma ginseng (Ren shen), Poria (Fu ling), Radix Angelicae Sinensis (Dang gui) are top 3 nontoxic herbs that most frequently used in combination with licorice. Moreover, Licorice was seldom used with sargassum (Hai Zao), Herba Cirsii Japonici (Da Ji), Euphorbia kansui (Gan Sui) and Flos genkwa (Yuan Hua), which proved the description of contradictory effect of Radix glycyrrhizae and these herbs as recorded in Chinese medicine theory. This study showed the principle pattern of Chinese herbal drugs used in combination with licorice or not. The principle patterns and special compatibility laws reported here could be useful and instructive for scientific usage of licorice in clinic application. Further pharmacological and chemical researches are

  20. Gastroprotective Effect of Combination of Hot Water Extracts of Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), Pulasari Stem Bark (Alyxia reinwardtii), and Sembung Leaf (Blumea balsamifera) Against Aspirin-Induced Gastric Ulcer Model Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, Agung Endro; Wijayanti, Agustin; Mutmainah, Mutmainah; Susilowati, Rina; Rahmawati, Nuning

    2016-10-01

    Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), Pulasari stem bark (Alyxia reinwardtii) and Sembung leaf (Blumea balsamifera) are traditionally used to treat gastrointestinal disorders. The aim of the study was to investigate gastroprotective effect of hot water extracts combination of those herbal against aspirin-induced gastric ulcer model in rats. The combination consisted of fixed doses of Licorice 273 mg/kg BW and Sembung leaf 457.5 mg/kg BW, and also consisted of Pulasari stem in various doses i.e. 100 mg/kg BW (first group), 200 mg/kg BW (second and sixth group) and 300 mg/kg BW (third group). The fourth grup rats received sucralfate 360 mg/kg BW. Ten minute after seven consecutive days of drug administration, the rats were induced with aspirin 450 mg/kg BW except sixth group rats. The fifth group rats only received aspirin without any protective agents. The number and area of gastric ulcers were evaluated macroscopically. Whereas, histopatological observation was used for evaluation of mucosal damage score, and the number of eosinophils and mast cells. In the study, herbal extracts combination markedly exhibited protective effects indicated by less number and smaller area of gastric ulcers in comparison to those of aspirin group (P Glycyrrhiza glabra), Pulasari stem bark (Alyxia reinwardtii) and Sembung leaf (Blumea balsamifera) is potential to develop as a gastroprotective agent.

  1. Cloning and sequence analysis of squalene synthase gene and cDNA in Glycyrrhiza uralensis%甘草鲨烯合酶基因及cDNA的克隆与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣齐仙; 刘春生; 黄璐琦; 张宁; 南博; 呙未

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To clone and sequence the open reading frame and genomic sequence of squalene synthase (SQS) from Glycyrrhiza uralensis. Method: The primers were designed according to cDNA sequence of SQS from G. glabra reported by Hiroaki HAYASHI, SQS cDNA was cloned with total RNA extracted from roots of G. uralensis. Specific fragments were amplified by RT-PCR and then were cloned and sequenced. SQS DNA was cloned with total DNA extracted from roots of G. uralensis. Specific fragments were amplified by PCR and then were cloned and sequenced. Result: GuSQS1 (GenBank accession number: GQ266154) was 1 242 bp in length encoding proteins with 412 amino acid. NCBI Blast x search results showed GuSQS1 had the highest amino acid similarity to the corresponding proteins from G. uralensis The identities of GuSQS1 with the two proteins were 98. 55% and 88. 62%. SQS ( GenBank accession number: GQ180932) gene with 4 484 bp containing 13 exons and 12 introns was then amplified by PCR with genomic DNA extracted from roots of G. uralensis. Conclusion: These findings of cloning and sequencing the open reading frame and genomic sequence of squalene synthase (SQS) from G. uralensis brought some new clues for the further exploration of SmSQS function in sterol and terpenes biosynthesis.%目的:对甘草鲨烯合酶(SQS)基因的cDNA及DNA进行克隆及序列分析.方法:根据已报道的光果甘草SQS1基因的cDNA序列设计引物,采用RT-PCR的方法,提取甘草根的RNA然后反转录成cDNA,以cDNA为模板,扩增出SQS基因的cDNA序列,以甘草总DNA为模板,扩增SQS的DNA序列.结果:序列分析表明,克隆获得的甘草SQS1的cDNA编码区为1242 bp,编码413个氨基酸残基,命名为GuSQS1,登录号为GQ266154,与卢虹玉等报道的甘草的2个SQS(SQS1和SQS2)的氨基酸序列一致性为98.55%,88.62%,对应DNA序列全长为4484 bp,含有13个外显子,12个内含子,登录号为GQ180932.结论:甘草SQS的cDNA及DNA序列的获得为进一步研究

  2. 干旱胁迫对甘草幼苗活性氧代谢的影响%Effects of Drought Stress on Active Oxygen Metabolism in Glycyrrhiza uralensis Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳; 蔡贵芳; 陈贵林

    2012-01-01

    The effects of antioxidant capacity in the formation of the drought-resistance were studied with one year old seedlings of Glycyrrhiza uralensis , which were treated with the method of artificially simulated drought stresses. The effects of drought stress on active oxygen metabolism in G. uralensis seed-lings roots and leaves were studied. The results indicated that on the 4d and 6d, there were slightly accu-mulations of active oxygen enzymes in roots and leaves separately. And activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) , peroxidase(POD) , catalase(CAT) and ascorbic acid oxidase(APX) increased obviously in the pe-riod of 10~12d. During 12~14d, activities of antioxidant enzyme decreased immediately, meanwhile ac-tive oxygen enzymes accumulated again, membrane lipid peroxidation increased immediately with it. The research showed that under moderate water stress, G. uralensis increased the antioxidant enzymes activi-ties to clear active oxygen for reducing membrane injury; Under heavy stress, the active oxygen metabo-lism balance was damaged, active oxygen was accumulated, membrane lipid peroxidation was intensified.%以当年生甘草幼苗为试验材料,通过人工控制水分模拟干旱的处理方法,研究干旱胁迫对甘草根、叶组织中活性氧代谢的影响.结果显示,干旱处理后4d和6d,甘草根、叶组织中活性氧分别出现小幅积累,随之抗氧化酶类超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)、抗坏血酸氧化酶(APX)活性开始大幅提高,并一直维持高活性至处理后10~12d;随着胁迫时间的延长(处理后12~14d),抗氧化酶类活性迅速下降,与此相对应,活性氧再次出现大量积累,膜透性明显增加.以上结果表明,适度水分胁迫下,甘草自身通过抗氧化酶类活性提高及时清除活性氧,减轻膜损伤;重度胁迫下,上述活性氧代谢平衡破坏,活性氧积累,膜脂过氧化加剧.

  3. Structures of New Phenolics Isolated from Licorice, and the Effectiveness of Licorice Phenolics on Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eerdunbayaer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Licorice, which is the underground part of Glycyrrhiza species, has been used widely in Asian and Western countries as a traditional medicine and as a food additive. Our continuous investigation on the constituents of roots and stolons of Glycyrrhiza uralensis led to the isolation of two new phenolics, in addition to 14 known compounds. Structural studies including spectroscopic and simple chemical derivatizations revealed that both of the new compounds had 2-aryl-3-methylbenzofuran structures. An examination of the effectiveness of licorice phenolics obtained in this study on vancomycin-resistant strains Enterococcus faecium FN-1 and Enterococcus faecalis NCTC12201 revealed that licoricidin showed the most potent antibacterial effects against both of E. faecalis and E. faecium with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of 1.9 × 10−5 M. 8-(γ,γ-Dimethylallyl-wighteone, isoangustone A, 3'-(γ,γ-dimethylallyl-kievitone, glyasperin C, and one of the new 3-methyl-2-phenylbenzofuran named neoglycybenzofuran also showed potent anti-vancomycin-resistant Enterococci effects (MIC 1.9 × 10−5–4.5 × 10−5 M for E. faecium and E. faecalis. The HPLC condition for simultaneous detection of the phenolics in the extract was investigated to assess the quality control of the natural antibacterial resource, and quantitative estimation of several major phenolics in the extract with the established HPLC condition was also performed. The results showed individual contents of 0.08%–0.57% w/w of EtOAc extract for the major phenolics in the materials examined.

  4. Anti-inflammatory Effects and Mechanism of Ephedra sinica-Glycyrrhiza uralensis Herbal Compatibility%麻黄-甘草药对的抗炎作用及机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵杰; 余林中; 方芳; 徐文杰; 罗佳波

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To observe the anti-inflammatory effects of Ephedra sinica - Glycyrrhiza uralensis herbal compatibility and explore its mechanism. Method; ICR mice were divided into 5 groups randomly, namely the model group, dexameathone group (0.01 g · kg-1 ), E. sinica-G. uralensis herbal compatibility groups (22. 4,11.2,5. 6 g · kg-1 ). Each drug was administrated to mice orally once a day for 5 days. After 30 min of the last administration, anti-inflammatory effect was observed by the method of acetic acid-induced permeability accentuation. SD rats were divided into 6 groups randomly, namely the control group, model group, dexameathone group (0.01 g ? kg"1), E. sinica-G. uralensis herbal compatibility groups (22.4, 11.2, 5.6 g · kg-1). Each drug was administrated to mice orally once a day for 5 days. After 30 min of the last administration, the rat model of carrageenan-induced acute pleurisy was also selected to observe the anti-inflamatory activity. The anti-inflammatory mechanisms were investigated by detecting the contents of prostaglandins ( PGE2 ) , tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a), interleukin-1β (IL-1/8) in exudates, and the contents of TNF-a, IL-1β, malondialdehyde -(MDA) in lung tissue were also detected. Result: Compared with the model group, E. sinica-G. ura/e/wssherbal compatibility (22.4, 11.2 g · kg-1) produced significant inhibitory effects on acetic acid-induced permeability accentuation in mice, and inhibited the increase of the volume of exudates (P < 0. 01 ) , as well as the total leukocytes in the exudates (P < 0. 01) induced by carrageenan, 22.4 g ? kg~ inhibited the increase of the percentage of neutrophil, and three doses of herbal compatibility had no significant effects on the percentage of lymphocytes, E. sinica-G. uralensis drug pair (22.4, 11.2 g · kg-1 ) significantly reduced the levels of PGE2 , TNF-a, IL-1β in exudates ( P < 0. 05) , drug pair 22. 4 g · kg-1 also reduced the contents of TNF-a, IL-1β, MDA in lung tissue in

  5. Genetic diversity of riperian populations of glycyrrhiza lepidota along the salmon and snake rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glycyrrhiza lepidota Pursh (Fabaceae; American wild licorice), is a nitrogen-fixing, perennial, facultative riparian species present along many dryland rivers in western North America, including the U.S., southern Canada and northern Mexico. Like Glycyrrhiza glabra, common licorice native to Europe,...

  6. Cloning and characterization of 3-hydroxy-3-methylgIutary CoA reductase cDNA of Glycyrrhiza uralensis%乌拉尔甘草HMGR基因cDNA的克隆与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣齐仙; 许巧仙; 刘春生; 黄璐琦

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To clone and analysis the sequence of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutary CoA reductase (HMGR) cDNA from Glycyrrhiza uralensis.Method: The primers were designed based on the conservative region of HMGR nucleic acids sequence from public database.The target gene was obtained from root of G.uralensis by use of homologous cDNA amplificati on and RACE technologies.The sequence alignment was performed using BLAST.The open reading frame was identified by use of the ORF Finder.The protein domains were defined by use of Prosite software.Clustal was used to conduct multiple amino acid sequence alignment and MEGA 5.0 was used to conduct the phylogenetic tree.Result: The GuHMGR cDNA sequence was obtained contains 1 842 bp contains a 1 722 bp ORF, encoding 573 amino acids with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutary CoA reductases family profile.Deduced amino acid sequence had 84% and 76% homology to the amino acid sequence of Pisum sativum, Medicago truncatula.Conclusion: The cloning of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutary CoA reductase (HMGR) cDNA will provide a foundation for exploring the function of HMGR in glycyrrhizin biosynthesis.%目的:对乌拉尔甘草3.羟基-3-甲基戊二酰辅酶A还原酶(3-hydroxy-3methylglutary CoA reductase,HMGR)的cDNA克隆并进行序列分析.方法:根据NCBI数据库中的豆科其他物种HMGR的cDNA保守区设计引物,利用同源扩增和cDNA末端快速扩增技术从甘草根中获得目的基因;利用BLAST进行序列比对,ORF Finder寻找开发阅读框,Prosite分析蛋白质的基本结构域,Clustal x比对已有HMGR的氨基酸序列,并构建进化树.结果:得到1个全长为1 842 bp的HMGR的cDNA序列,含有1 722 bp的开放阅读框(open reading frame,ORF),编码573个氨基酸,具有HMGR家族的特异序列,推测的氨基酸序列与豌豆、蒺藜苜蓿的氨基酸序列一致性分别为84%,76%.结论:对甘草HMGR基因的cDNA进行了克隆,为进一步研究3-羟基-3-甲基戊二酰辅酶A在甘草酸生物合成途径中的作用提供了理论依据.

  7. Identification and Separation of Endophytes in Wild and Cultivated Glycyrrhiza Uralensis from Gansu Province%甘肃乌拉尔甘草野生与栽培品内生菌的分离及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓毅; 王艳; 丁仁伟; 杨志军; 张艳萍

    2012-01-01

    目的:通过对甘肃乌拉尔甘草野生与栽培品内生菌的分离,对甘草同属不同品种内生菌的优势菌种进行初步鉴定,比较二者的生理活性差异.方法:采用NA、PDA培养基对甘草野生与栽培品内生菌进行分离和纯化,并以分离频率比较判断各自优势菌种.结果:野生甘草分离到内生细菌65 株,内生真菌7 株,优势菌种为青霉菌属和曲霉属;栽培甘草分离到内生细菌54 株,内生真菌6 株,优势菌种为青霉菌属;野生与栽培甘草的内生真菌分属于6 个属,相同的有5 个属,不同的2个属为丝核菌属和木霉属.结论:野生与栽培甘草具有相趋同数量和种类的内生细菌与内生真菌,但二者内生真菌的菌属及优势菌种存在明显差异.%Objective: To compare the differences of biological activity between wild and cultivated glycyrrhiza uralensis through the isolation of endophytes and identification on dominant bacteria from endophytes of different species in the same genera. Method: Endophytes from wild and cultivated GanCao were isolated and purified with NA and PDA base. The dominant bacteria were compared and judged with frequency separation. Result: All 65 strains of endophytic bacteria and seven strains of endophytic fungi were isolated from wild GanCao, the dominant bacteria were penicillium spp and monillales; 54 strains of endophytic bacteria and six strains of endophytic fungi were isolated from cultivated GanCao, the dominant bacteria were penicillium spp; endophytic fungi isolated from wild and cultivated GanCao were in the six genera, there were five same genera, two different genera were rhi-zoctonia and trichoderma. Conclusion: Wild and cultivated GanCao have almost the same amount and kinds of endophytic bacteria and fungi, but there exists remarkable difference in genera and dominant bacteria of endophtic fungi in both.

  8. Evaluation of the value of near infrared (NIR) spectromicroscopy for the analysis of glycyrrizhic acid in licorice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhi-Sheng; Zhou, Lu-Wei; Dai, Sheng-Yun; Shi, Xin-Yuan; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2015-04-01

    It has been reported that hyperspectral data could be employed to qualitatively elucidate the spatial composition of tablets of Chinese medicinal plants. To gain more insights into this technology, a quantitative profile provided by near infrared (NIR) spectromicroscopy was further studied by determining the glycyrrhizic acid content in licorice, Glycyrrhiza uralensis. Thirty-nine samples from twenty-four different origins were analyzed using NIR spectromicroscopy. Partial least squares, interval partial least square (iPLS), and least squares support vector regression (LS-SVR) methods were used to develop linear and non-linear calibration models, with optimal calibration parameters (number of interval numbers, kernel parameter, etc.) being explored. The root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and the coefficient of determination (R(2)) of the iPLS model were 0.717 7% and 0.936 1 in the prediction set, respectively. The RMSEP and R(2) of LS-SVR model were 0.515 5% and 0.951 4 in the prediction set, respectively. These results demonstrated that the glycyrrhizic acid content in licorice could barely be analyzed by NIR spectromicroscopy, suggesting that good quality quantitative data are difficult to obtain from microscopic NIR spectra for complicated Chinese medicinal plant materials.

  9. Effects of soil temperature and depth to ground water on first-year growth of a dryland riparian phreatophyte, Glycyrrhiza lepidota (American licorice)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Douglas C.; Nelson, S. Mark

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of soil temperature and depth to ground water on first-year growth of a facultative floodplain phreatophyte, Glycyrrhiza lepidota, in a 2-×-2 factorial greenhouse experiment. We grew plants in mesocosms subirrigated with water low in dissolved oxygen, mimicking natural systems, and set depth of ground water at 63 or 100 cm and soil temperature at cold (ambient) or warm (≤2.7°C above ambient). We hypothesized the moister (63 cm) and warmer soil would be most favorable and predicted faster growth of shoots and roots and greater nitrogen-fixation (thus, less uptake of mineral nitrogen) under those conditions. Growth in height was significantly faster in the moister treatment but was not affected by soil temperature. Final biomass of shoots and of roots, total biomass of plants, and root:shoot ratio indicated a significant effect only from depth of ground water. Final levels of soil mineral-nitrogen were as predicted, with level of nitrate in the moister treatment more than twice that in the drier treatment. No effect from soil temperature on level of soil-mineral nitrogen was detected. Our results suggest that establishment of G. lepidotarequires strict conditions of soil moisture, which may explain the patchy distribution of the species along southwestern dryland rivers.

  10. 基于化学组分动态变化的附子配伍甘草煎煮条件研究%Optimization of Decoction Conditions of Compatibility of Aconitum carmichaelii and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Base on Dynamic Change of Chemical Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦素红; 章津铭; 何宇新; 何瑶; 廖婉; 傅超美

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究与甘草配伍前后,附子化学组分在煎煮过程中的动态变化规律,以确定附子配伍甘草的最佳煎煮条件.方法:测定不同时间附子单煎液和附子-甘草合煎液中乌头总碱及3种双酯型生物碱的含量,确定最佳煎煮条件;考察最佳煎煮工艺所得汤液的大鼠心脏毒性.结果:附子-甘草配伍的最佳煎煮条件为大火煮沸后小火微沸保持30 min;在煎煮0~90 min时,附子-甘草配伍前后的乌头总碱及3种双酯型生物碱的含量呈现不同的变化趋势,30 min时达两者综合的峰值;煎煮30 min的单附煎液和附子-甘草合煎液均表现出一定的大鼠毒性,但合煎液心脏毒性较小.结论:优选的配伍煎煮工艺可为中药复方及临床应用中附子的“减毒存性”提供参考.%Objective: To study on dynamic change rule of chemical components from Aconitum carmichaelii during decoction process after and before compatibility with Glycyrrhiza uralensis, in order to determine optimum decoction conditions of compatibility of G. uralensis and A. carmichaelii. Method: To determine optimum decoction conditions by determining the contents of total alkaloids and 3 kinds of double ester alkaloid in different decoction time, which were from single decoction liquid of A. carmichaelii and mixed decoction liquid of G. uralensis and A. carmichaelii. And rats cardiac toxicity of soup with optimum boiling technology was investigated. Result; Optimum boiling technology of G. uralensis-A. carmichaelii was; after boiling with a blaze, kept boiling 30 min with small fire. During 0-90 min decoction process, it showed different change trend of the contents of total alkaloids and 3 kinds of double ester alkaloid before and after compatibility of G. uralensis and A. carmichaelii, it reached to both comprehensive peak value in 30 min; both single decoction liquid of A. Carmichaelii and mixed decoction liquid of G. uralensis and A. carmichaelii showed some

  11. The Morphological and Histological Study of Cultivated and Wild Glycyrrhiza%栽培甘草与野生甘草的形态组织学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宝玲; 王英华; 刘晓芳

    2005-01-01

    甘草为常用中药材,《中国药典》(2000年版一部)收载为豆科植物甘草Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.、胀果甘草Glycyrrhiza inflata Bat.或光果甘草Glycyrrhiza glabra.的干燥根及根茎。

  12. Isolation of endophytic fungi from medicinal plant Glycyrrhiza uralensis and its microbial inhibition activity%甘草内生真菌分离及其抑菌活性初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕江涛; 王小霞; 陈卫民; 王静; 贺达汉

    2013-01-01

    为了解药用植物甘草(Glycyrrhiza uralensis)内生真菌资源多样性及其抑菌活性特征,通过组织块法对内生真菌进行分离,并选择小麦全蚀病菌(Gaeumannomyces graminis var.tritici)、枸杞黑果病菌(Colletotrichum gloeosporioides)、番茄灰霉病菌(Botrytis cinerea)、黄瓜枯萎病菌(Fusarium oxysporium f.sp.cucumeris)、黄瓜立枯病菌(Rhizoctonia solani)5种植物病原真菌和枯草芽孢杆菌(Bacillus subtilis)、大肠杆菌(Escherichia coli)、金黄色葡萄球菌(Staph ylococcus aureus)、铜绿假单胞菌(Pseudomonas aeruginosa)4种细菌作为供试指示菌,采用对峙法和改进的菌块法测定抑菌活性.试验结果显示,从甘草根、茎、叶中分离出20株内生真菌,其中根部最多,占分离菌株总数的65.0%,其次为茎部,叶部最少;经形态学初步分类鉴定归于2目2科5属,梭孢霉属为优势菌属,占分离菌株总数的70.0%;在分离的内生真菌中有15株菌对1种或1种以上供试植物病原真菌有不同程度的抑制作用,为分离内生真菌总数的75.0%,19株菌对1种或1种以上供试细菌有不同程度的抑制作用,为分离内生真菌总数的95.0%;有7株内生真菌对枯草芽孢杆菌拮抗活性差异显著(P<0.05),有8株内生真菌对金黄色葡萄球菌拮抗活性差异显著,有3株内生真菌对大肠杆菌拮抗活性差异显著,有1株内生真菌对革兰氏阴性铜绿假单胞菌拮抗活性差异显著,其中菌株RLEFR015对番茄灰霉病菌、金黄色葡萄球菌拮抗活性差异显著,菌株RLEFR010对大肠杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌拮抗活性差异显著,菌株RLEFR002对枯草芽孢杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌供试细菌拮抗活性差异显著;菌株RLEFR015、RLEFR002、RLEFR010均为梭孢霉属,为高活性菌株.甘草内生真菌具有多样性和抑菌活性,多数菌株对供试病原真菌和病原细菌具有拮抗活性,对革兰氏阳性金黄色葡萄球菌和革兰氏阳

  13. Antimicrobial potential of Glycyrrhiza glabra roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vivek K; Fatima, Atiya; Faridi, Uzma; Negi, Arvind S; Shanker, Karuna; Kumar, J K; Rahuja, Neha; Luqman, Suaib; Sisodia, Brijesh S; Saikia, Dharmendra; Darokar, M P; Khanuja, Suman P S

    2008-03-05

    The present study was aimed to investigate antimicrobial potential of Glycyrrhiza glabra roots. Antimycobacterial activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra was found at 500 microg/mL concentration. Bioactivity guided phytochemical analysis identified glabridin as potentially active against both Mycobacterium tuberculosis H(37)Ra and H(37)Rv strains at 29.16 microg/mL concentration. It exhibited antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Our results indicate potential use of licorice as antitubercular agent through systemic experiments and sophisticated anti-TB assay.

  14. 营养型调和油配方及甘草、诃子提取物复合抗氧化剂对其抗氧化作用的研究%Study on the formulation of nutrition-based blend oil and the antioxidant activity of compound antioxidants from Glycyrrhiza uralensis extract and Terminalia chebula extract on it

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳凤; 刘雅丽; Chogsom Munkh-Amgalan; 陈贵林

    2015-01-01

    Objective To ensure the formulation of nutrition-based blend oil and research the effect of antioxidants on the compound antioxidants of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. extract (GUE) and Terminalia chebula Retz. extract (TCE) on the nutrition-based blend oil. Methods According to the mathematical model for the preparation of nutrition-based blend oil, the oil content of all kinds of fatty acids in raw materials was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Due to Schaal experiment the antioxidant capacity of compound antioxidants was evaluated. Results The optimal ratio to match the comparison of peanut oil, sunflower oil and flaxseed oil was 68.68:19.23:12.08. Synergistic effects were observed in the order:0.003%GUE+0.017%Vc>0.005%TCE+0.015%Vc>0.017%TCE+0.003%Ve>0.017%GUE+0.003%Ve by Schaal oven method, and especially for combinations of 0.003%GUE and 0.017%Vc, which showed a greater synergistic effect than that of the each individual antioxidant and some synthetic antioxidants, such as Butyl hydroxyl anisole (BHA). There was no significant difference between it and 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-p-cresol (BHT). Conclusion Compound antioxidants of GUE and TCE can offer effective alternative to synthetic antioxidants during storage of vegetable oils.%目的:研究甘草提取物(Glycyrrhiza uralensis extract, GUE)、诃子提取物(Terminalia chebula extract, TCE)复合抗氧化剂对营养型调和油氧化程度的影响。方法采用气质联用(gas chromatography-mass spectrometer, GC-MS)方法测定原料油中各类脂肪酸的含量,根据数学模型制备营养型调和油;然后采用 Schaal 烘箱法,评价复合抗氧化剂对营养型调和油的抗氧化作用,筛选出抗氧化作用较强的复合抗氧化剂。结果调和油的最佳配比花生油68.68%、葵花籽油19.23%、亚麻籽油12.08%。复合抗氧化剂对调和油的抗氧化作用顺序为:0.003%GUE+0.017%Vc>0.005%TCE+0.015%Vc>0.017%TCE+0.003%Ve>0.017%GUE+0.003%Ve,0

  15. Comparative analysis of antibacterial properties and chemical composition of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. from Astrakhan region (Russia) and Calabria region (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astaf'eva, O V; Sukhenko, L T

    2014-04-01

    We compared antibacterial activity of various extracts of two licorice subspecies against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus subtilis. Diethyl carbonate extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra root from Astrakhan region (Russia) exhibited maximum activity against the test microbial strains; activity of Astrakhan licorice was superior among 50% ethanol extracts from Astrakhan (Russia) and Calabria (Italy). Antibacterial activity is directly proportional to the content of glycyrrhizin and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid in the extracts. According to preliminary data, the content of these chemical components in Glycyrrhiza glabra root from Astrakhan region is higher than in licorice growing in Italy, which is presumably related to climate and geographic characteristics of Astrakhan region.

  16. Glycyrrhiza glabra:

    OpenAIRE

    Kočevar Glavač, Nina

    2008-01-01

    Glycyrrhiza glabra has been used for the treatment of upper respiratory tract inflammation and ulcer disease. In the article, a review of therapeutic uses, pharmacological activities, and toxicological effects are presented. Sladki koren (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) uporabljamo pri zdravljenju vnetja zgornjih dihalnih poti in ulkusne bolezni. V članku predstavljamo pregled njegove terapevtske uporabe, farmakoloških lastnosti in toksikoloških učinkov

  17. Prenylated isoflavonoids from soya and licorice : analysis, induction and in vitro estrogenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, R.

    2011-01-01


    Prenylatedisoflavonoids are found in large amountsin soya bean (Glycine max) germinated under stress and in licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra). Prenylation of isoflavonoids has been associated with modification of theirestrogenic activity.
    The aims of this thesis were (1) to provide a struct

  18. Prenylated isoflavonoids from soya and licorice : analysis, induction and in vitro estrogenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, R.

    2011-01-01


    Prenylatedisoflavonoids are found in large amountsin soya bean (Glycine max) germinated under stress and in licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra). Prenylation of isoflavonoids has been associated with modification of theirestrogenic activity.
    The aims of this thesis were (1) to provide a

  19. Comparing the effect of Gansui Banxia decoction plus or reduce kansui and varieties of glycyrrhiza on heart, liver and kidney function of ascites model rat%甘遂半夏汤加减甘遂及不同品种甘草对腹水模型大鼠心肝肾功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭岩松; 柳海艳; 钟赣生; 许皖; 张建美; 刘珍清; 修琳琳; 王思睿

    2016-01-01

    complete formula with Glycyrrhiza glabra L. group, the Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. without kansui group, the Glycyrrhiza inflata Bat. without kansui group, the Glycyrrhiza glabra L. without kansui group, Gansui Banxia decoction without glycyrrhiza group, Gansui Banxia decoction without glycyrrhiza and kansui group, except the blank group and model group, other groups were intragastric administration for 10 days, the blood simple was collected to detect relevant indicators. The single factor ANOVA and Dunnet T3 analytical method was used for statistics. Results The effect of TP and ALB synthesis in the complete formula with Glycyrrhiza inflata Bat. group was better than that in the complete formula with Glycyrrhiza glabra L. group and Glycyrrhiza uralensis group, and the whole prescription was better than modified prescription. There had no obvious effect on AST, ALT, AST/ALT and ALP in the Gansui Banxia decoction with varieties glycyrrhiza. Conclusion There had no obvious effect on AST, ALT, AST/ALT and ALP in the Gansui Banxia decoction with varieties glycyrrhiza, but the improvement action of Glycyrrhiza inflata Bat. in protein synthesis was better than Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and Licorice.

  20. Induction of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) by Glycyrrhiza species used for women's health: differential effects of the Michael acceptors isoliquiritigenin and licochalcone A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Simmler, Charlotte; Dong, Huali; Lantvit, Daniel D.; Li, Guannan; Chen, Shao-Nong; Nikolić, Dejan; Pauli, Guido F.; van Breemen, Richard B.; Dietz, Birgit M.; Bolton, Judy L.

    2016-01-01

    For the alleviation of menopausal symptoms, women frequently turn to botanical dietary supplements, such as licorice and hops. In addition to estrogenic properties, these botanicals could also have chemopreventive effects. We have previously shown that hops and its Michael acceptor xanthohumol (XH) induced the chemoprevention enzyme, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), in vitro and in vivo. Licorice species could also induce NQO1, as they contain the Michael acceptors isoliquiritigenin (LigC) found in Glycyrrhiza glabra (GG), G. uralensis (GU), and G. inflata (GI) and licochalcone A (LicA) which is only found in GI. These licorice species and hops induced NQO1 activity in murine hepatoma (Hepa1c1c7) cells; hops >> GI > GG ≅ GU. Similar to the known chemopreventive compounds curcumin (turmeric), sulforaphane (broccoli), and XH, LigC and LicA were active dose-dependently; sulforaphane >> XH > LigC > LicA ≅ curcumin >> LigF. Induction of the antioxidant response element-luciferase in human hepatoma (Hep-G2-ARE-C8) cells suggested involvement of the Keap1-Nrf2 pathway. GG, GU, and LigC also induced NQO1 in non-tumorigenic breast epithelial MCF-10A cells. In female Sprague-Dawley rats treated with GG and GU, LigC and LigF were detected in the liver and mammary gland. GG weakly enhanced NQO1 activity in the mammary tissue but not in the liver. Treatment with LigC alone did not induce NQO1 in vivo most likely due to its conversion to LigF, extensive metabolism, and its low bioavailability in vivo. These data show the chemopreventive potential of licorice species in vitro could be due to LigC and LicA and emphasize the importance of chemical and biological standardization of botanicals used as dietary supplements. Although the in vivo effects in the rat model after four day treatment are minimal, it must be emphasized that menopausal women take these supplements for extended periods of time and long-term beneficial effects are quite possible. PMID:26473469

  1. Effects of inclusion of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) leaves, a tannin-containing plant, in a low-protein diet on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of fat-tailed lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamiri, Mohammad Javad; Rajaei Sharifabadi, Hossein; Bagheri, Amir Sajjad; Solhjoo, Amanollah

    2015-03-01

    The protein-sparing effect of condensed tannins (CT) was investigated in growing lambs fed a low- or high-protein diet during a 50-day period. Isocaloric diets containing 106 g crude protein/kg dry matter (DM) (low protein; LP) or 138 g crude protein/kg DM (high protein; HP) were formulated using 70 % concentrate, 15 % corn silage, and 15 % dried licorice leaves, providing CT (4.1 g/kg DM). Twenty-four crossbred male lambs (3-4 months old, 23.9 ± 5.2 kg body weight) were assigned to one of four diets: LP with polyethylene glycol (PEG; 40 g/kg DM) supplementation (LP + PEG), LP without PEG supplementation (LP - PEG), HP with PEG supplementation (HP + PEG), and HP without PEG supplementation (HP - PEG). The effect of dietary crude protein level and CT on feed intake was not significant (P > 0.05). However, a positive effect on daily gain (P 0.05) in groups without PEG supplementation. These preliminary results suggest that the use of CT can minimize the negative effect of low-protein diets on FCR in lambs.

  2. Bioactive constituents of oleanane-type triterpene saponins from the roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Juan-Hua; Zheng, Yun-Feng; Li, Cun-Yu; Tang, Yu-Ping; Peng, Guo-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Three new oleanane-type triterpene saponins, namely licorice-saponin M3 (1), licorice-saponin N4 (2), and licorice-saponin O4 (3), an artificial product (4), as well as five known triterpene glucuronides (5-9), were isolated from the roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Their structures were established using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and by comparison with spectroscopic data reported in the literature. The inhibitory effects of the selected compounds on neuraminidase were evaluated, and the preliminary structure-activity relationship was also predicted.

  3. Hypokalemic paralysis and respiratory failure due to excessive intake of licorice syrup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Oguzhan Ay

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Licorice is the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra, which has a herbal ingredient, glycyrrhizic acid. Excessive intake of licorice may cause a hypermineralocorticoidism-like syndrome characterized by sodium and water retention, hypokalemia, hypertension, metabolic alkalosis, low-renin activity, and hypoaldosteronism. In this paper, an 34 years old man who admitted to the emergency department with respiratory failure and marked muscle weakness of all extremities that progressed to paralysis after excessive intake of licorice syrup was presented. It was aimed to draw attention to the necessity of questioning whether there is excessive intake of licorice or not in patients who admitted to emergency department with paralysis and dyspnea. Plasma potassium concentration of the patient was 1.4 mmol/L. The patient\\'s respiratory distress and loss of muscle strength recovered completely after potassium replacement. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(2.000: 387-391

  4. Encapsulation of Aconitine in Self-Assembled Licorice Protein Nanoparticles Reduces the Toxicity In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Ke, Li-jing; Gao, Guan-zhen; Shen, Yong; Zhou, Jian-wu; Rao, Ping-Fan

    2015-01-01

    Many herbal medicines and compositions are clinically effective but challenged by its safety risks, i.e., aconitine (AC) from aconite species. The combined use of Radix glycyrrhizae (licorice) with Radix aconite L. effectively eliminates toxicity of the later while increasing efficacy. In this study, a boiling-stable 31-kDa protein (namely GP) was purified from licorice and self-assembled into nanoparticles (206.2 ± 2.0 nm) at pH 5.0, 25 °C. The aconitine-encapsulated GP nanoparticles (238.2 ...

  5. Germination responses of three medicinal licorices to saline environments and their suitable ecological regions%三种药用甘草种子对盐渍环境的萌发响应及其适宜生态种植区

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆嘉惠; 吕新; 吴玲; 李学禹

    2013-01-01

    根据西北地区盐碱土的盐分组成特点,选择NaCl、Na2SO4、NaHCO33种单盐,通过盐胁迫下3种药用甘草种子萌发特性、萌发进程、胚生长、种子活力及复水后萌发率的差异分析,比较3种药用甘草种子对不同土壤盐分的萌发响应、耐盐阈值及其适宜盐碱地种植区,为盐碱地种植药用甘草适宜生态区的选择提供理论参考.结果表明,3种单盐胁迫不同程度降低了药用甘草种子的萌发率,延长种子的萌发时间,抑制胚轴伸长生长,盐害强弱顺序为:NaHCO3 >Na2SO4 >NaCl.NaCl和Na2SO4对药用甘草种子萌发的抑制效应主要为渗透效应,盐胁迫解除复水后种子萌发恢复率为50.6%~78.5%;NaHCO3对药用甘草种子萌发的抑制效应主要为离子毒害,种子萌发恢复率仅为5.1%~21.5%;胀果甘草耐盐性最强,适宜在以氯化物-硫酸盐为主的总盐量为0~1.3%的区域种植,光果甘草耐NaHCO3最强,可在含小苏打的弃耕低盐地种植,乌拉尔甘草耐盐性最弱,种植地土壤的总盐量范围在0~0.7%为宜.%To make known the salt tolerance and suitable ecological regions of Glycyrrhiza inflata , Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Glycyrrhiza glabra from Xinjiang, the seeds of three species were salt stress treated using Na2SO4, NaCl and NaHCO3 at different concentrations to compare their germination responses, salt tolerance and suitable ecological regions. The germination percentage, mean germination days, germination energy, length of plumular axis, germination recovery percentage of three medicinal licorices were recorded. Germination percentage, relative vigor index and length of plumular axis of three species obviously declined with increased salinity. Germinate time prolonged under high salinity stress. The sequence of salt injury level of seed was NaHCO3>Na2SO4>NaCl. There was a significant difference of salt tolerance threshold among three species. G. inflata exhibited greater

  6. Invitro Comparitive Study of the Efficacy of Licorice Decoctant and Choice Antibiotics on Helicobacter Pylori Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Botorabi

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Glycyrrhiza Glabra (Licorice root, a member of the pea family has been used since ancient times as both food and medicine. Licorice has been used as an antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti inflammatory in researches .Extraction of this medical plant is used as the basis of anti-ulcer medicine for treatment of peptic ulcer. Patients and Methods: In the present study, licorice decoction (20gr/dl,33gr/dl was prepared and anti microbial activity on helicobacter pylori growth was studied by disk diffusion method and cup plate method. Results: The results showed that licorice decoction 33gr/dl by disk diffusion method inhibited growth of helicobacter pylori in vitro the same as metronidazole.(P value=0.709 However, it does not have anti bacterial activity against helicobacter pylori like amoxicillin and clarythromycin (Pvalue~0.000. Conclusion: Decoction licorice (20gr/dl, 33gr/dl can not be used as an alternative to choice antibiotics (amoxicillin, clarythromycin in vitro.

  7. The resesrch development of tissue culture of Gancao (licorice root)%甘草组织培养研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付玉杰; 祖元刚; 李春雁

    2001-01-01

    @@ 甘草是我国的常用中药,最近几年发现它具有抗-HIV作用[1],成为预防和治疗艾滋病的重要药物研究对象.药用甘草来源于豆科( Leguminosae )植物甘草(Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fischer )、光果甘草( Glycyrrhizaglabral. )和胀果甘草( Glycyrrhiza inflata )的干燥根和根茎.黄甘草( Glycyrrhiza eurycarpa )和光果甘草变种( Glycyrrhiza glabra Var glandalifera )也入药.甘草不仅具有极高的医用价值,而且还可以作为烟草、食品及化妆品的添加剂.

  8. 微量元素养分平衡剂对甘草生长、生理特性以及有效成分含量的影响%Effect of Tongfeng trace elements nutrient balance agent on growth,physiological characteristics and content of active constituents of Glycyrrhiza uralensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹; 万春阳; 王文全; 顾斌; 李佳佳; 王文杰; 侯松年; 韩中文

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of Tongfeng trace elements nutrient balance agent on the various growth indicators, physiological indicators, and the contents of liquiritin and glycyrrhizic acid in one-year old dycynhiza uralensis. Method; The plants of G. uralensis growing in Chifeng of Inner Mongolia and medicinal garden of Beijing University of Chinese Medicine were fertilized for two times, respectively. The photosynthetic physiological indicators were measured by LJ-6400 photosynthetic instrument The pigments and antioxidase activities of the leaves were determined. Then contents of liquiritin and glycyrrhizic acid in the plants were determined by HPLC. Result; The application of this trace element nutrient balance agent could significantly improve the height, chla and chlb, and the photosynthetic physiology indicator such as Pn, Ci and G8,. Similarly, it could significantly increase the fresh weight of shoots and dry weight of the roots. Compared with control block (CK) , the fertilizer which was diluted by 300 times (T1 ) and 600 times (T2 ) significantly increased the content of glycyrrhizic acid by 24. 72% and 20. 23%. There was significant difference between different treatments ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion; The Tongfeng trace elements nutrient balance agent could promote growth, physiology and the content of active constituents of G. Uralensis, especially the effect of T1 was superior to T2.%目的:研究微量元素养分平衡剂对一年生甘草各项生长指标和生理指标以及主要有效成分甘草苷和甘草酸含量的影响.方法:分别对生长在内蒙古赤峰中药材种植基地和北京中医药大学药用植物园的大田甘草进行2次施肥.采用LI-6400光合仪测定其光合生理指标以及植物生理学常规方法进行甘草叶片色素和抗氧化酶活性的测定.使用HPLC测定甘草根中甘草苷和甘草酸的含量.结果:该微量元素养分平衡剂的施加对甘草株高,叶绿素a,叶绿素b等叶

  9. 宁夏野生甘草中产甘草黄酮耐盐内生真菌分离及其DPPH自由基清除作用%Separation of Licorice Flavonoids-Producing Salt-resistant Endophytic Fungi from Wild Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch Living in Ningxia District

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晓娟; 吴秀丽; 吴玉玲; 陈靖

    2016-01-01

    采用组织分离法,在不含盐及含盐PDA培养基上分离、纯化内生菌,以甘草苷等8种甘草黄酮为对照品,分析发酵产物;DPPH自由基清除法测定清除率.共得到108株内生菌,TLC发现31株可能产甘草黄酮;HPLC-UV发现产甘草苷7株,产异甘草苷3株,产甘草素3株,产甘草查尔酮A3株,产刺甘草查尔酮l株,均为耐盐菌;产甘草苷、异甘草苷、甘草查尔酮A、刺甘草查尔酮的部分菌株有较强DPPH清除率;产甘草苷和异甘草苷的菌株8-5-Y-2活性最强,与甘草总黄酮相当,强于甘草查尔酮A.盐协迫得到产甘草黄酮,且具较强DPPH自由基清除活性的耐盐内生真菌,为资源替代奠定基础.

  10. Biogeography of symbiotic and other endophytic bacteria isolated from medicinal Glycyrrhiza species in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Sinkko, Hanna; Montonen, Leone; Wei, Gehong; Lindström, Kristina; Räsänen, Leena A

    2012-01-01

    A total of 159 endophytic bacteria were isolated from surface-sterilized root nodules of wild perennial Glycyrrhiza legumes growing on 40 sites in central and northwestern China. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) genomic fingerprinting and sequencing of partial 16S rRNA genes revealed that the collection mainly consisted of Mesorhizobium, Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Agrobacterium and Paenibacillus species. Based on symbiotic properties with the legume hosts Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Glycyrrhiza glabra, we divided the nodulating species into true and sporadic symbionts. Five distinct Mesorhizobium groups represented true symbionts of the host plants, the majority of strains inducing N2-fixing nodules. Sporadic symbionts consisted of either species with infrequent occurrence (Rhizobium galegae, Rhizobium leguminosarum) or species with weak (Sinorhizobium meliloti, Rhizobium gallicum) or no N2 fixation ability (Rhizobium giardinii, Rhizobium cellulosilyticum, Phyllobacterium sp.). Multivariate analyses revealed that the host plant species and geographic location explained only a small part (14.4%) of the total variation in bacterial AFLP patterns, with the host plant explaining slightly more (9.9%) than geography (6.9%). However, strains isolated from G. glabra were clearly separated from those from G. uralensis, and strains obtained from central China were well separated from those originating from Xinjiang in the northwest, indicating both host preference and regional endemism.

  11. Rapid and simple identification of Glycyrrhiza Inflata%胀果甘草的简便快速鉴定方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    木合布力·阿布力孜; 王永波; 施翔弋; 热娜; 卡斯木

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the rapid and simple identification method of the licorice specieGlycyrrhiza inflata Bat.Methods The total flavonoid extracts of two licorice species Glycyrrhiza inflata Bat (GIB) and Glycyrrhiza glabra L (GGL)were prepared by ultrasonic assisted ethanol extraction;the thin layer chromatographic (TLC)method was used for analyzing the spectra characteristics of these extracts;the special TLC spot was isolated and structurally analyzed.Results The TLC characteristics of two species of licorice indicated that the GIB extract showed,at the mobile phase of acetic acetate/methyl acetate/water (8∶3∶1),a special spot and was identified as Licochalcone A (LicoA),which was different form other species of licorice.Conclusion The silica gel chromatographic method with LicoA as the reference sub-stance was simple and suitable for the rapid identification of glycyrrhiza inflata from other licorice spe-cies,as well as for the licorice resource study and licorice quality control.%目的:研究胀果甘草(Glycyrrhiza inflata Bat)的快速鉴定方法。方法利用超声辅助的乙醇提取法制备新疆胀果甘草和光果甘草的总黄酮类提取物;利用硅胶薄层色谱法分析2种甘草总黄酮提取物的斑点特征;利用制备薄层法分离薄层板上的特殊斑点并对所分离的单体成分进行结构分析。结果胀果甘草乙醇提取物在展开剂为乙酸乙酯∶甲酸∶水(8∶3∶1)的薄层色谱条件下所显示的一种特殊亮黄色斑点被鉴定为甘草查尔酮 A,色谱特征不同于其他甘草品种。结论以甘草查尔酮 A 为对照品的硅胶搏层色谱法是快速鉴别胀果甘草的简便方法,适合于甘草品种的快速鉴定及资源考察研究。

  12. Encapsulation of Aconitine in Self-Assembled Licorice Protein Nanoparticles Reduces the Toxicity In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Li-jing; Gao, Guan-zhen; Shen, Yong; Zhou, Jian-wu; Rao, Ping-fan

    2015-11-01

    Many herbal medicines and compositions are clinically effective but challenged by its safety risks, i.e., aconitine (AC) from aconite species. The combined use of Radix glycyrrhizae (licorice) with Radix aconite L. effectively eliminates toxicity of the later while increasing efficacy. In this study, a boiling-stable 31-kDa protein (namely GP) was purified from licorice and self-assembled into nanoparticles (206.2 ± 2.0 nm) at pH 5.0, 25 °C. The aconitine-encapsulated GP nanoparticles (238.2 ± 1.2 nm) were prepared following the same procedure and tested for its toxicity by intraperitoneal injection on ICR mouse ( n = 8). Injection of GP-AC nanoparticles and the mixed licorice-aconite decoction, respectively, caused mild recoverable toxic effects and no death, while the aconitine, particle-free GP-AC mixture and aconite decoction induced sever toxic effects and 100 % death. Encapsulation of poisonous alkaloids into self-assembled herbal protein nanoparticles contributes to toxicity attenuation of combined use of herbs, implying a prototype nanostructure and a universal principle for the safer clinical applications of herbal medicines.

  13. GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA IN ACUTE CONJUNCTIVITIS

    OpenAIRE

    C. Srinivas

    1986-01-01

    Conjunctivitis and its treatment have been widely described in ancient Indian medicine, 50 cases of Conjunctivitis (Acute) were clinically studied with Glycyrrhiza glabra along with comparative approach of Chlorophenicol. 25 cases studied with Glycyrrhiza glabra have shown encouraging results from which the author concludes that, the drug has got a definite role in Conjunctivitis

  14. Analgesic and uterine relaxant effects of isoliquiritigenin, a flavone from Glycyrrhiza glabra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yulu; Wu, Debin; Sun, Zhen; Yang, Jing; Chai, Hongyan; Tang, Li; Guo, Yue

    2012-09-01

    Shaoyao-gancao-tang, a Chinese medicinal formula consisting of peony and licorice has been used for the treatment of dysmenorrhea for thousands of years. The purpose of the present study was to demonstrate the analgesic and uterine relaxant effects of isoliquiritigenin (ISL), a flavonoid isolated from the roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra (a type of licorice). In vitro, isoliquiritigenin caused concentration-dependent inhibition of spontaneous contraction of isolated rat uterus and the contraction induced by various types of stimulants, such as acetylcholine (Ach, 10 mM), KCl (40 mM) and oxytocin (1 mU/mL). The uterine contractile response to cumulative concentrations of CaCl₂ was blocked by 0.1 and 1 mM of isoliquiritigenin. The isoliquiritigenin-induced relaxation was partly inhibited by the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor Nv-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME, 100 mM) and the COX-1/COX-2 inhibitor indomethacin (10mM). In vivo, isoliquiritigenin could cause a significant reduction in the acetic acid-induced writhing response and hot-plate test at the high dose. These results indicate that isoliquiritigenin, a flavonoid isolated from the roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra, not only has a spasmolytic effect on uterine contraction, which is in relation to Ca²⁺ channels, NOS and COX, but also an effective activity in reducing pain.

  15. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal colonization of Glycyrrhiza glabra roots enhances plant biomass, phosphorus uptake and concentration of root secondary metabolites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HongLing LIU; Yong TAN; Monika NELL; Karin ZITTER-EGLSEER; Chris WAWSCRAH; Brigitte KOPP; ShaoMing WANG; Johannes NOVAK

    2014-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi penetrate the cortical cells of the roots of vascular plants, and are widely distributed in soil. The formation of these symbiotic bodies accelerates the absorption and utilization of min-eral elements, enhances plant resistance to stress, boosts the growth of plants, and increases the survival rate of transplanted seedlings. We studied the effects of various arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi on the growth and devel-opment of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra). Several species of AM, such as Glomus mosseae, Glomus intraradices, and a mixture of fungi (G. mosseae, G. intraradices, G. cladoideum, G. microagregatum, G. caledonium and G. etunica-tum) were used in our study. Licorice growth rates were determined by measuring the colonization rate of the plants by the fungi, plant dry biomass, phosphorus concentration and concentration of secondary metabolites. We estab-lished two cloned strains of licorice, clone 3 (C3) and clone 6 (C6) to exclude the effect of genotypic variations. Our results showed that the AM fungi could in fact increase the leaf and root biomass, as well as the phosphorus con-centration in each clone. Furthermore, AM fungi significantly increased the yield of certain secondary metabolites in clone 3. Our study clearly demonstrated that AM fungi play an important role in the enhancement of growth and development of licorice plants. There was also a significant improvement in the secondary metabolite content and yield of medicinal compounds from the roots.

  16. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of medicinal plant Glycyrrhiza glabra var. glandulifera from different habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Karahan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of root methanolic extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra var. glandulifera (Waldst. & Kit. Boiss. (Fabaceae were investigated. Plant samples were collected from different habitats in the East Mediterranean part of Turkey. The plant extracts were evaluated for antimicrobial activities against nine bacterial and two yeast strains using disc-diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration methods. The antioxidant activity was determined by using the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method. The antimicrobial assays indicated that the plant root extracts were more effective against Gram-positive bacteria than against Gram-negative ones. In addition, the extracts had higher antimicrobial effect against Candida species than against bacteria. The extracts showed good antioxidant activity, with a median inhibitory concentration (IC50 in the range of 588 ± 0.86 µg/mL to 2190 ± 1.73 µg/mL. Results indicated that different environmental conditions in each habitat might affect the contents of chemical compounds and biological activity in the natural licorice populations of. This study also supported the traditional use of licorice and as well as suggested that it may also be its beneficial role in the treatment of other infections. The obtained results indicated that different environmental conditions in each habitat might affect the contents of chemical compounds and the biological activity in the natural licorice populations.

  17. Chemoprofile and bioactivities of Taverniera cuneifolia (Roth) Arn.: a wild relative and possible substitute of Glycyrrhiza glabra L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zore, Gajanan B; Winston, Umakanth B; Surwase, Babasaheb S; Meshram, Nisha S; Sangle, V D; Kulkarni, Smita S; Mohan Karuppayil, S

    2008-04-01

    Chemoprofile of Taverniera cuneifolia (Roth) Arn. a wild relative of commercial licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L) is presented. Both T. cuneifolia and G. glabra L were found to be very similar phytochemically. At least eighteen chromatophores were found similar in both the plants including the sweetening principle, glycyrrhizin. The extracts of T. cuneifolia root, exhibited promising anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti germ tube formation (in Candida albicans), protection from mutagen toxicity and cytotoxic activities comparable to that of G. glabra. In general, the results suggest that T. cuneifolia could be used as substitute of G. glabra.

  18. [Import and export of licorice and its products in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuai; Wang, Nuo; Yang, Guang; Que, Ling

    2017-06-01

    Licorice is an important harmonic drug which has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine since ancient times. However, with the increasing demand of industrial production, the licorice resources in our country have been reduced rapidly and we have to import licorice resources from Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan consequently. In order to find out the trade flow of licorice resources and evaluate the status of Chinese licorice in the world trade, the trade situation of licorice and its products from 2011 to 2015 May in Chinese customs was investigated and analyzed in this paper. The import and export volumes of licorice were declining; the import and export volumes of licorice were relatively concentrated in international trade, with greater risks of trade; and export quota management was not well executed. As one of the strategic resources of medicine, licorice resources must be based on domestic development, and we should adjust the export quota management from passive quota to active quota management and improve the intrinsic value of licorice resources to establish the international market position of our licorice and control the pricing power in international market. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  19. 三个不同品种甘草多糖的含量测定%Content determination of polysaccharides in Radix Glycyrrhizae from three different species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李薇; 宋新波; 孙成荣; 夏晴

    2013-01-01

    [目的]建立甘草多糖含量定量的测定方法,为评估甘草药材的质量提供方法.[方法]甘草样品经95%乙醇除去小极性的杂质后,采用水提醇沉的方法,再通过多步除杂质得精制多糖.采用苯酚-硫酸法测定甘草多糖与葡萄糖的换算因子,并以此测定不同品种甘草药材中多糖的含量.[结果]三个不同品种间甘草生药中甘草多糖的含量为光果>胀果>乌拉尔.乌拉尔甘草多糖平均加样回收率为98.23%,RSD为1.63%.[结论]此方法简便可行,甘草多糖供试液在4h内显色稳定,重复性较好,平均加样回收率高,可作为甘草多糖的含量测定方法.%[Objective] An phenol-H2SO4 colorimetry method was developed for the determination of polysaccharides in Radix Glycyrrhizae samples from different species in order to provide a scientific basis for a quality evaluation of Materia Medica. [Methods] The samples were extracted with 95% ethanol to remove the little polarity interference components during the pretreatment process, then water extraction and alcohol precipitation were performed, then the obtained polysaccharides were refined by passing many processes. A corrected factor was used to minimize the error between determinations of glucose and polysaccharides. The contents of the polysaccharides in Radix Glycyrrhizae of different samples were determined by phenol- H2SO4 colorimetry method. [Results] The content of three different species' raw material polysaccharides was Radix Glycyrrhizae Glabrae >Radix Glycyrrhizae Inflatae >Glycyrrhiza uralensis. The average recovery rate for the Glycyrrhiza uralensis polysaccharides was 98.23% with 1.63% of RSD (n=6). [Conclusion] This determination method is simple, practical, with good reproducibility, high average recovery rate and the color of the treated samples are stabilized within 4h. So this method can be used to determine of Radix Glycyrrhizae polysaccharides.

  20. An antileishmanial chalcone from Chinese licorice roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, S B; Ming, C; Andersen, L

    1994-01-01

    A bioassay guided fractionation of an extract of Chinese licorice roots led to the isolation of (E)-1-[2,4-dihydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)phenyl]-3-[4- hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl]phenyl-2-propen-1-one, which in vitro showed potent antileishmanial activity. In addition, the novel chalcone (E)-...

  1. Field Survey of Glycyrrhiza Plants in Central Asia (4). Characterization of G. glabra and G. bucharica Collected in Tajikistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Hiroaki; Tamura, Shinya; Chiba, Ren; Fujii, Isao; Yoshikawa, Nobuji; Fattokhov, Inoyat; Saidov, Madibron

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of 2 Glycyrrhiza plants, G. glabra and G. bucharica (=Meristotropis bucharica), were investigated in Tajikistan. The glycyrrhizin content in the underground parts of G. glabra varied from 2.56 to 9.29% of the dry weight, and the content of glabridin, a species-specific flavonoid of G. glabra, varied from 0.09 to 0.92% of the dry weight. Seeds of G. glabra plants from Tajikistan were cultivated for 3 years in Japan, and the glycyrrhizin content of the harvested roots ranged from 0.75 to 1.82% of the dry weight. In addition, HPLC analysis of leaf extracts indicated that the G. glabra plants collected in Tajikistan could be divided into various types, according to the flavonoid contents of the leaves. The endemic G. bucharica was also collected. A phylogenetic tree of rbcL nucleotide sequences from various Glycyrrhiza plants indicated that G. bucharica was closely related to the three glycyrrhizin-producing Glycyrrhiza spp. (G. uralensis, G. inflata, and G. glabra), even though G. bucharica does not produce glycyrrhizin.

  2. Strain Mesorhizobium sp. CCNWGX035: A Stress-Tolerant Isolate from Glycyrrhiza glabra Displaying a Wide Host Range of Nodulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Thirty-nine rhizobial isolates were isolated from the root nodules of Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Glycyrrhiza glabrca,growing in the arid and semiarid regions of northwestern China,to test their taxonomic position and stress tolerance and to select one promising putative inocnlant strain for further studies.On the basis of 113 physiological and biochemical characteristics,the isolates were clustered into three groups.One isolate CCNWGX035 was found to have high tolerance to NaCl,pH,and temperature.By sequencing the 16S rDNA,isolate CCNWGX035 was placed in genus Mesorhizobiurm.Nodulation tests demonstrated that the isolate not only formed nitrogen-fixing nodules on its original host plant Gly-cyrrhiza glabra,but also on Sophora viciifolia,Lotus cornieulatus,Trifolium reperts,Melilotus suaveolens,and Sophora alopecuroides.On the basis of sequence analysis of the nodA gene,isolate CCNWGX035 was closely related to strains of the genus Mesorhizobiurm,exhibiting some novel characteristics of root nodule bacteria.

  3. 免疫亲和柱净化-在线柱后光化学衍生-HPLC-FLD同时测定甘草中黄曲霉毒素B1,B2,G1,G2和赭曲霉毒素A的含量%Simultaneous determination of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2 and ochratoxin A in Glycyrrhiza uralensis by HPLC-FLD after immunoaffinity column with online post-column photochemicai derivatization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦日伟; 杨小丽; 仇峰; 杨美华; 覃洁萍

    2011-01-01

    目的:建立同时检测甘草中黄曲霉毒素B1,B2,G1,G2和赭曲霉毒素A的免疫亲和柱净化-在线柱后光化学衍生-HPLC- FLD测定的方法.方法:样品经甲醇-水(80:20)超声提取后,用免疫亲和柱净化和富集;以甲醇和0.5%乙酸溶液为流动相进行梯度洗脱,通过柱后光化学衍生,荧光检测器测定.结果:黄曲霉毒素G2,G1,B2,B1和赭曲霉毒素A的检测限分别为0.02,0.06,0.015,0.03,0.25μg·kg-1,平均加样回收率为76.0%~103%,RSD低于13%.结论:该方法快速简便、准确,可用于甘草中同时测定黄曲霉毒素B1,B2,G1,G2和赭曲霉毒素A的含量.%Objective: To develop a method for the simultaneous determination of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2 and ochratoxin A in Glycyrrhita walensis by HPLC-FLD after immunoaffinity column with online post-column photochemical derivatization. Method; Sample was extracted with MeOH:- H2O (80:20) and cleaned up by immunoaffinity column. The toxins were separated by reversed-phase HPLC and the mobile phase was consisted of methanol and 0. 5% acetic acid solution with gradient elution. The determination was carried out by fluorescence detector after photochemical derivatization. Result; The detection limits of aflatoxin G2 , C,, B2 , B, and ochratoxin A were 0.02, 0. 06, 0. 015, 0.03 and 0. 25 μg · kg-1, respectively. The recoveries of analytes were from 76.0% to 103% and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were below 13%. Conclusion; The method is a simple, accurate and can be used to determine the contents of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2 and ochratoxin A in G. Uralensis simultaneously.

  4. In vitro antimycobacterial activity of acetone extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapna S. Nair

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice has been used since ages as expectorant, antitussive and demulcent. G. glabra has been indicated in Ayurveda as an antimicrobial agent for the treatment of respiratory infections and tuberculosis. Aims: To evaluate the antimycobacterial activity of acetone extract of G. glabra by in vitro techniques. Methods: The anti-tubercular activity of acetone extract of G. glabra, obtained by Soxhlet extraction, was evaluated against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (ATCC 27294. The in vitro anti-tubercular activity was determined by Resazurin Microtiter Plate Assay (REMA and colony count method. Further, the anti-tubercular activity of acetone extract of G. glabra was determined in human macrophage U937 cell lines and was compared against that of the standard drugs isoniazid, rifampicin and ethambutol. Results: G. glabra extract showed significant activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, when evaluated by REMA/colony count methods and in U937 human macrophage cell lines infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. The activity of the extract was comparable to those of standard drugs. It was observed that the extract showed time and concentration dependent antimycobacterial activity. Conclusions: The present study reveals that G. glabra extract has promising anti-tubercular activity by preliminary in vitro techniques and in U937 macrophage cell line. Therefore, it has the definite potential to be developed as an affordable, cost-effective drug against tuberculosis.

  5. Phenolics from Glycyrrhiza glabra roots and their PPAR-gamma ligand-binding activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Minpei; Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Honda, Shinichi; Tanaka, Hozumi; Yokota, Shinichi; Mae, Tatsumasa

    2010-01-15

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the EtOH extract of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra roots), using a GAL-4-PPAR-gamma chimera assay method, resulted in the isolation of 39 phenolics, including 10 new compounds (1-10). The structures of the new compounds were determined by analysis of their spectroscopic data. Among the isolated compounds, 5'-formylglabridin (5), (2R,3R)-3,4',7-trihydroxy-3'-prenylflavane (7), echinatin, (3R)-2',3',7-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavan, kanzonol X, kanzonol W, shinpterocarpin, licoflavanone A, glabrol, shinflavanone, gancaonin L, and glabrone all exhibited significant PPAR-gamma ligand-binding activity. The activity of these compounds at a sample concentration of 10microg/mL was three times more potent than that of 0.5microM troglitazone.

  6. Evaluation of the genotoxic potential of standardized extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra (GutGard™).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, C V; Sundarajan, K; Gupta, Anumita; Srikanth, H S; Edwin, Jothie; Agarwal, Amit

    2011-12-01

    Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. (licorice) is widespread throughout the Mediterranean region and certain areas of Asia. Historically, the dried rhizome and root of the plant were used by the Chinese, Egyptian, Greek, Indian, and Roman civilizations as expectorant and carminative. In the modern medicinal system, licorice is used to treat liver ailments, dyspepsia, bronchitis, rheumatoid arthritis etc. Despite the extensive pharmacological applications, the genotoxic potential of G. glabra extract (GutGard™) has not been evaluated. Hence, this study was conducted to investigate the genotoxic potential of GutGard™ using battery of in vitro test systems: bacterial reverse mutation test (Ames II™), chromosome aberration (CA) and micronucleus (MN) tests. GutGard™ did not show significant increase in number of revertant colonies in Salmonella typhimurium strains (TA98 and TAMix) with/without S9 fraction. In CA and MN studies, GutGard™ did not show clastogenic effect at 4 and 18 h treatments with and without S9 fraction. Results indicated that GutGard™ is not mutagenic in a battery of genotoxicity tests.

  7. Ecological distribution and propagative technique research of Glycyrrhiza resources in China%中国甘草资源的生态分布及其繁殖技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学斌; 陈林; 李国旗; 安慧

    2013-01-01

    Glycyrrhiza is a kind of raw goods that can be used for food, forage and light industry. Glycyrrhiza has the special morphological characteristics, color and luster, quality, and taste, especially the effective use by the traditional methods in China, which enjoys a high reputation in the world market. From taxonomy and biological characteristics, the paper summarizes the natural characteristic Glycyrrhiza resources in China. There are about 29 species and 6 varietas of Glycyrrhiza in china, and only the Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Glycyrrhiza inflate and Glycyrrhiza Glabra lists in China National Pharmacopoeia. Glycyrrhiza is deep-rooting plant, mainly through underground horizontal rhizomes to reproduce, and because of the high Seed hard-seed percentage, it is rarely in sexual reproduction in natural state. From the chorology characteristic, zoning characteristics and production characteristics, the ecological characteristic of Glycyrrhiza is being expounded. As one of the natural resources in the arid areas, Glycyrrhiza has wide ecological amplitude, wide distribution. Its distribution centre is the Old and arid plateau in central Asia, and mainly in Sinkiang, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Gansu. Additionally, from the seed propagation, rhizomes asexual reproduction, seed micro-propagation, the paper analysis the development of propagative technique about Glycyrrhiza in recent years. Meanwhile, after anglicizing the trend, the paper consider the Cultivation technique system of form a complete set as fundamental way to the sustainable development Glycyrrhiza Resources exploration.%  甘草(Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.)是一种重要的食用、饲用及轻工业用原料商品。中国甘草以其独特的形、色、质、味及传统的有效运用,在世界市场享有盛誉。从甘草分类学、生物学特征概述了中国甘草资源的自然特性:在中国,甘草属植物约有29种6个变种,其中只有乌拉尔甘草、胀果甘草和光

  8. Colchicine effect on the DNA content and stomata size of Glycyrrhiza glabra var.glandulifera and Carthamus tinctorius L. cultured in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Moghbel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In vitro induction of polyploids using colchicine causes an increase in DNA content in plants. This is of high importance especially for plants that have medicinal and commercial values. Seeds of two medicinal plants, licorice Glycyrrhiza glabra L. var.glandulifera and safflower Carthamus tinctorius were treated with different concentrations of colchicine, 0%, 0.03%, 0.05%, 0.08%, 0.1% (W/V in vitro for 24 and 48 h. Treated seeds then were cultured on solid Murashige and Skoog (MS media under controlled conditions. After a month, the length of the stomata was measured to study the effect of colchicine on stomata size. Cellular DNA content of the regenerated plants was measured by spectrophotometry. Flow cytometry was used for confirming the results obtained from stomata size measurement and spectrophotometry. Results suggested that treated plants have a fair amount of larger stomata, significantly in licorice plantlets that were treated with 0.1% colchicine for 24 h and safflower plantlets that were treated with 0.03%, 0.05% and 0.1% colchicine. Safflower DNA content in all treatments enhanced significantly, but in licorice only DNA content of plantlets that were treated with 0.05% colchicine for 24 h and 0.1%, 0.03% colchicine for 48 h found to be increased significantly. The morphological features of treated plantlets such as shoot and leaf thickness were found to be increased. Flow cytometry confirmed the previously mentioned results and suggested tetraploids in all treated safflower plantlets and licorice plantlets obtained from treatment with 0.08% of colchicine and mixoploids in licorice plantlets obtained from treatment with 0.1% of colchicine.

