WorldWideScience

Sample records for lichia litchi chinensis

  1. Enraizamento de estacas de lichia (Litchi chinensis Sonn. Rooting of lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn. cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Leonel

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se os efeitos de auxilias exógenas e ácido bórico, no enraizamento de estacas de lichia (Litchi chinensis Sonn.. As estacas foram uniformizadas, com 25 cm de comprimento e 4 folhas cortadas pela metade. Cerca de 2,5 cm da base das mesmas foi mergulhado nos tratamentos: H2O; Boro 150 µg/ml; IBA 5.000 ppm, IBA 2.000 ppm; IBA 5.000 ppm + Boro 150 µg/ml; IBA 2.000 ppm + Boro 150 µg/ml; NAA 3.000 ppm; NAA 1.500 ppm; NAA 3.000 ppm + Boro 150 µg/ml; NAA 1.500 ppm + Boro 150 µ/g/ml. A estaquia foi realizada no mês de setembro (Hemisfério sul, sendo que as estacas foram colocadas em bandejas de isopor, tendo como substrato vermiculita e mantidas sob nebulização intermitente. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que o IBA 5.000 ppm por 1 minuto foi o tratamento mais efetivo, proporcionando 83,33% de estacas enraizadas em 120 dias, enquanto o tratamento testemunha (H2O, apresentou somente 16,67% de estacas enraizadas.The effects of exogen auxins and boric add were studied on lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn. cuttings. Cuttings were standardized to twenty-five cm length, with four leaves, cut in half. The bases of the cuttings were dipped of 2,5 cm in water solutions, resulting in the following treatments: H2O; Boron 150 µg/ml; IBA 5,000 ppm; IBA 2,000 ppm; IBA 5,000 ppm plus boron 150 µg/ml; IBA 2,000 ppm plus boron 150 µg/ml; NAA 3,000 ppm; NAA 1,500 ppm; NAA 3,000 ppm plus boron 150 µg/ml; NAA 1,500 ppm plus boron 150 µg/ml. Cutting was performed in September (southern hemisphere and the cuttings were place in styrofoam trays, using vermiculite as substratum and kept under intermittent mist It was concluded that 5,000 ppm IBA for one minute was the best treatment to improve rooting (83,33%, while the control (H2O showed only 16,67% of rooted cuttings.

  2. Conservação das sementes de lichia (Litchi chinensis Conservation of lychee (Litchi chinensis seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Kiyoshi Yamanishi

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o comportamento das sementes de lichia após o armazenamento. Utilizou-se de nove tratamentos (0; 1; 3; 5; 7; 9; 11; 13 e 15 dias de armazenamento em câmara de germinação, à temperatura de 10ºC e UR= 80-85%. A semeadura foi realizada em bandejas de poliestireno com substrato composto por Plantmax Hortaliças® + Osmocote® 14-14-14 (5g/L de substrato. A taxa de emergência (E% e o índice de velocidade de emergência (IVG das plântulas da testemunha (0 dia de armazenamento não diferiram significativamente daqueles obtidos nos demais tratamentos. O período de armazenamento das sementes não afetou a taxa de emergência nem o IVE das plântulas de lichia até o limite estudado (15 dias.Lychee seeds were evaluated after different periods of storage. There were nine treatments (0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13 and 15 days of storage in a germination chamber at the temperature of 10ºC and RH = 80-85%. The seeds were sown in polystyrene trays containing Plantmax® growth medium combined with 0.05% of inorganic fertilizer Osmocote®14-14-14. The germination rate (% and the germination speed index of the seedlings in the control (0 days of storage didn't differ significantly from the other treatments. The storage period up to 15 days didn't affect either the germination rate or the germination speed index of the lychee seedlings.

  3. In vitro regeneration of 'Feizixiao' litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    Different developmental stages of SEs were obtained from the callus on MS ... methods. Key words: litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.), anther culture, callus, regeneration, somatic embryogenesis. ...... Induction and maintenance of the embryogenic.

  4. Isozyme variation in lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A genetic diversity analysis involving 49 lychee (Litchi chinensis SOM.) accessions using eight enzyme systems encoding 12 loci (Zdh-I, Zdh-2, Mdh-2, Per-l, Pgi-2, Pgm-1, Pgm-2, Sk& Tpi-1, Tpi-2, Ugpp-1, and Ugpp-2) revealed moderate to high levels of genetic variability. Cluster analysis of the iso...

  5. Biological and Phytopharmacological Descriptions of Litchi Chinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Kilari, Eswar Kumar; Putta, Swathi

    2016-01-01

    Plants remain a vital source of drugs and at present, much emphasis is given to nutraceuticals. Herbal medicines have been the basis of treatment and cure for various diseases and physiological conditions in the traditional methods practiced such as ayurveda and homeopathy. Litchi chinensis belongs to the Sapindaceae family and is well-known in the Indian traditional system for its traditional uses. The parts of the plant used are leaves, flowers, fruits, seed, pulp, and pericarp. All parts o...

  6. Biological and Phytopharmacological Descriptions of Litchi Chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilari, Eswar Kumar; Putta, Swathi

    2016-01-01

    Plants remain a vital source of drugs and at present, much emphasis is given to nutraceuticals. Herbal medicines have been the basis of treatment and cure for various diseases and physiological conditions in the traditional methods practiced such as ayurveda and homeopathy. Litchi chinensis belongs to the Sapindaceae family and is well-known in the Indian traditional system for its traditional uses. The parts of the plant used are leaves, flowers, fruits, seed, pulp, and pericarp. All parts of the plant are rich sources of phytochemicals--epicatechin; procyanidin A2 and procyanidin B2; leucocyanidin; cyanidin glycoside, malvidin glycoside, and saponins; butylated hydroxytoluene; isolariciresinol; kaempferol; rutin; and stigmasterol. In the present review, we explore the lychee's description, traditional medicinal uses, and phytoconstituents, and investigate the pharmacological activities in various parts of the lychee to show its importance in ethanopharmacology. This is so that this review can serve as a ready-to-use material for further research on the plant.

  7. Potassium nutrition on lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aburto-González, C.A

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn is a potential alternative crop for areas with subtropical climate. In Mexico, cv. ‘Brewster’ dominates 98 % in terms of established surface; however, it has many problems to maintain stable production through its production cycles. Worldwide, yield per hectare ranges from 1 to 15 t. In Mexico, yields also fluctuate in that range. Researches who have worked with it agree that much of the problem that leads to low yields is the lack of a proper nutrition program. All existing information regarding the fertilization of this crop has been generated in other countries, mainly India, USA and Australia. Its need for K+ is higher compared to N and P. Since K+ is a nutrient that has an impact on yield and fruit quality, this paper review focuses on studies that have been done on potassium nutrition on lychee and concludes that more research is needed to take correct decision about the amount and time for potassium application.

  8. In vitro regeneration of lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    In vitro plantlet regeneration in the main commercial variety of lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn. cv Tai So) in Mauritius was achieved from callus cultures derived from young, tender leaf explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. Callogenesis was obtained in all media supplemented with auxin, but was most prominent ...

  9. Desenvolvimento do fruto da lichieira (Litchi chinensis Sonn. 'Bengal' Fruit development in 'Bengal' litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Chamhum Salomão

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o desenvolvimento do fruto da lichieira (Litchi chinensis Sonn. 'Bengal'. Realizaram-se amostragens semanais, com início aos 35 dias após a antese e término no início da senescência dos frutos. A partir do 77º dia após a antese, os frutos foram decompostos em pericarpo, semente e arilo. A antese ocorreu na primeira semana de setembro. Foram ajustados modelos sigmoidais simples para acúmulo de matéria seca, comprimento e diâmetro. Para o acúmulo de matéria seca, uma fase inicial, de crescimento lento, prolongou-se até o 63º dia após a antese e coincidiu com um período de intensa queda natural de frutos. Do 63º ao 98º dia após a antese, houve uma fase de rápido acúmulo de matéria seca. Até o 77º dia, pericarpo e semente foram os principais responsáveis pelo acúmulo de matéria seca. Oitenta e oito por cento do comprimento e 65% do diâmetro máximos foram atingidos nesse período. Do 84º ao 98º dia após a antese, o desenvolvimento do fruto foi determinado basicamente pelo arilo. As dimensões e a matéria seca do fruto estabilizaram-se a partir do 98º dia após a antese. O ponto de colheita comercial dos frutos, caracterizado pela coloração avermelhada do pericarpo, ocorreu a partir do 112º dia após a antese. Verificou-se um quadro senescente nos frutos a partir do 119º dia após a antese.It was studied the fruit development in 'Bengal' litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.. The samples were taken weekly 35 days after anthesis until the beginning of fruit senescence. From the 77th day after anthesis, fruits were decomposed in pericarp, aril and seed. Anthesis occurred in the first week of September. The fruit dry matter, length and diameter followed a single-sigmoid pattern. For dry matter accumulation, an initial phase, of slow growth, ended the 63rd day after anthesis and was coincident with a period of intense fruit drop. The next phase occurred from the 63rd to the 98th day and showed a rapid dry matter

  10. Quality profile of litchi ( Litchi chinensis) cultivars from India and effect of radiation processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajare, Sachin N.; Saxena, Sudhanshu; Kumar, Sanjeev; Wadhawan, Surbhi; More, Varsha; Mishra, B. B.; Narayan Parte, Madan; Gautam, Satyendra; Sharma, Arun

    2010-09-01

    Litchi ( Litchi chinensis) is a non-climacteric tropical fruit. The fruit has a short shelf-life making its marketing difficult. Physical, biochemical, microbiological, and organoleptic properties of two major commercially grown Indian cultivars of litchi, 'Shahi' and 'China' were studied. The effect of gamma radiation processing and low temperature storage on the above parameters was evaluated to standardize the optimal process parameters for shelf-life extension of litchi. Physical and biochemical parameters analyzed included weight, moisture, pH, titratable acidity, texture, color, total and reducing sugar, total soluble solids, vitamin C, and flavonoid content. Weight, moisture content, and pH in the fresh fruit ranged between 21-26 g, 74-77%, and 3.7-4.4, respectively, whereas, total and reducing sugar ranged 10-15, and 10-13 g%, respectively. In 'Shahi' vitamin C content was found to be around 17-19 mg%, whereas, in 'China' it was 22-28 mg%. Flavonoid content was in the range of 26-34 μg catechin equivalents/g of fresh fruit. Total surface and internal bacterial load was around 4 and 3 log cfu/g, respectively. Surface yeast-mold count (YMC) was ˜3 log cfu/g whereas internal YMC was ˜2 log cfu/g. Radiation treatment reduced microbial load in a dose dependent manner. Treatment at 0.5 kGy did not significantly affect the quality parameters of the fruit. Treated fruits retained the "good" organoleptic rating during storage. Thus, radiation treatment (0.5 kGy) in combination with low temperature (4 °C) storage achieved a shelf-life of 28 days for litchi fruit.

  11. Quality profile of litchi (Litchi chinensis) cultivars from India and effect of radiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajare, Sachin N.; Saxena, Sudhanshu; Kumar, Sanjeev; Wadhawan, Surbhi; More, Varsha; Mishra, B.B.; Narayan Parte, Madan; Gautam, Satyendra [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Sharma, Arun, E-mail: ksarun@barc.gov.i [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2010-09-15

    Litchi (Litchi chinensis) is a non-climacteric tropical fruit. The fruit has a short shelf-life making its marketing difficult. Physical, biochemical, microbiological, and organoleptic properties of two major commercially grown Indian cultivars of litchi, 'Shahi' and 'China' were studied. The effect of gamma radiation processing and low temperature storage on the above parameters was evaluated to standardize the optimal process parameters for shelf-life extension of litchi. Physical and biochemical parameters analyzed included weight, moisture, pH, titratable acidity, texture, color, total and reducing sugar, total soluble solids, vitamin C, and flavonoid content. Weight, moisture content, and pH in the fresh fruit ranged between 21-26 g, 74-77%, and 3.7-4.4, respectively, whereas, total and reducing sugar ranged 10-15, and 10-13 g%, respectively. In 'Shahi' vitamin C content was found to be around 17-19 mg%, whereas, in 'China' it was 22-28 mg%. Flavonoid content was in the range of 26-34 {mu}g catechin equivalents/g of fresh fruit. Total surface and internal bacterial load was around 4 and 3 log cfu/g, respectively. Surface yeast-mold count (YMC) was {approx}3 log cfu/g whereas internal YMC was {approx}2 log cfu/g. Radiation treatment reduced microbial load in a dose dependent manner. Treatment at 0.5 kGy did not significantly affect the quality parameters of the fruit. Treated fruits retained the 'good' organoleptic rating during storage. Thus, radiation treatment (0.5 kGy) in combination with low temperature (4 {sup o}C) storage achieved a shelf-life of 28 days for litchi fruit.

  12. Shelf life extension of litchi (Litchi chinensis) and overcoming quarantine barriers to international trade using radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, Satyendra; Saxena, Sudhanshu; Kumar, Sanjeev; Hajare, Sachin N.; Wadhawan, Surbhi; Mishra, B.B.; More, Varsha S.; Sharma, Arun

    2010-01-01

    Litchi (Litchi chinensis) has a very short shelf life of 2-3 days at ambient temperature limiting its marketability. Gamma radiation processing in combination with low temperature storage was explored as a method to achieve shelf life extension and fulfill quarantine requirement for export during storage physics, biochemical, microbiological, organoleptic, antioxidant and radioprotective properties of two major commercially grown Indian cultivars of litchi, 'Shahi' and 'China', were analysed. Radiation treatment reduced microbial load in a dose dependent manner. Radiation (0.5kGy) treated and low temperature stored fruits retained the 'good' organoleptic rating till 28 days of storage while maintaining other quality attributes. (author)

  13. Reduction of Allergenicity of Litchi chinensis Flowers Pollen Protein Conjugated with Polysaccharide by Maillard Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranajit Kumar Shaha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Allergy to pollen from gymnosperms is well documented in the west. The objective was to define the allergologic protein from Litchi chinensis (Litchi pollen and conjugate the protein with polysaccharides by Maillard reaction to reduce the allergic effect of that protein. Methods: Total soluble proteins were extracted from the pollen of Litchi flower pollen and subjected to ammonium sulphate precipitation at 80% saturation. Pollen antigen from Litchi chinensis (Litchi was prepared by gel cutting method and characterized by biochemical and designated by LFPP. The homogeneity of this protein was demonstrated by a single band on SDS-PAGE. The protein then conjugated with galactomannan through Maillard Reaction. The resulting purified pollen protein and conjugated protein were administered to the Swiss albino mice as amount of 5.8mg/kg body weight. Results: The total protein was then separated on a 12% SDS-Polyacrylamide gel which revealed 5 bands between molecular weight range of 29kDa and 69kDa. Each band was recovered from the gel by electroelution and sent for skin tests. 28kDa proteins was the only allergenic protein while others were not shown reactivity in patients. Intraperitoneal injection of the purified protein (LFPP caused a significant rise in the levels of neutrophils (38-81% and eosinophils (3-14% compared to control (P < 0.001 whereas conjugated protein caused only a 2% increase of both neutrophils and eosinophils level. On the other hand treatment with LFPP-galactomannan conjugate causes no such change in physical appearance with eosinophils and neutrophils level. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that the protein extracted and purified from Litchi flowers pollen has been recognized as a new allergen from Bangladesh for the first time and the allergic effects can be reduced by conjugation with polysaccharides.

  14. Effect of gamma irradiation on sensory attributes of Litchi (Litchi chinensis) fruit Var. Rose scented

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Neha; Joshi, Sanjay; Singh, C.P.; Surendra Kumar; Rajput, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Present investigation was an attempt to enhance shelf life of litchi fruit var. Rose Scented with integrated treatments of 1% NaCl soln., 2% wax solution and gamma radiation. Out of all, 1% NaCl coated + irradiated samples (1kGy), proved to be the best with enhanced shelf life of 24 days at 4°C (shelf life at ambient temperature without any treatment being 3-4 days). Organoleptic evaluation was done to judge the acceptability of the stored litchi samples. (author)

  15. Tipo de porta-enxerto e anelamento de ramos no pegamento da enxertia em lichieira (Litchi chinensis Sonn. Evaluation of the performance of grafting in different rootstocks and girdling of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIO BALDO GERALDO MARTINS

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado em condições de ripado, com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho da enxertia a inglês simples, em dois tipos de porta-enxerto (pé-franco e alporquia, em combinação com três tipos de anelamento do ramo (sem anelamento, e ramos anelados duas e quatro semanas antes da retirada do garfo, em lichia. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos e três repetições. Foi somente observada diferença significativa para o tipo pé-franco, que revelou os melhores resultados.This research work was carried out in the experimental area to evaluate the performance of grafting technique in two types of rootstocks (air layering and seedling with three types of girdling (without girdling and girdling shoot, two and four weeks before grafts retreat in litchi. The experimental design was a complete randomized with six treatments and three replications. There was statistical difference for the type of rootstocks that showed better results.

  16. Antioxidant Efficacy of Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) Pericarp Extract in Sheep Meat Nuggets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arun K.; Rajkumar, Vincent; Nanda, Pramod K.; Chauhan, Pranav; Pradhan, Soubhagya R.; Biswas, Subhasish

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the efficacy of litchi fruit pericarp (LFP) extract (0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% concentration) in retarding lipid oxidation of cooked sheep meat nuggets was evaluated and compared to butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT, 100 ppm). The total phenolic content and antioxidant potential of LFP extracts were determined. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values were evaluated to assess the potential of LFP extracts as natural antioxidants for oxidative stability of cooked nuggets during 12 days of refrigerated storage. Results show that total phenolics content in 10 mg LFP powder was comparable to 100 ppm BHT, but 15 mg LFP powder had significantly higher (p < 0.05) total phenolics content and reducing power than the synthetic antioxidant. LFP extract did not affect pH, cooking yield and the sensory attributes of cooked nuggets. Non-treated control and nuggets with 1.0% LFP extract had significantly lower total phenolics than nuggets with 1.5% extract and BHT. TBARS values were significantly lower (p < 0.05) throughout the storage period in cooked meat nuggets containing either LFP extract or BHT than in non-treated control. Results indicate that LFP extracts are promising sources of natural antioxidants and can potentially be used as functional food additives in meat products at 1.5% without affecting products’ acceptability. PMID:27213457

  17. Antioxidant Efficacy of Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn. Pericarp Extract in Sheep Meat Nuggets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun K. Das

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the efficacy of litchi fruit pericarp (LFP extract (0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% concentration in retarding lipid oxidation of cooked sheep meat nuggets was evaluated and compared to butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT, 100 ppm. The total phenolic content and antioxidant potential of LFP extracts were determined. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS values were evaluated to assess the potential of LFP extracts as natural antioxidants for oxidative stability of cooked nuggets during 12 days of refrigerated storage. Results show that total phenolics content in 10 mg LFP powder was comparable to 100 ppm BHT, but 15 mg LFP powder had significantly higher (p < 0.05 total phenolics content and reducing power than the synthetic antioxidant. LFP extract did not affect pH, cooking yield and the sensory attributes of cooked nuggets. Non-treated control and nuggets with 1.0% LFP extract had significantly lower total phenolics than nuggets with 1.5% extract and BHT. TBARS values were significantly lower (p < 0.05 throughout the storage period in cooked meat nuggets containing either LFP extract or BHT than in non-treated control. Results indicate that LFP extracts are promising sources of natural antioxidants and can potentially be used as functional food additives in meat products at 1.5% without affecting products’ acceptability.

  18. Cloning and Characterization of a Flavonol Synthase Gene From Litchi chinensis and Its Variation Among Litchi Cultivars With Different Fruit Maturation Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Litchi (Litchi chinensis is an important subtropical fruit tree with high commercial value. However, the short and centralized fruit maturation period of litchi cultivars represents a bottleneck for litchi production. Therefore, the development of novel cultivars with extremely early fruit maturation period is critical. Previously, we showed that the genotypes of extremely early-maturing (EEM, early-maturing (EM, and middle-to-late-maturing (MLM cultivars at a specific locus SNP51 (substitution type C/T were consistent with their respective genetic background at the whole-genome level; a homozygous C/C genotype at SNP51 systematically differentiated EEM cultivars from others. The litchi gene on which SNP51 was located was annotated as flavonol synthase (FLS, which catalyzes the formation of flavonols. Here, we further elucidate the variation of the FLS gene from L. chinensis (LcFLS among EEM, EM, and MLM cultivars. EEM cultivars with a homozygous C/C genotype at SNP51 all contained the same 2,199-bp sequence of the LcFLS gene. For MLM cultivars with a homozygous T/T genotype at SNP51, the sequence lengths of the LcFLS gene were 2,202–2,222 bp. EM cultivars with heterozygous C/T genotypes at SNP51 contained two different alleles of the LcFLS gene: a 2,199-bp sequence identical to that in EEM cultivars and a 2,205-bp sequence identical to that in MLM cultivar ‘Heiye.’ Moreover, the coding regions of LcFLS genes of other MLM cultivars were almost identical to that of ‘Heiye.’ Therefore, the LcFLS gene coding region may be used as a source of diagnostic SNP markers to discriminate or identify genotypes with the EEM trait. The expression pattern of the LcFLS gene and accumulation pattern of flavonol from EEM, EM, and MLM cultivars were analyzed and compared using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC for mature leaves, flower buds, and fruits, 15, 30, 45, and 60 days after anthesis. Flavonol

  19. Morphological characterization and gene expression profiling during bud development in a tropical perennial, Litchi chinensis Sonn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huifeng Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tropical evergreen perennials undergo recurrent flush growth, and their terminal buds alternate between growth and dormancy. In sharp contrast to intensive studies on bud development in temperate deciduous trees, there is little information about bud development regulation in tropical trees. In this study, litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn. was used as a model tropical perennial for morphological characterization and transcriptomic analysis of bud development. Litchi buds are naked with apical meristem embraced by rudimentary leaves, which are brown at dormant stage (Stage I. They swell and turn greenish as buds break (Stage II, and as growth accelerates, the rudimentary leaves elongate and open exposing the inner leaf primodia. With the outgrowth of the needle-like leaflets, bud growth reaches a maximum (Stage III. When leaflets expand, bud growth cease with the abortion of the rudimentary leaves at upper positions (Stage IV. Then buds turn brown and reenter dormant status. Budbreak occurs again when new leaves become hard green. Buds at four stages (Stage I to IV were collected for respiration measurements and in-depth RNA sequencing. Respiration rate was lowest at Stage I and highest at Stage II, decreasing towards growth cessation. RNA sequencing obtained over 5 Gb data from each of the bud samples and de novo assembly generated a total of 59999 unigenes, 40119 of which were annotated. Pair-wise comparison of gene expression between stages, gene profiling across stages, GO/KEGG enrichment analysis, and the expression patterns of 17 major genes highlighted by principal component (PC analysis displayed significant changes in stress resistance, hormone signal pathways, circadian rhythm, photosynthesis, cell division, carbohydrate metabolism, programmed cell death during bud development, which might be under epigenetic control involving chromatin methylation. The qPCR results of 8 selected unigenes with high PC scores agreed with the RPKM values

  20. Delayed progression of diabetic cataractogenesis and retinopathy by Litchi chinensis in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilari, Eswar Kumar; Putta, Swathi

    2017-03-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the effect of the aqueous fruit pericarp extract of Litchi chinensis (APLC) on parameters which leads to diabetic cataractogenesis and retinopathy in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The objective of the study is to evaluate the APLC for in vivo antioxidant activity and its role in inhibiting the polyol pathway and formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). The diabetic animals were treated with L. chinensis for a period of 12 weeks. At the end of 12 weeks, the animals were killed and the biochemical pathways involved in the pathogenesis of cataract such as oxidative stress by protein content, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), and polyolpathway by aldose reductase (AR) in lens homogenates, alterations in protein carbonyl content (PCO) and AGEs in both serum and lens the APLC-treated diabetic rats were compared against diabetic control rats. Cataract progression due to hyperglycemia was monitored by slit lamp bio microscope and classified into four stages. Fundoscope test and retinal histopathology were done for assessing retinopathy. Statistically significant reduction in glucose, and elevation of protein content, SOD, CAT, and GSH levels and decreased levels of AR and PCO in lens homogenate and significant reduction in AGEs serum and lens homogenate were observed. Slit lamp examination, fundoscope, and histopathology showed improvement in retinal changes in APLC-treated rats compared to diabetic control animals. The treatment with APLC found to delay the progression of diabetic cataractogenesis and retinopathy, which might be due to its antioxidant activity, because of the presence of active phytochemicals in APLC.

  1. Concentrações de ácido indolbutírico e tipos de substrato na propagação vegetativa de lichia Concentrations of indolebutyric acid and kinds of substrates in the vegetative propagation of litchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronny Clayton Smarsi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, no presente trabalho, avaliar o efeito da aplicação de AIB e diferentes tipos de substratos na propagação vegetativa de lichia via técnica de alporquia. Os alporques foram realizados em ramos semilenhosos, sadios e vigorosos da cultivar Bengal, com 12 anos de idade. Os ramos foram anelados com 1,5 cm de largura, tratados com diferentes concentrações de AIB (0; 1.000; 2.000; 3.000 e 4.000 mg.L-1, distribuídos em solução com auxílio de pincel e cobertos com três diferentes tipos de substratos (plantmax®, húmus e esfagno umedecidos. Em seguida, foram envolvidos com plástico transparente e amarrados nas duas extremidades, para criar um ambiente úmido ao redor da lesão, favorável ao desenvolvimento de raízes, para a produção dos alporques. Após 84 dias, avaliaram-se o comprimento de raiz (cm, o número de raízes, expresso em notas de 0 a 5, e a porcentagem de calejamento e de enraizamento. Maior sucesso na propagação vegetativa de lichia, cultivar Bengal, via técnica de alporquia, foi obtido utilizando como substrato o plantmax® AIB entre 2.166 e 2.430 mg.L-1. A utilização de húmus combinado com concentrações entre 2.175 e 2.250 mg.L-1 de AIB também proporcionou bons resultados no desenvolvimento dos alporques. Por outro lado, menor sucesso no desenvolvimento dos alporques de lichia, cultivar Bengal, independentemente da concentração de AIB utilizada, foi obtido com esfagno.The objective of the present research was to evaluate the effect of the IBA application and different kinds of substrates in the vegetative propagation of litchi by air layering technique. The air layering had been done in semi-hardwood, healthy and vigorous branches of cultivar Bengal, in stock plants of 12 years old. The branches had been ring-girdled, 1,5 cm of width, and the exposed wound treated with different IBA concentrations (0, 1000, 2000, 3000 and 4000 mg.L-1, enclosed with three moistened substrates (plantmax®, humus

  2. Heavy Metal Contents and Physical Parameters of Aegiceras corniculatum, Brassica juncea, and Litchi chinensis Honeys from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandita Sarker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to determine the heavy metal levels and the physicochemical parameters (pH, electrical conductivity (EC, and ash, moisture, and total sugar content of honeys from Bangladesh. Three different floral honeys were investigated, namely, khalsi (Aegiceras corniculatum, mustard (Brassica juncea, and litchi (Litchi chinensis honeys. The heavy metals in the honeys were determined by using a High Temperature Dry Oxidation method followed by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The mean pH, EC, and ash, moisture, and total sugar contents of the investigated honeys were 3.6, 0.51 mS/cm, 0.18%, 18.83%, and 68.30%, respectively. Iron was the most abundant among all the investigated heavy metals, ranging from 13.51 to 15.44 mg/kg. The mean concentrations of Mn and Zn in the investigated honeys were 0.28 mg/kg and 2.99 mg/kg, respectively. Cd was below the detection limit, and lead was found in some honey samples, but their contents were below the recommended Maximum Acceptable Level. Cr was also found in all of the samples, but its concentration was within the limit. The physicochemical analysis of the honey samples yielded levels within the limits set by the international honey legislation, indicating that the honey samples were of good quality and had acceptable values for maturity, purity, and freshness.

  3. Uso de tratamento hidrotérmico e ácido clorídrico na qualidade de lichia 'Bengal' Use of hydrothermal and acid treatment in the quality of litchi 'Bengal'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Toews Doll Hojo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Um dos maiores problemas na pós-colheita da lichia é o escurecimento do pericarpo, cuja cor vermelha se torna totalmente escurecida em 48 horas, sob 25 ºC. Tecnologias que possam controlar o escurecimento do pericarpo são valiosas, e é o foco principal da pesquisa na área de pós-colheita. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a vida útil de lichias 'Bengal', armazenadas a 20 ºC e 82 %UR após o tratamento hidrotérmico e/ou imersão em solução de HCl. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4 x 7, com 3 repetições, onde o primeiro fator correspondeu aos tratamentos: testemunha; imersão em HCl a 1%, por 6 minutos; tratamento hidrotérmico, com imersão em água a 52 ºC por 1 minuto, seguido de resfriamento em água a 10 ºC, por 6 minutos; e tratamento hidrotérmico, seguido de resfriamento em HCl a 1%, a 10 ºC, por 6 minutos. O segundo fator foram os períodos de armazenamento: 0; 1; 2; 3;6; 9 e 12 dias. A combinação entre tratamento hidrotérmico (52 ºC por 1 minuto e resfriamento em HCl a 1% permite conservar a coloração das lichias 'Bengal' por até dois dias. Mesmo assim há escurecimento em 25% da superfície.One of the biggest problems in postharvest litchi pericarp browning is, the color red becomes totally dark in 48 hours at 25 º C. Technologies that can control the browning of the pericarp are valuable, and is the main focus of research in post-harvest. The aim of this study was to evaluate the shelf life of lychee 'Bengal', stored at 20 ° C and 82% RH after the hydrothermal treatment and/or immersion in HCl solution. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 4 x 7, with three replications, where the first factor was the treatment: control, immersion in HCl 1%, for 6 minutes; hydrothermal treatment, soaking in water at 52 ° C for 1 minutes, followed by immersion in water at 10 º C for 6 minutes, and hydrothermal treatment and subsequent cooling in 1% HCl, 10

  4. Alleviative effects of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) flower on lipid peroxidation and protein degradation in emulsified pork meatballs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Wang, Sheng-Yao; Yang, Deng-Jye; Chang, Ming-Hsu; Chen, Yi-Chen

    2015-09-01

    To avoid or retard the lipid peroxidation of meat products, antioxidants are commonly added. Considering the safety and health of additives in meat products, consumers prefer natural antioxidants rather than synthetic ones. Gentisic acid and epicatechin were identified as the major phenolic acid and flavonoid, respectively, of litchi flowers (LFs). The physicochemical properties of pork meatballs with or without dried LF powders (0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5%, w/w) and tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ; 0.01%, w/w) were analyzed during a 4-week frozen storage period. LF and TBHQ decreased (p meatballs. LF added to meatballs improved (p meatballs redder and darker (p < 0.05) than the control and TBHQ groups, they did not affect the preference of panelists. The addition of 0.5% LF powders exhibited the best (p < 0.05) overall sensory panel acceptance. LFs may be an effective natural antioxidant to reduce lipid and protein oxidation for frozen cooked meat products. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Alleviative effects of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn. flower on lipid peroxidation and protein degradation in emulsified pork meatballs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ding

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To avoid or retard the lipid peroxidation of meat products, antioxidants are commonly added. Considering the safety and health of additives in meat products, consumers prefer natural antioxidants rather than synthetic ones. Gentisic acid and epicatechin were identified as the major phenolic acid and flavonoid, respectively, of litchi flowers (LFs. The physicochemical properties of pork meatballs with or without dried LF powders (0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5%, w/w and tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ; 0.01%, w/w were analyzed during a 4-week frozen storage period. LF and TBHQ decreased (p < 0.05 thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS values but increased (p < 0.05 thiol group contents in meatballs. LF added to meatballs improved (p < 0.05 texture and water-holding capacity (centrifugation/purge losses more than in the control group upon the storage. Although LF powders made meatballs redder and darker (p < 0.05 than the control and TBHQ groups, they did not affect the preference of panelists. The addition of 0.5% LF powders exhibited the best (p < 0.05 overall sensory panel acceptance. LFs may be an effective natural antioxidant to reduce lipid and protein oxidation for frozen cooked meat products.

  6. Efeitos da aplicação de reguladores vegetais e do ácido bórico, em estacas de lichieira (Litchi chinensis Sonn. Effects of growth regulators and boric acid on lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn. cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Leonel

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se as interações entre os ácidos indol-butírico, alfa-naftaleno-acético e bórico no desenvolvimento de calos e na sobrevivência das estacas de lichieira (Litchi chinensis Sonn.. As estacas apresentavam 25 cm de comprimento e 4 folhas cortadas pela metade, sendo retiradas em duas épocas diferentes (janeiro e abril e colocadas para enraizar em bandejas de isopor, tendo como substrato vermiculita e em condições de câmara de nebulização. Foi feita imersão de 2,5 cm da base das estacas, em soluções aquosas por l minuto. Os tratamentos utilizados corresponderam a 5.000 e 2.000 ppm de IBA; 3.000 e 1.500 ppra de NAA; 150 microgramas/ml de H3BO3; IBA 5.000 e 2.000 ppm + H3BO(3150 microgramas/ml; NAA 3.000 e 1.500 ppm + H3BO3 150 microgramas/ml e H2O. Avaliou-se a formação de calos e a sobrevivência das estacas após 120 dias do plantio. Através dos resultados obtidos, foi possível concluir que dos tratamentos utilizados, nenhum foi efetivo na formação de raízes, havendo somente a formação de calos. A melhor época para a retirada de estacas correspondeu ao mês de abril.Interactions between indolebutyric, naphtalen acetic and boric acids were studied on "callus" development and survival in lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn. cuttings. The cuttings were twenty five cm long with four leaves cut in half and taken in two different periods (January and April Styrofoam trays, with vermiculite as substratum kept under intermittent mist were used as rooting media. Cuttings were imersed up to 2.5 cm from the base in water solutions, for one minute. The treatments were: 5,000 and 2,000 ppm of IBA; 3,000 and 1,500 ppm of NAA; 150 micrograms/ml H3BO3; IBA 5,000 and 2,000 ppm plus H3BO3 150 micrograms/ml; NAA 3,000 and 1,500 ppm plus boron 150 micrograms/ml and II2O. "Callus" formation and cutting survival were evaluated 120 days after planting. It was concluded that no treatments were effective on root formation, however, "callus

  7. Grupos de insetos visitantes florais da lichieira (Litchi chinensis Sonn. em Jaboticabal, estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Carlos Fernandes Martins

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste estudo foram identificar grupos de insetos visitantes de flores da lichieira (Litchi chinensis Sonn., determinar horários de maior visitação, analisar a influência da altura das inflorescências na ocorrência desses visitantes florais e verificar se a incidência de sol beneficia sua presença. O experimento foi desenvolvido na Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias da Universidade Estadual Paulista FCAV/UNESP. As observações ocorreram em agosto e setembro de 2008, totalizando cinco em todo o período. Foram estabelecidos dois períodos diários de observação das 10:00 às 12:00 h e 16:00 às 18:00 h, sendo observado quatro pontos na área. Os dados dos visitantes florais observados para as diferentes horas, alturas e radiação solar foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey 5%. Foram observadas seis ordens de insetos: Hymenoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera e Neuroptera. O horário das 10:00 às 12:00 horas apresentou- se como mais propício para observação de insetos visitantes. Houve diferença nas observações das alturas de 0 a 0.5 e 1.6 m e 2.0 e também uma diferença nas observações de insetos visitantes florais da lichieira quando estas se encontravam em face sombra ou face sol na árvore.

  8. Evaluation of nutritional and biochemical properties of litchi (Litchi chinensis) and its quarantine treatment and shelf-life extension using radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajare, Sachin N.; Saxena, Sudhanshu; Kumar, Sanjeev; Wadhawan, Surbhi; More, Varsha; Mishra, B.B.; Parte, Madan Narayan; Gautam, Satyendra; Sharma, Arun

    2009-01-01

    Combination of gamma irradiation and dip treatment on shelf life extension of two major cultivars of litchi namely, Shahi, and China was studied for improving market availability of the fruit and to overcome quarantine barrier for international trade. An extension in shelf life up to 28 days was achieved at 4 deg C, whereas, control fruits last around 10 days at 4 deg C. Physicochemical and nutritional parameters such as moisture content, acidity (pH), total soluble solid, total and reducing sugars, vitamin C content, phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidant activities, browning associated enzymatic activities, microbiological and sensory attributes were studied during the storage period. It was observed that low dose of gamma radiation did not affect significantly any of these parameters. Further, a novel combination dip treatment was developed which resulted in shelf life extension up to 60 days with complete inhibition of pericarp browning. (author)

  9. Differential expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in relation to anthocyanin accumulation in the pericarp of Litchi chinensis Sonn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Zan Wei

    Full Text Available Litchi has diverse fruit color phenotypes, yet no research reflects the biochemical background of this diversity. In this study, we evaluated 12 litchi cultivars for chromatic parameters and pigments, and investigated the effects of abscisic acid, forchlorofenron (CPPU, bagging and debagging treatments on fruit coloration in cv. Feizixiao, an unevenly red cultivar. Six genes encoding chalcone synthase (CHS, chalcone isomerase (CHI, flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR, anthocyanidin synthase (ANS and UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT were isolated from the pericarp of the fully red litchi cv. Nuomici, and their expression was analyzed in different cultivars and under the above mentioned treatments. Pericarp anthocyanin concentration varied from none to 734 mg m(-2 among the 12 litchi cultivars, which were divided into three coloration types, i.e. non-red ('Kuixingqingpitian', 'Xingqiumili', 'Yamulong'and 'Yongxing No. 2', unevenly red ('Feizixiao' and 'Sanyuehong' and fully red ('Meiguili', 'Baila', Baitangying' 'Guiwei', 'Nuomici' and 'Guinuo'. The fully red type cultivars had different levels of anthocyanin but with the same composition. The expression of the six genes, especially LcF3H, LcDFR, LcANS and LcUFGT, in the pericarp of non-red cultivars was much weaker as compared to those red cultivars. Their expression, LcDFR and LcUFGT in particular, was positively correlated with anthocyanin concentrations in the pericarp. These results suggest the late genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway were coordinately expressed during red coloration of litchi fruits. Low expression of these genes resulted in absence or extremely low anthocyanin accumulation in non-red cultivars. Zero-red pericarp from either immature or CPPU treated fruits appeared to be lacking in anthocyanins due to the absence of UFGT expression. Among these six genes, only the expression of UFGT was found significantly correlated

  10. LcMYB1 Is a Key Determinant of Differential Anthocyanin Accumulation among Genotypes, Tissues, Developmental Phases and ABA and Light Stimuli in Litchi chinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Biao; Li, Xiao-Jing; Hu, Bing; Qin, Yong-Hua; Huang, Xu-Ming; Wang, Hui-Cong; Hu, Gui-Bing

    2014-01-01

    The red coloration of litchi fruit depends on the accumulation of anthocyanins. The anthocyanins level in litchi fruit varies widely among cultivars, developmental stages and environmental stimuli. Previous studies on various plant species demonstrate that anthocyanin biosynthesis is controlled at the transcriptional level. Here, we describe a litchi R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene, LcMYB1, which demonstrates a similar sequence as other known anthocyanin regulators. The transcription level...

  11. LcMYB1 is a key determinant of differential anthocyanin accumulation among genotypes, tissues, developmental phases and ABA and light stimuli in Litchi chinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Lai

    Full Text Available The red coloration of litchi fruit depends on the accumulation of anthocyanins. The anthocyanins level in litchi fruit varies widely among cultivars, developmental stages and environmental stimuli. Previous studies on various plant species demonstrate that anthocyanin biosynthesis is controlled at the transcriptional level. Here, we describe a litchi R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene, LcMYB1, which demonstrates a similar sequence as other known anthocyanin regulators. The transcription levels of the LcMYB1 and anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were investigated in samples with different anthocyanin levels. The expression of LcMYB1 was strongly associated with tissue anthocyanin content. LcMYB1 transcripts were only detected in anthocyanin-accumulating tissues and were positively correlated with anthocyanin accumulation in the pericarps of 12 genotypes. ABA and sunlight exposure promoted, whereas CPPU and bagging inhibited the expression of LcMYB1 and anthocyanin accumulation in the pericarp. Cis-elements associated with light responsiveness and abscisic acid responsiveness were identified in the promoter region of LcMYB1. Among the 6 structural genes tested, only LcUFGT was highly correlated with LcMYB1. These results suggest that LcMYB1 controls anthocyanin biosynthesis in litchi and LcUFGT might be the structural gene that is targeted and regulated by LcMYB1. Furthermore, the overexpression of LcMYB1 induced anthocyanin accumulation in all tissues in tobacco, confirming the function of LcMYB1 in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. The upregulation of NtAn1b in response to LcMYB1 overexpression seems to be essential for anthocyanin accumulation in the leaf and pedicel. In the reproductive tissues of transgenic tobacco, however, increased anthocyanin accumulation is independent of tobacco's endogenous MYB and bHLH transcriptional factors, but associated with the upregulation of specific structural genes.

  12. LcMYB1 is a key determinant of differential anthocyanin accumulation among genotypes, tissues, developmental phases and ABA and light stimuli in Litchi chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Biao; Li, Xiao-Jing; Hu, Bing; Qin, Yong-Hua; Huang, Xu-Ming; Wang, Hui-Cong; Hu, Gui-Bing

    2014-01-01

    The red coloration of litchi fruit depends on the accumulation of anthocyanins. The anthocyanins level in litchi fruit varies widely among cultivars, developmental stages and environmental stimuli. Previous studies on various plant species demonstrate that anthocyanin biosynthesis is controlled at the transcriptional level. Here, we describe a litchi R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene, LcMYB1, which demonstrates a similar sequence as other known anthocyanin regulators. The transcription levels of the LcMYB1 and anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were investigated in samples with different anthocyanin levels. The expression of LcMYB1 was strongly associated with tissue anthocyanin content. LcMYB1 transcripts were only detected in anthocyanin-accumulating tissues and were positively correlated with anthocyanin accumulation in the pericarps of 12 genotypes. ABA and sunlight exposure promoted, whereas CPPU and bagging inhibited the expression of LcMYB1 and anthocyanin accumulation in the pericarp. Cis-elements associated with light responsiveness and abscisic acid responsiveness were identified in the promoter region of LcMYB1. Among the 6 structural genes tested, only LcUFGT was highly correlated with LcMYB1. These results suggest that LcMYB1 controls anthocyanin biosynthesis in litchi and LcUFGT might be the structural gene that is targeted and regulated by LcMYB1. Furthermore, the overexpression of LcMYB1 induced anthocyanin accumulation in all tissues in tobacco, confirming the function of LcMYB1 in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. The upregulation of NtAn1b in response to LcMYB1 overexpression seems to be essential for anthocyanin accumulation in the leaf and pedicel. In the reproductive tissues of transgenic tobacco, however, increased anthocyanin accumulation is independent of tobacco's endogenous MYB and bHLH transcriptional factors, but associated with the upregulation of specific structural genes.

  13. Two LcbHLH transcription factors interacting with LcMYB1 in regulating late structural genes of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Nicotiana and Litchi chinensis during anthocyanin accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao eLai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin biosynthesis requires the MYB-bHLH-WD40 protein complex to activate the late biosynthetic genes. LcMYB1 was thought to act as key regulator in anthocyanin biosynthesis of litchi. However, basic helix-loop-helix proteins (bHLHs as partners have not been identified yet. The present study describes the functional characterization of three litchi bHLH candidate anthocyanin regulators, LcbHLH1, LcbHLH2 and LcbHLH3. Although these three litchi bHLHs phylogenetically clustered with bHLH proteins involved in anthcoyanin biosynthesis in other plant, only LcbHLH1 and LcbHLH3 were found to localize in the nucleus and physically interact with LcMYB1. The transcription levels of all these bHLHs were not coordinated with anthocyanin accumulation in different tissues and during development. However, when co-infiltrated with LcMYB1, both LcbHLH1 and LcbHLH3 enhanced anthocyanin accumulation in tobacco leaves with LcbHLH3 being the best inducer. Significant accumulation of anthocyanins in leaves transformed with the combination of LcMYB1 and LcbHLH3 were noticed, And this was associated with the up-regulation of two tobacco endogenous bHLH regulators, NtAn1a and NtAn1b, and late structural genes, like NtDFR and NtANS. Significant activity of the ANS promoter was observed in transient expression assays either with LcMYB1-LcbHLH1 or LcMYB1-LcbHLH3, while only minute activity was detected after transformation with only LcMYB1. In contrast, no activity was measured after induction with the combination of LcbHLH2 and LcMYB1. Higher DFR expression was also oberseved in paralleling with higher anthocyanins in co-transformed lines. LcbHLH1 and LcbHLH3 are essential partner of LcMYB1 in regulating the anthocyanin production in tobacco and probably also in litchi. The LcMYB1-LcbHLH complex enhanced anthocyanin accumulation may associate with activating the transcription of DFR and ANS.

  14. Lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) Pulp Phenolic Extract Provides Protection against Alcoholic Liver Injury in Mice by Alleviating Intestinal Microbiota Dysbiosis, Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction, and Liver Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Juan; Zhang, Ruifen; Zhou, Qiuyun; Liu, Lei; Huang, Fei; Deng, Yuanyuan; Ma, Yongxuan; Wei, Zhencheng; Tang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Mingwei

    2017-11-08

    Liver injury is the most common consequence of alcohol abuse, which is promoted by the inflammatory response triggered by gut-derived endotoxins produced as a consequence of intestinal microbiota dysbiosis and barrier dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate whether modulation of intestinal microbiota and barrier function, and liver inflammation contributes to the hepatoprotective effect of lychee pulp phenolic extract (LPPE) in alcohol-fed mice. Mice were treated with an ethanol-containing liquid diet alone or in combination with LPPE for 8 weeks. LPPE supplementation alleviated ethanol-induced liver injury and downregulated key markers of inflammation. Moreover, LPPE supplementation reversed the ethanol-induced alteration of intestinal microbiota composition and increased the expression of intestinal tight junction proteins, mucus protecting proteins, and antimicrobial proteins. Furthermore, in addition to decreasing serum endotoxin level, LPPE supplementation suppressed CD14 and toll-like receptor 4 expression, and repressed the activation of nuclear factor-κB p65 in the liver. These data suggest that intestinal microbiota dysbiosis, intestinal barrier dysfunction, and liver inflammation are improved by LPPE, and therefore, the intake of LPPE or Litchi pulp may be an effective strategy to alleviate the susceptibility to alcohol-induced hepatic diseases.

  15. Phylogeny and redescription of Dolabra nepheliae on rambutan and litchi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) and lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) are tropical trees in the Sapindaceae that produce delicious edible fruits and are increasingly cultivated in tropical areas. Recently these trees have been afflicted with a stem canker disease caused by the ascomycete Dolabra nep...

  16. Influence of the use of acids and films in post-harvest lychee conservation Influência da utilização de ácidos e filmes na conservação pós-colheita de lichia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Fabíola Pereira da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn. has a high commercial value; however, it has a short shelf-life because of its rapid pericarp browning. The objective of this study was to evaluate the shelf-life of 'Bengal' lychee fruits stored after treatment with hydrochloric acid and citric acid, associated with cassava starch and plastic packaging. Uniformly red pericarp fruits were submitted to treatments: 1-(immersion in citric acid 100 mM for 5 minutes + cassava starch 30 g L-1 for 5 minutes, 2-(immersion in hydrochloric acid 1 M for 2 minutes + starch cassava 30 g L-1 for 5 minutes, 3-(immersion in citric acid 100 mM for 5 minutes + polyvinyl chloride film (PVC, 14 µm thick and 4-(immersion in hydrochloric acid 1 M for 2 minutes + PVC film. During 20 days, the fruits were evaluated for mass loss, pericarp color, pH, soluble solids and titratable acidity, vitamin C of the pulp and pericarp and activities of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase of the pericarp. The treatment with hydrochloric acid associated with PVC was the most effective in maintaining the red color of the pericarp for a period of 20 days and best preservation of the fruit. The cassava starch associated with citric acid, and hydrochloric acid did not reduce the mass loss and did not prevent the browning of lychee fruit pericarp.A lichia (Litchi chinensis Sonn. possui alto valor comercial no mercado, entretanto, apresenta vida útil pós-colheita curta, por causa do rápido escurecimento do pericarpo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a vida útil pós-colheita de lichias 'Bengal', armazenadas após tratamento com ácido clorídrico e ácido cítrico, associados a fécula de mandioca e embalagem plástica. Frutos com pericarpos uniformemente vermelhos foram submetidos aos tratamentos: 1-( imersão em ácido cítrico 100 mM por 5 minutos + fécula de mandioca 30 g/L por 5 minutos; 2-( imersão em ácido clorídrico 1 M por 2 minutos + fécula de mandioca 30 g/L por 5 minutos; 3-( imers

  17. Generation of volatile compounds in litchi wine during winemaking and short-term bottle storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuwen; Zhu, Baoqing; Tu, Cui; Duan, Changqing; Pan, Qiuhong

    2011-05-11

    Evolution of volatile components during litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) winemaking was monitored, and aroma profiles of litchi wines bottle aged for 5 months at ambient temperature (25-28 °C) and low temperature (8-10 °C) were compared via headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The majority of terpenoids deriving from litchi juice decreased, even disappeared along with alcoholic fermentation, while terpenol oxides, ethers, and acetates came into being and increased. Ethyl octanote, isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl butanoate, cis-rose oxide, and trans-rose oxide had the highest odor activity values (OAVs) in young litchi wines. Six aromatic series were obtained by grouping OAVs of odor-active compounds with similar odor descriptions to establish the aroma profile for young litchi wines, and floral and fruity attributes were two major aroma series. Compared to ambient temperature when bottle aging, lower temperature benefited key aroma retention and expectantly extended the shelf life of young litchi wines.

  18. The preference choices of Conopomorpha sinensis Bradley (Lepidoptera: Gracilariidae) for litchi based on its host surface characteristics and volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiang; Hu, Junjie; Li, Yanhua; Dai, Jianqing; Guo, Mingfang; Ouyang, Gecheng

    2018-01-31

    Conopomorpha sinensis Bradley is a host-specific pest of Litchi chinensis and Euphoria longan. Here, we demonstrated that C. sinensis has evolved special physical and chemical mechanisms for host plant location that enable it to survive and reproduce. Females favored laying their eggs on the convex surface of litchi fruit that had particular volatile characteristics. Experiments using a H-type olfactometer showed that female C. sinensis were attracted to litchi flowers, tender shoots, immature fruits, and mature fruits, with the highest attraction rate to mature fruits (74.67 ± 2.31%). There were no significant differences in the attraction of male C. sinensis to different litchi tissues. Further oviposition preference tests using the pericarp, pulp, and seeds of mature litchi fruits revealed that female C. sinensis prefer to lay their eggs on the pericarp. Litchi volatiles were found to be important in attracting C. sinensis to fruits for oviposition. Analysis of volatiles from different litchi tissues by HS-SPME-GC-MS revealed 31 similar volatiles, some of which may be important in the oviposition preference choices of C. sinensis on litchi fruit.

  19. Transcriptomes of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Litchi Host Interaction after Tree Girdling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Bo; Li, Weicai; Liu, Liqin; Wei, Yongzan; Shi, Shengyou

    2016-01-01

    Trunk girdling can increase carbohydrate content above the girdling site and is an important strategy for inhibiting new shoot growth to promote flowering in cultivated litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.). However, girdling inhibits carbohydrate transport to the root in nearly all of the fruit development periods and consequently decreases root absorption. The mechanism through which carbohydrates regulate root development in arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) remains largely unknown. Carbohydrate content, AM colonization, and transcriptome in the roots were analyzed to elucidate the interaction between host litchi and AM fungi when carbohydrate content decreases. Girdling decreased glucose, fructose, sucrose, quebrachitol, and starch contents in the litchi mycorrhizal roots, thereby reducing AM colonization. RNA-seq achieved approximately 60 million reads of each sample, with an average length of reads reaching 100 bp. Assembly of all the reads of the 30 samples produced 671,316 transcripts and 381,429 unigenes, with average lengths of 780 and 643 bp, respectively. Litchi (54,100 unigenes) and AM fungi unigenes (33,120 unigenes) were achieved through sequence annotation during decreased carbohydrate content. Analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEG) showed that flavonoids, alpha-linolenic acid, and linoleic acid are the main factors that regulate AM colonization in litchi. However, flavonoids may play a role in detecting the stage at which carbohydrate content decreases; alpha-linolenic acid or linoleic acid may affect AM formation under the adaptation process. Litchi trees stimulated the expression of defense-related genes and downregulated symbiosis signal-transduction genes to inhibit new AM colonization. Moreover, transcription factors of the AP2, ERF, Myb, WRKY, bHLH families, and lectin genes altered maintenance of litchi mycorrhizal roots in the post-symbiotic stage for carbohydrate starvation. Similar to those of the litchi host, the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex

  20. Effect of pyrogallol on the physiology and biochemistry of litchi fruit during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Guoxing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn. fruit are highly perishable and have a very short shelf life, easily turning brown and decaying. This study investigated the efficiency of pyrogallol, a catechin on the physiology and biochemistry in relation to storage life of litchi fruit. Results Fruit were treated with pyrogallol at 1 mM and then stored at ambient temperature (25°C or low temperature (4°C. Compared with control, pyrogallol significantly reduced pericarp browning and delayed the rotting of fruit day 4 at 25°C, and on day 30 at 4°C. The chemical treatment reduced respiration rate and the activities of peroxidase (POD and polyphenol oxidase (PPO, and delayed the loss of membrane permeability. Pyrogallol increased the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, delayed the loss of anthocyanin and phenolics, and maintained high 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrlhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power. High performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC analysis clearly indicated that treated fruit contained higher concentration of the four phenolic compounds procyanidin B1, (+-catechin, (−-epicatechin and (−-epicatechin-3-gallate. Conclusions The application of pyrogallol partially reducing pericarp browning and changed quality-related physiological activities and, thus, pyrogallol could have beneficial effects on pericarp browning and fruit decay control, and could be helpful for litchi fruit postharvest storage.

  1. Load modeling for sharp V-cutter cutting litchi ( Litchi chinensis Sonn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    harvesting. Cutting load is a key parameter for 'hand-held auto-picker' operation. However, there is still no suitable model for cutting load setting. Hence, a model describing the relationship among cutting load, blade angle and friction coefficient was developed for cutting operation by sharp V-cutters. The model was based ...

  2. Genome-Wide Identification of Histone Modifiers and Their Expression Patterns during Fruit Abscission in Litchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Modifications to histones, including acetylation and methylation processes, play crucial roles in the regulation of gene expression in plant development as well as in stress responses. However, limited information on the enzymes catalyzing histone acetylation and methylation in non-model plants is currently available. In this study, several histone modifier (HM types, including six histone acetyltransferases (HATs, 11 histone deacetylases (HDACs, 48 histone methyltransferases (HMTs, and 22 histone demethylases (HDMs, are identified in litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn. cv. Feizixiao based on similarities in their sequences to homologs in Arabidopsis (A. thaliana, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, and rice (Oryza sativa. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that HM enzymes can be grouped into four HAT, two HDAC, two HMT, and two HDM subfamilies, respectively, while further expression profile analyses demonstrate that 17 HMs were significantly altered during fruit abscission in two field treatments. Analyses reveal that these genes exhibit four distinct patterns of expression in response to fruit abscission, while an in vitro assay was used to confirm the HDAC activity of LcHDA2, LcHDA6, and LcSRT2. Our findings are the first in-depth analysis of HMs in the litchi genome, and imply that some are likely to play important roles in fruit abscission in this commercially important plant.

  3. Fluctuation traits of Litchi wholesale price in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, F. F.; Qi, W. E.; Ouyang, X.

    2017-07-01

    This paper chose the wholesale price of litchi as research object based on the daily data of 11 main sales markets in China -- Beijing, Chengdu, Guangzhou, Hefei, Jiaxing, Nanjing, Shanghai, Shenyang, Changsha, Zhengzhou and Chongqing from April 1, 2012 to September 30, 2016. After analyzing the fluctuation characteristics with BP filter method and H-P filter method, and the fluctuation trends of litchi wholesale price in China obtained by BP filter are roughly consistent with the trends obtained by H-P filter. The main conclusions are as follows: there is strong cyclicality in the fluctuation of litchi wholesale price; the period of fluctuations of litchi wholesale prices are not repeatable; litchi wholesale price fluctuates asymmetrically in one fluctuation cycle.

  4. Brand Marketing Strategies in the Export of Maoming Litchi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The thesis gives the brief overview of the development of Maoming litchi industry:it has the largest scale base and the output keeps going up;it has varieties of species and lots of famous special products;its standardized mass production ensures the safety of the products;the products go to market early with a broad range of sales;it has industrialized fruit production and deep product processing technology. After an introduction to the general situation of the export of litchis in China,the thesis introduces the current situation of the export of litchis in Maoming in terms of the continuously increasing exportations and the continuous expansion of the market and then,based on these,the thesis analyzes the existing problems in the export of Maoming Litchi:first,lack of brand awareness results in products with no brand;second,the instability of quality acts as a drawback to the exportation;third,fresh litchis are the main exportations,and the packaging and transportation technology of products are weak and thus the overseas markets are by no means well-explored. In order to adapt to the accelerating economic globalization,seize new opportunities for economic development,promote litchi exports from sluggish to healthy development and thus come to the successful transition of Maoming City as an agricultural city to a strong city in agricultural science and technology,corresponding strategies of the brand marketing of Maoming Litchi are put forward in the thesis:first,to enhance brand awareness and make it a famous brand;second,to build bases for litchis’ export and make Chinese litchis known worldwide;third,to pay intensive attention to the preservation of litchis and propel industrial management;fourth,to improve the market distribution system and open up the international market.

  5. Pré-resfriamento em água de lichia 'B3' mantida em armazenamento refrigerado

    OpenAIRE

    del Aguila,Juan Saavedra; Hofman,Peter; Campbell,Terrence; Marques,José Roberto; Heiffig-del Aguila,Lília Sichmann; Kluge,Ricardo Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    Este experimento visou a estudar o efeito de diferentes temperaturas e tempos de pré-resfriamento em água sobre a qualidade de lichias 'B3', após a frigoconservação. Os tratamentos foram: T1 = controle (sem pré-resfriamento); T2 = imersão por cinco minutos em água a 2,5°C; T3 = imersão por 10 minutos em água a 2,5°C; T4 = imersão por 20 minutos em água a 2,5°C; T5 = imersão por sete minutos em água a 6°C; T6 = imersão por 20 minutos em água a 8°C e T7 = imersão por 10 minu...

  6. Uso de tratamento hidrotérmico e ácido clorídrico na qualidade de lichia 'Bengal'

    OpenAIRE

    Ellen Toews Doll Hojo; José Fernando Durigan; Ronaldo Hissayuki Hojo; Juliana Rodrigues Donadon; Ramilo Nogueira Martins

    2011-01-01

    Um dos maiores problemas na pós-colheita da lichia é o escurecimento do pericarpo, cuja cor vermelha se torna totalmente escurecida em 48 horas, sob 25 ºC. Tecnologias que possam controlar o escurecimento do pericarpo são valiosas, e é o foco principal da pesquisa na área de pós-colheita. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a vida útil de lichias 'Bengal', armazenadas a 20 ºC e 82 %UR após o tratamento hidrotérmico e/ou imersão em solução de HCl. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramen...

  7. Cyclopentapeptides from Dianthus chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Huang, Maobo; Wang, Zhe; Zheng, Yuqing; Zeng, Guangzhi; He, Wenjun; Tan, Ninghua

    2015-07-01

    A new cyclopentapeptide dianthin I (1), together with two known ones pseudostellarin A (2) and heterophyllin J (3), was isolated from the aerial parts of Dianthus chinensis. The structure of 1 was elucidated as cyclo-(Gly(1)-L-Phe(2)-L-Pro(3)-L-Ser(4)-L-Phe(5)) on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses and chemical methods. Copyright © 2015 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Characterization of key aroma-active compounds in lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Feng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds in ‘Sweetheart’ lychee were examined using gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry (GC-O/MS. Solvent assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE technique was used to identify the aroma-active compounds in lychee. Further characterization of the most important odorants in ‘Sweetheart’ lychee was achieved using aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA. Thirty-one key aroma-active odorants were identified in the flavor dilution (FD factor range of 2–1024. Methional (cooked potato and geraniol (sweet, floral exhibited the highest FD factors of 1024 and 512, respectively, these were followed by furaneol (sweet, caramel, nerol (floral, sweet, dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS (preserved vegetable, sulfury, linalool (floral, (E,Z-2,6 nonadienal (cucumber and nerolidol (metalic, sesame oil. Furthermore, the flavor profile of ‘Sweetheart’ lychee was described by sensory analysis. Floral, tropical fruit, peach/apricot and honey were scored with relatively high scores for each aroma attribute. The sweetness rating was the highest score among all the attributes. Keywords: AEDA, Aroma-active compounds, GC-MS/O, SAFE, Sensory analysis

  9. Characterization of key aroma-active compounds in lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shi; Huang, Mingyang; Crane, Jonathan Henry; Wang, Yu

    2018-04-01

    Volatile compounds in 'Sweetheart' lychee were examined using gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry (GC-O/MS). Solvent assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) technique was used to identify the aroma-active compounds in lychee. Further characterization of the most important odorants in 'Sweetheart' lychee was achieved using aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Thirty-one key aroma-active odorants were identified in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 2-1024. Methional (cooked potato) and geraniol (sweet, floral) exhibited the highest FD factors of 1024 and 512, respectively, these were followed by furaneol (sweet, caramel), nerol (floral, sweet), dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) (preserved vegetable, sulfury), linalool (floral), (E,Z)-2,6 nonadienal (cucumber) and nerolidol (metalic, sesame oil). Furthermore, the flavor profile of 'Sweetheart' lychee was described by sensory analysis. Floral, tropical fruit, peach/apricot and honey were scored with relatively high scores for each aroma attribute. The sweetness rating was the highest score among all the attributes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Uso de tratamento hidrotérmico e ácido clorídrico na qualidade de lichia 'Bengal'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Toews Doll Hojo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Um dos maiores problemas na pós-colheita da lichia é o escurecimento do pericarpo, cuja cor vermelha se torna totalmente escurecida em 48 horas, sob 25 ºC. Tecnologias que possam controlar o escurecimento do pericarpo são valiosas, e é o foco principal da pesquisa na área de pós-colheita. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a vida útil de lichias 'Bengal', armazenadas a 20 ºC e 82 %UR após o tratamento hidrotérmico e/ou imersão em solução de HCl. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4 x 7, com 3 repetições, onde o primeiro fator correspondeu aos tratamentos: testemunha; imersão em HCl a 1%, por 6 minutos; tratamento hidrotérmico, com imersão em água a 52 ºC por 1 minuto, seguido de resfriamento em água a 10 ºC, por 6 minutos; e tratamento hidrotérmico, seguido de resfriamento em HCl a 1%, a 10 ºC, por 6 minutos. O segundo fator foram os períodos de armazenamento: 0; 1; 2; 3;6; 9 e 12 dias. A combinação entre tratamento hidrotérmico (52 ºC por 1 minuto e resfriamento em HCl a 1% permite conservar a coloração das lichias 'Bengal' por até dois dias. Mesmo assim há escurecimento em 25% da superfície.

  11. 76 FR 81401 - Importation of Litchi Fruit From Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... to Docket No. APHIS-2009-0084, Regulatory Analysis and Development, PPD, APHIS, Station 3A-03.8, 4700...; however, both litchis and longans are commercially grown in the State of Florida and the climatic... economic effects of this action on small entities. The analysis is summarized below. Copies of the full...

  12. Improved preservation effects of litchi fruit by combining chitosan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-31

    May 31, 2010 ... and attractive red color of anthocyanins at full maturity. (Holcroft and Mitcham, 1996). Tragically .... An Amplex Red Hydrogen Peroxide Assay kit (Molecular. Probes, Invitrogen Detection Technologies, ..... control of rotting and browning of litchi fruit by hot benomyl and plastic film. Sci. Hortic. 16: 253-262.

  13. Improved preservation effects of litchi fruit by combining chitosan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improved preservation effects of litchi fruit by combining chitosan coating with ascorbic acid treatment during postharvest storage. ... Moreover, increased activities of super oxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and contents of AsA and glutathione were observed in pulp of treated fruit, thus leading to lowered contents ...

  14. Disinfestation of litchi stem-end borer Conopomorpha sinensis Bradley with irradiation for export of litchi fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Meiying; Liu Xiuqiong; Hou Renhuan; Li Xiaodong; Yao Zhenwei; Lou Xuemei; Weng Qunfang

    1999-01-01

    Larvae of the litchi stem-end borer, Conopomorpha sinensis Bradley, in litchi fruits were exposed to 60 Co gamma irradiation doses ranging from 0-400 Gy as a quarantine treatment. Criterion of effectiveness of the irradiation dose was based on preventing adults emerging from treated fruits infested with the larvae. Probit analysis showed that the irradiation dose that caused 99.5% mortality of larvae was 254 Gy (220-289 Gy) and 99.9968% mortality of the 3rd instars was 267 Gy (184-351 Gy) with 95% fiducial limits. The mortality of litchi stem-end borer increased when the irradiation treatment was coupled with extended cool storage (76 deg. C). Hatching of eggs was decreased with increasing dosages to the eggs of 250-600 Gy. Prepupae treated at 300-600 Gy were more radiosensitive than 4-5 days old pupae. The results of visual quality observation indicated that the rotten fruit rate of litchi fruits was reduced by 250-350 Gy treatment. (author)

  15. 76 FR 65985 - Importation of Litchi and Longan Fruit From Vietnam Into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... alleviate negative effects of increased foreign competition through alternative marketing arrangements or marketing channels. Executive Order 12988 This proposed rule would allow litchi and longan fruit to be...

  16. Outbreak of acute hypoglycemic encephalopathy associated with litchi consumption, Muzaffarpur, India, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Seasonal outbreaks of an acute neurologic illness with high mortality among young children occur annually in Muzaffarpur, Bihar, the largest litchi (lychee) fruit cultivation region in India. A wide range of infectious and non-infectious etiologies, including an association with litchi...

  17. A Micro-Damage Detection Method of Litchi Fruit Using Hyperspectral Imaging Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juntao Xiong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The non-destructive testing of litchi fruit is of great significance to the fresh-keeping, storage and transportation of harvested litchis. To achieve quick and accurate micro-damage detection, a non-destructive grading test method for litchi fruits was studied using 400–1000 nm hyperspectral imaging technology. The Huaizhi litchi was chosen in this study, and the hyperspectral data average for the region of interest (ROI of litchi fruit was extracted for spectral data analysis. Then the hyperspectral data samples of fresh and micro-damaged litchi fruits were selected, and a partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA was used to establish a prediction model for the realization of qualitative analysis for litchis with different qualities. For the external validation set, the mean per-type recall and precision were 94.10% and 93.95%, respectively. Principal component analysis (PCA was used to determine the sensitive wavelength for recognition of litchi quality characteristics, with the results of wavelengths corresponding to the local extremum for the weight coefficient of PC3, i.e., 694, 725 and 798 nm. Then the single-band images corresponding to each sensitive wavelength were analyzed. Finally, the 7-dimension features of the PC3 image were extracted using the Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM. Through image processing, least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM modeling was conducted to classify the different qualities of litchis. The model was validated using the experiment data, and the average accuracy of the validation set was 93.75%, while the external validation set was 95%. The results indicate the feasibility of using hyperspectral imaging technology in litchi postpartum non-destructive detection and classification.

  18. Enraizamento de estacas semilenhosas de lichieira utilizando ácido indolbutírico Rooting of semi-hardwood litchi cuttings using indolbutiric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Miranda Carvalho

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o enraizamento de estacas semilenhosas de lichieira ( Litchi chinensis Sonn. da cultivar Bengal, empregando ácido indolbutírico (AIB e sistema de nebulização intermitente. As estacas apicais foram coletadas nos meses de outubro (Primavera, janeiro (Verão e abril (Outono, acondicionadas adequadamente e transferidas para uma estufa com nebulização intermitente, onde receberam as aplicações de : 0; 1.000; 2.000; 3.000 e 4.000 mg L-1 de AIB, com imersão da base das estacas, durante 10 segundos, e de 200 mg L-1 de AIB, com imersão das bases por 24 horas, em aeração. Em seguida, foram colocadas para enraizar em substrato de vermiculita, com casca de arroz carbonizada, na proporção de 1:1. Após 100 dias, foram obtidos os dados referentes à porcentagem de estacas vivas com folhas, porcentagem de estacas enraizadas por parcela, comprimento médio de raiz por estaca enraizada (cm, número médio de raízes formadas por estaca enraizada, massa média da matéria fresca das raízes (g, massa média da matéria seca das raízes(g. Pelos resultados, concluiu-se que não há necessidade da aplicação do AIB para o enraizamento de estacas de lichieira, cultivar Bengal, e que a melhor época de coleta das mesmas é o verão.The objective of the work was to study the rooting of semi-hardwood litchi cuttings (Litchi chinensis Sonn. of Bengal cultivar using indolbutiric acid (IBA in an intermittent nebulization system. The apical cuttings were collected in October (spring in Brazil, January (summer and April (fall. The cuttings were properly arranged and transferred to greenhouse with intermittent mist and treated with 0, 1000, 2000, 3000 and 4000 mg L-1 indolbutiric acid applications, having the cuttings bases been immersed during 10 seconds and with 200 mg L-1 indolbutiric acid application, having the bases been immersed for 24 hours in aeration. They were put to rooting in vermiculite substratum with 1

  19. Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneid.: jojoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan E. Meyer

    2008-01-01

    The Simmondsiaceae (jojoba family), has only 1 genus, Simmondsia, which consists of only 1 species, jojoba - S. chinensis (Link) Schneid. Once considered an isolated member of the box family (Buxaceae), jojoba is now regarded as sufficiently distinct to be placed in its own family. Jojoba is found from coastal and cis-montane southern California east to central Arizona...

  20. Recognition and Matching of Clustered Mature Litchi Fruits Using Binocular Charge-Coupled Device (CCD Color Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenglin Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Recognition and matching of litchi fruits are critical steps for litchi harvesting robots to successfully grasp litchi. However, due to the randomness of litchi growth, such as clustered growth with uncertain number of fruits and random occlusion by leaves, branches and other fruits, the recognition and matching of the fruit become a challenge. Therefore, this study firstly defined mature litchi fruit as three clustered categories. Then an approach for recognition and matching of clustered mature litchi fruit was developed based on litchi color images acquired by binocular charge-coupled device (CCD color cameras. The approach mainly included three steps: (1 calibration of binocular color cameras and litchi image acquisition; (2 segmentation of litchi fruits using four kinds of supervised classifiers, and recognition of the pre-defined categories of clustered litchi fruit using a pixel threshold method; and (3 matching the recognized clustered fruit using a geometric center-based matching method. The experimental results showed that the proposed recognition method could be robust against the influences of varying illumination and occlusion conditions, and precisely recognize clustered litchi fruit. In the tested 432 clustered litchi fruits, the highest and lowest average recognition rates were 94.17% and 92.00% under sunny back-lighting and partial occlusion, and sunny front-lighting and non-occlusion conditions, respectively. From 50 pairs of tested images, the highest and lowest matching success rates were 97.37% and 91.96% under sunny back-lighting and non-occlusion, and sunny front-lighting and partial occlusion conditions, respectively.

  1. New dicyclopeptides from Dianthus chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Wang, Zhe; Zheng, Yu-Qing; Zeng, Guang-Zhi; He, Wen-Jun; Tan, Ning-Hua

    2014-05-01

    One new dicyclopeptide cyclo-(L-N-methyl Glu-L-N-methyl Glu) (1), together with one new natural dicyclopeptide cyclo-(L-methyl Glu ester-L-methyl Glu ester) (2), and two known dicyclopeptides cyclo-(L-methyl Glu ester-L-Glu) (3), and cyclo-(L-Glu-L-Glu) (4), were isolated from the aerial parts of Dianthus chinensis L. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analyses and chemical methods.

  2. Transformation of Litchi Pericarp-Derived Condensed Tannin with Aspergillus awamori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Lin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Condensed tannin is a ubiquitous polyphenol in plants that possesses substantial antioxidant capacity. In this study, we have investigated the polyphenol extraction recovery and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging activity of the extracted polyphenol after litchi pericarp is treated with Aspergillus awamori, Aspergillus sojae or Aspergillus oryzae. We have further explored the activity of A. awamori in the formation of condensed tannin. The treatment of A. awamori appeared to produce the highest antioxidant activity of polyphenol from litchi pericarp. Further studies suggested that the treatment of A. awamori releases the non-extractable condensed tannin from cell walls of litchi pericarp. The total extractable tannin in the litchi pericarp residue after a six-time extraction with 60% ethanol increased from 199.92 ± 14.47–318.38 ± 7.59 μg/g dry weight (DW after the treatment of A. awamori. The ESI-TOF-MS and HPLC-MS2 analyses further revealed that treatment of A. awamori degraded B-type condensed tannin (condensed flavan-3-ol via C4–C8 linkage, but exhibited a limited capacity to degrade the condensed tannin containing A-type linkage subunits (C4–C8 coupled C2–O–C7 linkage. These results suggest that the treatment of A. awamori can significantly improve the production of condensed tannin from litchi pericarp.

  3. [Chemical constituents of Tamarix chinensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Peng, Xue-jing; Xia, Peng-fei; Duan, Wen-da

    2014-01-01

    To study the chemical consistuents of Tamarix chinensis. The compounds were isolated and purified by column chromatography and their structures were elucidated through spectroscopic analysis. Nine compounds were isolated and identified as isotamarixen(1), matairesinol(2), tetepathine(3), kaempferol(4), 4'-methylkaempferol(5),4',7-dimethylkaempferol (6), hexacosyl-3-caffeate(7), ferulic acid(8) and 3-methoxyl methyl gallate(9). Compounds 1-3,7 and 8 are isolated from this plant for the first time, compounds 1-3,7 are isolated from Tamarix genus for the first time.

  4. Triterpenoid Saponins from Stauntonia chinensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu [South Central Univ. for Nationalities, Wuhan (China); Yang, Fang; Wang, Sha; Wang, Debin; Xu, Jing; Yang, Guangzhong [South Central Univ. for Nationalities, Wuhan (China)

    2014-04-15

    The chemical constituents of S. chinensis were previously reported to contain nortriterpenoid saponins, neolignan glycosides, flavonoids. To find the biologically active compounds, a detailed phytochemical investigation was carried out on the stem of S. chinensis, which resulted in isolation of two new triterpenoid saponins, named as yemuo-side YM. Their structues were established on the basis of 2D-NMR experiments and mass spectrometry. In addition, eight known triterpene glycoside 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-30-norhederagenin, sinofoside A, yemuoside YM11, 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranos yl-akebonic acid, 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-hederagenin, 3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl hederagenin, hederasaponin D and 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(16)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-hederagenin were isolated from this plant. Compounds and were isolated from thisplant for the first time.

  5. Triterpenoid Saponins from Stauntonia chinensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yu; Yang, Fang; Wang, Sha; Wang, Debin; Xu, Jing; Yang, Guangzhong

    2014-01-01

    The chemical constituents of S. chinensis were previously reported to contain nortriterpenoid saponins, neolignan glycosides, flavonoids. To find the biologically active compounds, a detailed phytochemical investigation was carried out on the stem of S. chinensis, which resulted in isolation of two new triterpenoid saponins, named as yemuo-side YM. Their structues were established on the basis of 2D-NMR experiments and mass spectrometry. In addition, eight known triterpene glycoside 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-30-norhederagenin, sinofoside A, yemuoside YM11, 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranos yl-akebonic acid, 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-hederagenin, 3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl hederagenin, hederasaponin D and 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(16)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-hederagenin were isolated from this plant. Compounds and were isolated from thisplant for the first time

  6. Uso de embalagens plásticas e cobertura de quitosana na conservação pós-colheita de lichias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Toews Doll Hojo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a efetividade da atmosfera modificada, através de embalagens plásticas e coberturas de quitosana, na conservação pós-colheita de lichias. O delineamento estatístico foi o inteiramente casualizado, disposto em esquema fatorial 5 x 7, com 3 repetições, onde o primeiro fator corresponde aos tratamentos: Testemunha; Bandejas rígidas de poliestireno revestidas com filme poliolefínico de 0,015mm (PD955; Bandejas rígidas de polietileno tereftalato (PET; Bandejas de poliestireno recobertas com filme de cloreto de polivinila (PVC de 0,014mm; e Imersão em quitosana a 0,5%. O segundo fator foi o tempo de armazenamento, 0 (inicial; 4; 8; 12; 16; 20 e 24 dias, a 5 ºC (94 %UR. Cada parcela foi composta por 8 frutos, sendo que os tratados com quitosana foram contidos em bandejas rígidas de poliestireno, sem filme. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que a proteção com filmes plásticos reduziu significativamente a perda de massa por lichias mantidas sob refrigeração, com redução na intensidade do escurecimento dos frutos. O tratamento com quitosana a 0,5%, em ácido tartárico a 10%, pH 0,8, mostrou-se efetivo na manutenção da coloração vermelha e na prevenção ao escurecimento, conservando a aparência dos frutos.

