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Sample records for licheniformis rkk-04 isolated

  1. Control of Bacillus licheniformis spores isolated from dairy materials in yogurt production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takashi; Ito, Akiko; Kamikado, Hideaki

    2012-01-01

    To determine the effects of sporulation temperature and period on Bacillus licheniformis spore heat resistance, B. licheniformis strain No.25 spores were sporulated at 30, 37, 42, or 50°C for 11 d and at 50°C for 1.7, 4, 7, or 11 d. The heat resistance of B. licheniformis strain No.25 spores at 110°C increased with an increase in the sporulation temperature. Spores sporulated at 50°C were 1.4-fold more heat resistant than those sporulated at 30°C. Furthermore, the heat resistance of B. licheniformis strain No.25 spores at 110°C increased with an increase in the sporulation period. Spores sporulated for 11 d were 5.3-fold more heat resistant than those sporulated for 1.7 d. The heat resistance of B. licheniformis strain No.25 spores at 110°C increased with increases in the sporulation temperature and sporulation period. The results presented in this study can be applied to the pasteurization process to control B. licheniformis spores. Pasteurization at 110°C for about 60sec. is effective in controlling B. licheniformis spores isolated from dairy materials in yogurt production.

  2. Investigation of the Antimicrobial Activity of Bacillus licheniformis Strains Isolated from Retail Powdered Infant Milk Formulae.

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    Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Begley, Máire; Clifford, Tanya; Deasy, Thérèse; Considine, Kiera; O'Connor, Paula; Ross, R Paul; Hill, Colin

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the potential antimicrobial activity of ten Bacillus licheniformis strains isolated from retail infant milk formulae against a range of indicator (Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Listeria innocua) and clinically relevant (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli) microorganisms. Deferred antagonism assays confirmed that all B. licheniformis isolates show antimicrobial activity against the Gram-positive target organisms. PCR and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analyses indicated that four of the B. licheniformis isolates produce the bacteriocin lichenicidin. The remaining six isolates demonstrated a higher antimicrobial potency than lichenicidin-producing strains. Further analyses identified a peptide of ~1,422 Da as the most likely bioactive responsible for the antibacterial activity of these six isolates. N-terminal sequencing of the ~1,422 Da peptide from one strain identified it as ILPEITXIFHD. This peptide shows a high homology to the non-ribosomal peptides bacitracin and subpeptin, known to be produced by Bacillus spp. Subsequent PCR analyses demonstrated that the six B. licheniformis isolates may harbor the genetic machinery needed for the synthesis of a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase similar to those involved in production of subpeptin and bacitracin, which suggests that the ~1,422 Da peptide might be a variant of subpeptin and bacitracin.

  3. Biosynthesis of exopolysaccharide by a Bacillus licheniformis strain isolated from ropy cider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larpin, Sandra; Sauvageot, Nicolas; Pichereau, Vianney; Laplace, Jean-Marie; Auffray, Yanick

    2002-07-25

    A strain of Bacillus licheniformis displaying a ropy phenotype was isolated from a French ropy cider. The influence of culture conditions on the production of exopolysaccharide (EPS) was investigated. When B. licheniformis was grown in Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) medium, the highest amount of EPS was observed at mid exponential growth phase whatever the carbon source, glucose, fructose or sucrose. Interestingly at mid exponential growth phase, EPS amounts did not increase with increasing sugar concentrations. Incubation of B. licheniformis cells in media supplemented with ethanol (1-7%, v/v) revealed that EPS production was enhanced by the presence of ethanol, in exponential as well as in stationary phase. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis of EPS composition indicated that it was a heteropolymer in which mannose was the predominant monosaccharide as it constituted more than 80% of total polysaccharide.

  4. Plasmid-Mediated Dimethoate Degradation by Bacillus licheniformis Isolated From a Fresh Water Fish Labeo rohita

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    Manisha Deb Mandal

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bacillus licheniformis strain isolated from the intestine of Labeo rohita by an enrichment technique showed capability of utilizing dimethoate as the sole source of carbon. The bacterium rapidly utilized dimethoate beyond 0.6 mg/mL and showed prolific growth in a mineral salts medium containing 0.45 mg/mL dimethoate. The isolated B licheniformis exhibited high level of tolerance of dimethoate (3.5 mg/mL in nutrient broth, while its cured mutant did not tolerate dimethoate beyond 0.45 mg/mL and it was unable to utilize dimethoate. The wild B licheniformis strain transferred dimethoate degradation property to E coli C600 (Nar, F− strain. The transconjugant harbored a plasmid of the same molecular size (approximately 54 kb as that of the donor plasmid; the cured strain was plasmid less. Thus a single plasmid of approximately 54 kb was involved in dimethoate degradation. Genes encoding resistance to antibiotic and heavy metal were also located on the plasmid.

  5. Plasmid-Mediated Dimethoate Degradation by Bacillus licheniformis Isolated From a Fresh Water Fish Labeo rohita

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The Bacillus licheniformis strain isolated from the intestine of Labeo rohita by an enrichment technique showed capability of utilizing dimethoate as the sole source of carbon. The bacterium rapidly utilized dimethoate beyond 0.6 mg/mL and showed prolific growth in a mineral salts medium containing 0.45 mg/mL dimethoate. The isolated B licheniformis exhibited high level of tolerance of dimethoate (3.5 mg/mL) in nutrient broth, while its cured mutant did not tolerate dimethoate beyond 0.45 mg/mL and it was unable to utilize dimethoate. The wild B licheniformis strain transferred dimethoate degradation property to E coli C600 (Nar, F−) strain. The transconjugant harbored a plasmid of the same molecular size (approximately 54 kb) as that of the donor plasmid; the cured strain was plasmid less. Thus a single plasmid of approximately 54 kb was involved in dimethoate degradation. Genes encoding resistance to antibiotic and heavy metal were also located on the plasmid. PMID:16192686

  6. Bacillus licheniformis Isolated from Traditional Korean Food Resources Enhances the Longevity of Caenorhabditis elegans through Serotonin Signaling.

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    Park, Mi Ri; Oh, Sangnam; Son, Seok Jun; Park, Dong-June; Oh, Sejong; Kim, Sae Hun; Jeong, Do-Youn; Oh, Nam Su; Lee, Youngbok; Song, Minho; Kim, Younghoon

    2015-12-02

    In this study, we investigated potentially probiotic Bacillus licheniformis strains isolated from traditional Korean food sources for ability to enhance longevity using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a simple in vivo animal model. We first investigated whether B. licheniformis strains were capable of modulating the lifespan of C. elegans. Among the tested strains, preconditioning with four B. licheniformis strains significantly enhanced the longevity of C. elegans. Unexpectedly, plate counting and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results indicated that B. licheniformis strains were not more highly attached to the C. elegans intestine compared with Escherichia coli OP50 or Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG controls. In addition, qRT-PCR and an aging assay with mutant worms showed that the conditioning of B. licheniformis strain 141 directly influenced genes associated with serotonin signaling in nematodes, including tph-1 (tryptophan hydroxylase), bas-1 (serotonin- and dopamine-synthetic aromatic amino acid decarboxylase), mod-1 (serotonin-gated chloride channel), ser-1, and ser-7 (serotonin receptors) during C. elegans aging. Our findings suggest that B. licheniformis strain 141, which is isolated from traditional Korean foods, is a probiotic generally recognized as safe (GRAS) strain that enhances the lifespan of C. elegans via host serotonin signaling.

  7. Isolation and characterization of different strains of Bacillus licheniformis for the production of commercially significant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Maria; Ansari, Asma; Aman, Afsheen; Zohra, Rashida Rahmat; Siddiqui, Nadir Naveed; Qader, Shah Ali Ul

    2013-07-01

    Utilization of highly specific enzymes for various industrial processes and applications has gained huge momentum in the field of white biotechnology. Selection of a strain by efficient plate-screening method for a specific purpose has also favored and boosted the isolation of several industrially feasible microorganisms and screening of a large number of microorganisms is an important step in selecting a potent culture for multipurpose usage. Five new bacterial isolates of Bacillus licheniformis were discovered from indigenous sources and characterized on the basis of phylogeny using 16S rDNA gene analysis. Studies on morphological and physiological characteristics showed that these isolates can easily be cultivated at different temperatures ranging from 30°C to 55°C with a wide pH values from 3.0 to 11.0 All these 05 isolates are salt tolerant and can grow even in the presences of high salt concentration ranging from 7.0 to 12.0%. All these predominant isolates of B. licheniformis strains showed significant capability of producing some of the major industrially important extracellular hydrolytic enzymes including α-amylase, glucoamylase, protease, pectinase and cellulase in varying titers. All these isolates hold great potential as commercial strains when provided with optimum fermentation conditions.

  8. Microbial reduction of [Co(III)-EDTA]⁻ by Bacillus licheniformis SPB-2 strain isolated from a solar salt pan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraneeiswaran, Arunachalam; Shukla, Sudhir K; Prashanth, K; Rao, T Subba

    2015-01-01

    Naturally stressed habitats are known to be repositories for novel microorganisms with potential bioremediation applications. In this study, we isolated a [Co(III)-EDTA](-) reducing bacterium Bacillus licheniformis SPB-2 from a solar salt pan that is exposed to constant cycles of hydration and desiccation in nature. [Co(III)-EDTA](-) generated during nuclear waste management process is difficult to remove from the waste due to its high stability and solubility. It is reduced form i.e. [Co(II)-EDTA](2-) is less stable though it is toxic. This study showed that B. licheniformis SPB-2 reduced 1mM [Co(III)-EDTA](-) in 14 days when grown in a batch mode. However, subsequent cycles showed an increase in the reduction activity, which was observed up to four cycles. Interestingly, the present study also showed that [Co(III)-EDTA](-) acted as an inducer for B. licheniformis SPB-2 spore germination. Vegetative cells germinated from the spores were found to be involved in [Co(III)-EDTA](-) reduction. More detailed investigations showed that after [Co(III)-EDTA](-) reduction, i.e. [Co(II)-EDTA](2-) complex was removed by B. licheniformis SPB-2 from the bulk liquid by adsorption phenomenon. The bacterium showed a D10 value (radiation dose required to kill 90% cells) of ∼250 Gray (Gy), which signifies the potential use of B. licheniformis SPB-2 for bioremediation of moderately active nuclear waste. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Bacillus licheniformis isolated from Korean traditional food sources enhances the resistance of Caenorhabditis elegans to infection by Staphylococcus aureus.

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    Yun, Hyun Sun; Heo, Ju Hee; Son, Seok Jun; Park, Mi Ri; Oh, Sangnam; Song, Min-Ho; Kim, Jong Nam; Go, Gwang-Woong; Cho, Ho-Seong; Choi, Nag-Jin; Jo, Seung-Wha; Jeong, Do-Youn; Kim, Younghoon

    2014-08-01

    We investigated whether Bacillus spp., newly isolated from Korean traditional food resources, influence the resistance of hosts to foodborne pathogens, by using Caenorhabditis elegans as a surrogate host model. Initially, we selected 20 Bacillus spp. that possess antimicrobial activity against various foodborne pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus. Among the selected strains, six strains of Bacillus spp. used in preconditioning significantly prolonged the survival of nematodes exposed to S. aureus. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, all six strains were identified as B. licheniformis. Our findings suggest that preconditioning with B. licheniformis may modulate the host defense response against S. aureus.

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus licheniformis Strain YNP1-TSU Isolated from Whiterock Springs in Yellowstone National Park

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    O'Hair, Joshua A.; Li, Hui; Thapa, Santosh; Scholz, Matthew B.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Novel cellulolytic microorganisms can potentially influence second-generation biofuel production. This paper reports the draft genome sequence of Bacillus licheniformis strain YNP1-TSU, isolated from hydrothermal-vegetative microbiomes inside Yellowstone National Park. The assembled sequence contigs predicted 4,230 coding genes, 66 tRNAs, and 10 rRNAs through automated annotation. PMID:28254968

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus licheniformis Strain YNP1-TSU Isolated from Whiterock Springs in Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hair, Joshua A; Li, Hui; Thapa, Santosh; Scholz, Matthew B; Zhou, Suping

    2017-03-02

    Novel cellulolytic microorganisms can potentially influence second-generation biofuel production. This paper reports the draft genome sequence of Bacillus licheniformis strain YNP1-TSU, isolated from hydrothermal-vegetative microbiomes inside Yellowstone National Park. The assembled sequence contigs predicted 4,230 coding genes, 66 tRNAs, and 10 rRNAs through automated annotation.

  12. Safety assessment of Bacillus licheniformis Me1 isolated from milk for probiotic application.

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    Nithya, Vadakedath; Muthukumar, Serva P; Halami, Prakash M

    2012-06-01

    In this study, an in vivo toxicological safety assessment of Bacillus licheniformis Me1, a native isolate from milk, was performed. An acute toxicity study in male albino Wistar rats demonstrated no treatment-related illness or mortality. A 90-day subchronic oral toxicity study using 2 doses (1.1 × 10(10) and 1.1 × 10(11) colony-forming unit [CFU]/kg body weight [BW], respectively) failed to show dose-dependent illness or mortality. Moreover, neither significant differences in serum biochemical and hematological analyses nor histopathological changes in organs or tissues were found when compared to the control groups. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) was found to be greater than 1.1 × 10(11) CFU/kg BW. The in vivo micronucleus assay in mice did not reveal any signs of genotoxic effect at any of the doses tested. Furthermore, dermal and acute eye irritation tests conducted in rabbits showed no edema or erythema and ocular lesions. These results suggest that B licheniformis Me1 can be considered safe for food industry applications.

  13. Disruption of microbial biofilms by an extracellular protein isolated from epibiotic tropical marine strain of Bacillus licheniformis.

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    Devendra H Dusane

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Marine epibiotic bacteria produce bioactive compounds effective against microbial biofilms. The study examines antibiofilm ability of a protein obtained from a tropical marine strain of Bacillus licheniformis D1. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: B. licheniformis strain D1 isolated from the surface of green mussel, Perna viridis showed antimicrobial activity against pathogenic Candida albicans BH, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and biofouling Bacillus pumilus TiO1 cultures. The antimicrobial activity was lost after treatment with trypsin and proteinase K. The protein was purified by ultrafiltration and size-exclusion chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF analysis revealed the antimicrobial agent to be a 14 kDa protein designated as BL-DZ1. The protein was stable at 75°C for 30 min and over a pH range of 3.0 to 11.0. The sequence alignment of the MALDI-fingerprint showed homology with the NCBI entry for a hypothetical protein (BL00275 derived from B. licheniformis ATCC 14580 with the accession number gi52082584. The protein showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC value of 1.6 µg/ml against C. albicans. Against both P. aeruginosa and B. pumilus the MIC was 3.12 µg/ml. The protein inhibited microbial growth, decreased biofilm formation and dispersed pre-formed biofilms of the representative cultures in polystyrene microtiter plates and on glass surfaces. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We isolated a protein from a tropical marine strain of B. licheniformis, assigned a function to the hypothetical protein entry in the NCBI database and described its application as a potential antibiofilm agent.

  14. Disruption of Microbial Biofilms by an Extracellular Protein Isolated from Epibiotic Tropical Marine Strain of Bacillus licheniformis

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    Dusane, Devendra H.; Damare, Samir R.; Nancharaiah, Yarlagadda V.; Ramaiah, N.; Venugopalan, Vayalam P.; Kumar, Ameeta Ravi; Zinjarde, Smita S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Marine epibiotic bacteria produce bioactive compounds effective against microbial biofilms. The study examines antibiofilm ability of a protein obtained from a tropical marine strain of Bacillus licheniformis D1. Methodology/Principal Findings B. licheniformis strain D1 isolated from the surface of green mussel, Perna viridis showed antimicrobial activity against pathogenic Candida albicans BH, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and biofouling Bacillus pumilus TiO1 cultures. The antimicrobial activity was lost after treatment with trypsin and proteinase K. The protein was purified by ultrafiltration and size-exclusion chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis revealed the antimicrobial agent to be a 14 kDa protein designated as BL-DZ1. The protein was stable at 75°C for 30 min and over a pH range of 3.0 to 11.0. The sequence alignment of the MALDI-fingerprint showed homology with the NCBI entry for a hypothetical protein (BL00275) derived from B. licheniformis ATCC 14580 with the accession number gi52082584. The protein showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 1.6 µg/ml against C. albicans. Against both P. aeruginosa and B. pumilus the MIC was 3.12 µg/ml. The protein inhibited microbial growth, decreased biofilm formation and dispersed pre-formed biofilms of the representative cultures in polystyrene microtiter plates and on glass surfaces. Conclusion/Significance We isolated a protein from a tropical marine strain of B. licheniformis, assigned a function to the hypothetical protein entry in the NCBI database and described its application as a potential antibiofilm agent. PMID:23691235

  15. Production, Purification, and Characterization of Thermostable α-Amylase Produced by Bacillus licheniformis Isolate AI20

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    Yasser R. Abdel-Fattah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimization strategy, based on statistical experimental design, is employed to enhance the production of thermostable α-amylase by a thermotolerant B. licheniformis AI20 isolate. Using one variant at time (OVAT method, starch, yeast extract, and CaCl2 were observed to influence the enzyme production significantly. Thereafter, the response surface methodology (RSM was adopted to acquire the best process conditions among the selected variables, where a three-level Box-Behnken design was employed to create a polynomial quadratic model correlating the relationship between the three variables and α-amylase activity. The optimal combination of the major constituents of media for α-amylase production was 1.0% starch, 0.75% yeast extract, and 0.02% CaCl2. The predicted optimum α-amylase activity was 384 U/mL/min, which is two folds more than the basal medium conditions. The produced α-amylase was purified through various chromatographic techniques. The estimated enzyme molecular mass was 55 kDa and the α-amylase had an optimal temperature and pH of 60–80°C and 6–7.5, respectively. Values of Vmax and Km for the purified enzyme were 454 mU/mg and 0.709 mg/mL. The α-amylase enzyme showed great stability against different solvents. Additionally, the enzyme activity was slightly inhibited by detergents, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS, or chelating agents such as EDTA and EGTA. On the other hand, great enzyme stability against different divalent metal ions was observed at 0.1 mM concentration, but 10 mM of Cu2+ or Zn2+ reduced the enzyme activity by 25 and 55%, respectively.

  16. Hydrolysis of Whey Protein Isolate with Bacillus licheniformis Protease: Aggregating Capacities of Peptide Fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creusot, N.P.; Gruppen, H.

    2008-01-01

    In a previous study, peptides aggregating at pH 7.0 derived from a whey protein hydrolysate made with Bacillus licheniformis protease were fractionated and identified. The objective of the present work was to investigate the solubility of the fractionated aggregating pepticles, as a function of conc

  17. Hydrolysis of Whey Protein Isolate with Bacillus licheniformis Protease: Fractionation and Identification of Aggregating Peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creusot, N.P.; Gruppen, H.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to identify the dominant aggregating peptides from a whey protein hydrolysate (degree of hydrolysis of 6.8%) obtained with Bacillus licheniformis protease. The aggregating peptides were fractionated with preparative reversed-phase chromatography and identified with

  18. Microbial reduction of [Co(III)–EDTA]{sup −} by Bacillus licheniformis SPB-2 strain isolated from a solar salt pan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paraneeiswaran, Arunachalam [Departartment of Biotechnology, Pondicherry University, Puducherry (India); Shukla, Sudhir K. [Biofouling and Biofilm Processes Section, Water and Steam Chemistry Division, BARC Facilities, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai 400094 (India); Prashanth, K. [Departartment of Biotechnology, Pondicherry University, Puducherry (India); Rao, T. Subba, E-mail: subbarao@igcar.gov.in [Biofouling and Biofilm Processes Section, Water and Steam Chemistry Division, BARC Facilities, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai 400094 (India)

    2015-02-11

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Bacillus licheniformis SPB-2 was used in the bioremediation of [Co(III)–EDTA]{sup −}. • The bacterial biomass adsorbed the Co–EDTA complex after its reduction. • [Co(III)–EDTA]{sup −} complex showed Bacillus spore inducing property. • B. licheniformis SPB-2 showed significantly radio-tolerance (D{sub 10} = 250 Gy). - Abstract: Naturally stressed habitats are known to be repositories for novel microorganisms with potential bioremediation applications. In this study, we isolated a [Co(III)–EDTA]{sup −} reducing bacterium Bacillus licheniformis SPB-2 from a solar salt pan that is exposed to constant cycles of hydration and desiccation in nature. [Co(III)–EDTA]{sup −} generated during nuclear waste management process is difficult to remove from the waste due to its high stability and solubility. It is reduced form i.e. [Co(II)–EDTA]{sup 2−} is less stable though it is toxic. This study showed that B. licheniformis SPB-2 reduced 1 mM [Co(III)–EDTA]{sup −} in 14 days when grown in a batch mode. However, subsequent cycles showed an increase in the reduction activity, which was observed up to four cycles. Interestingly, the present study also showed that [Co(III)–EDTA]{sup −} acted as an inducer for B. licheniformis SPB-2 spore germination. Vegetative cells germinated from the spores were found to be involved in [Co(III)–EDTA]{sup −} reduction. More detailed investigations showed that after [Co(III)–EDTA]{sup −} reduction, i.e. [Co(II)–EDTA]{sup 2−} complex was removed by B. licheniformis SPB-2 from the bulk liquid by adsorption phenomenon. The bacterium showed a D{sub 10} value (radiation dose required to kill 90% cells) of ∼250 Gray (Gy), which signifies the potential use of B. licheniformis SPB-2 for bioremediation of moderately active nuclear waste.

  19. Proteomics study of extracellular fibrinolytic proteases from Bacillus licheniformis RO3 and Bacillus pumilus 2.g isolated from Indonesian fermented food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Afifah, Diana; Rustanti, Ninik; Anjani, Gemala; Syah, Dahrul; Yanti; Suhartono, Maggy T.

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents the proteomics study which includes separation, identification and characterization of proteins. The experiment on Indonesian fermented food such as extracellular fibrinolytic protease from Bacillus licheniformis RO3 and Bacillus pumilus 2.g isolated from red oncom and tempeh gembus was conducted. The experimental works comprise the following steps: (1) a combination of one- and two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis, (2) mass spectrometry analysis using MALDI-TOF-MS and (3) investigation using protein database. The result suggested that there were new two protein fractions of B. licheniformis RO3 and three protein fractions of B. pumilus 2.g. These result has not been previously reported.

  20. Draft Genome Sequences of Three Cellulolytic Bacillus licheniformis Strains Isolated from Imperial Geyser, Amphitheater Springs, and Whiterock Springs inside Yellowstone National Park

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    O' Hair, Joshua A.; Li, Hui; Thapa, Santosh; Scholz, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Novel cellulolytic microorganisms are becoming more important for rapidly growing biofuel industries. This paper reports the draft genome sequences of Bacillus licheniformis strains YNP2-TSU, YNP3-TSU, and YNP5-TSU. These cellulolytic isolates were collected from several hydrothermal features inside Yellowstone National Park. PMID:28360181

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus licheniformis CG-B52, a Highly Virulent Bacterium of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), Isolated from a Colombian Caribbean Aquaculture Outbreak.

    OpenAIRE

    Gálvez, Eric J C; Carrillo-Castro, Katerine; Zárate, Lina; Güiza, Linda; Pieper, Dietmar H.; García-Bonilla, Erika; Salazar, Marcela; Junca, Howard

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus licheniformis strain CG-B52 was isolated as the etiological agent producing a self-limited outbreak of high mortalities in commercial Litopenaeus vannamei culture ponds on the Colombian Caribbean coast in 2005. Here, we report its draft genome and three novel extrachromosomal elements that it harbors.

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus licheniformis CG-B52, a Highly Virulent Bacterium of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), Isolated from a Colombian Caribbean Aquaculture Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, Eric J C; Carrillo-Castro, Katerine; Zárate, Lina; Güiza, Linda; Pieper, Dietmar H; García-Bonilla, Erika; Salazar, Marcela; Junca, Howard

    2016-05-12

    Bacillus licheniformis strain CG-B52 was isolated as the etiological agent producing a self-limited outbreak of high mortalities in commercial Litopenaeus vannamei culture ponds on the Colombian Caribbean coast in 2005. Here, we report its draft genome and three novel extrachromosomal elements that it harbors.

  3. Determination of the influence of substrate concentration on enzyme selectivity using whey protein Isolate and Bacillus licheniformis protease.

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    Butré, Claire I; Sforza, Stefano; Gruppen, Harry; Wierenga, Peter A

    2014-10-22

    Increasing substrate concentration during enzymatic protein hydrolysis results in a decrease in hydrolysis rate. To test if changes in the mechanism of hydrolysis also occur, the enzyme selectivity was determined. The selectivity is defined quantitatively as the relative rate of hydrolysis of each cleavage site in the protein. It was determined from the identification and quantification of the peptides present in the hydrolysates. Solutions of 0.1-10% (w/v) whey protein isolate (WPI) were hydrolyzed by Bacillus licheniformis protease at constant enzyme-to-substrate ratio. The cleavage sites were divided into five groups, from very high (>10%) to very low selectivity (protein concentrations. This finding shows that both the rate of hydrolysis and the enzyme selectivity were influenced by the substrate concentration.

  4. Optimization of fermentation conditions for cellulases production by Bacillus licheniformis MVS1 and Bacillus sp. MVS3 isolated from Indian hot spring

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    Somen Acharya

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effect of some nutritional and environmental factors on the production of cellulases, in particular endoglucanase (CMCase and exoglucanases (FPase from Bacillus licheniformis MVS1 and Bacillus sp. MVS3 isolated from an Indian hot spring. The characterization study indicated that the optimum pH and temperature value was 6.5 to 7.0 and 50-55°C, respectively. Maximum cellulases production by both the isolates was detected after 60 h incubation period using wheat and rice straw. The combination of inorganic and organic nitrogen source was suitable for cellulases production. Overall, FPase production was much higher than CMCase production by both of the strains. Between the two thermophiles, the cellulolytic activity was more in B.licheniformis MVS1 than Bacillus sp. MVS3 in varying environmental and nutritional conditions.

  5. Hydrolysis of whey protein isolate with Bacillus licheniformis protease: aggregating capacities of peptide fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creusot, Nathalie; Gruppen, Harry

    2008-11-12

    In a previous study, peptides aggregating at pH 7.0 derived from a whey protein hydrolysate made with Bacillus licheniformis protease were fractionated and identified. The objective of the present work was to investigate the solubility of the fractionated aggregating peptides, as a function of concentration, and their aggregating capacities toward added intact proteins. The amount of aggregated material and the composition of the aggregates obtained were measured by nitrogen concentration and size exclusion chromatography, respectively. The results showed that of the four fractions obtained from the aggregating peptides, two were insoluble, while the other two consisted of 1:1 mixture of low and high solubility peptides. Therefore, insoluble peptides coaggregated, assumedly via hydrophobic interactions, other relatively more soluble peptides. It was also shown that aggregating peptides could aggregate intact protein nonspecifically since the same peptides were involved in the aggregation of whey proteins, beta-casein, and bovine serum albumin. Both insoluble and partly insoluble peptides were required for the aggregation of intact protein. These results are of interest for the applications of protein hydrolysates, as mixtures of intact protein and peptides are often present in these applications.

  6. Prospecting Agro-waste Cocktail: Supplementation for Cellulase Production by a Newly Isolated Thermophilic B. licheniformis 2D55.

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    Kazeem, Muinat Olanike; Shah, Umi Kalsom Md; Baharuddin, Azhari Samsu; AbdulRahman, Nor' Aini

    2017-02-07

    Bacteria isolated from thermophilic environment that can produce cellulase as well as utilise agro-waste biomass have a high potential for developing thermostable cellulase required in the biofuel industry. The cost for cellulase represents a significant challenge in converting lignocellulose to fermentable sugars for biofuel production. Among three potential bacteria examined, Bacillus licheniformis 2D55 (accession no. KT799651) was found to produce the highest cellulolytic activity (CMCase 0.33 U/mL and FPase 0.09 U/mL) at 18-24 h fermentation when grown on microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) as a carbon source in shake flask at 50 °C. Cellulase production process was further conducted on the untreated and NaOH pretreated rice straw (RS), rice husk (RH), sugarcane bagasse (BAG) and empty fruit bunch (EFB). Untreated BAG produced the highest FPase (0.160 U/mL), while the highest CMCase (0.150 U/mL) was supported on the pretreated RH. The mixture of untreated BAG and pretreated RH as agro-waste cocktail has remarkably improved CMCase (3.7- and 1.4-fold) and FPase (2.5- and 11.5-fold) compared to the untreated BAG and pretreated RH, respectively. The mechanism of cellulase production explored through SEM analysis and the location of cellulase enzymes of the isolate was also presented. Agro-waste cocktail supplementation provides an alternative method for an efficient production of cellulase.

  7. A comparative ecotoxicity analysis of α- and γ-phase aluminium oxide nanoparticles towards a freshwater bacterial isolate Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakrashi, Sunandan; Kumar, Deepak; Iswarya, V; Bhuvaneshwari, M; Chandrasekaran, N; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2014-12-01

    Crystalline structure of nanoparticles may influence their physicochemical behaviour as well as their toxicological impact on biota. The differences in orientation of the atoms result in the variations in chemical stability. Thus, toxicological impacts of different crystalline phases of aluminium oxide nanoparticles are expected to vary. The present study brings out a comparative toxicity analysis of γ-phase and α-phase aluminium oxide nanoparticles of comparable hydrodynamic size range towards a freshwater bacterial isolate Bacillus licheniformis at low exposure concentrations (5, 1, 0.5 and 0.05 µg/mL). Upon 2-h exposure, the α-aluminium oxide particles showed lower toxicity than the γ-phase aluminium oxide. The lower level of oxidative stress generation and cell membrane damage in case of the α-phase aluminium oxide nanoparticles substantiated the toxicity results. The involvement of protein, lipopolysaccharides in nanoparticle-cell surface interaction, was noted in both the cases. To conclude, the crystallinity of aluminium oxide nanoparticles played an important role in the interaction and the toxicity response.

  8. DEGRADACIÓN DEL ALDRÍN POR Bacillus licheniformis, AISLADO DEL AGUA Y SEDIMENTO DE LA CIENAGA GRANDE DE SANTA MARTA, COLOMBIA Degradation of Aldrin by Bacillus licheniformis, Isolated from Water and Sediment from the Ciénaga Grande, Santa Marta, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ GREGORIO SÁNCHEZ DÍAZGRANADOS

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Con el objeto de apoyar la utilización de microorganismos endémicos como alternativa para la degradación de contaminantes orgánicos persistentes, se aisló la bacteria Bacillus licheniformis, a partir de muestras de sedimento y agua del complejo lagunar de la ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta (CGSM, Caribe colombiano, capaz de tolerar y degradar en condiciones aerobias el plaguicida organoclorado aldrín. La CGSM se encuentra impactada en los últimos años por descargas de residuos orgánicos provenientes de los ríos de la sierra nevada de Santa Marta (SNSM y el Magdalena (RM. Debido a esta problemática se realizó un bioensayo en el que se expuso a B. licheniformis a una concentración de 60 ng/L de aldrín, durante un período de 30 días se evaluó la capacidad degradadora de la bacteria sobre el organoclorado. La determinación de las concentraciones de aldrín se realizó con la técnica de cromatografía de gases. Los resultados mostraron que B. licheniformis posee capacidad degradadora de 24% de aldrín y que factores como exposición a luz solar y volatilización influyen en la degradación del organoclorado con una reducción adicional de 31%.The bacterium Bacillus licheniformis was isolated from sediment and water samples from estuary lagoon Cienaga Grande de Santa Marta (CGSM, Colombian Caribbean. The aim of the work was to use this microorganism as an alternative in the degradation of organic persistent pollutants. B. licheniformis was able to tolerate aerobic conditions and concentrations of the pesticide organochlorine, aldrin. The test was made during 30 days with 60 ng/L of aldrin in order to evaluate the degradation capacity of this bacterium. Identification and isolation of B. licheniformis was made through morphological (Gram test, as well as biochemical characterization (BBL Crystal system. Aldrin concentration was determined by gas chromatography. Results show that B. licheniformis had a degradation capacity of 24% from

  9. Isolation and physico-chemical characterization of an antifungal and antibacterial peptide produced by Bacillus licheniformis A12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, A; Maqueda, M; Martínez-Bueno, M; Lebbadi, M; Valdivia, E

    1993-07-01

    An antifungal substance named peptide A12-C has been purified to homogeneity from supernatants of sporulated cultures of Bacillus licheniformis A12. It consists of a 0.77-kDa hydrophilic peptide containing two residues of Glu and one of Arg, Ala, Pro, Tyr and Orn. No fatty acids, phosphorus or carbohydrates have been detected. Peptide A12-C is active on several fungi (Microsporum canis CECT 2797, Mucor mucedo CECT 2653, M. plumbeus (CCM F 443, Sporothrix schenckii CECT 2799 and Trichophyton mentagrophytes CECT 2793) and bacteria (Bacillus megaterium, Corynebacterium glutamicum, Sarcina and Mycobacterium), although the latter are less sensitive.

  10. A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF BOVINE ABORTIONS ASSOCIATED WITH BACILLUS-LICHENIFORMIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, J.S.; Krogh, H.V.; Jensen, H.E.

    1995-01-01

    A retrospective study of bovine abortions associated with Bacillus licheniformis is described. The material consisted of 2445 bovine abortions submitted for diagnostics from 1986 through 1993. Initially, B, licheniformis had been isolated from 81 cases. Sections of these cases were reexamined mic...... isolations, especially from the placenta, lungs, and abomasal contents, combined with the histological findings points to B, licheniformis abortions as being of haematogenous origin with subsequent transplacental spread to the fetus....

  11. A preliminary study on the pathogenicity of Bacillus licheniformis bacteria in immunodepressed mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, J.S.; Jensen, N.E.; Giese, Steen Bjørck

    1997-01-01

    The pathogenicity of 13 strains of Bacillus licheniformis was studied in immunodepressed mice. The strains had been isolated from cases of bovine abortions (n=5), bovine feedstuffs (n=3), soil (n=l), and grain products (n=2). The origin of two strains was unknown. Groups of 10 mice were inoculate...... intravenously with B. licheniformis bacteria at doses from...

  12. Diversity in the antibacterial potential of probiotic cultures Bacillus licheniformis MCC2514 and Bacillus licheniformis MCC2512.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobharani, Papanna; Padmaja, Radhakrishnan J; Halami, Prakash M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the characteristic diversity and stability of antimicrobial compounds produced by two probiotic strains of Bacillus licheniformis (MCC2514 and MCC2512). Antimicrobial compounds from the two strains notably varied, related to stability and potency. The inhibitory spectrum of B. licheniformis MCC2512 was higher than MCC2514, but, related to the effect on Micrococcus luteus ATCC9341, MCC2514 (LD50 = 450 AU ml(-1)) was more potent than MCC2512 (LD50 = 750 AU ml(-1)). The compounds were thermo-resistant and stable at a wide range of pH and exhibited considerable resistance to digestive enzymes and bile salts (anionic biological detergents), contributing to their appropriate application in various food systems. The isolate B. licheniformis MCC2512 gave a positive response to Bacillus subtilis-based biosensors BSF2470 and BS168.BS2, confirming the mode of action on the cell wall and subtilin-type, respectively. For B. licheniformis MCC2514, the mode of action was characterized by constructing B. subtilis reporters that interfered in five major biosynthetic pathways, i.e., biosynthesis of DNA, RNA, protein, the cell wall and fatty acids. B. licheniformis MCC2514 responded to the yvgS reporter, indicating it as an RNA synthesis inhibitor. Overall, the investigation reveals variability of the antimicrobial compounds from B. licheniformis of different origins and for their possible application as biopreservative agents.

  13. Production and estimation of alkaline protease by immobilized Bacillus licheniformis isolated from poultry farm soil of 24 Parganas and its reusability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamba Chatterjee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial alkaline protease has become an important industrial and commercial biotech product in the recent years and exerts major applications in food, textile, detergent, and pharmaceutical industries. By immobilization of microbes in different entrapment matrices, the enzyme produced can be more stable, pure, continuous, and can be reused which in turn modulates the enzyme production in an economical manner. There have been reports in support of calcium alginate and corn cab as excellent matrices for immobilization of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis, respectively. This study has been carried out using calcium alginate, κ-carrageenan, agar-agar, polyacrylamide gel, and gelatin which emphasizes not only on enzyme activity of immobilized whole cells by different entrapment matrices but also on their efficiency with respect to their reusability as first attempt. Gelatin was found to be the best matrix among all with highest enzyme activity (517 U/ml at 24 h incubation point and also showed efficiency when reused.

  14. Genotyping of B. licheniformis based on a novel multi-locus sequence typing (MLST scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madslien Elisabeth H

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacillus licheniformis has for many years been used in the industrial production of enzymes, antibiotics and detergents. However, as a producer of dormant heat-resistant endospores B. licheniformis might contaminate semi-preserved foods. The aim of this study was to establish a robust and novel genotyping scheme for B. licheniformis in order to reveal the evolutionary history of 53 strains of this species. Furthermore, the genotyping scheme was also investigated for its use to detect food-contaminating strains. Results A multi-locus sequence typing (MLST scheme, based on the sequence of six house-keeping genes (adk, ccpA, recF, rpoB, spo0A and sucC of 53 B. licheniformis strains from different sources was established. The result of the MLST analysis supported previous findings of two different subgroups (lineages within this species, named “A” and “B” Statistical analysis of the MLST data indicated a higher rate of recombination within group “A”. Food isolates were widely dispersed in the MLST tree and could not be distinguished from the other strains. However, the food contaminating strain B. licheniformis NVH1032, represented by a unique sequence type (ST8, was distantly related to all other strains. Conclusions In this study, a novel and robust genotyping scheme for B. licheniformis was established, separating the species into two subgroups. This scheme could be used for further studies of evolution and population genetics in B. licheniformis.