  9. Drug: D04365 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s D04365 Glycyrrhiza (JP16); Powdered glycyrrhiza (JP16); Licorice (NF) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drug...rrhiza; Licorice; Powdered glycyrrhiza; Glycyrrhiza Drugs for Qi Drugs for replen...ishing Qi D04365 *Glycyrrhiza; Licorice; Powdered glycyrrhiza; Glycyrrhiza Drugs for pus discharge Drugs for... pus discharge D04365 *Glycyrrhiza; Licorice; Powdered glycyrrhiza; Glycyrrhiza Drugs for external use Drugs

  10. Review - Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Liquorice).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastagir, Ghulam; Rizvi, Muhammad Afzal

    2016-09-01

    Medicinal plants are being used for treating various diseases. According to World Health Organization 80% of the world population depends on indigenous medicinal plant remedies. Herbal medicine employs fruits, vegetables, as dry materials or their extracts for the treatment of different diseases and health maintenance. Glycyrrhiza glabra (Liquorice) has been used in Europe since prehistoric times. It is well documented in written form starting with the ancient Greeks. Glycyrrhizin is the major active constituent obtained from liquorice roots, one of the most widely used in herbal preparations for the treatment of liver complaints. The plant is used as anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, laxative, anti-depressive, anti-ulcer and anti-diabetic. The present review focuses Glycyrrhiza glabra distribution, ethno botany, ethno pharmacology, chemical constituents, medicinal uses, cultivation and trade. Plant requires a lot of attention as it has been reduced in population due to over-use in Baluchistan. The plant conservationists should consider this herb as priority species and should start its cultivation on the commercial scale to fulfill the requirements of the local markets and pharmaceutical industries as well as reduce the pressure on the wild plants.

  11. 甘遂半夏汤加减甘遂及不同品种甘草对腹水模型大鼠肝脏CYP450mRNA的影响%Comparing the effect of Gansui Banxia decoction plus or reduce kansui and varieties of glycyrrhiza on the CYP450 mRNA of liver of ascites model rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许皖; 柳海艳; 钟赣生; 于雪; 张建美; 郭岩松; 王思睿; 修琳琳

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察含不同品种甘草的甘遂半夏汤加减甘遂甘草反药组合对腹水模型大鼠肝脏CYP450 mRNA的影响。方法采用Walker-256细胞制造癌性腹水模型,将Wistar大鼠按体质量随机分为空白组、模型组、阳性对照组、全方炙甘草组、全方炙光果甘草组、全方炙胀果甘草组、去遂炙甘草组、去遂炙光果甘草组、去遂炙胀果甘草组、去炙甘草组、去炙甘草醋甘遂组,共计11组。空白组和模型组灌胃蒸馏水,其余各给药组灌胃相应药物。给药11天后,摘取肝脏,液氮保存,进行PCR实验。结果在CYP2E1 mRNA表达方面,全方炙甘草组、全方炙胀果甘草表达下调,且优于全方去掉一味或两味反药。三个甘草品种的甘遂半夏汤的CYP3A1 mRNA、CYP3A2 mRNA表达上调,且优于全方去掉一味或两味反药。结论(1)全方炙甘草组、全方炙胀果甘草组在CYP450表达方面表现出一定的药效作用,其中全方炙甘草组优于全方炙胀果甘草,且均优于全方去掉一味或两味反药组。(2)全方炙光果甘草组则未表现出一定的药效作用,但也未表现出毒性作用,弱于去掉一味或两味反药。%Objective To observe the effect of different varieties of glycyrrhiza and kansui incompatible herbs in Gansui Banxia decoction on liver CYP450 mRNA ascites model rat. Methods The Walker-256 cell was used to manufacture carcinomatous ascites model. The Wistar rats were randomly divided into blank group, model group, positive control group, complete formula with Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. group, complete formula with Glycyrrhiza glabra L. group, complete formula with Glycyrrhiza inflata Bat. group, the Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. Without kansui group , the Glycyrrhiza glabra L. without kansui group, the Glycyrrhiza inflata Bat. without kansui group, prescription without glycyrrhiza group, prescription without glycyrrhiza and kansui group, a total of 11

  12. Determination of bioactive marker glycyrrhizin in Glycyrrhiza glabra root and commercial formulation by validated HPTLC-densitometric method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Perwez Alam; Mohamed Fahd Alajmi; Nasir Ali Siddiqui; Adnan J Al-Rehaily; Omar Ahmed Basudan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To develop a simple sensitive high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC)-densitometric method for quantification of glycyrrhizin in the Glycyrrhiza glabra root methanol extract and licorice root capsule methanol extract. Methods:Chromatography was performed on glass-backed silica gel 60 F254 HPTLC plates with the green solvents ethyl acetate: glacial acetic acid: methanol: water in proportion of 6:2:1:0.5, v/v/v/v as mobile phase. Scanning and quantification of developed plate was done densitometrically at 254 nm. The method was validated for detection and quantification limits, precision, recovery and robustness according to International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. Results: The system gave compact spot for glycyrrhizin (Rf=0.280±0.001). The regression curve of standard was found to be Y=4.213x+22.078. The limit of detection (15.7 ng per band), limit of quantification (47.1 ng per band), recovery (99.4%-99.8%) and precision (≤1.62% and ≤1.84%;intraday and interday) were satisfactory for glycyrrhizin. Linearity range for glycyrrhizin was 20-200 ng (r2=0.996). The content of glycyrrhizin was estimated as 5.9% and 11.2% w/w in glycyrrhizin in the Glycyrrhiza glabra root methanol extract and licorice root capsule methanol extract, respectively. Conclusions:This estimation technique is very much useful for the estimation of glycyrrhizin present in various formulations as well as for quality control of crude drugs containing glycyrrhizin.

  13. Determination of bioactive marker glycyrrhizin in Glycyrrhiza glabra root and commercial formulation by validated HPTLC-densitometric method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perwez Alam

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop a simple sensitive high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC- densitometric method for quantification of glycyrrhizin in the Glycyrrhiza glabra root methanol extract and licorice root capsule methanol extract. Methods: Chromatography was performed on glass-backed silica gel 60 F254 HPTLC plates with the green solvents ethyl acetate: glacial acetic acid: methanol: water in proportion of 6:2:1:0.5, v/v/ v/v as mobile phase. Scanning and quantification of developed plate was done densitometrically at 254 nm. The method was validated for detection and quantification limits, precision, recovery and robustness according to International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. Results: The system gave compact spot for glycyrrhizin (Rf =0.280±0.001. The regression curve of standard was found to be Y=4.213x+22.078. The limit of detection (15.7 ng per band, limit of quantification (47.1 ng per band, recovery (99.4%-99.8% and precision (≤1.62% and ≤1.84%; intraday and interday were satisfactory for glycyrrhizin. Linearity range for glycyrrhizin was 20- 200 ng (r 2 =0.996. The content of glycyrrhizin was estimated as 5.9% and 11.2% w/w in glycyrrhizin in the Glycyrrhiza glabra root methanol extract and licorice root capsule methanol extract, respectively. Conclusions: This estimation technique is very much useful for the estimation of glycyrrhizin present in various formulations as well as for quality control of crude drugs containing glycyrrhizin.

  14. Rapid Propagation of Medicinal Glycyrrhiza In Vitro%药用甘草离体快速繁殖体系的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷呈

    2012-01-01

    筛选合适的甘草快速繁殖技术体系,为甘草的大规模生产生物活性物质、基因工程和人工制种奠定基础.以乌拉尔甘草、黄甘草和光果甘草为供试材料,以其子叶茎段和侧芽茎段作外植体,对影响甘草快速繁殖形成和发生的因素进行研究.结果显示乌拉尔甘草诱导的丛生苗数较多,是3个供试材料中最好的;甘草适宜的外植体是子叶茎段.利用甘草子叶茎段和侧芽茎段作外植体进行快速繁殖,具有生长周期短,再生频率高,适于规模化工厂生产.%To screen an appropriate system for rapid propagation of Glycyrrhiza, which is a basis for large-scale production of bioactive substances, genetic engineering and artificial seed. Using Glycyrrihiza uralensis, G. Korshinskyi and G. Glabra for test materials, with cotyledon stem and bud stem as explants, studying the influence factors for rapid propagation of Glycyrrhiza. The results showed that Glycyrrihiza uralensis -induced clusters seedlings are the best of three test materials, and the suitable explants are cotyledon stem. With cotyledon stem and bud stem as explants for rapid propagation,it has a short growth cycle,and high frequency of regeneration, and is suitable for large-scale production.

  15. Effect of drought stress on active oxygen metabolism and activities of protective enzymes of licorice seedlings%干旱胁迫对甘草幼苗活性氧代谢及保护酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢亚军; 王兵; 梁新华; 韩招迪

    2008-01-01

    研究干旱胁迫对甘草(Glycyrrhiza spp.)幼苗活性氧代谢及保护酶活性的影响.采用聚已二醇(PEG6000)渗透胁迫的方法,测定了不同浓度PEG(5%,10%,15%)模拟干旱胁迫对乌拉尔甘草(Glycyrrhiza uralensis Lisch.)、光果甘草(Glycyrrhiza glabra L.)、胀果甘草(Glycyrrhiza inflata L.)幼苗体内的超氧阴离子自由基(O.-2)产生速率、过氧化氢(H2O2)、丙二醛(MDA)、可溶性蛋白含量及保护酶(SOD、POD、CAT)活性的影响.随着干旱胁迫程度的加剧,3种甘草幼苗O.-2产生速率、H2O2含量先上升后下降,MDA和可溶性蛋白则持续上升,SOD和POD活性先升后降,CAT活性则出现持续上升的变化趋势.虽然干旱胁迫会导致甘草体内形成较多自由基,使细胞膜系统受到一定破坏,但甘草体内的保护酶防御系统可以被有效调动以清除和防御自由基的伤害,从而保护细胞免受更大的损伤.

  16. Licorice root components in dietary supplements are selective estrogen receptor modulators with a spectrum of estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonmuen, Nittaya; Gong, Ping; Ali, Zulfiqar; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Khan, Ikhlas; Doerge, Daniel R; Helferich, William G; Carlson, Kathryn E; Martin, Teresa; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee; Katzenellenbogen, John A; Katzenellenbogen, Benita S

    2016-01-01

    Licorice root extracts are often consumed as botanical dietary supplements by menopausal women as a natural alternative to pharmaceutical hormone replacement therapy. In addition to their components liquiritigenin (Liq) and isoliquiritigenin (Iso-Liq), known to have estrogenic activity, licorice root extracts also contain a number of other flavonoids, isoflavonoids, and chalcones. We have investigated the estrogenic activity of 7 of these components, obtained from an extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra powder, namely Glabridin (L1), Calycosin (L2), Methoxychalcone (L3), Vestitol (L4), Glyasperin C (L5), Glycycoumarin (L6), and Glicoricone (L7), and compared them with Liq, Iso-Liq, and estradiol (E2). All components, including Liq and Iso-Liq, have low binding affinity for estrogen receptors (ERs). Their potency and efficacy in stimulating the expression of estrogen-regulated genes reveal that Liq and Iso-Liq and L2, L3, L4, and L6 are estrogen agonists. Interestingly, L3 and L4 have an efficacy nearly equivalent to E2 but with a potency ca. 10,000-fold less. The other components, L1, L5 and L7, acted as partial estrogen antagonists. All agonist activities were reversed by the antiestrogen, ICI 182,780, or by knockdown of ERα with siRNA, indicating that they are ER dependent. In HepG2 hepatoma cells stably expressing ERα, only Liq, Iso-Liq, and L3 stimulated estrogen-regulated gene expression, and in all cases gene stimulation did not occur in HepG2 cells lacking ERα. Collectively, these findings classify the components of licorice root extracts as low potency, mixed ER agonists and antagonists, having a character akin to that of selective estrogen receptor modulators or SERMs.

  17. Simultaneous determination and assignment of 13 major flavonoids and glycyrrhizic acid in licorices by HPLC-DAD and Orbirap mass spectrometry analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shan-Shan; Yang, Min; Chen, Xin; Wang, Qiu-Rong; Cui, Ya-Jun

    2015-03-01

    To determine 13 flavonoids and glycyrrhizic acid in licorice (Glycyrrhiza spp.), several samples from different areas were examined by HPLC-DAD analysis. The analysis was performed on a Zorbax Extend-C18 (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column connected with a Zorbax Extend guard column (20 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm). The mobile phase consisted of (A) acetonitrile and (B) 0.026% aqueous H3PO4 (VV) using a gradient elution of 20%-25% A at 0-20 min, 25%-33% A at 20-30 min, 33%-50% A at 30-55 min, 50%-60% A at 55-65 min, and 60% A between 65 min and 80 min, and peaks were detected at 280 nm. The fourteen compounds were assigned by HPLC-Orbitrap MS methods. The regression coefficient for the linear equations for the 14 compounds ranged between 0.9998 and 1. The limits of detection and quantification lay in the range of 0.032-2.461 and 0.154-8.202 μg·mL(1), respectively. The relative recovery rates for the 14 compounds were in the range of 93.90%-106.73% with RSDs being less than 5%. Coefficient variations for intra-day and inter-day precisions were in the range of 0.27%-2.38% and 0.31%-3.51%, respectively. In summary, the validated method was applied to the simultaneous determination of the 14 components in 29 different licorice samples and was proven to be suitable for quality evaluation of licorices and their active fractions.

  18. Extraction of Glycyrrhizic Acid and Glabridin from Licorice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Ho Row

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The extraction and separation conditions of glycyrrhizic acid and glabridin from licorice were investigated. By changing the different extraction solvents, procedures, times and temperature, the optimum extraction condition was established: the used of ethanol/water (30:70, v/v as an extraction solvent, and 60 min dipping time under 50°C. The extracts of licorice were separated and determined by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography with a methanol/water (70:30, v/v, containing 1% acetic acid as the mobile phase. Under the optimum extraction condition, 2.39 mg/g of glycyrrhizic acid and 0.92 mg/g of glabridin were extracted from Chinese licorice and the recoveries were 89.7% and 72.5% respectively.

  19. Extraction of Glycyrrhizic Acid and Glabridin from Licorice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Minglei; Yan, Hongyuan; Row, Kyung Ho

    2008-01-01

    The extraction and separation conditions of glycyrrhizic acid and glabridin from licorice were investigated. By changing the different extraction solvents, procedures, times and temperature, the optimum extraction condition was established: the used of ethanol/water (30:70, v/v) as an extraction solvent, and 60 min dipping time under 50°C. The extracts of licorice were separated and determined by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography with a methanol/water (70:30, v/v, containing 1% acetic acid) as the mobile phase. Under the optimum extraction condition, 2.39 mg/g of glycyrrhizic acid and 0.92 mg/g of glabridin were extracted from Chinese licorice and the recoveries were 89.7% and 72.5% respectively. PMID:19325770

  20. Licorice-induced severe hypokalemia with recurrent torsade de pointes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panduranga, Prashanth; Al-Rawahi, Najib

    2013-11-01

    A 38-year-old obese woman presented with recurrent polymorphic ventricular tachycardia secondary to persistent hypokalemia necessitating more than 40 DC shocks. All endocrine investigations for hypokalemia were negative with impression of "mysterious hypokalemia." On repeated inquiry, a hidden history of licorice use was elicited causing persistent hypokalemia. The case highlights a life threatening complication of licorice use. In addition, it reiterates the importance of repeated history taking in a patient with undiagnosed hypokalemia and torsade de pointes which avoided a device therapy.

  1. Glycyrrhiza glabra- A PLANT FOR THE FUTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VARSHA SHARMA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A review article on Glycyrrhiza glabra, A plant which have lots of medicinal properties. So it may be known as plant for the future. The present article is an effort to highlight the role of a few major constituents of this plant, which have multifaceted pharmacological actions and could be used as a template for designing new herbal medicines. Plants have been one of the important sources of medicines since the beginning of human cultivation. There is a growing demand for plant based medicines, health products, pharmaceuticals, food supplements etc.Conclusion :Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn is an old age plant used in traditional medicine across the globe for its ethanopharmacological value to cure varieties of ailments from simple cough to hepatitis to more complexes like SARS and CANCER. Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn used as a mild laxative, anti-arthritic, anti-inflammatory, anti-biotic, anti-viral, anti-ulcer, anti-tissive, anti-oxidant, estrogenic, anti-diuretic, hypolipidmic agent. It is reported to contain important phytoconstituents such as glycyrrhizin, glycyrrhizinic acid, glabrin A&B, triterpene sterols, saponin, and isoflavons.

  2. Effect of Licorice extract in the treatment of melasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hosein Matoorian pour

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Melasma is a common acquired cutaneous hyperpigmentation involving sunexposed areas of face predominantly in women: several treatment modalities including topical depigmenting agents are being used in management of this condition with varying results. Hydroquinon is the gold standard in treatment of melasma. Liquorice extract contains natural ingredients such as glabridin and Liquiritin which collectively have multiple effects on skin including skin lightening effect. This study was conducted to compare the clinical efficacy of 4% Hydroquinon and 4% Licorice extract creams in the treatment of melasma. Material and methods: This clinical trial study was carried out on 38 women who had melasma with bilateral symmetrical hyperpigmentation of malar areas. The hydroquinone and licorice extract creams were applied to the opposite sides of the face once a day at night for 8 weeks. Mmasi scores were separately measured for each side of the face at the base line and every 2 weeks thereafter. The data were analyzed using the SPSS software and Friedman and Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Results: 27 of the patients used the drugs regularly until the end of the study.The mmasi score decreased from 10.59±6.10 to 2.59±2.17 in the treatment (licorice group and from 0.81±6.34 to 1.63±1.55 in the control (hydroquinone group after 8 wks. The data showed that a significant decrease in mmasi occurred on the side treated with liquorice after the 8 weeks (P<0.001, while the decrease in mmasi was significantly higher on the side treated with hydroquinone(P=0.002. Conclusion: Although a significant decrease in mmasi from the baseline occurred on the side treated with 4% liqurice extract cream at the end of the study ( P<0.001, 4% hydroquinone cream was significantly more effective in this respect than 4% licorice cream (P=0.002.

  3. Complementary Therapies for Idiopathic Hirsutism: Topical Licorice as Promising Option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Faghihi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hirsutism is one of the most prevalent health problems in women. The aim of the study was to compare the effect of 755 nm alexandrite hair removal laser with that of alexandrite laser plus topical licorice on the improvement of idiopathic hirsutism. A double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled study was performed on 90 female subjects. The patients were divided into two groups: alexandrite laser plus 15% licorice gel (group A and placebo (group B. Each subject received one of both products over one side of the face, twice daily for 24 weeks on the hirsute locations. Each group underwent five sessions of alexandrite laser at 6-week intervals. To minimize the effects of confounding variables, the test was performed on two separate zones of patients’ skin. The mean ± SD numbers of terminal hairs in group A were 7.05 ± 4.55 for zone 1 and 6.06 ± 3.70 for zone 2. In group B, they were 3.18 ± 1.75 for zone 1 and 2.49 ± 1.63 for zone 2. The difference in the mean number of terminal hairs was statistically significant between the two groups (p<0.001, and there were no serious adverse reactions. The treatment of idiopathic hirsutism with 755 nm alexandrite laser plus topical licorice is more effective than alexandrite laser only.

  4. Bioactive caffeic acid esters from Glycyrrhiza glabra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Surajit; Deepak, Mundkinajeddu; Setty, Manjunath; D'Souza, Prashanth; Agarwal, Amit; Sangli, Gopal Krishna

    2009-01-01

    Thin layer chromatography bioautography (using DPPH spray reagent) guided fractionation of Glycyrrhiza glabra led to the isolation of two caffeic acid derivative esters, viz. eicosanyl caffeate (1) and docosyl caffeate (2). The two compounds exhibited potent elastase inhibitory activity, with IC(50) values of 0.99 microg mL(-1) and 1.4 microg mL(-1) for 1 and 2, respectively. The compounds also showed moderate antioxidant activity in DPPH and ABTS scavenging assays. The results indicate a possible role of caffeic acid derivatives, in addition to flavonoids in the anti-ulcer properties of G. glabra.

  5. Estimation of food consumption from pellets cast by captive Ural Owls (Strix uralensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aki Higuchi; Manabu T. Abe

    1997-01-01

    There is considerable data in the literature on the diet of the Ural Owl (Strix uralensis) based on pellet analysis. Though it is possible to identify prey items by this method, the volume of food consumption is still unknown. The population of Ural Owls in Japan is declining due to the reduction of old-growth forest and the concurrent loss of...

  6. 甘草提取物对卡拉库尔羊体外瘤胃发酵参数的影响%Effects of Licorice Extract on in vitro Ruminal Fermentation Parameters in Karakul Sheep

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊峰; 郭雪峰; 刘永宏

    2012-01-01

    The ruminal fermentation was done by in vitro culture techniques,rumen fluid from three Karakul sheep with installed permanent rumen fistula. Experimental design based diets were supplemented with different sources of Licorice extract sample groups: control group (GO) , 10% crude extracts of Glycyrrhiza inflate group (Gl) , 10% crude extract of Glycyrrhiza pallidiflora group (G2), 10% crude extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra group(G3) , 10% Licorice sample(G4) (different levels of Licorice extract group of 0% respectively (Z0), 0.5% group (Zl),l% group (Z2), 3% group (Z3), 5% group (Z4),7% group (Z5), the rumen fermentation parameters were studied such as pH, volatile fatty acids (acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid), gas production, ammonia concentration (NH3-N). The results showed that G1,G2,G3,G4 groups reduced rumen gas production and acetic production. Adding different doses of Licorice crude extract, rumen pH value of Z3 group was in the normal range, and had no significant influence on gas production, but acetic /propionic ratio of that was the lowest.%本试验以3只健康的卡拉库尔羊为瘤胃液供体,采集瘤胃液进行体外发酵培养,试验设计为基础日粮中分别添加不同来源样组:对照组(G0)、10%胀果甘草粗提物组(G1)、10%刺果甘草粗提物组(G2)、10%刚果甘草粗提物(G3)、10%甘草原样(G4);分别添加不同水平甘草提取物组:0%组(Z0)、0.5%组(Z1)、1%组(Z2)、3%组(Z3)、5%组(Z4)、7%组(Z5),研究其对瘤胃发酵参数:pH、挥发性脂肪酸(乙酸、丙酸、丁酸)、产气量、氨态氮浓度(NH3N)的影响.结果显示,本试验添加的G1、G2、G3、G4组在一定程度上均可以降低瘤胃产气量和乙酸产量;添加不同剂量的甘草粗提取物时,Z3组的添加剂量使瘤胃pH在正常范围,同时对产气量无显著影响,乙酸/丙酸比值为最低.

  7. Exploring the possible metabolism mediated interaction of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract with CYP3A4 and CYP2D6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Subrata; Ponnusankar, Sivasankaran; Bandyopadhyay, Arun; Ota, Sarda; Mukherjee, Pulok K

    2011-10-01

    The rhizome of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (licorice) is used very widely in Indian and Chinese traditional medicine, and it is a popular flavor ingredient of drinks, sweets and candies. Its medicinal uses include treating bronchitis, dry cough, respiratory infections, liver disorders and diabetes. Glycyrrhizin is normally considered to be its biologically active marker, so a rapid RP-HPLC method was developed for the quantitative estimation of glycyrrhizin in the extract. The effect of the standardized extract and its marker on drug metabolizing enzymes was evaluated through CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 inhibition assays to evaluate the safety through its drug interaction potential. The inhibition of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 isozymes was analysed by the fluorescent product formation method. In the CYP450-CO assay, the interaction potential of the standardized extract and pooled microsomes (percentage inhibition 23.23 ± 1.84%), was found to be less than the standard inhibitor. In the fluorimetric assay, G. glabra extracts showed higher IC(50) values than their positive inhibitors, ketoconazole and quinidine for CYP3A4 and CYP2D6, respectively. Furthermore, the interaction potential of the plant extract was greater than the pure compound. The results demonstrate that G. glabra and its principle bioactive compound, glycyrrhizin, when co-administered with conventional medicines showed only a weak interaction potential with drug metabolizing enzymes.

  8. First Report of the Herb Field Mouse , Apodemus uralensis (Pallas, 1811 from Mongolia

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    Setev Shar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The herb fi eld mouse, Apodemus uralensis (Pallas, 1811 is recorded for the fi rst time in Mongolia, from western part of the Mongolian Altai and the adjacent Mongolian part of the Dzungarian Gobi. In addition, we discovered several additional fi ndings of this species recorded as early as 1976 from diff erent scientifi c collections. Body and skull measurements are presented along with a molecular genetic analysis of one specimen.

  9. Neuroprotective effects of roasted licorice, not raw form, on neuronal injury in gerbil hippocampus after transient forebrain ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    In-koo HWANG; Dae-young KWON; Dong-woo KIM; Won-kook MOON; Moo-ho WON; Soon-sung LIM; Kyu-hyun CHOI; Ki-yeon YOO; Hyun-kyung SHIN; Eun-ji KIM; Jung-han YOON-PARK; Tae-cheon KANG; Young-sup KIM

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To observe neuroprotective effects of raw and roasted licorice against hypoxia and ischemic damage. Methods: When elucidating the protective effects of raw and roasted licorice, we analyzed the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release using PC 12 cells after hypoxia in an in vitro study and after transient forebrain ischemia in an in vivo study on Mongolian gerbils. Results: Raw and roasted licorice significantly reduced LDH release from PC 12 cells exposed to an hypoxic chamber for 1 h. In the roasted licorice-treated group, the decrease of LDH release was more pronounced compared to that of the raw licorice-treated group. In roasted licorice-treated animals, approximately 66%-71% of CA1 pyramidal cells in the ischemic hippocampus were stained with cresyl violet compared to the control group. However, in the raw licorice-treated animals, no significant neuroprotection against ischemic damage was shown. In addition, ischemic animals in roasted licorice-treated group maintained the Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) activity and protein levels compared to the control group, while in raw licorice-treated group SOD1 activity and protein levels were reduced significantly. High pressure liquid chromatography analysis showed that non-polar compounds containing glycyrrhizin-degraded products, such as glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) and glycyrrhetinic acid monoglucuronide (GM), were increased in roasted licorice. Conclusion: Roasted licorice had neuroprotective effects against ischemic damage by maintaining the SOD1 levels. In addition, the difference in protective ability between raw and roasted licorice may be associated with non-polar compounds, such as GA and GM.

  10. Anti-tubercular agents from Glycyrrhiza glabra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalani, Komal; Chaturvedi, Vinita; Alam, Sarfaraz; Khan, Feroz; Srivastava, Santosh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Bioactivity guided isolation of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Leguminosae / Fabaceae) roots resulted in the characterization of 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid as a major anti-tubercular agent. Further, GA-1 was semi-synthetically converted into its nine derivatives, which were in-vitro evaluated for their antitubercular potential against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv using BACTEC-460 radiometric susceptibility assay. All the derivatives were active, but the benzylamide (GA-8, MIC 12.5μg/ml) and ethyl oxylate (GA-3, MIC 25.0 μg/ml) derivatives were significantly active against the pathogen. This was further supported by the molecular docking studies, which showed adequate docking (LibDock) scores for GA-3 (120.3) and GA-8 (112.6) with respect to the standard anti-tubercular drug, rifampicin (92.94) on the DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit beta (rpoB) target site. Finally, the in silico pharmacokinetic and drug-likeness studies showed that GA-3 and GA- 8 possesses drug-like properties. This is the first ever report on the anti-tubercular potential of GA and its derivatives. These results may be of great help in anti-tubercular drug development from a very common, inexpensive, and non toxic natural product.

  11. Glycyrrhiza uralensis flavonoids inhibit brain microglial cell TNF-α secretion, p-IκB expression, and increase brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangita P. Patil

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: ASHMI and its effective flavonoid, isoliquiritigenin, inhibited TNF-α production by LPS stimulated microglial cells and elevated BDNF levels, which may prove to have anti-CNS inflammatory and anti-anxiety effects.

  12. [Glabrizoflavone--a novel isoflavone from Glycyrrhiza glabra L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuldashev, M P; Batirov, E Kh; Vdovin, A D; Abdullaev, N D

    2000-11-01

    7-O-Methylglabranin, 6-C-prenylpinocembrin, glabranin, pinocembrin, galangin, and a novel isoflavonoid, (E)-5,7,4'-trihydroxy-6-(3-hydroxymethyl-2-butenyl)isoflavone (glabrisoflavone) were isolated from the aerial parts of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. The structure of the novel isoflavonoid was elucidated on the basis of chemical transformations and spectral data.

  13. Influence of Herbal Complexes Containing Licorice on Potassium Levels: A Retrospective Study

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    WooSang Jung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To observe the influence of these complexes on potassium levels in a clinical setting, we investigated the influence of herbal complexes containing licorice on potassium levels. We retrospectively examined the medical records of patients treated with herbal complexes containing licorice from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2010. We recorded the changes in the levels of potassium, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen and examined the differences between before and after herbal complexes intake using a paired t-test. In addition, we investigated the prevalence of hypokalemia among these patients and reviewed such patients. We identified 360 patients who did not show significant changes in the levels of potassium and creatinine (P=0.815, 0.289. We observed hypokalemia in 6 patients. However, in 5 patients, the hypokalemia did not appear to be related to the licorice. Thus, we could suggest that herbal complexes containing licorice do not significantly influence the potassium levels in routine clinical herbal therapies. However, we propose that follow-up examination for potassium levels is required to prevent any unpredictable side effects of administration of licorice in routine herbal medicine care.

  14. [Genetic effects of root extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. on different test-systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agabeĭli, R A

    2012-01-01

    The antimutagenic and geroprotective activities of root extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra have been demonstrated both on plant test systems--Allium fistulosum L., Allium cepa L., Vicia faba L. and on animals--Vistar rats. The possibilities of the mobilization of Glycyrrhiza glabra root extracts as antimutagenic agents are discussed.

  15. Changes in succinate dehydrogenase activity in various parts of the brain during combined exposure to vibration and licorice root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oganisyan, A O; Oganesyan, K R; Minasyan, S M

    2005-06-01

    Data obtained in the studies reported here provide evidence that during exposure to vibration for 30 days, feeding with licorice root significantly increases the activity of the anaerobic respiration enzyme succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) in the cerebral cortex, while activity in the subcortex, conversely, decreases. Combined treatment for 30 days with licorice root and vibration after a preliminary 30-day period of feeding with licorice root resulted in high SDH activity in all the structures studied, improving brain energy supply and metabolism and ameliorating the effect of vibration.

  16. In vitro antimycobacterial and antilegionella activity of licochalcone A from Chinese licorice roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Møller, Alice; Chen, Ming; Fuursted, Kurt

    2002-01-01

    Licochalcone A, extracted and purified from Chinese licorice roots, showed in vitro inhibitory effect on human pathogenic Mycobacteria species and Legionella species. M. tuberculosis, M. bovis and BCG were inhibited by < 20 mg/l licochalcone A, whereas all non- M. tuberculosis complex species wer...

  17. [Effect of exogenous sucrose on growth and active ingredient content of licorice seedlings under salt stress conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fu-zhi; Yang, Jun

    2015-11-01

    Licorice seedlings were taken as experimental materials, an experiment was conducted to study the effects of exogenous sucrose on growth and active ingredient content of licorice seedlings under NaCl stress conditions. The results of this study showed that under salt stress conditions, after adding a certain concentration of exogenous sucrose, the licorice seedlings day of relative growth rate was increasing, and this stress can be a significant weakening effect, indicating that exogenous sucrose salt stress-relieving effect. The total flavonoids and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity were significantly increased, the exogenous sucrose can mitigated the seedling roots under salt stress, the licorice flavonoid content in the enhanced growth was largely due to the activity of PAL an increased, when the concentration of exogenous sucrose wae 10 mmol x L(-1), PAL activity reaching a maximum, when the concentration of exogenous sucrose was 15 mmol x L(-1), PAL activity turned into a downward trend, the results indicating that this mitigation has concentration effect. After applying different concentrations of exogenous sugar, the contents of liquiritin changes with the change of flavonoids content was similar. After applying different concentrations of exogenous sucrose, the content of licorice acid under salt stress was higher than the levels were not reached during salt stress, the impact of exogenous sucrose concentration gradient of licorice acid accumulation was not obvious.

  18. In vitro antimycobacterial and antilegionella activity of licochalcone A from Chinese licorice roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Møller, Alice; Chen, Ming; Fuursted, Kurt;

    2002-01-01

    Licochalcone A, extracted and purified from Chinese licorice roots, showed in vitro inhibitory effect on human pathogenic Mycobacteria species and Legionella species. M. tuberculosis, M. bovis and BCG were inhibited by ... resistant to > 20 mg/l Legionella pneumophila (serogroups 1 - 7) and L. bozemanii, L. dumoffii, L. feelei, L. longbeacheae and L. wadsworthii were inhibited by licochalcone A 1 - 4 mg/l, whereas L. gormanii and L. micdadei were inhibited by licochalcone A 500 - 1000 mg/l. These data indicate...

  19. To evaluate of the effect of adding licorice to the standard treatment regimen of Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Hajiaghamohammadi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of licorice in H. pylori eradication in patients suffering from dyspepsia either with peptic ulcer disease (PUD or non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD in comparison to the clarithromycin-based standard triple regimen. Methods: In this randomized controlled clinical trial, 120 patients who had positive rapid urease test were included and assigned to two treatment groups: control group that received a clarithromycin-based triple regimen, and study group that received licorice in addition to the clarithromycin-based regimen for two weeks. H. pylori eradication was assessed six weeks after therapy. Data was analyzed by chi-square and t-test with SPSS 16 software. Results: Mean ages and SD were 38.8 ± 10.9 and 40.1 ± 10.4 for the study and control groups, respectively, statistically similar. Peptic ulcer was found in 30% of both groups. Response to treatment was 83.3% and 62.5% in the study and control groups, respectively. This difference was statistically significant. Conclusion: Addition of licorice to the triple clarithromycin-based regimen increases H. pylori eradication, especially in the presence of peptic ulcer disease.

  20. Maternal prenatal licorice consumption alters hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis function in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räikkönen, Katri; Seckl, Jonathan R; Heinonen, Kati; Pyhälä, Riikka; Feldt, Kimmo; Jones, Alexander; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Phillips, David I W; Lahti, Jari; Järvenpää, Anna-Liisa; Eriksson, Johan G; Matthews, Karen A; Strandberg, Timo E; Kajantie, Eero

    2010-11-01

    Overexposure to glucocorticoids has been proposed as a mechanism by which prenatal adversity 'programs' the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (HPAA), thereby increasing the risk of adult diseases. Glycyrrhizin, a natural constituent of licorice, potently inhibits 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2, the feto-placental barrier to the higher maternal cortisol levels. We studied if maternal consumption of glycyrrhizin in licorice associates with HPAA function in children. Diurnal salivary cortisol and salivary cortisol during the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C) were measured in children (n=321, mean age=8.1, SD=0.3 years) whose mothers consumed varying levels of glycyrrhizin in licorice during pregnancy; exposure-level groups were labeled high (≥500 mg/week), moderate (250-499 mg/week) and zero-low (0-249 mg/week). In comparison to the zero-low exposure group, children in the high exposure group had 19.2% higher salivary cortisol awakening peak, 33.1% higher salivary cortisol awakening slope, 15.4% higher salivary cortisol awakening area under the curve (AUC), 30.8% higher baseline TSST-C salivary cortisol levels, and their salivary cortisol levels remained high throughout the TSST-C protocol (P-values HPAA function by overexposure to glucocorticoids. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Licorice and Roasted Licorice Extracts on TPA-Induced Acute Inflammation and Collagen-Induced Arthritis in Mice

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    Ki Rim Kim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory activity of licorice (LE and roated licorice (rLE extracts determined in the murine phorbol ester-induced acute inflammation model and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA model of human rheumatoid arthritis. rLE possessed greater activity than LE in inhibiting phorbol ester-induced ear edema. Oral administration of LE or rLE reduced clinical arthritis score, paw swelling, and histopathological changes in a murine CIA. LE and rLE decreased the levels of proinflammatory cytokines in serum and matrix metalloproteinase-3 expression in the joints. Cell proliferation and cytokine secretion in response to type II collagen or lipopolysaccharide stimulation were suppressed in spleen cells from LE or rLE-treated CIA mice. Furthermore, LE and rLE treatment prevented oxidative damages in liver and kidney tissues of CIA mice. Taken together, LE and rLE have benefits in protecting against both acute inflammation and chronic inflammatory conditions including rheumatoid arthritis. rLE may inhibit the acute inflammation more potently than LE.

  2. TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT OF NEW SUPPOSITORY ON THE BASIS OF GLYCYRRHIZA EXTRACT AND PARACETAMOL

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    G. M. Abdrakhmanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the study results of technologies of double-layer suppositories development of a new drug of combined effect using dense extract of Glycyrrhiza and paracetamol

  3. NaCl胁迫对光果甘草和苦豆子种子萌发的影响%Effect of NaCl Press on Seed Germination of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Sophora alopecuroides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司马义·巴拉提; 伊力哈木·艾合买提; 马刘峰

    2012-01-01

    试验研究了不同浓度的氯化钠对光果甘草(Glycyrrhiza glabra L.)和苦豆子(Sophora alopecuroides L.)种子萌发的影响进行了研究.研究结果表明:在不同浓度的NaCl条件下,光果甘草和苦豆子种子的发芽势、发芽率、发芽指数、活力指数和胚根胚芽生长长度均随着盐浓度的增加而下降.但在1.8%浓度时,光果甘草种子仍能保持60%以上的发芽率,而苦豆子种子发芽率只有4.8%.光果甘草种子发芽的最适盐浓度为1.6%,临界浓度为1.9%,极限浓度为2.4%.而苦豆子种子发芽的最适盐浓度为0.9%,临界盐浓度为1.2%,极限盐浓度为1.9%.光果甘草种子的发芽指数、活力指数和盐害指数迅速下降的浓度都比苦豆子高,而盐害率比苦豆子低很多.盐浓度提高到1.9%时,光果甘草种子的盐害率只有40.06%,而苦豆子的为100%,由此可看出,光果甘草的抗盐能力非常强,能适应含NaCl盐量高达1.8%的恶劣的生态环境.而苦豆子的抗盐能力相对较弱,只能适应含盐量为1.2%的土壤条件.对胚根胚芽生长来讲,在低浓度时NaCl盐对胚根胚芽生长的影响较小,浓度升高到1.2%以上,胚根胚芽生长受到严重影响,其中胚根生长受到影响较大.%This paper studied the seed germination of light fruit licorice ( Glycyrrhiza glabra L. And Sophora ( Sophora alopecuroides L. ) under the different concentrations of NaCl. The result showed that seed germination rate,germination index, vigor index and length of radical,the growth of embryo of light fruit licorice and Sophora alopecuroides decreased with the concentration of NaCl increasing. But the seed germination rate of Glycyr-rhiza glabra remained above 60% after being treated by the concentration of 1. 8% NaCl and that of Sophora alopecuroides was only 4. 8%. The critical concentration and the limit concentration were 1.9% and 2.4% for Glycyrrhiza glabra,respectively and 1.2% and 1.9% for Sophora

  4. Cerebroprotective effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. root extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Muralidharan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the cerebroprotective effect of the aqueous extract of the roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. (250 and 500 mg/kg in hypoxic rats. Hypoxia was induced by providing sodium nitrite drinking water to rats for 14 days. Extract at the tested doses promoted the locomotor activity and spatial behavior significantly, which was impaired in hypoxic rats. The extract administration restored the decreased levels of brain enzymes such as glutamate and dopamine and decreased acetylcholinesterase (AchE activity significantly. Levels of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and catalase were reduced due to hypoxia and were restored to near normalcy by administration of ethanol extract of G. glabra. Increased lipid peroxidation in hypoxic rats was also restored significantly by extract treatment. Thus, this study suggests that ethanol extract of G. glabra possess a cerebroprotective effect in hypoxic rats, which may be mediated by its antioxidant effects.

  5. Glycyrrhiza glabra extract protects plants against important phytopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, C; Konstantinidou-Doltsinis, S; Schmitt, A

    2010-01-01

    In previous investigations an ethanolic plant extract from Glycyrrhiza glabra (2.5% w/v) showed 100% efficacy against late blight (Phytophthora infestans) on detached tomato leaves. Based on these findings, the objective of this work was to investigate the effect of this extract against different important plant pathogenic fungi. Tests were carried out on potted plants. Against P. infestans, efficacies of 75% and 58% were achieved on tomato and potato plants with 5% extract concentration, respectively. Against another Oomycete, Pseudoperonospora cubensis, on cucumber, application of a 2.5% extract led to an efficacy of above 90%. The EC50-value was calculated to be 0.5% In a trial on beans against bean rust (Uromyces appendiculatus), G. glabra extract (5% concentration) showed 92% efficacy. In contrast, against powdery mildew on cucumber (Podosphaera xanthii), no disease reduction was found. Overall, the results indicate a high potential for the extract of G. glabra to control a number of important plant pathogens.

  6. Is glycyrrhizin sensitivity increased in anorexia nervosa and should licorice be avoided? Case report and review of the literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støving, René K; Lingqvist, Linnéa E; Bonde, Rasmus K

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Hypokalemia is a potentially life-threatening electrolyte disturbance in anorexia nervosa and is most frequently caused by purging behavior. We report a case of severe hypokalemia in anorexia nervosa induced by daily ingestion of approximately 20 g of licorice. METHODS: To confirm...... low daily dose of licorice suggests high glycyrrhizin sensitivity. CONCLUSION: Patients with anorexia nervosa not only have decreased food intake but also selective and sometimes bizarre eating habits that, in association with increased sensitivity to glycyrrhizin, may cause severe hypokalemia....

  7. Licorice: a possible anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcer drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Adel M; Al-Alousi, Laith; Salem, Hatem A

    2005-09-20

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the anti-inflammatory activities of both glycerrhitinic acid (GA) and the aqueous licorice extract (ALE) in comparison with diclofenac sodium (DS) (10 mg/kg), using the carrageenan-induced paw edema model in male albino rats. In addition, the anti-ulcer activities of ALE, famotidine (FT), and a combination of ALE and FT using indomethacin-induced ulceration technique in rat stomach were investigated. Conventional DS tablets containing GA, as well as DS chewable tablets containing either GA or ALE with different tastes were prepared. Also, rapidly disintegrating FT tablets were prepared using direct compression and camphor sublimation methods. ALE or GA produced significant anti-inflammatory activity similar to DS, and when taken concomitantly, there is no possible antagonism. The anti-ulcer activity of licorice was found to be similar to that of FT in indomethacin-induced ulceration technique in rat stomach. Combination therapy of both FT and licorice showed higher anti-ulcer activity than either of them alone. Generally, tablets containing the crosslinked sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (AcDisol) showed more rapidly disintegrating effect than those including Sodium starch glycolate (Primojel). The oral disintegration was very rapid for all the tested formulations. Also, the amount of FT absorbed from the oral cavity was nearly 9 from 10 mg theoretically present in each formula. It could be concluded that both GA and ALE have anti-inflammatory activity comparable with DS. It may be recommended to add ALE to either FT or diclofinac for more effective anti-inflammatory or anti-ulcer formulations, respectively.

  8. Simultaneous determination of liquiritin, isoliquiritin, liquiritigenin and isoliquiritigenin in Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., Glycyrrhiza glabra L., and Glycyrrhiza inflata Bat.by HPLC%3种不同基原甘草中4个主要黄酮类化合物的含量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨瑞; 袁伯川; 马永生; 周姗; 张皓桢; 刘靓怡; 李文东; 刘颖

    2016-01-01

    目的:对中国药典规定的3种不同基原甘草样品中甘草苷、异甘草苷、甘草素和异甘草素的含量进行分析比较.方法:以栽培于同一产地的3种不同基原两年生甘草作为实验材料,HPLC法对材料中的甘草苷、异甘草苷、甘草素和异甘草素含量进行测定.采用CAPCELL PAK C18 MGⅡ(4.6 mm×250 mm,5μm)色谱柱,以乙腈(A)-0.1%磷酸溶液(B)为流动相,梯度洗脱,流速为1.0 mL·min-1,检测波长为276 nm(0~13 min,检测甘草苷)、360 nm(13~23 min,检测异甘草苷)、276 nm(23~28 min,检测甘草素)、376 nm(28~55 min,检测异甘草素),柱温为30℃.结果:甘草苷、异甘草苷、甘草素和异甘草素分离良好,线性范围分别为1.15×10-2~0.230 μg(r=-1.000)、4.45×10-3~8.90×10-2μg(r=1.000)、1.15×10-3~2.30×10-2μg(r=-0.998)、2.27×10-3~4.54×10-2μg(r=-1.000),检测限和定量限依次为1.13 ng和3.42 ng、0.896 ng和2.70 ng、0.463 ng和1.39 ng、0.454 ng和1.38 ng.本方法灵敏度、精密度、准确性、重复性、回收率、耐用性均良好.在3种基原的甘草样品中,4个黄酮类成分的含量存在极显著差异(P<0.01),甘草苷、异甘草苷、甘草素、异甘草素在乌拉尔甘草中的含量均最高,分别为(20.75±0.524)mg·g-1、(4.453±0.057) mg·g-1、(0.610±0.019) mg·g-1和(0.272±0.008) mg·g-1,光果甘草次之,含量分别为(6.623±0.405) mg· g-1、(1.562±0.053) mg· g-1、(0.325±0.036) mg· g-1和(0.180±0.012)mg·g-1,胀果甘草最低,含量分别为(2.700±0.232) mg·g-1、(0.821±0.042) mg·g-1、(0.153±0.006)mg·g-1(0.115±0.005)mg·g-1;甘草苷与异甘草苷、甘草素与异甘草素的含量在3种不同基原甘草样品中均存在极显著相关关系(P<0.01).结论:本文建立的HPLC方法经方法学验证,可用于甘草中甘草苷、异甘草苷、甘草素和异甘草素的含量分析,并为甘草的质量控制及以黄酮类化合物为目标的优质甘草筛选与定向育种提供科学依据.

  9. Standardization of Licorice and TCM Formulations Using Eastern Blot Fingerprinting Analysis

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    Yukihiro Shoyama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To prepare the antiglycyrrhizin (GC monoclonal antibody (MAb, GC was treated with NaIO4 resulting in aldehyde which can be combined with carrier protein. An antigen conjugate was performed by a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization TOF mass spectrometry to determine the hapten numbers in the conjugate. Anti-GC MAb was prepared from a hybridoma which was fixed from the spleen cells producing anti-GC MAb and the myeloma cells after immunization. The TCM and licorice extract were developed by TLC and blotted to a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF membrane. The membrane was treated by NaIO4 and protein, enzyme labeled secondary MAb, and finally substrate was added. Clear spot appeared on PVDF membrane identifying GC against a background containing large amount of impurities. In eastern blotting, the GC molecule was divided into two functions. The aglycone part is recognized as an epitope and the sugar moiety can be combined to membrane. The specific reactivity of sugar moiety in the GC molecule against anti-GC MAb might be modified by the NaIO4 treatment on the membrane because glycyrrhetic acid 3-O-glucuronide can be stained although the cross-reactivity is only 4.3%. Eastern blotting for GC can not only apply for the standardization of licorice and TCM, but also it can open for the other bioactive products.

  10. Enhancement of Fat Oxidation by Licorice Flavonoid Oil in Healthy Humans during Light Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Noriyuki; Nakanishi, Saki; Shiomi, Seiko; Kiyokawa, Shoko; Kakimoto, Sachie; Nakagawa, Kaku; Hosoe, Kazunori; Minami, Kazuhiro; Nadamoto, Tomonori

    2015-01-01

    Licorice flavonoid oil (LFO) is a new functional food ingredient consisting of hydrophobic licorice polyphenols in medium-chain triglycerides. Recent studies reported that LFO prevented and ameliorated diet-induced obesity via the regulation of lipid metabolism-related gene expression in the livers of mice and rats, while it reduced body weight in overweight human subjects by reducing total body fat. However, the direct effects of LFO on energy metabolism have not been studied in human subjects. Therefore, we investigated the effects of ingestion of LFO on energy metabolism, including fat oxidation, by measuring body surface temperature under resting conditions and respiratory gas analysis under exercise conditions in healthy humans. We showed that ingestion of a single 600 mg dose of LFO elevated body trunk skin temperature when measured in a slightly cooled air-conditioned room, and increased oxygen consumption and decreased the respiratory exchange ratio as measured by respiratory gas analysis during 40% Vo2max exercise with a cycle ergometer. Furthermore, repeated ingestion of 300 mg of LFO for 8 d decreased respiratory exchange during the recovery period following 40 min of 30% Vo2max exercise on a treadmill. These results suggest that LFO enhances fat oxidation in humans during light exercise.

  11. Combination of the advantages of chromatographic methods based on active components for the quality evaluation of licorice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xujia; Li, Qing; Lv, Chunxiao; Du, Yiyang; Xu, Huarong; Wang, Di; Li, Mingxiao; Li, Bohui; Li, Jing; Bi, Kaishun

    2015-12-01

    A rapid, improved and comprehensive method including high-performance thin-layer chromatography, fingerprint technology and single standard to determine multiple components was developed and validated for the quality evaluation of licorice. In this study, a newly developed high-performance thin-layer chromatography method was first used for authentication of licorice, which achieved simultaneous identification of multiple bands including five bands for known bioactive components by comparing their retention factor values and colors with the standards. For fingerprint analysis, 8 of 16 common peaks were identified. Simultaneously, similarity analysis which showed very similar patterns and hierarchical clustering analysis were performed to discriminate and classify the 27 batches of samples. Additionally, the single standard to determine multiple components method was first successfully achieved to quantify the eight important active markers in licorice including liquiritin apioside, liquiritin, isoliquiritin apioside, isoliquritin, neoisoliquiritin, liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin and glycyrrhizic acid. The easily available glycyrrhizic acid was selected as the reference substance to calculate relative response factors. Compared with the normal external standard method, this alternative method can be used to determine the multiple indices effectively and accurately. The validation result showed that the developed method was specific, accurate, precise, robust and reliable for the overall quality assessment of licorice.

  12. Possible Pharmacological Basis for Antithrombotic Effect of Glycyrrhiza Glabra in Sprague Dawley Rats

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    Jain M.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been previously identified that 3-aryl comarin derivative, GU-7 isolated from Liquorice posses Antiplatelet activity. It inhibits platelet aggregation by increasing intraplatelet cyclic AMP concentration. Here we report the in-vivo effects of extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra and also the combined effect with Vitamin K and Heparin. Extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra increased the bleeding time when given in the doses of 180 mg/kg and 360 mg/kg. Blood loss was evaluated 60 minute later as a function of absorbance at 540 nm due to hemoglobin content in water solution. Altogether data indicates that Glycyrrhiza glabra is an effective anti thrombotic agent in vivo, which may account for its known pharmacological properties.

  13. 栽培甘草对盐碱地土壤理化性质及微生物功能多样性的影响%Effects of Licorice Planting on Physical, Chemical Properties and Microbial Function Diversity of Saline Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴振振; 张旭龙; 马淼

    2016-01-01

    为探讨在盐碱地区种植甘草对土壤理化性质及微生物功能多样性的影响。以未种植胀果甘草的裸地(CK)为对照,测定土壤的理化性质,并采用BilogECO微平板技术研究了人工栽培甘草对盐碱地微生物功能多样性的影响。研究结果表明:与裸地(CK)相比,种植甘草能显著提高盐碱土中全氮、碱解氮及有机质等养分的含量(P<0.05),其含量分别比裸地(CK)增加了38%、48%和33%,且土壤的电导率值与裸地(CK)相比降低了262%,达到显著水平(P<0.05)。甘草样地的AWCD值(反应土壤微生物活性)显著高于裸地(CK),在培养72 h后甘草样地的AWCD值比裸地(CK)显著增加了28%(P<0.05)。甘草样地中土壤微生物对糖类碳源的利用率与对照相比增加28%(P<0.05),其土壤微生物多样性亦显著高于裸地(CK)(P<0.05)。主成分分析表明,种植甘草后改变了土壤微生物的群落组成,导致此种差异的主要碳源为糖类和氨基酸类,其次是羟酸类及多聚物类。综上所述,在盐碱地种植甘草有利于提高土壤微生物代谢活性和土壤微生物群落功能多样性,因此人工栽培甘草是盐碱地生态恢复的一项有效措施。%The study aims to investigate the effect of planting licorice on physical and chemical properties and microbial community functional diversity in saline soil. Bare land (no planting Glycyrrhiza inflate) was set as control, and conventional methods were adopted in the experiment. Soil microbial community functional diversity was studied using BilogECO plates. Results showed that compared with that of control, the contents of total nitrogen, alkalystic nitrogen and organic matter of saline soil with licorice planting were significantly increased by 38%, 48%and 33%, respectively (P<0.05), electrical conductivity of soil significantly decreased by 262% (P<0.05). The results indicated that the Average Well Color Development (AWCD

  14. Comparison of Glycyrrhiza glabra Inorabase With Triamcinolone Acetonide Orabase in the Treatment of Oral Lichen Planus

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    Najafi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease that is most commonly found in middle-aged women. A wide spectrum of topical and systemic therapies have been applied for treatment of this condition. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of 1% Glycyrrhiza glabra in orabase with 0.1% Triamcinolone Acetonide paste in treating oral lichen planus (OLP. Patients and Methods In this study, 22 patients were randomly assigned to one of two equal groups. They received either Glycyrrhiza glabra or Triamcinolone Acetonide four times daily for a total of one month and were followed-up for three months. The patients were assessed for painful symptoms, measured by the visual analogue scale (VAS, and lesion size via Thongaprassom. The analysis and comparison of pain scores and the size of the lesions' clinical and symptomatic response rates between the two groups were performed using the Mann-Whitney U-test and SPSS 13.0 computer software. Results Ten patients in the Glycyrrhiza glabra group and 12 patients in the triamcinolone acetonid group completed the four-month trial course. Both Glycyrrhiza glabra and Triamcinolone Acetonid reduced burning symptoms. Clinical scores in both groups also significantly improved over the one-month treatment period. The difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (P = 0.442. Conclusions This study showed that topical Glycyrrhiza glabra appeared to be a promising alternative in the treatment of OLP. Further studies should be conducted to assess the long-term effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra.

  15. Antiandrogenic activities of Glycyrrhiza glabra in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamansoltani, Farzaneh; Nassiri-Asl, Marjan; Sarookhani, Mohammad-Reza; Jahani-Hashemi, Hassan; Zangivand, Amir-Abdollah

    2009-08-01

    Abnormal levels of androgens cause many diseases like benign prostatic hyperplasia and hormone dependent cancers. Although the reduction in serum testosterone (T) by Glycyrrhiza glabra has been reported, its effects on seminal vesicle (SV) and prostate tissues have never been reported. This study was carried out to investigate different aspects of antiandrogenic properties of this plant. Immature male rats were divided into five groups (n = 7): castrated rats without any treatment received only vehicle; castrated rats plus T replacement; three castrated groups with T replacement plus various doses of G. glabra extract (75, 150 and 300 mg/kg). All of the injections were carried out once daily in subcutaneous manner for 7 days. On the eighth day, blood samples were collected for total T measurement. Ventral prostate (VP), SV and levator ani muscle were dissected and weighed. Slides prepared from prostate were assessed histologically. The variation in the relative and absolute volume of the prostate tissue compartments was determined. Those receiving the doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg showed a significant reduction (p glabra has antiandrogenic properties.

  16. [On the taxonomic rank of ciscaucasicus and its relationships with the pygmy wood mouse Sylvaemus uralensis inferred from the mtDNA cytochrome b gene sequence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakirev, A E; Baskevich, M I; Gmyl', A P; Okulova, N M; Andreeva, T A; Sokolenko, O V; Malygin, V M; Khliap, L A; Opatin, M L; Orlov, V N

    2007-12-01

    To specify the taxonomic rank of form ciscaucasoides (independent species Sylvaemus ciscaucasoides, or intraspecific form of pygmy wood mouse, S. uralensis), a 402-bp the mtDNA cytochrome b gene fragment (402 bp) was examined in S. ciscaucasoides individuals from six geographic localities of the Caucasus and Ciscaucasus, (Krasnodar krai and Adygeya Republic) and 17 S. uralensis individuals from seven localities of the Russian Plai (Saratov oblast, Smolensk oblast, Voronezh oblast, Tula oblast, Moscow oblast, and Tver' oblast). For comparison, the cytochrome b gene was partly sequenced in the samples of yellow necked, S. flavicollis (n = 2, Samara oblast), and Caucasian, S. ponticus (n = 6, Krasnodar krai), wood mice. One Mus musculus specimen from Western Europe, whose nucleotide sequences were deposed in the GenBank, was used as intergeneric outgroup. Phylogenetic trees for the forms examined were constructed based on the mtDNA sequence variation and using the neighbor joining and maximum parsimony methods. The network of the cytochrome b haplotypes was also constructed. The level of genetic divergence was evaluated using Kimura's two-parameter algorithm. Based on the data on the sequence variation in a 402-bp mtDNA cytochrome b gene fragment, the hypothesis on the species status of the ciscaucasicus form was. The mean intergroup distances (d) between the geographic groups of S. uralensis varied from 0.0036 to 0.0152. At the same time, the distances between the pygmy wood mice and the group of S.flavicollis-S. ponticus varies in the range from 0.0860 to 0.0935, and the level of intergeneric genetic differentiation (Sylvaemus-Mus) is higher than the latter index (d = 0.142). Ciscaucasoides should be considered as geographic substitution form of S. uralensis. Furthermore, the Caucasian populations of S. uralensis (= ciscaucasoides) were characterized by a threefold lower value of intergroup genetic divergence (d = 0.0062) than the East European populations (d= 0

  17. Quality enhancement in the Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicas) fillets stored at 4°C by chitosan coating incorporated with citric acid or licorice extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xujian; Chen, Shengjun; Liu, Guangming; Yang, Qiuming

    2014-11-01

    The preserving effects of chitosan, chitosan and citric acid, chitosan and licorice extract on fresh Japanese sea bass fillets stored at 4 °C for 12 days were studied. Results showed that citric acid or licorice extract can enhance the preserving function of chitosan significantly by retarding lipid oxidation and inhibiting microbial growth as reflected in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and total plate count, respectively. Both total volatile basic nitrogen values and sensory scores indicated chitosan and citric acid or licorice extract can significantly reduce the quality loss and extend the shelf life of Japanese sea bass fish fillets during refrigerated storage. Citric acid or licorice extract with chitosan could thus be applied in the seafood industry to enhance quality of fish fillets as natural preservatives.

  18. Preliminary study on position effect of inflorescence and seed production, and reproductive resource allocation model of five species in Glycyrrhiza Linn%5种甘草属植物花序和种子生产的位置效应及繁殖资源分配模式初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩春; 陆嘉惠; 陈晓翠; 牛清东; 宋凤; 陈超南

    2016-01-01

    Taking Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn., G. inflata Batal., G. uralensis Fisch., G. eurycarpa P. C. Li and G. glabra var. glandulosa X. Y. Li planted in Shihezi of Xinjiang as researched objects, inflorescence number, inflorescence normal development rate, single-flower number per inflorescence and ear dry weight at different positions of plant body, and biomass investment rate, fruit setting rate, seed setting rate, seed projected area and 1 000-grain weight of seed at different positions of plant body and inflorescence were determined. On this basis, reproductive resource allocation model and seed production strategy of these five species in Glycyrrhiza Linn. tested were analyzed. The results show that within a plant body, inflorescence number, inflorescence normal development rate, single-flower number per inflorescence and ear dry weight of G. glabra, G. uralensis, G. eurycarpa and G. glabra var. glandulosa generally decrease successively from lower part to upper part of plant body, while there is no significant difference in these four indexes among different positions of plant body of G. inflata. Within a plant body, biomass investment rate and fruit setting rate at middle part of plant body of G. inflata are higher, but there is no significant difference in its biomass investment rate, fruit setting rate and seed setting rate among different positions of plant body, while, biomass investment rate, fruit setting rate and seed setting rate of other four species tested generally decrease successively from lower part to upper part of plant body. Within a inflorescence, biomass investment rate at middle part of inflorescence of G. inflata is higher than that at upper part and lower part of inflorescence, its fruit setting rate decreases successively from lower part to upper part of inflorescence, and there is no significant difference in its seed setting rate among different positions of inflorescence, while, biomass investment rate, fruit setting rate and seed setting

  19. The effect of adjunctive low-dose doxycycline and licorice therapy on gingival crevicular fluid matrix metalloproteinase-8 levels in chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Zahra Farhad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study compared the effect of adjunctive low dose doxycycline and licorice on gingival crevicular fluid (GCF matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8 levels in patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: In this in vivo, experimental study 39 patients with mild to moderate chronic periodontitis were selected. Samples of GCF were collected from three deepest pockets and MMP-8 concentration was measured. Patients were divided into three groups (n = 13. Groups were treated with doxycycline, licorice and placebo. Sampling and measurement of MMP-8 was repeated after 6 weeks. Data was analyzed by t-paired and ANOVA test. P < 0.001 was considered significant. Results: The decrease in mean of MMP-8 concentration was higher in doxycycline and licorice group in comparison with the placebo group and the difference was statistically significant (P value < 0.001. The decrease in mean of MMP-8 concentration was higher in licorice group than doxycycline group, but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The present study showed that licorice extract can prevent the production of MMPs by host cells and can be as useful as antibiotics like doxycycline to cure periodontal and other inflammatory diseases. It must be added that no side-effects were observed in usage of licorice extract.

  20. Effect of Hormone on Content of Total Flavonoids in Callus of Glycyrrhiza glabra L.%激素对光果甘草愈伤组织总黄酮含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余茜; 赵红艳; 马淼

    2011-01-01

    The effects of hormone kinds and its levels on content of total flavonoids in 6 callus of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Were studied by spectrophotometry. The results showed that hormone levels and explants type including their interaction could significantly affect the content of total flavonoids in the licorice callus. The content of flavonoids in callus derived from internodes was the highest among the all treatments. It was as high as 2. 316% ±0. 015% when incubated on MS+6-BA4. 0 mg/L+NAAl. 0 mg/L. So the combination of 6-BA and NAA was beneficial to the flavonoids production of G. Glabra.%采用分光光度法研究了不同激素组合与激素水平对光果甘草根、下胚轴、子叶、真叶、节、以及节间等6种外植体愈伤组织中总黄酮含量的影响,结果表明:激素水平、外植体类型、以及激素水平与外植体类型的互作均会对光果甘草愈伤组织中总黄酮含量产生极显著的影响.在附加6-BA 4.0 mg/L与NAA1.0 mg/L的MS培养基中,节间愈伤组织中总黄酮含量最高,为2.316%±0.015%.因此,利用愈伤组织培养生产光果甘草总黄酮的研究是可行的.

  1. A Study on in vitro antiviral activities of lyophilized extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra on Hepatitis B Virus

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    Sangeetha Vani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study is to determine the effect of lyophilized extracts of different solvents of Glycyrrhiza glabra on Hepatitis B. The lyophilized plant extracts were collected and studied for its cytotoxicity in HepG2 cell line and in vitro antiviral activity of these extracts was investigated by HBs Ag binding Inhibition Assay, Hepatitis B Virus DNA Polymerase Inhibition Assay using fluorescent probes. The results from Glycyrrhiza glabra were promising in acting as a potent antiviral agent.

  2. Fungi associated with Glycyrrhiza uralensis and their capability of mycotoxin production%甘草药材上的污染真菌类群及其产毒素特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈娟; 杨蕾; 蔡飞; 杨美华; 高微微

    2010-01-01

    对药材市场上霉变甘草样品的污染真菌进行分析,共得到4属7种真菌,包括Penicillium、Aspergillus、Fusarium、Mucor属,其中Penicillium polonicum、Aspergillus parasiticus以及P. crustosum是优势真菌.采用高效液相色谱一质谱联用技术对优势菌菌株产黄曲霉毒素及赭曲霉毒素A的特性进行检测.结果表明A.parasiticus主要产生黄曲霉毒素(AFG2、AFG1、AFB2、AFB1)和赭曲霉毒素A(OTA);而Penicillium polonicum主要产生赭曲霉毒素A(OTA).