  7. Simmondsia chinensis - a plant with a future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeppe, C

    1975-10-01

    S. chinensis could become a new crop plant for the semi-arid tropics. Its seeds produce a liquid wax which is similar to sperm whale oil. S. chinensis is a permanent, evergreen, dioecious bush, growing up to 3 m in height and developing a deep taproot. The seed weight ranges from 0.3 to 1.1 g, they contain 43 to 56% of the wax. Places of origin are the deserts of Southwest USA and Northwest Mexico. Presently only seeds from wild populations are collected. The establishment of plantations is possible. Economic crops can be expected about 10 years after planting.

  8. Research of Litchi Diseases Diagnosis Expertsystem Based on Rbr and Cbr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bing; Liu, Liqun

    To conquer the bottleneck problems existing in the traditional rule-based reasoning diseases diagnosis system, such as low reasoning efficiency and lack of flexibility, etc.. It researched the integrated case-based reasoning (CBR) and rule-based reasoning (RBR) technology, and put forward a litchi diseases diagnosis expert system (LDDES) with integrated reasoning method. The method use data mining and knowledge obtaining technology to establish knowledge base and case library. It adopt rules to instruct the retrieval and matching for CBR, and use association rule and decision trees algorithm to calculate case similarity.The experiment shows that the method can increase the system's flexibility and reasoning ability, and improve the accuracy of litchi diseases diagnosis.

  9. Encapsulation of nodal segments of lobelia chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng Hing Thong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lobelia chinensis served as an important herb in traditional chinese medicine. It is rare in the field and infected by some pathogens. Therefore, encapsulation of axillary buds has been developed for in vitro propagation of L. chinensis. Nodal explants of L. chinensis were used as inclusion materials for encapsulation. Various combinations of calcium chloride and sodium alginate were tested. Encapsulation beads produced by mixing 50 mM calcium chloride and 3.5% sodium alginate supported the optimal in vitro conversion potential. The number of multiple shoots formed by encapsulated nodal segments was not significantly different from the average of shoots produced by non-encapsulated nodal segments. The encapsulated nodal segments regenerated in vitro on different medium. The optimal germination and regeneration medium was Murashige-Skoog medium. Plantlets regenerated from the encapsulated nodal segments were hardened, acclimatized and established well in the field, showing similar morphology with parent plants. This encapsulation technology would serve as an alternative in vitro regeneration system for L. chinensis.

  10. Anoxia Treatment for Delaying Skin Browning, Inhibiting Disease Development and Maintaining the Quality of Litchi Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueming Jiang

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Litchi fruit has a very short shelf life after harvest, so marketers and consumers alike desire longer periods of storage, transportation and distribution. To extend shelf life, anoxia treatments were used for the fruit. Litchi fruit were exposed to pure N2 for 0, 3, 6, 12 or 24 h. They were then kept individually in closed but vented containers for 6 days in the dark at 20 °C and 95–100 % relative humidity. Exposure of litchi fruit to N2 for 3 or 6 h markedly delayed skin browning, reduced rot development and maintained higher concentrations of total soluble solids, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid after 6 days of storage. Anoxia treatment for 24 h reduced browning index, but it accelerated disease development, compared to the control. Thus, a pre-storage pure N2 treatment for 3 or 6 h can be an effective means of reducing rotting while maintaining the physical quality of the fruit.

  11. and Lichia amia (leervis)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elf were widely distributed throughout Knysna (Figure 1). They were collected from below the 'ebb and flow' (Charles ford. Rapids) at a salinity of 12° /00 to Leisure Isle point, at a salini- ty of 35° /00. The largest catches were taken above the railway bridge in mixed estuarine waters. No juveniles were found in. Swartvlei.

  12. Phenolic Compounds from Belamcanda chinensis Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Ying Song

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Two new sucrose derivatives, namely, belamcanosides A (1 and B (2, together with five other known compounds (3−7, were isolated from the seeds of Belamcanda chinensis (L. DC. Their structures were identified based on spectroscopic data. Especially, the absolute configurations of fructose and glucose residues in 1 and 2 were assigned by acid hydrolysis, followed by derivatization and gas chromatography (GC analysis. Among the known compounds, (−-hopeaphenol (3, (+-syringaresinol (4, and quercetin (5, were isolated from B. chinensis for the first time. In addition, biological evaluation of 1 and 2 against cholesterol synthesis and metabolism at the gene level was carried out. The results showed that compounds 1 and 2 could regulate the expression of cholesterol synthesis and metabolism-associated genes, including 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR, squalene epoxidase (SQLE, low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR, and sortilin (SORT1 genes in HepG2 cells.

  13. [Study of quality control on Cuscuta chinensis and C. australia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui-bin; Lin, Jian-qun; Lu, Ning; Lin, Jian-qiang

    2007-11-01

    To study the estimate method of C. chinensis and C. australia. HPLC was used to determine the contents of four kinds of flavones of C. chinensis and C. australia growing on different hosts. C. chinensis and C. australia growing on different hosts both had hyperoside, quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin. The content range of hyperoside was 2.790-6.502 mg/g and was higher than other flavones. The content ranges of quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin were 0.025-0.176 mg/g, 0.001-0.213 mg/g and 0.001-0.077 mg/g, respectively. The contents of hyperoside and quercetin are higher in C. chineasis than in C. australia. The contents of kaempferol and isorhamnetin are lower in C. chinensis than in C. australia. The hosts influence flavones content of C. chinensis and C. australia.

  14. Vacuum Drying for Extending Litchi Shelf-Life: Vitamin C, Total Phenolics, Texture and Shelf-Life Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter Reis, Felipe; de Oliveira, Aline Caroline; Gadelha, Gabriella Giani Pieretti; de Abreu, Marcela Breves; Soares, Hillary Isabelle

    2017-06-01

    In an attempt to obtain shelf-stable litchi fruit with preserved nutritional quality and good sensory features, quarters of peeled and pitted fruits were vacuum dried at 50, 60 and 70 °C at a constant pressure of 8.0 kPa. The product was assessed for its vitamin C, total phenolics and texture (hardness). In addition, the product with the best texture was assessed for its shelf-life by means of accelerated testing. Results suggest that vacuum dried litchi retained almost 70% of the vitamin C and total phenolics when compared to frozen fruits (control). Vitamin C and phenolic compounds content significantly decreased with drying, while no difference was found between different drying temperatures. Hardness increased with drying temperature. The sample dried at 70 °C presented crispness, which is a desired quality feature in dried fruit products. This sample was subjected to shelf-life evaluation, whose result suggests a shelf-life of eight months at 23 °C. Total color change (CIE ΔE 00 ) was the expiry criterion. Vacuum drying was a suitable technique for producing shelf-stable litchi fruit with good texture while preserving its desirable original nutrients. Consumption of vacuum dried litchi may be beneficial to health due to its remarkable content of phenolic compounds and vitamin C.

  15. 76 FR 5779 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Litchi From the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ...] Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Litchi From the Republic of.... ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We are advising the public that we have prepared a pest risk analysis that... are making the pest risk analysis available to the public for review and comment. DATES: We will...

  16. 77 FR 13260 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Litchi, Longan, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ...] Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Litchi, Longan, and Rambutan From... we have prepared a pest risk analysis that evaluates the risks associated with the importation into... the pest risk analysis available to the public for review and comment. DATES: We will consider all...

  17. 76 FR 81469 - Notice of Decision to Authorize Importation of Fresh Litchi From the Republic of South Africa...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... Republic of South Africa into the continental United States. Based on the findings in a pest risk analysis... importation of commodities that, based on the findings of a pest risk analysis (PRA), can be safely imported... risks of introducing or disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via the importation of litchi from...

  18. 78 FR 9027 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Litchi, Longan, and Rambutan From the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... from the Philippines. Based on the findings of a pest risk analysis, which we made available to the... commodities that, based on the findings of a pest risk analysis (PRA), can be safely imported subject to one... plant pests or noxious weeds via the importation of fresh fruit of litchi, longan, and rambutan from the...

  19. Influence of the substrate in germination of lychee seeds Influência do substrato na germinação de sementes de lichia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Aparecida de Andrade

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The lychee is, all over the world, considered as the "queen of the fruits" due to the delicacy of its appearance and flavor. Although it was only recently that it started to have economical importance in Brazil, the lychee is already calling the attention of numerous farmers, mainly those who cultivate citric fruits and/or sugarcane in the State of São Paulo, due to the constant and at the same time growing necessity of finding new alternative crops. Considering that the commercial cultivation of lychee plants in the field requires the previous obtainment of rootstocks viewing to reduce the genetic variability and the length of the juvenile period displayed by plants resulting directly from the seeds, finding ways to improve the germination performance of lychee seeds for the production of rootstock plants is of considerable economic importance. Thus, the objective of this experiment was to test five substrates for the germination of lychee seeds: (1 vermiculite, (2 washed sand, (3 filter paper, (4 carbonized rice hull, and (5 sphagnum. The results showed that the period of time required by a lychee seed to germinate is a short one thus reinforcing the importance of providing a suitable substrate for the germination to take place. It was found that the substrates which apparently allowed the best combinations of water and oxygen availability for the seeds - washed sand and carbonized rice hull - were those leading to the fastest and highest germination values.A lichia é considerada em todo o mundo como a rainha das frutas, por sua aparência e sabor delicado. Atualmente, a cultura vem despertando interesse, principalmente no Estado de São Paulo, onde, em virtude dos problemas enfrentados pelos agricultores, destacando-se os de laranja e cana-de-açúcar, a procura por alternativas agrícolas vem se intensificando ainda mais. A propagação através de sementes não é recomendada comercialmente, pois as plantas de pé-franco s

  20. Enzymatic browning and antioxidant activities in harvested litchi fruit as influenced by apple polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengke; Huber, Donald J; Qu, Hongxia; Yun, Ze; Wang, Hui; Huang, Zihui; Huang, Hua; Jiang, Yueming

    2015-03-15

    'Guiwei' litchi fruit were treated with 5 ga.i. L(-1) apple polyphenols (APP) and then stored at 25°C to investigate the effects on pericarp browning. APP treatment effectively reduced pericarp browning and retarded the loss of red colour. APP-treated fruit exhibited higher levels of anthocyanins and cyanidin-3-rutinoside, which correlated with suppressed anthocyanase activity. APP treatment also maintained membrane integrity and reduced oxidative damage, as indicated by a lower relative leakage rate, malondialdehyde content, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The data suggest that decompartmentalisation of peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase and respective browning substrates was reduced. In addition, APP treatment enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase), as well as non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity (DPPH radical-scavenging activity and reducing power), which might be beneficial in scavenging ROS. We propose that APP treatment is a promising safe strategy for controlling postharvest browning of litchi fruit. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Optimum harvest maturity for Leymus chinensis seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixiang Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Timely harvest is critical to achieve maximum seed viability and vigour in agricultural production. However, little information exists concerning how to reap the best quality seeds of Leymus chinensis, which is the dominant and most promising grass species in the Songnen Grassland of Northern China. The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate possible quality indices of the seeds at different days after peak anthesis. Seed quality at different development stages was assessed by the colours of the seed and lemmas, seed weight, moisture content, electrical conductivity of seed leachate and germination indices. Two consecutive years of experimental results showed that the maximum seed quality was recorded at 39 days after peak anthesis. At this date, the colours of the seed and lemmas reached heavy brown and yellow, respectively. The seed weight was highest and the moisture content and the electrical conductivity of seed leachate were lowest. In addition, the seed also reached its maximum germination percentage and energy at this stage, determined using a standard germination test (SGT and accelerated ageing test (AAT. Thus, Leymus chinensis can be harvested at 39 days after peak anthesis based on the changes in parameters. Colour identification can be used as an additional indicator to provide a more rapid and reliable measure of optimum seed maturity; approximately 10 days after the colour of the lemmas reached yellow and the colour of the seed reached heavy brown, the seed of this species was suitable for harvest.

  2. Occurrence of Escherichia coli in Brassica rapa L. chinensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2016-12-07

    Dec 7, 2016 ... chinensis irrigated with low quality water in urban areas of Morogoro ... wastewater plays a significant role in food security as it improves crop ... Low quality irrigation water is generally contaminated with humans or animals.

  3. Comparison of the free and bound phenolic profiles and cellular antioxidant activities of litchi pulp extracts from different solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of fruits could be underestimated if the bound phenolic compounds are not considered. In the present study, the extraction efficiencies of various solvents were investigated in terms of the total content of the free and bound phenolic compounds, as well as the phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of the extracts. Methods Five different solvent mixtures were used to extract the free phenolic compounds from litchi pulp. Alkaline and acidic hydrolysis methods were compared for the hydrolysis of bound phenolic compounds from litchi pulp residue. The phenolic compositions of the free and bound fractions from the litchi pulp were identified using HPLC-DAD. The antioxidant activities of the litchi pulp extracts were determined by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays. Results Of the solvents tested, aqueous acetone extracted the largest amount of total free phenolic compounds (210.7 mg GAE/100 g FW) from litchi pulp, followed sequentially by aqueous mixtures of methanol, ethanol and ethyl acetate, and water itself. The acid hydrolysis method released twice as many bound phenolic compounds as the alkaline hydrolysis method. Nine phenolic compounds were detected in the aqueous acetone extract. In contrast, not all of these compounds were found in the other four extracts. The classification and content of the bound phenolic compounds released by the acid hydrolysis method were higher than those achieved by the alkaline hydrolysis. The aqueous acetone extract showing the highest ORAC value (3406.9 μmol TE/100 g FW) for the free phenolic extracts. For the CAA method, however, the aqueous acetone and methanol extracts (56.7 and 55.1 μmol QE/100 g FW) showed the highest levels of activity of the five extracts tested. The ORAC and CAA values of the bound phenolic compounds obtained by acid hydrolysis were 2.6- and 1.9-fold higher than those obtained using the

  4. Long-term drought modifies the fundamental relationships between light exposure, leaf nitrogen content and photosynthetic capacity in leaves of the lychee tree (Litchi chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damour, Gaëlle; Vandame, Marc; Urban, Laurent

    2008-09-08

    Drought has dramatic negative effects on plants' growth and crop productivity. Although some of the responses and underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood, there is increasing evidence that drought may have a negative effect on photosynthetic capacity. Biochemical models of leaf photosynthesis coupled with models of radiation transfer have been widely used in ecophysiological studies, and, more recently, in global change modeling. They are based on two fundamental relationships at the scale of the leaf: (i) nitrogen content-light exposure and (ii) photosynthetic capacity-nitrogen content. Although drought is expected to increase in many places across the world, such models are not adapted to drought conditions. More specifically, the effects of drought on the two fundamental relationships are not well documented. The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of a long-term drought imposed slowly on the nitrogen content and photosynthetic capacity of leaves similarly exposed to light, from 3-year-old lychee trees cv. Kwaï Mi. Leaf nitrogen and non-structural carbohydrate concentrations were measured along with gas exchanges and the light-saturated rate of photosynthetic electron transport (J(max)) after a 5.5-month-long period of drought. Leaf nitrogen content on a mass basis remained stable, while the leaf mass-to-area ratio (LMA) increased with increasing water stress. Consequently, the leaf nitrogen content on an area basis (N(a)) increased in a non-linear fashion. The starch content decreased, while the soluble sugar content increased. Stomata closed and net assimilation decreased to zero, while J(max) and the ratio J(max)/N(a) decreased with increasing water stress. The drought-associated decrease in photosynthetic capacity can be attributed to downregulation of photosynthetic electron transport and to reallocation of leaf nitrogen content. It is concluded that modeling photosynthesis in drought conditions will require, first, the modeling of the effect of drought on LMA and J(max).

  5. Tratamento térmico na manutenção da coloração de lichias Thermal treatment in lychee color maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Vacaro de Souza

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a influência do tratamento térmico na coloração de frutos de lichia. Os frutos foram tratados por 0; 5; 10; 15; 20 e 25 minutos de imersão em água a 45ºC, embalados em bandejas de poliestireno expandido e filme de policloreto de vinila 0,020mm e armazenados em B.O.D. a 5ºC e 90±5 % de UR. O delineamento experimental foi em esquema inteiramente casualizado, com 6 tempos de armazenamento para as análises de coloração e enzimática, e até atingirem o limite de comercialização para a análise da vida útil, sendo os frutos analisados a cada 3 dias, com 3 repetições e 10 frutos por unidade experimental. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: análise visual do escurecimento, coloração e atividade específica da polifenol oxidase e da peroxidase. Os tratamentos usando 5 e 10 minutos de imersão foram os que apresentaram melhores resultados na manutenção da coloração dos frutos e na diminuição da atividade enzimática.The objective of the work was to evaluate the influence of the thermal treatment in the color of lychee fruits. The fruits were treated by 0; 5; 10; 15; 20 and 25 minutes of water immersion at 45ºC, packaged in expanded polystyrene trays and film of polyvinyl chloride 0.020mm, stored in B.O.D. at 5ºC and 90±5 % of UR. The experimental delineation was in a completely randomized scheme, with 6 times of storage for the color and enzymatic analysis, until they reached the limit for the marketing for the analysis of the shelf-life, and the fruits were analyzed every 3 days, with 3 replications and 10 fruits in each experimental unity. The evaluated parameters were: visual analysis of the browning, color and specific activity of the polyphenol oxidase and the peroxidase. The treatments using 5 and 10 minutes of immersion showed the best results in maintaining the color of the fruits and in the reduction of the enzymatic activity.

  6. Pré-resfriamento em água de lichia 'B3' mantida em armazenamento refrigerado Hydrocooling of 'B3' lychee fruit maintained in cold storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Saavedra del Aguila

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento visou a estudar o efeito de diferentes temperaturas e tempos de pré-resfriamento em água sobre a qualidade de lichias 'B3', após a frigoconservação. Os tratamentos foram: T1 = controle (sem pré-resfriamento; T2 = imersão por cinco minutos em água a 2,5°C; T3 = imersão por 10 minutos em água a 2,5°C; T4 = imersão por 20 minutos em água a 2,5°C; T5 = imersão por sete minutos em água a 6°C; T6 = imersão por 20 minutos em água a 8°C e T7 = imersão por 10 minutos em água a 10°C. Após a aplicação dos respectivos tratamentos, os frutos foram acondicionados em filmes de polietileno de 24µm, selados e posteriormente armazenados a 5°C e 90% UR, por um período de sete dias, seguido por três dias de comercialização simulada a 20°C e 70% UR. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, com tratamentos fatoriais de 7x3 (tratamentosxtempo. Foram utilizadas quatro repetições por tratamento, sendo cada uma composta por 150g de frutos. Determinaram-se: perda de massa fresca, coloração (L*, a e b, escurecimento (% e podridões (%. De acordo com os resultados, o pré-resfriamento com água reduz a percentagem de escurecimento, o decréscimo da luminosidade (L* e os valores de a. Por outro lado, esse tratamento favorece o surgimento de altos índices de podridão.This project studied the effects of different precooling temperatures and times with water on lychee 'B3' fruit quality cold storage. The treatments were: T1 = control (without precooling; T2 = immersed in water at 2.5°C for five minutes; T3 = immersed in water at 2.5°C for ten minutes; T4 = immersed in water at 2.5°C for 20 minutes; T5 = immersed in water at 6°C for seven minutes; T6 = immersed in water at 8°C for 20 minutes and T7 = immersed in water at 10°C for ten minutes. After treatments application, the fruits were then placed into polyethylene bags of 24µm, sealed, and stored for seven days at 5°C and 90% RH, plus 3 days at 20

  7. Chemical, physical-chemical, and sensory characteristics of lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn) wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Juliana Alvarenga; de Oliveira Lima, Luiz Carlos; Nunes, Cleiton Antônio; Dias, Disney Ribeiro; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2011-01-01

    Four lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn) wines (prepared with 3 yeast strains [UFLA CA11, UFLA CA1183, and UFLA CA1174]) and a spontaneous fermentation (SPON) were done in order to add value to the fruit while preventing waste arising from the short shelf life of lychee. The fermentation was monitored daily by analyzing the soluble solids, pH, acidity, ethanol, and sugar. At the end of fermentation, the wines were subjected to chemical, physical-chemical, and sensory analysis. The wines prepared showed greater variations in the qualitative than in the quantitative analysis of their constituents. The sensory analysis indicated that the wines fermented by yeast UFLA CA1183 and UFLA CA11 had rates of acceptance above 75%. The principal components analysis separated the wines into 2 groups according to the analyzed compounds. Based on these analyses, the wine produced by inoculation with UFLA CA1183 proved to be the most suitable for the production of lychee wines. Development of new products and adding value to fruits. Importance of selection of specific yeasts for production of fruit wine. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Adsorption of malachite green by magnetic litchi pericarps: A response surface methodology investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hao; Qi, Jinqiu; Jiang, Ruixue; Gao, Yan; Li, Xiaochen

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we synthesized a novel magnetic adsorbent containing litchi pericarps, denoted as MLP, for the removal of malachite green (MG) from solution. The factors influencing MG adsorption, such as contact time, adsorbent dosage, and initial dye concentration, were optimized using the Box-Behnken response surface methodology (RSM). The adsorption isotherms as well as the kinetics and thermodynamics of the adsorption of MG onto MLP are discussed. The results showed that MLP has a maximum adsorption efficiency of 99.5% when the temperature, pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage, and initial MG concentration were optimally set as 25 °C, 6.0, 66.69 min, 5.14 g/L, and 150 mg/L, respectively. The best model to describe this process is the Langmuir isotherm, with the maximum adsorption capacity being 70.42 mg/g. In addition, the kinetics of MG adsorption onto MLP followed a pseudo-second-order model; moreover, thermodynamic analysis suggested that MG adsorption onto MLP is spontaneous and endothermic. Finally, it was found that the new magnetic adsorbent can be separated easily and rapidly from mixed solutions in the presence of an external magnetic field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A novel translabial platform utilizing bioexcipients from Litchi chinesis for the delivery of rosiglitazone maleate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Satheesh Madhav

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to formulate drug-loaded bio-lipstrips using novel bioexcipients isolated from the fruit pulp of Litchi chinesis (biomaterial L and to explore the potentiality of lip skin as a novel translabial drug delivery system. The biomaterial, prepared by a simplified economical process and purified by hot dialysis, was subjected to various physicochemical evaluations along with spectral analysis including UV, FT-IR, Mass and 1H NMR. The lipstrip formulated with the novel bioexcipients was screened for its functional properties, including filmability using a film-casting method, and bio/muco-adhesitivity using a shear-stress method, the Park and Robinson method and a rotating cylinder method. Rosiglitazone-loaded bio-lipstrips were formulated by using biomaterial L as a strip former and dextrose as a flexicizer. The formulated strips were subjected to various evaluations, including thickness, folding endurance, in-vitro release and in-vivo release. The release of rosiglitazone maleate was maintained over 24 h, which was confirmed in in-vitro and in-vivo release experiments. Our results reveal that this biopolymer possesses promising stripability as well as bio-adhesitivity. The formulated bio-lipstrips are feasible for delivering rosiglitazone maleate by translabial administration.

  10. Tamarix chinensis Lour.: saltcedar or five-stamen tamarisk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne D. Shepperd

    2008-01-01

    Saltcedar (Tamarix chinensis (Lour.)) and smallflower tamarisk (T. parviflora DC.) hybridize in the Southwest (Baum 1967; Horton and Campbell 1974) and are deciduous, pentamerous tamarisks that are both commonly referred to as saltcedar. Saltcedar is a native of Eurasia that has naturalized in the southwestern United States within the last century. It was introduced...

  11. Effect of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz) Schisandraceae seed extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    primary beneficial compounds in S. chinensis are the lignins ... important roles in the adaptive immune response. [8]. Lignins stimulate the production of cytokines, ... routinely used to evaluate drug actions, tumor .... on carcinogen metabolism systems in mouse liver. Food ... action and serum bile acid concentration in.

  12. Occurrence of Escherichia coli in Brassica rapa L. chinensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low quality water has become valuable resource with restricted or unrestricted use in food production depending on its quality. This study has quantified the occurrence of Escherichia coli in Brassica rapa L. chinensis (Chinese cabbage) vegetables and low quality irrigation water. A total of 106 samples including Chinese ...

  13. Uso do ácido ascórbico no controle do escurecimento do pericarpo de lichia Use of ascorbic acid in the control of browning in the pericarp of lychees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danieele Fabíola Pereira da Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Um dos maiores problemas na pós-colheita da lichia é o escurecimento do pericarpo, o qual tem sido atribuído à degradação da antocianina. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes doses de ácido ascórbico na prevenção do escurecimento do pericarpo e na manutenção da qualidade pós-colheita de lichia. Frutos de lichieira 'Bengal' com o pericarpo completamente vermelho foram imersos em solução com diferentes doses de ácido ascórbico (0; 5; 10; 15 e 30 mM, por 5 minutos. Após secagem à temperatura ambiente, foram acondicionados em bandejas de poliestireno, armazenados em câmara fria a 5 ± 1,2°C e 90 ± 5% de UR e avaliados a cada 4 dias, durante 12 dias. Observou-se que a perda de massa fresca foi maior nos frutos não tratados com ácido ascórbico. Independentemente da dose, o ácido ascórbico teve pouco efeito na retenção da cor vermelha do pericarpo de lichia. A atividade das enzimas polifenoloxidase e peroxidase no pericarpo foi maior com as menores doses de ácido ascórbico (0; 5 e 10 mM, entretanto observou-se escurecimento a partir do quarto dia no pericarpo dos frutos tratados com este ácido. O ácido ascórbico também não foi eficiente na manutenção da qualidade interna dos frutos.One of the biggest problems in postharvest of lychees is the pericarp browning, which has been attributed to anthocyanins degradation. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of different doses of ascorbic acid to prevent pericarp browning and on the maintenance of postharvest quality of lychees. Fruits of 'Bengal' lychee with completely red pericarp were immersed in solution with different doses of ascorbic acid (0, 5, 10, 15 and 30 mM for 5 minutes. After dried, the fruits were packed in polystyrene trays, stored in cold chamber at 5 ± 1,2°C e 90 ± 5% de RH and evaluated every other 4 days for 12 days. It was observed that the loss of fresh weight was higher in non-treated with ascorbic acid

  14. Effects of UV-C Light Exposure and Refrigeration on Phenolic and Antioxidant Profiles of Subtropical Fruits (Litchi, Longan, and Rambutan in Different Fruit Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peilong Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to investigate how UV-C irradiation and refrigeration affect shelf-life and antioxidant level of litchi, longan, and rambutan. Three forms (whole, dehulled, and destoned of fresh fruits were treated by refrigeration and UV-C irradiations. After processing, deterioration rate, phenolics compounds, and antioxidant capacity were quantified. The deterioration rate was recorded as decay index. The results showed that both refrigeration and UV-C exposure extended the shelf-life of the fruits. The refrigeration enriched antioxidant levels of litchi but caused nutritional degradation in longan and rambutan; UV-C radiation enriched litchi antioxidant contents but was related to reduction of antioxidant capacity in longan and rambutan. Removing hulls and stones was associated with the decrease of antioxidants in litchi. The effects on antioxidant levels varied from fruit to fruit, resulting from hormesis phenomenon. The change of phytochemical levels was hypothesized as an accumulative process. The effects of fruit forms were not consistent in different fruits, which could be multifactorially influenced.

  15. Antiosteoporotic compounds from seeds of Cuscuta chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lijuan; Chen, Qianfeng; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Guolin

    2011-05-17

    The seeds of Cuscuta chinensis (Tu-Si-Zi, TSZ) have long been used for the treatment of osteoporosis in China and some Asian countries. The compounds in TSZ responsible for the antiosteoporotic activity are still poorly understood. The present study was designed to investigate the osteogenic compounds in TSZ, and to evaluate their antiosteoporotic effects in osteoblastic cells. Osteoblast-like UMR-106 cells were used for bioactivity-guided isolation of the active compounds. The activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in UMR-106 cells was measured by p-nitrophenyl sodium phosphate assay. The proliferation of UMR-106 cells was assayed by Alamar-Blue method. Estrogenic activity of the extracts and isolated compounds was evaluated by activation of estrogen response element (ERE) luciferase reporter expression in HeLa cells co-transfected with human estrogen receptor subtypes (ERα or ERβ) expression vectors and 5×ERE luciferase reporter plasmid. Antiestrogenic activity of the extracts and isolated compounds were evaluated by activation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) luciferase reporter expression in HeLa cells co-transfected with human estrogen receptor subtypes (ERα or ERβ) expression vectors and 6×AP-1 luciferase reporter plasmid. ALP-guided fractionation led to the isolation of five known flavonoids, quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, hyperoside and astragalin from the crude ethanolic extract of TSZ. Further study showed that kaempferol and hyperoside significantly increased the ALP activity in UMR-106 cells. Astragalin promoted the proliferation of UMR-106 cells whereas other compounds had no such effect. The isolated compounds showed estrogenic activity but quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin showed more potent ERβ agonist activity. However, compared with their ER agonist activity, only quercetin and kaempferol showed potent ER antagonist activity by activating ERα/β-mediated AP-1 reporter expression. Our findings validated the clinical use of TSZ in

  16. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Coptis chinensis Franch. and Its Evolutionary History

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yang; Deng, Cao; Fan, Gang; Qin, Shishang

    2017-01-01

    The Coptis chinensis Franch. is an important medicinal plant from the Ranunculales. We used next generation sequencing technology to determine the complete chloroplast genome of C. chinensis. This genome is 155,484 bp long with 38.17% GC content. Two 26,758 bp long inverted repeats separated the genome into a typical quadripartite structure. The C. chinensis chloroplast genome consists of 128 gene loci, including eight rRNA gene loci, 28 tRNA gene loci, and 92 protein-coding gene loci. Most of the SSRs in C. chinensis are poly-A/T. The numbers of mononucleotide SSRs in C. chinensis and other Ranunculaceae species are fewer than those in Berberidaceae species, while the number of dinucleotide SSRs is greater than that in the Berberidaceae. C. chinensis diverged from other Ranunculaceae species an estimated 81 million years ago (Mya). The divergence between Ranunculaceae and Berberidaceae was ~111 Mya, while the Ranunculales and Magnoliaceae shared a common ancestor during the Jurassic, ~153 Mya. Position 104 of the C. chinensis ndhG protein was identified as a positively selected site, indicating possible selection for the photosystem-chlororespiration system in C. chinensis. In summary, the complete sequencing and annotation of the C. chinensis chloroplast genome will facilitate future studies on this important medicinal species. PMID:28698879

  17. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Coptis chinensis Franch. and Its Evolutionary History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Coptis chinensis Franch. is an important medicinal plant from the Ranunculales. We used next generation sequencing technology to determine the complete chloroplast genome of C. chinensis. This genome is 155,484 bp long with 38.17% GC content. Two 26,758 bp long inverted repeats separated the genome into a typical quadripartite structure. The C. chinensis chloroplast genome consists of 128 gene loci, including eight rRNA gene loci, 28 tRNA gene loci, and 92 protein-coding gene loci. Most of the SSRs in C. chinensis are poly-A/T. The numbers of mononucleotide SSRs in C. chinensis and other Ranunculaceae species are fewer than those in Berberidaceae species, while the number of dinucleotide SSRs is greater than that in the Berberidaceae. C. chinensis diverged from other Ranunculaceae species an estimated 81 million years ago (Mya. The divergence between Ranunculaceae and Berberidaceae was ~111 Mya, while the Ranunculales and Magnoliaceae shared a common ancestor during the Jurassic, ~153 Mya. Position 104 of the C. chinensis ndhG protein was identified as a positively selected site, indicating possible selection for the photosystem-chlororespiration system in C. chinensis. In summary, the complete sequencing and annotation of the C. chinensis chloroplast genome will facilitate future studies on this important medicinal species.

  18. [Reason for dormancy of Cuscuta chinensis seed and solving method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuemin; He, Jiaqing; Cai, Jing; Dong, Zhenguo

    2010-02-01

    To study the reason for the deep dormancy of the aged Cuscuta chinensis seed and find the solving method. The separated and combined treatments were applied in the orthogonal designed experiments. The aged seed had well water-absorbency; the water and ethanol extracts of the seeds showed an inhibition effect on germination capacity of the seeds. The main reason for the deep dormancy of aged C. chinensis seed is the inhibitors existed in seed. There are two methods to solve the problem. The seeds is immersed in 98% of H2SO4 for 2 min followed by 500 mg x L(-1) of GA3 treatment for 60 min, or in 100 mg x L(-1) of NaOH for 20 min followed by 500 mg x L(-1) of GA3 treatment for 120 min.

  19. Coptis chinensis Polysaccharides Inhibit Advanced Glycation End Product Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ye; Li, Yun; Yin, Dengke; Chen, Song; Gao, Xiangdong

    2016-06-01

    Coptis chinensis Franch (Huanglian) is commonly used to treat diabetes in China. In this study, the effects of the C. chinensis Franch polysaccharides (CCP) on advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation in vitro and in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were investigated. CCP significantly inhibited all the three periods of nonenzymatic protein glycation in vitro, including Amadori product, dicarbonyl compound, and AGE formation (P < .01). In diabetic mice, the administration of CCP not only improved both bodyweight and serum insulin and decreased fasting blood glucose and glycated serum protein concentrations but also decreased the AGE accumulations and morphological abnormalities in pancreas and liver. The inhibitory effects of CCP on AGE formation afford a potential therapeutic use in the prevention and treatment of diabetes.

  20. [Determination of carvacrol and thymol in Mosla chinensis by HPLC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Li; Wang, Fang; Liu, Yuan-yan; Tong, Yan; Li, Xian-duan; Feng, Xue-feng; Huang, Lu-qi; Zhou, Guo-ping

    2004-11-01

    To establish a quantitative method of determination of carvacrol and thymol in Mosla chinensis. The sample was extracted with 95% ethanol, ODS column was used with methanol-water-acetic acid (60:40:2) as mobile phase. The detection wavelength was set at 274 nm. The linearities of carvacrol and thymol were respectively in the range of 0.23-2.15 microg (r = 0.9999) and 0.39-2.36 microg (r = 0.9999); the average recoveries were 99.9% (RSD 1.4%) and 98.6% (RSD 1.3%); the RSD of repeatability were 1.1% and 1.6%. The method is reliable, and can be used for quality control of M. chinensis.

  1. Transcriptomic Response of Chinese Yew (Taxus chinensis to Cold Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianghua Yu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Taxus chinensis is a rare and endangered shrub, highly sensitive to temperature changes and widely known for its potential in cancer treatment. How gene expression of T. chinensis responds to low temperature is still unknown. To investigate cold response of the genus Taxus, we obtained the transcriptome profiles of T. chinensis grown under normal and low temperature (cold stress, 0°C conditions using Illumina Miseq sequencing. A transcriptome including 83,963 transcripts and 62,654 genes were assembled from 4.16 Gb of reads data. Comparative transcriptomic analysis identified 2,025 differently expressed (DE isoforms at p < 0.05, of which 1,437 were up-regulated by cold stress and 588 were down-regulated. Annotation of DE isoforms indicated that transcription factors (TFs in the MAPK signaling pathway and TF families of NAC, WRKY, bZIP, MYB, and ERF were transcriptionally activated. This might have been caused by the accumulation of secondary messengers, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS and Ca2+. While accumulation of ROS will have caused damages to cells, our results indicated that to adapt to low temperatures T. chinensis employed a series of mechanisms to minimize these damages. The mechanisms included: (i cold-enhanced expression of ROS deoxidant systems, such as peroxidase and phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase, to remove ROS. This was further confirmed by analyses showing increased activity of POD, SOD, and CAT under cold stress. (ii Activation of starch and sucrose metabolism, thiamine metabolism, and purine metabolism by cold-stress to produce metabolites which either protect cell organelles or lower the ROS content in cells. These processes are regulated by ROS signaling, as the “feedback” toward ROS accumulation.

  2. Distribution and elimination of Norfloxacin in Fenneropenaeus chinensis larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ming; Li, Jian; Zhao, Fazhen; Li, Jitao; Chang, Zhiqiang

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the distribution and elimination of Norfloxacin (NFLX) in Fenneropenaeus chinensis ovary and egg and newly hatched larvae. Mature parental shrimp were exposed to 4 or 10 mg L-1 NFLX for 2 or 5 d. Ovary and eggs of the shrimp were sampled after spawning in order to detect NFLX residue using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results showed that NFLX residue accumulated in F. chinensis eggs after the parental exposure, with the highest residue detected in ovary. To examine the fate of NFLX residue in larvae, we further determined the concentration of NFLX residue in F. chinensis eggs and larvae at 4 different developmental stages after 24-h exposure. From the newly metamorphosed larvae (0 h post-metamorphosis, h.p.m), samples were taken at different time intervals to 72 h.p.m. HPLC assay showed that the concentrations of NFLX residue in zoea exposed to 4 and 10 mg L-1 NFLX were the highest at 1.5 h, i.e., 0.332 and 0.454 μg g-1, respectively. At the two NFLX exposure levels, the elimination time of half NFLX (half life) in nauplius was 45.36 and 49.85 h, respectively, followed by that in zoea (31.68 and 33.13 h), mysis larvae (42.24 and 47.28 h) and postlarvae (24.48 and 30.96 h). Both NFLX exposure levels had a germicidal effect. The distribution and elimination of NFLX residue in F. chinensis tissue, eggs and larvae correlated well with the drug exposure level. The disappearance of NFLX residue coincided with the larval growth, and the half-life of NFLX decreased with the larval development.

  3. Anticancer activity of litchi fruit pericarp extract against human breast cancer in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiujie; Yuan Shulan; Wang Jing; Lin Ping; Liu Guanjian; Lu Yanrong; Zhang Jie; Wang, Wendong; Wei Yuquan

    2006-01-01

    Litchi fruit pericarp (LFP) extract contains significant amounts of polyphenolic compounds and exhibits powerful antioxidative activity against fat oxidation in vitro. The purpose of this study is to confirm the anticancer activity of LFP extract on human breast cancer in vitro and in vivo, and to elucidate the mechanism of its activity. Human breast cancer cells were tested in vitro for cytotoxicity, colony formation inhibition, BrdU incorporation, and gene expression profiling after treatment with LFP extract. Seven nude mice bearing human breast infiltrating duct carcinoma orthotopically were tested for its anticancer activity and expression of caspase-3 in vivo by oral administration of 0.3% (0.3 mg/ml) of LFP water-soluble crude ethanolic extract (CEE) for 10 weeks. LFP extract demonstrated a dose- and time-dependent inhibitory effect on cell growth (IC 5 = 80 μg/ml), and it significantly inhibited colony formation and BrdU incorporation of human breast cancer cells. Oligonucleotide microarray analysis identified 41(1.22%) up-regulated and 129 (3.84%) down-regulated genes after LFP water-soluble CEE treatment; the predominantly up-regulated genes were involved in various biological functions including cell cycle regulation and cell proliferation, apoptosis, signal transduction and transcriptional regulation, and extracellular matrix/adhesion molecules; and down-regulated genes were mainly associated with adhesion, invasion, and malignancy of cancer cells. A 40.70% tumor mass volume reduction and significant increase of casepase-3 protein expression were observed in vivo experiment. The findings in this study suggested that LFP extract might have potential anticancer activity on both ER positive and negative breast cancers, which could be attributed, in part, to its DNA damage effect, proliferating inhibition and apoptosis induction of cancer cells through up-regulation and down-regulation of multiple genes involved in cell cycle regulation and cell

  4. A Simple and Rapid Determination of ATP, ADP and AMP Concentrations in Pericarp Tissue of Litchi Fruit by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weibo Jiang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and rapid method using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was developed to determine levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP, adenosine diphosphate (ADP and adenosine monophosphate (AMP in litchi fruit pericarp tissue. This HPLC method used acetonitrile gradient elution and shortened the time required for determinations of adenosine phosphates. This analysis exhibited good repeatability (coefficients of variation 1.28–1.80 % and recovery rate (94.7–97.1 %. The correlation coefficients of ATP, ADP and AMP with their peak areas at a range of 0–80 ng were 0.9946, 0.9994 and 0.9974, respectively. This method was applied to determine levels of adenosine phosphates in pericarp tissue of litchi fruit at harvest. There were 27.4 μg/g of ATP, 35.4 μg/g of ADP and 7.9 μg/g of AMP on a fresh mass basis.

  5. Identification of medicinal plant Schisandra chinensis using a potential DNA barcode ITS2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-kuan Li

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To test whether the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2 region is an effective marker for using in authenticating of the Schisandra chinensis at the species and population levels, separately. And the results showed that the wild populations had higher percentage of individuals that had substitution of C→A at site 86-bp than the cultivated populations. At sites 10-bp, 37-bp, 42-bp and 235-bp, these bases of the Schisandra sphenanthera samples differed from that of S. chinensis. Two species showed higher levels of inter-specific divergence than intra-specific divergence within ITS2 sequences. However, 24 populations did not demonstrate much difference as inter-specific and intra-specific divergences were concerned. Both S. chinensis and S. sphenanthera showed monophyly at species level, yet the samples of different populations shown polyphyly at population level. ITS2 performed well when using BLAST1 method. ITS2 obtained 100% identification success rates at the species level for S. chinensis, with no ambiguous identification at the genus level for ITS2 alone. The ITS2 region could be used to identify S. chinensis and S. sphenanthera in the “Chinese Pharmacopoeia”. And it could also correctly distinguish 100% of species and 100% of genera from the 193 sequences of S. chinensis. Hence, the ITS2 is a powerful and efficient tool for species identification of S. chinensis.

  6. Ex vivo relaxation effect of Cuscuta chinensis extract on rabbit corpus cavernosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Zhao, Chen; Chen, Xiang-Feng; Kim, Hye-Kyung; Choi, Bo-Ram; Huang, Yi-Ran; Park, Jong-Kwan

    2013-01-01

    The effect of Cuscuta chinensis extract on the rabbit penile corpus cavernosum (PCC) was evaluated in the present study. Penises obtained from healthy male New Zealand white rabbits (2.5-3.0 kg) were precontracted with phenylephrine (Phe, 10 µmol l(-1)) and then treated with various concentrations of Cuscuta chinensis extract (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mg ml(-1)). The change in penile tension was recorded, and cyclic nucleotides in the PCC were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The interaction between Cuscuta chinensis and sildenafil was also evaluated. The result indicated that the PCC relaxation induced by Cuscuta chinensis extract was concentration-dependent. Pre-treatment with an nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor (Nω nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester, L-NAME), a guanylyl cyclase inhibitor (1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, ODQ), or a protein kinase A inhibitor (KT 5720) did not completely inhibit the relaxation. Incubation of penile cavernous tissue with the Cuscuta chinensis extract significantly increased cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in the PCC. Moreover, the Cuscuta chinensis extract significantly enhanced sildenafil-induced PCC relaxation. In conclusion, the Cuscuta chinensis extract exerts a relaxing effect on penile cavernous tissue in part by activating the NO-cGMP pathway, and it may improve erectile dysfunction (ED), which does not completely respond to sildenafil citrate.

  7. The invasion of leptochloa chinensis (L.) nees in the MUDA area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdan Pane; Mashhor Mansor; Ho Nai Kin

    2002-01-01

    In 1981, red sprangletop (Leptochloa chinensis (L.) Nees] was first observed at site 2 (Sungai Udang) in the southern part of the Muda area. In the first cropping season of 1984, the populations of L. chinensis expanded to three sampling sites. Consequently, the populations gradually spread to other parts of the Muda area. In 1986, the infestations were recorded at sampling site 6 (Kubang Pangas) which is about 50 km from the original infestation sites. In 1988, most of the southern parts of Muda area were colonized by this weed. In 1990, the populations reached the northern part of Muda area. The whole Muda area was finally covered with L. chinensis by 1992. From 1981 until 1994, the increase of area infested per unit time was estimated at about 4% of the area based on the previous year's record. The intensive survey conducted in 1994 from the 20 sampling sites showed that in addition to L. chinensis, twelve dominant weed species were also recorded. However, by far the single most dominant weed species was L. chinensis. Based on the spatial quantitative vegetative analysis, L. chinensis populations were predominantly recorded in 75% of the sampling sites. The L. chinensis populations were also observed to thrive well on slightly acidic rice fields with pH values ranging from 4.0 to 6.8. (Author)

  8. First observation on the breeding behavior of endangered species, Chinese many-tooth snake, Sibynophis chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyo Soung Koo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the first observation of reproductive behavior of endangered snake, Sibynophis chinensis in South Korea. On September 24, 2014, one female and three males were observed during the group mating in Oedo-dong, Jeju. Our observation indicates that group mating and the breeding behavior of S. chinensis could be an important way to increase genetic diversity and survival rate. Moreover, autumnal mating affects the breeding success rate of species in isolated areas. Group and autumn mating strategies by S. chinensis are considered to be the most effective way to survive in isolated areas.

  9. Effect of Galla chinensis on enhancing remineralization of enamel crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Lei; Huang Shengbin [State Key Laboratory of Oral Disease, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Li Jiyao; Zhou Xuedong, E-mail: stonedentist@yahoo.c [West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China)

    2009-06-15

    The aim of this scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study was to investigate the effect of chemical compounds of Galla chinensis (GCE, gallic acid) on the remineralization of enamel crystals in vitro. Bovine enamel blocks with an in vitro produced initial lesion were used. The lesions were subjected to a pH-cycling regime for 12 days. Each daily cycle included 4 x 1 min applications with one of six treatments: group A: 1000 ppm F aq. (as NaF, positive control); group B: deionized water (DDW, negative control); group C: 4000 ppm crude aqueous extract of GCE; group D: 4000 ppm gallic acid; group E: 4000 ppm GCE with 1000 ppm F; group F: 4000 ppm gallic acid with 1000 ppm F. The surface and vertical section of the enamel lesions were analyzed by SEM. The results indicated that the chemical compounds of G. chinensis could regulate the de-/remineralization balance through influencing the morphology and structure of enamel crystals, and the mechanisms seem to be different for GCE and gallic acid.

  10. Effect of Galla chinensis on enhancing remineralization of enamel crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Lei; Huang Shengbin; Li Jiyao; Zhou Xuedong

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study was to investigate the effect of chemical compounds of Galla chinensis (GCE, gallic acid) on the remineralization of enamel crystals in vitro. Bovine enamel blocks with an in vitro produced initial lesion were used. The lesions were subjected to a pH-cycling regime for 12 days. Each daily cycle included 4 x 1 min applications with one of six treatments: group A: 1000 ppm F aq. (as NaF, positive control); group B: deionized water (DDW, negative control); group C: 4000 ppm crude aqueous extract of GCE; group D: 4000 ppm gallic acid; group E: 4000 ppm GCE with 1000 ppm F; group F: 4000 ppm gallic acid with 1000 ppm F. The surface and vertical section of the enamel lesions were analyzed by SEM. The results indicated that the chemical compounds of G. chinensis could regulate the de-/remineralization balance through influencing the morphology and structure of enamel crystals, and the mechanisms seem to be different for GCE and gallic acid.

  11. Antioxidant lipoxygenase inhibitors from the leaf extracts of Simmondsia chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Mageed, Wael Mostafa; Bayoumi, Soad Abdel Latief Hassan; Salama, Awwad Abdoh Radwan; Salem-Bekhit, Mounir Mohamed; Abd-Alrahman, Sherif Hussein; Sayed, Hanaa Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    To isolate and identify chemical constituents with antioxidant and lipoxygenase inhibitory effects of the ethanolic extract of Simmondsia chinensis (Jojoba) leaves. The alcoholic extract was subjected to successive solvent fractionation. The antioxidant active fractions (chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions) were subjected to a combination of different chromatographic techniques guided by the antioxidant assay with DPPH. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidences and correlated with known compounds. The antioxidant activity was assessed quantitively using DPPH and β-carotene methods. The inhibitory potential against enzyme lipoxygenase was assessed on soybean lipoxygenase enzyme. Ten flavonoids and four lignans were isolated. Flavonoid aglycones showed stronger antioxidant and lipoxygenase inhibitory effects than their glycosides. Lignoid glycosides showed moderate to weak antioxidant and lipoxygenase inhibitory effects. A total of 14 compounds were isolated and identified from Simmondsia chinensis; 12 of them were isolated for the first time. This is the first report that highlights deeply on the phenolic content of jojoba and their potential biological activities and shows the importance of this plant as a good source of phenolics in particular the flavonoid content. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Nutrigenomics in Arma chinensis: transcriptome analysis of Arma chinensis fed on artificial diet and Chinese oak silk moth Antheraea pernyi pupae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyu Zou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The insect predator, Arma chinensis, is capable of effectively controlling many pests, such as Colorado potato beetle, cotton bollworm, and mirid bugs. Our previous study demonstrated several life history parameters were diminished for A. chinensis reared on an artificial diet compared to a natural food source like the Chinese oak silk moth pupae. The molecular mechanisms underlying the nutritive impact of the artificial diet on A. chinensis health are unclear. So we utilized transcriptome information to better understand the impact of the artificial diet on A. chinensis at the molecular level. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Illumina HiSeq2000 was used to sequence 4.79 and 4.70 Gb of the transcriptome from pupae-fed and artificial diet-fed A. chinensis libraries, respectively, and a de novo transcriptome assembly was performed (Trinity short read assembler. This resulted in 112,029 and 98,724 contigs, clustered into 54,083 and 54,169 unigenes for pupae-fed and diet-fed A. chinensis, respectively. Unigenes from each sample's assembly underwent sequence splicing and redundancy removal to acquire non-redundant unigenes. We obtained 55,189 unigenes of A. chinensis, including 12,046 distinct clusters and 43,143 distinct singletons. Unigene sequences were aligned by BLASTx to nr, Swiss-Prot, KEGG and COG (E-value <10(-5, and further aligned by BLASTn to nt (E-value <10(-5, retrieving proteins of highest sequence similarity with the given unigenes along with their protein functional annotations. Totally, 22,964, 7,898, 18,069, 15,416, 8,066 and 5,341 unigenes were annotated in nr, nt, Swiss-Prot, KEGG, COG and GO, respectively. We compared gene expression variations and found thousands of genes were differentially expressed between pupae-fed and diet-fed A. chinensis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides abundant genomic data and offers comprehensive sequence information for studying A. chinensis. Additionally, the physiological

  13. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of Cuscuta chinensis seeds in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jung-Chun; Chang, Wen-Te; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Chiu, Yung-Jia; Chao, Wei-Kai; Lin, Ying-Chih; Lin, Ming-Kuem; Peng, Wen-Huang

    2014-01-01

    The seeds of Cuscuta chinensis, Cuscutae Semen, are commonly used as a medicinal material for treating the aching and weakness of the loins and knees, tonifying the defects of the liver and the kidney, and treating the diarrhea due to hypofunction of the kidney and the spleen. Since aching and inflammation are highly correlated with such diseases, the aim of this study is to investigate the possible antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the seeds of C. chinensis. The antinociceptive effect of the seeds of C. chinensis was evaluated via the acetic acid-induced writhing response and formalin-induced paw licking methods. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated via the λ-carrageenan induced mouse paw edema method. The results found that 100 and 500 mg/kg of the methanol extract of the seeds of C. chinensis( CC MeOH ) significantly decreased (p Cuscutae Semen in inflammatory diseases.

  14. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Cuscuta chinensis against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Feng-Lin; Wu, Tzu-Hui; Lin, Liang-Tzung; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2007-04-20

    Tu-Si-Zi, the seeds of Cuscuta chinensis Lam. (Convolvulaceae), is a traditional Chinese medicine that is commonly used to nourish and improve the liver and kidney conditions in China and other Asian countries. As oxidative stress promotes the development of acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity, the aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the hepatoprotective effect and antioxidant activities of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of C chinensis on APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The C chinensis ethanolic extract at an oral dose of both 125 and 250mg/kg showed a significant hepatoprotective effect relatively to the same extent (PCuscuta chinensis can prevent hepatic injuries from APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in rats and this is likely mediated through its antioxidant activities.

  15. Chemical composition of the leaf oil of Alpinia chinensis Rosc. from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dung, N.X.; Chinh, T.D.; Rang, D.D.; Leclercq, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    The essential oil of the leaves of A. chinensis was analyzed by capillary gas chromatog. and gas chromatog.-mass spectrometry. More than 40 components were identified, of which b-bisabolene (47.9%) was the major one

  16. [Content and distribution of active components in cultivated and wild Taxus chinensis var. mairei plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shao-Shuai; Sun, Qi-Wu; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Tian, Sheng-Ni; Bo, Pei-Lei

    2012-10-01

    Taxus chinensis var. mairei is an endemic and endangered plant species in China. The resources of T. chinensis var. mairei have been excessively exploited due to its anti-cancer potential, accordingly, the extant T. chinensis var. mairei population is decreasing. In this paper, ultrasonic extraction and HPLC were adopted to determine the contents of active components paclitaxel, 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine in cultivated and wild T. chinensis var. mairei plants, with the content distribution of these components in different parts of the plants having grown for different years and at different slope aspects investigated. There existed obvious differences in the contents of these active components between cultivated and wild T. chinensis var. mairei plants. The paclitaxel content in the wild plants was about 0.78 times more than that in the cultivated plants, whereas the 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine contents were slishtly higher in the cultivated plants. The differences in the three active components contents between different parts and tree canopies of the plants were notable, being higher in barks and upper tree canopies. Four-year old plants had comparatively higher contents of paclitaxel, 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine (0.08, 0.91 and 0.32 mg x g(-1), respectively), and the plants growing at sunny slope had higher contents of the three active components, with significant differences in the paclitaxel and 7-xylosyltaxol contents and unapparent difference in the cephalomannine content of the plants at shady slope. It was suggested that the accumulation of the three active components in T. chinensis var. mairei plants were closely related to the sunshine conditions. To appropriately increase the sunshine during the artificial cultivation of T. chinensis var. mairei would be beneficial to the accumulation of the three active components in T. chinensis var. mairei plants.

  17. Study of organic acids in Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus after vinegar processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fangzhou; Dai, Hui; Li, Lin; Lu, Tuling; Li, Weidong; Cai, Baochang; Yin, Wu

    2017-10-01

    The ripened fruit of Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus has unique medical properties in Chinese medicine. It is commonly used after vinegar steaming. Vinegar steaming changes the color of Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus from red to black and enhances its acidic and astringent properties. Lignans are the well-investigated components in this herb. However, Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus is acidic in the theory of Chinese medicine, and whether vinegar processing changes its organic acid components remains largely unknown. In this study, the organic acids in this herb were derived by the method of methyl esterification, and further analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. A total of 39 organic acid compounds were identified. Interestingly, Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus after vinegar processing showed a significant increase in the content of levulinic acid as compared to the unprocessed ones. Pharmacological experiments demonstrated that levulinic acid inhibited the contractility of isolated intestine and had an inhibitory effect on the excessive hyperfunction of small intestinal propulsion. Moreover, the extracts of vinegar-processed Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus had a stronger inhibitory on the excessive hyperfunction of small intestinal propulsion than that of unprocessed ones. Taken together, this study offers novel insight into the effect of Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus after vinegar processing. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Cuscuta chinensis Ameliorates Immunosuppression and Urotoxic Effect of Cyclophosphamide by Regulating Cytokines - GM-CSF and TNF-Alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Nidhi; Sakthivel, Kunnathur Murugesan; Kannan, Narayanan; Vinod Prabhu, Venugopal; Guruvayoorappan, Chandrasekaran

    2015-06-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide. Cyclophosphamide (CTX) is commonly used as anticancer drug which causes toxicity by its reactive metabolites such as acroline and phosphoramide mustard. In this study, Cuscuta chinensis (C. chinensis) (family: Convolvulaceae) was assessed for ability to restore mice against CTX-induced toxicity. Coadministration of C. chinensis extract (10 mg/kg BW, IP, daily) for ten consecutive days reduced CTX-induced (25 mg/kg BW, IP, daily) toxicity. Treatment with C. chinensis extract significantly (p < 0.01) increased the relative organ weight and body weight. Moreover, administration of C. chinensis extract significantly increased bone marrow cellulatity and α-esterase activity in CTX-treated mice which suggested its protective role on the hematopoietic system. The GSH content was drastically reduced by CTX administration in urinary bladder which was enhanced by treatment with C. chinensis extract, indicating that preventing acroline-mediated tissue damage or cell toxicity and also the extract decreased the urinary bladder nitric oxide (NO) level which proves recovery over urinary tract injury associated with CTX treatment. The administration of C. chinensis extract decreased serum urea, creatinine, and bilirubin levels when compared to CTX-alone-treated group. Histopathological analysis of the urinary bladder of CTX-alone-treated group showed necrotic damage whereas the C. chinensis-treated group showed normal bladder architecture. The above data clearly demonstrates chemoprotective role of C. chinensis against CTX-induced toxicities by regulating antioxidant and inflammatory mediators.

  19. Two new lignan glycosides from the seeds of Cuscuta chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiang-Hui; Yang, Wen-Zhi; Meng, A-Hui; He, Wen-Ni; Guo, De-An; Ye, Min

    2010-11-01

    Two new lignan glycosides, 2'-hydroxyl asarinin 2'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (cuscutoside C, 1) and 2'-hydroxyl asarinin 2'-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1 → 2)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (cuscutoside D, 2), were isolated from the seeds of Cuscuta chinensis Lam., along with six known compounds, 2'-hydroxyl asarinin 2'-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), 2'-hydroxyl asarinin 2'-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-glucopyranoside (cuscutoside A, 4), kaempferol 3,7-di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), 5-caffeoyl quinic acid (6), 4-caffeoyl quinic acid (7), and cinnamic acid (8). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses including HR-ESI-MS, ESI-MS/MS, (1)H and (13)C NMR, HSQC, HMBC, and TOCSY.

  20. Sequencing of the Litchi Downy Blight Pathogen Reveals It Is a Phytophthora Species With Downy Mildew-Like Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Wenwu; Wang, Yang; Shen, Danyu; Li, Delong; Pu, Tianhuizi; Jiang, Zide; Zhang, Zhengguang; Zheng, Xiaobo; Tyler, Brett M; Wang, Yuanchao

    2016-07-01

    On the basis of its downy mildew-like morphology, the litchi downy blight pathogen was previously named Peronophythora litchii. Recently, however, it was proposed to transfer this pathogen to Phytophthora clade 4. To better characterize this unusual oomycete species and important fruit pathogen, we obtained the genome sequence of Phytophthora litchii and compared it to those from other oomycete species. P. litchii has a small genome with tightly spaced genes. On the basis of a multilocus phylogenetic analysis, the placement of P. litchii in the genus Phytophthora is strongly supported. Effector proteins predicted included 245 RxLR, 30 necrosis-and-ethylene-inducing protein-like, and 14 crinkler proteins. The typical motifs, phylogenies, and activities of these effectors were typical for a Phytophthora species. However, like the genome features of the analyzed downy mildews, P. litchii exhibited a streamlined genome with a relatively small number of genes in both core and species-specific protein families. The low GC content and slight codon preferences of P. litchii sequences were similar to those of the analyzed downy mildews and a subset of Phytophthora species. Taken together, these observations suggest that P. litchii is a Phytophthora pathogen that is in the process of acquiring downy mildew-like genomic and morphological features. Thus P. litchii may provide a novel model for investigating morphological development and genomic adaptation in oomycete pathogens.

  1. Rapid development of microsatellite markers for Callosobruchus chinensis using Illumina paired-end sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can-Xing Duan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The adzuki bean weevil, Callosobruchus chinensis L., is one of the most destructive pests of stored legume seeds such as mungbean, cowpea, and adzuki bean, which usually cause considerable loss in the quantity and quality of stored seeds during transportation and storage. However, a lack of genetic information of this pest results in a series of genetic questions remain largely unknown, including population genetic structure, kinship, biotype abundance, and so on. Co-dominant microsatellite markers offer a great resolving power to determine these events. Here, we report rapid microsatellite isolation from C. chinensis via high-throughput sequencing. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, 94,560,852 quality-filtered and trimmed reads were obtained for the assembly of genome using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. In total, the genome with total length of 497,124,785 bp, comprising 403,113 high quality contigs was generated with de novo assembly. More than 6800 SSR loci were detected and a suit of 6303 primer pair sequences were designed and 500 of them were randomly selected for validation. Of these, 196 pair of primers, i.e. 39.2%, produced reproducible amplicons that were polymorphic among 8 C. chinensis genotypes collected from different geographical regions. Twenty out of 196 polymorphic SSR markers were used to analyze the genetic diversity of 18 C. chinensis populations. The results showed the twenty SSR loci were highly polymorphic among these populations. CONCLUSIONS: This study presents a first report of genome sequencing and de novo assembly for C. chinensis and demonstrates the feasibility of generating a large scale of sequence information and SSR loci isolation by Illumina paired-end sequencing. Our results provide a valuable resource for C. chinensis research. These novel markers are valuable for future genetic mapping, trait association, genetic structure and kinship among C. chinensis.

  2. [Gene cloning and bioinformatics analysis of SABATH methyltransferase in Lonicera japonica var. chinensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Dan; Jiang, Chao; Huang, Lu-Qi; Qin, Shuang-Shuang; Zeng, Xiang-Mei; Chen, Ping; Yuan, Yuan

    2013-08-01

    To clone SABATH methyltransferase (rLjSABATHMT) gene in Lonicera japonica var. chinensis, and compare the gene expression and intron sequence of SABATH methyltransferase orthologous in L. japonica with L. japonica var. chinensis. It provide a basis for gene regulate the formation of L. japonica floral scents. The cDNA and genome sequences of LjSABATHMT from L. japonica var. chinensis were cloned according to the gene fragments in cDNA library. The LjSABATHMT protein was characterized by bioinformatics analysis. SABATH family phylogenetic tree were built by MEGA 5.0. The transcripted level of SABATHMT orthologous were analyzed in different organs and different flower periods of L. japonica and L. japonica var. chinensis using RT-PCR analysis. Intron sequences of SABATHMT orthologous were also analyzied. The cDNA of LjSABATHMT was 1 251 bp, had a complete coding frame with 365 amino acids. The protein had the conservative SABATHMT domain, and phylogenetic tree showed that it may be a salicylic acid/benzoic acid methyltransferase. Higher expression of SABATH methyltransferase orthologous was found in flower. The intron sequence of L. japonica and L. japonica var. chinensis had rich polymorphism, and two SNP are unique genotype of L. japonica var. chinensis. The motif elements in two orthologous genes were significant differences. The intron difference of SABATH methyltransferase orthologous could be inducing to difference of gene expression between L. japonica and L. japonica var. chinensis. These results will provide important base on regulating active compounds of L. japonica.

  3. Anatomy of the aerial parts and chemical composition of the essential oil of Orthodon chinensis Maxim. from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lo, V.N.; An, N.T.K.; Dung, N.X.; Nam, Vu Viet; Leclercq, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    The aerial parts of Orthodon chinensis Maxim. (syn. Mosla chinensis Maxim.) are used for the treatment of some common diseases (dyspepsia, diarrhoea, epidermophytosis, etc.) and for the production of traditional alcohol yeast. The anatomic structure of the stem and leaves has been studied and is

  4. Study of Commercially Available Lobelia chinensis Products Using Bar-HRM Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Yan, Song; Li, Jingjian; Xiong, Chao; Shi, Yuhua; Wu, Lan; Xiang, Li; Deng, Bo; Ma, Wei; Chen, Shilin

    2017-01-01

    There is an unmet need for herbal medicine identification using a fast, sensitive, and easy-to-use method that does not require complex infrastructure and well-trained technicians. For instance, the detection of adulterants in Lobelia chinensis herbal product has been challenging, since current detection technologies are not effective due to their own limits. High Resolution Melting (HRM) has emerged as a powerful new technology for clinical diagnosis, research in the food industry and in plant molecular biology, and this method has already highlighted the complexity of species identification. In this study, we developed a method of species specific detection of L. chinensis using HRM analysis combined with internal transcribed spacer 2. We then applied this method to commercial products purporting to contain L . chinensis . Our results demonstrated that HRM can differentiate L. chinensis from six common adulterants. HRM was proven to be a fast and accurate technique for testing the authenticity of L. chinensis in herbal products. Based on these results, a HRM approach for herbal authentication is provided.

  5. [Effects of water stress and temperature on gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of Sinocalycanthus chinensis leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Shi-sheng; Jin, Ze-xin

    2008-01-01

    Sinocalycanthus chinensis is an endangered species in Sinocalycanthus, and only distributed in Zhejiang Province of China. This paper studied the photosynthetic responses of 2-year-old pot-cultured S. chinensis to different levels of water stress and temperature. The results indicated that under mild and moderate water stress, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) of S. chinensis leaves was decreased to 92.3% and 74.3% of the control, respectively, which was mainly attributed to stomatal limitation; and under severe water stress, the Pn was decreased to 44.4% of the control, which might be mainly linked to non-stomatal limitation. The appropriate temperature for S. chinensis photosynthesis was from 20 degrees C to 28 degrees C. At 39 degrees C, the Pn, water use efficiency (WUE), and maximal photochemistry efficiency (Fv/Fm) were decreased significantly, while the dark respiration rate (Rd) and transpiration rate (Tr) were enhanced significantly. With increasing water stress and temperature, some photosynthetic parameters including light saturation point (LSP), apparent quantum yield (AQY) and maximal CO2 assimilation rate (Pmax) decreased to certain extents, while light compensation point (LCP) increased, suggesting that both severe water stress and higher temperature were the important environmental factors affecting the survival of S. chinensis.

  6. Effects of salt-drought stress on growth and physiobiochemical characteristics of Tamarix chinensis seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junhua; Xia, Jiangbao; Fang, Yanming; Li, Tian; Liu, Jingtao

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to clarify the effects of salinity and water intercross stresses on the growth and physiobiochemical characteristics of Tamarix chinensis seedlings by pots culture under the artificial simulated conditions. The growth, activities of SOD, POD, and contents of MDA and osmotic adjusting substances of three years old seedlings of T. chinensis were studied under different salt-drought intercross stress. Results showed that the influence of salt stress on growth was greater than drought stress, the oxidation resistance of SOD and POD weakened gradually with salt and drought stresses intensified, and the content of MDA was higher under severe drought and mild and moderate salt stresses. The proline contents increased with the stress intensified but only significantly higher than control under the intercross stresses of severe salt-severe drought. It implied that T. chinensis could improve its stress resistance by adjusted self-growth and physiobiochemical characteristics, and the intercross compatibility of T. chinensis to salt and drought stresses can enhance the salt resistance under appropriate drought stress, but the dominant factors influencing the physiological biochemical characteristics of T. chinensis were various with the changing of salt-drought intercross stresses gradients.

  7. Effects of Salt-Drought Stress on Growth and Physiobiochemical Characteristics of Tamarix chinensis Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhua Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to clarify the effects of salinity and water intercross stresses on the growth and physiobiochemical characteristics of Tamarix chinensis seedlings by pots culture under the artificial simulated conditions. The growth, activities of SOD, POD, and contents of MDA and osmotic adjusting substances of three years old seedlings of T. chinensis were studied under different salt-drought intercross stress. Results showed that the influence of salt stress on growth was greater than drought stress, the oxidation resistance of SOD and POD weakened gradually with salt and drought stresses intensified, and the content of MDA was higher under severe drought and mild and moderate salt stresses. The proline contents increased with the stress intensified but only significantly higher than control under the intercross stresses of severe salt-severe drought. It implied that T. chinensis could improve its stress resistance by adjusted self-growth and physiobiochemical characteristics, and the intercross compatibility of T. chinensis to salt and drought stresses can enhance the salt resistance under appropriate drought stress, but the dominant factors influencing the physiological biochemical characteristics of T. chinensis were various with the changing of salt-drought intercross stresses gradients.

  8. [Diversity and community structure of endophytic fungi from Taxus chinensis var. mairei].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    A total of 628 endophytic fungi were isolated from 480 tissue segments of needles and branches of Taxus chinensis var. mairei. According to morphological characteristics and ITS sequences, they represented 43 taxa in 28 genera, of which 10 Hyphomycetes, 20 Coelomycetes, 12 Ascomycetes and 1 unknown fungus. Phomopsis mali was confirmed as the dominant species. In accordance with relative frequency, Alternaria alternata, Aureobasidium pullulans, Colletotrichum boninense, C. gloeosporioides, Epicoccum nigrum , Fungal sp., Fusarium lateritium, Glomerella cingulata, Magnaporthales sp. , Nigrospora oryzae, Pestalotiopsis maculiformans, P. microspora, Peyronellaea glomerata and Xylaria sp. 1 were more common in T. chinensis var. mairei. T. chinensis var. mairei were severely infected by endophytic fungi. Endophytic fungi were found in 81 percent of plant tissues with a high diversity. Distribution ranges of endophytic fungi were influenced by tissue properties. The colonization rate, richness, diversity of endophytic fungi in needles were obviously lower than in branches, and kinds of endophytic fungi between branches were more similar than those in needles, thus endophytic fungi had tissue preference. In addition, tissue age influenced the community structure of endophytic fungi. The elder branch tissues were, the higher colonization rate, richness, diversity of endophytic fungi were. Systematic studying the diversity and community structure of endophytic fungi in T. chinensis var. mairei and clarifying their distribution regularity in plant tissues would offer basic data and scientific basis for their development and utilization. Discussing the presence of fungal pathogens in healthy plant tissues would be of positive significance for source protection of T. chinensis var. mairei.

  9. Propagule pressure and climate contribute to the displacement of Linepithema humile by Pachycondyla chinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Spicer Rice

    Full Text Available Identifying mechanisms governing the establishment and spread of invasive species is a fundamental challenge in invasion biology. Because species invasions are frequently observed only after the species presents an environmental threat, research identifying the contributing agents to dispersal and subsequent spread are confined to retrograde observations. Here, we use a combination of seasonal surveys and experimental approaches to test the relative importance of behavioral and abiotic factors in determining the local co-occurrence of two invasive ant species, the established Argentine ant (Linepithema humile Mayr and the newly invasive Asian needle ant (Pachycondyla chinensis Emery. We show that the broader climatic envelope of P. chinensis enables it to establish earlier in the year than L. humile. We also demonstrate that increased P. chinensis propagule pressure during periods of L. humile scarcity contributes to successful P. chinensis early season establishment. Furthermore, we show that, although L. humile is the numerically superior and behaviorally dominant species at baits, P. chinensis is currently displacing L. humile across the invaded landscape. By identifying the features promoting the displacement of one invasive ant by another we can better understand both early determinants in the invasion process and factors limiting colony expansion and survival.

  10. Cytogenetic Diversity of Simple Sequences Repeats in Morphotypes of Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jin-Shuang; Sun, Cheng-Zhen; Zhang, Shu-Ning; Hou, Xi-Lin; Bonnema, Guusje

    2016-01-01

    A significant fraction of the nuclear DNA of all eukaryotes is comprised of simple sequence repeats (SSRs). Although these sequences are widely used for studying genetic variation, linkage mapping and evolution, little attention had been paid to the chromosomal distribution and cytogenetic diversity of these sequences. In this paper, we report the distribution characterization of mono-, di-, and tri-nucleotide SSRs in Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to characterize the cytogenetic diversity of SSRs among morphotypes of B. rapa ssp. chinensis. The proportion of different SSR motifs varied among morphotypes of B. rapa ssp. chinensis, with tri-nucleotide SSRs being more prevalent in the genome of B. rapa ssp. chinensis. We determined the chromosomal locations of mono-, di-, and tri-nucleotide repeat loci. The results showed that the chromosomal distribution of SSRs in the different morphotypes is non-random and motif-dependent, and allowed us to characterize the relative variability in terms of SSR numbers and similar chromosomal distributions in centromeric/peri-centromeric heterochromatin. The differences between SSR repeats with respect to abundance and distribution indicate that SSRs are a driving force in the genomic evolution of B. rapa species. Our results provide a comprehensive view of the SSR sequence distribution and evolution for comparison among morphotypes B. rapa ssp. chinensis.

  11. Evaluation of nutritional and antioxidant properties of the tropical fruits banana, litchi, mango, papaya, passion fruit and pineapple cultivated in Réunion French Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septembre-Malaterre, Axelle; Stanislas, Giovédie; Douraguia, Elisabeth; Gonthier, Marie-Paule

    2016-12-01

    Much attention is paid to the beneficial action of fruits against obesity-related oxidative stress. This study evaluated nutritional and antioxidant properties of banana, litchi, mango, papaya, passion fruit and pineapple from Réunion French Island. Results showed that total amounts of carbohydrates, vitamin C and carotenoids were 7.7-67.3g glucose equivalent, 4.7-84.9mg ascorbic acid equivalent and 26.6-3829.2μg β-carotene equivalent/100g fresh weight, respectively. Polyphenols were detected as the most abundant antioxidants (33.0-286.6mg gallic acid equivalent/100g fresh weight) with the highest content from passion fruit. UPLC-MS analysis led to identify epigallocatechin and quercetin derivatives from banana and litchi, ferulic, sinapic, syringic and gallic acids from pineapple and mango, and piceatannol from passion fruit. Polyphenol-rich extracts protected red blood cells and preadipose cells against oxidative stress. Altogether, these findings highlight nutritional benefits of French tropical fruits and their possible interest to improve antioxidant capacities of the body during obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Improved growth of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus as well as Increased antioxidant activity by biotransforming litchi pericarp polysaccharide with Aspergillus awamori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sen; Wen, Lingrong; Yang, Bao; Jiang, Guoxiang; Shi, John; Chen, Feng; Jiang, Yueming

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to increase the bioactivity of litchi pericarp polysaccharides (LPPs) biotransformed by Aspergillus awamori. Compared to the non-A. awamori-fermented LPP, the growth effects of A. awamori-fermented LPP on Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus were four and two times higher after 3 days of fermentation, respectively. Increased 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and DNA protection activity of litchi pericarp polysaccharides were also achieved after A. awamori fermentation. Moreover, the relative content of glucose and arabinose in LPP after fermentation decreased from 58.82% to 22.60% and from 18.82% to 10.09%, respectively, with a concomitant increase in the relative contents of galactose, rhamnose, xylose, and mannose. Furthermore, lower molecular weight polysaccharides were obtained after A. awamori fermentation. It can be concluded that A. awamori was effective in biotransforming LPP into a bioactive mixture with lower molecular weight polysaccharides and higher antioxidant activity and relative galactose content.

  13. Improved Growth of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus as well as Increased Antioxidant Activity by Biotransforming Litchi Pericarp Polysaccharide with Aspergillus awamori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to increase the bioactivity of litchi pericarp polysaccharides (LPPs biotransformed by Aspergillus awamori. Compared to the non-A. awamori-fermented LPP, the growth effects of A. awamori-fermented LPP on Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus were four and two times higher after 3 days of fermentation, respectively. Increased 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and DNA protection activity of litchi pericarp polysaccharides were also achieved after A. awamori fermentation. Moreover, the relative content of glucose and arabinose in LPP after fermentation decreased from 58.82% to 22.60% and from 18.82% to 10.09%, respectively, with a concomitant increase in the relative contents of galactose, rhamnose, xylose, and mannose. Furthermore, lower molecular weight polysaccharides were obtained after A. awamori fermentation. It can be concluded that A. awamori was effective in biotransforming LPP into a bioactive mixture with lower molecular weight polysaccharides and higher antioxidant activity and relative galactose content.