  15. Isolation and Identification of Bacillus licheniformis and Optimization of the Culture Media%水产养殖用地衣芽孢杆菌的分离鉴定与其扩增培养基筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周冬仁; 罗毅志; 施伟达; 叶雪平; 沈振伟; 汤美锋

    2014-01-01

    为分离筛选适合水产养殖用的地衣芽孢杆菌,并探明不同培养基对其扩增效果,采用微生物学与分子生物学相结合的方法对养殖池塘淤泥中的细菌进行研究。结果表明:分离得到2株抑菌作用最强的菌株DSY002-2011和 DSY003-2011,其中,DSY002-2011菌株为地衣芽孢杆菌。由豆粕与红糖、玉米粉、大米粉和麸皮等分别构成的4种生产型培养基均能将DSY002-2011菌株的细菌数扩增至200亿个以上,其中,以红糖20 g/L+豆粕80 g/L的组合最优,其细菌扩增培养浓度可达39×109 cfu/mL。%The combined methods of microbiology and molecular biology were employed to isolate and screen the suitable B.licheniformis for aquaculture and explore the amplification effects of different culture media.Results:Two strains DSY002-2011 and DSY003-2011 with the strongest bacteriostatic action were isolated,in which DSY002-2011 was B.licheniformis,the bacterial count could be up to more than 20 billion in four production media composed of bean pulp,brown sugar,corn flour,rice meal and bran.The combination of browning sugar 20 g/L and bean pulp 80 g/L was of the best effects,the multiplication culture concentration of bacteria was up to 39 ×109 cfu/mL.

  16. Biodegradation of malathion by Bacillus licheniformis strain ML-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Sara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malathion, a well-known organophosphate pesticide, has been used in agriculture over the last two decades for controlling pests of economically important crops. In the present study, a single bacterium, ML-1, was isolated by soil-enrichment technique and identified as Bacillus licheniformis on the basis of the 16S rRNA technique. The bacterium was grown in carbon-free minimal salt medium (MSM and was found to be very efficient in utilizing malathion as the sole source of carbon. Biodegradation experiments were performed in MSM without carbon source to determine the malathion degradation by the selected strain, and the residues of malathion were determined quantitatively using HPLC techniques. Bacillus licheniformis showed very promising results and efficiently consumed malathion as the sole carbon source via malathion carboxylesterase (MCE, and about 78% malathion was degraded within 5 days. The carboxylesterase activity was determined by using crude extract while using malathion as substrate, and the residues were determined by HPLC. It has been found that the MCE hydrolyzed 87% malathion within 96 h of incubation. Characterization of crude MCE revealed that the enzyme is robust in nature in terms of organic solvents, as it was found to be stable in various concentrations of ethanol and acetonitrile. Similarly, and it can work in a wide pH and temperature range. The results of this study highlighted the potential of Bacillus licheniformis strain ML-1 as a biodegrader that can be used for the bioremediation of malathion-contaminated soil.

  17. TRANSFORMATION OF BACILLUS LICHENIFORMIS1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwinn, Darrel D.; Thorne, Curtis B.

    1964-01-01

    Gwinn, Darrel D. (Oregon State University, Corvallis), and Curtis B. Thorne. Transformation of Bacillus licheniformis. J. Bacteriol. 87:519–526. 1964.—When a series of 28 auxotrophic mutants of Bacillus licheniformis were screened for transformation, only three of them, M28 (glycine−), M30 (uncharacterized), and M33 (purine−), produced a detectable number of transformants. The screening method consisted of spreading auxotrophic cells and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from the prototrophic strain 9945A on minimal agar plates and observing the plates for development of prototrophic colonies. M28 transformed at a higher frequency than did the two other mutants, and it was studied in greater detail. Although up to 20% of the recipient cells spread on the plates in the presence of DNA gave rise to prototrophic colonies over a period of 72 hr, only about 10−3% of the cells produced transformants when they were incubated with DNA in liquid suspension for 1 hr. The most competent cultures of many tested were those grown on a shaker for 22 hr in a medium composed of nutrient broth, salts, and glycerol. When mutations resulting in requirements for histidine, leucine, serine, and trytophan were introduced singly into the glycine mutant, transformants for the leucine, serine, and histidine markers could be obtained at will, but transformants for the tryptophan marker were not detected even though all four of the double mutants could be transformed to glycine independence. PMID:14127566

  18. Chitinase production by Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus licheniformis: their potential in antifungal biocontrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, Eman Zakaria

    2012-02-01

    Thirty bacterial strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of plants collected from Egypt and screened for production of chitinase enzymes. Bacillus thuringiensis NM101-19 and Bacillus licheniformis NM120-17 had the highest chitinolytic activities amongst those investigated. The production of chitinase by B. thuringiensis and B. licheniformis was optimized using colloidal chitin medium amended with 1.5% colloidal chitin, with casein as a nitrogen source, at 30°C after five days of incubation. An enhancement of chitinase production by the two species was observed by addition of sugar substances and dried fungal mats to the colloidal chitin media. The optimal conditions for chitinase activity by B. thuringiensis and B. licheniformis were at 40°C, pH 7.0 and pH 8.0, respectively. Na(+), Mg(2+), Cu(2+), and Ca(2+) caused enhancement of enzyme activities whereas they were markedly inhibited by Zn(2+), Hg(2+), and Ag(+). In vitro, B. thuringiensis and B. licheniformis chitinases had potential for cell wall lysis of many phytopathogenic fungi tested. The addition of B. thuringiensis chitinase was more effective than that of B. licheniformis in increasing the germination of soybean seeds infected with various phytopathogenic fungi.

  19. Morphological and molecular based identification of pectinase producing Bacillus licheniformis from rotten vegetable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haneef Ur Rehman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pectinase catalyzed the degradation of pectin substances and has been used in various biotechnological industries. In the current study, 23 bacterial strains were isolated from rotten vegetables, soil and air. The isolated bacterial strains were qualitatively screened for pectinase production on pectin agar medium and only three strains HR 4, HR 21 and HR 23 were observed to produce extracellular pectinase. These strains were further screened quantitatively for pectinase production through submerged fermentation technology in pectin containing fermentation medium. Strain HR 4 from rotten brinjal (Solanum melongena was found to produce higher pectinase as compared to others. The maximum pectinase producing bacterial strain was identified as Bacillus licheniformis on the basis of morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. For further confirmation of identification, 16S rDNA sequence analysis was performed. The 16S rDNA sequences were aligned and the phylogenetic tree was constructed. The phylogenetic tree confirmed that the strain was belonging to B. licheniformis. The 16S rDNA sequences of this new strain were submitted to GenBank and designated as B. licheniformis KIBGE-IB21 with the GenBank accession number JQ 411812. The newly isolated pectinase producing B. licheniformis used apple pectin as carbon and yeast extract as nitrogen source for maximum pectinase production.

  20. EXPERIMENTAL-INFECTION IN MICE WITH BACILLUS-LICHENIFORMIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, J.S.; Jensen, H.E.; Jensen, N.E.

    1995-01-01

    The pathogenicity of Bacillus licheniformis was assessed in normal and immunodepressed BALB/c mice. The animals were challenged intravenously with 4 x 10(7) colony forming units of B, licheniformis (ATCC 14580) and both normal and immunodepressed mice were susceptible. However, the infection was ...... could be identified in tissue sections by immunostaining. Immunohistochemically, B, licheniformis was demonstrated in hepatic and pulmonic macrophages, and from some animals the bacteria were also reisolated....

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus licheniformis Strain GB2, a Hydrocarbon-Degrading and Plant Growth-Promoting Soil Bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkorezis, Panagiotis; Van Hamme, Jonathan; Bottos, Eric; Thijs, Sofie; Balseiro-Romero, Maria; Monterroso, Carmela; Kidd, Petra Suzan; Rineau, Francois; Weyens, Nele; Sillen, Wouter; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2016-06-23

    We report the 4.39 Mb draft genome of Bacillus licheniformis GB2, a hydrocarbonoclastic Gram-positive bacterium of the family Bacillaceae, isolated from diesel-contaminated soil at the Ford Motor Company site in Genk, Belgium. Strain GB2 is an effective plant-growth promoter useful for diesel fuel remediation applications based on plant-bacterium associations.

  2. Purification and characterization of gamma poly glutamic acid from newly Bacillus licheniformis NRC20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tork, Sanaa E; Aly, Magda M; Alakilli, Saleha Y; Al-Seeni, Madeha N

    2015-03-01

    γ-poly glutamic acid (γ-PGA) has received considerable attention for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. γ-PGA from the newly isolate Bacillus licheniformis NRC20 was purified and characterized using diffusion distance agar plate, mass spectrometry and thin layer chromatography. All analysis indicated that γ-PGA is a homopolymer composed of glutamic acid. Its molecular weight was determined to be 1266 kDa. It was composed of L- and D-glutamic acid residues. An amplicon of 3050 represents the γ-PGA-coding genes was obtained, sequenced and submitted in genbank database. Its amino acid sequence showed high similarity with that obtained from B. licheniformis strains. The bacterium NRC 20 was independent of L-glutamic acid but the polymer production enhanced when cultivated in medium containing L-glutamic acid as the sole nitrogen source. Finally we can conclude that γ-PGA production from B. licheniformis NRC20 has many promised applications in medicine, industry and nanotechnology.

  3. Role of Bacillus licheniformis in phytoremediation of nickel contaminated soil cultivated with rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Muhammad; Zeb, Salma; Anees, Muhammad; Roohi, Aneela; Ahmed, Iftikhar; ur Rehman, Shafiq; Rha, Eui Shik

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metal contamination in soil is an important environmental problem and it has negative effect on agriculture. Bacteria play a major role in phytoremediation of heavy metals contaminated soil. In this study, the effect of Bacillus licheniformis NCCP-59, a halophilic bacterium isolated from salt mines near Karak, Pakistan, were determined on a three week old greenhouse grown seedling and germinating seeds of two rice varieties (Basmati-385 (B-385) and KSK-282) in soil contaminated with different concentrations (0, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 ppm) of Nickel. Nickel significantly reduced the germination rate and germination percentage mainly at 500 and 1000 ppm. Significant decrease in ion contents (Na, K, and Ca) was observed while Ni ion concentration in the plant tissues increases as the concentration of Ni applied increases. The photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a (chl a), chlorophyll b (chl b), and carotenoids) were also decreased by the application of different concentrations of Ni. Total protein and organic nitrogen were found to be reduced at higher concentrations of Nickel. Inoculation of Bacillus licheniformis NCCP-59 improved seed germination and biochemical attribute of the plant under Ni stress. It is clear from the results that the Bacillus Licheniformis NCCP-59 strain has the ability to protect the plants from the toxic effects of nickel and can be used for the phytoremediation of Ni contaminated soil.

  4. EXPERIMENTAL-INFECTION IN MICE WITH BACILLUS-LICHENIFORMIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, J.S.; Jensen, H.E.; Jensen, N.E.

    1995-01-01

    The pathogenicity of Bacillus licheniformis was assessed in normal and immunodepressed BALB/c mice. The animals were challenged intravenously with 4 x 10(7) colony forming units of B, licheniformis (ATCC 14580) and both normal and immunodepressed mice were susceptible. However, the infection...... was more severe in the immunosuppressed animals. In normal mice, lesions were restricted to the liver and kidneys, while lesions also occurred in other organs of immunodepressed mice. By crossed immunoelectrophoresis it was shown that antigens of B. licheniformis are potent immunogens, and the bacteria...

  5. The fnr Gene of Bacillus licheniformis and the Cysteine Ligands of the C-Terminal FeS Cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Klinger, Anette; Schirawski, Jan; Glaser, Philippe; Unden, Gottfried

    1998-01-01

    In the facultatively anaerobic bacterium Bacillus licheniformis a gene encoding a protein of the fumarate nitrate reductase family of transcriptional regulators (Fnr) was isolated. Unlike Fnr proteins from gram-negative bacteria, but like Fnr from Bacillus subtilis, the protein contained a C-terminal cluster of cysteine residues. Unlike in Fnr from B. subtilis, this cluster (Cys226-X2-Cys229-X4-Cys234) is composed of only three Cys residues, which are supposed to serve together with an intern...

  6. Combined Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis infection in a patient with oesophageal perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, You La; Yang, John Jeongseok; Kim, Min Jin; Lim, Gayoung; Cho, Sun Young; Park, Tae Sung; Suh, Jin-Tae; Park, Yong Ho; Lee, Mi Suk; Kim, Soo Cheol; Lee, Hee Joo

    2012-12-01

    Species of the genus Bacillus are a common laboratory contaminant, therefore, isolation of these organisms from blood cultures does not always indicate infection. In fact, except for Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus, most species of the genus Bacillus are not considered human pathogens, especially in immunocompetent individuals. Here, we report an unusual presentation of bacteraemia and mediastinitis due to co-infection with Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis, which were identified by 16S RNA gene sequencing, in a patient with an oesophageal perforation.

  7. The Sponge-associated Bacterium Bacillus licheniformis SAB1: A Source of Antimicrobial Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabha Devi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Several bacterial cultures were isolated from sponge Halichondria sp., collected from the Gujarat coast of the Indo Pacific region. These bacterial cultures were fermented in the laboratory (100 mL and the culture filtrate was assayed for antibiotic activity against 16 strains of clinical pathogens. Bacillus sp. (SAB1, the most potent of them and antagonistic to several clinically pathogenic Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus was chosen for further investigation. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the 16S rDNA gene of Bacillus sp. SAB1 showed a strong similarity (100% with the 16S rDNA gene of Bacillus licheniformis HNL09. The bioactive compounds produced by Bacillus licheniformis SAB1 (GenBank accession number: DQ071568 were identified as indole (1, 3-phenylpropionic acid (2 and a dimer 4,4′-oxybis[3-phenylpropionic acid] (3 on the basis of their Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR and Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometer (ESI-MS data. There is a single reference on the natural occurrence of compound 3 from the leaves of a terrestrial herb Aptenia cordifolia in the literature, so to the best of our knowledge, this is a first report of its natural occurrence from a marine source. The recovery of bacterial strains with antimicrobial activity suggests that marine-invertebrates remain a rich source for the isolation of culturable isolates capable of producing novel bioactive secondary metabolites.

  8. Efficient production of 2,3-butanediol from corn stover hydrolysate by using a thermophilic Bacillus licheniformis strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lixiang; Li, Kun; Wang, Kai; Chen, Chao; Gao, Chao; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

    2014-10-01

    In this study, a thermophilic Bacillus licheniformis strain X10 was newly isolated for 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) production from lignocellulosic hydrolysate. Strain X10 could utilize glucose and xylose simultaneously without carbon catabolite repression. In addition, strain X10 possesses high tolerance to fermentation inhibitors including furfural, vanillin, formic acid, and acetic acid. In a fed-batch fermentation, 74.0g/L of 2,3-BD was obtained from corn stover hydrolysate, with a productivity of 2.1g/Lh and a yield of 94.6%. Thus, this thermophilic B. licheniformis strain is a candidate for the development of efficient industrial production of 2,3-BD from corn stover hydrolysate.

  9. The fnr gene of Bacillus licheniformis and the cysteine ligands of the C-terminal FeS cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, A; Schirawski, J; Glaser, P; Unden, G

    1998-07-01

    In the facultatively anaerobic bacterium Bacillus licheniformis a gene encoding a protein of the fumarate nitrate reductase family of transcriptional regulators (Fnr) was isolated. Unlike Fnr proteins from gram-negative bacteria, but like Fnr from Bacillus subtilis, the protein contained a C-terminal cluster of cysteine residues. Unlike in Fnr from B. subtilis, this cluster (Cys226-X2-Cys229-X4-Cys234) is composed of only three Cys residues, which are supposed to serve together with an internal residue (Cys71) as the ligands for an FeS center. Transfer of the B. licheniformis gene to an fnr mutant of B. subtilis complemented the ability for synthesis of nitrate reductase during anaerobic growth.

  10. Biomineralization of Se Nanoshpere by Bacillus Licheniformis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongqiang Yuan; Jianming Zhu; Congqiang Liu; Shen Yu; Lei Lei

    2015-01-01

    Biological dissimilatory reduction of selenite (SeO32-) to elemental selenium (Se0) is com-mon, but the mineral formation and the biogenic process remain uncertain. In this study, we examined the Se0 formation during the selenite bioreduction by Bacillus licheniformis SeRB-1 through transmis-sion electron microscope (TEM), energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) techniques. Results showed that the reduction process occurred mostly during the exponential phase and early stationary phase, whilst the elemental selenium was produced in these pe-riods. From the TEM images and polyacrylamide gel electropheresis, it is known that the Se0 granule formation is a biologically-induced type, and the cell envelopes are the main biomineralization positions, and particles may go through a process from nucleation to crystallization, under the control of mi-crobes. In fact, the minerals are spherical nanoparticles, occurring as a microcrystal or amorphous form. It is vital to recognize which kinds of proteins and/or polysaccharides act as a template to direct nanoparticle nucleation and growth? This should focus for further studies. This study may shed light on the process of formation of Se(0) nanosphere.

  11. Microbial surfactant mediated degradation of anthracene in aqueous phase by marine Bacillus licheniformis MTCC 5514

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreethar Swaathy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study emphasizes the biosurfactant mediated anthracene degradation by a marine alkaliphile Bacillus licheniformis (MTCC 5514. The isolate, MTCC 5514 degraded >95% of 300 ppm anthracene in an aqueous medium within 22 days and the degradation percentage reduced significantly when the concentration of anthracene increased to above 500 ppm. Naphthalene, naphthalene 2-methyl, phthalic acid and benzene acetic acid are the products of degradation identified based on thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography and mass analyses. It has been observed that the degradation is initiated by the biosurfactant of the isolate for solubilization through micellation and then the alkali pH and intra/extra cellular degradative enzymes accomplish the degradation process. Encoding of genes responsible for biosurfactant production (licA3 as well as catabolic reactions (C23O made with suitable primers designed. The study concludes in situ production of biosurfactant mediates the degradation of anthracene by B. licheniformis.

  12. Selective plugging strategy-based microbial-enhanced oil recovery using Bacillus licheniformis TT33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthar, Harish; Hingurao, Krushi; Desai, Anjana; Nerurkar, Anuradha

    2009-10-01

    The selective plugging strategy of microbial enhanced oil recovery involves the use of microbes that grow and produce exopolymeric substances, which block the high permeability zones of an oil reservoir, thus allowing the water to flow through the low permeability zones leading to increase in oil recovery. Bacillus licheniformis TT33, a hot water spring isolate, is facultatively anaerobic, halotolerant, and thermotolerant. It produces EPS as well as biosurfactant and has a biofilm-forming ability. The viscosity of its cell-free supernatant is 120 mPas at 28 degrees C. Its purified EPS contained 26% carbohydrate and 3% protein. Its biosurfactant reduced the surface tension of water from 72 to 34 mN/m. This strain gave 27.7+/-3.5% oil recovery in a sand pack column. Environmental scanning electron microscopy analysis showed bacterial growth and biofilm formation in the sand pack. Biochemical tests and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis confirmed that the oil recovery obtained in the sand pack column was due to Bacillus licheniformis TT33.

  13. Biochemical Characterization of An Arginine-Specific Alkaline Trypsin from Bacillus licheniformis

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    Jin-Song Gong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we isolated a trypsin-producing strain DMN6 from the leather waste and identified it as Bacillus licheniformis through a two-step screening strategy. The trypsin activity was increased up to 140 from 20 U/mL through culture optimization. The enzyme was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity with a molecular mass of 44 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the specific activity of purified enzyme is 350 U/mg with Nα-Benzoyl-l-arginine ethylester as the substrate. The optimum temperature and pH for the trypsin are 65 °C and pH 9.0, respectively. Also, the enzyme can be significantly activated by Ba2+. This enzyme is relatively stable in alkaline environment and displays excellent activity at low temperatures. It could retain over 95% of enzyme activity after 180 min of incubation at 45 °C. The distinguished activity under low temperature and prominent stability enhance its catalytic potential. In the current work, the open reading frame was obtained with a length of 1371 nucleotides that encoded a protein of 456 amino acids. These data would warrant the B. licheniformis trypsin as a promising candidate for catalytic application in collagen preparation and leather bating through further protein engineering.

  14. Bioremediation Potential of Bacterial Isolates for Municipal Wastewater Treatment

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    Nilesh A. Sonune

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The potential of bacteria for the treatment of municipal wastewater was investigated in present study. Total eight bacterial isolates were used for this study that showed growth on wastewater agar medium. These isolates were identified on the basis of morphological and biochemical test and identified as Bacillus licheniformis NW16, Pseudomonas aeruginosa NS19, Pseudomonas sp. NS20, Planococcus salinarum NS23, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia NS21, Paenibacillus sp. NW9, Paenibacillus borealis NS3 and Aeromonas hydrophilia NS17. The B. licheniformis NW16 showed highest potential to reduce all parameter under study than other isolates except Ammonical nitrogen. B. licheniformis NW16 and Aeromonas hydrophilia NS17 showed maximum reduction (42.86% in BOD each. B. licheniformis NW16 and Paenibacillus sp. NW9 showed 82.76% and 81.61% reduction in COD respectively. B. licheniformis NW16, P. salinarum NS23 and Aeromonas hydrophilia NS17 showed reduction in nitrate ranging from 17.36%-63.64%. All the isolates have potential to reduced phosphate from 17.55% -72.3%. B. licheniformis NW16, Ps. aeruginosa NS19, Pseudomonas sp. NS20, Paenibacillus sp. NW9 and Aeromonas hydrophilia NS17 showed reduction in TSS ranging from 42.69%-79.94%. B. licheniformis NW16, Ps. aeruginosa NS19, Pseudomonas sp. NS20, S. maltophilia NS21 and Paenibacillus sp. NW9 showed reduction in TDS ranging from 14%-81.4%.

  15. Co-production of surfactin and a novel bacteriocin by Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis H4 isolated from bikalga, an African alkaline Hibiscus sabdariffa seed fermented condiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Compaore, C. S.; Nielsen, Dennis S.; Ouoba, L. I. I.;

    2013-01-01

    Bikalga is a Hibiscus sabdariffa seed fermented condiment widely consumed in Burkina Faso and neighboring countries. The fermentation is dominated by Bacillus subtilis group species. Ten B. subtilis subsp. subtilis (six isolates) and Bacillus licheniformis (four isolates) isolated from traditiona...

  16. Co-production of surfactin and a novel bacteriocin by Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis H4 isolated from bikalga, an African alkaline Hibiscus sabdariffa seed fermented condiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Compaore, C. S.; Nielsen, Dennis S.; Ouoba, L. I. I.

    2013-01-01

    Bikalga is a Hibiscus sabdariffa seed fermented condiment widely consumed in Burkina Faso and neighboring countries. The fermentation is dominated by Bacillus subtilis group species. Ten B. subtilis subsp. subtilis (six isolates) and Bacillus licheniformis (four isolates) isolated from traditiona...

  17. Resistance to antimicrobials and acid and bile tolerance of Bacillus spp isolated from Bikalga, fermented seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Compaore, Clarisse S.; Jensen, Lars Bogø; Diawara, Brehima

    2013-01-01

    In the aim of selecting starter cultures, thirteen species of Bacillus spp. including six Bacillus subtilis ssp. subtilis, four Bacillus licheniformis and three Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum isolated from traditional Bikalga were investigated. The study included, for all isolates, gen...

  18. Anti-biofilm activity of an exopolysaccharide from a sponge-associated strain of Bacillus licheniformis

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    Cordone Angela

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secondary metabolites ranging from furanone to exo-polysaccharides have been suggested to have anti-biofilm activity in various recent studies. Among these, Escherichia coli group II capsular polysaccharides were shown to inhibit biofilm formation of a wide range of organisms and more recently marine Vibrio sp. were found to secrete complex exopolysaccharides having the potential for broad-spectrum biofilm inhibition and disruption. Results In this study we report that a newly identified ca. 1800 kDa polysaccharide having simple monomeric units of α-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→2-glycerol-phosphate exerts an anti-biofilm activity against a number of both pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains without bactericidal effects. This polysaccharide was extracted from a Bacillus licheniformis strain associated with the marine organism Spongia officinalis. The mechanism of action of this compound is most likely independent from quorum sensing, as its structure is unrelated to any of the so far known quorum sensing molecules. In our experiments we also found that treatment of abiotic surfaces with our polysaccharide reduced the initial adhesion and biofilm development of strains such as Escherichia coli PHL628 and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Conclusion The polysaccharide isolated from sponge-associated B. licheniformis has several features that provide a tool for better exploration of novel anti-biofilm compounds. Inhibiting biofilm formation of a wide range of bacteria without affecting their growth appears to represent a special feature of the polysaccharide described in this report. Further research on such surface-active compounds might help developing new classes of anti-biofilm molecules with broad spectrum activity and more in general will allow exploring of new functions for bacterial polysaccharides in the environment.

  19. Purification and biochemical properties of a thermostable, haloalkaline cellulase from Bacillus licheniformis AMF-07 and its application for hydrolysis of different cellulosic substrates to bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadian, Fatemeh; Badoei-dalfard, Arastoo; Namaki-Shoushtari, Abdolhamid; Hassanshahian, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    A thermophilic strain AMF-07, hydrolyzing carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) was isolated from Kerman hot spring and was identified as Bacillus licheniformis based on 16S rRNA sequence homology. The carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) enzyme produced by the B. licheniformis was purified by (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. The purified enzyme gave a single band on SDS- PAGE with a molecular weight of 37 kDa. The CMCase enzyme was highly active and stable over broad ranges of temperature (40-80ºC), pH (6.0-10.0) and NaCl concentration (10-25%) with an optimum at 70ºC, pH 9.0 and 20% NaCl, which showed excellent thermostable, alkali-stable and halostable properties. Moreover, it displayed high activity in the presence of cyclohexane (134%) and chloroform (120%). Saccharification of rice bran and wheat bran by the CMCase enzyme resulted in respective yields of 24 and 32 g L-1 reducing sugars. The enzymatic hydrolysates of rice bran were then used as the substrate for ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysate using S. cerevisiae, reached maximum ethanol production about 0.125 g g-1 dry substrate (pretreated wheat bran). Thus, the purified cellulase from B. licheniformis AMF-07 utilizing lignocellulosic biomass could be greatly useful to develop industrial processes. PMID:28097168

  20. Purification and biochemical properties of a thermostable, haloalkaline cellulase from Bacillus licheniformis AMF-07 and its application for hydrolysis of different cellulosic substrates to bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Azadian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A thermophilic strain AMF-07, hydrolyzing carboxymethylcellulose (CMC was isolated from Kerman hot spring and was identified as Bacillus licheniformis based on 16S rRNA sequence homology. The carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase enzyme produced by the B. licheniformis was purified by (NH42SO4 precipitation, ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. The purified enzyme gave a single band on SDS-PAGE with a molecular weight of 37 kDa. The CMCase enzyme was highly active and stable over broad ranges of temperature (40-80 ºC, pH (6.0-10.0 and NaCl concentration (10-25% with an optimum at 70 ºC, pH 9.0 and 20% NaCl, which showed excellent thermostable, alkali-stable and halostable properties. Moreover, it displayed high activity in the presence of cyclohexane (134% and chloroform (120%. Saccharification of rice bran and wheat bran by the CMCase enzyme resulted in respective yields of 24 and 32 g L-1 reducing sugars. The enzymatic hydrolysates of rice bran were then used as the substrate for ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysate using S. cerevisiae, reached maximum ethanol production about 0.125 g g-1 dry substrate (pretreated wheat bran. Thus, the purified cellulase from B. licheniformis AMF-07 utilizing lignocellulosic biomass could be greatly useful to develop industrial processes.

  1. Effect of Degradation of Zearalenone-Contaminated Feed by Bacillus licheniformis CK1 on Postweaning Female Piglets

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    Guanhua Fu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Zearalenone (ZEA, an estrogenic mycotoxin, is mainly produced by Fusarium fungi. In this study, Bacillus licheniformis CK1 isolated from soil with the capability of degrading ZEA was evaluated for its efficacy in reducing the adverse effects of ZEA in piglets. The gilts were fed one of the following three diets for 14 days: a basic diet for the control group; the basic diet supplemented with ZEA-contaminated basic diet for the treatment 1 (T1 group; and the basic diet supplemented with fermented ZEA-contaminated basic diet by CK1 for the treatment 2 (T2 group. The actual ZEA contents (analyzed were 0, 1.20 ± 0.11, 0.47 ± 0.22 mg/kg for the control, T1, and T2 diets, respectively. The results showed that the T1 group had significantly increased the size of vulva and the relative weight of reproductive organs compared to the control group at the end of the trial. The T1 group significantly decreased the concentration of the luteinizing hormone (LH compared with the control and T2 groups. Expression of ERβ was significantly up-regulated in the T2 group compared with the control. In addition, expression of ERβ was not different between the control and the T1 group. In summary, our results suggest that Bacillus licheniformis CK1 could detoxify ZEA in feed and reduce the adverse effects of ZEA in the gilts.

  2. Purification and characterization of biosurfactant produced by Bacillus licheniformis Y-1 and its application in remediation of petroleum contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Boqun; Liu, Jinpeng; Ju, Meiting; Li, Xiaojing; Yu, Qilin

    2016-06-15

    In our previous research, a petroleum degrading bacteria strain Bacillus licheniformis Y-1 was obtained in Dagang Oilfield which had the capability of producing biosurfactant. This biosurfactant was isolated and purified in this work. The biosurfactant produced by strain Y-1 had the capability to decrease the surface tension of water from 74.66 to 27.26mN/m, with the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 40mg/L. The biosurfactant performed not only excellent stabilities against pH, temperature and salinity, but also great emulsifying activities to different kinds of oil, especially the crude oil. According to the results of FT-IR spectrum and (1)H NMR spectrum detection, the surfactant was determined to be a cyclic lipopeptide. Furthermore, through the addition of surfactant, the effect of petroleum contaminated soil remediation by fungi got a significant improvement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A New Diketopiperazine, Cyclo(D-trans-Hyp-L-Leu) from a Kenyan Bacterium Bacillus licheniformis LB 8CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seoung Rak; Beemelmanns, Christine; Tsuma, Leah M M; Clardy, Jon; Cao, Shugeng; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2016-04-01

    Bacterially-produced small molecules demonstrate a wide range of structural and functional diversity. A new diketopiperazine, cyclo(D-trans-Hyp-L-Leu) (1), and five other known diketopiperazines (2-6), were isolated and purified from the fermented broth of a Kenyan bacterium Bacillus licheniformis LB 8CT. The structure of 1 was elucidated by a combination of extensive spectroscopic analyses, including 2D NMR and HR-MS, and the absolute configuration was determined by a combination of NOESY analysis and Marfey's method. The known compounds were identified as cyclo(D-cis-Hyp-L-Leu) (2), cyclo(D-cis-Hyp-L-Phe) (3), cyclo(D-Pro-L-Tyr) (4), cyclo-(D-Trp-L-Leu) (5), and cyclo(L-Tyr-Gly) (6) by comparison of their spectroscopic and physical data with reported values. Compounds 1-6 were tested for antifungal and antimicrobial properties.

  4. Concomitant production of protease and lipase by Bacillus licheniformis VSG1: production, purification and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sangeetha

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at producing protease and lipase simultaneously on a common medium by Bacillus licheniformis VSG1, which was isolated from a tannery effluent. The effect of media composition with respect to protein source, lipid source and emulsifier on the production of protease and lipase was analysed. Both those enzymes were produced under optimized conditions like pH, temperature and incubation time. The enzyme mixture comprising of both protease and lipase was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis and gel filtration chromatography to obtain 20-fold pure enzymes. The purified enzyme mixture was characterized to determine the optimum pH and temperature of protease and lipase, the response of the enzymes to inhibitors, additives and solvents. The molecular weight of both the enzymes was determined as 40 kDa on SDS-PAGE. The concomitant production of protease and lipase and the purification of both the enzymes in a single mixture have industrial significance, as many industrial processes use both protease and lipase together.

  5. High yield recombinant thermostable α-amylase production using an improved Bacillus licheniformis system

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    Shi Gui-Yang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some strains of Bacillus licheniformis have been improved by target-directed screening as well as by classical genetic manipulation and used in commercial thermostable α-amylase and alkaline protease production for over 40 years. Further improvements in production of these enzymes are desirable. Results A new strain of B. licheniformis CBBD302 carrying a recombinant plasmid pHY-amyL for Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase (BLA production was constructed. The combination of target-directed screening and genetic recombination led to an approximately 26-fold improvement of BLA production and export in B. licheniformis. Furthermore, a low-cost fermentation medium containing soybean meal and cottonseed meal for BLA production in shake-flasks and in a 15 liter bioreactor was developed and a BLA concentration of up to 17.6 mg per ml growth medium was attained. Conclusion This production level of BLA by B. licheniformis CBBD302(pHY-amyL is amongst the highest levels in Gram-positive bacteria reported so far.

  6. Inhibition of Bacillus licheniformis LMG 19409 from ropy cider by enterocin AS-48.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, M J; Lucas, R; Abriouel, H; Valdivia, E; Ben Omar, N; Maqueda, M; Martínez-Cañamero, M; Gálvez, A

    2006-08-01

    To determine the activity of enterocin AS-48 against ropy-forming Bacillus licheniformis from cider. Enterocin AS-48 was tested on B. licheniformis LMG 19409 from ropy cider in MRS-G broth, fresh-made apple juice and in two commercial apple ciders (A and B). Bacillus licheniformis was rapidly inactivated in MRS-G by 0.5 microg ml(-1)AS-48 and in fresh-made apple juice by 3 microg ml(-1). Concentration-dependent inactivation of this bacterium in two commercial apple ciders (A and B) stored at 4, 15 and 30 degrees C for 15 days was also demonstrated. Counts from heat-activated endospores in cider A plus AS-48 decreased very slowly. Application of combined treatments of heat (95 degrees C) and enterocin AS-48 reduced the time required to achieved complete inactivation of intact spores in cider A to 4 min for 6 microg ml(-1) and to 1 min for 12 microg ml(-1). D and z values also decreased as the bacteriocin concentration increased. Enterocin AS-48 can inhibit ropy-forming B. licheniformis in apple cider and increase the heat sensitivity of spores. Results from this study support the potential use of enterocin AS-48 to control B. licheniformis in apple cider.

  7. Global transcriptional analysis of Bacillus licheniformis reveals an overlap between heat shock and iron limitation stimulon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Allan K; Breüner, Anne; Krzystanek, Marcin; Andersen, Jens T; Poulsen, Thomas A; Olsen, Peter B; Mijakovic, Ivan; Rasmussen, Michael D

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we characterized the heat shock stimulon of the important industrial microorganism Bacillus licheniformis using DNA microarrays. While sharing a high degree of homology with the closely related model organism Bacillus subtilis, the heat shock stimulon of B. licheniformis exhibited several novel and unexpected features. Most notably, heat shock in B. licheniformis resulted in decreased amounts of mRNA from the ytrABCEF operon, encoding a putative acetoin uptake system, and stimulated the transcription of purine biosynthesis and iron uptake genes. Unexpectedly, deletion of the ytrEF genes did not affect acetoin uptake, but increased heat sensitivity. To investigate the connection between heat stress and iron uptake further, we analyzed the iron limitation response of B. licheniformis by DNA microarrays and concluded that the response mostly involves the genes related to iron uptake and metabolism, while the only heat shock gene affected by iron limitation was clpE. We also attempted to delete the fur gene (encoding the ferric uptake repressor), but unexpectedly found it to be essential in B. licheniformis. Using the fluorescent protein-encoding reporter gene under control of the dhb promoter, which responded to both heat shock and iron-starvation, we confirmed the overlap between these responses.

  8. STUDY REGARDING EFFICIENCY OF INDUCED GENETIC TRANSFORMATION IN BACILLUS LICHENIFORMIS WITH PLASMID DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VINTILĂ T.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A strain of Bacillus licheniformis was subject to genetic transformation with plasmidvectors (pLC1 and pNC61, using electroporation technique, protoplasttransformation and bivalent cations (CaCl2 mediated transformation. In the case oftransformation by electroporation of Bacillus licheniformis B40, the highest numberof transformed colonies (3 were obtained only after a 1,79 KV electric shock, for 2,2milliseconds. Using this transformation technique we have obtained six kanamycinresistant transformants. The frequency of Bacillus licheniformis B40 protoplaststransformation using pLC1 and pNC61 plasmid vectors is approximately 10% (TF =10%. As a result of pLC1 plasmid integration in Bacillus licheniformis protoplasts,six kanamycin resistant transformants were obtained. The pNC61 plasmid, whichconfers trimethoprim resistance, does not integrate in receiver cells by protoplasttransformation. The direct genetic transformation in the presence of bivalent cations(CaCl2, mediated by pLC1 and pNC61 plasmid vectors, produce a lowtransformation frequency. Using this technique, we have obtained three trimethoprimresistant colonies and four kanamycin resistant colonies. The chemical way oftransformation is the only technique, which realizes the integration of pNC61 in B.licheniformis B40 cells.

  9. Stress responses of the industrial workhorse Bacillus licheniformis to osmotic challenges.

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    Rebecca Schroeter

    Full Text Available The Gram-positive endospore-forming bacterium Bacillus licheniformis can be found widely in nature and it is exploited in industrial processes for the manufacturing of antibiotics, specialty chemicals, and enzymes. Both in its varied natural habitats and in industrial settings, B. licheniformis cells will be exposed to increases in the external osmolarity, conditions that trigger water efflux, impair turgor, cause the cessation of growth, and negatively affect the productivity of cell factories in biotechnological processes. We have taken here both systems-wide and targeted physiological approaches to unravel the core of the osmostress responses of B. licheniformis. Cells were suddenly subjected to an osmotic upshift of considerable magnitude (with 1 M NaCl, and their transcriptional profile was then recorded in a time-resolved fashion on a genome-wide scale. A bioinformatics cluster analysis was used to group the osmotically up-regulated genes into categories that are functionally associated with the synthesis and import of osmostress-relieving compounds (compatible solutes, the SigB-controlled general stress response, and genes whose functional annotation suggests that salt stress triggers secondary oxidative stress responses in B. licheniformis. The data set focusing on the transcriptional profile of B. licheniformis was enriched by proteomics aimed at identifying those proteins that were accumulated by the cells through increased biosynthesis in response to osmotic stress. Furthermore, these global approaches were augmented by a set of experiments that addressed the synthesis of the compatible solutes proline and glycine betaine and assessed the growth-enhancing effects of various osmoprotectants. Combined, our data provide a blueprint of the cellular adjustment processes of B. licheniformis to both sudden and sustained osmotic stress.