  3. Characterization of the Key Aroma Compounds in Heat-Processed Licorice (Succus Liquiritiae) by Means of Molecular Sensory Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Juliane; Schieberle, Peter; Granvogl, Michael

    2017-01-11

    Application of the sensomics concept elucidated the key odorants of heat-processed licorice (Succus Liquiritiae). Forty-nine aroma-active compounds with flavor dilution (FD) factors between 16 and 2048 were detected; 47 thereof were identified, 23 for the first time in heated licorice. 4-Hydroxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H)-one revealed the highest FD factor of 2048, followed by 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethylfuran-2(5H)-one, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde, 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one, and 2-methoxyphenol (all 1024). Forty-two substances were quantitated by stable isotope dilution assays (SIDAs), and odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentration to the respective odor threshold) were calculated revealing OAVs ≥ 1 for 29 compounds. Thereby, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethylfuran-2(5H)-one, 2,3-butanedione, 2-methoxyphenol, and 1,8-cineole showed the highest OAVs in Succus Liquiritiae. To validate the obtained data, a reconstitution model based on an aqueous sucrose solution (50%) was prepared, containing all 29 odorants with an OAV ≥ 1 in their naturally occurring concentrations. The recombinate elicited an aroma profile matching very well with the profile of the original heat-processed licorice, proving the correct identification and quantitation of all key aroma compounds of Succus Liquiritiae.

  4. Palynological characters of Glycyrrhiza,Glycyrrhizopsis,and Meristotropis(Leguminosae),with special reference to their taxonomic significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei MENG; Xiang-Yun ZHU

    2010-01-01

    The pollen morphology of 11 species of the genus Glycyrrhiza L.with one from each of the genera Glycyrrhizopsis Boiss.& Bal.and Meristotropis Fisch.& C.A.Mey.was investigated by scanning electron microscopy.In pollen morphology,the main differences between Glycyrrhizopsis and Glycyrrhiza are: Glycyrrhizopsis-pollen grains 36.63× 40.42 μm in size,oblate spheroidal in shape; and Glycyrrhiza-pollen grains 24.47-33.18 × 23.82-31.83 μm in size,prolate spheroidal in shape.Glycyrrhizopsis and Glycyrrhiza should be recognized as two distinct genera based on palynologicai and morphological characters.Meristotropis and Glycyrrhiza are similar in many important palynological and morphological characters,suggesting that the two should be merged.In Glycyrrhiza,two types of pollen grains,3-lobed-circular or subtriangular in polar view,are found in different species,in accordance with morphological differences in the two groups,shedding light on the classification and evolution of the genus.

  5. Antiatherosclerotic effects of licorice extract supplementation on hypercholesterolemic patients: decreased CIMT, reduced plasma lipid levels, and decreased blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacov Fogelman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ethanolic extract of licorice root has been shown to reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation in atherosclerotic mice and in both hypercholesterolemic and normal lipidemic humans. Objective: This study examined the effect of licorice-root extract on carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT in individuals with hypercholesterolemia. Design: Individuals with hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol ≥6.18 mmol/L [240 mg/dL] and without significant stenosis were randomly allocated to two groups: an experimental group that consumed 0.2 g/day of ethanolic extract of licorice root for 12 months, and a control group that received a placebo. Results: Of 110 eligible participants, 94 (41–80 years old completed the study. A significant CIMT decrease from 0.92±0.25 mm to 0.84±0.21 mm was observed in the experimental group compared with an increase from 0.85±0.17 mm to 0.88±0.19 mm in the control group. Mean plasma total cholesterol levels and LDL cholesterol decreased, at the range baseline to 1 year, from 284±32 mg/dl to 262±25 mg/dl and from 183±8.5 mg/dl to 174±9.1 mg/dl, respectively, for the experimental group (p<0.001 and from 291±35 to 289±31 mg/dl and from 177.6±10.7 to 179.3±9.6 (p=0.08, respectively, for the control group. Mean high-density lipoprotein (HDL did not change significantly in either group. In the experimental group, systolic blood pressure decreased from 138±12 mmHg to 125±13 mmHg after 1 year (p=0.01 and increased from 136±15 mmHg to 137±13 mmHg in the control group. Diastolic blood pressure decreased from 92±9 mmHg to 84±10 mmHg (p=0.01 in the experimental group and increased from 89±11 mmHg to 90±8 mmHg in the control group. Conclusion: Following 1 year of licorice consumption, mean CIMT, total cholesterol, LDL levels, and blood pressure were decreased. This suggests that licorice may attenuate the development of atherosclerosis and of related cardiovascular diseases.

  6. EXPLORATORY PLASMA BIOCHEMISTRY REFERENCE INTERVALS FOR URAL OWLS (STRIX URALENSIS, PALLAS 1771) FROM THE AUSTRIAN REINTRODUCTION PROJECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scope, Alexandra; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Stanclova, Gabriela; Vobornik, Angela; Zink, Richard

    2016-06-01

    The Ural owl (Strix uralensis) is the biggest forest-living owl in Austria; however, it became extinct in Austria through poaching and habitat loss more than half a century ago. The birds examined in the present study were breeding pairs from the reintroduction project with the aim of determining exploratory plasma biochemistry reference intervals in Ural owls and evaluating the amount of biological variation between seasons, sexes, and ages. A total of 45 birds were sampled, including 13 adult males, 14 adult females, and 18 juvenile birds. Remarkably, almost all of the analytes showed significant differences between the subgroups, primarily between seasons, followed by age and sex. Only creatinkinase, glucose, lactatdehydrogenase, and triglycerides did not show any significant variations. Despite partitioning of reference values into subgroups according to biological variation diminishing the number of reference individuals in the respective groups, the resulting smaller reference intervals will improve medical assessment. The results of the present study once again demonstrate that significant seasonal fluctuations must be expected and considered in the interpretation. It can be assumed that these differences are probably even greater in free-range birds with considerable changes in food quantity and quality during and between years.

  7. Study of Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Cotoneaster medicus and Glycyrrhiza glabra Plants

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    M. M. Heravi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of Cotoneaster medicus, Glycyrrhiza glabra, as endemic plants of Iran, along with mixture of them were investigated for their antioxidant activities using 2, 2- diphenyl-1-picrylhidrazyl (DPPH reagent. UV-Vis spectrophotometry method was used to evaluate the ability of Cotoneaster and Glycyrrhiza glabra antioxidant to scavenge DPPH radical. The kinetic parameters such as rate constant and activation energy in experimental conditions were calculated. The rate constants of the H atom abstraction by DPPH (k1, in the presence of C. medicus and G. glabra antioxidant were obtained under pseudo-first-order conditions at different temperatures. The order in DPPH radical-scavenging was: mixture of C. medicus and G. glabra > C. medicus > G.  glabra plants. The numerical values of activation energy were found to be 45.84 kJ.mol-1for G. glabra and 62.02kJ.mol-1 for C. medicus.

  8. Antifungal activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra extracts and its active constituent glabridin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Atiya; Gupta, Vivek K; Luqman, Suaib; Negi, Arvind S; Kumar, J K; Shanker, Karuna; Saikia, Dharmendra; Srivastava, Suchita; Darokar, M P; Khanuja, Suman P S

    2009-08-01

    Glabridin, an active constituent of Glycyrrhiza glabra roots, was found to be active against both yeast and filamentous fungi. Glabridin also showed resistance modifying activity against drug resistant mutants of Candida albicans at a minimum inhibitory concentration of 31.25-250 microg/mL. Although the compound was reported earlier to be active against Candida albicans, but this is the first report of its activity against drug resistant mutants.

  9. [Effect of aconiti laterlis radix compatibility of glycyrrhizae radix on CYP3A4 in vivo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangping; Zhu, Lijun; Zhou, Juan; Tang, Lan; Liu, Zhongqiu; Ye, Zuguang

    2012-08-01

    The primary objective was to develope a UPLC method for determine the concentration of buspirone hydroxychloride in plasma and to evaluate the effects of Aconiti Laterlis Radix and Aconiti Laterlis Radix compatibility of Glycyrrhizae Radix on CYP3A4 in vivo. ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 mm x 10 mm, 1.7 microm) was used for the gradient elution with a 2.0 mmol x L(-1) ammonium acetate (pH 7.4, A)-acetonitrile (B) solution, 0-2.2 min, 10% - 60% B, 2.2-2.5 min, 60% B, 2.5-3.0 min, 60%-75% B, 3.0-3.5 min, 75% B, 3.5-4.0 min, 75%-10% B, at the flow rate of 0.3 mL x min(-1) at room temperature. The UV wavelenght was detected at 243 nm. The linear calibration curve ranged between 0.078 125-20.0 microg (r = 0.9975). The average recovery (n = 6) of buspirone hydroxychloride was 85.62% (RSD 6.8%). The results showed that this method has good specificity and repeatability, and which can be used for the determination of buspirone hydrochlorid in serum. In animial studies, single dose Aconiti Laterlis Radix extract treatment (0.5 g x kg(-1)) decreased buspirone hydroxychloride AUC(0-2 h) (52.8%, P = 0.020), increased CL/F (122%, P = 0.045). Compared to the saline treatment group, Aconiti Laterlis Radix compatibility of Glycyrrhizae Radix extract treatment has no effect on CYP3A4 in rat. The results indicated that Aconiti Laterlis Radix extract induced CYP3A4 while Aconiti Laterlis Radix compatibility of Glycyrrhizae Radix extract had no effect on CYP3A4 in vivo. Aconiti Laterlis Radix had been detoxified when be used as compatibility of Glycyrrhizae Radix.

  10. Quantification of glycyrrhizin in Glycyrrhiza glabra extract by validated HPTLC densitometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantait, Arunava; Pandit, Subrata; Nema, Neelesh K; Mukjerjee, Pulok K

    2010-01-01

    Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn (Family-Fabaceae) is active as an anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, mild laxative, antistress, antidepressive, antiulcer, liver protective, estrogenic, emmenagogue, and antidiabetic substance, and is widely used in the Indian system of medicine. The major bioactive constituent is glycyrrhizin. A simple HPTLC method has been developed to control the quality of raw as well as finished glycyrrhiza using glycyrrhizin as the bioactive marker. The solvent system was optimized to chloroform-methanol-water (65 + 36 + 7.5, v/v/v). Extract and standard were dissolved in 70% methanol and applied on a precoated TLC plate. After development, the plate was scanned at 254 nm to create a chromatogram, then the quantity of glycyrrhizin was determined in the extract. The method was validated in terms of specificity, linearity, precision, LOD, and LOQ. Linearity range was found to be 0.96-4.80 microg per spot. The linearity relationship was described by the equation: Y = 612.706 + 1.091X (with r = 0.99904 and SD = 2.52%), where Y is the area under curve and X is the amount of glycyrrhizin (ng). The amount of glycyrrhizin found in the extract was 9.1%. Thus, the method provides a rapid and cost-effective quality measure for Glycyrrhiza glabra hydroalcoholic extract.

  11. Associação de emblica, licorice e belides como alternativa à hidroquinona no tratamento clínico do melasma Association of emblica, licorice and belides as an alternative to hydroquinone in the clinical treatment of melasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Costa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Melasma é uma melanodermia comum, cuja terapêutica representa um desafio clínico. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a eficácia e segurança clínicas do complexo despigmentante emblica, licorice e belides, em comparação à hidroquinona 2%, na abordagem do melasma. MÉTODOS: Após 60 dias de uso exclusivo de fotoprotetor FPS35, 56 mulheres com idades entre 18 e 60 anos, fotótipos I a IV, com melasma epidérmico ou misto, foram divididas em dois grupos de um estudo clínico monocego: A creme contendo complexo despigmentante emblica, licorice e belides 7%, usado duas vezes ao dia; Bcreme de hidroquinona 2%, usado à noite. O estudo durou 60 dias consecutivos e avaliações médica, das voluntárias (auto-avaliação e fotográfica (Visia® foram realizadas quinzenalmente. RESULTADOS: 89% das voluntárias (50/56, 23 do Grupo A e 27 do Grupo B, concluíram o estudo. Duas voluntárias do Grupo A contra sete do Grupo B apresentaram eventos adversos leves transitórios. Houve despigmentação do melasma pelas avaliações médica (Grupo A: 78,3%; Grupo B: 88,9% e auto-avaliação (Grupo A: 91,3%; Grupo B: 92,6%, todos estatisticamente significantes (p0,05. O mesmo padrão foi observado pelo Visia®, tanto no número (p = 0,001 quanto no tamanho e no tom (p0,05 nas manchas UV. CONCLUSÕES: Não houve diferença estatística na melhora do melasma nos dois grupos; o Grupo A apresentou menor incidência de eventos adversos. Logo, o complexo despigmentante emblica, licorice e belides é uma alternativa segura e eficaz na abordagem do melasma.BACKGROUND: Melasma is a common skin pigment disorder with a difficult clinical response to treatment. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of the association of Belides, Emblica and Licorice 7%, compared to Hydroquinone 2%, in the treatment of melasma. METHODS: After 60 days of exclusive use of an SPF35 sunscreen, 56 women, 18 to 60 years of age, phototypes I to IV, with epidermal or mixed

  12. Isolation and antimicrobial activities of actinobacteria closely associated with liquorice plants Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and Glycyrrhiza inflate BAT. in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ke; Zhao, Chong; Liao, Ping; Zhang, Qin; Li, Yanbing; Liu, Maoke; Ao, Xiaoling; Gu, Yunfu; Liao, Decong; Xu, Kaiwei; Yu, Xiumei; Xiang, Quanju; Huang, Chengyi; Chen, Qiang; Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Xiaoping; Penttinen, Petri

    2016-07-01

    A total of 218 actinobacteria strains were isolated from wild perennial liquorice plants Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and Glycyrrhiza. inflate BAT. Based on morphological characteristics, 45 and 32 strains from G. inflate and G. glabra, respectively, were selected for further analyses. According to 16S rRNA sequence analysis, most of the strains belonged to genus Streptomyces and a few strains represented the rare actinobacteria Micromonospora, Rhodococcus and Tsukamurella. A total of 39 strains from G. inflate and 27 strains from G. glabra showed antimicrobial activity against at least one indicator organism. The range of the antimicrobial activity of the strains isolated from G. glabra and G. inflate was similar. A total of 34 strains from G. inflate and 29 strains from G. glabra carried at least one of the genes encoding polyketide synthases, non-ribosomal peptide synthetase and FADH2-dependent halogenase. In the type II polyketide synthase KSα gene phylogenetic analysis, the strains were divided into two major clades: one included known spore pigment production-linked KSα sequences and other sequences were linked to the production of different types of aromatic polyketide antibiotics. Based on the antimicrobial range, the isolates that carried different KSα types were not separated from each other or from the isolates that did not carry KSα. The incongruent phylogenies of 16S rRNA and KSα genes indicated that the KSα genes were possibly horizontally transferred. In all, the liquorice plants were a rich source of biocontrol agents that may produce novel bioactive compounds.

  13. Flavonoids Extracted from Licorice Prevents Colitis-Associated Carcinogenesis in AOM/DSS Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Xiaowei; Liu, Dongyu; Gao, Li; Li, Liyong; Cao, Li

    2016-08-24

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is generally considered as a major risk factor in the progression of colitis-associated carcinogenesis (CAC). Thus, it is well accepted that ameliorating inflammation creates a potential to achieve an inhibitory effect on CAC. Licorice flavonoids (LFs) possess strong anti-inflammatory activity, making it possible to investigate its pharmacologic role in suppressing CAC. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the anti-tumor potential of LFs, and further explore the underlying mechanisms. Firstly, an azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced mouse model was established and administered with or without LFs for 10 weeks, and then the severity of CAC was examined macroscopically and histologically. Subsequently, the effects of LFs on expression of proteins associated with apoptosis and proliferation, levels of inflammatory cytokine, expression of phosphorylated-Janus kinases 2 (p-Jak2) and phosphorylated-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-Stat3), and activation of nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) and P53 were assessed. We found that LFs could significantly reduce tumorigenesis induced by AOM/DSS. Further study revealed that LFs treatment substantially reduced activation of NFκB and P53, and subsequently suppressed production of inflammatory cytokines and phosphorylation of Jak2 and Stat3 in AOM/DSS-induced mice. Taken together, LFs treatment alleviated AOM/DSS induced CAC via P53 and NFκB/IL-6/Jak2/Stat3 pathways, highlighting the potential of LFs in preventing CAC.

  14. Effect of Flavonoid-Rich Extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra on Gut-Friendly Microorganisms, Commercial Probiotic Preparations, and Digestive Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asha, Mannanthendil Kumaran; Debraj, Debnath; Dethe, Shekhar; Bhaskar, Anirban; Muruganantham, Nithyanantham; Deepak, Mundkinajeddu

    2017-05-04

    Flavonoid-rich extract prepared from Glycyrrhiza glabra has been found to be beneficial in patients with functional dyspepsia and was reported to possess some gut health-promoting properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-Helicobacter pylori activities. In the present study, the flavonoid-rich extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra was evaluated for its compatibility with probiotic strains (Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Streptococcus thermophilus), commercial probiotic drinks, and digestive enzymes (pancreatic α-amylase, α-glucosidase, phytase, xylanase, and pancreatic lipase). Results of this study indicated that the flavonoid-rich extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra is compatible with the tested probiotic strains, probiotic drinks and digestive enzymes.

  15. Development and Validation of HPLC and HPTLC Methods for Estimation of Glabridin in Extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Vivek; Mukne, Alka P

    2016-01-01

    Glabridin is a major bioactive phytoconstituent of licorice. This work discusses the development and validation of HPLC and HPTLC methods for analysis of glabridin in licorice. The HPLC separation was performed using a Purospher STAR RP-18e column (5 μm silica particle size, 250 mm × 4.6 mm inner diameter) with gradient elution of 0.2% acetic acid in water-acetonitrile. The flow rate was 1 mL/min. Quantification was performed at a detection wavelength of 280 nm. HTPLC separation was performed on precoated silica gel 60 F254 aluminum plate (10 × 10 cm, 250 μm thickness). A linear ascending development was done using a mobile phase of hexane-ethyl acetate-chloroform (5 + 4 + 3, v/v/v). After development, the plates were scanned at 285 nm. Both of the methods provided good separation of glabridin from other constituents of licorice extract. The methods were validated as per ICH guidelines. Comparison by Student t-test showed that there was a statistically insignificant difference between the mean glabridin content estimated by both methods at 95% confidence interval. The glabridin content in licorice extract was 3.90% by HPLC and 3.79% by HPTLC.

  16. Effect of cold water extracts of Acacia modesta Wall. and Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. on Tribolium castaneum and Lemna minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazeefullah, Sayed; Dastagir, Ghulam; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to introduce an alternative way for insects control through biodegradable plants materials. The different cold water extracts dilutions of Acacia modesta and Glycyrrhiza glabra were tested against Tribolium castaneum. The extracts dilutions of both plants caused mortality of the Tribolium castaneum. ANOVA revealed that dilutions and plants were highly significant. The interaction between plants and dilutions was also significant at P Glycyrrhiza glabra extracts significantly inhibited the growth of Lemna minor. ANOVA showed that dilutions of both plants extracts were significant at P < 0.05.

  17. RP-HPLC Determination of Glabridin Content in Different Licorice Residues from Glycyrrhiza glabra L%RP-HPLC测定不同产地光果甘草废渣中光甘草定含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵杰; 木合布力·阿布力孜; 孟磊; 李宏智

    2010-01-01

    目的 利用反相高效液相色谱法测定由不同产地光果甘草制备的甘草废渣中光甘草定的含量.方法 对4种产地的光果甘草用同一种水提法制备甘草废渣;再用不同提取法制备6种总黄酮粗提物;采用symmetry C18反相色谱柱,流动相为乙腈-水-冰醋酸(55:44:1),检测波长为282nm,流速为1.0mL·min-1,柱温为30℃,测定各样品中光甘草定的含量.结果 光甘草定在0.09~0.45 mg·mL-1内呈良好线性关系(r=0.9997),平均回收率100.2%,RSD为0.89%.6种总黄酮粗提物中光甘草定含量分别为1.31%,1.16%,1.59%,2.93%,0.98%,0.85%;4种甘草废渣中,先甘草定含量分别为0.225%,0.290%,0.211%,0.218%.结论 反相高效液相色谱法简便、快速、重复性好,适用于光果甘草中光甘草定的含量测定.4种光果甘草废渣中,新疆和静的光果甘草废渣所含光甘草定含量明显高于其他产地的光果甘草废渣.此外,利用甲醇回流提取法制备光甘草定时,提取率和总黄酮出膏率都高于乙醇回流提取法和甲醇超声提取法.

  18. Effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra polysaccharides on immune and antioxidant activities in high-fat mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ying-Kai; Wu, Hua-Tao; Ma, Tao; Liu, Wei-Juan; He, Xue-Jun

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the immune and antioxidant activities of Glycyrrhiza glabra polysaccharides (GGP) in rats fed high-fat diet. The experiment was performed on four groups of growing Kunming mice. The results of the experiment showed a statistically significant decrease in serum antioxidant enzyme activities in high-fat group. Administration of GGP dose-dependently significantly enhanced immune and antioxidant enzyme activities in the GGP-treated mice compared to the high-fat model mice. It is concluded that GGP treatment can enhance immune activities, and reduce oxidative stress in high-fat mice.

  19. Evaluation of anti-tumor activity of ethanolic extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in swiss albino mice

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    Jayanthi M. K.

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: The antitumor activity studies measuring the viability of cancer cells when exposed to the ethanolic extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra showed a potent cell-killing effect, indicating the presence of anti-cancer principles in the preparation. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(5.000: 2153-2158

  20. Antiulcer properties of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. extract on experimental models of gastric ulcer in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilzadeh-Amin, Ghader; Najarnezhad, Vahid; Anassori, Ehsan; Mostafavi, Mostafa; Keshipour, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Glycyrrhiza glabra L. is used in folk medicine for treatment of stomach disorders including peptic ulcers. The hydroalcoholic extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (HEGG) was evaluated for antiulcerogenic activity and acute toxicity profile in mice. Various doses of HEGG (50-200 mg/kg) were administered orally to animals of different groups. Omeprazole and cimetidine at doses of 30 and 100 mg/kg were used as positive controls, respectively. Stomach was opened along the greater curvature then ulceration index was determined examining the inner lining of stomach. Oral administration of the extract at 1600 mg/kg did not produce toxic symptoms and mortality in mice. 2950 mg/kg was determined as the oral LD50. The HEGG (50-200 mg/kg) showed a significant reduction in ulcer index in HCl/Ethanol-induced ulcer. G. glabra extract (50-150 mg/kg) showed antiulcer activity against indomethacin-induced gastric lesions dose dependently. The extract effectively inhibited formation of gastric lesions induced by ethanol. The extract (200 mg/kg) was more potent than omeprazole (30 mg/kg). HEGG reduced the ulcer index in hypothermic stress induced gastric ulcers in mice and the antiulcer effect was comparable to that of cimetidine. The results indicated that G. glabra hydroalcoholic extract exerted an antiulcergenic effect that could be associated with increase in gastric mucosal defensive factors.

  1. Ecophysiological aspects of Liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L. germination under different temperatures

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    ali ghanbari

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Glycyrrhiza is an industrial/medicinal plant however, in Iran is known as a weedy species in dry lands and orchards. Germination of Glycyrrhiza seeds collected from Kermanshah and Fars (Zarghan were studied in a range of temperatures (0, 3, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 C. The highest germination percentage for both Kermanshah and Fars populations were obtained at 20 and 25 C while maximum germination percentage of Fars seeds was higher than Kermanshah. At 40 C maximum germination of 27 and 43% was observed for Kermanshah and Fars seeds, respectively. The same trend was observed for germination rate. Time period for 10, 50 and 90% germination was lowest between 20-30C for both seed populations. Base, optimum and ceiling temperatures were obtained respectively, 2.2, 29.1, and 45.3 C for Kermanshah and 2.4, 29,2 and 44 C for Fars populations.

  2. Antistress property of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Athimadhura on stress induced Drosophila melanogaster

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    Sowmya M.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Stress is defined as a condition that disturbs the normal function of the biological system or a condition that decreases fitness. The present study was to evaluate the antistress property of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Athimadura. Here the Antistress property was experimented on Drosophila melanogaster. Stress was induced by adding methotrixate (MTX to the media. The 4 groups of Drosophila melanogaster were cultured in the laboratory. In the first group only control flies. In the second group MTX induced flies, in the third group MTX along with plant powder induced flies. In the fourth group only plant powder induced flies were cultured. Stress related enzymes like Catalase (CAT and Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD are most widely used paradigm for the evaluation of enzyme activity . SOD and CAT Activity in Stress induced flies was increased compared to that of normal flies. After incorporation of the plant powder to the media fed for Drosophila melanogaster, both SOD and CAT Activity was decreased indicating the reduction in Stress by the plant powder. Thus Glycyrrhiza glabra may have Antistress property, as it has reduced stress in Drosophila melanogaster induced by MTX at different concentration.

  3. [Effect of polysaccharides from Radix Glycyrrhizae on migration and polyamines contents of IEC-6 cell].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Peng; Sui, Jing-Jing; Li, Ru-Liu; Zhao, Shi-Qing; Lu, Wen-Biao; Chen, Wei-Wen

    2012-07-01

    To study the effect of polysaccharides from Radix Glycyrrhizae on migration and polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) contents of IEC-6 cell. Cell migration model was induced by scratch method in each well,and the polyamines in IEC-6 cell was determined by pre-column derivation high performance liquid chromatography. The polysaccharides inhibited effect on migration and polyamines contents of IEC-6 cells, and on IEC-6 cell migration by DFMO (a polyamines synthesis inhibitor) and the polyamines contents in the cells were observed. The polysaccharides (50 mg/L or 100 mg/L) was able to promote the cell migration, reverse the cell migration inhibition by DFMO, enhance the IEC-6 cell polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) contents in the process of cell migration and reverse the reduction of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) induced by DFMO. The effect of Radix Glycyrrhizae on the gastrointestinal mucosal damage repairing may be related to increasing polyamine content in cells and promoting cell migration.

  4. Application of Near-infrared Spectrum to Quantify Licorice Glycoside, Licorice Acid and Moisture in Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma%近红外光谱用于甘草中甘草苷、甘草酸及水分测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王遥琼; 王维皓

    2016-01-01

    目的:运用近红外光谱(NIR)技术检测甘草药材中的甘草苷、甘草酸及水分.方法:采用积分球漫反射扫描近红外光谱,以TQ Analyst软件进行数据分析,建立甘草中甘草苷、甘草酸及水分测定的NIR.结果:甘草苷的预测均方根误差(RMSEP)为0.165,预测集相关系数(RP)0.986 8;交叉验证均方根误差(RMSECV)为0.393,校正集相关系数(Rv)0.904 6.甘草酸的RMSEP=0.166,Rp=0.995 5;RMSECV=0.575,Rv=0.954 0.水分的RMSEP=0.137,Rp=0.995 2;RMSECV=0.498,Rv =0.931 9.结论:该方法快速、简便.可以用于甘草中甘草苷、甘草酸及水分的含量测定.

  5. Comparative study to evaluate the anti-viral efficacy of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract and ribavirin against the Newcastle disease virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ovais Omer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Newcastle disease represents as one of the most infectious viral disease, which afflicts almost every species of the birds. The causative agent of the disease is a single-stranded RNA virus with rapid replication capability. Objective: This study was performed to evaluate the comparative anti-viral efficacy and toxicity of Glycyrrhiza glabra aqueous extract and ribavirin against the Newcastle disease virus. Materials and Methods: The embryonated eggs were divided into six groups (A, B, C, D, E and F. Groups A, B, C, and D were further subdivided into three subgroups. The virus was identified by hemagglutination inhibition test. Spot hemagglutination test and viability of embryos were also evaluated. Three different concentrations i-e., 30 mg/100 ml, 60 mg/100 ml, and 120 mg/100 ml of the Glycyrrhiza aqueous extract and 10 μg/ml, 20 μg/ml, and 40 μg/ml ribavirin in deionized water were evaluated for their toxicity and anti-viral activity in the embryonated eggs. Results: 60 mg/100 ml concentration of Glycyrrhiza extract did not produce any toxicity in the embryonated eggs and showed anti-viral activity against the virus. Similarly, 20 μg/ml ribavirin was non-toxic in the embryonated eggs and contained anti-viral activity. Conclusion: It may conclude from the presented study that 60 mg/100 ml Glycyrrhiza extract inhibits replication of Newcastle disease virus and is non-toxic in the embryonated eggs. So, Glycyrrhiza glabra extract may be further evaluated in future to determine the potentially active compounds for their anti-viral activity against Newcastle disease virus. Furthermore, the mechanism of action of these active phytochemicals as an antiviral agent would be helpful to elucidate the pathogenesis of the disease.

  6. Quercetin-induced apoptosis prevents EBV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minjung; Son, Myoungki; Ryu, Eunhyun; Shin, Yu Su; Kim, Jong Gwang; Kang, Byung Woog; Sung, Gi-Ho; Cho, Hyosun; Kang, Hyojeung

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human gamma-1 herpesvirus that establishes a lifelong latency in over 90% of the world's population. During latency, virus exists predominantly as a chromatin-associated, multicopy episome in the nuclei of a variety of tumor cells derived from B cells, T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and epithelial cells. Licorice is the root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis or G. glabra that has traditionally cultivated in eastern part of Asia. Licorice was reported to have anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, anti-atopic, hepatoprotective, anti-neurodegenerative, anti-tumor, anti-diabetic effects and so forth. Quercetin and isoliquiritigenin are produced from licorice and highly similar in molecular structure. They have diverse bioactive effects such as antiviral activity, anti-asthmatic activity, anti-cancer activity, anti-inflammation activity, monoamine-oxidase inhibitor, and etc. To determine anti-EBV and anti-EBVaGC (Epstein-Barr virus associated gastric carcinoma) effects of licorice, we investigated antitumor and antiviral effects of quercetin and isoliquiritigenin against EBVaGC. Although both quercetin and isoliquiritigenin are cytotoxic to SNU719 cells, quercetin induced more apoptosis in SNU719 cells than isoliquiritigenin, more completely eliminated DNMT1 and DNMT3A expressions than isoliquiritigenin, and more strongly affects the cell cycle progression of SNU719 than isoliquiritigenin. Both quercetin and isoliquiritigenin induce signal transductions to stimulate apoptosis, and induce EBV gene transcription. Quercetin enhances frequency of F promoter use, whereas isoliquiritigenin enhances frequency of Q promoter use. Quercetin reduces EBV latency, whereas isoliquiritigenin increases the latency. Quercetin increases more the EBV progeny production, and inhibits more EBV infection than isoliquiritigenin. These results indicate that quercetin could be a promising candidate for antiviral and antitumor agents against EBV and human gastric carcinoma

  7. Quercetin-induced apoptosis prevents EBV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minjung; Son, Myoungki; Ryu, Eunhyun; Shin, Yu Su; Kim, Jong Gwang; Kang, Byung Woog; Cho, Hyosun; Kang, Hyojeung

    2015-05-20

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human gamma-1 herpesvirus that establishes a lifelong latency in over 90% of the world's population. During latency, virus exists predominantly as a chromatin-associated, multicopy episome in the nuclei of a variety of tumor cells derived from B cells, T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and epithelial cells. Licorice is the root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis or G. glabra that has traditionally cultivated in eastern part of Asia. Licorice was reported to have anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, anti-atopic, hepatoprotective, anti-neurodegenerative, anti-tumor, anti-diabetic effects and so forth. Quercetin and isoliquiritigenin are produced from licorice and highly similar in molecular structure. They have diverse bioactive effects such as antiviral activity, anti-asthmatic activity, anti-cancer activity, anti-inflammation activity, monoamine-oxidase inhibitor, and etc. To determine anti-EBV and anti-EBVaGC (Epstein-Barr virus associated gastric carcinoma) effects of licorice, we investigated antitumor and antiviral effects of quercetin and isoliquiritigenin against EBVaGC. Although both quercetin and isoliquiritigenin are cytotoxic to SNU719 cells, quercetin induced more apoptosis in SNU719 cells than isoliquiritigenin, more completely eliminated DNMT1 and DNMT3A expressions than isoliquiritigenin, and more strongly affects the cell cycle progression of SNU719 than isoliquiritigenin. Both quercetin and isoliquiritigenin induce signal transductions to stimulate apoptosis, and induce EBV gene transcription. Quercetin enhances frequency of F promoter use, whereas isoliquiritigenin enhances frequency of Q promoter use. Quercetin reduces EBV latency, whereas isoliquiritigenin increases the latency. Quercetin increases more the EBV progeny production, and inhibits more EBV infection than isoliquiritigenin. These results indicate that quercetin could be a promising candidate for antiviral and antitumor agents against EBV and human gastric carcinoma.

  8. Transdermal microemulsions of Glycyrrhiza glabra L.: characterization, stability and evaluation of antioxidant potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Dina M; Ammar, Nagwa M; Abd El-Alim, Sameh H; El-anssary, Amira A

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of the present study is to formulate Glycyrrhiza glabra root and rhizome aqueous ethanolic extract in microemulsion carrier systems intended for transdermal delivery of incorporated antioxidant actives, flavonoids and polyphenols. The results obtained reveal that the microemulsion system ME3 possesses optimum properties regarding drug content (flavonoids and polyphenols), viscosity, pH, particle size and polydispersity index, zeta potential, stability, permeation of actives and hence possesses high in vitro and ex vivo antioxidant efficacy. These results indicate also that this microemulsion shows approximately 13-fold higher ex vivo antioxidant capacity compared with the liquorice extract solution. In addition, the proposed microemulsion is simple to dispense, cost effective and provides high patient compliance and convenience because of simple topical application and avoidance of non-comfortable oral or parenteral administration.

  9. Antibacterial activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra against oral pathogens: an in vitro study

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    Fereshteh Sedighinia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Oral infections and dental caries are still considered as serious public health problems and inflict a costly burden to health care services around the world and especially in developing countries. Materials and Methods: In the present study, we evaluated the antibacterial activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra (G. glabra against oral pathogens by diffusion methods and determined the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC by both broth and Agar dilution methods and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC by broth dilution methods. Results: In this study, G. glabra extract showed good antibacterial activity against six bacteria. No strain in this study showed resistance against this extract. Conclusion: G. glabrais suggested as an appropriate candidate to help us in order to control dental caries and endodontic infections.

  10. Evaluation of antioxidant and urease inhibition activities of roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lateef, Mehreen; Iqbal, Lubna; Fatima, Nudrat; Siddiqui, Kauser; Afza, Nighat; Zia-ul-Haq, Muhammad; Ahmad, Mansoor

    2012-01-01

    The object of this study is to determine the antioxidant activity of extracts from Glycyrrhiza glabra roots. The parent extract is methanolic extract while its sub fractions were prepared in ethyl acetate, chloroform, and n-butanol. The method based on scavenging activity and reduction capability of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH). Urease inhibition activities of these extracts were also evaluated. Chloroform fraction was the most effective antioxidant with 87.7% activity but the activity is less than the crude methanolic extract i.e. 90%. Chloroform fraction showed the same trend in reducing power as that in radical scavenging activity. However n- butanol extract was devoid of any activity when compared to standard BHA. Crude methanolic fraction and its sub-fractions were also screened for enzyme inhibition activities using jackbean urease as substrate. Significant anti urease activity i.e. 72 % was observed in the ethyl acetate fraction with respect to standard inhibitor thiourea.

  11. Structural features and in vivo antitussive activity of the water extracted polymer from Glycyrrhiza glabra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sudipta; Nosál'ová, Gabriella; Ghosh, Debjani; Flešková, Dana; Capek, Peter; Ray, Bimalendu

    2011-05-01

    Antitussive drugs are amongst the most widely used medications worldwide; however no new class of drugs has been introduced into the market for many years. Herein, we have analyzed the water-extracted polymeric fraction (WE) of Glycyrrhiza glabra. This arabinogalactan protein enriched fraction, ≥ 85% of which gets precipitated with Yariv reagent, consisted mainly of 3- and 3,6-linked galactopyranosyl, and 5- and 3,5-linked arabinofuranosyl residues. Peroral administration of this polymer in a dose of 50mg/kg body weight decreases the number of citric acid induced cough efforts in guinea pigs more effectively than codeine. It does not induce significant change in the values of specific airway resistance or provoked any observable adverse effects.

  12. Chalcones as novel influenza A (H1N1) neuraminidase inhibitors from Glycyrrhiza inflata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dao, Trong Tuan; Nguyen, Phi Hung; Lee, Hong Sik

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of highly pathogenic influenza A virus strains, such as the new H1N1 swine influenza (novel influenza), represents a serious threat to global human health. During our course of an anti-influenza screening program on natural products, one new licochalcone G (1) and seven known (2......-8) chalcones were isolated as active principles from the acetone extract of Glycyrrhiza inflata. Compounds 3 and 6 without prenyl group showed strong inhibitory effects on various neuraminidases from influenza viral strains, H1N1, H9N2, novel H1N1 (WT), and oseltamivir-resistant novel H1N1 (H274Y) expressed...... in 293T cells. In addition, the efficacy of oseltamivir with the presence of compound 3 (5 μM) was increased against H274Y neuraminidase. This evidence of synergistic effect makes this inhibitor to have a potential possibility for control of pandemic infection by oseltamivir-resistant influenza virus....

  13. The Binding of Four Licorice Flavonoids to Bovine Serum Albumin by Multi-Spectroscopic and Molecular Docking Methods: Structure-Affinity Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, J.; Liang, Q.; Shao, S.

    2017-03-01

    Flavanones are the main compound of licorice, and the C'-4 position substitution is a significant structural feature for their biological activity. The ability of three selected flavanones (liquiritigenin, liquiritin, and liquiritin apioside) bearing different substituents (hydroxyl groups, glucose, and glucose-apiose sugar moiety) at the C'-4 position and a chalcone ( isoliquiritigenin, an isomer of liquiritigenin) to bind bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied by multispectroscopic and molecular docking methods under physiological conditions. The binding mechanism of fl avonoids to BSA can be explained by the formation of a flavonoids-BSA complex, and the binding affinity is the strongest for isoliquiritigenin, followed by liquiritin apioside, liquiritin, and liquiritigenin. The thermodynamic analysis and the molecular docking indicated that the interaction between flavonoids and BSA was dominated by the hydrophobic force and hydrogen bonds. The competitive experiments as well as the molecular docking results suggested the most possible binding site of licorice flavonoids on BSA at subdomain IIA. These results revealed that the basic skeleton structure and the substituents at the C'-4 position of flavanones significantly affect the structure-affinity relationships of the licorice flavonoid binding to BSA.

  14. Study on the molding process of Licorice Flavonoids Capsules%甘草黄酮胶囊成型工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷晓红; 陈海燕; 王英华

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the conditions of molding of Licorice Flavonoids Capsules. Methods Moisture absorption rate,an gle of repose,bulk density,and formability were used as index to determine the composition of Licorice Flavonoids Capsules;the appearance, properties, disintegration time, and content of the preparation were used as evaluation indicators to determine the process route. Results Licorice flavonoids ! Pregelatinized starch ! Microcrystalline cellulose ! Lactose (27 ! 4 ! 7 ! 2) was selected as the best prescription form. Conclusions Through quality and stability tests, the determined process is proven to be a feasible route.%目的 确定甘草黄酮胶囊剂成型工艺条件.方法 以吸湿率、休止角、堆密度、成型性为筛选指标,确定甘草黄酮胶囊的处方组成;以制剂的外观、性状、崩解时限、含量为评价指标,确定工艺路线.结果 甘草黄酮∶预胶化淀粉∶微晶纤维素∶乳糖(27∶4∶7∶2)为最佳处方组成.结论 通过质量检测及稳定性实验,证明所确定的工艺路线可行.

  15. Preparation and quality control of total flavonoids from licorice%甘草总黄酮的制备及质量控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈伟

    2016-01-01

    目的:制备甘草总黄酮并定量。方法:应用溶剂萃取和大孔树脂富集纯化制备甘草总黄酮,用紫外分光光度法对总黄酮进行定量和质量控制。结果:经紫外分光光度计检测,甘草乙酸乙酯提取物经大孔树脂富集的甘草总黄酮,黄酮类成分占58.11%。结论:经大孔树脂纯化的甘草乙酸乙酯提取物中甘草黄酮类成分富集最多。%Objective:To prepare total flavonoids from licorice and quantitative analysis.Methods:The total flavonoids from licorice were prepared by solvent extraction and macroporous resin enrichment,and the total flavonoids were quantified by UV spectrophotometry.Results:The total flavonoids from licorice root was enriched by macroporous resin,and the content of flavonoids was 58.11%.Conclusion:The largest concentration of flavonoids in the extract of ethyl acetate extracted by macroporous resin was enriched.

  16. Modulation of genotoxicity of oxidative mutagens by glycyrrhizic acid from Glycyrrhiza glabra L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhjit Kaur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The chemopreventive effects of certain phytoconstituents can be exploited for their use as functional foods, dietary supplements and even as drugs. The natural compounds, acting as anti-genotoxic and free radical scavenging compounds, may serve as potent chemopreventive agents. These can inhibit DNA modulatory activities of mutagens and help preventing pathological processes. Objectives: Present study on Glycyrrhiza glabra L., a promising medicinal plant, widely used in traditional medicine, focused on the bioassay-guided fractionation of its extracts for the isolation of certain phytochemicals with anti-genotoxic potential against oxidative mutagens. Materials and Methods: The methanol extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra rhizomes was subjected to column chromatography, and isolated fraction was evaluated for its anti-genotoxic and antioxidant potential using SOS chromotest, Comet assay, and DPPH radical scavenging assay. Results: GLG fraction, which was characterized as Glycyrrhizic acid, inhibited the genotoxicity of oxidative mutagens viz., H 2 O 2 and 4NQOquite efficiently. In SOS chromotest, using E.coli PQ37 tester strain, it inhibited induction factor induced by H 2 O 2 and 4NQO by 75.54% and 71.69% at the concentration of 121.46 μM,respectively. In Comet assay, it reduced the tail moment induced by H 2 O 2 and 4NQO by 70.21% and 69.04%, respectively, at the same concentration in human blood lymphocytes. The isolated fraction also exhibited DPPH free radical scavenging activity and was able to scavenge 85.95% radicals at a concentration of 120 μM. Conclusion: Glycyrrhizic acid is a potential modulator of genotoxins as well as efficient scavenger of free radicals.

  17. Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Extract Inhibits LPS-Induced Inflammation in RAW Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunmei; Eom, Taekil; Jeong, Yoonhwa

    2015-01-01

    Glycyrrhiza glabra has been used in medicine for thousands of years. Our previous study revealed that the methanolic extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (EGGR) exhibits significant nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages among 100 other extracts. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to investigate the potential anti-inflammatory effect of EGGR. The anti-inflammatory effect of EGGR on LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages was measured by MTT assay, NO content analysis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) level analysis, RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and ELISA assay. Low doses of EGGR were non-toxic to macrophages and imparted protective effect against LPS induced cell death. Incubation of LPS-treated macrophages with 100 μg/mL EGGR led to an increase in cell viability from 66.6 to 99%. Moreover, EGGR led to down regulation of NO (NO2+NO3) and ROS productions in a dose-dependent manner. In particular, 100 μg/mL EGGR led to a reduction in NO2+NO3 level from 336.2 to 24.1 pM/mL, and ROS level from 483.5 to 128.4%. Consistent with the result related to NO production, EGGR suppressed the ability of LPS to induce mRNA and protein expressions of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 productions which were analyzed by an ELISA assay. These results provide a comprehensive approach into the anti-inflammatory effect of EGGR on LPS-stimulated macrophages; however, efforts are underway on gaining detailed insight into anti-inflammatory signaling pathways.

  18. Licochalcone A, a Polyphenol Present in Licorice, Suppresses UV-Induced COX-2 Expression by Targeting PI3K, MEK1, and B-Raf

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    Nu Ry Song

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Licorice is a traditional botanical medicine, and has historically been commonly prescribed in Asia to treat various diseases. Glycyrrhizin (Gc, a triterpene compound, is the most abundant phytochemical constituent of licorice. However, high intake or long-term consumption of Gc has been associated with a number of side effects, including hypertension. However, the presence of alternative bioactive compounds in licorice with anti-carcinogenic effects has long been suspected. Licochalcone A (LicoA is a prominent member of the chalcone family and can be isolated from licorice root. To date, there have been no reported studies on the suppressive effect of LicoA against solar ultraviolet (sUV-induced cyclooxygenase (COX-2 expression and the potential molecular mechanisms involved. Here, we show that LicoA, a major chalcone compound of licorice, effectively inhibits sUV-induced COX-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 PGE2 generation through the inhibition of activator protein 1 AP-1 transcriptional activity, with an effect that is notably more potent than Gc. Western blotting analysis shows that LicoA suppresses sUV-induced phosphorylation of Akt/ mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2/p90 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (RSK in HaCaT cells. Moreover, LicoA directly suppresses the activity of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK1, and B-Raf, but not Raf-1 in cell-free assays, indicating that PI3K, MEK1, and B-Raf are direct molecular targets of LicoA. We also found that LicoA binds to PI3K and B-Raf in an ATP-competitive manner, although LicoA does not appear to compete with ATP for binding with MEK1. Collectively, these results provide insight into the biological action of LicoA, which may have potential for development as a skin cancer chemopreventive agent.

  19. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepatocyte damage in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Guojun; Cao, Liping; Xu, Pao; Jeney, Galina; Nakao, Miki; Lu, Chengping

    2011-03-01

    The present study is aiming at evaluating the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract (2.5, 5 and 10 μg/ml) on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced carp hepatocyte damage in vitro. Glycyrrhiza glabra extract was added to the carp primary hepatocytes before (pre-treatment), after (post-treatment) and both before and after (pre- and post-treatment) the incubation of the hepatocytes with CCl(4). CCl(4) at 8 mM in the culture medium produced significantly elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutamate oxalate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and significantly reduced levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). Pre-treatment (5 μg/ml) and pre- and post-treatment (5 and 10 μg/ml) of the hepatocytes with Glycyrrhiza glabra extract significantly reduced the elevated levels of LDH, GOT, GPT and MDA and increased the reduced levels of SOD and GSH-Px by CCl(4); post-treatment of the hepatocytes with Glycyrrhiza glabra extract at 5 μg/ml reduced the GPT and GOT levels and increased the GSH-Px level, but had no effect on the other parameters at all the studied concentrations. The results support the use of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract as a hepatoprotective and antioxidant agent in fish.

  20. The Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Glycyrrhizaglabra L. (licorice Root on Serum Level of Glucose, Triglyceride and Cholesterol in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Induced by Letrozole in Rats

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    F Barazesh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder which effects 15.6 %  of women in Iran. Licorice (Glycyrrhizaglabra L. has phytoestrogenic and anti-diabetic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hydro-alcoholic Licorice root extract on blood sugar, triglycerides and cholesterol in the rats with PCOS. Methods: In the present experimental study, 50 female puber Sprague dawley (180±20 gr rats with regular sexual cycle were entered in the study.  Studied groups included: first, the Normal group, receiving carrier (normal saline (2 ml/kg daily orally for 21 days. Then, the letrozole group which received letrozole (1 mg/kg dissolved in normal saline (2 ml/kg for 21 days and then normal saline (2 ml/kg daily orally for 30 days. The last groups, Treatment groups 1 and 2, which received letrozole (1 mg/kg dissolved in normal saline (2 ml/kg for 21 days then hydroalcoholic extract of Licorice root (200 and 400 mg/kg dissolved in normal saline (2 ml/kg daily, orally for 30 days respectively. To conclude, blood samples were collected from the heart and also the serum level of blood sugar, triglyceride and cholesterol was measured. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA (p< 0.05. Results: The mean serum level of blood sugar increased in the Letrozole group compared to the normal group and decreased in the treatment groups compared to Letrozole group (p< 0.05. No statistically significant differences were seen in mean of serum level of triglyceride and cholesterol between all groups. Conclusion: The licoricecan extract improved the adverse side-effects caused by diabetese in polycystic ovary syndrome However, its effect on dyslipidemia in patients requiring further investigations.

  1. Evaluation of antigenotoxic activity of isoliquiritin apioside from Glycyrrhiza glabra L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Prabhjit; Kaur, Satwinderjeet; Kumar, Neeraj; Singh, Bikram; Kumar, Subodh

    2009-06-01

    Prevention of manifestation of events characteristic of carcinogenesis is being emphasized a rational strategy to combat cancer. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in tumor initiation through oxidative damage of DNA. In search for lead molecules in cancer chemoprevention from natural products, a fraction 'Rlicca' isolated from Glycyrrhiza glabra was studied for modulatory effect against hydrogen peroxide and 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide induced genotoxicity in Escherichiacoli PQ37 using SOS chromotest and in human peripheral blood lymphocytes using the Comet assay. The fraction 'Rlicca' at a concentration of 191 microM decreased the SOS inducing potency (SOSIP) of hydrogen peroxide (1.0mM) and NQO (20 microg/ml) by 83.72% and 68.77%, respectively. In the human blood lymphocytes, 'Rlicca' reduced the tail moment induced by hydrogen peroxide (25 microM) and NQO (5 microg/ml) by 88.04% and 76.64%, respectively, using the Comet assay. The spectroscopic data of 'Rlicca' fraction revealed it to be isoliquiritin apioside, a chalcone oligoglycoside. This is the first report of isoliquiritin apioside with marked potential to combat oxidative stress-induced genotoxicity.

  2. Antimicrobial Potential of Thiodiketopiperazine Derivatives Produced by Phoma sp., an Endophyte of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Palak; Wani, Zahoor A; Nalli, Yedukondalu; Ali, Asif; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed

    2016-11-01

    During the screening of endophytes obtained from Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn., the extract from a fungal culture designated as GG1F1 showed significant antimicrobial activity. The fungus was identified as a species of the genus Phoma and was most closely related to Phoma cucurbitacearum. The chemical investigation of the GG1F1 extract led to the isolation and characterization of two thiodiketopiperazine derivatives. Both the compounds inhibited the growth of several bacterial pathogens especially that of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, with IC50 values of less than 10 μM. The compounds strongly inhibited biofilm formation in both the pathogens. In vitro time kill kinetics showed efficient bactericidal activity of these compounds. The compounds were found to act synergistically with streptomycin while producing varying effects in combination with ciprofloxacin and ampicillin. The compounds inhibited bacterial transcription/translation in vitro, and also inhibited staphyloxanthin production in S. aureus. Although similar in structure, they differed significantly in some of their properties, particularly the effect on the expression of pathogenecity related genes in S. aureus at sub-lethal concentrations. Keeping in view the antimicrobial potential of these compounds, it would be needful to scale up the production of these compounds through fermentation technology and further explore their potential as antibiotics using in vivo models.

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation on the antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activities of Glycyrrhiza glabra root

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khattak, Khanzadi Fatima, E-mail: khattakkf@yahoo.co [Food Science Division, Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA), Peshawar (Pakistan); School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, BS8 1TS, Bristol (United Kingdom); James Simpson, Thomas [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, BS8 1TS, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    The efficacy of gamma irradiation as a method of decontamination for food and herbal materials is well established. In the present study, Glycyrrhiza glabra roots were irradiated at doses 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy in a cobalt-60 irradiator. The irradiated and un-irradiated control samples were evaluated for phenolic contents, antimicrobial activities and DPPH scavenging properties. The result of the present study showed that radiation treatment up to 20 kGy does not affect the antifungal and antibacterial activity of the plant. While sample irradiated at 25 kGy does showed changes in the antibacterial activity against some selected pathogens. No significant differences in the phenolic contents were observed for control and samples irradiated at 5, 10 and 15 kGy radiation doses. However, phenolic contents increased in samples treated with 20 and 25 kGy doses. The DPPH scavenging activity significantly (p<0.05) increased in all irradiated samples of the plant.

  4. Dual inhibitory effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra (GutGard™) on COX and LOX products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, C V; Deepak, H B; Thiyagarajan, P; Kathiresan, S; Sangli, Gopal Krishna; Deepak, M; Agarwal, Amit

    2011-02-15

    Glycyrrhiza glabra and its phytoconstituents have been known to possess widespread pharmacological properties as an anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, antitumour and hepatoprotective drug. In this study, we examined the inhibitory potential of extract of G. glabra (GutGard™) root and its phytoconstituents (glabridin, glycyrrhizin, and isoliquiritigenin) on both cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) products in order to understand the mechanism of its anti-inflammatory action. Inhibitory effect of GutGard™ and its phytoconstituents on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), calcimycin (A23187) induced thromboxane (TXB(2)), and leukotriene (LTB(4)) release was studied using murine macrophages (J774A.1) and human neutrophil (HL-60) cells. Results revealed that, G. glabra and glabridin significantly inhibited PGE(2), TXB(2) (COX) and LTB(4) (LOX), while, isoliquiritigenin exerted inhibitory effect only against COX products but failed to suppress LOX product. However, glycyrrhizin at the tested concentrations failed to exhibit inhibitory effect on both COX and LOX products. Here, we report for the first time that G. glabra (almost devoid of glycyrrhizin) exhibits anti-inflammatory property likely through the inhibition of PGE(2), TXB(2) and LTB(4) in mammalian cell assay system, which could be influenced in part by glabridin and isoliquiritigenin.

  5. Filamenting temperature-sensitive mutant Z inhibitors from Glycyrrhiza glabra and their inhibitory mode of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Takashi; Lallo, Subehan; Nisa, Khoirun; Morita, Hiroyuki

    2017-03-15

    FtsZ is an essential protein for bacterial cell division, and an attractive and underexploited novel antibacterial target protein. Screening of Indonesian plants revealed the inhibitory activity of the methanol extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra on the Bacillus subtilis FtsZ (BsFtsZ) GTPase, and further bioassay-guided fractionation of the active methanol extract led to the isolation of seven known polyketides (1-7). Among them, gancaonin I (1), glycyrin (3), and isolicoflavanol (5) exhibited anti-BsFtsZ GTPase activities, at levels comparable to that of the synthetic FtsZ inhibitor, Zantrin Z3. Enzymatic assays using a BsFtsZ Val307R mutant protein and in silico simulations suggested that 1, 3, and 5 bind to the cleft on BsFtsZ, as in the case of the previously reported uncompetitive FtsZ inhibitor, PC190723, and thereby display their significant anti-BsFtsZ inhibitory activities. Furthermore, 1 also showed significant inhibitory activity against B. subtilis, with a MIC value of 5μM. The present study provides new insights into the naturally occurring B. subtilis growth inhibitors.

  6. Protective effect of polyphenols from Glycyrrhiza glabra against oxidative stress in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Stefania; Morana, Alessandra; Salvatore, Anna; Zappia, Vincenzo; Galletti, Patrizia

    2009-12-01

    In the present article, we have investigated the antioxidant properties of methanolic liquorice polyphenol extracts (LPE(s)). Polyphenol extraction was performed with 60% and 100% methanol. Analysis of LPE(s) by thin-layer chromatography revealed that a higher amount of polyphenols was recovered by extraction with 60% methanol. Antioxidant activity measurement of the reducing power, scavenging effect on 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging capability have been taken as the parameters for assessment of antioxidant potential of LPE(s). Results have been compared with both natural and synthetic antioxidants. All experimental data have indicated that LPE(s) possess strong antioxidant power proportional to their o-diphenolic and total polyphenolic content, independently from the assay used. Therefore, the LPE(s) antioxidant property was examined against the cytotoxic effects of reactive oxygen species in human colon carcinoma cells. Pretreatment of Caco-2 cells with liquorice polyphenolic extracts provided a remarkable protection against oxidative damage induced by H(2)O(2). The highest oxidative stress protection (72% of cell vitality) was measured in cells pretreated with 0.54 mM polyphenols. This effect seems to be associated to the antioxidant activity of liquorice polyphenolic compounds. Our data suggest that polyphenols from Glycyrrhiza glabra could exert a beneficial action in the prevention of intestinal pathologies related to production of reactive oxygen species.

  7. Effect of gamma irradiation on the antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activities of Glycyrrhiza glabra root

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima Khattak, Khanzadi; James Simpson, Thomas

    2010-04-01

    The efficacy of gamma irradiation as a method of decontamination for food and herbal materials is well established. In the present study, Glycyrrhiza glabra roots were irradiated at doses 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy in a cobalt-60 irradiator. The irradiated and un-irradiated control samples were evaluated for phenolic contents, antimicrobial activities and DPPH scavenging properties. The result of the present study showed that radiation treatment up to 20 kGy does not affect the antifungal and antibacterial activity of the plant. While sample irradiated at 25 kGy does showed changes in the antibacterial activity against some selected pathogens. No significant differences in the phenolic contents were observed for control and samples irradiated at 5, 10 and 15 kGy radiation doses. However, phenolic contents increased in samples treated with 20 and 25 kGy doses. The DPPH scavenging activity significantly ( p<0.05) increased in all irradiated samples of the plant.

  8. Evaluation of antioxidant and anti-atherogenic properties of Glycyrrhiza glabra root using in vitro models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visavadiya, Nishant P; Soni, Badrish; Dalwadi, Nirav

    2009-01-01

    The aim of present study was to evaluate antioxidant property of Glycyrrhiza glabra root extracts using in vitro models. The dose-dependent aqueous and ethanolic extracts demonstrated the scavenging activity against nitric oxide (concentration that caused 50% inhibition of nitric oxide radicals [IC(50)]=72 and 62.1 microg/ml, respectively), superoxide (IC(50)=64.2 and 38.4 microg/ml, respectively), hydroxyl (IC(50)=81.9 and 63 microg/ml, respectively), DPPH (IC(50)=43.6 and 28.3 microg/ml, respectively) and ABTS(*+) (IC(50)=77.3 and 57.2 microg/ml, respectively) radicals. Further, both extracts showed strong reducing power and iron-chelating capacities. In the Fe(2+)/ascorbate system, both extracts were found to inhibit mitochondrial fraction lipid peroxidation. In copper-catalyzed human serum and low-density lipoprotein oxidation models, both extracts significantly (Pglabra possess considerable antioxidant activity and protective effect against the human lipoprotein oxidative system.

  9. Comparisons of yields and effective constituents of various kinds of licorice in different picking time%不同采收期各品种甘草产量和有效成分的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶菊; 邱黛玉; 曾擎义; 蔺海明; 张汉平; 王升元; 赵贵亮

    2016-01-01

    目的 比较不同采收期甘草Glycyrrhizae uralensis、光果甘草Glycyrrhizae glabra、胀果甘草Glycyrrhizae inflate、刺果甘草Glycyrrhizae pallidiflora、黄甘草Glycyrrhizae eurycarpa的产量和其有效成分甘草苷、甘草酸的含有量.方法 以1~3年生、不同采收期的甘草为原料,称重法测定其干重(产量的主要因素),HPLC法测定甘草苷和甘草酸含有量.结果 甘草苷、甘草酸的含有量以及干重均依次为甘草>光果甘草>胀果甘草>刺果甘草>黄甘草、3年生>2年生>1年生、当年秋季>次年春季.结论 在人工栽培条件下,我国西北干旱荒漠与半荒漠地区应选用3年生的甘草进行培育,最佳采收期为当年秋季.

  10. Glycyrrhiza glabra protects from myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury by improving hemodynamic, biochemical, histopathological and ventricular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Shreesh; Golechha, Mahaveer; Kumari, Santosh; Bhatia, Jagriti; Arya, Dharamvir S

    2013-01-01

    Present study evaluated the cardioprotective effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra against ischemia-reperfusion injury (I-R) induced by ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery (LADCA) in rats. Ligation of LADCA for 45 min followed by 60 min of reperfusion has induced significant (pglabra significantly (pglabra also prevented GSH depletion and inhibited lipid peroxidation in heart. In addition to improving biochemical indices of myocardial function, G. glabra also significantly (pglabra. Taken together, results of the present study clearly suggest the cardioprotective potential of G. glabra against myocardial infarction by amelioration of oxidative stress and favorable modulation of cardiac function.

  11. Beneficial effect of aqueous root extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra on learning and memory using different behavioral models: An experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background: In the traditional system of medicine, the roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Gg) (family: Leguminosae) have been studied for their ability to improve a variety of health ailments. Aims: The present study was designed to investigate the beneficial effects of Gg root extract on learning and memory in 1-month-old male Wistar albino rats. Four doses (75, 150, 225, and 300 mg/kg) of aqueous extract of root of Gg was administered orally for six successive weeks. Materials and Me...

  12. 粉甘草去除栓皮的净制加工合理性研究和探讨%Studies on the Processing Rationality of Glycyrrhizae Radix ET Rhizoma Peeling Cork

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许华容; 石柏川; 赵志刚

    2011-01-01

    目的:对比甘草Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma栓皮与未去栓皮甘草中的化学成分,探讨粉甘草净制加工中去除栓皮的合理性.方法:采用TLC法,分析甘草栓皮与未去栓皮甘草中化学成分的差异,以乙酸乙酯-甲酸-冰醋酸-水(15:1:1:2)为展开剂,10%硫酸乙醇溶液显色,在紫外灯(365nm)下检视.结果:甘草栓皮供试品色谱中,在与未去栓皮甘草供试品色谱和甘草对照药材色谱相应的位置上,均未显相同颜色和大小的荧光斑点.结论:甘草栓皮与未去栓皮甘草中的化学成分有较明显的不同,推测粉甘草在净制加工中去除栓皮是有一定原因的.%Objective: To compare the chemical constituents in the cork of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizome and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma not peeled cork in order to study on the processing rationality of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma peeling cork. Methods: Use TLC method, to analyze the differences of the chemical constituents in the cork of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma not peeled cork. Developing agent: ethyl acetate-formic acid-glacial acetic acid-water ( 15:1: 1: 2 ); chromogenic agent: 10% sulphuric acid-ethanol; UV detector wavelength was set at 365nm.Results: In the chromatography of the cork of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma assayed sample, different fluorescent spots were present compared with the position of the Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma not peeled cork assayed sample and the Glycyrrhizae Radix el Rhizoma reference material medical. Conclusion: The chemical constituents in the cork of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma was considerably different from that in Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma not peeled cork, and presumably, the processing of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma peeling cork may have some reasons.

  13. Comparison the Content of Total Flavonoids in Different Callus of Glycyrrhiza glabra L.%光果甘草不同愈伤组织中总黄酮含量的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余茜; 马淼; 赵红艳

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究不同激素组合、激素水平及添加物(水解乳蛋白)对光果甘草6种外植体愈伤组织中总黄酮含量的影响.方法:通过组织培养的方法获得愈伤组织,以芦丁为标准品,采用分光光度法于500 nm处测定愈伤组织中总黄酮的含量.结果:在附加6-BA 4.0 mg/L+ NAA 1.0 mg/L的MS培养基中,节间愈伤组织中总黄酮含量最高,为2.316%±0.015%.培养基中添加水解乳蛋白500 mg/L后极显著地增加了所有外植体愈伤组织中的黄酮含量;在附加了6-BA 1.0 mg/L+ NAA1.0 mg/L+水解乳蛋白500 mg/L的MS培养基中,节间愈伤组织中总黄酮含量最高,为2.376%±0.003%.结论:6-BA与NAA的激素组合,以及水解乳蛋白的添加,均有利于光果甘草愈伤组织总黄酮的生产.%Objective; To study the effects of hormone kinds, hormone levels and additives ( hydrolysate lactopro-tein) on content of total flavonoids in 6 callus of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Method; Callus were obtained by micropropagation. ,the content of flavonoids was determined at wavelength of 510 nm with spectrophotometry by the standard of rutin. Result;The content of flavonoids in callus derived from internodes was the highest among the all treatments,it was as high as 2. 316% ±0.015% when incubated on MS + 6-BA4.0 mg/L + NAA 1.0 mg/L. The contents of flavonoids were significantly increased as hydrolysate lactoprotein was added in MS solid medium. When the internodes were inoculated on MS + 6-BA 1. 0 mg/L + NAA 1.0 mg/L + hydrolysate lactoprotein 500 mg/L,the content of flavonoids was the largest as high as 2. 376% ±0. 003% . Conclusion; Combination of 6-BA and NAA, as well as lactoprotein hydrolysate was beneficial to the production of licorice flavonoids.

  14. Purification of flavonoids from licorice using an off-line preparative two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography/reversed-phase liquid chromatography method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yunpeng; Fu, Yanhui; Fu, Qing; Cai, Jianfeng; Xin, Huaxia; Dai, Mei; Jin, Yu

    2016-07-01

    An orthogonal (71.9%) off-line preparative two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography/reversed-phase liquid chromatography method coupled with effective sample pretreatment was developed for separation and purification of flavonoids from licorice. Most of the nonflavonoids were firstly removed using a self-made Click TE-Cys (60 μm) solid-phase extraction. In the first dimension, an industrial grade preparative chromatography was employed to purify the crude flavonoids. Click TE-Cys (10 μm) was selected as the stationary phase that provided an excellent separation with high reproducibility. Ethyl acetate/ethanol was selected as the mobile phase owing to their excellent solubility for flavonoids. Flavonoids co-eluted in the first dimension were selected for further purification using reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Multiple compounds could be isolated from one normal-phase fraction and some compounds with bad resolution in one-dimensional liquid chromatography could be prepared in this two-dimensional system owing to the orthogonal separation. Moreover, this two-dimensional liquid chromatography method was beneficial for the preparation of relatively trace flavonoid compounds, which were enriched in the first dimension and further purified in the second dimension. Totally, 24 flavonoid compounds with high purity were obtained. The results demonstrated that the off-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography method was effective for the preparative separation and purification of flavonoids from licorice.