  14. Survival and behavior of Chinese mystery snails (Bellamya chinensis) in response to simulated water body drawdowns and extended air exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unstad, Kody M.; Uden, Daniel R.; Allen, Craig R.; Chaine, Noelle M.; Haak, Danielle M.; Kill, Robert A.; Pope, Kevin L.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Wong, Alec

    2013-01-01

    Nonnative invasive mollusks degrade aquatic ecosystems and induce economic losses worldwide. Extended air exposure through water body drawdown is one management action used for control. In North America, the Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is an invasive aquatic snail with an expanding range, but eradication methods for this species are not well documented. We assessed the ability of B. chinensis to survive different durations of air exposure, and observed behavioral responses prior to, during, and following desiccation events. Individual B. chinensis specimens survived air exposure in a laboratory setting for > 9 weeks, and survivorship was greater among adults than juveniles. Several B. chinensis specimens responded to desiccation by sealing their opercula and/or burrowing in mud substrate. Our results indicate that drawdowns alone may not be an effective means of eliminating B. chinensis. This study lays the groundwork for future management research that may determine the effectiveness of drawdowns when combined with factors such as extreme temperatures, predation, or molluscicides.

  15. RBF neural network prediction on weak electrical signals in Aloe vera var. chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lanzhou; Zhao, Jiayin; Wang, Miao

    2008-10-01

    A Gaussian radial base function (RBF) neural network forecast on signals in the Aloe vera var. chinensis by the wavelet soft-threshold denoised as the time series and using the delayed input window chosen at 50, is set up to forecast backward. There was the maximum amplitude at 310.45μV, minimum -75.15μV, average value -2.69μV and Aloe vera var. chinensis respectively. The electrical signal in Aloe vera var. chinensis is a sort of weak, unstable and low frequency signals. A result showed that it is feasible to forecast plant electrical signals for the timing by the RBF. The forecast data can be used as the preferences for the intelligent autocontrol system based on the adaptive characteristic of plants to achieve the energy saving on the agricultural production in the plastic lookum or greenhouse.

  16. Transcriptome analysis of Crossostephium chinensis provides insight into the molecular basis of salinity stress responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Yang

    Full Text Available Soil salinization is becoming a limitation to the utilization of ornamental plants worldwide. Crossostephium chinensis (Linnaeus Makino is often cultivated along the southeast coast of China for its desirable ornamental qualities and high salt tolerance. However, little is known about the genomic background of the salt tolerance mechanism in C. chinensis. In the present study, we used Illumina paired-end sequencing to systematically investigate leaf transcriptomes derived from C. chinensis seedlings grown under normal conditions and under salt stress. A total of 105,473,004 bp of reads were assembled into 163,046 unigenes, of which 65,839 (40.38% of the total and 54,342 (33.32% of the total were aligned in Swiss-Prot and Nr protein, respectively. A total of 11,331 (6.95% differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified among three comparisons, including 2,239 in 'ST3 vs ST0', 5,880 in 'ST9 vs ST3' and 9,718 in 'ST9 vs ST0', and they were generally classified into 26 Gene Ontology terms and 58 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway terms. Many genes encoding important transcription factors (e.g., WRKY, MYB, and AP2/EREBP and proteins involved in starch and sucrose metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism, plant hormone signal transduction, amino acid biosynthesis, plant-pathogen interactions and carbohydrate metabolism, among others, were substantially up-regulated under salt stress. These genes represent important candidates for studying the salt-response mechanism and molecular biology of C. chinensis and its relatives. Our findings provide a genomic sequence resource for functional genetic assignments in C. chinensis. These transcriptome datasets will help elucidate the molecular mechanisms responsible for salt-stress tolerance in C. chinensis and facilitate the breeding of new stress-tolerant cultivars for high-saline areas using this valuable genetic resource.

  17. Effects of supplementary lighting by natural light for growth of Brassica chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Shih-Chuan; Lee, Hui-Ping; Kao, Shih-Tse; Lu, Ju-Lin

    2016-04-01

    This paper present a model of cultivated chamber with supplementary natural colour light. We investigate the effects of supplementary natural red light and natural blue light on growth of Brassica chinensis under natural white light illumination. After 4 weeks of supplementary colour light treatment, the experiment results shown that the weight of fresh leaf were not affected by supplementary natural blue light. However, those Brassica chinensis were cultivated in the chambers with supplementary natural red light obtained a significant increasing of fresh weight of leaf under both white light illuminate models. The combination of natural white light with supplementary natural red light illumination will be benefits in growth for cultivation and energy saving.

  18. [Effects of low-light stress on photosynthetic characteristics of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis in artificial domestication cultivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shun-lin; Tian, Meng-liang; Liu, Jin-liang; Zhao, Ting-ting; Zhang, Zhong

    2014-09-01

    To decide on the optimum artificial domestication cultivation light environment for Paris polyphylla var. chinensis through investigating the effect of light intensity on leaf's gas exchange parameters, photosynthetic parameters, light saturation point and compensation point of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis. Different low-light stress gradients' effect on the growth of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis was compared with no low-light stress treatment through calculating leaf's gas exchange parameters, photosynthetic parameters, light saturation point and compensation point, and then all these parameters were statistically analyzed. Light intensity had significant influence on the photosynthetic characteristics of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis. With the strengthening of the low-light stress, chlorophyll content, gas exchange parameters, photosynthetic parameters P., AQY and light saturation point all gradually increased at first, and then decreased. However, both photosynthetic parameters Rd and light compensation point firstly decreased and then rose again. These results showed that too strong or too weak light intensity affected the optimization of photosynthetic parameters of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis. The optimal illuminance for each parameter was not completely same, but they could all reach a relative ideal state when the shading ranges between 40% and 60%. However, photosynthetic parameters deteriorated rapidly when the shading surpass 80%. For artificially cultivating Paris polyphylla var. chinensis in Baoxing,Sichuan or the similar ecological region, shading 40%-60% is the optimal light environment, which can enhance the photosynthesis of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis and promote the accumulation of photosynthetic products.

  19. Pairing Behavior of the Monogamous King Quail, Coturnix chinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Adkins-Regan

    Full Text Available Animals with socially monogamous mating systems are valuable for discovering proximate mechanisms of prosocial behavior and close social relationships. Especially powerful are comparisons between related species that differ in monogamous tendency. Birds are the most socially monogamous vertebrates. Thus far most research on mechanisms of pairing has used zebra finches, which do not have a relative with a different mating system, however. The goal of the experiments reported here was to develop a new comparative avian system by studying the pairing behavior of a reportedly strongly monogamous quail, the king quail (Coturnix chinensis, a species in the same clade as the less monogamous Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica, the subject of much prior research. In Experiment 1 male-female pairs of king quail housed together were initially avoidant or aggressive but most rapidly progressed to allopreening and huddling. A separation-reunion paradigm reliably elicited both of these behaviors in males that had cohabited for one week. In Experiment 2 the allopreening and huddling behavior of males in cohabiting pairs was highly selective, and a majority of the males were aggressive toward a familiar female that was not the cohabitation partner. In Experiment 3 males were separated from their female cohabitation partners for 9-10 weeks and then given two-choice tests. All but one male spent more time near an unfamiliar female, which may have reflected aggression and shows recognition of and memory for the past pairing experience. Thus king quail show robust, selective and easy to measure pairing behavior that can be reliably elicited with simple separation-reunion testing procedures. Copulation is rarely seen during tests. The behavior of king quail is a striking contrast to that of Japanese quail, providing a new comparative system for discovering mechanisms of behavior related to close social relationships and monogamy.

  20. Pairing Behavior of the Monogamous King Quail, Coturnix chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Animals with socially monogamous mating systems are valuable for discovering proximate mechanisms of prosocial behavior and close social relationships. Especially powerful are comparisons between related species that differ in monogamous tendency. Birds are the most socially monogamous vertebrates. Thus far most research on mechanisms of pairing has used zebra finches, which do not have a relative with a different mating system, however. The goal of the experiments reported here was to develop a new comparative avian system by studying the pairing behavior of a reportedly strongly monogamous quail, the king quail (Coturnix chinensis), a species in the same clade as the less monogamous Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), the subject of much prior research. In Experiment 1 male-female pairs of king quail housed together were initially avoidant or aggressive but most rapidly progressed to allopreening and huddling. A separation-reunion paradigm reliably elicited both of these behaviors in males that had cohabited for one week. In Experiment 2 the allopreening and huddling behavior of males in cohabiting pairs was highly selective, and a majority of the males were aggressive toward a familiar female that was not the cohabitation partner. In Experiment 3 males were separated from their female cohabitation partners for 9-10 weeks and then given two-choice tests. All but one male spent more time near an unfamiliar female, which may have reflected aggression and shows recognition of and memory for the past pairing experience. Thus king quail show robust, selective and easy to measure pairing behavior that can be reliably elicited with simple separation-reunion testing procedures. Copulation is rarely seen during tests. The behavior of king quail is a striking contrast to that of Japanese quail, providing a new comparative system for discovering mechanisms of behavior related to close social relationships and monogamy.

  1. Pemanfaatan Limbah Tahu untuk Peningkatan Hasil Tanaman Petsai (Brassica chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YULIADI ASMORO

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A tofu industry potentially produced solid or liquid waste products which are potentially causing pollution. A good treatment of the wastes, waste of solid-wet tofu can be use d to make tempeh gem bus, cattle food and fish food, and the rest is also used as fertilizer especially for pak choi or petsai or Chinese cabbage (Brasssica chinensis L.. The aims of this research were examine: (i The effect of tofu wastes for yield of petsai plant, and (ii the effect of concentration of tofu waste to the yield of petsai plant. There are two methods: independent variable and dependent variable. The method which used was experiment. 20 petsai plants were planted into 20 pots to be treated with solid and liquid tofu wastes with concentration 110%, 20%, and 30%, while as the control 20 pot each 1 plant was treated without wastes. The nutrient contents both for the solid and liquid wastes were analyzed. The data were analyzed by Anova and the difference between means tested using Duncan s Multiple Range Test (DMRT at 5%% level of significant. The result indicated that increasing of petsai yields u sing solid tofu waste for concentration 10% is 94.06%, for concentration 20% is 3325.76%, and for 30% is 176.11%. The additional of liquid waste for concentration 10% is 41.226%, for concentration 200% is 64.34%% and for concentration 30% is 1.75%%, compared t o the control. Nitrogen contents (N of solid tofu waste and its organic material is higher than liquid waste one, so it has good effect for the plant growth, than liquid waste solution.

  2. Composition of the root oil of Alpinia chinensis Rose. from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leclercq, P.A.; Dung, N.X.; Chinh, T.D.; Rang, D.D.

    1994-01-01

    The essential oil of the roots of Alpinia chinensis Rosc. of Vietnamese origin has been analyzed by a combination of high resoln. GC and GC/MS. Nineteen components, representing about 70% of the oil, have been identified. Most of them are sesquiterpenes such as b-caryophyllene (5.2%), a-humulene

  3. Rheology, microstructure and baking characteristics of frozen dough containing Rhizopus chinensis lipase and transglutaminase

    Science.gov (United States)

    The beneficial effects of a new recombinant lipase (Rhizopus chinensis lipase, RCL) and transglutaminase (TG) were investigated on frozen dough systems and their breadmaking quality. Rheological properties and microstructure of doughs were measured using a dynamic rheometer, rheofermentometer F3, an...

  4. Transcriptome Profiling and In Silico Analysis of the Antimicrobial Peptides of the Grasshopper Oxya chinensis sinuosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Woo; Markkandan, Kesavan; Lee, Joon Ha; Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Yoo, Seungil; Park, Junhyung; Hwang, Jae Sam

    2016-11-28

    Antimicrobial peptides/proteins (AMPs) are present in all types of organisms, from microbes and plants to vertebrates and invertebrates such as insects. The grasshopper Oxya chinensis sinuosa is an insect species that is widely consumed around the world for its broad medicinal value. However, the lack of available genetic information for this species is an obstacle to understanding the full potential of its AMPs. Analysis of the O. chinensis sinuosa transcriptome and expression profile is essential for extending the available genetic information resources. In this study, we determined the whole-body transcriptome of O. chinensis sinuosa and analyzed the potential AMPs induced by bacterial immunization. A high-throughput RNA-Seq approach generated 94,348 contigs and 66,555 unigenes. Of these unigenes, 36,032 (54.14%) matched known proteins in the NCBI database in a BLAST search. Functional analysis demonstrated that 38,219 unigenes were clustered into 5,499 gene ontology terms. In addition, 26 cDNAs encoding novel AMPs were identified by an in silico approach using public databases. Our transcriptome dataset and AMP profile greatly improve our understanding of O. chinensis sinuosa genetics and provide a huge number of gene sequences for further study, including genes of known importance and genes of unknown function.

  5. Oil content in seeds of the NPGS jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) germplasm collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jojoba, Simmondsia chinensis, (Link) Schneider is a shrub native to warm and arid land regions of North and Latin America. Its seeds contain vegetable oil composed of long (C20-22), straight-chain liquid wax of non-glyceride esters. Minute amounts of triglycerides in its composition make the oil a l...

  6. The role of chemical cues in host finding and acceptance by Callosobruchus chinensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ignacimuthu, S.; Wäckers, F.L.; Dorn, S.

    2000-01-01

    We studied the response of female Callosobruchus chinensis to chemical cues emitted by cowpea seeds at different stages of bruchid infestation (uninfested, egg carrying, L1-, and L4-infested). Olfactory attractiveness was determined in Y-tube olfactometer assays by testing individual seed categories

  7. Comparison of Composition and Anticaries Effect of Galla Chinensis Extracts with Different Isolation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuelian; Deng, Meng; Liu, Mingdong; Cheng, Lei; Exterkate, R.A.M.; Li, Jiyao; Zhou, Xuedong; Ten Cate, Jacob. M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Galla chinensis water extract (GCE) has been demonstrated to inhibit dental caries by favorably shifting the demineralization/remineralization balance of enamel and inhibiting the biomass and acid formation of dental biofilm. The present study focused on the comparison of composition and anticaries effect of Galla chinensis extracts with different isolation methods, aiming to improve the efficacy of caries prevention. Methods: The composition of water extract (GCE), ethanol extract (eGCE) and commercial tannic acid was compared. High performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS) analysis was used to analyze the main ingredients. In vitro pH-cycling regime and polymicrobial biofilms model were used to assess the ability of different Galla chinensis extracts to inhibit enamel demineralization, acid formation and biofilm formation. Results: All the GCE, eGCE and tannic acid contained a high level of total phenolics. HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS analysis showed that the main ingredients of GCE were gallic acid (GA), while eGCE mainly contained 4-7 galloylglucopyranoses (GGs) and tannic acid mainly contained 5-10 GGs. Furthermore, eGCE and tannic acid showed a better effect on inhibiting enamel demineralization, acid formation and biofilm formation compared to GCE. Conclusions: Galla chinensis extracts with higher tannin content were suggested to have higher potential to prevent dental caries. PMID:28979574

  8. Effect of Galla chinensis on growth and metabolism of microcosm biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, L.; Exterkate, R.A.M.; Zhou, X.; Li, J.; ten Cate, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Galla chinensis extract (GCE) interferes with de- and remineralization of dental enamel and the growth and metabolism in planktonic bacteria. However, no information is available on GCE effects on biofilms formed with saliva as inoculum. The aim of the current experiments was to investigate the

  9. Proteome dynamics and physiological responses to short-term salt stress in Leymus chinensis leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jikai Li

    Full Text Available Salt stress is becoming an increasing threat to global agriculture. In this study, physiological and proteomics analysis were performed using a salt-tolerant grass species, Leymus chinensis (L. chinensis. The aim of this study is to understand the potential mechanism of salt tolerance in L. chinensis that used for crop molecular breeding. A series of short-term (<48 h NaCl treatments (0 ~ 700 mM were conducted. Physiological data indicated that the root and leaves growth were inhibited, chlorophyll contents decreased, while hydraulic conductivity, proline, sugar and sucrose were accumulated under salt stress. For proteomic analysis, we obtained 274 differentially expressed proteins in response to NaCl treatments. GO analysis revealed that 44 out of 274 proteins are involved in the biosynthesis of amino acids and carbon metabolism. Our findings suggested that L. chinensis copes with salt stress by stimulating the activities of POD, SOD and CAT enzymes, speeding up the reactions of later steps of citrate cycle, and synthesis of proline and sugar. In agreement with our physiological data, proteomic analysis also showed that salt stress depress the expression of photosystem relevant proteins, Calvin cycle, and chloroplast biosynthesis.

  10. Rhizomes Help the Forage Grass Leymus chinensis to Adapt to the Salt and Alkali Stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyu; Wang, Junfeng; Lin, Jixiang; Wang, Ying; Mu, Chunsheng

    2014-01-01

    Leymus chinensis has extensive ecological adaptability and can grow well in saline-alkaline soils. The knowledge about tolerance mechanisms of L. chinensis could be base for utilization of saline-alkaline soils and grassland restoration and rebuilding. Two neutral salts (NaCl : Na2SO4 = 9 : 1) and two alkaline salts (NaHCO3 : Na2CO3 = 9 : 1) with concentration of 0, 100, and 200 mmol/L were used to treat potted 35-day-old seedlings with rhizome growth, respectively. After 10 days, the biomass and number of daughter shoots all decreased, with more reduction in alkali than in salt stress. The rhizome biomass reduced more than other organs. The number of daughter shoots from rhizome was more than from tillers. Under both stresses, Na+ contents increased more in rhizome than in other organs; the reduction of K+ content was more in underground than aerial tissue. Anion ions or organic acids were absorbed to neutralize cations. Na+ content in stem and leaf increased markedly in high alkalinity (200 mmol/L), with accumulation of soluble sugar and organic acids sharply. Rhizomes help L. chinensis to adapt to saline and low alkaline stresses by transferring Na+. However, rhizomes lost the ability to prevent Na+ transport to aerial organs under high alkalinity, which led to severe growth inhibition of L. chinensis. PMID:25121110

  11. Assessing the proposed pre-last glacial maximum human occupation of North America at Coats-Hines-Litchy, Tennessee, and other sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tune, Jesse W.; Waters, Michael R.; Schmalle, Kayla A.; DeSantis, Larisa R. G.; Kamenov, George D.

    2018-04-01

    Genomic studies indicate that the first Pleistocene foragers who entered North America diverged from ancestral populations in Beringia sometime after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM); however, several archaeological sites in North America have been proposed to predate the LGM. We present the results of our excavation and analysis of one such site, Coats-Hines-Litchy, Tennessee, which show that this site is a paleontological locality containing a geofact assemblage that pre-dates the LGM. Other sites in North America that purportedly predate the LGM occur in geomorphic contexts that are also conducive to the formation of geofact assemblages. As such, we propose that the reported artifacts from these sites were created by natural processes. No sites in North America currently provide credible evidence of a pre-LGM occupation.

  12. Apoptosis and pro-death autophagy induced by a spirostanol saponin isolated from Rohdea chinensis (Baker) N. Tanaka (synonym Tupistra chinensis Baker) on HL-60 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiaomin; Xiang, Limin; Huang, Yuying; Wang, Yihai; He, Xiangjiu

    2018-03-15

    Our previous study has revealed that the spirostanol saponins isolated from the rhizomes of Rohdea chinensis (Baker) N. Tanaka (synonym Tupistra chinensis Baker) (Convallariaceae) (a reputed folk medicine) exhibited potent antiproliferative activity. However, the underlying mechanism of purified saponins remains unclear. More studies are necessary to assess the apoptosis and autophagy activities of the saponins from R. chinensis and clarify their antiproliferative mechanisms. The present study certificated the potential antiproliferative activity and mechanism of 5β-spirost-25(27)-en-1β,3β-diol-1-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)- β-D-xylopyranosyl-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (SPD), a spirostanol saponin from R. chinensis, against human acute promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60). The antiproliferative activity of SPD in vitro was evaluated by MTT assay compared with cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum (II). The autophagic activity was assessed using MDC staining and western blot, cell apoptosis inspection was detected by Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining and the mitochondrial membrane potential was detected by JC-1 fluorescence dye combined with flow cytometry. The potential mechanisms for protein levels of apoptosis and autophagy were evaluated by western blot. Treatment of HL-60 cells with SPD resulted in growth inhibition (IC 50 value of 2.0 ± 0.2 µM, after 48 h treatment) and induction of apoptosis and autophagy. Results from Annexin V-FITC/PI double-staining assay and mitochondrial membrane potential detection showed that apoptosis was happened after SPD treatment. The regulation of caspase-3, Bax, Bcl-2, PARP following SPD treatment contributed to the induction of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. Meanwhile, SPD induced autophagy related with Akt/mTOR/p70S6K signaling and activated of AMPK signaling pathway. Furthermore, blocking autophagy with bafilomycin A1 reduced the cytotoxicity of SPD in HL-60 cells. The antiproliferative, apoptosis and pro

  13. Antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Salacia chinensis Linn. against human pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    oorthy kannaiyan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate antimicrobial effects of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Salacia chinensis (S. chinensis Linn. against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Methods: The Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus (MTCC 96, Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis (MTCC 435, Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis (MTCC 121, Escherichia coli (E. coli (MTCC 443, Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae (MTCC 432, Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis (MTCC 1429, Salmonella paratyphi A (S. paratyphi A (MTCC 735, Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium (MTCC 98, Shigella flexneri (S. flexneri (MTCC 1457 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa (MTCC 424, Candida albicans (C. albicans (MTCC 183 and Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans (clinical isolate were originally obtained from Microbial Type Culture Collection Centre, Institute of Microbial Technology, Chandigarh, India. Antimicrobial activity was carried out by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods against pathogens by using crude ethanolic and aqueous extracts. Results: Ethanolic extract of S. chinensis L. leaves showed significant antimicrobial activity against S. epidermidis (33.20 mm, C. albicans (30.40 mm and C. neoformans (18.20 mm mean values were documented. Aqueous extract of leaves showed significant inhibitory activity against C. neoformans (19.8 mm and S. epidermidis (17.80 mm were observed. Based on broth dilution method, the ethanolic extract of crude plant material showed the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values against S. epidermidis, C. neoformans (256 毺 g/mL and C. albicans (512 毺 g/mL, whereas the aqueous extract of S. chinensis L. leaves showed significant inhibitory activity against S. epidermidis (512 毺 g/mL and C. neoformans (1024 毺 g/mL were observed. Conclusions: The present result revealed that ethanolic extract of S. chinensis L. possesses significant antifungal activity when compared as the antibacterial activities.

  14. Chloroplast microsatellite markers for Pseudotaxus chienii developed from the whole chloroplast genome of Taxus chinensis var. mairei (Taxaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qi; Zhang, Hanrui; He, Yipeng; Wang, Ting; Su, Yingjuan

    2017-03-01

    Pseudotaxus chienii (Taxaceae) is an old rare species endemic to China that has adapted well to ecological heterogeneity with high genetic diversity in its nuclear genome. However, the genetic variation in its chloroplast genome is unknown. Eighteen chloroplast microsatellite markers (cpSSRs) were developed from the whole chloroplast genome of Taxus chinensis var. mairei and successfully amplified in four P. chienii populations and one T. chinensis var. mairei population. Of these loci, 10 were polymorphic in P. chienii , whereas six were polymorphic in T. chinensis var. mairei . The unbiased haploid diversity per locus ranged from 0.000 to 0.641 and 0.000 to 0.545 for P. chienii and T. chinensis var. mairei , respectively. The 18 cpSSRs will be used to further investigate the chloroplast genetic structure and adaptive evolution in P. chienii populations.

  15. [Quality level assessment of lowly efficient Tamarix chinensis secondary shrubs in Laizhou Bay of Yellow River Delta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jiang-Bao; Liu, Yu-Ting; Zhu, Jin-Fang; Xu, Jing-Wei; Lu, Zhao-Hua; Liu, Jing-Tao; Liu, Qing

    2013-06-01

    Taking the Tamarix chinensis secondary shrubs in Laizhou Bay of Yellow River Delta as test objects, and by using synthetic factor method, this paper studied the main factors causing the lowly efficiency of T. chinensis secondary shrubs as well as the main parameters for the classification of lowly efficient T. chinensis secondary shrubs. A total of 24 indices including shrubs growth and soil physical and chemical properties were selected to determine the main affecting factors and parameters in evaluating and classifying the lowly efficient shrubs. There were no obvious correlations between the indices reflecting the shrubs growth and soil quality, and thus, only using shrub growth index to reflect the lowly efficiency level of T. chinensis was not enough, and it would be necessary to combine with soil quality factors to make a comprehensive evaluation. The principal factors reflecting the quality level of lowly efficient T. chinensis shrubs included soil salt content and moisture content, stand age, single tree's aboveground stem, leaf biomass, and basal diameter, followed by soil density, porosity, and soil nutrient status. The lowly efficient T. chinensis shrubs in the Bay could be classified into five types, namely, shrub with growth potential, slightly low quality shrub, moderately lowly efficient shrub, moderately low quality and lowly efficient shrub, and seriously low quality and lowly efficient shrub. The main features, low efficiency causes, and management measures of these shrubs were discussed based on the mean cluster value.

  16. Venturia chinensis sp. nov., a new venturialean ascomycete from Khingan Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqi Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Venturia (V. chinensis is described and illustrated from the leaves of Lonicera praeflorens collected from Lesser Khingan Mountains, the northeast China. It is characterized by habitat saprobic; ascomata small-sized, solitary or scattered, superficial, subglobose to citriform, wall black, papillate, ostiolate, covered with setae; peridium thin; hamathecium evanescent in mature ascomata; asci 8-spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, oblong to obclavate, with or without a short, knob-like pedicel; ascospores ellipsoidal, olivaceous pale brown, 1-septate, ascospore wall thin, smooth. Comparisons of V. chinensis with V. lonicerae (another species on Lonicera caerulea and other species of Venturia lead to the conclusion that collected taxon is new. Its relationships with other species of Venturia are discussed based on morphology and 28S nrDNA and ITS nrDNA sequence comparisons.

  17. Biological observations for invasive and exotic insect species Anoplophora chinensis (Forster, 1771

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Hizal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, invasive and exotic insect species have been frequently found in Turkey. Anoplophora chinensis (Forster, 1771 was first recorded in Şile (Istanbul province county, Turkey, in June 2014 and later in Zeytinburnu (the garden of the Abdi Ipekçi Sports Complex and the surrounding in July in the same year. This study was conducted in these two counties in particular between June 2014 and July 2016 with the aims of making remarks on an earlier misidentification of Anoplophora species and determining the life cycle and the host plants in Istanbul, Turkey. It was noted that the record of A. glabripennis in Istanbul was a misidentification of A. chinensis. It took 1 year to complete its generation. The primary host plant of this insect was found to be Acer negundo.

  18. [Soil catalase activity of main plant communities in Leymus chinensis grassland in northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ping; Guo, Jixun; Zhu, Li

    2002-06-01

    The seasonal dynamics of soil catalase activity of three different plants communities in Leymus chinensis grassland in northeast China were in a parabolas shape. The seasonal variation of Chloris virgata community was greater than those of Leymus chinensis community and Puccinellia tenuiflora community, and "seed effect" might be the main reason. The correlation between the activity of soil catalase in different soil layers and environmental factors were analyzed. The results showed that the activity of soil catalase was decreased gradually with depth of soil layer. The activity of soil catalase was closely correlated with rainfall and air temperature, and it was affected by soil temperature, soil moisture, and their interactions. The correlation between the activity and aboveground vegetation was very significant, and the growing condition of plant communities could be reflected by the activity of soil catalase.

  19. Induced polyploidy dramatically increases the size and alters the shape of fruit in Actinidia chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jin-Hu; Ferguson, A. Ross; Murray, Brian G.; Jia, Yilin; Datson, Paul M.; Zhang, Jingli

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Some otherwise promising selections of Actinidia chinensis (kiwifruit) have fruit that are too small for successful commercialization. We have therefore made the first detailed study in diploid kiwifruit of the effects of chromosome doubling induced by colchicine on fruit size, shape and crop loading. Methods Flow cytometric analysis of young leaves and chromosome analysis of flower buds and root tips was used to confirm the stability of induced autotetraploids. Fruit weight, size and crop load were measured in the third year after planting in the field and for three consecutive years. DNA fingerprinting was used to confirm the origin of the material. Key Results There was a very significant increase in fruit size in induced autotetraploids of different genotypes of A. chinensis. With the commercially important diploid cultivar ‘Hort16A’, most regenerants, Type A plants, had fruit which were much the same shape as fruit of the diploid but, at the same fruit load, were much larger and heavier. Some regenerants, Type B plants, produced fruit similar to ‘fasciated’ fruit. Fruit of the autotetraploids induced from three female red-fleshed A. chinensis selections were also 50–60 % larger than fruit of their diploid progenitors. The main increase in fruit dimensions was in their diameters. These improved fruit characteristics were stable over several seasons. Conclusions Chromosome doubling has been shown to increase significantly fruit size in autotetraploid A. chinensis, highlighting the considerable potential of this technique to produce new cultivars with fruit of adequate size. Other variants with differently shaped fruit were also produced but the genetic basis of this variation remains to be elucidated. Autoploids of other Actinidia species with commercial potential may also show improved fruit characteristics, opening up many new possibilities for commercial development. PMID:21980192

  20. Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Activity of Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis (Link). Schindler

    OpenAIRE

    Kara, Yeşim

    2017-01-01

    The ethanol and methanol extracts of Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis (Link). Schnider)  leaves and seeds werescreened for antioxidant activity. The antioxidative potential of ethanol andmethanol extracts of Jojoba (Simmondsiachinensis) were investigated for the first time using DPPH2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhdrazyl, total phenolic contents, antioxidant activity.Total phenolic substance amounts were calculated according to Folin-Ciocalteumethod, substance concentrations in mg/GAE g, equivalent to gall...

  1. Over-expression of miR158 causes pollen abortion in Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhiming; Jiang, Jianxia; Hu, Ziwei; Lyu, Tianqi; Yang, Yang; Jiang, Jingjing; Cao, Jiashu

    2017-02-01

    We identified and cloned the two precursors of miR158 and its target gene in Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis, which both had high relative expression in the inflorescences. Further study revealed that over-expression of miR158 caused reduced pollen varbility, which was caused by the degradation of pollen contents from the binucleate microspore stage. These results first suggest the role of miR158 in pollen development of Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in many important growth and development processes both in plants and animals by regulating the expression of their target genes via mRNA cleavage or translational repression. In this study, miR158, a Brassicaceae specific miRNA, was functionally characterized with regard to its role in pollen development of non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis). Two family members of miR158 in B. campestris, namely bra-miR158a1 and bra-miR158a2, and their target gene bra027656, which encodes a pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) containing protein, were identified. Then, qRT-PCR analysis and GUS-reporter system revealed that both bra-miR158 and its target gene had relatively high expression levels in the inflorescences. Further study revealed that over-expression of miR158 caused reduced pollen varbility and pollen germination ratio, and the degradation of pollen contents from the binucleate microspore stage was also found in those deformed pollen grains, which led to pollen shrinking and collapse in later pollen development stage. These results first shed light on the importance of miR158 in pollen development of Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis.

  2. Mortality estimate of Chinese mystery snail, Bellamya chinensis (Reeve, 1863) in a Nebraska reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, Danielle M.; Chaine, Noelle M.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Wong, Alec; Allen, Craig R.

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is an aquatic invasive species found throughout the USA. Little is known about this species’ life history or ecology, and only one population estimate has been published, for Wild Plum Lake in southeast Nebraska. A recent die-off event occurred at this same reservoir and we present a mortality estimate for this B. chinensis population using a quadrat approach. Assuming uniform distribution throughout the newly-exposed lake bed (20,900 m2), we estimate 42,845 individuals died during this event, amounting to approximately 17% of the previously-estimated population size of 253,570. Assuming uniform distribution throughout all previously-reported available habitat (48,525 m2), we estimate 99,476 individuals died, comprising 39% of the previously-reported adult population. The die-off occurred during an extreme drought event, which was coincident with abnormally hot weather. However, the exact reason of the die-off is still unclear. More monitoring of the population dynamics of B. chinensis is necessary to further our understanding of this species’ ecology.

  3. Nanoparticles formulation of Cuscuta chinensis prevents acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Feng-Lin; Wu, Tzu-Hui; Lin, Liang-Tzung; Cham, Thau-Ming; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2008-05-01

    Cuscuta chinensis is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine to nourish the liver and kidney. Due to the poor water solubility of its major constituents such as flavonoids and lignans, its absorption upon oral administration could be limited. The purpose of the present study was to use the nanosuspension method to prepare C. chinensis nanoparticles (CN), and to compare the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of C. chinensis ethanolic extract (CE) and CN on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. An oral dose of CE at 125 and 250 mg/kg and CN at 25 and 50mg/kg showed a significant hepatoprotective effect relatively to the same extent (P<0.05) by reducing levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase. These biochemical assessments were supported by rat hepatic biopsy examinations. In addition, the antioxidant activities of CE and CN both significantly increased superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and reduced malondialdehyde (P<0.05). Moreover, the results also indicated that the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of 50 mg/kg CN was effectively better than 125 mg/kg CE (P<0.05), and an oral dose of CN that is five times as less as CE could exhibit similar levels of outcomes. In conclusion, we suggest that the nanoparticles system can be applied to overcome other water poorly soluble herbal medicines and furthermore to decrease the treatment dosage.

  4. Genetic isolation by distance in the endangered plant sinocalycanthus chinensis endemic to China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junmin, L.; Jingjing, G.

    2012-01-01

    Sinocalycanthus chinensis, narrowly endemic to China, is a tertiary relict species. We analyzed the genetic structure pattern of 6 populations of S. chinensis using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers and the isolation by distance (IBD) pattern was tested in order to understand the relative influences of gene flow and genetic drift on population structure. The genetic diversity at species level was relatively high (P=51.00%, h =0.1397 and I=0.2191, respectively), while that at populations level was relatively low (P=18.00%, h=0.0733 and I=0.1108, respectively). High genetic differentiation was detected among populations (fi ST=0.6320). Neighbor-joining method of clustering results showed that six populations were clearly separated into eastern and western group. Mantel test showed that there was significant association between genetic distance and geographical distance (r/sup =0.8600, P=0.0470). Limited gene flow due to species traits and habitat fragmentation and the consequent genetic drift might be the 2 main causes for the genetic isolation by distance of S. chinensis populations. (author)

  5. Effect of tannins from Dioscoreae Cirrhosae and Galla chinensis on gamma ray exposed mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Feng; Wang Qingmin; Tang Ying; Li Yu; Shi Hai; Lei Chengxiang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the protective effect of tannins from Dioscoreae Cirrhosae and Galla chinensis on radiation injury. Methods: Forty male Chinese Kunming mice were randomly divided into non-radiation group, radiation group without drugs,radiation group with tea polyphenols, radiation group with tannins from Dioscoreae Cirrhosae and radiation group with tannins from Galla chinensis. The radiation groups were irradiated with a single exposure of 8.0 Gy γ rays from 60 Co. The mice were intragastric ally administered 2 h before radiation and were done 18 h after radiation. The 30-day survival rate, the mean survival time and the protective coefficients were confirmed. Results: All the mice of radiation group without drugs died in 16 d after exposure,and their mean survival time was (12.0±2.45) d, while the radiation groups with tannins from Dioscoreae Cirrhosae, with tannins from Galla chinensis and with tea polyphenols were (26.25±7.13) d, (21.88±8.89) d and (23.25±9.33) d respectively. There was significant difference in comparison with radiation group without drugs (P 60 Co and could present a significant protection effect on radiation injuries. (authors)

  6. THE BIOLOGY OF THE PROPAGATION OF SPECIES SCHISANDRA CHINENSIS (TURCZ. BAILL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CIORCHINĂ NINA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents aspects regarding the possibilities for the propagation of species Schisandra chinensis (Turz. Baill, as well as its reaction in the pedo-climatic conditions of the Republic of Moldova. Situated in the Lianarium of the Botanical Garden (Institute AŞM since 1975, Schisandra chinensis (Turcz. Baill. grows, develops and fructifies abundantly every year. It is propagated vegetatively and generatively with some difficulty. In the case of generative propagation, in order to obtain a high germination percentage, the seeds are stratified in three phases, at different temperatures and are sown in spring. Germination percentages of 80-90% were obtained. Schisandra chinensis is also propagated by greenwood cuttings, semi-hardwood or hardwood cuttings, by layering or by division. The best results were obtained by using semi-hardwood and hardwood cuttings taken in summer, in June-July, from younger plants. The potential for in vitro propagation of this species was also tested. The explants consisting of apical meristems inoculated on MS medium + 0.5 mg/l BAP evolved the best.

  7. DNA barcoding implicates 23 species and four orders as potential pollinators of Chinese knotweed (Persicaria chinensis) in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, M-M; Lim, C-L; Wilson, J-J

    2015-08-01

    Chinese knotweed (Persicaria chinensis) is of ecological and economic importance as a high-risk invasive species and a traditional medicinal herb. However, the insects associated with P. chinensis pollination have received scant attention. As a widespread invasive plant we would expect P. chinensis to be associated with a diverse group of insect pollinators, but lack of taxonomic identification capacity is an impediment to confirm this expectation. In the present study we aimed to elucidate the insect pollinators of P. chinensis in peninsular Malaysia using DNA barcoding. Forty flower visitors, representing the range of morphological diversity observed, were captured at flowers at Ulu Kali, Pahang, Malaysia. Using Automated Barcode Gap Discovery, 17 morphospecies were assigned to 23 species representing at least ten families and four orders. Using the DNA barcode library (BOLD) 30% of the species could be assigned a species name, and 70% could be assigned a genus name. The insects visiting P. chinensis were broadly similar to those previously reported as visiting Persicaria japonica, including honey bees (Apis), droneflies (Eristalis), blowflies (Lucilia) and potter wasps (Eumedes), but also included thrips and ants.

  8. Differentiation of Cuscuta chinensis and Cuscuta australis by HPLC-DAD-MS analysis and HPLC-UV quantitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xianghui; Yang, Wenzhi; Ye, Min; Wang, Qing; Guo, Dean

    2011-11-01

    Cuscuta chinensis and Cuscuta australis, the two botanical sources of the Chinese herbal medicine Tu-Si-Zi, were distinguished from each other based on qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis. By HPLC‑DAD‑MS, a total of 36 compounds were characterized from these two Cuscuta species, including 14 flavonoids, 17 quinic acid derivatives, and 5 lignans. In addition, HPLC‑UV was applied to determine seven major compounds (6 flavonoids plus chlorogenic acid) in 27 batches of Tu-Si-Zi. The results revealed that the amounts of the three classes of compounds varied significantly between the species. C. australis contained more flavonoids but less quinic acid derivatives and lignans than C. chinensis. Particularly, the amounts of kaempferol and astragalin in C. australis were remarkably higher than in C. chinensis. This finding could be valuable for the quality control of Tu-Si-Zi. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Lead (Pb Accumulation in Water, Sediment and Mussels (Hiatula chinensis from Pasir Panjang Coast, Lekok-Pasuruan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Defri Yona

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to evaluate Pb accumulation in the water, sediment and mussels (Hiatula chinensis from Lekok-Pasuruan. There were four sampling stations representing the study area: (1 urban areas, (2 water flow area from steam power plant (PLTU, (3 waste disposal area of PLTU, (4 fishing port. The average concentration of lead varied between stations in the water (0.279 ppm, sediment (0.423 ppm and mussels (0.427 ppm. Pearson`s correlation test shows strong relationship (p > 0.05 between Pb in the water, sediment and Hiatula chinensis. Mussels accumulation of lead from the sediment was assessed using bio-concentration factor (BCF and the result shows Hiatula chinensis is an accumulator of Pb (BCF > 1.

  10. Symptoms of main Callistephus chinensis L. Nees. diseases under Ukrainian urban ecosystem conditions of the forest-steppe zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchenko Alla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytopathological monitoring of C. chinensis (L. Nees. has proven withering and root rot to be the dominating diseases in agrobiocenoses under Ukrainian urban ecosystem conditions of the forest-steppe zone. Their spread was 5,1 and 4 times more than one of spotting. The complex of plant pathogenic overground and underground microflora consists of 24 causative agents. B. cinerea, F. oxysporum, V. albo-atrum have been found on all the vegetative and reproductive parts of Callistephus chinensis (L. Nees., , Ph. cactorum – on plant overground and underground parts, Rh. solani – on underground parts and seeds, A. zinniae – on overground parts and seeds. The main C. chinensis (L. Nees. disease symptoms have been diagnosed (leaf spots, powdery mildew, verticillium wilt, rust, ramularia spot, septoria spots, botrytis blight, grey mold rot, late blight, fusarium blight, black stem.

  11. Dianthus chinensis L.: The Structural Difference between Vascular Bundles in the Placenta and Ovary Wall Suggests Their Different Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xue-Min; Yu, Ying-Ying; Bai, Lan; Gao, Rong-Fu

    2017-01-01

    Dianthus chinensis is a perennial herbaceous plant with great ornamental, botanical, ecological, and medicinal value. The pistil of D. chinensis is composed of two fused carpels with free central placenta and two separate styles. The placenta is a columnar structure extending about two-thirds the length of the maturing fruit, which is typical of the Caryophyllaceous. Traditionally, free central placenta is thought to have evolved from axial placenta by septal disappearance, and axial placenta to have occurred through fusion of conduplicate carpels with marginal placenta. However, the traditional opinion is becoming more and more inconsistent with the new data gained in recent research of angiosperm systematics. To clarify the origin of D. chinensis pistil, the present anatomical study was carried out. The results show that the vascular system of placenta is independent to that of the ovary wall in D. chinensis . Moreover, in the central part of placenta there are one or two amphicribral bundles, and correspondingly numerous ones in the pistil which supply the ovules/seeds. It is obvious that the central amphicribral bundles in placenta are comparable to the counterparts in branches but not to those in leaves or their derivatives. Therefore, it is reasonable to deduce that the placenta of D. chinensis was not derived from conduplicate carpels through fusion of collateral vascular bundles, and actually a floral axis with ovules/seeds laterally adhering. On the contrary, the ovary wall was the lateral appendages of the floral axis. The result of the present study is completely in agreement with Unifying Theory, in which the placenta is taken as an ovule-bearing branch. Except for D. chinensis , the similar vascular organization has been observed in placenta of numerous isolated taxa. But till now, it is uncertain that whether this vascular organization pattern is popular in the whole angiosperms or not. More intensive and extensive investigations are needed.

  12. Foliar application of calcium chloride and borax affects the fruit skin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of foliar application of calcium chloride and borax calcium on fruit skin strength and cracking incidence in litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruit was investigated at 25 days interval and also the evaluation of fruit skin calcium and boron contents, skin strength, ion leakage from skin discs and fruit cracking in four ...

  13. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 11, No 10 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foliar application of calcium chloride and borax affects the fruit skin strength and cracking incidence in litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) cultivars · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. I Haq, A Rab, 2445-2453 ...

  14. influence of foliar applications of calcium chloride and borax on fruit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. A Rab

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... The influence of foliar application of calcium chloride and borax calcium on fruit skin strength and cracking incidence in litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruit was investigated at 25 days interval and also the evaluation of fruit skin calcium and boron contents, skin strength, ion leakage from skin discs and.

  15. Lack of gender effect on the pharmacokinetics of oxytetracycline in Fenneropenaeus chinensis after intramuscular administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ming; Li, Jian; Chang, Zhiqiang; Guo, Wenting; Zhao, Fazhen; Li, Jitao

    2015-04-01

    Fenneropenaeus chinensis, an economically important shrimp species, currently suffers from epizootic diseases due to high density stocking and bacterial infections. Oxytetracycline (OTC) has been widely used to treat various systemic bacterial infections in shrimp farming. In the present study, the effect of gender on pharmacokinetics of OTC in F. chinensis was investigated. The OTC concentrations in hemolymph of shrimp after single intramuscular administration (75 mg OTC per kg body weight) were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography and best described with a two-compartment open model which is characterized by a short elimination half-life, low clearance, and a relatively large apparent volume of distribution. The pharmacokinetic equations were C t = 58.54e-0.38 t + 11.67e-0.04 t for females; and C t = 27.94e-0.28 t + 14.87e-0.04 t for males. The distribution and elimination half-lives of OTC were 1.82 and 19.58 h, respectively, in females and 2.50 and 16.11 h, respectively, in males at 22°C. The areas under the drug concentration curve were 480 mg L-1 h-1 in females and 430 mg L-1 h-1 in males. The total body clearance of the drug was 157.11 mL kg-1 h-1 in females and 172.47 mL kg-1 h-1 in males. The apparent volume distribution was 4.44 in females and 4.01 L kg-1 in males. There was no significant difference in pharmacokinetic parameters between female and male shrimps, indicating that there is no need to consider the gender effect in clinical use of OTC in F. chinensis farming.

  16. Fumigant toxicity of essential oils from some common spices against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubey, Mukesh Kumar

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the essential oil from seven common spices, Anethum graveolens, Cuminum cyminum, Illicium verum, Myristica fragrans, Nigella sativa, Piper nigrum and Trachyspermum ammi was isolated and its insecticidal, oviposition, egg hatching and developmental inhibitory activities were determined against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis. Essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation method using Clevenger apparatus. These essential oils caused death of adults and larvae of Callosobruchus chinensis when fumigated. The 24-h LC(50) values against the adults of the insect were 8.9 mul, 10.8 mul, 11.0 mul, 12.5 mul, 13.6 mul, 14.8 mul and 15.6 mul for N. sativa, A. graveolens, C. cyminum, I. verum, P. nigrum, M. fragrans and T. ammi oils respectively. On the other hand, against larval stage these values were 6.4 mul, 7.9 mul, 8.9 mul, 11.1 mul, 11.7 mul, 12.2 mul and 13.5 mul for N. sativa, A. graveolens, C. cyminum, I. verum, P. nigrum, M. fragrans and T. ammi respectively. These essential oils reduced the oviposition potential, egg hatching rate, pupal formation and emergence of adults of F(1) progeny of the insect when fumigated with sublethal concentrations. These essential oils also caused chronic toxicity as the fumigated insects caused less damage to the stored grains. The essential oil of N. sativa was found most effective against all the different stages of the Callosobruchus chinensis followed by A. graveolens, C. cyminum, I. verum, P. nigrum, M. fragrans and T. ammi oils. All the responses were found concentration-dependent. The toxic and developmental inhibitory effects may be due to suffocation and inhibition of various biosynthetic processes of the insects at different developmental stages.

  17. Effect of gamma irradiation on the fitness component of the pulse beetle, callosobruchus chinensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelrahman, A.M.; Aboulnasr, A.E.; Roushdy, H.M.; Ahmed, M.Y.; Haiba, I.M.

    1984-01-01

    The present work deals with the fines components of the F 1 generation of pulse beetle, callosobruchus chinensis, developed from adults irradiated (as newly emerged adults) with higher doses and fractionation of sterilizing doses. The results obtained show a gradual decrease in egg production and hatchability. The dosages caused complete sterility in females and males respectively, shortening the life span of developed adults. The dose 200,000 rad caused immediate death to the irradiated adults. Fractionation of the sterilizing dose had no effect on either longevity or the percent of egg hatchability

  18. Two new lignans from Saururus chinensis and their DGAT inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Tuo, Zhen-Dong; Qi, Shi-Zhou; Xing, Shan-Shan; Lee, Hyun-Sun; Chen, Jian-Guang; Cui, Long

    2015-03-01

    Two new lignans were isolated from Saururus chinensis, along with eight known compounds. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and physico-chemical analyses. All the isolates were evaluated for in vitro inhibitory activity against DGAT1 and DGAT2. Among them, compounds 2, 3, 5 and 7 were found to exhibit selective inhibitory activity on DGAT1 with IC50 values ranging from 44.3±1.5 to 87.5±1.3μM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. biostudy on vigna sinensis beetle, callosobruchus chinensis l.and its control by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, A.I.A.

    2005-01-01

    the present study carried out to determine: 1.the effects of the separate and combined effect of bacillus thuringiensis and gamma radiation on some biological aspects of callosobruchus chinensis. 2. the weight loss in infected seeds and total population of the pest after store it for different on adult beetles to determine the proteins, lipids and carbohydrates contents. 4. some analysis in the cowpea vigna anguiculata seeds to investigate the nutritive value after different treatments with bacillus thuringiensis (b.t) and gamma radiation

  20. Coptis chinensis Franch. exhibits neuroprotective properties against oxidative stress in human neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedemann, Thomas; Otto, Benjamin; Klätschke, Kristin; Schumacher, Udo; Tao, Yi; Leung, Alexander Kai-Man; Efferth, Thomas; Schröder, Sven

    2014-08-08

    The dried rhizome of Coptis chinensis Franch. (family Ranunculaceae) is traditionally used in Chinese medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and diabetes. Recent studies showed a variety of activities of Coptis chinensis Franch. alkaloids, including neuroprotective, neuroregenerative, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. However, there is no report on the neuroprotective effect of Coptis chinensis Franch. watery extract against tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BOOH) induced oxidative damage. The aim of the study is to investigate neuroprotective properties of Coptis chinensis Franch. rhizome watery extract (CRE) and to evaluate its potential mechanism of action. Neuroprotective properties on t-BOOH induced oxidative stress were investigated in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Cells were pretreated with CRE for 2 h or 24 h followed by 2 h of treatment with t-BOOH. To evaluate the neuroprotective effect of CRE, cell viability, cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and the apoptotic rate were determined and microarray analyses, as well as qRT-PCR analyses were conducted. Two hours of exposure to 100 µM t-BOOH resulted in a significant reduction of cell viability, increased apoptotic rate, declined mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and increased ROS production. Reduction of cell viability, increased apoptotic rate and declined mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) could be significantly reduced in cells pretreated with CRE (100 µg/ml) for 2h or 24h ahead of t-BOOH exposure with the greatest effect after 24h of pretreatment; however ROS production was not changed significantly. Furthermore, microarray analyses revealed that the expressions of 2 genes; thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) and mitochondrially encoded NADH dehydrogenase 1, were significantly regulated. Down regulation of TXNIP was confirmed by qRT-PCR. Due to its neuroprotective properties CRE might be a potential

  1. Cuscuta chinensis seeds water extraction protecting murine osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells against tertiary butyl hydroperoxide induced injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian-mei; Li, Ran; Zhang, Lei; Jia, Li-long; Ying, Xi-xiang; Dou, De-qiang; Li, Jian-chun; Li, Hai-bo

    2013-07-09

    Cuscuta chinensis (C. chinensis) is a well-known traditional Chinese herb that has been used to treat heart disease, diabetes, liver injury, cancer, and aging. Murine osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were treated with various concentrations of C. chinensis water extraction at different time intervals. The antioxidant effect of C. chinensis on MC3T3-E1 cells was evaluated using MTT and TUNEL assays. The effect of C. chinensis on cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry with propidium iodide. Lipid peroxidation was measured by the HPLC method. The cellular redox status was determined from the reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG) and the enzymes involved in glutathione metabolism, including glutathione reductase (GR), Glutathione S-transferase (GST), and Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). The changes in relative mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) in the MC3T3-E1 cells were analyzed with rhodamine 123 staining. Western blot analysis was used to evaluate the levels of cytochrome c (cyto c), Bax, Bcl-2, caspase 3, Sirt3, and IDH2 expressions. The C. chinensis water extraction protects tertiary butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP)-treated MC3T3-E1 cells from death in a dose-dependent manner. C. chinensis treatment significantly inhibited the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, malondialdehyde (MDA) production, and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), GR, GST, and G6PD. The release of cyto c from mitochondria was reduced by C. chinensis, which increased the expression of antiapoptotic IDH2, Sirt3, and Bcl-2 and decreased the expression of Bax, cyto c, and caspase 3. C. chinensis modulated the oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in MC3T3-E1 cells, probably due to its antioxidant activity and functioning via mitochondria-dependent pathways. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of enamel organic matrix on the potential of Galla chinensis to promote the remineralization of initial enamel carious lesions in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Linglin; Zou Ling; Li Jiyao; Hao Yuqing; Xiao Liying; Zhou Xuedong; Li Wei, E-mail: leewei2000@sina.co, E-mail: zhll_sc@yahoo.c [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China College of Stomatology, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China)

    2009-06-15

    Galla chinensis, a natural traditional Chinese medicine with main composition of tannic acid and gallic acid, is formed when the Chinese sumac aphid Baker (Melaphis chinensis bell) parasitizes the levels of Rhus chinensis Mill. Galla chinensis has shown the potential to enhance the remineralization of initial enamel carious lesion, but the mechanism is still unknown. This study was to investigate whether the enamel organic matrix plays a significant role in the potential of Galla chinensis to promote the remineralization of initial enamel caries. Bovine sound enamel blocks and non-organic enamel blocks were demineralized and exposed to a 12 day pH cycling. During the pH cycling, 30 specimens with the enamel organic matrix were randomly divided into three groups, and treated with 1 g L{sup -1} NaF (group A), 4 g L{sup -1} Galla chinensis extract (group B1) or double deionized water (group C1). Twenty specimens without the enamel organic matrix were randomly divided into two groups, and treated with 4 g L{sup -1} Galla chinensis extract (group B2) or double deionized water (group C2). The integrated mineral loss and lesion depth of all the specimens were analysed by transverse microradiography. The integrated mineral loss and lesion depth of group B1 were less than those of groups B2, C1 and C2, and there were no statistical differences among groups B2, C1 and C2. In conclusion, Galla chinensis can enhance the remineralization of initial enamel carious lesion, and the enamel organic matrix plays a significant role in this potential of Galla chinensis.

  3. Biological activities of Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) and Piper cubeba (Piperaceae) essential oils against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubey, Mukesh Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) and Piper cubeba (Piperaceae) was essential oils were investigated for repellent, insecticidal, antiovipositional, egg hatching, persistence of its insecticidal activities against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Essential oil vapours repelled bruchid adults significantly as oviposition was found reduced in choice oviposition assay. Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils caused both fumigant and contact toxicity in C. chinensis adults. In fumigation toxicity assay, median lethal concentrations (LC50) were 0.34 and 0.27 microL cm(-3) for Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils, respectively, while in contact toxicity assay, LC50 were 0.90 and 0.66 microL cm(-2) for Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils, respectively. These two essential oils reduced oviposition in C. chinensis adults when treated with sublethal concentrations by fumigation and contact method. Oviposition inhibition was more pronounced when adults come in contact than in vapours. Both essential oils significantly reduced egg hatching rate when fumigated. Persistence in insecticidal efficiency of both essential oils decreased with time. P. cubeba showed less persistence than Z. officinale essential oil because no mortality was observed in C. chinensis adults after 36 h of treatment with P. cubeba and after 48 h of treatment of Z. officinale essential oil. Fumigation with these essential oils has no effect on the germination of the cowpea seeds. Findings of the study suggest that Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils can be useful as promising agent in insect pest management programme.

  4. [Effects of exogenous AsA and GSH on the growth of Dianthus chinensis seedlings exposed to Cd].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ji-Jun; Liu, Shi-Liang; Pan, Yuan-Zhi; Li, Li

    2014-02-01

    A pot experiment was carried out under greenhouse condition to investigate the effects of different concentrations (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg x L(-1)) of exogenous AsA, GSH on Dianthus chinensis seedlings which were stressed by 50 mg x kg(-1) Cd in the soil. The results indicated that 50 mg x kg(-1) of Cd significantly inhibited the growth of D. chinensis seedlings. An appropriate concentration of exogenous AsA significantly improved the biomass, plant height, tiller number, GAT and APX activities, and AsA and GSH contents. However, with the increase of exogenous AsA concentration, the ameliorating effect decreased and prooxidant effect occurred. Exogenous GSH could replenish the non-enzymatic antioxidants of D. chinensis seedlings, but the changes of antioxidant enzyme activities were relatively slight. The main mechanisms of GSH to alleviate Cd toxicity might be promoting root PCs synthesis, thereby reducing the Cd concentration in the seedlings. Both 35-45 mg x L(-1) exogenous AsA and 55-65 mg x L(-1) exogenous GSH could alleviate the Cd toxicity on D. chinensis seedlings, and the former was superior to the latter.

  5. Application of capillary electrochromatography using macroporous polyacrylamide columns for the analysis of lignans from seeds of Schisandra chinensis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvasničková, L.; Glatz, O.; Štěrbová, H.; Kahle, Vladislav; Slanina, J.; Musil, P.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 916, 1-2 (2001), s. 265-271 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/00/D062 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : electrochromatography * Schisandra chinensis * plant materials Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.793, year: 2001

  6. Morpho-anatomical features of Schisandra chinensis leaf under conditions of introduction in forest-steppe of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiya Skrypchenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of the morpho-anatomical study of the leaves of Schisandra chinensis under conditions of foreststeppe of Ukraine are given. Since the specific features were found, in particular the presence of intercellular spaces with essential oils in leaf blade and petioles.

  7. Reversal of cisplatin resistance in non-small cell lung cancer stem cells by Taxus chinensis var.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y Q; Xu, X P; Guo, Q M; Xu, X C; Liu, Q Y; An, S H; Xu, J L; Su, F; Tai, J B

    2016-09-02

    Drug resistance in cells is a major impedance to successful treatment of lung cancer. Taxus chinensis var. inhibits the growth of tumor cells and promotes the synthesis of interleukins 1 and 2 and tumor necrosis factor, enhancing immune function. In this study, T. chinensis var.-induced cell death was analyzed in lung cancer cells (H460) enriched for stem cell growth in a defined serum-free medium. Taxus-treated stem cells were also analyzed for Rhodamine 123 (Rh-123) expression by flow cytometry, and used as a standard functional indicator of MDR. The molecular basis of T. chinensis var.-mediated drug resistance was established by real-time PCR analysis of ABCC1, ABCB1, and lung resistance-related protein (LRP) mRNA, and western blot analysis of MRP1, MDR1, and LRP. Our results revealed that stem cells treated with higher doses of T. chinensis var. showed significantly lower growth inhibition rates than did H460 cells (P var. and cisplatin was also significantly inhibited (P var. (P var.-treated stem cells showed significant downregulation of the ABCC1, ABCB1, and LRP mRNA and MRP1, MDR1, and LRP (P var.-mediated downregulation of MRP1, MDR1, and LRP might contribute to the reversal of drug resistance in non-small cell lung cancer stem cells.

  8. De novo characterization of the Iris lactea var. chinensis transcriptome and an analysis of genes under cadmium or lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Chun-Sun; Liu, Liang-Qin; Deng, Yan-Ming; Zhang, Yong-Xia; Wang, Zhi-Quan; Yuan, Hai-Yan; Huang, Su-Zhen

    2017-10-01

    Iris lactea var. chinensis (I. lactea var. chinensis) is tolerant to accumulations of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). In this study, the transcriptome of I. lactea var. chinensis was investigated under Cd or Pb stresses. Using the gene ontology database, 31,974 unigenes were classified into biological process, cellular component and molecular function. In total, 13,132 unigenes were involved in enriched Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) metabolic pathways, and the expression levels of 5904 unigenes were significantly changed after exposure to Cd or Pb stresses. Of these, 974 were co-up-regulated and 1281 were co-down-regulated under the two stresses. The transcriptome expression profiles of I. lactea var. chinensis under Cd or Pb stresses obtained in this study provided a resource for identifying common mechanisms in the detoxification of different heavy metals. Furthermore, the identified unigenes may be used for the genetic breeding of heavy-metal tolerant plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. De novo sequencing, assembly, and analysis of Iris lactea var. chinensis roots' transcriptome in response to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Chunsun; Xu, Sheng; Wang, Zhiquan; Liu, Liangqin; Zhang, Yongxia; Deng, Yanming; Huang, Suzhen

    2018-04-01

    As a halophyte, Iris lactea var. chinensis (I. lactea var. chinensis) is widely distributed and has good drought and heavy metal resistance. Moreover, it is an excellent ornamental plant. I. lactea var. chinensis has extensive application prospects owing to the global impacts of salinization. To better understand its molecular mechanism involved in salt resistance, the de novo sequencing, assembly, and analysis of I. lactea var. chinensis roots' transcriptome in response to salt-stress conditions was performed. On average, 74.17% of the clean reads were mapped to unigenes. A total of 121,093 unigenes were constructed and 56,398 (46.57%) were annotated. Among these, 13,522 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between salt-treated and control samples Compared to the transcriptional level of control, 7037 DEGs were up-regulated and 6539 down-regulated. In addition, 129 up-regulated and 1609 down-regulated genes were simultaneously detected in all three pairwise comparisons between control and salt-stressed libraries. At least 247 and 250 DEGs encoding transcription factors and transporter proteins were identified. Meanwhile, 130 DEGs regarding reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging system were also summarized. Based on real-time quantitative RT-PCR, we verified the changes in the expression patterns of 10 unigenes. Our study identified potential salt-responsive candidate genes and increased the understanding of halophyte responses to salinity stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Cuscuta chinensis extract promotes osteoblast differentiation and mineralization in human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyun Mo; Shin, Hyun-Kyung; Kang, Young-Hee; Kim, Jin-Kyung

    2009-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the aqueous extract of To-Sa-Za (TSZ-AE), the seed of Cuscuta chinensis Lam., which is a traditional medicinal herb commonly used in Korea and other oriental countries, could induce osteogenic activity in human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells. TSZ-AE treatment mildly promoted the proliferation of MG-63 cells at doses of 500 and 1,000 microg/mL in the 24-hour culture period. Dose-dependent increases in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and collagen synthesis were shown at 48 and 72 hours of incubation. The release of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 but not osteocalcin in the MG-63 cells was induced by TSZ-AE at 72 hours (100-1,000 microg/mL). In addition, TSZ-AE markedly increased mRNA expression of ALP, collagen, and BMP-2 in the MG-63 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Mineralization in the culture of MG-63 cells was significantly induced at 500 and 1,000 microg/mL TSZ-AE treatment. In conclusion, this study shows that TSZ-AE enhanced ALP activity, collagen synthesis, BMP-2 expression, and mineralization in MG-63 cells. These results strongly suggest that C. chinensis can play an important role in osteoblastic bone formation and may possibly lead to the development of bone-forming drugs.

  11. In Vitro Cytotoxic Effects of Cuscuta chinensis Whole Extract on Human Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Zeraati

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the major paths for drug development isthe study of bioactivities of natural products. Therefore, theaim of this study was to compare the cytotoxic effects ofaqueous extract of whole Cuscuta chinensis Lam., which is atraditional medicinal herb commonly used in Iran and otheroriental countries, on the human caucasian acute lymphoblasticleukemia (CCRF-CEM and another human lymphocyte,Jurkat (JM cell lines.Methods: In vitro cytotoxic screening with various concentrations(0, 0.1, 1, 10, 25 and 50 μg/ml of the extract wasperformed using microscope and methyl tetrazolium bromidetest (MTT.Results: The minimum effective concentration of the plantextract was 1 μg/ml, and increasing the dose to 10 μg/mlinduced increasingly stronger effects. The inhibitory concentration50% (IC50 of the extract against CCRF wasabout 3 μg/ml in 24 hours and 2.5 μg/ml in 48 hrs. In contrast,the extract did not have cytotoxic effect for the JMcells at these doses.Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggest that C.chinensis is toxic against CCRF-CEM and JM tumor cells.Whether or not such effects can be employed for the treatmentof such tumors must await future studies.Iran J Med Sci 2010; 35(4: 310-314.

  12. Effect of Cuscuta chinensis on renal function in ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute renal failure rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sun; Lee, Yun Jung; Kim, Eun Ju; Lee, An Sook; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2011-01-01

    The kidneys play a central role in regulating water, ion composition and excretion of metabolic waste products in the urine. Cuscuta chinensis has been known as an important traditional Oriental medicine for the treatment of liver and kidney disorders. Thus, we studied whether an aqueous extract of Cuscuta chinensis (ACC) seeds has an effect on renal function parameters in ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute renal failure (ARF) rats. Administration of 250 mg/kg/day ACC showed that renal functional parameters including urinary excretion rate, osmolality, Na(+), K(+), Cl(-), creatinine clearance, solute-free water reabsorption were significantly recovered in ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF. Periodic acid Schiff staining showed that administration of ACC improved tubular damage in ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF. In immunoblot and immunohistological examinations, ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF decreased the expressions of water channel AQP 2, 3 and sodium potassium pump Na,K-ATPase in the renal medulla. However, administration of ACC markedly incremented AQP 2, 3 and Na,K-ATPase expressions. Therefore, these data indicate that administration of ACC ameliorates regulation of the urine concentration and renal functions in rats with ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF.

  13. Pistacia chinensis: A Potent Ameliorator of CCl4 Induced Lung and Thyroid Toxicity in Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Naz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current study protective effect of ethanol extract of Pistacia chinensis bark (PCEB was investigated in rats against CCl4 induced lung and thyroid injuries. PCEB dose dependently inhibited the rise of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, hydrogen peroxide, nitrite, and protein content and restored the levels of antioxidant enzymes, that is, catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, and quinone reductase in both lung and thyroid tissues of CCl4 treated rats. Decrease in number of leukocytes, neutrophils, and hemoglobin and T3 and T4 content as well as increase in monocytes, eosinophils, and lymphocytes count with CCl4 were restored to normal level with PCEB treatment. Histological study of CCl4 treated rats showed various lung injuries like rupture of alveolar walls and bronchioles, aggregation of fibroblasts, and disorganized Clara cells. Similarly, histology of CCl4 treated thyroid tissues displayed damaged thyroid follicles, hypertrophy, and colloidal depletion. However, PCEB exhibited protective behaviour for lungs and thyroid, with improved histological structure in a dose dependant manner. Presence of three known phenolic compounds, that is, rutin, tannin, and gallic acid, and three unknown compounds was verified in thin layer chromatographic assessment of PCEB. In conclusion, P. chinensis exhibited antioxidant activity by the presence of free radical quenching constituents.

  14. Fruit development of the diploid kiwifruit, Actinidia chinensis 'Hort16A'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Annette C

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the advent of high throughput genomic tools, it is now possible to undertake detailed molecular studies of individual species outside traditional model organisms. Combined with a good understanding of physiological processes, these tools allow researchers to explore natural diversity, giving a better understanding of biological mechanisms. Here a detailed study of fruit development from anthesis through to fruit senescence is presented for a non-model organism, kiwifruit, Actinidia chinensis ('Hort16A'. Results Consistent with previous studies, it was found that many aspects of fruit morphology, growth and development are similar to those of the model fruit tomato, except for a striking difference in fruit ripening progression. The early stages of fruit ripening occur as the fruit is still growing, and many ripening events are not associated with autocatalytic ethylene production (historically associated with respiratory climacteric. Autocatalytic ethylene is produced late in the ripening process as the fruit begins to senesce. Conclusion By aligning A. chinensis fruit development to a phenological scale, this study provides a reference framework for subsequent physiological and genomic studies, and will allow cross comparison across fruit species, leading to a greater understanding of the diversity of fruits found across the plant kingdom.

  15. Antioxidant activity of Dianthus chinensis L. flowers processed by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Amanda C.R.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H.; Barros, Lillian; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2017-01-01

    Edible flowers are increasingly used in culinary preparations, which require new approaches to improve their conservation and safety. Irradiation treatment is safe and an effective alternative for food conservation, guaranteeing food quality, increasing shelf-life and disinfestation. This technology offers a versatile way to get good quality food while reducing post-harvest losses. Dianthus chinensis L. flowers, popularly known as Chinese pink, are widely used in culinary preparations, being also acknowledged for their bioactive components and antioxidant properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of D. chinensis flowers submitted to electron beam and gamma irradiation at 0, 0.5, 0.8 and 1 kGy. The antioxidant properties were evaluated through the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, reducing power and β-carotene bleaching inhibition assays. Total phenolics were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The antioxidant activity was higher for irradiated samples, especially those treated with 0.5 and 0.8 kGy, independently of the radiation source, which showed the highest capacity to inhibit β-carotene bleaching inhibition. Accordingly, the applied irradiation treatments seemed to represent feasible technology to preserve the quality of edible flower petals, being able to improve the antioxidant activity. (author)

  16. Antioxidant activity of Dianthus chinensis L. flowers processed by ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Amanda C.R.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H., E-mail: amandaramos@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNE-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Barros, Lillian; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R., E-mail: iferreira@ipb.pt [Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO) - ESA, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança (Portugal)

    2017-07-01

    Edible flowers are increasingly used in culinary preparations, which require new approaches to improve their conservation and safety. Irradiation treatment is safe and an effective alternative for food conservation, guaranteeing food quality, increasing shelf-life and disinfestation. This technology offers a versatile way to get good quality food while reducing post-harvest losses. Dianthus chinensis L. flowers, popularly known as Chinese pink, are widely used in culinary preparations, being also acknowledged for their bioactive components and antioxidant properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of D. chinensis flowers submitted to electron beam and gamma irradiation at 0, 0.5, 0.8 and 1 kGy. The antioxidant properties were evaluated through the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, reducing power and β-carotene bleaching inhibition assays. Total phenolics were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The antioxidant activity was higher for irradiated samples, especially those treated with 0.5 and 0.8 kGy, independently of the radiation source, which showed the highest capacity to inhibit β-carotene bleaching inhibition. Accordingly, the applied irradiation treatments seemed to represent feasible technology to preserve the quality of edible flower petals, being able to improve the antioxidant activity. (author)

  17. Changes in the content of water-soluble vitamins in Actinidia chinensis during cold storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Xian-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the effects of cold storage on nine water-soluble vitamins in 7 cultivars of Actinidia chinensis (kiwifruit using high-performance liquid chromatography. Samples were collected at three time points during cold storage: one day, 30 days, and when edible. We found that vitamin C in most cultivars was raised with cold storage, but there was no consistent increased or decreased trend for other water-soluble vitamins across cultivars in storage. After one day of cold storage, vitamins B1 and B2 were the most prevalent vitamins in Control (wild fruit, while vitamins B5 and B6 were most prevalent in the Hongyang and Qihong cultivars. However, B12 was the most prevalent vitamin in the Qihong cultivar after 30 days of cold storage. Vitamins B3, B7, B9, and C were detected at the edible time point in Huayou, Hongyang, Jinnong-2, and Control fruit. Vitamin contents varied significantly among cultivars of kiwifruit following different durations of cold storage. Out of the three durations tested, a period of 30 days in cold storage was the most suitable for the absorption of water-soluble vitamins by A. chinensis.

  18. Hematological changes in white spot syndrome virus-infected shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis (Osbeck)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shouming; Zhan, Wenbin; Xing, Jing; Li, Jun; Yang, Kai; Wang, Jing

    2008-08-01

    The pathological changes of hemocytes in the haemolymph and hepatopancreas were examined in experimentally and naturally WSSV (white spot syndrome virus) infected Fenneropenaeus chinensis. The results showed that the pathological manifestations of hemocytes were similar among moribund shrimps infected via injection, feeding and by nature. Firstly, the total hemocyte counts (THCs) in WSSV-infected shrimp were significantly lower than those in healthy shrimp. Secondly, necrotic, broken and disintegrated cells were often observed, and a typical hematolysis was present in the haemolymph smear of WSSV-infected shrimp. Thirdly, necrosis and typical apoptosis of hemocytes were detected with TEM in the peripheral haemolymph of WSSV-infected shrimp. Hyalinocytes and semi-granulocytes with masses of WSSVs in their nuclei often appeared, whereas no granular hemocytes with WSSV were found in the hepatopancreas of moribund infected shrimps. All our results supported that hemocytes were the main target cells of WSSV, and hyalinocytes and semigranular hemocytes seemed to be more favorable for WSSV infection in F. chinensis.

  19. Sedative and hypnotic effects of supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction from Schisandra chinensis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Zhu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Schisandra chinensis is a traditional Chinese medicine that has been used for treating insomnia and neurasthenia for centuries. Lignans, which are considered to be the bioactive components, are apt to be extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide. This study was conducted to investigate the sedative and hypnotic activities of the supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction of S. chinensis (SFES in mice and the possible mechanisms. SFES exhibited an obvious sedative effect on shortening the locomotor activity in mice in a dose-dependent (10–200 mg/kg manner. SFES (50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, and 200 mg/kg, intragstrically showed a strong hypnotic effect in synergy with pentobarbital in mouse sleep, and reversal of insomnia induced by caffeine, p-chlorophenylalanine and flumazenil by decreasing sleep latency, sleep recovery, and increasing sleeping time. In addition, it produced a synergistic effect with 5-hydroxytryptophan (2.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally. The behavioral pharmacological results suggest that SFES has significant sedative and hypnotic activities, and the mechanisms might be relevant to the serotonergic and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic system.

  20. Improved antimelanogenesis and antioxidant effects of polysaccharide from Cuscuta chinensis Lam seeds after enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zi-Jun; Wang, Ya-Lan; Li, Qi-Ling; Yang, Liu

    2018-01-01

    Cuscuta chinensis polysaccharide (CPS) was extracted using hot water and enzymatically hydrolyzed C. chinensis polysaccharide (ECPS) was produced by the mannase enzymatic hydrolysis process. The purpose of this research was to investigate the antimelanogenic activity of ECPS and CPS in B16F10 melanoma cells. The in vitro antioxidant activity was assessed by their ferric iron reducing power and DPPH free radical scavenging activities. The molecular mass distribution of polysaccharides was determined using SEC-MALLS-RI. CPS was successfully enzymatically degraded using mannase and the weighted average molecular weights of CPS and ECPS were 434.6 kDa and 211.7 kDa. The results of biological activity assays suggested that the enzymatically hydrolyzed polysaccharide had superior antimelanogenic activity and antioxidant effect than the original polysaccharide. ECPS exhibited antimelanogenic activity by down-regulating the expression of tyrosinase, MITF, and TRP-1 without cytotoxic effects in B16F10 melanoma cells. In conclusion, ECPS have the potential to become a skin whitening product.