  10. Characterization of protease-producing bacteria isolated from terasi

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    Novi Arfarita

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Total of 117 bacterial strains were isolated from terasi samples and 69% of isolates (71 could perform distinctive proteolytic activity that related to the ability to produce protease enzymes. Their proteolytic activity was further tested using spot incubation technique. Strain S4-5 has shown the highest activity then was selected for further tests in this study. Gram staining test showed that S4-5 is gram positive bacteria and able to grow under anaerobic condition. Based on API biochemical profiles, S4-5 strain bacteria was Bacillus licheniformis. Similarity test of genome sequence among Bacillus species from gene bank (EMBL Sequence Version with Bacillus spp., strain S4-5 had similarity with Bacillus licheniformis genome. The optimal pH of this strain was 6 whereas the optimum temperature for Bacillus licheniformis strain S4-5 was 37ºC.

  11. Comparison of starch hydrolysis activity and thermal stability of two Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylases and insights into engineering alpha-amylase variants active under acidic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunjae; Oneda, Hiroshi; Minoda, Masashi; Tanaka, Akiyoshi; Inouye, Kuniyo

    2006-06-01

    Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase (BLA) is widely used in various procedures of starch degradation in the food industry, and a BLA species with improved activity at higher temperature and under acidic conditions is desirable. Two BLA species, designated as PA and MA, have been isolated from the wild-type B. licheniformis strain and a mutant strain, respectively. In this study, their starch-hydrolysis activity and thermal stability were examined. MA showed higher activity than PA, especially at acidic pH (pH 5.0-5.5), and even after 1 h of treatment at 90 degrees C. MA was active in the range of pH 4.0-8.0, which is much wider than that (pH 4.5-7.5) of PA. It was shown that the proton dissociation constants on the acidic and alkaline sides (pKa1 and pKa2) were shifted to more acidic and basic values, respectively, by the mutation of PA to MA. The activation energy and thermodynamic parameters for their thermal inactivation indicate that MA is more thermally stable and catalytically active than PA, suggesting that MA could be useful for glucose-production process coupled with reactions catalyzed by beta-amylase.

  12. Production of Active Bacillus licheniformis Alpha-Amylase in Tobacco and its Application in Starch Liquefaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pen, J; MOLENDIJK, L; Quax, Wim J.; SIJMONS, PC; VANOOYEN, AJJ; VANDENELZEN, PJM; RIETVELD, K; HOEKEMA, A

    1992-01-01

    As a first example of the feasibility of producing industrial bulk enzymes in plants, we have expressed Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase in transgenic tobacco, and applied the seeds directly in starch liquification. The enzyme was properly secreted into the intercellular space, and maximum expre

  13. Mode of action of Bacillus licheniformis pectin methylesterase on highly methylesterified and acetylated pectins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remoroza, C.A.; Wagenknecht, M.; Buchholt, H.C.; Moerschbacher, B.M.; Gruppen, H.; Schols, H.A.

    2015-01-01

    A gene encoding a putative pectinesterase from Bacillus licheniformis DSM13 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The resulting recombinant enzyme (BliPME) was purified and characterized as a pectin methylesterase. The enzyme showed maximum activity at pH 8.0 and 50 °C. BliPME is able to rel

  14. Production of Active Bacillus licheniformis Alpha-Amylase in Tobacco and its Application in Starch Liquefaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pen, J; MOLENDIJK, L; Quax, Wim J.; SIJMONS, PC; VANOOYEN, AJJ; VANDENELZEN, PJM; RIETVELD, K; HOEKEMA, A

    As a first example of the feasibility of producing industrial bulk enzymes in plants, we have expressed Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase in transgenic tobacco, and applied the seeds directly in starch liquification. The enzyme was properly secreted into the intercellular space, and maximum

  15. The extracellular proteome of Bacillus licheniformis grown in different media and under different nutrient starvation conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voigt, B; Schweder, T; Sibbald, MJJB; Albrecht, D; Ehrenreich, A; Bernhardt, J; Feesche, J; Maurer, KH; Gottschalk, G; van Dijl, JM; Hecker, M

    2006-01-01

    The now finished genome sequence of Bacillus licheniformis DSM 13 allows the prediction of the genes involved in protein secretion into the extracellular environment as well as the prediction of the proteins which are translocated. From the sequence 296 proteins were predicted to contain an N-termin

  16. A Bacillus licheniformis pectin acetylesterase is specific for homogalacturonans acetylated at O-3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remoroza, C.A.; Wagenknecht, M.; Buchholt, H.C.; Moerschbacher, B.M.; Schols, H.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2014-01-01

    A recombinant acetylesterase from Bacillus licheniformis DSM13, belonging to carbohydrate esterase family 12, was purified and biochemically characterized. The purified enzyme, termed BliPAE, was capable of deacetylating acetylated pectins, e.g. sugar beet pectin (SBP). Contrary to its provisional a

  17. Enzyme-induced aggregation of whey proteins with Bacillus licheniformis protease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creusot, N.P.

    2006-01-01

    Whey proteins are commonly used as ingredient in food. In relation with the gelation properties of whey proteins, this thesis deals with understanding the mechanism of peptide-induced aggregation of whey protein hydrolysates made with Bacillus licheniformis protease (BLP). The results show that BLP

  18. Optimized enzymatic synthesis of C-terminal peptide amides using subtilisin A from Bacillus licheniformis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeriu, C.G.; Frissen, A.E.; Boer, E.; Kekem, van C.; Zoelen, van D.J.; Eggen, I.F.

    2010-01-01

    A mild and efficient method for the conversion of C-terminal esters of side-chain protected peptides into an amide function via enzyme-catalysed ammonolysis in organic media with low water content is described. Subtilisin A, the alkaline serine protease from Bacillus licheniformis, was used as

  19. A proteomic view of cell physiology of the industrial workhorse Bacillus licheniformis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voigt, Birgit; Schroeter, Rebecca; Schweder, Thomas; Juergen, Britta; Albrecht, Dirk; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Maurer, Karl-Heinz; Hecker, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus licheniformis is known for its high protein secretion capacity and is being applied extensively as a host for the industrial production of enzymes such as proteases and amylases. In its natural environment as well as in fermentation processes the bacterium is often facing adverse conditions

  20. OPTIMIZATION OF MEDIA CONSTITUENTS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ALKALINE PROTEASE FROM BACILLUS LICHENIFORMIS Mohideen

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    Mohideen Askar Nawas P

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Production of alkaline protease by Bacillus licheniformis has been investigated under submerged fermentation. The physical and chemical parameters influencing submerged fermentation were optimized. The effect of incubation time, temperature, pH, carbon sources and nitrogen sources and additional nutrients on the production of alkaline protease was characterized. The optimum conditions for the protease production by Bacillus licheniformis were found to be at pH 9.0 and temperature at 40ºC. The outcome of carbon and inorganic nitrogen sources on protease production proved that glucose and casein were the effective medium ingredients for Bacillus licheniformis respectively. The maximum amount of protease production was recorded in medium supplemented with ammonium sulphate. Among the tested metal ions, the level of protease yield was found to be high in medium supplemented with magnesium chloride. The protease production was amplified in the presence of 1.5% sodium chloride. The extreme stability towards Triton X-100, Tween 20 and SDS was observed in Bacillus licheniformis alkaline protease.

  1. Cellulolytic Activity of Thermophilic Bacilli Isolated from Tattapani Hot Spring Sediment in North West Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, Indu; Dhar, M K; Bajaj, B K; Koul, Sanjana; Vakhlu, Jyoti

    2016-06-01

    Eight thermophilic bacterial strains were isolated from Tattapani Hot spring and screened for various hydrolytic enzymes including cellulases. The isolated bacterial strains were identified as Geobacillus thermodenitrificans IP_WH1(KP842609), Bacillus licheniformis IP_WH2(KP842610), B. aerius IP_WH3(KP842611), B. licheniformis IP_WH4(KP842612), B. licheniformis IP_60Y(KP842613), G. thermodenitrificans IP_60A1(KP842614), Geobacillus sp. IP_60A2(KP842615) and Geobacillus sp. IP_80TP(KP842616) after 16S ribotying. Out of the eight isolates Geobacillus sp. IP_80TP grew best at 80 °C whereas rest of the isolates showed optimal growth at 60 °C. G. thermodenitrificans IP_WH1 produced a thermotolerant cellulase with maximum activity at 60 °C.

  2. Seleção de diferentes meios para produção de lipase a partir de Bacillis licheniformis (UCP 1014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladiel Luiz Pedrozo Tavares

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of alternative culture media for microbial enzyme production have been widely exploited in recent decades. The microbial lipases are extracellular enzymes produced in fermentation processes, which favors its extraction, isolation and purification. Bacillus are Gram-positive bacteria, saprophytes, of great importance in various industrial sectors. In this study, we tested three methods of production using B. licheniformis (UCP 1014 media called A, B and C. The kinetics of enzyme production occurred in orbital shaker at 150 rpm, 37 °C, for 96 hours. The collected samples were subjected to the construction of the growth curve, determination of pH and lipolytic activity. The results indicated a better growth in the middle C showing an activity of 256 U/mL, while the means A and B had values of 170 and 153 U/mL, respectively. The results showed that the middle C presented higher enzyme production in the tests.

  3. Extracellular Ribonuclease from Bacillus licheniformis (Balifase, a New Member of the N1/T1 RNase Superfamily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Sokurenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The N1/T1 RNase superfamily comprises enzymes with well-established antitumor effects, such as ribotoxins secreted by fungi, primarily by Aspergillus and Penicillium species, and bacterial RNase secreted by B. pumilus (binase and B. amyloliquefaciens (barnase. RNase is regarded as an alternative to classical chemotherapeutic agents due to its selective cytotoxicity towards tumor cells. New RNase with a high degree of structural similarity with binase (73% and barnase (74% was isolated and purified from Bacillus licheniformis (balifase, calculated molecular weight 12421.9 Da, pI 8.91. The protein sample with enzymatic activity of 1.5 × 106 units/A280 was obtained. The physicochemical properties of balifase are similar to those of barnase. However, in terms of its gene organization and promoter activity, balifase is closer to binase. The unique feature of balifase gene organization consists in the fact that genes of RNase and its inhibitor are located in one operon. Similarly to biosynthesis of binase, balifase synthesis is induced under phosphate starvation; however, in contrast to binase, balifase does not form dimers under natural conditions. We propose that the highest stability of balifase among analyzed RNase types allows the protein to retain its structure without oligomerization.

  4. Extracellular Ribonuclease from Bacillus licheniformis (Balifase), a New Member of the N1/T1 RNase Superfamily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadyrova, Alsu; Ulyanova, Vera; Ilinskaya, Olga

    2016-01-01

    The N1/T1 RNase superfamily comprises enzymes with well-established antitumor effects, such as ribotoxins secreted by fungi, primarily by Aspergillus and Penicillium species, and bacterial RNase secreted by B. pumilus (binase) and B. amyloliquefaciens (barnase). RNase is regarded as an alternative to classical chemotherapeutic agents due to its selective cytotoxicity towards tumor cells. New RNase with a high degree of structural similarity with binase (73%) and barnase (74%) was isolated and purified from Bacillus licheniformis (balifase, calculated molecular weight 12421.9 Da, pI 8.91). The protein sample with enzymatic activity of 1.5 × 106 units/A280 was obtained. The physicochemical properties of balifase are similar to those of barnase. However, in terms of its gene organization and promoter activity, balifase is closer to binase. The unique feature of balifase gene organization consists in the fact that genes of RNase and its inhibitor are located in one operon. Similarly to biosynthesis of binase, balifase synthesis is induced under phosphate starvation; however, in contrast to binase, balifase does not form dimers under natural conditions. We propose that the highest stability of balifase among analyzed RNase types allows the protein to retain its structure without oligomerization. PMID:27656652

  5. Production of biosurfactant from Bacillus licheniformis for microbial enhanced oil recovery and inhibition the growth of sulfate reducing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.S. El-Sheshtawy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the bacterium Bacillus licheniformis has been isolated from oil reservoir; the ability of this bacterium to produce a biosurfactant was detected. Surface properties of the produced biosurfactant were confirmed by determining the emulsification power as well as surface and interfacial tension. The crude biosurfactant has been extracted from supernatant culture growth, and the yield of crude biosurfactant was about 1 g/l. Also, chemical structure of the produced biosurfactant was confirmed using FTIR analysis. Results revealed that, the emulsification power has been increased up to 96% and the surface tension decreased from 72 of distilled water to 36 mN/m after 72 h of incubation. The potential application of this bacterial species in microbial-enhanced oil recovery (MEOR was investigated. The percent of oil recovery was 16.6% upon application in a sand pack column designed to stimulate an oil recovery. It also showed antimicrobial activity against the growth of different strains of SRB (sulfate reducing bacteria. Results revealed that a complete inhibition of SRB growth using 1.0% crude biosurfactant is achieved after 3 h.

  6. Ieodoglucomide C and Ieodoglycolipid, New Glycolipids from a Marine-Derived Bacterium Bacillus licheniformis 09IDYM23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tareq, Fakir Shahidullah; Lee, Hyi-Seung; Lee, Yeon-Ju; Lee, Jong Seok; Shin, Hee Jae

    2015-05-01

    Chemical examination of the ethyl acetate extract from the fermentation broth of the marine-derived bacterium Bacillus licheniformis resulted in the isolation of two new glycolipids, ieodoglucomide C (1) and ieodoglycolipid (2). The structural characterization of 1 and 2 was achieved by extensive spectroscopic evidence, including 2D NMR experiments. A combination of chemical derivatization techniques followed by NMR studies, LC-MS data analysis and a literature review was deployed for the establishment of the stereo-configurations of 1 and 2. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited good antibiotic properties against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with MICs ranging from 0.01 to 0.05 μM. Furthermore, the antifungal activity of 1 and 2 was evaluated against plant pathogenic fungi Aspergillus niger, Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea and Colletotrichum acutatum as well as the human pathogen Candida albicans. Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited the mycelial growth of these pathogens with MIC values of 0.03-0.05 μM, revealing that these compounds are good candidates for the development of new fungicides.

  7. Comprehensive transcriptome and improved genome annotation of Bacillus licheniformis WX-02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Cheng, Gang; Gou, Xiang-Yong; Xing, Feng; Li, Sen; Han, Yi-Chao; Wang, Long; Song, Jia-Ming; Shu, Cheng-Cheng; Chen, Shou-Wen; Chen, Ling-Ling

    2015-08-19

    The updated genome of Bacillus licheniformis WX-02 comprises a circular chromosome of 4286821 base-pairs containing 4512 protein-coding genes. We applied strand-specific RNA-sequencing to explore the transcriptome profiles of B. licheniformis WX-02 under normal and high-salt conditions (NaCl 6%). We identified 2381 co-expressed gene pairs constituting 871 operon structures. In addition, 1169 antisense transcripts and 90 small RNAs were detected. Systematic comparison of differentially expressed genes under different conditions revealed that genes involved in multiple functions were significantly repressed in long-term high salt adaptation process. Genes related to promotion of glutamic acid synthesis were activated by 6% NaCl, potentially explaining the high yield of γ-PGA under salt condition. This study will be useful for the optimization of crucial metabolic activities in this bacterium. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Purification and partial characterization of bacillocin 490, a novel bacteriocin produced by a thermophilic strain of Bacillus licheniformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Felice Maurilio

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Applications of bacteriocins as food preservatives have been so far limited, principally because of their low antimicrobial activity in foods. Nisin is the only bacteriocin of significant use, but applications are restricted principally because of its very low activity at neutral or alkaline pH. Thus the isolation of new bacteriocins active in foods is desirable. Results We isolated a Bacillus licheniformis thermophilic strain producing a bacteriocin with some novel features, named here bacillocin 490. This bacteriocin was inactivated by pronase E and proteinase K and was active against closely related Bacillus spp. both in aerobic and in anaerobic conditions. Bactericidal activity was kept during storage at 4°C and was remarkably stable in a wide pH range. The bacteriocin was partially purified by elution after adhesion to cells of the food-isolated strain Bacillus smithii and had a rather low mass (2 KDa. Antimicrobial activity against B. smithii was observed also when this organism was grown in water buffalo milk. Conclusions Bacillocin 490 is a novel candidate as a food anti-microbial agent since it displays its activity in milk, is stable to heat treatment and during storage, is active in a wide pH range and has bactericidal activity also at high temperature. These features may allow the use of bacillocin 490 during processes performed at high temperature and as a complementary antimicrobial agent of nisin against some Bacillus spp. in non-acidic foods. The small size suggests its use on solid foods.

  9. Modification of the activity of an a-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis by several surfactants

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The influence of different commercial surfactants on the enzymatic activity of a commercial ??-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis (Termamyl 300 L) has been studied. As non-ionic surfactants, alkyl polyglycosides (Glucopon?? 215, Glucopon?? 600 and Glucopon?? 650) were studied, as were fatty alcohol ethoxylates (Findet 1214N/23 and Findet 10/15), and nonyl phenol ethoxylate (Findet 9Q/21.5NF). Also, an anionic surfactant, linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) was assayed. In general, none of t...

  10. Metal-Binding Characteristics of the Gamma-Glutamyl Capsular Polymer of Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 9945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, R J; Beauchemin, D; Clapham, L; Beveridge, T J

    1990-12-01

    The metal-binding affinity of the anionic poly-gamma-d-glutamyl capsule of Bacillus licheniformis was investigated by using Na, Mg, Al, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cu. Purified capsule was suspended in various concentrations of the chloride salts of the various metals, and after dialysis the bound metals were analyzed either by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy or by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Exposure of purified capsule to excess concentrations of Na revealed it to contain 8.2 mumol of anionic sites per mg on the basis of Na binding. This was confirmed by titration of the capsule with HCl and NaOH. Other metal ions were then added in ionic concentrations equivalent to 25, 50, 75, 100, 200, and 400% of the available anionic sites. The binding characteristics varied with the metal being investigated. Addition of Cu, Al, Cr, or Fe induced flocculation. These metal ions showed the greatest affinity for B. licheniformis capsule in competitive-binding experiments. Flocculation was not seen with the addition of other metal ions. With the exception of Ni and Fe all capsule-metal-binding sites readily saturated. Ni had low affinity for the polymer, and its binding was increased at high metal concentrations. Fe binding resulted in the development of rust-colored ferrihydrite which itself could bind additional metal. Metal-binding characteristics of B. licheniformis capsule appear to be influenced by the chemical and physical properties of both the capsule and the metal ions.

  11. Improving flavor metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by mixed culture with Bacillus licheniformis for Chinese Maotai-flavor liquor making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xing; Wu, Qun; Wang, Li; Wang, Diqiang; Chen, Liangqiang; Xu, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Microbial interactions could impact the metabolic behavior of microbes involved in food fermentation, and therefore they are important for improving food quality. This study investigated the effect of Bacillus licheniformis, the dominant bacteria in the fermentation process of Chinese Maotai-flavor liquor, on the metabolic activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Results indicated that S. cerevisiae inhibited the growth of B. licheniformis in all mixed culture systems and final viable cell count was lower than 20 cfu/mL. Although growth of S. cerevisiae was barely influenced by B. licheniformis, its metabolism was changed as initial inoculation ratio varied. The maximum ethanol productions were observed in S. cerevisiae and B. licheniformis at 10(6):10(7) and 10(6):10(8) ratios and have increased by 16.8 % compared with single culture of S. cerevisiae. According to flavor compounds, the culture ratio 10(6):10(6) showed the highest level of total concentrations of all different kinds of flavor compounds. Correlation analyses showed that 12 flavor compounds, including 4 fatty acids and their 2 corresponding esters, 1 terpene, and 5 aromatic compounds, that could only be produced by S. cerevisiae were significantly correlated with the initial inoculation amount of B. licheniformis. These metabolic changes in S. cerevisiae were not only a benefit for liquor aroma, but may also be related to its inhibition effect in mixed culture. This study could help to reveal the microbial interactions in Chinese liquor fermentation and provide guidance for optimal arrangement of mixed culture fermentation systems.

  12. Determination of Levan from Bacillus licheniformis by Ultraviolet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Levan was isolated from fermentation broth by alcohol precipitation and ultrafiltration. ... Index Medicus, JournalSeek, Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition, ... (FODUS) method was investigated and validate ... Purkinje General Instrument Co Ltd, China) and ... The standard curve was created by taking the.

  13. Two-step purification and partial characterization of an extra cellular α-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zare Mirakabadi, A.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was production and partial purification of α-amylase enzyme by Bacillus licheniformis. B. Licheniformis was allowed to grow in broth culture for purpose of inducing α-amylase enzyme. Optimal conditions for amylase production by B. Licheniformis are incubation period of 120 h, temperature of 37 °C and pH 7.0. The α-amylase enzyme was purified by ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-sepharose CL-6B and sephadex G-100 gel filtration with a 19.1-fold increase in specific activity as compared to the concentrated supernatant and with a specific activity of 926.47 U/mg. The α-amylase had the highest activity at pH 7.0 and 65 °C. According to the data on native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the molecular weight of the purified enzyme was 72 kDa.

  14. In vitro degradation of linamarin by microorganisms isolated from cassava wastewater treatment lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcellos, S. P; Cereda, M. P.; Cagnon, J. R.; Foglio, M.A.; Rodrigues, R.A.; Manfio, G. P.; Oliveira, V. M.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at isolating and characterizing of microorganisms able to use linamarin as sole carbon source. Thirty one microbial strains were isolated from manipueira, a liquid effluent of cassava processing factories. Among these strains, Bacillus licheniformis (isolate 2_2) and Rhodotorulla glutinis (isolate L1) were able to degrade 71% and 95% of added linamarin, respectively, within 7 days, showing high biodegradation activity and great potential for detoxification of cassava processing wastewaters. PMID:24031436

  15. Design of thermostable rhamnogalacturonan lyase mutants from Bacillus licheniformis by combination of targeted single point mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva, Ines Isabel Cardoso Rodrigues; Jers, Carsten; Otten, Harm

    2014-01-01

    Rhamnogalacturonan I lyases (RGI lyases) (EC 4.2.2.-) catalyze cleavage of α-1,4 bonds between rhamnose and galacturonic acid in the backbone of pectins by β-elimination. In the present study, targeted improvement of the thermostability of a PL family 11 RGI lyase from Bacillus licheniformis (DSM......, were obtained due to additive stabilizing effects of single amino acid mutations (E434L, G55V, and G326E) compared to the wild type. The crystal structure of the B. licheniformis wild-type RGI lyase was also determined; the structural analysis corroborated that especially mutation of charged amino...

  16. Expression of α-Amylase Gene of Bacillus licheniformis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗进贤; 黎杨; 李文清; 张添元; 何鸣

    1994-01-01

    The secretive expression vector has been constructed using the promoter and signal se-quence of yeast MF-α1 factor,and the Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase gene without promoter and signal se-quence has been inserted into the downstream of the signal sequence on the vector.After the readjustment ofthe reading frame,the amylase gene was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the product was secretedfrom it.The properties of enzymes secreted from yeast and B.subtilis are compared,and the mechanism ofthe gene expression and product secretion are discussed.

  17. Binding of Tris to Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase can affect its starch hydrolysis activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghalanbor, Zahra; Ghaemi, Nasser; Marashi, Sayed-Amir; Amanlou, Massoud; Habibi-Rezaei, Mehran; Khajeh, Khosro; Ranjbar, Bijan

    2008-01-01

    Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase (BLA) is routinely used as a model thermostable amylase in biochemical studies. Its starch hydrolysis activity has recently been studied in Tris buffer. Here, we address the question that whether the application of Tris buffer may influence the results of BLA activity analyses. Based on the inhibition studies and docking simulations, we suggest that Tris molecule is a competitive inhibitor of starch-hydrolyzing activity of BLA, and it has a high tendency to bind the enzyme active site. Hence, it is critically important to consider such effect when interpreting the results of activity studies of this enzyme in Tris buffer.

  18. Fungicin M4: a narrow spectrum peptide antibiotic from Bacillus licheniformis M-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebbadi, M; Gálvez, A; Maqueda, M; Martínez-Bueno, M; Valdivia, E

    1994-07-01

    The strain Bacillus licheniformis M-4 produces a 3.4 kDa hydrophilic peptide with antifungal activity, named fungicin M4. Analysis of the purified peptide shows that it contains the amino acids Glu (8), Arg (5), Pro (4), Tyr (8), Val (3), Met (2) and Orn (4). Its inhibitory spectrum is restricted to Microsporum canis CECT 2797, Mucor mucedo CECT 2653, Mucor plumbeus CCM 443, Sporothrix schenckii CECT 2799, Bacillus megaterium and Corynebacterium glutamicum CECT 78. Fungicin M4 exerts biocidal activity on liquid cultures of Sporothrix schenckii CECT 2799.

  19. Modification of the activity of an alpha-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis by several surfactants

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The influence of different commercial surfactants on the enzymatic activity of a commercial alpha-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis (Termamyl 300 L) has been studied. As non-ionic surfactants, alkyl polyglycosides (Glucopon® 215, Glucopon® 600 and Glucopon® 650) were studied, as were fatty alcohol ethoxylates (Findet 1214N/23 and Findet 10/15), and nonyl phenol ethoxylate (Findet 9Q/21.5NF). Also, an anionic surfactant, linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) was assayed. In general, none of t...

  20. Demasking kinetics of peptide bond cleavage for whey protein isolate hydrolysed by Bacillus licheniformis protease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorob'ev, Mikhail M.; Butré, Claire I.; Sforza, Stefano; Wierenga, Peter A.; Gruppen, Harry

    2017-01-01

    During enzymatic hydrolysis of proteins, some cleavage sites will be accessible in the intact protein. Others may only become accessible after demasking of the cleavage site, i.e. after cleavage of other bonds in the protein. Studies on demasking so far have used data of the release of few

  1. Isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Frank Juul

    2011-01-01

    Næringsstoffet har i dette nummer sat fokus på ”velvære i vinterkulden”, ”indendørsaktiviteter” og ”fedtafgift”. I klummen vises det, at disse tre fokusområder, der for en umiddelbar betragtning måske nok synes noget uensartede, falder sammen i ét tema: Isolation!......Næringsstoffet har i dette nummer sat fokus på ”velvære i vinterkulden”, ”indendørsaktiviteter” og ”fedtafgift”. I klummen vises det, at disse tre fokusområder, der for en umiddelbar betragtning måske nok synes noget uensartede, falder sammen i ét tema: Isolation!...

  2. Construction and application of recombinant strain for the production of an alkaline protease from Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Songyi; Zhang, Meishuo; Liu, Jingbo; Jones, Gregory S

    2015-03-01

    The alkaline protease gene, Apr, from Bacillus licheniformis 2709 was cloned into an expression vector pET - 28b (+), to yield the recombinant plasmid pET-28b (+) - Apr. The pET-28b (+) - Apr was expressed in a high expression strain E. coli BL21. The amino acid sequence deduced from the DNA sequence analysis revealed a 98% identity to that of Bacillus licheniformis 2709. Sodium salt-Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was used to access the protein expression. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated a protein of Mr of 38.8 kDa. The medium components and condition of incubation were optimized for the growth state of a recombinant strain. The optimal composition of production medium was composed of glucose 8 g/L, peptone 8 g/L and salt solution 10 mL. The samples were incubated on a rotary shaker of 180 r/min at 37°C for 24 h.

  3. Antimicrobial activity of a biosurfactant produced by Bacillus licheniformis strain M104 grown on whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Zakaria Gomaa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of the lipopeptide biosurfactants produced by Bacillus licheniformis strain M104 grown on whey. The biosurfactant was investigated for potential antimicrobial activity by using the disc-diffusion method against different Gram-positive bacteria {B subtilis, B. thuringiensis (two strains, B. cereus, Staphylococcus aureus (two strains and Listeria monocytogenes}, Gram-negative bacteria {(Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli (two strains, Salmonella typhimurium, Proteous vulgaris and Klebsiella pneumoniae and a yeast (Candida albicans}. The biosurfactant showed profoundly distinct antibacterial activity toward tested bacteria and displayed an antifungal activity against the tested yeast. Maximum antimicrobial activity of the biosurfactant was shown against S. aureus ATCC 25928. The biosurfactant had a broad inhibition effect on intracellular components of S. aureus ATCC 25928. The antimicrobial effect of lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by B. licheniformis strain M104 was time and concentration dependent. When biosurfactant was added to S. aureus medium in a concentration of (48 μg / ml, the maximum reduction of acid soluble phosphorous (53.06 %, total lipid (90.47 % total proteins (53.43%, RNA (83.29 % and DNA (48.50% were recorded after 12 h of incubation period. From the preliminary characterization results, it could be concluded that biosurfactants were a suitable alternative in potential applications of medical fields.

  4. Purification and characterization of a thermostable extracellular phytase from Bacillus licheniformis PFBL-03.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasimoye, Feyisola O; Olajuyigbe, Folasade M; Sanni, Morakinyo D

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular phytase from Bacillus licheniformis PFBL-03 was purified in three steps by using ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography on a DEAE Sephadex A-50 column, and gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-100. The single protein band on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) suggested that the enzyme was homogeneous. The molecular mass determined from SDS-PAGE was 36 kD. The enzyme yield was 10% while the purification fold was 39. The purified phytase exhibited optimum activity at 55°C and was able to retain 55% of its original activity after 60 min of incubation at 80°C. The purified enzyme had optimum pH of 6.0 and was stable over a pH range of 4.0 to 7.5. The kinetic parameters K(m) and V(max) of the purified phytase for sodium phytate were 4.7 mM and 49.01 µmol/min. The activity of the enzyme was enhanced in the presence of Ca²⁺ but completely inhibited by Fe²⁺, Mn²⁺, and Cu²⁺. The exhibited characteristics of the purified phytase from Bacillus licheniformis PFBL-03 show that the enzyme has potential for applications in the animal feed industry.

  5. N-terminal amino acid sequence of Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase: comparison with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus subtilis Enzymes.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhn, H.; Fietzek, P P; Lampen, J O

    1982-01-01

    The thermostable, liquefying alpha-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis was immunologically cross-reactive with the thermolabile, liquefying alpha-amylase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Their N-terminal amino acid sequences showed extensive homology with each other, but not with the saccharifying alpha-amylases of Bacillus subtilis.

  6. Production of the novel two-peptide lantibiotic lichenicidin by Bacillus licheniformis DSM 13.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Dischinger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lantibiotics are small microbial peptide antibiotics that are characterized by the presence of the thioether amino acids lanthionine and methyllanthionine. Lantibiotics possess structural genes which encode inactive prepeptides. During maturation, the prepeptide undergoes posttranslational modifications including the introduction of rare amino acids as lanthionine and methyllanthione as well as the proteolytic removal of the leader. The structural gene (lanA as well as the other genes which are involved in lantibiotic modification (lanM, lanB, lanC, lanP, regulation (lanR, lanK, export (lanT(P and immunity (lanEFG are organized in biosynthetic gene clusters. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sequence comparisons in the NCBI database showed that Bacillus licheniformis DSM 13 harbours a putative lantibiotic gene cluster which comprises two structural genes (licA1, licA2 and two modification enzymes (licM1, licM2 in addition to 10 ORFs that show sequence similarities to proteins involved in lantibiotic production. A heat labile antimicrobial activity was detected in the culture supernatant and a heat stabile activity was present in the isopropanol cell wash extract of this strain. In agar well diffusion assays both fractions exhibited slightly different activity spectra against Gram-positive bacteria. In order to demonstrate the connection between the lantibiotic gene cluster and one of the antibacterial activities, two Bacillus licheniformis DSM 13 mutant strains harbouring insertions in the structural genes of the modification enzymes licM1 and licM2 were constructed. These strains were characterized by a loss of activity in the isopropanol extract and substractive MALDI-TOF predicted masses of 3020.6 Da and 3250.6 Da for the active peptides. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, B. licheniformis DSM 13 produces an antimicrobial substance that represents the two-peptide lantibiotic lichenicidin and that shows activity against a wide

  7. Study of the solubility of a modified Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase around the isoelectric point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Cornilius; Hobley, Timothy John; Mollerup, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    The solubility of a modified recombinant Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase (mBLA) has been studied by batch crystallization. A semi-pure preparation was chosen containing five isoforms with pI values from 6 to 7.3 (weighted average of 6.6). Small amounts (... sodium sulfate at all pH values and increased with 0.5 mol.L-1 sodium thiocyanate at pH 7 and pH 8. The effect of anions on alpha-amylase solubility followed the Hofmeister series, and only weak evidence of reversal was seen below the isoelectric point. Cations had little effect on solubility. The sign...... and magnitude of the alpha-amylase zeta potential was determined in the presence and absence of 0.1 mol.L-1 salt. Qualitatively, zeta potential correctly predicted the different salts influence on mBLA solubility....

  8. Purification and characterization of an alkaline protease from Bacillus licheniformis UV-9 for detergent formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nadeem

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline protease produced by mutant strain B. licheniformis UV-9 was purified and characterized for its exploitationin detergent formulation. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity by employing ammonium sulphate precipitation andsephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatography with a 36.83 fold increase in specific activity and 11% recovery. The molecularweight of the protease was found to be 36.12 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The Km and Vmax values exhibited by purified proteasewere 5 mg/ml and 61.58ìM/ml/min, respectively, using casein as substrate. The enzyme exhibited highest activity at pH 11 andtemperature 60°C. Stability studies showed that the enzyme retained higher than 80% residual activity in the pH and temperature ranges of 8 to 11 and 30 to 50°C, respectively. However, in the presence of 10 mM Ca2+ ions the enzyme tained morethan 90% of its residual activity at pH 11 and temperature 60°C. Phenyl methyl sulphonyl fluoride (PMSF completelyinhibited the enzyme activity suggesting that it was serine protease. Among metal ions, the Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions enhancedactivity up to 128% and 145%, respectively. The purified enzyme showed extreme stability towards various surfactantssuch as Tween-20, Tween- 45, Tween-65 and Triton X-45. In addition, the enzyme also exhibited more than 100% residualactivity in the presence of oxidizing agents, H2O2 and sodium perborate. These biochemical properties indicate the potentialuse of B. licheniformis UV-9 enzyme in laundry detergents.

  9. Improving the functional expression of a Bacillus licheniformis laccase by random and site-directed mutagenesis

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    Schmid Rolf D

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laccases have huge potential for biotechnological applications due to their broad substrate spectrum and wide range of reactions they are able to catalyze. These include, for example, the formation and degradation of dimers, oligomers, polymers, and ring cleavage as well as oxidation of aromatic compounds. Potential applications of laccases include detoxification of industrial effluents, decolorization of textile dyes and the synthesis of natural products by, for instance, dimerization of phenolic acids. We have recently published a report on the cloning and characterization of a CotA Bacillus licheniformis laccase, an enzyme that catalyzes dimerization of phenolic acids. However, the broad application of this laccase is limited by its low expression level of 26 mg l-1 that was achieved in Escherichia coli. To counteract this shortcoming, random and site-directed mutagenesis have been combined in order to improve functional expression and activity of CotA. Results A CotA double mutant, K316N/D500G, was constructed by combining random and site-directed mutagenesis. It can be functionally expressed at an 11.4-fold higher level than the wild-type enzyme. In addition, it is able to convert ferulic acid much faster than the wild-type enzyme (21% vs. 14% and is far more efficient in decolorizing a range of industrial dyes. The investigation of the effects of the mutations K316N and D500G showed that amino acid at position 316 had a major influence on enzyme activity and position 500 had a major influence on the expression of the laccase. Conclusion The constructed double mutant K316N/D500G of the Bacillus licheniformis CotA laccase is an appropriate candidate for biotechnological applications due to its high expression level and high activity in dimerization of phenolic acids and decolorization of industrial dyes.

  10. Soybean fermentation with Bacillus licheniformis increases insulin sensitizing and insulinotropic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hye Jeong; Kwon, Dae Young; Moon, Na Rang; Kim, Min Jung; Kang, Hee Joo; Jung, Do Yeon; Park, Sunmin

    2013-11-01

    Traditionally fermented soybeans (chungkookjang; TFC) may have potent anti-diabetic activity, depending on the ambient microorganisms and conditions. We hypothesized that one of the major Bacillus species in TFC contributes to the anti-diabetic activity and could be used to standardize a highly functional TFC. We tested the hypothesis by using cell-based studies to evaluate insulin sensitizing and insulinotropic action of chungkookjangs fermented with various Bacillus spp. and fermentation periods. The 70% methanol and water extracts of chungkookjang fermented with Bacillus licheniformis (BL) for 48 h contained similar profiles of isoflavonoids and peptides to methanol and water extracts of TFC with potent anti-diabetic activity. Water extracts (mainly containing peptides) of TFC and BL fermented for 48 h and 72 h had a better insulin sensitizing action via activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) and increased the expression of PPAR-γ in 3T3-L1 adipocytes better than unfermented cooked soybeans (CSB). The 70% methanol extracts (predominantly isoflavone aglycones) of BL fermented for 48 h and 72 h improved glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and protected β-cell viability better than CSB in insulinoma cells, and the improvement by BL was similar to TFC. In conclusion, the BL water extract fermented for 48 h exhibited equal insulin sensitization as TFC and BL methanol extract exerted similar insulinotropic actions to those of TFC. B. licheniformis may be one of the major microorganisms responsible for anti-diabetic actions of chungkookjang. It is important to make chungkookjang that retains the anti-diabetic properties of the most efficacious traditional chungkookjang using a standardized method.

  11. Effect of glucose on poly-γ-glutamic acid metabolism in Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wencheng; Chen, Zhen; Ye, Hong; Liu, Peize; Li, Zhipeng; Wang, Yuanpeng; Li, Qingbiao; Yan, Shan; Zhong, Chuan-Jian; He, Ning

    2017-02-08

    Poly-gamma-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) is a promising macromolecule with potential as a replacement for chemosynthetic polymers. γ-PGA can be produced by many microorganisms, including Bacillus species. Bacillus licheniformis CGMCC2876 secretes γ-PGA when using glycerol and trisodium citrate as its optimal carbon sources and secretes polysaccharides when using glucose as the sole carbon source. To better understand the metabolic mechanism underlying the secretion of polymeric substances, SWATH was applied to investigate the effect of glucose on the production of polysaccharides and γ-PGA at the proteome level. The addition of glucose at 5 or 10 g/L of glucose decreased the γ-PGA concentration by 31.54 or 61.62%, respectively, whereas the polysaccharide concentration increased from 5.2 to 43.47%. Several proteins playing related roles in γ-PGA and polysaccharide synthesis were identified using the SWATH acquisition LC-MS/MS method. CcpA and CcpN co-enhanced glycolysis and suppressed carbon flux into the TCA cycle, consequently slowing glutamic acid synthesis. On the other hand, CcpN cut off the carbon flux from glycerol metabolism and further reduced γ-PGA production. CcpA activated a series of operons (glm and epsA-O) to reallocate the carbon flux to polysaccharide synthesis when glucose was present. The production of γ-PGA was influenced by NrgB, which converted the major nitrogen metabolic flux between NH4(+) and glutamate. The mechanism by which B. licheniformis regulates two macromolecules was proposed for the first time in this paper. This genetic information will facilitate the engineering of bacteria for practicable strategies for the fermentation of γ-PGA and polysaccharides for diverse applications.