  15. Stress-associated radiation effects in pygmy wood mouse Apodemus uralensis (Muridae, Rodentia) populations from the East-Urals Radioactive Trace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orekhova, Natal'ya A; Modorov, Makar V

    2016-09-01

    This work is based on the comparative analysis of data obtained in the course of monitoring pygmy wood mouse populations (Apodemus uralensis Pallas, 1811) in the East-Urals Radioactive Trace (EURT) area and background territories. The effect of population size and its interaction with the radioactivity on biochemical parameters in the spleen and adrenal glands was studied. The concentrations of total lipids, proteins, DNA and RNA, activity of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase and catalase as well as the level of lipid peroxidation (LPO) were evaluated. The functional-metabolic shifts seen with large population sizes were characterized by delipidisation of adrenocortical cells, increased LPO as the main mechanism for steroidogenesis, growth of the protein components of the adrenal glands to maintain their hyperfunction, as well as immunosuppression associated with the restriction of carbohydrates providing splenocytes, reduction of DNA synthesis, and the development of a pro-/antioxidant imbalance. Reactivity of the neuroendocrine and hematopoietic systems of animals experiencing a high population density was higher in the EURT zone compared with the reference group. This difference can be explained by the additional stress from the chronic radiation exposure. The level of LPO, catalase activity, and DNA/protein ratio in the spleen and the total protein content in the adrenal glands were the most sensitive to the interaction of population size and radiation exposure. The harmful effect (distress) of the interaction of non-radiation and radiation factors can manifest when there is a population abundance above 30 ind./100 trap-day and a radiation burden which exceeds the lower boundary of the Derived Consideration Reference Levels, which is above 0.1 mGy/day.

  16. Assessment of median lethal dose and anti-mutagenic effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract against chemically induced micronucleus formation in Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Sharma

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Based on this study, it may be concluded that Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract possess anti-mutagenic behavior and this hydro-methanolic crude extract may be safe as per the LD50 was observed. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 292-297

  17. Effect of Root Extracts of Medicinal Herb Glycyrrhiza glabra on HSP90 Gene Expression and Apoptosis in the HT-29 Colon Cancer Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourazarian, Seyed Manuchehr; Nourazarian, Alireza; Majidinia, Maryam; Roshaniasl, Elmira

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common lethal cancer types worldwide. In recent years, widespread and large-scale studies have been done on medicinal plants for anti-cancer effects, including Glycyrrhiza glabra. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an ethanol extract Glycyrrhiza glabra on the expression of HSP90, growth and apoptosis in the HT-29 colon cancer cell line. HT-29 cells were treated with different concentrations of extract (50,100,150, and 200 μg/ml). For evaluation of cell proliferation and apoptosis, we used MTT assay and flow cytometry technique, respectively. RT-PCR was also carried out to evaluate the expression levels of HSP90 genes. Results showed that Glycyrrhiza glabra inhibited proliferation of the HT-29 cell line at a concentration of 200 μg/ml and this was confirmed by the highest rate of cell death as measured by trypan blue and MTT assays. RT-PCR results showed down-regulation of HSP90 gene expression which implied an ability of Glycyrrhiza glabra to induce apoptosis in HT-29 cells and confirmed its anticancer property. Further studies are required to evaluate effects of the extract on other genes and also it is necessary to make an extensive in vivo biological evaluation and subsequently proceed with clinical evaluations.

  18. [Effect of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma combined with Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma on p53 and p21 gene expression of IEC-6 cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Fang; Jiang, Ze-bo; Zhang, Xian; Hu, Jin-ping; Li, Si-ming; Zhao, Jin; Zeng, Xing

    2015-05-01

    To study the effect of the combined administration of different doses of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma on the proliferation of DFMO-treated intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) and p53, p21 mRNA and protein expressions, in order to define the molecular basis for the effect of the combined administration of different doses of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma on the cell proliferation. The effect of the drugs on the cell division rate and cell cycle of IEC-6 cells was detected by FCM. Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to analyze the effect of the drugs on mRNA of p2l and p53 related to IEC-6 proliferation. Western blot was used to analyze the effect of the drugs on p2l and p53 protein expressions of IEC-6 cells. Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma could increase p53, p21 mRNA and proteins expression in DFMO-treated IEC-6 cells. The combined administration of different ratios of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma could significantly down-regulate Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma's effect on p53, p21 mRNA and proteins expression in DFMO-treated IEC-6 cells and promote the proliferation of IEC-6 cells. The combined administration of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma could down-regulate Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma's effect on DFMO-treated intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6).

  19. Research and Practice on Classic Prescription with Use of Euphorbia Kansui Match Licorice%经方运用甘遂配甘草的探索与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王付

    2011-01-01

    探索经方甘遂半夏汤中甘遂配甘草的理论研究与临床应用.方法 通过研究甘遂配甘草的古代认识,历代沿袭,以及甘遂、甘草主治、化学成分及药理,甘遂配甘草是否产生新的毒性,甘遂配甘草之间的用量调配关系等,进而证实临床运用以甘遂半夏汤为主治疗肠结核,甲状腺炎的可行性与实用性.结果 探索甘遂配甘草在理论上是科学的,在临床中具有良好的治疗作用.结论 历史记载甘遂与甘草相反是缺乏理论假说的,临床中合理应用辨治诸多病证则是客观事实.%Objective: This article research classic prescription on euphorbia kansui and pinellia soup, which is contained the euphorbia kansui to match the licorice , with the theoretical research and the clinical practice. Method: Through the research on euphorbia kansui matched the licorice the ancient times to know that, all previous dynasties followed, as well as the euphorbia kansui, the licorice mainly treatment effects, the chemical composition and the pharmacology, the euphorbia kansui match the licorice whether had the new toxicity, how to deploy the euphorbia kansui matched the licorice and so on, then the confirmation clinical utilized by the euphorbia kansui pinellia soup primarily treats intestinal tuberculosis, the thyroiditis feasibility and practicality. Result: The exploration euphorbia kansui matches the licorice theoretically is scientific, in clinical also has the good treatment function. Conclusion: The historical record euphorbia kansui and the licorice relative opposite lack the theory hypothesis, the clinical reasonable application differentiation of symptoms and signs is objective fact.

  20. 甘草及提取物在食品中的应用进展%Application of Glycyrrhiza and Its Extractive in Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    豆康宁; 王飞; 罗海澜; 王富刚

    2014-01-01

    研究甘草在食品中应用,能够提高甘草的综合利用价值,制造出更多更好具有甘草特色的食品。甘草是药食两用资源,生理活性成分主要有三萜类化合物、黄酮类化合物及甘草多糖类化合物三大类成分。甘草提取物味甜,具有抑菌、抗病毒、抗氧化等诸多功能,在食品添加剂中作为甜味剂和抗氧化剂在饼干、肉制品等食品中使用,因具有生理活性功能在保健食品中应用广泛。目前甘草及提取物在粮油制品、肉制品、饮料、糖果、果冻、果脯、瓜子、酱油等食品中都有应用和研究。%Study on application of the glycyrrhiza and its extractive in the food industry can improve the comprehensive utilization of glycyrrhiza, which can promote to create more and better food with glycyrrhiza characteristics. Glycyrrhiza is medicine and food resources, physiological active ingredients are triterpenoids, flavonoids and polysaccharide. The glycyrrhiza and its extractive taste sweetly, that have antibacterial, antiviral, antioxidant and many other functions, the glycyrrhiza and its extractive are used in biscuit, meat and other foods as a sweetener and antioxidant, which also has been widely applied in health food because of physiological active functions. Now the application of glycyrrhiza and its extractive in grain and oil products, meat products, beverage, candy, jelly, dried fruit, seeds, soy sauce and so on are researched widely.

  1. Feeding Glycyrrhiza glabra (liquorice) and Astragalus membranaceus (AM) alters innate immune and physiological responses in yellow perch (Perca flavescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elabd, Hiam; Wang, Han-Ping; Shaheen, Adel; Yao, Hong; Abbass, Amany

    2016-07-01

    The current work assessed the potential immunomodulatory and growth-promoting effects of Astragalus membranaceus (AM) and Glycyrrhiza glabra (liquorice) in Yellow perch (Perca flavescens). In this regard, fish with an average weight of 31 ± 1.0 g were divided into five groups, and fed daily with an additive-free basal diet (control); 1, 2, and 3% (w/w) Glycyrrhiza glabra, and the fifth diet was incorporated with a combination of 1% G. glabra-AM for a four-week period. Immunological, biochemical and growth parameters were measured; and sub-groups of fish were exposed to 1-week starvation. The results showed that incorporating AM and liquorice in the diet significantly improved Immunological [superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), Lipid peroxidase (LPx) and lysozyme activities], biochemical [Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) and Alanine Transaminase (ALT) activities; and glucose and cortisol concentrations] and growth performance parameters [body mass gain (BMG), specific growth rate (SGR), length, condition factor (K) and feed conversion ratio (FCR)]. In addition, markedly up-regulated the expression of related genes [Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1), Serum amyloid A (SAA), Complement Component C3 (CCC3), Alpha 2 Macroglobulin (A2M), SOD and GPx] in treated fish groups compared to the control. Conclusively, feeding AM and liquorice diets significantly increased (P < 0.05) growth performance, antioxidant and immune response profiles throughout the entire experiment, suggesting their beneficial rule as natural anti-stress agents.

  2. Studies on the Identification of Constituents in Ethanol Extract of Radix Glycyrrhizae and Their Anti-Primary Hepatoma Cell Susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to study the chemical constituents of Radix Glycyrrhizae and to apply the resulting natural products in the study of drug susceptibility of hepatoma cells so as to provide a scientific basis for quality standards and clinical application of medicinal Radix Glycyrrhizae. Chromatographic materials were used for isolation and purification; structural identification was performed based on physicochemical properties and spectral data. MTT colorimetry was used to detect the proliferation inhibition rate against primary hepatoma cells by natural products, and flow cytometry was used to detect the changes in cell cycle progression. Five compounds were isolated and identified, namely, liquiritigenin (1, liquiritin (2, isoliquiritigenin (3, betulinic acid (4, and oleanolic acid (5. In the study, 5-FU (5-fluorouracil is used as a positive control to the hepatoma cells. Primary hepatoma cells were highly susceptible to 5-FU and liquiritigenin, both of which markedly inhibited the proliferation of hepatoma cells; flow cytometry results showed an increase in G0/G1 phase cells, a decrease in S phase cells, and a relative increase in G2/M phase cells. Primary hepatoma cells are highly susceptible to liquiritigenin, a natural product; the testing of tumor cell susceptibility is of important significance to the improvement of therapeutic effect of cancer.

  3. QUANTIFICATION OF GLYCYRRHIZIN BIOMARKER IN GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA RHIZOME AND BABY HERBAL FORMULATIONS BY VALIDATED RP-HPTLC METHODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Prawez; Foudah, Ahmed I.; Zaatout, Hala H.; T, Kamal Y; Abdel-Kader, Maged S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: A simple and sensitive thin-layer chromatographic method has been established for quantification of glycyrrhizin in Glycyrrhiza glabra rhizome and baby herbal formulations by validated Reverse Phase HPTLC method. Materials and Methods: RP-HPTLC Method was carried out using glass coated with RP-18 silica gel 60 F254S HPTLC plates using methanol-water (7: 3 v/v) as mobile phase. Results: The developed plate was scanned and quantified densitometrically at 256 nm. Glycyrrhizin peaks from Glycyrrhiza glabra rhizome and baby herbal formulations were identified by comparing their single spot at Rf = 0.63 ± 0.01. Linear regression analysis revealed a good linear relationship between peak area and amount of glycyrrhizin in the range of 2000-7000 ng/band. Conclusion: The method was validated, in accordance with ICH guidelines for precision, accuracy, and robustness. The proposed method will be useful to enumerate the therapeutic dose of glycyrrhizin in herbal formulations as well as in bulk drug. PMID:28573236

  4. 乌拉尔甘草规范化生产标准操作规程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫庆光; 成治军

    2010-01-01

    @@ 甘草为豆科植物甘草Clycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.、胀果甘草Glycyrrhiza inflata Bat.或光果甘草Glycyrrhiza glabra L.的干燥根及根茎[1],具有抗溃疡、抗炎、抗过敏、镇咳祛痰等药理作用[2].

  5. Estrogen-like activity of licorice root constituents: glabridin and glabrene, in vascular tissues in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somjen, Dalia; Knoll, Esther; Vaya, Jacob; Stern, Naftali; Tamir, Snait

    2004-07-01

    Post-menopausal women have higher incidence of heart diseases compared to pre-menopausal women, suggesting a protective role for estrogen. The recently Women's Health Initiative (WHI) randomized controlled trial concluded that the overall heart risk exceeded benefits from use of combined estrogen and progestin as hormone replacement therapy for an average of five years among healthy postmenopausal US women. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new agents with tissue-selective activity with no deleterious effects. In the present study, we tested the effects on vascular tissues in vitro and in vivo of two natural compounds derived from licorice root: glabridin, the major isoflavan, and glabrene, an isoflavene, both demonstrated estrogen-like activities. Similar to estradiol-17beta (E2), glabridin (gla) stimulated DNA synthesis in human endothelial cells (ECV-304; E304) and had a bi-phasic effect on proliferation of human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Raloxifene inhibited gla as well as E2 activities. In animal studies, both intact females or after ovariectomy, gla similar to E2 stimulated the specific activity of creatine kinase (CK) in aorta (Ao) and in left ventricle of the heart (Lv). Glabrene (glb), on the other hand, had only the stimulatory effect on DNA synthesis in vascular cells, with no inhibition by raloxifene, suggesting a different mechanism of action. To further elucidate the mechanism of action of glb, cells were pre-incubated with glb and then exposed to either E2 or to gla; the DNA stimulation at low doses was unchanged but there was abolishment of the inhibition of VSMC cell proliferation at high doses as well as inhibition of CK stimulation by both E2 and by gla. We conclude that glb behaved differently than E2 or gla, but similarly to raloxifene, being a partial agonist/antagonist of E2. Glabridin, on the other hand, demonstrated only estrogenic activity. Therefore, we suggest the use of glb with or without E2 as a new agent for

  6. Anti-Staphylococcal and wound healing activities of Ganoderma praelongum and Glycyrrhiza glabra formulation in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulghani - Ameri

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Topical antimicrobial therapy is one of the most important methods of wound care. In this investigation, we evaluated topical gel preparations of Ganoderma praelongum and Glycyrrhiza glabra aqueous extracts alone and in combination for antimicrobial and wound healing activities in MRSA - infected excision and incision wound models in mice. Gel formulations containing 0.3% G. praelongum, 2.5% G. glabra and combination of the two were prepared and tested for their influence on wound infection, wound contraction and epithelization phases of wound healing. Mupirocin ointment was applied as a standard treatment antibiotic. Results indicated that all three gel formulations promoted wound healing in both models by influencing wound contraction and epithelization phases. Examination of wounds at the end of our study period revealed that wounds treated with G. praelongum and G. glabra gel  formulations (combination gel showed considerable contraction and epithelization as compared to the gel base – treated group (negative control. Assumption could be made that this wound promotion is due to the anti – Staphylococcal activity of Ganoderma and wound healing activity of G. glabra.   Industrial relevance: Medicine using fungal metabolites is now recognized. A mushroom that has gained worldwide attention is Ganoderma lucidum and has been used to treat a wide spectrum of ailments including fungal and bacterial infections for long periods of time throughout history of ancient traditional medicine. Previous reports indicate that ganoderma lucidum mycelia are usually prescribed in the form of soup, syrup, tea, tablets, capsules, tincture or bolus or injected as a solution of powdered spores. In this study, the combination gel containing aqueous extracts of G. praelongum and G. glabra effectively inhibited the growth of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and promoted wound healing in mice. Further phytochemical studies are needed to

  7. Study of New Technology of the Preparation of Glycrrhizic Acid from Licorice%甘草酸制备新工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔杏雨; 崔健; 陈树伟

    2001-01-01

    用连续提取装置一次性完成甘草酸提取过程,以AB-8大孔吸附树脂法分离甘草酸,最后用活性炭纯化。甘草酸收率较一般方法高,达70%~80%,纯度90%以上,操作简便。%Glycyrrhizic acid from licorice was entracted with continuous extraction device and was separated with macroporous absorbent AB-8. The crude product was purified with active charcoal to get a colorless or pale yellow product. The total yields range from 70% to 80% and purities are up to 90%. This facile method gives a higher yield than conventional ones.

  8. Environ: E00027 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ceae (pea family) Glycyrrhiza root and stolon Major component: Glycyrrhizin [CPD:C02284] Medicinal herbs [BR:br08322] Dicot plants: rosids Fabaceae (pea family) E00027 Licorice ...

  9. The Evaluation of Methanolic Extract of Glycyrrhiza Glabra Effect on the Replication of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in Vero Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sabouri Ghanad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The side effects of drug consumption and also HSV resistance to drugs have been the factors attracting the researchers to herbal drugs. The major aim of the present research was in vitro assessment of possible anti-herpetic activity of glycyrrhiza gla-bra (liquorices root methanolic extract in more details by performing Tissue Culture Infec-tive Dose fifty percent (TCID50 method. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study Vero cells were incubated with different con-centrations of methanolic extracts of glycyrrhiza glabra .Neutral red assay was performed in order to consider the appropriate concentration of the extract. Pre-treatment of Vero cells with glycyrrhiza glabra extract before viral infection, incubation of HSV-1 with glycyrrhiza glabra extract and treatment of vero cells with extract 1, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours after viral in-fection, were exerted. TCID50 was performed in order to assess the antiviral activity of the extract. The results were analyzed after performing the experiments at least three times. Results: Pre-treatment of Vero cells with methanolic extract for two hours and incubation of virus with extract for one and two hours prior to viral infection resulted in remarkable drop in TCID50 amount by significant difference (P <0.001. Treatment of Vero cells with extract 1, 8 and 12 hours post-infection demonstrated significant changes in TCID50. We observed significant fluctuations and different efficacy of the extract between different incubation time at 1h & 4h, 1h & 24h, 4h & 8h, 4h & 12h, 8h & 24h, 12h & 24h. Conclusion: The current study resulted in more novel findings of anti herpetic activity of gly-cyrrhiza glabra extract. Time course of extract treatment with virus- infected cells was an ef-ficient factor. In addition, the pretreatment of virus and also Vero cells with glycyrrhiza gla-bra extract in our experiment had important effects on the anti-viral activity of the extract. (Sci J

  10. Estimation of multivariate detection limits of four quality parameters in licorice using MEMS–NIR spectrometry coupled with two sampling accessories

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    Zhisheng Wu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, multivariate detection limits (MDL estimator was obtained based on the micro-electro-mechanical systems–near infrared (MEMS–NIR technology coupled with two sampling accessories to assess the detection capability of four quality parameters (glycyrrhizic acid, liquiritin, liquiritigenin and isoliquiritin in licorice from different geographical regions. 112 licorice samples were divided into two parts (calibration set and prediction set using Kennard–Stone (KS method. Four quality parameters were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method according to Chinese pharmacopoeia and previous studies. The MEMS–NIR spectra were acquired from fiber optic probe (FOP and integrating sphere, then the partial least squares (PLS model was obtained using the optimum processing method. Chemometrics indicators have been utilized to assess the PLS model performance. Model assessment using chemometrics indicators is based on relative mean prediction error of all concentration levels, which indicated relatively low sensitivity for low-content analytes (below 1000 parts per million (ppm. Therefore, MDL estimator was introduced with alpha error and beta error based on good prediction characteristic of low concentration levels. The result suggested that MEMS–NIR technology coupled with fiber optic probe (FOP and integrating sphere was able to detect minor analytes. The result further demonstrated that integrating sphere mode (i.e., MDL0.05,0.05, 0.22% was more robust than FOP mode (i.e., MDL0.05,0.05, 0.48%. In conclusion, this research proposed that MDL method was helpful to determine the detection capabilities of low-content analytes using MEMS–NIR technology and successful to compare two sampling accessories.

  11. Application of Glycyrrhiza glabra Root as a Novel Adsorbent in the Removal of Toluene Vapors: Equilibrium, Kinetic, and Thermodynamic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazel Mohammadi-Moghadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the removal of toluene from gaseous solution through Glycyrrhiza glabra root (GGR as a waste material. The batch adsorption experiments were conducted at various conditions including contact time, adsorbate concentration, humidity, and temperature. The adsorption capacity was increased by raising the sorbent humidity up to 50 percent. The adsorption of toluene was also increased over contact time by 12 h when the sorbent was saturated. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Freundlich model fitted the adsorption data better than other kinetic and isotherm models, respectively. The Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R isotherm also showed that the sorption by GGR was physical in nature. The results of the thermodynamic analysis illustrated that the adsorption process is exothermic. GGR as a novel adsorbent has not previously been used for the adsorption of pollutants.

  12. Application of Glycyrrhiza glabra root as a novel adsorbent in the removal of toluene vapors: equilibrium, kinetic, and thermodynamic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi-Moghadam, Fazel; Amin, Mohammad Mehdi; Khiadani Hajian, Mehdi; Momenbeik, Fariborz; Nourmoradi, Heshmatollah; Hatamipour, Mohammad Sadegh

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the removal of toluene from gaseous solution through Glycyrrhiza glabra root (GGR) as a waste material. The batch adsorption experiments were conducted at various conditions including contact time, adsorbate concentration, humidity, and temperature. The adsorption capacity was increased by raising the sorbent humidity up to 50 percent. The adsorption of toluene was also increased over contact time by 12 h when the sorbent was saturated. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Freundlich model fitted the adsorption data better than other kinetic and isotherm models, respectively. The Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm also showed that the sorption by GGR was physical in nature. The results of the thermodynamic analysis illustrated that the adsorption process is exothermic. GGR as a novel adsorbent has not previously been used for the adsorption of pollutants.

  13. Evaluation of the Antibacterial Efficacy of Azadirachta Indica, Commiphora Myrrha, Glycyrrhiza Glabra Against Enterococcus Faecalis using Real Time PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Suresh; Rajan, Mathan; Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu; Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Shravya, Yarramreddy; Rajeswari, Kalaiselvam

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To compare the antibacterial efficacy of Azadirachta indica (Neem), Commiphora myrrha (Myrrh), Glycyrrhiza glabra (Liquorice) with 2% Chlorhexidine (CHX) against E. faecalis by using Real Time PCR Materials and Methods: A total of fifty teeth specimens (n=50) were inoculated with E. faecalis for 21 days. Specimens were divided into five groups (Group 1: Myrrh, Group 2: Neem, Group 3: Liquorice, Group 4: 2% CHX and Group 5: Saline (negative control)). The intracanal medicaments were packed inside the tooth. After 5 days, the remaining microbial load was determined by using real time PCR Results: Threshold cycle (Ct) values of Myrrh extract, Neem extract, Liquorice Extract, 2% CHX and saline were found to be 30.94, 23.85, 21.38, 30.93 and 17.8 respectively Conclusion: Myrrh extract showed inhibition of E.faecalis equal to that of 2% CHX followed by Neem, Liquorice and Saline PMID:27386000

  14. 3种甘草属植物的核型研究%Karyotypes of three species in Glycyrrhiza

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔红

    2006-01-01

    用光学显微镜观察了豆科(Leguminosae)甘草属(Glycyrrhiza)3种荒漠植物的染色体,研究结果表明,3种植物的体细胞染色体数目2n=16,核型公式分别为:刺果甘草(G.pallidiflara)k(2n)=2x=16=4M+8m+4sm,光果甘草(G.glabra)k(2n)=2x=16=10M+6m,胀果某草(G.inflata)k(2n)=2x=16=6M+6m+4sm.

  15. Application of Glycyrrhiza glabra Root as a Novel Adsorbent in the Removal of Toluene Vapors: Equilibrium, Kinetic, and Thermodynamic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi-Moghadam, Fazel; Amin, Mohammad Mehdi; Khiadani (Hajian), Mehdi; Momenbeik, Fariborz; Nourmoradi, Heshmatollah; Hatamipour, Mohammad Sadegh

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the removal of toluene from gaseous solution through Glycyrrhiza glabra root (GGR) as a waste material. The batch adsorption experiments were conducted at various conditions including contact time, adsorbate concentration, humidity, and temperature. The adsorption capacity was increased by raising the sorbent humidity up to 50 percent. The adsorption of toluene was also increased over contact time by 12 h when the sorbent was saturated. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Freundlich model fitted the adsorption data better than other kinetic and isotherm models, respectively. The Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm also showed that the sorption by GGR was physical in nature. The results of the thermodynamic analysis illustrated that the adsorption process is exothermic. GGR as a novel adsorbent has not previously been used for the adsorption of pollutants. PMID:23554821

  16. Bioactive Profiles, Antioxidant Activities, Nitrite Scavenging Capacities and Protective Effects on H2O2-Injured PC12 Cells of Glycyrrhiza Glabra L. Leaf and Root Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Dong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the total flavonoid content of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. leaf and root extracts. Results suggested that the total flavonoid content in the leaf extract was obviously higher than that in the root extract. Pinocembrin, the main compound in the leaf extract after purification by column chromatography, showed good antioxidant activity and nitrite scavenging capacity, but moderate inhibitory effect on mushroom tyrosinase. Liquiritin was the main compound in root extract and possessed strong inhibitory effect on mushroom tyrosinase. Both compounds exhibited significant protection effect on H2O2-injured PC12 cells at a low concentration. These results indicate that Glycyrrhiza glabra L. leaf is potential as an important raw material for functional food.

  17. Bioactive profiles, antioxidant activities, nitrite scavenging capacities and protective effects on H2O2-injured PC12 cells of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. leaf and root extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yi; Zhao, Mouming; Zhao, Tiantian; Feng, Mengying; Chen, Huiping; Zhuang, Mingzhu; Lin, Lianzhu

    2014-06-30

    This study compared the total flavonoid content of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. leaf and root extracts. Results suggested that the total flavonoid content in the leaf extract was obviously higher than that in the root extract. Pinocembrin, the main compound in the leaf extract after purification by column chromatography, showed good antioxidant activity and nitrite scavenging capacity, but moderate inhibitory effect on mushroom tyrosinase. Liquiritin was the main compound in root extract and possessed strong inhibitory effect on mushroom tyrosinase. Both compounds exhibited significant protection effect on H2O2-injured PC12 cells at a low concentration. These results indicate that Glycyrrhiza glabra L. leaf is potential as an important raw material for functional food.

  18. 微波辅助胶团提取甘草中的甘草酸和甘草甙%Microwave-assisted Micellar Extraction and Determination of Glycyrrhizic Acid and Liquiritin in Licorice Root by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晨; 谢渝春; 刘会洲

    2007-01-01

    The feasibility of employing non-ionic surfactant (Triton X-100) as an alternative and effective solvent for the microwave-assisted extraction of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) and liquiritin (LQ) from licorice root was studied.The optimal extraction parameters based on the microwave-assisted micellar extraction technique were determined.Under the optimal conditions, i.e. 5% (by volume) Triton X-100, microwave-assisted extraction for 3-5min at 373K, the percentage extraction of active ingredients reached the highest value. The preconcentration factor for GA and LQ (about 13.5) and the extraction efficiency for these two ingredients approached 100% showed the coupling of microwave-assisted extraction and cloud-point extraction could be employed as a new and effective technique for the rapid extraction and preconcentration of pharmacologically active ingredients from medicinal plants such as licorice root without disturbing chromatographic analysis.

  19. Optimization of Ultrasonic-assisted Extraction Process of Essential Oils from Glycyrrhiza by Response Surface Methodology%响应面优化超声波辅助提取甘草精油工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    豆康宁; 吕银德; 李玉兰; 谷存国

    2016-01-01

    Glycyrrhiza is both of medicine and food resources,and the essential oils of glycyrrhiza are extensively applied in the condiment.In this paper,the ultrasonic-assisted extraction process of essential oils from glycyrrhiza is optimized by single factor and response surface experiment.The experimental results show that the optimum extraction conditions of essential oils from glycyrrhiza by steam distillation extraction is determined as follows:ultrasonic power is 270 W,time is 6 h,and concentration of glycyrrhiza solution is 5%.Under such experimental conditions,the yield of essential oils extracted from glycyrrhiza is 0.209%.The extraction time and concentration of glycyrrhiza solution affect the yield of essential oils significantly.%甘草为药食两用资源,甘草提取物甘草精油在调味品中有重要的应用价值。采用单因素及响应面实验设计优化了甘草精油提取条件。实验结果表明:用水蒸气蒸馏法提取甘草精油的最佳条件为超声波功率270 W、提取时间6 h、甘草溶液浓度5%。在该实验条件下,甘草精油提取率为0.209%。提取时间、甘草溶液浓度对甘草精油提取率影响显著。

  20. 甘草提取物对人黑素细胞黑素合成的影响%The impact of licorice on the melanin synthesis of human epidermal primary melanocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳学状; 王大光; 朱文元

    2011-01-01

    目的: 评价甘草提取物对人原代黑素细胞酪氨酸酶及黑素合成的影响.方法:选择2.5、5.0、10.0、15.0、20.0、30.0 mg/L6个浓度的甘草作用于体外培养的人表皮黑素细胞72 h,分别测定细胞增殖活性、酪氨酸酶活性和黑素含量,western blot方法检测甘草作用后黑素细胞中酪氨酸酶蛋白的表达.结果: 甘草显著抑制黑素合成和酪氨酸酶活性,且呈浓度依赖性.结论: 甘草通过下调酪氨酸酶的表达抑制黑素合成和酪氨酸酶活性.%Objective: To assess the effects of licorice on melanin synthesis. Methods: Normal human melanocytes were isolated from human forskin and incubated with 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0, 20.0 and 30.0 fig/mL licorice for 72 h respectively, in vivo. The proliferation of melanocytes, melanin content and tyrosinase activity were measured. The protein expression of tyrosinase was evaluated with western blot technique. Results: Melanin synthesis was reduced and tyrosinase activity was significantly inhibited when licorice was cultured with melanocytes in a dose dependent manner, compared to control group. Conclusion: Licorice can inhibit melanogenesis and tyrosinase activity through downregulating the expression of tyrosinase.

  1. De novo sequencing and analysis of root transcriptome to reveal regulation of gene expression by moderate drought stress in Glycyrrhiza uralensis%基于转录组测序揭示适度干旱胁迫对甘草根基因表达的调控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春荣; 桑雪雨; 渠萌; 唐晓敏; 程轩轩; 潘利明; 杨全

    2015-01-01

    适度干旱胁迫可促进甘草有效成分的积累,提高药材质量.该研究以栽培6个月的甘草根为材料,设置适度干旱胁迫组(土壤相对含水量40% ~ 45%)和对照组(土壤相对含水量70%~75%),分别应用Illumina HiSeq 2000进行转录组双末端测序,分析甘草根响应适度干旱胁迫的差异表达基因.在适度干旱胁迫组和对照组中分别得到80 490 490,82 588 278个Clean reads,经序列拼接和去冗余处理分别得到94 828,305 100个Unigene序列,序列长度的中位数分别为1 007,1 125 nt.差异表达基因分析表明,适度干旱胁迫抑制细胞壁中β-木糖苷酶、天冬酰胺酰内肽酶、GDP-L-岩藻糖合酶等酶的基因表达,可能抑制根细胞的初生壁降解与程序性细胞死亡;促进萜类、黄酮类化合物生物合成的关键酶基因的表达,进而促进甘草有效成分的积累;促进生长素、乙烯、细胞分裂素的生物合成和信号转导,进而促进根的发生和细胞增殖;促进脱落酸、茉莉酸的生物合成和信号转导,进而提高甘草对干旱胁迫的适应能力;抑制赤霉素、油菜素内酯等激素的生物合成和信号转导,进而抑制地上茎的伸长.

  2. 甘草β-香树酯醇合成酶编码区SNP与甘草酸含量的相关性研究%Correlation analysis between single nucleotide polymorphism of β-amyrin synthase and content of glycyrrhizic acid in Glycyrrhiza uralensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈湛云; 刘春生; 王学勇; 呙未; 李贝宁

    2010-01-01

    目的:探讨甘草β-香树酯醇合成酶(β-amyrin synthase,bAS)编码区SNP与甘草酸含量之间的相关性.方法:采用HPLC法测量80株人工栽培甘草的甘草酸含量,采用SAS 9.0软件将80株甘草按照甘草酸含量极显著水平(P<0.000 1)进行分组;采用RT-PCR技术,扩增出甘草bAS编码区序列,运用DNAman分析软件找出该序列的SNP位点,进而分析该位点与甘草酸含量高低的相关性.结果:bAS基因编码区共有94,254 bp 2个突变位点,在94 bp位点发生G/A转换,为错义突变,导致该位点处甘氨酸/天冬氨酸转换,254 bp处发生C/T转换,为同义突变,根据序列变异将所测样品划分成G-T基因型、A-T基因型、G-C基因型和A/G.C基因型.结论:A-T基因型、G/A-C基因型和G-T基因型和高含量甘草酸形成具有显著的相关性.

  3. 桔梗、甘草及其组成的复方对口腔病原菌生长影响的体外实验%Effects of Platycodon grandiflorum,Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch or the compound of both on the growth of oral pathogens in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄冰冰; 樊明文; 杨祥良; 韩定献; 陈亚军

    2003-01-01

    目的:探讨桔梗、甘草及其组成的复方中药对常见致龋菌和牙周病原菌生长的影响.方法:用φ=65%的乙醇溶液分别对桔梗、甘草及其组成的复方中药进行初步提取,观察3 种粗提物对常见口腔致病菌生长的抑制影响,并检测其最小抑菌浓度(minimal inhibitory concentration,MIC)和最小杀菌浓度(minimal bactericidal concentration,MBC).结果:桔梗不影响口腔致病菌的生长,甘草仅对致龋菌有抑制作用,对S.mutans MT8148和S.sobrinus 6715的MIC均为3.91 mg/ml;而桔梗和甘草组成的复方明显抑制4种实验菌株的生长,对S.mutans MT8148和S.sobrinus 6715的MIC为1.96 mg/ml, 对P.gingivalis 381的MIC为3.91 mg/ml,B.forsythus 43037的MIC为7.81 mg/ml.结论:桔梗和甘草组成的复方抑菌和杀菌效果均优于单味药.

  4. STUDY OF ANTITUSSIVE POTENTIAL OF GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA AND ADHATODA VASICA USING A COUGH MODEL INDUCED BY SULPHUR DIOXIDE GAS IN MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmeen Jahan* and H.H. Siddiqui

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cough is the most common symptom of respiratory diseases. When cough becomes serious, opioids are effective, but they have side effects like sedation, constipation. Therefore, there is a need to have effective antitussive agent which do not have respiratory depressant activity. The present study was carried out to evaluate antitussive activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Adhatoda vasica using a cough model induced by sulphur dioxide gas in mice. The effect of the ethanol extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Adhatoda vasica on SO2 gas induced cough in experimental animals have very significant effects at the level of p<0.01 in inhibiting the cough reflex at a dose of 800 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg body wt. p.o., in comparison with the control group. Mice showed an inhibition of 35.62%, in cough on treatment with Glycyrrhiza glabra and 43.02% inhibition on treatment with Adhatoda vasica within 60 min of the experiment. The antitussive activity of the extract was comparable to that of codeine sulphate (10, 15, 20 mg/kg body wt., a standard anti-tussive agent. Codeine sulphate, as a standard drug for suppression of cough, produced 24.80%, 32.98%, and 45.73% inhibition in cough at a dose of 10 mg/kg, 15 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg respectively, whereas, codeine sulphate (20 mg/kg showed maximum 45.73% (p<0.001 inhibition at 60 min of the experiment.

  5. Drug: D04377 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04377 Mixture, Drug Magnesium aluminometasilicate - licorice extract mixt; Neo umo...r (TN) Magnesium aluminometasilicate [DR:D03242], Crude glycyrrhiza extract [DR:D06811] Therapeutic category... organ agents 232 Peptic ulcer agents 2329 Others D04377 Magnesium aluminometasilicate - licorice extract mixt PubChem: 17398079 ...

  6. A study of Semen Strychni-induced renal injury and herb-herb interaction of Radix Glycyrrhizae extract and/or Rhizoma Ligustici extract on the comparative toxicokinetics of strychnine and brucine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Liqiang; Wang, Xiaofan; Liu, Zhenzhen; Ju, Ping; Zhang, Lunhui; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Ma, Bingjie; Bi, Kaishun; Chen, Xiaohui

    2014-06-01

    Recently, the renal injury caused by Semen strychni and its major toxic constituents, strychnine and brucine, was reported in many clinical cases. Hence, this study was conducted to investigate the renal injury induced by Semen Strychni and the protective effects of Radix Glycyrrhizae and Rhizoma Ligustici. The protective mechanisms were related to the comparative toxicokinetics of strychnine and brucine. Serum and urine uric acid and creatinine were used as renal function markers to evaluate the condition of kidney, and renal injury was directly reflected by histopathological changes. Compared with rats in blank group and protective herb groups, rats in Semen Strychni high-dose group showed significant differences in the results of renal function markers, and various glomerular and tubular degenerations were found in the histopathological study. The decreased AUC (only strychnine) and Cmax, the increased Tmax by Radix Glycyrrhizae and the decreased T1/2 by Radix Glycyrrhizae and Rhizoma Ligustici were found in model groups. Results indicated that high dose of Semen Strychni might induce renal injury. Radix Glycyrrhizae and Rhizoma Ligustici might work together and have effects on the elimination of strychnine and brucine. The protective effects of Radix Glycyrrhizae might also be explained by the slow absorption of the alkaloids. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Effect of Dried Glycyrrhiza Glabra L. Extract on Obesity Management with Regard to PPAR-γ2 (Pro12Ala) Gene Polymorphism in Obese Subjects Following an Energy Restricted Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazi, Nazli; Alizadeh, Mohammad; Mirtaheri, Elham; Farajnia, Safar

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: Obesity is a multi-factorial health problem which results from the interaction of environmental and genetic factors. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of dried licorice extract with a calorie restricted diet on anthropometric indices and insulin resistance with nutrigenetic approach. Methods: For this pilot, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial, 72 eligible subjects were randomly allocated to Licorice or placebo group. They received a low-calorie diet either with a 1.5 g/day of Licorice extract or placebo for 8 weeks. Results: There were no significant differences in anthropometric indices and dietary intake in genotype subgroups at the baseline. Findings indicated that supplementation with Licorice extract did not change anthropometric indices and biochemical parameters significantly compared to a hypocaloric diet alone. However, from the nutrigenetic point of view, significant changes in anthropometric indices and QUICKI were observed in the Pro12Pro genotypes compared to the Pro12Ala at the end of the study (pPro12Ala genotype was found. Conclusion: In obese subjects, the Pro/Pro polymorphism of the PPAR-γ2 gene seems to induce favourable effects on obesity management. Further studies are needed to clarify whether PPAR-γ2 gene polymorphisms or other obesity genes can affect responses to obesity treatment.

  8. ISSR and RAPD based evaluation of genetic stability of encapsulated micro shoots of Glycyrrhiza glabra following 6 months of storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Shakti; Khwaja, O; Kukreja, A K; Rahman, L

    2012-11-01

    In vitro grown axillary micro shoots of Glycyrrhiza glabra were encapsulated in alginate beads. Following 6 months of normal storage at 25 ± 2°C the re growth of encapsulated G. glabra micro shoots, reached 98% within 30 days of incubation on MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/l IAA. Re growth was characterized by the development of both shoot and root from single encapsulated micro shoot. Healthy plants were established to glass house with 95% survival. The genetic fidelity of plants obtained after conversion of alginate beads was ascertained through 10 RAPD and 13 ISSR primers. Of the 10 RAPD primers tested, 6 of them produced 14 clear and reproducible amplicons with an average of 2.3 bands per primer out of which 28.57% were polymorphic generated by only two primers. Eight ISSR primers produced total 37 bands ranging between 300 and 3,500 bp length. Number of scorable bands for each primer varied from 3 to 8 with an average of 4.6 bands per primer. Cluster analysis from ISSR and RAPD showed that all the tested plants including the mother plant distributed in two major groups with similarity coefficient ranging from 0.91 to 0.96 for RAPD and 0.89 to 0.97 for ISSR.

  9. Glycyrrhiza glabra (Linn.) and Lavandula officinalis (L.) cell suspension cultures-based biotransformation of β-artemether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Suman; Gaur, Rashmi; Upadhyaya, Mohita; Mathur, Archana; Mathur, Ajay K; Bhakuni, Rajendra S

    2011-07-01

    The biotransformation of β-artemether (1) by cell suspension cultures of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Lavandula officinalis is reported here for the first time. The major biotransformed product appeared as a grayish-blue color spot on thin-layer chromatography (TLC) with transparent crystal-like texture. Based on its infrared (IR) and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, the product was characterized as a tetrahydrofuran (THF)-acetate derivative (2). The highest conversion efficiencies of 57 and 60% were obtained when 8-9-day-old cell suspensions of G. glabra and L. officinalis were respectively fed with 4-7 mg of compound 1 in 40 ml of medium per culture and the cells were harvested after 2-5 days of incubation. The addition of compound 1 at the beginning of the culture cycle caused severe growth depression in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in poor bioconversion efficiency of ~25% at 2-5 mg/culture dose only.

  10. REPELLENT EFFECT OF OCIMUM BASILICUM AND GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA EXTRACTS AGAINST THE MOSQUITO VECTOR, CULEX PIPIENS (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mostafa I; Hammad, Kotb M; Saeed, Saeed M

    2015-08-01

    Essential or volatile oils of plants have been variously reported to have many medicinal applications. Methanol, acetone and petroleum ether extracts of Ocimum basilicum and Glycyrrhiza glabra were screened for their repellency effect against Culex pipiens mosquito. The repellent action of the present plants extracts were varied depending on the solvent used and dose of extract. Methanol extract of O. basilicum exhibited the lowest repellent activity as it recorded 77.4% at 6.7mg/cm2. The petroleum ether and acetone extract of 0. basilicum showed repellency of 98.1 & 84.6% respectively, at dose of 6.7mg/cm2, while methanolic extract of G. glabra recorded 73.8 & 50.3% at dose of 6.7 &1.7mg/cm2 respectively, the petroleum ether and acetone extract of G. glabra showed repellency of 76.3 & 81.6%, respectively at dose of 6.7mg/cm2, compared with the commercial formulation, N.N. diethyl toulamide (DEET) which exhibited 100% repellent action at dose of 1.8mg/cm2, respectively. The results may contribute to design an alternative way to control mosquitoes currently based on applications of synthetic insecticides. These extracts could be developed commercially as an effective personal protection meaure against mosquito bites and thus to control diseases caused by mosquito-borne pathogens.

  11. Deciphering chemical interactions between Glycyrrhizae Radix and Coptidis Rhizoma by liquid chromatography with transformed multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenhao; Liu, Ting; Liao, Jie; Ai, Ni; Fan, Xiaohui; Cheng, Yiyu

    2017-01-18

    In this study, we propose an integrated strategy for the efficient identification and quantification of herbal constituents using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. First, liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was employed for the chemical profiling of herbs, where a targeted following nontargeted approach was developed to detect trace constituents by using structural correlations and extracted ion chromatograms. Next, ion pairs and parameters of MS(2) of quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry were selected to design multiple reaction monitoring transitions for the identified compounds on liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. The relative concentration of each constituent was then calculated using a semiquantitative calibration curve. The proposed strategy was applied in a study of chemical interactions between Glycyrrhizae Radix and Coptidis Rhizoma. A total of 140 compounds were identified or tentatively characterized from the herbs, 132 of which were relatively quantified. The visualized quantitative results clearly showed codecoction produced significant constituent concentration variations especially for those with a low polarity. The case study also indicated that the present methodology could provide a reliable, accurate, and labor-saving solution for chemical studies of herbal medicines.

  12. Studies on the regulatory effect of Peony-Glycyrrhiza Decoction on prolactin hyperactivity and underlying mechanism in hyperprolactinemia rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Di; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Yulin; Wang, Juan; Jia, Dongxu; Wong, Hei Kiu; Zhang, Zhang-Jin

    2015-10-08

    Clinical trials have demonstrated the beneficial effects of Peony-Glycyrrhiza Decoction (PGD) in alleviating antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia (hyperPRL) in schizophrenic patients. In previous experiment, PGD suppressed prolactin (PRL) level in MMQ cells, involving modulating the expression of D2 receptor (DRD2) and dopamine transporter (DAT). In the present study, hyperPRL female rat model induced by dopamine blocker metoclopramide (MCP) was applied to further confirm the anti-hyperpPRL activity of PGD and underlying mechanism. In MCP-induced hyperPRL rats, the elevated serum PRL level was significantly suppressed by either PGD (2.5-10 g/kg) or bromocriptine (BMT) (0.6 mg/kg) administration for 14 days. However, in MCP-induced rats, only PGD restored the under-expressed serum progesterone (P) to control level. Both PGD and BMT administration restore the under-expression of DRD2, DAT and TH resulted from MCP in pituitary gland and hypothalamus. Compared to untreated group, hyperPRL animals had a marked reduction on DRD2 and DAT expression in the arcuate nucleus. PGD (10 g/kg) and BMT (0.6 mg/kg) treatment significant reversed the expression of DRD2 and DAT. Collectively, the anti-hyperPRL activity of PGD associates with the modulation of dopaminergic neuronal system and the restoration of serum progesterone level. Our finding supports PGD as an effective agent against hyperPRL.

  13. UJI AKTIVITAS KOMBINASI EKSTRAK AIR LIDAH BUAYA ( Aloe vera L. DAN AKAR MANIS (Glycyrrhiza glabra L. SEBAGAI PENYUBUR RAMBUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistiorini Indriaty

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aloe vera (Aloe vera L. contains amino acids, vitamins, folic acid, and liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L containing glisirizin, and flavonoids, which have properties as fertilizer hair. This study aims to obtain a combination of extracts with activity most optimal fertilizer hair, made 3 combination with a combination of 1 (the water extract of liquorice concentration of 2.5% and 7.5% aloe vera, a combination of 2 (the water extract of liquorice concentrations of 2, 5% and 2.5% aloe vera, and combinations of 3 (the water extract of liquorice concentration of 5% and 7.5% aloe vera. Testing the activity of hair growth is done by measuring the rate of hair growth, hair growth acceleration and weight of rabbit hair for 28 days. Rabbit hair growth results showed the combination 1 has an average length of the largest hair with hair growth rate value of 2.97 cm, accelerated hair growth amounted to 0.15 cm / day on day 7 and weighing 0.13 gram hair.

  14. 甘草属2种植物的核型研究%A study on karyotypes of 2 species in Glycyrrhiza

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔红; 陈荃; 焦成谨; 温凤萍; 马骥

    2003-01-01

    用光学显微镜观察了豆科(Leguminosae)甘草属(Glycyrrhiza)2种荒漠植物的染色体,研究结果表明,黄甘草(G.eurycarpa P.C.Li)、腺荚甘草(G.korshinskii G.Grig)的体细胞染色体数目均为2n=16,核型公式2n=2x=16=16m,属于Stebbins核型的"1A"型.

  15. A dual investigation of the effect of dietary supplementation with licorice flavonoid oil on anthropometric and biochemical markers of health and adiposity

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    Bloomer Richard J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Licorice flavonoid oil (LFO has been reported to minimize visceral adipose tissue gain in obese mice and to result in a decrease in body weight and body fat in humans; the effects of which may be more pronounced when administered in an overfed state. Methods We investigated the effects of LFO in two separate studies. Study 1 included a sample of overweight or grade I-II obese men and women (N = 22 who followed their usual dietary and physical activity programs. Study 2 included a sample of athletic men who followed their usual dietary and physical activity programs but consumed a daily supplemental meal (25% above daily energy requirements in an attempt to induce a state of overfeeding. In both studies, subjects were randomly assigned (double-blind to either LFO or a placebo for eight weeks, and anthropometric and multiple biochemical outcomes (e.g., markers of oxidative stress, markers of insulin sensitivity, blood lipids, etc. were obtained before and following the intervention. Results No differences of statistical significance were noted between LFO and placebo for any measured variable in Study 1 or Study 2. When investigating the percent change from baseline for data in Study 2, although not of statistical significance, subjects in the LFO condition experienced less overall fat gain, as well as attenuation in the elevation in selected blood lipids (e.g., cholesterol, LDL-C, and triglycerides. Conclusion These combined data indicate little effect of LFO supplementation within a sample of overweight/obese men and women or athletic men, with the possible exception of attenuation in body fat gain and selected components of the blood lipid panel in response to an overfeeding condition.

  16. Liquiritigenin, a flavonoid aglycone from licorice, has a choleretic effect and the ability to induce hepatic transporters and phase-II enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Woo; Kang, Hee Eun; Lee, Myung Gull; Hwang, Se Jin; Kim, Sang Chan; Lee, Chang Ho; Kim, Sang Geon

    2009-02-01

    Liquiritigenin (LQ), an active component of licorice, has an inhibitory effect on LPS-induced inhibitory nitric oxide synthase expression. This study investigated the effects of LQ on choleresis, the expression of hepatic transporters and phase-II enzymes, and fulminant hepatitis. The choleretic effect and the pharmacokinetics of LQ and its glucuronides were monitored in rats. After intravenous administration of LQ, the total area under the plasma concentration-time curve of glucuronyl metabolites was greater than that of LQ in plasma, which accompanied elevations in bile flow rate and biliary excretion of bile acid, glutathione, and bilirubin. The expressions of hepatocellular transporters and phase-II enzymes were assessed by immunoblots, real-time PCR, and immunohistochemistry. In the livers of rats treated with LQ, the protein and mRNA levels of multidrug resistance protein 2 and bile salt export pump were increased in the liver, which was verified by their increased localizations in canalicular membrane. In addition, LQ treatment enhanced the expression levels of major hepatic phase-II enzymes. Consistent with these results, LQ treatments attenuated galactosamine/LPS-induced hepatitis in rats, as supported by decreases in the plasma alanine aminotransferase, liver necrosis, and plasma TNF-alpha. These results demonstrate that LQ has a choleretic effect and the ability to induce transporters and phase-II enzymes in the liver, which may be associated with a hepatoprotective effect against galactosamine/LPS. Our findings may provide insight into understanding the action of LQ and its therapeutic use for liver disease.

  17. Gitelman's syndrome with persistent hypokalemia - don't forget licorice, alcohol, lemon juice, iced tea and salt depletion: a case report

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    Schmid Christoph

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Chronic hypokalemia is the main finding in patients with Gitelman's syndrome. Exogenous factors can trigger deterioration of the patient's condition and provoke clinical symptoms. We discuss the pathophysiology of and therapy for Gitelman's syndrome, with a focus on dietary factors which may aggravate the disease. Case presentation We describe the case of a 31-year-old, previously apparently healthy Caucasian Swiss man who presented to our hospital with gait disturbance of subacute onset and a potassium level of 1.5 mmol/L. A detailed medical history revealed that he had been consuming large amounts of licorice (in the form of Fisherman's Friend menthol eucalyptus lozenges. Despite discontinuing the intake of glycyrrhizinic acid, his potassium level remained low. Biochemical investigations showed refractory hypokalemia and secondary hyperaldosteronism, suggestive of Gitelman's syndrome. Despite treatment with supplementation of potassium and magnesium in combination with an aldosterone antagonist, further clinically symptomatic episodes occurred. Triggers could be identified only by repeated detailed history taking. In response to the patient's dietary excesses (ingestion of relevant amounts of alcohol, lemon juice and iced tea, his hypokalemia was aggravated and provoked clinical symptoms. Finally, vomiting and failure to replace salt led to volume depletion and hypokalemic crisis, with a plasma potassium level of 1.0 mmol/L and paralysis with respiratory failure necessitating not only infusion of saline and potassium but also temporary mechanical ventilation. Conclusion Dietary preferences may have a much larger impact than any drug treatment on the symptoms of this chronic syndrome. Individual (mainly dietary preferences must be monitored closely, and patients should be given dietary advice to avoid recurrent aggravation of hypokalemia with muscular weakness.

  18. Isoliquiritigenin, a flavonoid from licorice, blocks M2 macrophage polarization in colitis-associated tumorigenesis through downregulating PGE{sub 2} and IL-6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Haixia [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Zhang, Xinhua [Department of Liver, Biliary And Pancreatic Tumors, Hubei Cancer Hospital, Wuhan 430079 (China); Chen, Xuewei; Li, Ying; Ke, Zunqiong [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Tang, Tian [Department of Oncology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060 (China); Chai, Hongyan [Center for Gene Diagnosis, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Guo, Austin M. [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Department of Pharmacology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595 (United States); Chen, Honglei, E-mail: hl-chen@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pathology and Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Yang, Jing, E-mail: yangjingliu2013@163.com [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-09-15

    M2 macrophage polarization is implicated in colorectal cancer development. Isoliquiritigenin (ISL), a flavonoid from licorice, has been reported to prevent azoxymethane (AOM) induced colon carcinogenesis in animal models. Here, in a mouse model of colitis-associated tumorigenesis induced by AOM/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), we investigated the chemopreventive effects of ISL and its mechanisms of action. Mice were treated with AOM/DSS and randomized to receive either vehicle or ISL (3, 15 and 75 mg/kg). Tumor load, histology, immunohistochemistry, and gene and protein expressions were determined. Intragastric administration of ISL for 12 weeks significantly decreased colon cancer incidence, multiplicity and tumor size by 60%, 55.4% and 42.6%, respectively. Moreover, ISL inhibited M2 macrophage polarization. Such changes were accompanied by downregulation of PGE{sub 2} and IL-6 signaling. Importantly, depletion of macrophages by clodronate (Clod) or zoledronic acid (ZA) reversed the effects of ISL. In parallel, in vitro studies also demonstrated that ISL limited the M2 polarization of RAW264.7 cells and mouse peritoneal macrophages with concomitant inactivation of PGE{sub 2}/PPARδ and IL-6/STAT3 signaling. Conversely, exogenous addition of PGE{sub 2} or IL-6, or overexpression of constitutively active STAT3 reversed ISL-mediated inhibition of M2 macrophage polarization. In summary, dietary flavonoid ISL effectively inhibits colitis-associated tumorigenesis through hampering M2 macrophage polarization mediated by the interplay between PGE{sub 2} and IL-6. Thus, inhibition of M2 macrophage polarization is likely to represent a promising strategy for chemoprevention of colorectal cancer. - Highlights: • Isoliquiritigenin (ISL) prevents colitis-associated tumorigenesis. • ISL inhibits M2 macrophage polarization in vivo and in vitro. • ISL inhibits PGE{sub 2} and IL-6 signaling in colitis-associated tumorigenesis. • ISL may be an attractive candidate agent for

  19. Protective effects of melatonin and Glycyrrhiza glabra extract on ochratoxin A--induced damages on testes in mature rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekinejad, Hassan; Mirzakhani, Navideh; Razi, Mazdak; Cheraghi, Hadi; Alizadeh, Arash; Dardmeh, Fereshteh

    2011-02-01

    The effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract (GgE) as a natural antioxidant and melatonin (MEL) on ochratoxin A (OTA)-induced histopathological damages on the testes and oxidative stress was evaluated in male rats. The animals were assigned into four groups (n = 8) including control and test groups. The rats in control group received saline and the animals in the test groups received (200 µg/kg) of OTA, (15 mg/kg) of MEL + (200 µg/kg) OTA and (100 mg/kg) of GgE + (200 µg/kg) OTA, respectively, during 28 consecutive days. The serum total antioxidant power (TAOP) and total thiol molecules (TTM) production were assessed. Moreover, histopathological and histochemical studies were also performed. The results showed that the TAOP and TTM were decreased in OTA-exposed rats, while the animals that received MEL + OTA or GgE + OTA showed an enhancement in the serum TAOP and TTM levels. Histopathological analyses demonstrated that in OTA-exposed rats, the testicular degeneration, seminiferous tubule atrophy, dissociation of germinative epithelium, vasodilatation with vascular thrombosis, perivascular immune cell infiltration, hypertrophied leydic cells, giant cell formation, and negative tubular differentiation index (TDI) were observed. Surprisingly, both the biochemical and histopathological examinations showed that MEL and GgE, albeit with some differences, exerted a protective effect on OTA-induced damages. In conclusion, this data suggest that OTA contamination in animal feeds and human foods could cause reproductive abnormalities. Our data also indicate that OTA, at least partly by interfering in oxidative stress system, exerts its toxic effects on testes whereas MEL and GgE with antioxidant properties could fairly protect rats against OTA toxic effects.

  20. Thymus vulgaris L., Glycyrrhiza glabra or Combo® enzyme in corn vs. barley-based broiler diets

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    Majid Kalantar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test the effect of supplementation of Thymus vulgaris L. (T. vulgaris or Glycyrrhiza glabra (G. glabra in corn-soybean meal diets as well as the inclusion of an exogenous enzyme i.e. Combo ® in barley-soybean meal diets together with mentioned medicinal plants in broiler diets. Methods: A total of 270 unsexed 1-day-old broiler chickens (Ross 308 was randomly assigned to 6 treatments with 3 replications of 15 birds in each. Diets were comprised of the control (T1, the inclusion of T. vulgaris, G. glabra, their mixture (equal amount, Combo® supplementation (T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively in diets based on corn-soybean meal diets and enzyme supplementation plus equal amount of tested medicinal plants (T6 based on barley-soybean meal diets. Medicinal plants and enzyme were included in diets at level 0.5% and 0.2% of diets, respectively. Results: The highest feed intake was obtained by T1 at 1-21 d of age (P<0.05. All diets caused significant increases in weight gain and significant decreases in feed conversion ratio compared to control at this age (P<0.05. Significant reductions were acquired in feed intake by T3 and T6 at 22-42 d of age (P<0.05. All diets significantly decreased total number of aerobic bacteria, coliforms, Gram-negative bacteria and increased lactic acid bacteria compared to control (P<0.05. Conclusions: The results showed that basal diet has vital character to effectiveness of medicinal plants in broiler diets. Beneficial effects on intestinal microflora were brought by use of T. vulgaris L. and G. glabra in corn-based diets or in barley-based diets together with enzyme. Thus, this capability can support growth performance of broiler chickens at lower age.

  1. Screening and bioconversion of glycyrrhizin of Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract to 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid by different microbial strains

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    Makhmur Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the present study is to perform screening of different microorganisms (7 bacteria and 14 fungi for conversion of glycyrrhizin (GL to 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA. Penicillium chrysogenum produced the highest concentration of β-glucuronidase enzyme (61 U/mL and produced GA of 52 μg/mL while E. coli produced the highest β-glucuronidase of 376 U/mL with GA concentration of 2.1 μg/mL. Materials and Methods: Submerged and solid state biotransformation of GL was carried out. To 9.0 mL of bacterial supernatant, 1.0 mL 0.2% w/v of aqueous Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract was added and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. β-glucuronidase activity was measured and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis was carried out. Results and Discussion: Induced-Escherichia coli produces 2.1 μg/mL of GA with an enzyme activity of 376 U/mL which shows that the enzyme has a potential biotransformation capability. Rhizopus oryzae and P. chrysogenum have the potential ability to biotransform GL to GA with 2.6 μg/mL and 61 μg/mL of GA with enzyme activity of 569 U/mL and 61 U/mL, respectively. Conclusions: G. glabra roots containing GL can be hydrolyzed by microbial β-glucuronidase enzyme under sub-merged fermentation (SmF. β-glucuronidase, an enzyme of E. coli, was found to be the best microbial source of enzyme which biocatalyzed the reaction than fungal strain under SmF.

  2. Protective effect of Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra) against side effects of radiation/chemotherapy in head and neck malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Debabrata; Agarwal, S K; Chandola, H M

    2011-04-01

    One of the very common side effects of Radiation/Chemotherapy especially of the head and neck malignancies is mucositis. Cancer therapy or the cancer itself may cause changes in the body chemistry that results in loss of appetite, pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and very common mucositis which makes eating difficult. Loss of appetite is followed by an undesirable loss of weight due to insufficient amount of calories every day which can lead to loss of muscle mass and strength and other complications by causing interruptions of medical therapy, impeding effective cancer therapy. Mucositis cause decreased immunity and quality of life as well as poor tolerance to surgery and altered efficacy of Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy. The present study is designed with the objective to minimize the radiation induced mucositis, skin reaction, xerostomia, change in voice etc. with an Ayurvedic preparation Yashtimadhu Ghrita (processed ghee). Total 75 patients were randomly divided into four groups and drugs were administered: Group A with local application of Yashtimadhu powder and honey in the oral cavity for few minutes prior to radiotherapy along with oral intake of Yashtimadhu Ghrita; Group B with only local application of the Yashtimadhu powder and honey in the oral cavity; Group C patients administered with only local application of honey in the oral cavity; Group D on conventional modern medication controlled group. All these patients under four groups had received Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy for maximum duration of 7 weeks. Mucositis and Skin reactions were observed in 100% of patients with varying degree. The intensity of Radiation and Chemotherapy induced mucositis was reduced to a great extent by the trial drug. Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra) can be used effectively in prevention and treatment of oral mucositis post radiation and chemotheraphy in patients of cancer, especially of the head and neck region. It proves beneficial in two ways: (i) there were no

  3. Discovery of anti-microbial and anti-tubercular molecules from Fusarium solani: an endophyte of Glycyrrhiza glabra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, A; Rather, M A; Hassan, Q P; Aga, M A; Mushtaq, S; Shah, A M; Hussain, A; Baba, S A; Ahmad, Z

    2017-05-01

    Glycyrrhiza glabra is a high-value medicinal plant thriving in biodiversity rich Kashmir Himalaya. The present study was designed to explore the fungal endophytes from G. glabra as a source of bioactive molecules. The extracts prepared from the isolated endophytes were evaluated for anti-microbial activities using broth micro-dilution assay. The endophytic strain coded as A2 exhibiting promising anti-bacterial as well as anti-tuberculosis activity was identified as Fusarium solani by ITS-5.8S ribosomal gene sequencing technique. This strain was subjected to large-scale fermentation followed by isolation of its bioactive compounds using column chromatography. From the results of spectral data analysis and comparison with literature, the molecules were identified as 3,6,9-trihydroxy-7-methoxy-4,4-dimethyl-3,4-dihydro-1H-benzo[g]isochromene-5,10-dione (1), fusarubin (2), 3-O-methylfusarubin (3) and javanicin (4). Compound 1 is reported for the first time from this strain. All the four compounds inhibited the growth of various tested bacterial strains with MIC values in the range of solani evaluated against the virulent strain of M. tuberculosis. This study sets background towards their synthetic intervention for activity enhancement experiments in anti-microbial drug discovery programme. Due to the chemoprofile variation of same endophyte with respect to source plant and ecoregions, further studies are required to explore endophytes of medicinal plants of all unusual biodiversity rich ecoregions for important and or novel bioactive molecules. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Population Genetic Structure of Glycyrrhiza inflata B. (Fabaceae) Is Shaped by Habitat Fragmentation, Water Resources and Biological Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lulu; Chen, Jianjun; Hu, Weiming; Yang, Tianshun; Zhang, Yanjun; Yukiyoshi, Tamura; Zhou, Yanyang; Wang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Background Habitat fragmentation, water resources and biological characteristics are important factors that shape the genetic structure and geographical distribution of desert plants. Analysis of the relationships between these factors and population genetic variation should help to determine the evolutionary potential and conservation strategies for genetic resources for desert plant populations. As a traditional Chinese herb, Glycyrrhiza inflata B. (Fabaceae) is restricted to the fragmented desert habitat in China and has undergone a dramatic decline due to long-term over-excavation. Determining the genetic structure of the G. inflata population and identifying a core collection could help with the development of strategies to conserve this species. Results We investigated the genetic variation of 25 G. inflata populations based on microsatellite markers. A high level of population genetic divergence (FST = 0.257), population bottlenecks, reduced gene flow and moderate genetic variation (HE = 0.383) were detected. The genetic distances between the populations significantly correlated with the geographical distances, and this suggests that habitat fragmentation has driven a special genetic structure of G. inflata in China through isolation by distance. STRUCTURE analysis showed that G. inflata populations were structured into three clusters and that the populations belonged to multiple water systems, which suggests that water resources were related to the genetic structure of G. inflata. In addition, the biological characteristics of the perennial species G. inflata, such as its long-lived seeds, asexual reproduction, and oasis ecology, may be related to its resistance to habitat fragmentation. A core collection of G. inflata, that included 57 accessions was further identified, which captured the main allelic diversity of G. inflata. Conclusions Recent habitat fragmentation has accelerated genetic divergence. The population genetic structure of G. inflata has been

  5. Population Genetic Structure of Glycyrrhiza inflata B. (Fabaceae) Is Shaped by Habitat Fragmentation, Water Resources and Biological Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lulu; Chen, Jianjun; Hu, Weiming; Yang, Tianshun; Zhang, Yanjun; Yukiyoshi, Tamura; Zhou, Yanyang; Wang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation, water resources and biological characteristics are important factors that shape the genetic structure and geographical distribution of desert plants. Analysis of the relationships between these factors and population genetic variation should help to determine the evolutionary potential and conservation strategies for genetic resources for desert plant populations. As a traditional Chinese herb, Glycyrrhiza inflata B. (Fabaceae) is restricted to the fragmented desert habitat in China and has undergone a dramatic decline due to long-term over-excavation. Determining the genetic structure of the G. inflata population and identifying a core collection could help with the development of strategies to conserve this species. We investigated the genetic variation of 25 G. inflata populations based on microsatellite markers. A high level of population genetic divergence (FST = 0.257), population bottlenecks, reduced gene flow and moderate genetic variation (HE = 0.383) were detected. The genetic distances between the populations significantly correlated with the geographical distances, and this suggests that habitat fragmentation has driven a special genetic structure of G. inflata in China through isolation by distance. STRUCTURE analysis showed that G. inflata populations were structured into three clusters and that the populations belonged to multiple water systems, which suggests that water resources were related to the genetic structure of G. inflata. In addition, the biological characteristics of the perennial species G. inflata, such as its long-lived seeds, asexual reproduction, and oasis ecology, may be related to its resistance to habitat fragmentation. A core collection of G. inflata, that included 57 accessions was further identified, which captured the main allelic diversity of G. inflata. Recent habitat fragmentation has accelerated genetic divergence. The population genetic structure of G. inflata has been shaped by habitat

  6. Herbal composition of Cinnamomum cassia, Pinus densiflora, Curcuma longa and Glycyrrhiza glabra prevents atherosclerosis by upregulating p27 (Kip1) expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Jin; Lee, Ji-Hye; Cho, Won-Kyung; Han, Joo-Hui; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2016-07-28

    Kiom-18 is a novel composition of Cinnamomum cassia, Pinus densiflora, Curcuma longa and Glycyrrhiza glabra. Curcuma longa and Glycyrrhiza glabra, which are traditional medicines in Asia, have been reported to demonstrate preventive effects against atherosclerosis; however, they have not yet been developed into functional atherosclerosis treatments. We therefore studied the anti-atherosclerotic effects and possible molecular mechanisms of Kiom-18 using vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). To assess the anti-proliferative effect of Kiom-18 in vitro, we performed thymidine incorporation, cell cycle progression, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence assays in VSMCs stimulated by platelet derived-growth factor (PDGF)-BB. In addition, we used LDLr knockout mice to identify the effects of Kiom-18 as a preliminary result in an atherosclerosis animal model. Kiom-18 inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-stimulated-VSMC proliferation and DNA synthesis. Additionally, Kiom-18 arrested the cell cycle transition of G0/G1 stimulated by PDGF-BB and its cell cycle-related proteins. Correspondingly, the level of p27(kip1) expression was upregulated in the presence of the Kiom-18 extract. Moreover, in an atherosclerosis animal model of LDLr knockout mice, Kiom-18 extract showed a preventive effect for the formation of atherosclerotic plaque and suppressed body weight, fat weight, food treatment efficiency, neutrophil count, and triglyceride level. These results indicate that Kiom-18 exerts anti-atherosclerotic effects by inhibiting VSMC proliferation via G0/G1 arrest, which upregulates p27(Kip1) expression.