  1. Morphological beak differences of loliginid squid, Uroteuthis chinensis and Uroteuthis edulis, in the northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yue; Liu, Bilin; Chen, Xinjun; Staples, Kevin

    2018-03-01

    The mitre squid ( Uroteuthis chinensis) and the swordtip squid ( U. edulis) are Indo-Pacific cephalopod species that are abundant in the western Pacific Ocean. They are currently exploited in the East and South China Seas and make up a significant portion of the Chinese neritic squid catch. Beaks, the feeding organs of squid, are important for individual size and biomass estimation because of their high resistance to degradation in predator stomachs and consistent dimensions. In this study, 104 U. chinensis and 143 U. edulis individuals were sampled from northern South China Sea with mantle length from 70 to 260 mm and 96 to 284 mm, respectively. The results indicated that morphological beak values were greater for U. edulis, compared to U. chinensis, for upper hood length (UHL), upper crest length (UCL), upper lateral wall length (ULWL), lower crest length (LCL), and lower lateral wall length (LLWL). According to principal component analysis, UHL/ML, UCL/ML, ULWL/ML, LCL/ML, LLWL/ML and LWL/ML could represent the characteristics of beaks for U. chinensis, while UHL/ML, UCL/ML, ULWL/ML, LHL/ML, LCL/ML and LLWL/ML could represent it for U. edulis. According to Akaike's information criterion (AIC) values, a power function was the most suitable model for U. chinensis, while a linear function was the most suitable model for U. edulis. The beak variable-mantle length ratio (beak variable/mantle length) declined with the increasing of mantle length and declined sharply at the early stage of growth in both beaks and species. The ratio changed quickly after achieving the mantle length of 140 mm for U. chinensis, while the ratio changed quickly after 170 mm for U. edulis. Beaks in both species experienced sharper changes through maturity stage I to II than other maturity stages. This study gives us basic beak morphology information for U. chinensis and U. edulis in the East and South China Seas. Geometric morphological methods combined with dietary analysis should be used

  2. A manually annotated Actinidia chinensis var. chinensis (kiwifruit) genome highlights the challenges associated with draft genomes and gene prediction in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, Sarah M; Crowhurst, Ross; Hilario, Elena; Nardozza, Simona; Fraser, Lena; Peng, Yongyan; Gunaseelan, Kularajathevan; Simpson, Robert; Tahir, Jibran; Deroles, Simon C; Templeton, Kerry; Luo, Zhiwei; Davy, Marcus; Cheng, Canhong; McNeilage, Mark; Scaglione, Davide; Liu, Yifei; Zhang, Qiong; Datson, Paul; De Silva, Nihal; Gardiner, Susan E; Bassett, Heather; Chagné, David; McCallum, John; Dzierzon, Helge; Deng, Cecilia; Wang, Yen-Yi; Barron, Lorna; Manako, Kelvina; Bowen, Judith; Foster, Toshi M; Erridge, Zoe A; Tiffin, Heather; Waite, Chethi N; Davies, Kevin M; Grierson, Ella P; Laing, William A; Kirk, Rebecca; Chen, Xiuyin; Wood, Marion; Montefiori, Mirco; Brummell, David A; Schwinn, Kathy E; Catanach, Andrew; Fullerton, Christina; Li, Dawei; Meiyalaghan, Sathiyamoorthy; Nieuwenhuizen, Niels; Read, Nicola; Prakash, Roneel; Hunter, Don; Zhang, Huaibi; McKenzie, Marian; Knäbel, Mareike; Harris, Alastair; Allan, Andrew C; Gleave, Andrew; Chen, Angela; Janssen, Bart J; Plunkett, Blue; Ampomah-Dwamena, Charles; Voogd, Charlotte; Leif, Davin; Lafferty, Declan; Souleyre, Edwige J F; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika; Gambi, Francesco; Hanley, Jenny; Yao, Jia-Long; Cheung, Joey; David, Karine M; Warren, Ben; Marsh, Ken; Snowden, Kimberley C; Lin-Wang, Kui; Brian, Lara; Martinez-Sanchez, Marcela; Wang, Mindy; Ileperuma, Nadeesha; Macnee, Nikolai; Campin, Robert; McAtee, Peter; Drummond, Revel S M; Espley, Richard V; Ireland, Hilary S; Wu, Rongmei; Atkinson, Ross G; Karunairetnam, Sakuntala; Bulley, Sean; Chunkath, Shayhan; Hanley, Zac; Storey, Roy; Thrimawithana, Amali H; Thomson, Susan; David, Charles; Testolin, Raffaele; Huang, Hongwen; Hellens, Roger P; Schaffer, Robert J

    2018-04-16

    Most published genome sequences are drafts, and most are dominated by computational gene prediction. Draft genomes typically incorporate considerable sequence data that are not assigned to chromosomes, and predicted genes without quality confidence measures. The current Actinidia chinensis (kiwifruit) 'Hongyang' draft genome has 164 Mb of sequences unassigned to pseudo-chromosomes, and omissions have been identified in the gene models. A second genome of an A. chinensis (genotype Red5) was fully sequenced. This new sequence resulted in a 554.0 Mb assembly with all but 6 Mb assigned to pseudo-chromosomes. Pseudo-chromosomal comparisons showed a considerable number of translocation events have occurred following a whole genome duplication (WGD) event some consistent with centromeric Robertsonian-like translocations. RNA sequencing data from 12 tissues and ab initio analysis informed a genome-wide manual annotation, using the WebApollo tool. In total, 33,044 gene loci represented by 33,123 isoforms were identified, named and tagged for quality of evidential support. Of these 3114 (9.4%) were identical to a protein within 'Hongyang' The Kiwifruit Information Resource (KIR v2). Some proportion of the differences will be varietal polymorphisms. However, as most computationally predicted Red5 models required manual re-annotation this proportion is expected to be small. The quality of the new gene models was tested by fully sequencing 550 cloned 'Hort16A' cDNAs and comparing with the predicted protein models for Red5 and both the original 'Hongyang' assembly and the revised annotation from KIR v2. Only 48.9% and 63.5% of the cDNAs had a match with 90% identity or better to the original and revised 'Hongyang' annotation, respectively, compared with 90.9% to the Red5 models. Our study highlights the need to take a cautious approach to draft genomes and computationally predicted genes. Our use of the manual annotation tool WebApollo facilitated manual checking and

  3. 1H-NMR-Based Metabonomics of the Protective Effect of Coptis chinensis and Berberine on Cinnabar-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Nephrotoxicity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyue Su

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Coptis chinensis Franch has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM for treating infectious and inflammatory diseases for over two thousand years. Berberine (BN, an isoquinoline alkaloid, is the main component of Coptis chinensis. The pharmacological basis for its therapeutic effects, which include hepatoprotective effects on liver injuries, has been studied intensively, yet the therapy of liver injuries and underlying mechanism remain unclear. We investigated the detoxification mechanism of Coptis chinensis and berberine using metabolomics of urine and serum in the present study. After the treatment with Coptis chinensis and berberine, compared with the cinnabar group, Coptis chinensis and berberine can regulate the concentration of the endogenous metabolites. PLS-DA score plots demonstrated that the urine and serum metabolic profiles in rats of the Coptis chinensis and berberine groups were similar those of the control group, yet remarkably apart from the cinnabar group. The mechanism may be related to the endogenous metabolites including energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism and metabolism of intestinal flora in rats. Meanwhile, liver and kidney histopathology examinations and serum clinical chemistry analysis verified the experimental results of metabonomics.

  4. Machine learning for the prediction of L. chinensis carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus contents and understanding of mechanisms underlying grassland degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuefen; Liang, Shuo; Zhao, Yiying; Li, Wenbo; Wang, Yuejiao

    2017-05-01

    The grasslands of Western Jilin Province in China have experienced severe degradation during the last 50 years. Radial basis function neural networks (RBFNN) and support vector machines (SVM) were used to predict the carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus contents of Leymus chinensis (L. chinensis) and explore the degree of grassland degradation using the matter-element extension model. Both RBFNN and SVM demonstrated good prediction accuracy. The results indicated that there was severe degradation, as samples were mainly concentrated in the 3rd and 4th levels. The growth of L. chinensis was shown to be limited by either nitrogen, phosphorus, or both during different stages of degradation. The soil chemistry changed noticeably as degradation aggravated, which represents a destabilization of L. chinensis community homeostasis. Soil salinization aggravates soil nutrient loss and decreases the bioavailability of soil nutrients. This, along with the destabilization of C/N, C/P and N/P ratios, weakens the photosynthetic ability and productivity of L. chinensis. This conclusion was supported by observations that L. chinensis is gradually being replaced by a Chloris virgata, Puccinellia tenuiflora and Suaeda acuminate mixed community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The new record for Turkish invasive alien insect fauna Anoplophora chinensis (Forster, 1771 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Hızal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available International trade is increasing rapidly with developing transportation routes. As a result of this, it became easier for many animal species to move from their natural habitats with the break down of the natural barriers between countries and continents. Insects take an important place among these animals. Insect populations are controlled by several factors in their natural habitats, but they causes important problems as they move by living plants and wood materials to another area. They are so called invasive alien insect species in their new location. These species’ common characteristics are fast growth and reproduction, high dispersal ability, tolerance of wide range of enviromental conditions and ability to feed with various food types. The increase in importing of the plants and wood material in the recent years has been causing the prensence of these species in Turkey. In this research Anoplophora chinensis (Forster, 1771 (Coleoptera; Cerambycidae is given as a new record to Turkish invasive alien insect species fauna.

  6. Molecular cloning of Kazal-type proteinase inhibitor of the shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Hee Jeong; Cho, Hyun Kook; Park, Eun-Mi; Hong, Gyeong-Eun; Kim, Young-Ok; Nam, Bo-Hye; Kim, Woo-Jin; Lee, Sang-Jun; Han, Hyon Sob; Jang, In-Kwon; Lee, Chang Hoon; Cheong, Jaehun; Choi, Tae-Jin

    2009-01-01

    Proteinase inhibitors play important roles in host defence systems involving blood coagulation and pathogen digestion. We isolated and characterized a cDNA clone for a Kazal-type proteinase inhibitor (KPI) from a hemocyte cDNA library of the oriental white shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis. The KPI gene consists of three exons and two introns. KPI cDNA contains an open reading frame of 396 bp, a polyadenylation signal sequence AATAAA, and a poly (A) tail. KPI cDNA encodes a polypeptide of 131 amino acids with a putative signal peptide of 21 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of KPI contains two homologous Kazal domains, each with six conserved cysteine residues. The mRNA of KPI is expressed in the hemocytes of healthy shrimp, and the higher expression of KPI transcript is observed in shrimp infected with the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), suggesting a potential role for KPI in host defence mechanisms.

  7. Induksi Ginogenesis melalui Kultur Multi Ovule Slice dan Kultur Ovary Slice Dianthus chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suskandari Kartikaningrum

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Callus induction was studied in five genotypes of Dianthus chinensis using 2.4 D and NAA. Calluses can be obtainedfrom unfertilized ovule culture and ovary culture. The aim of the research was to study gynogenic potential and responseof Dianthus chinensis through ovule slice and ovary slice culture for obtaining haploid plants. Five genotypes of Dianthuschinensis and five media were used in ovule slice culture and two genotypes and three medium were used in ovary culture.Flower buds in the 7th stage were incubated for the purpose of dark pre-treatment at 4 oC for one day. Ovules and ovaries wereisolated and cultured in induction medium. Cultures were incubated for the purpose of dark pre-treatment at 4 oC for seven days, followed by 25 oC light incubation. The result showed that 2.4D was better than NAA in inducing callus. Percentage of regenerated calluses were produced in V11, V13 and V15 genotypes in M7 medium (MS + 2 mg L-1 2.4D + 1 mg L-1 BAP + 30 g L-1 sucrose and M10 medium (MS + 1 mg L-1 2.4D + 1 mg L-1 BAP + 20 g L-1 sucrose. All calluses originated from ovule and ovary cultures flowered prematurely. Double haploid (V11-34 were obtained from ovule slice culture based on PER (peroksidase and EST (esterase isoenzym marker.Keywords: ovule slice culture, ovary slice culture, callus, Dianthus sp., haploid

  8. Responses of Water and Salt Parameters to Groundwater Levels for Soil Columns Planted with Tamarix chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jiangbao; Zhao, Ximei; Chen, Yinping; Fang, Ying; Zhao, Ziguo

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater is the main water resource for plant growth and development in the saline soil of the Yellow River Delta in China. To investigate the variabilities and distributions of soil water and salt contents at various groundwater level (GL), soil columns with planting Tamarix chinensis Lour were established at six different GL. The results demonstrated the following: With increasing GL, the relative soil water content (RWC) declined significantly, whereas the salt content (SC) and absolute soil solution concentration (CS) decreased after the initial increase in the different soil profiles. A GL of 1.2 m was the turning point for variations in the soil water and salt contents, and it represented the highest GL that could maintain the soil surface moist within the soil columns. Both the SC and CS reached the maximum levels in these different soil profiles at a GL of 1.2 m. With the raise of soil depth, the RWC increased significantly, whereas the SC increased after an initial decrease. The mean SC values reached 0.96% in the top soil layer; however, the rates at which the CS and RWC decreased with the GL were significantly reduced. The RWC and SC presented the greatest variations at the medium (0.9-1.2 m) and shallow water levels (0.6 m) respectively, whereas the CS presented the greatest variation at the deep water level (1.5-1.8 m).The RWC, SC and CS in the soil columns were all closely related to the GL. However, the correlations among the parameters varied greatly within different soil profiles, and the most accurate predictions of the GL were derived from the RWC in the shallow soil layer or the SC in the top soil layer. A GL at 1.5-1.8 m was moderate for planting T. chinensis seedlings under saline groundwater conditions.

  9. Responses of Water and Salt Parameters to Groundwater Levels for Soil Columns Planted with Tamarix chinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangbao Xia

    Full Text Available Groundwater is the main water resource for plant growth and development in the saline soil of the Yellow River Delta in China. To investigate the variabilities and distributions of soil water and salt contents at various groundwater level (GL, soil columns with planting Tamarix chinensis Lour were established at six different GL. The results demonstrated the following: With increasing GL, the relative soil water content (RWC declined significantly, whereas the salt content (SC and absolute soil solution concentration (CS decreased after the initial increase in the different soil profiles. A GL of 1.2 m was the turning point for variations in the soil water and salt contents, and it represented the highest GL that could maintain the soil surface moist within the soil columns. Both the SC and CS reached the maximum levels in these different soil profiles at a GL of 1.2 m. With the raise of soil depth, the RWC increased significantly, whereas the SC increased after an initial decrease. The mean SC values reached 0.96% in the top soil layer; however, the rates at which the CS and RWC decreased with the GL were significantly reduced. The RWC and SC presented the greatest variations at the medium (0.9-1.2 m and shallow water levels (0.6 m respectively, whereas the CS presented the greatest variation at the deep water level (1.5-1.8 m.The RWC, SC and CS in the soil columns were all closely related to the GL. However, the correlations among the parameters varied greatly within different soil profiles, and the most accurate predictions of the GL were derived from the RWC in the shallow soil layer or the SC in the top soil layer. A GL at 1.5-1.8 m was moderate for planting T. chinensis seedlings under saline groundwater conditions.

  10. Responses of Water and Salt Parameters to Groundwater Levels for Soil Columns Planted with Tamarix chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jiangbao; Zhao, Ximei; Chen, Yinping; Fang, Ying; Zhao, Ziguo

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater is the main water resource for plant growth and development in the saline soil of the Yellow River Delta in China. To investigate the variabilities and distributions of soil water and salt contents at various groundwater level (GL), soil columns with planting Tamarix chinensis Lour were established at six different GL. The results demonstrated the following: With increasing GL, the relative soil water content (RWC) declined significantly, whereas the salt content (SC) and absolute soil solution concentration (CS) decreased after the initial increase in the different soil profiles. A GL of 1.2 m was the turning point for variations in the soil water and salt contents, and it represented the highest GL that could maintain the soil surface moist within the soil columns. Both the SC and CS reached the maximum levels in these different soil profiles at a GL of 1.2 m. With the raise of soil depth, the RWC increased significantly, whereas the SC increased after an initial decrease. The mean SC values reached 0.96% in the top soil layer; however, the rates at which the CS and RWC decreased with the GL were significantly reduced. The RWC and SC presented the greatest variations at the medium (0.9–1.2 m) and shallow water levels (0.6 m) respectively, whereas the CS presented the greatest variation at the deep water level (1.5–1.8 m).The RWC, SC and CS in the soil columns were all closely related to the GL. However, the correlations among the parameters varied greatly within different soil profiles, and the most accurate predictions of the GL were derived from the RWC in the shallow soil layer or the SC in the top soil layer. A GL at 1.5–1.8 m was moderate for planting T. chinensis seedlings under saline groundwater conditions. PMID:26730602

  11. Entomofauna visitante de Belamcanda chinensis (L. DC (Iridaceae durante o período de floração Flowering entomofauna Belamcanda chinensis (L. DC. (Iridaceae during flowering time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Jesus Vitali

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of the reproductive biology of B. chinensis (L. DC. (Iridaceae was realized comprising floral biology and breeding systems. The floral biology studies included analyses of nectar production, occurence of osmophores, corolla pigments, ultraviolet reflexion and absortion patterns, viability of pollen, pollinators and flower visitors. The breeding systems were studied taking into account the results of manual pollinators tests. B. chinensis is self-compatible bul cross-pollination is more frequent. The effective pollinators are Plebeia droryana (Friese, 1906 (45,7%, Trigona spinipes (Fabricius, 1793 (27,3%, Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille, 1811 (9,3%. Others insects visitors are considered nectar and pollen thieves. The flowering begins generally in January and February. The complete reproductive cicle, as here considered, begining with floral bud production ending with development of mature fruits, lasts January to June. Seed dispersion is ornitocoric.

  12. [Cultural regionalization for Coptis chinensis based on 3S technology platform Ⅰ. Study on growth suitability for Coptis chinensis based on ecological factors analysis by Maxent and ArcGIS model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Yang, Yan-Fang; Song, Hong-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Huang, Lu-Qi; Wu, He-Zhen

    2016-09-01

    At the urgent request of Coptis chinensis planting,growth suitability as assessment indicators for C. chinensis cultivation was proposed and analyzed in this paper , based on chemical quality determination and ecological fators analysis by Maxent and ArcGIS model. Its potential distribution areas at differernt suitability grade and regionalization map were formulated based on statistical theory and growth suitability theory. The results showed that the most suitable habitats is some parts of Chongqing and Hubei province, such as Shizhu, Lichuan, Wulong, Wuxi, Enshi. There are seven ecological factor is the main ecological factors affect the growth of Coptidis Rhizoma, including altitude, precipitation in February and September and the rise of precipitation and altitude is conducive to the accumulation of total alkaloid content in C. chinensis. Therefore, The results of the study not only illustrates the most suitable for the surroundings of Coptidis Rhizoma, also helpful to further research and practice of cultivation regionalization, wild resource monitoring and large-scale cultivation of traditional Chinese medicine plants. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  13. Absorbability, Mechanism and Structure-Property Relationship of Three Phenolic Acids from the Flowers of Trollius chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Wen Wu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The absorption properties, mechanism of action, and structure-property relationship of three phenolic acids isolated from the flowers of Trollius chinensis Bunge, namely, proglobeflowery acid (PA, globeflowery acid (GA and trolloside (TS, were investigated using the human Caco-2 cell monolayer model. The results showed that these three phenolic acids were transported across the Caco-2 cell monolayer in a time and concentration dependent manner at the Papp level of 10−5 cm/s, and their extent of absorption correlated with their polarity and molecular weight. In conclusion, all three of these compounds were easily absorbed through passive diffusion, which implied their high bioavailability and significant contribution to the effectiveness of T. chinensis.

  14. [Monitoring method of extraction process for Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus based on near infrared spectroscopy and multivariate statistical process control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min; Zhang, Lei; Yue, Hong-Shui; Pang, Hong-Wei; Ye, Zheng-Liang; Ding, Li

    2017-10-01

    To establish an on-line monitoring method for extraction process of Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus, the formula medicinal material of Yiqi Fumai lyophilized injection by combining near infrared spectroscopy with multi-variable data analysis technology. The multivariate statistical process control (MSPC) model was established based on 5 normal batches in production and 2 test batches were monitored by PC scores, DModX and Hotelling T2 control charts. The results showed that MSPC model had a good monitoring ability for the extraction process. The application of the MSPC model to actual production process could effectively achieve on-line monitoring for extraction process of Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus, and can reflect the change of material properties in the production process in real time. This established process monitoring method could provide reference for the application of process analysis technology in the process quality control of traditional Chinese medicine injections. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  15. Prevalence of Epidermal Conditions in Critically Endangered Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins (Sousa chinensis from the Waters of Western Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Cheng Yang1, Wei-Lung Chang2, Ka-Hei Kwong1, Yi-Ting Yao1 and Lien-Siang Chou2*

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of epidermal conditions in a small critically endangered population (<100 individuals of coastal Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis from the waters of western Taiwan was assessed during a photo-identification study conducted between 2006 and 2010. Of 97 individuals photographically examined, 37% were affected by one or multiple conditions. Besides, mature individuals had significantly higher prevalence than immature ones. Five different skin condition categories were considered, including pox-like lesion, pale lesion, orange film, prolonged ulcer lesion, and nodule on body. This first study to investigate epidermal conditions on S. chinensis in the world offers data for comparison with other studies in the future and new ground for discussion on the health of these animals and the potential impact of anthropogenic activities.

  16. Jojoba, Simmondsia chinensis: an alternative for the economic development of the arid and semi arid zones of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepulveda Betancourt, J I; Parra Hake, H

    1976-01-01

    Simmondsia chinensis is, in spite of its name, a species indigenous to SE California and Arizona (US) and to the states of Sonora, Baja California Norte and Baja California Sur in Mexico. It is a shrubby forage plant that reaches a height of 1.5 m and can grow under conditions of extreme drought and high salinity provided that frost does not occur; it is thus suitable for many arid and semi-arid parts of Mexico as well as other similar regions of the world. The seed, traditionally associated with medicinal properties, was found in 1933 to produce a liquid wax with properties similar to those of sperm-whale oil, an increasingly scarce product used for the lubrication of machinery run at high temperatures and speeds. Some other uses for S. chinensis wax are listed, and silvicultural research on the species in progress in Baja California Sur and elsewhere is briefly described.

  17. Jojoba, Simmondsia chinensis. An alternative for the economic development of the arid and semi arid zones of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepulveda Betancourt, J I; Parra Hake, H

    1976-01-01

    S. chinensis is, in spite of its name, a species indigenous to SE California and Arizona (US) and to the states of Sonora, Baja California Norte and Baja California Sur in Mexico. It is a shrubby forage plant that reaches a height of 1.5 m and can grow under conditions of extreme drought and high salinity provided that frost does not occur; it is thus suitable for many arid and semi-arid parts of Mexico as well as other similar regions of the world. The seed, traditionally associated with medicinal properties, was found in 1933 to produce a liquid wax with properties similar to those of sperm-whale oil, an increasingly scarce product used for the lubrication of machinery run at high temperatures and speeds. Some other uses for S. chinensis wax are listed, and silvicultural research on the species in progress in Baja California Sur and elsewhere is briefly described.

  18. Sympatric and allopatric experimental infections of the planorbid snail Gyraulus chinensis with miracidia of Euparyphium albuferensis (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Antoli, C; Marín, A; Trelis, M; Toledo, R; Esteban, J-G

    2010-12-01

    An experimental infection with echinostomatid miracidia in sympatric or 'local' vs. allopatric or 'away' snail combinations, as a model to examine parasite compatibility, was carried out. We employed Euparyphium albuferensis miracidia to infect Gyraulus chinensis snails, from three different natural parks: Albufera (Valencia, Spain); the Ebro Delta (Tarragona, Spain) and Coto de Doñana (Huelva, Spain). Insignificant differences between the three snail strains were noted for the infection rate and the rhythm of daily cercarial production. However, a significantly higher total cercarial production per snail, patent period and life span were observed in local snails. The different infection characteristics in the three G. chinensis strains considered reveal that E. albuferensis miracidia demonstrate local adaptation.

  19. Leaf proteome analysis of clematis chinensis: a traditional chinese medicine (tcm) by two-dimensional electrophoresis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishtiaq, M.; Maqbool, M.; Hussaini, T.; Azami, S.

    2014-01-01

    Leaf proteome of Clematis chinensis, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) was analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) technique. The samples were extracted by phenol-SDS method (PSM) with high protein quantity i.e. 2.35, 0.345 mg/g (yield/dw). Proteins were visualized by staining of gels by silver stain and CBB. The gel images of each species were compared by Image Master 2D Platinum software for analytical purpose. The 2-DE profile depicted distribution of 1085 spots and out of these only 255 protein spots (23.5%) were common to all analyzed taxa. The visualized protein spots showed pI range from 3.0 to 10.0 (pH) and Mr of 7 kDa to 70 kDa. Twelve proteins were exclusively specific to C. chinensis when compared with its allies, C. finetiana and C. armandii, which may be used as biomarkers. Thirteen proteins were up-regulated in C. finetiana (0.75-0.95 fold) and twelve proteins in C. armandii (1.05-1.66 fold) whilst seven proteins down-regulated (0.66-0.94 fold) in former and three proteins (1.07-1.20 fold) in later one in comparison with C. chinensis. Twenty five differential and similar protein spots were picked and analyzed by LC-MS/MS technique. Identified proteins are related to energy metabolism (ATP synthesis), photosynthesis. environmental stimuli, regulating RNA metabolism, growth hormone regulators, evolutionary trends and gene expression. The efficiency and applicability of proteomic approach as biomarker for identification of C. chinensis is discussed in its quality control (QC) perspectives. Leaf proteins of Clematis plants are explored for the first time by 2-DE technique and debated for their metabolic role. (author)

  20. Actinidia chinensis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis. The NB-ARC domain sequences of 96 NBS-encoding genes were aligned by using MUSCLE program in MEGA 5.0. (Tamura et al. 2011). The phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the neighbour-joining (NJ) method with the default options and 1000 bootstraps by ...

  1. Simmondsia chinensis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-05

    Nov 5, 2008 ... lived evergreen perennial shrub with extensive deep tap root system which helps to withstand drought ... propagate jojoba in vitro on various culture media (Elhag et al., 1998; Agrawal et al., 1999; Agrawal et al. .... covered with polyethylene bags to minimize the loss of moisture and kept in a greenhouse for ...

  2. Effects of Dissolved Organic Matter on Uptake and Translocation of Lead in Brassica chinensis and Potential Health Risk of Pb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renying Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved organic matter (DOM can affect the bioavailability of heavy metals in soil, especially in soils used for vegetable production, where intensive organic fertilization is applied. The present study examined the effects of DOM derived from commercial organic fertilizers (COF, cow manure (COM and chicken manure (CHM, on uptake and translocation of lead (Pb in Brassica chinensis in a pot experiment. The results indicate that DOM derived from CHM (DOMCHM significantly increased Pb concentrations in roots of B. chinensis (p < 0.05. By contrast, there was no significant increase in shoot Pb concentration for all the DOM treatments except the high DOMCHM treatment in the soil with 800 mg·kg−1 Pb. Consistent with the Pb concentrations in shoots, translocation factor of Pb from soil to shoot and specific lead uptake (SLU by B. chinensis were significantly increased for the high DOMCHM treatment in the high Pb soil, but not for other DOM treatments. Based on the results of this study, the application of DOM to the soil with 800 mg·kg−1 Pb could result in an increase in total Pb annually ingested by the inhabitants of Nanjing City in the range of 2018–9640 kg, with the highest estimates resulting from the high DOMCHM treatment. This study suggests the risk may rise under some conditions as indicated in the high DOMCHM treatment and high Pb pollution level.

  3. [Effect of different parts, harvesting time and processing technologies on alkaloids content of Coptis chinensis adventitious root].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Jie; Wang, De-Zhen; Zou, Zong-Yao; Wang, Yan-Zhi; Gao, Qian; Li, Xue-Gang

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the effect of different parts, harvesting time and processing technologies on alkaloids content of Coptis chinensis adventitious root. The content of alkaloids were analyzed by HPLC. The content of total alkaloids in adventitious root harvested in different time was ranged from 2.5% to 2.9%, in which that of berberine and coptisine were the highest, reaching to 1%, and that of palmatine was only 0.1%. It suggested there was no significant difference of total alkaloids at different harvesting time. Nevertheless, the difference of the alkaloids content from different parts was much significant. The content of total alkaloid of adventitious root near to rhizome was about 4%, 2 times higher than that away from rhizome (only 2%). In addition, different processing technologies would affect alkaloids content obviously. There was hardly loss of alkaloids when the fresh adventitious root was washed with water, but it would decrease alkaloids content when the dried adventitious root was washed. Medicine value of Coptis chinensis adventitious root near to rhizome is higher than that away from rhizome. And fresh Coptis chinensis adventitious root can be washed with water.

  4. BIOPHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCHES IN VITRO ON THE CHOICE OF OPTIMAL COMPOSITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL AID FOR OINTMENT PRODUCTION BASED ON СО2 EXTRACT OF SCHISANDRA CHINENSIS SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Morozov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Schisandra chinensis is valuable species of herbal medicines raw materials (fruits, seeds, caruncles, leaves, stem cortex, and roots with root systems which are used for medicines and biologically active supplements production in food and cosmetic industry. However nowadays medicines from Schisandra chinensis are only represented by tincture for internal use on domestic pharmaceutical market. There are data about positive implementation of medicines based on raw materials of Schisandra chinensis as external medicine forms in folk medicine and in literature. The purpose of this work is the development of soft external medicine form – ointment based on СО2 extract of Schisandra chinensis seeds. Biopharmaceutical researches in vitro on the choice of optimal ointment composition by the method of dialysis through semi permeable membrane were conducted for this purpose. Release rate was calculated in relation to base biologically active substances of Schisandra chinensis – lignans (schizandrin and γ-schizandrin which determine its basic pharmacological value. Based on the results of the research conducted it is possible to conclude that the best ointment bases are hydrophilous “classic” poly ethylene oxide and oleogel based on paraffinic oil and aerosil.

  5. Low Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Variation in the Endangered Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin (Sousa chinensis): Inferences About the Role of Balancing Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiyang; Lin, Wenzhi; Zhou, Ruilian; Gui, Duan; Yu, Xinjian; Wu, Yuping

    2016-03-01

    It has been widely reported that the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is under balancing selection due to its immune function across terrestrial and aquatic mammals. The comprehensive studies at MHC and other neutral loci could give us a synthetic evaluation about the major force determining genetic diversity of species. Previously, a low level of genetic diversity has been reported among the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) using both mitochondrial marker and microsatellite loci. Here, the expression and sequence polymorphism of 2 MHC class II genes (DQB and DRB) in 32 S. chinensis from PRE collected between 2003 and 2011 were investigated. High ratios of non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rates, codon-based selection analysis, and trans-species polymorphism (TSP) support the hypothesis that balancing selection acted on S. chinensis MHC sequences. However, only 2 haplotypes were detected at either DQB or DRB loci. Moreover, the lack of deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg expectation at DRB locus combined with the relatively low heterozygosity at both DQB locus and microsatellite loci suggested that balancing selection might not be sufficient, which further suggested that genetic drift associated with historical bottlenecks was not mitigated by balancing selection in terms of the loss of MHC and neutral variation in S. chinensis. The combined results highlighted the importance of maintaining the genetic diversity of the endangered S. chinensis. © The American Genetic Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Taxus chinensis var. mairei (Taxaceae): loss of an inverted repeat region and comparative analysis with related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanzhen; Ma, Ji; Yang, Bingxian; Li, Ruyi; Zhu, Wei; Sun, Lianli; Tian, Jingkui; Zhang, Lin

    2014-05-01

    Taxus chinensis var. mairei (Taxaceae) is a domestic variety of yew species in local China. This plant is one of the sources for paclitaxel, which is a promising antineoplastic chemotherapy drugs during the last decade. We have sequenced the complete nucleotide sequence of the chloroplast (cp) genome of T. chinensis var. mairei. The T. chinensis var. mairei cp genome is 129,513 bp in length, with 113 single copy genes and two duplicated genes (trnI-CAU, trnQ-UUG). Among the 113 single copy genes, 9 are intron-containing. Compared to other land plant cp genomes, the T. chinensis var. mairei cp genome has lost one of the large inverted repeats (IRs) found in angiosperms, fern, liverwort, and gymnosperm such as Cycas revoluta and Ginkgo biloba L. Compared to related species, the gene order of T. chinensis var. mairei has a large inversion of ~110kb including 91 genes (from rps18 to accD) with gene contents unarranged. Repeat analysis identified 48 direct and 2 inverted repeats 30 bp long or longer with a sequence identity greater than 90%. Repeated short segments were found in genes rps18, rps19 and clpP. Analysis also revealed 22 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci and almost all are composed of A or T. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Conservation of the Eastern Taiwan Strait Chinese White Dolphin (Sousa chinensis: Fishers' Perspectives and Management Implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ta-Kang Liu

    Full Text Available The abundance of the eastern Taiwan Strait (ETS population of the Chinese white dolphin (Sousa chinensis has been estimated to be less than 100 individuals. It is categorized as critically endangered in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Thus, immediate measures of conservation should be taken to protect it from extinction. Currently, the Taiwanese government plans to designate its habitat as a Major Wildlife Habitat (MWH, a type of marine protected area (MPA for conservation of wildlife species. Although the designation allows continuing the current exploitation, however, it may cause conflicts among multiple stakeholders with competing interests. The study is to explore the attitude and opinions among the stakeholders in order to better manage the MPA. This study employs a semi-structured interview and a questionnaire survey of local fishers. Results from interviews indicated that the subsistence of fishers remains a major problem. It was found that stakeholders have different perceptions of the fishers' attitude towards conservation and also thought that the fishery-related law enforcement could be difficult. Quantitative survey showed that fishers are generally positive towards the conservation of the Chinese white dolphin but are less willing to participate in the planning process. Most fishers considered temporary fishing closure as feasible for conservation. The results of this study provide recommendations for future efforts towards the goal of better conservation for this endangered species.

  8. Population estimate of Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) in a Nebraska reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaine, Noelle M.; Allen, Craig R.; Fricke, Kent A.; Haak, Danielle M.; Hellman, Michelle L.; Kill, Robert A.; Nemec, Kristine T.; Pope, Kevin L.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Uden, Daniel R.; Unstad, Kody M.; VanderHam, Ashley E.

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is an aquatic invasive species in North America. Little is known regarding this species' impacts on freshwater ecosystems. It is be lieved that population densities can be high, yet no population estimates have been reported. We utilized a mark-recapture approach to generate a population estimate for Chinese mystery snail in Wild Plum Lake, a 6.47-ha reservoir in southeast Nebraska. We calculated, using bias-adjusted Lincoln-Petersen estimation, that there were approximately 664 adult snails within a 127 m2 transect (5.2 snails/m2). If this density was consistent throughout the littoral zone (Chinese mystery snail wet biomass is estimated to be 3,119 kg (643 kg/ha). If this density is confined to the depth sampled in this study (1.46 m), then the adult population is estimated to be 169,400 snails, and wet biomass is estimated to be 2,084 kg (643 kg/ha). Additional research is warranted to further test the utility of mark-recapture methods for aquatic snails and to better understand Chinese mystery snail distributions within reservoirs.

  9. Alleviation of Drought Stress by Nitrogen Application in Brassica campestris ssp. Chinensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Xiong

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available To assess the influence of drought stress on the growth and nitrogen nutrition status of pakchoi (Brassica campestris ssp. Chinensis L. at different nitrogen (N levels, the changes in N accumulation and enzyme activities involved in N assimilation were investigated. The drought was induced by adding polyethylene glycol (PEG under hydroponic culture conditions. Pakchoi seedlings were exposed to a modified nutrient solution with different nitrogen concentration (N1, N2, and N3 represent 2, 9 and 18 mM NaNO3, respectively and osmotic potential (W1, W2 and W3 represent 0, 60 and 120 g·L−1 PEG 6000 in a full factorial, replicated randomized block design. A short time (seven days of drought stress caused a significant decline in plant water content, transpiration rate, shoot biomass and shoot nitrogen concentration. Increasing N availability considerably alleviate drought stress by increasing the content of total free amino acids in the roots, promoting the acceleration of root biomass accumulation, and improving the activities of nitrate reductase (NR; EC 1.7.1.1 and glutamine synthetase (GS; EC 6.3.1.2 which would reduce moisture limitations. The results suggested that pakchoi supplied with relative higher N had better growth performance under drought stress.

  10. Light intensity affects the uptake and metabolism of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingxu; Cao, Xiaochuang; Wu, Lianghuan; Mi, Wenhai; Feng, Ying

    2016-02-01

    The uptake of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.), when supplied as single N-source or in a mixture of glycine and inorganic N, was studied at different light intensities under sterile conditions. At the optimal intensity (414 μmol m-2 s-1) for plant growth, glycine, nitrate, and ammonium contributed 29.4%, 39.5%, and 31.1% shoot N, respectively, and light intensity altered the preferential absorption of N sources. The lower 15N-nitrate in root but higher in shoot and the higher 15N-glycine in root but lower in shoot suggested that most 15N-nitrate uptake by root transported to shoot rapidly, with the shoot being important for nitrate assimilation, and the N contribution of glycine was limited by post-uptake metabolism. The amount of glycine that was taken up by the plant was likely limited by root uptake at low light intensities and by the metabolism of ammonium produced by glycine at high light intensities. These results indicate that pakchoi has the ability to uptake a large quantity of glycine, but that uptake is strongly regulated by light intensity, with metabolism in the root inhibiting its N contribution.

  11. Effect of the Addition of Schisandra chinensis Powder on the Physico-chemical Characteristics of Sausage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S. K.; Park, J. H.

    2013-01-01

    The individual and interactive effects of Schisandra chinensis powder (SCP) and sodium nitrite additions on color, pH, water holding capacity, residual nitrite, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), volatile basic nitrogen, texture properties, fatty acids, amino acids and sensory evaluation of cooked pork sausages were investigated after 20 d of storage at 4°C. The powders (0, 0.5 and 1.0%) were added to sausages either alone or in combination with nitrite (0 and 100 ppm). SCP added-sausages showed lower L* (lightness) and W (whiteness) values, and higher b* (yellowness) values than sausage containing no nitrite, and exhibited the highest a* values at a 0.5% addition (psausage showed gradually decreased brittleness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness, while adhesiveness increased. Polyunsaturated fatty acid, n-6 and n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio concentrations were significantly higher in sausages containing SCP (psausage significantly (psausage meat resulted in a significant deterioration in quality characteristics of flavor, springiness, juiciness and overall acceptability (psausages, depended on the rate of addition of nitrite (psausages, but may beneficially affect TBARS, nitrite scavenging activity, fatty acid and amino acid content in pork sausages. PMID:25049766

  12. Proteolytic and Trypsin Inhibitor Activity in Germinating Jojoba Seeds (Simmondsia chinensis) 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samac, Deborah; Storey, Richard

    1981-01-01

    Changes in proteolytic activity (aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase, endopeptidase) were followed during germination (imbibition through seedling development) in extracts from cotyledons of jojoba seeds (Simmondsia chinensis). After imbibition, the cotyledons contained high levels of sulfhydryl aminopeptidase activity (APA) but low levels of serine carboxypeptidase activity (CPA). CPA increased with germination through the apparent loss of a CPA inhibitor substance in the seed. Curves showing changes in endopeptidase activity (EPA) assayed at pH 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 during germination were distinctly different. EPA at pH 4, 5, 6, and 7 showed characteristics of sulfhydryl enzymes while activity at pH 8 was probably due to a serine type enzyme. EPA at pH 6 was inhibited early in germination by one or more substances in the seed. Activities at pH 5 and later at pH 6 were the highest of all EPA throughout germination and increases in these activities were associated with a rapid loss of protein from the cotyledons of the developing seedling. Jojoba cotyledonary extracts were found to inhibit the enzymic activity of trypsin, chymotrypsin, and pepsin but not the protease from Aspergillus saotoi. The heat-labile trypsin inhibitor substance(s) was found in commercially processed jojoba seed meal and the albumin fraction of seed proteins. Trypsin inhibitor activity decreased with germination. PMID:16662104

  13. Proteolytic and Trypsin Inhibitor Activity in Germinating Jojoba Seeds (Simmondsia chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samac, D; Storey, R

    1981-12-01

    Changes in proteolytic activity (aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase, endopeptidase) were followed during germination (imbibition through seedling development) in extracts from cotyledons of jojoba seeds (Simmondsia chinensis). After imbibition, the cotyledons contained high levels of sulfhydryl aminopeptidase activity (APA) but low levels of serine carboxypeptidase activity (CPA). CPA increased with germination through the apparent loss of a CPA inhibitor substance in the seed. Curves showing changes in endopeptidase activity (EPA) assayed at pH 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 during germination were distinctly different. EPA at pH 4, 5, 6, and 7 showed characteristics of sulfhydryl enzymes while activity at pH 8 was probably due to a serine type enzyme. EPA at pH 6 was inhibited early in germination by one or more substances in the seed. Activities at pH 5 and later at pH 6 were the highest of all EPA throughout germination and increases in these activities were associated with a rapid loss of protein from the cotyledons of the developing seedling.Jojoba cotyledonary extracts were found to inhibit the enzymic activity of trypsin, chymotrypsin, and pepsin but not the protease from Aspergillus saotoi. The heat-labile trypsin inhibitor substance(s) was found in commercially processed jojoba seed meal and the albumin fraction of seed proteins. Trypsin inhibitor activity decreased with germination.

  14. [Chemical composition and content of antiphysiological factors of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) residual meal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gil, F; Sanginés, G L; Torreblanca, R A; Grande, M L; Carranco, J M

    1989-12-01

    Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) is a perennial plant with an interesting economic value by processing it for liquid wax production. By pressing of jojoba seeds, by-product which has been called "residual meal" has been obtained, and because of its high protein content, it would be a great interest to evaluate it as animal feedstuff. The results of this study showed the following. Both seed and residual meal were analyzed in regard to their chemical proximal composition: crude protein 14.03 and 25.24%; ether extract, 48.89 and 14.73%; crude fiber, 10.03 and 10.07%; ash, 1.59 and 4.72, and nitrogen-free extract, 25.46 and 45.25, the limiting amino acids being methionine, lysine and isoleucine. The trypsin inhibitor factors were 13.747 and 11,197 TIU/g; and hemagglutinins and saponins were negative for both samples. Cyanogenic glucosides were positive in both samples. It was concluded that jojoba residual meal is an alternative as an adequate feedstuff in those regions where jojoba is produced. Nevertheless, prior to consumption it must be treated so as to eliminate the toxic factors.

  15. Isolation and identification of molecular species of phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylcholine from jojoba seed meal (Simmondsia chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léon, Fabian; Van Boven, Maurits; de Witte, Peter; Busson, Roger; Cokelaere, Marnix

    2004-03-10

    A mixture of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) has been isolated by column chromatography from a jojoba meal (Simmondsia chinensis) extract. The molecular species of both classes could be separated and isolated by C18 reversed phase HPLC. The two major compounds were identified by 1D and 2D (1)H and (13)C NMR, by MS, and by GC-MS as 1-oleoyl-3-lysophosphatidylcholine and 1,2-dioleoyl-3-phosphatidylcholine. Eight other molecular species of LPC and four other molecular species of PC could be assigned by comparison of the mass spectra of the isolated compounds with the spectra of the two major compounds. Complete characterization of the individual molecular species was achieved by GC and GC-MS analysis of the fatty acyl composition from the isolated compounds. The PC/LPC proportion in the phospholipid mixture from three different samples is 1.6 +/- 0.1. LPC is considered to be an important bioactive compound; the results of this study suggest further research for the evaluation of potential health benefits of jojoba meal phospholipids.

  16. The Trophic Significance of the Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin, Sousa chinensis, in Western Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ching-Wen; Chen, Meng-Hsien; Chou, Lien-Siang; Lin, Hsing-Juh

    2016-01-01

    Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) have attracted considerable attention due to their critically endangered status and related conservation issues, but their trophic relationships and ecological significance in coastal ecosystems are poorly understood. For instance, this species is noticeably more abundant in the Xin-Huwei River Estuary (Ex) of Western Taiwan than in the nearby Zhuoshui River Estuary (Ez), though it is unclear why the distribution shows such partitioning. To explore this topic, we conducted field surveys seasonally for two years from 2012 to 2013 and constructed Ecopath models of Ex, Ez, and an offshore site (Dm) to compare energy flow within the food webs. Model comparisons showed that the availability of food resources was the main factor influencing the biomass of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins. Specifically, its more frequent occurrence in Ex can be attributed to greater phytoplankton production and greater biomasses of macroinvertebrates and prey fish than in the other two areas. An increase in fishing activity might decrease the food availability and, consequently, the biomass of the dolphins. Although the decline in the dolphin population would increase the biomass of some prey fish species, local fishermen might not necessarily benefit from the decline due to the concurrent decrease of highly valued crabs and shrimp. Collectively, our work suggests that the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin is a keystone species in tropical coastal waters of Taiwan, and thereby exhibit a disproportional large ecological impact given their relatively low abundance.

  17. The Trophic Significance of the Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin, Sousa chinensis, in Western Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Wen Pan

    Full Text Available Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis have attracted considerable attention due to their critically endangered status and related conservation issues, but their trophic relationships and ecological significance in coastal ecosystems are poorly understood. For instance, this species is noticeably more abundant in the Xin-Huwei River Estuary (Ex of Western Taiwan than in the nearby Zhuoshui River Estuary (Ez, though it is unclear why the distribution shows such partitioning. To explore this topic, we conducted field surveys seasonally for two years from 2012 to 2013 and constructed Ecopath models of Ex, Ez, and an offshore site (Dm to compare energy flow within the food webs. Model comparisons showed that the availability of food resources was the main factor influencing the biomass of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins. Specifically, its more frequent occurrence in Ex can be attributed to greater phytoplankton production and greater biomasses of macroinvertebrates and prey fish than in the other two areas. An increase in fishing activity might decrease the food availability and, consequently, the biomass of the dolphins. Although the decline in the dolphin population would increase the biomass of some prey fish species, local fishermen might not necessarily benefit from the decline due to the concurrent decrease of highly valued crabs and shrimp. Collectively, our work suggests that the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin is a keystone species in tropical coastal waters of Taiwan, and thereby exhibit a disproportional large ecological impact given their relatively low abundance.

  18. Structure and biological activities of a pectic polysaccharide from Mosla chinensis Maxim. cv. Jiangxiangru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing-En; Cui, Steve W; Nie, Shao-Ping; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2014-05-25

    A water-soluble pectic polysaccharide (MP-A40) was isolated and purified from Mosla chinensis Maxim. cv. Jiangxiangru for the first time, with a molecular weight of 32,600Da. MP-A40 was comprised of 68.63% galacturonic acid and 13.05% neutral sugar. In addition, arabinose, galactose, rhamnose, mannose and glucose composed the neutral sugar in a relative ratio of 4.94, 3.07, 2.13, 1.62 and 1.29% of the dry weight of MP-A40, respectively. Structural characterization of MP-A40 was investigated by methylation analysis and 1D/2D NMR spectroscopy. From the results, the structure of MP-A40 was revealed as follows: 1,4-linked α-d-GalpA and 1,4-linked α-d-GalpA6Me interspersed with rare t-Araf (0.60%), t-Rhap (1.67%) and t-GalpA (10.15%). Esterification assay showed that about 32% of the carboxylic groups in GalA residues existed as methyl ester. In addition, MP-A40 could inhibit the growth of human leukemic cell line K562 and stimulate nitric oxide production from RAW 264.7 macrophages both in dose-dependent manners. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Quality evaluation and antioxidant activity research of Schisandra chinensis from various habitats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhi-Fu; Hu, Gao-Sheng; Li, Na; Fan, Xing; Jia, Jing-Ming

    2012-12-01

    To determine the contents of lignans, crude polysaccharides (CP) and total phenolic compounds (TPC) of Schisandra chinensis from various habitats in Liaoning province and evaluate their quality and free radical scavenging (FRS) activity. Contents of schisandrol, deoxyschizandrin and schisandrin B were determined by RP-HPLC. Contents of TPC, CP and FRS activity were determined by Folin-Cicalteu's, phenol-sulfuric acid and DPPH x method, respectively. Sample from Liaoyang city had the highest contents of lignans (21.75 mg/g); Sample from Shenbei New district of Shenyang city had the highest contents of CP (88.72 mg/g); Sample from Guanmenshan district of Benxi city had the highest contents of TPC and FRS activity (26.06 mg/g and 86.3%, respectively). Linear regression analysis results showed that contents of TPC had higher correlation coefficient with FRS activity than that of lignans. Their linear regression equations were Y = 1.3677X + 46.97, R2 = 0.6869 and Y = 2.5916X + 57.927, R2 = 0.1747 for TPC and lignans with FRS activity, respectively. The contents of lignans, CP and TPC are significantly different from samples collected from various habitats in Liaoning province. The main antioxidative substances are TPC, and lignans have no significant correlation with FRS activity.

  20. Enamel-based mark performance for marking Chinese mystery snail Bellamya chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alec; Allen, Craig R.; Hart, Noelle M.; Haak, Danielle M.; Pope, Kevin L.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Uden, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    The exoskeleton of gastropods provides a convenient surface for carrying marks, and i the interest of improving future marking methods our laboratory assessed the performance of an enamel paint. The endurance of the paint was also compared to other marking methods assessed in the past. We marked the shells of 30 adult Chinese mystery snails Bellamya chinensis and held them in an aquarium for 181 days. We observed no complete degradation of any enamel-paint mark during the 181 days. The enamel-paint mark was superior to a nai;-polish mark, which lasted a median of 100 days. Enamel-paint marks also have a lower rate of loss (0.00 month-1 181 days) than plastic bee tags (0.01 month-1, 57 days), gouache paint (0.07 month-1, 18.5 days), or car body paint from studies found in scientific literature. Legibility of enamel-paint marks had a median lifetime of 102 days. The use of enamel paint on the shells of gastropods is a viable option for studies lasting up to 6 months. Furthermore, visits to capture-mark-recapture site 1 year after application of enamel-paint marks on B. chinesnis shells produced several individuals on which the enamel paint was still visible, although further testing is required to clarify durability over longer periods.

  1. Demonstration of the economic feasibility of plant tissue culture for jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) and Euphorbia spp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sluis, C.

    1980-09-01

    The economic feasibility of plant tissue culture was demonstrated as applied to two plants: jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) and Euphorbia spp. The gopher weed (Euphorbia lathyris) was selected as the species of Euphorbia to research due to the interest in this plant as a potential source of hydrocarbon-like compounds. High yield female selections of jojoba were chosen from native stands and were researched to determine the economic feasibility of mass producing these plants via a tissue culture micropropagation program. The female jojoba selection was successfully mass produced through tissue culture. Modifications in initiation techniques, as well as in multiplication media and rooting parameters, were necessary to apply the tissue culture system, which had been developed for juvenile seedling tissue, to mature jojobas. Since prior attempts at transfer of tissue cultured plantlets were unsuccessful, transfer research was a major part of the project and has resulted in a system for transfer of rooted jojoba plantlets to soil. Euphorbia lathyris was successfully cultured using shoot tip cultures. Media and procedures were established for culture initiation, multiplication of shoots, callus induction and growth, and root initiation. Well-developed root systems were not attained and root initiation percentages should be increased if the system is to become commercially feasible.

  2. Insecticidal and Repellent Properties of Subtropical Plant Extracts Against Pulse Beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.T. AI Lawati

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of eight plants local to Oman, namely Qarat (Acacia nilotica, Mustafal (Annona squamosa, Shereesh (Azadirachta indica, Luban (Boswellia sacra, Kheshkhash (Crotolaria juncea, Zebrot (Jatropha dhofarica Yas, (Myrtus communis and Suwwad (Suaeda aegyptiaca were prepared by steeping shaded dried leaf/ seed powder of each plant in water and solvent (methanol or ethanol. The extracts were tested for their insecticidal and repellent properties against the pulse beetles, Callosobruchus chinensis. The extracts from the seeds of A. squamosa recorded l00% mortality of beetles within twenty and four hours of their exposure to methanol and ethanol extracts, respectively. The other extracts that caused high mortality were from A. nilotica, C. juncea, M. communis and S. aegzptiaca in methanol and B. sacra, J. dhofarica, S. aegptiaca and commercial neem in ethanol. Extracts of M. communis in methanol were highly repellent to the beetles compared to other extracts. Legume seeds treated with extracts of A. squamosa were not repellent, rather the beetles were attracted to them.

  3. Biology and Conservation of the Taiwanese Humpback Dolphin, Sousa chinensis taiwanensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, John Y; Riehl, Kimberly N; Klein, Michelle N; Javdan, Shiva; Hoffman, Jordan M; Dungan, Sarah Z; Dares, Lauren E; Araújo-Wang, Claryana

    2016-01-01

    The humpback dolphins of the eastern Taiwan Strait were first discovered scientifically in 2002 and since then have received much research attention. We reviewed all information published in peer-reviewed scientific journals on these dolphins and where appropriate and available, peer-reviewed scientific workshop reports and graduate theses were also examined. Recent evidence demonstrated that this population warranted recognition as a subspecies, Sousa chinensis taiwanensis. It is found in a highly restricted and linear strip of coastal waters along central western Taiwan. Numbering fewer than 80 individuals and declining, five main threats (fisheries interactions, habitat loss and degradation, loss of freshwater to estuaries within their habitat, air and water pollution, and noise) threaten the future existence of this subspecies. These dolphins have cultural and religious importance and boast the highest level of legal protection for wildlife in Taiwan. However, despite enormous efforts by local and international non-governmental groups urging immediate conservation actions, there have been no real government efforts to mitigate any existing threats; instead, some of these threats have worsened. Based on recent studies, we suggest the IUCN Red List status be revised to Critically Endangered CR 2a(ii); D for the subspecies. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Monitoring and risk assessment of pesticides in fresh omija (Schizandra chinensis Baillon) fruit and juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hye Ran; Lim, Sung Jin; Cho, Jae Young

    2012-02-01

    Schizandra chinensis Baillon, or omija, is a fruit native to northeast Asia that is cultivated in South Korea and China. Fresh omija fruit has been used in beverages, traditional East Asian medicine and cosmetics because of its complex flavor and pharmacological effectiveness. The objective of this study was to analyze residue levels of 33 kinds of pesticides on fresh omija fruits and in omija juices produced in South Korea. A risk assessment of the pesticides in omija juice was conducted by calculating EDI and ADI. Most of the pesticide levels were below the LOD in fresh omija fruits. Among the detected compounds, the most frequently detected pesticide was ethoprophos. The EDIs of ethoprophos, pendimethalin and hexaconazole were 5.89E-03, 7.08E-04 and 4.73E-05, respectively. The percent of EDI to ADI of ethoprophos, pendimethalin and hexaconazole was 28.0%, 13.6% and 4.5%, respectively. The results of this research concluded that the detected pesticides are not harmful to human beings. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Phylogeography of the Chinese Beard Eel, Cirrhimuraena chinensis Kaup, Inferred from Mitochondrial DNA: A Range Expansion after the Last Glacial Maximum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese beard eel (Cirrhimuraena chinensis Kaup is an intertidal fish and a model organism for the study of impacts caused by topological fluctuations during the Pleistocene and current intricate hydrological conditions on fauna living in the coastal areas of China. In this study, we examined the phylogeographical pattern, population genetic profile and demographical history of C. chinensis using mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome b (cyt b and control region (CR from 266 individuals sampled in seven localities across the coastal area of southeastern China. The combined data indicated high levels of haplotype diversity and low levels of nucleotide diversity. Analyses of molecular variance (AMOVA and FST statistics suggested the absence of a significant population structure across the Chinese coast. Neutrality tests, mismatch distributions and Bayesian skyline plots uniformly indicated a recent population expansion. The phylogeographic structure of C. chinensis may be attributed to past population expansion and long-distance pelagic larval dispersal facilitated by present-day ocean currents.

  6. Effect of Schisandra chinensis polysaccharide on intracerebral acetylcholinesterase and monoamine neurotransmitters in a D-galactose-induced aging brain mouse model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingsan Miao; Jianlian Gao; Guangwei Zhang; Xiao Ma; Ying Zhang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The most prominent characteristic of brain aging is decreased learning and memory ability. The functions of learning and memory are closely related to intracerebral acetylcholinesterase (ACHE) and monoamine neurotransmitter activity. Previous studies have shown that Schisandra chinensis potysaccharide has an anti-aging effect. OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of Schisandra chinensis polysaccharide on AChE activity and monoamine neurotransmitter content, as well as learning and memory ability in a D-galactose-induced aging mouse brain model compared with the positive control drug Kangnaoling. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Completely randomized, controlled experiment based on neurobiochemistry was performed at the Pharmacological Laboratory, Henan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine from September to December 2003.MATERIALS: Schisandra chinensis was purchased from Henan Provincial Medicinal Company. Schisandra chinensis polysaccharide was obtained by water extraction and alcohol precipitation. Kangnaoling pellets were provided by Liaoning Tianlong Pharmaceutical (batch No. 20030804;state drug permit No. H21023095). A total of 50 six-week-old Kunming mice were randomly divided into five groups: blank control, model, Kangnaoling, high and low dosage Schisandra chinensis polysaccharide groups, with 10 mice per group. METHODS: Mice in the blank control group were subcutaneously injected with 0.5 mL/20 g normal saline into the nape of the neck each day, while the remaining mice were subcutaneously injected with 5% D-galactose saline solution (0.5 mL/20 g) in the nape for 40 days to induce a brain aging model. On day 11, mice in the high and low dosage Schisandra chinensis polysaccharide groups were intragastrically infused with 20 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL Schisandra chinensis polysaccharide solution (0.2 mL/10 g), respectively. Mice from the Kangnaoling group were intragastrically infused with 35 mg/mL Kangnaoling suspension (0.2 mL/10 g), and the mice in the

  7. Analysis of Antifungal Components in the Galls of Melaphis chinensis and Their Effects on Control of Anthracnose Disease of Chinese Cabbage Caused by Colletotrichum higginsianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Chung Kuo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal pathogens caused various diseases which resulted in heavy yield and quality losses on plants of commercial interests such as fruits, vegetables, and flowers. In our preliminary experimental results, the methanol extracts of four species of medicinal plants Melaphis chinensis, Eugenia caryophyllata, Polygonum cuspidatum, and Rheum officinale possessed antifungal activity to causal agent of cabbage anthracnose, Colletotrichum higginsianum. Thus it was conducted to identify and quantify the chemical constituents in these herbs and to assess the antifungal effects of these compounds. Among the tested principles, the indicator compound methyl gallate from M. chinensis was the most effective one against the conidial germination. In addition, it exhibited significant effects of controlling anthracnose disease of Chinese cabbage caused by C. higginsianum PA-01 in growth chamber. These results indicate that M. chinensis may be potential for further development of plant-derived pesticides for control of anthracnose of cabbage and other cruciferous crops.

  8. Cytotoxic effects of chloroform and hydroalcoholic extracts of aerial parts of Cuscuta chinensis and Cuscuta epithymum on Hela, HT29 and MDA-MB-468 tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarian, A; Ghannadi, A; Mohebi, B

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that some species of Cuscuta possess anticancer activity on various cell lines. Due to the lack of detailed researches on the cytotoxic effects of Cuscuta chinensis and Cuscuta epithymum, the aim of the present study was to evaluate cytotoxic effects of chloroform and hydroalcoholic extracts of these plants on the human breast carcinoma cell line (MDA-MB-468), human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (HT29) and human uterine cervical carcinoma (Hela). Using maceration method, different extracts of aerial parts of C. chinensis and C. epithymum were prepared. Extraction was performed using chloroform and ethanol/water (70/30). Total phenolic contents of the extracts were determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Using MTT assay, the cytotoxic activity of the extracts against HT29, Hela and MDA-MB-468 tumor cells was evaluated. Extracts were considered cytotoxic when more than 50% reduction on cell survival was observed. The poly-phenolic content of the hydroalcoholic and chloroform extracts of C. chinensis and C. epithymum were 56.08 ± 4.11, 21.49 ± 2.00, 10.64 ± 0.86 and 4.81 ± 0.38, respectively. Our findings showed that the chloroform extracts of C. chinensis and C. epithyum significantly reduced the viability of Hela, HT-29 and MDA-MB-468 cells. Also, hydroalcoholic extracts of C. chinensis significantly decreased the viability of HT29, Hela and MDA-MB-468 cells. However, in the case of hydroalcoholic extracts of C. epithymum only significant decrease in the viability of MDA-MB-468 cells was observed (IC50 = 340 μg/ml). From these findings it can be concluded that C. chinensis and C. epithymum are good candidates for further study to find new possible cytotoxic agents.

  9. Pendimethalin aplicado à casca de arroz e serragem para o controle de plantas daninhas em Ixora chinensis Lam. Pendimethalin applied on rice husks and sawdust for weed control on Ixora chinensis Lam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Seixas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de herbicidas residuais à coberturas mortas pode aumentar a eficiência desses materiais no manejo da comunidade infestante. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar a possibilidade de aplicação do pendimethalin à casca de arroz e à serragem para o controle de plantas daninhas em Ixora chinensis. Dois experimentos foram conduzidos aplicando-se o pendimethalin às coberturas mortas através de embebição e pulverização do herbicida, variando-se também a quantidade de cobertura utilizada. As espécies de plantas daninhas que ocorreram com maior frequência foram Alternanthera tenella, Blainvillea rhomboidea, Cenchrus echinatus e Commelina benghalensis. Há possibilidade de aplicação do herbicida pendimethalin à palha de arroz ou à serragem para controle de plantas daninhas em I. chinensis, principalmente quando ocorrem chuvas regulares e bem distribuídas. Há evidências de que a embebição da cobertura morta no herbicida seja um pouco mais eficiente no controle das plantas daninhas que a sua pulverização sobre a cobertura. Possivelmente, a quantidade de cobertura morta utilizada influencia na eficiência de controle, apesar deste fato não ter ficado claro neste trabalho.Applying herbicides at mulches may increase the efficiency of these materials for weed management. The objective of this research was to evaluate the possibility of pendimethalin applied on rice husks and sawdust for weed control on Ixora chinensis. In two field trials, pendimethalin was applied to the mulches through imbibition and spraying herbicide, also varying the amount of mulches. Higher frequent weeds were Alternanthera tenella, Blainvillea rhomboidea, Cenchrus echinatus and Commelina benghalensis. There are possibility of pendimethalin application on rice husks or sawdust for controlling weeds in I. chinensis mainly when regular and well-distributed rainfalls occur. There are evidences that the imbibition of these mulches to the herbicide

  10. Cuscuta chinensis Lam.: A systematic review on ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and pharmacology of an important traditional herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnapee, Sineeporn; Li, Jin; Yang, Xi; Ge, Ai-hua; Donkor, Paul Owusu; Gao, Xiu-mei; Chang, Yan-xu

    2014-11-18

    Cuscuta chinensis Lam. has found its use as a traditional medicine in China, Korea, Pakistan, Vietnam, India and Thailand. It is commonly used as an anti-aging agent, anti-inflammatory agent, pain reliever and aphrodisiac. To provide an overview of the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacokinetics, pharmacology and clinical applications of Cuscuta chinensis, as well as being an evidence base for further research works of the plant. The present review covers the literature available from 1985 to 2014. The information was collected from journals, books, theses and electronic search (Google Scholar, PubMed, ScienceDirect, ESBCO, Springerlink and CNKI). Literature abstracts and full-text articles were analyzed and included in the review. Many phytochemicals have been isolated, identified and published to date, including: at least 18 flavonoids; 13 phenolic acids; 2 steroids; 1 hydroquinone; 10 volatile oils; 22 lignans; 9 polysaccharides; 2 resin glycosides; 16 fatty acids. These phytochemicals and plant extracts exhibit a range of pharmacological activities that include hepatoprotective, renoprotective, antiosteoporotic, antioxidant, anti-aging, antimutagenic, antidepressant, improve sexual function, abortifacient effects, etc. This present review offers primary information for further studies of Cuscuta chinensis. The in vitro studies and in vivo models have provided a bioscientific explanation for its various ethnopharmacological uses and pharmacological activities (most notably antioxidant effects) especially in the prevention of hepatic disease and renal failure. It is necessary and important to do more pharmacokinetic and toxicological research works on human subjects in order to inform the possible active compounds in the body and validate its safety in clinical uses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of exogenous glutathione and cysteine on growth, lead accumulation, and tolerance of Iris lactea var. chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Haiyan; Zhang, Yongxia; Huang, Suzhen; Yang, Yongheng; Gu, Chunsun

    2015-02-01

    Effects of exogenous reduced glutathione (GSH) and cysteine (Cys) on growth, lead (Pb) accumulation, and nonprotein thiol (NPT) contents of Iris lactea var. chinensis under 100 and 500 mg L(-1) Pb stress were studied. Our results showed that 500 mg L(-1) Pb stress caused a dramatical decline in fresh weights, while the reduction of aboveground biomass was alleviated by exogenous GSH and Cys even though keeping higher Pb contents in roots and shoots. Exogenous GSH and Cys could enhance Pb accumulation in the shoots and roots compared with single Pb treatment. The promoting effect of GSH to Pb accumulation was larger than the effect of Cys, and the Pb contents in the shoots and roots treated with 500 mg L(-1) Pb + GSH reached 1,712 and 14,603 mg kg(-1), about 4.19 and 2.78 times of single 500 mg L(-1) Pb treatment, respectively. Microscopic imaging of Pb in roots and leaves showed that higher intensive fluorescence was observed in cell wall of root epidermis, stele, vascular tissues of the roots, and sclerenchyma cells of leaves treated with 500 mg L(-1) Pb + GSH and treated with 500 mg L(-1) Pb + Cys. Exogenous GSH had an apparent promoting effect on root and shoot GSH synthesis, while exogenous Cys reduced the synthesis of cellular GSH in shoot and increased Cys contents. Pb only induced the synthesis of phytochelatin (PC)2 in roots, and the PC2 content declined in GSH- and Cys-treated plant roots. These results suggested that GSH synthesis was a more effective approach to improve Pb accumulation and translocation of I. lactea var. chinensis. Further analysis of protein expression in plants by exogenous GSH and buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) application showed that the proteins regulated by GSH and BSO may constitute various enzymes involved in GSH biosynthesis and play certain roles in Pb accumulation and tolerance of I. lactea var. chinensis.

  12. Extraction and Separation of Active Ingredients in Schisandra chinensis (Turcz. Baill and the Study of their Antifungal Effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijing Yi

    Full Text Available Schisandra chinensis extracts (SEs have traditionally been used as an oriental medicine for the treatment of various human diseases, however, their further application in the biocontrol of plant disease remains poorly understood. This study was conducted to develop eco-friendly botanical pesticides from extracts of S. chinensis and assess whether they could play a key role in plant disease defense. Concentrated active fractions (SE-I, SE-II, and SE-III were obtained from S. chinensis via specific extraction and separation. Then, lignan-like substances, such as Schisanhenol B, were detected via High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-ElectroSpray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS analyses of the active fractions. Moreover, the results from biological tests on colony growth inhibition and spore germination indicated that SE-I, SE-II, and SE-III could inhibit hyphal growth and spore generation of three important plant pathogenic fungi (Monilinia fructicola, Fusarium oxysporum, and Botryosphaeria dothidea. The study of the mechanisms of resistant fungi revealed that the oxidation resistance system, including reactive oxygen species (ROS, malondialdehyde (MDA, catalase (CAT, and superoxide dismutase (SOD, was activated. The expression of genes related to defense, such as pathogenesis-related protein (PR4, α-farnesene synthase (AFS, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL were shown to be up-regulated after treatment with SEs, which suggested an increase in apple immunity and that fruits were induced to effectively defend against the infection of pathogenic fungi (B. dothidea. This study revealed that SEs and their lignans represent promising resources for the development of safe, effective, and multi-targeted agents against pathogenic fungi.

  13. Extraction and Separation of Active Ingredients in Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill and the Study of their Antifungal Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jie; Guo, Wei; Xiao, Weilie; Yao, Yuncong

    2016-01-01

    Schisandra chinensis extracts (SEs) have traditionally been used as an oriental medicine for the treatment of various human diseases, however, their further application in the biocontrol of plant disease remains poorly understood. This study was conducted to develop eco-friendly botanical pesticides from extracts of S. chinensis and assess whether they could play a key role in plant disease defense. Concentrated active fractions (SE-I, SE-II, and SE-III) were obtained from S. chinensis via specific extraction and separation. Then, lignan-like substances, such as Schisanhenol B, were detected via High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-ElectroSpray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) analyses of the active fractions. Moreover, the results from biological tests on colony growth inhibition and spore germination indicated that SE-I, SE-II, and SE-III could inhibit hyphal growth and spore generation of three important plant pathogenic fungi (Monilinia fructicola, Fusarium oxysporum, and Botryosphaeria dothidea). The study of the mechanisms of resistant fungi revealed that the oxidation resistance system, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), was activated. The expression of genes related to defense, such as pathogenesis-related protein (PR4), α-farnesene synthase (AFS), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) were shown to be up-regulated after treatment with SEs, which suggested an increase in apple immunity and that fruits were induced to effectively defend against the infection of pathogenic fungi (B. dothidea). This study revealed that SEs and their lignans represent promising resources for the development of safe, effective, and multi-targeted agents against pathogenic fungi. PMID:27152614

  14. Likely Age-Related Hearing Loss (Presbycusis) in a Stranded Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin (Sousa chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Songhai; Wang, Ding; Wang, Kexiong; Hoffmann-Kuhnt, Matthias; Fernando, Nimal; Taylor, Elizabeth A; Lin, Wenzhi; Chen, Jialin; Ng, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    The hearing of a stranded Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in Zhuhai, China, was measured. The age of this animal was estimated to be ~40 years. The animal's hearing was measured using a noninvasive auditory evoked potential (AEP) method. The results showed that the high-frequency hearing cutoff frequency of the studied dolphin was ~30-40 kHz lower than that of a conspecific younger individual ~13 year old. The lower high-frequency hearing range in the older dolphin was explained as a likely result of age-related hearing loss (presbycusis).

  15. Cytosine methylation alteration in natural populations of Leymus chinensis induced by multiple abiotic stresses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjie Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human activity has a profound effect on the global environment and caused frequent occurrence of climatic fluctuations. To survive, plants need to adapt to the changing environmental conditions through altering their morphological and physiological traits. One known mechanism for phenotypic innovation to be achieved is environment-induced rapid yet inheritable epigenetic changes. Therefore, the use of molecular techniques to address the epigenetic mechanisms underpinning stress adaptation in plants is an important and challenging topic in biological research. In this study, we investigated the impact of warming, nitrogen (N addition, and warming+nitrogen (N addition stresses on the cytosine methylation status of Leymus chinensis Tzvel. at the population level by using the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP, methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP and retrotransposon based sequence-specific amplification polymorphism (SSAP techniques. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our results showed that, although the percentages of cytosine methylation changes in SSAP are significantly higher than those in MSAP, all the treatment groups showed similar alteration patterns of hypermethylation and hypomethylation. It meant that the abiotic stresses have induced the alterations in cytosine methylation patterns, and the levels of cytosine methylation changes around the transposable element are higher than the other genomic regions. In addition, the identification and analysis of differentially methylated loci (DML indicated that the abiotic stresses have also caused targeted methylation changes at specific loci and these DML might have contributed to the capability of plants in adaptation to the abiotic stresses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrated that abiotic stresses related to global warming and nitrogen deposition readily evoke alterations of cytosine methylation, and which may provide a molecular basis for rapid

  16. Cytosine Methylation Alteration in Natural Populations of Leymus chinensis Induced by Multiple Abiotic Stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yingjie; Yang, Xuejiao; Wang, Huaying; Shi, Fengxue; Liu, Ying; Liu, Jushan; Li, Linfeng; Wang, Deli; Liu, Bao

    2013-01-01

    Background Human activity has a profound effect on the global environment and caused frequent occurrence of climatic fluctuations. To survive, plants need to adapt to the changing environmental conditions through altering their morphological and physiological traits. One known mechanism for phenotypic innovation to be achieved is environment-induced rapid yet inheritable epigenetic changes. Therefore, the use of molecular techniques to address the epigenetic mechanisms underpinning stress adaptation in plants is an important and challenging topic in biological research. In this study, we investigated the impact of warming, nitrogen (N) addition, and warming+nitrogen (N) addition stresses on the cytosine methylation status of Leymus chinensis Tzvel. at the population level by using the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) and retrotransposon based sequence-specific amplification polymorphism (SSAP) techniques. Methodology/Principal Findings Our results showed that, although the percentages of cytosine methylation changes in SSAP are significantly higher than those in MSAP, all the treatment groups showed similar alteration patterns of hypermethylation and hypomethylation. It meant that the abiotic stresses have induced the alterations in cytosine methylation patterns, and the levels of cytosine methylation changes around the transposable element are higher than the other genomic regions. In addition, the identification and analysis of differentially methylated loci (DML) indicated that the abiotic stresses have also caused targeted methylation changes at specific loci and these DML might have contributed to the capability of plants in adaptation to the abiotic stresses. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrated that abiotic stresses related to global warming and nitrogen deposition readily evoke alterations of cytosine methylation, and which may provide a molecular basis for rapid adaptation by

  17. Transcriptome Analysis in Sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis). A Dominant Perennial Grass of the Eurasian Steppe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shuangyan [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Institute of Botany (IB), Beijing; Huang, Xin [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Institute of Botany (IB), Beijing; Yang, Xiaohan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liu, Gongshe [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Institute of Botany (IB), Beijing

    2013-07-04

    BACKGROUND: Sheepgrass [Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel.] is an important perennial forage grass across the Eurasian Steppe and is known for its adaptability to various environmental conditions. However, insufficient data resources in public databases for sheepgrass limited our understanding of the mechanism of environmental adaptations, gene discovery and molecular marker development. RESULTS: The transcriptome of sheepgrass was sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing technology. We assembled 952,328 high-quality reads into 87,214 unigenes, including 32,416 contigs and 54,798 singletons. There were 15,450 contigs over 500 bp in length. BLAST searches of our database against Swiss-Prot and NCBI non-redundant protein sequences (nr) databases resulted in the annotation of 54,584 (62.6%) of the unigenes. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis assigned 89,129 GO term annotations for 17,463 unigenes. We identified 11,675 core Poaceae-specific and 12,811 putative sheepgrass-specific unigenes by BLAST searches against all plant genome and transcriptome databases. A total of 2,979 specific freezing-responsive unigenes were found from this RNAseq dataset. We identified 3,818 EST-SSRs in 3,597 unigenes, and some SSRs contained unigenes that were also candidates for freezing-response genes. Characterizations of nucleotide repeats and dominant motifs of SSRs in sheepgrass were also performed. Similarity and phylogenetic analysis indicated that sheepgrass is closely related to barley and wheat. CONCLUSIONS: This research has greatly enriched sheepgrass transcriptome resources. The identified stress-related genes will help us to decipher the genetic basis of the environmental and ecological adaptations of this species and will be used to improve wheat and barley crops through hybridization or genetic transformation. The EST-SSRs reported here will be a valuable resource for future gene-phenotype studies and for the molecular breeding of sheepgrass and other Poaceae species.

  18. AP-1-Targeting Anti-Inflammatory Activity of the Methanolic Extract of Persicaria chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Jahangir Hossen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In traditional Chinese medicine, Persicaria chinensis L. has been prescribed to cure numerous inflammatory disorders. We previously analyzed the bioactivity of the methanol extract of this plant (Pc-ME against LPS-induced NO and PGE2 in RAW264.7 macrophages and found that it prevented HCl/EtOH-induced gastric ulcers in mice. The purpose of the current study was to explore the molecular mechanism by which Pc-ME inhibits activator protein- (AP- 1 activation pathway and mediates its hepatoprotective activity. To investigate the putative therapeutic properties of Pc-ME against AP-1-mediated inflammation and hepatotoxicity, lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- stimulated RAW264.7 and U937 cells, a monocyte-like human cell line, and an LPS/D-galactosamine- (D-GalN- induced acute hepatitis mouse model were employed. The expression of LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin- (IL- 1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α was significantly diminished by Pc-ME. Moreover, Pc-ME reduced AP-1 activation and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK phosphorylation in both LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and differentiated U937 cells. Additionally, we highlighted the hepatoprotective and curative effects of Pc-ME pretreated orally in a mouse model of LPS/D-GalN-intoxicated acute liver injury by demonstrating the significant reduction in elevated serum AST and ALT levels and histological damage. Therefore, these results strongly suggest that Pc-ME could function as an antihepatitis remedy suppressing MAPK/AP-1-mediated inflammatory events.

  19. Sphaerisporangium dianthi sp. nov., an endophytic actinomycete isolated from a root of Dianthus chinensis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jia; Liu, Chongxi; Zhang, Yuejing; He, Hairong; Zhou, Ying; Li, Lianjie; Zhao, Junwei; Liu, Shuanghe; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2015-01-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-CY18(T), was isolated from the root of a Chinese medicinal plant Dianthus chinensis L and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. The novel strain was found to develop spherical sporangia with non-motile spores on aerial mycelium. The cell-wall peptidoglycan was found to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid. The whole-cell sugars were identified as madurose, mannose, ribose, galactose and glucose. The phospholipid profile was found to contain diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, hydroxy-phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides and an unidentified phospholipid. The predominant menaquinones were identified as MK-9(H4), MK-9(H2) and MK-9(H6). The major fatty acids were identified as C17:0 10-methyl, iso-C16:0 and C16:0. EzTaxon-e analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the strain belongs to the genus Sphaerisporangium and was most closely related to Sphaerisporangium cinnabarinum JCM 3291(T) (98.9 %) and Sphaerisporangium melleum JCM 13064(T) (98.3 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain NEAU-CY18(T) forms a monophyletic clade with S. cinnabarinum JCM 3291(T), an association that was supported by a bootstrap value of 97 % in the neighbour-joining tree and also recovered with the maximum-likelihood algorithm. Comparisons of some phenotypic properties and low DNA-DNA relatedness values enabled the strain to be differentiated from S. cinnabarinum JCM 3291(T) and S. melleum JCM 13064(T). Therefore, it is concluded that strain NEAU-CY18(T) represents a novel Sphaerisporangium species, for which the name Sphaerisporangium dianthi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-CY18(T) ( = CGMCC 4.7132(T) = DSM 46736(T)).