  12. The Reduction of Selenite by Bacillus licheniformis%地衣芽孢杆菌对亚硒酸盐的还原

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建明; 雷磊; 肖湘; 袁永强; 秦海波; 苏惠

    2011-01-01

    利用高硒碳质泥岩中筛选出的地衣芽孢杆菌(Bacillus licheni formi),研究了该菌对亚硒酸盐硒的耐受与还原行为.结果表明,液体培养基(YEG)中,它能耐受320 mM亚硒酸盐硒的浓度,酎受硒酸盐硒的浓度可高达1000mM.然而,高浓度的亚硒酸盐硒对它的生长有明显的抑制作用.在有氧和厌氧的环境中,地衣芽孢杆菌均能还原亚硒酸盐中的硒:将四价硒还原为纳米球状的元素硒颗粒,使其分布在菌体的周边和细胞内.在含5 mM亚硒酸钠的液体培养基中,还原亚硒酸钠硒成为元素硒的平均效率约为42%.地衣芽孢杆菌在生存环境无严格要求的条件下,其还原亚硒酸盐硒形成纳米元素硒颗粒的现象,是研究生物合成低毒的纳米活性元素硒和生物修复硒污染技术的基础,也为硒的微生物矿化过程提供了契机.%Bacillus Licheniformi, which can reduce the toxic selenite anion to red elemental selenium (Se°) , was isolated from a carbonaceous mudstone with high content of Se. The results showed that this strain can stand in 320 mM SeO2-3 and in more than 1000 mM SeO2-4. However,the high concentration of SeO2-3 can inhibit the growth of the strain in liquid medium (YEG). No matter in aerobic culture or anaerobic culture that the strain was inoculated , it can reduce selenite anion to nanospheric elemental selenium granules, distributed around or within the cells. In the liquid YEG medium contains 5mM of selenite,the transformed efficiency of Se4+ to Se° by Bacillus licheniformi was 42% approximately. Since no rigorous requirement for Bacillus licheniformi to live,it is suitable to be selected in microbial remediation techniques as the strains that cope with selenium pollutions, and to produce the nano-Se granules with bioavailability. At the same time,the phenomena of selenite anions reduced to elemental Se by the bacterial provides a chance to further understand the microbial mineralization of selenium

  13. Solid State Fermentation of a Raw Starch Digesting Alkaline Alpha-Amylase from Bacillus licheniformis RT7PE1 and Its Characteristics

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    Romana Tabassum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermodynamic and kinetic properties of solids state raw starch digesting alpha amylase from newly isolated Bacillus licheniformis RT7PE1 strain were studied. The kinetic values Qp, Yp/s, Yp/X, and qp were proved to be best with 15% wheat bran. The molecular weight of purified enzyme was 112 kDa. The apparent Km and Vmax values for starch were 3.4 mg mL−1 and 19.5 IU mg−1 protein, respectively. The optimum temperature and pH for α-amylase were 55°C, 9.8. The half-life of enzyme at 95°C was 17h. The activation and denaturation activation energies were 45.2 and 41.2 kJ mol−1, respectively. Both enthalpies (ΔH∗ and entropies of activation (ΔS∗ for denaturation of α-amylase were lower than those reported for other thermostable α-amylases.

  14. Disruption in the cecal microbiota of chickens challenged with Clostridium perfringens and other factors was alleviated by Bacillus licheniformis supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xueqin; Zhou, Mengjia; Zeng, Yan; Wang, Hesong; Zhou, Yi; Zhu, Hui; Pan, Kangcheng; Li, Guangyao

    2017-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens can induce necrotic enteritis of chickens, which causes large economic losses every year. Bacillus licheniformis, a probiotic, can inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria such as Clostridium perfringens, thereby improving the health status of chickens. However, from a microbial ecology perspective, the mechanisms by which alterations to the gut microbiota improve health remain unknown. In this study, we used Illumina MiSeq sequencing to investigate the cecal microbiota of a negative control group (NC), a C. perfringens and Eimeria challenge group with fishmeal supplementation (PC), a group supplemented with fishmeal and infected with coccidia (FC), and group PC with B. licheniformis supplementation (BL). We found that the health status of C. perfringens-challenged chickens was compromised, and that B. licheniformis improved the growth of the chickens challenged with pathogens. Microbial diversity analysis and taxonomic profiling of groups NC, PC, and FC revealed a disturbed cecal microflora of the birds with C. perfringens. We also characterized the microbiota of the chickens in the BL group using several methods. Principal coordinate analysis demonstrated that, compared with group PC, the bacterial community structure of group BL was more similar to that of group NC. Linear discriminant analysis with effect size revealed less differentially represented bacterial taxa between groups BL and NC than between groups PC and NC. In addition, groups BL and NC appeared to have similar overrepresented microbial taxa (such as Bacteroides, Helicobacter, Megamonas, and Akkermansia) compared with group PC. Finally, a phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states analysis indicated that large differences existed between group PC and groups NC and BL. In conclusion, pre-treatment with B. licheniformis reduced the disturbance of the cecal microbiome induced by challenge with C. perfringens and other factors in broiler

  15. Bacillus licheniformis Contains Two More PerR-Like Proteins in Addition to PerR, Fur, and Zur Orthologues.

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    Jung-Hoon Kim

    Full Text Available The ferric uptake regulator (Fur family proteins include sensors of Fe (Fur, Zn (Zur, and peroxide (PerR. Among Fur family proteins, Fur and Zur are ubiquitous in most prokaryotic organisms, whereas PerR exists mainly in Gram positive bacteria as a functional homologue of OxyR. Gram positive bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus encode three Fur family proteins: Fur, Zur, and PerR. In this study, we identified five Fur family proteins from B. licheniformis: two novel PerR-like proteins (BL00690 and BL00950 in addition to Fur (BL05249, Zur (BL03703, and PerR (BL00075 homologues. Our data indicate that all of the five B. licheniformis Fur homologues contain a structural Zn2+ site composed of four cysteine residues like many other Fur family proteins. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the PerR-like proteins (BL00690 and BL00950 as well as PerRBL (BL00075, but not FurBL (BL05249 and ZurBL (BL03703, can sense H2O2 by histidine oxidation with different sensitivity. We also show that PerR2 (BL00690 has a PerR-like repressor activity for PerR-regulated genes in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that B. licheniformis contains three PerR subfamily proteins which can sense H2O2 by histidine oxidation not by cysteine oxidation, in addition to Fur and Zur.

  16. Codon Optimization Significantly Improves the Expression Level of α-Amylase Gene from Bacillus licheniformis in Pichia pastoris

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    Jian-Rong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available α-Amylase as an important industrial enzyme has been widely used in starch processing, detergent, and paper industries. To improve expression efficiency of recombinant α-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis, the α-amylase gene from B. licheniformis was optimized according to the codon usage of Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris and expressed in P. pastoris. Totally, the codons encoding 305 amino acids were optimized in which a total of 328 nucleotides were changed and the G+C content was increased from 47.6 to 49.2%. The recombinants were cultured in 96-deep-well microplates and screened by a new plate assay method. Compared with the wild-type gene, the optimized gene is expressed at a significantly higher level in P. pastoris after methanol induction for 168 h in 5- and 50-L bioreactor with the maximum activity of 8100 and 11000 U/mL, which was 2.31- and 2.62-fold higher than that by wild-type gene. The improved expression level makes the enzyme a good candidate for α-amylase production in industrial use.

  17. Comparative evaluation of Bacillus licheniformis 5A5 and Aloe variegata milk-clotting enzymes

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    S. A. Ahmed

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The properties of a milk clotting enzyme (MCE produced by bacteria (Bacillus licheniformis 5A5 were investigated and compared to those of rennet extracted from a plant (Aloe variegata. Production of MCE by B. licheniformis 5A5 was better in static than in shaken cultures. Maximum activity (98.3 and 160.3 U/ml of clotting was obtained at 75ºC and 80ºC with bacterial and plant rennet, respectively. In the absence of substrate, the clotting activity of Aloe MCE was found to be less sensitive to heat inactivation up to 80ºC for 75 min, retaining 63.8% of its activity, while bacterial MCE was completely inhibited. CaCl2 stimulated milk clotting activity (MCA up to 2% and 1.5% for bacterial and plant enzymes. NaCl inhibited MCA for both enzymes, even at low concentration (1%. Plant MCE was more sensitive to NaCl at 3% concentration it retained 30.2% of its activity, whereas bacterial MCE retained 64.1%. Increasing skim milk concentration caused a significant increase in MCA up to 6% for both enzymes. Mn2+ stimulated the activity of bacterial and plant enzymes to 158.6 and 177.9%, respectively. EDTA and PMSF increased the activity of plant MCE by 34.4 and 41.1%, respectively, which is higher than those for the bacterial MCE (19.1 and 20.9%. Some natural materials activated MCE, the highest activation of bacterial MCE (128.1% was obtained in the presence of Fenugreek (with acid extraction. However Lupine Giza 1 (with neutral extraction gave the highest activation of plant MCE (137.9%. All extracts from Neem plant increased MCA at range from 105.6% to 136.4%. Plant MCE exhibited much better stability when stored at room temperature (25-30ºC for 30 days, retaining 51.2% of its activity. Bacterial MCE was highly stabile when stored under freezing (-18ºC, retaining 100% of its activity after 30 days. Moreover, bacterial MCE was highly tolerant to repeated freezing and thawing without loss of activity for 8 months.

  18. Cloning and characterization of the glutamate dehydrogenase gene in Bacillus licheniformis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱冰; 俞冠翘; 朱家璧; 沈善炯

    2000-01-01

    The gdhA genes of IRC-3 GDH strain and IRC-8 GDH+ strain were cloned, and they both successfully complemented the nutritional lesion of an E. coli glutamate auxotroph, Q100 GDH". However, the gdhA gene from the mutant IRC-8 GDH+ strain failed to complement the glutamate deficiency of the wild type strain IRC-3. The gdhA genes of the wild type and mutant origin were sequenced separately. No nucleotide difference was detected between them. Further investigations indicated that the gdhA genes were actively expressed in both the wild type and the mutant. Additionally, no GDH inhibitor was found in the wild type strain IRC-3. It is thus proposed that the inactivity of GDH in wild type is the result of the deficiency at the post-translational level of the gdhA expression. Examination of the deduced amino acid sequence of Bacillus licheniformis GDH revealed the presence of the motifs characteristic of the family I -type hexameric protein, while the GDH of Bacillus subtilis belongs to family II.

  19. Cloning and characterization of the glutamate dehydrogenase gene in Bacillus licheniformis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The gdhA genes of IRC-3 GDH-strain and IRC-8 GDH+ strain were cloned,and they both successfully complemented the nutritional lesion of an E.coli glutamate auxotroph,Q100 GDH-.However,the gdhA gene from the mutant IRC-8 GDH+ strain failed to complement the glutamate deficiency of the wild type strain IRC-3.The gdhA genes of the wild type and mutant origin were sequenced separately.No nucleotide difference was detected between them.Further investigations indicated that the gdhA genes were actively expressed in both the wild type and the mutant.Additionally,no GDH inhibitor was found in the wild type strain IRC-3.It is thus proposed that the inactivity of GDH in wild type is the result of the deficiency at the post-translational level of the gdhA expression.Examination of the deduced amino acid sequence of Bacillus licheniformis GDH revealed the presence of the motifs characteristic of the familyⅠ-type hexameric protein,while the GDH of Bacillus subtilis belongs to family II.

  20. A Peptidoglycan Fragment Triggers β-lactam Resistance in Bacillus licheniformis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoroso, Ana; Boudet, Julien; Berzigotti, Stéphanie; Duval, Valérie; Teller, Nathalie; Mengin-Lecreulx, Dominique; Luxen, André; Simorre, Jean-Pierre; Joris, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    To resist to β-lactam antibiotics Eubacteria either constitutively synthesize a β-lactamase or a low affinity penicillin-binding protein target, or induce its synthesis in response to the presence of antibiotic outside the cell. In Bacillus licheniformis and Staphylococcus aureus, a membrane-bound penicillin receptor (BlaR/MecR) detects the presence of β-lactam and launches a cytoplasmic signal leading to the inactivation of BlaI/MecI repressor, and the synthesis of a β-lactamase or a low affinity target. We identified a dipeptide, resulting from the peptidoglycan turnover and present in bacterial cytoplasm, which is able to directly bind to the BlaI/MecI repressor and to destabilize the BlaI/MecI-DNA complex. We propose a general model, in which the acylation of BlaR/MecR receptor and the cellular stress induced by the antibiotic, are both necessary to generate a cell wall-derived coactivator responsible for the expression of an inducible β-lactam-resistance factor. The new model proposed confirms and emphasizes the role of peptidoglycan degradation fragments in bacterial cell regulation. PMID:22438804

  1. Statistical Approach for Optimization of Physiochemical Requirements on Alkaline Protease Production from Bacillus licheniformis NCIM 2042

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    Biswanath Bhunia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of physiochemical parameters for alkaline protease production using Bacillus licheniformis NCIM 2042 were carried out by Plackett-Burman design and response surface methodology (RSM. The model was validated experimentally and the maximum protease production was found 315.28 U using optimum culture conditions. The protease was purified using ammonium sulphate (60% precipitation technique. The HPLC analysis of dialyzed sample showed that the retention time is 1.84 min with 73.5% purity. This enzyme retained more than 92% of its initial activity after preincubation for 30 min at 37∘C in the presence of 25% v/v DMSO, methanol, ethanol, ACN, 2-propanol, benzene, toluene, and hexane. In addition, partially purified enzyme showed remarkable stability for 60 min at room temperature, in the presence of anionic detergent (Tween-80 and Triton X-100, surfactant (SDS, bleaching agent (sodium perborate and hydrogen peroxide, and anti-redeposition agents (Na2CMC, Na2CO3. Purified enzyme containing 10% w/v PEG 4000 showed better thermal, surfactant, and local detergent stability.

  2. Alcohol-induced structural transitions in the acid-denatured Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase

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    Adyani Azizah Abd Halim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol-induced structural changes in the acid-denatured Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase (BLA at pH 2.0 were studied by far-ultra violet circular dichroism, intrinsic, three-dimensional and 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonic acid (ANS fluorescence, acrylamide quenching and thermal denaturation. All the alcohols used in this study produced partial refolding in the acid-denatured BLA as evident from the increased mean residue ellipticity at 222 nm, increased intrinsic fluorescence and decreased ANS fluorescence. The order of effectiveness of these alcohols to induce a partially folded state of BLA was found to be: 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol/tert-butanol > 1-propanol/2-propanol > 2-chloroethanol > ethanol > methanol. Three-dimensional fluorescence and acrylamide quenching results obtained in the presence of 5.5 M tert-butanol also suggested formation of a partially folded state in the acid-denatured BLA. However, 5.5 M tert-butanol-induced state of BLA showed a non-cooperative thermal transition. All these results suggested formation of a partially folded state of the acid-denatured BLA in the presence of these alcohols. Furthermore, their effectiveness was found to be guided by their chain length, position of methyl groups and presence of the substituents.

  3. Production and characterization of keratinase of a feather-degrading Bacillus licheniformis PWD-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, S W; Hu, H M; Shen, S W; Takagi, H; Asano, M; Tsai, Y C

    1995-12-01

    The keratinase produced by Bacillus licheniformis PWD-1 was induced by feather powder. Maximal enzyme production could be achieved by culturing in a medium containing 1% hammer-milled feather powder (100 mesh) at 45 degrees C for 30 h. Maximal growth of PWD-1 was achieved at 50 degrees C, and maximal enzyme induction was at 45 degrees C. The molecular mass and isoelectric point of this enzyme were 31.4 kDa and 8.5, respectively. This enzyme was stable from pH 5 to 12. The optimal reaction pHs for feather powder and casein were 8.5 and 10.5 to 11.5, respectively. The optimal reaction temperature was 50 degrees C to 55 degrees C. The relative activity of this enzyme toward casein, feather powder, keratin, elastin, and collagen was 100:52:41:18:7, and 100:56:32:3 for Suc-AAPL-pNA, Suc-AAPF-pNA, Suc-AAPM-pNA, and Suc-AAVA-pNA (Suc, succinyl; pNA, p-nitrophenylanilide).

  4. Adsorption and reduction of palladium (Pd2+) by Bacillus licheniformis R08

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Preliminary study on the mechanism of Pd2+ biosorption by resting cells of Bacillus licheniformis R08 biomass has been carried out by means of chemical kinetics and AAS, TEM, XRD and FTIR methods. The results showed that at 30℃ and pH 3.5, when dry R08 biomass powder (800 mg/L) was mixed with Pd2+ (100 mg/L) for 45 min, the rate constant k of biosorption of Pd2+ attained a maximum of 5.97×10-2 min-1 and the half life period of the reaction reached 12 min. The part of Pd2+ adsorbed by R08 biomass was reduced to elemental, cell-bound Pd0 at the same condition. The cell wall of R08 biomass was the primary location for accumulating Pd2+, and aldoses, I. E. Hydrolysate of a part of polysaccharides on the peptidoglycan layer in the acidic medium, serving as the electron donor, in situ reduced the Pd2+ to Pd0.

  5. Enhanced Production of Poly-γ-glutamic Acid by Bacillus licheniformis TISTR 1010 with Environmental Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongklom, Nuttawut; Shi, Zhongping; Chisti, Yusuf; Sirisansaneeyakul, Sarote

    2016-12-24

    Bacillus licheniformis TISTR 1010 was used for glutamic acid-independent production of poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA). A fed-batch production strategy was developed involving feedings of glucose, citric acid, and ammonium chloride at specified stages of the fermentation. With the dissolved oxygen concentration controlled at ≥50% of air saturation and the pH controlled at ~7.4, the fed-batch operation at 37 °C afforded a peak γ-PGA concentration of 39.9 ± 0.3 g L(-1) with a productivity of 0.926 ± 0.006 g L(-1) h(-1). The observed productivity was nearly threefold greater than previously reported for glutamic acid-independent production using the strain TISTR 1010. The molecular weight of γ-PGA was in the approximate range of 60 to 135 kDa.

  6. Enhanced production of alkaline protease by a mutant of Bacillus licheniformis N-2 for dehairing

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    Muhammad Nadeem

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present investigations was to improve the yield of alkaline protease for leather dehairing by subjecting the indigenous proteolytic strain Bacillus licheniformis N-2 to various mutagenic treatments viz. UV irradiations, NTG (N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguinidine and MMS (methyl methane sulfonate. After screening on skim milk agar plates, a total of nine positive mutants were selected for shake flask experiments. Among these, the best proteolytic mutant designated as UV-9 showed 1.4 fold higher alkaline protease activity in preoptimized growth medium than the parent strain. The fermentation profile and kinetic parameters such u(h-1, Yp/s, Yp/x, Yx/s, q s, Qs, q p and Qp also indicated the superiority of the selected mutant UV-9 for alkaline protease production over the parent strain and rest of the mutants. The dehairing capability of mutant UV-9 alkaline protease was analyzed by soaking goat skin pieces for different time intervals (3-15 h at 40 º C. A complete dehairing without degradation of collagen was achieved after 12 h, indicating its commercial exploitation in leather industry.

  7. Covalent Immobilization of Bacillus licheniformis γ-Glutamyl Transpeptidase on Aldehyde-Functionalized Magnetic Nanoparticles

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    Meng-Chun Chi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the synthesis and use of surface-modified iron oxide nanoparticles for the covalent immobilization of Bacillus licheniformis γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (BlGGT. Magnetic nanoparticles were prepared by an alkaline solution of divalent and trivalent iron ions, and they were subsequently treated with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APES to obtain the aminosilane-coated nanoparticles. The functional group on the particle surface and the amino group of BlGGT was then cross-linked using glutaraldehyde as the coupling reagent. The loading capacity of the prepared nanoparticles for BlGGT was 34.2 mg/g support, corresponding to 52.4% recovery of the initial activity. Monographs of transmission electron microscopy revealed that the synthesized nanoparticles had a mean diameter of 15.1 ± 3.7 nm, and the covalent cross-linking of the enzyme did not significantly change their particle size. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the immobilization of BlGGT on the magnetic nanoparticles. The chemical and kinetic behaviors of immobilized BlGGT are mostly consistent with those of the free enzyme. The immobilized enzyme could be recycled ten times with 36.2% retention of the initial activity and had a comparable stability respective to free enzyme during the storage period of 30 days. Collectively, the straightforward synthesis of aldehyde-functionalized nanoparticles and the efficiency of enzyme immobilization offer wide perspectives for the practical use of surface-bound BlGGT.

  8. Production, Characterization, and Application of Bacillus licheniformis W16 Biosurfactant in Enhancing Oil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sanket J; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M; Al-Bahry, Saif N; Elshafie, Abdulkadir E; Al-Bemani, Ali S; Al-Bahri, Asma; Al-Mandhari, Musallam S

    2016-01-01

    The biosurfactant production by Bacillus licheniformis W16 and evaluation of biosurfactant based enhanced oil recovery (EOR) using core-flood under reservoir conditions were investigated. Previously reported nine different production media were screened for biosurfactant production, and two were further optimized with different carbon sources (glucose, sucrose, starch, cane molasses, or date molasses), as well as the strain was screened for biosurfactant production during the growth in different media. The biosurfactant reduced the surface tension and interfacial tension to 24.33 ± 0.57 mN m(-1) and 2.47 ± 0.32 mN m(-1) respectively within 72 h, at 40°C, and also altered the wettability of a hydrophobic surface by changing the contact angle from 55.67 ± 1.6 to 19.54°± 0.96°. The critical micelle dilution values of 4X were observed. The biosurfactants were characterized by different analytical techniques and identified as lipopeptide, similar to lichenysin-A. The biosurfactant was stable over wide range of extreme environmental conditions. The core flood experiments showed that the biosurfactant was able to enhance the oil recovery by 24-26% over residual oil saturation (Sor). The results highlight the potential application of lipopeptide biosurfactant in wettability alteration and microbial EOR processes.

  9. Cloning and characterization of a new laccase from Bacillus licheniformis catalyzing dimerization of phenolic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschorreck, Katja; Richter, Sven M; Ene, Augusta B; Roduner, Emil; Schmid, Rolf D; Urlacher, Vlada B

    2008-05-01

    A new laccase gene (cotA) was cloned from Bacillus licheniformis and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein CotA was purified and showed spectroscopic properties, typical for blue multi-copper oxidases. The enzyme has a molecular weight of approximately 65 kDa and demonstrates activity towards canonical laccase substrates 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), syringaldazine (SGZ) and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (2,6-DMP). Kinetic constants KM and kcat for ABTS were of 6.5+/-0.2 microM and 83 s(-1), for SGZ of 4.3+/-0.2 microM and 100 s(-1), and for 2,6-DMP of 56.7+/-1.0 microM and 28 s(-1). Highest oxidizing activity towards ABTS was obtained at 85 degrees C. However, after 1 h incubation of CotA at 70 degrees C and 80 degrees C, a residual activity of 43% and 8%, respectively, was measured. Furthermore, oxidation of several phenolic acids and one non-phenolic acid by CotA was investigated. CotA failed to oxidize coumaric acid, cinnamic acid, and vanillic acid, while syringic acid was oxidized to 2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone. Additionally, dimerization of sinapic acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid by CotA was observed, and highest activity of CotA was found towards sinapic acid.

  10. Production, Characterization, and Application of Bacillus licheniformis W16 Biosurfactant in Enhancing Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sanket J.; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M.; Al-Bahry, Saif N.; Elshafie, Abdulkadir E.; Al-Bemani, Ali S.; Al-Bahri, Asma; Al-Mandhari, Musallam S.

    2016-01-01

    The biosurfactant production by Bacillus licheniformis W16 and evaluation of biosurfactant based enhanced oil recovery (EOR) using core-flood under reservoir conditions were investigated. Previously reported nine different production media were screened for biosurfactant production, and two were further optimized with different carbon sources (glucose, sucrose, starch, cane molasses, or date molasses), as well as the strain was screened for biosurfactant production during the growth in different media. The biosurfactant reduced the surface tension and interfacial tension to 24.33 ± 0.57 mN m−1 and 2.47 ± 0.32 mN m−1 respectively within 72 h, at 40°C, and also altered the wettability of a hydrophobic surface by changing the contact angle from 55.67 ± 1.6 to 19.54°± 0.96°. The critical micelle dilution values of 4X were observed. The biosurfactants were characterized by different analytical techniques and identified as lipopeptide, similar to lichenysin-A. The biosurfactant was stable over wide range of extreme environmental conditions. The core flood experiments showed that the biosurfactant was able to enhance the oil recovery by 24–26% over residual oil saturation (Sor). The results highlight the potential application of lipopeptide biosurfactant in wettability alteration and microbial EOR processes. PMID:27933041

  11. Production, Characterization and Application of Bacillus licheniformis W16 Biosurfactant in Enhancing Oil Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanket J. Joshi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The biosurfactant production by Bacillus licheniformis W16 and evaluation of biosurfactant based enhanced oil recovery using core-flood under reservoir conditions were investigated. Previously reported nine different production media were screened for biosurfactant production, and two were further optimized with different carbon sources (glucose, sucrose, starch, cane molasses or date molasses, as well as the strain was screened for biosurfactant production during the growth in different media. The biosurfactant reduced the surface tension and interfacial tension to 24.33+0.57mN m-1 and 2.47+0.32mN m-1 respectively within 72h, at 40 C, and also altered the wettability of a hydrophobic surface by changing the contact angle from 55.67°+1.6° to 19.54°+0.96°. The critical micelle dilution values of 4X were observed. The biosurfactants were characterized by different analytical techniques and identified as lipopeptide, similar to lichenysin-A. The biosurfactant was stable over wide range of extreme environmental conditions. The core flood experiments showed that the biosurfactant was able to enhance the oil recovery by 24-26% over residual oil saturation (Sor. The results highlight the potential application of lipopeptide biosurfactant in wettability alteration and microbial enhanced oil recovery processes.

  12. Characterization and Application of Biosurfactant Produced by Bacillus licheniformis R2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sanket J; Geetha, S J; Desai, Anjana J

    2015-09-01

    The biosurfactant produced by Bacillus licheniformis R2 was characterized and studied for enhancing the heavy crude oil recovery at 80 °C in coreflood experiments. The strain was found to be nonpathogenic and produced biosurfactant, reducing the surface tension of medium from 70 to 28 mN/m with 1.1 g/l yield. The biosurfactant was quite stable during exposure to elevated temperatures (85 °C for 90 days), high salinity (10 % NaCl), and a wide range of pH (5-12) for 10 days. It was characterized as lipopeptide similar to lichenysin-A, with a critical micelle concentration of about 19.4 mg/l. The efficiency of crude biosurfactant for enhanced oil recovery by core flood studies revealed it to recovering additional 37.1 % oil from Berea sandstone cores at 80 °C. The results are indicative of the potential for the development of lipopeptide biosurfactant-based ex situ microbial enhanced heavy oil recovery from depleting oil fields with extreme temperatures.

  13. Functional characterization of a Na(+)-coupled dicarboxylate transporter from Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickler, Melodie A; Hall, Jason A; Gaiko, Olga; Pajor, Ana M

    2009-12-01

    The Na(+)-coupled dicarboxylate transporter, SdcL, from Bacillus licheniformis is a member of the divalent anion/Na(+) symporter (DASS) family that includes the bacterial Na(+)/dicarboxylate cotransporter SdcS (from Staphyloccocus aureus) and the mammalian Na(+)/dicarboxylate cotransporters, NaDC1 and NaDC3. The transport properties of SdcL produced in Escherichia coli are similar to those of its prokaryotic and eukaryotic counterparts, involving the Na(+)-dependent transport of dicarboxylates such as succinate or malate across the cytoplasmic membrane with a K(m) of approximately 6 microM. SdcL may also transport aspartate, alpha-ketoglutarate and oxaloacetate with low affinity. The cotransport of Na(+) and dicarboxylate by SdcL has an apparent stoichiometry of 2:1, and a K(0.5) for Na(+) of 0.9 mM. Our findings represent the characterization of another prokaryotic protein of the DASS family with transport properties similar to its eukaryotic counterparts, but with a broader substrate specificity than other prokaryotic DASS family members. The broader range of substrates carried by SdcL may provide insight into domains of the protein that allow a more flexible or larger substrate binding pocket.

  14. Production of poly-gamma-glutamic acid by Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis with different growth media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedia, Gopal; Hill, David; Hill, Robert; Radecka, Iza

    2010-09-01

    Poly gamma-glutamic acid is a naturally occurring homo-polyamide that is made of D- and L-glutamic acid units connected by amide linkages between alpha-amino and gamma-carboxylic groups. Many strains have been studied for the production of poly y-glutamic acid, B. licheniformis 9945a and B. subtilis natto are the two most widely studied strains due to their higher yield. Both of these strains require L-glutamic acid for poly gamma-glutamic acid production. This paper describes investigations on the biosynthesis of poly y-glutamic acid by B. licheniformis 9945a and B. subtilis natto in an automated pH-controlled fermenter. The effect of the growth media such as medium E, F, C and GS was investigated. Medium E produced poly gamma-glutamic acid both with and without MnSO4 in the medium when fermented by B. licheniformis. Presence of MnSO4 in the medium affected both the yield and biomass production. The yield was 12 g/l for the medium containing 2.46 mM MnSO4 whereas it was only 4-5 g/l for the medium without MnSO4 with molecular weight (Mw) of 321,000. Different media such as medium C, F and GS were used for production of poly gamma-glutamic acid by B. subtilis natto. The yield from GS medium was highest and it produced about 26-28 g/l with molecular weight (Mw) of 627,000.

  15. The Biocontrol Effects of the Bacillus licheniformis W10 Strain and Its Antifungal Protein Against Brown Rot in Peach

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    Ji Zhaolin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The biocontrol effects of Bacillus licheniformis W10 bacterial suspension and its antifungal protein on peach brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola in storage peach fruits and the effects on fruit quality were investigated. The results showed that the fruit disease suppression of B. licheniformis W10 bacterial suspension and antifungal protein were significantly higher than that of the control. Inoculation of bacterial suspension and antifungal protein prior to M. fructicola gave a better biocontrol effect, and the higher concentrations of bacterial (1 × 1010 cfu · mL−1 and antifungal protein (3.0 mg · mL−1 performed better control effects. The environmental conditions, such as temperature and humidity, affected biocontrol effects of W10 bacterial suspension and antifungal protein. The influence of environment conditions on the activity of antifungal protein was less than that on bacterial suspension. Moreover, lower temperature (4 °C and relative humidity (RH 70%–75% were favorable to prevent peach brown rot by W10 bacterial suspension and its antifungal protein. The W10 bacterial suspension and antifungal protein amended with calcium [0.1% Ca(NO32] could enhance the biocontrol effects, and obviously put off the occurrence of peach brown rot. In addition, the bacterial suspension and antifungal protein significantly reduced the natural decay rates of peach fruits during storage, and the effects were equal to carbendazim. Moreover, both W10 bacterial suspension and antifungal protein treatments did not have effects on external and internal fruit appearance, such as chromatic aberration parameter L* of flesh, flesh firmness, soluble solids content and weight loss. Therefore, the B. licheniformis W10 is a potential biocontrol factor for peach brown rot.

  16. Selection of Suitable Carbon, Nitrogen and Sulphate Source for the Production of Alkaline Protease by Bacillus licheniformis NCIM-2042

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswanath BHUNIA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, selection of suitable carbon, nitrogen and sulphate sources were carried out by one-variable-at-time approach for the production of alkaline protease enzyme by Bacillus licheniformis NCIM-2042. Maximum levels of alkaline protease were found in culture media supplemented with magnesium sulphate, starch and soybean meal as a good sulphate, carbon and nitrogen sources which influenced the maximum yield of this enzyme (137.694.57, 135.231.73 and 134.741.77, respectively in comparison with the other sulphate, carbon and nitrogen sources.

  17. Selection of Suitable Carbon, Nitrogen and Sulphate Source for the Production of Alkaline Protease by Bacillus licheniformis NCIM-2042

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswanath BHUNIA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, selection of suitable carbon, nitrogen and sulphate sources were carried out by one-variable-at-time approach for the production of alkaline protease enzyme by Bacillus licheniformis NCIM-2042. Maximum levels of alkaline protease were found in culture media supplemented with magnesium sulphate, starch and soybean meal as a good sulphate, carbon and nitrogen sources which influenced the maximum yield of this enzyme (137.69�4.57, 135.23�1.73 and 134.74�1.77, respectively in comparison with the other sulphate, carbon and nitrogen sources.

  18. Immobilization of Bacillus licheniformis 5A1 milk-clotting enzyme and characterization of its enzyme properties

    OpenAIRE

    Esawy, Mona A.; Combet-Blanc, Yannick

    2006-01-01

    Milk-clotting enzyme from Bacillus licheniformis 5A1 was immobilized on Amberlite IR-120 by ionic binding. Almost all the enzyme activity was retained on the support. The immobilized milk-clotting enzyme was repeatedly used to produce cheese in a batch reactor. The production of cheese was repeated 5 times with no loss of activity. The specific activity calculated on a bound-protein basis was slightly higher than that of free enzyme. The free and immobilized enzyme were highly tolerant to rep...

  19. Inhibition of Bacillus licheniformis spore growth in milk by nisin, monolaurin, and pH combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, M; Amri, D; Bouttefroy, A; Linder, M; Milliere, J B

    1999-02-01

    The effects of nisin and monolaurin, alone and in combination, were investigated on Bacillus licheniformis spores in milk at 37 degrees C. In the absence of inhibitors, germinated spores developed into growing vegetative cells and started sporulation at the end of the exponential phase. In the presence of nisin (25 IU ml-1), spore outgrowth was inhibited (4 log10 reduction at 10 h). Regrowth appeared between 10 and 24 h and reached a high population level (1.25 x 10(8) cfu ml-1) after 7 d. Monolaurin (250 micrograms ml-1) had a bacteriostatic effect during the first 10 h but thereafter, regrowth occurred slowly with a population level after 7 d (4 x 10(5) cfu ml-1) lower than that of nisin. Different combined effects of nisin (between 0 and 42 IU ml-1), monolaurin (ranging from 0 to 300 micrograms ml-1), pH values (between 5.0 and 7.0) and spore loads (10(3), 10(4), 10(5) spores ml-1) were investigated using a Doehlert matrix in order to study the main effects of these factors and the different interactions. Results were analysed using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and indicated that nisin and monolaurin had no action on spores before germination; only pH values had a significant effect (P monolaurin (100 micrograms ml-1) in combination acted synergistically on outgrown spores and vegetative cells, showing total inhibition at pH 6.0, without regrowth, within 7 d at 37 degrees C.

  20. Characterization of Biosurfactant Produced by Bacillus licheniformis TT42 Having Potential for Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthar, Harish; Nerurkar, Anuradha

    2016-09-01

    Bacillus licheniformis TT42 produced a low-molecular weight anionic biosurfactant that reduced the surface tension of water from 72 to 27 mN/m and the interfacial tension from 12 to 0.05 mN/m against crude oil. We have earlier reported significant enhancement in oil recovery in laboratory sand pack columns and core flood studies, by biosurfactant-TT42 compared to standard strain, Bacillus mojavensis JF2. In the context of this application of the biosurfactant-TT42, its characterization was deemed important. In the preliminary studies, the biosurfactant-TT42 was found to be functionally stable at under conditions of temperature, pH, and salinity generally prevalent in oil reservoirs. Furthermore, the purified biosurfactant-TT42 was found to have a CMC of 22 mg/l. A newly developed activity staining TLC method was used for the purification of biosurfactant-TT42. Structural characterization of biosurfactant-TT42 using TLC, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), GC-MS, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF)/TOF suggested that it was a mixture of lipopeptide species, all having a common hydrophilic cyclic heptapeptide head with the sequence, Gln-Leu/Ileu-Leu/Ileu-Val-Asp-Leu/Ileu-Leu/Ileu linked to hydrophobic tails of different lengths of 3β-OH-fatty acids bearing 1043, 1057 and 1071 Da molecular weight, where 3β-OH-C19 fatty acid was predominant. This is the longest chain length of fatty acids reported in a lipopeptide.

  1. Effect of Medium Composition on Commercially Important Alkaline Protease Production by Bacillus licheniformis N-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Iqbal Qazi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Protease production by alkalophilic B. licheniformis N-2 was investigated in 50 mL of the growth medium consisting of (in g/L: glucose 10.0, soybean meal 10.0, K2HPO4 3.0, MgSO4·7H2O 0.5, NaCl 0.5 and CaCl2·2H2O 0.5 at pH=10. Different carbon and nitrogen sources in the form of fine powder of organic, inorganic and defatted meals were studied to select the suitable substrate for alkaline protease production. The highest level of alkaline protease (677.64 U/mL was obtained in the medium containing glucose followed by soluble starch and wheat bran. Among various nitrogen sources, defatted soybean meal was found to be the best inducer of alkaline protease, while inorganic nitrogen sources in the form of ammonium salts repressed the enzyme activity up to 96 %. Thermostability studies showed that the enzyme in the presence of 10 mM Ca2+ ions retained its residual activity up to 80 % even after incubation at 40 °C for 12 h. The enzyme was found stable over a broad range of pH (8–11 and lost 52 % of its residual activity at pH=12. After the treatment with Tween 20, Tween 45, Tween 65, Triton X-405, H2O2 and sodium perborate, each at 1.0 % concentration, the enzyme showed residual activity of 105, 82, 116, 109, 135 and 126 %, respectively. The application of alkaline protease for removal of blood stains from cotton fabric also indicates its potential use in detergent formulations.