  7. Optimization of spraying dry process of licorice extract by orthogonal experiment%正交试验法优选甘草浸膏的喷雾干燥工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕子明; 于向红; 刘晓燕; 关宏峰; 王超; 梁俊清

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the spraying dry process of Licorice extract. Methods The effects of inlet temperature,outlet temperature and specific gravity of the extract on the spraying dry process of Licorice extract were inspected by L9(34) orthogonal experiment with powder amount,Iiquiritin and Glycyrrhizic acid contents as well as moisture content as the indexes. Results The optimal spraying dry process was: inlet temperature as 180℃,outlet temperature as 90℃ and specific gravity as 1.15. Conclusion The optimal spraying dry process is rational,stable and provided experiment base for industrial production.%目的 研究甘草浸膏的喷雾干燥工艺.方法 采用L9(34)正交设计法,以喷雾粉出粉量、甘草苷和甘草酸的含量以及水分为检测指标,考察进风口温度、出风口温度、浸膏比重对甘草浸膏喷雾干燥的影响.结果 优选喷雾干燥工艺为:进风口温度150℃、出风口温度90℃、浸膏比重1.15.结论 该工艺合理、稳定,为工业化生产提供了实验依据.

  8. Effect of aquo-alchoholic extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Mice Lung Infection Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakotiya, Ankita Singh; Tanwar, Ankit; Srivastava, Pranay; Narula, Alka; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

    2017-03-26

    The prevalence of lung infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains that are classified as multi-drug resistant has increased considerably and is mainly attributed to relative insufficiency of potent chemotherapeutic modalities. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of aquo-alcoholic extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra against the P. aeruginosa causing lung infection in Swiss albino mice. The study involves evaluation of lethal dose of P. aeruginosa in Swiss albino mice and analysis of disease manifestation that includes bacteremia, hypothermia, reduction in body weight and other parameters for 48h of infection. Physical manifestations of infected mice showed a significant decline in body temperature that is 29±0.57°C (at 48th h) from 38.81±0.33°C (0h) and 30% weight loss was observed at the end of the study. Further the efficacy of G. glabra extract against lung infection induced with the calculated lethal dose was evaluated by employing bacteremia, histopathology and radiological analysis. Bacterial burden showed that 2.30±0.02 Log10CFU/mL at day 7, a significant decline in the bacterial load as compared to day 1 when the bacterial burden was found to be 3.32±0.1 Log10CFU/mL. Histopathological results showed more diffuse and patchy accumulation of inflammatory cells within the alveolar space also the infiltrates were noted in all the lung section of infected mice. In treated animal group improved lung histology was seen with the exudates were less seen in D1 dose (20mg/kg) and disappeared in D2 dose (80mg/kg). The study clearly declares that the G. glabra extract is effective against lung infection caused by P. aeruginosa at dose of 80mg/kg. The LCMS results revealed that the extract contains Glycyrrhizin, Stigmasterol and Ergosterol, Licochalcone and Glabridin. The current study expected to further exploit the biomedical properties of this extract in the preparation of a potent regimen against such threatening pathogen.

  9. Evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of cetrimide and Glycyrrhiza glabra L. extract against Enterococcus faecalis biofilm grown on dentin discs in comparison with NaOCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güldas, Hilmi Egemen; Kececi, Ayse Diljin; Cetin, Emel Sesli; Ozturk, Tuba; Kaya, Bulem Üreyen

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the antimicrobial efficacy of NaOCl, cetrimide, and Glycyrrhiza glabra L. extract against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms on dentine discs. Broth microdilution method was used to determine minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of the agents. A biofilm susceptibility assay was performed using E. faecalis biofilms grown on dentine discs. Minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of NaOCl (0.5%), cetrimide (0.015%), and G. glabra L. extract (0.25%) were applied for 1, 3, and 5 min, and the mean viable cell counts were recorded and statistically analyzed. There was no significant difference between cetrimide and NaOCl at 1 min (p>0.05). NaOCl was the most effective agent at 3 and 5 min (pglabra L. extract was the least (pglabra that eliminated the planktonic E. faecalis did not eradicate the biofilms grown on dentin discs.

  10. Effectively designed molecularly imprinted polymers for selective extraction of glabridin from Glycyrrhiza glabra L. residues by screening the library of non-imprinted polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lingxiao; Ji, Wenhua; Duan, Wenjuan; Wang, Xiao; Gao, Qianshan; Geng, Yanling; Huang, Luqi

    2014-08-15

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with high selectivity and affinity to glabridin were designed based on the screening results of the library of non-imprinted polymers (NIPs). The NIP library contained 48 polymers that were polymerized with the combinations of different functional monomers, cross-linkers, and porogenic solvents. The distribution coefficient (k) values were used to estimate the affinity of NIPs to glabridin. The corresponding MIPs of the best three NIPs were prepared. After evaluating the imprinting effects and selectivity of the three MIPs, the performance of the best MIP as solid phase extraction sorbent was investigated. Glabridin with percent recovery of 83 was obtained from the extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (G. glabra L.) residues by molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE). Thus, this material can be successfully used for the extraction and purification of glabridin from G. glabra L. residues.

  11. Phytocomplexes from liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) leaves--chemical characterization and evaluation of their antioxidant, anti-genotoxic and anti-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siracusa, Laura; Saija, Antonella; Cristani, Mariateresa; Cimino, Francesco; D'Arrigo, Manuela; Trombetta, Domenico; Rao, Felice; Ruberto, Giuseppe

    2011-06-01

    Three extracts of different polarities of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. leaves were characterized and evaluated for their antioxidant, anti-genotoxic and anti-inflammatory activity. In total, thirty components have been identified and quantified through the use of liquid chromatography (LC) with ultraviolet-visible diode-array-detector (UV-vis-DAD) and mass spectrometry (MS). The main components belong to the polyphenols family, being flavonoid and dihydrostilbene derivatives. The extracts have been investigated for their antioxidant, anti-genotoxic and anti-inflammatory activities, which are fundamental requirements of efficacious chemo-preventive agents. The ethyl acetate extract proved to be the most valuable, evidently for the conspicuous presence of several polyphenols, namely flavonoids and dihydrostilbenes.

  12. Effect of PGPR inoculum on growth of Radix glycyrrhizae%植物促生菌剂对甘草生长影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马文彬; 王占军; 姚拓; 张玉霞; 王国基

    2014-01-01

    Five plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR)strains (RS1,RS5,RP1,Jm170,Jm92)isola-ted and screened from the rhizosphere of Radix glycyrrhizae were used to produce single inoculants and then its effect on the growth of R.glycyrrhizae was studies.The result indicated that the inoculants could increase the plant height,biomass,mean diameter and length of main root and the order of promotion effect of 5 strains was Jm 92>Jm170>RS1>RS5>RP1.Jm92 had a significant effect on plant height,aboveground biomass,root dry weight,root surface area,root volume and root length,which were enhanced by 32.8%,5 1.5%,202.3 %, 1 68.1% and 180.3% respectively compared to the control (P Jm170>RS1>RS5>RP1。与对照相比,促生菌接种剂 Jm92对甘草幼苗株高、地上生物量、地下生物量、根表面积及根体积增加达极显著水平(P <0.01),分别增加32.8%、51.5%、202.3%、168.1%和180.3%,其次为 Jm170,其以上指标分别增加27.1%、27.4%、164.0%、177.0%和121.2%。Jm92、Jm170、RS1在研制甘草根际专用肥中具有较大潜力。

  13. 甘草对大鼠小肠运动功能影响的实验研究%Experimental Study on the Effect of Glycyrrhiza on Small Intestine Mitility in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寻庆英; 周怀君; 窦国祥; 杨德治; 魏义全

    2000-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the study was to observe the effect of glycyrrhiza. on migrating myoelectric complex (MMC) in small intestine in rats and to investigate the mechanism through which the effect oecours. Methods Twenty adult SD rats were randomly divided into bethanoechol group and glycyrrhiza group. MMC in small intestine in rats was measured be fore and after drug administration. Another 20 rats were randomly divided into normal control group and glycyrrhiza group. The content of 5-hydroxyptamine(5-HT) in enteroehromaffin cell(EC) and enteric nervous system(ENS) was measured by immunohistoehemical method in the two groups and the immunoreactivity in EC and ENS was determined quantatatively by microspectrophotometry. Results G lycyrrhiza inhibited and guarded against the contration of duodenum and jejunum induced by bethanechol. The content of 5-HT in EC and ENS in glycyrrhiza group was significantly lower than that of normal control group ( P < 0.05) .The inhibition of MMC in small intestine in the rat was caused by the glycyrrhiza which inhibits the 5-HT secretion by phenoehromoeytes and the level of 5-HT in ENS. Conclusion One of the mechanisms of glycyrrhiza inhibiting MMC in duodenum and jejunum in the rats may be involved in postsynaptic inhibition induced by M-receptor. The another mechanism of glycyrrhiza inhibition MMC in small intestine was that the secretion of 5-HT in EC and the content of 5-HT in ENS were decrcased by glycyrrhiza. Thus the inhibition of the MMC in small intestine occurs.%目的:观察甘草对大鼠小肠移行性综合肌电(MMC)的影响,并探讨其作用机制。方法:20只SD大鼠平分为氨甲酰甲胆碱组和甘草组,用药前后检测小肠的电活动,以MMC活动周期、Ⅲ相持续时间为指标分析小肠电活动状态。另20只SD大鼠平分为正常组和甘草组,用免疫组织化学法检测小肠嗜铬细胞及小肠神经系统(ENS)中5-HT的含量,用显微分光光度计对免疫染

  14. 甘草多糖超声辅助提取工艺优化及分子表征%Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction Optimization of Glycyrrhiza Polysaccharide and Its Molecular Characterization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何培新; 吴双双; 林莉; 闵玉涛; 许春平

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the ultrasonic assisted extraction conditions of glycyrrhiza polysaccharides were opti-mized and its molecular weight and structure were investigated. The single-factor experiment was used to deter mine the optimum conditions:ultrasonic power 500 W, liquid/solid ratio 20∶1 (mL/g), ultrasonic time 60 min, temperature 60℃. The monosaccharide composition of glycyrrhiza polysaccharide was analyzed by GC/MS. The result showed that the artificial and wild glycyrrhiza monosaccharide components was primarily contained man-nose and glucose, also including arabinose, ribose, xylose, galactose, glucuronic acid and galacturonic acid, indicating that artificial and wild glycyrrhiza polysaccharides were acidic polysaccharides. Finally, the gly-cyrrhiza polysaccharides were purified and two fractions was obtained. The relative molecular weight of artificial glycyrrhiza polysaccharides were 212 ku and 25.1 ku, respectively, while relative molecular weight of wild gly-cyrrhiza polysaccharides were 34.1 ku and 0.1 ku, respectively. This study provides a theoretical basis for the bioactivity investigation and application of glycyrrhiza polysaccharide.%优化超声辅助提取甘草多糖的条件,并对甘草多糖的分子量和结构进行了研究。单因素实验确定最佳提取条件为:设定超声功率500 W时,液料比为20∶1(mL/g),超声时间60 min,温度60℃。应用GC/MS对甘草多糖进行单糖组分分析,得出人工与野生甘草多糖的单糖组分主要是甘露糖和葡萄糖,另外还含有阿拉伯糖、核糖、木糖、半乳糖、葡萄糖醛酸和半乳糖醛酸,说明人工与野生甘草多糖均为酸性多糖。最后利用Sepharose CL-6B层析柱对甘草多糖进行分离纯化,测得人工甘草两个多糖组分相对分子量分别为212 ku和25.1 ku,野生甘草多糖两个组分的相对分子量分别为34.1 ku和0.1 ku。本研究为甘草多糖的生物活性研究和应用提供了理论基础。

  15. Study on Hard Seed Treatment Method of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Sophora alopecuroides%光果甘草和苦豆子硬实种子处理方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司马义·巴拉提; 卡德尔·阿布都热西提

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, different treatment conditions on Glycyrrhiza glabra and Sophora alopecuroides seed and treatment effect were studied.The results showed that: the seeds soaked in water 5 days imbibition rate was very low,the hard rate was very high.With sulfuric acid to soak 1 to 1.5 hours could reduce the rate of hard seed,and the germination rate was the highest,the seed germination rate was 98% and 100% of Glycyrrhiza glabra ,Sophora alopecuroides respectively,followed by GA treatment, and the wear treatment was the third.%在不同处理条件下,对光果甘草(Glycyrrhiza glabra L.和苦豆子(Sophora alopecuroides L.)硬实种子处理效果进行了研究.结果表明:用水浸泡5 d的种子吸胀率很低,硬实率很高,用硫酸处理1~1.5 h减少硬实率、提高发芽率的效果最好,光果甘草和苦豆子种子发芽率分别可以提高到98%和100%,其次是赤霉素处理,磨损种皮处理效果为第三.

  16. Best proportion of two Chinese herbal medicines on central muscular hypertonia rats to relax spasm and relieve pain: a screening process for Shaoyao Gancao decoction composed of Paeonia latiflora Pall.and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.%芍药甘草汤对中枢性肌张力增高大鼠解痉止痛最佳配比的筛选研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨旭; 王景霞; 张建军; 郑媛; 郭慧娟; 朱映黎; 罗武政

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨不同配伍比例芍药甘草汤对中枢性肌张力增高大鼠的解痉止痛作用.方法 采用线拴法所致的脑卒中恢复期痉挛性肌张力增高大鼠模型,以巴氯芬为对照,实验组分别给予芍药甘草汤1∶1、1.5∶1、3∶1、7∶1、24∶0 5个不同配伍比例,给药3周后测定其神经功能评分、肌张力、及痛阈的变化.结果 不同配伍比例的芍药甘草汤均有解痉止痛的作用,可不同程度的缓解卒中后痉挛状态,但对于不同指标其最佳比例有所不同.其改善神经行为障碍的最佳比例是1∶1;降低肌张力的最佳比例是3∶1;对疼痛耐受性的最佳比例为7∶1.结论 芍药甘草汤对于中枢损伤所致的痉挛性肌张力增高有很好的柔筋止痛作用,综合判断其解痉止痛的最佳比例是3∶1.

  17. Licocalchone-C extracted from Glycyrrhiza glabra inhibits lipopolysaccharide-interferon-γ inflammation by improving antioxidant conditions and regulating inducible nitric oxide synthase expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschelli, Sara; Pesce, Mirko; Vinciguerra, Isabella; Ferrone, Alessio; Riccioni, Graziano; Patruno, Antonia; Grilli, Alfredo; Felaco, Mario; Speranza, Lorenza

    2011-07-06

    The genus Glycyrrhiza consists of about 30 species, amoung these, G. glabra is the source of several phenolic compounds, known as flavonoids, such as licoagrodin, licoagrochalcones, licoagroaurone and licochalcone C, kanzonol Y, glyinflanin B and glycyrdione A, which have shown various pharmacological activities, including antitumor, antiparasitic, antileishmanial, anti-ulcer and antioxidative effects. Among these compounds, licochalcone C was isolated but its biology has not been fully examined. In our study we reproduced an inflammatory state by treating THP-1 (human myelomonocytic leukaemia) cells with pro-inflammatory stimuli, such as LPS and IFN-γ and we investigated the possible antioxidant activity of licochalcone C at a concentration of 50 μM. Our results show that treatment with licochalcone C attenuates the LPS-IFN-γ-induced inflammatory response by significantly decreasing the expression and activity of iNOS via NFκB (nuclear factor kappa-B), by influencing extracellular O₂⁻ production, and by modulating the antioxidant network activity of SOD (superoxide dismutase), CAT (catalase) and GPx (glutathione peroxidase) activity. Based on these results we hypothesize that Licochalcone C has antioxidant properties since it reduces the production of superoxide radicals and consequently reduces the activity of iNOS.

  18. 2,2',4'-trihydroxychalcone from Glycyrrhiza glabra as a new specific BACE1 inhibitor efficiently ameliorates memory impairment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiyuan; Li, Chenjing; Wang, Xu; Yang, Zhengyi; Chen, Jing; Hu, Lihong; Jiang, Hualiang; Shen, Xu

    2010-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) characterizes a progressive neurodegenerative disorder of the brain, while AD patients are afflicted with irreversible loss of neurons and further the intellectual abilities including memory and reasoning. One of the typical hallmarks of AD is the deposition of senile plaque that is contributed mainly by amyloid-beta (Abeta), whose production is initiated by beta-site amyloid precursor protein (APP)-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1). Inhibition of BACE1 is thereby regarded as an attractive strategy for anti-AD drug discovery. Here, we reported that the natural product 2,2',4'-trihydroxychalcone (TDC) from Glycyrrhiza glabra functioned as a specific non-competitive inhibitor against BACE1 enzyme, and potently repressed beta-cleavage of APP and production of Abeta in human embryo kidney cells-APPswe cells. Moreover, the amelioration ability of this compound against the in vivo memory impairment was further evaluated by APP-PS1 double transgenic mice model. It is discovered that treatment of 9 mg/kg/day of TDC could obviously decrease Abeta production and Abeta plaque formation, while efficiently improve the memory impairment based on Morris water maze test. Our findings thus demonstrated that the natural product TDC as a new BACE1 inhibitor could ameliorate memory impairment in mice, and is expected to be potentially used as a lead compound for further anti-AD reagent development.

  19. Licocalchone-C Extracted from Glycyrrhiza Glabra Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Interferon-γ Inflammation by Improving Antioxidant Conditions and Regulating Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Felaco

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The genus Glycyrrhiza consists of about 30 species, amoung these, G. glabra is the source of several phenolic compounds, known as flavonoids, such as licoagrodin, licoagrochalcones, licoagroaurone and licochalcone C, kanzonol Y, glyinflanin B and glycyrdione A, which have shown various pharmacological activities, including antitumor, antiparasitic, antileishmanial, anti-ulcer and antioxidative effects. Among these compounds, licochalcone C was isolated but its biology has not been fully examined. In our study we reproduced an inflammatory state by treating THP-1 (human myelomonocytic leukaemia cells with pro-inflammatory stimuli, such as LPS and IFN-γ and we investigated the possible antioxidant activity of licochalcone C at a concentration of 50 μM. Our results show that treatment with licochalcone C attenuates the LPS-IFN-γ-induced inflammatory response by significantly decreasing the expression and activity of iNOS via NFκB (nuclear factor kappa-B, by influencing extracellular O2− production, and by modulating the antioxidant network activity of SOD (superoxide dismutase, CAT (catalase and GPx (glutathione peroxidase activity. Based on these results we hypothesize that Licochalcone C has antioxidant properties since it reduces the production of superoxide radicals and consequently reduces the activity of iNOS.

  20. Microwave - assisted Extraction of Glabridin from Glycyrrhiza glabra L.%光果甘草中光甘草定的微波辅助提取研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭瑞丽; 李雪琴; 张晓鹏

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究新疆光果甘草Glycyrrhiza glabra L.根中光甘草定(Glabridin,GB)的检测条件和提取工艺.方法 采用反相高效液相色谱( RP - HPLC)对光甘草定和光果甘草根提取物进行分析测定,考察提取溶剂、提取方法及提取工艺条件对光甘草定得率的影响.结果 微波提取法适用于光甘草定的提取,在提取溶剂为70%乙醇水溶液,料液比为1:15(g/ml),温度为65℃,单次提取40 min的条件下,光甘草定得率为0.256%.结论 由RP - HPLC定量分析光甘草定含量.微波法提取光果甘草中光甘草定工艺简单、易操作,比传统的超声提取法和热回流提取法节约时间、效率高.

  1. Simultaneous determination of 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid in Glycyrrhiza glabra root by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography

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    Ambika Chamoli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present research work is to develop a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method for simultaneous analysis of 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid (18α-GA and 18β-GA (18β-GA of Glycyrrhiza glabra. Materials and Methods: About 20 μL aliquots of each 18α-GA and 18β-GA were analyzed using reversed-phase C-18 column. The mobile phase was acetonitrile:tetrahydrofuran:water (10:80:10, v/v/v. The run time was 10 min at flow rate of 1 ml/min. Ultraviolet detection was carried out at 254 nm. Results: 18α-GA and 18β-GA were well resolved in reversed phase C-18 column using mobile phase acetonitrile: tetrahydrofuran: water (10:80:10, v/v/v, pH 7.9. The Rtof 18α-GA and 18β-GA was detected at 2.091 and 2.377 min, respectively. Conclusion: The developed chromatography method could be extended for potential quantification or simultaneous determination of these markers in plant as well as in herbal formulation.

  2. Anti-convulsant action and amelioration of oxidative stress by Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract in pentylenetetrazole- induced seizure in albino rats

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    Bimalendu Chowdhury

    2013-01-01

    Materials and Methods: The aqueous and ethanol extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra was tested at three doses viz. 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg i.p. for its anti-convulsant activity using pentylenetetrazole (PTZ-induced seizure in rat. The effect of EEGG (400 mg/kg, i.p. on oxidative stress markers like malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT of rat brain tissue homogenate was tested. Results: The onset of seizure was delayed (P < 0.01 by all the three doses of EEGG, but the duration of convulsion was reduced (P < 0.01 only in higher dose level (200 and 400 mg/ kg, whereas AEGG up to 400 mg/kg did not alter any of the parameters significantly. Biochemical analysis of rat brain tissue revealed that MDA was increased (P < 0.01, whereas SOD and CAT were decreased (P < 0.01 in PTZ-induced seizure rat, whereas pre-treatment with EEGG (400 mg/kg decreased (P < 0.01 the MDA and increased (P < 0.01 both SOD and CAT, indicating attenuation of lipid peroxidation due to increase in antioxidant enzymes. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that EEGG poses anti-convulsant potential and ameliorates ROS induced neuronal damage in PTZ-induced seizure.

  3. Phenetic relationships among natural population accessions of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Fabaceae in central Zagros region of Iran, based on quantitative morphology, flavonoids and glycyrrhizin contents data

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    Majid Sharifi-Tehrani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenetic relationships among thirty five accessions from natural populations of two varieties of Glycyrrhiza glabra in central Zagros region of Iran were studied. Twenty one quantitative morphological characters were measured for twenty seven accessions. PCO, clustering, K-means and MDS analyses were performed on morphological dataset. Polar flavonoid constituents of twenty four accessions were extracted, purified using TLC and characterized at the skeleton class level. Glycyrrhizin contents of rhizomes in twenty four accessions were quantified using image processing methods. Results of multivariate analysis of both morphological and flavonoid spot profile data showed that accessions could be partitioned into two main groups based on geographical locality of the populations. The most variable morphological trait based on CV values, was seed area and the least variable one was Legume width in the widest portion. Accessions of both varieties produced various flavonoids of class flavones and flavonols. Seven flavonoid constituents from the two varieties were separated based on different Rf values. The results revealed that there were moderate (not prominent levels of variation between the studied accessions. Separation of the varieties based on the single qualitative character in the available literature, was confirmed. Rhizomes of both varieties showed similar amounts of glycyrrhizin and almost similar types of flavonoids in their TLC profiles, suggesting that both were equivalent as herbal drugs in folk medicine.

  4. Consumer acceptability of liquorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) as an alternative sweetener and correlation with its bioactive content and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komes, Draženka; Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Jurić, Slaven; Bušić, Arijana; Vojvodić, Aleksandra; Durgo, Ksenija

    2016-01-01

    Consumer acceptability and sensory properties of liquorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) were evaluated. Quantitation of total polyphenolics and glycyrrhizic acid (GA), as well as the antioxidant capacity of liquorice extracts, was conducted and their biological effects (cytotoxic, antioxidative/pro-oxidative activity, lipid peroxidation on human laryngeal carcinoma cell line) compared to the ones of their predominant bioactive compound - GA. Conducted consumer survey revealed poor familiarity with liquorice (12.37% of correspondents), but willingness towards its use as an alternative sweetener (77.32% of consumers). Polyphenolic content of evaluated extracts ranged from 1018.18 to 1277.27 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/l while GA content varied between 2179.53 and 2944.13 mg/l. The most pronounced cytotoxic effect (60%) and lipid peroxidation were exerted by treatment with the highest applied extract concentrations (10 mg/ml). Pure GA exhibited cytotoxic and pro-oxidative effects at concentrations of 0.12-0.6 mg/ml. Due to high GA content, coupled with its pronounced cytotoxic activity, the intake of liquorice root should be limited.

  5. In vitro studies on protective effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra root extracts against cadmium-induced genetic and oxidative damage in human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirican, Ebubekir; Turkez, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium is a modern environmental contaminant that is toxic and carcinogenic. Glycyrrhiza glabra is a traditional medicinal herb which grows in the various parts of the World. Recent studies demonstrated that G. glabra has antifungal, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and powerful antiinflammatory features. The purpose of this study was to investigate the genetic safety of extracts from G. glabra and its effects on cadmium (as CdCl2) induced genotoxicity. Therefore we evaluated the capability of G. glabra extract to inhibit the rate of micronucleus (MN), sister chromatid exchange (SCE) formations induced by CdCl2. Moreover, to assess the effects of G. glabra on cell viability and oxidative status, we performed 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assays. Our results showed that there were significant increases (P glabra extract (5, 10 and 20 ppm) and CdCl2 resulted in decreases of MN and SCE rates as compared to the group treated with CdCl2 alone. Again, the results of MTT and TAC assays clearly indicated dose dependent ameliorative effects of G. glabra extracts against CdCl2 toxicity. In conclusion, this study demonstrated for the first time that G. glabra extracts provided increased resistance of DNA against CdCl2 induced genetic and oxidative damage in human lymphocytes. So, the risk on target tissues of CdCl2 could be reduced and ensured early recovery from its toxicity.

  6. An Extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra (GutGard Alleviates Symptoms of Functional Dyspepsia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

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    Kadur Ramamurthy Raveendra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of GutGard, an extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra, in patients with functional dyspepsia. The primary outcome variables of the study were the change in the severity symptoms and the global assessment of efficacy. The quality of life was evaluated as a secondary outcome measure. The patients received either placebo or GutGard (75 mg twice daily for 30 days. Efficacy was evaluated in terms of change in the severity of symptoms (as measured by 7-point Likert scale, the global assessment of efficacy, and the assessment of quality of life using the short-form Nepean Dyspepsia Index. In comparison with placebo, GutGard showed a significant decrease (P≤.05 in total symptom scores on day 15 and day 30, respectively. Similarly, GutGard showed marked improvement in the global assessment of efficacy in comparison to the placebo. The GutGard group also showed a significant decrease (P≤.05 in the Nepean dyspepsia index on day 15 and 30, respectively, when compared to placebo. GutGard was generally found to be safe and well-tolerated by all patients. GutGard has shown significant efficacy in the management of functional dyspepsia.

  7. Effect of the combination of ginseng, oriental bezoar and glycyrrhiza on autonomic nervous activity and immune system under mental arithmetic stress.

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    Zheng, Aisong; Moritani, Toshio

    2008-06-01

    Stress reduces physical and mental tolerances (immune potential) of humans and it induces progression of existing illness or causes latent disorders to become active. Thus, the control and suppression of stress plays an important role in the improvement of quality of life and prevention of diseases. Ginseng, oriental bezoar and glycyrrhiza have been used for Kampo (herbal treatment) for thousand years and a number of pharmacological and clinical studies have reported their effects. However, it has not been previously described how the combination of these most commonly used herbs affect mental stress. This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment to examine the effectiveness of reducing stress response by taking Kampo. Ten healthy males (mean age 27+/-1) participated in the study. The effectiveness of stress reduction was assessed by measuring ECG, salivary chromogranin A (CgA), blood glucose, WBC, granulocytes, lymphocytes, NK cell activity, etc. Salivary and blood measurement values of pre- and post-mental arithmetic stress were compared. In addition, ECG measurement values of pre- and mid-mental arithmetic stress were compared. we observed a higher HF power and a lower SNS index, HR, CgA, WBC and granulocytes in the Kampo trial than those in the placebo trial. The HR, HF power and SNS index were changed significantly (presult suggests that the Kampo should be useful in reducing mental stress.

  8. In silico Approach for Anti-Thrombosis Drug Discovery: P2Y1R Structure-Based TCMs Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Fan; Sun, Le; Xu, Li-jia; Peng, Yong; Liu, Hai-bo; He, Chun-nian; Xiao, Pei-gen

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), including thrombosis, which is induced by platelet aggregation, are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. The P2Y1 receptor (P2Y1R) facilitates platelet aggregation and is thus an important potential anti-thrombotic drug target. The P2Y1R protein structure contains a binding site for receptor antagonist MRS2500 within its seven-transmembrane bundle, which also provides suitable pockets for numerous other ligands to act as nucleotide antagonists of P2Y1R. The Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP) comprises 499 Chinese Pharmacopoeia-registered herbs and the structure information for 29,384 ingredients. In silico docking of these compounds into the P2Y1R protein structure within the MRS2500 pocket can identify potential antithrombotic drugs from natural medicinal plants. Docking studies were performed and scored to evaluate ligand-binding affinities. In this study, a total of 8987 compounds from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) were filtered by Lipinski's rule of five, and their ideal oral-intake properties were evaluated. Of these, 1656 compounds distributed in 443 herbs docked into the P2Y1R-MRS2500 structure in 16,317 poses. A total of 38 compounds were ranked with a DockScore above 70, and these may have significant potential for development into anti-thrombosis drugs. These computational results suggested that licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch), cimicifugae (Cimicifuga foetida L.), and ganoderma (Ganoderma lucidum Karst) and their chemical constituents, which have not previously been widely used for anti-thrombosis, may have unexpected effects on platelet aggregation. Moreover, two types of triterpene scaffolds summarized from 10 compounds were distributed in these three herbs and also docked into P2Y1R. These scaffold structures may be utilized for the development of drugs to inhibit platelet aggregation. PMID:28119608

  9. Short communication: an in vitro assessment of the antibacterial activity of plant-derived oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, K A E; Lee, A R; Lyman, R L; Mason, S E; Washburn, S P; Anderson, K L

    2014-09-01

    Nonantibiotic treatments for mastitis are needed in organic dairy herds. Plant-derived oils may be useful but efficacy and potential mechanisms of action of such oils in mastitis therapy have not been well documented. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the plant-derived oil components of Phyto-Mast (Bovinity Health LLC, Narvon, PA), an herbal intramammary product, against 3 mastitis-causing pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus chromogenes, and Streptococcus uberis. Plant-derived oils evaluated were Thymus vulgaris (thyme), Gaultheria procumbens (wintergreen), Glycyrrhiza uralensis (Chinese licorice), Angelica sinensis, and Angelica dahurica. Broth dilution testing according to standard protocol was performed using ultrapasteurized whole milk instead of broth. Controls included milk only (negative control), milk + bacteria (positive control), and milk + bacteria + penicillin-streptomycin (antibiotic control, at 1 and 5% concentrations). Essential oil of thyme was tested by itself and not in combination with other oils because of its known antibacterial activity. The other plant-derived oils were tested alone and in combination for a total of 15 treatments, each replicated 3 times and tested at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4% to simulate concentrations potentially achievable in the milk within the pre-dry-off udder quarter. Thyme oil at concentrations ≥2% completely inhibited bacterial growth in all replications. Other plant-derived oils tested alone or in various combinations were not consistently antibacterial and did not show typical dose-response effects. Only thyme essential oil had consistent antibacterial activity against the 3 mastitis-causing organisms tested in vitro. Further evaluation of physiological effects of thyme oil in various preparations on mammary tissue is recommended to determine potential suitability for mastitis therapy. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier

  10. 微量量热法研究甘草多糖对细菌代谢作用的影响%Investigation on Metabolic Action of Glycyrrhiza Polysaccharide on Bacteria by Microcalorimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莲; 林贵梅; 邵伟; 娄红祥

    2011-01-01

    Glycyrrhiza polysaccharide is an important active material. The effect of glycyrrhiza polysaccharide on the metabolism of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by microcalorimetric method was investigated. The power-time curves were plotted with a TAM air isothermal microcalorimeter. According to the mathematical growth model, the parameters such as the growth rate constant μ, inhibitory ratio I, the peak-power Pm and the peak-time Tp were calculated The effect of glycyrrhiza polysaccharide on the metabolism of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were studied from the viewpoint of thermokinetics. The results showed that glycyrrhiza polysaccharide had inhibitory effect on the bacteria and had stronger inhibitory effect on E. coli than on S. aureus. Microcalorimetry is an ideal method to investigate the effect of drug on microorganism%甘草多糖是甘草中一种重要的活性物质,用微量量热法研究了甘草多糖对大肠杆菌和金黄色葡萄球菌生长代谢作用的影响.微量量热仪绘制了37℃时大肠杆菌和金黄色葡萄球菌在不同浓度的甘草多糖作用下的热谱曲线,根据热动力学模型,分别得到了生长速率常数μ、抑制率Ⅰ、最大产热功率Pm以及最大产热功率所对应的时间Tp等热动力学参数,从热动力学的角度探讨了甘草多糖对大肠杆菌和金黄色葡萄球菌代谢作用的影响.实验证明,甘草多糖对这两种细菌均有抑制作用,并且对大肠杆菌的抑制作用比金黄色葡萄球菌更强.

  11. Isolation of an Glycyrrhizic Acid-producing Andophytic Fungus from Licorice and Analysis of Metabolites%一株产甘草酸内生真菌的分离及代谢产物分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红霞; 李雅丽

    2011-01-01

    采用组织块法从采自内蒙古鄂尔多斯市的甘草根部分离纯化内生真菌,经液体发酵培养,抽提发酵粗产物,以甘草酸为标准品采用LC-MS法和HPLC法对这些真菌的代谢产物进行筛选,获得1株产甘草酸的内生菌,通过形态学研究初步确定该菌株为镰孢霉属.%A strain of glycyrrhizic acid-producing endophytic fungi was obtained from the rats of licorice in Erdos city of the Inner Mongolia autonomous region by tissue culture method. Then the purified endophytic fungal strains were fermented. The glycyrrhizic acid in the fungal extract was extract and confirmed by HPLC and LC-MS by comparison with glycyrrhizic acid standard. The strain B12 that was found as the glycyrrhizic acid-producing andophytic fungus was grouped into Fusarium based on the morphological traits.

  12. Effect of licorice and kansui combination on the functions and pathological histomorphology of heart,liver and kidney in rat%甘草甘遂伍用对大鼠心肝肾功能及病理组织形态的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文权; 程相岭; 肖鸿; 徐梓辉; 邵华

    2004-01-01

    目的 :观察中药十八反中甘草与甘遂同用时对 Wistar大鼠心、肝、肾功能及形态的影响.方法 :单味药甘草及单味药甘遂各 100 g分别加水 200 mL,煎煮浓缩至 50 mL药液,配伍组将甘草及甘遂各 100 g加水 400 mL,煎煮浓缩至 50 mL药液.共 20只大鼠分成甘草组、甘遂组、甘草+甘遂组及对照组 4组,每组各 5只大鼠,采用灌胃法,药物剂量按 0.02 mL/g大鼠计算,每日灌胃 1次,连续 7 d,对照组灌服生理盐水.观察大鼠心、肝、肾功能及形态的变化.结果 :单味甘草及单味甘遂对实验动物肝功能中谷丙转氨酶 (alanine aminotransferase,ALT)及总蛋白均无明显影响( P 》0.05),甘草与甘遂同用后对 ALT影响明显 [对照组、甘草组、甘遂组、甘草+甘遂组分别为( 38.5± 3.7) ,(43.4± 4.2),(44.5± 4.3),( 268.5± 25.8) IU/L](P《 0.01),而对总蛋白无明显影响 (P 》0.05);单味甘草、单味甘遂及甘草与甘遂配伍后对实验动物肾功能中尿素氮、肌酐均无明显影响 (P 》0.05);单味甘遂对心肌酶谱中肌酸磷酸激酶( creatine phosphokinase,CPK)、乳酸脱氢酶( lactate dehydrogenase,LDH)、γ-羟丁酸脱氢酶(-hydroxybutyric acid dehydrognase,γ-HBDH)等指标有影响 (P《 0.05),配伍甘草后对以上各指标的影响加重 (P《 0.01).心、肝、肾脏组织病理检查显示,单味甘草及单味甘遂对心、肝、肾脏组织无明显影响,两药相配后可导致心、肝、肾脏组织血管充血明显.结论 :配伍组对大鼠心、肝、肾功能有明显影响,而对肾功能无影响,对大鼠心、肝、肾脏组织形态有较轻微影响,但属可逆性改变.%AIM:To explore the effect of the combination of two incompatible Chinese medical herbs,licorice and kansui from " eighteen incompatible medicaments" on the functions and histomorphology of the heart,liver and kidney in Wistar rats. METHODS:The single solution of licorice or kansui was obtained respectively by

  13. The effect of drought stress on the expression of key genes involved in the biosynthesis of triterpenoid saponins in liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrollahi, Vida; Mirzaie-asl, Asghar; Piri, Khosro; Nazeri, Sonbol; Mehrabi, Rahim

    2014-07-01

    Glycyrrhiza glabra is an important medicinal plant throughout the world. Glycyrrhizin is a triterpenoid that is among the most important secondary metabolites produced by liquorice. Drought stress is proposed to enhance the levels of secondary metabolites. In this study, the effect of drought stress on the expression of important genes involved in the glycyrrhizin biosynthetic pathway was examined. Drought stress at the seedling stage was applied to 8-day-old plants using polyethylene glycol. Subsequently, the samples were collected 0, 4, 8 or 24 h post-treatment. At the adult plant stage, 10-month-old plants were subjected to drought stress by discontinuing irrigation. Subsequently, samples were collected at 2, 16 and 28 days after drought imposition (S(2d), S(16d) and S(28d), respectively). We performed semi-quantitative RT-PCR assays to evaluate the gene expression levels of sequalene synthase (SQS), β-amyrin synthase (bAS), lupeol synthase (LUS) and cycloartenol synthase (CAS) during stress. Finally, the glycyrrhizin content of stolons was determined via HPLC. The results revealed that due to osmotic stress, the gene expression levels of SQS and bAS were increased, whereas those of CAS were relatively unchanged at the seedling stage. At the adult plant stage, the expression levels of SQS and bAS were increased under drought stress conditions, whereas the gene expression level of CAS remained relatively constant. The glycyrrhizin content in stolons was increased only under severe drought stress conditions (S(28d)). Our results indicate that application of controlled drought stress up-regulates the expression of key genes involved in the biosynthesis of triterpenoid saponins and directly enhances the production of secondary metabolites, including glycyrrhizin, in liquorice plants.

  14. Genetic Structure and Diversity Analysis Revealed by AFLP Markers on Different Glycyrrhiza glabra L. an Endangered Medicinal Species from South of Iran and Implications for Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimi, Atieh; Zolfaghari, Maryam; Sorkheh, Karim

    2016-09-28

    Glycyrrhiza glabra is an endangered and national-protected medicinal plant species distributed in semi-arid and arid areas of South of Iran. This study addresses the genetic diversity and relationship between populations in different habitats by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). The plant materials consisted of 90 individuals from nine different populating areas of Dezful, Ramhormoz, Ahvaz, Abadan, Khorramshahr, Behbahan, Haft-tapeh, Andimeshk, and Shushtar. Twenty-three AFLP primer combinations generated a total of 1019 bands with 94.80 % polymorphism. Unweighted pair group method based on arithmetic average (UPGMA) analysis was performed on Jaccard's similarity coefficient matrix. According to results, the genetic resources and diversity in wild populations of G. glabra were rich. The number of polymorphic fragments per primer combination detected ranged from 18 to 65 bands with an average of 41.95 bands. Average polymorphic information content (PIC) was 0.81 in overall primer combinations. M-GTC+P-AGC primer combination showed the highest PIC (0.94) which can be a good candidate primer combination to verify genetic diversity in G. glabra. The UPGMA and principal coordinate analysis showed a clear distinction among the genotypes and the genotypes divided into three clusters in the dendrogram results. A model-based structure analysis revealed the presence of three groups. The study showed that genetic variation and population structure are determined among the accessions of G. glabra collected from different locations. High level of genetic variation in both intra- and inter-species was detected. Conservational efforts have to be strengthened for all populations of the plant species in different habitats.

  15. Antibacterial activity of Tribulus terrestris and its synergistic effect with Capsella bursa-pastoris and Glycyrrhiza glabra against oral pathogens: an in-vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Soleimanpour

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, antimicrobial activities of an ethanol extract of Tribulus terrestris aloneand in combination with Capsella bursa-pastoris and Glycyrrhiza glabra were examined in vitro against six pathogens namely Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Actinomyces viscosus, Enterococcus faecalis Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Materials and methods: Antibacterial activities of the extracts were examined using disc and well diffusion methods and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of ethanol extracts were determined against these microorganisms using agar and broth dilution methods. Chlorhexidine was used as positive control. Results: Tribulus terrestris extract exhibited good antibacterial activity against all bacteria. Antibacterial activity of mixed extract was evaluated and exhibited that mixed extract was more effective against all bacteria than any of the cases alone which indicates the synergistic effect between these three extracts (p˂0.05. No strain showed resistance against these extracts. In agar dilution, Tribulus terrestris exhibited MIC values ranging from 35.0 to 20.0 mg/ml and mixed extract showed MIC values ranging from 12.5 to 5.0 mg/ml. The results of broth dilution method were consistent with the findings of the agar dilution method. Conclusion: This in-vitro study was a preliminary evaluation of antibacterial activity of the plants. It provided scientific evidence to support uses of T. terrestris and its mixture with C. bursa-pastoris and G. glabra for the treatment of oral infections. In-vivo studies are also required to better evaluate the effect of these extracts.

  16. Revealing the Effects of the Herbal Pair of Euphorbia kansui and Glycyrrhiza on Hepatocellular Carcinoma Ascites with Integrating Network Target Analysis and Experimental Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanqiong; Lin, Ya; Zhao, Haiyu; Guo, Qiuyan; Yan, Chen; Lin, Na

    2016-01-01

    Although the herbal pair of Euphorbia kansui (GS) and Glycyrrhiza (GC) is one of the so-called "eighteen antagonistic medicaments" in Chinese medicinal literature, it is prescribed in a classic Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formula Gansui-Banxia-Tang for cancerous ascites, suggesting that GS and GC may exhibit synergistic or antagonistic effects in different combination designs. Here, we modeled the effects of GS/GC combination with a target interaction network and clarified the associations between the network topologies involving the drug targets and the drug combination effects. Moreover, the "edge-betweenness" values, which is defined as the frequency with which edges are placed on the shortest paths between all pairs of modules in network, were calculated, and the ADRB1-PIK3CG interaction exhibited the greatest edge-betweenness value, suggesting its crucial role in connecting the other edges in the network. Because ADRB1 and PIK3CG were putative targets of GS and GC, respectively, and both had functional interactions with AVPR2 approved as known therapeutic target for ascites, we proposed that the ADRB1-PIK3CG-AVPR2 signal axis might be involved in the effects of the GS-GC combination on ascites. This proposal was further experimentally validated in a H22 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ascites model. Collectively, this systems-level investigation integrated drug target prediction and network analysis to reveal the combination principles of the herbal pair of GS and GC. Experimental validation in an in vivo system provided convincing evidence that different combination designs of GS and GC might result in synergistic or antagonistic effects on HCC ascites that might be partially related to their regulation of the ADRB1-PIK3CG-AVPR2 signal axis.

  17. Alternative to antibiotics against Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra on membrane permeability and inhibition of efflux activity and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and its in vitro time-kill activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakotiya, Ankita Singh; Tanwar, Ankit; Narula, Alka; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

    2016-09-01

    The multi-drug resistance offered by Pseudomonas aeruginosa to antibiotics can be attributed towards its propensity to develop biofilm, modification in cell membrane and to efflux antibacterial drugs. The present study explored the activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra and one of its pure compounds, glycyrrhizic acid against P. aeruginosa and their mechanism of action in terms of the effect on membrane permeability, efflux activity, and biofilm formation were determined. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined by using broth dilution technique. The minimum bactericidal concentrations were assessed on agar plate. The MIC of the extract and glycyrrhizic acid was found to be 200 and 100 μg ml(-1), respectively. The MBC was found to be 800 and 400 μg ml(-1) in the case of extract and glycyrrhizic acid, respectively. Time -dependent killing efficacy was also estimated. Flowcytometric analysis with staining methods was used to determine the effect of extract and glycyrrhizic acid at 2 × MIC on different physiological parameters and compared it with the standard (antibiotic). The growth of P. aeruginosa was significantly inhibited by extract and the pure compound. The herbal extract and the glycyrrhic acid were also found to effective in targeting the physiological parameters of the bacteria that involve cell membrane permeabilization, efflux activity, and biofilm formation. This study reports the antipseudomonal action of Glycyrrhiza glabra and one of its compound and provides insight into their mode of action.

  18. 甘草总黄酮清除羟自由基作用的体外实验探讨%The scavenging effect of flavoniods of glycyrrhiza on hydroxyl radical studied in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴碧华; 龙存国; 王晓明; 李秋茹; 郑霞清; 胡常林

    2001-01-01

    甘草总黄酮对Fenton反应生成的*OH具有较强的直接清除作用,该作用明显优于甘露醇,其清除*OH的IC50是甘露醇的1/255,其抑制*OH生成的IC50是甘露醇的1/139。结果提示了甘草总黄酮有可能作为一种新的天然抗氧化剂。%Flavionoids of Glycyrrhiza possessed significantly Scavenging effect on hydroxyl radical(*OH) produced by Fenton reaction.the effect of Flavonoids of Glycyrrhiza was more potent than that of mannitol.the *OH-scavening IC50 and the *OH-inhibting IC50 of in were 1/25 and 1/139 respectively as compared with that of mannitol.the results suggest Flavoniods of Gycyrrhiza with a vast prospect as a new natural antioxidant.

  19. The Adsorptions of Three Licorice Derivatives by Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes%多壁碳纳米管对甘草中3种有效成分的选择性吸附

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵洁; 李超鹏; 韩博; 陈文

    2011-01-01

    The adsorptions of three licorice derivatives including, isoliquiritin, liquiritin and glycyrrhizic acid on multi-walled carbon nanotubes(MWNTs), were investigated using UV and HPLC techniques. The effects of adsorption time, initial concentration, solution volume and its pH value on the adsorption of ciprofloxacin are examined. MWNTs have totally different adsorptive capacities toward the three main components. In the multi-component competitive adsorption examination, a noncompetitive adsorption process was observed. The adsorption capacity of MWNTs for isoliquiritin is higher than those for liquiritin and glycyrrhizic acid. MWNTs may be potentially applied to the separation and purification of isoliquiritins.%考察了多壁碳纳米管(MWNTs)对3种甘草有效成分异甘草苷、甘草苷和甘草酸的吸附性能.分别用紫外分光光度法和HPLC法测定了吸附前后溶液中异甘草苷、甘草苷、甘草酸的含量,考察了静态吸附实验时间、料液起始浓度、溶液体积和pH值对各成分吸附的影响.结果显示,MWNTs对甘草中3种主要有效成分的吸附量明显不同,对异甘草苷的吸附远大于甘草苷和甘草酸,并且不存在竞争吸附,具有明显的选择性吸附特点.

  20. An investigation of compositions and effects of local herbal Glycyrrhiza glabra and Mentha pulegium extracts on Helicobacter pylori and cell Line of stomach cancer (AGS by MTT assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Salmani Jamaat1

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim:According to globally development of stomach cancer especially in Ardabil, Iran, as the second major cause of mortality throughout the world, increased drug-resistant bacteria including Helicobacter pylori as the most important risk factors for stomach cancer, and side effects of antibiotics and chemical drugs normally used to treat. Experimental: The current research was conducted to investigate the anticancer and antimicrobial effects of native herbs of liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra and pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium extractions for finding a solution with the lowest complications in control or treatment of stomach cancer.The extractions were firstly obtained using Soxhlet and methanol solvent and then their compounds were determined by GC/MS. Antimicrobial activity, MIC and MBC of the extractions were assessed respectively using agar diffusion and broth dilution test and the anticancer effect on stomach cancer (cell line AGS was assessed by MTT assay. H. pylori ATCC 26695 was respectively revived and purified on Brucella broth containing 7% citrated horse serum and Columbia agar. Results: The analysis showed that liquorice extract contains 15 compositions, mainly consists of 26.48% Nonane, 23.38% Ethylcyclohexan, 8.29% 3-Bromodecane, 10.31% trans-2-Heptenal, 8.93% 9-Octadecenamide and 4.68% β-pregna and pennyroyal extract contains 17 compositions, mainly including 3.36% Camphor, 22.79% Pulegone, 4.92% Paramenth-3-n8-l, 8.06% Menthoforan, 7.54% Cis-Isopulegon and 24.58% α-Selinene. The bacteria were resistant or semi-sensitive to common antibiotics, whereas had considerable sensitivity to herbal extracts and liquorice showed almost three times more antibacterial effect. Pennyroyal extract had no cytotoxic effects, but the anticancer effect was observed in liquorice extract with optimal concentration of 25 μg/ml after 48 hours. Recommended applications/industries: In conclusion, liquorice extract due to the significant health

  1. Impactfactors and optimization method on the separation of active components in licorice by micellar thin layer chromatography%胶束薄层色谱分离甘草活性成分的影响因素及优化方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔淑芬; 林焕冰; 王小如

    2012-01-01

    目的:为甘草的胶束薄层色谱指纹图谱寻找最优胶束流动相.方法:首先采用单因子法,寻找影响甘草胶束薄层色谱的影响因素,在此基础上,采用控制加权可变步长单纯形优化法进行甘草胶束薄层色谱指纹图谱的流动相优化.结果:对甘草的胶束薄层色谱分离条件(表面活性剂的种类和含量、醇和酸改性剂的影响等)进行了实验,表明纯胶束薄层色谱的柱效较低,加入醇和酸类改性剂后柱效有明显提高.通过对改性胶束的进一步优化(控制加权可变步长单纯形优化法),得到优化的甘草改性胶束展开剂组成为:0.23 mol·L-1的SDS+ 16%(v/v)正丁醇+11%(v/v)甲酸.本研究对胶束薄层色谱的一些分离机理亦进行了探讨.结论:胶束薄层色谱的表面活性剂和各添加剂间存在交互作用,需采用合适的优化方法,才能达到分离中药材复杂活性成分群的目的.%Objective: To seek the best mobile phase of micellar thin - layer chromatography ( MTLC) of licorice fingerprint. Method: Single impact factor of mobile phase in licorice MTLC fingerprint was tested individually and controlled weighted centroid simplex method was used finally to optimize the mobile phase of licorice MTLC fingerprint. Results: The selectivity of micellar TLC was studied for the separation of active components in licorice under various operation variables including concentrations of surfactant and co - surfactant, surfactant type, addition of acid modifier,et al. The results show that the low chromatography efficiency of micellar TLC could be improved by the addition of alcohol and acid modifier. Using controlled weighted centroid simplex method,optimization micellar TLC developing system of licorice was achieved which consists of 0. 23 mol · L-1 SDS,16% (v/v)n -butanol and 11% (v/v)methyl acid. In addition,the separation mechanism of micellar TLC was also discussed. Conclusion: he appropriate optimization method should

  2. Metabolic profiling of roots of liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) from different geographical areas by ESI/MS/MS and determination of major metabolites by LC-ESI/MS and LC-ESI/MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, Paola; Maldini, Mariateresa; Russo, Mariateresa; Postorino, Santo; Piacente, Sonia; Pizza, Cosimo

    2011-02-20

    Liquid chromatography electrospray mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS) has been applied to the full characterization of saponins and phenolics in hydroalcoholic extracts of roots of liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra). Relative quantitative analyses of the samples with respect to the phenolic constituents and to a group of saponins related to glycyrrhizic acid were performed using LC-ESI/MS. For the saponin constituents, full scan LC-MS/MS fragmentation of the protonated (positive ion mode) or deprotonated (negative ion mode) molecular species generated diagnostic fragment ions that provided information concerning the triterpene skeleton and the number and nature of the substituents. On the basis of the specific fragmentation of glycyrrhizic acid, an LC-MS/MS method was developed in order to quantify the analyte in the liquorice root samples. Chinese G. glabra roots contained the highest levels of glycyrrhizic acid, followed by those from Italy (Calabria).

  3. Effect of the extractions of glycyrrhizae on anti-tumor activity in vitro%甘草不同柱分的体外抗肿瘤活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡旭玲; 姚振江; 黄晓晖; 王德全; 周俊立; 邹志辉; 陈思东

    2013-01-01

    Objective The effect of the extractions of glycyrrhizae on anti-tumor activity in vitro was studied. Methods The inhibitory action on tumor cell Hep-2 with MTT was determined. Results The inhibitory action was obvious, reinforced as the concentrations increased, and showed a concentration-effect relation. There was statistical difference of inhibition ratio among HPD722-70 serial extractions ( F = 32. 906, P = 0.001) and also among different concentrations of HPD722-70 (F = 2.255,P=0.042)and D101-80 (F= 19. 703,P = 0. 001)series extractions(P<0. 05).Conclusions The anti-tumor activity of glycyrrhizae extractions in vitro was obvious.%目的 研究甘草不同柱分的体外抗肿瘤活性.方法 采用MTT法检测甘草不同柱分对人喉癌细胞(Hep-2)增殖的抑制作用.结果 甘草不同柱分对Hep-2细胞有明显抑制作用,随着浓度的升高而增强,且呈浓度一效应关系.HPD722-70柱分间(F =32.906,P=0.001)、浓度间(F =2.255,P=0.042)与D101-80柱分的浓度间(F=19.703,P=0.001)抑制率的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 甘草不同柱分在体外具有显著的抗肿瘤活性.

  4. 甘草的现代炮制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董红丽

    2011-01-01

    甘草来源于豆科植物甘草Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch、光果甘草Glycyrrhiza glabra L.或胀果甘草Glycyrrhizainflate Bat.的干燥根或根茎.处方用名为甘草、粉甘草、炙甘草、蜜甘草.甘草生品味甘偏凉,长于泻火解毒,化痰止咳.蜜炙甘草甘温,以补脾和胃,益气复脉力胜.

  5. Diadelphous stamens in Glycyrrhiza glabra: their development and adaptive significance%光果甘草二体雄蕊的发育及其适应意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田润炜; 陆嘉惠; 李学禹; 余营; 谢良碧; 秦忠立

    2013-01-01

    甘草属(Glycyrrhiza)植物具“9+1”二体雄蕊,其中9枚合生雄蕊的上部花丝分离,分离的花丝在发育过程中存在由早期长、短交错的二组排列方式转变为后期以雄蕊管最长的1枚雄蕊为中心向两边渐次缩短的倒“V”形排列.为了解这种雄蕊发育动态、分化现象及发育成熟后的适应意义,该文以光果甘草(G.glabra)为实验材料,比较了雄蕊发育过程中的形态变化、成熟花粉的理化性质及在传粉中的作用.结果显示:雄蕊发育早期长、短两组雄蕊在花药大小与形状上存在分化,但后期伴随着花丝的快速生长与花粉的成熟、散出,花药大小与形状趋于一致;花粉组织化学成分及授粉成功率无差异,但成熟花粉的数量和花粉活力存在差异;去雄处理虽然使访花者在一天内的两个访花高峰期的访花频次降低,但结实率高于自然对照,说明以异交为主的花去除雄蕊后,降低了雌、雄蕊间的功能干扰,提高了传粉昆虫的授粉率;发育早期长、短交错排列的二组雄蕊到成熟期时发生的倒“V”形排列的转变,使不同数量与活性的花粉分布在花内不同空间,最大化接触访花者,实现了资源节约,提高了雄蕊的雄性适合度,即在有限的空间内用最节约的雄性资源投入、使传粉空间与传粉几率最大化的方式,来提高雄性功能.

  6. Study on the genetic toxicity, teratogenecity and subchronic toxicity of extractum glycyrrhiza.%甘草浸膏的遗传毒性、致畸性及亚慢性毒性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡帅尔; 陈壁锋; 陈美芬; 李文立; 黄建康; 杨美玲; 王凤岩

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the genetic toxicity,teratogenecity and subchronic toxicity of extractum glycyrrhiz to mammal. Methods The micronuclear test in polychromatic erythrocytes of bone marrow and the sperm abnormality in mice,Ames test.teratogenic test and subchronic toxicity test in rats induced by extractum glycyrrhiz were carried out. Results No positive result were found in micronuclear test and the sperm abnormality test under 2.50 ~ 10.0g/kg BW extractum glycyrrhiza. The result of Ames test was negative under 8~5 000 μg/plate dosage. There was no toxicity on pregnancy rats and embryo,and no teratogenicity was found on the rat embryo treated with 0.71 to 6.42 g/kg BW extractum glycyrrhiza. The maximum no-observed-adverse-effect level(NOAEL)of extractum glycyrrhiza in subchronic toxicity was 6.42 g/kg BW in both male and female rats. Conclusion There was no genetic toxicity, teratogenecity or subchronic toxicity of extractum glycyrrhiz under the condition of this experiment.%目的 研究甘草浸膏对哺乳动物的遗传毒性、致畸性及亚慢性毒性,了解甘草浸膏可能存在的远期危害和毒性作用.方法 采用小鼠骨髓细胞微核试验、小鼠精子畸形试验、Ames试验、大鼠致畸试验和亚慢性毒性试验,观察甘草浸膏的遗传毒性、致畸性及亚慢性毒性作用.结果 2.50 ~ 10.0g/kg BW剂量的微核试验及精子畸变试验结果为阴性,8~5000μg/皿剂量组Ames试验结果为阴性;致畸试验研究结果表明,0.71~6.42 g/kg BW剂量的甘草浸膏对大鼠不具母体毒性、胚胎毒性和致畸作用;通过亚慢性毒性试验观察到的甘草浸膏最大无作用剂量雌雄大鼠均为6.42g/kg BW. 结论 在本实验条件下,未观察到甘草浸膏对哺乳动物产生遗传毒性、致畸性和亚慢性毒性作用,未发现其可能存在的远期危害.

  7. Simultaneous Extraction of Glabridin and Glycyrrhizic Acid from Glycyrrhiza glabra L.%同时提取光果甘草中光甘草定和甘草酸的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉会; 徐德平; 张连富

    2011-01-01

    本文主要对光果甘草中光甘草定、甘草酸两种重要活性成分的同时提取工艺进行了研究.通过单因素试验确定了影响提取的主要因素及适宜水平范围,通过正交试验确定了其最佳提取条件为:用含0.6%氨水的60%乙醇溶液作为提取剂,料液比为1:20(w:v),在75℃条件下提取2 h.最佳提取条件下光甘草定的得率为0.238%±0.002%,甘草酸的得率为5.08%±0.03%.该工艺操作简单,投入一批原料,即可同时提取其中的光甘草定和甘草酸,为实现甘草资源高附加值的综合加工利用奠定了基础.%To study the technology of simultaneous extraction of glabridin and glycyrrhizic acid from Glycyrrhiza glabra L., the single factor experiments were done to determine the influencing factors and the orthogonal tests were done to optimize the extracting condition. The extraction conditions were optimized as follows:60% ethanol containing 0.6% ammonia as extractant,ratio of material to liquid 1:20 (w: v) ,extraction temperature 75 °C ,and duration was 2 h. Under these conditions,the extraction rates of Glabridin and Glycyrrhizic acid were 0.238 ±0.002% and 5.08 ±0.03% respectively. This technology featured simple operation and yielded the two important bioactive compounds at the same time. The research provided a basis for comprehensive development and utilization of Glycyrrhiza re sources with high valued-added.

  8. 光果甘草异黄酮类成分光甘草定的制备工艺%Study on the Preparation Technology of Isoflavon Glabridin from Glycyrrhiza glabra L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马淑燕; 木合布力·阿布力孜; 巴哈尔古丽·卡哈尔; 何倩

    2007-01-01

    目的:研究提取和分离新疆光果甘草(Glycyrrhiza glabra L)的异黄酮类活性成分光甘草定(Glabridin,GB)的工艺.方法:用丙酮粗提光果甘草提取物,用氧化铝和硅胶柱层析法分离不同极性的组分,用制备型薄层层析法和重结晶法进行纯化,再用核磁共振、质谱、红外和紫外光谱法进行结构鉴定.结果:从光果甘草的干燥根中分离获得GB纯品,原制备工艺得到优化.结论:本方法在少量快速制备GB纯品中具有重要作用.

  9. Therapeutic effects of Euphorbia Pekinensis and Glycyrrhiza glabra on Hepatocellular Carcinoma Ascites Partially Via Regulating the Frk-Arhgdib-Inpp5d-Avpr2-Aqp4 Signal Axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanqiong; Yan, Chen; Li, Yuting; Mao, Xia; Tao, Weiwei; Tang, Yuping; Lin, Ya; Guo, Qiuyan; Duan, Jingao; Lin, Na

    2017-02-01

    To clarify unknown rationalities of herbaceous compatibility of Euphorbia Pekinensis (DJ) and Glycyrrhiza glabra (GC) acting on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ascites, peritoneum transcriptomics profiling of 15 subjects, including normal control (Con), HCC ascites mouse model (Mod), DJ-alone, DJ/GC-synergy and DJ/GC-antagonism treatment groups were performed on OneArray platform, followed by differentially expressed genes (DEGs) screening. DEGs between Mod and Con groups were considered as HCC ascites-related genes, and those among different drug treatment and Mod groups were identified as DJ/GC-combination-related genes. Then, an interaction network of HCC ascites-related gene-DJ/GC combination-related gene-known therapeutic target gene for ascites was constructed. Based on nodes’ degree, closeness, betweenness and k-coreness, the Frk-Arhgdib-Inpp5d-Avpr2-Aqp4 axis with highly network topological importance was demonstrated to be a candidate target of DJ/GC combination acting on HCC ascites. Importantly, both qPCR and western blot analyses verified this regulatory effects based on HCC ascites mice in vivo and M-1 collecting duct cells in vitro. Collectively, different combination designs of DJ and GC may lead to synergistic or antagonistic effects on HCC ascites partially via regulating the Frk-Arhgdib-Inpp5d-Avpr2-Aqp4 axis, implying that global gene expression profiling combined with network analysis can offer an effective way to understand pharmacological mechanisms of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions.