  20. A successful microbound diet for the larval culture of Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinxia; Mai, Kangsen

    2005-07-01

    A 13-day feeding trial was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of a microbound diet for rearing the larvae of Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis in comparison with the live foods that consist of Isochrysis galbana, Chlorella vulgaris, Tetraselmis chuii, rotifer (Brachionus plicatilis) and Artemia sp. Larvae of 0 to 13d post-hatch (dph) were reared in a temperature-controlled semi-open culture system and stocked at a density of 100 larvae L-1 in tanks, each containing 50 L sterilized seawater with salinity 30 32. Larvae were manually fed either the live foods or the microbound diet 6 times per day. At 13dph, the growth of the larvae fed on the microbound diet was approximately 84% of that fed on the live foods. The survival rate of the larvae fed on the microbound diet was 44.29% at 13 dph, which was not significantly different from that of larvae fed on live foods (63.55% ). The body length and development index (DI) of the larvae fed on the microbound diet were always lower than those of larvae fed on live foods. However, the differences reached significant levels only at 11 and 13dph (P<0.05). The mean dry weight loss of the microbound diet was 9.2% after 90min immersion in seawater, indicating that this diet has a good water stability. The microbound diet contains 5223% crude protein and 10.27% lipid and is easy to prepare. These characteristics of the diet suggest good potentials for its successful use in the larviculture of other penaeid and fish species.

  1. Pseudonocardia nantongensis sp. nov., a novel endophytic actinomycete isolated from the coastal halophyte Tamarix chinensis Lour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Ke; Qin, Sheng; Bian, Guang-Kai; Zhang, Yue-Ji; Zhang, Wen-Di; Dai, Chuan-Chao; Liu, Chang-Hong; Li, Wen-Jun; Jiang, Ji-Hong

    2012-11-01

    A novel isolate, designated strain KLBMP 1282(T) was isolated from the surface-sterilized leaves of a coastal halophyte Tamarix chinensis Lour., collected from Nantong, Jiangsu Province, east of China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that this strain belongs to the genus Pseudonocardia, being most closely related to Pseudonocardia kongjuensis LM 157(T) (98.33 %), Pseudonocardia autotrophica IMSNU 20050(T) (97.77 %), Pseudonocardia endophytica YIM 56035(T) (97.63 %), Pseudonocardia ammonioxydans H9 (T) (97.62 %) and Pseudonocardia compacta IMSNU 20111(T) (97.56 %); similarity to other type strains of the genus Pseudonocardia was <97.5 %. Chemotaxonomic data confirmed the affiliation of strain KLBMP 1282(T) to the genus Pseudonocardia. Strain KLBMP 1282(T) contained MK-8(H(4)) as the predominant ubiquinone and iso-C(16:0) as the major fatty acid. The polar lipids detected in strain KLBMP 1282(T) were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides, one unknown phospholipid and four unknown glycolipids. The DNA G + C content of strain KLBMP 1282(T) was 73.1 mol %. The results of DNA-DNA hybridizations and the phylogenetic analysis, together with the phenotypic and biochemical tests, allowed the differentiation of strain KLBMP 1282(T) from strains of other recognized Pseudonocardia species. Therefore, strain KLBMP 1282(T) represents a novel species of the genus Pseudonocardia, for which the name Pseudonocardia nantongensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KLBMP 1282(T) (=KCTC 29053(T) = NBRC 108677(T)).

  2. Acute and joint toxicity of three agrochemicals to Chinese tiger frog (Hoplobatrachus chinensis) tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li; Shao, Wei-Wei; Ding, Guo-Hua; Fan, Xiao-Li; Yu, Miao-Ling; Lin, Zhi-Hua

    2014-07-01

    We studied acute and joint toxicity of three different agrochemicals (chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide-abamectin and penoxsulam) to Chinese tiger frog (Hoplobatrachus chinensis) tadpoles with the method of stability water tests. Results showed that the three agrochemicals increased tadpole mortality. For acute toxicity, the LC50 values after 24, 48 and 72 h of chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide-abamectin and penoxsulam exposure were 5.37, 4.90 and 4.68 mg/L; 0.035, 0.025 and 0.021 mg/L; 1.74, 1.45 and 1.29 mg/L, respectively. The safety concentrations (SC) of chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide-abamectin and penoxsulam to the tadpoles were 1.23, 0.30 and 0.003 mg/L, respectively. Based on these findings, chlorantraniliprole and penoxsulam were moderately toxic, while flubendiamide-abamectin was highly toxic. All pairwise joint toxicity tests showed moderate toxicity. The LC50 values after 24, 48 and 72 h of exposure were 7.08, 6.61 and 6.03 mg/L for chlorantraniliprole+penoxsulam, with corresponding values of 2.455, 2.328 and 2.183 mg/L for chlorantraniliprole+flubendiamide-abamectin, and 1.132, 1.084 and 1.050 mg/L for penoxsulam+flubendiamide-abamectin, with safe concentrations of 1.73, 0.63 and 0.30 mg/L, respectively. For toxic evaluations of pairwise combinations of the three agrochemicals, only the joint toxicity of chlorantraniliprole and flubendiamide-abamectin after 24 h was found to be synergistic, whereas all other tests were antagonistic. Our findings provide valuable information on the toxic effects of agrochemicals on amphibians and how various types of agrochemicals can be reasonably used in agricultural areas.

  3. Transcriptome analysis in sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis): a dominant perennial grass of the Eurasian Steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuangyan; Huang, Xin; Yan, Xueqing; Liang, Ye; Wang, Yuezhu; Li, Xiaofeng; Peng, Xianjun; Ma, Xingyong; Zhang, Lexin; Cai, Yueyue; Ma, Tian; Cheng, Liqin; Qi, Dongmei; Zheng, Huajun; Yang, Xiaohan; Li, Xiaoxia; Liu, Gongshe

    2013-01-01

    Sheepgrass [Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel.] is an important perennial forage grass across the Eurasian Steppe and is known for its adaptability to various environmental conditions. However, insufficient data resources in public databases for sheepgrass limited our understanding of the mechanism of environmental adaptations, gene discovery and molecular marker development. The transcriptome of sheepgrass was sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing technology. We assembled 952,328 high-quality reads into 87,214 unigenes, including 32,416 contigs and 54,798 singletons. There were 15,450 contigs over 500 bp in length. BLAST searches of our database against Swiss-Prot and NCBI non-redundant protein sequences (nr) databases resulted in the annotation of 54,584 (62.6%) of the unigenes. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis assigned 89,129 GO term annotations for 17,463 unigenes. We identified 11,675 core Poaceae-specific and 12,811 putative sheepgrass-specific unigenes by BLAST searches against all plant genome and transcriptome databases. A total of 2,979 specific freezing-responsive unigenes were found from this RNAseq dataset. We identified 3,818 EST-SSRs in 3,597 unigenes, and some SSRs contained unigenes that were also candidates for freezing-response genes. Characterizations of nucleotide repeats and dominant motifs of SSRs in sheepgrass were also performed. Similarity and phylogenetic analysis indicated that sheepgrass is closely related to barley and wheat. This research has greatly enriched sheepgrass transcriptome resources. The identified stress-related genes will help us to decipher the genetic basis of the environmental and ecological adaptations of this species and will be used to improve wheat and barley crops through hybridization or genetic transformation. The EST-SSRs reported here will be a valuable resource for future gene-phenotype studies and for the molecular breeding of sheepgrass and other Poaceae species.

  4. Comparisons of Growth and Survival Performance Among Selected Families and Wild Populations of Fenneropenaeus chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kun; Kong, Jie; Meng, Xianhong; Luan, Sheng; Cao, Baoxiang; Chen, Baolong

    2018-04-01

    In this study, families of selected population for growth (SP_BWT), selected population for white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) resistance (SP_RW), Bohai wild population (WP_BH) and Huanghai wild population (WP_HH) of F. chinensis were constructed through artificial insemination and with the standardized procedure of larvae rearing. Growth and survival performance were studied among four populations after a 70 days common test. The results showed that the maximum least square mean of body weight was 17.50 g in SP_BWT while the minimum was 13.03 g in WP_HH. Compared with WP_BH, body weight of SP_BWT increased by 23.41% ( P 0.05). Body weights of SP_BWT and SP_RW were significantly higher than that of WP_HH, which increased by 34.31% ( P populations was 0.19, 0.18, 0.17 and 0.16 g d-1, respectively. Coefficient of variation of body weight among four populations was high, which ranged from 32.67% to 35.25%. Such a range showed that there was the potentiality for further improvement in selected populations. Coefficient of variation of survival rate among four populations was low, varying between 3.20% and 5.90%. The difference of survival was highly significant ( P populations ( P growth performances were also observed among different families in each population. The body weight of 798F family was the highest. The absolute growth rate (AGR) was 0.25 g d-1, 150% higher than that of the lowest one, 0.1 g d-1 in 807F family. Survival rate of families among four populations was different. The highest was 94.74%, and the lowest was 71.88%.

  5. [A comparative study on soil respiration between grazing and fenced typical Leymus chinensis steppe, Inner Mongolia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Bingrui; Zhou, Guangsheng; Wang, Fengyu; Wang, Yuhui

    2004-09-01

    With enclosed chamber Method, this paper studied the soil respiration in grazing and fenced typical Leymus chinensis steppes, Inner Mongolia, and its relationships with environmental factors. The results showed that the daily pattern of soil respiration could be expressed as a one-humped curve, and the highest values appeared at 13:00-15:00 in the fenced and grazing plots. The diurnal dynamics of soil respiration mainly depended on the surface temperature at the fenced plots and the soil temperature at 5 cm depth at the grazing plots. In June and July, the average soil respiration rate was 2.7 times greater at the fenced plots than that at the grazing plots, while the difference was not distinct in August and September, which was similar with the change of the belowground biomass. The reason was probably that the plant was influenced differently in different phenological phases by grazing and the change of environmental factors. It showed that human activity may not result in the increase of soil respiration rate. The seasonal dynamics of soil respiration was closely correlated with soil water content at the 0-10 cm depth at the fenced and grazing sites, and the maximum R2 was 0.853 and 0.741, respectively. The difference was that the correlation of soil respiration seasonal dynamics with soil water content was larger at the fenced plots than at the grazing plots. The correlations of soil respiration diurnal and seasonal dynamics with temperature and soil water content at lower profiles were larger than those at deeper profiles at the fenced and grazing sites.

  6. Effects of gamma radiation on survival and reproduction of Callosobruchus chinensis (L.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, T.; Imura, Osamu

    1989-01-01

    Studies on the effects of gamma radiation on different life stages of Callosobruchus chinensis were carried out in a growth chamber at 30±1degC and 70±2 % R.H. with 12:12 hr light and dark cycle. Eggs (1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-day-old), larvae (7- and 10-day-old), mature pupae (one day before adult eclosion) along with adzuki beans and 1-day-old adults were exposed to gamma radiation from a 60 Co source. Complete mortality of the 1-day-old eggs was obtained by exposure to 12 Gy, and a dose of 40 Gy caused 100 % mortality of the 7-day-old larvae after 24 hr of exposure. A dose of 640 Gy caused instant kill of the mature pupae and 1-day-old adults. The fecundity and fertility of adults irradiated either as mature pupae or 1-day-old adults decreased with the increase of the dose. Eggs, laid by females which had been exposed and/or had mates which had been exposed as mature pupae to 20 Gy or more, had negligible hatching rates. Complete sterility was obtained at 80 Gy in the 1-day-old adults. The sterilized males irradiated as 1-day-old at 80 Gy were capable of competing sexually with untreated ones. The percentage of egg hatch decreased as the ratio of sterile males to normal males increased, becoming less than 10 % at the ratios of 9 : 1 and 15 : 1. (author)

  7. Modeling responses of the meadow steppe dominated by Leymus chinensis to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yuhui; Zhou, Guangsheng; Wang, Yonghe

    2007-01-01

    Grassland is one of the most widespread vegetation types worldwide and plays a significant role in regional climate and global carbon cycling. Understanding the sensitivity of Chinese grassland ecosystems to climate change and elevated atmospheric CO2 and the effect of these changes on the grassland ecosystems is a key issue in global carbon cycling. China encompasses vast grassland areas of 354 million ha of 17 major grassland types, according to a national grassland survey. In this study, a process-based terrestrial model the CENTURY model was used to simulate potential changes in net primary productivity (NPP) and soil organic carbon (SOC) of the Leymus chinensis meadow steppe (LCMS) under different scenarios of climatic change and elevated atmospheric CO2. The LCMS sensitivities, its potential responses to climate change, and the change in capacity of carbon stock and sequestration in the future are evaluated. The results showed that the LCMS NPP and SOC are sensitive to climatic change and elevated CO2. In the next 100 years, with doubled CO2 concentration, if temperature increases from 2.7-3.9C and precipitation increases by 10% NPP and SOC will increase by 7-21% and 5-6% respectively. However, if temperature increases by 7.5-7.8C and precipitation increases by only 10% NPP and SOC would decrease by 24% and 8% respectively. Therefore, changes in the NPP and SOC of the meadow steppe are attributed mainly to the amount of temperature and precipitation change and the atmospheric CO2 concentration in the future

  8. Effects of gamma radiation on survival and reproduction of Callosobruchus chinensis (L.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, T.; Imura, O.

    1989-01-01

    Studies on the effects of gamma radiation on different life stages of Callosobruchus chinensis were carried out in a growth chamber at 30 .+-. 1.degree.C and 70 .+-. 2% R.H. with a 12: 12 hr light and dark cycle. Eggs (1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-day-old), larvae (7- and 10-day-old), mature pupae (one day adult eclosion) along with adzuki beans and 1-day-old adults were exposed to gamma radiation from a 60Co source. Complete mortality of the 1-day-old eggs was obtained by exposure to 12 Gy, and a dose of 40 Gy caused 100% mortality of the 7-day-old larvae after 24 hr of exposure. A dose of 640 Gy caused instant kill of the mature pupae and 1-day-old adults. The fecundity and fertility of adults irradiated either as mature pupae or 1-day-old adults decreased with the increase of the dose. Eggs, laid by females which had been exposed and/or had mates which had been exposed as mature pupae to 20 Gy or more, had negligible hatching rates. Complete sterility was obtained at 80 Gy in the 1-day-old adults. The sterilized males irradiated as 1-day-old at 80 gy were capable of competing sexually with untreated ones. The percentage of egg hatch decreased as the ratio of sterile males to normal males increased, becoming less than 10% at the ratios of 9:1 and 15:1

  9. Philopatry and dispersal of juvenile leervis Lichia amia (Teleostei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Understanding and characterising movement and area-use patterns of fishes within estuaries, as well as understanding the degree of connectivity between estuaries and the marine environment, can provide important insights into a species' ecology, which is fundamental for effective management and conservation.

  10. Enraizamento de estacas caulinares de kiwi (Actinidia chinensis Planch cv Abbott tratadas com auxinas e boro Rooting of kiwi stem cuttings (Actinidia chinensis Planch. cv Abbott treated with auxins and boron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G. Ono

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como finalidade, estudar o efeito de várias auxinas sintéticas em formulações comerciais e do boro, sobre o enraizamento de estacas caulinares de kiwi (Actinidia chinensis Planch, cv Abbott.. As estacas utilizadas continham dois nós e duas folhas cortadas ao meio, com aproximadamente 10 cm de comprimento, onde o corte basal em bisel foi realizado logo abaixo de um nó e o apical acima do outro nó. O efeito das auxinas, sobre o enraizamento de estacas caulinares de kiwi foi verificado mediante os seguintes tratamentos, aplicados sobre as bases das estacas: T1 H(20; T2 (NAA 300 ppm; T3 (IBA 300 ppm; T4 (NAA 300 ppm + B; T5 (IBA 300 ppm + B; T6 (NAA 0,5%-pó e T7 (IBA 0,5%-pó. Após o tratamento das estacas, estas foram plantadas em bandejas de enraizamento, contendo vermiculita pura e colocadas em câmara de nebulização, onde permaneceram por 120 dias, até a sua coleta. Para a avaliação do efeito de auxinas e do ácido bórico, sobre o enraizamento de estacas caulinares de kiwi, foram realizadas as seguintes observações: 1. porcentagem de estacas enraizadas; 2. análise de açúcares redutores e açúcares totais (em g/100 g de matéria seca; 3. análise de triptofano (em µg/100 mg de matéria seca. Os resultados obtidos no processo de enraizamento de estacas caulinares de kiwi (Actinidia chinensis Planch. variedade Abbott, levou a concluir que o inverno e outono foram as melhores épocas de coleta dos ramos de auxinas para a confecção das estacas. O processo de enraizamento foi ainda incrementado com a aplicação exógena na base das estacas, sendo que o alto teor de açúcares redutores e totais beneficiou a maior porcentagem de enraizamento.This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of some synthetical auxins and boron trade formulations in the rooting of stem cuttings of some kiwi (Actinidia chinensis Planch varieties. The experiment was carried out in a misty nebulization chamber in the Botany

  11. Population differentiation and hybridisation of Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis) dolphins in North-Western Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, Alexander M.; Kopps, Anna M.; Allen, Simon J.; Bejder, Lars; Littleford-Colquhoun, Bethan; Parra, Guido J.; Cagnazzi, Daniele; Thiele, Deborah; Palmer, Carol; Frere, Celine H.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis) dolphins ('snubfin' and 'humpback dolphins', hereafter) of north-western Australia. While both species are listed as 'near threatened' by the IUCN, data deficiencies are impeding rigorous

  12. 蒙药金莲花体外抗阴道毛滴虫效果观察%Effect of Trollius chinensis Bunge against Trichomonas vaginalis: an observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建芳; 闫艳; 于桂霞; 宋强

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察金莲花对体外阴道毛滴虫的杀灭效果.方法 采用不同浓度的金莲花水提物进行体外抗阴道毛滴虫试验,于药物作用后不同时间记录阴道毛滴虫的死亡率.结果 金莲花具有抑制和杀灭阴道毛滴虫的作用,最低有效浓度为20.00 mg/mL.结论 金莲花对阴道毛滴虫具有杀灭效果.%Objective To study the effect of Trollius chinensis Bunge on Trichonwnas vaginalis. Method After treated with different concentration of Trollius chinensis Bunge, Trichomonas vaginalis was observed for the purpose of morphological changes and mortality rate at different time after agent interactions. Result The obvious killing effect on Trichomonas vaginalis conducted by Trollius chinensis Bunge was observed. The lowest killing concentration was 20.00 mg/ mL. Conclusion Trollius chinensis bunge exhibits a relatively potent effect on Trichomonas vaginalis.

  13. Chemical composition of Galla chinensis extract and the effect of its main component(s) on the prevention of enamel demineralization in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, X.L.; Liu, M.D.; Li, J.Y.; Zhou, X.D.; ten Cate, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the chemical composition of Galla chinensis extract (GCE) by several analysis techniques and to compare the efficacy of GCE and its main component(s) in inhibition of enamel demineralization, for the development of future anticaries agents, main organic composition of GCE was

  14. Persistence and Dissipation of Chlorpyrifos in Brassica Chinensis, Lettuce, Celery, Asparagus Lettuce, Eggplant, and Pepper in a Greenhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meng-Xiao; Jiang, Wayne W.; Wang, Jia-Lei; Jian, Qiu; Shen, Yan; Liu, Xian-Jin; Yu, Xiang-Yang

    2014-01-01

    The residue behavior of chlorpyrifos, which is one of the extensively used insecticides all around the world, in six vegetable crops was assessed under greenhouse conditions. Each of the vegetables was subjected to a foliar treatment with chlorpyrifos. Two analytical methods were developed using gas chromatography equipped with a micro-ECD detector (LOQ = 0.05 mg kg−1) and liquid chromatography with a tandem mass spectrometry (LOQ = 0.01 mg kg−1). The initial foliar deposited concentration of chlorpyrifos (mg kg−1) on the six vegetables followed the increasing order of brassica chinensischlorpyrifos showed differences among the six selected vegetable plants, ranging from 16.5±0.9 mg kg−1 (brassica chinensis) to 74.0±5.9 mg kg−1 (pepper plant). At pre-harvest interval 21 days, the chlorpyrifos residues in edible parts of the crops were chlorpyrifos were found to be 7.79 (soil), 2.64 (pepper plants), 3.90 (asparagus lettuce), 3.92 (lettuce), 5.81 (brassica chinensis), 3.00 (eggplant plant), and 5.45 days (celery), respectively. The dissipation of chlorpyrifos in soil and the six selected plants was different, indicating that the persistence of chlorpyrifos residues strongly depends upon leaf characteristics of the selected vegetables. PMID:24967589

  15. Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction of essential oil and biphenyl cyclooctene lignans from Schisandra chinensis Baill fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chun-hui; Liu, Ting-ting; Yang, Lei; Zu, Yuan-gang; Chen, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Chunjian

    2011-12-02

    Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction (ILMAE) has been successfully applied in extracting essential oil and four kinds of biphenyl cyclooctene lignans from Schisandra chinensis Baill. 0.25 M 1-lauryl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ionic liquid is selected as solvent. The optimum parameters of dealing with 25.0 g sample are 385 W irradiation power, 40 min microwave extraction time and 1:12 solid-liquid ratio. The yields of essential oil and lignans are 12.12±0.37 ml/kg and 250.2±38.2 mg/kg under the optimum conditions. The composition of the essential oil extracted by hydro-distillation, steam-distillation and ILMAE is analyzed by GC-MS. With ILMAE method, the energy consumption time has not only been shortened to 40 min (hydro-distillation 3.0 h for extracting essential oil and reflux extraction 4.0 h for extracting lignans, respectively), but also the extraction efficiency has been improved (extraction of lignans and distillation of essential oil at the same time) and reduces the environmental pollution. S. chinensis materials treated by different methods are observed by scanning electronic microscopy. Micrographs provide more evidence to prove that ILMAE is a better and faster method. The experimental results also indicate that ILMAE is a simple and efficient technique for sample preparation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Ethanol Extract of Dianthus chinensis L. Induces Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cells In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nho, Kyoung Jin; Chun, Jin Mi; Kim, Ho Kyoung

    2012-01-01

    Dianthus chinensis L. is used to treat various diseases including cancer; however, the molecular mechanism by which the ethanol extract of Dianthus chinensis L. (EDCL) induces apoptosis is unknown. In this study, the apoptotic effects of EDCL were investigated in human HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Treatment with EDCL significantly inhibited cell growth in a concentration- and time-dependent manner by inducing apoptosis. This induction was associated with chromatin condensation, activation of caspases, and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase protein. However, apoptosis induced by EDCL was attenuated by caspase inhibitor, indicating an important role for caspases in EDCL responses. Furthermore, EDCL did not alter the expression of bax in HepG2 cells but did selectively downregulate the expression of bcl-2 and bcl-xl, resulting in an increase in the ratio of bax:bcl-2 and bax:bcl-xl. These results support a mechanism whereby EDCL induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway and caspase activation in HepG2 cells. PMID:22645629

  17. Diversity and community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with Larix chinensis across the alpine treeline ecotone of Taibai Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qisheng; Huang, Jian; Long, Dongfeng; Wang, Xiaobing; Liu, Jianjun

    2017-07-01

    Alpine treeline ecotones represent ecosystems that are vulnerable to climate change. We investigated the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) community, which has potential to stabilize alpine ecosystems. ECM communities associated with Larix chinensis were studied in four zones along a natural ecotone from a mixed forest stand over pure forest stands, the timberline, and eventually, the treeline (3050-3450 m) in Tabai Mountain, China. Sixty operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of ECM fungi were identified by sequencing the rDNA internal transcribed spacer of ECM tips. The richness of ECM species increased with elevation. The soil C/N ratio was the most important factor explaining ECM species richness. The treeline zone harbored some unique ECM fungi whereas no unique genera were observed in the timberline and pure forest zone. Elevation and topography were equally important factors influencing ECM communities in the alpine region. We suggest that a higher diversity of the ECM fungal community associated with L. chinensis in the treeline zone could result from niche differentiation.

  18. Echolocation signals of free-ranging Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in Sanniang Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Liang; Li, Songhai; Wang, Kexiong; Wang, Zhitao; Shi, Wenjing; Wang, Ding

    2015-09-01

    While the low-frequency communication sounds of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) have been reported in a number of papers, the high-frequency echolocation signals of Sousa chinensis, especially those living in the wild, have been less studied. In the current study, echolocation signals of humpback dolphins were recorded in Sanniang Bay, Guangxi Province, China, using a cross-type hydrophone array with five elements. In total, 77 candidate on-axis clicks from 77 scans were selected for analysis. The results showed that the varied peak-to-peak source levels ranged from 177.1 to 207.3 dB, with an average of 187.7 dB re: 1 μPa. The mean peak frequency was 109.0 kHz with a -3-dB bandwidth of 50.3 kHz and 95% energy duration of 22 μs. The -3-dB bandwidth was much broader than the root mean square bandwidth and exhibited a bimodal distribution. The center frequency exhibited a positive relationship with the peak-to-peak source level. The clicks of the wild Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins were short-duration, broadband, ultrasonic pulses, similar to those produced by other whistling dolphins of similar body size. However, the click source levels of the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin appear to be lower than those of other whistling dolphins.

  19. Determination of carbohydrates in Folium Lysium Chinensis using capillary electrophoresis combined with far-infrared light irradiation-assisted extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yuejiao; Zhang, Luyan; Chen, Gang

    2011-11-01

    In this work, a method based on capillary electrophoresis with amperometric detection and far-infrared-assisted extraction has been developed for the determination of mannitol, sucrose, glucose and fructose in Folium Lysium Chinensis, a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine. The water-soluble constituents in the herbal drug were extracted with double distilled water with the assistance of far-infrared radiations. The effects of detection potential, irradiation time, and the voltage applied on the infrared generator were investigated to acquire the optimum analysis conditions. The detection electrode was a 300-μm-diameter copper disk electrode at a detection potential of +0.65 V. The four carbohydrates could be well separated within 18 min in a 50-cm length fused-silica capillary at a separation voltage of 9 kV in a 50-mM NaOH aqueous solution. The relation between peak current and analyte concentration was linear over about three orders of magnitude with detection limits (S/N=3) ranging from 0.66 to 1.15 μM for all analytes. The results indicated that far infrared significantly enhanced the extraction efficiency of the carbohydrates in Folium Lysium Chinensis. The extraction time was significantly reduced to 7 min compared with several hours for conventional hot solvent extraction. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Chemical composition and α-amylase inhibitory activity of the essential oil from Sabina chinensis cv. Kaizuca leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Dongyu; Fang, Chen; Yang, Jiao; Li, Minjing; Liu, Hengming; Yang, Yi

    2018-03-01

    Sabina chinensis cv. Kaizuca (SCK) is a variant of S. chinensis L. The essential oil from its leaves exhibited α-amylase inhibitory activity in vitro and the IC 50 value was 187.08 ± 0.56 μg/mL. Nineteen compounds were identified from this essential oil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The major compounds identified were bornyl acetate (42.6%), elemol (20.5%), β-myrcene (13.7%) and β-linalool (4.0%). In order to study the reason of the α-amylase inhibitory activity of this essential oil, the identified compounds were docked with α-amylase by molecular docking individually. Among these compounds, γ-eudesmol exhibited the lowest binding energy (-6.73 kcal/mol), followed by α-copaen-11-ol (-6.66 kcal/mol), cubedol (-6.39 kcal/mol) and α-acorenol (-6.12 kcal/mol). The results indicated that these compounds were the active ingredients responsible for the α-amylase inhibitory activity of essential oil from SCK.

  1. Species presence frequency and diversity in different patch types along an altitudinal gradient: Larix chinensis Beissn in Qinling Mountains (China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minyi Huang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest communities are mosaic systems composed of patches classified into four different developmental patch types: gap patch (G, building patch (B, mature patch (M and degenerate patch (D. To study the mechanisms maintaining diversity in subalpine coniferous forests, species presence frequency and diversity in the four distinct patch types (G, B, M and D of Larix chinensis conifer forests at three altitudinal gradients in the Qinling Mountains were analyzed. Our results were as follows: (1 Different species (or functional groups had distinct presence frequencies in the four different patch types along the altitudinal gradient; (2 Some species or functional groups (species groups sharing similar traits and responses to the environment only occurred in some specific patches. For seed dispersal, species using wind mainly occurred in G and D, while species using small animals mainly occurred in B and M; (3 Species composition of adjacent patch types was more similar than non-adjacent patch types, based on the lower β diversity index of the former; (4 The maximum numbers of species and two diversity indices (D′ and H′ were found in the middle altitudes. Various gap-forming processes and dispersal limitation may be the two major mechanisms determining species diversity in Larix chinensis coniferous forests at the patch scale.

  2. The Complete Chloroplast Genome of a Key Ancestor of Modern Roses, Rosa chinensis var. spontanea, and a Comparison with Congeneric Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Hong-Ying; Zhang, Yong-Hong; Yan, Hui-Jun; Qiu, Xian-Qin; Wang, Qi-Gang; Li, Shu-Bin; Zhang, Shu-Dong

    2018-02-12

    Rosa chinensis var. spontanea , an endemic and endangered plant of China, is one of the key ancestors of modern roses and a source for famous traditional Chinese medicines against female diseases, such as irregular menses and dysmenorrhea. In this study, the complete chloroplast (cp) genome of R. chinensis var. spontanea was sequenced, analyzed, and compared to congeneric species. The cp genome of R. chinensis var. spontanea is a typical quadripartite circular molecule of 156,590 bp in length, including one large single copy (LSC) region of 85,910 bp and one small single copy (SSC) region of 18,762 bp, separated by two inverted repeat (IR) regions of 25,959 bp. The GC content of the whole genome is 37.2%, while that of LSC, SSC, and IR is 42.8%, 35.2% and 31.2%, respectively. The genome encodes 129 genes, including 84 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 37 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and eight ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Seventeen genes in the IR regions were found to be duplicated. Thirty-three forward and five inverted repeats were detected in the cp genome of R. chinensis var. spontanea. The genome is rich in SSRs. In total, 85 SSRs were detected. A genome comparison revealed that IR contraction might be the reason for the relatively smaller cp genome size of R. chinensis var. spontanea compared to other congeneric species. Sequence analysis revealed that the LSC and SSC regions were more divergent than the IR regions within the genus Rosa and that a higher divergence occurred in non-coding regions than in coding regions. A phylogenetic analysis showed that the sampled species of the genus Rosa formed a monophyletic clade and that R. chinensis var. s pontanea shared a more recent ancestor with R. lichiangensis of the section Synstylae than with R. odorata var. gigantea of the section Chinenses . This information will be useful for the conservation genetics of R. chinensis var. spontanea and for the phylogenetic study of the genus Rosa , and it might also facilitate the

  3. The Complete Chloroplast Genome of a Key Ancestor of Modern Roses, Rosa chinensis var. spontanea, and a Comparison with Congeneric Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ying Jian

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Rosa chinensis var. spontanea, an endemic and endangered plant of China, is one of the key ancestors of modern roses and a source for famous traditional Chinese medicines against female diseases, such as irregular menses and dysmenorrhea. In this study, the complete chloroplast (cp genome of R. chinensis var. spontanea was sequenced, analyzed, and compared to congeneric species. The cp genome of R. chinensis var. spontanea is a typical quadripartite circular molecule of 156,590 bp in length, including one large single copy (LSC region of 85,910 bp and one small single copy (SSC region of 18,762 bp, separated by two inverted repeat (IR regions of 25,959 bp. The GC content of the whole genome is 37.2%, while that of LSC, SSC, and IR is 42.8%, 35.2% and 31.2%, respectively. The genome encodes 129 genes, including 84 protein-coding genes (PCGs, 37 transfer RNA (tRNA genes, and eight ribosomal RNA (rRNA genes. Seventeen genes in the IR regions were found to be duplicated. Thirty-three forward and five inverted repeats were detected in the cp genome of R. chinensis var. spontanea. The genome is rich in SSRs. In total, 85 SSRs were detected. A genome comparison revealed that IR contraction might be the reason for the relatively smaller cp genome size of R. chinensis var. spontanea compared to other congeneric species. Sequence analysis revealed that the LSC and SSC regions were more divergent than the IR regions within the genus Rosa and that a higher divergence occurred in non-coding regions than in coding regions. A phylogenetic analysis showed that the sampled species of the genus Rosa formed a monophyletic clade and that R. chinensis var. spontanea shared a more recent ancestor with R. lichiangensis of the section Synstylae than with R. odorata var. gigantea of the section Chinenses. This information will be useful for the conservation genetics of R. chinensis var. spontanea and for the phylogenetic study of the genus Rosa, and it might also

  4. Radiosensitivity of Various Stages of Callosobruchus Chinensis L; Radiosensibilite du Callosobruchus Chinensis L. aux divers stades de son developpement; Chuvstvitel'nost' k oblucheniyu u razlichnykh stadij Callosobruchus Chinensis L.; Radiosensibilidad de las diversas fases de la metamorfosis del Callosobruchus Chinensis L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayeed Quraishi, M.; Metin, M. [Cento Institute of Nuclear Science, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    1963-09-15

    The effects of irradiation on the eggs, larvae, pupae and adults of Callosobruchus chinensis L., a destructive pest of leguminous seeds, have been studied. Since the entire life-cycle except the egg and adult stages of this insect is passed in the seed itself, control by conventional means is very difficult. Insects were obtained from local grain shops and reared in .an incubator in the laboratory on moong (Phaseolus mungo L.) seeds at a temperature of 29{sup o}C {+-} 1{sup o}C and a humidity of 70-75%. Under these conditions the insect completed its life-cycle in 18-22 d. A 1-c iridium-192 source was used for initial experiments in irradiation. Later this was increased to 4 c. Exposures were made at very close range and the dose-rates were calculated on the basis of a measurement made at 50-cm distance with a Victoreen condenser r-meter. Eggs were irradiated at a distance of 0.5 cm from the source arid larvae, pupae and adults at 1.0 cm from the source, the respective dose-rates being 80 kr/h at 0.5 cm and 20 kr/h at 1 cm for a 4-c source. It was found that a dose of 15 krad gave 100% mortality in the case of eggs. Different doses below this level gave somewhat variable results and it is possible that there is a sensitive stage for a short period during the first 24 hours of development of the eggs. In the case of 8-day-old larvae 100% mortality was obtained with a dose of 20 000 rad. The pupae seem to be less radiosensitive than the eggs or larvae and doses of 47 000 rad were needed to give 100% mortality. Doses of 42 000 rad ''sterilized'' the males and females in the sense that, though mating took place after irradiation, the eggs produced when either of the parents had been irradiated with a dose of 42 000 rad did not hatch. Production of ''sterile'' eggs continued even when either or both parents had been exposed to doses of 67 000 rad - the highest dose tried. (author) [French] On a etudie les effets des rayonnements sur les oeufs, les larves, les pupes et

  5. Phytochemical and biotechnological studies on Schisandra chinensis cultivar Sadova No. 1-a high utility medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szopa, Agnieszka; Klimek-Szczykutowicz, Marta; Kokotkiewicz, Adam; Maślanka, Anna; Król, Agata; Luczkiewicz, Maria; Ekiert, Halina

    2018-06-01

    In the presented work, raw materials (fruits and leaves) and in vitro biomass of a highly productive Schisandra chinensis Sadova No. 1 cultivar (SchS) were evaluated for the production of therapeutically useful schisandra lignans (SL). In vitro cultures of SchS were initiated, followed by extensive optimization studies focused on maximizing secondary metabolite production, with the aim of establishing a sustainable source of SL. Different cultivation systems (agar, agitated, bioreactor), experiment times (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 days) and plant growth regulators (6-benzyladenine-BA and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid-NAA, from 0 to 3 mg/l) in Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium were tested. Moreover, an elicitation procedure was applied to bioreactor-grown microshoots in order to increase SL production. Validated HPLC-DAD protocol enabled to detect fourteen SL in the extracts from in vitro and in vivo materials. The main compounds in the in vitro cultures were as follows: schisandrin (max. 176.3 mg/100 g DW), angeloylgomisin Q (max. 85.1 mg/100 g DW), gomisin A (max. 71.4 mg/100 g DW) and angeloylgomisin H (max. 67.0 mg/100 g DW). The highest total SL content (490.3 mg/100 g DW) was obtained in extracts from the biomass of agar cultures cultivated for 30 days on the MS medium variant containing 3 mg/l BA and 1 mg/l NAA. This amount was 1.32 times lower than in fruit extracts (646.0 mg/100 g DW) and 2.04 times higher than in leaf extracts (240.7 mg/100 g DW). The study demonstrated that SchS is a rich source of SL, thus proving its value for medical, cosmetic and food industry.

  6. Metabolomics study of the therapeutic mechanism of Schisandra Chinensis lignans in diet-induced hyperlipidemia mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing-Hui; Liu, Xu; Cong, Li-Xin; Li, He; Zhang, Cheng-Yi; Chen, Jian-Guang; Wang, Chun-Mei

    2017-08-01

    Schisandra, a globally distributed plant, has been widely applied for the treatment of diseases such as hyperlipidemia, fatty liver and obesity in China. In the present work, a rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with quadruple-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (RRLC-Q-TOF-MS)-based metabolomics was conducted to investigate the intervention effect of Schisandra chinensis lignans (SCL) on hyperlipidemia mice induced by high-fat diet (HFD). Hyperlipidemia mice were orally administered with SCL (100 mg/kg) once a day for 4 weeks. Serum biochemistry assay of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) was conducted to confirm the treatment of SCL on lipid regulation. Metabolomics analysis on serum samples was carried out, and principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were carried out for the pattern recognition and characteristic metabolites identification. The relative levels of critical regulatory factors of liver lipid metabolism, sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) and its related gene expressions were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for investigating the underlying mechanism. Oral administration of SCL significantly decreased the serum levels of TC, TG and LDL-c and increased the serum level of HDL-c in the hyperlipidemia mice, and no effect of SCL on blood lipid levels was observed in control mice. Serum samples were scattered in the PCA scores plots in response to the control, HFD and SCL group. Totally, thirteen biomarkers were identified and nine of them were recovered to the normal levels after SCL treatment. Based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways analysis, the anti-hyperlipidemia mechanisms of SCL may be involved in the following metabolic pathways: tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, synthesis of ketone body and cholesterol

  7. Uji Aktivitas Ekstrak Daun Seledri ( Apium graveolens L. terhadap Kumbang Kacang Callosobruchus chinensis L. (Coleoptera:Bruchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NI NENGAH DARMIATI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Activity Test of Celery Leaf Extract (Apium graveolens L. Against Bean Weevil, Callosobruchus cinensis L. (Coleoptera:Bruchidae The experiment was conducted at the Laboratory of Plant Pest and Disease Management,Department of Agroecotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Udayana University. The purpose of this experiment was to examine the activity of celery leaf extract against bean weevil, Callosobruchus chinensis L. The experiment was Randomized Complete Design, with five treatments of formulation concentration. The activities of celery leaf extract was indicated through i.e. contact poison test, repellent test, and the placement of eggs (oviposition test. The results showed that the celery leaf extract has activity as a contact poison with concentration 75% formulations caused over 50% death of the total insect. The extract with 100% concentration acted as a repellent and anti oviposition as well.

  8. Alginate-encapsulation of shoot tips of jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider] for germplasm exchange and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Rai, Manoj K; Singh, Narender; Mangal, Manisha

    2010-12-01

    Shoot tips excised from in vitro proliferated shoots derived from nodal explants of jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider] were encapsulated in calcium alginate beads for germplasm exchange and distribution. A gelling matrix of 3 % sodium alginate and 100 mM calcium chloride was found most suitable for formation of ideal calcium alginate beads. Best response for shoot sprouting from encapsulated shoot tips was recorded on 0.8 % agar-solidified full-strength MS medium. Rooting was induced upon transfer of sprouted shoots to 0.8 % agar-solidified MS medium containing 1 mg l(-1) IBA. About 70 % of encapsulated shoot tips were rooted and converted into plantlets. Plants regenerated from encapsulated shoot tips were acclimatized successfully. The present encapsulation approach could also be applied as an alternative method of propagation of desirable elite genotype of jojoba.

  9. Occurrence of Escherichia coli in Brassica rapa L. chinensis irrigated with low quality water in urban areas of Morogoro, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mhongole, Ofred J.; Mdegela, Robinson H.; Kusiluka, Lughano J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Low quality water has become valuable resource with restricted or unrestricted use in food production depending on its quality. This study has quantified the occurrence of Escherichia coli in Brassica rapa L. chinensis (Chinese cabbage) vegetables and low quality irrigation water. A total of 106...... samples including Chinese cabbage (69) and water (37) were collected. The E. coli were cultured in petri film selective E. coli plates at 44°C. The Chinese cabbage irrigated with river water at Fungafunga area indicated significantly (P... than those irrigated with treated wastewater at Mazimbu 10% (n=48, 0.00-1.36 log cfu/g). The mean counts of E. coli in untreated wastewater ranged from 4.59 to 5.56 log cfu/mL, while in treated wastewater was from 0.54 to 1.05 log cfu/mL and in river water it was 2.40 log cfu/mL. Treated wastewater...

  10. Dynamic changes in DNA demethylation in the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) brain during postnatal development and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shu; Hua, Hai-Rong; Chen, Qian-Quan; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Fei; Li, Shu-Qing; Li, Fan; Li, Jia-Li

    2017-03-18

    Brain development and aging are associated with alterations in multiple epigenetic systems, including DNA methylation and demethylation patterns. Here, we observed that the levels of the 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) ten-eleven translocation (TET) enzyme-mediated active DNA demethylation products were dynamically changed and involved in postnatal brain development and aging in tree shrews ( Tupaia belangeri chinensis ). The levels of 5hmC in multiple anatomic structures showed a gradual increase throughout postnatal development, whereas a significant decrease in 5hmC was found in several brain regions in aged tree shrews, including in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, but not the cerebellum. Active changes in Tet mRNA levels indicated that TET2 and TET3 predominantly contributed to the changes in 5hmC levels. Our findings provide new insight into the dynamic changes in 5hmC levels in tree shrew brains during postnatal development and aging processes.

  11. Sightings and behavioral observations of Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins Sousa chinensis (Osbeck, 1765 along Chennai coast, Bay of Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Muralidharan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Boat-based surveys were used to investigate the presence of Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins Sousa chinensis along the coast of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Notes were collected on behavior, group size, coloration patterns and group composition on sighting cetaceans during the surveys. Four groups of Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins were sighted near-shore in the month of February 2011, between 10-25 m depth with an average group size of 20 individuals of which 10 individuals were photo-identifiable. Dominant group behavior was aerial display, feeding and traveling. This study gives a basic idea of presence, threats and habitat use of Humpback Dolphin areas along Chennai coast.

  12. Chemical composition and antioxidant activities in immumosuppressed mice of polysaccharides isolated from Mosla chinensis Maxim cv. jiangxiangru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing-En; Nie, Shao-Ping; Xie, Ming-Yong; Huang, Dan-Fei; Wang, Yu-Ting; Li, Chang

    2013-10-01

    Polysaccharide MP was isolated from Mosla chinensis Maxim cv. jiangxiangru. It was composed of rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose in a molar ratio of 5.364:12.260:3.448:12.260:32.567:30.651, with 11.00%±0.24% uronic acid and 9.046%±0.04% protein. Its antioxidant activity on the cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppressed mice was investigated. The spleen and the thymus indices were investigated, and the biochemical parameters were evaluated in three organs (liver, heart and kidney). MP was able to overcome the cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression and can significantly raise the T-AOC, CAT, SOD and GSH-PX level. It also raised the spleen and thymus indices and decreased the MDA level in mice. MP could play an important role during the prevention process of oxidative damage in immunological system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Chemical Analysis and Biological Activity of the Essential Oils of Two Valerianaceous Species from China: Nardostachys chinensis and Valeriana officinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianglin Zhao

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate essential oils with biological activity from local wild plants, two valerianaceous species, Nardostachys chinensis and Valeriana officinalis, were screened for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. The essential oils were obtained from the roots and rhizomes of the two plants by hydro-distillation, and were analyzed for their chemical composition by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Calarene (25.31%, aristolone (13.35%, α-selinene (7.32% and β-maaliene (6.70% were the major compounds of the 23 identified components which accounted for 92.76% of the total oil of N. chinensis. Patchoulol (16.75%, α-pinene (14.81%, and β-humulene (8.19% were the major compounds among the 20 identified components, which accounted for 88.11% of the total oil of V. officinalis. Both oils were rich in sesquiterpene hydrocarbons as well as their oxygenated derivatives. Essential oils were shown to have broad spectrum antibacterial activity with MIC values that ranged from 62.5 μg/mL to 400 μg/mL, and IC50 values from 36.93 μg/mL to 374.72 μg/mL. The oils were also shown to have moderate antifungal activity to Candida albicans growth as well as inhibition of spore germination of Magnaporthe oryzae. Two essential oils were assessed by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching and ferrozine-ferrous ions assays, respectively, to show moderate antioxidant activity. Results suggest that the isolated essential oils could be used for future development of antimicrobial and antioxidant agents.

  14. Influence of white spot syndrome virus infection on hepatopancreas gene expression of `Huanghai No. 2' shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xianhong; Shi, Xiaoli; Kong, Jie; Luan, Sheng; Luo, Kun; Cao, Baoxiang; Liu, Ning; Lu, Xia; Li, Xupeng; Deng, Kangyu; Cao, Jiawang; Zhang, Yingxue; Zhang, Hengheng

    2017-10-01

    To elucidate the molecular response of shrimp hepatopancreas to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection, microarray was applied to investigate the differentially expressed genes in the hepatopancreas of `Huanghai No. 2' ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis). A total of 59137 unigenes were designed onto a custom-made 60K Agilent chip. After infection, the gene expression profiles in the hepatopancreas of the shrimp with a lower viral load at early (48-96 h), peak (168-192 h) and late (264-288 h) infection phases were analyzed. Of 18704 differentially expressed genes, 6412 were annotated. In total, 5453 differentially expressed genes (1916 annotated) expressed at all three phases, and most of the annotated were either up- or down-regulated continuously. These genes function diversely in, for example, immune response, cytoskeletal system, signal transduction, stress resistance, protein synthesis and processing, metabolism among others. Some of the immune-related genes, including antilipopolysaccharide factor, Kazal-type proteinase inhibitor, C-type lectin and serine protease encoding genes, were up-regulated after WSSV infection. These genes have been reported to be involved in the anti-WSSV responses. The expression of genes related to the cytoskeletal system, including β-actin and myosin but without tubulin genes, were down-regulated after WSSV infection. Astakine was found for the first time in the WSSV-infected F. chinensis. To further confirm the expression of differentially expressed genes, quantitative real-time PCR was performed to test the expression of eight randomly selected genes and verified the reliability and accuracy of the microarray expression analysis. The data will provide valuable information to understanding the immune mechanism of shrimp's response to WSSV.

  15. Biological Control Against the Cowpea Weevil (Callosobruchus Chinensis L., Coleoptera: Bruchidae Using Essential Oils of Some Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatiha Righi Assia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. is a valuable foodstuff but unfortunately this legume is prone to insect attacks from the chick pea weevil (Callosobruchus chinensis L.. This serious pest damages the chickpea and causes decreases in the yield and in the nutritional quality. Biological control is being used to deal with this problem. We tried different doses of the essential oils of three new medicinal plants, namely Salvia verbenaca L., Scilla maritima L., and Artemisia herba-alba Asso to limit the damage of the chick pea weevil pest, and to protect consumer’s health. To determine the effect and efficiency of the oil, the tests were conducted using the different biological parameters of fertility, longevity, and fecundity, under controlled temperature and relative humidity (28°C and 75%. The effectiveness of organic oils was demonstrated. We tested these oils on the germination of seeds. The obtained results showed that the tested plant oils have a real organic insecticide effect. The essential oil of Artemisia proved most effective as a biocide; achieving a mortality rate of 100%. A significant reduction in longevity was observed under the effect of 30 μl of S. maritima (1.3 days and S. verbenaca (2.8, 4.6 days, respectively, for males and females compared to 8 and 15 days for the control. For fecundity, an inhibition of oviposition was obtained using 30 μl of Salvia and Scilla essential oils. The test on the seed germination using different essential oils, showed no damage to the germinating seeds. The germination rate was 99%. These findings suggest that the tested plants can be used as a bioinsecticide for control of the C. chinensis pest of stored products.

  16. Sterol content in the artificial diet of Mythimna separata affects the metabolomics of Arma chinensis (Fallou) as determined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yi; Liu, Chen-Xi; Zhang, Li-Sheng; Wang, Meng-Qing; Chen, Hong-Yin

    2017-12-01

    Insects cannot synthesize sterols and must obtain them from plants. Therefore, reducing plant sterol content or changing sterol type might be an effective pest control strategy. However, the impacts of these changes on pests' natural predators remain unknown. Here, we fed artificial diets with reduced sterol content to Mythimna separata (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and investigated the effects on its natural predator, Arma chinensis (Fallou) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Reduced sterol content in M. separata (MS1, MS2, and MS5) was achieved by feeding them artificial diets prepared from a feed base subjected to one, two, or five cycles of sterol extractions, respectively. The content of most substances increased in A. chinensis (AC) groups feeding on MS2 and MS5. The content of eight substances (alanine, betaine, dimethylamine, fumarate, glutamine, glycine, methylamine, and sarcosine) differed significantly between the control (AC0) and treated (AC1, AC2, and AC5) groups. Metabolic profiling revealed that only AC5 was significantly distinct from AC0; the major substances contributing to this difference were maltose, glucose, tyrosine, proline, O-phosphocholine, glutamine, allantoin, lysine, valine, and glutamate. Furthermore, only two metabolic pathways, that is, nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism and ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis, differed significantly between AC1 and AC5 and the control, albeit with an impact value of zero. Thus, the sterol content in the artificial diet fed to M. separata only minimally affected the metabolites and metabolic pathways of its predator A. chinensis, suggesting that A. chinensis has good metabolic self-regulation with high resistance to sterol content changes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Evaluation of acute toxicity of essential oil of garlic (Allium sativum) and its selected major constituent compounds against overwintering Cacopsylla chinensis (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Na Na; Zhang, Hang; Zhang, Xue Chang; Luan, Xiao Bing; Zhou, Cheng; Liu, Qi Zhi; Shi, Wang Peng; Liu, Zhi Long

    2013-06-01

    In our screening program for insecticidal activity of the essential oils/extracts derived from some Chinese medicinal herbs and spices, garlic (Allium sativum L.) essential oil was found to possess strong insecticidal activity against overwintering adults of Cacopsylla chinensis Yang et Li (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). The commercial essential oil of A. sativum was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Sixteen compounds, accounting for 97.44% of the total oil, were identified, and the main components of the essential oil of A. sativum were diallyl trisulfide (50.43%), diallyl disulfide (25.30%), diallyl sulfide (6.25%), diallyl tetrasulfide (4.03%), 1,2-dithiolane (3.12%), allyl methyl disulfide (3.07%), 1,3-dithiane (2.12%), and allyl methyl trisulfide (2.08%). The essential oil of A. sativum possessed contact toxicity against overwintering C. chinensis, with an LC50 value of 1.42 microg per adult. The two main constituent compounds, diallyl trisulfide and diallyl disulfide, exhibited strong acute toxicity against the overwintering C. chinensis, with LC50 values of 0.64 and 11.04 /g per adult, respectively.

  18. Pulsatilla saponin A, an active molecule from Pulsatilla chinensis, induces cancer cell death and inhibits tumor growth in mouse xenograft models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Chen, Weichang; Jiao, Yang; Hou, Jianquan; Wu, Qingyu; Liu, Yanli; Qi, Xiaofei

    2014-05-15

    Many natural compounds possess antitumor growth activities. Pulsatilla chinensis is an herb used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat infectious diseases. More recently, extracts from P chinensis have been shown to contain antitumor activities. In this study, we isolated Pulsatilla saponin A as an active compound from P chinensis extracts and tested its anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo. In cell culture, Pulsatilla saponin A significantly inhibited the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma SMCC-7721 cells and pancreatic BXPC3 and SW1990 cancer cells. Similar inhibitory activities were observed when the compound was tested in mouse xenograft tumor models using human hepatocellular carcinoma Bel-7402 and pancreatic cancer SW1990 cells. In Comet assay and flow cytometric analysis of cell cycle distribution and annexin V expression, DNA damage, G2 arrest, and apoptosis were identified in Pulsatilla saponin A-treated cancer cells. Based on the results of Western blotting, p53 and cyclin B protein levels were higher, whereas Bcl-2 protein levels were lower in Pulsatilla saponin A-treated cancer cells than in vehicle-treated cells. Pulsatilla saponin A may exert its antitumor effect by inducing DNA damage and causing G2 arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells. Pulsatilla saponin A and its derivatives may be developed as a new class of anticancer agents. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Re-assessment of the Conservation Status of the Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin (Sousa chinensis) Using the IUCN Red List Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Thomas A; Smith, Brian D

    2016-01-01

    The IUCN Red List designation of the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) is re-assessed in light of its newly recognized taxonomic status (it has recently been separated into three species) and findings that humpback dolphins along the coast of Bangladesh, and possibly eastern India, are phylogenetically distinct from other members of the Sousa genus. Sousa chinensis is found in Southeast/South Asia (in both the Indian and Pacific oceans), from at least the southeastern Bay of Bengal east to central China, and then south to the Indo-Malay Archipelago. There are no global population estimates, and the sum of available abundance estimates add up to about 5700 individuals, although only a portion of the range has been covered by surveys. This species occurs in shallow (Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins to stop apparent declines, and to lower the species' extinction risk. Sousa chinensis meets the IUCN Red List requirements for Vulnerable (under criteria A4cd), with fisheries bycatch and habitat loss/degradation being the main pervasive threats. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of Cuscuta chinensis seeds׳ effect on melanogenesis: comparison of water and ethanol fractions in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian-Jing; An, Jing; Chen, Xiao-Hui; Deng, Qiu-Di; Yang, Liu

    2014-05-28

    Cuscuta chinensis seeds have traditionally been used to treat freckles and melasma in Asia, although recent reports have revealed that Semen cuscutae is a promoter of melanogenesis. The present study aims to investigate the mechanism of this opposite effect of Semen cuscutae on melanogenesis. In accordance with traditional usage, the water fraction and the ethanol fraction from Semen cuscutae (WFSC/EFSC) were extracted to determine the herbal effects by examining the activity of mushroom tyrosinase, cellular melanin contents, tyrosinase activity assay, quantitative-reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and Western blot analysis for tyrosinase in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. The melanocyte phenotypes of zebrafish larvae were observed while the in vivo melanin contents and tyrosinase activity were determined. The activity of mushroom tyrosinase assay shown that WFSC was an uncompetitive inhibitor of mushroom tyrosinase, while EFSC indicated dose-dependent activation of the mushroom tyrosinase activity. The WFSC markedly inhibited 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX)-stimulated melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in vitro. Howeveran accelerant role in melanin synthesis and tyosinase activity. Neither fraction had any effect on the IBMX-induced expression of tyrosinase protein or mRNA. The WFSC strongly inhibited melanin synthesis and cellular tyrosinase activity in vivo. Furthermore, with the function of WFSC at a higher concentration, a punctate melanocyte pattern appeared that was similar to the pattern induced by arbutin or Mequinol (MQ). The EFSC had no effect on the melanocytes of zebrafish larvae. It was discovered that WFSC did not show a stable inhibitory effect until it was extracted 1 month later. These results suggest that the opposite effects of Cuscuta chinensis seeds were caused by the extraction methods and that time has an important role on the effect of WFSC. Both WFSC and EFSC significantly influence melanogenesis by

  1. Identification and characterization of toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dandan; Wu, Yong; Xu, Ling; Fan, Yu; Peng, Li; Xu, Min; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2016-07-01

    In mammals, the toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a major role in initiating innate immune responses against pathogens. Comparison of the TLRs in different mammals may help in understanding the TLR-mediated responses and developing of animal models and efficient therapeutic measures for infectious diseases. The Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis), a small mammal with a close relationship to primates, is a viable experimental animal for studying viral and bacterial infections. In this study, we characterized the TLRs genes (tTLRs) in the Chinese tree shrew and identified 13 putative TLRs, which are orthologs of mammalian TLR1-TLR9 and TLR11-TLR13, and TLR10 was a pseudogene in tree shrew. Positive selection analyses using the Maximum likelihood (ML) method showed that tTLR8 and tTLR9 were under positive selection, which might be associated with the adaptation to the pathogen challenge. The mRNA expression levels of tTLRs presented an overall low and tissue-specific pattern, and were significantly upregulated upon Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. tTLR4 and tTLR9 underwent alternative splicing, which leads to different transcripts. Phylogenetic analysis and TLR structure prediction indicated that tTLRs were evolutionarily conserved, which might reflect an ancient mechanism and structure in the innate immune response system. Taken together, TLRs had both conserved and unique features in the Chinese tree shrew. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Inhibition mechanism of compound ethanol extracts from wuweizi (fructus schisandrae chinensis) on renal interstitial fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy model mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanqiu; Zhang, Daning; Zhang, Mianzhi

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate inhibition effect and mechanism of compound ethanol extracts from Wuweizi (Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis), Chuanxiong (Rhizoma Chuanxiong) and Muli (Cocha Ostreae) (FRC) on glomerular and tubular interstitial fibrosis in streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic nephropathy (ND) model mice. Twenty-seven male C57BL/6 mice were divided randomly into 3 groups: nondibetic (ND), STZ-induced diabetic (D), and STZ-induced diabetic that were treated with 5 g x kg(-1) x day(-1) of FRC by oral gavage (D(FRC)), with 9 in each group. The protein expressions of E-cadherin, alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAL-1) in renal tissues were investigated by Western blotting. The expressions of fibronectin (FN) and alpha-SMA were detected by immunohistochemical method. The morphological changes of renal tissues were observed under a microscope. Renal tissues in the D(FRC) group showed a lessened degree of fibrosis. Meanwhile, the expressions of FN, alpha-SMA and PAI-1 were significantly lower in the D(FRC) group than those in the D group (all P < 0.05). FRC can ameliorate the DN in the C57BL/6 mice, and its mechanism may relate to inhibition on the epithelial to mesenchymal transdifferentiation, endothelial-myofibroblast transition and PAL-1 expression.

  3. Schizandrin, an Antioxidant Lignan from Schisandra chinensis, Ameliorates Aβ1–42-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Hu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we examined the effect of schisandrin (SCH of Schisandra chinensis on the amyloid-beta1–42- (Aβ1–42- induced memory impairment in mice and elucidated the possible antioxidative mechanism. Mice were intracerebroventricular (i.c.v. injected with the aggregated Aβ1–42 and then treated with SCH (4, 12, and 36 mg/kg body weight or donepezil (DPZ, a reference drug (0.65 mg/kg by intragastric infusion for 14 days. Noncognitive disturbances and cognitive performance were evaluated by locomotor activity test, Y-maze test, and water maze test. Antioxidative enzyme activities including superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA, glutathione (GSH, and oxidized glutathione (GSSG within the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of mice were measured to elucidate the mechanism. Our results showed that SCH significantly improved Aβ1–42-induced short-term and spatial reference memory impairments in Y-maze test and water maze test. Furthermore, in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of mice, SOD and GSH-px activities, GSH level, and GSH/GSSG ratio were increased, and levels of MDA and GSSG were decreased by the treatment of SCH. These results suggest that SCH is a potential cognitive enhancer against Alzheimer’s disease through antioxidative action.

  4. Hepatoprotective Activity of Herbal Composition SAL, a Standardize Blend Comprised of Schisandra chinensis, Artemisia capillaris, and Aloe barbadensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesfin Yimam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Some botanicals have been reported to possess antioxidative activities acting as scavengers of free radicals rendering their usage in herbal medicine. Here we describe the potential use of “SAL,” a standardized blend comprised of three extracts from Schisandra chinensis, Artemisia capillaris, and Aloe barbadensis, in mitigating chemically induced acute liver toxicities. Acetaminophen and carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver toxicity models in mice were utilized. Hepatic functional tests from serum collected at T24 and hepatic glutathione and superoxide dismutases from liver homogenates were evaluated. Histopathology analysis and merit of blending 3 standardized extracts were also confirmed. Statistically significant and dose-correlated inhibitions in serum ALT ranging from 52.5% (p=0.004 to 34.6% (p=0.05 in the APAP and 46.3% (p<0.001 to 29.9% (p=0.02 in the CCl4 models were observed for SAL administered at doses of 400–250 mg/kg. Moreover, SAL resulted in up to 60.6% and 80.2% reductions in serums AST and bile acid, respectively. The composition replenished depleted hepatic glutathione in association with an increase of hepatic superoxide dismutase. Unexpected synergistic protection from liver damage was also observed. Therefore, the composition SAL could be potentially utilized as an effective hepatic-detoxification agent for the protection from liver damage.

  5. Nitrogen and phosphorus budget of a polyculture system of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus), jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculenta) and shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junwei; Dong, Shuanglin; Gao, Qinfeng; Zhu, Changbo

    2014-06-01

    The nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) budget and the ecological efficiency of a polyculture system of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus), jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculenta) and shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis) were studied in a cofferdam, 120.2 ha in size. The nutrients were supplied by spring tide inflow. In total, 139600 kg N yr-1 and 9730 kg P yr-1 input to the system; while 118900 kg N yr-1 and 2840 kg P yr-1 outflowed from the system concurrently, thus the outflow was 85.7% (N) and 29.2% (P) of inflow. The production of N and P was 889.5 kg yr-1 and 49.28 kg yr-1 (sea cucumber) and 204 kg yr-1 and 18.03 kg yr-1 (jellyfish and shrimp), respectively. The utilization rate of N and P by polycultured animals was 7.8‰ and 6.9‰, respectively, 21.9% and 38% higher than that of monocultured sea cucumber. Our results indicated that the polyculture system was an efficient culture system of animals and a remediation system of coastal environment as well; it scavenged 14.3% and 70.8% of N and P, respectively. Such an ecological efficiency may be improved further by increasing either the stocking density or the size of sea cucumber or both.

  6. Ameliorative effects of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF) from Schisandra chinensis on alcoholic liver oxidative injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Qu, Xin-Nan; Han, Ye; Zheng, Si-Wen; Wang, Jia; Wang, Ying-Ping

    2015-01-22

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the protective effect of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF) on acute alcohol-induced liver oxidative injury in mice. 5-HMF, a maillard reaction product, was isolated from the fruits of Schisandra chinensis for animal experiments. Experimental ICR mice were pretreated with different doses of 5-HMF (7.5, 15, and 30 mg/kg) for seven days by gavage feeding. Biochemical markers and enzymatic antioxidants from serum and liver tissue were examined. Our results showed that the activities of ALT (alanine aminotransferase), AST (aspartate transaminase), TC (total cholesterol), TG (triglyceride), L-DLC (low density lipoprotein) in serum and the levels of MDA (malondialdehyde) in liver tissue, decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in the 5-HMF-treated group compared with the alcohol group. On the contrary, enzymatic antioxidants CAT (catalase), GSH-Px (glutathione peroxidase), and GSH SOD (superoxide dismutase) were markedly elevated in liver tissue treated with 5-HMF (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the hepatic levels of pro-inflammatory response marker tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were significantly suppressed (p < 0.05). Histopathological examination revealed that 5-HMF (30 mg/kg) pretreatment noticeably prevented alcohol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and fatty degeneration. It is suggested that the hepatoprotective effects exhibited by 5-HMF on alcohol-induced liver oxidative injury may be due to its potent antioxidant properties.

  7. Salinicola tamaricis sp. nov., a heavy-metal-tolerant, endophytic bacterium isolated from the halophyte Tamarix chinensis Lour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guo-Yan; Zhao, Li-Ya; Xia, Zhi-Jie; Zhu, Jin-Lei; Liu, Di; Liu, Chun-Yue; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; Zhang, Xi-Ying; Dai, Mei-Xue

    2017-06-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped bacterium, strain F01T, was isolated from leaves of Tamarix chinensis Lour. The isolate grew optimally at 30 °C, at pH 7.0 and with 5.0 % (w/v) NaCl, and showed a high tolerance to manganese, lead, nickel, ferrous ions and copper ions. The major fatty acids were C18 : 1ω7c and C16 : 0, and the predominant respiratory quinone was Q-9. Polar lipids were dominated by diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, unidentified aminoglycolipids and phospholipids. The DNA G+C content was 65.8 %. Based on multilocus phylogenetic analysis, strain F01T belonged to the genus Salinicola, with highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Salinicola peritrichatus CGMCC 1.12381T (97.7 %). The level of DNA-DNA hybridization between strain F01T and closely related Salinicola strains was well below 70 %. According to the phenotypic, genetic and chemotaxonomic data, strain F01T is considered to represent a novel species in the genus Salinicola, for which the name Salinicola tamaricis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is F01T (=CCTCC AB 2015304T=KCTC 42855T).

  8. Process Optimization of Pontianak Aloe vera Powder (Aloe chinensis Beakker as Raw Material for Hand body lotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Supriyatna

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Process optimization of Pontianak aloe vera powder (Aloe chinensis Beaker  as raw material for hand body lotion have been conducted on laboratory scale with the aim of obtaining the optimum conditions of processing technologies through the addition of maltodextrin and Carboxy Methyl Cellulase. The optimum results achieved at the ratio of maltodextrin to the CMC by 90%: 10%. Characteristics of aloe vera powder produced showing yellowish white color, water content of 8:56%, 5:50 pH, total solid Aloe 25.5%, weight flour ratio and fresh aloe vera leaves 1.5: 100, aloin content of 164.40 ppm, 257.08 ppm malic acid content, 10.32 ppm vitamin E and 1.4 x 105 colonies/g total bacteria. Making hand body lotion of aloe vera powder optimization results show the characteristic white color with a fragrant aroma, acidity (pH 7:07, 10.34 ppm of malic acid, 1.1 x 104 colony/g total bacteria, and quite stable while storage.

  9. Reflections on oil crops as sources of energy. I - jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis), a lubricant of the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, G.

    1983-06-01

    It is only in the last few years that public interest has been awakened in a modest oil-yielding shrub of the desert regions of California, Arizona (USA) and Mexico: jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis). This interest would seem to be justified in view of the qualities of the oil, which is altogether similar to sperm whale oil, and the possibilities it offers, notably as a lubricant. Naturally, as it is a rare product and its domestication has barely started, it has a fabulous market value (it reaches US $200/gal in 1981), but this will drop rapidly once development programmes get under way (already in 1983 the oil was to be found at US $ 50/55 gal). One-track research would be unprofitable. This drought-resistant shrub does not offer efficiency against desertification nor as an ally in the reclamation of climatically underprivileged, depopulated regions. This article makes an approach to a strategy and gives a broad outline for a programme. (Refs. 19).

  10. Spatiotemporal Trends of Heavy Metals in Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins (Sousa chinensis) from the Western Pearl River Estuary, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Duan; Yu, Ri-Qing; Karczmarski, Leszek; Ding, Yulong; Zhang, Haifei; Sun, Yong; Zhang, Mei; Wu, Yuping

    2017-02-07

    We assessed the spatiotemporal trends of the concentrations of 11 heavy metals (HMs) in the liver and kidney of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) from western Pearl River Estuary (PRE) during 2004-2015. The hepatic levels of Cr, As, and Cu in these dolphins were among the highest reported for cetaceans globally, and the levels of Zn, Cu, and Hg were sufficiently high to cause toxicological effects in some of the animals. Between same age-sex groups, dolphins from Lingdingyang were significantly more contaminated with Hg, Se, and V than those from the West-four region, while the opposite was true for Cd. Generalized additive mixed models showed that most metals had significant but dissimilar temporal trends over a 10-year period. The concentrations of Cu and Zn increased significantly in recent years, corresponding to the high input of these metals in the region. Body-length-adjusted Cd levels peaked in 2012, accompanied by the highest annual number of dolphin stranding events. In contrast to the significant decrease in HM levels in the dolphins in Hong Kong waters (the eastern reaches of the PRE), the elevated metal exposure in the western PRE raises serious concerns.

  11. Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in Hong Kong: Modelling demographic parameters with mark-recapture techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Stephen C Y; Karczmarski, Leszek

    2017-01-01

    Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) inhabiting Hong Kong waters are thought to be among the world's most anthropogenically impacted coastal delphinids. We have conducted a 5-year (2010-2014) photo-ID study and performed the first in this region comprehensive mark-recapture analysis applying a suite of open population models and robust design models. Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) models suggested a significant transient effect and seasonal variation in apparent survival probabilities as result of a fluid movement beyond the study area. Given the spatial restrictions of our study, limited by an administrative border, if emigration was to be considered negligible the estimated survival rate of adults was 0.980. Super-population estimates indicated that at least 368 dolphins used Hong Kong waters as part of their range. Closed robust design models suggested an influx of dolphins from winter to summer and increased site fidelity in summer; and outflux, although less prominent, during summer-winter intervals. Abundance estimates in summer (N = 144-231) were higher than that in winter (N = 87-111), corresponding to the availability of prey resources which in Hong Kong waters peaks during summer months. We point out that the current population monitoring strategy used by the Hong Kong authorities is ill-suited for a timely detection of a population change and should be revised.

  12. Conservation Status of the Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in the Northern Beibu Gulf, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingyao; Xu, Xinrong; Jefferson, Thomas A; Olson, Paula A; Qin, Qiurong; Zhang, Hongke; He, Liwen; Yang, Guang

    2016-01-01

    There has been very little previous research on Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in the Beibu Gulf of southern China. Here, we report on the population size, habitat and ecology, threats, and overall conservation status of this putative population. 'Population size' was estimated based on photo-identification mark/recapture analysis. It was estimated to number a total of 398-444 individuals (95% CI: 393-506), with two apparently distinct groups in the Dafengjiang-Nanliujiang Estuary and at Shatian-Caotan. Movements of dolphins in the Beibu Gulf appear to be limited, with high site fidelity. These dolphins were found to occur mainly in shallow coastal waters near estuaries. The main threats are fisheries interactions (including by-catch), vessel traffic, mariculture operations, dolphin-watching tourism, and habitat degradation (including marine construction activities and large-scale land reclamation). Although the conservation status of this putative population has been considered to be better than that of other populations of the species in more northern areas of China, there is still reason for strong concern about its future, and several management recommendations are made. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis in Hong Kong: Modelling demographic parameters with mark-recapture techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen C Y Chan

    Full Text Available Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis inhabiting Hong Kong waters are thought to be among the world's most anthropogenically impacted coastal delphinids. We have conducted a 5-year (2010-2014 photo-ID study and performed the first in this region comprehensive mark-recapture analysis applying a suite of open population models and robust design models. Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS models suggested a significant transient effect and seasonal variation in apparent survival probabilities as result of a fluid movement beyond the study area. Given the spatial restrictions of our study, limited by an administrative border, if emigration was to be considered negligible the estimated survival rate of adults was 0.980. Super-population estimates indicated that at least 368 dolphins used Hong Kong waters as part of their range. Closed robust design models suggested an influx of dolphins from winter to summer and increased site fidelity in summer; and outflux, although less prominent, during summer-winter intervals. Abundance estimates in summer (N = 144-231 were higher than that in winter (N = 87-111, corresponding to the availability of prey resources which in Hong Kong waters peaks during summer months. We point out that the current population monitoring strategy used by the Hong Kong authorities is ill-suited for a timely detection of a population change and should be revised.

  14. Comparison of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) whistles from two areas of western Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jordan M; Ponnampalam, Louisa S; Araújo, Claryana C; Wang, John Y; Kuit, Sui Hyang; Hung, Samuel K

    2015-11-01

    Differences in the acoustic variables of whistles emitted by Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) from two coastal locations along western Peninsular Malaysia were investigated. Duration, frequency, and frequency modulation variables were extracted from and used to characterize recordings of free-ranging humpback dolphins that were made using a broadband towed hydrophone. A total of 960 whistles from Matang Mangroves and 823 whistles from Langkawi Island were used in analyses. The whistles of Malaysian humpback dolphins covered frequencies from 1231 to 27 120 Hz with durations from 0.010-1.575 s. Significant multivariate differences were found in whistles emitted between locations. Significant differences were also found between dolphins of the two locations in their whistle duration, frequency modulation, and all frequency variables except for minimum frequency, which is likely under morphological constraints. The differences in whistles may be related to adaptations to the local acoustic habitat or unique whistles may have developed due to social interactions within each location, or broader scale differences resulting from geographic separation between the locations.

  15. Promoting effects of a single Rhodopseudomonas palustris inoculant on plant growth by Brassica rapa chinensis under low fertilizer input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wai-Tak; Tseng, Ching-Han; Hsu, Shu-Hua; Lur, Huu-Sheng; Mo, Chia-Wei; Huang, Chu-Ning; Hsu, Shu-Chiung; Lee, Kung-Ta; Liu, Chi-Te

    2014-09-17

    Several Rhodopseudomonas palustris strains have been isolated from rice paddy fields in Taiwan by combining the Winogradsky column method and molecular marker detection. These isolates were initially screened by employing seed germination and seedling vigor assays to evaluate their potential as inoculants. To fulfill the demand in the present farming system for reducing the application of chemical fertilizers, we assessed the plant growth-promoting effects of the R. palustris YSC3, YSC4, and PS3 inoculants on Brassica rapa chinensis (Chinese cabbage) cultivated under a half quantity of fertilizer. The results obtained showed that supplementation with approximately 4.0×10(6) CFU g(-1) soil of the PS3 inoculant at half the amount of fertilizer consistently produced the same plant growth potential as 100% fertility, and also increased the nitrogen use efficiency of the applied fertilizer nutrients. Furthermore, we noted that the plant growth-promotion rate elicited by PS3 was markedly higher with old seeds than with new seeds, suggesting it has the potential to boost the development of seedlings that were germinated from carry-over seeds of poor quality. These beneficial traits suggest that the PS3 isolate may serve as a potential PGPR inoculant for integrated nutrient management in agriculture.

  16. Inhibitory effects and related molecular mechanisms of total flavonoids in Mosla chinensis Maxim against H1N1 influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Xia; Wu, Qiao-Feng; Yan, Yun-Liang; Zhang, Feng-Ling

    2018-02-01

    The Shixiangru (Mosla chinensis Maxim) total flavonoids (STF) mainly contain luteolin and apigenin. The study aims to examine the inhibitory effects of STF on anti-H1N1 influenza virus and its related molecular mechanisms in pneumonia mice. The viral pneumonia mice were treated with Ribavirin or various doses of STF. We observed histological changes of lung by immunohistochemistry and measured lung index to value anti-influenza virus effects of STF. The concentrations of inflammatory cytokines and anti-oxidant factors were detected by ELISA. RT-PCR and western blot assays were used to determine the expression level of TLR pathway's key genes and proteins in lung tissues. We found that the pathological changes of lung in the viral pneumonia mice obviously alleviated by STF treatments and the STF (288 or 576 mg/kg) could significantly decrease lung indices. Moreover, the up-regulation (IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and NO) and down-regulation (IL-2, SOD and GSH) of inflammatory cytokines and anti-oxidant factors were associated with higher clearance of virus and reduction of inflammatory lung tissue damage. Meanwhile, the expression levels of TLR3, TLR7, MyD88, TRAF3 and NF-κB p65 of the TLR pathway were reduced by STF treatment. This study suggested that STF may be a promising candidate for treating H1N1 influenza and subsequent viral pneumonia.

  17. Two rare species of tylenchids, Discotylenchus biannulatus n. sp. and Labrys chinensis Qing Bert, 2018 (Nematoda: Tylenchidae) from western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konani, Ehsan; Panahandeh, Yousef; Pourjam, Ebrahim; Álvarez-Ortega, Sergio; Pedram, Majid

    2018-04-23

    Two rare species of the family Tylenchidae are described and illustrated based on morphological and morphometric characters. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies provided details of anterior end structures, helpful in generic identification of the studied populations. Discotylenchus biannulatus n. sp. is characterized by its dorso-ventrally flattened smooth cephalic region having two proximal annuli and a rectangular perioral disc, short longitudinal amphidial slits, lateral field with four incisures, stylet 9-10 μm long, with the conus shorter than half the total stylet length and with posteriorly directed knobs, well-developed median bulb, mono-prodelphic reproductive system with rounded empty spermatheca and short postvulval uterine sac (PUS), and filiform tail with pointed end. It is compared with other species of Discotylenchus having four lines in the lateral field. The Iranian population of Labrys chinensis is characterized by its long and slender (a = 45.2-57.2) body, smooth rounded cephalic region and an offset disc-like apical labial plate, short longitudinal lateral amphidial slits, lateral field with two incisures, moderately developed stylet with the conus less than half the total length and posteriorly directed knobs, median bulb fusiform with distinct but weak valve, gradually joining the isthmus, vulva at 57.2-59.1% with small flaps, elongate conoid tail, uniformly and slightly narrowing toward end with broadly rounded terminus and rare males. The minor morphological differences of the recovered population with the type population are discussed.