  2. Enhanced production of elastase by Bacillus licheniformis ZJUEL31410: optimization of cultivation conditions using response surface methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Sequential methodology based on the application of three types of experimental designs was used to optimize the fermentation conditions for elastase production from mutant strain ZJUEL31410 of Bacillus licheniformis in shaking flask cultures. The optimal cultivation conditions stimulating the maximal elastase production consist of 220 r/min shaking speed, 25 h fermentation time, 5% (v/v) inoculums volume, 25 ml medium volume in 250 ml Erlenmeyer flask and 18 h seed age. Under the optimized conditions, the predicted maximal elastase activity was 495 U/ml. The application of response surface methodology resulted in a significant enhancement in elastase production. The effects of other factors such as elastin and the growth factor (corn steep flour) on elastase production and cell growth were also investigated in the current study. The elastin had no significant effect on enzyme-improved production. It is still not clear whether the elastin plays a role as a nitrogen source or not. Corn steep flour was verified to be the best and required factor for elastase production and cell growth by Bacillus licheniformis ZJUEL31410.

  3. A novel approach to improve poly-γ-glutamic acid production by NADPH Regeneration in Bacillus licheniformis WX-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Dongbo; He, Penghui; Lu, Xingcheng; Zhu, Chengjun; Zhu, Jiang; Zhan, Yangyang; Wang, Qin; Wen, Zhiyou; Chen, Shouwen

    2017-01-01

    Poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) is an important biochemical product with a variety of applications. This work reports a novel approach to improve γ-PGA through over expression of key enzymes in cofactor NADPH generating process for NADPH pool. Six genes encoding the key enzymes in NADPH generation were over-expressed in the γ-PGA producing strain B. licheniformis WX-02. Among various recombinants, the strain over-expressing zwf gene (coding for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), WX-zwf, produced the highest γ-PGA concentration (9.13 g/L), 35% improvement compared to the control strain WX-pHY300. However, the growth rates and glucose uptake rates of the mutant WX-zwf were decreased. The transcriptional levels of the genes pgsB and pgsC responsible for γ-PGA biosynthesis were increased by 8.21- and 5.26-fold, respectively. The Zwf activity of the zwf over expression strain increased by 9.28-fold, which led to the improvement of the NADPH generation, and decrease of accumulation of by-products acetoin and 2,3-butanediol. Collectively, these results demonstrated that NADPH generation via over-expression of Zwf is as an effective strategy to improve the γ-PGA production in B. licheniformis. PMID:28230096

  4. Analysis of a preferential action of α-amylase from B. licheniformis towards amorphous regions of waxy maize starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foresti, María Laura; Williams, María del Pilar; Martínez-García, Ricardo; Vázquez, Analía

    2014-02-15

    Waxy maize starch was subjected to α-amylase (Bacillus licheniformis) hydrolysis in buffered medium to determine the evolution of reaction in quantitative terms and also in terms of the morphology and crystallinity of the partially hydrolyzed starch granules. Gathered data allowed studying the pattern of action of this α-amylase over waxy maize starch granules, with particular focus on a preferential hydrolysis of the amorphous regions of starch. Results showed that waxy maize starch hydrolysis followed a two-stage kinetic profile with an initial stage characterized by high reaction rate, followed by a slower second stage. The change of hydrolysis rate occurred at approximately 6h of reaction, a time for which X-ray diffraction data quantitatively analyzed by three different techniques showed a maximum of crystallinity in partially hydrolyzed granules. Scanning electron microscopy images illustrated the action of α-amylases which implied the exoerosion of the granules surface, the entry of α-amylases into the granules through radial channels, their endoerosion towards the granule exterior, and their fragmentation. Fragmentation of waxy maize starch granules revealed internal layered structures of starch which were interpreted as hydrolyzed/non-hydrolyzed growth rings. Under the conditions chosen, kinetic, electron microscopy and X-ray data all gave evidence of a preferential action of α-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis towards the less ordered regions of waxy maize starch. Results showed that, provided the proper hydrolysis time is chosen, starch granules with increased crystallinity can be obtained by a pure enzymatic treatment.

  5. Physiological and metabolic analysis of nitrate reduction on poly-gamma-glutamic acid synthesis in Bacillus licheniformis WX-02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Gou, Xiangyong; Long, Dan; Ji, Zhixia; Hu, Lifang; Xu, Dihong; Liu, Jun; Chen, Shouwen

    2014-11-01

    Nitrate is an important nitrogen source for organism, but whether and how nitrate improves poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) production of bacterial is not clear. The effect of nitrate on γ-PGA production of Bacillus licheniformis WX-02 was investigated. By addition of 50 mmol/L nitrate, the γ-PGA yield reached 12.3 ± 0.21 g/L, which increased 2.3-fold compared to the control. The mechanism of enhanced γ-PGA production was further investigated by analysis of nitrate reduction, physiology, pyruvate overflow metabolism and energy synthesis. Nitrate reduction was only carried out in the middle stage of γ-PGA fermentation. The result of consumption of nutrients showed that glucose uptake was not effected and the L-glutamic acid utilization efficiency increased from 48.3 to 77.0 %. The date of overflow metabolism obtained from high-performance liquid chromatography showed that the metabolism of pyruvate, formate, lactate and acetoin was both heightened by nitrate reduction, while the 2,3-butanediol biosynthesis was decreased. Meanwhile, the change of energy indicated that more ATP was synthesized during nitrate reduction. In summary, nitrate was a positive effector of γ-PGA biosynthesis in B. licheniformis WX-02 and nitrate reduction affected multi-metabolism pathways, including glycolysis, overflow metabolism and energy metabolism.

  6. Supplementation of Carbohydrate to Enhance the α-amylase Production by Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 6346 in Presence of Seed Cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vengadaramana, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The effect of carbohydrate and amino acids on the production of a-amylase by Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 6346 was investigated. Methodology and results: To find out the influence of carbohydrate the total carbohydrate content of the medium containing different concentration (2-18 g/L of defatted seed cake powder of sesamum and mustard containing medium was kept constant by the addition of soluble starch separately. The highest a-amylase activity obtained in the medium containing 18g/L mustard (59.11+b1.48 U/mL and sesamum seed cake powder (55.23+b1.55 U/mL. The results indicated that under these conditions the carbohydrate content had no effect on the production of a-amylase. Effect of amino acids (0.2g/L of glycine, methionine, proline, lysine, leucine, threonine, serine, arginine, alanine, glutamic acid, tryptophan, glutamine, asparagine, histidine, valine, phenylalanine, isoleucine and mixture of amino acids on the production of a-amylase in fermentation medium was investigated. Among the different amino acids supplemented, eight amino acids improved the a-amylase production but casaminoacids slightly inhibited the enzyme production. In presence of tryptophan highest enzyme activity was obtained than control. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: In these study amino acids especially tryptophan takes part in a particular role rather than carbohydrate in the production of a-amylase from B. licheniformis ATCC 6346.

  7. Use of physiological information and process optimisation enhances production of extracellular nuclease by a marine strain of Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajarajan, Nithyalakshmy; Ward, Alan C; Burgess, J Grant; Glassey, Jarka

    2013-02-01

    The extracellular nuclease, NucB, from Bacillus licheniformis, can digest extracellular DNA in biofilms, causing biofilm dispersal, and may therefore be used commercially to remove biofilms. However, producing quantities of this secreted peptide is difficult and our aim was therefore to improve its laboratory scale production. This study builds on our understanding of B. licheniformis physiology to enhance NucB production. The addition of manganese, which triggers sporulation and enhances NucB expression, lead to a 5-fold increase in NucB production. Optimisation via Placket-Burman design of experiments identified 3 significant medium components and a subsequent Central Composite Design, to determine the optimum levels of these components, resulted in a 10-fold increase to 471U/ml. The optimal phosphate concentration was less than 0.3mM as this is known to inhibit nuclease production. The use of physiologically relevant information combined with optimisation represents a promising approach to increased enzyme production, which may also be widely applicable.

  8. INMOVILIZACIÓN DE Bacillus licheniformis Y Saccharomyces cerevisiae PARA LA PRODUCCIÓN DE ETANOL A PARTIR DE ALMIDÓN DE PAPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Sossa-Urrego

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated a sequential discontinuous system composed by Bacillus licheniformis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae forethanol production. For the second phase of the process potato starch hydrolyzed were used, which was obtained from B.licheniformis cells. Both microorganisms were immobilized in a calcium alginate matrix of 3,2% and 2,5% (w/v, wherewas observed that these concentrations retained the majority of the cells (26x106 and 10x107 UFC/g and alloweddissemination of its products, gaining 3.3 g/L of reducing sugars and 642 AU/L (units Amylolytic for B. licheniformis and0,866% (v/v ethanol with S. cerevisiae. By means of a 22 factorial design were selected operating conditions at a reactorscale for production of hydrolyzed, finding that by cultivating B. licheniformis with 3 v.v.m. and 150 r.p.m. there were 3.7g/L of reducing sugars and 669 AU/L after 4 hours of the process. The hydrolyzed was characterized using HPLCchromatography, which determined that it is rich in oligomers and dextrin, and it has low concentration of glucose andmaltose. The use of hydrolyzed for ethanol production, generated low percentages (0,47% and 0,74% v/v in free andimmobilized cells respectively.

  9. Crystal structure of thermostable alpha-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis refined at 1.7 A resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, K Y; Song, H K; Chang, C; Lee, J; Lee, S Y; Kim, K K; Choe, S; Sweet, R M; Suh, S W

    1997-04-30

    alpha-Amylases (alpha-1,4-glucan-4-glucanohydrolase, E.C.3.2.1.1) catalyze the cleavage of alpha-1, 4-glucosidic linkages of starch components, glycogen, and various oligosaccharides. Thermostable alpha-amylases from Bacillus species are of great industrial importance in the production of corn syrup or dextrose. Thermostable alpha-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis, a monomeric enzyme with molecular mass of 55,200 Da (483 amino acid residues), shows a remarkable heat stability. This enzyme provides an attractive model for investigating the structural basis for thermostability of proteins. The three-dimensional structure of thermostable alpha-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis has been determined by the multiple isomorphous replacement method of X-ray crystallography. The structure has been refined to a crystallographic R-factor of 19.9% for 58,601 independent reflections with F0 > 2 sigma F0 between 8.0 and 1.7 A resolution, with root mean square deviations of 0.013 A from ideal bond lengths and 1.72 degrees from ideal bond angles. The final model consists of 469 amino acid residues and 294 water molecules. Missing from the model are the N- and C-termini and the segment between Trp182 and Asn192. Like other alpha-amylases, the polypeptide chain folds into three distinct domains. The first domain (domain A), consisting of 291 residues (from residue 3 to 103 and 207 to 396), forms a (beta/alpha)8-barrel structure. The second domain (domain B), consisting of residues 104 to 206, is inserted between the third beta-strand and the third alpha-helix of domain A. The third C-terminal domain (domain C), consisting of residues 397 to 482, folds into an eight-stranded antiparallel beta-barrel. Neither calcium ion nor chloride ion is located near the active site. This study reveals the architecture of the thermostable alpha-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis. By homology with other alpha-amylases, important active site residues can be identified as Asp231, Glu261, and Asp

  10. Disruption of microbial biofilms by an extracellular protein isolated from epibiotic tropical marine strain of Bacillus licheniformis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dusane, D.H.; Damare, S.R.; Nancharaiah, Y.V.; Ramaiah, N.; Venugopalan, V.P.; Kumar, A.R.; Zinjarde, S.S.

    Commission-UPE Phase II. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. * E-mail: smita...

  11. Determination of the Influence of Substrate Concentration on Enzyme Selectivity Using Whey Protein Isolate and Bacillus licheniformis Protease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butré, C.I.; Sforza, S.; Gruppen, H.; Wierenga, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing substrate concentration during enzymatic protein hydrolysis results in a decrease in hydrolysis rate. To test if changes in the mechanism of hydrolysis also occur, the enzyme selectivity was determined. The selectivity is defined quantitatively as the relative rate of hydrolysis of each

  12. Effect of gelatinization and hydrolysis conditions on the selectivity of starch hydrolysis with alpha-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baks, Tim; Bruins, Marieke E; Matser, Ariette M; Janssen, Anja E M; Boom, Remko M

    2008-01-23

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of starch can be used to obtain various valuable hydrolyzates with different compositions. The effects of starch pretreatment, enzyme addition point, and hydrolysis conditions on the hydrolyzate composition and reaction rate during wheat starch hydrolysis with alpha-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis were compared. Suspensions of native starch or starch gelatinized at different conditions either with or without enzyme were hydrolyzed. During hydrolysis, the oligosaccharide concentration, the dextrose equivalent, and the enzyme activity were determined. We found that the hydrolyzate composition was affected by the type of starch pretreatment and the enzyme addition point but that it was just minimally affected by the pressure applied during hydrolysis, as long as gelatinization was complete. The differences between hydrolysis of thermally gelatinized, high-pressure gelatinized, and native starch were explained by considering the granule structure and the specific surface area of the granules. These results show that the hydrolyzate composition can be influenced by choosing different process sequences and conditions.

  13. Effect of Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis supplementation of ewe's feed on sheep milk production and young lamb mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritas, S K; Govaris, A; Christodoulopoulos, G; Burriel, A R

    2006-05-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate under field conditions the effect of a probiotic containing Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis on young lamb mortality and sheep milk production when administered in the late pregnancy and lactation feed of ewes. In a sheep farm, two groups of milking ewes with identical genetic material, management, nutrition, health status and similar production characteristics were formed. One group (46 ewes) served as control, while the other one (48 ewes) served as a probiotic-treated group. Both groups of ewes received a similar feeding regiment, but the ewes of the second group were additionally offered a probiotic product containing B. licheniformis and B. subtilis (BioPlus 2B, Chr. Hansen, Denmark) at the approximate dose of 2.56 x 10(9) viable spores per ewe per day. Lamb mortality during the 1.5 months suckling period, and milk yield during the 2 months of milk collection for commercial purposes have been recorded. In the non-treated control group, 13.1% mortality was observed versus 7.8% in the probiotic-treated group (P = 0.33), with mortality being mainly due to diarrhoea. Microbiological examination of diarrhoeic faeces from some of the dead lambs in both groups revealed the presence of Escherichia coli. The average daily milk yield per ewe was significantly lower in the control group (0.80 l) than that in the probiotic-treated group (0.93 l) (P milk in ewes that received probiotics was significantly (P milk yields, fat and protein content.

  14. Bacillus licheniformis SA03 Confers Increased Saline–Alkaline Tolerance in Chrysanthemum Plants by Induction of Abscisic Acid Accumulation

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    Cheng Zhou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil saline-alkalization is a major abiotic stress that leads to low iron (Fe availability and high toxicity of sodium ions (Na+ for plants. It has recently been shown that plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR can enhance the ability of plants to tolerate multiple abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, and nutrient deficiency. However, the possible involvement of PGPR in improving saline–alkaline tolerance of plants and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of Bacillus licheniformis (strain SA03 on the growth of Chrysanthemum plants under saline–alkaline conditions. Our results revealed that inoculation with SA03 alleviated saline–alkaline stress in plants with increased survival rates, photosynthesis and biomass. The inoculated plants accumulated more Fe and lower Na+ concentrations under saline–alkaline stress compared with the non-inoculated plants. RNA-Sequencing analyses further revealed that SA03 significantly activated abiotic stress- and Fe acquisition-related pathways in the stress-treated plants. However, SA03 failed to increase saline–alkaline tolerance in plants when cellular abscisic acid (ABA and nitric oxide (NO synthesis were inhibited by treatment with fluridone (FLU and 2-(4-carboxyphenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (c-PTIO, respectively. Importantly, we also found that NO acted downstream of SA03-induced ABA to activate a series of adaptive responses in host plants under saline–alkaline stress. These findings demonstrated the potential roles of B. licheniformis SA03 in enhancing saline–alkaline tolerance of plants and highlighted the intricate integration of microbial signaling in regulating cellular Fe and Na+ accumulation.

  15. Role of Bacillus licheniformis VS16-Derived Biosurfactant in Mediating Immune Responses in Carp Rohu and its Application to the Food Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Sib Sankar; Sen, Shib Sankar; Jun, Jin Woo; Sukumaran, V.; Park, Se Chang

    2017-01-01

    Multifarious applications of Bacillus licheniformis VS16-derived biosurfactant were explored. Labeo rohita fingerlings were injected intraperitoneally with 0.1 mL of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) containing purified biosurfactant at 0 (control), 55 (S55), 110 (S110), 220 (S220), or 330 (S330) μg mL-1 concentrations. Various immunological parameters and the expression of immune-related genes were measured at 7, 14, and 21 days post-administration (dpa). At 21 dpa, fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila and mortality was recorded for 14 days. Immune parameters such as lysozyme levels (39.29 ± 2.14 U mL-1), alternative complement pathway (61.21 ± 2.38 U mL-1), and phagocytic activities (33.37 ± 1.2%) were maximum (P < 0.05) in the S220 group at 14 dpa; but immunoglobulin levels (11.07 ± 0.83 mg mL-1) were highest in the S220 group at 7 dpa, compared to that in controls. Activities of digestive enzymes (amylase, protease, and lipase) were higher (P < 0.05) in the S220 and S330 groups than in the control group. Regarding cytokine gene expression, pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) were down-regulated (P < 0.05) in the S220 and S330 groups. Expression of IL-10, TGF-β, and IKB-α were up-regulated in the S220 and S330 groups at 14 dpa, with the highest levels in the S220 group. The expression of NF-κB p65 and IKK-β were down-regulated in treatment groups, and were lowest (P < 0.05) in the S220 group. The highest post-challenge survival rate (72.7%) was recorded in S220 group. Further, the potential of this substance to inhibit biofilm formation, and heavy metal removal from vegetables were also evaluated. Biosurfactant was effective in inhibiting biofilm formation up to 54.71 ± 1.27%. Moreover, it efficiently removed cadmium (Cd) from tested vegetables such as carrot, radish, ginger, and potato, with the highest removal efficiency (60.98 ± 1.29%) recorded in ginger contaminated with Cd. Collectively, these results suggest that isolated

  16. Bacillus licheniformis proteases as high value added products from fermentation of wastewater sludge: pre-treatment of sludge to increase the performance of the process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, M; Lai, C K; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2008-01-01

    Wastewater sludge is a complex raw material that can support growth and protease production by Bacillus licheniformis. In this study, sludge was treated by different thermo-alkaline pre-treatment methods and subjected to Bacillus licheniformis fermentation in bench scale fermentors under controlled conditions. Thermo-alkaline treatment was found to be an effective pre-treatment process in order to enhance the proteolytic activity. Among the different pre-treated sludges tested, a mixture of raw and hydrolysed sludge caused an increase of 15% in the protease activity, as compared to the untreated sludge. The benefit of hydrolysis has been attributed to a better oxygen transfer due to decrease in media viscosity and to an increase in nutrient availability. Foam formation was a major concern during fermentation with hydrolysed sludge. The studies showed that addition of a chemical anti-foaming agent (polypropylene glycol) during fermentation to control foam could negatively influence the protease production by increasing the viscosity of sludge.

  17. Effects of acetic acid and arginine on pH elevation and growth of Bacillus licheniformis in an acidified cucumber juice medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenquan; Meng, Xia; Breidt, Frederick; Dean, Lisa L; Arritt, Fletcher M

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus licheniformis has been shown to cause pH elevation in tomato products having an initial pH below 4.6 and metabiotic effects that can lead to the growth of pathogenic bacteria. Because of this, the organism poses a potential risk to acidified vegetable products; however, little is known about the growth and metabolism of this organism in these products. To clarify the mechanisms of pH change and growth of B. licheniformis in vegetable broth under acidic conditions, a cucumber juice medium representative of a noninhibitory vegetable broth was used to monitor changes in pH, cell growth, and catabolism of sugars and amino acids. For initial pH values between pH 4.1 to 6.0, pH changes resulted from both fermentation of sugar (lowering pH) and ammonia production (raising pH). An initial pH elevation occurred, with starting pH values of pH 4.1 to 4.9 under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and was apparently mediated by the arginine deiminase reaction of B. licheniformis. This initial pH elevation was prevented if 5 mM or greater acetic acid was present in the brine at the same pH. In laboratory media, under favorable conditions for growth, data indicated that growth of the organism was inhibited at pH 4.6 with protonated acetic acid concentrations of 10 to 20 mM, corresponding to 25 to 50 mM total acetic acid; however, growth inhibition required greater than 300 mM citric acid (10-fold excess of the amount in processed tomato products) products under similar conditions. The data indicate that growth and pH increase by B. licheniformis may be inhibited by the acetic acid present in most commercial acidified vegetable products but not by the citric acid in many tomato products.

  18. DEGRADACIÓN DEL ALDRÍN POR Bacillus licheniformis, AISLADO DEL AGUA Y SEDIMENTO DE LA CIENAGA GRANDE DE SANTA MARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Díaz Granados José Gregorio

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Con el objeto de apoyar la utilización de los microorganismos como alternativa para la degradación de contaminantes orgánicos persistentes, se aisló la bacteria Bacillus licheniformis, a partir de muestras de sedimento y agua del complejo lagunar de la Ciénaga Grande de santa Marta (CGSM, Caribe colombiano; capaz de tolerar y degradar en condiciones aerobias el plaguicida organoclorado aldrín. Se realizó un bioensayo en el que se expuso al B. licheniformis a una concentración de 60ng/L de aldrín, durante un período de 30 días se evaluó la capacidad degradadora de la bacteria sobre el organoclorado. La identificación y aislamiento de B. licheniformis, se realizó a través de caracterización macroscópica y microscópica y pruebas bioquímicas (sistema BBL Crystal y la determinación de las concentraciones de aldrín con la técnica de cromatografía de gases. Los resultaron mostraron que B. licheniformis posee capacidad degradadora de un 24% del aldrín y que los factores como la exposición a la luz solar y la volatilización influyen considerablemente en la degradación del organoclorado con una reducción adicional de 31%.

  19. Glutamate dehydrogenase (RocG) in Bacillus licheniformis WX-02: Enzymatic properties and specific functions in glutamic acid synthesis for poly-γ-glutamic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Guangming; Wang, Qin; Wei, Xuetuan; Ma, Xin; Chen, Shouwen

    2017-04-01

    Poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA), a natural biopolymer, is widely used in cosmetics, medicine, food, water treatment, and agriculture owing to its features of moisture sequestration, cation chelation, non-toxicity and biodegradability. Intracellular glutamic acid, the substrate of γ-PGA, is a limiting factor for high yield in γ-PGA production. Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis are both important γ-PGA producing strains, and B. subtilis synthesizes glutamic acid in vivo using the unique GOGAT/GS pathway. However, little is known about the glutamate synthesis pathway in B. licheniformis. The aim of this work was to characterize the glutamate dehydrogenase (RocG) in glutamic acid synthesis from B. licheniformis with both in vivo and in vitro experiments. By re-directing the carbon flux distribution, the rocG gene deletion mutant WX-02ΔrocG produced intracellular glutamic acid with a concentration of 90ng/log(CFU), which was only 23.7% that of the wild-type WX-02 (380ng/log(CFU)). Furthermore, the γ-PGA yield of mutant WX-02ΔrocG was 5.37g/L, a decrease of 45.3% compared to the wild type (9.82g/L). In vitro enzymatic assays of RocG showed that RocG has higher affinity for 2-oxoglutarate than glutamate, and the glutamate synthesis rate was far above degradation. This is probably the first study to reveal the glutamic acid synthesis pathway and the specific functions of RocG in B. licheniformis. The results indicate that γ-PGA production can be enhanced through improving intracellular glutamic acid synthesis.

  20. In situ analysis of Bacillus licheniformis biofilms: amyloid-like polymers and eDNA are involved in the adherence and aggregation of the extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randrianjatovo-Gbalou, I; Rouquette, P; Lefebvre, D; Girbal-Neuhauser, E; Marcato-Romain, C-E

    2017-05-01

    This study attempts to determine which of the exopolymeric substances are involved in the adherence and aggregation of a Bacillus licheniformis biofilm. The involvement of extracellular proteins and eDNA were particularly investigated using DNase and proteinase K treatment. The permeability of the biofilms increased fivefold after DNase I treatment. The quantification of the matrix components showed that, irrespective to the enzyme tested, eDNA and amyloid-like polymers were removed simultaneously. Size-exclusion chromatography analyses supported these observations and revealed the presence of associated nucleic acid and protein complexes in the biofilm lysates. These data suggest that some extracellular DNA and amyloid-like proteins were closely interlaced within the matrix. Finally, confocal laser scanning microscopy imaging gave supplementary clues about the 3D organization of the biofilms, confirming that eDNA and exoproteins were essentially layered under and around the bacterial cells, whereas the amyloid-like fractions were homogeneously distributed within the matrix. These results confirm that some DNA-amyloid complexes play a key role in the modulation of the mechanical resistance of B. licheniformis biofilms. The study highlights the need to consider the whole structure of biofilms and to target the interactions between matrix components. A better understanding of B. licheniformis biofilm physiology and the structural organization of the matrix will strengthen strategies of biofilm control. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Presencia de Lactobacillus spp. y Bacillus licheniformis en margarina con yogur

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    González, Elisa

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological analysis of thirty samples of commercially produced margarine with incorporated yoghurt was carried out. After the initial control, the other tests were runned after 26, 56, 88,116 and 157 days of refrigerated storage. Constitutive biota of yoghurt was not detected. Occurrence (100% of samples of Lactobacillus spp. (Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus casei subsp. pseudoplantarum, being the first one slightly more numerous, and Bacillus licheniformis, which counts were mostly in a 103- 104ufc/g range, and only in 10% of the cases were < 103 ufc/g. Samples did not show signs of deterioration. Article calls upon about the convenience of developing a specific normative that clarifies the doubts about main microbiological hazards as well as the legal aspects regarding the product denomination.

    Se ha realizado el análisis de treinta muestras de margarina con yogur. Tras el control inicial, los restantes análisis se efectuaron a los 0,26, 56, 88,116 y 157 días de almacenamiento en refrigeración. No se detectó la biota constitutiva del yogur. Sí se demostró la presencia, en el 100% de las muestras, de Lactobacillus fermentum y Lactobacillus casei subsp. pseudoplantarum, siendo el primero ligeramente más numeroso, así como de Bacillus licheniformis, cuyos recuentos han sido en su mayoría comprendidos en el rango 103-104ufc/g, y sólo en el 10% de los casos fueron inferiores a 103ufc/g. Las muestras no mostraban signos de deterioro. El trabajo llama la atención sobre la conveniencia de desarrollar una normativa específica que aclare las dudas surgidas en torno a los principales riesgos microbiológicos, así como a aspectos legales relacionados con la denominación del producto.

  2. Some Investigations on Protease Enzyme Production Kinetics Using Bacillus licheniformis BBRC 100053 and Effects of Inhibitors on Protease Activity

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    Zahra Ghobadi Nejad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to great commercial application of protease, it is necessary to study kinetic characterization of this enzyme in order to improve design of enzymatic reactors. In this study, mathematical modeling of protease enzyme production kinetics which is derived from Bacillus licheniformis BBRC 100053 was studied (at 37°C, pH 10 after 73 h in stationary phase, and 150 rpm. The aim of the present paper was to determine the best kinetic model and kinetic parameters for production of protease and calculating Ki (inhibition constant of different inhibitors to find the most effective one. The kinetic parameters Km (Michaelis-Menten constant and Vm (maximum rate were calculated 0.626 mM and 0.0523 mM/min. According to the experimental results, using DFP (diisopropyl fluorophosphate and PMSF (phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride as inhibitors almost 50% of the enzyme activity could be inhibited when their concentrations were 0.525 and 0.541 mM, respectively. Ki for DFP and PMSF were 0.46 and 0.56 mM, respectively. Kinetic analysis showed that the Lineweaver-Burk model was the best fitting model for protease production kinetics DFP was more effective than PMSF and both of them should be covered in the group of noncompetitive inhibitors.

  3. Purification and Characterization of Surfactant-Stable Protease from Bacillus Licheniformis: A Potential Additive for Laundry Detergent

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    Vivi Mardina

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study purified and characterized the protease from Bacillus licheniformis that was cultured in skim latex serum fortified media. Ammonium sulphate precipitation and ion exchange chromatograph was employed in purification steps with the enzyme activity increase to 2.28 fold of purification compare to the crude enzyme. Assessment of the purified protein by SDS PAGE showed a single band with molecular mass of about 47 kDa. The enzyme was stable at temperature range of 35 oC to 65 oC and also at pH 6.0 and 7.0 for 60 min. The presence of Mn2+ and Ca2+ ions in the produced protease stimulated strongly the activity of the enzyme by 176.65% and 119.07% respectively, while inhibitory effects were found in the presence of Cu2+, Zn2+, Mg2+, and EDTA. The enzyme exhibited their stability toward surfactants (Triton X100, Tween 20, SDS, solvents (acetone, chloroform, hexane and toluene, oxidizing agent (H2O2 and Tesco Everyday Value® detergent with the residual activity around 80%. It also demonstrated the removal activity of blood stain completely with supplementation of the 7 mg/ml detergent solution. The established characteristics of the enzyme indicated their potentiality for detergent application.

  4. Bacillus licheniformis BlaR1 L3 loop is a zinc metalloprotease activated by self-proteolysis.

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    Stéphanie Berzigotti

    Full Text Available In Bacillus licheniformis 749/I, BlaP β-lactamase is induced by the presence of a β-lactam antibiotic outside the cell. The first step in the induction mechanism is the detection of the antibiotic by the membrane-bound penicillin receptor BlaR1 that is composed of two functional domains: a carboxy-terminal domain exposed outside the cell, which acts as a penicillin sensor, and an amino-terminal domain anchored to the cytoplasmic membrane, which works as a transducer-transmitter. The acylation of BlaR1 sensor domain by the antibiotic generates an intramolecular signal that leads to the activation of the L3 cytoplasmic loop of the transmitter by a single-point cleavage. The exact mechanism of L3 activation and the nature of the secondary cytoplasmic signal launched by the activated transmitter remain unknown. However, these two events seem to be linked to the presence of a HEXXH zinc binding motif of neutral zinc metallopeptidases. By different experimental approaches, we demonstrated that the L3 loop binds zinc ion, belongs to Gluzincin metallopeptidase superfamily and is activated by self-proteolysis.

  5. Levan-type fructooligosaccharide production using Bacillus licheniformis RN-01 levansucrase Y246S immobilized on chitosan beads

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    Surawut Sangmanee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus licheniformis RN-01 levansucrase Y246S (LsRN-Y246S was immobilized by covalently linking onto chitosan, Sepabead EC-EP, and Sepabead EC-HFA, beads. The stability of immobilized LsRN-Y246S was found to be the highest with chitosan beads, retaining more than 70% activity after 13 weeks storage at 4 oC, and 68% activity after 12 hours incubation at 40°C. LsRN-Y246S immobilized on chitosan beads withstands sucrose concentrations up to 70% (w/v, retaining over 85% of its activity, significantly better than LsRN-Y246S immobilized on others supporting matrices. LsRN-Y246S immobilized on chitosan showed a 2.4 fold increase in activity in the presence of Mn2+, and gave slight protection against deactivation by of Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe3+, SDS and EDTA. A maximum of 8.36 g and an average of 7.35 g LFOS yield at least up to DP 11 can be produced from 25 g of sucrose, during five production cycles. We have demonstrated that LFOS can be effectively produced by chitosan immobilized LsRN-Y246S and purified.

  6. Overcoming hydrolysis of raw corn starch under industrial conditions with Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 9945a α-amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šokarda Slavić, Marinela; Pešić, Milja; Vujčić, Zoran; Božić, Nataša

    2016-03-01

    α-Amylase from Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 9945a (BliAmy) was proven to be very efficient in hydrolysis of granular starch below the temperature of gelatinization. By applying two-stage feeding strategy to achieve high-cell-density cultivation of Escherichia coli and extracellular production of BliAmy, total of 250.5 U/mL (i.e. 0.7 g/L) of enzyme was obtained. Thermostability of amylase was exploited to simplify purification. The hydrolysis of concentrated raw starch was optimized using response surface methodology. Regardless of raw starch concentration tested (20, 25, 30 %), BliAmy was very effective, achieving the final hydrolysis degree of 91 % for the hydrolysis of 30 % starch suspension after 24 h. The major A-type crystalline structure and amorphous domains of the starch granule were degraded at the same rates, while amylose-lipid complexes were not degraded. BliAmy presents interesting performances on highly concentrated solid starch and could be of value for starch-consuming industries while response surface methodology (RSM) could be efficiently applied for the optimization of the hydrolysis.

  7. Immobilization of pectin degrading enzyme from Bacillus licheniformis KIBGE IB-21 using agar-agar as a support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Haneef Ur; Aman, Afsheen; Zohra, Raheela Rahmat; Qader, Shah Ali Ul

    2014-02-15

    Pectinase from Bacillus licheniformis KIBGE IB-21 was immobilized in agar-agar matrix using entrapment technique. Effect of different concentrations of agar-agar on pectinase immobilization was investigated and it was found that maximum immobilization was achieved at 3.0% agar-agar with 80% enzyme activity. After immobilization, the optimum temperature of enzyme increased from 45 to 50 °C and reaction time from 5 to 10 minutes as compared to free enzyme. Due to the limited diffusion of high molecular weight substrate, K(m) of immobilized enzyme slightly increased from 1.017 to 1.055 mg ml(-1), while Vmax decreased from 23,800 to 19,392 μM min(-1) as compared to free enzyme. After 120 h entrapped pectinase retained their activity up to 82% and 71% at 30 °C and 40 °C, respectively. The entrapped pectinase showed activity until 10th cycle and maintain 69.21% activity even after third cycle.

  8. Characterization and increment of amylase production in mutant strains of Iranian native Bacillus licheniformis

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    Mohsen Mobini-Dehkordi

    2017-03-01

    Results: In this study, two interesting mutant strains were isolated and named B.L.2.M.1 and B.L.2.M.2. Mutations caused many changes in bacteria such as cell growth speed and enzyme production content. Differences in cell growth, production of amylase and other characters were significant at 0.05 level (Pvalue

  9. Bacillus gobiensis sp. nov., isolated from a soil sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Liu, Guo-Hong; Cetin, Sengonca; Schumann, Peter; Pan, Zhi-Zhen; Chen, Qian-Qian

    2016-01-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming, aerobic bacterium designated FJAT-4402T, was isolated from the weed rhizosphere soil of the Gobi desert in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region in the north-west of China. Isolate FJAT-4402T grew at 15-40 °C (optimum 30 °C), pH 5-10 (optimum pH 7) and in 0-3 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0 %). Phylogenetic analyses, based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, showed that isolate FJAT-4402T was a member of the genus Bacillus and was most closely related to Bacillus licheniformis DSM 13T (96.2 %). The isolate showed 33.3 % DNA-DNA relatedness to the closest reference isolate, B. licheniformis DSM 13T. The diagnostic diamino acid of the peptidoglycan of isolate FJAT-4402T was meso-diaminopimelic acid and the predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0 (28.5 %), iso-C15 : 0 (20.1 %), anteiso-C17 : 0 (14.3 %), iso-C16 : 0 (9.6 %), C16 : 0 (8.4 %), iso-C17 : 0 (6.2 %) and iso-C14 : 0 (4.7 %) and the DNA G+C content was 42.0 mol%. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic properties indicated that strain FJAT-4402T represents a novel species within the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus gobiensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is FJAT-4402T ( = DSM 29500T = CGMCC 1.12902T).

  10. STUDY ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE AMMONIA-NIROGEN AND RESIDUAL FEEDS DEGRADATION IN AQUATIC WATER BY BACILLUS LICHENIFORMIS%地衣芽孢杆菌对养殖水体氨氮、残饵降解特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆华; 封永辉; 王娟; 郭婧; 张永华; 高建忠; 宋增福

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that ammonia-nitrogen is one of the toxic factors to affect the growth performances and increase the susceptibility of the aquatic animal in the culture ponds water.With the development of aquaculture, the intensive and high-density culture aggravate the serious pollution problem of the ammonium nitrogen; however, the traditional physical and chemical methods to remove the ammonia-nitrogen will be cut down for the secondary pollution step by step.Meanwhile, the biological methods to remove ammonia-nitrogen and bioremediation have attracted much more attentions from the scientists for the characteristics of high-efficiency, low cost, no residue and environmental friendly,which become more and more popular in the practices.The present studies were focused on the Bacillus subtitles, Bacillus cereus and Sporolactobacillus.Large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) is one of the traditional Chinese Four Seafood that is the offshore main economic fishes, which culture widely in the China eastern offshore.In the present experiment, a Bacillus licheniformis strain X3914 as a potential probiotics was isolated from gastrointestinal tract of healthy large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) cultured in Xiangshan, Zhejiang Province.The aim of the study is to explore the degradation rules of ammonia-nitrogen, protein and starch of residual feeds by Bacillus licheniformis strain X3914, which probably offers the guidance to the practices in aquaculture.In the present experiment, the ability to remove the ammonia-nitrogen of the Bacillus licheniformis strain X3914 was tested in the simulated waste water, the results indicated that the growth of the strain X3914 was synchronized with the degradation of ammonia-nitrogen and degradation rate of ammonia-nitrogen reached to 36.2% in 24h.Furthermore,Ammonia-nitrogen containing the ammonium ions, and ammonia molecules, as the toxicity of ammonium ions was influenced significantly by environmental factors, such as

  11. Effect of synbiotics between Bacillus licheniformis and yeast extract on growth, hematological and biochemical indices of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

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    M.S. Hassaan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve practical diets were formulated to contain four levels of Bacillus licheniformis (0.0, 0.24 × 106, 0.48 × 106 and 0.96 × 106 CFU g−1, respectively, with three yeast extract levels (0%, 0.5% and 1%, respectively. Each diet was randomly assigned to duplicate groups of 50 Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus (5.99 ± 0.03 g in 24 concrete ponds (0.5 m3 and 1.25 m depth for 12 weeks. Increasing dietary B. licheniformis levels in O. niloticus and yeast extract levels significantly (P < 0.01 improved growth performance and nutrient utilization. Supplementation of the experimental diets with, 0.48 × 106 CFU/g−1 and 1.0% yeast extract showed the best nutrient utilization compared to other treatments. All probiotic levels significantly (P < 0.01 increased chemical composition (P < 0.05 compared to the control group, while increasing yeast extract did not significantly alter chemical composition. Hematological indices, total protein and albumin of O. niloticus significantly increased while aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase significantly (P < 0.01 decreased with an increase in B. licheniformis level up to 0.48 × 106 CFU g−1. Increasing levels of yeast extract had no effect on hematological parameters and the diets supplemented with 0.48 × 106 CFU g−1 and 0.5% yeast extract showed the highest hematological values.