  10. Comparative Cytotoxicity of Glycyrrhiza glabra Roots from Different Geographical Origins Against Immortal Human Keratinocyte (HaCaT), Lung Adenocarcinoma (A549) and Liver Carcinoma (HepG2) Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basar, Norazah; Oridupa, Olayinka Ayotunde; Ritchie, Kenneth J; Nahar, Lutfun; Osman, Nashwa Mostafa M; Stafford, Angela; Kushiev, Habibjon; Kan, Asuman; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2015-06-01

    Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Fabaceae), commonly known as 'liquorice', is a well-known medicinal plant. Roots of this plant have long been used as a sweetening and flavouring agent in food and pharmaceutical products, and also as a traditional remedy for cough, upper and lower respiratory ailments, kidney stones, hepatitis C, skin disorder, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, gastrointestinal ulcers and stomach ache. Previous pharmacological and clinical studies have revealed its antitussive, antiinflammatory, antiviral, antimicrobial, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective and cardioprotective properties. While glycyrrhizin, a sweet-tasting triterpene saponin, is the principal bioactive compound, several bioactive flavonoids and isoflavonoids are also present in the roots of this plant. In the present study, the cytotoxicity of the methanol extracts of nine samples of the roots of G. glabra, collected from various geographical origins, was assessed against immortal human keratinocyte (HaCaT), lung adenocarcinoma (A549) and liver carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines using the in vitro 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazoliumbromide cell toxicity/viability assay. Considerable variations in levels of cytotoxicity were observed among various samples of G. glabra.

  11. Activation of rapid signaling pathways and the subsequent transcriptional regulation for the proliferation of breast cancer MCF-7 cells by the treatment with an extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Sijun; Inoue, Akio; Zhu, Yun; Tanji, Masao; Kiyama, Ryoiti

    2007-12-01

    Glycyrrhiza glabra root is one of the common traditional Chinese medicines and used as flavoring and sweetening agents for tobaccos, chewing gums, candies, toothpaste and beverages. While glycyrrhizin is one of the main components in the extract of G. glabra root and has been characterized, the other components have not been well characterized. The mechanism of growth activation of breast cancer MCF-7 cells, including the activation of Erk1/2 and Akt, and the transcriptional regulation of estrogen-responsive genes, was examined by means of sulforhodamine B, luciferase reporter gene, real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting assays after the induction of the cells with the extract of G. glabra root. The extract has similar activity to that induced by 17beta-estradiol (E(2)), although glycyrrhizin did not show such an activity. Moreover, the estrogen receptor alpha-dependent neurite outgrowth induced by the extract was similar to that by E(2), whereas glycyrrhizin had no effect. Furthermore, the expression profile examined by cDNA microarray assay using a set of 120 estrogen-responsive genes, which were related to proliferation, transcription, transport, enzymes and signaling, showed a statistically significant correlation (R=0.47, Pglabra root. Furthermore, the extract had estrogenic activity and a distinguishable profile of gene expression, suggesting the presence of potentially useful components other than glycyrrhizin in G. glabra root for hormone and anti-cancer therapies.

  12. Study on the Characteristics of Seed Germination of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Sophora alopecuroides under the Condition of Sodium%碱性盐胁迫对光果甘草和苦豆子种子萌发的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司马义·巴拉提

    2013-01-01

    研究了不同浓度的碳酸钠对光果甘草和苦豆子种子萌发的影响.结果表明:在不同浓度的碳酸钠盐(Na2CO3)条件下,光果甘草和苦豆子种子的发芽势、发芽率、发芽指数、活力指数和胚根胚芽生长长度均随着Na2CO3浓度的增加而下降.但Na2CO3浓度提升到0.9%时,光果甘草种子还能保持73%的发芽率,而苦豆子种子发芽率只有26%.光果甘草种子发芽的最适Na2CO3浓度为0.9%,临界浓度为1.2%,极限浓度为2.1%.而苦豆子种子发芽的最适Na2CO3浓度为0.6%,临界浓度在0.6%和0.9%之间,极限浓度为1.8%.光果甘草种子的发芽指数和0.9%以上浓度的活力指数都比苦豆子高,而盐害率比苦豆子种子低很多.Na2CO3浓度提高到0.9%时,光果甘草种子的盐害率只有26.71%,而苦豆子种子的为70.28%,由此可以确定,光果甘草种子萌发抵抗Na2CO3盐的能力比苦豆子种子强,能适应含Na2CO3盐量达0.9%以上的恶劣的碱土生态环境.而苦豆子种子萌发抗Na2CO3盐的能力相对较弱,只能适应Na2CO3含量为0.6%的碱性土壤条件.%In this study, the effect of Na2 CO3 with different concentration on the seed germination of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Sophora alopecuroides were investigated. The results indicated that with the increasing concentration of Na2CO3 ,germinative force,germination percentage,germination index,vital index,radicle and germ length of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Sophora alopecuroides all declined. But the germination percentage of 73% in the Glycyrrhiza glabrain was much different from 26% in the Sophora alopecuroides under the condition of concentration of 0.9% in Na2CO3. The better growing concentration, critical concentration and maximum concentration of Na2CO3 for seed germination in the Glycyrrhiza glabrain was 0.9% ,1.2% and 2. 1% respectively,but the above three concentration in the Sophora alopecuroides was 0.6% ,0.6% -0.9% and 1. 8% respectively

  13. 甘草黄酮的提取方法及药理作用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙芸; 阿依努尔·吾买尔; 燕雪花; 赵虎

    2009-01-01

    甘草又名甜草、蜜草、美草等,为豆科(Leguminosae)植物甘草属(Glycyrrhiza)甘草(Licorice)的根及根状茎。药典收载的甘草主要包括乌拉尔甘草(Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.)、胀果甘草(Glycyrrhiza inflata Bat.)和光果甘草(Glycyrrhiza glabra L.)。甘草有效成份包括黄酮类、三萜类、多糖等。甘草黄酮具有明显的抑菌、抗病毒、抗肿瘤、抗氧化、保肝等药理作用,尤其是发现它具有抗艾滋病病毒作用后,

  14. 甘草及其制剂的主要不良反应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴涛; 刘然; 陆伟姬; 金馨; 晏红; 杨晓东

    2012-01-01

    @@ 甘草作为常用中草药之一,来源于豆科植物甘草(Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.)、胀果甘草(Glycyrrhiza inflate Bta.)或光果甘草(Glycyrrhiza glabra L.)的干燥根及根茎.其味甘,性平,具补中益气、润肺祛痰、清热解毒、调和诸药之功.甘草在古代文献中均记载无毒,并称其具有解毒作用.因其和百药解百毒,在当今的处方中最为常用,几乎张张处方都有.

  15. Study on the Characteristics of Seed Germination of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Sophora alopecuroides Under the Condition of Different Concentrations of Sodium Sulfate%不同浓度的硫酸钠条件下光果甘草种子和苦豆子种子的萌发特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司马义·巴拉提

    2012-01-01

    It studied the effects of seed germination of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Sophora alopecuroides under the condition of different concentrations of sodium sulfate. The results showed that it decreased for germination power,the percentage of germination,germination index,vigor index and the growth length of radical and germ with the increase of concentration of sodium sulfate. But it remained 91.7% for Glycyrrhiza glabra and zero for Sophora alopecuroides at the concentration of 2.4% sodium sulfate. The optimization of sodium sulfate concentration was 2.4% or above,and this without critical concentration and limit concentration for Glycyrrhiza glabra. And it was the optimal concentration of 1. 8% , 1. 9% critical concentration and 2.4% of limit concentration for Sophora alopecuroides. And the germination index and vigor index of Glycyrrhiza glabra was higher than that of Sophora alopecuroides, but the rate of salt injury of Glycyrrhiza glabra was lower than that of Sophora alopecuroides. And the rate of salt injury of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Sophora alopecuroides were 8% and 100% at the 2.4% concentration of sodium sulfate,respectively. So,it deduced that the competence of Na2SO4-resistance was stronger for Glycyrrhiza glabra and could adapt the hostile ecological environment of 2. 4% concentration of sodium sulfate. But it was of poor competence of Na2SO4-resistance and only apt to the 1.8% concentration of sodium sulfate. It was of lower effects on the growth length of radical and germ and the former was larger than tbe latter under different concentration of sodium sulfate.%用不同浓度的Na2SO4对光果甘草种子和苦豆子种子萌发的影响进行了研究.结果表明:在不同浓度的Na2SO4条件下,光果甘草种子和苦豆子种子的发芽势、发芽率、发芽指数、活力指数和胚根胚芽生长长度均随着盐浓度的增加而下降.但在浓度为2.4%时,光果甘草种子仍能保持91.7%的发芽率,而苦豆子种子发芽率为0.

  16. 大孔吸附树脂纯化甘草提取物中甘草酸的研究%Macroporous Adsorption Resin Purification of Glycyrrhizic Acid in Glycyrrhiza Extract Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁利营; 李红艳

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the best macroporous resin purification process for Glycyrrhizic acid from glycyrrhiza glabra. Methods Glycyrrhizic acid content in macroporous resin purification as the investigation index, select the best macroporous resin from 24 kinds of macroporous resins for Glycyrrhizic acid from liquorice extract, and determine the optimum process conditions for this purification. Results AB-8 macroporous adsorption resin has the best purification ef ect for glycyrrhizic acid, and the optimum process conditions:liquorice extract concentration is 0.11mg/ml, diameter/height is 1:8, liquorice extract volume is 2 times of the resin, the rates of using liquorice extract and elution both are 2bv/h, remove impurities with 30%&50%ETOH, and accumulate glycyrrhizic acid by using 80%ETOH. After purification, the purity of the product is 60.74%, the yield rate is 3.29%, the transfer rate is 76.72%. Conclusion Using AB-8 macroporous adsorption resin can purify glycyrrhizic acid very wel .%目的研究光果甘草中甘草酸的最佳大孔树脂纯化工艺。方法以大孔吸附树脂纯化物中甘草酸的含量为考察指标,从24种大孔吸附树脂中筛选出纯化甘草粗提物中甘草酸的最佳大孔吸附树脂,并确定纯化甘草酸的最佳工艺条件。结果 AB-8大孔吸附树脂纯化甘草酸效果最佳,最佳工艺条件院上柱液浓度为0.11mg/mL,径高比为1:8,上样体积为所用树脂2BV,上样速度与洗脱速度均为2BV/h,用30%、50%的乙醇除杂,用80%乙醇富集甘草酸。纯化后产品纯度为60.74%,收率为3.29%,转移率为76.33%。结论采用AB-8大孔吸附树脂可较好地纯化甘草酸。

  17. Optimization of the Extraction of Glabridin from Glycyrrhiza Glabra L.using Response Surface Analysis%响应面法优化提取光甘草定工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊金玲; 张琳; 朱文学; 马海乐; 巩卫东

    2012-01-01

    A three-level Box-Behnken design, combined with the canonical and ridge analyses, was employed to optimise the process parameters for glabridiri extraction from the Glycyrrhiza glabra L. one of the most valued traditional Chinese medicines. The critical factors selected for the investigation were methanol/solid ratio, duration of time and extraction temperature. The experimcntal results were fitted with a second-order polynomial equation by a multiple regression analysis and more than 98.08% and 91.21% of the variation could be predicted by the yield and the purity of glabridin models. The canonical analysis of surface responses revealed that the three eigenvalues had different signs, indicating a saddle stationary surface. The optimal conditions for extraction of glabridin from the Clycyrrhiza glabra L. were determined, using the ridge analysis, as extraction time, 64min; extraction temperature, 50.4℃; at methanol/solid ratio of 138.5 g/mL. Under these conditions, the highest yield of glabridin reached with estimated value and verified value being of 0.52% and 0.51%.%研究光果甘草中光甘草定的提取工艺.在单因素实验的基础上,以100%工业甲醇为提取溶剂,选定料液比、提取时间和提取温度3个因素的3个水平进行中心组合实验,建立光甘草定得率和纯度的二次回归方程,其决定系数分别为98.08%和91.21%.通过响应面及岭嵴分析得到优化的提取工艺条件是:料液比1∶38.5 g/mL、提取时间64 min、提取温度50.4℃,在该条件下光甘草定得率预测值为0.52%,验证值为0.51%.

  18. 光果甘草营养器官不同季节总黄酮消长规律的研究%Changes of Total Flavonoids Content in Vegetative Organs of Glycyrrhiza glabra L.in Different Seasons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 陆嘉惠; 秦忠立; 谢良碧; 李学禹

    2012-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectrophotometry (UV) was used to study the changes of the-total flavonoids content in vegetative organs of 2-year-old cultivated Glycyrrhiza glabra L. In different seasons. It was shown that the sequence of total flavonoids content from the highest to the lowest was below: upper leaves,middle leaves, hairy root,horizontal rhizome,lateral root,main root,vertical rhizome,upper stem,middle stem and lower stem. It had a great fluctuation from April to November. The higher content was occurred in June, September and October. These results indicated that total flavonoids content was the highest in the parts of the leaf and the hairy root. It was suitable for 2-year-old cultivated G. Glabra L. To harvest in early autumn. Therefore,we suggested that the leaf could be harvested for medicine.%利用紫外分光光度法对二年生栽培光果甘草不同营养器官、不同季节中总黄酮含量的消长规律进行分析研究,以探索光果甘草中总黄酮含量的消长规律,为生产中确定合理的采收期及其采收部位提供依据.结果显示:不同营养器官中,二年生栽培光果甘草总黄酮含量的高低顺序为:上部叶>中部叶>毛状根>水平根茎>侧根>主根、垂直根茎、上部茎>中部茎、下部茎;4~11月,二年生栽培光果甘草总黄酮含量波动较大,6、9、10月含量较高.综合分析表明:叶和毛状根是总黄酮含量最高的部位,二年生栽培光果甘草最佳采收期为早秋;建议对叶采收入药,综合利用光果甘草资源.

  19. 不同比例制川乌配伍甘草对单酯型生物碱煎出量的影响%Effect of Aconiti Radix Preparata combined with Glycyrrhizae Radix in different ratios on monoester alkaloids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王峰峰; 宋兆辉; 张兰兰; 周水平; 冯锋

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究制川乌配伍甘草对制川乌中多种单酯型生物碱煎出量的影响,探索其变化规律,以指导制川乌与甘草的合理配伍.方法 HPLC法测定制川乌与甘草不同比例配伍时煎出液中单酯型生物碱的总量,并通过对比,分析不同配比对煎出量的影响.结果 随着甘草配伍量的增加,煎煮液中单酯型生物碱总量逐渐降低,每种单酯型生物碱煎出量趋于单煎液煎出量的40%.结论 甘草配伍制川乌时,甘草的使用量应是制川乌的一半以上,既可以保证煎出液中单酯型生物碱总量稳定可控,又可以防止制川乌毒性过大造成使用危险.%Objective To study the effect of Aconiti Radix Preparata (RAP) combined with Glycyrrhizae Radix (RG) in different ratios on the decocted yield of monoester-type alkaloid from RAP and to investigate the disciplines of various compatibilities. Methods HPLC was adopted to determine the monoester-type alkaloid in decoction with different ratios of RAP and RG The influence of the various compatibilities or alkaloid was analyzed. Results The total decocted yields of monoester-type alkaloid in the decoction decreased with the increasing of RG in the decoction. The monoester-type alkaloid in compatibility tended to be 20% of RAP single decoction. Conclusion The usage of RG should be more than half of that of RAP when using together, which could make the yields of monoester-type alkaloid stable and controllable and avoid the danger for use from the excessive toxicity of RAP.

  20. Efficacy of four ingredients decoction and licorice, wheat and date decoction in the treatment of patients with functional headache%四物汤合甘麦大枣汤加减治疗功能性头痛的疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉; 张临英

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy of four ingredients decoction and licorice,wheat and date decoction in the treatment of patients with functional headache.Methods Sixty patients with functional headache were randomly divided into traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine groups,30 cases in each group.Patients in traditional Chinese medicine group were received four ingredients decoction and licorice,wheat and date decoction,1 time/d.While patients in western medicine group were received flupentixol and melitracen tablets,daily in the morning and noon 0.5 g each.Ergotamine caffeine 1 mg was added when a severe pain broke out.BRS-6,pain episodes,degree and its duration were recorded at the 2nd,4th weeks after the treatment.The total effective rate and side effects were evaluated.Results There was no difference in the pain degree between the two groups before the treatment (P> 0.05).Compared with pretreatment,BRS-6,pain episodes,degree and its duration were significantly decreased at the 2nd,4th weeks after the treatment (P< 0.05).Improvement degree of these indexes were even better in the traditional Chinese medicine group (P< 0.05).The total effective rate was higher in the traditional Chinese medicine group [90.0% (27/30 cases)] than that in the western medicine group [73.3% (22/30 cases)].No side effects was revealed in the traditional Chinese medicine group,which was better than that in western medicine group(P < 0.05).Conclusion Four ingredients decoction and licorice,wheat and date decoction is a safe and effective method for the treatment of patients with functional headache.%目的 探讨四物汤合甘麦大枣汤治疗功能性头痛的临床疗效.方法 功能性头痛患者60例,采用随机对照法研究,分成中药组和西药组,每组30例.中药组给予四物汤合甘麦大枣汤,每日1剂,水煎服.西药组给予氟哌噻吨美利曲辛片口服,每日早、午各0.5 g.疼痛剧烈时,加服麦角胺咖啡因片1 mg

  1. Effect of Codonopsis and Glycyrrhizae saccharide extracts on polyamine-dependent signaling pathway during cell migration in IEC-6%党参、甘草糖提取物对小肠上皮细胞迁移多胺信号通路的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李茹柳; 陶玉珠; 曾丹; 赵世清; 林传权; 陈蔚文

    2016-01-01

    Aims To observe the effect of saccharide extracts of Yiqijianpi herb Codonopsis and Glycyrrhizae on polyamine-dependent activation of K+ channels sig-nal pathway during cell migration and to investigate their mechanism of promoting restoration in gastrointes-tinal mucosal injuries. Method The study was based on IEC-6 cell migration model. While in a normal polyamine level or polyamine was inhibited by DFMO, the effect of Codonopsis saccharide extracts and Glycyr-rhizae saccharide extracts on polyamine-dependent acti-vation of K+ channels signal pathway during cell mi-gration was observed. (1) K+ channel protein Kv1. 1 was determined by Western blot. (2)Membrane poten-tial was measured by Flow Cytometer. (3) Laser scan-ning confocal microscope was used for measuring [ Ca2+] cyt. ( 4 ) The expression of RhoA, which is Ca2+ downstream protein, was determined by Western blot. Results During cell migration, Codonopsis and Glycyrrhizae saccharide extracts could: ( 1 ) improve the expression of Kv1 . 1 protein and ameliorate the de-crease of kv1. 1 protein expression by DFMO;(2) in-crease membrane hyperpolarization and reverse mem-brane depolarization resulted by DFMO; ( 3 ) improve intracellular [ Ca2+] cyt, while Codonopsis could re-verse the decrease of [ Ca2+] cyt caused by DFMO;(4) improve the expression of RhoA protein, reversing its decline caused by DFMO. Conclusion Codonop-sis and Glycyrrhizae saccharide extracts can promote cell migration in IEC-6 cell, which is correlated with their effect on polyamine-dependent activation of K+channels signal pathway.%目的:观察益气健脾中药党参、甘草的糖提取物对小肠上皮细胞(IEC-6)迁移过程多胺介导钾通道激活信号通路的影响,探讨党参、甘草促进胃肠黏膜损伤修复的作用机制。方法在IEC-6细胞迁移模型上,于正常或抑制多胺(加入DFMO)时,观察党参、甘草糖提取物对该信号通路的作用:(1)Western blot检测钾通道蛋白Kv1.1

  2. Methodological Research on Color Digitalization of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma Based on Colorimetry Theory%基于色度学理论的甘草颜色数字化方法学研究*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹慧琴; 李硕; 林相龙; 苏玉贞; 吴浩忠; 闫永红

    2014-01-01

    目的:基于色度学理论,引入分光测色计,建立甘草断面及表皮颜色指标数字化的方法。为传统中药性状鉴别中感官颜色的客观化、数字化提供新方法、新思路。方法:基于CIE1976L*a*b*均匀色空间系统,以甘草为研究对象,针对样品断面及表皮的具体情况,选用2种分光测色计分别制订了甘草断面和表皮颜色的测量方法。结果:确定了去皮打粉的断面颜色量化方法和以直接测量为主、湿法施压剥皮测量为辅的表皮颜色量化方法,摸索并确定了RSD和dE*ab双指标评价方法。结果表明此方法有效、可行。结论:本颜色测量方法简便、可靠,测量结果可以如实的反映药材颜色情况,并将主观的颜色描述用客观的数据表示,为揭示中药传统性状鉴别深层内涵提供了实验依据。%This study was aimed to establish a method for sensorial color digitalization of Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) with the application of spectrocolorimeter. The discussion was focused on difficulties of distinguishing surface and section color of CHMs. Based on uniform color space system of CIE1976L*a*b*, two methods for determination of section and surface color were constructed with two different kinds of spectrocolorimeters taking Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma as the experimental objective. In this paper, different kinds of sample preparation methods were used. Based on results, the method of scraping and grinding was proposed to prepare samples for section color determination. The method of wet pressing and peeling was proposed to prepare samples for surface color determination. Besides, RSD and dE*ab were served as evaluation indexes. This paper provided a simple, rapid and reliable analysis method for the color determination of CHMs. It also gave insight to future research on digitalization and modernization of CHMs' organoleptic characteristics based on traditional macroscopic identification.

  3. Research on reproductive allocation of biomass and nutrients in different phenological stages of Glycyrrhiza inflata%不同物候期胀果甘草生物量和营养物质生殖分配研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小玲; 马新娥; 尚可为; 马春晖

    2012-01-01

    The biomass, energy and nutrient (N, P, K) contents of different components (stems, leaves, flowers, pods) were measured at different phenological stages (budding, flowering, podding, and maturity stages) of Glycyrrhiza inflata in the extremely arid climate in Xinjiang to explore the dynamic changes of reproductive allocation in biomass, energy and nutrients in the phenological stages. 1) The reproductive allocation of G. inflata increased with the phenological stage. In budding, flowering, podding and maturity stages, reproductive allocation was 2. 40% , 4. 30% , 13. 90% , and 18. 90% , respectively. 2) The phenotype plasticity of the reproductive module was higher than that of the vegetative module, and sexual reproduction decreased with progressive phenological stages. 3) Biomass of flowers (pods) had significant (P<0. 05) , positive and linear correlations with the leaf biomass, stem biomass or total biomass in the four phenological stages. 4) The energy and nutrient element allocation of different modules varied consistently with the biomass: the highest values in leaves were in the flowering stage, in stems were in the budding stage, and they increased with the phenological stages in reproductive modules. In conclusion, the sexual reproduction of G. inflate was an accumulative process of matter, energy, and nutrient elements, with a minor proportion used for sexual reproduction but the majority used for vegetative growth.%通过测定新疆极端干旱气候下野生胀果甘草种群在不同的物候期(现蕾期、盛花期、结荚期、成熟期)不同构件(茎、叶、花、荚果)中生物量、能量和营养元素(N、P、K)的含量,以探索随物候期的变化,生物量、能量以及营养元素生殖分配的动态规律.结果表明,1)胀果甘草种群生殖分配随物候期的变化而增加,现蕾期、盛花期、结荚期、成熟期的生殖分配分别为2.40%,4.30%,13.90%,18.90%.2)生殖构件的表型可塑性强于营养

  4. The clinical effects of a peony and licorice decoction combined with kinesiotherapy in the treatment of hemiplegia and elbow joint spasticity after stroke%芍药甘草汤联合运动训练治疗脑卒中偏瘫肘关节屈曲痉挛的临床分层研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖; 高宁沁; 李擎; 范利; 葛海萍; 羊健中; 李洪丽; 袁文超; 李巍巍

    2015-01-01

    and licorice decoction combined with kinesiotherapy in treating hemiplegia and elbow joint spasticity after stroke.Methods A total of 197 patients suffering from hemiplegia complicated with elbow joint flexion spasticity after stroke were classified into different levels according to the severity of the spasticity.Patients of different levels were divided into a treatment group (receiving peony and licorice decoction combined with kinesiotherapy),a control group 1 (receiving kinesiotherapy solely) and a control group 2 (accepting baclofen and kinesiotherapy).Before and after 3 weeks of treatment,the 3 groups were evaluated by using the modified Ashworth scale (MAS),the modified Barthel index (BI),the Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA) and the Berg Balance Scale (BBS).Results The spasticity of patients with spasticity at level Ⅰ in the treatment group and control group 2 demonstrated significantly greater relief compared with those in control group 1.The BI,FMA and BBS scores of the treatment group were significantly better than those of both control groups.Among the patients with level Ⅰ + spasticity,the spasticity,BI and FMA scores of the treatment group and the control group 2 were all significantly better on average than those in control group 1.The BBS score of the treatment group was significantly higher than that of either control group.For patients with level Ⅱ spasticity the average BBS score of control group 2 was significantly better than that of control group 1,but no significant difference was observed between the treatment group and control group 1.The BI and FMA scores of control group 2 were,however,significantly more improved than those of the treatment group and control group 1.Conclusion Peony and licorice decoction combined with kinesiotherapy is applicable to patients with mild spasticity complicating hemiplegia after stroke.It not only can relieve spasticity,but also improves upper limb motor function,ability in the activities of daily living and

  5. 甘草与其他药物相互作用的研究概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志琪; 邹龙

    2011-01-01

    甘草为豆科多年生草本植物甘草属(Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.)胀果甘草(Gl ycyr rhiza in flata Bat.)或光果甘草(Glycyrrhiza glabra L.)的干燥根及根茎[1],其药用历史悠久[2],是最常用的中草药品种.古人认为甘草善调诸药,可解百毒,有"国老"之称[3].正如《本经疏证》所云:"《伤寒论》、《金匮要略》两书中,凡为方二百五十,甘草者百二十方,非甘草主病多,乃诸方必合甘草,始能曲当病情"[4].

  6. 甘草的药理作用及临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王访; 苏耀海

    2002-01-01

    @@ 甘草为豆科植物甘草Glycrrhiza uralensis Fisch.胀果甘草Glycyrrhiza inflata Bat.或光果甘草Glycyrrhiza glabra L.的干燥根及根茎.甘草性味甘平.药用历史悠久,是最常用的中草药品种.甘草为补气类药,具有补益中气、清热解毒、润肺止咳、缓急止痛、缓和药性之功.临床应用有生、炙不同,或为主药,或为使药,量可大,也可小,作用大,应用广.甘草的研究和应用引起了国内外学者的广泛重视.

  7. 甘草糖提取物对小肠上皮细胞迁移及多胺含量影响的研究%Effect of Polysaccharides from Radix Glycyrrhizae on Migration and Polyamines Contents of IEC-6 Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温鹏; 随晶晶; 李茹柳; 赵世清; 卢文彪; 陈蔚文

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察甘草糖提取物对小肠上皮细胞( IEC-6)迁移及细胞内多胺(腐胺、精脒和精胺)含量的影响.方法:划痕法造细胞损伤后迁移模型,柱前衍生-高效液相色谱法测定细胞内多胺含量.观察甘草糖复合物对细胞迁移及细胞内多胺含量的影响;观察甘草糖复合物对二氟甲基鸟氨酸( DFMO)致细胞迁移抑制和多胺合成抑制的影响.结果:甘草糖提取物(50、100 mg/L)能促进细胞迁移;可逆转由DFMO所致的细胞迁移抑制;可提高细胞迁移过程中细胞内多胺含量;可逆转由DFMO所致的多胺含量降低.结论:甘草对胃肠黏膜损伤的修复作用可能与其提高细胞多胺含量、促进细胞迁移有关.%Objective: To study the effect of polysaccharides from Radix Glycyrrhizae on migration and polyamines ( putrescine, spermidine and spermine) contents of IEC-6 cell. Methods: Cell migration model was induced by scratch method in each well, and the polyamines in IEC-6 cell was determined by pre-column derivation high performance liquid chromatography. The polysaccharides inhibited effect on migration and polyamines contents of IEC-6 cells, and on IEC-6 cell migration by DFMO ( a polyamines synthesis inhibitor) and the polyamines contents in the cells were observed. Results:The polysaccharides (50 mg/L or 100 mg/L) was able to promote the cell migration, reverse the cell migration inhibition by DFMO, enhance the IEC-6 cell polyamines ( putrescine, spermidine and spermine) contents in the process of cell migration and reverse the reduction of polyamines ( putrescine,spermidine and spermine) induced by DFMO. Conclusion: The effect of Radix Glycyrrhizae on the gastrointestinal mucosal damage repairing may be related to increasing polyamine content in cells and promoting cell migration.

  8. 甘草黄酮对2型糖尿病大鼠血糖、血脂等生化指标的影响%Effect of licorice flavonoids on blood glucose, blood lipid and other biochemical indicators in type 2 diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海燕; 王勇; 吴力武; 马永平

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of licorice flavonoids (LF) on fasting blood levels of glucose (FBG), lipids, insulin, adipokines and other biochemical indicators. Methods The type 2 diabetic rat model was replicated by feeding high-fat and high-sugar diet combined with low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) injection. The diabetic rats were divided into model group (DM), high-dose LF treatment group (HLF) and low-dose LF treatment group (LLF). Other 20 normal rats were divided into control group (Con) and control treatment group (CLF). Rats in different groups were administered LF (lOOmg or 300mg ? Kg"1 ? D"1) or solvent (propylene glycol) respectively. Five weeks later, the levels of fasting levels of glucose (FBG), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TO, free fatty acids (FFA), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) , total antioxidation capability (T-AOC), insulin (Ins), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) and leptin were examined. Insulin sensitivity index (ISI), liver index, kidney index and the relative weight of abdominal adipose tissue were calculated. Results The high-dose LF (300mg ? Kg"1 ? D~' ) treatment significantly decreased the levels of FBG, TG, TC, LDL-C, FFA, T-AOC, TNF-a, leptin, liver index and kidney index, and increased the levels of T-AOC, ISI and the relative weight of abdominal adipose tissue. Compared with high-dose treatment, low dose of LF was less effective. Conclusion LF significantly decreases the blood glucose level, improves the lipid metabolic disorders and ameliorates insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic rats.%目的 研究甘草黄酮(LF)对T2DM大鼠血糖、血脂等生化指标的影响.方法 将实验大鼠分为模型组(DM)、高剂量给药组(HLF)、低剂量给药组(LLF)、正常对照组(Con)和正常给药组(CLF).分别以LF或溶剂灌胃,5周后检测实验大鼠的空腹血糖、血脂等生化指标及肝体比、肾体比和脂体比.结果 高剂量LF(300 mg·kg-1

  9. 光果甘草毛状根培养过程中对活性氧清除能力和总黄酮含量的变化%Researches on scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and total flavonoid content in hairy root of Glycyrrhiza glabra during culture process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王裔惟; 丁家宜; 周倩耘; 谢毛成; 刘峻

    2004-01-01

    采用化学发光法, 分析了光果甘草(Glycyrrhiza glabra L.)毛状根培养过程中对3种活性氧(ROS: O-2(÷)、HO·和H-2O-2)清除能力的动态变化, 并测定了培养过程中总黄酮含量的动态变化. 实验结果表明, 毛状根在对数生长期(20~28 d)对3种ROS都有很强的清除能力,在生长停滞期(29~40 d)对HO·和H-2O-2的清除能力仍维持较高的水平,而对O-2(÷)的清除能力随培养时间的延长逐渐下降.总黄酮含量在对数生长期呈现增加的趋势,至31 d时达到最高含量(0.78%),随培养时间的延长含量逐渐降低.

  10. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Seed Oil from Chinese Licorice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    2005-12-17

    Dec 17, 2005 ... extraction of diffusion-controlled matrices such as plant tissues. Moreover, the solvating power ... non-toxic, cost-effective and easily removed from the extract ... puted from the GC peak areas without any correction for the rel-.

  11. 葡萄鲨烯合成酶基因的克隆与序列分析%Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Squalene Synthase Gene in Grape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑祥正

    2012-01-01

    应用RT-PCR和RACE技术,克隆获得了葡萄鲨烯合成酶基因(SQS)的全长cDNA(1595 bp).序列分析结果表明:该基因包含1个完整的1242 bp开放阅读框,编码413个氨基酸残基;葡萄SQS与三七(Panax notoginseng)、人参(Panax ginseng)、甘草(Glycyrrhiza uralensis)的SQS分别有84%、83%、84%的一致性.%The full -length cDNA (1595 bp) of squalene synthase gene (SQS) in Vitis vinifera was cloned by RT - PCR and RACE here. Sequence analysis showed that this gene contained a complete open reading frame of 1242 bp encoding 413 amino acid residues. The SQS gene in Vitis vinifera showed 84% , 83% , 84% similarity with its homology in Panax notoginseng, Panax ginseng, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, respectively.

  12. Glycyrrhizic Acid in the Treatment of Liver Diseases: Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-yuan Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycyrrhizic acid (GA is a triterpene glycoside found in the roots of licorice plants (Glycyrrhiza glabra. GA is the most important active ingredient in the licorice root, and possesses a wide range of pharmacological and biological activities. GA coupled with glycyrrhetinic acid and 18-beta-glycyrrhetic acid was developed in China or Japan as an anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antiallergic drug for liver disease. This review summarizes the current biological activities of GA and its medical applications in liver diseases. The pharmacological actions of GA include inhibition of hepatic apoptosis and necrosis; anti-inflammatory and immune regulatory actions; antiviral effects; and antitumor effects. This paper will be a useful reference for physicians and biologists researching GA and will open the door to novel agents in drug discovery and development from Chinese herbs. With additional research, GA may be more widely used in the treatment of liver diseases or other conditions.

  13. Ganoderic acid C1 isolated from the anti-asthma formula, ASHMI™ suppresses TNF-α production by mouse macrophages and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from asthma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changda; Yang, Nan; Song, Ying; Wang, Lixin; Zi, Jiachen; Zhang, Shuwei; Dunkin, David; Busse, Paula; Weir, David; Tversky, Jody; Miller, Rachel L; Goldfarb, Joseph; Zhan, Jixun; Li, Xiu-Min

    2015-08-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous airway inflammatory disease, which is associated with Th2 cytokine-driven inflammation and non-Th2, TNF-α mediated inflammation. Unlike Th2 mediated inflammation, TNF-α mediated asthma inflammation is generally insensitive to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). ASHMITM, aqueous extract of three medicinal herbs-Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum), Sophora flavescens Ait (S. flavescens) and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fischer (G. uralensis), showed a high safety profile and was clinically beneficial in asthma patients. It also suppresses both Th2 and TNF-α associated inflammation in murine asthma models. We previously determined that G. uralensis flavonoids are the key active compounds responsible for ASHMITM suppression of Th2 mediated inflammation. Until now, there are limited studies on anti-TNF-α compounds presented in ASHMITM. The objective of this study was to isolate and identify TNF-α inhibitory compounds in ASHMITM. Here we report that G. lucidum, but not the other two herbal extracts, S. flavescens or G. uralensis inhibited TNF-α production by murine macrophages; and that the methylene chloride (MC)-triterpenoid-enriched fraction, but not the polysaccharide-enriched fraction, contained the inhibitory compounds. Of the 15 triterpenoids isolated from the MC fraction, only ganoderic acid C1 (GAC1) significantly reduced TNF-α production by murine macrophages (RAW 264.7 cells) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from asthma patients. Inhibition was associated with down-regulation of NF-κB expression, and partial suppression of MAPK and AP-1 signaling pathways. Ganoderic acid C1 may have potential for treating TNF-α mediated inflammation in asthma and other inflammatory diseases.

  14. 蜜炙甘草炮制工艺的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱卫星; 李爱光; 陈方; 缪经纬; 朱志冰

    2005-01-01

    甘草为豆科植物甘草Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.、胀果甘草Glycyrrhiza inflata Bat.或光果甘草Glycyrrhiza glabra L.的干燥根及根茎。是临床上应用最广的传统中药之一,始载于《神农本草经》,列为上品。甘草片的炮制方法.古代有多种,现代临床主要使用甘草片和蜜炙甘草片两种。蜜炙甘草具有补脾和胃、益气复脉的功效。用于脾胃虚弱,倦怠乏力,心动悸,脉结代。建国以来,对蜜炙甘草的炮制工艺研究.积累了一些科研数据和技术资料,尚有值得探讨的课题。现将蜜炙甘草的炮制工艺研究进展概况综述如下,以供同行参考。

  15. 甘草酸苷对肿瘤化疗保护作用的研究进展%Study progression of the protecting function of Glycyrrhizin in the treatment for tumor with chemotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏玉霞; 段迎喜; 刘彦民

    2007-01-01

    甘草为豆科植物甘草(Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch)、胀果甘草(Glycyrrhiza inflata Bat)或光果甘草(Glycyrrhiza glabra L)的干燥根及根茎。其药用历史已经有2000多年,一直作为解毒、补益和调和药物应用。甘草的有效活性成分主要是三萜类化合物一甘草酸苷(Glycyrrhizin,GL),近十几年来,GL因其抗炎、抗变态反应、免疫调节以及抗氧化等作用而广泛应用于肝炎、皮肤病等疾病的临床治疗并取得良好的疗效。随着对GL在肿瘤领域研究的深入,因其减毒增效、保护正常细胞和调节机体免疫功能等作用,已经在肿瘤放化疗保护、肿瘤预防以及肿瘤治疗等方面展现出良好前景。

  16. 甘草主要病虫害及防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩学俭

    2007-01-01

    甘草药材为豆科植物甘草Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch,胀果甘草Glycyrrhiza inflata Bat.或光果甘草Glycyrrhiza glabra L的根和根茎。甘草资源分布在我国黄河流域,以内蒙古、甘肃、新疆、宁夏、青海、陕西、河北等省主产。现全国各地均产。我国大量出口甘草及其提取物到欧美及东南亚国家.甘草已成为我国医药行业的创汇药材之一。我国甘草栽培达2000年历史,是一味大宗最常用的中药材,素有“十药九草”之称,被国家列为重点专控中药材。

  17. Противомикробная активность выделенных биологически активных веществ и экстракта корня Glycyrrhiza glabra L

    OpenAIRE

    Астафьева, Оксана; Сухенко, Людмила; Егоров, Михаил

    2013-01-01

    Изучена противомикробная активность выделенных в виде фракций биологически активных веществ корня Glycyrrhiza glabra L., произрастающей в Астраханском регионе. Методом высокоэффективной жидкостной хроматографии (ВЭЖХ) получен качественный и количественный состав фракций и экстракта корня Glycyrrhiza glabra L. по содержанию глицирризина и 18β-глицирретовой кислоты....

  18. ПРОТИВОМИКРОБНАЯ АКТИВНОСТЬ ВЫДЕЛЕННЫХ БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИ АКТИВНЫХ ВЕЩЕСТВ И ЭКСТРАКТА КОРНЯ GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA L.

    OpenAIRE

    Астафьева, Оксана Витальевна; Сухенко, Людмила Тимофеевна; Егоров, Михаил Алексеевич

    2014-01-01

    Изучена противомикробная активность выделенных в виде фракций биологически активных веществ корня Glycyrrhiza glabra L., произрастающей в Астраханском регионе. Методом высокоэффективной жидкостной хроматографии (ВЭЖХ) получен качественный и количественный состав фракций и экстракта корня Glycyrrhiza glabra L. по содержанию глицирризина и 18β-глицирретовой кислоты....

  19. The Effect of Three Chinese Medicinal on Antibacterial Activity for Procambarus clarkia%3种中草药对克氏原螯虾抗菌活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许巧情; 马念念; 赵朝阳; 周鑫; 袁汉文

    2011-01-01

    将陈皮、甘草、淫羊藿3种中草药粉碎过筛后,再用醇提法分别提取其有效成分,将其制备出的浓缩液按质量分数5%的比例添加于基础饲料中制成颗粒药饵投喂克氏原螯虾,以基础饲料为对照组,研究3种中草药对克氏原螯虾抗菌活性的影响。结果表明,3种中草药能有效地抑制大肠杆菌、嗜水气单胞菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、溶壁微球菌。其中,甘草、成皮和淫羊藿对4种细菌的平均抑菌率达到59.14%、47.53%和48.65%。实验证明,甘草、陈皮和淫羊藿这3种中草药均能不同程度地激活克氏原螯虾的免疫力,可以作为免疫增强剂应用于克氏原螯虾的生产。%Effective components were extracted from three kinds of Chinese medicinal herb,which were dried from Herba Epimedii,Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Tangerine by alcohol formulation.The basic feed as control group,5% the mass fraction of effective components were add in basic feed to feed Procambarus clarkia.To study the influence of the antimicrobial activity in P.clarkia,throwing quantity was the shrimp 2% of its body weight when feed in the late afternoon in succession for 30 days.It showed that Escherichia coli,Aeromonas hydrophilia,Staphyloccocus aureus and Micrococcus lysodeikticus were inhibited effectively and the antibacterial rate of Glycyrrhiza uralensis,Tangerine and Herba Epimedii reached 59.14%,47.53% and 48.65% respectively.The experiment proved that the three chinese herbal medicine Tangerine,Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Herba Epimedii could improve the immunity system of shrimp at different degree,and could be used as immunity intensifier for shrimp cultivation.

  20. Comparative anti-inflammatory effects of anti-arthritic herbal medicines and ibuprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Joshua J; Samad, Mohammed A; Kim, Kye S; Bae, Soochan

    2014-09-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), such as ibuprofen, are widely used over-the-counter drugs to treat arthritis, but they are often associated with side effects. Herbal medicines have been used to treat various diseases such as arthritis, but the scientific profiles are not well understood. In this study, we examined, in comparison with ibuprofen, the inhibitory effects on various inflammatory markers of the most commonly used herbal medicines to treat arthritis, boswellia (Boswellia sapindales), licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), guggul (Commiphora wightii), and neem (Azadirachta indica). To elicit inflammatory response, we exposed mouse myoblast C2C12 cells to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), which are cytokines activated during an inflammatory response, were determined. The optimal non-toxic concentration was determined by exposing different concentrations of drugs (from 0.01 to 10 mg/mL). Cell death measurement revealed that the drug concentrations lower than 0.05 mg/mL were non-toxic concentrations for each drug, and these doses were used for the main experiments. We found that neem and licorice showed robust anti-inflammatory responses compared with ibuprofen. However, boswellia and guggul did not demonstrate significant anti-inflammatory responses. We concluded that neem and licorice are more effective than ibuprofen in suppressing LPS-induced inflammation in C2C12 cells.

  1. 新疆光果甘草黄酮对人肝癌Bel-7402细胞增殖的抑制活性研究%Anticancer Activity of Flavonoids from Xinjiang Glycyrrhiza glabra in Human Bel-7402 hepatocarcinoma cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    木合布力・阿布力孜; 王永波; 徐方野; 马红艳; 阿布力孜・阿布杜拉

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the inhibitory activity of flavonoid extracts and monomer glabridin from Xinjiang Glycyrrhiza glabra L (GgL) towards human Bel‐7402 hepatocarcinoma cells .Methods General flavonoid extract (GF‐A) was prepared from GgL root within ethanol extraction ;the extract GF‐A was purified within polyamide column chromatography for obtaining fine total flavonoids (GF‐B) ;monomer glabridin (Gb) was isolated from the extract GF‐B ;human Bel‐7402 hepatocarcinoma cells were respec‐tively treated with these samples ,and the cell viability was determined by MTT method .Results Three flavonoid samples :GF‐A (flavonoid content 31 .18% ) ,GF‐B (52 .5% ) and monomer glabridin were char‐acterized ;these substances showed significant inhibitory activity towards human Bel‐7402 cancer cell pro‐liferation .At the concentration range of 25 ~ 250 μg/mL ,their maximum inhibitory activity was up to 67 .92% ,84 .28% and 90 .11% ,respectively .Conclusion The human Bel‐7402 hepatocarcinoma cells have certain sensitivity to the anticancer mechanism of flavonoid extracts of GgL ;glabridin may be one of the active flavonoid component in this plant with anticancer potency .%目的:探讨新疆光果甘草(Glycyrrhiz a glab ra L)总黄酮及单体成分光甘草定(glabridin ,Gb)对人肝癌 Bel‐7402细胞增殖的抑制活性。方法采用乙醇提取法从光果甘草制备总黄酮提取物(GF‐A );经聚酰胺富集法精制而制备黄酮含量高于50%的标准化提取物(GF‐B);从 GF‐B 中纯化制备单体成分光甘草定(Gb);以人肝癌Bel‐7402细胞株作为体外模型,用 M TT 法测定各样品对肝癌细胞增殖的抑制活性。结果制备和鉴定3种提取物:GF‐A(总黄酮含量31.18%)、GF‐B(含量52.5%)和 Glabridin 单体;3种物质对人肝癌 Bel‐7402细胞的增殖显示明显的抑制活性,其浓度在25~250μg/mL 范围内对肿瘤细

  2. The incompatibility mechanism based on the interaction of multiple-components for Flos Genkwa and Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhizae%基于化学成分相互作用探讨芫花与甘草配伍禁忌的机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艳琰; 钱大玮; 尚尔鑫; 钱叶飞; 刘培; 宿树兰; 郭建明; 唐于平; 段金廒

    2012-01-01

    通过研究芫花与甘草合煎液中化学成分相互作用及其变化特点,揭示其“反”的可能特征与机制.以中药“十八反”中芫花/醋芫花-甘草多个不同配比组合为研究对象,采用超高效液相色谱串联四级杆飞行时间质谱(UPLC-Q-TOF/MS)及超高效液相色谱串联三重四级杆质谱(UPLC-TQ/MS)联用集成技术,分析其化学成分相互作用及其变化特点.结果表明,芫花/醋芫花-甘草不同配比合煎对其中化学物质的溶出具有一定的规律性,芫花不论醋炙与否,与甘草合煎时,随甘草比例升高,芫花中二萜类等毒性成分溶出明显提高,尤其对芫花酯甲、芫花酯乙及芫花酯已的溶出影响最为显著.从反药合煎过程化学物质相互作用促使毒性成分的溶出释放增加导致配伍禁忌的角度,揭示了甘草所含化学成分促使芫花中二萜类等毒性物质的溶出释放增加是芫花与甘草配伍禁忌的物质基础和可能机制之一.%By investigating the interaction between components from Flos Genkwa (FG) and Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhizae (RRG) and the dissolution profile of toxic components in co-decoction, the characteristics and possible mechanism of incompatibility were revealed. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-TQ/MS) were used to analyze multi-components in different herb extractions prepared by different ratios of FG/FG processed by vinegar (FGV) and RRG, which reflect the interaction and characteristics of multiple components in incompatibility combinations. The results showed that the components dissolution was influenced by compatibility ratio with certain regularity. Whether FG processed by vinegar or not, with the increase of RRG in co-decoction, the dissolution of diterpenes, especially for yuanhuacine, yuanhuadine and yuanhuajine, the

  3. Bacterial Molecular Signals in the Sinorhizobium fredii-Soybean Symbiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. López-Baena

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sinorhizobium (Ensifer fredii (S. fredii is a rhizobial species exhibiting a remarkably broad nodulation host-range. Thus, S. fredii is able to effectively nodulate dozens of different legumes, including plants forming determinate nodules, such as the important crops soybean and cowpea, and plants forming indeterminate nodules, such as Glycyrrhiza uralensis and pigeon-pea. This capacity of adaptation to different symbioses makes the study of the molecular signals produced by S. fredii strains of increasing interest since it allows the analysis of their symbiotic role in different types of nodule. In this review, we analyze in depth different S. fredii molecules that act as signals in symbiosis, including nodulation factors, different surface polysaccharides (exopolysaccharides, lipopolysaccharides, cyclic glucans, and K-antigen capsular polysaccharides, and effectors delivered to the interior of the host cells through a symbiotic type 3 secretion system.

  4. Development of Acne therapeutic hydrogel patches by radiation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Younmook; Nho, Youngchang; Gwon, Huijeong; Park, Jongseok; Kim, Jinkyu; Kim, Yongsoo

    2012-04-15

    In this project, hydrogel patches containing herbal extracts mixture were developed by radiation technology for acne treatment. Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), one of the anaerobic bacterium, is the cause of inflammatory acne. To find novel mediation for inflammation of P. acnes, we confirmed the anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of several herbal extracts against P. acnes. The water extracts from five dried herbs, Phellodendron amurense Rupr., Paeonia lactiflora Pallas., Houttuynia cordata Thumb., Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., were mixed into biocompatible polymers and irradiated by using gamma-ray to prepare hydrogels. The hydrogels containing herbal extracts mixture initiated to decrease the growth of P. acnes and reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-{alpha}, IL-8, IL-1{beta} and IL-6, in experiment with human monocytic THP-1 cells treated with heat-killed P. acnes at 1 mg/ml of mixture concentration.

  5. Properties of herbal extracts against Propionibacterium acnes for biomedical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Youn-Mook; Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Yong Soo; Shin, Young Min; Jeong, Sung In; Jo, Sun-Young; Gwon, Hui-Jeong; Park, Jong-seok; Nho, Young-Chang; Kim, Jong-Cheol; Kim, Seong-Jang; Shin, HeungSoo

    2012-10-01

    Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), one of the anaerobic bacterium, causes inflammatory acne. To find a novel medication for treating the inflammation caused by P. acnes, we investigated the anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of several herbal extracts against P. acnes. The aqueous extracts from five dried herbs, Phellodendron amurense Rupr., Paeonia lactiflora Pallas., Houttuynia cordata Thunb., Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., were prepared and mixed. In this experiment, 1 mg/ml of the herbal extract mixture caused a decrease in the growth of P. acnes and reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-8, IL-1β and IL-6, in human monocytic THP-1 cells treated with heat-killed P. acnes. Therefore, this herbal extract mixture may possess both anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities against P. acnes and can be a novel therapeutic agent for treating inflammatory acne.

  6. Principle of active component dissolution in extract of different compatibility proportions of Paeoniae Radix Alba and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma%白芍-甘草药对不同配伍比例提取物中有效成分溶出规律的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李妍; 杨燕云; 张振秋; 谢剑琳; 王美

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish the RP-HPLC method for the determination of twelve active components in the combination of Paeoniae Radix Alba (PRA) and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (GRR) and to further analyze the principle of the active component dissolution with the proportion changing. Methods The separation was performed on a Dikma Technologies-C18 BDS (200 mm×4.6 mm, 5 μm) column with the gradient elution: 0-5 min, 5%-10% A; 5-10 min, 10%-12% A; 10-15 min, 12%-14% A; 15-20 min, 14%-16% A; 20-25 min, 16%-18% A; 25-30 min, 18%-20% A; 30-40 min, 20%-25% A; 40-50 min, 25%-40% A; 50-62 min, 40%-55% A; 62-72 min, 55%-70% A; 72-85 min, 70%-55% A; 85-95 min, 55%-5% A using acetonitrile (A)-water of 0.1% phosphoric acid (B) at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min; Detection wavelength was 267 nm (0-13 min), 258 nm (13-17 min), 230 nm (17-27 min), 276 nm (27-32 min), 230 nm (32-42 min), 360 nm (42-46 min), 276 nm (46-50 min), 230 nm (50-53 min), 275 nm (53-55 min), and 250 nm (55-95 min); The column temperature was 30℃. Results Among the observed nine compatibility proportions (PRA-GRR as 0 : 1, 0.3 : 1, 0.6 : 1,1 : 1, 2 : 1,3: 1, 4 : 1,5: 1, and 1 : 0), the active component dissolution amounts in 1 : 1 and 3 : 1 groups were the highest, and 0.6 : 1 group also showed higher dissolution amount. Conclusion The scientificity of 1 : 1 combination of PRA and GRR in Treatise on Cold Damage Diseases by ZHANG Zhong-jing has been proved using modern research method and also the rationality of the modem classical 3 : 1 ratio has been further confirmed in clinic from the active components aspect.%目的 通过建立RP-HPLC法测定白芍-甘草药对中12种有效成分,并用此方法探讨有效成分随白芍-甘草配比变化的溶出规律.方法 采用Dikma Technologies-C18色谱柱(200 mm×4.6 mm,5 μm),流动相为乙腈(A)-0.1%磷酸水溶液(B),梯度洗脱:0~5 min,5%~10%A; 5~10 min,10%~12%A; 10~15min,12%~14%A;15~20min,14%~16%A;20~25 min,16

  7. 甘草黄酮对大强度耐力运动大鼠肾脏组织Ca2+、Mg2+-ATPase及Bax,Bc1-2蛋白表达的影响%Effect of High-Intensity Endurance Exercise on Ca2+,Mg2+-ATPase and Bax, Bcl-2 Protein Expression With Glycyrrhiza Flavonoids in rat Nephridial Tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东旭; 陈艳艳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore Glycyrrhiza Elavonoids on the rat nephridial tissue of Ca2+, Mg2+-ATPase and Bax, Bcl-2 protein expression with high-intensity endurance exercise. Methods The twenty-four healthy male rats were randomly divided into quiet groups, high-intensity exercise group and exercise plus Glycyrrhiza Elavonoids group, After 6 weeks of treadmill training, Using the box of reagent and immunity histochemistry examined the changing of Ca2+, Mg2+-ATPase and Bax, Bcl-2 protein expression on each groups . Results Compared with the quiet groups, the activity of Ca2+, Mg2+-ATPase both had significant droped (P<0.01), and the groups of plus drog had very difference increased than high-intendity exerxise groups (P<0.01); High-intensity endurance exercise group and exercise dosing rats AI apoptosis index increased in varying degrees;high-intensity exercise group (MOD) were very significant difference(P<0.01), exercise plus drug group Bac protein expression (MOD)were very significant difference (P<0.01); Exercise plus drug group Bcl-2 protein expression(MOD) with the high-intersity exercise group had significant difference(P<0.01), High-intensity exercise group and exercise plus drug group Bax/Bcl-2 ratio of distribution is significantly difference degrees of difference(P<0.05,P<0.01).%目的:探讨甘草黄酮对大强度耐力运动大鼠肾脏组织Ca2+、Mg2+-ATPase及Bax、Bcl-2表达的影响。方法:选取SD雄性健康大鼠24只,随机分为安静组、大强度运动组和运动加药组;采用跑台训练6周后取材,应用试剂盒和免疫组织化学法测检测各组大鼠肾脏组织Ca2+、Mg2+-TPase活性及Bax和Bcl-2表达的变化。结果:与安静对照组相比,大强度运动组和运动加药组肾脏组织Ca2+、Mg2+-TPase活性均呈非常显著性下降(P<0.01);其中运动加药组Ca2+、Mg2+-TPase活性均较大强度运动组具有非常显著差异性提高(P<0.01);大强度耐力运动组和运动加

  8. Determination of trace elements in Syrian medicinal plants and their infusions by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khuder, A. [Department of Chemistry, Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)], E-mail: scientific2@aec.org.sy; Sawan, M.Kh.; Karjou, J. [Department of Chemistry, Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Razouk, A.K. [Department of Agriculture, Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2009-07-15

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) techniques suited well for a multi-element determination of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, and Sr in some Syrian medicinal plant species. The accuracy and the precision of both techniques were verified by analyzing the Standard Reference Materials (SRM) peach-1547 and apple leaves-1515. A good agreement between the measured concentrations of the previously mentioned elements and the certified values were obtained with errors less than 10.7% for TXRF and 15.8% for XRF. The determination of Br was acceptable only by XRF with an error less than 24%. Furthermore, the XRF method showed a very good applicability for the determination of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, and Br in infusions of different Syrian medicinal plant species, namely anise (Anisum vulgare), licorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra), and white wormwood (Artemisia herba-alba)

  9. Determination of trace elements in Syrian medicinal plants and their infusions by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuder, A.; Sawan, M. Kh.; Karjou, J.; Razouk, A. K.

    2009-07-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) techniques suited well for a multi-element determination of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, and Sr in some Syrian medicinal plant species. The accuracy and the precision of both techniques were verified by analyzing the Standard Reference Materials (SRM) peach-1547 and apple leaves-1515. A good agreement between the measured concentrations of the previously mentioned elements and the certified values were obtained with errors less than 10.7% for TXRF and 15.8% for XRF. The determination of Br was acceptable only by XRF with an error less than 24%. Furthermore, the XRF method showed a very good applicability for the determination of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, and Br in infusions of different Syrian medicinal plant species, namely anise ( Anisum vulgare), licorice root ( Glycyrrhiza glabra), and white wormwood ( Artemisia herba-alba).

  10. Synergic effect of combination of glycyrol and fluconazole against experimental cutaneous candidiasis due to Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhew, Zheong-Imm; Han, Yongmoon

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the anti-fungal activity of glycyrol, a coumarine isolated from licorice (Glycyrrhizae Radix), in a murine model of cutaneous candidiasis caused by Candida albicans. Compared to the infected sites, located on the mice's back, of the untreated control mice, the infected sites treated with glycyrol had reduced CFU (colony forming unit) values up to 60 and 85.5 % at 20 and 40 μg/mouse of glycyrol, respectively (P fluconazole (10 μg/mouse), demonstrating that the combination therapy is approximately 4 times more effective than fluconazole alone at 20 μg/mouse (P fluconazole alone at 40 μg/mouse (P fluconazole invade C. albicans more readily and attack fluconazole's target in the fungus membrane. In summary, our data indicate that glycyrol may contribute to the development of a novel agent that possesses antifungal activity against cutaneous candidiasis.

  11. The classical drug discovery approach to defining bioactive constituents of botanicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinghorn, A Douglas; Chai, Hee-byung; Sung, Chung Ki; Keller, William J

    2011-01-01

    In this review, several recently identified biologically active principles of selected botanical dietary supplement ingredients are described, and were isolated using classical phytochemical chromatographic methods, with various spectroscopic procedures used for their isolation and structure elucidation. A central component of such an approach is "activity-guided fractionation" to monitor the compound purification process. In vitro assays germane to cancer chemoprevention were used to facilitate the work performed. Bioactive compounds, including several new substances, were characterized from açai (Euterpe oleracea), baobab (Adansonia digitata), licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), and noni (Morinda citrifolia). Many of these compounds exhibited quite potent biological activity, but tended to be present in their plant of origin only at low concentration levels.

  12. Effects of Haizao Yuhu Decoction with different proportions of Sargassum and Radix Glycyrrhizae on hepatic functions and pathomorphology in goiter rats%基于均匀设计的海藻玉壶汤中海藻与甘草不同比例配伍对甲状腺肿大大鼠模型肝脏功能及病理形态的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李怡文; 钟赣生; 柳海艳; 刘云翔; 葛东宇; 李根茂; 欧丽娜; 王茜

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the toxic reactions of Haizao Yuhu Decoction with different proportion of Sargassum and Radix Glycyrrhizae in goiter rats through hepatic functions and pathomorphology. Methods: We set up seven matched groups according to the principle uniform design (two factors seven level) compared with normal, model, positive group. At the end of experiment, we determined alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total protein, albumin, globulin by automatic analyzer. The data statistic analysis was processed by ANOVA (analysis of variance) in combination with optimized formula soft. Results: The rats' general conditions such as eating, body weight and organization form were not affected; the serum ALT of group 2, group 3 and group 6 had decreased compared with model group; the serum AST of group 3 and group 6 also decreased; compared with model group (P<0.05), the serum ALP of group 5 had significantly increased compared with model group (P<0.05). AST/ALT ratio of group 5 had decreased compared with model group (P<0.05). Conclusion: The drugs, being opposite, may be complementary to each other after compatibility, but should be analyzed synthetically according to different dose and different processed products in order to expound the conclusions of 'Eighteen Incompatible Medicaments'.%目的:通过海藻与甘草不同比例配伍的海藻玉壶汤对甲状腺肿大大鼠模型肝功能相关指标的检测及病理形态学观察,考察含“十八反”中海藻、甘草这对反药组合的复方海藻玉壶汤对肝脏系统的影响.方法:将海藻与甘草按照2因素7水平的均匀设计实验原则设置不同配伍比例,灌胃14d,观察海藻与甘草不同配比的海藻玉壶汤对甲状腺肿大大鼠模型肝脏系数、天门冬氨酸氨基转移酶(AST)、丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)、碱性磷酸酶(ALP)、总蛋白(TP)、白蛋白(ALB)、球蛋白(GLB)以及肝组织病理形态的影响.

  13. Pro tective Effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra Extract against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced Hepatotoxicity in Primary Cultured Hepatocytes of Jian Carp(Cyprinus carpio var.jian)%甘草提取物对叔丁基氢过氧化物(t-BHP)诱导的建鲤原代培养肝细胞损伤的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹丽萍; 贾睿; 杜金梁; 丁炜东; 殷国俊

    2012-01-01

    以肝(细胞)损伤为主要特征的鱼类肝胆综合症是水产养殖中日趋严重的病害之一,目前还没有有效的防治措施.本研究拟以叔丁基氢过氧化物(t-BHP)构建建鲤(Cyprinus carpio var.jian)原代肝细胞损伤模型,并利用该模型评价甘草(Glycyrrhiza glabra)提取物对t-BHP诱导的鱼类急性肝细胞损伤的保护作用.1 mmol/L的t-BHP与原代肝细胞共培养2h能显著提高肝细胞培养上清中谷丙转氨酶(GPT)、谷草转氨酶(GOT)、乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)和丙二醛(MDA)水平,显著降低谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px)和超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)的含量以及肝细胞增殖活性.在t-BHP诱导肝细胞损伤前(前处理)、损伤后(后处理)、损伤前和损伤后(前后处理)将不同浓度(0.1、0.2和0.4 mg/mL)的甘草提取物加入肝细胞培养液中,与肝细胞共培养2h,结果显示,前后处理时,不同浓度(0.1、0.2和0.4 mg/mL)的甘草提取物均能显著抑制t-BHP诱导的GOT、GPT、LDH和MDA水平的升高,恢复GSH-Px和SOD水平;前处理时,高浓度(0.4 mg/mL)的甘草提取物对抑制GOT、GPT、LDH和MDA水平的升高,恢复GSH-Px水平有显著效果;后处理时,只有高浓度(0.4 mg/mL)的甘草提取物能有效提高GSH-Px活性;中浓度和高浓度(0.2和0.4mg/mL)的甘草提取物在前处理、后处理及前后处理时均能显著提高肝细胞的增殖活力.研究的结果表明,中药与损伤剂的给予顺序影响着甘草提取物对肝细胞的保护作用,前后处理时甘草提取物对损伤肝细胞的保护效果明显优于前处理和后处理.研究证实了甘草提取物对t-BHP诱导的鱼类肝细胞损伤具有保护作用,对应用甘草提取物作为鱼类肝胆综合症的防治药物还需要进一步的在体研究.%Fish "liver and gall syndrome",characterized by liver (hepatocyte) injury,has become more and more serious in China aquaculture,however no effective methods have been found for the prevention and

  14. The processes of reionization simulated with the LICORICE and 21cmFAST codes

    OpenAIRE

    Zawada, Karolina; Semelin, Benoît

    2012-01-01

    One of the possible sources of an anisotropy in the power spectrum of 21 cm brightness uctuations from the epoch of reionization (EoR) is the delay in light traveltime along the line-of-sight (LOS). We examine the anisotropy between the parallel and transverse directions with respect to the LOS. The inhomogeneous distribution of ionized clouds at the redshift of z gt; 6 should provide an enhanced level of inhomogeneity in the Thomson optical depth. Evolution of the optical depth, the correlat...

  15. Licorice in leviathan: the medicalization of care for the Japanese elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, M

    1984-06-01

    Attitudes towards, and treatment of the elderly in Japan are discussed and the medicalization of their health care is examined. It is suggested that the ready availability of medical care will not eliminate the major problems that the elderly experience. The process by which traditional medicine has been incorporated systematically into the socialized health care system and its use in connection with the problems of elderly patients is documented. Modifications in the application of herbal medicine made by biomedical practitioners have been linked to cases of iatrogenesis in the elderly. In conclusion, the social construction of both traditional East Asian medicine and biomedicine in Japan is briefly examined; in both systems the somatic aspects of the problems of the elderly are emphasized while the social dimensions remain largely unquestioned.

  16. Intensified extraction of ionized natural products by ion pair centrifugal partition extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzaoui, Mahmoud; Hubert, Jane; Hadj-Salem, Jamila; Richard, Bernard; Harakat, Dominique; Marchal, Luc; Foucault, Alain; Lavaud, Catherine; Renault, Jean-Hugues

    2011-08-05

    The potential of centrifugal partition extraction (CPE) combined with the ion-pair (IP) extraction mode to simultaneously extract and purify natural ionized saponins from licorice is presented in this work. The design of the instrument, a new laboratory-scale Fast Centrifugal Partition Extractor (FCPE300(®)), has evolved from centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) columns, but with less cells of larger volume. Some hydrodynamic characteristics of the FCPE300(®) were highlighted by investigating the retention of the stationary phase under different flow rate conditions and for different biphasic solvent systems. A method based on the ion-pair extraction mode was developed to extract glycyrrhizin (GL), a biologically active ionic saponin naturally present in licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Fabaceae) roots. The extraction of GL was performed at a flow rate of 20 mL/min in the descending mode by using the biphasic solvent system ethyl acetate/n-butanol/water in the proportions 3/2/5 (v/v/v). Trioctylmethylammonium with chloride as a counter-ion (Al336(®)) was used as the anion extractant in the organic stationary phase and iodide, with potassium as counter-ion, was used as the displacer in the aqueous mobile phase. From 20 g of a crude extract of licorice roots, 2.2g of GL were recovered after 70 min, for a total process duration of 90 min. The combination of the centrifugal partition extractor with the ion-pair extraction mode (IP-CPE) offers promising perspectives for industrial applications in the field of natural product isolation or for the fractionation of natural complex mixtures.