  18. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus inoculation reduces the drought-resistance advantage of endophyte-infected versus endophyte-free Leymus chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Chen, Wei; Wu, Man; Wu, Rihan; Zhou, Yong; Gao, Yubao; Ren, Anzhi

    2017-11-01

    Grasses can be infected simultaneously by endophytic fungi and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that endophyte-associated drought resistance of a native grass was affected by an AM fungus. In a greenhouse experiment, we compared the performance of endophyte-infected (EI) and endophyte-free (EF) Leymus chinensis, a dominant species native to the Inner Mongolia steppe, under altered water and AM fungus availability. The results showed that endophyte infection significantly increased drought resistance of the host grass, but the beneficial effects were reduced by AM fungus inoculation. In the mycorrhizal-non-inoculated (MF) treatment, EI plants accumulated significantly more biomass, had greater proline and total phenolic concentration, and lower malondialdehyde concentration than EF plants. In the mycorrhizal-inoculation (MI) treatment, however, no significant difference occurred in either growth or physiological characters measured between EI and EF plants. AM fungus inoculation enhanced drought resistance of EF plants but had no significant effect on drought resistance of EI plants, thus AM fungus inoculation reduced the difference between EI and EF plants. Our findings highlight the importance of interactions among multiple microorganisms for plant performance under drought stress.

  19. Assessment of Lupin Induced Mutants for Quality Traits and Susceptibility to Callosbruchus chinensis and Heliothis armigera insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragab, A.I.; Boshra, S.A.; Mehany, A.L.; Darwish, A.A.; Kharrab, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess 23 induced mutants and two parental varieties Giza1 and Giza2 in the three generations (M3, M4, and M5) for seed quality traits, and susceptibility to two insects i.e C. chinnensis and H.armigera. The obtained results exhibited highly significant decrease for alkaloid content of mutants 20 and 23 as compared with the two local varieties. Most of mutants and Giza 2 showed marked increase for protein content as compared with Giza1, however, the increase did not reach the level of significance for the most mutants as compared with Giza2 in the three generations. Except of M4 generation. marked resistance for infestations with C.chinensis and H.armigera was obtained for mutants 1, 5 and 11 in the three generations. However, for total infestation with the two insects, resistance was obtained in mutants 4 and 10. Except of mutant lines 1, 5 and 11, all mutants showed higher loss percentage than that of the local varieties

  20. Ameliorative Effects of 5-Hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF from Schisandra chinensis on Alcoholic Liver Oxidative Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate the protective effect of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF on acute alcohol-induced liver oxidative injury in mice. 5-HMF, a maillard reaction product, was isolated from the fruits of Schisandra chinensis for animal experiments. Experimental ICR mice were pretreated with different doses of 5-HMF (7.5, 15, and 30 mg/kg for seven days by gavage feeding. Biochemical markers and enzymatic antioxidants from serum and liver tissue were examined. Our results showed that the activities of ALT (alanine aminotransferase, AST (aspartate transaminase, TC (total cholesterol, TG (triglyceride, L-DLC (low density lipoprotein in serum and the levels of MDA (malondialdehyde in liver tissue, decreased significantly (p < 0.05 in the 5-HMF-treated group compared with the alcohol group. On the contrary, enzymatic antioxidants CAT (catalase, GSH-Px (glutathione peroxidase, and GSH SOD (superoxide dismutase were markedly elevated in liver tissue treated with 5-HMF (p < 0.05. Furthermore, the hepatic levels of pro-inflammatory response marker tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and interleukin-1β (IL-1β were significantly suppressed (p < 0.05. Histopathological examination revealed that 5-HMF (30 mg/kg pretreatment noticeably prevented alcohol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and fatty degeneration. It is suggested that the hepatoprotective effects exhibited by 5-HMF on alcohol-induced liver oxidative injury may be due to its potent antioxidant properties.

  1. Comparative proteomics and expression analysis of five genes in Epicauta chinensis larvae from the first to fifth instar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiurong Li

    Full Text Available Blister beetle is an important insect model for both medicinal and pure research. Previous research has mainly focused on its biology and biochemistry, but very little data is yet available in the molecular biology. This study uses differential proteomics technology to analyze the soluble proteins extracted from each of the 5 instars larvae of Epicauta chinensis. 42 of the differentially-expressed proteins were identified successfully by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. Some of these proteins' function and their expression profiles are analyzed. Our analysis revealed dynamics regulation of the following proteins: Axin-like protein pry-1 (APR-1, dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD, vitellogenin (Vg and lysozyme C (Lmz-S. APR-1 negatively regulates the Wnt signaling pathway. Its overexpression could result in embryo, leg, eye and ovary ectopica or malformation. DLD catalyzes the pyruvate into acetyl-CoA, the latter is the starting material of juvenile hormone (JH and ipsdienol biosynthesis through the MVA pathway in insects. While Vg synthesis can be regulated by JH and stimulated by food factors. So DLD may affect the synthesis of JH, ipsdienol and Vg indirectly. The activity of lysozyme is an indicator of the immunity. Nutrition/food should be taken into account for its potential role during the development of larva in the future. Among the five genes and their corresponding proteins' expression, only hsc70 gene showed a good correspondence with the protein level. This reflects the fluctuating relationship between mRNA and protein levels.

  2. Transcriptome analyses provide insights into the difference of alkaloids biosynthesis in the Chinese goldthread (Coptis chinensis Franch. from different biotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanting Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Coptis chinensis Franch., the Chinese goldthread (‘Weilian’ in Chinese, one of the most important medicinal plants from the family Ranunculaceae, and its rhizome has been widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for centuries. Here, we analyzed the chemical components and the transcriptome of the Chinese goldthread from three biotopes, including Zhenping, Zunyi and Shizhu. We built comprehensive, high-quality de novo transcriptome assemblies of the Chinese goldthread from short-read RNA-Sequencing data, obtaining 155,710 transcripts and 56,071 unigenes. More than 98.39% and 95.97% of core eukaryotic genes were found in the transcripts and unigenes respectively, indicating that this unigene set capture the majority of the coding genes. A total of 520,462, 493,718, and 507,247 heterozygous SNPs were identified in the three accessions from Zhenping, Zunyi, and Shizhu respectively, indicating high polymorphism in coding regions of the Chinese goldthread (∼1%. Chemical analyses of the rhizome identified six major components, including berberine, palmatine, coptisine, epiberberine, columbamine, and jatrorrhizine. Berberine has the highest concentrations, followed by coptisine, palmatine, and epiberberine sequentially for all the three accessions. The drug quality of the accession from Shizhu may be the highest among these accessions. Differential analyses of the transcriptome identified four pivotal candidate enzymes, including aspartate aminotransferaseprotein, polyphenol oxidase, primary-amine oxidase, and tyrosine decarboxylase, were significantly differentially expressed and may be responsible for the difference of alkaloids contents in the accessions from different biotopes.

  3. Transcriptome analyses provide insights into the difference of alkaloids biosynthesis in the Chinese goldthread (Coptis chinensis Franch.) from different biotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hanting; Deng, Cao; Nie, Hu; Fan, Gang; He, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Coptis chinensis Franch., the Chinese goldthread ('Weilian' in Chinese), one of the most important medicinal plants from the family Ranunculaceae, and its rhizome has been widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for centuries. Here, we analyzed the chemical components and the transcriptome of the Chinese goldthread from three biotopes, including Zhenping, Zunyi and Shizhu. We built comprehensive, high-quality de novo transcriptome assemblies of the Chinese goldthread from short-read RNA-Sequencing data, obtaining 155,710 transcripts and 56,071 unigenes. More than 98.39% and 95.97% of core eukaryotic genes were found in the transcripts and unigenes respectively, indicating that this unigene set capture the majority of the coding genes. A total of 520,462, 493,718, and 507,247 heterozygous SNPs were identified in the three accessions from Zhenping, Zunyi, and Shizhu respectively, indicating high polymorphism in coding regions of the Chinese goldthread (∼1%). Chemical analyses of the rhizome identified six major components, including berberine, palmatine, coptisine, epiberberine, columbamine, and jatrorrhizine. Berberine has the highest concentrations, followed by coptisine, palmatine, and epiberberine sequentially for all the three accessions. The drug quality of the accession from Shizhu may be the highest among these accessions. Differential analyses of the transcriptome identified four pivotal candidate enzymes, including aspartate aminotransferaseprotein, polyphenol oxidase, primary-amine oxidase, and tyrosine decarboxylase, were significantly differentially expressed and may be responsible for the difference of alkaloids contents in the accessions from different biotopes.

  4. Development of a validated HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of flavonoids in Cuscuta chinensis Lam. by ultra-violet detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Shekarchi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cuscuta species known as dodder, have been used in traditional medicine of eastern and southern Asian countries as liver and kidney tonic. Flavonoids are considered as the main biologically active constituents in Cuscuta plants especially in C. chinensis Lam.ObjectiveIn the present study, a fast, simple and reliable method for the simultaneous determination and quantization of C. chinensis flavonols including hyperoside, rutin, isorhamnetin and kaempferol has been developed. Materials and methods The chromatographic separation was carried out on a reversed phase ACE 5 C18 with eluting at a flow rate of 1 ml/min using a gradient with O-phosphoric acid 0.25 % : acetonitrile for 42 min. UV spectra were collected across the range of 200-900 nm, extracting 360 nm for the chromatograms. The method was validated according to linearity, selectivity, precision, recovery, LOD and LOQ.ResultsThe method was selective for determination of rutin, hyperoside, isorhamnetin and kampferol. The calibration graphs of flavonols were linear with r2 > 0.999. RSDs% of intraand inter-day precisions were found 1.3&3.4 for rutin, 1.5&2.8 for hyperoside, 1.3&3.3 for isorhamnetin and 1.7 & 2.9 for kaempferol which were satisfactory. LODs and LOQs were calculated as 1.73 & 8.19 for rutin, 0.09 & 4.19 for hyperoside, 2.09 & 6.3 for isorhamnetin and 0.18 & 0.56 for kaempferol. The recovery averages of above-mentioned flavonols were 90.3 %, 97.4 %, 98.7 % and 90.0 %, respectively.ConclusionThe simplicity of the method makes it highly valuable for quality control of C. chinensis according to quantization of flavonols.

  5. Development of a validated HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of flavonoids in Cuscuta chinensis Lam. by ultra-violet detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajimehdipoor Homa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cuscuta species known as dodder, have been used in traditional medicine of eastern and southern Asian countries as liver and kidney tonic. Flavonoids are considered as the main biologically active constituents in Cuscuta plants especially in C. chinensis Lam. Objective In the present study, a fast, simple and reliable method for the simultaneous determination and quantization of C. chinensis flavonols including hyperoside, rutin, isorhamnetin and kaempferol has been developed. Materials and methods The chromatographic separation was carried out on a reversed phase ACE 5 C18 with eluting at a flow rate of 1 ml/min using a gradient with O-phosphoric acid 0.25% : acetonitrile for 42 min. UV spectra were collected across the range of 200–900 nm, extracting 360 nm for the chromatograms. The method was validated according to linearity, selectivity, precision, recovery, LOD and LOQ. Results The method was selective for determination of rutin, hyperoside, isorhamnetin and kampferol. The calibration graphs of flavonols were linear with r2 > 0.999. RSDs% of intra- and inter-day precisions were found 1.3&3.4 for rutin, 1.5&2.8 for hyperoside, 1.3&3.3 for isorhamnetin and 1.7 & 2.9 for kaempferol which were satisfactory. LODs and LOQs were calculated as 1.73 & 8.19 for rutin, 0.09 & 4.19 for hyperoside, 2.09 & 6.3 for isorhamnetin and 0.18 & 0.56 for kaempferol. The recovery averages of above-mentioned flavonols were 90.3%, 97.4%, 98.7% and 90.0%, respectively. Conclusion The simplicity of the method makes it highly valuable for quality control of C. chinensis according to quantization of flavonols.

  6. Engineering a disulfide bond in the lid hinge region of Rhizopus chinensis lipase: increased thermostability and altered acyl chain length specificity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Wei Yu

    Full Text Available The key to enzyme function is the maintenance of an appropriate balance between molecular stability and structural flexibility. The lid domain which is very important for "interfacial activation" is the most flexible part in the lipase structure. In this work, rational design was applied to explore the relationship between lid rigidity and lipase activity by introducing a disulfide bond in the hinge region of the lid, in the hope of improving the thermostability of R. chinensis lipase through stabilization of the lid domain without interfering with its catalytic performance. A disulfide bridge between F95C and F214C was introduced into the lipase from R. chinensis in the hinge region of the lid according to the prediction of the "Disulfide by Design" algorithm. The disulfide variant showed substantially improved thermostability with an eleven-fold increase in the t(1/2 value at 60°C and a 7°C increase of T(m compared with the parent enzyme, probably contributed by the stabilization of the geometric structure of the lid region. The additional disulfide bond did not interfere with the catalytic rate (k(cat and the catalytic efficiency towards the short-chain fatty acid substrate, however, the catalytic efficiency of the disulfide variant towards pNPP decreased by 1.5-fold probably due to the block of the hydrophobic substrate channel by the disulfide bond. Furthermore, in the synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters, the maximum conversion rate by RCLCYS reached 95% which was 9% higher than that by RCL. This is the first report on improving the thermostability of the lipase from R. chinensis by introduction of a disulfide bond in the lid hinge region without compromising the catalytic rate.

  7. [Investigation on pattern and methods of quality control for Chinese materia medica based on dao-di herbs and bioassay - bioassay for Coptis chinensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dan; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2011-05-01

    Establishment of bioassay methods is the technical issues to be faced with in the bioassay of Chinese materia medica. Taking the bioassay of Coptis chinensis Franch. as an example, the establishment process and application of the bioassay methods (including bio-potency and bio-activity fingerprint) were explained from the aspects of methodology, principle of selection, experimental design, method confirmation and data analysis. The common technologies were extracted and formed with the above aspects, so as to provide technical support for constructing pattern and method of the quality control for Chinese materia medica based on the dao-di herbs and bioassay.

  8. Schisandra chinensis regulates drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters via activation of Nrf2-mediated signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He JL

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jin-Lian He,1 Zhi-Wei Zhou,2,3 Juan-Juan Yin,2 Chang-Qiang He,1 Shu-Feng Zhou,2,3 Yang Yu1 1College of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 3Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine, Stem Cell and Tissue Engineering Research Center and Sino-US Joint Laboratory for Medical Sciences, Guiyang Medical University, Guiyang, Guizhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs and drug transporters are regulated via epigenetic, transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and translational and posttranslational modifications. Phase I and II DMEs and drug transporters play an important role in the disposition and detoxification of a large number of endogenous and exogenous compounds. The nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2 is a critical regulator of a variety of important cytoprotective genes that are involved in disposition and detoxification of xenobiotics. Schisandra chinensis (SC is a commonly used traditional Chinese herbal medicine that has been primarily used to protect the liver because of its potent antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. SC can modulate some DMEs and drug transporters, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In this study, we aimed to explore the role of Nrf2 in the regulatory effect of SC extract (SCE on selected DMEs and drug transporters in human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line (HepG2 cells. The results showed that SCE, schisandrin A, and schisandrin B significantly increased the expression of NAD(PH: Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate-oxidase or:quinone oxidoreductase 1, heme oxygenase-1, glutamate–cysteine ligase, and glutathione S-transferase A4 at both transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Incubation of HepG2 cells with SCE resulted in a significant

  9. Transcriptome-wide identification and screening of WRKY factors involved in the regulation of taxol biosynthesis in Taxus chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Chen, Ying; Nie, Lin; Jin, Xiaofei; Liao, Weifang; Zhao, Shengying; Fu, Chunhua; Yu, Longjiang

    2018-03-26

    WRKY, a plant-specific transcription factor family, plays important roles in pathogen defense, abiotic cues, phytohormone signaling, and regulation of plant secondary metabolism. However, little is known about the roles, functions, and mechanisms of WRKY in taxane biosynthesis in Taxus spp. In this study, 61 transcripts were identified from Taxus chinensis transcriptome datasets by using hidden Markov model search. All of these transcripts encoded proteins containing WRKY domains, which were designated as TcWRKY1-61. After phylogenetic analysis of the WRKY domains of TcWRKYs and AtWRKYs, 16, 8, 10, 14, 5, 7, and 1 TcWRKYs were cladded into Group I, IIa-IIe, and III, respectively. Then, six representative TcWRKYs were selected to classify their effects on taxol biosynthesis. After MeJA (methyl jasmonate acid) and SA (salicylic acid) treatments, all of the six TcWRKYs were upregulated by MeJA treatment. TcWRKY44 (IId) and TcWRKY47 (IIa) were upregulated, whereas TcWRKY8 (IIc), TcWRKY20 (III), TcWRKY26 (I), TcWRKY41 (IIe), and TcWRKY52 (IIb) were downregulated by SA treatment. Overexpression experiments showed that the six selected TcWRKYs exerted different effects on taxol biosynthesis. In specific, TcWRKY8 and TcWRKY47 significantly improved the expression levels of taxol-biosynthesis-related genes. Transcriptome-wide identification of WRKY factors in Taxus not only enhances our understanding of plant WRKY factors but also identifies candidate regulators of taxol biosynthesis.

  10. Effect of the semen extract of Cuscuta chinensis on inflammatory responses in LPS-stimulated BV-2 microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seok Yong; Jung, Hyo Won; Lee, Mi-Young; Lee, Hye Won; Chae, Seong Wook; Park, Yong-Ki

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the anti-inflammatory activities of the semen extract of Cuscuta chinensis Lam. (Cuscutae Semen; CS) on the production of inflammatory mediators, nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin 2 (PGE2), and proinflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 microglia. BV-2 cells were treated with CS extract for 30 min, and then stimulated with LPS or without for 24 h. The levels of NO, PGE2 and proinflammatory cytokines were measured by Griess assay and ELISA. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 mRNA and protein was determined by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. The phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and the nuclear expression of nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 were investigated by Western blot analysis. CS extract significantly decreased the production of NO and PGE2 by suppressing the expression of iNOS and COX-2 in activated microglia. CS extract decreased the production of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 by down-regulating their transcription levels. In addition, CS extract suppressed the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 MAPK, and the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 in activated microglia. These results indicate that CS extract is capable of suppressing the inflammatory response by microglia activation, suggesting that CS extract has potential in the treatment of brain inflammation. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Anti-apoptosis effect of polysaccharide isolated from the seeds of Cuscuta chinensis Lam on cardiomyocytes in aging rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shou-Li; Guo, Li; Ren, Ya-Chao; Wang, Bing; Li, Rong-Hui; Qi, Yu-Shan; Yu, Hui; Chang, Nai-Dan; Li, Ming-Hui; Peng, Hai-Sheng

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the mechanism of apoptosis in myocardial cells of aging rats induced by D-galactose and to study the effect of the Polysaccharide isolated from the seeds of Cuscuta chinensis Lam (PCCL) on apoptosis of cardiomyocytes and its corresponding machinasim in aging rat model. Fifty male SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups. Normal control group (NC). D-galactose (100 mg · kg(-1)d(-1) for 56 day) indued aging group (MC), D-galactose plus 100 mg kg(-1) d(-1) PCCL group (ML), D-galactose plus 200 mg kg(-1) d(-1) PCCL group (MM), and D-galactose plus 400 mg kg(-1) d(-1) PCCL group (MH). Same volume of solution (water, or PCCL aqueous solution) was given by gavage for 56 days. Then the hearts were collected and apoptosis parameters were evaluated. Caspase-3 and Cyt c were determined by fluorescence spectrometer, the apoptosis rate was assessed by AnnexinV-FITC method by Flow-Cytometry, [Ca(2+)]i and [Ca(2+)]i overloaded by KCL were observed by laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM); Bcl-2 and Bax were examined by immunohistochemistry. The content of Cyt C, [Ca(2+)]i of cardiomyocytes, the activity of Caspase-3, Bax expression level in D-galactose induced aging group were higher than NC (p < 0.05). The ratio of Bcl-2/Bax was decreased in D-galactose induced aging group compared to NC. On the other hand, the content of Cyt C, [Ca(2+)]i of cardiomyocytes, the activity of Caspase-3 and apoptosis rate, as well as Bax expression level in all three PCCL groups were decreased compared to galactose induced group (p < 0.05). Bcl-2/Bax ratio was increased in all PCCL groups compared to galactose induced aging group. PCCL could decrease the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes by the mitochondria apoptosis pathway.

  12. Deoxyschizandrin isolated from the fruits of Schisandra chinensis ameliorates Aβ₁₋₄₂-induced memory impairment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Di; Li, Changxia; Han, Na; Miao, Lijing; Wang, Dong; Liu, Zhihui; Wang, Hua; Yin, Jun

    2012-08-01

    In the present study, we examined the effects of deoxyschisandrin (DS) from Schisandra chinensis on the amyloid-beta₁₋₄₂ (Aβ₁₋₄₂)-induced memory impairment in mice and investigated the possible antioxidative mechanism. Mice were given an intracerebroventricular (i. c. v.) injection with the aggregated Aβ₁₋₄₂ and then treated with DS (4, 12, and 36 mg/kg body weight) or donepezil (DPZ), a positive control drug (0.65 mg/kg), by intragastric infusion for 14 days. Non-cognitive disturbances and cognitive performance were evaluated by the locomotor activity, Y-maze, and water maze tests. Antioxidative enzyme activities including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) within the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of mice were measured to investigate the mechanism. Our results showed that DS significantly improved Aβ₁₋₄₂-induced short-term and spatial memory impairments in the Y-maze and water maze tests. Furthermore, in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of mice, the reduced activities of SOD and GSH-px, the GSH level, and the GSH/GSSG ratio were increased, and increased levels of MDA and GSSG were reduced following treatment with DS, although the improvement of GSH and the reduction of GSSG levels were not marked. These results suggest that DS is a potential cognitive enhancer in Alzheimer's disease through its antioxidative action. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Chemical composition of essential oil in Mosla chinensis Maxim cv. Jiangxiangru and its inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Liang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Mosla chinensis Maxim cv. Jiangxiangru is known for its antibacterial ability. This study aimed to investigate the chemical composition of Jiangxiangru essential oil and its inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC–MS was used to determine the chemical composition of Jiangxiangru essential oil. Subsequently, the eight major chemical components were quantitatively analyzed using GC– MS, and their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values against S. aureus were tested. Biofilm formation was detected by crystal violet semi-quantitative method and silver staining. Of the 59 peaks detected, 29 were identified by GC–MS. Of these peaks, thymol, carvacrol, p-cymene, γ-terpinene, thymol acetate, α-caryophyllene, 3-carene, and carvacryl acetate were present at a relatively higher concentration. The results of the quantitative test showed that thymol, carvacrol, p-cymene, and γ-terpinene were the major components of the essential oil. Among the eight reference substances, only thymol, carvacrol, and thymol acetate had lower MICs compared with the essential oil. Essential oil, carvacrol, carvacryl acetate, α-caryophyllene, and 3-carene showed the better inhibition of S. aureus biofilm formation. When one fourth of the MIC concentrations were used for these substances (0.0625 mg/mL for essential oil, 0.0305 mg/mL for carvacrol, 1.458 mg/mL for carvacryl acetate, 0.1268 mg/mL for α-caryophyllene, and 2.5975 mg/mL for 3-carene, the inhibition rates were over 80%. However, thymol, γ-terpinene, thymol acetate, and p-cymene showed a relatively poor inhibition of S. aureus biofilm formation. When 1× MIC concentrations of these substances were used, the inhibition rates were less than 50%. In conclusion, Jiangxiangru essential oil and its major components, carvacrol, carvacryl acetate, α-caryophyllene, and 3-carene, strongly inhibited biofilm formation in S. aureus.

  14. Is gastrointestinal plasticity in king quail (Coturnix chinensis) elicited by diet-fibre or diet-energy dilution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Sean A; Jones, Stephanie K Courtney; Munn, Adam J

    2014-06-01

    Phenotypic plasticity of organ size allows some animals to manage fluctuations of resource quality or availability. Here, we examined the phenotypic plasticity of the gastrointestinal tract of king quail (Coturnix chinensis) in a diet-fibre manipulation study. Quail were offered either a control low-fibre (high-quality) food (8.5% neutral-detergent fibre; NDF), or one of two experimental diets of higher fibre contents of 16% NDF (i.e. low-quality food). To examine whether phenotypic plasticity of organ size was associated with the fibre content per se, or as a consequence of diluting the diet energy contents by adding fibre, one of the high-fibre feeds was 'balanced' with additional energy to match that of the low-fibre control diet. Total empty dry mass of the gastrointestinal tract was significantly heavier among birds offered the unbalanced high-fibre diet as compared with those offered the control diet, with birds offered the fibrous but energy-balanced diet having guts of intermediate size. The heavier entire-gut mass (dry) of quail offered the unbalanced high-fibre diet was associated mainly with these birds having significantly heavier gizzards. Notably, the larger gizzard in the birds offered the unbalanced high-fibre diet was associated with marked increases in their metabolisability (digestion) of diet fibre. Our findings suggest that the available energy in the diet may be more important for eliciting phenotypic changes in the gut of these herbivorous birds rather than simple physical effects of diet fibre on feed intakes or on muscular compensation to fibrous ingesta. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. The Mixture of Anemarrhena asphodeloides and Coptis chinensis Attenuates High-Fat Diet-Induced Colitis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Su-Min; Choi, Hyun-Sik; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Anemarrhena asphodeloides (AA, family Liliaceae) inhibits macrophage activation by inhibiting IRAK1 phosphorylation and helper T (Th)17 differentiation. Coptis chinensis (CC, family Ranunculaceae), which inhibits macrophage activation by inhibiting the binding of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on toll-like receptor 4 and inducing regulatory T (Treg) cell differentiation. The mixture of AA and CC (AC-mix) synergistically attenuates 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid or dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice by inhibiting NF-[Formula: see text]B activation and regulating Th17/Treg balance. In the present study, we examined the effect of AC-mix on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced colitis in mice, which induced NF-[Formula: see text]B activation and disturbed Th17/Treg balance. Long-term feeding of HFD in mice caused colitis, including increased macroscopic score and myeloperoxidase activity. Oral administration of AC-mix (20[Formula: see text]mg/kg) suppressed HFD-induced myeloperoxidase activity by 68% ([Formula: see text]). Furthermore, treatment with the AC-mix (20[Formula: see text]mg/kg) inhibited HFD-induced activation of NF-[Formula: see text]B and expression of cyclooxygenase-2, inducible NO synthase, interleukin (IL)-17, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha but increased HFD- suppressed expression of IL-10. AC-mix suppressed HFD-induced differentiation into Th17 cells by 46% ([Formula: see text]) and increased HFD-induced differentiation into regulatory T cells 2.2-fold ([Formula: see text]). AC-mix also suppressed the HFD-induced Proteobacteria/Bacteroidetes ratio on the gut microbiota by 48% ([Formula: see text]). These findings suggest that AC-mix can ameliorate HFD-induced colitis by regulating innate and adaptive immunities and correcting the disturbance of gut microbiota.

  16. Isolation and Functional Characterization of a Floral Repressor, BcMAF1, From Pak-choi (Brassica rapa ssp. Chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feiyi; Liu, Tongkun; Hou, Xilin

    2018-01-01

    MADS-box genes form a large gene family in plants and are involved in multiple biological processes, such as flowering. However, the regulation mechanism of MADS-box genes in flowering remains unresolved, especially under short-term cold conditions. In the present study, we isolated BcMAF1 , a Pak-choi ( Brassica rapa ssp. Chinensis ) MADS AFFECTING FLOWERING ( MAF ), as a floral repressor and functionally characterized BcMAF1 in Arabidopsis and Pak-choi. Subcellular localization and sequence analysis indicated that BcMAF1 was a nuclear protein and contained a conserved MADS-box domain. Expression analysis revealed that BcMAF1 had higher expression levels in leaves, stems, and petals, and could be induced by short-term cold conditions in Pak-choi. Overexpressing BcMAF1 in Arabidopsis showed that BcMAF1 had a negative function in regulating flowering, which was further confirmed by silencing endogenous BcMAF1 in Pak-choi. In addition, qPCR results showed that AtAP3 expression was reduced and AtMAF2 expression was induced in BcMAF1 -overexpressing Arabidopsis . Meanwhile, BcAP3 transcript was up-regulated and BcMAF2 transcript was down-regulated in BcMAF1 -silencing Pak-choi. Yeast one-hybrid and dual luciferase transient assays showed that BcMAF1 could bind to the promoters of BcAP3 and BcMAF2 . These results indicated that BcAP3 and BcMAF2 might be the targets of BcMAF1. Taken together, our results suggested that BcMAF1 could negatively regulate flowering by directly activating BcMAF2 and repressing BcAP3 .

  17. Screening and characterizing of xylanolytic and xylose-fermenting yeasts isolated from the wood-feeding termite, Reticulitermes chinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh Samir Ali

    Full Text Available The effective fermentation of xylose remains an intractable challenge in bioethanol industry. The relevant xylanase enzyme is also in a high demand from industry for several biotechnological applications that inevitably in recent times led to many efforts for screening some novel microorganisms for better xylanase production and fermentation performance. Recently, it seems that wood-feeding termites can truly be considered as highly efficient natural bioreactors. The highly specialized gut systems of such insects are not yet fully realized, particularly, in xylose fermentation and xylanase production to advance industrial bioethanol technology as well as industrial applications of xylanases. A total of 92 strains from 18 yeast species were successfully isolated and identified from the gut of wood-feeding termite, Reticulitermes chinensis. Of these yeasts and strains, seven were identified for new species: Candida gotoi, Candida pseudorhagii, Hamamotoa lignophila, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Sugiyamaella sp.1, Sugiyamaella sp. 2, and Sugiyamaella sp.3. Based on the phylogenetic and phenotypic characterization, the type strain of C. pseudorhagii sp. nov., which was originally designated strain SSA-1542T, was the most frequently occurred yeast from termite gut samples, showed the highly xylanolytic activity as well as D-xylose fermentation. The highest xylanase activity was recorded as 1.73 and 0.98 U/mL with xylan or D-xylose substrate, respectively, from SSA-1542T. Among xylanase-producing yeasts, four novel species were identified as D-xylose-fermenting yeasts, where the yeast, C. pseudorhagii SSA-1542T, showed the highest ethanol yield (0.31 g/g, ethanol productivity (0.31 g/L·h, and its fermentation efficiency (60.7% in 48 h. Clearly, the symbiotic yeasts isolated from termite guts have demonstrated a competitive capability to produce xylanase and ferment xylose, suggesting that the wood-feeding termite gut is a promising reservoir for novel

  18. Yield Performance of six lychee cultivars grown at two locations in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The globalization of the economy, increased ethnic diversity, and a greater demand for healthy and more diverse food production have increased the demand for tropical fruits. There is a lack of formal experimentation to determine yield performance and fruit quality traits of lychee (Litchi chinensi...

  19. Biosorption of Pb2+ and Cu2+ in aqueous solutions using agricultural wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieva Aileen D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine and compare the adsorptive capacity of Pb2+ and Cu2+ in simulated wastewater onto three agricultural wastes The adsorption capacities of Pb2+ onto the agricultural wastes can be arranged as Litchi chinensis (4.30 mg of sorbate per g of sorbent (mg g-1, 85.68% adsorption > Bambusa vulgaris (3.83 mg g-1, 76.19% adsorption > Annona squamosa (2.70 mg g-1, 53.66% adsorption while the adsorption capacities of Cu2+ onto the same agricultural wastes can be arranged in the order: Bambusa vulgaris (3.86 mg g-1, 77.17% adsorption > Annona squamosal (3.58 mg g-1, 71.58% adsorption > Litchi chinensis (3.42 mg g-1, 68.32% adsorption. The biosorbents had relatively higher adsorptive capacities with Cu2+ as compared to that of Pb2+ except for Litchi chinensis. Although the results show lower adsorptive capacity as compared to a number of treated agricultural wastes showing 80% up to almost 100% adsorption of Pb2+ and Cu2+, the results show that Annona squamosa, Bamubusa vulgaris, and Litchi chinensis are potential biosorbents and promote sustainable treatment process.

  20. Reversion of hyperhydricity in pink (Dianthus chinensis L.) plantlets by AgNO3 and its associated mechanism during in vitro culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongyang; Xia, Xiuying; An, Lijia; Xin, Xin; Liang, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Hyperhydricity occurs frequently in plant tissue culture and can severely affect commercial micropropagation and genetic improvement of the cultured plantlets. Hyperhydric shoots are charaterzized by high water content, but how this occurs is still a subject of investigation. Silver ion (Ag + ) can reduce the extent of hyperhydricity in plants, but its effect on the reversion of hyperhydric plantlets and the underlying mechanism of reversion has not been clarified. In this study, about 67% of the hyperhydric Dianthus chinensis L. plantlets were found to revert to normal condition when the plantlets were cultured in medium supplemented with 29.4μmolL -1 AgNO 3 . Water content and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) content in the guard cells of these plantlets were reduced, while stomatal aperture and water loss rate were increased. AgNO 3 also reduced the content of endogenous ethylene and expression of ethylene synthesis and ethylene signal transduction-associated genes. Reduced accumulation of ethylene consequently led to an increase in stomatal aperture mediated by decreased H 2 O 2 content in the guard cells. These results adequately verified the role of AgNO 3 in the reversion of hyperhydricity in D. chinensis L. and also provided clues for exploring the cause of excessive water accumulation in hyperhydric plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Schisandra chinensis produces the antidepressant-like effects in repeated corticosterone-induced mice via the BDNF/TrkB/CREB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Tingxu; Xu, Mengjie; Wan, Shutong; Wang, Mengshi; Wu, Bo; Xiao, Feng; Bi, Kaishun; Jia, Ying

    2016-09-30

    The present study aimed to examine the antidepressant-like effects and the possible mechanisms of Schisandra chinensis on depressive-like behavior induced by repeated corticosterone injections in mice. Here we evaluated the effect of an ethanol extract of the dried fruit of S. chinensis (EESC) on BDNF/TrkB/CREB signaling in the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex. Three weeks of corticosterone injections in mice resulted in depressive-like behavior, as indicated by the significant decrease in sucrose consumption and increase the immobility time in the forced swim test, but without any influence on the locomotor activity. Further, there was a significant increase in serum corticosterone level and a significant downregulation of BDNF/TrkB/CREB signaling pathway in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex in CORT-treated mice. Treatment of mice with EESC (600mg/kg) significantly ameliorated all the behavioral and biochemical changes induced by corticosterone. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of BDNF signaling by K252a abolished entirely the antidepressant-like effect triggered by chronic EESC treatment. These results suggest that EESC produces an antidepressant-like effect in CORT-induced depression in mice, which is possibly mediated, at least in part, by rectifying the stress-based hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction paradigm and upregulation of BDNF/TrkB/CREB signaling pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Schisandra chinensis peptidoglycan-assisted transmembrane transport of lignans uniquely altered the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic mechanisms in human HepG2 cell model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charng-Cherng Chyau

    Full Text Available Schisandra chinensis (Turz Baill (S. chinensis (SC fruit is a hepatoprotective herb containing many lignans and a large amount of polysaccharides. A novel polysaccharide (called SC-2 was isolated from SC of MW 841 kDa, which exhibited a protein-to-polysaccharide ratio of 0.4089, and showed a characteristic FTIR spectrum of a peptidoglycan. Powder X-ray diffraction revealed microcrystalline structures within SC-2. SC-2 contained 10 monosaccharides and 15 amino acids (essential amino acids of 78.12%w/w. In a HepG2 cell model, SC-2 was shown by MTT and TUNEL assay to be completely non-cytotoxic. A kinetic analysis and fluorescence-labeling technique revealed no intracellular disposition of SC-2. Combined treatment of lignans with SC-2 enhanced the intracellular transport of schisandrin B and deoxyschisandrin but decreased that of gomisin C, resulting in alteration of cell-killing bioactivity. The Second Law of Thermodynamics allows this type of unidirectional transport. Conclusively, SC-2 alters the transport and cell killing capability by a "Catcher-Pitcher Unidirectional Transport Mechanism".

  3. A recent record of the Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin Sousa chinensis (Osbeck, 1765, (Mammalia: Cetartiodactyla: Delphinidae from the western shores of Kachchh, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devanshi Kukadia

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of six individuals of S.chinensis were observed near the Jakhau creek, which is the western part of Gulf of Kachchh. The GPS location of the sighting is 23°14’28.5” N and 68°35’54.0" E. The dolphins were spotted in the mid-high tide time on 03 December 2014 at 9.53 hrs (IST. These dolphins were found less than 10 m away from the shore at a depth of 1-10 m. The dolphins were observed for a time period of 20 minutes. The dolphins while leaping continuously, kept following the boat for sometime and approaching as close as five meters during certain occasions. These dolphins were also observed at the same time on the same location on the following day. A questionnaire survey with nearby fishermen had confirmed that these dolphins were seen in this part of Gujarat during winter. Therefore, it is assumed that weather condition and prey availability is favorable for this species during this period. This is the first record of S. chinensis in western shore of Kachchh district detailed study regarding the distribution of this species is required across the creek system of Western Kachchh.

  4. Identification of two invasive Cacopsylla chinensis (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) lineages based on two mitochondrial sequences and restriction fragment length polymorphism of cytochrome oxidase I amplicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsien-Chung; Yang, Man-Miao; Yeh, Wen-Bin

    2008-08-01

    The occurrence of pear decline, a disease found in some pear (Pyrus spp.) orchards of Taiwan in recent years, is accompanied by an outbreak of Cacopsylla chinensis (Yang & Li). Two major morphological forms (summer and winter forms) with a variety of intermediate body color and two phylogenetic lineages of this psyllid have been described. The work herein used sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and 16S rDNA regions to delineate the genetic differentiation of this color-variable insect and to elucidate their relationship. Sequence divergence and phylogenetic analysis have shown that C. chinensis individuals could be divided into two lineages with 3.3 and 2.3% divergence of COI and 16S rDNA, respectively. All specimens from China were found to belong to lineage I. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of COI with restriction enzymes AcuI, AseI, BccI, and FokI on 263 specimens of six populations from Taiwan produced two digestion patterns, which are in agreement with the two lineages described above. Both patterns could be found in each population, with most individuals belonging to lineage I and 5-21% of the individuals belonging to lineage II. Because these two lineages included summer as well as winter morphological forms, the lineage differentiation is apparently not related to morphological characters of this psyllid. Because the invasive records are not in favor of a sympatric differentiation, this psyllid is more likely introduced as different populations from countries in temperate regions.

  5. Biomorphological traits of Callistephus chinensis (L. Nees cultivars under conditions of the Central Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. М. Левандовська

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Determining prospects of introducing Callistephus chinensis cultivars of foreign breeding for further cultivation under conditions of the Central Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine. Methods. Field, laboratory, analytical and statistical ones. Results. Ten C. сhinensis cultivars of theGerman breeding were tested under conditions of the Central Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine. Biomorphological traits of the varieties of five sort types were identified, and their comparative analysis was conducted. Seasonal dynamics of growth and development of cultivars in the growing area was studied. Conclusions. Cultivars with short and mean duration phases of development can be grown under conditions of the Central Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine by direct sowing that does not affect their seed productivity and sowing quality of seeds. Seeds of late cultivars can reach complete maturity only in case of seedling use. C. chinensis cultivars of the German breeding have successfully passed the initial test for suitability to introduction into the studied area.

  6. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on gas exchange and stable isotope ratio of δ13C, δ15N of leymus chinensis plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Weiqi; Wang Guoan; Li Xiaolin

    2008-01-01

    Leymus chinensis, one of dominant species in Inner Mongolia grassland, was selected to evaluate the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on plant gas change parameters and stable isotope ratio in pot culture. The plant was inoculated with two mycorrhizal fungi, Glomus intraradices and Glomus claroidum, and the uninoculated plant was used as the control check. On the 45th , 60th , 75th days after sowing, gas exchange parameters and stable isotope ratio were measured. The results showed that AM infection promoted phosphoms content, stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rate of Leymus chinensis, reduced host δ 15 N, however, it did not influence host intrinsic water using efficiency and δ 13 C. It was the growth time that significantly affected the gas exchange and stable isotope ratio of δ 13 C and δ 15 N. And the interaction of inoculation and growth time also influenced on the net photosynthetic rate, δ 13 C and δ 15 N of the host. Stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rate were always changed the same direction by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi causing no significant difference between mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plant. AMF absorbed nitrogen and accumulated δ 15 N, thus, it transformed less 15 N into the host, and as a result, the mycorrhizal plant had lower δ 15 N. Therefore, the results gave a new way and reference to know of the grass balance of carbon gain and water cost and the nitrogen cycle in grassland. (authors)

  7. Two solid-phase recycling method for basic ionic liquid [C4mim]Ac by macroporous resin and ion exchange resin from Schisandra chinensis fruits extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chun-hui; Zu, Yuan-gang; Yang, Lei; Li, Jian

    2015-01-22

    In this study, two solid-phase recycling method for basic ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C4mim]Ac) were studied through a digestion extraction system of extracting biphenyl cyclooctene lignans from Schisandra chinensis. The RP-HPLC detection method for [C4mim]Ac was established in order to investigate the recovery efficiency of IL. The recycling method of [C4mim]Ac is divided into two steps, the first step was the separation of lignans from the IL solution containing HPD 5000 macroporous resin, the recovery efficiency and purity of [C4mim]Ac achieved were 97.8% and 67.7%, respectively. This method cannot only separate the lignans from [C4mim]Ac solution, also improve the purity of lignans, the absorption rate of lignans in [C4mim]Ac solution was found to be higher (69.2%) than that in ethanol solution (57.7%). The second step was the purification of [C4mim]Ac by the SK1B strong acid ion exchange resin, an [C4mim]Ac recovery efficiency of 55.9% and the purity higher than 90% were achieved. Additionally, [C4mim]Ac as solvent extraction of lignans from S. chinensis was optimized, the hydrolysis temperature was 90°C and the hydrolysis time was 2h. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Current knowledge of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. (Chinese magnolia vine) as a medicinal plant species: a review on the bioactive components, pharmacological properties, analytical and biotechnological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szopa, Agnieszka; Ekiert, Radosław; Ekiert, Halina

    2017-01-01

    Schisandra chinensis Turcz. (Baill.) is a plant species whose fruits have been well known in Far Eastern medicine for a long time. However, schisandra seems to be a plant still underestimated in contemporary therapy still in the countries of East Asia. The article presents latest available information on the chemical composition of this plant species. Special attention is given to dibenzo cyclooctadiene lignans. In addition, recent studies of the biological activity of dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans and schisandra fruit extracts are recapitulated. The paper gives a short resume of their beneficial effects in biological systems in vitro, in animals, and in humans, thus underlining their medicinal potential. The cosmetic properties are depicted, too. The analytical methods used for assaying schisandra lignans in the scientific studies and also in industry are also presented. Moreover, special attention is given to the information on the latest biotechnological studies of this plant species. The intention of this review is to contribute to a better understanding of the huge potential of the pharmacological relevance of S. chinensis.

  9. [Analysis and characterization of Belamcanda chinensis with space mutagenesis breeding by X-ray fluorescence analysis and X-ray diffraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Ying; Ding, Xi-Feng; Wang, Wen-Jing; Guo, Xi-Hua; Zhu, Yan-Ying

    2008-02-01

    The contents of various elements in the fourth generation Belamcanda chinensis (L.) DC. with space mutagenesis breeding were analyzed and characterized. X-ray fluorescence spectrum analysis (XRF) and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) were applied jointly. It was found that the content of K element in the space flight mutagenesis increases 1.03 and 0.31 times, Mg enhances 1.44 and 0.06 times, but Al reduces 38.5% and 85.5% respectively compared to the contents in the ground group and the comparison group, while those of Ca, Mn and Fe enhance 0.95, 0.30 and 0.29 times respectively contrasted to the ground group. Besides, there was discovered the crystal of whewellite in the Belamcanda chinensis (L.) DC. and the content in the ground group is less than that of the outer space and the outer space group, which in turn is less than that of the comparison group. It is concluded that the contents of mineral elements indispensable to body in the space group are closer or superior to the comparison, group as compared to the ground group. In the present paper, a quick and simple appraising method is offered, which may be of great significance to the popularization of the planting outer space Chinese traditional medicine to filtrate more excellent breed and set up norm of quality appraisal.

  10. Effect of gamma irradiation on sperm activity, sperm viability and adult competitiveness of the pulse beetle Collosobruchus Chinensis L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roushdy, H.M.; Ahmed, M.Y.Y.; Abdel-Nasr, A.E.; Abdel-Rahman, A.M.; Haiba, I.M.H.

    1984-01-01

    When mature pupae of callosobruchus chinensis L. were treated with 7 krad, the resulting adults were sterile. Replacing normal males by irradiate ones in the normal population, decreases the egg hatchability. Hatchability decreased from 88.23% in the 1st 3 days to 32.44% after replacing normal males by sterile ones (in the 2nd 3 days). Insemination by normal males could approximately nullify insemination by irradiated males, as the egg hatchability increased from zero to 37.79% even after replacing the irradiated males by normal ones. Percent egg infertility of the eggs produced from newly emerged virgin females mated with sterile males was 100%. When males irradiated (1) with 7 krad as fully grown pupae were confined with unirradiated (U) males and females (1:1:1 ratio), infertility of the resulting eggs were 44.98%. The competitiveness value of irradiated males was 0.54. Males and females both treated as fully grown pupae with a sterilizing dose (7 krad) and confined with U males and U females at a 1 male :1 female :U male : female ratio caused 55.77% infertility in the resulting eggs. When the ratio of sterile males and females was increased to 5:5:1:1 or 10:10:1:1, the infertility reached 91.27% and 100.0% respectively. The percentage of actual infertility was less than expected for the ratios 1:1:1:1 and 5:5:1:1, but it was exceeded with the highest ratio used (10:10:1:1). The competitiveness value for this flooding ratio was 1.00 i.e., the sterile adults were fully competitive with the normal ones. These results indicated that irradiation with 7 krad, a sterilizing dose, did not decrease sexual competitiveness of adults. Also, the release of 1 males together with 1 female could give good results in controlling a population of the pulse beetle in an autocidal control program; and therefore, separation of the sexes prior to release is probably unnecessary

  11. The EDTA effect on phytoextraction of single and combined metals-contaminated soils using rainbow pink (Dianthus chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hung-Yu; Chen, Zueng-Sang

    2005-08-01

    Rainbow pink (Dianthus chinensis), a potential phytoextraction plant, can accumulate high concentrations of Cd from metal-contaminated soils. The soils used in this study were artificially added with different metals including (1) CK: original soil, (2) Cd-treated soil: 10 mg Cd kg(-1), (3) Zn-treated soil: 100 mg Zn kg(-1), (4) Pb-treated soil: 1000 mg Pb kg(-1), (5) Cd-Zn-treated soil: 10 mg Cd kg(-1) and 100 mg Zn kg(-1), (6) Cd-Pb-treated soil: 10 mg Cd kg(-1) and 1000 mg Pb kg(-1), (7) Zn-Pb-treated soil: 100 mg Zn kg(-1) and 1000 mg Pb kg(-1), and (8) Cd-Zn-Pb-treated soil: 10 mg Cd kg(-1), 100 mg Zn kg(-1), and 1000 mg Pb kg(-1). Three concentrations of 2Na-EDTA solutions (0 (control), 2, and 5 mmol kg(-1) soil) were added to the different metals-treated soils to study the influence of applied EDTA on single and combined metals-contaminated soils phytoextraction using rainbow pink. The results showed that the Cd, Zn, Pb, Fe, or Mn concentrations in different metals-treated soil solutions significantly increased after applying 5 mmol EDTA kg(-1) (p<0.05). The metal concentrations in different metals-treated soils extracted by deionized water also significantly increased after applying 5 mmol EDTA kg(-1) (p<0.05). Because of the high extraction capacity of both 0.005 M DTPA (pH 5.3) and 0.05 M EDTA (pH 7.0), applying EDTA did not significantly increase the Cd, Zn, or Pb concentration in both extracts for most of the treatments. Applying EDTA solutions can significantly increase the Cd and Pb concentrations in the shoots of rainbow pink (p<0.05). However, this was not statistically significant for Zn because of the low Zn concentration added into the contaminated soils. The results from this study indicate that applying 5 mmol EDTA kg(-1) can significantly increase the Cd, Zn, or Pb concentrations both in the soil solution or extracted using deionized water in single or combined metals-contaminated soils, thus increasing the accumulated metals concentrations in

  12. Schisandra chinensis Protects the Skin from Global Pollution by Inflammatory and Redox Balance Pathway Modulations: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwige Ranouille

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological results show that airborne particulate matter (PM induces health alterations in line with pulmonary and cardiovascular pathologies. Deleterious effects of PM on the skin have also been investigated. A possible approach to prevent Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS-mediated disorders for both preventive and treatment means is based on the use of substances, which can be found in plants. These can act as secondary metabolites, and lignans are a promising candidate. Thus, the objective of this study was firstly to identify reconstructed human epidermis, using a transcriptomic approach, and also to identify the effects of Urban Dust and of Urban Dust and Schisandra chinensis (S.C. extract on the expression of genes that are involved in the response to cellular protection mechanisms. Secondly, we examined the effect of an active extract from S.C. on the protection of human keratinocytes damages that were caused by pollution, through the evaluation of Nrf2 and AhR pathways, NF-kB, and DJ-1. Urban Dust included the over-expression of metalloproteinases MMP-1 and MMP-9 and an increase in Glutathione peroxidase 2 (GPX2. In the presence of Urban Dust, S.C. extract activated the over-expression of several genes that are involved in the antioxidant response and in the detoxification pathway, including Ferritin light chain (FTL and GPX2. Exposure to urban dust activated the cytoplasmic expression of NF-kB and AhR, when compared to the control. Co-treatment of Urban Dust and S.C. extract increased DJ-1 protein levels, Nrf2 expression, and decreased AhR and NF-kB in the cytoplasm. At the same time, this co-treatment increased SOD2 expression (50%: p < 0.001 and catalase activity (120%: p < 0.05, when compared to Urban Dust alone. Thus, S.C. might be able to protect the Normal Human Epidermal Keratinocytes (NHEK from environmental aggression, by fighting the harmful effects of urban pollution.

  13. Complete nucleotide sequence of the Coturnix chinensis (blue-breasted quail) mitochondrial genome and a phylogenetic analysis with related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishibori, M; Tsudzuki, M; Hayashi, T; Yamamoto, Y; Yasue, H

    2002-01-01

    Coturnix chinensis (blue-breasted quail) has been classically grouped in Galliformes Phasianidae Coturnix, based on morphologic features and biochemical evidence. Since the blue-breasted quail has the smallest body size among the species of Galliformes, in addition to a short generation time and an excellent reproductive performance, it is a possible model fowl for breeding and physiological studies of the Coturnix japonica (Japanese quail) and Gallus gallus domesticus (chicken), which are classified in the same family as blue-breasted quail. However, since its phylogenetic position in the family Phasianidae has not been determined conclusively, the sequence of the entire blue-breasted quail mitochondria (mt) genome was obtained to provide genetic information for phylogenetic analysis in the present study. The blue-breasted quail mtDNA was found to be a circular DNA of 16,687 base pairs (bp) with the same genomic structure as the mtDNAs of Japanese quail and chicken, though it is smaller than Japanese quail and chicken mtDNAs by 10 bp and 88 bp, respectively. The sequence identity of all mitochondrial genes, including those for 12S and 16S ribosomal RNAs, between blue-breasted quail and Japanese quail ranged from 84.5% to 93.5%; between blue-breasted quail and chicken, sequence identity ranged from 78.0% to 89.6%. In order to obtain information on the phylogenetic position of blue-breasted quail in Galliformes Phasianidae, the 2,184 bp sequence comprising NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 and cytochrome b genes available for eight species in Galliformes [Japanese quail, chicken, Gallus varius (green junglefowl), Bambusicola thoracica (Chinese bamboo partridge), Pavo cristatus (Indian peafowl), Perdix perdix (gray partridge), Phasianus colchicus (ring-neck pheasant), and Tympanchus phasianellus (sharp-tailed grouse)] together with that of Aythya americana (redhead) were examined using a maximum likelihood (ML) method. The ML analyses on the first/second codon positions

  14. Effects of Coptis chinensis decoction on the metabolic index and renal protection in rats with metabolism syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-qing CHEN

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the protective effects of Coptis chinensis decoction on the metabolic index and renal function of rats with fructose-induced metabolism syndrome (MS. Methods From 56 male Wistar rats, 6 were randomly selected as normal control group, the other rats were daily fed with 10% fructose water for 8 weeks to reproduce the MS model. Twenty-four rats were established successfully as MS model and randomly divided into 4 groups (6 each: model group, Coptis decoction group, tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA group and berberine hydrochloride (BH group. The body weight, visceral fat weight, fasting blood glucose (FBG, fasting insulin (FINS, insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR, cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosidase (NAG, urine microalbumin (m-ALB, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and serum creatinine (Scr levels were compared between the groups, and the renal pathological changes were observed by light microscopy and electron microscopy. Results The levels of body weight, visceral fat weight, FINS, HOMA- IR, TC, TG, SBP, DBP and urinary NAG were obviously higher in the four MS model groups than in normal control group (P0.05. After the intervention, the levels of body weight, visceral fat weight, FINS, HOMA-IR, TC, TG, SBP and DBP decreased significantly in Coptis decoction group than in model group (P0.05. It was observed in model group by light microscopy and electron microscopy that the glomerular swelled obviously, the capillary basement membrane of glomerular and renal tubules thickened, mesangial region and interstitial substances hyperplasia, podocytes swelled markedly and most of fusion, the epithelial cells of renal tubules serious vacuolar degeneration, and a lot of secondary lysosomes formed, autophagy of organelles occurred, and most of endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria disappeared. The kidney pathological damage reduced obviously after

  15. Effects of Heavy Metals from Soil and Dust Source on DNA Damage of the Leymus chinensis Leaves in Coal-Mining Area in Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianxin; Zhang, Minjie; Lu, Zhongming; Herman, Uwizeyimana; Mumbengegwi, Dzivaidzo; Crittenden, John

    2016-01-01

    Air and soil pollution from mining activities has been considered as a critical issue to the health of living organisms. However, few efforts have been made in distinguishing the main pathway of organism genetic damage by heavy metals related to mining activities. Therefore, we investigated the genetic damage of Leymus chinensis leaf cells, the air particulate matter (PM) contents, and concentrations of the main heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Hg) in soil and foliar dust samples collected from seven experiment points at the core mining area and one control point 20 kilometers away from the core mining area in Inner Mongolia in 2013. Comet assay was used to test the genetic damage of the Leymus chinensis leaf cells; the Tail DNA% and Tail Moment were used to characterize the genetic damage degree of the plant cells. The comet assay results showed that the cell genetic damage ratio was up to 77.0% in experiment points but was only 35.0% in control point. The control point also had the slight Tail DNA% and Tail Moment values than other experiment groups. The cell damage degree of the control group was 0.935 and experiment groups were 1.299-1.815. The geo-accumulation index and comperehensive pollution index(CPI) were used to characterize heavy metal pollution in foliar dust samples, and single factor pollution index and CPI were used to characterize the heavy metal pollution in soil samples. The CPIfoliar dust of control group was 0.36 and experiment groups were 1.45-2.57; the CPIsoil of control group was 0.04 and experiment groups were 0.07-0.12. The results of correlation analyze showed that Air Quality Index (AQI) -CPIfoliar dust(r = 0.955**)>Damage degree-CPIfoliar dust(r = 0.923**)>Damage degree-AQI(r = 0.908**)>Damage degree-CPIsoil (r = 0.824*). The present research proved that mining activity had a high level of positive correlation with organism genetic damage caused by heavy metals through comparing with the control point; soil and atmosphere were both the

  16. Determination of hyperin in seed of Cuscuta chinensis Lam. by enhanced chemiluminescence of CdTe quantum dots on calcein/K3Fe(CN)6 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jing; Li, Xuwen; Geng, Jiayang; Han, Lu; Tang, Jieli; Jin, Yongri; Zhang, Yihua

    2012-10-15

    In this paper, 3-mercaptocarboxylic acid (MPA) modified CdTe quantum dots (QDs) were used as sensitizers, to enhance the chemiluminescence (CL) of the calcein/K(3)Fe(CN)(6) system. A new CL system of CdTe/calcein/K(3)Fe(CN)(6) was developed. The effects of reactant concentrations and the particle sizes of CdTe QDs on the CL emission were investigated in detail. The possible enhancement mechanism of the CL was also further investigated based on the photoluminescence (PL) and CL spectra. Polyphenols such as chlorogenic acid, quercetin, hyperin, catechin and kaempferol, were observed to inhibit the CL signal of the CdTe/calcein/K(3)Fe(CN)(6) system and determined by the proposed method. The proposed method was applied to the determination of hyperin in seed of Cuscuta chinensis Lam. and the results obtained were satisfactory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Effect of total flavones from Cuscuta chinensis on expression of Fas/FasL, PCNA and HB-EGF in SD rats model with bromocriptine-induced abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hong-Xia; You, Zhao-Ling; Wang, Xiao-Yun

    2008-11-01

    To explore the effect of total flavones from cuscuta chinensis (TFCC) on expression of Fas, PCNA and HB-EGF in SD rats model with bromocriptine-induced abortion. The model rats of bromocriptine during 6-8 d of pregnancy induced early abortion was established, adopting respectively herbs in high and low dosage and progesterone affect model rat and after 12 d, Immunohistochemical was applied to determine Fas, HB-EGF and PCNA in deciduas and placenta. Expression of PCNA on trophoblast and deciduas, HB-EGF on trophoblast, PR on deciduas in the model used Semen cuscutae flavonoid, proesterone and normal pregnacy, were significantlly higher than those of the pure model. Expression of Fas on trophoblast and deciduas in above four groups, were significantlly lower than those of the pure model. There were no expression of HB-EGF on deciduas. TFCC regulates the proliferation and apoptosis of the deciduas and cytotrophoblasts and prevents spontaneous abortions.

  18. Effect of Schizandra chinensis lignans on cell division in the corneal epithelium and tongue of albino rats exposed to chronic cold stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mel'nik, E.I.; Lupandin, A.V.; Timoshin, S.S.

    1985-01-01

    The authors study the possibility of correcting cellular manifestations of disadaptation following chronic exposure to cold stress by means of preparations of Sch. chinensis. The model of chronic stress was cooling male albino rats daily for 1.5 h to a temperature of 28-30 C for 28 days. Since differences between levels of proliferation in intact animals and in the rats receiving 1.9% ethanol solution were absent, values obtained in the group of intact animals are presented in a table as the control. The animals underwent euthanasia 48 hours after the final exposure to the cold. The rats received an injection of tritium-thymidine one hour before sacrifice. It is shown that the results confirm those in previous studies of stimulation of DNA synthesis and mitotic activity in the corneal and lingual epithelium of albino rats during chronic exposure to stress

  19. Appetite and Gut Hormones Response to a Putative α-Glucosidase Inhibitor, Salacia Chinensis, in Overweight/Obese Adults: A Double Blind Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lihong; Schlussel, Yvette; Fieselmann, Krista; Schneider, Stephen H; Shapses, Sue A

    2017-08-12

    Animal studies indicate Salacia reduces body weight, possibly due to its α-glucosidase inhibitor (α-GI) properties, but this has not been examined previously. In this study, a randomized, placebo-controlled, three-way cross-over design was used to evaluate whether Salacia Chinensis (SC) reduces appetite in healthy overweight/obese individuals (body mass index 28.8 ±3.6 kg/m²; 32 ± 12 years). Forty-eight participants were fasted overnight and consumed a dose of SC (300 or 500 mg) or placebo with a fixed breakfast meal at each visit. Appetite sensations, glycemic indices and gastrointestinal peptides were measured. Results indicated that SC had no effect on postprandial appetite. However, in women, hunger was reduced by SC compared to placebo at multiple time points (300 mg; p appetite modulator.

  20. Silicon-enhanced resistance to cadmium toxicity in Brassica chinensis L. is attributed to Si-suppressed cadmium uptake and transport and Si-enhanced antioxidant defense capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Alin [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Li Zhaojun [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Crop Nutrition and Fertilization, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang Jie [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Xue Gaofeng; Fan Fenliang [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Crop Nutrition and Fertilization, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Liang Yongchao, E-mail: ycliang@caas.ac.cn [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Crop Nutrition and Fertilization, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Key Laboratory of Oasis Eco-Agriculture, College of Agriculture, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832003 (China)

    2009-12-15

    A series of hydroponics experiments were performed to investigate roles of silicon (Si) in enhancing cadmium (Cd) tolerance in two pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.) cultivars: i.e. cv. Shanghaiqing, a Cd-sensitive cultivar, and cv. Hangyoudong, a Cd-tolerant cultivar. Plants were grown under 0.5 and 5 mg Cd L{sup -1} Cd stress without or with 1.5 mM Si. Plant growth of the Cd-tolerant cultivar was stimulated at the lower Cd level, but was decreased at the higher Cd level when plants were treated with Cd for one week. However, Plant growth was severely inhibited at both Cd levels as stress duration lasted for up to three weeks. Plant growth of the Cd-sensitive cultivar was severely inhibited at both Cd levels irrespective of Cd stress duration. Addition of Si increased shoot and root biomass of both cultivars at both Cd levels and decreased Cd uptake and root-to-shoot transport. Superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities decreased, but malondialdehyde and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrations increased at the higher Cd level, which were counteracted by Si added. Ascorbic acid, glutathione and non-protein thiols concentrations increased at the higher Cd level, which were further intensified by addition of Si. The effects of Si and Cd on the antioxidant enzyme activity were further verified by isoenzyme analysis. Silicon was more effective in enhancing Cd tolerance in the Cd-tolerant cultivar than in the Cd-sensitive cultivar. It can be concluded that Si-enhanced Cd tolerance in B. chinensis is attributed mainly to Si-suppressed Cd uptake and root-to-shoot Cd transport and Si-enhanced antioxidant defense activity.

  1. Anti-fibrotic effects of Cuscuta chinensis with in vitro hepatic stellate cells and a thioacetamide-induced experimental rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Seoub; Koppula, Sushruta; Yum, Mun Jeong; Shin, Gwang Mo; Chae, Yun Jin; Hong, Seok Min; Lee, Jae Dong; Song, MinDong

    2017-12-01

    Cuscuta chinensis Lam. (Convolvulaceae) has been used as a traditional herbal remedy for treating liver and kidney disorders. Anti-fibrotic effects of C. chinensis extract (CCE) in cellular and experimental animal models were investigated. HSC-T6 cell viability, cell cycle and apoptosis were analysed using MTT assay, flow cytometry and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining techniques. Thioacetamide (TAA)-induced fibrosis model was established using Sprague Dawley rats (n = 10). Control, TAA, CCE 10 (TAA with CCE 10 mg/kg), CCE 100 (TAA with CCE 100 mg/kg) and silymarin (TAA with silymarin 50 mg/kg). Fibrosis was induced by TAA (200 mg/kg, i.p.) twice per week for 13 weeks. CCE and silymarin were administered orally two times per week from the 7th to 13th week. Fibrotic related gene expression (α-SMA, Col1α1 and TGF-β1) was measured by RT-PCR. Serum biomarkers, glutathione (GSH) and hydroxyproline were estimated by spectrophotometer using commercial kits. CCE (0.05 and 0.1 mg/mL) and silymarin (0.05 mg/mL) treatment significantly (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001) induced apoptosis (11.56%, 17.52% for CCE; 16.50% for silymarin, respectively) in activated HSC-T6 cells, compared with control group (7.26%). Further, rat primary HSCs showed changes in morphology with CCE 0.1 mg/mL treatment. In in vivo studies, CCE (10 and 100 mg/kg) treatment ameliorated the TAA-induced altered levels of serum biomarkers, fibrotic related gene expression, GSH, hydroxyproline significantly (p < 0.05-0.001) and rescued the histopathological changes. CCE can be developed as a potential agent in the treatment of hepatofibrosis.

  2. Investigation of the effective components of the flowers of Trollius chinensis from the perspectives of intestinal bacterial transformation and intestinal absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lina; Qiao, Shanshan; Hu, Junhong; Li, Deli; Zheng, Shiqi; Shi, Duozhi; Liu, Junxiu; Wang, Rufeng

    2017-12-01

    The flowers of Trollius chinensis Bunge (Ranunculaceae), used for respiratory tract infections, mainly contain flavonoids, phenolic acids, and alkaloids; however, the effective components are debatable because of their unclear in vivo activities. This study investigates the effective components from the perspectives of biotransformation and absorption. Both single person derived- and multiple people-derived intestinal florae were used to investigate the biotransformation of aqueous extract of the flowers of T. chinensis (AEOF) at the concentrations of 15.0, 30.0, and 60.0 mg/mL, respectively, for 72 h. Both human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (Caco-2) monolayers and everted gut sacs were employed to evaluate the intestinal absorption of the intestinal bacterial transformed AEOF at the concentrations of 10, 20, and 30 mg/mL, respectively, for 180 min. 2″-O-β-l-Galactopyranosylorientin, orientin, vitexin, quercetin, veratric acid, proglobeflowery acid, and trolline in AEOF were not transformed by intestinal bacteria, while isoquercetin and trollioside were completely transformed. The P app values of 2″-O-β-l-galactopyranosylorientin, orientin, and vitexin calculated based on the experimental data of intestinal absorption were at the levels of 10 -5 , whereas those of veratric acid, proglobeflowery acid, and trolline were at 10 -4 . The mass ratio of flavonoids to phenolic acids to alkaloids changed from 16:10:7 to 9:12:8 before and after absorption. The dominant position of flavonoids was replaced by phenolic acids after absorption. In addition to flavonoids which are usually considered as the dominant effective ones, phenolic acids and alkaloids should be also very important for the efficacy of these flowers.

  3. [Development of an automatic vacuum liquid chromatographic device and its application in the separation of the components from Schisandra chinensis (Turz) Baill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jingbo; Liu, Baoyue; Shan, Shibo; Ding, Yanl; Kou, Zinong; Xiao, Wei

    2015-08-01

    In order to meet the needs of efficient purification of products from natural resources, this paper developed an automatic vacuum liquid chromatographic device (AUTO-VLC) and applied it to the component separation of petroleum ether extracts of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz) Baill. The device was comprised of a solvent system, a 10-position distribution valve, a 3-position changes valve, dynamic axis compress chromatographic columns with three diameters, and a 10-position fraction valve. The programmable logic controller (PLC) S7- 200 was adopted to realize the automatic control and monitoring of the mobile phase changing, column selection, separation time setting and fraction collection. The separation results showed that six fractions (S1-S6) of different chemical components from 100 g Schisandra chinensis (Turcz) Baill. petroleum ether phase were obtained by the AUTO-VLC with 150 mm diameter dynamic axis compress chromatographic column. A new method used for the VLC separation parameters screened by using multiple development TLC was developed and confirmed. The initial mobile phase of AUTO-VLC was selected by taking Rf of all the target compounds ranging from 0 to 0.45 for fist development on the TLC; gradient elution ratio was selected according to k value (the slope of the linear function of Rf value and development times on the TLC) and the resolution of target compounds; elution times (n) were calculated by the formula n ≈ ΔRf/k. A total of four compounds with the purity more than 85% and 13 other components were separated from S5 under the selected conditions for only 17 h. Therefore, the development of the automatic VLC and its method are significant to the automatic and systematic separation of traditional Chinese medicines.

  4. Total Lignans of Schisandra chinensis Ameliorates Aβ1-42-Induced Neurodegeneration with Cognitive Impairment in Mice and Primary Mouse Neuronal Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zhao

    Full Text Available Lignan compounds extracted from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz. Baill. have been reported to possess various biological activities, and have potential in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. This study was designed to investigate the effects of total lignans of Schisandra chinensis (TLS on cognitive function and neurodegeneration in the model of AD induced by Aβ1-42 in vivo and in vitro. It was found that intragastric infusion with TLS (50 and 200 mg/kg to Aβ1-42-induced mice significantly increased the number of avoidances in the shuttle-box test and swimming time in the target quadrant in the Morris water maze test. TLS at dose of 200 mg/kg significantly restored the activities of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC, as well as the level of malondialdehyde (MDA both in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex in mice. Results of histopathological examination indicated that TLS noticeably ameliorated the neurodegeneration in the hippocampus in mice. On the other hand, TLS (100 μM could protect the Aβ1-42-induced primary mouse neuronal cells by blocking the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, change the expressions of Bcl-2 (important regulator in the mitochondria apoptosis pathway. Moreover, TLS also decreased the activity of β-secretase 1 (BACE1, crucial protease contributes to the hydrolysis of amyloid precursor protein (APP, and inhibited the expression of JKN/p38, which involved in the MAPKs signaling pathways in both mice and primary mouse neuronal cells. In summary, TLS might protect against cognitive deficits and neurodegeneration by releasing the damage of oxidative stress, inhibiting the expression of BACE1 and the MAPKs inflammatory signaling pathways.

  5. Silicon-enhanced resistance to cadmium toxicity in Brassica chinensis L. is attributed to Si-suppressed cadmium uptake and transport and Si-enhanced antioxidant defense capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Alin; Li Zhaojun; Zhang Jie; Xue Gaofeng; Fan Fenliang; Liang Yongchao

    2009-01-01

    A series of hydroponics experiments were performed to investigate roles of silicon (Si) in enhancing cadmium (Cd) tolerance in two pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.) cultivars: i.e. cv. Shanghaiqing, a Cd-sensitive cultivar, and cv. Hangyoudong, a Cd-tolerant cultivar. Plants were grown under 0.5 and 5 mg Cd L -1 Cd stress without or with 1.5 mM Si. Plant growth of the Cd-tolerant cultivar was stimulated at the lower Cd level, but was decreased at the higher Cd level when plants were treated with Cd for one week. However, Plant growth was severely inhibited at both Cd levels as stress duration lasted for up to three weeks. Plant growth of the Cd-sensitive cultivar was severely inhibited at both Cd levels irrespective of Cd stress duration. Addition of Si increased shoot and root biomass of both cultivars at both Cd levels and decreased Cd uptake and root-to-shoot transport. Superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities decreased, but malondialdehyde and H 2 O 2 concentrations increased at the higher Cd level, which were counteracted by Si added. Ascorbic acid, glutathione and non-protein thiols concentrations increased at the higher Cd level, which were further intensified by addition of Si. The effects of Si and Cd on the antioxidant enzyme activity were further verified by isoenzyme analysis. Silicon was more effective in enhancing Cd tolerance in the Cd-tolerant cultivar than in the Cd-sensitive cultivar. It can be concluded that Si-enhanced Cd tolerance in B. chinensis is attributed mainly to Si-suppressed Cd uptake and root-to-shoot Cd transport and Si-enhanced antioxidant defense activity.

  6. THE EFFECT OF LIGHT COLOUR ON THE DIEL RHYTHM OF OXYGEN CONSUMPTION RATE IN JUVENILE CHINESE SHRIMP, FENNEROPENAEUS CHINENSIS%光色对中国明对虾(Fenneropenaeus chinensis)稚虾耗氧率昼夜变化节律的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 王芳; 钟大森; 黄国强

    2011-01-01

    The effect of light colour on the diel rhythm of the oxygen consumption rate in ju venile Fenneropenaeus chinensis with average wet body weight of (5. 507 ±0. 147)g was ex amined under a flowing water apparatus at 25. 0±0. 5℃, and the four light colours were: natural light (590nm), yellow light (580nm), green light (525 nm), and blue light (435nm) . Respectively. The results were as follows: 1 under natural light, yellow light, and green light, the oxygen consumption rate of F. Chinensis showed definite diel rhythm, the positive peak appeared at dark condition, while the negative peak appeared at illumination condition. Mean oxygen consumption rate of F. Chinensis at dark condition was significantly higher than that at illumination one (P0. 05), but the diurnal mean oxygen consumption rate of F. Chinensis under natural light was significantly lower than that under blue light treatment.%采用流水装置测定了中国明对虾(Fenneropenaeus chinensis)稚虾在4种先色处理下耗氧率的昼夜变化.实验设四种光色处理,分别为自然光(590nm)、黄光(580nm)、绿光(525 nm)和蓝光(435nm),光照周期为14L:10D,水温为25.0±0.5℃,实验虾的规格为(5.507±0.147)g.主要实验结果如下:1、在自然光、黄光和绿光下,中国明对虾耗氧率的昼夜波动较大,对虾耗氧率的高峰出现在夜间,低谷出现在日间,且对虾在夜间的平均耗氧率显著高于日间(P<0.05);在蓝光下,中国明对虾耗氧率的昼夜波动较小,对虾耗氧率的高峰出现在日间,低谷出现在夜间,且对虾在夜间和日间的平均耗氧率差异不显著(P>0.05);2、在自然光、黄光和绿光下,中国明对虾的日平均耗氧率差异不昱著(P>0.05),而对虾日平均耗氧率在蓝光和自然光下的差异显著(P<0.05).

  7. Callosobruchus chinensis L

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gemechu Keneni Wakeyo

    2006). Ethiopia, with a total area of 194981 ha and a productivity of 1.19 tons per hectare, contributes 46% of the total ... al., 2006; Chen et al., 2007; Somta et al., 2006, 2007,. 2008). ...... Banzinger, M., Mickelson, H.R. and Pena-Valdivia,.

  8. Determination of Alkaloid Contents in Various Tissues of Coptis Chinensis Franch. by Reversed Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanfang; Peng, Jingling; Li, Fangping; Liu, Xin; Deng, Meng; Wu, Hezhen

    2017-05-01

    A simple and intuitive method for optimizing the chemical constituents of Coptis Chinensis Franch. is important to assess its quality and clinical efficacy. An high performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet spectrophotometry method was developed for the determination of berberine hydrochloride, palmatine chloride, jatrorrhizine hydrochloride, epiberberine, coptisine, columbamine and magnoflorine in various tissues (i.e., phloem, xylem and medulla) and rizhome of C. Chinensis Franch. The transection of rhizome from outside-in includes cork layer, cortex, phloem, cambium, xylem and medulla. Cork layer consists of dead cells, and therefore is not of any research significance. Cortex, phloem and cambium were almost impossible to separate, therefore they were studied as a whole in our experiments. They were collectively referred to as "phloem". The analytes were separated on a Gemini-NX C18 (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) reversed phase column using a gradient elution of acetonitrile-0.03 mol/L ammonium acetate solution (containing 0.1% triethylamine and 0.6% ammonium hydroxide) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and UV detection at 270 nm. The method allowing the simultaneous quantification of seven major active constituents was optimized and validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, limits of detection (LOD) and quantification. The LOD ranged from 0.102 to 0.651 mg/mL (r ≥ 0.9993). Accuracy, precision and recovery were all within the required limits. The average recovery was between 100.14% and 102.75% and the relative standard deviations were spectrophotometry at 345 nm wavelength. Based on contents of the seven constituents and clustering result, this investigation suggests that there are significant differences in the distribution of seven alkaloids in the tissues examined. Furthermore, the total alkaloid content in xylem is relatively lower than that in phloem, medulla and rhizome. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All

  9. Molecular Cloning and mRNA Expression of Heat Shock Protein Genes and Their Response to Cadmium Stress in the Grasshopper Oxya chinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuping Zhang

    Full Text Available Heat shock proteins (Hsps are highly conserved molecular chaperones that are synthesized in response to stress. In this study, we cloned the full-length sequences of the Grp78 (glucose-regulated protein 78, Hsp70, Hsp90, and Hsp40 genes from the Chinese rice grasshopper Oxya chinensis. The full-length cDNA sequences of OcGrp78, OcHsp70, OcHsp90, and OcHsp40 contain open reading frames of 1947, 1920, 2172, and 1042 bp that encode proteins of 649, 640, 724, and 347 amino acids, respectively. Fluorescent real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR was performed to quantify the relative transcript levels of these Hsp genes in different tissues and developmental stages. The mRNAs encoding these four Hsp genes were present at all developmental stages and in all tissues examined but were expressed at varying levels. Additionally, we investigated the mRNA expression profiles of these four Hsps in O. chinensis subjected to Cadmium (Cd stress. OcGrp78, OcHsp70, OcHsp90, and OcHsp40 mRNA expression was induced under acute Cd stress; the levels reached a maximum within a short time (6 h, were reduced significantly at 12 h, and were lowered to or below control levels by 48 h. Regarding induction efficiency, OcHsp70 was the most sensitive gene to acute Cd stress. Chronic Cd exposure showed that dietary Cd treatment induced increased OcGrp78, OcHsp90, and OcHsp40 expression. However, dietary Cd induced a significant reduction of OcHsp70 expression. In the period tested, no significant difference in the mortality of the grasshoppers was observed. Our results suggest that these four Hsps genes, especially OcHsp70, are sensitive to acute Cd stress and could be used as molecular markers for toxicology studies. However, our results also indicate that OcHsp70 is not suitable for use as a molecular marker of chronic Cd contamination.