  12. Positions of Trp codons in the leader peptide-coding region of the at operon influence anti-trap synthesis and trp operon expression in Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitin, Anastasia; Yanofsky, Charles

    2010-03-01

    Tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and several other metabolites are all synthesized from a common precursor, chorismic acid. Since tryptophan is a product of an energetically expensive biosynthetic pathway, bacteria have developed sensing mechanisms to downregulate synthesis of the enzymes of tryptophan formation when synthesis of the amino acid is not needed. In Bacillus subtilis and some other Gram-positive bacteria, trp operon expression is regulated by two proteins, TRAP (the tryptophan-activated RNA binding protein) and AT (the anti-TRAP protein). TRAP is activated by bound tryptophan, and AT synthesis is increased upon accumulation of uncharged tRNA(Trp). Tryptophan-activated TRAP binds to trp operon leader RNA, generating a terminator structure that promotes transcription termination. AT binds to tryptophan-activated TRAP, inhibiting its RNA binding ability. In B. subtilis, AT synthesis is upregulated both transcriptionally and translationally in response to the accumulation of uncharged tRNA(Trp). In this paper, we focus on explaining the differences in organization and regulatory functions of the at operon's leader peptide-coding region, rtpLP, of B. subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis. Our objective was to correlate the greater growth sensitivity of B. licheniformis to tryptophan starvation with the spacing of the three Trp codons in its at operon leader peptide-coding region. Our findings suggest that the Trp codon location in rtpLP of B. licheniformis is designed to allow a mild charged-tRNA(Trp) deficiency to expose the Shine-Dalgarno sequence and start codon for the AT protein, leading to increased AT synthesis.

  13. Purificación, caracterización y expresión heteróloga de la proteasa menor extracelular (Epr) de Bacillus licheniformis

    OpenAIRE

    Ageitos Martínez, José Manuel

    2012-01-01

    La cepa B. licheniformis USC13 aislada en nuestro laboratorio tiene la capacidad de producir un enzima que coagula la leche de modo natural. Guiados por el objetivo de conseguir nuevas fuentes de enzimas con aplicación a la industria de la quesería, se decidió estudiar y caracterizar este enzima de interés. Los estudios llevados a cabo permitieron establecer que el enzima responsable de este efecto es la proteasa menor extracelular (Epr). La proteasa Epr es una de las proteasas expresadas ...

  14. Valorización de residuos agroindustriales para la obtención de liquenisina por Bacillus licheniformis AL 1.1

    OpenAIRE

    Coronel León, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    La cepa bacteriana AL 1.1 se aisló de una muestra de suelo de la isla Decepción del continente Antártico. Inicialmente se observó que dicha cepa tenía la capacidad de reducir la tensión superficial del medio, por lo que fue seleccionada para realizar la presente tesis doctoral. Después de confirmar la identificación del aislado como un Bacillus licheniformis se caracterizó el biotensioactivo (BT) producido como liquenisina (LchAL1.1). El estudio de las propiedades físico-químicas de la Lc...

  15. Ability of a solid state fermentation technique to significantly minimize catabolic repression of. alpha. -amylase production by Bacillus licheniformis M27

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramesh, M.V.; Lonsane, B.K. (Central Food Technological Research Inst., Mysore (India). Fermentation Technology and Bioengineering Discipline)

    1991-08-01

    The production of {alpha}-amylase by Bacillus licheniformis M27 in submerged fermentation was completely inhibited due to catabolic repression in medium containing 1% glucose. In contrast, the enzyme production in a solid state fermentation system was 19,550 units/ml extract even when the medium contained 15% glucose. The peak in enzyme titre was, however, shifted from 48 to 72 h. The ability of the solid state fermentation system to significantly overcome catabolic repression was not known earlier and is probably conferred by various physico-chemical factors and culture conditions specific to the system. (orig.).

  16. SHG10 keratinolytic alkaline protease from Bacillus licheniformis SHG10 DSM 28096: Robust stability and unusual non-cumbersome purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embaby, Amira M; Saeed, Hesham; Hussein, Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    Present study underlines an unusual non-cumbersome-powerful strategy for purification of SHG10 keratinolytic alkaline protease from Bacillus licheniformis SHG10 DSM 28096 with robust stability properties. The enzyme was impressively purified to homogeneity with specific activity, purification fold, and yield of 613.82 U mg(-1) , 58.91 and 99%, respectively, via a sequential two-step purification strategy: precipitation with 65% (NH4 )2 SO4 and flow through fractions of DEAE-cellulose DE 53 column. SDS-PAGE conferred a monomeric enzyme with a molecular mass of 30.4 kDa. The enzyme demonstrated optimal activity at pH (10.0-11.0) and at 65 °C. It exhibited full stability at pH (6.0-11.0) over 38 h at 4 °C and at 65 °C for 15 min. Remarkable enhanced enzyme activity (130.15 and 126.37%) was retained in presence of commercial laundry detergents Oxi and Ariel after 1 h, respectively. Organic solvent stability of the enzyme was verified in butanol, ether, acetonitrile, isopropanol, and chloroform. Imposingly, full storage stability (100%) of the enzyme along 1 year in -20 °C was confirmed. Km -Vmax was 0.00174 mM-534.2 mM Sub · min(-1)  · mg protein(-1) and 1.266 mg-28.89 mg Sub · h(-1)  · mg protein(-1) on N-Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-pNA and keratin azure, respectively. Robust stability properties of SHG10 keratinolytic alkaline protease along with rapid-efficient purification underpin its potential commercialization for industrial exploitation.

  17. A novel Method for the selective recovery and purification of gamma-polyglutamic acid from Bacillus licheniformis fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manocha, Bhavik; Margaritis, Argyrios

    2010-01-01

    Microbially produced gamma-polyglutamic acid (gamma-PGA) is a commercially important biopolymer with many applications in biopharmaceutical, food, cosmetic and waste-water treatment industries. Owing to its increasing demand in various industries, production of gamma-PGA is well documented in the literature, however very few methods have been reported for its recovery. In this paper, we report a novel method for the selective recovery and purification of gamma-PGA from cell-free fermentation broth of Bacillus licheniformis. The cell-free fermentation broth was treated with divalent copper ions, resulting in the precipitation of gamma-PGA, which was collected as a pellet by centrifugation. The pellet was resolubilized and dialyzed against de-ionized water to obtain the purified gamma-PGA biopolymer. The efficiency and selectivity of gamma-PGA recovery was compared with ethanol precipitation method. We found that 85% of the original gamma-PGA content in the broth was recovered by copper sulfate-induced precipitation, compared to 82% recovery by ethanol precipitation method. Since ethanol is a commonly used solvent for protein precipitation, the purity of gamma-PGA precipitate was analyzed by measuring proteins that co-precipitated with gamma-PGA. Of the total proteins present in the broth, 48% proteins were found to be co-precipitated with gamma-PGA by ethanol precipitation, whereas in copper sulfate-induced precipitation, only 3% of proteins were detected in the final purified gamma-PGA, suggesting that copper sulfate-induced precipitation offers better selectivity than ethanol precipitation method. Total metal content analysis of the purified gamma-PGA revealed the undetectable amount of copper ions, whereas other metal ions detected were in low concentration range. The purified gamma-PGA was characterized using infrared spectroscopy. Copyright 2010 American Institute of Chemical Engineers

  18. Swapping of pro-sequences between keratinases of Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus pumilus: altered substrate specificity and thermostability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Rinky; Tiwary, Ekta; Sharma, Richa; Gupta, Rani

    2012-08-10

    Pro-sequences were swapped in cis between keratinases from Bacillus licheniformis (Ker BL) and Bacillus pumilus (Ker BP) to construct Ker ProBP-BL and Ker ProBL-BP, respectively. Expression of these keratinases was carried out constitutively by E. coli HB101-pEZZ18 system. They were characterized with respect to their parent enzymes, Ker BL and Ker BP, respectively. Ker ProBP-BL became more thermostable with a t(1/2) of 45 min at 80°C contrary to Ker BL which was not stable beyond 60°C. Similarly, the activity of Ker ProBP-BL on keratin and casein substrate, i.e. K:C ratio increased to 1.2 in comparison to 0.1 for Ker BL. Hydrolysis of insulin B-chain revealed that the cleavage sites increased to six from four in case of Ker ProBP-BL in comparison to Ker BL. However, cleavage sites decreased from seven to four in case of Ker ProBL-BP in comparison to the parent keratinase, Ker BP. Likewise, Ker ProBL-BP revealed altered pH and temperature kinetics with optima at pH 10 and 60°C in comparison to Ker BP which had optima at pH 9 and 70°C. It also cleaved soluble substrates with better efficiency in comparison to Ker BP with K:C ratio of 1.6. Pro-sequence mediated conformational changes were also observed in trans and were almost similar to the features acquired by the chimeras constructed in cis by swapping the pro-sequence region.

  19. The effect of pH and chemical preservatives on the growth of bacterial isolates from some Nigerian packaged fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladipo, I C; Adeleke, D T; Adebiyi, A O

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens were isolated from some Nigerian packaged fruit juices. The isolates were characterized and identified as Bacillus licheniformis, Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus circulans, Proteus morganii, Pseudomonas cepacia, Bacillus alvei and Pseudomonas chlororaphis. The antibiotic susceptibility profile of the seven isolates was determined and it was discovered that 65% of the microorganisms isolated were resistance to the antibiotic used while 35% were sensitive. The effect of pH, benzoic acid and sodium chloride concentration on the growth rate of isolates was investigated. It was found that as the pH of the growth medium increased from 3 to 9, the rate of growth of most isolates also increased except for Pseudomonas cepacia, which had optimum growth at neutral pH 7. As the concentration of sodium chloride increased from 2 to 5%, the rate of growth of all the seven isolates decreased. It was also noted that as concentration of benzoic acid increased from 250 to 1000 mg L(-1) Bacillus licheniformis decreased from 1.330 to 0.167 nm, Aeromonas hydrophila decreased from 1.208 to 0.164 nm Bacillus circulans decreases from 1.158 to 0.299 nm, Proteus morganii decreases from 1.377 to 0.141 nm etc. The higher the concentration of Benzoic acid the lower the rate of growth of the isolates.

  20. 地衣芽孢杆菌抗菌肽的纯化及抗菌特性分析%Purification of Antimicrobial Peptide from Bacillus licheniformis LY12 and Analysis of Its Antibacterial Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊陈; 高兆建; 张桂英; 鞠民友; 孙会刚; 杜永凯; 王东星

    2013-01-01

    以研究地衣芽孢杆菌(Bacilluslicheniformis)LY12所产抗菌肽特性,从发酵液中分离纯化该抗菌肽。通过超滤、离子交换层析、分子筛凝胶过滤层析、反向高效液相色谱等方法纯化该抗菌肽。结果显示:LC-ESI-MS质谱测得抗菌肽分子量为2750.785 Da,同Tricine SDS-PAGE分析结果基本一致。体外抗菌试验结果显示,抗菌肽LYF12能够抑制丝状真菌、细菌的生长。对枯草芽孢杆菌(Bacillussubtilis)、大肠杆菌(Escherichia coli)、铜绿假单胞菌(Pseudomonas aeruginosa)、金黄色葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus aureus)、藤黄微球菌(Micrococcus aureus)、蜡状芽孢杆菌(Bacillus cereus)、副溶血性弧菌(Vibrio parachaemolyticus)的最低抑菌浓度分别为9.8、19.8、20.7、7.2、9.6、10.2、15.7μg/mL。从地衣芽孢杆菌LY12分离的抗菌肽显示出对革兰氏阴性细菌、革兰氏阳性细菌及真菌具有较好的抗菌效果,故在食品防腐中具有潜在的应用价值。%To explore the characterization of a novel antimicrobial peptide from from Bacillus licheniformis LY12, the antimicrobial peptide was isolated. The novel antimicrobial peptide designated LYF12, was purified, with a procedure involving ultrafiltration, ion exchange chromatography (DEAE-Sepharose FF), gel filtration (Sephadex G-15), and reverse phase HPLCs on C8 column and C18 column. LC-ESI-MS indicated the molecular mass of the purified peptide was 2750.785 Da, which was in good agreement with the result of Tricine SDS-PAGE. .In vitro bioassays showed that LYF12 inhibits the growth of a variety of microbes, including filamentous fungi and bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichiacoli, Pseudomonasaeruginosa, Staphylococcusaureus, Micrococcusaureus, Bacillus cereus, Vibrio parachaemolyticus were 9.8, 19.8, 20.7, 7.2, 9.6, 10.2, 15.7 μg/mL, respectively. Because the purified antimicrobial peptide exhibited antibacterial

  1. Metabolome analysis reveals the effect of carbon catabolite control on the poly(γ-glutamic acid) biosynthesis of Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 9945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsunaga, Hitoshi; Meissner, Lena; Palmen, Thomas; Bamba, Takeshi; Büchs, Jochen; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2016-04-01

    Poly(γ-glutamic acid) (PGA) is a polymer composed of L- and/or D-glutamic acids that is produced by Bacillus sp. Because the polymer has various features as water soluble, edible, non-toxic and so on, it has attracted attention as a candidate for many applications such as foods, cosmetics and so on. However, although it is well known that the intracellular metabolism of Bacillus sp. is mainly regulated by catabolite control, the effect of the catabolite control on the PGA producing Bacillus sp. is largely unknown. This study is the first report of metabolome analysis on the PGA producing Bacillus sp. that reveals the effect of carbon catabolite control on the metabolism of PGA producing Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 9945. Results showed that the cells cultivated in glycerol-containing medium showed higher PGA production than the cells in glucose-containing medium. Furthermore, metabolome analysis revealed that the activators of CcpA and CodY, global regulatory proteins of the intracellular metabolism, accumulated in the cells cultivated in glycerol-containing and glucose-containing medium, respectively, with CodY apparently inhibiting PGA production. Moreover, the cells seemed to produce glutamate from citrate and ammonium using glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase. Pulsed addition of di-ammonium hydrogen citrate, as suggested by the metabolome result, was able to achieve the highest value so far for PGA production in B. licheniformis.

  2. Branched chain amino acids maintain the molecular weight of poly(γ-glutamic acid) of Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 9945 during the fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsunaga, Hitoshi; Meissner, Lena; Büchs, Jochen; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2016-10-01

    Poly(γ-glutamic acid) mainly produced by Bacillus spp. is an industrially important compound due to several useful features. Among them, molecular weight is an important characteristic affecting on the physical properties such as viscosities and negative charge densities. However, it is difficult to control the molecular size of PGA since it decreases during fermentation. Previous study reported that PGA produced in the media containing different carbon sources such as glucose and glycerol showed differences in molecular weight. Therefore in this study, the effect of carbon source on the PGA molecular weight was examined; with the aim of developing a strategy to maintain the high molecular weight of PGA during fermentation. Our result showed that the weight average molecular weight (Mw) of PGA of Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 9945 cultivated in the media containing PTS-sugars were higher than the medium containing glycerol (non-PTS). The result of metabolome analysis indicated the possibility of CodY (a global regulator protein) activation in the cells cultivated in the media containing PTS-sugars. To mimic this effect, branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), which are activators of CodY, were added to a medium containing glycerol. As the result, the Mw of PGA in the BCAAs-supplemented media were maintained and high during the early production phase compared to the non BCAAs-supplemented medium. These results indicate that BCAAs can repress the PGA molecular weight reduction during fermentation in B. licheniformis ATCC 9945.

  3. Study of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibition Activity of the Hydrolyzed Product of Snakehead Fish (Channa striata) Skin Collagen with 50 kDa Collagenase from Bacillus licheniformis F11.4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia, Agnes; Rachmawati, Heni; Riani, Catur; Retnoningrum, Debbie S

    2016-01-01

    Bioactive peptides produced from enzymatic hydrolysis fibrous protein have been proven to have several biological activities. Previous study showed that the hydrolysis product of snakehead fish skin collagen with 26 kDa collagenase from Bacillus licheniformis F11.4 showed HMG-CoA (HMGR) inhibition activity. The aim of this research was to determine the ability of the hydrolysis product produced from snakehead fish skin collagen hydrolysed by 50 kDa collagenase from B. licheniformis F11.4 in inhibiting HMGR activity. Snakehead fish skin collagen was extracted using an acid method and collagenase was produced from B. licheniformis F11.4 using half-strength Luria Bertani (LB) medium containing 5% collagen. Crude collagenase was concentrated and fractionated using the DEAE Sephadex A-25 column eluted with increasing gradient concentrations of NaCl. Collagen, collagenase, and fractions were analyzed using SDS-PAGE and collagenolytic activity was analyzed by the zymography method. Collagenase with 50 kDa molecular weight presented in fraction one was used to hydrolyze the collagen. The reaction was done in 18 hours at 50°C. The hydrolysis product using 3.51 μg collagen and 9 ng collagenase showed 25.8% inhibition activity against pravastatin. This work shows for the first time that the hydrolysis product of snakehead fish skin collagen and 50 kDa collagenase from B. licheniformis F11.4 has potential as an anticholesterol agent.

  4. Structural properties of hydrolyzed high-amylose rice starch by α-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Fengling; Man, Jianmin; Xu, Bin; Hu, Maozhi; Gu, Minghong; Liu, Qiaoquan; Wei, Cunxu

    2011-12-14

    High-amylose cereal starch has a great benefit on human health through its resistant starch (RS) content. Enzyme hydrolysis of native starch is very helpful in understanding the structure of starch granules and utilizing them. In this paper, native starch granules were isolated from a transgenic rice line (TRS) enriched with amylose and RS and hydrolyzed by α-amylase. Structural properties of hydrolyzed TRS starches were studied by X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, and differential scanning calorimetry. The A-type polymorph of TRS C-type starch was hydrolyzed faster than the B-type polymorph, but the crystallinity did not significantly change during enzyme hydrolysis. The degree of order in the external region of starch granule increased with increasing enzyme hydrolysis time. The amylose content decreased at first and then went back up during enzyme hydrolysis. The hydrolyzed starches exhibited increased onset and peak gelatinization temperatures and decreased gelatinization enthalpy on hydrolysis. These results suggested that the B-type polymorph and high amylose that formed the double helices and amylose-lipid complex increased the resistance to BAA hydrolysis. Furthermore, the spectrum results of RS from TRS native starch digested by pancreatic α-amylase and amyloglucosidase also supported the above conclusion.

  5. Bacillus species isolated from tungrymbai and bekang, naturally fermented soybean foods of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chettri, Rajen; Tamang, Jyoti Prakash

    2015-03-16

    Tungrymbai and bekang are naturally fermented soybean foods commonly consumed in Meghalaya and Mizoram states of India. A total of 39 samples of tungrymbai and 43 samples of bekang were collected from different villages and markets of Meghalaya and Mizoram, respectively and were analysed for microbial load. In both tungrymbai and bekang, the average population of Bacillus spp. was 8.2±0.1 log cfu/g. A total of 428 isolates of Bacillus were isolated from tungrymbai (211) and bekang (217) for detailed identification. On the basis of a combination of phenotypic and molecular characterisation using ARDRA, ITS-PCR and RAPD-PCR techniques, species of Bacillus isolated from tungrymbai were identified as Bacillus licheniformis (25.5%), Bacillus pumilus (19.5%) and Bacillus subtilis (55%), and species of Bacillus from bekang were Bacillus brevis (2%), Bacillus circulans (7.5%), Bacillus coagulans (6.5%), B. licheniformis (16.5%), B. pumilus (9.1%), Bacillus sphaericus (4.6%), B. subtilis (51.8%), and Lysinibacillus fusiformis (2%). The most dominant bacterium in both products was B. subtilis.

  6. A Thermostable α-Amylase Producing Natural Variant of Bacillus spp. Isolated From Soil in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Rasooli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermophilic processes appear more stable, rapid and less expensive and facilitate reactant activity and product recovery. Amylases have a quarter of the world enzyme market and thermostable α-amylases possess extensive commercial applications. Since little work has been done on strain isolation, growth and enzyme yield optimization, the level of thermophilic enzyme production remains relatively low. Therefore, large scale exploitation of thermophiles requires further intensive and integrated work. The present study describes isolation of an α-amylase producing bacillus from soil. The isolated bacillus was identified and named as Bacillus licheniformis Shahed-07. The strain was cultured in liquid media to produce α-amylase. The enzyme production conditions of the newly isolated bacillus revealed that the maximum enzyme production after 26 h of cultivation at pH 7.0 and 50°C. 0.5% tryptophan in production medium enhanced the enzyme productivity to two fold whereas peptone and lysin at 0.5% level showed a strong repression. Crude α-amylase characterization revealed that optimum activity was at pH 7.5 and 70°C. The crude enzyme was stable for 24 h at pH range of 6-7 at 70°C. Enzyme activity increased with temperature within the range of 40-70°C. The Bacillus licheniformis Shahed-07 strain produced thermostable α-amylase with characteristics suitable for application in starch processing and food industries.

  7. An investigation into the preservation of microbial cell banks for α-amylase production during 5 l fed-batch Bacillus licheniformis fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancocks, Nichola H; Thomas, Colin R; Stocks, Stuart M; Hewitt, Christopher J

    2010-10-01

    Fluorescent staining techniques were used for a systematic examination of methods used to cryopreserve microbial cell banks. The aim of cryopreservation here is to ensure subsequent reproducible fermentation performance rather than just post thaw viability. Bacillus licheniformis cell physiology post-thaw is dependent on the cryopreservant (either Tween 80, glycerol or dimethyl sulphoxide) and whilst this had a profound effect on the length of the lag phase, during subsequent 5 l fed-batch fermentations, it had little effect on maximum specific growth rate, final biomass concentration or α-amylase activity. Tween 80 not only protected the cells during freezing but also helped them recover post-thaw resulting in shorter process times.

  8. Efficient recombinant expression and secretion of a thermostable GH26 mannan endo-1,4-β-mannosidase from Bacillus licheniformis in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haltrich Dietmar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mannans are one of the key polymers in hemicellulose, a major component of lignocellulose. The Mannan endo-1,4-β-mannosidase or 1,4-β-D-mannanase (EC 3.2.1.78, commonly named β-mannanase, is an enzyme that can catalyze random hydrolysis of β-1,4-mannosidic linkages in the main chain of mannans, glucomannans and galactomannans. The enzyme has found a number of applications in different industries, including food, feed, pharmaceutical, pulp/paper industries, as well as gas well stimulation and pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for the production of second generation biofuel. Bacillus licheniformis is a Gram-positive endospore-forming microorganism that is generally non-pathogenic and has been used extensively for large-scale industrial production of various enzymes; however, there has been no previous report on the cloning and expression of mannan endo-1,4-β-mannosidase gene (manB from B. licheniformis. Results The mannan endo-1,4-β-mannosidase gene (manB, commonly known as β-mannanase, from Bacillus licheniformis strain DSM13 was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The enzyme can be harvested from the cell lysate, periplasmic extract, or culture supernatant when using the pFLAG expression system. A total activity of approximately 50,000 units could be obtained from 1-l shake flask cultures. The recombinant enzyme was 6 × His-tagged at its C-terminus, and could be purified by one-step immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC to apparent homogeneity. The specific activity of the purified enzyme when using locust bean gum as substrate was 1672 ± 96 units/mg. The optimal pH of the enzyme was between pH 6.0 - 7.0; whereas the optimal temperature was at 50 - 60°C. The recombinant β-mannanase was stable within pH 5 - 12 after incubation for 30 min at 50°C, and within pH 6 - 9 after incubation at 50°C for 24 h. The enzyme was stable at temperatures up to 50°C with a half-life time of activity (τ1

  9. Oxygen and nitrate in utilization by Bacillus licheniformis of the arginase and arginine deiminase routes of arginine catabolism and other factors affecting their syntheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broman, K; Lauwers, N; Stalon, V; Wiame, J M

    1978-09-01

    Bacillus licheniformis has two pathways of arginine catabolism. In well-aerated cultures, the arginase route is present, and levels of catabolic ornithine carbamoyltransferase were low. An arginase pathway-deficient mutant, BL196, failed to grow on arginine as a nitrogen source under these conditions. In anaerobiosis, the wild type contained very low levels of arginase and ornithine transaminase. BL196 grew normally on glucose plus arginine in anaerobiosis and, like the wild type, had appreciable levels of catabolic transferase. Nitrate, like oxygen, repressed ornithine carbamoyltransferase and stimulated arginase synthesis. In aerobic cultures, arginase was repressed by glutamine in the presence of glucose, but not when the carbon-energy source was poor. In anaerobic cultures, ammonia repressed catabolic ornithine carbamoyltransferase, but glutamate and glutamine stimulated its synthesis. A second mutant, derived from BL196, retained the low arginase and ornithine transaminase levels of BL196 but produced high levels of deiminase pathway enzymes in the presence of oxygen.

  10. Optimization of medium composition for keratinase production on feather by Bacillus licheniformis RG1 using statistical methods involving response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramnani, Priya; Gupta, Rani

    2004-10-01

    A 3.5-fold increase in keratinase production by Bacillus licheniformis RG1 was achieved by using statistical methods involving Plackett-Burman design and response surface methodology. Eight variables were screened using Plackett-Burman design. Of these, glucose, peptone and glutathione were found to affect the response signal positively, whereas CaCl(2) had a negative effect. Further interaction of these factors, along with phosphate and incubation time, was studied using response surface methodology. An optimum keratinase production of 1295 units/mg dry weight was obtained with the following medium composition: 1% glucose, 1% peptone, 1% phosphate, 0.05% glutathione, 0.5% feather and 2% inoculum under shaking at 250 rev./min with an incubation period of 72 h at 37 degrees C. Keratinase production was found to be a function of biomass and maximum production occurred during the stationary phase.

  11. Evaluación de la nisina como sustancia inactivadora de Bacillus licheniformis en el extracto líquido de café

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidy Sierra L.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de la nisina en la inactivación de Bacillus licheniformis en el extracto líquido de café. Materiales y métodos. Se evaluó la acción de la nisina sobre Bacillus licheniformis en extractos líquidos de café variando su concentración, tiempo de incubación, concentración de solidos solubles (grados Brix y la concentración bacteriana contaminante. Resultados. Se observó que la concentración de nisina, para obtener un efecto inhibitorio del 55%, sin alterar las propiedades fisicoquímicas y sensoriales del producto, es 500 UI/ml que corresponden a 12.5 mg/L. Además, se determinó que la concentración de nisina 1000 UI/ml puede actuar satisfactoriamente en poblaciones bacterianas menores de 5x104 UFC/ml en un período de 48 horas. Con relación al efecto de concentración de sólidos solubles en la inactivación del microorganismo, no se encontraron diferencias significativas para un rango entre 15 y 45°Brix. Conclusiones. A partir de este estudio se puede concluir que la nisina puede ser usada como preservante del extracto de líquido de café sin afectar sensorialmente el producto, teniendo en cuenta la concentración bacteriana contaminante y el tiempo de incubación.

  12. Microbial enhanced heavy crude oil recovery through biodegradation using bacterial isolates from an Omani oil field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sayegh, Abdullah; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya; Al-Bahry, Saif; Elshafie, Abdulkadir; Al-Bemani, Ali; Joshi, Sanket

    2015-09-16

    Biodegradation is a cheap and environmentally friendly process that could breakdown and utilizes heavy crude oil (HCO) resources. Numerous bacteria are able to grow using hydrocarbons as a carbon source; however, bacteria that are able to grow using HCO hydrocarbons are limited. In this study, HCO degrading bacteria were isolated from an Omani heavy crude oil field. They were then identified and assessed for their biodegradation and biotransformation abilities under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Bacteria were grown in five different minimum salts media. The isolates were identified by MALDI biotyper and 16S rRNA sequencing. The nucleotide sequences were submitted to GenBank (NCBI) database. The bacteria were identified as Bacillus subtilis and B. licheniformis. To assess microbial growth and biodegradation of HCO by well-assay on agar plates, samples were collected at different intervals. The HCO biodegradation and biotransformation were determined using GC-FID, which showed direct correlation of microbial growth with an increased biotransformation of light hydrocarbons (C12 and C14). Among the isolates, B. licheniformis AS5 was the most efficient isolate in biodegradation and biotransformation of the HCO. Therefore, isolate AS5 was used for heavy crude oil recovery experiments, in core flooding experiments using Berea core plugs, where an additional 16 % of oil initially in place was recovered. This is the first report from Oman for bacteria isolated from an oil field that were able to degrade and transform HCO to lighter components, illustrating the potential use in HCO recovery. The data suggested that biodegradation and biotransformation processes may lead to additional oil recovery from heavy oil fields, if bacteria are grown in suitable medium under optimum growth conditions.

  13. Optimization of Culture Medium and Fermentation Conditions of Bacillus licheniformis M109%地衣芽孢杆菌M109高密度发酵条件的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付维来; 杜建涛; 刘鹏; 王安如

    2012-01-01

    Optimization of Bacillus licheniformis M109 culture medium in this research based on the orthogonal test, carbon source, nitrogen source and carbon nitrogen ratio were determine as necessary for fermentation medium of Bacillus licheniformis M109. In order to enhance Bacillus licheniformis M109 fermentation level, growth curve of Bacillus licheniformis M109 and trend of Ph, dissolved oxygen(DO) were studied. Though studying the fermentation process of growth, the optimal Ph and inoculation amount were determined. The results found that DO was a key factor that limited the growth of Bacillus licheniformis M109. It was studied regulation rotate speed of stirring to improve dissolved oxygen and the fermentation density in culture medium. Another study found that Bacillus licheniformis M109 fermentation level could be improved by adding fresh medium. Through optimization of culture medium and conditions, the fermentation level of Bacillus licheniformis M109 incneased to 1. 2×1010 CFU/Ml from the initial 1. 0×109 CFU/Ml and the rate of bacillus arrived to 88%.%试验旨在筛选一株地衣芽孢杆菌M109(Bacillus licheniformis M109)进行培养基和发酵条件的优化.采用单因素试验方法筛选出最佳碳源和氮源的培养基,并利用正交试验方法确定其最佳的碳氮比.为了继续提高地衣芽孢杆菌M109的发酵水平,研究其在发酵过程中的生长曲线、pH和溶氧(DO)水平的变化曲线,通过对发酵过程中生长参数的测定,优化了地衣芽孢杆菌M109最佳的接种量和最适pH.结果发现,溶氧限制是地衣芽孢杆菌M109生长的关键因素;在限定通风量的条件下,通过调节搅拌转速的方法来提高培养基中的溶氧水平,提高发酵密度;通过流加培养基的方法也能提高地衣芽孢杆菌M109的发酵水平.因此,通过对培养基和发酵条件的优化,使地衣芽孢杆菌M109的发酵水平由最初的1.0×109 CFU/mL提高到1.2×1010CFU/mL,芽孢形成率为88%.

  14. 地衣芽孢杆菌1.934培养条件的优化%Optimization of Culture Condition for Bacillus licheniformis 1.934 Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于淑玉; 张光明; 万甜

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus licheniformis is very important as a soil microorganism to increase the availability and uptake of mineral nutrients for plants. In this study, the effect of culture condition on Bacillus licheniformis 1. 934 production was investigated. On the basis of single factor experiments, a central composite design was used to optimize the prime factors. The results were analyzed by response surface. Analysis results show that the optimal culture condition is as follows; temperature 35℃,flask shaking speed 150r/min,amount of inoculation 3. 6%,pH 7. 5. Bacillus licheniformis 1. 934 grew well under this condition, incubated for 20h,the highest amylase activity(12. 7U /mL ) can be obtained;incubated for 27h,the highest cell number can be gotten.%研究了生物肥功能菌——地衣芽胞杆菌1.934 (Bacillus licheniformis)培养条件对菌体生长量的影响.采用了单因素实验和响应曲面法(RSM)设计实验和分析数据.获得了菌体摇瓶培养的最适条件:培养温度35℃,转速为150r/min,接种量为3.6%,pH为7.5.地衣芽孢杆菌在最适条件下培养约20h,淀粉酶的酶活最高,活力可达12.7U/mL培养液.培养约27h得到最大的菌体收益.

  15. Determination of the influence of the pH of hydrolysis on enzyme selectivity of Bacillus licheniformis protease towards whey protein isolate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butre, C.I.; Sforza, S.; Wierenga, P.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2015-01-01

    Enzymatic protein hydrolysis is typically described by the degree of hydrolysis and by the enzyme specificity. While the specificity describes which cleavage sites can potentially be cleaved, it does not describe which are preferred. To identify the relative rate at which each individual cleavage

  16. Comparative Study on Biochemical Properties and Antioxidative Activity of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis Protein Hydrolysates Produced by Alcalase and Bacillus licheniformis NH1 Proteases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafik Balti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidative activities and biochemical properties of protein hydrolysates prepared from cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis using Alcalase 2.4 L and Bacillus licheniformis NH1 proteases with different degrees of hydrolysis (DH were determined. For the biochemical properties, hydrolysis by both enzymes increased protein solubility to above 75% over a wide pH range. The antioxidant activities of cuttlefish protein hydrolysates (CPHs increase with increasing DH. In addition, all CPHs exhibited antioxidative activity in a concentration-dependent manner. NH1-CPHs generally showed greater antioxidative activity than Alcalase protein hydrolysates (P<0.05 as indicated by the higher 1,1-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferrous chelating activity. Both Alcalase and NH1 protein hydrolysates were able to retard lipid peroxidation and β-carotene-linoleic acid oxidation. Alcalase-CPH (DH = 12.5% and NH1-CPH (DH = 15% contained 75.36% and 80.11% protein, respectively, with histidine and arginine as the major amino acids, followed by glutamic acid/glutamine, serine, lysine, and leucine. In addition, CPHs have a high percentage of essential amino acids made up 48.85% and 50.04%. Cuttlefish muscle protein hydrolysates had a high nutritional value and could be used as supplement to poorly balanced dietary proteins.

  17. Molten Globule-Like Partially Folded State of Bacillus licheniformis α-Amylase at Low pH Induced by 1,1,1,3,3,3-Hexafluoroisopropanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adyani Azizah Abd Halim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP on acid-denatured Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase (BLA at pH 2.0 was investigated by far-UV CD, intrinsic fluorescence, and ANS fluorescence measurements. Addition of increasing HFIP concentrations led to an increase in the mean residue ellipticity at 222 nm (MRE222 nm up to 1.5 M HFIP concentration beyond which it sloped off. A small increase in the intrinsic fluorescence and a marked increase in the ANS fluorescence were also observed up to 0.4 M HFIP concentration, both of which decreased thereafter. Far- and near-UV CD spectra of the HFIP-induced state observed at 0.4 M HFIP showed significant retention of the secondary structures closer to native BLA but a disordered tertiary structure. Increase in the ANS fluorescence intensity was also observed with the HFIP-induced state, suggesting exposure of the hydrophobic clusters to the solvent. Furthermore, thermal denaturation of HFIP-induced state showed a non-cooperative transition. Taken together, all these results suggested that HFIP-induced state of BLA represented a molten globule-like state at pH 2.0.

  18. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using a probiotic Bacillus licheniformis Dahb1 and their antibiofilm activity and toxicity effects in Ceriodaphnia cornuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthi, Sathappan; Jayaseelan, Barbanas David; Velusamy, Palaniyandi; Vijayakumar, Sekar; Chih, Cheng Ta; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, we synthesized and characterized a probiotic Bacillus licheniformis cell free extract (BLCFE) coated silver nanoparticles (BLCFE-AgNPs). These BLCFE-AgNPs were characterized by UV-visible spectrophotometer, XRD, EDX, FTIR, TEM and AFM. A strong surface plasmon resonance centered at 422 nm in UV-visible spectrum indicates the formation of AgNPs. The XRD spectrum of silver nanoparticles exhibited 2θ values corresponding to the silver nanocrystal. TEM and AFM showed the AgNPs were spherical in shape within the range of 18.69-63.42 nm and the presence of silver was confirmed by EDX analysis. Light and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM) images showed a weak adherence and disintegrated biofilm formation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Dav1 treated with BLCFE-AgNPs compared to control. This result suggests that BLCFE-AgNps may be used for the control of biofilm forming bacterial populations in the biomedical field. In addition, acute toxicity results concluded that BLCFE-AgNPs were less toxic to the fresh water crustacean Ceriodaphnia cornuta (50 μg/ml) when compared to AgNO3 (22 μg/ml). This study also reports a short term analysis (24 h) of uptake and depuration of BLCFE-AgNPs in C. cornuta.

  19. Influence of nitrogen source and pH value on undesired poly(γ-glutamic acid) formation of a protease producing Bacillus licheniformis strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Lena; Kauffmann, Kira; Wengeler, Timo; Mitsunaga, Hitoshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Büchs, Jochen

    2015-09-01

    Bacillus spp. are used for the production of industrial enzymes but are also known to be capable of producing biopolymers such as poly(γ-glutamic acid). Biopolymers increase the viscosity of the fermentation broth, thereby impairing mixing, gas/liquid mass and heat transfer in any bioreactor system. Undesired biopolymer formation has a significant impact on the fermentation and downstream processing performance. This study shows how undesirable poly(γ-glutamic acid) formation of an industrial protease producing Bacillus licheniformis strain was prevented by switching the nitrogen source from ammonium to nitrate. The viscosity was reduced from 32 to 2.5 mPa s. A constant or changing pH value did not influence the poly(γ-glutamic acid) production. Protease production was not affected: protease activities of 38 and 46 U mL(-1) were obtained for ammonium and nitrate, respectively. With the presented results, protease production with industrial Bacillus strains is now possible without the negative impact on fermentation and downstream processing by undesired poly(γ-glutamic acid) formation.

  20. Mathematical modeling of maize starch liquefaction catalyzed by α-amylases from Bacillus licheniformis: effect of calcium, pH and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presečki, Ana Vrsalović; Blažević, Zvjezdana Findrik; Vasić-Rački, Ðurđa

    2013-01-01

    The first step of starch hydrolysis, i.e. liquefaction has been studied in this work. Two commercial α-amylases from Bacilllus licheniformis, known as Termamyl and Liquozyme have been used for this purpose. Using starch as the substrate, kinetics of both enzymes has been determined at optimal pH and temperature (pH 7, T = 80 °C) and at 65 °C and pH 5.5. Michaelis-Menten model with uncompetitive product inhibition was used to describe enzyme kinetics. Mathematical models were developed and validated in the repetitive batch and fed-batch reactor. Enzyme inactivation was described by the two-step inactivation model. All experiments were performed with and without calcium ions. The activities of both tested amylases are approximately one hundred times higher at 80 °C than at 65 °C. Lower inactivation rates of enzymes were noticed in the experiments performed at 65 °C without the addition of calcium than in the experiments at 80 °C. Calcium ions in the reaction medium significantly enhance amylase stability at 80 °C and pH 7. At other process conditions (65 °C and pH 5.5) a weaker calcium stabilizing effect was detected.