  17. Ex Situ and In Vitro Conservation of Glicyrrhiza glabra L. – Crop Wild Relative from Fabaceae

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    Katya Uzundzhalieva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Licorice, belongs to the Fabaceae family. The species is included in the Crop Wild relatives list for Bulgaria and is close to beans and peas. Its origin is Southeast Europe, the Mediterranean and Asia, where Bulgaria falls. The roots of the plant contain glycyrrhizin, 30 to 50 times sweetener than the sucrose. As a CWR, as well as due to the high level of glycyrrhizin in the roots, the conservation and maintenance of the species is of interest, although it is not included in the list of threatened plant species yet. In the Institute of Plant Genetic Resources - Sadovo Glycyrrhiza glabra is maintained in situ in the Botanical garden. Besides the in situ conservation of the species, in vitro techniques are a reliable means of reproduction and long-term storage. After introduction of the raw cuttings from plant species in culture in vitro, the process of micropropagation is accomplished by single bud microcuttings in nutrient medium fitted with growth regulators, enabling the development of single-rooted stems with options of repeatedly subcultivating. Along with that the possibility for long term in vitro propagation by reduction of the composition of the nutrient medium was tested, where the period for conservation of the cultivated explants reaches 8 months.

  18. Glycyrrhetinic acid and its derivatives in infectious diseases

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    Langer Dominik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Licorice or liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra, Leguminosae is a perennial plant naturally occurring or cultivated in Europe and Asia. It was appreciated by many ancient cultures, and was employed within Arabic medicine and (beginning in the Middle Ages in Europe folk medicine as a remedy for many diseases. Currently, the sweet flavoured root of this plant – Radix Glycyrrhizae (Liquirtiae, is widely taken for the treating of various upper respiratory tract diseases, as well as for gastric ulcer disease. It is also utilized as a sweetening and flavouring agent in the food, tobacco and pharmacy industries. The main active ingredient of liquorice is the triterpenoid saponin, glycyrrhizin, which is a mixture of calcium, magnesium and potassium salts of glycyrrhizic acid (GA. Glycyrrhizic acid is composed of an aglycone, that is 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (GE, and a D-glucuronic acid dimer. The aim of this review is to discuss some aspects of the activity of glycyrrhetinic acid and its derivatives in infectious diseases.

  19. Analysis of the Interactions of Botanical Extract Combinations Against the Viability of Prostate Cancer Cell Lines

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    Lynn S. Adams

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicines are often combinations of botanical extracts that are assumed to have additive or synergistic effects. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the effect of individual botanical extracts with combinations of extracts on prostate cell viability. We then modeled the interactions between botanical extracts in combination isobolographically. Scutellaria baicalensis, Rabdosia rubescens, Panax-pseudo ginseng, Dendranthema morifolium, Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Serenoa repens were collected, taxonomically identified and extracts prepared. Effects of the extracts on cell viability were quantitated in prostate cell lines using a luminescent ATP cell viability assay. Combinations of two botanical extracts of the four most active extracts were tested in the 22Rv1 cell line and their interactions assessed using isobolographic analysis. Each extract significantly inhibited the proliferation of prostate cell lines in a time- and dose-dependent manner except repens. The most active extracts, baicalensis, D. morifolium, G. uralensis and R. rubescens were tested as two-extract combinations. baicalensis and D. morifolium when combined were additive with a trend toward synergy, whereas D. morifolium and R. rubescens together were additive. The remaining two-extract combinations showed antagonism. The four extracts together were significantly more effective than the two-by-two combinations and the individual extracts alone. Combining the four herbal extracts significantly enhanced their activity in the cell lines tested compared with extracts alone. The less predictable nature of the two-way combinations suggests a need for careful characterization of the effects of each individual herb based on their intended use.

  20. Simultaneous use of traditional Chinese medicine (Si-Ni-Tang to treat septic shock patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

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    Wu Shin-Hwar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Even though there are continually upgraded recommendations for managing sepsis, such as "Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock", mortality is still high. Si-Ni-Tang, a remedy documented in Shanghan Lun, a medical collection from ancient China, is used for treating patients with sepsis and septic shock. Using a well-designed clinical trial, we are eager to survey the effectiveness of the concurrent use of this remedy in restoring these patients' hemodynamic status, or "Yang Qi". Methods/Design Patients admitted to our medical intensive care units with the diagnosis of septic shock, defined as persistent hypotension induced by sepsis despite adequate fluid resuscitation, are eligible for participation. The inclusion criteria include: age from 20 to 85 years, conditions meeting the definition of septic shock, use of vasopressors within 24 hours of entering the study, and use of a nasogastric tube for feeding. The enrolled patients are randomly allocated either to the Si-Ni-Tang group or the placebo group. The prescription of the trial drugs (Si-Ni-Tang/placebo is 2.25 grams 4 times a day for 7 days or till shock reversal (if shock reversal occurs in less than 7 days. Data, including duration of vasopressor infusion, gender, age, co-morbidities, APACHE II score, predicted mortality, ICU mortality, ICU length of stay, hospital mortality, hospital length of stay, source of sepsis, and culture results, are collected for the following analysis. Discussion Si-Ni-Tang is composed of processed Zingiber officinale, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, and Aconitum carmichaeli. Zingiber officinale and Glycyrrhiza uralensis are found to have the ability to reduce pro-inflammatory cytokine production, to inhibit lipopolisaccharide-induced macrophage activation and function, and to lessen the bacterial load and suppress acute and chronic inflammation. Aconitum carmichaeli is known to have

  1. Natural Products Screening for the Identification of Selective Monoamine Oxidase-B Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarmouh, Najla O.; Messeha, Samia S.; Elshami, Faisel M.; Soliman, Karam F. A.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Monoamine oxidase-B inhibitors (MAO-BIs) are used for the initial therapy of Parkinson’s disease. Also, MAO-BIs have shown to be effective neuroprotective agents in several neurodegenerative diseases. However, some concerns exist regarding the long-term use of these compounds. Meanwhile, natural compounds showed potential MAO-B selective inhibitions. To date, few selective natural MAO-BIs have been identified. Therefore, the current study is designed to identify plants with potent and specific MAO-B inhibition. Study Design In this work, we utilized high throughput screening to evaluate the different plants ethanolic extract for their effectiveness to inhibit recombinant human (h)MAO-A and hMAO-B and to determine the relative selectivity of the top MAO-BI. Methodology Recombinant human isozymes were verified by Western blotting, and the 155 plants were screened. A continuous fluorometric screening assay was performed followed by two separate hMAO-A and hMAO-B microtiter screenings and IC50 determinations for the top extracts. Results In the screened plants, 9% of the extracts showed more than 1.5-fold relative inhibition of hMAO-B (RIB) and another 9% showed more than 1.5-fold relative inhibition of hMAO-A. The top extracts with the most potent RIBs were Psoralea corylifolia seeds, Phellodendron amurense bark, Glycyrrhiza uralensis roots, and Ferula assafoetida roots, with the highest RIB of 5.9-fold. Furthermore, extensive maceration of the promising extracts led to increase inhibitory effects with a preserved RIB as confirmed with luminescence assay. The top four extracts hMAO-BIs were equally potent (IC50= 1.3 to 3.8 μg/mL) with highly significant relative selectivities to inhibit hMAO-B (4.1- to 13.4-fold). Conclusion The obtained results indicate that Psoralea corylifolia seeds, Ferula assafoetida, Glycyrrhiza uralensis roots, and Phellodendron amurense ethanolic extracts have selective inhibitions for human MAO-B. Investigating these plant extracts as

  2. Isolation and characterization of a conserved domain in the eremophyte H+-PPase family.

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    Yanqin Wang

    Full Text Available H(+-translocating inorganic pyrophosphatases (H(+-PPase were recognized as the original energy donors in the development of plants. A large number of researchers have shown that H(+-PPase could be an early-originated protein that participated in many important biochemical and physiological processes. In this study we cloned 14 novel sequences from 7 eremophytes: Sophora alopecuroid (Sa, Glycyrrhiza uralensis (Gu, Glycyrrhiza inflata (Gi, Suaeda salsa (Ss, Suaeda rigida (Sr, Halostachys caspica (Hc, and Karelinia caspia (Kc. These novel sequences included 6 ORFs and 8 fragments, and they were identified as H(+-PPases based on the typical conserved domains. Besides the identified domains, sequence alignment showed that there still were two novel conserved motifs. A phylogenetic tree was constructed, including the 14 novel H(+-PPase amino acid sequences and the other 34 identified H(+-PPase protein sequences representing plants, algae, protozoans and bacteria. It was shown that these 48 H(+-PPases were classified into two groups: type I and type II H(+-PPase. The novel 14 eremophyte H(+-PPases were classified into the type I H(+-PPase. The 3D structures of these H(+-PPase proteins were predicted, which suggested that all type I H(+-PPases from higher plants and algae were homodimers, while other type I H(+-PPases from bacteria and protozoans and all type II H(+-PPases were monomers. The 3D structures of these novel H(+-PPases were homodimers except for SaVP3, which was a monomer. This regular structure could provide important evidence for the evolutionary origin and study of the relationship between the structure and function among members of the H(+-PPase family.

  3. Prenylation and Backbone Structure of Flavonoids and Isoflavonoids from Licorice and Hop Influence Their Phase i and II Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Schans, Van Milou G.M.; Bovee, Toine F.H.; Stoopen, Geert M.; Lorist, Marlies; Gruppen, Harry; Vincken, Jean Paul

    2015-01-01

    In vitro liver metabolism of 11 prenylated flavonoids and isoflavonoids was investigated by determining their phase I glucuronyl and sulfate metabolites using pork liver preparations. One hundred metabolites were annotated using RP-UHPLC-ESI-MSn. A mass spectrometry-based data interpre

  4. Hataedock Treatment Has Preventive Therapeutic Effects in Atopic Dermatitis-Induced NC/Nga Mice under High-Fat Diet Conditions

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    Ho-Yeol Cha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the preventive therapeutic effects of Hataedock (HTD treatment on inflammatory regulation and skin protection in AD-induced NC/Nga mice under high-fat diet conditions. Before inducing AD, the extract of Coptidis Rhizoma and Glycyrrhiza uralensis was administered orally to the 3-week-old mice. After that, AD-like skin lesions were induced by applying DNFB. All groups except the control group were fed a high-fat diet freely. We identified the effects of HTD on morphological changes, cytokine release and the induction of apoptosis through histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and TUNEL assay. HTD downregulated the levels of IL-4 and PKC but increased the levels of LXR. HTD also suppressed the mast cell degranulation and release of MMP-9, Substance P. The levels of TNF-α, p-IκB, iNOS, and COX-2 were also decreased. The upregulation of inflammatory cell’s apoptosis is confirmed by our results as increase of apoptotic body and cleaved caspase-3 and decrease of Bcl-2. HTD also reduced edema, angiogenesis, and skin lesion inflammation. Our results indicate HTD suppresses various inflammatory response on AD-induced mice with obesity through the regulation of Th2 differentiation and the protection of lipid barrier. Therefore, HTD could be used as an alternative and preventive therapeutic approach in the management of AD.

  5. Simultaneous determination of neutral and uronic sugars based on UV-vis spectrometry combined with PLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ci-Hai; Yun, Yong-Huan; Zhang, Zhi-Min; Liang, Yi-Zeng

    2016-06-01

    A method using partial least squares (PLS) for simultaneous determination of neutral and uronic sugars was developed in this paper. This method is based on the development of the reaction between the analytes and anthrone. The calibration set was built with 25 binary solutions at the concentrations ranging from 20 to 100μg/mL for glucose and from 10 to 50μg/mL for glucuronic acid. An independent prediction set was utilized to check the robustness of the PLS calibration model. The root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP) values for neutral and uronic sugars are 1.2233 and 1.9367, respectively. The correlation coefficient for the prediction set (Rp(2)) values for them are 0.9971 and 0.9767, respectively. Compared with the univariate method, the proposed method improves detection accuracy. In addition, it was also applied to commercial polysaccharides and Glycyrrhiza uralensis polysaccharides (GUPs), and the results indicated that the PLS model was suitable for simultaneous determination of neutral and uronic sugars. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A novel glucuronosyltransferase has an unprecedented ability to catalyse continuous two-step glucuronosylation of glycyrrhetinic acid to yield glycyrrhizin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guojie; Cai, Wei; Gao, Wei; Liu, Chunsheng

    2016-10-01

    Glycyrrhizin is an important bioactive compound that is used clinically to treat chronic hepatitis and is also used as a sweetener world-wide. However, the key UDP-dependent glucuronosyltransferases (UGATs) involved in the biosynthesis of glycyrrhizin remain unknown. To discover unknown UGATs, we fully annotated potential UGATs from Glycyrrhiza uralensis using deep transcriptome sequencing. The catalytic functions of candidate UGATs were determined by an in vitro enzyme assay. Systematically screening 434 potential UGATs, we unexpectedly found one unique GuUGAT that was able to catalyse the glucuronosylation of glycyrrhetinic acid to directly yield glycyrrhizin via continuous two-step glucuronosylation. Expression analysis further confirmed the key role of GuUGAT in the biosynthesis of glycyrrhizin. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that Gln-352 may be important for the initial step of glucuronosylation, and His-22, Trp-370, Glu-375 and Gln-392 may be important residues for the second step of glucuronosylation. Notably, the ability of GuUGAT to catalyse a continuous two-step glucuronosylation reaction was determined to be unprecedented among known glycosyltransferases of bioactive plant natural products. Our findings increase the understanding of traditional glycosyltransferases and pave the way for the complete biosynthesis of glycyrrhizin.

  7. Efficient Developing Agriculture Measures in Salt-affected Soils%盐碱地农业高效利用措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉珍; 刘永信

    2011-01-01

    The main ways of improving salt-affected soils to realize Efficient Developing Agriculture Measures in our country had been summaried. The regional distribution of plants in Yellow River delta was analyzed. By regional planting of four kinds of salt-tolerant plants-Suaeda crassifolia Pall., Tamarix chinensis Lour., Phragmites australis., Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.exDC, the feasibility modes and economic benefits of Regional planting saline plants were explored and the basis for a-gricultural efficient use of saline-alkali land was provided.%概述了目前我国为实现盐碱地农业高效利用而采取的盐碱地治理的基本措施,分析了黄河三角洲滨海地区植物区域化分布情况,通过选择4种耐盐植物翅碱蓬、柽柳、芦苇和甘草,进行区域化种植,探索了盐碱地植物区域化种植的可行性模式及经济效益,为盐碱地农业高效利用提供依据.

  8. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Chinese Herbal Formula Sini Tang in Myocardial Infarction Rats

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    Jiangang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory profiling of the Chinese herbal formula Sini Tang (SNT in myocardial infarction (MI rats. SNT, a decoction consisting of four herbs: Aconitum carmichaelii, Cinnamomum cassia, Zingiber officinale, and Glycyrrhiza uralensis, was characterized as a remedy to treat syndromes corresponding to heart failure and MI in China. Potential biomarkers, which reflect the extent of myocardial necrosis and correlate with cardiac outcomes following MI, such as atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, and proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1β (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β were determined in plasma, serum, and in myocardial tissue of MI rats after treatment with SNT. Our data indicate that SNT decreased significantly the levels of hs-CRP, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in MI rats. SNT decreased the expression of ANP levels in plasma and increased the vascular active marker nitric oxide, which limits vascular inflammation. In addition, SNT could decrease the expression of endothelin-1 levels in rat plasma post-MI. Our data suggest that the Chinese herbal formula SNT has the potential to improve cardiac function after MI. SNT may be a candidate for treating MI and its associated inflammatory responses.

  9. Molecular screening of Chinese medicinal plants for progestogenic and anti-progestogenic activity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H M Manir Ahmed; Jan-Ying Yeh; Yi-Chia Tang; Winston Teng-Kuei Cheng; Bor-Rung Ou

    2014-06-01

    Estrogen and progestins have adverse effects, and many of these adverse effects are caused by progestins. Due to this, many women choose to use botanical alternatives for hormone replacement therapy, which does not trigger steroidogenic properties. Therefore, it is necessary to screen these herbs for progestogenic and anti-progestogenic properties. Extract of 13 Chinese medicinal plants were analysed for progestogenic and anti-progestogenic activities by using progesterone response element-driven luciferase reporter gene bioassay. MTT assay was carried out to investigate the cytotoxic effect of herb extract on PAE cells. Among the 13 herbs, Dipsacus asperoides extract exhibited progestogenic activity, and 10 species – Cortex eucommiae, Folium artemisiae argyi, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Angelica sinensis, Atractylodes macrocephala koidz, Scutellaria baicalensis, Cuscuta chinensis, Euscaphis japonica, Ailanthus altissima, and Dioscorea opposita – were recognized to have anti-progestogenic like activities. Extract of Dipsacus asperoides demonstrated dose-dependent progestogenic activity, and the progestogenic activity of 100 g/mL extracts was equivalent to 31.45 ng/mL progesterone activity. Herbs extracts that exhibited anti-progestogenic-like activity also inhibited the 314.46 ng/mL progesterone activity in a dose-response manner. None of the herb extracts shown significant toxic effect on PAE cells at 40–100 g/mL compared to control. This discovery will aid selection of suitable herbs for hormone replacement therapy.

  10. Botanical origin of dietary supplements labeled as "Kwao Keur", a folk medicine from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Takuro; Kawamura, Maiko; Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Goda, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    In the course of our study on the quality of dietary supplements in Japan, both the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence of nrDNA and the rps16 intron sequence of cpDNA of products labeled as "Kwao Keur" were investigated. As a result, the DNA sequence of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica, which is the source plant of Kwao Keur, was observed in only about half of the products. Inferred from the determined sequences, source plants in the other products included Medicago sativa, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Pachyrhizus erosus, and Ipomoea batatas, etc. These inferior products are estimated to lack the efficacy implied by their labeling. In order to guarantee the quality of dietary supplements, it is important to identify the source materials exactly; in addition, an infrastructure that can exclude these inferior products from the market is needed for the protection of consumers from potential damage to their health and finances. The DNA analysis performed in this study is useful for this purpose.

  11. Effects of Active Components of Fuzi and Gancao Compatibility on Bax, Bcl-2, and Caspase-3 in Chronic Heart Failure Rats

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    Liqin Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypaconitine (HA and glycyrrhetinic acid (GA are active components of Fuzi (Aconitum carmichaelii and Gancao (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch; they have been used in compatibility for chronic heart failure (CHF from ancient times. The purpose of the present research was to explore whether apoptosis pathways were related with the protective effects of HA + GA against CHF rats or not. The rats were progressed with transverse-aortic constriction (TAC operation for 4 weeks to build the CHF state, and then the Digoxin (1 mg/kg, HA (2.07 mg/kg, GA (25 mg/kg, and HA (2.07 mg/kg + GA (25 mg/kg were orally administrated to rats for 1 week. The levels of BNP and cTnI in the plasma were decreased in the HA + GA group, and the heart/body weight ratio (H/B and left ventricular (LV parameters of transthoracic echocardiography were also declined; moreover, the expressions of Bax, Bcl-2, and caspase-3 were all improved in the HA + GA group than other groups in the immunohistochemistry and western blot methods. In general, the data suggested that Fuzi and Gancao compatibility could protect the CHF rats from apoptosis, which provided a strong evidence for further searching for mechanisms of them.

  12. Development of enhanced radioprotectors - Biochemical and molecular genetical approaches on the radioprotective mechanism of natural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Hong, Jung A [Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    To identify radio-protective agent candidate among medicinal plants and to elucidate the mechanism of action of the candidate material by using modern biochemical and molecular biological methods, we screened radio-protective activity among 48 medicinal plants. Seven samples showed above 20% protective activities against oxidative cell damage: Euryale ferox, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Eucomia ulmoides, Paeonia suffruticosa, Spirodela polyrrhiza, and Nelumbo nucifera. We also screened for oxidative stress sensitizing activity among other 51 medicinal plants. Among those samples, 11 samples showed good sensitizing effect; Melia azedarach, Agastache rugosa, Catalpa ovata, Prunus persica, Sinomenium acutum, Pulsatilla koreana, Oldenlandia diffusa, Anthriscus sylvestris, Schizandra chinensis, Gleditsia sinensis, and Cridium officinale. We also reported the radio-protective effect of DTT. The treatment of DTT increased cell survival after gamma-irradiation, decreased in the frequencies of micronucleus, and reduction in DNA fragmentation and apoptotic cells. Induction of apoptosis after UV-C irradiation was revealed by the changes in the relative cell death, increase in the relative amount of apoptotic cells, and the induction of DNA fragmentation. 165 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  13. Microbial cooperation in the rhizosphere improves liquorice growth under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egamberdieva, Dilfuza; Wirth, Stephan; Li, Li; Abd-Allah, Elsayed Fathi; Lindström, Kristina

    2017-07-04

    Liquorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.) is one of the most widely used plants in food production, and it can also be used as an herbal medicine or for reclamation of salt-affected soils. Under salt stress, inhibition of plant growth, nutrient acquisition and symbiotic interactions between the medicinal legume liquorice and rhizobia have been observed. We recently evaluated the interactions between rhizobia and root-colonizing Pseudomonas in liquorice grown in potting soil and observed increased plant biomass, nodule numbers and nitrogen content after combined inoculation compared to plants inoculated with Mesorhizobium alone. Several beneficial effects of microbes on plants have been reported; studies examining the interactions between symbiotic bacteria and root-colonizing Pseudomonas strains under natural saline soil conditions are important, especially in areas where a hindrance of nutrients and niches in the rhizosphere are high. Here, we summarize our recent observations regarding the combined application of rhizobia and Pseudomonas on the growth and nutrient uptake of liquorice as well as the salt stress tolerance mechanisms of liquorice by a mutualistic interaction with microbes. Our observations indicate that microbes living in the rhizosphere of liquorice can form a mutualistic association and coordinate their involvement in plant adaptations to stress tolerance. These results support the development of combined inoculants for improving plant growth and the symbiotic performance of legumes under hostile conditions.

  14. Plant-derived natural medicines for the management of depression: an overview of mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Marzieh Sarbandi; Bahramsoltani, Roodabeh; Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Rahimi, Roja

    2015-01-01

    Depression is a serious widespread psychiatric disorder that affects approximately 17% of people all over the world. Exploring the neurological mechanisms of the antidepressant activity of plant-derived agents could have a crucial role in developing natural drugs for the management of depression. The aim of the present study is to review the neurological mechanisms of action of antidepressant plants and their constituents. For this purpose, electronic databases, including PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, and Cochrane Library, were searched from 1966 to October 2013. The results showed that several molecular mechanisms could be proposed for the antidepressant activity of medicinal plants and their constituents. Hypericum species could normalize brain serotonin level. Liquiritin and isoliquiritin from Glycyrrhiza uralensis rhizome act via the noradrenergic system. Rosmarinus officinalis and curcumin from Curcuma longa interact with D1 and D2 receptors as well as elevate the brain dopamine level. Sida tiagii and Aloysia gratissima involve γ-aminobutyric acid and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, respectively. Fuzi polysaccharide-1 from Aconitum carmichaeli could affect brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling pathways. Psoralidin from Psoralea corylifolia seed modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The total glycosides of Paeonia lactiflora demonstrate an inhibitory effect on both subtypes of monoamine oxidase. 3,6'-Di-o-sinapoyl-sucrose and tenuifoliside A from Polygala tenuifolia exhibit cytoprotective effects on neuronal cells. Further preclinical and clinical trials evaluating their safety, bioefficacy, and bioavailability are suggested to prove the valuable role of natural drugs in the management of depressive disorders.

  15. Screening of estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities from medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In Gyu; Kang, Se Chan; Kim, Kug Chan; Choung, Eui Su; Zee, Ok Pyo

    2008-01-01

    The medicinal plant extracts commercially used in Asia were screened for their estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities in a recombinant yeast system featuring both a human estrogen receptor (ER) expression plasmid and a reporter plasmid. Pueraria lobata (flower) had the highest estrogenic relative potency (RP, 7.75×10(-3); RP of 17β-estradiol=1), followed by Amomum xanthioides (1.25×10(-3)). Next potent were a group consisting of Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Zingiber officinale, Rheum undulatum, Curcuma aromatica, Eriobotrya japonica, Sophora flavescens, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Polygonum multiflorum, and Pueraria lobata (root) (ranging from 9.5×10(-4) to 1.0×10(-4)). Least potent were Prunus persica, Lycoppus lucidus, and Adenophora stricta (ranging from 9.0×10(-5) to 8.0×10(-5)). The extracts exerting antiestrogenic effects, Cinnamomum cassia and Prunus persica, had relative potencies of 1.14×10(-3) and 7.4×10(-4), respectively (RP of tamoxifen=1). The solvent fractions from selected estrogenic or antiestrogenic herbs had higher estrogenic relative potencies, with their RP ranging from 9.3×10(-1) to 2.7×10(-4) and from 8.2×10(-1) to 9.1×10(-3), respectively. These results support previous reports on the efficacy of Oriental medicinal plants used or not used as phytoestrogens for hormone replacement therapy.

  16. Anti‑inflammatory and antioxidant activity of the traditional herbal formula Gwakhyangjeonggi‑san via enhancement of heme oxygenase‑1 expression in RAW264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Soo-Jin; Kim, Ohn-Soon; Yoo, Sae-Rom; Seo, Chang-Seob; Kim, Yeji; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2016-05-01

    Gwakhyangjeonggi‑san (GHJGS) is a mixture of herbal plants, including Agastache rugosa, Perilla frutescens, Angelica dahurica, Areca catechu, Poria cocos, Magnolia officinalis, Atractylodes macrocephala, Citrus reticulata, Pinellia ternata, Platycodon grandiflorum, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Ziziphus jujuba and Zingiber officinale. GHJGS has been used for treating diarrhea‑predominant irritable bowel syndrome in traditional Korean medicine. In the present study, the anti‑inflammatory and antioxidant effects of GHJGS were investigated using the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line. GHJGS significantly reduced production of the proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor‑α, interleukin‑6 and prostaglandin E2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑stimulated macrophages. GHJGS markedly suppressed LPS‑induced phosphorylation of mitogen‑activated protein kinases, whereas it had no effect on nuclear factor‑κB activation. Furthermore, GHJGS enhanced expression of heme oxygenase‑1 and prevented the generation of reactive oxygen species in RAW 264.7 cells. These results indicate that GHJGS is a viable therapeutic agent against inflammation and oxidative stress‑associated disorders.

  17. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of traditional Thai herbal remedies for aphthous ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekseepralard, Chantana; Kamkaen, Narisa; Wilkinson, Jenny M

    2010-10-01

    Four medicinal plants (Quercus infectoria, Kaempferia galanga, Coptis chinensis and Glycyrrhiza uralensis) as well as one traditional Thai treatment for aphthous ulcers based on these four plants were tested for antimicrobial activity. MIC values for a range of bacteria and Candida albicans were determined, with both type strains and clinical isolates being used. Antioxidant activity was determined using the ABTS radical scavenging assay. Among the four plants, Q. infectoria showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus with an MIC of 0.41 mg/mL, while C. chinensis showed antifungal activity against C. albicans with an MIC of 6.25 mg/mL. Activity was also shown against a range of other organisms including Salmonella typhi, Serratia marcescens, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis. The antimicrobial activity of the traditional aphthous ulcer preparation (a powder) was comparable to that for the individual plant extracts, however, incorporation of the powder into a gel formulation resulted in the loss of almost all activity. All extracts, with the exception of K. galanga, also showed good antioxidant activity. This study supports the traditional use of these plants and suggests that they may also be useful in the treatment of other infections.

  18. 光果甘草的研究进展%Advances in studies on Glycyrrhiza glabra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗祖良; 李倩; 覃洁萍; 杨美华

    2011-01-01

    光果甘草的主要化学成分为三萜皂苷和黄酮类化合物,具有调血脂、抗氧化、抗炎和抑制酪氨酸酶活性等药理作用.在临床应用中,光果甘草中的甘草皂苷成分在镇咳祛痰、清热解毒、治疗溃疡和急慢性病毒性肝炎等方面都具有显著效果.光果甘草在医疗和日用化工行业具有广阔的发展前景.就近年来国内外对光果甘草的化学成分、药理作用和临床应用的研究进展作了综述,为光果甘草的进一步开发利用提供科学依据.

  19. Antioxidative activity and stability of the extracts of liquorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona PATRICHE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The active principles from the aqueous liquorice plant extracts were investigated and quantified by evaluation of bioactive compounds (saponins through phytochemical reactions. The presence of saponins was evaluated by measuring the foam index, which was around 500. A major component was Glycyrrhizic acid, responsible for the antioxidant activity, found in concentration of 5.82 % at plant maturity. A time-dependent decrease in concentration of the bioactive compounds from aqueous liquorice extracts was observed. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was tested by the agar diffusion method, showing a moderate inhibitory activity against Bacillus sp. and strong inhibitory activity against coliforms. A liquorice syrup was obtained and subsequently could be used as nutraceutical additive in bread with good results, showing characteristic, optical and antimicrobial properties and good stability in time. Adding liquorice syrup in food products could be an alternative to improve nutraceutical potential.

  20. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) disrupting effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract in mice: a possible role of monoamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Haidy E; Tadros, Mariane G; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B; Khalifa, Amani E

    2013-06-07

    Liquorice extract was reported to have nootropic and/or antiamnestic effects. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle response is a multimodal, cross-species phenomenon used as a measure of sensorimotor gating. Previous studies indicated that liquorice/its constituents augmented mouse brain monoamine levels. Increased brain monoamines' transmission was suggested to underlie PPI disruption. However, the effect of antiamnestic dose(s) of the extract on PPI has not been investigated despite the coexistence of impaired memory and PPI deficit in some neurological disorders. The effect of administration of the antiamnestic dose of the extract (150 mg/kg for 7 days) was tested on PPI of acoustic startle response in mice. It resulted in PPI disruption and therefore its effect on monoamines' levels was investigated in a number of mouse brain areas involved in PPI response mediation. Results demonstrated that the extract antiamnestic dose augmented cortical, hippocampal and striatal monoamine levels. It was therefore concluded that liquorice extract (150 mg/kg)-induced PPI deficit was mediated through augmenting monoaminergic transmission in the cortex, hippocampus and striatum. These findings can be further investigated in experimental models for autism, psychosis and Huntington's disease to decide the safety of using liquorice extract in ameliorating memory disturbance in disorders manifesting PPI deficit.

  1. Absorption and desorption behaviour of the flavonoids from Glycyrrhiza glabra L. leaf on macroporous adsorption resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yi; Zhao, Mouming; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Zhuang, Mingzhu; Chen, Huiping; Feng, Mengying; Lin, Lianzhu

    2015-02-01

    The kinetics of adsorption and desorption behaviours of five macroporous resins for enriching flavonoids from Glycyrrhizaglabra L. leaf were investigated. All five resins showed similar and effective adsorption and desorption properties. A pseudo-second-order kinetics model was suitable for evaluating the whole adsorption process. Additionally, two representative resins (XAD-16 and SP825) were chosen for adsorption thermodynamics study. The adsorption of the representative resins was an exothermic and physical adsorption process. Further column chromatography of XAD-16 and SP825 showed that the total flavonoids (from 16.8% to 55.6% by XAD-16 and to 53.9% by SP825) and pinocembrin (from 5.49% to 15.2% by XAD-16 and to 19.8% by SP825) were enriched in 90% ethanol fractions. Meanwhile, the antioxidant capacities and nitrite-scavenging capacities were 2-3times higher than those of the crude extract. The fractions with high flavonoid and pinocembrin contents could be used as biologically active ingredients in functional food.

  2. Neuropharmacological actions of panchagavya formulation containing Emblica officinalis Gaerth and Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achliya, Girish S; Wadodkar, Sudhir G; Avinash, K Dorle

    2004-05-01

    A panchagavya Ayurvedic formulation containing E. officinalis, G. glabra, and cow's ghee was evaluated for its effect on pentobarbital-induced sleeping time, pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures, maximal electroshock-induced seizures, spontaneous motor activity, rota-rod performance (motor coordination) and antagonism to amphetamine in mice. The formulation (300, 500 mg/kg, po) produced a significant prolongation of pentobarbital-induced sleeping time and reduced spontaneous locomotor activity. The formulation also significantly antagonised the amphetamine induced hyper-locomotor activity (500, 750 mg/kg, po) and protected mice against tonic convulsions induced by maximal electroshock (500, 750 mg/kg, po). The formulation slightly prolonged the phases of seizure activity but did not protect mice against lethality induced by pentylenetetrazole. The formulation did not show neurotoxicity. The results suggest that the panchagavya formulation is sedative in nature.

  3. Hepatoprotective Effects of Silybum marianum (Silymarin and Glycyrrhiza glabra (Glycyrrhizin in Combination: A Possible Synergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Rasool

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and transaminase reactions are some of the mechanisms that can lead to liver dysfunction. A time-dependent study was designed to evaluate the ability of silymarin (SLN and glycyrrhizin (GLN in different dosage regimens to lessen oxidative stress in the rats with hepatic injury caused by the hepatotoxin carbon tetrachloride. Wistar male albino rats (n = 60 were randomly assigned to six groups. Group A served as a positive control while groups B, C, D, E, and F received a dose of CCl4 (50% solution of CCl4 in liquid paraffin, 2 mL/kg, intraperitoneally twice a week to induce hepatic injury. Additionally, the animals received SLN and GLN in different doses for a period of six weeks. CCl4 was found to induce hepatic injury by significantly increasing serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances while decreasing total protein and the activities of reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase. Treatment with various doses of SLN and GLN significantly reduced ALT, AST, ALP, and TBARS levels and increased GSH, SOD, and CAT levels. Our findings indicated that SLN and GLN have hepatoprotective effects against oxidative stress of the liver.

  4. 复方甘草酸苷在肿瘤放化疗保护领域的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于泽

    2005-01-01

    中药甘草为豆科植物甘草(Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch)、胀果甘草(Glycyrrhiza inflata Bat)或光果甘草(Glycyrrhiza glabra L)的干燥根及根茎,药用历史已有2000余年。其具有解毒、补益及调和药物等作用,有效活性成分主要是三萜类化合物——甘草酸苷(Glycyrrhizin,GL)。近10余年来,其因具有抗炎、抗变态反应、免疫调节及抗氧化等作用而广泛应用于肝炎、皮肤病等疾病的治疗,并取得良效。1948年,日本米诺发源(Minophagen)制药株式会社在全球首先成功提取GL,并与甘氨酸和半胱氨酸(蛋氨酸)共同组成复方制剂——复方甘草酸苷(美能,SNMC)。经多年的研究显示,其在慢性乙型肝炎、丙型肝炎、肝硬化及肝细胞癌等疾病的预防和治疗方面有较好疗效。随着GL在肿瘤领域研究的深入,复方甘草酸苷因具有减毒增效、保护正常细胞和调节机体免疫功能等作用,已在肿瘤放化疗保护及预防、治疗等方面展现出良好前景。

  5. 光照对15种豆科植物种子萌发的影响%Effect of light on seed germination of 15 kinds of legume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙黎; 崔现亮

    2012-01-01

    This paper studied the seed germination characteristics and germination patterns of 15 Leguminous plants from Hexi Corridor area.Results were as follows.In the presence of light,the germination rate of Caraganas ssp.was significantly higher than the germination rate in dark.The germination rate of Caragana korshinskii in dark was significantly higher than that under light.It had no effect on the germination of other species whether light existed.There were four main germination patterns.The first pattern was rapid germination,whose representatives were C.korshinskii,C.intermedia and Lotus corniculatus grown in the presence of light.The second pattern was intermediate germination,whose representatives were C.intermedia,L.corniculatus,Ammopiptanthus mongolicus,C.bongardiana,C.erinacea and Caraganas ssp.grown in dark.The third pattern was slow germination,whose representatives were Thermopsis schischkinii,Sophora alopecuroides,Sophora flavescens,C.arborescen,Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Hedysarum multijugum grown in the presence of light,and T.schischkinii,S.alopecuroides,S.flavescens,C.arborescens grown in dark.The last pattern was low germination,whose representatives were Glycyrrhizas ssp.,Medicago falcate,Glycyrrhizas sp,G.uralensis,H.multijugum,C.korshinskii and M.falcate.%对河西走廊15种豆科植物种子的萌发特性、萌发模式进行比较研究。结果表明:锦鸡儿一种在有光条件下的萌发率和萌发速率均显著高于黑暗中的萌发率和萌发速率;柠条锦鸡儿在黑暗下的萌发率和萌发速率均显著高于有光条件的;光、暗对其他物种萌发的影响没有差异。在有光条件下,柠条锦鸡儿、中间锦鸡儿和百脉根的萌发属于投机型;沙冬青、邦卡锦鸡儿、川西锦鸡儿和锦鸡儿一种种子的萌发属于中间型;黄华、苦豆子、苦参、树锦鸡儿、乌拉尔甘草和黄芪的种子萌发属于缓萌型;而甘草一种和苜蓿种子萌发属于低萌型。在黑暗条

  6. Drug: D08710 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08710 Mixture, Drug Sulfur - fennel - glycyrrhiza - senna leaf mixt; Compound glycyrrhiza... 23 Digestive organ agents 235 Purgatives, clysters 2359 Others D08710 Sulfur - fennel - glycyrrhiza - senna leaf mixt PubChem: 96025393 ...

  7. 甘草素在翘嘴鳜细菌性败血症疫苗中的佐剂效果%Adjuvant Effect of Glycyrrhizine in Vaccines against Bacterial Septicemia in Mandarinfish, Siniperca chuatsi Basilewsky

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昌福; 陈晓辉; 楠田理一

    2000-01-01

    The effect of glycyrrhizine (Gly) from licorice(Glycyrrhiza glabra ) as a adjuvant in vaccines against bacterial septicemia in mandarinfish(Sinipe rca chuatsi Basilewsky) was studied. Mandarinfish were vaccinated with formalin k ill ed cells (FKC) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Aeromonas hydrophila by injec tion method with or without Gly. The results showed that the phagocytic activity of leucocytes and relative percent survival (RPS) after challenge with live bacteri a in vaccinated groups with Gly were significantly higher than that in groups wi thout Gly, but after vaccination no significant differences were detected in agg lutinating antibody titers and complement activity between vaccinated groups wit h Gly and without Gly.%从甘草中提取的甘草素(Gly)添加在翘嘴鳜细菌性败血症的2种疫苗,即福尔马林灭活嗜水气单胞菌(FKC)和菌体脂多糖(LPS)中,经添加Gly的疫苗接种后,受免翘嘴鳜头肾中白细胞的吞噬活性和经活菌攻毒后的免疫保护率显著高于未添加Gly疫苗的免疫组(t 测验,P0.05).

  8. Oxidative Inactivation of Liver Mitochondria in High Fructose Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Rats: Effect of Glycyrrhizin Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sil, Rajarshi; Chakraborti, Abhay Sankar

    2016-09-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a serious health problem in the present world. Glycyrrhizin, a triterpenoid saponin of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) root, has been reported to ameliorate the primary complications and hepatocellular damage in rats with the syndrome. In this study, we have explored metabolic syndrome-induced changes in liver mitochondrial function and effect of glycyrrhizin against the changes. Metabolic syndrome was induced in rats by high fructose (60%) diet for 6 weeks. The rats were then treated with glycyrrhizin (50 mg/kg body weight) by single intra-peritoneal injection. After 2 weeks of the treatment, the rats were sacrificed to collect liver tissue. Elevated mitochondrial ROS, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl, and decreased reduced glutathione content indicated oxidative stress in metabolic syndrome. Loss of mitochondrial inner membrane cardiolipin was observed. Mitochondrial complex I activity did not change but complex IV activity decreased significantly. Mitochondrial MTT reduction ability, membrane potential, phosphate utilisation and oxygen consumption decreased in metabolic syndrome. Reduced mitochondrial aconitase activity and increased aconitase carbonyl content suggested oxidative damage of the enzyme. Elevated Fe(2+) ion level in mitochondria might be associated with increased ROS generation in metabolic syndrome. Glycyrrhizin effectively attenuated mitochondrial oxidative stress and aconitase degradation, and improved electron transport chain activity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Phytoestrogens in botanical dietary supplements: implications for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piersen, Colleen E

    2003-06-01

    Phytoestrogens are plant constituents that possess either estrogenic or antiestrogenic activity. Although their activities are weak as compared with human endogenous estrogens, the consumption of phytoestrogens may have clinically significant consequences. A number of botanicals, or the compounds contained therein, have been identified as putative estrogenic agents, but consensus in the biomedical community has been hampered by conflicting data from various in vitro and in vivo models of estrogenic activity. Phytoestrogens may serve as chemopreventive agents while at the same time being capable of promoting growth in estrogen receptor positive cancer cell lines. Furthermore, they may exert their estrogenic influence through receptor-dependent and/or receptor-independent mechanisms. These findings have led to speculation that phytoestrogen intake might be ill advised for patients at an increased risk for hormone-dependent cancers, cancer patients, or cancer survivors. This article will attempt to sort out discrepancies between various experimental models and establish whether certain herbs possess estrogenic activity. The review will focus on 5 popular botanical dietary supplements: Trifolium pratense (red clover), Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh), Humulus lupulus (hops), Angelica sinensis (dong quai), and Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice). It will address their mechanisms of action, clinical evidence bases, and implications for use in cancer.

  10. Human GAPDH Is a Target of Aspirin's Primary Metabolite Salicylic Acid and Its Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyong Woo; Tian, Miaoying; Manohar, Murli; Harraz, Maged M; Park, Sang-Wook; Schroeder, Frank C; Snyder, Solomon H; Klessig, Daniel F

    2015-01-01

    The plant hormone salicylic acid (SA) controls several physiological processes and is a key regulator of multiple levels of plant immunity. To decipher the mechanisms through which SA's multiple physiological effects are mediated, particularly in immunity, two high-throughput screens were developed to identify SA-binding proteins (SABPs). Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (GAPDH) from plants (Arabidopsis thaliana) was identified in these screens. Similar screens and subsequent analyses using SA analogs, in conjunction with either a photoaffinity labeling technique or surface plasmon resonance-based technology, established that human GAPDH (HsGAPDH) also binds SA. In addition to its central role in glycolysis, HsGAPDH participates in several pathological processes, including viral replication and neuronal cell death. The anti-Parkinson's drug deprenyl has been shown to suppress nuclear translocation of HsGAPDH, an early step in cell death and the resulting cell death induced by the DNA alkylating agent N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Here, we demonstrate that SA, which is the primary metabolite of aspirin (acetyl SA) and is likely responsible for many of its pharmacological effects, also suppresses nuclear translocation of HsGAPDH and cell death. Analysis of two synthetic SA derivatives and two classes of compounds from the Chinese medicinal herb Glycyrrhiza foetida (licorice), glycyrrhizin and the SA-derivatives amorfrutins, revealed that they not only appear to bind HsGAPDH more tightly than SA, but also exhibit a greater ability to suppress translocation of HsGAPDH to the nucleus and cell death.

  11. Effect of Hot water and dilute acid pretreatment on the chemical properties of liquorice root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zahra takzare

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, the liquorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra that was extracted in the factory in Kerman province, pre-hydrolyzed and then chemical compositions (Extractives, Lignin content, Holocellulose percent, the hydrolysis process yield and weight loss of the waste was measured. Pre-hydrolysis process was done on the above mentioned waste by hot water, hot water followed by 0.5 percent sulfuric acid and also alone sulfuric acid with different concentrations (0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 percent The samples were pre-hydrolyzed in hot water at 150 °C and 30, 60 and 90 minutes as well as in the mixture of hot water and 0.5 % sulfuric acid at 150 °C and 60 minutes and also in pure sulfuric acid, at 130 °C and at 60 minutes. The results showed that the pre-hydrolyzed treatment with hot water in 60 minutes had been favorable performance in the respect of weight loss, lignin content and holocellulose percent. Also, in the case of pre-treatment including sulfuric acid, 2% dose can be good selected option in term of maximum holocellulose percent and minimum lignin content so that it can be suggested to produce higher value-added products such as bioethanol from licorice root bid.

  12. 8种中药提取物对薏苡灰霉病菌的抑制作用%Inhibitory Effect of Extract from Eight Chinese Herbal Medicines on Botrytis cinerea of Coix lacroyma-jobi L.var.ma-yuen (Roman.) Stapf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖凤艳; 高郁芳

    2012-01-01

    采用生长速率法和倍比稀释法测定了8种中药提取物对薏苡(Coix lacroyma-jobi L.var.ma-yuen ( Roman.))灰霉病菌(Botrytis cinerea)的生物活性.结果表明,在浓度为1.0 g/mL时,丁香(Eugenia aromatica Baill)、辛夷(Magnoliab iondii Pamp.)、商陆(Phytolacca acinosa Roxb.)提取物对薏苡灰霉病菌抑菌率达100%;北豆根(Menispermum dahuricmn DC.)、萝藦[Metaplexis japonica (Thunb.) Mark.]、甘草(Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.)、艾蒿(Artemisia argyi Levl.et Van.)提取物的抑菌率分别为76.3%、76.3%、69.7%、33.8%;天南星(A ris ae ma amurense Maxim.)提取物对薏苡灰霉病菌没有抑制作用;丁香、辛夷、商陆的最小抑制浓度依次为0.062 5、0.125 0、0.500 0 g/mL.%Fungal inhibitory activity of extracts from 8 Chinese herbal medicines against Botryiis cinerea oi Coix lacroyma—jobi I,, var. ma-yuen (Roman.) Stapf was determined by growth rate method and douhle dilution method. Results showed that at the concentration of 1.0 g/mL, the extracts of Eugenia aromatica Baill, Magnolia biondii Pamp., Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. Had 100% inhibition rate. The extracts of Menispermum dahuricnm DC, Melnplexis japonica (Thunb.) Mark., Glycyrrhiza u-ratensis Fisch., Artemisia argyi Levl.et Van. Had 76.3%, 76.3%, 69.7%, 33.8% inhibition rate respectively. Arisaema a-murense Maxim, had no inhibition effect. The MIC of the extracts of Eugenia aromatica Baill, Magnolia biondii Pamp., Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. Were 0.062 5 g/mL, 0.125 0 g/mL, 0.500 0 g/mL, respectively.

  13. Elucidation of Danzhixiaoyao Wan and Its Constituent Herbs on Antioxidant Activity and Inhibition of Nitric Oxide Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liao

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Danzhixiaoyao Wan (DW is a common 10 herbs formulation in China for regulating several clinical conditions affecting women. This research tried to explain one of DW's functions, purging heat, using in vitro pharmacological analyses. The whole formulation and each single herb of DW were compared based on antioxidant activity with the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC assay, and for their inhibitory effect (IE on nitric oxide (NO production by lipopolysaccharide (LPS-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages with the Griess assay. The results showed that DW as a whole formulation had both antioxidant activity and an IE on NO production, while the individual herb component of DW varied in their ORAC values and inhibition of NO production. The ORAC value of the whole DW was 450 μmol TE g−1. The order of antioxidant (ORAC activity of the single herbs was: Mentha haplocalyx (1352 μmol TE g−1 > Glycyrrhiza uralensis (1184 μmol TE g−1 > Gardenia jasminoides (1129 μmol TE g−1 > Paeonia suffruticosa (465 μmol TE g−1, with the contributions being additive rather than synergistic. The production of nitrite by stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages (unstimulated: 0.5 ± 0.1 μM versus LPS: 38.9 ± 2.3 μM was significantly inhibited (P < 0.05 by M. haplocalyx, G. jasminoides, Bupleurum chinense and Paeonia lactiflora. DW as a whole had an IE on NO production, but this was not significant. The single herb M. haplocalyx had the highest ORAC value and the highest IE on NO production, followed by G. jasminoides. Both of these herbs have the ‘purging heat’ property in the theory of traditional Chinese medicine and this property of the samples may be correlated with the antioxidant activity and IE on NO production.

  14. Quantitative Evaluation of the Compatibility Effects of Huangqin Decoction on the Treatment of Irinotecan-Induced Gastrointestinal Toxicity Using Untargeted Metabolomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zun-Jian Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Huangqin decoction (HQD, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, has been widely used to treat gastrointestinal syndrome in China for thousands of years. Chemotherapy drug irinotecan (CPT-11 is used clinically to treat various kinds of cancers but limited by its side effects, especially delayed diarrhea. Nowadays, HQD has been proved to be effective in attenuating the intestinal toxicity induced by CPT-11. HQD consists of four medicinal herbs including Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch, Paeonia lactiflora Pall, and Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Due to its complexity, the role of each herb and the multi-herb synergistic effects of the formula are poorly understood. In order to quantitatively assess the compatibility effects of HQD, mass spectrometry-based untargeted metabolomics studies were performed. The serum metabolic profiles of rats administered with HQD, single S. baicalensis decoction, S. baicalensis-free decoction and baicalin/baicalein combination were compared. A time-dependent trajectory upon principal component analysis was firstly used to visualize the overall differences. Then metabolites deregulation score and relative area under the curve were calculated and used as parameters to quantitatively evaluate the compatibility effects of HQD from the aspect of global metabolic profile and the specifically altered metabolites, respectively. The collective results indicated that S. baicalensis played a crucial role in the therapeutic effect of HQD on irinotecan-induced diarrhea. Both HQD and SS decoction regulated glycine, serine and threonine pathway. This study demonstrated that metabolomics was a promising tool to elucidate the compatibility effects of TCM or combinatorial drugs.

  15. Development and validation of an high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector method for the simultaneous determination of six phenolic compounds in abnormal savda munziq decoction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuge Tian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Given the high-effectiveness and low-toxicity of abnormal savda munziq (ASMQ, its herbal formulation has long been used in traditional Uyghur medicine to treat complex diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Settings and Design: ASMQ decoction by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector was successfully developed for the simultaneous quality assessment of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, rosmarinic acid, and luteolin. The six phenolic compounds were separated on an Agilent TC-C18 reversed-phase analytical column (4.6 × 250 mm, 5 μm by gradient elution using 0.3% aqueous formic acid (v/v and 0.3% methanol formic acid (v/v at 1.0 mL/min. Materials and Methods: The plant material was separately ground and mixed at the following ratios (10: Cordia dichotoma (10.6, Anchusa italic (10.6, Euphorbia humifusa (4.9, Adiantum capillus-veneris (4.9, Ziziphus jujube (4.9, Glycyrrhiza uralensis (7.1, Foeniculum vulgare (4.9, Lavandula angustifolia (4.9, Dracocephalum moldavica L. (4.9, and Alhagi pseudoalhagi (42.3. Statistical Analysis Used: The precisions of all six compounds were 0.999. Results: The proposed method was successfully applied to determine the levels of six active components in ASMQ. Conclusions: Given the simplicity, precision, specificity, and sensitivity of the method, it can be utilized as a quality control approach to simultaneously determining the six phenolic compounds in AMSQ.

  16. Investigation of the therapeutic effectiveness of active components in Sini decoction by a comprehensive GC/LC-MS based metabolomics and network pharmacology approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Si; Wu, Si; Li, Wuhong; Chen, Xiaofei; Dong, Xin; Tan, Guangguo; Zhang, Hai; Hong, Zhanying; Zhu, Zhenyu; Chai, Yifeng

    2014-12-01

    As a classical formula, Sini decoction (SND) has been fully proved to be clinically effective in treating doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiomyopathy. Current chemomics and pharmacology proved that the total alkaloids (TA), total gingerols (TG), total flavones and total saponins (TFS) are the major active ingredients of Aconitum carmichaelii, Zingiber officinale and Glycyrrhiza uralensis in SND respectively. Our animal experiments in this study demonstrated that the above active ingredients (TAGFS) were more effective than formulas formed by any one or two of the three individual components and nearly the same as SND. However, very little is known about the action mechanisms of TAGFS. Thus, this study aimed to use for the first time the combination of GC/LC-MS based metabolomics and network pharmacology for solving this problem. By metabolomics, it was found that TAGFS worked by regulating six primary pathways. Then, network pharmacology was applied to search for specific targets. 17 potential cardiovascular related targets were found through molecular docking, 11 of which were identified by references, which demonstrated the therapeutic effectiveness of TAGFS using network pharmacology. Among these targets, four targets, including phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma, insulin receptor, ornithine aminotransferase and glucokinase, were involved in the TAGFS regulated pathways. Moreover, phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma, insulin receptor and glucokinase were proved to be targets of active components in SND. In addition, our data indicated TA as the principal ingredient in the SND formula, whereas TG and TFS served as adjuvant ingredients. We therefore suggest that dissecting the mode of action of clinically effective formulae with the combination use of metabolomics and network pharmacology may be a good strategy.

  17. Spatial distribution pattern and dynamics of the primary population in a natural Populus euphratica forest in Tarim Basin, Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu HAN; Haizhen WANG; Zhengli ZHOU; Zhijun LI

    2008-01-01

    One 50 m × 50 m standard plot was sampled in a natural forest of Populus euphratica in Awati County, situated at the edge of the Tarim Basin, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. The field investigation was conducted with a contiguous grid quadrate method. By means of a test of variance/mean value ratio, aggregation intensity index and theoretical distribution models, the spatial distribution pattern and the dynamics of primary populations in P. euphratica forest were studied. The results showed that the spatial distribution pattern of two dominant arbor populations conformed to clumped distribution. The aggregation intensity of the P. euphra-tica population was higher than that of P. pruinosa popu- lation. The spatial distribution pattern of two companion plant populations in the shrub layer also conformed to clump type, though the aggregation intensity of Tamarix chinensis was higher. In the herb layer, the distribution patterns of Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Asparagus persicus conformed respectively to a clumped pattern and a ran-dom pattern. The results of a Taylor power method test and Iwao's m2-x regression model also verified that both P. euphratica and P. pruinosa populations belong to a clumped pattern. Although the distribution pattern of P. pruinosa population at different development stages all belonged to a clumped distribution pattern, the aggrega-tion intensity dropped gradually along with age develop-ment. The distribution patterns of the P. euphratica population at different development stages changed from random type to clumped type, and further to random type. The differences in spatial distribution patterns of different populations at different development stages were related not only to ecological and biological characteris-tics of each species in the communities in the light of competitive exclusion principle among the populations, but were also closely related to the habitats in which the species lived in.

  18. Antifungal efficacy of three medicinal plants Glycyrrhiza glabra, Ficus religiosa, and Plantago major against oral Candida albicans: A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunny Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: G. glabra, F. religiosa, and P. major showed acceptable potency against C. albicans (ATCC 66027 comparable to that of synthetic antifungal agents. However, further studies should be undertaken to affirm the same and test their efficacy in different concentrations and clinical utility.

  19. Drug Resistance Reversal Potential of Isoliquiritigenin and Liquiritigenin Isolated from Glycyrrhiza glabra Against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Rashmi; Gupta, Vivek Kumar; Singh, Pooja; Pal, Anirban; Darokar, Mahendra Padurang; Bhakuni, Rajendra Singh

    2016-10-01

    Isoliquiritigenin (ISL) and liquiritigenin (LTG) are structurally related flavonoids found in a variety of plants. Discovery of novel antimicrobial combinations for combating methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections is of vital importance in the post-antibiotic era. The present study was taken to explore the in vitro and in vivo combination effect of LTG and ISL with β-lactam antibiotics (penicillin, ampicillin and oxacillin) against mec A-containing strains of MRSA. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of both LTG and ISL exhibited significant anti-MRSA activity (50-100 µg/mL) against clinical isolates of MRSA. The result of in vitro combination study showed that ISL significantly reduced MIC of β-lactam antibiotics up to 16-folds [∑ fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) 0.312-0.5], while LTG reduced up to 8-folds (∑FIC 0.372-0.5). Time kill kinetics at graded MIC combinations (ISL/LTG + β-lactam) indicated 3.27-9.79-fold and 2.59-3.48-fold reduction in the growth of clinical isolates of S. aureus respectively. In S. aureus-infected Swiss albino mice model, combination of ISL with oxacillin significantly (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, p < 0.001) lowered the systemic microbial burden in blood, liver, kidney, lung and spleen tissues in comparison with ISL, oxacillin alone as well as untreated control. Considering its synergistic antibacterial effect, we suggest both ISL and LTG as promising compounds for the development of novel antistaphylococcal combinations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. In silico and in vivo anti-malarial studies of 18β glycyrrhetinic acid from Glycyrrhiza glabra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komal Kalani

    Full Text Available Malaria is one of the most prevailing fatal diseases causing between 1.2 and 2.7 million deaths all over the world each year. Further, development of resistance against the frontline anti-malarial drugs has created an alarming situation, which requires intensive drug discovery to develop new, more effective, affordable and accessible anti-malarial agents possessing novel modes of action. Over the past few years triterpenoids from higher plants have shown a wide range of anti-malarial activities. As a part of our drug discovery program for anti-malarial agents from Indian medicinal plants, roots of Glycyrrhizaglabra were chemically investigated, which resulted in the isolation and characterization of 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA as a major constituent. The in vitro studies against P. falciparum showed significant (IC50 1.69 µg/ml anti-malarial potential for GA. Similarly, the molecular docking studies showed adequate docking (LibDock score of 71.18 for GA and 131.15 for standard anti-malarial drug chloroquine. Further, in silico pharmacokinetic and drug-likeness studies showed that GA possesses drug-like properties. Finally, in vivo evaluation showed a dose dependent anti-malarial activity ranging from 68-100% at doses of 62.5-250 mg/kg on day 8. To the best of our knowledge this is the first ever report on the anti-malarial potential of GA. Further work on optimization of the anti-malarial lead is under progress.

  1. Thymus vulgaris L., Glycyrrhiza glabra or Combo® enzyme in corn vs. barley-based broiler diets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Majid Kalantar; Mostafa Rezaei; Jalal Salary; Hamid Reza Hemati Matin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To test the effect of supplementation of Thymus vulgaris L. (T. vulgaris) or Glycyrrhizaglabra (G. glabra) in corn-soybean meal diets as well as the inclusion of an exogenous enzyme i.e. Combo ® in barley-soybean meal diets together with mentioned medicinal plants in broiler diets. Methods: A total of 270 unsexed 1-day-old broiler chickens (Ross 308) was randomly assigned to 6 treatments with 3 replications of 15 birds in each. Diets were comprised of the control (T1), the inclusion of T. vulgaris, G. glabra, their mixture (equal amount), Combo ® supplementation (T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively) in diets based on corn-soybean meal diets and enzyme supplementation plus equal amount of tested medicinal plants (T6) based on barley-soybean meal diets. Medicinal plants and enzyme were included in diets at level 0.5% and 0.2% of diets, respectively.Results:The highest feed intake was obtained by T1 at 1-21 d of age (P<0.05). All diets caused significant increases in weight gain and significant decreases in feed conversion ratio compared to control at this age (P<0.05). Significant reductions were acquired in feed intake by T3 and T6 at 22-42 d of age (P<0.05). All diets significantly decreased total number of aerobic bacteria, coliforms, Gram-negative bacteria and increased lactic acid bacteria compared to control (P<0.05). Conclusions: The results showed that basal diet has vital character to effectiveness of medicinal plants in broiler diets. Beneficial effects on intestinal microflora were brought by use of T. vulgaris L. and G. glabra in corn-based diets or in barley-based diets together with enzyme. Thus, this capability can support growth performance of broiler chickens at lower age.

  2. In silico and in vivo anti-malarial studies of 18β glycyrrhetinic acid from Glycyrrhiza glabra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalani, Komal; Agarwal, Jyoti; Alam, Sarfaraz; Khan, Feroz; Pal, Anirban; Srivastava, Santosh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Malaria is one of the most prevailing fatal diseases causing between 1.2 and 2.7 million deaths all over the world each year. Further, development of resistance against the frontline anti-malarial drugs has created an alarming situation, which requires intensive drug discovery to develop new, more effective, affordable and accessible anti-malarial agents possessing novel modes of action. Over the past few years triterpenoids from higher plants have shown a wide range of anti-malarial activities. As a part of our drug discovery program for anti-malarial agents from Indian medicinal plants, roots of Glycyrrhizaglabra were chemically investigated, which resulted in the isolation and characterization of 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) as a major constituent. The in vitro studies against P. falciparum showed significant (IC50 1.69 µg/ml) anti-malarial potential for GA. Similarly, the molecular docking studies showed adequate docking (LibDock) score of 71.18 for GA and 131.15 for standard anti-malarial drug chloroquine. Further, in silico pharmacokinetic and drug-likeness studies showed that GA possesses drug-like properties. Finally, in vivo evaluation showed a dose dependent anti-malarial activity ranging from 68-100% at doses of 62.5-250 mg/kg on day 8. To the best of our knowledge this is the first ever report on the anti-malarial potential of GA. Further work on optimization of the anti-malarial lead is under progress.

  3. Growth Promotion of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. by Salt-Tolerant Plant Growth Promotion Rhizobacteria under Saline Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabborova D

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Salinity stress is one of the most serious factors limiting the productivity of agriculture. Plant growth promotion rhizobacteria (PGPR which produce phytohormones is one of the options to mitigate salt stress in plants and improve their growth and improvement under saline conditions. We study the effect of salt-tolerant P.putidaNUU8strain on plant growth of Glycyrrhizaglabra L. under saline soils. The treatment inoculation of P. putidaNUU8strainstatistically significantly increased roots and shoots length plant–1 over the control under a pot experiment. The results showed that inoculation of Glycyrrhizaglabra with of salt-tolerant P.putidaNUU8can enhance salt tolerance and plant growth under soil saline conditions. In our previous study we reported that the salinity did not inhibit the IAA production by strain. Strain P. putidaNUU8appeared to produce IAA in media contained NaCl up to 9 % and it was able to growth at high salt condition.Salt-stressed Glycyrrhizaglabra inoculated with the P. putidaNUU8sharply increased than uninoculated plants. Inoculation of P. putidaNUU8 strain significantly improved the root length 56% and shoots lenth 49% of Glycyrrhizaglabracompared with uninoculated control.

  4. A rapid screening method for prenylated flavonoids with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry in licorice root extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, R.; Vincken, J.P.; Bakx, E.J.; Verbruggen, M.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2009-01-01

    Due to their substitution with an isoprenoid group, prenylated flavonoids have an increased affinity for biological membranes and target proteins, enhancing their potential bioactivity. Although many prenylated flavonoids have been described, there are no methods that specifically screen for their p

  5. 甘草止咳汤对于肺癌久咳的治疗%Treatment of Lung Cancer with Intractable Cough by Licorice Cough Relieving Decoction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于万年; 孙玉洁

    2001-01-01

    @@ 咳嗽是肺癌常见的首发症状,以阵发性刺激性干咳为主,无痰或有少量泡沫白痰,药物不易控制.笔者在临床上遇到一些晚期肺癌患者,尽管经中药治疗后影像学检查已证实其肿瘤体积已成倍缩小,患者的一般状况也很好,但咳嗽不止,需用麻醉药品镇咳,患者生存质量显著降低.后偶读许公岩所写关于生甘草应用的文章后深受启迪,几经研究自拟以生甘草为主药的甘草止咳汤方,经临床应用效果颇佳.现报告如下.

  6. Functionalized graphene quantum dots loaded with free radicals combined with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry to screen radical scavenging natural antioxidants from Licorice and Scutellariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoying; Niu, XiuLi; Shi, Gaofeng; Chen, Xuefu; Yao, Ruixing; Chen, Fuwen

    2014-12-01

    A novel screening method was developed for the detection and identification of radical scavenging natural antioxidants based on a free radical reaction combined with liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Functionalized graphene quantum dots were prepared for loading free radicals in the complex screening system. The detection was performed with and without a preliminary exposure of the samples to specific free radicals on the functionalized graphene quantum dots, which can facilitate charge transfer between free radicals and antioxidants. The difference in chromatographic peak areas was used to identify potential antioxidants. This is a novel approach to simultaneously evaluate the antioxidant power of a component versus a free radical, and to identify it in a vegetal matrix. The structures of the antioxidants in the samples were identified using tandem mass spectrometry and comparison with standards. Fourteen compounds were found to possess potential antioxidant activity, and their free radical scavenging capacities were investigated. The order of scavenging capacity of 14 compounds was compared according to their free radical scavenging rate. 4',5,6,7-Tetrahydroxyflavone (radical scavenging rate: 0.05253 mL mg(-1) s(-1) ) showed the strongest capability for scavenging free radicals.

  7. Study on the chemical constituents of aerial parts of cultivated licorice%栽培甘草地上部分化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白虹; 王英华; 詹晓平; 窦德强; 裴玉萍; 陈英杰; 李巍; 小池一男; 二階堂保

    2005-01-01

    目的对栽培甘草地上部分的化学成分进行研究.方法溶剂法和色谱法分离化合物,光谱法鉴定其结.构.结果分离得到7个脂肪族类化合物,分别鉴定为十一烷酸-2-对羟基苯基乙酯[undecanoic acid,2-(4-hy-droxyphenyl)ethyl ester](Ⅰ),1-二十二烷酸甘油酯(docosanoic acid,2,3-dihydroxypropyl ester)(Ⅱ),1-二十四烷酸甘油酯(tetracosanoic acid,2,3-dihydroxypropyl ester)(Ⅲ),1-二十二烷酸-2,3-异亚丙基甘油酯[docosanoic acid,(2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl)methyl ester](Ⅳ),1-(22-羟基二十二烷酸)甘油酯(docosanoic acid,22-hydroxy-,2,3-dihydroxypropyl ester)(Ⅴ),1-(24-羟基二十四烷酸)甘油酯(tetracosanoicacid,24-hydroxy-,2,3-dihydroxypropyl ester)(Ⅵ),棕榈酸(palmitic acid)(Ⅶ).结论化合物Ⅰ为新化合物,化合物Ⅱ~Ⅵ为该属植物首次分离,化合物Ⅶ为该种植物首次分离.