  10. Molecular Cloning and mRNA Expression of Heat Shock Protein Genes and Their Response to Cadmium Stress in the Grasshopper Oxya chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuping; Liu, Yaoming; Zhang, Jianzhen; Guo, Yaping; Ma, Enbo

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are highly conserved molecular chaperones that are synthesized in response to stress. In this study, we cloned the full-length sequences of the Grp78 (glucose-regulated protein 78), Hsp70, Hsp90, and Hsp40 genes from the Chinese rice grasshopper Oxya chinensis. The full-length cDNA sequences of OcGrp78, OcHsp70, OcHsp90, and OcHsp40 contain open reading frames of 1947, 1920, 2172, and 1042 bp that encode proteins of 649, 640, 724, and 347 amino acids, respectively. Fluorescent real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was performed to quantify the relative transcript levels of these Hsp genes in different tissues and developmental stages. The mRNAs encoding these four Hsp genes were present at all developmental stages and in all tissues examined but were expressed at varying levels. Additionally, we investigated the mRNA expression profiles of these four Hsps in O. chinensis subjected to Cadmium (Cd) stress. OcGrp78, OcHsp70, OcHsp90, and OcHsp40 mRNA expression was induced under acute Cd stress; the levels reached a maximum within a short time (6 h), were reduced significantly at 12 h, and were lowered to or below control levels by 48 h. Regarding induction efficiency, OcHsp70 was the most sensitive gene to acute Cd stress. Chronic Cd exposure showed that dietary Cd treatment induced increased OcGrp78, OcHsp90, and OcHsp40 expression. However, dietary Cd induced a significant reduction of OcHsp70 expression. In the period tested, no significant difference in the mortality of the grasshoppers was observed. Our results suggest that these four Hsps genes, especially OcHsp70, are sensitive to acute Cd stress and could be used as molecular markers for toxicology studies. However, our results also indicate that OcHsp70 is not suitable for use as a molecular marker of chronic Cd contamination.

  11. Biochemical and functional characterization of AcUFGT3a, a galactosyltransferase involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in the red-fleshed kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanfei; Zhou, Bin; Qi, Yingwei; Liu, Cuihua; Liu, Zhande; Ren, Xiaolin

    2018-04-01

    Much of the diversity of anthocyanin pigmentation in plant tissues is due to the action of glycosyltransferases, which attach sugar moieties to the anthocyanin aglycone. This step can increase both their solubility and stability. We investigated the pigmentation of the outer and inner pericarps of developing fruits of the red-fleshed kiwifruit Actinidia chinensis cv. 'Hongyang'. The results show that the red color of the inner pericarp is due to anthocyanin. Based on expression analyses of structural genes, AcUFGT was shown to be the key gene involved in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. Expression of AcUFGT in developing fruit paralleled changes in anthocyanin concentration. Thirteen putative UFGT genes, including different transcripts, were identified in the genome of 'Hongyang'. Among these, only the expression of AcUFGT3a was found to be highly consistent with anthocyanin accumulation. Fruit infiltrated with virus-induced gene silencing showed delayed red colorations, lower anthocyanin contents and lower expressions of AcUFGT3a. At the same time, transient overexpression of AcUFGT3a in both Actinidia arguta and green apple fruit resulted in higher anthocyanin contents and deeper red coloration. In vitro biochemical assays revealed that recombinant AcUFGT3a recognized only anthocyanidins as substrate but not flavonols. Also, UDP-galactose was used preferentially as the sugar donor. These results indicate AcUFGT3a is the key enzyme regulating anthocyanin accumulation in red-fleshed kiwifruit. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  12. Phytoavailability of cadmium (Cd) to Pak choi (Brassica chinensis L.) grown in Chinese soils: a model to evaluate the impact of soil Cd pollution on potential dietary toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq; Aziz, Rukhsanda; Yang, Xiaoe; Xiao, Wendan; Stoffella, Peter J; Saghir, Aamir; Azam, Muhammad; Li, Tingqiang

    2014-01-01

    Food chain contamination by soil cadmium (Cd) through vegetable consumption poses a threat to human health. Therefore, an understanding is needed on the relationship between the phytoavailability of Cd in soils and its uptake in edible tissues of vegetables. The purpose of this study was to establish soil Cd thresholds of representative Chinese soils based on dietary toxicity to humans and develop a model to evaluate the phytoavailability of Cd to Pak choi (Brassica chinensis L.) based on soil properties. Mehlich-3 extractable Cd thresholds were more suitable for Stagnic Anthrosols, Calcareous, Ustic Cambosols, Typic Haplustalfs, Udic Ferrisols and Periudic Argosols with values of 0.30, 0.25, 0.18, 0.16, 0.15 and 0.03 mg kg-1, respectively, while total Cd is adequate threshold for Mollisols with a value of 0.86 mg kg-1. A stepwise regression model indicated that Cd phytoavailability to Pak choi was significantly influenced by soil pH, organic matter, total Zinc and Cd concentrations in soil. Therefore, since Cd accumulation in Pak choi varied with soil characteristics, they should be considered while assessing the environmental quality of soils to ensure the hygienically safe food production.

  13. The influence of EDTA application on the interactions of cadmium, zinc, and lead and their uptake of rainbow pink (Dianthus chinensis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, H.-Y.; Chen, Z.-S.

    2006-01-01

    Soil used in this study was artificially contaminated with Cd, Zn, Pb, or applied in combinations (Cd-Zn, Cd-Pb, Zn-Pb, or Cd-Zn-Pb) to study the interactions of metals in soil contaminated with multiple metals. After planting rainbow pink (Dianthus chinensis) in these soils for 21 days, three different concentrations of ethylenedinitrilotetraacetic acid (EDTA) solutions were added to study the effect of applying EDTA on the interactions among these metals. The concentrations of Cd, Zn, and Pb in the soil solutions of different metals-treated soils increased significantly after applying 5 mmol EDTA kg -1 soil (p -1 soil. Cadmium inhibited the concentration of Zn without applying EDTA. However, whether the application of EDTA or not and the applied EDTA concentration had the greatest effect on the uptake of Pb when compared to Cd and Zn. After applying 5 mmol EDTA kg -1 soil, Cd or Zn in the Pb-contaminated soil inhibited the uptake of Pb in rainbow pink, but there were no effect in other treatments

  14. The influence of EDTA application on the interactions of cadmium, zinc, and lead and their uptake of rainbow pink (Dianthus chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hung-Yu; Chen, Zueng-Sang

    2006-10-11

    Soil used in this study was artificially contaminated with Cd, Zn, Pb, or applied in combinations (Cd-Zn, Cd-Pb, Zn-Pb, or Cd-Zn-Pb) to study the interactions of metals in soil contaminated with multiple metals. After planting rainbow pink (Dianthus chinensis) in these soils for 21 days, three different concentrations of ethylenedinitrilotetraacetic acid (EDTA) solutions were added to study the effect of applying EDTA on the interactions among these metals. The concentrations of Cd, Zn, and Pb in the soil solutions of different metals-treated soils increased significantly after applying 5 mmol EDTA kg(-1) soil (p<0.05). The potential of groundwater contamination will increase after applying EDTA and it is not recommended to be in situ used or have to use very carefully. The existence of Pb in the Cd-contaminated soil enhanced the uptake of Cd in rainbow pink in the treatments of control and 2 mmol EDTA kg(-1) soil. Cadmium inhibited the concentration of Zn without applying EDTA. However, whether the application of EDTA or not and the applied EDTA concentration had the greatest effect on the uptake of Pb when compared to Cd and Zn. After applying 5 mmol EDTA kg(-1) soil, Cd or Zn in the Pb-contaminated soil inhibited the uptake of Pb in rainbow pink, but there were no effect in other treatments.

  15. In vitro apoptotic effects of methanol extracts of Dianthus chinensis and Acalypha australis L. targeting specificity protein 1 in human oral cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ji-Ae; Kim, Jae-Jin; Choi, Eun-Sun; Shim, Jung-Hyun; Ryu, Mi Heon; Kwon, Ki Han; Park, Hee-Min; Seo, Jin-Young; Lee, Soo-Yeon; Lim, Do-Won; Cho, Nam-Pyo; Cho, Sung-Dae

    2013-07-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the apoptotic activities and molecular mechanisms of methanol extracts of Dianthus chinensis (MEDC) and Acalypha australis L. (MEAL) in human oral cancer cells. The apoptotic effects and related molecular mechanisms of MEDC and MEAL on oral cancer cells were evaluated using MTS assay, DAPI staining, immunostaining, Western blotting, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Sp1 was overexpressed in oral tumor tissues compared with normal oral mucosa. Downregulation of Sp1 inhibited the growth of SCC-15 and YD-15 oral cancer cells. MEDC and MEAL inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in both cell lines by decreasing the expression of Sp1. In addition, treatment of cells with MEDC and MEAL decreased Mcl-1 expression, which is a downstream target of Sp1. Our results indicate that MEDC and MEAL are bioactive natural products that can potentially induce apoptosis of tumor cells that overexpress the Sp1 protein. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Phytoavailability of Cadmium (Cd) to Pak Choi (Brassica chinensis L.) Grown in Chinese Soils: A Model to Evaluate the Impact of Soil Cd Pollution on Potential Dietary Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoe; Xiao, Wendan; Stoffella, Peter J.; Saghir, Aamir; Azam, Muhammad; Li, Tingqiang

    2014-01-01

    Food chain contamination by soil cadmium (Cd) through vegetable consumption poses a threat to human health. Therefore, an understanding is needed on the relationship between the phytoavailability of Cd in soils and its uptake in edible tissues of vegetables. The purpose of this study was to establish soil Cd thresholds of representative Chinese soils based on dietary toxicity to humans and develop a model to evaluate the phytoavailability of Cd to Pak choi (Brassica chinensis L.) based on soil properties. Mehlich-3 extractable Cd thresholds were more suitable for Stagnic Anthrosols, Calcareous, Ustic Cambosols, Typic Haplustalfs, Udic Ferrisols and Periudic Argosols with values of 0.30, 0.25, 0.18, 0.16, 0.15 and 0.03 mg kg−1, respectively, while total Cd is adequate threshold for Mollisols with a value of 0.86 mg kg−1. A stepwise regression model indicated that Cd phytoavailability to Pak choi was significantly influenced by soil pH, organic matter, total Zinc and Cd concentrations in soil. Therefore, since Cd accumulation in Pak choi varied with soil characteristics, they should be considered while assessing the environmental quality of soils to ensure the hygienically safe food production. PMID:25386790

  17. Streptomyces halophytocola sp. nov., an endophytic actinomycete isolated from the surface-sterilized stems of a coastal halophyte Tamarix chinensis Lour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Sheng; Bian, Guang-Kai; Tamura, Tomohiko; Zhang, Yue-Ji; Zhang, Wen-Di; Cao, Cheng-Liang; Jiang, Ji-Hong

    2013-08-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated KLBMP 1284(T), was isolated from the surface-sterilized stems of a coastal halophyte Tamarix chinensis Lour. collected from the city of Nantong, Jiangsu Province, east China. The strain was found to have morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of members of the genus Streptomyces. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain KLBMP 1284(T) revealed that the strain formed a distinct clade within the phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and the highest sequence similarity (99.43 %) was to Streptomyces sulphureus NRRL B-1627(T). 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to other species of the genus Streptomyces was lower than 97 %. Based on DNA-DNA hybridization values and comparison of morphological and phenotypic data, KLBMP 1284(T) could be distinguished from the closest phylogenetically related species, Streptomyces sulphureus NRRL B-1627(T). Thus, based on these data, it is evident that strain KLBMP 1284(T) represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces halophytocola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KLBMP 1284(T) (= KCTC 19890(T) = NBRC 108770(T)).

  18. [Characteristics of 'salt island' and 'fertile island' for Tamarix chinensis and soil carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus ecological stoichiometry in saline-alkali land].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-hua; Chen, Xiao-bing

    2015-03-01

    To clarify the nutrient characteristics of 'salt island' and 'fertile island' effects in saline-alkali soil, the native Tamarix chinensis of the Yellow River Delta (YRD) was selected to measure its soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (N), total phosphorus (P) and their stoichiometry characteristics at different soil depths. The results showed that soil pH and EC increased with the increasing soil depth. Soil EC and P in the 0-20 cm layer decreased and increased from canopied area to interspace, respectively. SOC, N, N/P and C/P in the 20-40 cm soil layer decreased, and C/N increased from the shrub center to interspace. SOC and N contents between island and interspace both decreased but P content decreased firstly and then increased with the increasing soil depth. Soil pH correlated positively with EC. In addition, pH and EC correlated negatively with C, N, P contents and their ecological stoichiometry.

  19. Preliminary extraction of tannins by 1-butyl-3-methylimidazole bromide and its subsequent removal from Galla chinensis extract using macroporous resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chunxia; Luo, Xiaoling; Lu, Liliang; Li, Hongmin; Chen, Xia; Ji, Yong

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, ionic liquids have become increasingly attractive as 'green solvents' used in the extraction of bioactive compounds from natural plant. However, the separation of ionic liquid from the target compounds was difficult, due to their low vapour pressure and high stabilities. In our study, ionic liquid-based ultrasonic and microwave-assisted extraction was used to obtain the crude tannins, then the macroporous resin adsorption technology was further employed to purify the tannins and remove the ionic liquid from crude extract. The results showed that XDA-6 had higher separation efficiency than other tested resins, and the equilibrium experimental data were well fitted to Langmuir isotherms. Dynamic adsorption and desorption were performed on XDA-6 packed in glass columns to optimise the separation process. The optimum conditions as follows: the ratio of column height to diameter bed was 1:8, flow rate 1 BV/h (bed volume per hour), 85% ethanol was used as eluant while the elution volume was 2 BV. Under the optimised conditions, the adsorption and desoption rate of tannins in XDA-6 were 94.81 and 91.63%, respectively. The content of tannins was increased from 70.24% in Galla chinensis extract to 85.12% with a recovery of 99.06%. The result of ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-MS/MS analysis showed that [bmim]Br could be removed from extract. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. The Impact of Biochar Application on Soil Properties and Plant Growth of Pot Grown Lettuce (Lactuca sativa and Cabbage (Brassica chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Haefele

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of rice-husk char (potentially biochar application on the growth of transplanted lettuce (Lactuca sativa and Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis was assessed in a pot experiment over a three crop (lettuce-cabbage-lettuce cycle in Cambodia. The biochar was the by-product of a rice-husk gasification unit and consisted of 28.7% carbon (C by mass. Biochar application rates to potting medium of 25, 50 and 150 g kg−1 were used with and without locally available fertilizers (a mixture of compost, liquid compost and lake sediment. The rice-husk biochar used was slightly alkaline (pH 7.79, increased the pH of the soil, and contained elevated levels of some trace metals and exchangeable cations (K, Ca and Mg in comparison to the soil. The biochar treatments were found to increase the final biomass, root biomass, plant height and number of leaves in all the cropping cycles in comparison to no biochar treatments. The greatest biomass increase due to biochar additions (903% was found in the soils without fertilization, rather than fertilized soils (483% with the same biochar application as in the “without fertilization” case. Over the cropping cycles the impact was reduced; a 363% increase in biomass was observed in the third lettuce cycle.

  1. Reconstruction of the forehead acoustic properties in an Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis), with investigation on the responses of soft tissue sound velocity to temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhongchang; Zhang, Yu; Berggren, Per; Wei, Chong

    2017-02-01

    Computed tomography (CT) imaging and ultrasound experimental measurements were combined to reconstruct the acoustic properties (density, velocity, and impedance) of the head from a deceased Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis). The authors extracted 42 soft forehead tissue samples to estimate the sound velocity and density properties at room temperature, 25.0  °C. Hounsfield Units (HUs) of the samples were read from CT scans. Linear relationships between the tissues' HUs and velocity, and HUs and density were revealed through regression analyses. The distributions of the head acoustic properties at axial, coronal, and sagittal cross sections were reconstructed, suggesting that the forehead soft tissues were characterized by low-velocity in the melon, high-velocity in the muscle and connective tissues. Further, the sound velocities of melon, muscle, and connective tissue pieces were measured under different temperatures to investigate tissues' velocity response to temperature. The results demonstrated nonlinear relationships between tissues' sound velocity and temperature. This study represents a first attempt to provide general information on acoustic properties of this species. The results could provide meaningful information for understanding the species' bioacoustic characteristics and for further investigation on sound beam formation of the dolphin.

  2. High-Speed Vessel Noises in West Hong Kong Waters and Their Contributions Relative to Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins (Sousa chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Q. Sims

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The waters of West Hong Kong are home to a population of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis that use a variety of sounds to communicate. This area is also dominated by intense vessel traffic that is believed to be behaviorally and acoustically disruptive to dolphins. While behavioral changes have been documented, acoustic disturbance has yet to be shown. We compared the relative sound contributions of various high-speed vessels to nearby ambient noise and dolphin social sounds. Ambient noise levels were also compared between areas of high and low traffic. We found large differences in sound pressure levels between high traffic and no traffic areas, suggesting that vessels are the main contributors to these discrepancies. Vessel sounds were well within the audible range of dolphins, with sounds from 315–45,000 Hz. Additionally, vessel sounds at distances ≥100 m exceeded those of dolphin sounds at closer distances. Our results reaffirm earlier studies that vessels have large sound contributions to dolphin habitats, and we suspect that they may be inducing masking effects of dolphin sounds at close distances. Further research on dolphin behavior and acoustics in relation to vessels is needed to clarify impacts.

  3. A Microwave-Assisted Simultaneous Distillation and Extraction Method for the Separation of Polysaccharides and Essential Oil from the Leaves of Taxus chinensis Var. mairei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjian Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient microwave-assisted simultaneous distillation and extraction (MA-SDE method has been developed for the separation of polysaccharides and essential oil from Taxus chinensis var. mairei. The key operating parameters for MA-SDE were optimized by single factor and central composite design experiments, and the optimal conditions were found to include a particle size of 60–80 mesh, liquid/solid ratio of 22.5 mL/g, extraction time of 17.5 min, microwave power of 547 W, and dichloromethane was used as the extraction solvent of the essential oil. The yields obtained for polysaccharides and essential oil under the optimized conditions were 6.39% ± 0.12% and 0.27% ± 0.03%, respectively. The MA-SDE method was also compared with conventional heat reflux extraction (HRE and hydrodistillation extraction (HDE. The MA-SDE method not only allowed for the simultaneous extraction of polysaccharides and essential oil, but also completed the task with a much shorter extraction time of 17.5 min (HRE and HDE required 3 and 6 h, respectively. Furthermore, the MA-SDE method gave increased extraction yields for polysaccharides (1.14-fold higher than HRE and essential oil (1.23-fold higher than HDE. Based on these results, this MA-SDE method represents a rapid and efficient technique for the simultaneous extraction of polysaccharides and essential oil.

  4. Micro-matrix solid-phase dispersion coupled with MEEKC for quantitative analysis of lignans in Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus using molecular sieve TS-1 as a sorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chu; Wei, Mengmeng; Wang, Shan; Zheng, Liqiong; He, Zheng; Cao, Jun; Yan, Jizhong

    2017-09-15

    A simple and effective method was developed for determining lignans in Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus by using a micro-matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) technique coupled with microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC). Molecular sieve, TS-1, was applied as a solid supporting material in micro MSPD extraction for the first time. Parameters that affect extraction efficiency, such as type of dispersant, mass ratio of the sample to the dispersant, grinding time, elution solvent and volume were optimized. The optimal extraction conditions involve dispersing 25mg of powdered Schisandrae samples with 50mg of TS-1 by a mortar and pestle. A grinding time of 150s was adopted. The blend was then transferred to a solid-phase extraction cartridge and the target analytes were eluted with 500μL of methanol. Moreover, several parameters affecting MEEKC separation were studied, including the type of oil, SDS concentration, type and concentration of cosurfactant, and concentration of organic modifier. A satisfactory linearity (R>0.9998) was obtained, and the calculated limits of quantitation were less than 2.77μg/mL. Finally, the micro MSPD-MEEKC method was successfully applied to the analysis of lignans in complex Schisandrae fructus samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Glutamine nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen supplied as a nitrogen source is not converted into nitrate nitrogen of plant tissues of hydroponically grown pak-choi (Brassica chinensis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H-J; Wu, L-H; Tao, Q-N; Miller, D D; Welch, R M

    2009-03-01

    Many vegetables, especially leafy vegetables, accumulate NO(-) (3)-N in their edible portions. High nitrate levels in vegetables constitute a health hazard, such as cancers and blue baby syndrome. The aim of this study was to determine if (1) ammonium nitrogen (NH(+) (4)-N) and glutamine-nitrogen (Gln-N) absorbed by plant roots is converted into nitrate-nitrogen of pak-choi (Brassica chinensis L.) tissues, and (2) if nitrate-nitrogen (NO(-) (3)-N) accumulation and concentration of pak-choi tissues linearly increase with increasing NO(-) (3)-N supply when grown in nutrient solution. In experiment 1, 4 different nitrogen treatments (no nitrogen, NH(+) (4)-N, Gln-N, and NO(-) (3)-N) with equal total N concentrations in treatments with added N were applied under sterile nutrient medium culture conditions. In experiment 2, 5 concentrations of N (from 0 to 48 mM), supplied as NO(-) (3)-N in the nutrient solution, were tested. The results showed that Gln-N and NH(+) (4)-N added to the nutrient media were not converted into nitrate-nitrogen of plant tissues. Also, NO(-) (3)-N accumulation in the pak-choi tissues was the highest when plants were supplied 24 mM NO(-) (3)-N in the media. The NO(-) (3)-N concentration in plant tissues was quadratically correlated to the NO(-) (3)-N concentration supplied in the nutrient solution.

  6. Phytoavailability of cadmium (Cd to Pak choi (Brassica chinensis L. grown in Chinese soils: a model to evaluate the impact of soil Cd pollution on potential dietary toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tariq Rafiq

    Full Text Available Food chain contamination by soil cadmium (Cd through vegetable consumption poses a threat to human health. Therefore, an understanding is needed on the relationship between the phytoavailability of Cd in soils and its uptake in edible tissues of vegetables. The purpose of this study was to establish soil Cd thresholds of representative Chinese soils based on dietary toxicity to humans and develop a model to evaluate the phytoavailability of Cd to Pak choi (Brassica chinensis L. based on soil properties. Mehlich-3 extractable Cd thresholds were more suitable for Stagnic Anthrosols, Calcareous, Ustic Cambosols, Typic Haplustalfs, Udic Ferrisols and Periudic Argosols with values of 0.30, 0.25, 0.18, 0.16, 0.15 and 0.03 mg kg-1, respectively, while total Cd is adequate threshold for Mollisols with a value of 0.86 mg kg-1. A stepwise regression model indicated that Cd phytoavailability to Pak choi was significantly influenced by soil pH, organic matter, total Zinc and Cd concentrations in soil. Therefore, since Cd accumulation in Pak choi varied with soil characteristics, they should be considered while assessing the environmental quality of soils to ensure the hygienically safe food production.

  7. Ecological effects of co-culturing the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus with the Chinese white shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis in an earthen pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shun; Ren, Yichao; Pearce, Christopher M.; Dong, Shuanglin; Tian, Xiangli; Gao, Qinfeng; Wang, Fang

    2017-01-01

    Using net enclosures in an earthen pond, we established three culture treatments with the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus and the Chinese white shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis: monoculture of sea cucumbers (C), monoculture of shrimp (S), and co-culture of the two species (CS). We measured levels of suspended particulate matter in the water column; total organic matter, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, and carbon/nitrogen ratios in both settling particles and the sediment; and chlorophyll a levels in the sediment. We then compared these variables between the three treatments. We also examined growth, survival, and yield of the two species in the different treatments. From June to September, the mean monthly suspended particulate matter sedimentation rates in the CS and S treatments were significantly ( Pshrimp reared in the two systems. The bioturbation of the sediment and fecal production of the shrimp likely supplied natural food for the sea cucumbers. Co-culture of the two species is a viable option for increasing yield per unit area, maximizing use of the water body, and diversifying crop production.

  8. Involvement of herb-herb interactions in the influences of Radix Scutellaria and Coptis Chinensis on the bioavailability of the anthraquinones form Rhei Rhizoma in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dongming; Ma, Bingliang; Shi, Rong; Wang, Tianming; Ma, Yueming

    2015-03-01

    Xiexin decoction (XXD) is composed of Rhei Rhizoma (DH), Radix Scutellaria (HQ), and Coptis Chinensis (HL). Free anthraquinones in DH are the basic effective constituents in XXD. Reportedly, HL decreases the bioavailability of the anthraquinones, while HQ antagonizes the effect of HL. In this study, we aimed to determine the underlying mechanisms. The metabolisms of anthraquinones by intestinal flora were studied using rat fecal suspension (RFS); the metabolisms of rhein (a typical anthraquinone in DH) by rat intestine and liver were studied using rat intestine microsomes (RIMs) and rat liver microsomes (RLMs), respectively; the intestinal transport of rhein was studied using everted gut sacs. The results showed that HL decreased the amount of the free anthraquinones after incubation in RFS and inhibited the intestinal transport of rhein, but HQ antagonized the effect of HL. On the other hand, HQ strongly inhibited the glucuronidation of rhein in both RIMs and RLMs. The results suggested that HL decreased the oral bioavailability of the anthraquinones due to inhibiting the conversion of conjugated anthraquinones to free anthraquinones by intestinal flora and decreasing the intestinal transport of the anthraquinones; HQ confronted the effect of HL by inhibiting the glucuronidation of the anthraquinones in intestine and weakening the inhibitory effects of HL.

  9. Analysis of genetic diversity of Brassica rapa var. chinensis using ISSR markers and development of SCAR marker specific for Fragrant Bok Choy, a product of geographic indication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, X L; Zhang, Y M; Xue, J Y; Li, M M; Lin, Y B; Sun, X Q; Hang, Y Y

    2016-04-25

    Non-heading Chinese cabbage [Brassica rapa var. chinensis (Linnaeus) Kitamura] is a popular vegetable and is also used as a medicinal plant in traditional Chinese medicine. Fragrant Bok Choy is a unique accession of non-heading Chinese cabbage and a product of geographic indication certified by the Ministry of Agriculture of China, which is noted for its rich aromatic flavor. However, transitional and overlapping morphological traits can make it difficult to distinguish this accession from other non-heading Chinese cabbages. This study aimed to develop a molecular method for efficient identification of Fragrant Bok Choy. Genetic diversity analysis, based on inter-simple sequence repeat molecular markers, was conducted for 11 non-heading Chinese cabbage accessions grown in the Yangtze River Delta region. Genetic similarity coefficients between the 11 accessions ranged from 0.5455 to 0.8961, and the genetic distance ranged from 0.0755 to 0.4475. Cluster analysis divided the 11 accessions into two major groups. The primer ISSR-840 amplified a fragment specific for Fragrant Bok Choy. A pair of specific sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) primers based on this fragment amplified a target band in Fragrant Bok Choy individuals, but no band was detected in individuals of other accessions. In conclusion, this study has developed an efficient strategy for authentication of Fragrant Bok Choy. The SCAR marker described here will facilitate the conservation and utilization of this unique non-heading Chinese cabbage germplasm resource.

  10. Effects of salinity fluctuation frequency on the osmolarity, Na+-K+-ATPase activity and HSP70 expression in juvenile chinese shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Sen; Wang, Fang; Sun, Hao; Guo, Biao; Dong, Shuanglin

    2009-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the effects of salinity fluctuation frequency on the osmolarity, Na+-K+-ATPase activity and HSP70 of Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis with initial wet body weight of 1.460 g ± 0.091 g. The salinity in the control group (D0) was 28 throughout the experiment, whereas treatments D2, D4, D6 and D8 were subjected to different salinity fluctuation frequencies of 2, 4, 6 and 8 d, respectively. The salinity in treatments D2, D4, D6 and D8 was kept at 28 for 2, 4, 6 and 8 d, respectively, decreased abruptly to salinity 24, lasted for another 2 d, and then was raised to its initial value 28. This was a complete salinity fluctuation cycle that afterwards repeated itself. After 32 days, the osmolarity in treatments D2, D4, D6 and D8 was significantly lower than that in treatment D0 ( P<0.05). There were significant differences in both muscle and eyestalks HSP70 expression among groups. The HSP70 expressions in muscle and eyestalks in group D4 were 61.4% and 57.0% higher, respectively, than that in the control group D0 ( P<0.05). There were, however, no significant differences in gill or hepatopancreas Na+-K+-ATPase activity between the treatments and the control.

  11. Production of intergeneric allotetraploid between autotetraploid non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino and autotetraploid radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Cheng-Zhen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Intergeneric hybrids between non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino; 2n = 4x = 40 and radish (Raphanus sativus L.; 2n = 4x = 36 were obtained through ovary culture and embryo rescue. Some hybrid embryos (0.11 per ovary were produced, but only 4 of them germinated. As most hybrid embryos failed to develop into plantlets directly, plants were regenerated by inducing shoots on the cultured cotyledon and inducing roots on the root induction medium. All hybrid plants were morphologically uniform. They resembled the non-heading Chinese cabbage in the long-lived habit, the plant status, the vernalization requirement and the petiole color, while the petiole shape, leaf venation pattern and flowers were more similar to those of radish. Upon examination of the flowers, these were found to have normal pistil, but rudimentary anthers with non-functional pollen grains. The somatic chromosome number of F1 plants was 38. Analysis of SSR banding patterns provided additional confirmation of hybridity.

  12. Optimization of Process Parameters of Extraction of Amentoflavone, Quercetin and Ginkgetin from Taxus chinensis Using Supercritical CO2 Plus Co-Solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Ruan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of extraction time, temperature, pressure and different concentration of ethanol and their interactions on the yields of amentoflavone, quercetin and ginkgetin extracted from Taxus chinensis by supercritical CO2 were investigated by using a central composite design (CCD. An CCD experimental design with four factors and five levels was used to optimize the extraction parameters. Ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC was used to analyze the content of the tree components in the extracts. Experimental results show that the main effects of factors and their interactions are significant on the yields (p < 0.05. The optimal extraction conditions were established for the three compounds: yield of 4.47 mg/g for amentoflavone at 48 °C, 25 MPa, 2.02 h and 78.5% ethanol, 3.73 mg/g for quercetin at 46 °C, 24 MPa, 2.3 h, 82% ethanol and 3.47 mg/g for ginkgetin at 48 °C, 20 MPa, 2.38 h, 82% ethanol, respectively.

  13. Induced Production of 1-Methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl Glucosinolate by Jasmonic Acid and Methyl Jasmonate in Sprouts and Leaves of Pak Choi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansruedi Glatt

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Pak choi plants (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis were treated with different signaling molecules methyl jasmonate, jasmonic acid, linolenic acid, and methyl salicylate and were analyzed for specific changes in their glucosinolate profile. Glucosinolate levels were quantified using HPLC-DAD-UV, with focus on induction of indole glucosinolates and special emphasis on 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate. Furthermore, the effects of the different signaling molecules on indole glucosinolate accumulation were analyzed on the level of gene expression using semi-quantitative realtime RT-PCR of selected genes. The treatments with signaling molecules were performed on sprouts and mature leaves to determine ontogenetic differences in glucosinolate accumulation and related gene expression. The highest increase of indole glucosinolate levels, with considerable enhancement of the 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate content, was achieved with treatments of sprouts and mature leaves with methyl jasmonate and jasmonic acid. This increase was accompanied by increased expression of genes putatively involved in the indole glucosinolate biosynthetic pathway. The high levels of indole glucosinolates enabled the plant to preferentially produce the respective breakdown products after tissue damage. Thus, pak choi plants treated with methyl jasmonate or jasmonic acid, are a valuable tool to analyze the specific protection functions of 1-methoxy-indole-3-carbinole in the plants defense strategy in the future.

  14. Ionic-liquid-based ultrasound-assisted extraction of isoflavones from Belamcanda chinensis and subsequent screening and isolation of potential α-glucosidase inhibitors by ultrafiltration and semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Senlin; Li, Sainan; Huang, Yu; Liu, Chunming; Chen, Lina; Zhang, Yuchi

    2017-06-01

    The separation of a compound of interest from its structurally similar homologues to produce high-purity natural products is a challenging problem. This work proposes a novel method for the separation of iristectorigenin A from its structurally similar homologues by ionic-liquid-based ultrasound-assisted extraction and the subsequent screening and isolation of potential α-glucosidase inhibitors via ultrafiltration and semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography. Ionic-liquid-based ultrasound-assisted extraction was successfully applied to the extraction of tectorigenin, iristectorigenin A, irigenin, and irisflorentin from Belamcanda chinensis. The optimum conditions for the efficient extraction of isoflavones were determined as 1.0 M 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate with extraction time of 30 min and a solvent to solid ratio of 30 mL/g. Ultrafiltration with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry was applied to screen and identify α-glucosidase inhibitors from B. chinensis, followed by the application of semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography to separate and isolate the active constituents. Four major compounds including tectorigenin, iristectorigenin A, irigenin, and irisflorentin were screened and identified as α-glucosidase inhibitors, and then the four active compounds abovementioned were subsequently isolated by semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography (99.89, 88.97, 99.79, and 99.97% purity, respectively). The results demonstrate that ionic liquid extraction can be successfully applied to the extraction of isoflavones from B. chinensis. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. 香薷体外抗阴道毛滴虫的透射电镜观察%Transmission electron microscope investigation of Trichomonas vaginalis treated with Mosla chinensis Maxim

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴晓冬; 任一鑫; 刘欣; 秦元华; 郑莉莉; 崔昱

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the mechanism of killing action by Mosla chinensis Maxim on Tnchomonas vaginalis in vitro. Methods 1:4 concentration of Mosla chinensis Maxim water extract (MCMWE) was added to the culture media of T. Vaginalis in vitro. After treated with MCMWE for 2 h and 4 h, the ultrastructural changes of T. Vaginalis were observed by transmission electronic microscope. Results After treated with MCMWE,T. Vaginalis exhibited degranulation of rough surfaced endoplasmic reticula, depolymerization of polyribosomes, swelling and deformation of Golgi complex, increment of vacuoles in cytoplasm, incomplete nuclear membranes and raritas karyoplasm. Eventually the cellular membranes were ruptured; their cellular contents were leak out, and the parasites died. Conclusion Mosla chinensis Maxim may destroy the endomembrane system of Tnchomonas and thus exhibits a relatively potent killing effect on T.vaginalis.%目的 探讨香薷体外杀灭阴道毛滴虫的作用机制.方法 将1∶4浓度的香薷水提液作用于体外培养的阴道毛滴虫,并采用透射电镜观察香薷作用2和4h后毛滴虫的超微结构变化.结果 香薷作用2h后毛滴虫粗面内质网排列紊乱并脱颗粒,多聚核糖体解聚,高尔基复合体肿胀变形,胞质内空泡增多,核膜不完整,核质变疏松;作用4h后,胞膜破损,内容物外溢,内部结构消失,虫体死亡.结论 香薷具有较强的抗滴虫作用,可破坏阴道毛滴虫的内膜系统.

  16. Stomach content analysis of the leervis, Lichia amia (L.), from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... composition), followed by gobioids (17,7%) and Cape stumpnose, Rhabdosargus. III .... ~ .... eleven specimens collected in Lake St Lucia on the east coast of South Africa .... McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc., New York. WALLACE, 1.H. 1975.

  17. Capsicum chinensis L. growth and nutraceutical properties are enhanced by biostimulants in a long-term period: chemical and metabolomic approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA eERTANI

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Two biostimulants, one derived from alfalfa plants (AH and the other obtained from red grape (RG, were chemically characterised using enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assays, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR and Raman spectroscopies. Two doses (50 and 100 mL L-1 for RG, and 25 and 50 mL L-1 for AH of biostimulants were applied to Capsicum chinensis L. plants cultivated in pots inside a tunnel. The experimental design consisted of the factorial combination of treatment (no biostimulant, plus AH, plus RG at three doses (zero, low and high and two time-course applications (at the second and fourth week after transplantation and the effects were recorded at flowering and maturity. Both biostimulants contained different amounts of indoleacetic acid and isopentenyladenosine; the AH spectra exhibited amino acid functional groups in the peptidic structure, while the RG spectra showed the presence of polyphenols, such as resveratrol. These results revealed that at flowering, RG and AH increased the weights of fresh leaves and fruits and the number of green fruits, whereas at maturity, the biostimulants most affected the fresh weight and number of red fruits. At flowering, the leaves of the treated plants contained high amounts of epicatechin, ascorbic acid, quercetin and dihydrocapsaicin. At maturity, the leaves of the treated plants exhibited elevated amounts of fructose, glucose, chlorogenic and ferulic acids. Moreover, green fruits exhibited a high content of chlorogenic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-coumaric acid and antioxidant activity, while both AH- and RG-treated red fruits were highly endowed in capsaicin. The 1H high-resolution magic-angle spinning (HRMAS-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectra of red fruits revealed that both products induced a high amount of NADP+, whereas RG also increased glucose, fumarate, ascorbate, thymidine and high molecular weight species. Our results suggested that AH and RG promoted plant growth and the production of

  18. Schisandra chinensis fruit modulates the gut microbiota composition in association with metabolic markers in obese women: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mi-young; Wang, Jing-hua; Eom, Taewoong; Kim, Hojun

    2015-08-01

    Schisandra chinensis fruit (SCF) is known to have beneficial effects on metabolic diseases, including obesity, and to affect gut microbiota in in vivo studies. However, in human research, there have been a few studies in terms of its clinical roles in lipid metabolism and modulation of gut microbiota. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study with 28 obese women with SCF or placebo was conducted for 12 weeks. Anthropometry and blood and fecal sampling were performed before and after treatment. Analysis of the gut microbiota in feces was performed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Although the values did not differ significantly between the 2 groups, the SCF group tended to show a greater decrease in waist circumference, fat mass, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase than the placebo group. Clustering of the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprints for total bacteria before and after treatment indicated more separate clustering in SCF group than placebo. In correlation analysis, Bacteroides and Bacteroidetes (both increased by SCF) showed significant negative correlation with fat mass, aspartate aminotransferase, and/or alanine aminotransferase, respectively. Ruminococcus (decreased by SCF) showed negative correlation with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and fasting blood glucose. In conclusion, administration of SCF for 12 weeks resulted in modulation of the gut microbiota composition in Korean obese women, and significant correlations with some bacterial genera and metabolic parameters were noted. However, in general, SCF was not sufficient to induce significant changes in obesity-related parameters compared with placebo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. VISIBE AND INFRARED SPECTRAL CHARACTERISATION OF CHINESE CABBAGE (BRASSICA RAPA L. SUBSPECIES CHINENSIS, GROWN UNDER DIFFERENT NITROGEN, POTASSIUM AND PHOSPHORUS CONCENTRATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Mokoatsi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to intensify research efforts on improving productivity of indigenous vegetables in South Africa. One research avenue is operationalizing remote sensing techniques to monitor crop health status. This study aimed at characterising the spectral properties of Chinese cabbage (Brassica Rapa L. subspecies Chinensis grown under varying fertilizer treatments: nitrogen (0 kg/ha, 75 kg/ha, 125 kg/ha, 175 kg/ha and 225 kg/ha, phosphorus (0 kg/ha, 9.4 kg/ha, 15.6, 21.9 kg/ha and 28.1 kg/ha and potassium (0 kg/ha, 9.4  kg/ha, 15.6 kg/ha, 21.9 kg/ha and 28.1 kg/ha. Visible and infrared spectral measurements were taken from a total of 60 samples inside the laboratory. Contiguous spectral regions were plotted to show spectral profiles of the different fertilizer treatments and then classified using gradient boosting and random forest classifiers. ANOVA revealed the potential of spectral reflectance data in discriminating different fertiliser treatments from crops. There was also a significant difference between the capabilities of the two classifiers. Gradient boost model (GBM yielded higher classification accuracies than random forest (RF. The important variables identified by each model improved the classification accuracy. Overall, the results indicate a potential for the use of spectroscopy in monitoring food quality parameters, thereby reducing the cost of traditional methods. Further research into advanced statistical analysis techniques is needed to improve the accuracy with which fertiliser concentrations in crops could be quantified. The random forest model particularly requires improvements.

  20. Assessing the Underwater Acoustics of the World's Largest Vibration Hammer (OCTA-KONG) and Its Potential Effects on the Indo-Pacific Humpbacked Dolphin (Sousa chinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhitao; Wu, Yuping; Duan, Guoqin; Cao, Hanjiang; Liu, Jianchang; Wang, Kexiong; Wang, Ding

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise in aquatic environments is a worldwide concern due to its potential adverse effects on the environment and aquatic life. The Hongkong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge is currently under construction in the Pearl River Estuary, a hot spot for the Indo-Pacific humpbacked dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in China. The OCTA-KONG, the world's largest vibration hammer, is being used during this construction project to drive or extract steel shell piles 22 m in diameter. This activity poses a substantial threat to marine mammals, and an environmental assessment is critically needed. The underwater acoustic properties of the OCTA-KONG were analyzed, and the potential impacts of the underwater acoustic energy on Sousa, including auditory masking and physiological impacts, were assessed. The fundamental frequency of the OCTA-KONG vibration ranged from 15 Hz to 16 Hz, and the noise increments were below 20 kHz, with a dominant frequency and energy below 10 kHz. The resulting sounds are most likely detectable by Sousa over distances of up to 3.5 km from the source. Although Sousa clicks do not appear to be adversely affected, Sousa whistles are susceptible to auditory masking, which may negatively impact this species' social life. Therefore, a safety zone with a radius of 500 m is proposed. Although the zero-to-peak source level (SL) of the OCTA-KONG was lower than the physiological damage level, the maximum root-mean-square SL exceeded the cetacean safety exposure level on several occasions. Moreover, the majority of the unweighted cumulative source sound exposure levels (SSELs) and the cetacean auditory weighted cumulative SSELs exceeded the acoustic threshold levels for the onset of temporary threshold shift, a type of potentially recoverable auditory damage resulting from prolonged sound exposure. These findings may aid in the identification and design of appropriate mitigation methods, such as the use of air bubble curtains, “soft start” and “power down

  1. Assessing the underwater acoustics of the world's largest vibration hammer (OCTA-KONG and its potential effects on the Indo-Pacific humpbacked dolphin (Sousa chinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhitao Wang

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic noise in aquatic environments is a worldwide concern due to its potential adverse effects on the environment and aquatic life. The Hongkong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge is currently under construction in the Pearl River Estuary, a hot spot for the Indo-Pacific humpbacked dolphin (Sousa chinensis in China. The OCTA-KONG, the world's largest vibration hammer, is being used during this construction project to drive or extract steel shell piles 22 m in diameter. This activity poses a substantial threat to marine mammals, and an environmental assessment is critically needed. The underwater acoustic properties of the OCTA-KONG were analyzed, and the potential impacts of the underwater acoustic energy on Sousa, including auditory masking and physiological impacts, were assessed. The fundamental frequency of the OCTA-KONG vibration ranged from 15 Hz to 16 Hz, and the noise increments were below 20 kHz, with a dominant frequency and energy below 10 kHz. The resulting sounds are most likely detectable by Sousa over distances of up to 3.5 km from the source. Although Sousa clicks do not appear to be adversely affected, Sousa whistles are susceptible to auditory masking, which may negatively impact this species' social life. Therefore, a safety zone with a radius of 500 m is proposed. Although the zero-to-peak source level (SL of the OCTA-KONG was lower than the physiological damage level, the maximum root-mean-square SL exceeded the cetacean safety exposure level on several occasions. Moreover, the majority of the unweighted cumulative source sound exposure levels (SSELs and the cetacean auditory weighted cumulative SSELs exceeded the acoustic threshold levels for the onset of temporary threshold shift, a type of potentially recoverable auditory damage resulting from prolonged sound exposure. These findings may aid in the identification and design of appropriate mitigation methods, such as the use of air bubble curtains, "soft start" and "power down

  2. The Cytochrome P450-Mediated Metabolism Alternation of Four Effective Lignans From Schisandra chinensis in Carbon Tetrachloride-Intoxicated Rats and Patients With Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rongrong; Xiao, Zhiyong; Zhang, Xiaorui; Liu, Feng; Zhou, Wenxia; Zhang, Yongxiang

    2018-01-01

    It is highly valuable to study the pharmacokinetics of herbal components under the pathological condition of liver dysfunction for safe and rational use of herbal medicines. In this study, the pharmacokinetic profiles of four effective lignans from Schisandra chinensis (SC) , schisandrin, schisantherin A, deoxyshisandrin and γ-schisandrin, were investigated in carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-intoxicated rats. The metabolism of the four lignans was also studied using microsomes from patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. In situ intestinal and hepatic perfusions were conducted to clarify the contributions from impairments of gut and liver on the pharmacokinetics of the four schisandra lignans in CCl 4 -intoxicated rats. The metabolism in rat and human liver microsomes and transport in Caco-2 monolayer cell model were studied to reveal the key factors for the in vivo disposition of the four lignans. When SC alcoholic extract was orally administrated to CCl 4 -intoxicated rat for a short term (4 days), the pharmacokinetics of four active SC lignans was significantly changed while its hepatotherapeutic effect was not obviously observed. The plasma concentrations of the four schisandra lignans were dramatically elevated compared with the control. The Cmax, AUC and MRT were all increased or prolonged significantly while parameter CLz/F was obviously reduced in rat pretreated with CCl 4 . In hepatic perfusion study and liver microsomes incubation, it was found that the hepatic metabolism of the four lignans was markedly decreased mainly due to the activity reduction of multiple CYP450 isoenzymes involved the metabolism, which, eventually, might lead to the alternation of their pharmacokinetic profiles in CCl 4 -intoxicated rats or patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. The pharmacokinetic studies of SC components in pathological situation of liver dysfunction are expected to provide useful data for rational and safe application of SC preparations in

  3. Structure of Pigment Metabolic Pathways and Their Contributions to White Tepal Color Formation of Chinese Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis cv Jinzhanyintai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yujun; Yang, Jingwen; Lu, Bingguo; Jiang, Yaping; Chen, Haiyang; Hong, Yuwei; Wu, Binghua; Miao, Ying

    2017-09-08

    Chinese narcissus ( Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis ) is one of the ten traditional flowers in China and a famous bulb flower in the world flower market. However, only white color tepals are formed in mature flowers of the cultivated varieties, which constrains their applicable occasions. Unfortunately, for lack of genome information of narcissus species, the explanation of tepal color formation of Chinese narcissus is still not clear. Concerning no genome information, the application of transcriptome profile to dissect biological phenomena in plants was reported to be effective. As known, pigments are metabolites of related metabolic pathways, which dominantly decide flower color. In this study, transcriptome profile and pigment metabolite analysis methods were used in the most widely cultivated Chinese narcissus "Jinzhanyintai" to discover the structure of pigment metabolic pathways and their contributions to white tepal color formation during flower development and pigmentation processes. By using comparative KEGG pathway enrichment analysis, three pathways related to flavonoid, carotenoid and chlorophyll pigment metabolism showed significant variations. The structure of flavonoids metabolic pathway was depicted, but, due to the lack of F3'5'H gene; the decreased expression of C4H , CHS and ANS genes; and the high expression of FLS gene, the effect of this pathway to synthesize functional anthocyanins in tepals was weak. Similarly, the expression of DXS , MCT and PSY genes in carotenoids synthesis sub-pathway was decreased, while CCD1 / CCD4 genes in carotenoids degradation sub-pathway was increased; therefore, the effect of carotenoids metabolic pathway to synthesize adequate color pigments in tepals is restricted. Interestingly, genes in chlorophyll synthesis sub-pathway displayed uniform down-regulated expression, while genes in heme formation and chlorophyll breakdown sub-pathways displayed up-regulated expression, which also indicates negative regulation

  4. Population Differentiation and Hybridisation of Australian Snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and Indo-Pacific Humpback (Sousa chinensis) Dolphins in North-Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alexander M.; Kopps, Anna M.; Allen, Simon J.; Bejder, Lars; Littleford-Colquhoun, Bethan; Parra, Guido J.; Cagnazzi, Daniele; Thiele, Deborah; Palmer, Carol; Frère, Celine H.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis) dolphins (‘snubfin’ and ‘humpback dolphins’, hereafter) of north-western Australia. While both species are listed as ‘near threatened’ by the IUCN, data deficiencies are impeding rigorous assessment of their conservation status across Australia. Understanding the genetic structure of populations, including levels of gene flow among populations, is important for the assessment of conservation status and the effective management of a species. Using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers, we assessed population genetic diversity and differentiation between snubfin dolphins from Cygnet (n = 32) and Roebuck Bays (n = 25), and humpback dolphins from the Dampier Archipelago (n = 19) and the North West Cape (n = 18). All sampling locations were separated by geographic distances >200 km. For each species, we found significant genetic differentiation between sampling locations based on 12 (for snubfin dolphins) and 13 (for humpback dolphins) microsatellite loci (F ST = 0.05–0.09; P<0.001) and a 422 bp sequence of the mitochondrial control region (F ST = 0.50–0.70; P<0.001). The estimated proportion of migrants in a population ranged from 0.01 (95% CI 0.00–0.06) to 0.13 (0.03–0.24). These are the first estimates of genetic diversity and differentiation for snubfin and humpback dolphins in Western Australia, providing valuable information towards the assessment of their conservation status in this rapidly developing region. Our results suggest that north-western Australian snubfin and humpback dolphins may exist as metapopulations of small, largely isolated population fragments, and should be managed accordingly. Management plans should seek to maintain effective population size and gene flow. Additionally, while interactions of a socio-sexual nature between these two species have been observed previously, here we provide

  5. Population differentiation and hybridisation of Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis dolphins in north-western Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M Brown

    Full Text Available Little is known about the Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis dolphins ('snubfin' and 'humpback dolphins', hereafter of north-western Australia. While both species are listed as 'near threatened' by the IUCN, data deficiencies are impeding rigorous assessment of their conservation status across Australia. Understanding the genetic structure of populations, including levels of gene flow among populations, is important for the assessment of conservation status and the effective management of a species. Using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers, we assessed population genetic diversity and differentiation between snubfin dolphins from Cygnet (n = 32 and Roebuck Bays (n = 25, and humpback dolphins from the Dampier Archipelago (n = 19 and the North West Cape (n = 18. All sampling locations were separated by geographic distances >200 km. For each species, we found significant genetic differentiation between sampling locations based on 12 (for snubfin dolphins and 13 (for humpback dolphins microsatellite loci (FST = 0.05-0.09; P<0.001 and a 422 bp sequence of the mitochondrial control region (FST = 0.50-0.70; P<0.001. The estimated proportion of migrants in a population ranged from 0.01 (95% CI 0.00-0.06 to 0.13 (0.03-0.24. These are the first estimates of genetic diversity and differentiation for snubfin and humpback dolphins in Western Australia, providing valuable information towards the assessment of their conservation status in this rapidly developing region. Our results suggest that north-western Australian snubfin and humpback dolphins may exist as metapopulations of small, largely isolated population fragments, and should be managed accordingly. Management plans should seek to maintain effective population size and gene flow. Additionally, while interactions of a socio-sexual nature between these two species have been observed previously, here we provide strong evidence for

  6. Traditional Chinese medicine herbal extracts of Cibotium barometz, Gentiana scabra, Dioscorea batatas, Cassia tora, and Taxillus chinensis inhibit SARS-CoV replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chun Wen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Development of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV agents is pivotal to prevent the reemergence of the life-threatening disease, SARS. In this study, more than 200 extracts from Chinese medicinal herbs were evaluated for anti-SARS-CoV activities using a cell-based assay that measured SARS-CoV-induced cytopathogenic effect (CPE in vitro on Vero E6 cells. Six herbal extracts, one each from Gentianae Radix (龍膽 lóng dǎn; the dried rhizome of Gentiana scabra, Dioscoreae Rhizoma (山藥 shān yào; the tuber of Dioscorea batatas, Cassiae Semen (決明子 jué míng zǐ; the dried seed of Cassia tora and Loranthi Ramus (桑寄生 sāng jì shēng; the dried stem, with leaf of Taxillus chinensis (designated as GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH, respectively, and two from Rhizoma Cibotii (狗脊 gǒu jǐ; the dried rhizome of Cibotium barometz (designated as CBE and CBM, were found to be potent inhibitors of SARS-CoV at concentrations between 25 and 200 μg/ml. The concentrations of the six extracts needed to inhibit 50% of Vero E6 cell proliferation (CC50 and 50% of viral replication (EC50 were determined. The resulting selective index values (SI=CC50/EC50 of the most effective extracts CBE, GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH were>59.4,> 57.5,> 62.1,> 59.4, and>92.9, respectively. Among these extracts, CBM and DBM also showed significant inhibition of SARS-CoV 3CL protease activity with IC50 values of 39 μg/ml and 44 μg/ml, respectively. Our findings suggest that these six herbal extracts may have potential as candidates for future development of anti-SARS therapeutics.

  7. Germinação de sementes e crescimento de plântulas de brassica chinensis L. var. parachinensis (bailey sinskaja (couve-da-malásia Seed germination and seedling growth of brassica chinensis L. var. parachinensis (bailey sinskaja (flowering white cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanessa Resende Ferreira

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Brassica chinensis var. parachinensis, introduzida no Brasil em 1992, apresenta alto teor de vitamina A e ciclo curto. As sementes foram submetidas a 24 tratamentos em laboratório e 12 em campo, com o objetivo de avaliar o padrão de germinação e o crescimento das plântulas. Em laboratório, as sementes foram indiferentes à luz e mostraram baixa sensibilidade à ação escarificante do hipoclorito de sódio. Ácido giberélico, KNO3, escarificação e estratificação não modificaram sua germinabilidade (96-100% nem o tempo médio de germinação (1-1,28 dias em relação ao controle. Em condições de campo os maiores valores de emergência (89,2-96,4% e os maiores índices de velocidade de emergência (14,2-17,4 ocorreram em solo com adubação mineral, entre 0,5 e 1,5 cm de profundidade. Os menores tempos médios de emergência foram registrados entre 0,5 e 1,5 cm de profundidade (2,90-3,97 dias, com os três adubos testados (mineral, esterco de gado e de galinha. As plântulas se mostraram sensíveis ao hipoclorito de sódio, com redução significativa do hipocótilo e da raiz primária. A estratificação das sementes por 24 horas estimulou o crescimento da raiz primária, o que beneficia o estabelecimento da plântula no solo.Brassica chinensis var. parachinensis was introduced in Brazil in 1992. This variety presents a high content of vitamin A and a short life cycle. Seeds were submitted to 24 treatments in laboratory conditions and 12 treatments in field conditions with the objective of evaluating the germination pattern and seedling growth. In laboratory conditions, seed germination was light independent and the germinability was reduced in 12% by the action of sodium hypochlorite scarification. Gibberellic acid, KNO3, mechanical scarification and stratification did not modify the germinability of the seeds (96-100% neither the average time of germination (1-1.28 days in relation to the control treatment. In field conditions the

  8. α-Methyl artoflavanocoumarin from Juniperus chinensis exerts anti-diabetic effects by inhibiting PTP1B and activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hee Jin; Seong, Su Hui; Ali, Md Yousof; Min, Byung-Sun; Jung, Hyun Ah; Choi, Jae Sue

    2017-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the greatest global health issues and much research effort continues to be directed toward identifying novel therapeutic agents. Insulin resistance is a challenging integrally related topic and molecules capable of overcoming it are of considerable therapeutic interest in the context of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) negatively regulates insulin signaling transduction and is regarded a novel therapeutic target in T2DM. Here, we investigated the inhibitory effect of α-methyl artoflavanocoumarin (MAFC), a natural flavanocoumarin isolated from Juniperus chinensis, on PTP1B in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells. MAFC was found to potently inhibit PTP1B with an IC 50 of 25.27 ± 0.14 µM, and a kinetics study revealed MAFC is a mixed type PTP1B inhibitor with a K i value of 13.84 µM. Molecular docking simulations demonstrated MAFC can bind to catalytic and allosteric sites of PTP1B. Furthermore, MAFC significantly increased glucose uptake and decreased the expression of PTP1B in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells, down-regulated the phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 (Ser307), and dose-dependently enhanced the protein levels of IRS-1, phosphorylated phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, and ERK1. These results suggest that MAFC from J. chinensis has therapeutic potential in T2DM by inhibiting PTP1B and activating insulin signaling pathways.

  9. 78 FR 58154 - Importation of Litchi Fruit From Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... for the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) and the NPPO to work collaboratively to... than Australia. The commenter concluded that, from a regulatory flexibility standpoint, it would be..., Taiwan, and Thailand, and therefore based our assessment of the potential economic impact of the rule on...

  10. Protective effects of alginate–chitosan microspheres loaded with alkaloids from Coptis chinensis Franch. and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss. Benth. (Zuojin Pill against ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang QS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Qiang-Song Wang,1,2,* Xiao-Ning Zhu,1,* Heng-Li Jiang,1,* Gui-Fang Wang,3 Yuan-Lu Cui1 1Tianjin State Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicine, Research Center of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 2Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Medical Science & Peking Union Medical College, 3Pharmacy Department, Baokang Hospital, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Zuojin Pill (ZJP, a traditional Chinese medicine formula, consists of Coptis chinensis Franch. and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss. Benth. in a ratio of 6:1 (w/w and was first recorded in “Danxi’s experiential therapy” for treating gastrointestinal disorders in the 15th century. However, the poor solubility of alkaloids from ZJP restricted the protective effect in treating gastritis and gastric ulcer. The aim of the study was to investigate the protective mechanism of mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids from C. chinensis Franch. and E. rutaecarpa (Juss. Benth. on ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats. Surface morphology, particle size, drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release, mucoadhesiveness, and fluorescent imaging of the microspheres in gastrointestinal tract were studied. The results showed that the mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could sustain the release of drugs beyond 12 hours and had gastric mucoadhesive property with 82.63% retention rate in vitro. The fluorescence tracer indicated high retention of mucoadhesive microspheres within 12 hours in vivo. The mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could reduce the gastric injury by decreasing the mucosal lesion index, increasing the percentage of inhibition and increasing the amount of mucus in the gastric mucosa in an ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury rat model. Moreover, the

  11. The in-capillary DPPH-capillary electrophoresis-the diode array detector combined with reversed-electrode polarity stacking mode for screening and quantifying major antioxidants in Cuscuta chinensis Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiao; Tian, Ji; Li, Jin; Azietaku, John Teye; Zhang, Bo-Li; Gao, Xiu-Mei; Chang, Yan-Xu

    2016-07-01

    An in-capillary 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-CE-the DAD (in-capillary DPPH-CE-DAD) combined with reversed-electrode polarity stacking mode has been developed to screen and quantify the active antioxidant components of Cuscuta chinensis Lam. The operation parameters were optimized with regard to the pH and concentration of buffer solution, SDS, β-CDs, organic modifier, as well as separation voltage and temperature. Six antioxidants including chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, rutin, hyperin, isoquercitrin, and astragalin were screened and the total antioxidant activity of the complex matrix was successfully evaluated based on the decreased peak area of DPPH by the established DPPH-CE-DAD method. Sensitivity was enhanced under reversed-electrode polarity stacking mode and 10- to 31-fold of magnitude improvement in detection sensitivity for each analyte was attained. The results demonstrated that the newly established in-capillary DPPH-CE-DAD method combined with reversed-electrode polarity stacking mode could integrate sample concentration, the oxidizing reaction, separation, and detection into one capillary to fully automate the system. It was considered a suitable technique for the separation, screening, and determination of trace antioxidants in natural products. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Passive Acoustic Monitoring the Diel, Lunar, Seasonal and Tidal Patterns in the Biosonar Activity of the Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in the Pearl River Estuary, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Tao; Nachtigall, Paul E.; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Wang, Ke-Xiong; Wu, Yu-Ping; Liu, Jian-Chang; Duan, Guo-Qin; Cao, Han-Jiang; Wang, Ding

    2015-01-01

    A growing demand for sustainable energy has led to an increase in construction of offshore windfarms. Guishan windmill farm will be constructed in the Pearl River Estuary, China, which sustains the world’s largest known population of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis). Dolphin conservation is an urgent issue in this region. By using passive acoustic monitoring, a baseline distribution of data on this species in the Pearl River Estuary during pre-construction period had been collected. Dolphin biosonar detection and its diel, lunar, seasonal and tidal patterns were examined using a Generalized Linear Model. Significant higher echolocation detections at night than during the day, in winter-spring than in summer-autumn, at high tide than at flood tide were recognized. Significant higher echolocation detections during the new moon were recognized at night time. The diel, lunar and seasonal patterns for the echolocation encounter duration also significantly varied. These patterns could be due to the spatial-temporal variability of dolphin prey and illumination conditions. The baseline information will be useful for driving further effective action on the conservation of this species and in facilitating later assessments of the effects of the offshore windfarm on the dolphins by comparing the baseline to post construction and post mitigation efforts. PMID:26580966

  13. Total fluorine, extractable organic fluorine, perfluorooctane sulfonate and other related fluorochemicals in liver of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) and finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) from South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeung, L.W.Y. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Miyake, Y. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Wang, Y. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Taniyasu, S. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Yamashita, N. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan)], E-mail: nob.yamashita@aist.go.jp; Lam, P.K.S. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: bhpksl@cityu.edu.hk

    2009-01-15

    The concentrations of 10 PFCs (perfluorinated compounds: PFOS, PFHxS, PFOSA, N-EtFOSA, PFDoDA, PFUnDA, PFDA, PFNA, PFOA, and PFHpA) were measured in liver samples of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) (n = 10) and finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) (n = 10) stranded in Hong Kong between 2003 and 2007. PFOS was the dominant PFC in the tissues at concentrations ranging at 26-693 ng/g ww in dolphins and 51.3-262 ng/g ww in porpoises. A newly developed combustion ion chromatography for fluorine was applied to measure total fluorine (TF) and extractable organic fluorine (EOF) in these liver samples to understand PFC contamination using the concept of mass balance analysis. Comparisons between the amounts of known PFCs and EOF in the livers showed that a large proportion ({approx}70%) of the organic fluorine in both species is of unknown origin. These investigations are critical for a comprehensive assessment of the risks of these compounds to humans and other receptors. - Comparison between the amounts of known PFCs and EOF in the livers of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin and finless porpoise in South China showed that a large proportion ({approx}70%) of the organofluorine is of unknown origin.

  14. Total fluorine, extractable organic fluorine, perfluorooctane sulfonate and other related fluorochemicals in liver of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) and finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) from South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeung, L.W.Y.; Miyake, Y.; Wang, Y.; Taniyasu, S.; Yamashita, N.; Lam, P.K.S.

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of 10 PFCs (perfluorinated compounds: PFOS, PFHxS, PFOSA, N-EtFOSA, PFDoDA, PFUnDA, PFDA, PFNA, PFOA, and PFHpA) were measured in liver samples of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) (n = 10) and finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) (n = 10) stranded in Hong Kong between 2003 and 2007. PFOS was the dominant PFC in the tissues at concentrations ranging at 26-693 ng/g ww in dolphins and 51.3-262 ng/g ww in porpoises. A newly developed combustion ion chromatography for fluorine was applied to measure total fluorine (TF) and extractable organic fluorine (EOF) in these liver samples to understand PFC contamination using the concept of mass balance analysis. Comparisons between the amounts of known PFCs and EOF in the livers showed that a large proportion (∼70%) of the organic fluorine in both species is of unknown origin. These investigations are critical for a comprehensive assessment of the risks of these compounds to humans and other receptors. - Comparison between the amounts of known PFCs and EOF in the livers of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin and finless porpoise in South China showed that a large proportion (∼70%) of the organofluorine is of unknown origin

  15. Passive Acoustic Monitoring the Diel, Lunar, Seasonal and Tidal Patterns in the Biosonar Activity of the Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in the Pearl River Estuary, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Tao; Nachtigall, Paul E; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Wang, Ke-Xiong; Wu, Yu-Ping; Liu, Jian-Chang; Duan, Guo-Qin; Cao, Han-Jiang; Wang, Ding

    2015-01-01

    A growing demand for sustainable energy has led to an increase in construction of offshore windfarms. Guishan windmill farm will be constructed in the Pearl River Estuary, China, which sustains the world's largest known population of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis). Dolphin conservation is an urgent issue in this region. By using passive acoustic monitoring, a baseline distribution of data on this species in the Pearl River Estuary during pre-construction period had been collected. Dolphin biosonar detection and its diel, lunar, seasonal and tidal patterns were examined using a Generalized Linear Model. Significant higher echolocation detections at night than during the day, in winter-spring than in summer-autumn, at high tide than at flood tide were recognized. Significant higher echolocation detections during the new moon were recognized at night time. The diel, lunar and seasonal patterns for the echolocation encounter duration also significantly varied. These patterns could be due to the spatial-temporal variability of dolphin prey and illumination conditions. The baseline information will be useful for driving further effective action on the conservation of this species and in facilitating later assessments of the effects of the offshore windfarm on the dolphins by comparing the baseline to post construction and post mitigation efforts.

  16. Passive Acoustic Monitoring the Diel, Lunar, Seasonal and Tidal Patterns in the Biosonar Activity of the Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins (Sousa chinensis in the Pearl River Estuary, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Tao Wang

    Full Text Available A growing demand for sustainable energy has led to an increase in construction of offshore windfarms. Guishan windmill farm will be constructed in the Pearl River Estuary, China, which sustains the world's largest known population of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis. Dolphin conservation is an urgent issue in this region. By using passive acoustic monitoring, a baseline distribution of data on this species in the Pearl River Estuary during pre-construction period had been collected. Dolphin biosonar detection and its diel, lunar, seasonal and tidal patterns were examined using a Generalized Linear Model. Significant higher echolocation detections at night than during the day, in winter-spring than in summer-autumn, at high tide than at flood tide were recognized. Significant higher echolocation detections during the new moon were recognized at night time. The diel, lunar and seasonal patterns for the echolocation encounter duration also significantly varied. These patterns could be due to the spatial-temporal variability of dolphin prey and illumination conditions. The baseline information will be useful for driving further effective action on the conservation of this species and in facilitating later assessments of the effects of the offshore windfarm on the dolphins by comparing the baseline to post construction and post mitigation efforts.

  17. Identification of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids in pak choi varieties (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. communis) by HPLC-ESI-MSn and NMR and their quantification by HPLC-DAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbaum, Britta; Hubbermann, Eva Maria; Wolff, Christian; Herges, Rainer; Zhu, Zhujun; Schwarz, Karin

    2007-10-03

    Twenty-eight polyphenols (11 flavonoid derivatives and 17 hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives) were detected in different cultivars of the Chinese cabbage pak choi ( Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. communis) by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n). Kaempferol was found to be the major flavonoid in pak choi, glycosylated and acylated with different compounds. Smaller amounts of isorhamnetin were also detected. A structural determination was carried out by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy for the main compound, kaempferol-3-O-hydroxyferuloylsophoroside-7-O-glucoside, for the first time. Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were identified as different esters of quinic acid, glycosides, and malic acid. The latter ones are described for the first time in cabbages. The content of polyphenols was determined in 11 cultivars of pak choi, with higher concentrations present in the leaf blade than in the leaf stem. Hydroxycinnamic acid esters, particularly malic acid derivatives, are present in both the leaf blade and leaf stem, whereas flavonoid levels were determined only in the leaf blade.

  18. The Rhizome Mixture of Anemarrhena asphodeloides and Coptidis chinensis Ameliorates Acute and Chronic Colitis in Mice by Inhibiting the Binding of Lipopolysaccharide to TLR4 and IRAK1 Phosphorylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ju Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the previous study, the mixture of the rhizome of Anemarrhena asphodeloides (AA, family Liliaceae and the rhizome of Coptidis chinensis (CC, family Ranunculaceae (AC-mix improved TNBS- or oxazolone-induced colitis in mice. Therefore, to investigate its anticolitic mechanism, we measured its effect in acute and chronic DSS-induced colitic mice and investigated its anti-inflammatory mechanism in peritoneal macrophages. AC-mix potently suppressed DSS-induced body weight loss, colon shortening, myeloperoxidase activity, and TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 expressions in acute or chronic DSS-stimulated colitic mice. Among AC-mix ingredients, AA, CC, and their main constituents mangiferin and berberine potently inhibited the expression of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β, as well as the activation of NF-κB in LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages. AA and mangiferin potently inhibited IRAK phosphorylation, but CC and berberine potently inhibited the binding of LPS to TLR4 on macrophages, as well as the phosphorylation of IRAK1. AC-mix potently inhibited IRAK phosphorylation and LPS binding to TLR4 on macrophages. Based on these findings, AC-mix may ameliorate colitis by the synergistic inhibition of IRAK phosphorylation and LPS binding to TLR4 on macrophages.

  19. Potential for lychee crop in Mata Norte Pernambucana - Brazil | Potencial para cultivo de lichia na Mata Norte Pernambucana - Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Iris Verslype

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lychee crops occurs mainly in South and Southeast regions of Brazil. In this study, the digital terrain modeling (DTM of the micro-region Mata Norte Pernambucana, was designed to identify the districts that have potential for lychee crop, through the parameters of average altitude, precipitation and temperature. The districts analyzed were Aliança, Buenos Aires, Camutanga, Carpina, Condado, Ferreiros, Goiâna, Itambé, Itaquitinga, Lagoa do Carro, Lagoa do Itaenga, Macaparana, Nazaré da Mata, Paudalho, Timbaúba, Tracunhaém and Vicência. The analysis of climate, wind power and altitude in Mata Norte Pernambucana, has revealed that some districts of the micro-region have potential for lychee crops, which is a product with great financial return, and may contribute to increase economy and quality of life in the micro-region.

  20. A new Oriental genus of bostrichid beetle (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae: Xyloperthini, a new synonym and a lectotype designation for Octodesmus episternalis (Lesne, 1901

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan-Yu Liu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and species of bostrichid beetle, Octomeristes gen. nov. and Octomeristes pusillus gen. et sp. nov., in the tribe Xyloperthini is described from litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn. wood in Thailand. The genus is compared to Octodesmus Lesne, 1901, the only other xyloperthine genus with eight-segmented antennae, and to the xyloperthine genera, Xylion Lesne, 1901, Xylionulus Lesne, 1901 and Xylobosca Lesne, 1901. A new combination, Octomeristes minutissimus (Lesne, 1932 comb. nov., is transferred from Octodesmus Lesne, 1901. A lectotype is designated for Octodesmus episternalis Lesne, 1901, the type species of Octodesmus. Octodesmus kamoli Chûjô, 1964 is designated a new synonym of Paraxylion bifer (Lesne, 1932. A key is provided to the species of Octodesmus and Octomeristes gen. nov.

  1. Comparison of learning ability and memory retention in altricial (Bengalese finch, Lonchura striata var. domestica) and precocial (blue-breasted quail, Coturnix chinensis) birds using a color discrimination task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Aki; Suzuki, Kaoru

    2014-02-01

    The present study sought to assess the potential application of avian models with different developmental modes to studies on cognition and neuroscience. Six altricial Bengalese finches (Lonchura striata var. domestica), and eight precocial blue-breasted quails (Coturnix chinensis) were presented with color discrimination tasks to compare their respective faculties for learning and memory retention within the context of the two developmental modes. Tasks consisted of presenting birds with discriminative cues in the form of colored feeder lids, and birds were considered to have learned a task when 80% of their attempts at selecting the correctly colored lid in two consecutive blocks of 10 trials were successful. All of the finches successfully performed the required experimental tasks, whereas only half of the quails were able to execute the same tasks. In the learning test, finches required significantly fewer trials than quails to learn the task (finches: 13.5 ± 9.14 trials, quails: 45.8 ± 4.35 trials, P memory retention tests, which were conducted 45 days after the learning test, finches retained the ability to discriminate between colors correctly (95.0 ± 4.47%), whereas quails did not retain any memory of the experimental procedure and so could not be tested. These results suggested that altricial and precocial birds both possess the faculty for learning and retaining discrimination-type tasks, but that altricial birds perform better than precocial birds in both faculties. The present findings imply that developmental mode is an important consideration for assessing the suitability of bird species for particular experiments. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. Determination of four major saponins in the seeds of Aesculus chinensis Bunge using accelerated solvent extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junhui; Li, Wenlong; Yang, Baijuan; Guo, Xiuchun; Lee, Frank Sen-Chun; Wang, Xiaoru

    2007-07-23

    A new method based on accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) followed by a reliable high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and positive ion electrospray-time of flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF/MS) analysis has been developed for the characterization and quantification of four major saponins in extracts of the seeds of Aesculus chinensis Bunge (semen aesculi). The saponins escin Ia, escin Ib, isoescin Ia and isoescin Ib were extracted from seeds of A. chinesis Bunge via ASE, and the operational parameters of ASE were optimized, such as extraction solvent, extraction temperature, static extraction time and extraction cycles. The optimized procedure employed 70% MeOH as extraction solvent, 120 degrees C of extraction temperature, 7 min of static extraction time, 60% flush volume and the extraction recoveries of the four compounds were nearly to 100% for two cycles. The HPLC conditions are as follows: SinoChrom ODS BP C18 (4.6 mm x 200 mm, 5 microm) column, acetonitrile and 0.10% phosphoric acid solution as mobile phase, flow rate is 1.0 mL min(-1), detection length of UV is 203 nm, injection volume is 10 microL. The results indicated that the developed HPLC method is simple, sensitive and reliable for the determination of four major saponins in seeds of A. chinesis Bunge with a good linearity (r2 > 0.9994), precision (relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) < 1.5%) and the recovery ranges of 95.2-97.3%. The limits of detection (LOD) of the four compounds were in the range of 0.40-0.75 microg mL(-1). This assay can be readily utilized as a quality control method for semen aesculi and other related medicinal plants.