  1. Effect of a Probiotic Containing Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis and Ferroin Solution on Growth Performance, Body Composition and Haematological Parameters in Kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum) Fry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarin, Hajar; Aramli, Mohammad Sadegh; Imanpour, Mohammad Reza; Rajabpour, Mina

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to assess the efficacy of BioPlus 2B, a probiotic containing Bacillus licheniformis and B. subtilis and Ferroin solution on growth performance, body composition and haematological parameters in kutum, Rutilus frisii kutum, fry. The fish were fed dry pellets containing various ratios of probiotics and Ferroin for 60 days after absorption of the yolk sac. At the end of the trial, growth indices (final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate, daily growth rate, food conversion ratio and condition factor), body composition (crude protein, crude lipid, ash and moisture) and haematological parameters [haematocrit (Hct), haemoglobin (Hb), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils (NEUTR), lymphocytes (LYM), mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH) and mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC)] were assessed. Regarding body composition, total protein levels were higher, and ash, moisture and lipid levels were lower in fish receiving the probiotic and Ferroin treatments compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Fish receiving diets supplemented with probiotics and Ferroin solution showed significantly better growth than those fed the basal diet (control). RBC, Hct, Hb, MCV, MCH and LYM were all highest in fish fed probiotic (1.6 × 10(9) CFU/g dry pellet) + Ferroin solution (7 mg/kg dry pellet) + dry pellets. These results indicate that the combination of probiotic and Ferroin solution represents an effective dietary supplement for improving carcass quality, growth performance and haematological parameters in kutum fry.

  2. Role of bacteria isolates in the spoilage of fermented African oil bean seed ugba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwamaka, Nwagu Tochukwu; Chike, Amadi; Obiajulu, Alaekwe

    2010-05-15

    Study was carried out to determine the spoilage association of traditionally fermented ugba, product of African oil bean seed. Samples were collected from three markets within Enugu metropolis in Eastern Nigeria. Microbial population of ugba was isolated, characterized and identified. Effect of time on product quality, total viable cell count and individual growth pattern of isolates was evaluated. Microorganisms isolated were Proteus sp., Klebsiella sp., Staphylococcus epidermidis, E. coli, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis. Initial viable cell count increased from 4.6 x 10(8) -6.2 x 10(8), 6.0 x 10(9) -6.9 x 10(9) and 3.9 x 10(8) -5 x 10(8) cfu g(-1) by the 4th day for samples from Mayor, Kenyatta and Garki markets, respectively. Organoleptic changes in texture and colour were seen to be a factor of time of storage. A decline in growth of Proteus sp., E. coli, Klebsiella sp. and S. epidermidis by the 4th day of storage was observed for all samples. Viable cells of B. licheniformis increased from 6.1 x 10(7) -17.7 x 10(7) cfu g(-1), 13.9 x 10(8) -20.0 x 10(8) and 8.7 x 10(7) -15.5 x 10(7) by the 4th day of storage for samples from Mayor, Kenyatta and Garki markets respectively. Growth of B. subtilis increased from 9.2 x 10(7) -19.9 x 10(7), 14.9 x 10(8) -21.2 x 10(8) and 11.5 x 10(7) -17.2 x 10(7) cfu g(-1) for samples from Mayor, Kenyatta and Garki markets respectively. Our results indicate that ugba spoilage is primarily a result of the continued activity of African oil bean seed fermentative organisms B. subtilis and B. licheniformis.

  3. Isolation and identification of bacteria to improve the strength of concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnapriya, S; Venkatesh Babu, D L; G, Prince Arulraj

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this research work is to isolate and identify calcite precipitating bacteria and to check the suitability of these bacteria for use in concrete to improve its strength. Bacteria to be incorporated in concrete should be alkali resistant to endure the high pH of concrete and endospore forming to withstand the mechanical stresses induced in concrete during mixing. They must exhibit high urease activity to precipitate calcium carbonate in the form of calcite. Bacterial strains were isolated from alkaline soil samples of a cement factory and were tested for urease activity, potential to form endospores and precipitation of calcium carbonate. Based on these results, three isolates were selected and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. They were identified as Bacillus megaterium BSKAU, Bacillus licheniformis BSKNAU and Bacillus flexus BSKNAU. The results were compared with B. megaterium MTCC 1684 obtained from Microbial Type Culture Collection and Gene Bank, Chandigarh, India. Experimental work was carried out to assess the influence of bacteria on the compressive strength and tests revealed that bacterial concrete specimens showed enhancement in compressive strength. The efficiency of bacteria toward crack healing was also tested. Substantial increase in strength and complete healing of cracks was observed in concrete specimens cast with B. megaterium BSKAU, B. licheniformis BSKNAU and B. megaterium MTCC 1684. This indicates the suitability of these bacterial strains for use in concrete. The enhancement of strength and healing of cracks can be attributed to the filling of cracks in concrete by calcite which was visualized by scanning electron microscope. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Antibacterial Activity of the Isolation Ethyl Acetate-Soluble Extract Noni Fruit (Morindra citrifolia L.) against Meat Bacterial Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraheni, E. R.; Nurrakhman, M. B. E.; Munawaroh, H.; Saputri, L.

    2017-02-01

    Noni (Morindra citrifolia L.) is native to Indonesia which have medicinal properties. One of them as an antibacterial. This study aims to determine the antibacterial activity of isolates from the ethanol extract noni fruit to bacterial decay meat is Bacillus licheniformis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Bacillus alvei, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. The extraction process using the maceration method, and then made a partition by centrifugation ethyl acetate. Soluble part partition showed bacterial growth inhibition activity of the strong to very strong. Furthermore, the ethyl acetate soluble partition on preparative thin layer chromatography produced 5 isolates. Isolates obtained antibacterial activity test performed with a concentration of 20% and 30%. The results of antibacterial test against bacteria test isolates, showing isolates A can not inhibit the growth of bacteria, isolates B and C have medium activity and strong, isolates D and E isolates have activity against bacteria that were tested. MIC and MBC test results showed that the isolates B gives an inhibitory effect (bacteriostatic) against all bacteria. Content analysis of compounds by TLC using the reagents cerium (IV) sulfate indicates a phenol group. Isolates B contains a major compound which can be used as an antibacterial candidate in food preservation replace chemical preservatives.

  5. 地衣芽孢杆菌对非酒精性脂肪性肝病的治疗作用%The effect of Bnfillus licheniformis on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海涛; 王雯; 张志坚

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of Bnfillus licheniformis on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods 40 healthy volunteers were as normal control group. 82 patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease were randomly divided into two groups: 41 patients received the treatment with polyene phosphatdyl choline (456 mg po, tid) (polyene phosphatdyl choline group); 41 patients received polyene phosphatdyl choline (456 mg po, tid) and Bnfillus licheniformis (0.5 g po, tid) (polyene phosphatdyl choline and Bnfillus licheniformis group). The both groups were given low-calorie diet, exercise and other treatment for 6 weeks. The parameters were measured, which including fasting plasma resistin, insulin sensitive index (ISI) by fasting insulin (FINS), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) before and after treatment. Results Before treatment, FINS, ALT, ISI and RETN were higher in polyene phosphatdyl choline group and polyene phosphatdyl choline and Bnfillus licheniformis group than those in normal control group (P < 0.05). FINS, ALT, RETN and ISI significantly decreased (P < 0.05) after treatment. Polyene phosphatdyl choline and Bnfillus licheniformis group's changes were more significant than those of polyene phosphatdyl choline group (P < 0.05). Conclusion Bnfillus licheniformis can decrease IR and the levels of serum endotoxin, improve liver function of NAFLD. It is a choice for NAFLD patients.%目的 探讨地衣芽孢杆菌制剂对非酒精性脂肪性肝病的治疗作用.方法 选择正常健康人40例作为正常对照组.选择临床诊断非酒精性脂肪性肝病患者82例,随机将其分为易善复治疗组和易善复加整肠生治疗组,易善复治疗组41例,口服易善复456 mg,3次/d;易善复加整肠生治疗组41例,口服易善复456 mg及整肠生0.5 g,3次/d,两组均结合低热量饮食、运动等基础治疗,共6周.治疗前、后分别测定肝功能丙氨酸转移酶(ALT)、空腹胰岛素水平(FINS)、胰岛素敏感指

  6. Research Advances in the Application of Bioactive Substances Produced by Bacillus licheniformis%地衣芽胞杆菌生物活性物质应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨阳; 张付云; 苍桂璐; 王斌; 卢航

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus licheniformis is a common Gram-positive bacterium. It has good features of high heat-resistance,variouse enzyme production,good enzyme productivity,and high safety. It also can produce many kinds of bioactive substances such as polysaccharid,lipopeptide biosurfactant,bacitracin and small molecular substances. This paper summarizes the research progress of bioactive substances produced by Bacillus licheniformis and their biological activity and application,prospects its development direction of new strains construction by means of genetic engineering,so as to provide references for the future utilization of Bacillus licheniformis.%  地衣芽胞杆菌是一种常见革兰氏阳性菌,具有耐热、酶系丰富、产酶量高和安全等优良特性,同时在代谢过程中还可产生多种活性物质,例如多糖、脂肽类生物表面活性剂、杆菌肽及小分子等活性物质。本文对地衣芽胞杆菌的活性物质及其生物活性的应用研究进展进行概括,并且对其通过基因工程手段开发新型菌种的发展方向进行了展望,以期为地衣芽胞杆菌的利用提供参考。

  7. Enterotoxins and emetic toxins production by Bacillus cereus and other species of Bacillus isolated from Soumbala and Bikalga, African alkaline fermented food condiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouoba, Labia Irene I; Thorsen, Line; Varnam, Alan H

    2008-06-10

    The ability of various species of Bacillus from fermented seeds of Parkia biglobosa known as African locust bean (Soumbala) and fermented seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Bikalga) was investigated. The study included screening of the isolates by haemolysis on blood agar, detection of toxins in broth and during the fermentation of African locust bean using the Bacillus cereus Enterotoxin Reverse Passive Latex Agglutination test kit (BCET-RPLA) and the Bacillus Diarrhoeal Enterotoxin Visual Immunoassay (BDEVIA). Detection of genes encoding cytotoxin K (CytK), haemolysin BL (Hbl A, Hbl C, Hbl D), non-hemolytic enterotoxin (NheA, NheB, NheC) and EM1 specific of emetic toxin producers was also investigated using PCR with single pair and multiplex primers. Of 41 isolates, 29 Bacillus belonging to the species of B. cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus pumilus showed haemolysis on blood agar. Using RPLA, enterotoxin production was detected for three isolates of B. cereus in broth and all B. cereus (9) in fermented seeds. Using BDEVIA, enterotoxin production was detected in broth as well as in fermented seeds for all B. cereus isolates. None of the isolates belonging to the other Bacillus species was able to produce enterotoxins either by RPLA or BDEVIA. Nhe genes were detected in all B. cereus while Hbl and CytK genes were detected respectively in five and six B. cereus strains. A weak presence of Hbl (A, D) and CytK genes was detected in two isolates of B. subtilis and one of B. licheniformis but results were inconsistent, especially for Hbl genes. The emetic specific gene fragment EM1 was not detected in any of the isolates studied.

  8. Silver nanoparticles synthesis mediated by newly isolates of Bacillus spp., nanoparticles characterization and their activity against Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus and human pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam K.F. Elbeshehy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular agents produced by newly isolated bacterial strains were able to catalyze the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs. The most effective isolates were identified as Bacillus pumilus, B. persicus and B. licheniformis using molecular identification. DLS analysis revealed that the AgNPs synthesized by the above strains were in the size range of 77-92 nm. TEM observations shown that the nanoparticles were coated with a capping agent, which was probably involved in nanoparticles stabilization allowing their perfect dispersion in aqueous solutions. FTIR analyses indicated the presence of proteins in the capping agent of the nanoparticles and suggested that the oxidation of hydroxyl groups of peptide hydrolysates (originated from the growth medium is coupled to the reduction of silver ions. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy confirmed the above results. The nanoparticles, especially those synthesized by B. licheniformis, were stable (zeta potential ranged from -16.6 to -21.3 mV and showed an excellent in vitro antimicrobial activity against important human pathogens and a considerable antiviral activity against the Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus. The significance of the particular antiviral activity is highlighted, given the significant yield reduction in fava bean crops resulting from Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus infections, in many African countries.

  9. Bacteria isolated from roots and rhizosphere of Vitis vinifera retard water losses, induce abscisic acid accumulation and synthesis of defense-related terpenes in in vitro cultured grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, María Victoria; Bottini, Rubén; de Souza Filho, Gonçalo Apolinário; Cohen, Ana Carmen; Moreno, Daniela; Gil, Mariana; Piccoli, Patricia

    2014-08-01

    Eleven bacterial strains were isolated at different soil depths from roots and rhizosphere of grapevines from a commercial vineyard. By 16S rRNA gene sequencing 10 different genera and 8 possible at species level were identified. From them, Bacillus licheniformis Rt4M10 and Pseudomonas fluorescens Rt6M10 were selected according to their characteristics as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Both produced abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and the gibberellins A1 and A3 in chemically-defined medium. They also colonized roots of in vitro grown Vitis vinifera cv. Malbec plants. As result of bacterization ABA levels in 45 days-old in vitro plants were increased 76-fold by B. licheniformis and 40-fold by P. fluorescens as compared to controls. Both bacteria diminished plant water loss rate in correlation with increments of ABA. Twenty and 30 days post bacterization the plants incremented terpenes. The monoterpenes α-pinene, terpinolene, 4-carene, limonene, eucalyptol and lilac aldehyde A, and the sesquiterpenes α-bergamotene, α-farnesene, nerolidol and farnesol were assessed by gas chromatography-electron impact mass spectrometry analysis. α-Pinene and nerolidol were the most abundant (µg per g of tissue in plants bacterized with P. fluorescens). Only α-pinene, eucalyptol and farnesol were identified at low concentration in non-bacterized plants treated with ABA, while no terpenes were detected in controls. The results obtained along with others from literature suggest that B. licheniformis and P. fluorescens act as stress alleviators by inducing ABA synthesis so diminishing water losses. These bacteria also elicit synthesis of compounds of plant defense via an ABA independent mechanism.

  10. Isolation and identification of Bacillus spp. from compost material, compost and mushroom casing soil active against Trichoderma spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Olja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of bacteria was carried out from samples of straw and chicken manure, compost at various stages of the composting process and casing soil used for growing button mushrooms. A preliminary screening of 108 bacterial isolates for antagonistic activity against Trichoderma aggressivum f. europaeum showed that 23 tested isolates inhibited mycelial growth of the pathogenic fungus. Further screening with four indicator isolates of fungi revealed that all 23 bacterial isolates inhibited the growth of T. aggressivum f. europaeum, T. harzianum and T. koningii, while only 13 isolates inhibited the growth of T. atroviride. T. aggressivum f. europaeum proved to be the most sensitive, with many bacterial isolates generating a high percentage of growth inhibition. Only two bacterial isolates (B-129 and B-268 were successful in inhibiting the growth of all 4 tested pathogens. All 23 bacterial isolates were characterized as Gram-positive and catalase-positive and were subjected to molecular identification based on the partial sequence, the hypervariant region of the 16S rDNA. It was shown that the obtained bacterial strains belong to Bacillus subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. licheniformis and B. pumilus species. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 31043 i br. 173026

  11. Construcción de un vector para la integración cromosomal de un gen de fitasa de Bacillus licheniformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Fernández

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Las fitasas son una clase especial de fosfatasas que catalizan la hidrólisis secuencial del fitato. La incapacidad de las plantas para utilizar el fósforo a partir de los fitatos del suelo es debido a la baja actividad de fitasas en sus raíces. Los microorganismos del suelo juegan un importante papel en los procesos que afectan la trans- formación de los compuestos fosforados. Muchos de ellos pueden solubilizar el fósforo a partir de los fitatos, mediante la liberación de fitasas. Este proceso permite la movilización del fósforo hacia las plantas y un mejor aprovechamiento de este nutriente. Sin embargo, muchas bacterias carecen de los genes que codifican para estas enzimas, lo que disminuye la disponibilidad de este elemento en el suelo. Una alternativa es mejorar las rizobacterias en cuanto a su capacidad de solubilizar los fitatos del suelo, mediante la transformación genética. En este trabajo el gen phyL de Bacillus licheniformis fue clonado en el vector de liberación suicida pJMT6 (vector derivado del sistema pUT/mini Tn5. La construcción recombinante que contiene un marcador de selección no antibiótico, fue transformada en Escherichia coli CC118λpir. Un clon transformante (F16 fue seleccionado y posteriormente caracterizado. Estos resultados constituyen un primer paso para desarrollar rizobacterias promotoras del crecimiento mejoradas en cuanto a la producción de actividad fitasa recombinante, como alternativa para reducir la contaminación ambiental y mejorar la productividad de los cultivos.

  12. Preparation of β- Mannanase from Bacillus licheniformis%地衣芽孢杆菌β-甘露聚糖酶的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张峻; 何志敏; 胡鲲; 冯耀宇; 张志钢

    2001-01-01

    提出了一种地衣芽孢杆菌β-甘露聚糖酶制备的工艺。结果表明:在设定的操作条件下,6.6L自控罐发酵酶活可达260u/mL。发酵液用AlCl3与壳聚糖絮凝预处理后,絮凝体喷雾干燥可制成900u/g的酶粉,适合饲料和造纸工业使用;絮凝上清液先以平均截留分子质量5万的中空纤维聚砜膜分离,透过液再用平均截留分子质量1万的中空纤维聚砜膜浓缩后,喷雾干燥可制成11000u/g的酶粉,适合食品和医药工业使用。以上工艺酶活总收率88%,并易于工业放大。%A process has been developed for the preparation of β-mannanase from Bacillus licheniformis. The enzyme activity was 260 u/mL when incubated in a 6.6L fermentor under the designed conditions. After pretreatment of culture broth using flocculants of AlCl3 and chitosan,the floc was spray-dried (900 u/g) for use in feed or pulp industries, while the supernatant was fractionated by polysulfone membrane and then concentrated by polysulfone membrane. The final product was spray-dried (11 000u/g) for use in food or pharmaceutical industries. The proposed process resulted in the total yield of β-mannanase activity of 88 % and is easily scale-up.

  13. Molecular and biochemical characteristics of recombinant β-propeller phytase from Bacillus licheniformis strain PB-13 with potential application in aquafeed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Sangwan, Punesh; Verma, A K; Agrawal, Sanjeev

    2014-05-01

    Phytic acid is the major storage form of organic phosphorus in nature- and plant-based animal feed. It forms insoluble complexes with nutritionally important metals and proteins that are unavailable for monogastric or agastric animals. Phytases initiate the stepwise hydrolysis of phytic acid and release inorganic orthophosphate. In the present investigation, the phytase gene from a phytase producing Bacillus licheniformis strain PB-13 was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. Recombinant phytase 'rPhyPB13' was found to be catalytically active, with an activity of 0.97 U/mL and specific activity of 0.77 U/mg. The rPhyPB13 was purified to 14.10-fold using affinity chromatography. Similar to other β-propeller phytases, purified rPhyPB13 exhibited maximal activity at pH 6.0-6.5 and 60 °C in the presence of 1 mM Ca(2+) and was highly active over a wider pH range (pH 4.0-8.0) and high temperature (80 °C). It has shown maximum activity towards Na-phytate as substrate. The observed K m , V max and k cat of purified rPhyPB13 were 1.064 mM, 1.32 μmol/min/mg and 27.46 s(-1), respectively. PhyPB13 was resistant to trypsin inactivation, activated in presence of Ca(2+) and inhibited in presence of EDTA. Crude rPhyPB13 has good digestion efficiency for commercial feed and soybean meal. These results indicate that PhyPB13 is a β-propeller phytase that has application potential in aquaculture feed.

  14. Isolation and Phylogenetic Analysis of Thermophile Community Within Tanjung Sakti Hot Spring, South Sumatera, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heni Yohandini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A community of thermophiles within Tanjung Sakti Hot Spring (South Sumatera have been cultivated and identified based on 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence. The hot spring has temperature 80C-91C and pH 7-8. We used a simple method for culturing the microbes, by enriching the spring water with nutrient broth media. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the method could recover microbes, which clustered within four distinct taxonomic groups: Anoxybacillus, Geobacillus, Brevibacillus, and Bacillus. These microbes closely related to Anoxybacillus rupiensis, Anoxybacillus flavithermus, Geobacillus pallidus, Brevibacillus thermoruber, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus thermoamylovorans. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence of one isolate only had 96% similarity with Brevibacillus sequence in GenBank.

  15. Partial Characterisation of Bacteriocins Produced by Bacillus cereus Isolates from Milk and Milk Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Bogović Matijašić

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty one (19.2 % out of 161 Bacillus cereus isolates from raw milk and milk products were found to produce proteinaceous substances which inhibit the growth of other B. cereus isolates. The detection of antibacterial activity depended on medium and method used. Bactericidal activity was detected in 23 (14 % or 19 (12 % of the tested strains on the triptic soya agar and brain-heart infusion with glucose, respectively, while 11 (7 % of the strains produced bactericidal substances on both media. Nineteen percent of isolates from raw milk and 20 % of isolates from milk products were found to produce bacteriocins. Four B. cereus isolates inhibited the growth of individual test strains belonging to B. licheniformis, B. subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus helveticus and L. casei species. The bacteriocins of four B. cereus isolates were studied in more detail. The production and activity of these substances were detected in stationary- phase of bacterial culture. Two of them were stable after heating at 60 °C, while only one was stable after heating at 75 °C for 15 minutes. All of them were active over a range of pH=3–10. The apparent molecular weights of four bacteriocins detected by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis were in the range of 1 to 8 kDa.

  16. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes biofilms by bacteriocin-producing bacteria isolated from mushroom substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolocan, A S; Pennone, V; O'Connor, P M; Coffey, A; Nicolau, A I; McAuliffe, O; Jordan, K

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the ability of naturally occurring bacteria isolated from mushroom substrate to prevent biofilm formation by Listeria monocytogenes or to remove existing biofilms in mushroom production facilities. It is generally recognized that L. monocytogenes forms biofilms that can facilitate its survival in food-processing environments. Eleven bacteriocin-producing isolates were identified and the bacteriocins characterized based on heat and enzyme inactivation studies. Further characterization was undertaken by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, PCR and sequencing. Production of nisin Z (by Lactococcus lactis isolates), subtilomycin (by Bacillus subtilis isolates) and lichenicidin (by Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus sonorensis isolates) was detected. In co-culture with L. monocytogenes, the bacteriocin-producing strains could prevent biofilm formation and reduce pre-formed biofilms. Mushroom substrate can be a source of bacteriocin-producing bacteria that can antagonize L. monocytogenes. The results highlight the potential of bacteriocin-producing strains from mushroom substrate to reduce L. monocytogenes biofilm in food production environments, contributing to a reduction in the risk of food contamination from the environment. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Isolation and characterization of beneficial bacteria associated with citrus roots in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Pankaj; Spann, Timothy; Wang, Nian

    2011-08-01

    Cultivable diversity of bacteria associated with citrus was investigated as part of a larger study to understand the roles of beneficial bacteria and utilize them to increase the productive capacity and sustainability of agro-ecosystems. Citrus roots from Huanglongbing (HLB) diseased symptomatic and asymptomatic citrus were used in this study. A total of 227 and 125 morphologically distinct colonies were isolated and characterized from HLB asymptomatic and symptomatic trees, respectively. We observed that the frequency of bacterial isolates possessing various plant beneficial properties was significantly higher in the asymptomatic samples. A total of 39 bacterial isolates showing a minimum of five beneficial traits related to mineral nutrition [phosphate (P) solubilization, siderophore production, nitrogen (N) fixation], development [indole acetic acid (IAA) synthesis], health [production of antibiotic and lytic enzymes (chitinase)], induction of systemic resistance [salicylic acid (SA) production], stress relief [production of 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase] and production of quorum sensing [N-acyl homoserine lactones] signals were characterized. A bioassay using ethidium monoazide (EMA)-qPCR was developed to select bacteria antagonistic to Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. Using the modified EMA-qPCR assay, we found six bacterial isolates showing maximum similarity to Paenibacillus validus, Lysinibacillus fusiformis, Bacillus licheniformis, Pseudomonas putida, Microbacterium oleivorans, and Serratia plymutica could significantly reduce the population of viable Ca. L. asiaticus in HLB symptomatic leaf samples. In conclusion, we have isolated and characterized multiple beneficial bacterial strains from citrus roots which have the potential to enhance plant growth and suppress diseases.

  18. Enterotoxins and emetic toxins production by Bacillus cereus and other species of Bacillus isolated from Soumbala and Bikalga, African alkaline fermentedfood condiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouoba, Labia Irene I.; Thorsen, Line; Varnam, Alan H.

    2008-01-01

    -hemolytic enterotoxin (NheA, NheB, NheC) and EM1 specific of emetic toxin producerswas also investigated using PCR with single pair and multiplex primers. Of 41 isolates, 29 Bacillus belonging to the species of B. cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus pumilus showed haemolysis on blood agar......The ability of various species of Bacillus from fermented seeds of Parkia biglobosa known as African locust bean(Soumbala) and fermented seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Bikalga) was investigated. The study included screening of the isolates by haemolysis on blood agar, detection of toxins in broth...... and during the fermentation of African locust bean using the Bacillus cereus Enterotoxin Reverse Passive Latex Agglutination test kit (BCETRPLA) and the Bacillus Diarrhoeal Enterotoxin Visual Immunoassay (BDEVIA). Detection of genes encoding´cytotoxin K (CytK), haemolysin BL (Hbl A, Hbl C, Hbl D), non...

  19. 地衣芽孢杆菌原生质体电转化方法的研究%Transformation of Undomesticated Strains of Bacillus licheniformis by Protoplast Electroporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温赛; 杨建国

    2015-01-01

    为了解决地衣芽孢杆菌(Bacillus licheniformis)工业菌株难以转化的问题,将原生质体制备、电穿孔和原生质体再生技术相结合,建立了一种地衣芽孢杆菌原生质体电击转化方法.在对菌体生长状态、溶菌酶作用时间、电转电压、渗透压保护剂等条件进行优化后,试验了将不同类型的表达载体,即游离型质粒pGJ103 (3.3kb)和整合型质粒pAX01 (9.3kb),分别转入两株地衣芽孢杆菌工业生产菌株B.licheniformis CICC 10181和B.licheniformis CICC 20204中.实验结果显示,对数生长期后期的菌体酶解40min后制备的地衣芽孢杆菌原生质体得率为96%,再生率达25%以上.原生质体与质粒DNA在最适电压0.6kV/mm下电击转化,并以0.5mol/L山梨醇或甘露醇作为渗透压保护剂进行再生培养后,最终游离型质粒的转化率可达0.88×102~1.1×102 CFU/μgpGJ103,整合型质粒的转化率达到0.45×102~0.52×102 CFU/μg pAX01.该方法为地衣芽孢杆菌野生工业菌株的遗传改造提供了一种新的、高效的转化手段.

  20. Identification and Pathogenic Potential of Clinical Bacillus and Paenibacillus Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celandroni, Francesco; Salvetti, Sara; Gueye, Sokhna Aissatou; Mazzantini, Diletta; Lupetti, Antonella; Senesi, Sonia; Ghelardi, Emilia

    2016-01-01

    The soil-related Bacillus and Paenibacillus species have increasingly been implicated in various human diseases. Nevertheless, their identification still poses problems in the clinical microbiology laboratory and, with the exception of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus, little is known on their pathogenicity for humans. In this study, we evaluated the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in the identification of clinical isolates of these genera and conducted genotypic and phenotypic analyses to highlight specific virulence properties. Seventy-five clinical isolates were subjected to biochemical and MALDI-TOF MS identification. 16S rDNA sequencing and supplemental tests were used to solve any discrepancies or failures in the identification results. MALDI-TOF MS significantly outperformed classical biochemical testing for correct species identification and no misidentification was obtained. One third of the collected strains belonged to the B. cereus species, but also Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis were isolated at high rate. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that all the B. cereus, B. licheniformis, B. simplex, B. mycoides, Paenibacillus glucanolyticus and Paenibacillus lautus isolates are resistant to penicillin. The evaluation of toxin/enzyme secretion, toxin-encoding genes, motility, and biofilm formation revealed that B. cereus displays the highest virulence potential. However, although generally considered nonpathogenic, most of the other species were shown to swim, swarm, produce biofilms, and secrete proteases that can have a role in bacterial virulence. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS appears useful for fast and accurate identification of Bacillus and Paenibacillus strains whose virulence properties make them of increasing clinical relevance.

  1. Identification and Pathogenic Potential of Clinical Bacillus and Paenibacillus Isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Celandroni

    Full Text Available The soil-related Bacillus and Paenibacillus species have increasingly been implicated in various human diseases. Nevertheless, their identification still poses problems in the clinical microbiology laboratory and, with the exception of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus, little is known on their pathogenicity for humans. In this study, we evaluated the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS in the identification of clinical isolates of these genera and conducted genotypic and phenotypic analyses to highlight specific virulence properties. Seventy-five clinical isolates were subjected to biochemical and MALDI-TOF MS identification. 16S rDNA sequencing and supplemental tests were used to solve any discrepancies or failures in the identification results. MALDI-TOF MS significantly outperformed classical biochemical testing for correct species identification and no misidentification was obtained. One third of the collected strains belonged to the B. cereus species, but also Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis were isolated at high rate. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that all the B. cereus, B. licheniformis, B. simplex, B. mycoides, Paenibacillus glucanolyticus and Paenibacillus lautus isolates are resistant to penicillin. The evaluation of toxin/enzyme secretion, toxin-encoding genes, motility, and biofilm formation revealed that B. cereus displays the highest virulence potential. However, although generally considered nonpathogenic, most of the other species were shown to swim, swarm, produce biofilms, and secrete proteases that can have a role in bacterial virulence. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS appears useful for fast and accurate identification of Bacillus and Paenibacillus strains whose virulence properties make them of increasing clinical relevance.

  2. 一株地衣芽孢杆菌的性质研究及发酵培养基优化%Research on the Character and Optimization of Fermentation Medium for Bacillus licheniformis, KL6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘阳; 谭明; 潘宝平; 宋诙

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究实验室自分离的地衣芽孢杆菌KL6作为微生物饲料添加剂的可行性,并对其发酵培养基进行优化,确定最佳培养条件,为工业化发酵提供依据.[方法]运用表型试验对其进行生理生化评价及产酶评价;运用4因素3水平正交试验和单因素试验对其培养基进行改进,并对其发酵条件进行优化.[结果]地衣芽孢杆菌KL6的D-葡萄糖产酸试验、硝酸盐还原试验、淀粉水解试验等均呈阳性;4种因素对活菌数影响的显著性次序为:MnSO4>NaCl>酵母粉>蛋白胨,对芽孢数影响的显著性次序为:MnSO4>蛋白胨>NaCl>酵母粉,培养基的最佳配比为:蛋白胨1.0%、酵母粉0.5%、NaCl 1.0%、25%浓度的硫酸锰0.2%;生长适宜温度为37℃,进行发酵罐放大培养,最佳放罐时间应在14~16 h,获得的菌体数量约101.63×109个/ml,芽孢率为97.11%.[结论]体外评价试验表明,地衣芽孢杆菌KL6具有作为微生物饲料添加剂的潜力;发酵培养基及条件优化试验表明,地衣芽孢杆菌KL6能够适于高密度液体发酵.该试验为以KL6为基础的微生物饲料添加剂的开发和大规模发酵培养提供了理论依据.%[Objective] The aim was to study the feasibility of separating Bacillus licheniformis, KL6, as microbial feed additives, optimized its fermentation medium, and determined the optimum culture condition so as to provide a basis of industrial fermentation. [Method] The physiological and biochemical and enzyme-producing of Bacillus licheniformis, KL6, were evaluated by phenotypic tests. Fermentation medium and conditions by and 4- factors and 3-levels orthogonal and single-factor expts improved the culture medium and optimized fermentation condition. [Result] The number of viable cell was influenced by four factors in order of significance as follows:MnSO4 > NaCl > Yeast extract > Peptone, the number of spores was MnSO4 > Peptone > NaCl > Yeast extract, and the

  3. Geno- and phenotypic characterization of lactic acid bacteria and Bacillus spp. strains isolated from African indigenous fermented food products and their applications in the food and feed industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adimpong, David Bichala

    African indigenous fermented food products are characterized by complex and diverse groups of microorganisms and therefore offer a rich source for selection of microbial strains for various applications in the biotechnology and food bio-processing sectors. There is however, a global public health......) and Bacillus spp. strains isolated from selected African indigenous fermented food products in order to gain an in-depth knowledge on their physiology, safety and genomics in consideration for different biotechnological applications. The study was categorised into the 3 major research areas; microbial......).By the broth microdilution technique, the LAB strains and 85 Bacillus spp. strains representing 38 B. licheniformis, 29 B. subtilis subsp. subtilis and 18 B. sonorensis strains were characterised for susceptibility to antimicrobial compounds of clinical and veterinary importance. The LAB strains were...

  4. Effects of Bacillus licheniformis on Production Performance of Pregnancy and Lactation Sows and Ammonia Concentration in Piggeries%地衣芽孢杆菌对妊娠及哺乳母猪生产性能及猪舍氨气浓度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭丽华; 索成; 刘海涛

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to explore effects of Bacillus licheniformis on production performance of pregnancy and lactation sows and the ammonia concentration in piggeries. [Method] Landrace × Lange sows before 30 d pregnancy were fed with basic feed added inocula and power of B. licheniformis, and effects of B. licheniformis on production performance of pregnancy and lactation sows and the ammonia concentration in piggeries were investigated. [Result] Compared with control,B. licheniformis could reduce the constipation ratio of sows,the mortality ratio of piglets and ammonia concentration in piggeries significantly. It could also improve the daily feed of sows and the diarrhea ratio of piglets significantly. [Conclusion] B. licheniformis can increase the production performance of sows and piglets effectively, improve the environment of piggeries and reduce environmental pollution.%[目的]探讨地衣芽孢杆菌菌剂和菌粉对妊娠及哺乳母猪生产性能和猪舍氨气浓度的影响.[方法]选用产前30 d的妊娠母猪(长×大)为试验对象,通过在基础日粮中分别添加地衣芽孢杆菌菌剂和菌粉,考察其对妊娠及哺乳母猪生产性能和猪舍氨气浓度的影响.[结果]与对照组相比,饲喂地衣芽孢杆菌后能显著降低母猪便秘率、仔猪腹泻率及猪舍氨气浓度,且对母猪采食量及仔猪死淘率等也有明显改善.[结论]在饲料中添加地衣芽孢杆菌能有效提高母猪及仔猪的生长性能,改善猪舍环境,降低污染.

  5. Isoler nu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, N.E.; Ankerstjerne, P.; Jørgensen, B.

    Omfattende vejledning, der angiver, hvordan energiforbruget i eksisterende huse kan nedbringes ved isolering, tætning og forbedring af varmeanlægget, og hvor meget det koster. Anvisningen indeholder detaljerede eksempler på efterisolering af ydervægge, tage, gulve og vinduer. Henvender sig til...

  6. Isolation World

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    El trabajo de fin de grado tiene como nombre “Isolation World”, que en su traducción literal significa “Aislamiento del mundo”, un videojuego diseñado y creado desde cero en su totalidad, utilizando herramientas y conocimiento de lógica en programación que se han ido aprendiendo y desarrollando a lo largo de la carrera.

  7. 根际接种芽孢杆菌对辣椒和黄瓜壮苗形成的作用%Effects of Rhizosphere Inoculation with Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus polymyxa on Pepper and Cucumber Seedling Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常冬梅; 张志刚; 尚庆茂

    2010-01-01

    将地衣芽孢杆菌(Bacillus licheniformis)、多粘芽孢杆菌(Bacillus polymyxa)悬浮液注射接种至辣椒、黄瓜幼苗根际,分析对幼苗生长发育及其相关生理指标的影响.结果表明:辣椒苗期根际接种芽孢杆菌后,显著提高了幼苗净光合速率和根系活力,促进了矿质元素的吸收积累,增产幅度29.3%~33.3%,多粘芽孢杆菌的接种效果明显优于地衣芽孢杆菌;黄瓜幼苗根际接种芽孢杆菌后,幼苗根系活力降低,进而抑制了矿质元素吸收和产量形成.

  8. Effect of temperature and pH on polygalacturonase production by pectinolytic bacteria Bacillus licheniformis strain GD2a in submerged medium from Raja Nangka (Musa paradisiaca var. formatypica) banana peel waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widowati, E.; Utami, R.; Mahadjoeno, E.; Saputro, G. P.

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this research were to determine the effect of temperature (45°C, 55°C, 65°C) and pH (5.0; 6.0; 7.0) on the increase of total cell count and polygalacturonase enzyme activity produced from raja nangka banana (Musa paradisiaca var. formatypica) peel waste by pectinolytic bacterial Bacillus licheniformis strain GD2a. This research applied two sample repetition and one analysis repetition. The result showed temperature and pH affect total cell count. The total cell count on 45°C and pH 7 recorded the highest number at 9.469 log cell/ml. Temperature and pH also affected pectin concentration at the end of fermentation. The lowest pectin concentration recorded at 45°C and pH 7 was 0.425 %. The highest enzyme activity recorded at 65°C and pH 7 was 0.204 U/ml. The highest enzyme protein concentration was recorded at 65°C and resulted as 0.310 mg/ml on pH 6. The highest specific activity was 19.527 U/mg at 65°C and pH 7. By this result, could be concluded that optimum condition process on polygalacturonase production was at 65°C and pH 7 because it gave highest enzyme activity result (0,204 U/ml).