  8. SEPARATION OF LICORICE FLAVONOIDS BY MACROPOROUS RESIN XAD-16%XAD-16大孔树脂分离甘草黄酮的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐清萍; 朱广存

    2010-01-01

    以大孔树脂XAD-16对甘草黄酮的吸附量、吸附率、解吸量、解吸率为指标,确定了最佳的分离工艺参数.最佳吸附条件:甘草黄酮料液初始质量浓度0.96 mg/mL,上样量为20 mg/g湿树脂,料液pH2.0.最佳解吸条件:解吸剂为80%乙醇,解吸pH14.在最佳吸附解吸条件下,大孔树脂XAD-16对甘草黄酮的吸附率为76.58%,解吸率为61.84%,甘草总黄酮的含量为55.10%.结果表明:XAD-16是一种较好的分离甘草黄酮的树脂.

  9. Lipoprotein lipase expression, serum lipid and tissue lipid deposition in orally-administered glycyrrhizic acid-treated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ton So

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome (MetS is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities comprising visceral obesity, dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance (IR. With the onset of IR, the expression of lipoprotein lipase (LPL, a key regulator of lipoprotein metabolism, is reduced. Increased activation of glucocorticoid receptors results in MetS symptoms and is thus speculated to have a role in the pathophysiology of the MetS. Glycyrrhizic acid (GA, the bioactive constituent of licorice roots (Glycyrrhiza glabra inhibits 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 that catalyzes the activation of glucocorticoids. Thus, oral administration of GA is postulated to ameliorate the MetS. Results In this study, daily oral administration of 50 mg/kg of GA for one week led to significant increase in LPL expression in the quadriceps femoris (p p > 0.05 of the GA-treated rats compared to the control. Decrease in adipocyte size (p > 0.05 in both the visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue depots accompanies such selective induction of LPL expression. Consistent improvement in serum lipid parameters was also observed, with decrease in serum free fatty acid, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol but elevated HDL-cholesterol (p > 0.05. Histological analysis using tissue lipid staining with Oil Red O showed significant decrease in lipid deposition in the abdominal muscle and quadriceps femoris (p p > 0.05. Conclusion Results from this study may imply that GA could counteract the development of visceral obesity and improve dyslipidaemia via selective induction of tissue LPL expression and a positive shift in serum lipid parameters respectively, and retard the development of IR associated with tissue steatosis.

  10. Human GAPDH Is a Target of Aspirin's Primary Metabolite Salicylic Acid and Its Derivatives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyong Woo Choi

    Full Text Available The plant hormone salicylic acid (SA controls several physiological processes and is a key regulator of multiple levels of plant immunity. To decipher the mechanisms through which SA's multiple physiological effects are mediated, particularly in immunity, two high-throughput screens were developed to identify SA-binding proteins (SABPs. Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (GAPDH from plants (Arabidopsis thaliana was identified in these screens. Similar screens and subsequent analyses using SA analogs, in conjunction with either a photoaffinity labeling technique or surface plasmon resonance-based technology, established that human GAPDH (HsGAPDH also binds SA. In addition to its central role in glycolysis, HsGAPDH participates in several pathological processes, including viral replication and neuronal cell death. The anti-Parkinson's drug deprenyl has been shown to suppress nuclear translocation of HsGAPDH, an early step in cell death and the resulting cell death induced by the DNA alkylating agent N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Here, we demonstrate that SA, which is the primary metabolite of aspirin (acetyl SA and is likely responsible for many of its pharmacological effects, also suppresses nuclear translocation of HsGAPDH and cell death. Analysis of two synthetic SA derivatives and two classes of compounds from the Chinese medicinal herb Glycyrrhiza foetida (licorice, glycyrrhizin and the SA-derivatives amorfrutins, revealed that they not only appear to bind HsGAPDH more tightly than SA, but also exhibit a greater ability to suppress translocation of HsGAPDH to the nucleus and cell death.

  11. Human GAPDH Is a Target of Aspirin’s Primary Metabolite Salicylic Acid and Its Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, Murli; Harraz, Maged M.; Park, Sang-Wook; Schroeder, Frank C.; Snyder, Solomon H.; Klessig, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    The plant hormone salicylic acid (SA) controls several physiological processes and is a key regulator of multiple levels of plant immunity. To decipher the mechanisms through which SA’s multiple physiological effects are mediated, particularly in immunity, two high-throughput screens were developed to identify SA-binding proteins (SABPs). Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (GAPDH) from plants (Arabidopsis thaliana) was identified in these screens. Similar screens and subsequent analyses using SA analogs, in conjunction with either a photoaffinity labeling technique or surface plasmon resonance-based technology, established that human GAPDH (HsGAPDH) also binds SA. In addition to its central role in glycolysis, HsGAPDH participates in several pathological processes, including viral replication and neuronal cell death. The anti-Parkinson’s drug deprenyl has been shown to suppress nuclear translocation of HsGAPDH, an early step in cell death and the resulting cell death induced by the DNA alkylating agent N-methyl-N’-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Here, we demonstrate that SA, which is the primary metabolite of aspirin (acetyl SA) and is likely responsible for many of its pharmacological effects, also suppresses nuclear translocation of HsGAPDH and cell death. Analysis of two synthetic SA derivatives and two classes of compounds from the Chinese medicinal herb Glycyrrhiza foetida (licorice), glycyrrhizin and the SA-derivatives amorfrutins, revealed that they not only appear to bind HsGAPDH more tightly than SA, but also exhibit a greater ability to suppress translocation of HsGAPDH to the nucleus and cell death. PMID:26606248

  12. Drug: D08697 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08697 Mixture, Drug Platycodon fluidextract - glycyrrhiza extract - plantago herb ...extract - peony root extract - dihydrocodeine phosphate mixt; Opisezol codeine (TN) Platycodon fluidextract ... Antitussives and expectorants 2249 Others D08697 Platycodon fluidextract - glycyrrhiza extract - plantago h

  13. Effects of grazing disturbance on leaf traits and their interrelationships of plants in desert steppe%放牧干扰对荒漠草原植物叶性状及其相互关系的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安慧

    2012-01-01

    This paper studied the effects of grazing disturbance on the specific leaf area (SLA), leaf dry matter content (LDMC), leaf area, and leaf dry mass of dominant plant species Cynan-chum komarovii, Euphorbia esula, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, and Lespedeza potaninii in desert steppe of Ningxia, Northwest China, aimed to approach the responses and adaptation strategies of different plant species in desert steppe to the environmental change. With the decrease of grazing intensity, the specific leaf area (SLA) of the four dominant species presented a decreasing trend. Under different grazing intensities, the SLA of the four dominant species had significant differences, while the LDMC didn' t. There existed definite differences in the interrelationships of leaf traits among different plant species. For C. komarovii and G. uralensis, there was a significant negative relationship between SLA and LDMC, for E. esula and L. potaninii, there was a positive relationship between the two parameters. The changes in the leaf traits in response to grazing intensity suggested that the SLA could be more sensitive to the environmental change than LDMC, and the SLA could be used as an indicator of resources use strategies of plants in desert steppe environments.%以宁夏退化荒漠草原优势植物牛心朴子、乳浆大戟、甘草和牛枝子为对象,分析放牧干扰对植物的比叶面积(specific leaf area,SLA)、叶干物质含量(leaf dry matter content,LDMC)、叶面积和叶干质量等叶性状的影响,探讨荒漠草原生态系统中不同物种对环境改变的响应和适应对策.结果表明:随着放牧强度的降低,牛心朴子、乳浆大戟、甘草和牛枝子的SLA总体呈显著降低的趋势;SLA在不同放牧强度间差异显著,而LDMC则无显著差异.不同植物的叶性状相关性存在差异,牛心朴子和甘草的SLA和LDMC呈显著负相关,而乳浆大戟和牛枝子的SLA和LDMC呈正相关.牛心朴子、甘草、乳浆大戟和牛枝子

  14. 甘草花粉超微鉴定及花粉活力、柱头可受性荧光显微镜观察%Identification of Pollen Ultrastructure and Fluorescence Microscope Observation of Pollen Viability and Stigma Activity of Liquorice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马春英; 屈平; 王文全

    2011-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the pollen in the Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. , G. glabra L. and G. inflata Batal.were observed by the scanning electron microscope(SEM). Pollination way, pollen viability stigma activity and the fertilization time ascertainment after pollination were observed by the fluorescence microscope. The results showed that the study on the ultrastructure of pollen offered certain morphology basis for the discrimination of the liquorice.The pollination way of the liquorice was cleistogamy. The pollen viability was the highest at 12:00 on daytime,and the stigma had no ability to accept the pollen exceeding four days after artificial emasculation. The pollen tube entered into the ovule to fertilize 6h after pollination when the fixed pistils were observed different time after pollination. In order to establish the correct strategy of seed selection and breeding of the liquorice in the future, the sexual reproduction properties of the liquorice was also studied.%对甘草的有性生殖特性进行了研究,利用扫描电子显微镜对乌拉尔甘草、光果甘草和胀果甘草花粉的超微结构进行观察,利用荧光显微镜确定乌拉尔甘草的授粉方式、花粉生活力和柱头活性以及授粉后受精时间.结果表明,花粉超微结构为甘草的鉴别提供了一定的形态学依据;甘草的授粉方式属于闭花受精;花粉生活力在每天12:00时最强,去雄后超过4d的柱头已经不具备接受花粉的能力;对授粉后不同时间的雌蕊进行研究得出授粉后6h花粉管进入胚珠进行受精.

  15. Tonic Herbs and Herbal Mixtures in Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Efferth

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This review results from a PubMed-based data-mining of scientific literature concerning typical tonic herbs and formulas of Chinese herbal medicine and their application principle under the theory of CM. We have focused on two aspects of tonic activity: body tonification against qi气-, blood血-, yin阴- and yang阳-deficiency, respectively, and organ (Zang 脏and Fu腑 tonification against heart-, liver-, spleen/stomach-, lung-, and kidney-deficiency, respectively. Body-tonifying herbs are: Astragalus Membranaceus Radix (Huang-qi黄芪 and Panax Ginseng Radix (Ren-shen人参 for qi-tonification; Angelicae Sinensis Radix (Dang-gui当归 and Rehmannia Glutinosa Radix Preparata (Shu-di熟地 for blood-tonification; Ophiopogon Japonicus Radix (Mai-dong麦冬 and Scrophularia Ningpoensis Radix (Xuan-shen玄参 for yin-deficiency; Myristica Fragrans Semen (Rou-dou-kou肉豆蔻 and Psoralea Corylifolia Fructus (Bu-gu-zhi补骨脂 for yang-deficiency. The corresponding CM formulas are: Bu-zhong-yi-qi decoction (补中益气汤 for qi-tonification; Si-wu decoction (四物汤 for blood-tonification; Zeng-ye decoction (增液汤 for yin-tonification; Si-shen pill (四神丸 for yang-tonification. Organ-tonifying herbs are: Glycyrrhizae Uralensis Radix Preparata (Zhi-gan-cao炙甘草 and Rehmannia Glutinosa Radix (Di-huang地黄 for heart-tonification; Lycium Barbarum Fructus (Gou-qi-zi枸杞子 and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (Dang-gui当归 for liver-tonification; Panax Ginseng Radix (Ren-shen人参 and Atractylodis Macrocephala Rhizoma (Bai-zhu白术 for spleen/stomach-tonification; Panax Ginseng Radix (Ren-shen人参 and Astragalus Membranaceus Radix (Huang-qi黄芪 for lung-tonification; Cornus Officinalis Fructus (Shan-zhu-yu山茱萸 and Dioscorea Opposite Rhizoma (Shan-yao山药 for kidney-tonification. The corresponding CM formulas are: Zhi-gan-cao decoction (炙甘草汤 for heart-tonification; Yi-guan decoction (一贯煎 for liver

  16. 60味中药提取物抗菌活性的研究%Studies on Antibacterial Activity of Extracts from 60 Traditional Chinese Medicinals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟天天; 黄浩; 王义明; 罗国安

    2013-01-01

    目的:体外观察60味中药的240种提取物对9种常见病原菌的作用,并对其中抑菌效果明显的提取物进行最低抑菌浓度检测。方法:采用纸片扩散法对240种提取物进行初步的抗菌活性筛选,并采用液体培养基法(2倍稀释法)测定活性提取物的最低抑菌浓度(MIC)。结果:共有104种提取物对1种或多种细菌显示较强的抑制作用,其中丹参等11味中药的20种提取物对3种常见菌体现了强抑制作用(MIC <0.2 mg·mL-1)。结论:丹参、蛇床子、蓼蓝、蒲公英、桑叶、甘草、姜黄、紫草、半边莲、野菊花和密蒙花等11味中药的乙醇、丙酮、正己烷提取部位对枯草芽孢杆菌、蜡样芽孢杆菌和金黄色葡萄球菌有强抑制作用。%This study was aimed to screen antibacterial agents against 9 pathogenic bacteria from 240 extracts of 60 traditional Chinese medicinals ( TCM ) . And the minimum inhibitory concentration ( MIC ) test was applied on extracts with positive results. The disk diffusion was employed to screen the antibacterial activity preliminar-ily among 240 extracts. The MICs of active extracts were tested by liquid culture method (double dilution method). The results revealed that 104 extracts show antibacterial activity on one or more strains, 20 of them show strong inhibition on three commonly seen bacteria ( MIC < 0 . 2 mg/mL ) . It was concluded that ethanol , acetone and hexane extracts of 11 TCMs including Salvia miltiorrhiza, Cnidium monnieri, Polygonum tinctorium, Taraxacum mongolicum, Morus alba, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Curcuma longa, Arnebia euchroma, Lobelia chinen-sis , Chrysanthemum indicum and Buddleja officinalis show strong inhibition on Bacillus subtilis , Bacillus cereus , Staphylococcus aureus .

  17. Drug Use Thinking of Folk Famous Doctor Wang Quan in Treating Sore and Ulcer in Ming Danasty Based on Data Analysis%基于数据分析明代民间名医王拳治疗疮疡疾病用药思路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢喜平; 李廷保

    2014-01-01

    目的:基于数据分析明《大河外科》中医药治疗外科疮疡疾病用药思路。方法:将明代名医王拳所撰《大河外科》中医药治疗外科疮疡疾病的方剂录入计算机,使用Microsoft Office Excel 2003软件,建立数据库,运用统计学方法统计分析其用药思路。结果:整理治疗外科疮疡疾病中药方剂72首,涉及中药161种,总用药次数为574次。结论:核心单味药依次为甘草、防风、川芎、当归、乳香、轻粉、桔梗、白芷、雄黄、赤芍药等;药类以解表药、清热药、补虚药、活血化瘀药、拔毒生肌药等为主。%Objective:To analyze drug use thinking of the treatment for sore and ulcer in DaHe WaiKe of Ming dynasty based on data analysis. Methods:The prescriptions against sore and ulcer for DaHe WaiKe written by fa-mous doctor Wang Quan in Ming dynasty were typed into the computer, database was established by using the soft-ware Microsoft Office Excell2003, and drug use thinking was analyzed with statistical method. Results: All 72 pieces of TCM prescription against sore and ulcer were collected, involved 161 kinds of herbs, and total frequency of drug use reached 574 times. Conclusion: Core herbs in proper order are GanCao (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch), FangFeng [Aposhnikovia divaricata (Trucz.) Schischk.], ChuanXiong (Ligusticum chuanxiong hort), DangGui (An-gelica sinensis), RuXiang(Boswellia carteri.), calomel, JieGeng [Platycodon grandiflorus (Jacq.) A. DC.], BaiZhi [An-gelica dahurica (isch. ex Hoffm.) Benth. et Hook.], realgar, ChiShaoYao (Paeonia veitchii) and others;the drugs are mainly of relieving the exterior, clearing the heat, tonification, blood activating and stagnation removing, toxin-elim-inating and granulation-promoting.

  18. Constituents of the anti-asthma herbal formula ASHMITM synergistically inhibit IL-4 and IL-5secretion by murine Th2 memory cells, and eotaxin by human lung fibroblasts in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bolleddula Javaprakasam; Nan Yang; Ming-Chun Wen; Rong Wang; Joseph Goldfarb; Hugh Sampson; Xiu-Min Li

    2013-01-01

    OBJECITVE:Anti-asthma herbal medicine intervention (ASHMITM),a combination of three traditional Chinese medicinal herbs developed in our laboratory,has demonstrated efficacy in both mouse models of allergic asthma,and a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial in patients with asthma.This study was designed to determine if the anti-inflammatory effects of individual herbal constituents of ASHMITM exhibited synergy.METHODS:Effects of ASHMI and its components aqueous extracts of Lingzhi (Ganoderma lucidum),Kushen (Sophora flavescens) and Gancao (Glycyrrhiza uralensis),on Th2 cytokine secretion by murine memory Th2 cells (D10.G4.1) and eotaxin-1 secretion by human lung fibroblast (HLF-1) cells were determined by measuring levels in culture supernatants by enzymelinked immunosorbent assay.Potential synergistic effects were determined by computing interaction indices from concentration-effect curve parameters.RESULTS:Individual Lingzhi,Kushen and Gancao extracts and ASHMI (the combination of individual extracts) inhibited production of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5 by murine memory Th2 cells and eotaxin-1 production by HLF-1 cells.The mean 25%-inhibitory-concentration (IC25)values (mg/mL)forASHMI,Lingzhi,Kushen and Gancaofor IL-4 production were 30.9,79.4,123,and 64.6,respectively; for IL-5 production were 30.2,263,123.2 and 100,respectively;for eotaxin-1 were 13.2,16.2,30.2,and 25.1,respectively.The IC50values (mg/mL) for ASHMI,Lingzhi,Kushen and Gancao for IL-4 production were 158.5,239.9,446.7,and 281.8,respectively; for eotaxin-1 were 38.1,33.1,100,and 158.5,respectively.The interaction indices of ASHMI constituents at IC25 were 0.35 for IL-4,0.21 for IL-5 and 0.59 for eotaxin-1.The interaction indices at IC50 values were 0.50 for IL-4 and 0.62 for eotaxin-1 inhibition.Inhibition of IL-5 did not reach IC50 values.All interaction indices were below 1 which indicated synergy.CONCLUSION:By comparing the interaction index values,we find that constituents in

  19. 光果甘草原生质体分离条件优化%Research on the Protoplasts Isolation Conditions of Glycyrrhiza glabra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王礼强; 杨瑞; 袁伯川; 刘春生; 刘颖

    2015-01-01

    目的:探索光果甘草原生质体分离的最佳条件.方法:对光果甘草原生质体分离的若干影响因子,包括材料来源、酶液组成、酶解方式、酶解时间、渗透压、预处理方式进行考察,以确定最佳的原生质体分离条件.结果:光果甘草原生质体分离的最佳条件为:以生长7d光果甘草无菌苗的子叶作为分离材料,4℃、MS培养基上预培养12 h,以1.5%纤维素酶+0.5%果胶酶作为分离原生质体酶液体系,以含有0.7 mol/L甘露醇作为渗透保护剂的CPW溶液配制酶液,于25℃静置条件下酶解14 h.结论:采用本实验所确定的光果甘草原生质体最佳分离条件可获得大量优质的原生质体,为后续细胞融合及遗传转化等实验奠定了良好的基础.

  20. In vivo antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract on carbon tetra chloride (CCl4 induced oxidative-stress mediated hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Sharma

    2014-02-01

    Results: The results suggest that, the crude extract of root of G. glabra at the doses of 300 and 600mg/kg body wt. expressed significant hepatoprotective potential against CCl4 induced oxidative stress mediated hepatotoxicity in student ‘t’ test (p [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 314-320

  1. Chromolithic method development, validation and system suitability analysis of ultra-sound assisted extraction of glycyrrhizic acid and glycyrrhetinic acid from Glycyrrhiza glabra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Suphla; Sharma, Rajni; Pandotra, Pankaj; Jaglan, Sundeep; Gupta, Ajai Prakash

    2012-08-01

    An ultrasound-assisted extraction and chromolithic LC method was developed for simultaneous determination of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) and glycyrrhetinic acid (GL) from the root extract of Glycyrrhizza glabra using RPLC-PDA. The developed method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonisation. The method exhibited good linearity (r2 > 0.9989) with high precision and achieved good accuracies between 97.5 to 101.3% of quantitative results. The method is more sensitive and faster (resolved within ten minutes) than the earlier developed methods using normal LC columns.

  2. Microwave Technique Extraction and Content Determination of Chromoco in Glycyrrhiza glabra L.%甘草总黄酮的微波提取及含量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙萍; 李艳; 成玉怀

    2003-01-01

    目的:从甘草中提取总黄酮,并测定其含量.方法:运用微波技术提取甘草总黄酮,用比色法测定总黄酮含量.结果:测得甘草中总黄酮含量为1.721%,平均回收率为98.26%,RSD=0.62% (n=6).结论:首次运用微波技术从甘草中提取出总黄酮,反应速度加快,实验结果令人满意.

  3. RP-HPLC测定光果甘草中光甘草定的含量%Determination of Glabridin in Glycyrrhiza glabra L.by RP-HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆从艳; 王新春; 江发寿; 王园姬; 陈文

    2009-01-01

    目的:建立测定光果甘草中光甘草定含量的HPLC方法.方法:采用Kromasil C18柱(4.6mm×250mm,5μm),流动相为乙腈-2%冰醋酸溶液(pH3)(53:47),检测波长280nm,流速1.0 mL/min,进样体积10μL.结果:光甘草定在0.0810~0.7290μg范围内呈良好的线性关系,平均回收率(n=9)为99.8%,其相对标准偏差为2.2%.结论:该方法简单、结果准确,重现性好,适用于光甘草定的含量测定.

  4. HPLC测定光果甘草中光甘草定的含量%HPLC determinated the content of Glabridin from Glycyrrhiza glabra L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林灵超; 阮佳佳

    2012-01-01

    目的:采用HPLC测定光果甘草粗黄酮浓缩物中光甘草定的含量.方法:以FL2200-Ⅱ为高效液相色谱仪,采用Ultimate XB-C18色谱柱,以水和乙腈为流动相,进行梯度洗脱,检测波长280nm,流速1.0 mL· min-1.结果:光甘草定在9.5~475 μg·mL-1内线性良好,r =0.9998;测得某光果甘草粗黄酮浓缩物中光甘草定的平均含量为3.58%,RSD=1.23%,平均加标回收率99.04%,RSD=0.26%.结论:利用反相高效液相色谱对甘草粗黄酮浓缩物中的光甘草定进行含量测定,方法简便,准确度高,重现性好,可应用于光甘草定的含量测定.

  5. 新疆光果甘草黄酮类成分的抗氧化活性%Antioxidant Activities of Flavonoids from Xinjiang Glycyrrhiza glabra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    木合布力·阿布力孜; 毛新民; 热娜·卡斯木; 马淑燕; 季晓娟

    2008-01-01

    目的 从新疆光果甘草中制备总黄酮(LGFs)及单体成分光甘草定(glabridin,GLB),并研究它们的抗氧化活性.方法 用常规方法 制备LGFs和GLB;利用HL-60细胞中的Myeloperoxidase/H2O2/HClO氧化系统和肝微粒体中的细胞色素P450/NADPH氧化系统做体外抗氧化实验模型,对LGFs和GLB的抗氧化活性进行测定.系统中自由基诱发程度由探针物DCFH-DA的氧化产物DCF的浓度来检测.银杏叶提取物EGb761用作阳性对照物.结果 在两种体外模型中,LGFs和GLB均显示较强的抗氧化活性,它们清除自由基活性强度为EGb761≥GLB>LFs.结论 甘草总黄酮及其中的主要活性成分GLB在HL-60细胞和肝微粒体氧化系统中具有很强的抗氧化活性.这些结果 可部分解释甘草药理作用与其抗氧化预防活性的关系.

  6. 光果甘草叶总黄酮测定方法%Determination of Total Flavonoids in Leaves of Glycyrrhiza glabra L.by Spectrophotometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董怡; 林恋竹; 赵谋明

    2013-01-01

    选用4种常用的黄酮显色方法,通过波长扫描分别确定3种标准对照品(芦丁、槲皮素、甘草苷)及新疆光果甘草叶80%乙醇提取物在各显色方法下的两个吸收波长,并分别建立标准曲线.按照建立标准曲线的方法测定新疆光果甘草叶80%乙醇提取物中总黄酮含量,并对各测定方法的精密度、稳定性、重现性及加样回收率进行测定.通过对比实验结果最终确定光果甘草叶总黄酮测定方法为:以槲皮素为对照品,A1C13-CH4O显色法,检测波长为314nm;在此条件下,该方法的精密度、重现性、稳定性及加样回收率的相对标准偏差(RSD)分别为0.92%、2.15%、0.87%和(105.02±1.11)%.

  7. Antimicrobial efficacy of three medicinal plants Glycyrrhiza glabra, Ficus religiosa, and Plantago major on inhibiting primary plaque colonizers and periodontal pathogens: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunny Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion:G. glabra and F. religiosa showed antibacterial activity against primary plaque colonizers and periodontal pathogens. However, further studies should be undertaken to affirm the same and test their efficacy in different concentration and clinical utility.

  8. 光果甘草根精油的化学成分分析%Analysis on composition of volatile oil from the roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马君义; 张继; 姚健; 王一峰

    2005-01-01

    采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取,同时运用毛细管气相色谱-质谱联用法结合计算机检索对光果甘草根精油的化学成分进行分析和鉴定,用气相色谱面积归一化法测定各组分的相对百分含量.经毛细管色谱分离出16个峰,并且确认了其中的15种化合物,所鉴定化合物的含量占精油总量的93.8%,其化学成分主要为亚油酸乙酯(31.02%);十六酸乙酯(14.52);(Z,Z,Z)-9,12,15-十八碳三烯酸乙酯(7.28%);E-乙酸-8-甲基-9-十四烯-1-酯(6.90%);十五烷(5.35%);1-十八烯(5.01%)等,上述六种化合物的含量占总量的70.08%.首次报道了光果甘草根精油的化学成分,为进一步开发利用提供了科学依据.

  9. In Silico and In Vivo Anti-Malarial Studies of 18β Glycyrrhetinic Acid from Glycyrrhiza glabra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalani, Komal; Agarwal, Jyoti; Alam, Sarfaraz; Khan, Feroz; Pal, Anirban; Srivastava, Santosh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Malaria is one of the most prevailing fatal diseases causing between 1.2 and 2.7 million deaths all over the world each year. Further, development of resistance against the frontline anti-malarial drugs has created an alarming situation, which requires intensive drug discovery to develop new, more effective, affordable and accessible anti-malarial agents possessing novel modes of action. Over the past few years triterpenoids from higher plants have shown a wide range of anti-malarial activities. As a part of our drug discovery program for anti-malarial agents from Indian medicinal plants, roots of Glycyrrhizaglabra were chemically investigated, which resulted in the isolation and characterization of 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) as a major constituent. The in vitro studies against P. falciparum showed significant (IC50 1.69µg/ml) anti-malarial potential for GA. Similarly, the molecular docking studies showed adequate docking (LibDock) score of 71.18 for GA and 131.15 for standard anti-malarial drug chloroquine. Further, in silico pharmacokinetic and drug-likeness studies showed that GA possesses drug-like properties. Finally, in vivo evaluation showed a dose dependent anti-malarial activity ranging from 68–100% at doses of 62.5–250mg/kg on day 8. To the best of our knowledge this is the first ever report on the anti-malarial potential of GA. Further work on optimization of the anti-malarial lead is under progress. PMID:24086367

  10. Study on Antioxidantive Effects of Total Flavonoids of Glycyrrhiza on Edible Oils%甘草总黄酮对油脂抗氧化作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔永明; 余龙江; 敖明章; 胡菁; 曹洁

    2007-01-01

    以过氧化值(POV)为指标,采用Schaal烘箱法研究了甘草总黄酮对油脂的抗氧化性能.结果表明:甘草总黄酮对四种食用油脂均有良好的抗氧化效果,且对猪油具有较强的抗氧化作用,其作用具有剂量效应关系;VC、柠檬酸、酒石酸对甘草总黄酮的抗氧化作用均有协同增效作用;甘草总黄酮与合成抗氧化剂混合使用时,其抗氧化能力均好于只添加单一抗氧化剂的效果.

  11. 甘草黄酮提取方法研究进展%Development in the Extracting Technology of Flavoniods of Glycyrrhiza

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志东; 唐琦勇; 茆军; 欧提库尔; 娄恺

    2006-01-01

    甘草黄酮类化合物是一类具有较强生物活性的物质,广泛用于医药、保健及美容等行业.介绍了甘草黄酮提取工艺的研究,主要包括水提法、有机溶剂提取法、微波法、超声波法、超临界萃取法、大孔树脂吸附法及酶解法,并对各自工艺的原理、使用利弊进行了分析.

  12. Combination of Nigella sativa with Glycyrrhiza glabra and Zingiber officinale augments their protective effects on doxorubicin-induced toxicity in h9c2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Hosseini

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: All of the extracts have some protective effects against DOX-induced toxicity in cardiomyocytes with similar efficacies, but with different potencies. However, NGZ produced much higher protective effect via reducing oxidative stress and inhibiting of apoptotic induction processes. Further investigations are needed to determine the effects of NGZ on DOX chemotherapy.  

  13. An Unexpected Cause of Severe Hypokalemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Caravaca-Fontan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe an unusual case of severe hypokalemia with electrocardiographic changes, due to licorice consumption, in a 15-year-old female student with no previous medical history. Prompt replacement of potassium and cessation of licorice ingestion resulted in a favourable outcome. We also discuss the pathophysiology and diagnosis, emphasizing the importance of a detailed anamnesis to rule out an often forgotten cause of hypokalemia as the licorice poisoning.

  14. 75 FR 7279 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ..., pineapple, vanilla, coconut, licorice, cocoa, chocolate, cherry, or coffee, that is a characterizing flavor... report information about possible violations in a Federal Register notice reminding regulated industry of...

  15. 21 CFR 310.544 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as a smoking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., povidone-silver nitrate, quinine ascorbate, silver acetate, silver nitrate, and thymol have been present as... (terpeneless), licorice root extract, menthol, methyl salicylate, quinine ascorbate, silver nitrate,...

  16. Study on the Preparation Technology of Licorice Flavone-β-cyclodextrin Encapsulation Compounds%甘草黄酮-β-CD包合物的制备及增溶作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁旭霞; 刘莉; 张文新; 黄志刚; 刘强

    2010-01-01

    目的:筛选制备甘草黄酮-β-CD包合物的最佳工艺.方法:采用正交设计实验以包合率和回收率为指标筛选最佳工艺条件,采用紫外分光光度法测定溶解度及溶出度.结果:甘草黄酮-β-CD包合物的最佳工艺为甘草黄酮:β-CD(g:g)为1:6,包合时间为2 h,温度为40℃.结论:甘草黄酮的包合物的溶解度增加,体外溶出度增加.

  17. Comparison of DNA extraction methods from four Chinese traditional medical herbs%四种中药材DNA提取方法的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张馨元; 赵超越; 侯和胜; 佟少明Δ

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish an optimum DNA extraction method for Chinese traditional medical herbs in order to meet necessary for DNA barcoding research.Methods Four Chinese traditional herbs, Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch, Phellodendron Chinensis Cortex, Cistanche tubulosa Wight and Cistanche deserticola Ma were chosen as the experimental materials, the DNA was extracted by 6 different kinds of DNA extraction method, including the improved method of high-salt combined low-pH,the improved method of SDS,CTAB method,PVP method,PlantZol Kit and Ezup Kit, the quality of DNA was investigated by ultraviolet spectrophotometry,agarose gel electrophoresis and PCR amplification by using specific primers of ITS2 and psbA-trnH. ResuIts The quality of the DNA was better than other four kinds of methods by the improved method of high-salt combined low-pH and Ezup Kit, the value of OD260/OD280 was between 1.7 ~1.9,the yield of DNA was the highest by the PlantZol kit , followed by the improved method of high-salt combined low-pH( P <0.05 ) , but the purity of DNA was poor by the PlantZol kit.The DNA electrophoresis tests showed that the DNA integrity of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch and Cistanche tubulosa Wight were better with the improved method of high-salt combined low-pH, the improved SDS method, the CTAB method and the PlantZol kit.The DNA of Phellodendron Chinensis Cortex and Cistanche deserticola Ma were extracted by the six methods appeared diffuse status in the lanes.But only the improved method of high-salt combined low-pH could make the PCR amplification of the success rate 100% by using specific primers of ITS2 and trnH-psbA.ConcIusion The DNA extraction method of high-salt combined low-pH can be used to establish the Chinese DNA barcoding which has the advantages of lower cost, simpler procedure and less time.%目的:确定能够满足中药材DNA条形码研究的最适DNA提取方法。方法以中药材甘草、黄柏、管花肉苁蓉和肉苁蓉为实验对象,采

  18. Effect of Drought Stress on Germination and Soluble Protein Content of Glycyrrhiza glabra L and Glycyrrhiza inflata Seeds During the Process of Primary Germination%干旱胁迫对光果胀果甘草种子萌发及可溶性蛋白质含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁新华; 张明哲; 高金霞

    2004-01-01

    光果、胀果甘草种子用10%(w/v)、20%(w/v)PEG6000模拟干旱处理,测定了种子的发芽势、发芽率、胚根长、霉烂数、硬实数及萌发期每隔24h的可溶性蛋白质含量的变化情况.结果表明:随着PEG浓度的加大,两种甘草种子的各项萌发生理指标均呈下降趋势;除胚根长,胀果甘草的其余萌发生理指标的下降程度均大于光果甘草.对两品种甘草萌发期可溶性蛋白质含量的测定,发现两品种甘草在萌发24h~48h期间,可溶性蛋白质含量均呈快速上升趋势,但从萌发48h~72h,则呈现快速下降趋势,之后,下降趋于平缓.其中胀果在10%(w/v)PEG6000处理下在萌发96h后出现了一次可溶性蛋白质含量的高峰,估计可能是原有蛋白质组分的变化或是新的蛋白质组分的生成.上述结果表明:萌发48h前后是甘草种子萌发的代谢关键时期.

  19. Clong and sequence analysis of the DNA fragment and construction of the genomic DNA library in G.uralensis fisch ex DC in Sinkiang%新疆甘草DNA片段的克隆、序列分析及其基因组DNA文库的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴霞; 刘庆华; 党荣理; 马永红

    2004-01-01

    目的克隆新疆甘草DNA片段,构建新疆甘草基因组DNA文库.方法对新疆产4种甘草进行随机扩增多态性DNA(RAPD)分析,回收甘草随机引物s121的PCR产物中500bp左右的带,克隆到pMD18-T载体中,经电泳鉴定后测定序列,进行序列分析.用Sau3AI对所提新疆甘草基因组DNA进行酶切,回收15~23kb之间的酶切产物片段,然后与Lambda vector BamH I Arms进行连接、包装形成文库,计算文库重组噬菌体滴度、包装效率.结果获得了甘草490bp的DNA片段,所建文库的重组噬菌体滴度为3×106pfu/ml、包装效率为6×106重组子/μg载体DNA.结论成功克隆了新疆甘草DNA片段,并构建了基因组DNA文库,为进一步研究奠定了基础.

  20. Apparent mineralcorticoid excess syndrome, an often forgotten or unrecognized cause of hypokalemia and hypertension: case report and appraisal of the pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisogni, Valeria; Rossi, Gian Paolo; Calò, Lorenzo A

    2014-06-01

    The glicyrrhizic acid, contained in licorice, has a mineralcorticoid-like effect. Chronic excess intake of licorice induces the rare syndrome of "apparent mineralcorticoid excess", due to the inhibitory effect of glicyrrhizic acid on 11 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 determining clinical/biochemical manifestations as resistant hypertension, metabolic alkalosis and severe hypokalemia. We report a typical clinical case of licorice abuse to emphasize the importance of a detailed anamnesis, which is essential for the diagnosis, avoid unnecessary and expensive investigations, and reduce the duration of hospitalization. We also provide an appraisal of the pathophysiology of "apparent mineralcorticoid excess" syndrome, still an often forgotten or unrecognized cause of hypokalemia and hypertension.

  1. 中药复方对家禽病毒性疾病的治疗效果%Therapeutic Efficacy of Chinese Herbal Compound Preparation on Viral Diseases in Poultry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘群; 朱子凤; 江平康; 周李

    2011-01-01

    [目的]从传统中草药及其复方中开发高效、长效、广谱、低毒、价廉的抗病毒新药.[方法]以祛邪药白花蛇舌草、金银花和扶正药黄芪、甘草等组成抗病毒复方制剂,用于鸡新城疫(ND)、鸡传染性法氏囊病(IBD)、鸭病毒性肝炎(DVH)、H9亚型禽流感(AI)和禽肿头综合征等疾病自然发病家禽的治疗.同时,以单体黄芪多糖饲喂家禽作为对照.[结果]中药复方制剂对ND、IBD、DVH、AI和禽肿头综合征治疗的有效率分别为87%、87%、69%、100%、100%,均高于黄芪多糖;其痊愈率分别为33%、37%、13%、69%、75%,均显著高于黄芪多糖(P<0.01):其治疗效果较差的病例百分比分别为15%、21%、24%、6%、7%,均显著低于黄芪多糖(P<0.01).[结论]中药复方对某些家禽病毒性疾病的治疗效果较好,在降低死亡率和促进生产性能方面优于单体黄芪多糖.%[Objective] To develop a new antiviral agent with high and long efficacy, wide spectrum, low toxicity and low cost from traditional Chinese herbal medicine and their compound. [ Method] The “Quxie” (i.e. , eliminating pathogenic factors) drugs including Hedyotis diffusa and Lonicera japonica and “Fuzheng” (i.e. , strengthening body resistance) drugs including Radix astragali and Glycyrrhiza uralensis were taken to form an antiviral herbal compound preparation. Taking the astragalus polysaccharide monomer as control, the experiment was constructed by using the agent to treat some naturally occurring viral diseases, including Newcastle disease (ND), infectious bursal disease (IBD), duck viral hepatitis (DVH), avian influenza (AI) H9 subtype and avian swollen head syndrome. [ Result ] The effective rates of the agent for treatment of the above-mentioned diseases were 87%,87%,69%,100% and 100%, respectively, which were higher than that of astragalus polysaccharide monomer. The cure rates for these diseases were 33%,37%,13%,69% and 75

  2. 中医药治疗前列腺疾病用药规律的数据挖掘研究%Data Mining Research on Medication Rules of TCM Treatment for Prostatic Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王贵民; 李廷保

    2014-01-01

    , accumulative frequency reached 95.325%; the meridians entered were liv-er, kidney, spleen, stomach, heart and lung, accumulative frequency came to 82.57%. Conclusion: The drugs of blood-activating and stagnation-eliminating, heat-clearing, tonification, dampness-eliminating, andQi-regulating are applied to TCM treatment for prostatic disease; central single herbs areNiuXi(AchyranthesBidentata),GanCao (Glycyrrhiza Uralensis), WangBuLiuXing (Vaccaria Segetalis), CheQianZi (Plantagoasiatica L), ChuanShanJia (Manis Pentadactyla),HuangQi[AstragalusMembranaceus(Fisch) Bunge],HuangBo(CortexPhellodendriChinensis),TaoRen (SemenPersicae),FuLing[Poriacocos(Schw.) Wolf],DanShen(SalviaMiltiorrhiza),ChiShao(PaeoniaVeitchii) and others.

  3. MTT法测定八种中草药体外抗肺癌细胞SPC-A1活性%Screening of activity of anti lung cancer cell lines SPC-A1 in vitro from 8 Chinese traditional medicine by MTT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林董; 何爱明; 吴祖建

    2011-01-01

    [objective] Build up the more higher effect and quickly means to screenting active substance in vitro through our test.[method] The inhibitory effect to SPC-A1 cells of Cymbopogon distans,Sanguisorba officinalis,Glycyrrhiza uralensis Bupleurum chinense,Curuma zedoaria,Buddleja officinalis,Lobelia chinensis and Apium graveolen and on the growth of two cancer cell line were tested with the MTT assay.Curve description and cell morphology was watched by inverted microscope [result] cells induced by active substancer cells would be condensing、clear brim,which were much difference from normal SPC-A1 cells thought they still adherent.results suggested that,ethanol soluble constituent of C.zedoaria(ESCC) and Ethanol soluble constituent of G.uralensis(ESCG) can inhibit proliferation of SPC-A1 cells at the concentration of 1.5mg/ml,and the inhibitory rate was: 52.9% and 51.6%,which increased with time in the range of the test.[conclusion] It's a good method to test anti-tumor activity by MTT.%[目的]建立一套高效、快速的体外中草药抗肺癌活性物质筛选模型。[方法]采用MTT法,对芸香草、地榆、甘草、柴胡、莪术、蜜蒙花、半边莲和旱芹等8种中草药体外抗肺癌细胞SPC-A1的活性进行检测。分析肿瘤细胞生长曲线,观察倒置显微镜下肺癌细胞在不同阶段的生长状况。[结果]在中草药活性物质作用下细胞尽管仍然贴壁,但出现萎缩及边缘清晰化,与生长状况良好的细胞形态区别明显。浓度为1.5mg/ml的莪术乙醇浸提液(ESCC)和甘草乙醇浸提液(ESCG)对体外培养的肺癌细胞SPC-A1有较强的抑制增殖作用,抑制率分别为:52.9%和51.6%,且抑制作用随着浓度的加大而加强。[结论]MTT法筛选可作为8种中草药抗肺癌细胞的一个基本筛选模型。

  4. 灭菌散对仔猪腹泻的防治研究%The effects of MIEJUNSAN on controlling piglet diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何宏轩; 王承民; 刘丽艳

    2004-01-01

    Piglet diarrhea is a severe disease caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli) in pig farms, especially after piglet early weaning technique has been applied. According to the symptoms of piglet diarrhea and traditional Chinese veterinary theory, MIEJUNSAN, a Chinese medicine herb preparation was studied. There are 20 kinds of Chinese medical herbs in the basic recipe such as Huanglian (Coptis chinensis Franch), Huangbai (Phellodendron amurense Rupr. ), Huangqi (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi ), Gancao (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch), Baitouweng( Radix Pulsatilla), dry zingiber and garlic. 60 piglets ( Duroc × Landrace × Large white), weaned on (28 ± 1 )days, were chosen and divided randomly into two groups, 30 piglets each group. They were raised with basic dietary but added 0. 2% decoction ( 1: 500 in drink water) in the experimental group. Blood samples were taken from cranial vena cava of 5 piglets in each group on the eighth day after treatment to assay the hematological and immunological indices. The results showed that, compared with control, the 0.2% decoction could control piglet diarrhea and rise the RBC, TP, IgG level and reduce significantly the diarrhea rate by 33.7% ( P < 0. 01 ).MIEJUNSAN may be a candidate preparation to control piglet diarrhea.%仔猪腹泻是一种主要由大肠杆菌引起的危害严重的疾病,在养猪生产中,特别是采用仔猪早期断奶技术后普遍存在.本试验根据中兽医学的基础理论和仔猪腹泻的临床表现,研制了一种中药制剂-灭菌散.选择以黄连、黄柏、黄芪、甘草、白头翁、干姜和大蒜等20多种中草药为主组成的灭菌散制剂,煎成1g/mL的中药汤剂,以0.2%的比例添加到日粮中.选择(28±1)日龄杜长大断奶仔猪60头,随机分成2组,每组30头.2组均饲喂基础日粮,试验组另添加0.2%的中药汤剂.给药后8 d,每组选择5头,前腔静脉采血做血液学和免疫学指标检测.试验结果表明,0.2%中药汤剂能有效预防

  5. Seven Chinese Herbal Medicines Affect Physiological and Biochemical Indices in Ictalurus punctatus%7种中草药对斑点叉尾鮰生理生化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆奎; 陈成勋; 郭永军; 白东清; 乔之怡; 刘志伟; 丁莉莉; 邢克智

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] The aim was to provide theoretical basis for the reasonable application of seven kinds of Chinese herbal medicines in aquaculture industry. [ Method] Taking lctalurus purutatus as the study object, the impacts of seven Chinese herbal medicines (CHM),Belamcanda chinensis (L.) DC (BC),Eucommia ulmoides Oliver (EU),radix Dryopteris crassirhizoma (rDC) ,radix Paeoniae lactiflora (rPL), Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fiseh (GU) ,Polygonum cuspidutum Sieb et Zucc (PC),and Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (GJ) on the physiological and biochemical indices were tested. [ Result ] CHM could enhance the antioxidative capacity in serum and spleen while depress the antioxidative capacity in hepatopancreas. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities in head kidney were enhanced significantly by BC. The SOD and CAT activities in muscle were enhanced significantly by EU ,rDC,PC and GJ. Serum lysozyme (LZM) activity was depressed significantly by rDC. The IZM activity in hepatopancreas and head kidney was enhanced significantly by BC. The PC depressed LZM activity in head kidney significantly.The LZM activity in gill was enhanced significantly by GU and GJ. The LZM activity in muscle was enhanced by rDC,EU and PC. The aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity in hepatopancreas was depressed by rDC,GU and PC. The AST was enhanced by rPL significantly. The aianine aminotransferase (ALT) in hepatopancreas was depressed by rDC,EU ,GJ and GU. Leucocytes phagocytosis was enhanced significantly by BC,GU and GJ. [ Conclusion] Seven kinds of herbal medicines had different degrees of influences on the physiological and biochemical indices in Ictaluruspunctatus.%[目的]为7种中草药在水产养殖业中的合理使用提供理论依据.[方法]以斑点又尾鮰(Ictalurus punctatus)为研究时象,考察了射干、杜仲、贯众、白芍、甘草、虎杖和栀子7种中草药对生理生化指标的影响.[结果]中草药能提高血清和脾脏抗氧化能力,降低

  6. 光果甘草生殖生物学特性的初步研究%A Preliminary Study on the Characteristics of Reproductive Biology of Glycyrrhiza glabra L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖云海; 陆嘉惠; 张际昭; 刘静; 李学禹

    2010-01-01

    对光果甘草的花部特征、花粉活力、柱头可授性和花粉-胚珠比(P/O)进行了初步研究.结果表明:(1)光果甘草雄蕊异型,雌雄蕊异位,有利于避免自花授粉;(2)开花当天花粉活力在上午12:00最高,为91.8%,14:00迅速下降,16:00到达最低,16:00以后逐渐上升;(3)柱头可授性可持续4 d,以开花当天可授性最强;(4)花粉-胚珠比(P/O)为1 751.1±217.002,表明其繁育系统类型为兼性异交.

  7. Tyrosinase inhibition activities of the ethyl acetate phase of glycyrrhiza glabra%光果甘草乙酸乙酯相对酪氨酸酶的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雨萌; 李影影; 李明静

    2015-01-01

    酪氨酸酶是生物体合成黑色素的关键酶,实验以光果甘草为原料,研究其提取物乙酸乙酯相对酪氨酸酶活性的抑制作用及机理.采用L-多巴速率氧化法体外测定光果甘草提取物乙酸乙酯相对酪氨酸酶的抑制活性,并绘制了Lineweaver-Burk双倒数曲线以此判断其抑制类型.结果表明光果甘草提取物乙酸乙酯相半抑制浓度(IC60)为(266.5±1.4) mg/L.对酪氨酸酶抑制机理测定分析的结果表明,光果甘草提取物乙酸乙酯相对酪氨酸酶活性的抑制作用表现为可逆抑制,对酪氨酸酶活性的抑制类型是混合型抑制,抑制常数KI为(182.86±1.43)mg/L,α值为(15.49±0.68) mg/L.可见甘草提取物乙酸乙酯相对酪氨酸酶有较强抑制作用.

  8. HPLC Determination of Glabridin from Three Residues of Glycyrrhiza glabra L.With Different Extraction Methods%HPLC测定3种甘草废渣中光甘草定的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霞; 李巍; 张化; 赵余庆

    2011-01-01

    目的:测定新疆光果甘草渣、吉尔吉斯光果甘草渣和发霉吉尔吉斯光果甘草渣中光甘草定的含量,比较3种工艺的提取效率.方法:应用闪式法(STE)、超声波法(USE)、微波法(MWE)提取,采用HPLC法测定比较3种甘草废渣中光甘草定的含量.色谱柱条件:Kromasil C色谱柱(4.6 mm×150 mm,5μm),流动相:乙腈-1%醋酸水溶液(53:47),流速:1 mL·min;检测波长:282 nm;柱温:25℃.结果:不同甘草废渣中光甘草定的含量不同,3种提取工艺光甘草定含量有差异.结论:在本试验条件下,吉尔吉斯甘草废渣中光甘草定含量较高;霉变的光甘草定含量较低.STE法光甘草定提取率较高.

  9. 人工栽培光果甘草不同根系黄酮含量的测定%Determination of flavonids in different root systems of cultivated Glycyrrhiza glabra L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红; 郁晓艺; 汪河滨; 李学禹; 李炳奇

    2005-01-01

    目的测定并比较人工栽培光果甘草不同根系中总黄酮的含量,为光果甘草的合理种植、采收利用及质量评定提供依据.方法以柚皮苷作为对照品,用紫外分光光度法于417 nm处测定黄酮的含量.结果总黄酮含量水平根为1.62%,主根为1.22%,侧根为1.13%.结论光果甘草的不同根系总黄酮含量不同,且有明显差异.

  10. Effect of Salt Stress on Seed Germination of Glycyrrhiza glabra L.%3种盐胁迫对光果甘草种子萌发的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司马义·巴拉提

    2014-01-01

    就不同浓度的氯化钠、硫酸钠和碳酸钠对光果甘草种子萌发的影响进行了研究.结果表明:在不同浓度的3种盐条件下,光果甘草种子的发芽势、发芽率、发芽指数、活力指数和胚根胚芽生长长度均随着盐浓度的增加而下降.光果甘草抗硫酸钠盐的能力最强,能适应含盐量达2.1% ~2.4%的土壤条件,抗氯化钠的能力为第二,能适应含盐量达1.8%的较恶劣的生态环境,而抗碳酸钠的能力相对最差,能适应含盐量为0.9%的碱性土壤条件.

  11. 超高压同时提取光果甘草中甘草酸和光甘草定的研究%Ultrahigh pressure extraction of glycyrrhizic acid and glabridin from Glycyrrhiza glabra L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范丽; 段文娟; 王晓; 方磊; 刘峰

    2013-01-01

    采用超高压技术提取光果甘草中甘草酸、光甘草定两种活性成分,考察提取溶剂、压力、时间和料液比对二者提取率的影响,通过正交试验优化得到超高压最佳提取条件为:60%乙醇作为提取溶剂、提取压力500 MPa、提取时间3 min、料液比1∶40 (g/mL),光果甘草中甘草酸和光甘草定的提取率分别达到49.84 mg/g和1.05 mg/g.超高压提取法同超声提取法、热回流提取法进行比较,结果显示,超高压提取效果明显优于超声提取,同时,超高压提取时间只需1 min,是超声提取的1/30、热回流提取的1/120,缩短了提取时间,提高了工作效率,是一种快速、简单、常温的提取方法.

  12. GC-MS analysis of volatile constituents from the leaves of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn%光果甘草叶挥发性化学成分的GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马君义; 张继; 姚健; 郑生霞

    2006-01-01

    目的分析光果甘草叶的挥发性化学成分.方法用水蒸气蒸馏法提取光果甘草叶挥发性化学成分并采用毛细管气相色谱-质谱联用技术结合计算机检索对其进行分析分离和鉴定,用气相色谱面积归一化法测定各组分的相对百分含量.结果分离出88个峰,鉴定出80种化合物,其含量占挥发油总量的91.1%.结论通过对光果甘草叶挥发性化学成分的研究,为甘草资源的进一步开发利用提供了实验依据.

  13. 甘草药渣中黄酮类成分及其抗氧化活性的研究%Flavonoids and their anti-oxidant activities of the herb residues of Glycyrrhiza glabra L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方诗琦; 冷康; 段金廒; 李存玉; 魏娟花; 郑云枫; 彭国平

    2015-01-01

    目的 研究甘草药渣中黄酮类成分及其抗氧化活性,为其资源再利用提供依据.方法 甘草药渣提取液中的黄酮成分采用硅胶、C18中压反相柱色谱和重结晶进行分离纯化,波谱分析进行结构鉴定,然后其抗氧化活性采用1,1-二苯基-2-苦肼基(DPPH)自由基清除及酪氨酸酶抑制实验来测定.结果 从中分离鉴定出10个黄酮类化合物,分别为甘草查尔酮甲(1)、异甘草素(2)、甘草黄酮C(3)、甘草黄酮(4)、甘草异黄酮乙(5)、光甘草酮(6)、甘草素(7)、半甘草异黄酮B(8)、甘草异黄酮甲(9)、芒柄花素(10).其中,化合物1、2、5、6清除DPPH自由基作用相对较强,IC50分别为27.9、61.0、18.2、26.0μg/mL;化合物1~3能较显著地抑制酪氨酸酶,IC50分别为60.3、4.9、54.9 μg/mL.结论 甘草药渣中仍含有多种具抗氧化活性的黄酮类化合物,应进一步开发利用.

  14. 不同栽培龄期光果甘草不同部位总黄酮含量的分析%Analysis of total flavonoids content in different parts of Glycyrrhiza glabra with different cultivated ages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 陆嘉惠; 田润炜; 秦忠立; 李学禹

    2012-01-01

    The total flavonoids content in different parts (leaf, stem, root and rhizome) of two-year-old and eight-year-old cultivated Glycyrrhha glabra L. collected in April, June, August and October were determined by UV-visible spectrophotometry method. The result shows that the average content of total flavonoids of two-year-old and eight-year-old plants reaches the highest in June with the average content of 35. 55 and 39. 97 mg穏-1, respectively. According to the average content of total flavonids in different parts of two ages plants, the order from the highest to the lowest is basically same, all appear that upper leaf is the highest, middle leaf is the second, different under-ground parts are middle, and lower stem is the lowest. The comprehensive analysis results indicate that there are no obvious differences in change regularity of total flavonoids content in G. glabra with different cultivated ages. Two-year-old cultivated G. glabra could be harvested, the optimal harvesting time is October, and the harvesting parts are leaf and under-ground part.

  15. Structural Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Polysaccharides from Glycyrrhiza glabra L.Leaf%光果甘草叶中性多糖结构表征及抗氧化活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林恋竹; 焦铭

    2016-01-01

    本文以光果甘草叶为原料,提取得到水溶性多糖GCC,采用DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow柱层析法对GCC进行分离纯化,得到一种中性多糖(GCⅠ),两种酸性多糖(GCⅡ和GC Ⅲ),选择DPPH自由基清除能力、氧自由基吸收能力(ORAC)强的中性多糖GCⅠ,对其进行结构特征分析.采用高效凝胶渗透色谱法(GPC)、红外光谱法(FT-IR)、PMP柱前衍生-高效液相色谱法(HPLC)、甲基化-气相色谱质谱法(GC-MS)测定GCⅠ的分子量、单糖组成以及糖苷键连接方式.GCⅠ含有两个分子量分布不同的多糖,它们的平均分子量分别为980 ku及20 ku;红外光谱中4000~500 cm-1波数范围内出现了多糖的特征峰;GCⅠ由5种单糖组成,包括:甘露糖、鼠李糖、葡萄糖、半乳糖和阿拉伯糖;GCⅠ中→2)-Araf-(1→、→6)-Galp-(1→和→6)-Glcp-(1→残基含量最高.

  16. 新疆甘草黄酮类成分光甘草定的制备工艺改进%Lmproved Preparation Process of Isoflavon Constituent Glabridin from Xinjiang Glycyrrhiza Glabra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赛力曼·哈得尔; 李宏智; 木合布力·阿布力孜; 巴哈尔古丽·卡哈尔

    2008-01-01

    目的:考察利用简便方法提取和分离新疆光果甘草异黄酮类成分光甘草定的工艺.方法:分别利用二氯甲烷、甲醇和乙醇等3种溶剂提取法,对光果甘草中光甘草定的提取率进行考察;再利用硅胶柱层析和制备薄层层析法对光甘草定进行分离纯化,对文献工艺进行简化.结果:利用3种不同提取方法获得的光果甘草总黄酮粗提物中,光甘草定的含量分别达2.9%(出膏率2.5%)、2.6%(4.8%)和2.3%(4.5%).结论:用乙醇提取光果甘草总提取物具有提取率高、安全和环保等优点;利用硅胶柱层析法对粗提取物中的不同极性组分进行分离、再利用制备薄层法进行分离纯化,在快速制备高纯度的光甘草定中具有一定参考价值,此方法比文献工艺简便易行.

  17. Determination of heavy metals in Radix glycyrrhizae etc. 5 traditional Chinese drugs%甘草等5种中药中重金属含量的监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金仁达; 万红卫; 钱佳星

    2006-01-01

    目的:监测中药中重金属的含量和研究紫外分光光度法在监测中药中重金属含量的应用.方法:用紫外分光光度法测定甘草、川贝母、天竺黄3种植物药,蜈蚣、僵蚕2种动物药中重金属的含量.结果: 紫外分光光度法测定中药中重金属含量方法可靠,稳定性、重现性好.甘草、川贝母、蜈蚣、僵蚕4种药材重金属含量偏高.结论: 紫外分光光度法可用于监测中药中重金属含量.

  18. 近红外漫反射光谱技术在甘草指纹图谱中的研究%Application of Near-infrared spectrum(NIRS) in chromatographic fingerprinting of Radix Glycyrrhizae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荆淼; 金兴良; 庄峙厦; 王小如; 黎先春

    2004-01-01

    本文采用光纤近红外漫反射光谱技术对不同产地、不同采收时间、不同级别、不同部位的甘草进行考察,通过非侵入方式获得植物内在成分信息,应用系统聚类分析方法获得分类结果,探索了NIRS在植物分类中的应用途径和方法.方法学研究表明,本法具有快捷、无损和重现性高地表达植物化学信息的特点,可作为中药分类中的一个强有力的工具.

  19. Hot Flashes amd Night Sweats (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at ... remedies for hot flashes. These include dong quai , milk thistle , red clover , licorice root extract , and chaste ...

  20. New record on Pigmy Field Mouse (muridae, rodentia from northeast Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshid Darvish

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract
    In this study the field mice of eastern Elborz in Golestan province were examined using molecular, morphologic and morphometric characters. RFLP analysis indicates the presence of three different haplotypes called as A, B and C. Taxonomic determination of the specimens of the haplotyes shows that haplotypes A, B and C represents three different species, A. cf. uralensis, A. cf. hyrcanicus and A. witherbeyi, respectively. Two latter species were previously reported from the studied area. However, the discovery of A. cf. uralensis in this region extends the eastern border of the distribution of this species up to eastern Elbruz and confirms the sympatric occurrence of A. uralensis and A. hyrcanicus in the Golestan province. 

  1. Drug: D09052 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DR:D06744], Glycyrrhiza [DR:D04365] Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Formulas Formulas for stomach Antidiarrheal formulas D09052 Kashokuyohito PubChem: 96025733 ...

  2. Drug: D09053 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D09053 Formula, Drug Bukuryotakushato Poria sclerotium [DR:D06783], Alisma rhizome ...:D06712], Ginger [DR:D06744], Glycyrrhiza [DR:D04365] Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Formulas Formula

  3. Drug: D04366 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04366 Mixture, Drug Pipethanate hydrochloride - magnesium aluminometasilicate - liqourice extract... mixt; Geschwur (TN) Pipethanate hydrochloride [DR:D01521], Magunesium aluminometasilicate [DR:D03242], Crude glycyrrhiza extract [DR:D06811] PubChem: 17398077 ...

  4. Drug: D06916 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available oenteritis; Abdominal pain Therapeutic category: 5200 Therapeutic category of drugs..., Ginger [DR:D06744], Glycyrrhiza [DR:D04365] Food poisoning; Heat exhaustion; Chilly stomach; Acute gastr

  5. Drug: D06965 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available adenoiditis; Ecozema in childhood Therapeutic category: 5200 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08...Trichosanthes root [DR:D06701], Burdock fruit [DR:D06723], Glycyrrhiza [DR:D04365] Nervous disease; Chronic

  6. Drug: D09081 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 28], Glycyrrhiza [DR:D04365] Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Formulas Formulas for warmin...g the interior Formulas for warming the interior D09081 Tokishigyakuto PubChem: 96025762 ...

  7. Parnassiana nova : XXXVI. Nachträgliche Betrachtungen zu der Revision der Subfamilie Parnassiinae (Fortsetzung 9)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisner, C.

    1964-01-01

    Parnassius phoebus L. subsp. uralensis Ménétriés Bei Erwähnung dieser Unterart in Parnassiana 3: 56 — irrtümlich Stichel als Autor zugeschrieben — haben Bryk und ich erklärt, wegen des uneinheitlichen habitus der uns bekannten Exemplare von einer Diagnose Abstand nehmen zu sollen. Der Erhalt einer

  8. 不同种植年限的光果甘草对人乳腺癌细胞增殖抑制作用的研究%Comparative Studies on the Anti-proliferation Effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra with Different Living Span on Human Breast Cancer BCAP Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄帅; 户元林; 马淼

    2009-01-01

    本文采用MTT法检测不同光果甘草样品的水提物及总黄酮对人乳腺癌BCAP细胞的增殖抑制效应,旨在探明光果甘草抗肿瘤活性成分的最佳的采收时期.研究结果表明光果甘草样品的水提物及总黄酮对人乳腺癌BCAP细胞均具有良好的增殖抑制作用,但以总黄酮的效果更佳;药效最佳的部位为主根和水平根,最佳种植年限为3年.

  9. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of volatiles components obtained from the Glycyrrhiza glabra L.leaf and root%光果甘草叶、根中挥发性成分气相色谱-质谱法分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵甜甜; 董怡; 赵谋明

    2013-01-01

    经同时蒸馏萃取法(SDE)提取得到新疆光果甘草叶、根中挥发性成分,采用气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)联用技术,结合计算机检索进行分析和鉴定,通过色谱峰面积归一化法对各组分进行定量分析.最终从光果甘草叶与根中分别分析鉴定28种和16种化合物,并对各组分进行归纳分析.通过对比甘草叶、根中的挥发性物质发现,叶中具有较多对风味贡献良好的挥发性化合物.实验结果为甘草资源的进一步开发利用提供了理论指导.

  10. 光果甘草营养器官结构及其总黄酮的组织化学定位和含量研究%Anatomical Structure,Total Flavonoids Histochemical Localization and Content Comparization of Vegetative Organs in Glycyrrhiza glabra L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖云海; 陆嘉惠; 李娜; 张际昭; 李学禹

    2010-01-01

    应用植物解剖学、组织化学和植物化学方法,对光果甘草各营养器官的结构、总黄酮的组织化学定位和含量差异进行了研究.结果显示:(1)光果甘草叶为异面叶,由表皮、叶肉和叶脉组成.叶表皮具腺毛,叶肉中具胶囊细胞,主脉发达;茎由表皮(周皮)、皮层、维管柱组成,其髓中具有粘液细胞;根由周皮、次生维管组织组成,周皮具厚木栓层,次生维管组织中次生木质部和纤维发达.(2)黄酮类物质在叶中分布在表皮、腺毛、胶囊细胞、厚角组织和韧皮部和木质部中的薄壁细胞中;茎中分布在周皮、韧皮部和粘液细胞中;在根中则分布在周皮中.(3)不同营养器官中黄酮类物质含量存在差异:叶>根茎>主根>茎.(4)温度的下降促使黄酮类物质从地上合成器官向地下储藏器官的转运.建议每年可在果熟期和枯萎期之间采挖药材,地上部分收割也作药用,综合利用光果甘草资源.

  11. Extraction of glabridin frOm Glycyrrhiza glabra L.with ultrasound technology optimized by response surface analysis%响应面法优化超声提取光果甘草中光甘草定的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐岩; 张清溪; 袁其朋; 吕姣

    2009-01-01

    考察了不同有机溶剂对光果甘草中光甘草定的提取效果,确定了最佳提取溶剂.在单因素实验的基础上,选择超声提取液料比、提取时间和超声功率3因素为自变量,光甘草定提取率为响应值,采用3因素3水平的响应面实验方法,对光果甘草中光甘草定的超声波提取工艺条件进行了优化.结果表明,光甘草定提取的最佳工艺条件为:以乙酸乙酯为溶剂超声提取,液料比23:1(mL/g)、提取2次、提取温度44℃、提取时间30 min、超声功率500 W,该条件提取光甘草定的提取率为0.269%.验证实验表明,所得模型方程能较好地预测实验结果.

  12. Effect of NaCl and Na2CO3 Stress on the Content of Chloroplast Pigment in Leaves of Glycyrrhiza glabra Seedlings%NaCl与Na2CO3胁迫对光果甘草幼苗叶片叶绿体色素含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁新华; 谢亚军; 田峻颉

    2005-01-01

    以水培光果甘草幼苗作为试验材料,分别进行不同浓度NaCl[0.2%,0.5%,0.8%(w/v)]与Na2CO3[0.01%,0.05%(w/v)]胁迫处理,以完全营养液培养作为对照,在处理第5天后测定各处理叶片中叶绿素a,叶绿素b,类胡萝卜素含量并计算叶绿素a与叶绿素b的比值.结果表明:在NaCl胁迫处理下,甘草叶片chla、chab、car含量均以0.2%NaCl为最高,之后随盐浓度升高而下降,而cha/chlb值则随盐浓度的升高而升高,在Na2CO3处理下,甘草叶片chla、chlb、car含量随Na2CO3胁迫处理浓度的升高而升高,而cha/chlb值则呈现下降的变化趋势.无论是NaCl处理还是Na2CO3处理各处理浓度间上述指标差异均达显著或极显著水平.

  13. Effect of NaCl and Na2CO3 stress on the content of osmotic substance in leaves of glycyrrhiza glabra seedlings%NaCl和Na2CO3胁迫对甘草幼苗渗透调节物质含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)