  3. Impact of different feedstocks derived biochar amendment with cadmium low uptake affinity cultivar of pak choi (Brassica rapa ssb. chinensis L.) on phytoavoidation of Cd to reduce potential dietary toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmin Khan, Kiran; Ali, Barkat; Cui, Xiaoqiang; Feng, Ying; Yang, Xiaoe; Joseph Stoffella, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Biochar has become eco-friendly amendment used for phytoavoidation with low cadmium (Cd) accumulating cultivars of crops to ensure food safety in Cd contaminated soils. In this study, biochar with different waste feedstock material were evaluated for their effectiveness on essential trace metals mobility, Cd bioavailability and its accumulation in two contrasting Cd accumulating cultivars of pak choi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis L.) grown in Cd contaminated Mollisol soil. A greenhouse experiment was conducted with plants grown in Cd contaminated soil that had been amended with biochar derived from barley straw, tomato green waste, chicken manure, duck manure and swine manure at application rate of 0%, 2.5% and 5.0% (w/w). The results showed that soil pH was significantly increased by all treatments. Biochar increased plant dry biomass, micronutrients bioavailability with significant differences in the Cd sorption capacity, with the effectiveness higher with increasing biochar application rate. However, tomato green waste (TGW) and chicken manure (CM) derived biochar were more effective than the other biochar in reducing Cd mobilization in soil by 35-54% and 26-43% and reduced its accumulation in shoots of pak choi cultivars by 34-76% and 33-72% in low Cd accumulator cultivar and 64-85% and 55-80% in high Cd accumulator cultivar than the control. Overall, results indicate that TGW and CM biochar can efficiently immobilize Cd, thereby reducing bioavailability in Cd contaminated Mollisol soil to ensure food safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Modeling and assessing the function and sustainability of natural patches in salt-affected agro-ecosystems: Application to tamarisk (Tamarix chinensis Lour.) in Hetao, upper Yellow River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Dongyang; Xu, Xu; Ramos, Tiago B.; Huang, Quanzhong; Huo, Zailin; Huang, Guanhua

    2017-09-01

    Relatively low-lying zones of natural vegetation within irrigated areas are not only carriers of biodiversity but also dry drainage areas of excess water and salts applied to nearby croplands. It is thus useful to have a correct understanding of the soil water-salt dynamics and plant water use for keeping the sustainability of those natural areas. The HYDRUS-dualKc model that couples the HYDRUS-1D model with the FAO-56 dualKc approach was extended to simulate the eco-hydrological processes in natural patches of Hetao Irrigation District (Hetao), upper Yellow River basin. Field experiments were conducted in a tamarisk (Tamarix chinensis Lour.) dominated area during the growing seasons of 2012 and 2013. The model was calibrated and validated using the two-year experimental data, and applied to analyze the water and salt dynamics and the tamarisk water consumption for the present situation. Then, various groundwater depth (i.e. the depth from groundwater surface to water table, GWD) scenarios were simulated while considering the fluctuating and constant regimes of GWD changes, as well as variations of the rooting depth. Results indicated that this natural land functioned efficiently as a drainage area for subsurface flow and excess salt from surrounding croplands. However, the present GWDs were too shallow leading to high soil evaporation and severe salt stress. The soil evaporation accounted for 50% of the total evapotranspiration (ETa) while root zone salt storage increased about 50% during growing seasons. On the basis of scenario analysis, an optimum groundwater depth of 140-200 cm with smaller fluctuation was suggested for the growing seasons of natural patches. In addition, tamarisk growth could be largely improved if the roots can grow deeper with water table decline in the future. We demonstrated that monitoring and modeling could be used to support the development of water management strategies in Hetao aimed at conserving water while sustaining local

  5. Drought Sensitivity of the Carbon Isotope Composition of Leaf Dark-Respired CO2 in C3 (Leymus chinensis and C4 (Chloris virgata and Hemarthria altissima Grasses in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangzhi Zhong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Whether photosynthetic pathway differences exist in the amplitude of nighttime variations in the carbon isotope composition of leaf dark-respired CO2 (δ13Cl and respiratory apparent isotope fractionation relative to biomass (ΔR,biomass in response to drought stress is unclear. These differences, if present, would be important for the partitioning of C3-C4 mixed ecosystem C fluxes. We measured δ13Cl, the δ13C of biomass and of potential respiratory substrates and leaf gas exchange in one C3 (Leymus chinensis and two C4 (Chloris virgata and Hemarthria altissima grasses during a manipulated drought period. For all studied grasses, δ13Cl decreased from 21:00 to 03:00 h. The magnitude of the nighttime shift in δ13Cl decreased with increasing drought stress. The δ13Cl values were correlated with the δ13C of respiratory substrates, whereas the magnitude of the nighttime shift in δ13Cl strongly depended on the daytime carbon assimilation rate and the range of nighttime variations in the respiratory substrate content. The ΔR,biomass in the C3 and C4 grasses varied in opposite directions with the intensification of the drought stress. The contribution of C4 plant-associated carbon flux is likely to be overestimated if carbon isotope signatures are used for the partitioning of ecosystem carbon exchange and the δ13C of biomass is used as a substitute for leaf dark-respired CO2. The detected drought sensitivities in δ13Cl and differences in respiratory apparent isotope fractionation between C3 and C4 grasses have marked implications for isotope partitioning studies at the ecosystem level.

  6. Drought Sensitivity of the Carbon Isotope Composition of Leaf Dark-Respired CO2 in C3 (Leymus chinensis) and C4 (Chloris virgata and Hemarthria altissima) Grasses in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shangzhi; Chai, Hua; Xu, Yueqiao; Li, Yan; Ma, Jian-Ying; Sun, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Whether photosynthetic pathway differences exist in the amplitude of nighttime variations in the carbon isotope composition of leaf dark-respired CO 2 (δ 13 C l ) and respiratory apparent isotope fractionation relative to biomass (Δ R,biomass ) in response to drought stress is unclear. These differences, if present, would be important for the partitioning of C 3 -C 4 mixed ecosystem C fluxes. We measured δ 13 C l , the δ 13 C of biomass and of potential respiratory substrates and leaf gas exchange in one C 3 ( Leymus chinensis ) and two C 4 ( Chloris virgata and Hemarthria altissima ) grasses during a manipulated drought period. For all studied grasses, δ 13 C l decreased from 21:00 to 03:00 h. The magnitude of the nighttime shift in δ 13 C l decreased with increasing drought stress. The δ 13 C l values were correlated with the δ 13 C of respiratory substrates, whereas the magnitude of the nighttime shift in δ 13 C l strongly depended on the daytime carbon assimilation rate and the range of nighttime variations in the respiratory substrate content. The Δ R,biomass in the C 3 and C 4 grasses varied in opposite directions with the intensification of the drought stress. The contribution of C 4 plant-associated carbon flux is likely to be overestimated if carbon isotope signatures are used for the partitioning of ecosystem carbon exchange and the δ 13 C of biomass is used as a substitute for leaf dark-respired CO 2 . The detected drought sensitivities in δ 13 C l and differences in respiratory apparent isotope fractionation between C 3 and C 4 grasses have marked implications for isotope partitioning studies at the ecosystem level.

  7. The isolation and identification of pathogenic fungi from Tessaratoma papillosa Drury (Hemiptera: Tessaratomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Meng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Litchi stink-bug, Tessaratoma papillosa Drury (Hemiptera: Tessaratomidae, is one of the most widespread and destructive pest species on Litchi chinensis Sonn and Dimocarpus longan Lour in Southern China. Inappropriate use of chemical pesticides has resulted in serious environmental problems and food pollution. Generating an improved Integrated Pest Management (IPM strategy for litchi stink-bug in orchard farming requires development of an effective biological control agent. Entomopathogenic fungi are regarded as a vital ecological factor in the suppression of pest populations under field conditions. With few effective fungi and pathogenic strains available to control litchi stink-bug, exploration of natural resources for promising entomopathogenic fungi is warranted. Methods & Results In this study, two pathogenic fungi were isolated from cadavers of adult T. papillosa. They were identified as Paecilomyces lilacinus and Beauveria bassiana by morphological identification and rDNA-ITS homogeneous analysis. Infection of T. papillosa with B. bassiana and P. lilacinus occurred initially from the antennae, metameres, and inter-segmental membranes. Biological tests showed that the two entomopathogenic fungi induced high mortality in 2nd and 5th instar nymphs of T. papillosa. B. bassiana was highly virulent on 2nd instar nymphs of T. papillosa, with values for cadaver rate, LC50 and LT50 of 88.89%, 1.92 × 107 conidia/mL and 4.34 days respectively. Discussion This study provides two valuable entomopathogenic fungi from T. papillosa. This finding suggests that the highly virulent P. lilacinus and B. bassiana play an important role in the biocontrol of T. papillosa in China. These pathogenic fungi had no pollution or residue risk, and could provide an alternative option for IPM of litchi stink-bug.

  8. The isolation and identification of pathogenic fungi from Tessaratoma papillosa Drury (Hemiptera: Tessaratomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiang; Hu, Junjie; Ouyang, Gecheng

    2017-01-01

    Litchi stink-bug, Tessaratoma papillosa Drury (Hemiptera: Tessaratomidae), is one of the most widespread and destructive pest species on Litchi chinensis Sonn and Dimocarpus longan Lour in Southern China. Inappropriate use of chemical pesticides has resulted in serious environmental problems and food pollution. Generating an improved Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategy for litchi stink-bug in orchard farming requires development of an effective biological control agent. Entomopathogenic fungi are regarded as a vital ecological factor in the suppression of pest populations under field conditions. With few effective fungi and pathogenic strains available to control litchi stink-bug, exploration of natural resources for promising entomopathogenic fungi is warranted. In this study, two pathogenic fungi were isolated from cadavers of adult T. papillosa . They were identified as Paecilomyces lilacinus and Beauveria bassiana by morphological identification and rDNA-ITS homogeneous analysis. Infection of T. papillosa with B. bassiana and P. lilacinus occurred initially from the antennae, metameres, and inter-segmental membranes. Biological tests showed that the two entomopathogenic fungi induced high mortality in 2 nd and 5 th instar nymphs of T. papillosa . B. bassiana was highly virulent on 2 nd instar nymphs of T. papillosa , with values for cadaver rate, LC 50 and LT 50 of 88.89%, 1.92 × 10 7  conidia/mL and 4.34 days respectively. This study provides two valuable entomopathogenic fungi from T. papillosa . This finding suggests that the highly virulent P. lilacinus and B. bassiana play an important role in the biocontrol of T. papillosa in China. These pathogenic fungi had no pollution or residue risk, and could provide an alternative option for IPM of litchi stink-bug.

  9. Apparent source levels and active communication space of whistles of free-ranging Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in the Pearl River Estuary and Beibu Gulf, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Tao; W L Au, Whitlow; Rendell, Luke; Wang, Ke-Xiong; Wu, Hai-Ping; Wu, Yu-Ping; Liu, Jian-Chang; Duan, Guo-Qin; Cao, Han-Jiang; Wang, Ding

    2016-01-01

    Background. Knowledge of species-specific vocalization characteristics and their associated active communication space, the effective range over which a communication signal can be detected by a conspecific, is critical for understanding the impacts of underwater acoustic pollution, as well as other threats. Methods. We used a two-dimensional cross-shaped hydrophone array system to record the whistles of free-ranging Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in shallow-water environments of the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and Beibu Gulf (BG), China. Using hyperbolic position fixing, which exploits time differences of arrival of a signal between pairs of hydrophone receivers, we obtained source location estimates for whistles with good signal-to-noise ratio (SNR ≥10 dB) and not polluted by other sounds and back-calculated their apparent source levels (ASL). Combining with the masking levels (including simultaneous noise levels, masking tonal threshold, and the Sousa auditory threshold) and the custom made site-specific sound propagation models, we further estimated their active communication space (ACS). Results. Humpback dolphins produced whistles with average root-mean-square ASL of 138.5 ± 6.8 (mean ± standard deviation) and 137.2 ± 7.0 dB re 1 µPa in PRE (N = 33) and BG (N = 209), respectively. We found statistically significant differences in ASLs among different whistle contour types. The mean and maximum ACS of whistles were estimated to be 14.7 ± 2.6 (median ± quartile deviation) and 17.1± 3.5 m in PRE, and 34.2 ± 9.5 and 43.5 ± 12.2 m in BG. Using just the auditory threshold as the masking level produced the mean and maximum ACSat of 24.3 ± 4.8 and 35.7 ± 4.6 m for PRE, and 60.7 ± 18.1 and 74.3 ± 25.3 m for BG. The small ACSs were due to the high ambient noise level. Significant differences in ACSs were also observed among different whistle contour types. Discussion. Besides shedding some light for evaluating appropriate noise exposure

  10. Apparent source levels and active communication space of whistles of free-ranging Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis in the Pearl River Estuary and Beibu Gulf, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Tao Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Knowledge of species-specific vocalization characteristics and their associated active communication space, the effective range over which a communication signal can be detected by a conspecific, is critical for understanding the impacts of underwater acoustic pollution, as well as other threats. Methods. We used a two-dimensional cross-shaped hydrophone array system to record the whistles of free-ranging Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis in shallow-water environments of the Pearl River Estuary (PRE and Beibu Gulf (BG, China. Using hyperbolic position fixing, which exploits time differences of arrival of a signal between pairs of hydrophone receivers, we obtained source location estimates for whistles with good signal-to-noise ratio (SNR ≥10 dB and not polluted by other sounds and back-calculated their apparent source levels (ASL. Combining with the masking levels (including simultaneous noise levels, masking tonal threshold, and the Sousa auditory threshold and the custom made site-specific sound propagation models, we further estimated their active communication space (ACS. Results. Humpback dolphins produced whistles with average root-mean-square ASL of 138.5 ± 6.8 (mean ± standard deviation and 137.2 ± 7.0 dB re 1 µPa in PRE (N = 33 and BG (N = 209, respectively. We found statistically significant differences in ASLs among different whistle contour types. The mean and maximum ACS of whistles were estimated to be 14.7 ± 2.6 (median ± quartile deviation and 17.1± 3.5 m in PRE, and 34.2 ± 9.5 and 43.5 ± 12.2 m in BG. Using just the auditory threshold as the masking level produced the mean and maximum ACSat of 24.3 ± 4.8 and 35.7 ± 4.6 m for PRE, and 60.7 ± 18.1 and 74.3 ± 25.3 m for BG. The small ACSs were due to the high ambient noise level. Significant differences in ACSs were also observed among different whistle contour types. Discussion. Besides shedding some light for evaluating appropriate noise

  11. Biotechnology advances in jojoba (SIMMONDSIA CHINENSIS)

    KAUST Repository

    Reddy, Muppala P.; Chikara, Jitendra

    2009-01-01

    to heterogeneity in the population. High yielding genotypes have been selected from experimental plantations, and vegetative propagation methods have been developed to provide genetically uniform, known sex plants to boost yields. Due to limited production, jojoba

  12. A new pyrrolidone derivative from Pistacia chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Jun Liu; Chang An Geng; Xi Kui Liu

    2008-01-01

    A new N-phenyl-pyrrolidone derivative had been isolated from Pistacia chinesis Bunge. Its structure was elucidated as4-hydroxy-5-(2-oxo-1-pyrrolidinyl)-benzoic acid, named pistaciamide on the basis of the 1D-NMR, DEPT, HMQC and HMBCspectroscopic techniques.

  13. Biotechnology advances in jojoba (SIMMONDSIA CHINENSIS)

    KAUST Repository

    Reddy, Muppala P.

    2009-10-31

    Wax esters have important applications in medicine, and in the cosmetics and food industries, besides their more traditional usage as lubricants. The value of the wax from sperm whales was one of the factors responsible for this animals being hunted to near extinction, which prompted the eventual ban on harvesting and the search for alternative sources. Recognition of jojoba oil as an alternative to sperm whale oil has led to a surge of interest in jojoba across the globe. The hardiness of this plant, which is amenable to cultivation even on water-deficient wastelands, has led to it being cultivated as a crop in several semi-arid and arid regions of the world. In addition, oil from the seed de-oiled cake is rich in protein and can be used as livestock feed and as a source of commercial enzymes. The plant is dioecious, and exhibits tremendous variability in male:female ratio in a given population, with male plants generally outnumbering female plants, leading to low yields as expected due to heterogeneity in the population. High yielding genotypes have been selected from experimental plantations, and vegetative propagation methods have been developed to provide genetically uniform, known sex plants to boost yields. Due to limited production, jojoba waxes are not available for a number of applications in spite of high demand. The advent of genetic engineering has provided novel opportunities to tailor the composition of plant lipids and also engineer agronomically suitable oilseed crops to produce high levels of wax esters in the seed oil. This chapter discusses efforts made towards the domestication, genetic improvements for yield and oil content, detoxification of cake for use as a live stock feed, and aspects of micropropagation of this species.

  14. Leaf Litter Decomposition and Nutrient Dynamics Associated with Common Horticultural Cropland Agroforest Tree Species of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Hasanuzzaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mangifera indica, Zizyphus jujuba, Litchi chinensis, and Artocarpus heterophyllus are the most common cropland agroforest horticultural tree species of Bangladesh. This study focused on leaf litter decomposition and nutrient (N, P, and K dynamics during the decomposition process. This experiment was conducted for 180 days by using litter bag technique during dry and wet seasons. Mass loss was the highest (49% and 57% for A. heterophyllus and the lowest (25% was found for L. chinensis. The highest initial rates (0.75% and 2.35%/day of decomposition were observed for Z. jujuba and the lowest (0.50% and 0.79%/day for L. chinensis. The highest decay constant was observed for A. heterophyllus (2.14 and 2.34 and the lowest (0.88 and 0.94 for L. chinensis. Leaf litter of all the studied species showed a similar pattern (K > N > P of nutrient release during the decomposition process. Zizyphus jujuba showed comparatively higher return of N, P, and K than others. However, a significant (P<0.05 higher amount of mass loss, rate of decomposition, decay constant, and amount of nutrient return from leaf litter were observed during the wet season.

  15. HYDROTHERMAL TREATMENT IN PREVENTION BROWNING OF LYCHEE PERICARP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Gonçalves Pires Matias1

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The browning of litchi pericarp (Litchi chinensis Sonn. occurs rapidly after harvest, limiting the marketing period of the fruits. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hot water treatments in preventing browning of the pericarp and the maintenance of postharvest quality of litchi fruit. Fruits of litchi cv. Bengal uniformly red pericarp were submitted to immersion in water at tree temperature (45, 50 and 55°C x five soaking times (0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 minutes in a completely randomized design with tree replications and five fruit per replicate. After drying, the fruits were packed in polystyrene trays, covered with plastic wrap with 12 mm thick and stored in the lab benches at room temperature (19.0 ± 2.4°C and 75 ± 5% RH to simulate the exposure conditions at supermarket counters. Every two days, during eight days, were evaluated the weight loss, color of the pericarp, soluble solids, titratable acidity of the pulp and ascorbic acid content of the pericarp and pulp. It was observed that the weight loss was higher in fruits that were not subjected to hydrothermal treatment. Fruits subjected to 50°C during 16 minutes and 55°C in all immersion times were evaluated only until the 4th day, thereafter, these fruits are not suitable for commercialization. Immersion at 45°C during four minutes was the most effective in maintaining the red color of the pericarp and did not affect the quality measured during the experimental period.

  16. A comparison of the effectiveness of methods of deterring pteropodid bats from feeding on commercial fruit in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatamo E.A. Raharimihaja

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We compared the effectiveness of methods of deterring Pteropus rufus from feeding on commercial fruit in east central and southeastern Madagascar in 2012–2013 during the Litchi chinensis harvest. Two of the three methods used, installing plastic flags and ringing bells in the trees, were derived from those used by litchi growers in the southeast.  We improved and standardized these methods and compared their effectiveness with an organic product made from dried blood and vegetable oil (Plantskydd® with a taste and odour aimed at deterring mammal feeding.  The bats damaged from 440–7,040 g of litchi fruits per tree and two of the three methods reduced the fruit lost to bats: the plastic flags and the organic deterrent.  There were significant differences in the damage levels between the study sites and between our three methods of deterrence.  The plastic flags and bell ringing methods were significantly less effective in reducing the fruit bat damage compared to the taste deterrent.  The latter was most effective when it had enough time to dry and adhere to the fruits after spraying and before rain.  Its effectiveness was further demonstrated in flight cage experiments during which Rousettus madagascariensis avoided litchis treated with Plantskydd®.  Analysis of bat faecal samples revealed no feeding preference but the collected samples contained large numbers of Ficus seeds, suggesting that the bats feed extensively on Ficus fruits rather than on fruit of economic importance.  Apart from fruit ripeness, tree productivity or other phenological factors did not affect the amount of fruit eaten by the bats.   More fruits were damaged by birds than bats at both study sites. 

  17. Ecology and management of saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima, T. chinensis and T. ramosissima x T. chinensis hybrids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim Jacobs; Sharlene Sing

    2007-01-01

    Saltcedar, also known by the common name tamarisk (Tamarix spp; Tamaricaceae taxonomic family), is a long-lived, invasive deciduous shrub or small tree intentionally introduced to North America from Eurasia for ornamental, wind break, and erosion mitigating purposes in the early 1800s. The spread of this species, both vegetatively from submerged stems and root sprouts...

  18. Dolabra nepheliae on rambutan and lychee represents a novel lineage of phytopathogenic Eurotiomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Amy Y; Schoch, Conrad L; Farr, David F; Nishijima, Kate; Keith, Lisa; Goenaga, Ricardo

    2010-07-01

    Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) and lychee (Litchi chinensis) are tropical trees in the Sapindaceae that produce delicious edible fruits and are increasingly cultivated in tropical regions. These trees are afflicted with a stem canker disease associated with the ascomycete Dolabra nepheliae. Previously known from Asia and Australia, this fungus was recently reported from Hawaii and Puerto Rico. The sexual and asexual states of Dolabra nepheliae are redescribed and illustrated. In addition, the ITS and large subunit of the nuclear ribosomal DNA plus fragments from the genes RPB2, TEF1, and the mitochondrial small ribosomal subunit were sequenced for three isolates of D. nepheliae and compared with other sequences of ascomycetes. It was determined that D. nepheliae represents a new lineage within the Eurotiomycetes allied with Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, the causal agent of Petri grapevine decline.

  19. Simulating pesticide transport from a sloped tropical soil to an adjacent stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, G; Ingwersen, J; Totrakool, S; Pansombat, K; Thavornyutikarn, P; Streck, T

    2010-01-01

    Preferential flow from stream banks is an important component of pesticide transport in the mountainous areas of northern Thailand. Models can help evaluate and interpret field data and help identify the most important transport processes. We developed a simple model to simulate the loss of pesticides from a sloped litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) orchard to an adjacent stream. The water regime was modeled with a two-domain reservoir model, which accounts for rapid preferential flow simultaneously with slow flow processes in the soil matrix. Preferential flow is triggered when the topsoil matrix is saturated or the infiltration capacity exceeded. In addition, close to matrix saturation, rainfall events induce water release to the fractures and lead to desorption of pesticides from fracture walls and outflow to the stream. Pesticides undergo first order degradation and equilibrium sorption to soil matrix and fracture walls. The model was able to reproduce the dynamics of the discharge reasonably well (model efficiency [EF] = 0.56). The cumulative pesticide mass (EF = 0.91) and the pesticide concentration in the stream were slightly underestimated, but the deviation from measurement data is acceptable. Shape and timing of the simulated concentration peaks occurred in the same pattern as observed data. While the effect of surface runoff and preferential interflow on pesticide mass transport could not be absolutely clarified, according to our simulations, most concentration peaks in the stream are caused by preferential interflow pointing to the important role of this flow path in the hilly areas of northern Thailand.

  20. A comparative study on the effect of conventional thermal pasteurisation, microwave and ultrasound treatments on the antioxidant activity of five fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Sangeeta; Mahnot, Nikhil Kumar; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2016-06-01

    A comparative study on the effect of conventional thermal pasteurisation, microwave and ultrasound treatments on the phytochemical and antioxidant activities of juices from carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.), black jamun (Syzygium cumuni L.Skeels.), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var lanatus), pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr) and litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) was carried out. Depending on the type of fruit sample and treatment, increase or decrease in phytochemical values was observed. Overall, sonication had a positive effect on the total flavonoid content in all the juice samples followed by microwave treatment with exceptions in some cases. High-performance liquid chromatography study showed the presence of different phenolic acids depending on the sample type. The phenolic acids in some processed carambola juice samples showed decrease or complete destruction, while in some cases, an increase or appearance of newer phenolic acid originally not detected in the fresh juice was observed as seen in conventional thermal pasteurisation, microwaved at 600 W and sonicated juices. Both microwaved and sonicated samples were found to have positive effect on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity with exceptions in some cases. Therefore, microwave and sonication treatment could be used in place of thermal pasteurisation depending on the sample requirements. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. FOOD SOURCES AND CARBON BUDGET OF CHINESE PRAWN PENAEUS CHINENSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董双林; 张硕; 王芳

    2002-01-01

    This study deals with contribution of artificial food pellet and natural food to Chinese prawn (Penaeus orientalis) growth in a semiintensive culture pond. The prawn carbon consumption, budget, and the effects of some factors on the budget were investigated. The results showed that 26.2% of P. orientalis growth carbon came from formulated feed at the initial culture stage (when the prawns were 0.06±0.01 g in wet weight), and was 62.5% when the prawns were 9.56±1.04 g. The remaining part of the growth carbon was derived from organic fertilizer and natural food. The highest growth rate occurred at 20×10-3 salinity. Suitable salinity for culturing Chinese prawn was (20-28)×10-3.

  2. Identification of resistant biotypes of Leptochloa chinensis in rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-11

    Apr 11, 2011 ... essential crop after oil palm and rubber in Malaysia. (MOA, 2003). ... cost especially labor (Tabbal et al., 2002; Tomita et al.,. 2003; Savary et al., 2005) ... Methods, rate and time of application is very important to control weeds in ... house and pot (15 by 20 cm) was filled with 500 g air-dried and sterilized clay ...

  3. Polymorphic microsatellite markers in Taxus chinensis var. mairei ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in 1995 and is one of the first-grade state protection plants. (The State Council of ... marker system in population genetics analysis (Walter and. Epperson 2001) .... heterozygote deficiency may be due to the presence of null alleles at the three ...

  4. Clematis chinensis Extract Protects against Diabetic Nephropathy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cholesterol (LDL-c, 0.71 ... high-fat diet (HFD). The HFD consisted of 40 % fat, 41 % carbohydrate, and 18 % protein for 8 weeks. After an overnight fast, HFD-fed rats were injected intravenously ... injection, the rats were killed by carbon dioxide.

  5. Synthesis of Natural Cyclopentapeptides Isolated from Dianthus chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengping; Amso, Zaid; De Leon Rodriguez, Luis M; Kaur, Harveen; Brimble, Margaret A

    2016-07-22

    The first syntheses of the naturally occurring cyclic peptides dianthin I (1), pseudostellarin A (2), and heterophyllin J (3) are described. The linear protected peptide precursors were prepared efficiently via Fmoc-solid-phase synthesis and subsequently cyclized in solution under dilute conditions. The structures of the synthetic cyclopentapeptides were confirmed by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry and were in agreement with the literature data reported for the natural products.

  6. Pholidota chinensis alleviates azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) always progresses to colorectal cancer (CRC) which is the second most frequent cause of death by cancer. It is about 2% of population in the lifetime worldwide who at the risk for development of CRC. Oxaliplatin is an effective anticancer drug used for the treatment of ...

  7. Porodaedalea chinensis (Hymenochaetaceae, Basidiomycota) a new polypore from China

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dai, S. J.; Vlasák, Josef; Tomšovský, M.; Wu, F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 6 (2017), s. 986-993 ISSN 2077-7000 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : phellinus-pini group * Hymenochaetales * taxonomy Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Mycology Impact factor: 0.721, year: 2016

  8. Similarities in the aroma chemistry of Gewürztraminer variety wines and lychee (Litchi chinesis sonn.) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, P K; Acree, T E

    1999-02-01

    GC/O analysis of canned lychees indicated that cis-rose oxide, linalool, ethyl isohexanoate, geraniol, furaneol, vanillin, (E)-2-nonenal, beta-damascenone, isovaleric acid, and (E)-furan linalool oxide were the most odor potent compounds detected in the fruit extracts. However, on the basis of calculated odor activity values (OAVs), cis-rose oxide, beta-damascenone, linalool, furaneol, ethyl isobutyrate, (E)-2-nonenal, ethyl isohexanoate, geraniol, and delta-decalactone were determined to be the main contributors of canned lychee aroma. When these results were compared with GC/O results of fresh lychees and Gewürztraminer wine, 12 common odor-active volatile compounds were found in all three products. These included cis-rose oxide, ethyl hexanoate/ethyl isohexanoate, beta-damascenone, linalool, ethyl isobutyrate, geraniol, ethyl 2-methylbutyrate, 2-phenylethanol, furaneol, vanillin, citronellol, and phenethyl acetate. On the basis of OAVs, cis-rose oxide had the highest values among the common odorants in the three products, indicating its importance to the aroma of both lychee fruit and Gewürztraminer wines. Other compounds that had significant OAVs included beta-damascenone, linalool, furaneol, ethyl hexanoate, and geraniol. This indicated that while differences exist in the aroma profile of lychee and Gewürztraminer, the common odorants detected in both fruit and wine, particularly cis-rose oxide, were responsible for the lychee aroma in Gewürztraminer wine. When headspace SPME was used as a rapid analytical tool to detect the levels of selected aroma compounds deemed important to lychee aroma in Gewürztraminer-type wines, cis-rose oxide, linalool, and geraniol were found to be at relatively higher levels in Gewürztraminers. No cis-rose oxide was detected in the control wines (Chardonnay and Riesling), while lower levels were detected in the Gewürztraminer-hybrid wine Traminette. Gewürztraminers produced in the Alsace region showed differences in the levels of the 3 monoterpenes when compared to those from New York State, which could be attributed to differences in viticultural and enological practices between regions.

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-47 - Certain fruits from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... indica), mangosteen (Garcinia mangoestana L.), pineapple (Ananas comosus), and rambutan (Nephelium...) Growing conditions. Litchi, longan, mango, mangosteen, pineapple, and rambutan must be grown in a... Thailand. (b) Treatment. Litchi, longan, mango, mangosteen, pineapple, and rambutan must be treated for...

  10. Isolation and functional characterization of JcFT, a FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) homologous gene from the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaoqiong; Luo, Li; Fu, Qiantang; Niu, Longjian; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2014-05-08

    Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) is a potential feedstock for biofuel production because Jatropha oil is highly suitable for the production of the biodiesel and bio-jet fuels. However, Jatropha exhibits low seed yield as a result of unreliable and poor flowering. FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) -like genes are important flowering regulators in higher plants. To date, the flowering genes in Jatropha have not yet been identified or characterized. To better understand the genetic control of flowering in Jatropha, an FT homolog was isolated from Jatropha and designated as JcFT. Sequence analysis and phylogenetic relationship of JcFT revealed a high sequence similarity with the FT genes of Litchi chinensis, Populus nigra and other perennial plants. JcFT was expressed in all tissues of adult plants except young leaves, with the highest expression level in female flowers. Overexpression of JcFT in Arabidopsis and Jatropha using the constitutive promoter cauliflower mosaic virus 35S or the phloem-specific promoter Arabidopsis SUCROSE TRANSPORTER 2 promoter resulted in an extremely early flowering phenotype. Furthermore, several flowering genes downstream of JcFT were up-regulated in the JcFT-overexpression transgenic plant lines. JcFT may encode a florigen that acts as a key regulator in flowering pathway. This study is the first to functionally characterize a flowering gene, namely, JcFT, in the biofuel plant Jatropha.

  11. Microwave assisted green synthesis and characterizations of noble metal nanoparticles and their roles as catalysts in organic reduction reactions and anticancer agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Sijo; Koshy, Ebey P.; Mathew, Beena

    2018-04-01

    Nanomaterials are interesting chemicals that uncover the explorations and expectations of decades. The report suggests environmentally benevolent and easy route for the synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles. Personnel, laboratory and ecological benefits of the synthesized nanoparticles are demonstrated herein. The aqueous extract from the leaves of Litchi chinensis Sonn is performed as the alternative reducing agent. The microwave activated silver and gold nanoparticles have spherical geometries with crystalline essence. X-ray diffraction technique witnessed the face centered cubic lattice for the nano silver and gold particles that preferentially oriented towards the (111) plane. The reduction of nitro anilines is performed to elucidate the heterogeneous catalytic power of the nanoparticles. The nano catalyst is a potential candidate to meet the challenges raised from organic pollutant dye that cause environmental contamination. The chemical stability, low-cost factor and plant based origin of the new nanoparticles are admired. The multitudes of health hazards especially human carcinoma can be effectively inhibited by the silver and gold nanoparticles. The leaf extract, silver and gold nanoparticles showed IC50 values 66.56 ± 0.80, 23.55 ± 0.43 and 20.38 ± 0.41 μg ml‑1 respectively against the human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines A549 determined using the MTT dye conversion assay.

  12. Influence of the use of acids and films in post-harvest lychee conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Fabíola Pereira da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn. has a high commercial value; however, it has a short shelf-life because of its rapid pericarp browning. The objective of this study was to evaluate the shelf-life of 'Bengal' lychee fruits stored after treatment with hydrochloric acid and citric acid, associated with cassava starch and plastic packaging. Uniformly red pericarp fruits were submitted to treatments: 1-(immersion in citric acid 100 mM for 5 minutes + cassava starch 30 g L-1 for 5 minutes, 2-(immersion in hydrochloric acid 1 M for 2 minutes + starch cassava 30 g L-1 for 5 minutes, 3-(immersion in citric acid 100 mM for 5 minutes + polyvinyl chloride film (PVC, 14 µm thick and 4-(immersion in hydrochloric acid 1 M for 2 minutes + PVC film. During 20 days, the fruits were evaluated for mass loss, pericarp color, pH, soluble solids and titratable acidity, vitamin C of the pulp and pericarp and activities of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase of the pericarp. The treatment with hydrochloric acid associated with PVC was the most effective in maintaining the red color of the pericarp for a period of 20 days and best preservation of the fruit. The cassava starch associated with citric acid, and hydrochloric acid did not reduce the mass loss and did not prevent the browning of lychee fruit pericarp.

  13. Spatiotemporal heterogeneity in densities of the Taiwanese humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis taiwanensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dares, Lauren E.; Araújo-Wang, Claryana; Yang, Shih Chu; Wang, John Y.

    2017-03-01

    The inshore, estuarine distribution of Taiwanese humpback dolphins (THD) along the west coast of Taiwan puts them in direct conflict with many anthropogenic activities. We investigated the influence of environmental factors (depth, sea surface temperature (SST), salinity and distance to the nearest freshwater source) and coastal developments on THD density. Clear heterogeneity in density was found across the range of the THD, and there was significant spatial and temporal variation in mean densities. Density was not directly related to any environmental factors examined, which may be due to temporal variability and hydrological and oceanographic conditions that create, in effect, a continuous river delta along the central west coast of Taiwan rather than isolated, separate river estuaries. A high abundance of dolphins per unit of survey effort (DPUE) and mother-calf pairs per unit of survey effort (MCPUE) were found in waters adjacent to major coastal developments in which shallow waters had been filled to create new land (reclamation areas), but neither distance to reclamation area nor distance to the nearest river were found to be significant predictors of density. Most reclamation projects in THD habitat are situated near the mouths of major rivers or result in the creation of artificial confluences of smaller rivers, streams and other freshwater outlets, such as waste outflows. Thus, dolphins appear to use these areas in the absence of high quality natural habitat that has been lost to large-scale coastal reclamation throughout their range.

  14. Extraction and characterisation of pomace pectin from gold kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliarti, Oni; Goh, Kelvin K T; Matia-Merino, Lara; Mawson, John; Brennan, Charles

    2015-11-15

    Gold kiwifruit pomace extracted using citric acid, water and enzyme (Celluclast 1.5L) were studied in terms of pectin yield, protein, ash, non-starch polysaccharide, galacturonic acid (GalA), neutral sugar composition, molar mass (Mw), viscosity and degree of branching. Water-extracted pectin was considered closest to its native form. Enzyme extracted pectin showed the highest yield (∼ 4.5%w/w) as compared with the acid and water extraction methods (∼ 3.6-3.8%w/w). Pectin obtained from different extraction methods showed different degree of branching. The Mw and root mean square (RMS) radius varied with the extraction methods with values of 8.4 × 10(5) g/mol and 92 nm, 8.5 × 10(5)g/mol and 102 nm, 6.7 × 10(5) g/mol and 52 nm for acid, water and enzymatic extraction methods, respectively. Similar trend was observed for pectin viscosity, with water-extracted pectin giving a slightly higher viscosity followed by acid and enzyme-extracted pectin. This study showed that gold kiwifruit pomace pectin has potential application in food products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Accumulation, allocation, and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in soil-Brassica chinensis system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Zhang

    Full Text Available Farmland soil and leafy vegetables accumulate more polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in suburban sites. In this study, 13 sampling areas were selected from vegetable fields in the outskirts of Xi'an, the largest city in northwestern China. The similarity of PAH composition in soil and vegetation was investigated through principal components analysis and redundancy analysis (RDA, rather than discrimination of PAH congeners from various sources. The toxic equivalent quantity of PAHs in soil ranged from 7 to 202 μg/kg d.w., with an average of 41 μg/kg d.w., which exceeded the agricultural/horticultural soil acceptance criteria for New Zealand. However, the cancer risk level posed by combined direct ingestion, dermal contact, inhalation of soil particles, and inhalation of surface soil vapor met the rigorous international criteria (1 × 10(-6. The concentration of total PAHs was (1052 ± 73 μg/kg d.w. in vegetation (mean ± standard error. The cancer risks posed by ingestion of vegetation ranged from 2×10-5 to 2 × 10(-4 with an average of 1.66 × 10(-4, which was higher than international excess lifetime risk limits for carcinogens (1 × 10(-4. The geochemical indices indicated that the PAHs in soil and vegetables were mainly from vehicle and crude oil combustion. Both the total PAHs in vegetation and bioconcentration factor for total PAHs (the ratio of total PAHs in vegetation to total PAHs in soil increased with increasing pH as well as decreasing sand in soil. The total variation in distribution of PAHs in vegetation explained by those in soil reached 98% in RDA, which was statistically significant based on Monte Carlo permutation. Common pollution source and notable effects of soil contamination on vegetation would result in highly similar distribution of PAHs in soil and vegetation.

  16. Effect of Solid Biological Waste Compost on the Metabolite Profile of Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Neugart

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Large quantities of biological waste are generated at various steps within the food production chain and a great utilization potential for this solid biological waste exists apart from the current main usage for the feedstuff sector. It remains unclear how the usage of biological waste as compost modulates plant metabolites. We investigated the effect of biological waste of the processing of coffee, aronia, and hop added to soil on the plant metabolite profile by means of liquid chromatography in pak choi sprouts. Here we demonstrate that the solid biological waste composts induced specific changes in the metabolite profiles and the changes are depending on the type of the organic residues and its concentration in soil. The targeted analysis of selected plant metabolites, associated with health beneficial properties of the Brassicaceae family, revealed increased concentrations of carotenoids (up to 3.2-fold and decreased amounts of glucosinolates (up to 4.7-fold as well as phenolic compounds (up to 1.5-fold.

  17. Evaluation of additive effects of hydrolyzed jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) esters and glycerol: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jaimi; Marshall, Brooke; Gacula, Maximo; Rheins, Lawrence

    2008-12-01

    Glycerol has long served the topical prescriptive and personal care industry as a versatile and functional active and inactive ingredient. In skin care products, it acts primarily as an emollient, softening the skin through robust humectant hydration action. Hydrolyzed Jojoba Esters K-20W (K-20W) have been shown to increase skin hydration and improve sensory skin "feel" when included in a variety of skin, hair, and nail care cosmetic/personal care formulations. The addition of glycerol and hydrolyzed jojoba esters provides a substantial long-acting 24 h (moisturizing) skin hydration effect for topical products. A small pilot study was conducted to support the "proof of concept" that an enhanced, additive role exists between these two ingredients resulting in a long-term (24 h) skin moisturization effect. Topical treatments were applied to the skin (lower leg) of subjects, and evaluations were made at baseline and 8- to 24-h post-application. Skin hydration data were obtained via bio-instrumental transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurements and expert clinical skin grading, including standardized digital clinical photography. Clinical skin grading evaluations and TEWL measurements found that significantly lower evaporative (P jojoba esters) than with glycerol alone in a standard base skin care lotion at 8 and 24 h posttreatment. This preliminary data "proof of concept" supports the position that glycerol and hydrolyzed jojoba esters work in tandem to enhance skin moisturization for at least 24 h. This unique moisturizing potential may prove valuable in the future development of cosmetic and over-the-counter/prescriptive topical products, including new medicaments containing botanicals. This fact is further reinforced with the recent greater commercial use and demand for defined safe botanicals in cosmetic as well as pharmaceutical topical formulations. Additional mechanistic studies are underway.

  18. Zeatin and Thidiazuron Induced Embryogenic Calli From In Vitro Leaf and Stem of Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ashry, Amal Abd El-Latif; Gabr, Ahmed Mohamed Magdy; Bekheet, Shawky Abd El-Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Jojoba is a promising industrial plant, which recommended with pharmaceutical benefits. The present study was conducted to stimulate embryogenic calli formation from jojoba using zeatin and thidiazuron (TDZ), as well as determination of the antioxidant activity of proliferated calli. For callus induction, leaf and stem explants derived from in vitro grown shootlets, were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with different combinations of 0.5 mg L-1 benzyl adenine (BA) or kinetin with 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and picloram at 0.5 or 1mg L-1. To stimulate embryogenic calli, friable callus were transferred to woody plant medium (WPM) supplemented with different concentrations of zeatin or TDZ. Antioxidant activity of different treatments was determined using hexane or petroleum ether extraction. Data was analyzed as mean±standard deviation (SD). The MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg L-1 BA+0.5 or 1 mg L-1 picloram was the best treatment to obtain friable calli from both explants types. WPM medium supplemented with 2 mg L-1 zeatin gave the highest percentage of embryogenic calli derived from leaf explants. While the highest percentage of embryogenic calli derived from stem explants was registered using 1 or 4 mg L-1 TDZ containing medium. Embryogenic calli originated from leaves explants on 1.5 mg L-1 zeatin showed promising activity of antioxidant with hexane extraction. However, embryogenic calli originated from stem explants on 1 mg L-1 TDZ showed the highest antioxidant activity with petroleum ether extraction. TDZ has promising effect on embryogenic callus induction from stem explants. While, zeatin has promising effect on embryogenic callus induction from leaf explants.

  19. Simultaneous determination of carbohydrates and simmondsins in jojoba seed meal (Simmondsia chinensis) by gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lein, Sabine; Van Boven, Maurits; Holser, Ron; Decuypere, Eddy; Flo, Gerda; Lievens, Sylvia; Cokelaere, Marnix

    2002-11-22

    Separate methods for the analyses of soluble carbohydrates in different plants and simmondsins in jojoba seed meal are described. A reliable gas chromatographic procedure for the simultaneous quantification of D-pinitol, myo-inositoL sucrose, 5-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-D-pinitol. 2-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-D-pinitol, simmondsin, 4-demethylsimmondsin, 5-demethylsimmondsin and 4,5-didemethylsimmondsin as trimethylsilyl derivatives in jojoba seed meal has been developed. The study of different extraction mixtures allowed for the quantitative recovery of the 9 analytes by a mixture of methanol-water (80:20, v/v) in the concentration range between 0.1 and 4%. Comparison of the separation parameters on three different capillary stationary phases with MS detection allowed for the choice of the optimal gas chromatographic conditions for baseline separation of the analytes.

  20. Jojoba meal (Simmondsia chinensis) in the diet of broiler breeder pullets: physiological and endocrinological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnouts, S; Buyse, J; Cokelaere, M M; Decuypere, E

    1993-09-01

    The present studies evaluated the ability of jojoba meal (JO) to inhibit feed intake of broiler breeder pullets to limit body weight gain as recommended by the breeder company. A first experiment, using graded levels of JO supplementation (0 to 12%), was conducted to establish appropriate JO supplementation. Adequate reduction of growth rate was obtained with 4% JO supplementation. However, notwithstanding their similar growth rate, 4% JO chickens consumed considerably more feed compared with feed-restricted chickens. The dose-dependent impairment of feed intake with increasing levels of JO supplementation was also associated with increased plasma growth hormone and thyroxine and with decreased plasma insulin-like growth factor-I and triiodothyronine concentrations compared with 0% JO chickens. A second experiment included a pair-fed group. Notwithstanding their similar feed intake, 4% JO chickens gained significantly less body weight compared with their pair-fed counterparts. The 4% JO chickens also had a longer feed transit time per kilogram body weight. Again, circulating levels of the somatotrophic and thyrotrophic hormones were altered according to the dietary treatment. From all these observations, it was concluded that the growth retardation caused by JO supplementation was provoked by an inhibition of appetite linked with the simmondsin content of JO as well as by other antinutritional compounds affecting digestibility.

  1. Brassia campestris L. ssp. chinensis L.var. utilis Tsen et Lee

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    omodibo

    2012-12-31

    Dec 31, 2012 ... The pathogens were isolated by tissue segment method (Fang,. 1996) on potato ... Genomic DNA was extracted from a suspension culture of A. alter- nata by the cetyltrimethyl ... sample of orchid tissue. Biotechniques.

  2. The echolocation transmission beam of free-ranging Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Liang; Wu, Yuping; Wang, Kexiong; Pine, Matthew K; Wang, Ding; Li, Songhai

    2017-08-01

    While the transmission beam of odontocetes has been described in a number of studies, the majority of them that have measured the transmission beam in two dimensions were focused on captive animals. Within the current study, a dedicated cross hydrophone array with nine elements was used to investigate the echolocation transmission beam of free-ranging Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins. A total of 265 on-axis clicks were analyzed, from which the apparent peak to peak source levels ranged between 168 to 207 dB (mean 184.5 dB ± 6.6 dB). The 3-dB beam width along the horizontal and vertical plane was 9.6° and 7.4°, respectively. Measured separately, the directivity index of the horizontal and vertical plane was 12.6 and 13.5 dB, respectively, and the overall directivity index (both planes combined) was 29.5 dB. The beam shape was slightly asymmetrical along the horizontal and vertical axis. Compared to other species, the characteristics of the transmitting beam of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins were relatively close to the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), likely due to the similarity in the peak frequency and waveform of echolocation clicks and comparable body sizes of the two species.

  3. Evaluation of Phytoavailability of Heavy Metals to Chinese Cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.) in Rural Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Zehetner, Franz

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the extractability of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn by 8 extraction protocols for 22 representative rural soils in Taiwan and correlated the extractable amounts of the metals with their uptake by Chinese cabbage for developing an empirical model to predict metal phytoavailability based on soil properties. Chemical agents in these protocols included dilute acids, neutral salts, and chelating agents, in addition to water and the Rhizon soil solution sampler. The highest concentrations of extractable metals were observed in the HCl extraction and the lowest in the Rhizon sampling method. The linear correlation coefficients between extractable metals in soil pools and metals in shoots were higher than those in roots. Correlations between extractable metal concentrations and soil properties were variable; soil pH, clay content, total metal content, and extractable metal concentration were considered together to simulate their combined effects on crop uptake by an empirical model. This combination improved the correlations to different extents for different extraction methods, particularly for Pb, for which the extractable amounts with any extraction protocol did not correlate with crop uptake by simple correlation analysis. PMID:25295297

  4. Evaluation of Phytoavailability of Heavy Metals to Chinese Cabbage (Brassica chinensis L. in Rural Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Tsung Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the extractability of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn by 8 extraction protocols for 22 representative rural soils in Taiwan and correlated the extractable amounts of the metals with their uptake by Chinese cabbage for developing an empirical model to predict metal phytoavailability based on soil properties. Chemical agents in these protocols included dilute acids, neutral salts, and chelating agents, in addition to water and the Rhizon soil solution sampler. The highest concentrations of extractable metals were observed in the HCl extraction and the lowest in the Rhizon sampling method. The linear correlation coefficients between extractable metals in soil pools and metals in shoots were higher than those in roots. Correlations between extractable metal concentrations and soil properties were variable; soil pH, clay content, total metal content, and extractable metal concentration were considered together to simulate their combined effects on crop uptake by an empirical model. This combination improved the correlations to different extents for different extraction methods, particularly for Pb, for which the extractable amounts with any extraction protocol did not correlate with crop uptake by simple correlation analysis.

  5. Micropropagation of ornamental species Petunia grandiflora and Dianthus chinensis x barbatus

    OpenAIRE

    Velesanova, Ivana; Trajkova, Fidanka; Koleva Gudeva, Liljana

    2017-01-01

    Petunia (Petunia sp.) and pink dianthus (Dianthus sp.) are important ornamental plants which are grown on balconies, in flower gardens, parks and other during summer period. Approximately 156 ornamental species are cultivated via tissue culture in different commercial laboratories worldwide. In vitro plant culture is one of the key tools in plant biotechnology that utilizes the totipotency of plant cells. In this research the influence of different concentrations and combinations of BA, GA...

  6. Screening of Genes Specifically Expressed in Males of Fenneropenaeus chinensis and Their Potential as Sex Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihao Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The androgenic gland (AG, playing an important role in sex differentiation of male crustacean, is a target candidate to understand the mechanism of male development and to mine male-specific sex markers. An SSH library (designated as male reproduction-related tissues—SSH library, MRT-SSH library for short was constructed using cDNA from tissues located at the basal part of the 5th pereiopods, including AG and part of spermatophore sac, as tester, and the cDNA from the basal part of the 4th pereiopods of these male shrimp as driver. 402 ESTs from the SSH library were sequenced and assembled into 48 contigs and 104 singlets. Twelve contigs and 14 singlets were identified as known genes. The proteins encoded by the identified genes were categorized, according to their proposed functions, into neuropeptide hormone and hormone transporter, RNA posttranscriptional regulation, translation, cell growth and death, metabolism, genetic information processing, signal transduction/transport, or immunity-related proteins. Eleven highly expressed contigs in the SSH library were selected for validation of the MRT-SSH library and screening sex markers of shrimp. One contig, specifically expressed in male shrimp, had a potential to be developed as a transcriptomic sex marker in shrimp.

  7. Brassia campestris L. ssp. chinensis L.var. utilis Tsen et Lee

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    omodibo

    2012-12-31

    Dec 31, 2012 ... On the basis of morphological and cultural features, the pathogen ... Alternaria isolate from Purple-Caitai showed 99% identity with other ITS sequences of .... Cho KH, Park SH, Kim KT, Kim S, Kim JS, Park BS, Woo JG, Lee HJ.

  8. Biomass and ecological production of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis link) in the coastal desert of Sonora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, W R.H.; Espericueta, B M

    1978-01-01

    The density of the best natural stand of jojoba in this part of Mexico was 641 plants/ha, with a sex ratio of 75 male plants to 100 female plants. No plants were over 10 yr old. The aerial phytomass (over 60% of total phytomass) was 1573 kg/ha, and its annual net primary productivity was 327 kg/ha. Plant biomass components were expressed as allometric functions of ht., diam. of oldest stem, or the vol. of a cylinder enclosing the aerial part of the whole plant.

  9. Transcriptome analysis on Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis during WSSV acute infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihao Li

    Full Text Available Previous studies have discovered a lot of immune-related genes responding to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV infection in crustacean. However, little information is available in relation to underlying mechanisms of host responses during the WSSV acute infection stage in naturally infected shrimp. In this study, we employed next-generation sequencing and bioinformatic techniques to observe the transcriptome differences of the shrimp between latent infection stage and acute infection stage. A total of 64,188,426 Illumina reads, including 31,685,758 reads from the latent infection group and 32,502,668 reads from the acute infection group, were generated and assembled into 46,676 unigenes (mean length: 676 bp; range: 200-15,094 bp. Approximately 24,000 peptides were predicted and classified based on homology searches, gene ontology, clusters of orthologous groups of proteins, and biological pathway mapping. Among which, 805 differentially expressed genes were identified and categorized into 11 groups based on their possible function. Genes in the Toll and IMD pathways, the Ras-activated endocytosis process, the RNA interference pathway, anti-lipopolysaccharide factors and many other genes, were found to be activated in shrimp from latent infection stage to acute infection stage. The anti-bacterially proPO-activating cascade was firstly uncovered to be probably participated in antiviral process. These genes contain not only members playing function in host defense against WSSV, but also genes utilized by WSSV for its rapid proliferation. In addition, the transcriptome data provides detail information for identifying novel genes in absence of the genome database of shrimp.

  10. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Lignans and Cinnamic Acid from Schizandra chinensis.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sovová, Helena; Opletal, L.; Bártlová, Milena; Sajfrtová, Marie; Křenková, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 42, 1 (2007) , s. 88-95 ISSN 0896-8446 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/01/0550; GA AV ČR IAA4072102; GA AV ČR KSK4040110 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : supercritical extraction * solubility * lignans Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.189, year: 2007

  11. The Rhizome Mixture of Anemarrhena asphodeloides and Coptis chinensis Attenuates Mesalazine-Resistant Colitis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Min Lim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of DWac on the gut microbiota composition in mice with 2,3,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid- (TNBS- induced colitis. Treatment with DWac restored TNBS-disturbed gut microbiota composition and attenuated TNBS-induced colitis. Moreover, we examined the effect of DWac in mice with mesalazine-resistant colitis (MRC. Intrarectal injection of TNBS in MRC mice caused severe colitis, as well as colon shortening, edema, and increased myeloperoxidase activity. Treatment with mesalazine (30 mg/kg did not attenuate TNBS-induced colitis in MRC mice, whereas treatment with DWac (30 mg/kg significantly attenuated TNBS-induced colitis. Moreover, treatment with the mixture of mesalazine (15 mg/kg and DWac (15 mg/kg additively attenuated colitis in MRC mice. Treatment with DWac and its mixture with mesalazine inhibited TNBS-induced activation of NF-κB and expression of M1 macrophage markers but increased TNBS-suppressed expression of M2 macrophage markers. Furthermore, these inhibited TNBS-induced T-bet, RORγt, TNF-α, and IL-17 expression but increased TNBS-suppressed Foxp3 and IL-10 expression. However, Th2 cell differentiation and GATA3 and IL-5 expression were not affected. These findings suggest that DWac can ameliorate MRC by increasing the polarization of M2 macrophage and correcting the disturbance of gut microbiota and Th1/Th17/Treg, as well as additively attenuating MRC along with mesalazine.

  12. The potential of turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza) in agroforestry system based on silk tree (Albizia chinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnomo, D.; Budiastuti, M. S.; Sakya, A. T.; Cholid, M. I.

    2018-03-01

    Turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.) is a traditional medicinal plant. In Indonesia, it is generally cultivated in village home gardens. Famers conducted very simpple cultivation method of turmeric, without specific maintenance and below varies tree. The experiment was conducted by cultivating turmeric below silk trees as in agroforetry system. The experiment was arranged split plot design, the first factor was three level of irradiation (turmeric monoculture/full irradiation, turmeric below silktree with pruning canopy, and turmeric below silk tree no pruning). The second factor was fertilizer NPK 15-15-15 with three levels of doses (100, 150, and 200 kg ha-1). Cultivating turmeric in agroforestry system based on silk tree which were one year old and not yet needed pruning, application of NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer 100 kg ha-1 was enough. The rhizome yield of turmeric 3 months age reaches 139 g per plant (fresh weight). Litter fall from a silk tree one year old in one year is 30 kg per tree per year.

  13. Methane mitigation potential of phyto-sources from Northeast India and their effect on rumen fermentation characteristics and protozoa in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luna Baruah

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to explore the anti-methanogenic potential of phyto-sources from Northeast region of the country and assess the effect on rumen fermentation characteristics and protozoa for their likely inclusion in animal diet to reduce methane emission. Materials and Methods: Twenty phyto-sources were collected from Northeast state, Assam, during March to April 2014. Phyto-sources were analyzed for their tannin content followed by screening for methane mitigation potential using in vitro system. The effect of tannin on methane production and other fermentation parameters was confirmed by attenuating the effect of tannin with polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000 addition. About 200 mg dried phyto-source samples were incubated for 24 h in vitro, and volume of gas produced was recorded. The gas sample was analyzed on gas chromatograph for the proportion of methane in the sample. The effect of phyto-sources on rumen fermentation characteristics and protozoal population was determined using standard methodologies. Results: Results from studies demonstrated that Litchi chinensis, Melastoma malabathricum, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Terminalia chebula, and Syzygium cumini produced comparatively less methane, while Christella parasitica, Leucas linifolia, Citrus grandis, and Aquilaria malaccensis produced relatively more methane during in vitro incubation. An increase (p<0.05 in gas and methane production from the phyto-sources was observed when incubated with PEG-6000. Entodinimorphs were prominent ciliates irrespective of the phyto-sources, while holotrichs represented only small fraction of protozoa. An increase (p<0.05 in total protozoa, entodinimorphs, and holotrichs was noted when PEG-6000 added to the basal substrate. Our study confirmed variable impact of phyto-sources on total volatile fatty acid production and ammonia-N. Conclusion: It may be concluded that L. chinensis, M. malabathricum, L. speciosa, S. cumini, and T. chebula are having

  14. Effects of Storage and Exogenous Ga3 on Lychee Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Orika Ono

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of storage time and exogenous gibberellic acid on lychee seeds germination were studied. The seeds were removed from ripe fruits, washed, dried, stored at 8°C for 0, 15 and 30 days, and soaked during 24 hours in water and GA3 at 50, 100 and 200 mg.L-1 solutions. As the storage period increased, the germination capacity was lost, and the seeds had a short germinability after 30-day storage period. Gibberellic acid had not significant effect on enhancing both the germination percentage and rate.O trabalho teve como objetivo estudar os efeitos do tempo de armazenamento e de tratamentos com ácido giberélico, no processo germinativo de sementes de lichieira (Litchi chinensis Sonn.. As sementes foram retiradas de frutos maduros, lavadas, secas à sombra e colocadas para germinar imediatamente ou então, armazenadas em geladeira (8°C por 15 e 30 dias. Os tratamentos corresponderam à imersão das sementes por 24 horas nas seguintes soluções com aeração: água, GA3 a 50, 100 e 200 mg.L-1. Através dos resultados obtidos, observou-se que as sementes perderam o poder germinativo, à medida que aumentou-se o tempo de armazenamento, sendo a porcentagem de germinação muito baixa (7% aos 30 dias de armazenamento. O tempo médio de germinação foi menor após 15 dias de armazenamento.

  15. THE LYCHEE TREE PROPAGATION BY LAYERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEILA CRISTINA ROSA LINS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the influence of season and different substrates on rooting of air layers of lychee (Litchi chinensisSonn. for the production of seedlings to ensure the formation of uniform and productive orchards. Air layers were done in plants of the Bengal cultivar using leafy and healthy woody branches, with about 0.010 to 0.015 m in diameter, in which were performed complete girdling with 0.020 m wide at a distance of 0.30 to 0.40 m below the apex. Then the branches were wrapped in moistened substrate. The layering was made at six times of theyear (January, March, May, July, September and November and two substrates were used (coconut fiber and sphagnum in a 6 x 2 factorial design in a randomized block with ten replicates. After 90 days, layers were separated from the matrix plant and evaluated for rooting and callus formation, root number, considering only the primary roots, length, area and volume of the roots, beyond the dry weight of roots and calluses. The months of January, March, September and November showed the best results for all analyzed variables related to rooting. With respect to the substrates, the only difference was in January and March to the root number and dry weight of roots, where the sphagnum showed the best results. The month of July was more conducive to the formation of calluses. The period between September and March was more suitable to the propagation of lychee, when there were rooting percentages above 90%, in addition to the formation of large amount of roots.

  16. 78 FR 4122 - Notice of Request for Revision to and Extension of Approval of an Information Collection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ....56-56). In accordance with Sec. 319.56-47, litchi, longan, mango, mangosteen, pineapple, and rambutan... introduction of plant pests into the United States. These conditions involve the use of information collection... statement, and labeling. Shipments of litchi, longan, mango, mangosteen, pineapple, and rambutan must be...

  17. In vitro viability and preservation of pollen grain of kiwi (Actinidia chinensis var. deliciosa (A. Chev. A. Chev

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas André Steinmacher

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Kiwi is a dioecious plant species, requiring cross pollination for fruit production. The objective of this study was toevaluate the in vitro viability and shelf life of pollen grains of two kiwi varieties. Flowers of the cultivars Matua and Tomuri werecollected and the pollen germinated in vitro, in culture medium containing agar (1 %, sucrose (0, 5, 10, 20 and 40 % and boric acid(0 and 50 mg L-1H3BO3. Pollen grains were stored in a BOD incubator (25.0 °C, refrigerator (4.0 °C, freezer (-18.0 °C and in liquid N2 (-196.0 °C, and evaluated after 0, 40, 120, 240 and 365 days. The culture medium enriched with 12 % sucrose and 50 mgL-1 H3BO3 was the most suitable. Pollen grains can be stored for a short period in the refrigerator or freezer, and cryopreserved for at least one year.

  18. Effects of Nanoparticle Hydroxyapatite on Growth and Antioxidant System in Pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L. from Cadmium-Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangwei Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of nanoscale particle hydroxyapatite (nHAP on biomass, Cd uptake, the level of chlorophyll, vitamin C, malondialdehyde (MDA, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes, including SOD, CAT, and POD in pakchoi in Cd-contaminated soil, were evaluated by conducting pot experiment. Results showed that, by application of the 5 g·kg−1, 10 g·kg−1, 20 g·kg−1, and 30 g·kg−1 nHAP in 10 mg·kg−1 Cd-contaminated soil, the biomass of plant increased by 7.97%, 13.21%, 19.53%, and 20.23%, respectively. In addition, the reduction of Cd in shoots was 27.12%, 44.20%, 50.91%, and 62.36% compared to control samples. It was found that the supplement of the nHAP can increase the level of chlorophyll and vitamin C and decrease the level of MDA in plant shoots. Furthermore, the increment activities of SOD, CAT, and POD can be observed after addition of nHAP in Cd-contaminated soil. The results confirmed that nHAP can be applied to reduce the plant uptake of Cd and resist the Cd stress in the plant in Cd-contaminated soil.

  19. Genome-Wide Identification, Molecular Evolution, and Expression Profiling Analysis of Pectin Methylesterase Inhibitor Genes in Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Liu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Pectin methylesterase inhibitor genes (PMEIs are a large multigene family and play crucial roles in cell wall modifications in plant growth and development. Here, a comprehensive analysis of the PMEI gene family in Brassica campestris, an important leaf vegetable, was performed. We identified 100 Brassica campestris PMEI genes (BcPMEIs, among which 96 BcPMEIs were unevenly distributed on 10 chromosomes and nine tandem arrays containing 20 BcPMEIs were found. We also detected 80 pairs of syntenic PMEI orthologs. These findings indicated that whole-genome triplication (WGT and tandem duplication (TD were the main mechanisms accounting for the current number of BcPMEIs. In evolution, BcPMEIs were retained preferentially and biasedly, consistent with the gene balance hypothesis and two-step theory, respectively. The molecular evolution analysis of BcPMEIs manifested that they evolved through purifying selection and the divergence time is in accordance with the WGT data of B. campestris. To obtain the functional information of BcPMEIs, the expression patterns in five tissues and the cis-elements distributed in promoter regions were investigated. This work can provide a better understanding of the molecular evolution and biological function of PMEIs in B. campestris.

  20. Inhibiting Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Morganella morganii with Aqueous Methanol Extracts of Punica granatum and Galla chinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Morganella morganii are closely related to foodborne illnesses caused by the consumption of seafood and ready-to-eat (RTE) food. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) have been widely studied as complementary and alternative medicines, and many of them have been verified to have antimicrobial properties. The purpose of this research was to study antimicrobial effects of plant extracts as potential preservatives in seafood products and to ident...

  1. Effect of co-culture of Chinese shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis) and sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka) on pond environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Sun, Yongjun; Wang, Fang

    2016-10-01

    Monoculture of sea cucumber (pond S) and polyculture of shrimp with sea cucumber (pond SS) were established to evaluate the effect of shrimp on the environmental conditions of sea cucumber farming pond. Contributions of sediment organic matter (SOM2) resuspended from benthic sediment and the suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM) deposited from the water column to the precipitated organic matter (SOM1) collected with sediment traps were estimated with carbon stable isotope analysis. The results showed that the levels of SPOM and SOM2 in pond SS significantly decreased in comparison with those in pond S at the end of experiment ( P sea cucumber farming pond could purify the farming water. Carbon stable isotope analysis showed that the proportion of SOM2 in SOM1 in pond SS (84.97% ± 0.38%) was significantly lower than that in pond S (95.20% ± 0.30%) ( P < 0.05), suggesting that the resuspension of organic matter from benthic sediment into overlying water was reduced in polyculture pond. In contrast, the proportion of SPOM in SOM1 in pond SS (15.03% ± 0.38%) was significantly higher than that in pond S (4.80% ± 0.30%) ( P < 0.05), indicating that the sedimentation of SPOM from water column was enhanced in pond SS owing to the biodeposition effect of shrimp.

  2. Pemberian Kombinasi Pupuk Hijau Azolla Pinnata Dengan Pupuk Guano Terhadap Pertumbuhan Dan Produksi Tanaman Pakchoy (Brassica Chinensis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    OS, Ozi Nurhasanah; Yetti, Husna; Ariani, Erlida

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to look the influence of the combination of green fertilizer Azolla pinnata with guano toward the growth and production of pakchoy and to obtain the best treatment from Azolla pinnata with guano toward pakchoy. This research was conducted at the experimental farm of Farming Faculty of Riau University. This research was accomplished during 3 months that was from June to August 2014. It was carried out experimentally with Group Random Design (GRD), the treatment given which ...

  3. [Elimination of toxic compounds, biological evaluation and partial characterization of the protein from jojoba meal (Simmondsia chinensis [Link] Schneider].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina Juárez, L A; Trejo González, A

    1989-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a new methodology to remove the toxic compounds present in jojoba meal and flour. Also, to perform the biological evaluation of the detoxified products and to chemically characterize the protein fractions. Jojoba meal and seed without testa were deffated with hexane and detoxified with a 7:3 isopropanol-water mixture which removed 86% of total phenolic compounds and 100% of simmondsins originally present, the resulting products had reduced bitterness and caused no deaths on experimental animals. NPR values obtained for diets containing such products were significantly different from those obtained with the casein control (p less than 0.05). Total protein was made up of three different fractions: the water-soluble fraction was the most abundant (61.8%), followed by the salt-soluble (23.6%), and the alkaline soluble fraction (14.6%). The nitrogen solubility curves showed that the isoelectric point for the water-soluble and salt-soluble fractions was pH 3.0, while that of the alkaline fraction fell in the range of 4.5-5.0. All fractions had a maximum solubility at pH 7.0. The methodology reported here, offers a viable solution to eliminate toxic compounds from jojoba meal or seeds, and upgrades the potential use of products such as animal feed or raw material for the production of protein isolates.

  4. Cultivar-Specific Changes in Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Pak Choi (Brassica Rapa, Chinensis Group by Methyl Jasmonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moo Jung Kim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates, their hydrolysis products and primary metabolites were analyzed in five pak choi cultivars to determine the effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJA on metabolite flux from primary metabolites to glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products. Among detected glucosinolates (total 14 glucosinolates; 9 aliphatic, 4 indole and 1 aromatic glucosinolates, indole glucosinolate concentrations (153–229% and their hydrolysis products increased with MeJA treatment. Changes in the total isothiocyanates by MeJA were associated with epithiospecifier protein activity estimated as nitrile formation. Goitrin, a goitrogenic compound, significantly decreased by MeJA treatment in all cultivars. Changes in glucosinolates, especially aliphatic, significantly differed among cultivars. Primary metabolites including amino acids, organic acids and sugars also changed with MeJA treatment in a cultivar-specific manner. A decreased sugar level suggests that they might be a carbon source for secondary metabolite biosynthesis in MeJA-treated pak choi. The result of the present study suggests that MeJA can be an effective agent to elevate indole glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products and to reduce a goitrogenic compound in pak choi. The total glucosinolate concentration was the highest in “Chinese cabbage” in the control group (32.5 µmol/g DW, but indole glucosinolates increased the greatest in “Asian” when treated with MeJA.

  5. EKSPLORASI, ISOLASI DAN SELEKSI JAMUR ENTOMOPATOGEN PLUTELLA XYLOSTELLA (LEPIDOPTERA: YPONOMEUTIDAE PADA PERTANAMAN CAISIN (BRASSICA CHINENSIS DI SUMATERA SELATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haperidah Nunilahwati

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Plutella xylostella is the most destructive insect pests of the brassicae family. The research objective was to explore, isolate and select entomopathogenic fungi as biological agents for control of P. xylostella. This study used 20 fungal isolates originating from soil and infected insects around the farmers’ field in lowland and highland of South Sumatra. The fungal isolates were tested to third instar larvae of P.xylostella. The suspension of entomopathogenic fungus was topical inoculated with a density of 1x106 conidia ml-1 on the test insect and five replicates. The result showed that the highest (83% and the lowest (41% mortality of the larvae P.xylostella was induced by fungal BPluS and BNIPTr, respectively. Moreover, the shortest (2.1 days and the highest (4.3days lethal times of the infected host were induced by fungal BPluS and BNIPTr, respectively.

  6. Effects of irradiation treatment on shoot regeneration and transformation frequency of chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris SSP. Chinensis L)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Zhengqi; Cui Hairui

    2003-01-01

    Cotyledons with petiole were cultured on MS basic medium containing 5 mg/L BA, 0.5 mg/L NAA, 5 mg/L AgNO 3 , and produced adventitious buds with higher frequency. Induction frequency of adventitious buds could be increased by irradiation treatment of γ-rays with the lower dose of 1-2.5 Gy to seedlings and explants in culture, but decreased dramatically when the dose was higher than 10 Gy. Irradiation treatment in co-culture with lower dose of 1-7.5 Gy also promote transient expression frequency of gus gene, while irradiation treatment in pre-culture did not show obvious effect on transient expression of gus gene

  7. Derivation and characterization of cell cultures from the skin of the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin Sousa chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wei; Jia, Kuntong; Yang, Lili; Chen, Jialin; Wu, Yuping; Yi, Meisheng

    2013-06-01

    The marine mammalian Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin, once widely lived in waters of the Indian to western Pacific oceans, has become an endangered species. The individual number of this dolphin has significantly declined in recent decades, which raises the concern of extinction. Direct concentration on laboratorial conservation of the genetic and cell resources should be paid to this marine species. Here, we report the successful derivation of cell lines form the skin of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin. The cell cultures displayed the characteristics of fibroblast in morphology and grew rapidly at early passages, but showed obvious growth arrest at higher passages. The karyotype of the cells consisted of 42 autosomes and sex chromosomes X and Y. The immortalized cell lines obtained by forced expression of the SV40 large T-antigen were capable of proliferation at high rate in long-term culture. Immortalization and long-term culture did not cause cytogenetically observable abnormality in the karyotype. The cell type of the primary cultures and immortalized cell lines were further characterized as fibroblasts by the specific expression of vimentin. Gene transfer experiments showed that exogenetic genes could be efficiently delivered into the cells by both plasmid transfection and lentivirus infection. The cells derived from the skin of the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin may serve as a useful in vitro system for studies on the effects of environmental pollutants and pathogens in habitats on the dolphin animals. More importantly, because of their high proliferation rate and susceptibility to lentivirus, these cells are potential ideal materials for generation of induced pluripotent stem cells.

  8. A simulation of temperature influence on echolocation click beams of the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhongchang; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Xianyan; Wei, Chong

    2017-10-01

    A finite element method was used to investigate the temperature influence on sound beams of the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin. The numerical models of a dolphin, which originated from previous computed tomography (CT) scanning and physical measurement results, were used to investigate sound beam patterns of the dolphin in temperatures from 21 °C to 39 °C, in increments of 2 °C. The -3 dB beam widths across the temperatures ranged from 9.3° to 12.6°, and main beam angle ranged from 4.7° to 7.2° for these temperatures. The subsequent simulation suggested that the dolphin's sound beam patterns, side lobes in particular, were influenced by temperature.

  9. Microarray analysis of kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis bark following challenge by the sucking insect Hemiberlesia lataniae (Hemiptera: Diaspididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Garry Hill

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Both commercial and experimental genotypes of kiwifruit (Actinidia spp. exhibit large differences in response to insect pests. An understanding of the vine's physiological response to insect feeding and its genetic basis will be important in assisting the development of varieties with acceptable levels of pest resistance. This experiment describes transcriptome changes observed in the bark of kiwifruit 2 and 7 days after the commencement of feeding by the armored scale insect pest, Hemiberlesia lataniae. Using a cDNA microarray consisting of 17,512 unigenes, we measured transcriptome changes and analyzed these into functional ontology categories using MapMan. Results are available in the GEO database GSE73922 and are described fully in Ref. Hill et al. (2015 [1]. After 7 days, transcripts associated with photosynthesis were down-regulated and secondary metabolism was up-regulated. Differential expression of transcripts associated with stress response was consistent with a defense response involving both effector and herbivore-triggered immunities, with predominant involvement of the salicylic acid phytohormonal pathway. This hypothesis was supported by the results of two laboratory experiments. The methods described here could be further adapted and applied to the study of plant responses to a wide range of sessile sucking pests.

  10. Characterization of the seed oils from kiwi (Actinidia chinensis, passion fruit (Passiflora edulis and guava (Psidium guajava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piombo Georges

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Oils extracted from three exotic fruits, guava, kiwi and passion fruit were analyzed to evaluate the possible commercial interest for these waste materials from fruit juices industry. Results showed interesting fatty acids compositions with high amounts of essential fatty acids such as 62.3% alpha linolenic acid for kiwi seed oil, and respectively 73.4% and 77.0% for omega 6 linoleic acid in passion fruit and guava seed oils. Fatty acids regiodistribution, sterols and tocopherols contents were also analyzed to try to establish the potential nutritional interest of such oils.

  11. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of bioactive alkaloid compounds from rhizoma coptidis (Coptis chinensis Franch.) using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Hui; Choi, Yong Hee

    2014-01-01

    The optimum extraction conditions for the maximum recovery of total alkaloid content (TAC), berberine content (BC), palmatine content (PC), and the highest antioxidant capacity (AC) from rhizoma coptidis subjected to ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) were determined using response surface methodology (RSM). Central composite design (CCD) with three variables and five levels was employed, and response surface plots were constructed in accordance with a second order polynomial model. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that the quadratic model was well fitted and significant for responses of TAC, BC, PC, and AA. The optimum conditions obtained through the overlapped contour plot were as follows: ethanol concentration of 59%, extraction time of 46.57min, and temperature of 66.22°C. Verification experiment was carried out, and no significant difference was found between observed and estimated values for each response, suggesting that the estimated models were reliable and valid for UAE of alkaloids. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Rapid Evaluation of Germinability of Primed China Aster (Callistephus Chinensis Ness. Seeds with Physiological and Biochemical Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badek Bogumiła

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The correlation between the sowing value of primed China aster seeds represented by germination percentage (GP, mean germination time (MGT, germination uniformity expressed as the time between 25% and 75% of germinated seeds (T75-25 and some selected physiological characteristics - total activity of dehydrogenases (TAD, activity of catalase (AC, activity of cell cycle (ACC and electrolyte leakage (EL has been analysed in order to find useful markers of biological quality of seeds. To achieve this objective, analyses of effects of three methods of water supply to seeds viz. - hydroconditioning by soaking in excessive amount of water (M1, hydroconditioning by soaking in limited amount of water (M2 or hydroconditioning by contact with solid carrier of water - matriconditioning (M3, three levels (30.0, 35.0 and 40.0% of seed moisture content (m.c. and three incubation periods (1, 8 and 10 days during priming and hence their influence on germination properties (GP, MGT, T75-25 in comparison with TAD, AC, ACC and EL were determined. The results showed that MGT and T75-25 were correlated with TAD, AC, ACC and EL, irrespective of their priming method and sowing value. Therefore, all the investigated physiological/biochemical parameters of seed quality can be used as markers of germinability and sowing value reached by primed China aster seeds. The results also proved that, irrespective of the water supply method applied, hydration of seeds up to 37.5% m.c., and their incubation at 20 °C for 8 days, followed by drying to their initial moisture content, increased to the greatest extent the speed and uniformity of seed germination and their physiological activity.

  13. Trade patterns of the tree nursery industry in Europe and changes following findings of citrus longhorn beetle, Anoplophora chinensis Forster.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eschen, R.; Grégoire, J.C.; Hengeveld, G.M.; Hoop, de B.M.; Rigaux, L.; Potting, R.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    The trade in plants for planting is a major pathway for the introduction and further spread of alien plants, pests and diseases. Information about the structure of plant trade networks is not generally available, but it is valuable for better assessing the potential risks associated with the trade

  14. 7 CFR 305.34 - Irradiation treatment of certain regulated articles from Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 400 or 150 Litchi 1 150 Longan 150 Mango 300 Mangosteen 1 2 400 or 150 Melon 1 2 400 or 150... (iv) Be certified by Plant Protection and Quarantine for initial use and annually for subsequent use...

  15. Environ: E00537 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available PD:C00249], Oleic acid [CPD:C00712], trans-2-Decenal, Octenal, Hexanal Aspongopus chinensis, Aspongopus [TAX:236666], Nezara... antennata, Nezara [TAX:85309] ... Pentatomidae Aspongopus chinensis (dried) Others: Pentatomidae Nezara antennata (dried) ...

  16. Genetic variability induced in winter rye (Secale cereale l.), soya bean (Glicine max merill.) and china aster (Callistephus chinensis