  9. Isolation and characterization of osmotolerant bacteria from Thar Desert of Western Rajasthan (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramavtar Sharma

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Thar Desert harsher environment harbors a limited diversity of life forms due to extreme conditions like low moisture of sandy soils and high soil temperature. In the present study, osmotolerant bacteria from the Thar soils were isolated and characterized. Bacteria were isolated from 20 soil samples (100g, collected from sand dunes, suspended in water and absolute alcohol. A total of 11 biochemical and morphological tests were carried out for generic identification of bacteria. Osmotic tolerance capacity of isolates was examined on glycerol, NaCl and alcohol; and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene was also performed for bacterial identification. 16S to 23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer analysis (RISA was done for phylogenetic analysis of isolates. The soil suspended in water contained 2.5×10(6 bacteria/g of soil while alcohol suspended soil had 4.4×10(4 bacteria/g. The 24 bacterial isolates were found tolerant to 26% glycerol, 14% NaCl and 10% of alcohol, and 22 out of 24 isolates were found Gram positive. The results showed that 45.83% and 41.67% bacteria belong to Bacillus spp. and Corynebacterium spp., respectively, while Acinetobacter spp., Aeromonas spp. and Staphylococcus spp. were in equal proportion (4.16% each. Six isolates were selected for 16S rRNA gene sequencing and five were found 95% similar with Bacillus licheniformis whereas one isolate was identified as B. subtilis. All the isolates showed good growth up to 50°C with gradual reduction on subsequent increment of temperature. Out of 24 isolates, six could survive at 65°C while one isolate could grow at 63°C. Growth kinetic studies revealed that the reduction in generation time in solute(s and temperature stress was more as compared to generation time in plain medium. This study suggests that virgin sand dunes may be a rich source of bacteria, tolerant to osmotrophic solutes, and can be examined for plant growth promotion activity in agriculture. Moreover, study might help to

  10. Native soil bacteria isolates in Mexico exhibit a promising antagonistic effect against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero-Ramírez, Jesús Damián; López-Rivera, Raquel; Figueroa-Lopez, Alejandro Miguel; Mancera-López, María Elena; Martínez-Álvarez, Juan Carlos; Apodaca-Sánchez, Miguel Ángel; Maldonado-Mendoza, Ignacio Eduardo

    2013-10-01

    Sinaloa state accounts for 23% of Mexico's tomato production. One constraint on this important crop is the Fusarium crown and root rot, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, which has been reported to reduce crop yield by up to 50%. In this study, we set out to identify bacterial populations which could be used to control this disease through natural antagonism. Five tomato rhizospheric soil samples were collected, dried for 1-week, and homogenized. Sub-samples were used to prepare an aqueous solution used to isolate microorganisms in pure cultures. Organisms were purified and grown separately, and used to generate a collection of 705 bacterial isolates. Thirty-four percent from this bank (254 strains) was screened against Forl, finding 27 bacteria displaying in vitro Forl growth inhibition levels from 5% to 60%. These isolates belonged to the genus Bacillus and their 16Sr DNA sequences showed that they are closely related to seven species and they were putatively designated as: B. subtilis, B. cereus, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. licheniformis, B. thuringiensis, B. megaterium, and B. pumilus. One isolate belonged to the genus Acinetobacter. Two B. subtilis isolates (144 and 151) and one B. cereus isolate (171) showed the best antagonistic potential against FCRRT when evaluated on seedlings. Plate and activity assays indicate that these isolates include a diverse repertoire of functional antagonistic traits that might explain their ability to control FCRRT. Moreover, bacteria showed partial hemolytic activity, and future research will be directed at ensuring that their application will be not harmful for humans and effective against Forl in greenhouse or field conditions.

  11. Isolation and Identification of Alicyclobacillus with High Dipicolinic Acid and Heat Resistant Proteins from Mango Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Akhbariyoon

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Microbial spoilage of juices and industries related with Alicyclobacillus are considerable international issues. This spore-forming bacterium causes changes in juices odor and taste. The isolation and identification of Alicyclobacillus contamination in juice producing and packaging industries has an essential role in the prevention and control of this type of spoilage bacterium in HACCP (Hazard analysis and critical control points manner.Materials and Methods: A thermo-acidophilic, non-pathogenic and sporeforming bacterium was isolated from mango juice. Preliminary identification of the isolates was based on morphological, biochemical and physiological properties. Identification at species level was made by PCR amplification. The influence of temperature in the range of 25-65°C in the growth of bacterium and in the range of 80-120°C in spore-resistant and heat resistant proteins was investigated and compared with other spore producing bacteria.Results and Conclusion: Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequencing indicated that the isolated strain constituted a distinct lineage in the Alicyclobacillus cluster and submitted to NCBI with access number Alicyclobacillus HRM-5 KM983424.1. The spores resisted 110°C for 3 h, and produced 28% dipicolinic acid more comparable to Bacillus licheniformis. Also they could produce 0.69 mg heat resistance protein after 1.5 h treatment in 100°C. The results showed that this strain could have biotechnological applications.Conflict of interests: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  12. Efficacy of a marine bacterial nuclease against biofilm forming microorganisms isolated from chronic rhinosinusitis.

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    Robert C Shields

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The persistent colonization of paranasal sinus mucosa by microbial biofilms is a major factor in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS. Control of microorganisms within biofilms is hampered by the presence of viscous extracellular polymers of host or microbial origin, including nucleic acids. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of extracellular DNA in biofilm formation by bacteria associated with CRS. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Obstructive mucin was collected from patients during functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Examination of the mucous by transmission electron microscopy revealed an acellular matrix punctuated occasionally with host cells in varying states of degradation. Bacteria were observed in biofilms on mucosal biopsies, and between two and six different species were isolated from each of 20 different patient samples. In total, 16 different bacterial genera were isolated, of which the most commonly identified organisms were coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus and α-haemolytic streptococci. Twenty-four fresh clinical isolates were selected for investigation of biofilm formation in vitro using a microplate model system. Biofilms formed by 14 strains, including all 9 extracellular nuclease-producing bacteria, were significantly disrupted by treatment with a novel bacterial deoxyribonuclease, NucB, isolated from a marine strain of Bacillus licheniformis. Extracellular biofilm matrix was observed in untreated samples but not in those treated with NucB and extracellular DNA was purified from in vitro biofilms. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data demonstrate that bacteria associated with CRS form robust biofilms which can be reduced by treatment with matrix-degrading enzymes such as NucB. The dispersal of bacterial biofilms with NucB may offer an additional therapeutic target for CRS sufferers.

  13. Genetic improvement of α-amylase producing Bacillus licheniformis by homolog-mediated α-amylase gene amplification%通过同源介导α-淀粉酶基因扩增改良地衣芽孢杆菌α-淀粉酶生产菌株

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛丹丹; 石贵阳; 王正祥

    2009-01-01

    地衣芽孢杆菌高温α-淀粉酶(BLA)是淀粉水解与生物加工过程中重要关键酶制剂之一.为了进一步提高地衣芽孢杆菌高温α-淀粉酶生产菌株的生产性能,本研究构建了一种含有地衣芽孢杆菌高温α-淀粉酶编码基因amyL的整合性重组质粒pBL-amyL.将重组质粒pBL-amyL转化入BLA工业生产菌株Bacillus licheniformis B0204,再在卡那霉素存在下介导其B.1icheniformis B0204染色体中的同源整合与高温α-淀粉酶编码基因amyL的扩增,由此获得了携带多个amyL拷贝的转化子.对转化子的amyL拷贝数及其BLA发酵水平分别用荧光实时定量PCR及摇瓶发酵试验进行评价与鉴定.与出发菌株B0204相比,含2~5倍amyL拷贝数的重组菌的BLA的合成水平显著提高.其中,重组菌REBL18生产BLA的水平提高了89.2%.%Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase (BLA) is one of the most important enzymes involved in starch hydrolysis and many biotechnological processes. To improve the BLA productivity, an integrative plasmid pBL-amyL carrying amyL gene encoding a thermophilic α-amylase of B. licheniformis was constructed and transformed into B. licheniformis B0204, an industrial α-amylase producer. The transformants harboring different copies of amyL were developed on kanamycin by using homolog-mediated chromosomal amplification of α-amylase gene. The recombinants with different multiple copies of amyL integrated in the chromosome were identified by real-time PCR and evaluated by shake-flask fermentation. Recombinants harboring 2-5 multiple copies of amyL produced more α-amylase comparison to the parental strain B0204.

  14. Atrazine degradation by aerobic microorganisms isolated from the rhizosphere of sweet flag (Acorus calamus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marecik, Roman; Króliczak, Paweł; Czaczyk, Katarzyna; Białas, Wojciech; Olejnik, Anna; Cyplik, Paweł

    2008-04-01

    In presented study the capability of microorganisms isolated from the rhizosphere of sweet flag (Acorus calamus) to the atrazine degradation was assessed. Following isolation of the microorganisms counts of psychrophilic bacteria, mesophilic bacteria and fungi were determined. Isolated microorganisms were screened in terms of their ability to decompose a triazine herbicide, atrazine. Our results demonstrate that within the rhizosphere of sweet flag there were 3.8x10(7) cfu of psychrophilic bacteria, 1.8x10(7) cfu of mesophilic bacteria, and 6x10(5) cfu of fungi per 1 g of dry root mass. These microorganisms were represented by more than 20 different strains, and at the first step these strains were grown for 5 days in the presence of atrazine at a concentration of 5 mg/l. In terms of the effect of this trial culture, the bacteria reduced the level of atrazine by an average of about 2-20%, but the average level of reduction by fungi was in the range 18-60%. The most active strains involved in atrazine reduction were then selected and identified. These strains were classified as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus megaterium, Rahnella aquatilis (three strains), Umbelopsis isabellina, Volutella ciliata and Botrytis cinerea. Culturing of the microorganisms for a longer time resulted in high atrazine degradation level. The highest degradation level was observed at atrazine concentrations of 5 mg/l for S. maltophilia (83.5% after 15 days of culture) and for Botrytis sp. (82% after 21 days of culture). Our results indicate that microorganisms of the sweet flag rhizosphere can play an important role in the bioremediation of atrazine-contaminated sites.

  15. Isolation and characterization of Bacillus subtilis CH16 strain from chicken gastrointestinal tracts for use as a feed supplement to promote weight gain in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, A T V; Nguyen, D V; Tran, M T; Nguyen, L T; Nguyen, A H; Phan, T-N

    2015-06-01

    Spore-forming bacterial strains were isolated from chicken gastrointestinal tracts to develop a heat-stable feed supplement that promotes weight gain in broilers. Seven Bacillus strains having more than 90% sporulation were screened from the isolates and identified to be closely related with Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis. Of the seven strains, B. subtilis CH16 was selected to develop a feed supplement for broilers, because it formed 100% heat-stable spores, grew rapidly at 42°C and quickly formed a biofilm. In large-scale trials in broilers (n ≥ 1150 per group), the group fed CH16 (3 × 10(6) CFU g(-1) pellet) showed higher average daily gain (ADG = 61·16) and lower food conversion ratio (FCR = 1·696) than did the group fed B. licheniformis CH22 (ADG = 57·10 and FCR = 1·792), the group fed B. subtilis HU58 (ADG = 51·90 and FCR = 1·868), BioPlus group (ADG = 59·32 and FCR = 1·807) and the control group (ADG = 56·02 and FCR = 1·880). In conclusion, CH16 spores significantly increased ADG by 9·17% and reduced FCR by 9·79% in broilers. The result supports the use of B. subtilis CH16 of chicken intestinal origin as a feed supplement that promote weight gain in broilers. Significance and impact of the study: This study reports screening of Bacillus strains isolated from chicken gastrointestinal tracts for development of a feed supplement that promote weight gain in broilers. Of the seven Bacillus isolates with high sporulation efficiency (≥90%), Bacillus subtilis CH16 strain showed the best growth and biofilm formation at body temperature of broilers (42°C). In large-scale trials in broilers (n ≥ 1150 per group), CH16 spores induced a 9·17% increase in daily weight gain (ADG) and a 9·79% reduction in FCR while the commercial BioPlus(®) YC induced only a 5·89% increase in ADG and a 3·88% reduction in FCR. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Biodegradation of international jet A-1 aviation fuel by microorganisms isolated from aircraft tank and joint hydrant storage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itah, A Y; Brooks, A A; Ogar, B O; Okure, A B

    2009-09-01

    Microorganisms contaminating international Jet A-1 aircraft fuel and fuel preserved in Joint Hydrant Storage Tank (JHST) were isolated, characterized and identified. The isolates were Bacillus subtillis, Bacillus megaterium, Flavobacterium oderatum, Sarcina flava, Micrococcus varians, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus brevis. Others included Candida tropicalis, Candida albicans, Saccharomyces estuari, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium resinae, Penicillium citrinum and Penicillium frequentans. The viable plate count of microorganisms in the Aircraft Tank ranged from 1.3 (+/-0.01) x 104 cfu/mL to 2.2 (+/-1.6) x 104 cfu/mL for bacteria and 102 cfu/mL to 1.68 (+/-0.32) x 103 cfu/mL for fungi. Total bacterial counts of 1.79 (+/-0.2) x 104 cfu/mL to 2.58 (+/-0.04) x 104 cfu/mL and total fungal count of 2.1 (+/-0.1) x 103 cfu/mL to 2.28 (+/-0.5) x 103 cfu/mL were obtained for JHST. Selected isolates were re-inoculated into filter sterilized aircraft fuels and biodegradation studies carried out. After 14 days incubation, Cladosporium resinae exhibited the highest degradation rate with a percentage weight loss of 66 followed by Candida albicans (60.6) while Penicillium citrinum was the least degrader with a weight loss of 41.6%. The ability of the isolates to utilize the fuel as their sole source of carbon and energy was examined and found to vary in growth profile between the isolates. The results imply that aviation fuel could be biodegraded by hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms. To avert a possible deterioration of fuel quality during storage, fuel pipe clogging and failure, engine component damage, wing tank corrosion and aircraft disaster, efficient routine monitoring of aircraft fuel systems is advocated.

  17. Isolated sleep paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep paralysis - isolated; Parasomnia - isolated sleep paralysis ... Episodes of isolated sleep paralysis last from a few seconds to 1 or 2 minutes. During these episodes the person is unable to move ...

  18. Use of Nonspecific, Glutamic Acid-Free, Media and High Glycerol or High Amylase as Inducing Parameters for Screening Bacillus Isolates Having High Yield of Polyglutamic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxi, Nandita N

    2014-01-01

    Out of fifty-five Bacillus isolates obtained from ten different regional locations and sources, seven showed the ability to consistently produce specific extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) on rich as well as synthetic but nonspecific media which did not contain glutamic acid. The isolates were identified as either Bacillus licheniformis or Bacillus subtilis. The EPS from all isolates was resistant to alpha protease, proteinase K, and was thus of high molecular weight. Further it was detected after SDS-PAGE by methylene blue but not by coomassie blue R staining as in case of proteins with high proportion of acidic amino acids. Cell-free EPS, after acid hydrolysis, showed absence of carbohydrates and presence of only glutamic acid. Thus the native the EPS from all seven isolates was confirmed to be gamma polyglutamic acid (PGA) and not exopolysaccharide. The Bacillus isolate T which produced maximum polymer on all media tested had higher amylase: protease activity as compared to other strains. If inoculum was developed in rich medium as compared to synthetic medium, the PGA produced increased by twofold in the subsequent synthetic production medium. Similarly, use of inoculum consisting of young and vegetative cells also increased the PGA production by twofold though amount of inoculum did not affect yield of PGA. Though PGA was produced in even in the absence of glutamic acid supplementation in the production medium by all isolates, the yield of PGA increased by fourfold in the presence glutamic acid and the maximum yield was 30 g/l for isolate K. The supplementation of glutamine instead of glutamic acid into the medium caused an increase in the viscosity of the non-Newtonian solution of PGA.

  19. Growth inhibition of shrimp pathogens by isolated gastrointestinal microflora of Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seehanat, S.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The useful bacteria which were isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man, cultivated in earthen pond at Maha Sarakham province, Thailand, consisted of 14 isolates of Bacillus (B1 – B14 and 18 isolates of Lactic acid bacteria (LA1 – LA18. The abilities of all isolated bacteria on growth inhibition of pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were studied by paperdisc plate method. The results showed that the Bacillus B2 and B5 were unable to inhibit the growth of all of the tested pathogens. Bacillus B1, B10 and B12 were capable of inhibiting the growth of 3 of 4 tested pathogen strains. Although all of the isolated lactic acid bacteria (LA1 –LA18 could not inhibit the E. coli growth, all of them could inhibit the growth of B. cereus. The isolated lactic acid bacteria which were capable of inhibiting the growth of 3 tested pathogen strains (excluded E. coli were LA12 , LA13 , LA14 , LA15 , LA16 , LA17 and LA18. In order to select the high potential strain of bacteria for using as probiotics, Bacillus B1 , B3 , B4 , B10 and B12 and lactic acid bacteria LA12 , LA13 , LA14 , LA15 , LA16 , LA17 and LA18 were tested for their growth abilities in various growth conditions. The tested growth conditions included various concentrations of the bile salt and salt (NaCl and various pH and temperatures. The results revealed that Bacillus B1 and B10 and lactic acid bacteria LA13 , LA16 and LA18 exhibited high potential for using as probiotics. The results of biochemical test for identification of these high potential strains showed that Bacillus B1 and B10 were possibly B. licheniformis and B. thuringiensis respectively. The lactic acid bacteria LA13 , LA16 and LA18 were possibly the same strain and belonged to the genus Pediococcus.

  20. Inhibitory effect of bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria against histamine-forming bacteria isolated from Myeolchi-jeot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Seo Lim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objectives of this study were to identify the histamine-forming bacteria and bacteriocin- producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB isolated from Myeolchi-jeot according to sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, to evaluate the inhibitory effects of the bacteriocin on the growth and histamine accumulation of histamine-forming bacteria, and to assess the physico-chemical properties of the bacteriocin. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, histamine-forming bacteria were identified as Bacillus licheniformis MCH01, Serratia marcescens MCH02, Staphylococcus xylosus MCH03, Aeromonas hydrophila MCH04, and Morganella morganii MCH05. The five LAB strains identified as Pediococcus acidilactici MCL11, Leuconostoc mesenteroides MCL12, Enterococcus faecium MCL13, Lactobacillus sakei MCL14, and Lactobacillus acidophilus MCL15 were found to produce an antibacterial compound with inhibitory activity against the tested histamine-producing bacteria. The inhibitory activity of these bacteriocins obtained from the five LAB remained stable after incubation at pH 4.0–8.0 and heating for 10 min at 80 °C; however, the bacteriocin activity was destroyed after treatment with papain, pepsin, proteinase K, α-chymotrypsin, or trypsin. Meanwhile, these bacteriocins produced by the tested LAB strains also exhibited histamine-degradation ability. Therefore, these antimicrobial substances may play a role in inhibiting histamine formation in the fermented fish products and preventing seafood-related food-borne disease caused by bacterially generated histamine.

  1. Production of autoinducer-2 by aerobic endospore-forming bacteria isolated from the West African fermented foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yang; Kando, Christine Kere; Thorsen, Line; Larsen, Nadja; Jespersen, Lene

    2015-11-01

    Autoinducer-2 (AI-2) is a quorum-sensing (QS) molecule which mediates interspecies signaling and affects various bacterial behaviors in food fermentation. Biosynthesis of AI-2 is controlled by S-ribosylhomocysteine lyase encoded by the luxS gene. The objective of this study was to investigate production of AI-2 by aerobic endospore-forming bacteria (AEB) isolated from the West African alkaline fermented seed products Mantchoua and Maari. The study included 13 AEB strains of Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, B. altitudinis, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. licheniformis, B. aryabhattai, B. safensis, Lysinibacillus macroides and Paenibacillus polymyxa. All the tested strains harbored the luxS gene and all strains except for P. polymyxa B314 were able to produce AI-2 during incubation in laboratory medium. Production of AI-2 by AEB was growth phase dependent, showing maximum activity at the late exponential phase. AI-2 was depleted from the culture medium at the beginning of the stationary growth phase, indicating that the tested AEB possess a functional AI-2 receptor that internalizes AI-2. This study provides the evidences of QS system in Bacillus spp. and L. macroides and new knowledge of AI-2 production by AEB. This knowledge contributes to the development of QS-based strategies for better control of alkaline fermentation.

  2. Isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonbergen, H.P. van; Poolman, R.W.; Kampen, A. van

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The optimal treatment for isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis is unclear at present. We systematically reviewed the highest level of available evidence on the nonoperative and operative treatment of isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis to develop an evidenced-based discu

  3. Isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonbergen, H.P. van; Poolman, R.W.; Kampen, A. van

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The optimal treatment for isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis is unclear at present. We systematically reviewed the highest level of available evidence on the nonoperative and operative treatment of isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis to develop an evidenced-based

  4. Identification of non-Listeria spp. bacterial isolates yielding a β-D-glucosidase-positive phenotype on Agar Listeria according to Ottaviani and Agosti (ALOA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelidis, Apostolos S; Kalamaki, Mary S; Georgiadou, Sofia S

    2015-01-16

    Agar Listeria according to Ottaviani and Agosti (ALOA) is the mandatory medium used for the detection and enumeration of Listeria monocytogenes in foods according to the official International Organization for Standardization (ISO) methods. On ALOA, Listeria spp. appear as bluish-green colonies due to the production of β-D-glucosidase, an enzyme that cleaves 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, a chromogenic substrate included in the formulation of the medium. The present work reports on bacterial isolates (n=64) from ready-to-eat soft cheeses, which are able to grow on ALOA, forming bluish-green colonies and therefore phenotypically resemble Listeria spp. All isolates were also capable of growing on the selective media PALCAM and RAPID L'mono. The isolates were characterised with biochemical tests including those specified in the ISO standards for the confirmation of Listeria spp. and identified via partial sequencing of their 16S rRNA gene. According to sequencing results the isolates represented 12 different bacterial species or species-groups belonging to seven different genera: Bacillus spp. (B. circulans, B. clausii, B. licheniformis and B. oleronius), Cellulosimicrobium spp. (C. funkei), Enterococcus spp. (E. faecalis, E. faecium/durans), Kocuria spp. (K. kristinae), Marinilactibacillus spp. (M. psychrotolerans), Rothia spp. (R. terrae) and Staphylococcus spp. (S. sciuri and S. saprophyticus subsp. saprophyticus/xylosus). Cellulosimicrobium spp. have never been previously isolated from foods. These results significantly extend the list of bacteria previously known as capable of growing on ALOA as bluish-green colonies and suggest that there may be room for further improvement in the medium's inhibitory properties towards non-Listeria spp., Gram-positive bacteria present in foods.

  5. Licheniocin 50.2 and Bacteriocins from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar. diacetylactis BGBU1-4 Inhibit Biofilms of Coagulase Negative Staphylococci and Listeria monocytogenes Clinical Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganic, Veselin; Lozo, Jelena; Beric, Tanja; Kojic, Milan; Arsic, Biljana; Garalejic, Eliana; Djukic, Slobodanka; Stankovic, Slavisa

    2016-01-01

    Background Coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) and Listeria monocytogenes have important roles in pathogenesis of various genital tract infections and fatal foetomaternal infections, respectively. The aim of our study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of two novel bacteriocins on biofilms of CoNS and L. monocytogenes genital isolates. Methods The effects of licheniocin 50.2 from Bacillus licheniformis VPS50.2 and crude extract of bacteriocins produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar. diacetylactis BGBU1-4 (BGBU1-4 crude extract) were evaluated on biofilm formation and formed biofilms of eight CoNS (four S. epidermidis, two S. hominis, one S. lugdunensis and one S. haemolyticus) and 12 L. monocytogenes genital isolates. Results Licheniocin 50.2 and BGBU1-4 crude extract inhibited the growth of both CoNS and L. monocytogenes isolates, with MIC values in the range between 200–400 AU/ml for licheniocin 50.2 and 400–3200 AU/ml for BGBU1-4 crude extract. Subinhibitory concentrations (1/2 × and 1/4 × MIC) of licheniocin 50.2 inhibited biofilm formation by all CoNS isolates (p bacteriocins in concentrations of 100 AU/mL and 200 AU/mL reduced the amount of 24 h old CoNS and L. monocytogenes biofilms (p bacteriocins have potential to be used for genital application, to prevent biofilm formation and/or to eradicate formed biofilms, and consequently reduce genital and neonatal infections by CoNS and L. monocytogenes. PMID:27930711

  6. Mutation and premating isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, R C; Thompson, J N

    2002-11-01

    While premating isolation might be traceable to different genetic mechanisms in different species, evidence supports the idea that as few as one or two genes may often be sufficient to initiate isolation. Thus, new mutation can theoretically play a key role in the process. But it has long been thought that a new isolation mutation would fail, because there would be no other individuals for the isolation-mutation-carrier to mate with. We now realize that premeiotic mutations are very common and will yield a cluster of progeny carrying the same new mutant allele. In this paper, we discuss the evidence for genetically simple premating isolation barriers and the role that clusters of an isolation mutation may play in initiating allopatric, and even sympatric, species divisions.

  7. Bacillus piscis sp. nov., a novel bacterium isolated from the muscle of the antarctic fish Dissostichus mawsoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Bong; Jeon, Seon Hwa; Choi, Seok-Gwan; Jung, Hee-Young; Kim, Myung Kyum; Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a new bacterial strain designated as 16MFT21(T) is isolated from the muscle of a fish caught in the Antarctic Ocean. Strain 16MFT21(T) is a Gram-staining-positive, catalase-oxidase-positive, rod-shaped facultative-aerobic bacterium. The phylogenetic analysis that is based on the 16S-rRNA gene sequence of strain 16MFT21(T) revealed that it belongs to the genus Bacillus in the family Bacillaceae in the class Bacilli. The highest degrees of the sequence similarity of the strain 16MFT21(T) is with Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 14580(T) (96.6%) and Bacillus sonorensis NBRC 101234(T) (96.6%). The isolate formed a pale-yellow pigment, and it grew in the presence of 0% to 10% (w/v) NaCl (optimum at 2% NaCl), a pH of 6.0 to 10.0 (optimum pH from 7.0 to 8.0), and from 4°C to 30°C (optimum at 30°C). The major polar lipids consist of diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG). The predominant fatty acids are iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0, iso-C17:0, and anteiso-C17:0. The main respiratory quinone is menaquinone-7 (MK-7), and based on the use of the meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid, the peptidoglycan cell-wall type is A1γ. Based on the phylogenetic, phenotypic, and chemotaxonomic data, strain 16MFT21(T) (=KCTC 18866(T) =JCM 31664(T)) for which the name Bacillus piscis sp. nov. is proposed should be classified as a new species.

  8. Effect analysis of Bacillus subtilis two (Live) enteric-coated capsules combined with Bacillus licheniformis capsule in the treatment of antibiotic associated diarrhea%枯草杆菌二联活菌肠溶胶囊联合地衣芽胞杆菌活菌胶囊治疗老年抗生素相关性腹泻的效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁宏伟

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical effect of Bacillus subtilis two (Live) enteric-coated capsules combined with Bacillus licheniformis capsule in the treatment of antibiotic associated diarrhea. Methods 120 patients with an-tibiotic associated diarrhea in our hospital from February 2013 to February 2014 were selected,and were divided into three groups based on random number table,Bacillus subtilis two (Live) enteric-coated capsules group,Bacillus licheni-formis capsule group,and joint application of Bacillus subtilis two (Live) enteric-coated capsules and Bacillus licheni-formis capsule group.The therapeutic effects among three groups were compared. Results The cure rate of joint applica-tion of Bacillus subtilis two (Live) enteric-coated capsules and Bacillus licheniformis capsule group was higher than that of Bacillus subtilis two (Live) enteric-coated capsules group and Bacillus licheniformis capsule group,the differ-ence was significant (χ2=8.26,P=0.02).The number of diarrhea in healed patients of joint application of Bacillus subtilis two (Live) enteric-coated capsules and Bacillus licheniformis capsule group was less than that of Bacillus subtilis two (Live) enteric-coated capsules group and Bacillus licheniformis capsule group,the difference was significant (F=91.03, P=0.00). Conclusion Both Bacillus subtilis two (Live) enteric-coated capsules and Bacillus licheniformis capsule are classified into probiotics,and have some effect on treating senile associated diarrhea caused by antibiotics.Joint applica-tion of the two drugs displays remarkable effect on treating antibiotic associated diarrhea,and plays a certain assistant role in clinical treatment.%目的:探讨枯草杆菌二联活菌肠溶胶囊联合地衣芽胞杆菌活菌胶囊对老年抗生素相关性腹泻的临床疗效。方法收集2013年2月~2014年2月本院老年抗生素相关性腹泻患者120例,根据随机数字表法分为枯草杆菌二联活菌肠溶胶囊组、地衣芽胞杆

  9. Isolated Galaxies and Isolated Satellite Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ann, H B; Choi, Yun-Young

    2009-01-01

    We search for isolated galaxies using a volume-limited sample of galaxies with 0.02r_{vir,nei} and \\rho <\\bar{\\rho} well segregates the CIG galaxies. We confirm the morphology conformity between the host and their satellites, which suggests importance of hydrodynamic interaction among galaxies within their virial radii in galaxy evolution.

  10. Alternativ isolering i bygninger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T.; Skibstrup Eriksen, S.

    Denne SBI-meddelelse beskriver resultaterne af en undersøgelse af bygninger, hvor der er anvendt alternativ isolering. Undersøgelsen omfatter termografering og fugtmåling af udvendige bygningsdele isoleret med alternativ isolering. Endvidere rapporteres resultaterne af målinger af indholdet af tu...

  11. Isolation and characterization of gram-positive biosurfactant-producing halothermophilic bacilli from Iranian petroleum reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargari, Saeed; Ramezani, Amin; Ostvar, Sassan; Rezaei, Rasool; Niazi, Ali; Ayatollahi, Shahab

    2014-08-01

    Petroleum reservoirs have long been known as the hosts of extremophilic microorganisms. Some of these microorganisms are known for their potential biotechnological applications, particularly production of extra and intracellular polymers and enzymes. Here, 14 petroleum liquid samples from southern Iranian oil reservoirs were screened for presence of biosurfactant-producing halothermophiles. Mixture of the reservoir fluid samples with a minimal growth medium was incubated under an N2 atmosphere in 40°C; 0.5 mL samples were transferred from the aqueous phase to agar plates after 72 hours of incubation; 100 mL cell cultures were prepared using the MSS-1 (mineral salt solution 1) liquid medium with 5% (w/v) NaCl. The time-course samples were analyzed by recording the absorbance at 600 nm using a spectrophotometer. Incubation was carried out in 40°C with mild shaking in aerobic conditions. Thermotolerance was evaluated by growing the isolates at 40, 50, 60 and 70°C with varying NaCl concentrations of 5% and 10% (w/v). Halotolerance was evaluated using NaCl concentrations of 5%, 10%, 12.5% and 15% (w/v) and incubating them at 40°C under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Different phenotypic characteristics were evaluated, as outlined in Bergey's manual of determinative bacteriology. Comparing 16S rDNA sequences is one of the most powerful tools for classification of microorganisms. Among 34 isolates, 10 demonstrated biosurfactant production and growth at temperatures between 40°C and 70°C in saline media containing 5%-15% w/v NaCl. Using partial 16S rDNA sequencing (and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis [ARDRA]) and biochemical tests (API tests 20E and 50 CHB), all the 10 isolates proved to be facultative anaerobic, Gram-positive moderate thermohalophiles of the genus Bacillus (B. thermoglucosidasius, B. thermodenitrificans, B. thermoleovorans, B. stearothermophilus and B. licheniformis), exhibiting surface-active behaviors. General patterns include

  12. Isolation and Characterization of Gram-Positive Biosurfactant-Producing Halothermophilic Bacilli From Iranian Petroleum Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargari, Saeed; Ramezani, Amin; Ostvar, Sassan; Rezaei, Rasool; Niazi, Ali; Ayatollahi, Shahab

    2014-01-01

    Background: Petroleum reservoirs have long been known as the hosts of extremophilic microorganisms. Some of these microorganisms are known for their potential biotechnological applications, particularly production of extra and intracellular polymers and enzymes. Objectives: Here, 14 petroleum liquid samples from southern Iranian oil reservoirs were screened for presence of biosurfactant‐producing halothermophiles. Materials and Methods: Mixture of the reservoir fluid samples with a minimal growth medium was incubated under an N2 atmosphere in 40°C; 0.5 mL samples were transferred from the aqueous phase to agar plates after 72 hours of incubation; 100 mL cell cultures were prepared using the MSS-1 (mineral salt solution 1) liquid medium with 5% (w/v) NaCl. The time-course samples were analyzed by recording the absorbance at 600 nm using a spectrophotometer. Incubation was carried out in 40°C with mild shaking in aerobic conditions. Thermotolerance was evaluated by growing the isolates at 40, 50, 60 and 70°C with varying NaCl concentrations of 5% and 10% (w/v). Halotolerance was evaluated using NaCl concentrations of 5%, 10%, 12.5% and 15% (w/v) and incubating them at 40°C under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Different phenotypic characteristics were evaluated, as outlined in Bergey's manual of determinative bacteriology. Comparing 16S rDNA sequences is one of the most powerful tools for classification of microorganisms. Results: Among 34 isolates, 10 demonstrated biosurfactant production and growth at temperatures between 40°C and 70°C in saline media containing 5%‐15% w/v NaCl. Using partial 16S rDNA sequencing (and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis [ARDRA]) and biochemical tests (API tests 20E and 50 CHB), all the 10 isolates proved to be facultative anaerobic, Gram-positive moderate thermohalophiles of the genus Bacillus (B. thermoglucosidasius, B. thermodenitrificans, B. thermoleovorans, B. stearothermophilus and B. licheniformis

  13. 地衣芽胞杆菌与多烯磷脂酰胆碱联合治疗非酒精性脂肪性肝炎的疗效分析%The Effect Analysis of Bacillus Licheniformis and Polyene Phosphatidylcholine Combined Treatment of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾云波

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analysis the effect of bacillus licheniformis and polyene phosphatidylcholine combined treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.Methods 92 patients with non -alcoholic steatohepatitis , selected from 2012 January to 2014 January in our hospital , were randomly divided into control group and study group , respectively after treatment, compared two groups of patients with clinical symptom score , BMI, WHR, blood routine and B ultrasound score.Results Study group patients after treatment of clinical symptoms and BMI , WHR score was significantly lower than that of the control group , the difference was statistically significant ( P<0.05 ) ,After the treatment of blood and B ultrasound groups were lower than the control group , the difference was statistically significant ( P<0.05 ).Conclusions Effect of Bacillus licheniformis and polyene phosphati-dylcholine combined treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis than single polyene phosphatidylcholine in the treatment effect is good , no adverse reactions , it is worthy of popularization and application.%目的:分析地衣芽胞杆菌与多烯磷脂酰胆碱联合治疗非酒精性脂肪性肝炎的疗效。方法选取2012年1月~2014年1月收治的非酒精性脂肪性肝炎患者92例,随机分为对照组和研究组,分别治疗后对比两组患者临床症状评分、体重指数( BMI)、腰臀比( WHR)、血常规以及B超评分。结果治疗后,研究组的临床症状明显较好, BMI、WHR评分低于对照组,P<0.05;研究组的血常规与B超评分明显低于对照组,有统计学意义( P<0.05)。结论地衣芽胞杆菌与多烯磷脂酰胆碱联合治疗非酒精性脂肪性肝炎的疗效比单一多烯磷脂酰胆碱治疗效果好,无不良反应,值得推广应用。

  14. Isolated Vascular Vertigo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Strokes in the distribution of the posterior circulation may present with vertigo, imbalance, and nystagmus. Although the vertigo due to a posterior circulation stroke is usually associated with other neurologic symptoms or signs, small infarcts involving the cerebellum or brainstem can develop vertigo without other localizing symptoms. Approximately 11% of the patients with an isolated cerebellar infarction present with isolated vertigo, nystagmus, and postural unsteadiness mimicking acute peripheral vestibular disorders. The head impulse test can differentiate acute isolated vertigo associated with cerebellar strokes (particularly within the territory of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery) from more benign disorders involving the inner ear. Acute audiovestibular loss may herald impending infarction in the territory of anterior inferior cerebellar artery. Appropriate bedside evaluation is superior to MRIs for detecting central vascular vertigo syndromes. This article reviews the keys to diagnosis of acute isolated vertigo syndrome due to posterior circulation strokes involving the brainstem and cerebellum. PMID:25328871

  15. Base isolation: Fresh insight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shustov, V.

    1993-07-15

    The objective of the research is a further development of the engineering concept of seismic isolation. Neglecting the transient stage of seismic loading results in a widespread misjudgement: The force of resistance associated with velocity is mostly conceived as a source of damping vibrations, though it is an active force at the same time, during an earthquake type excitation. For very pliant systems such as base isolated structures with relatively low bearing stiffness and with artificially added heavy damping mechanism, the so called `damping`` force may occur even the main pushing force at an earthquake. Thus, one of the two basic pillars of the common seismic isolation philosophy, namely, the doctrine of usefulness and necessity of a strong damping mechanism, is turning out to be a self-deception, sometimes even jeopardizing the safety of structures and discrediting the very idea of seismic isolation. There is a way out: breaking with damping dependancy.

  16. Alternativ isolering i bygninger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2001-01-01

    Resume af rapport om målinger på alternative isoleringsmaterialer i bygninger, udgivet af Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut (SBI meddelelse 128) under Energistyrelsens udviklingsprogram "Miljø- og arbejdsmiljøvenlig isolering"...

  17. Isolated sleep paralysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sawant, Neena S.; Parkar, Shubhangi R.; Tambe, Ravindra

    2005-01-01

    Sleep paralysis (SP) is a cardinal symptom of narcolepsy. However, little is available in the literature about isolated sleep paralysis. This report discusses the case of a patient with isolated sleep paralysis who progressed from mild to severe SP over 8 years. He also restarted drinking alcohol to be able to fall asleep and allay his anxiety symptoms. The patient was taught relaxation techniques and he showed complete remission of the symptoms of SP on follow up after 8 months.

  18. Isolated sleep paralysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sawant, Neena S.; Shubhangi R Parkar; Tambe, Ravindra

    2005-01-01

    Sleep paralysis (SP) is a cardinal symptom of narcolepsy. However, little is available in the literature about isolated sleep paralysis. This report discusses the case of a patient with isolated sleep paralysis who progressed from mild to severe SP over 8 years. He also restarted drinking alcohol to be able to fall asleep and allay his anxiety symptoms. The patient was taught relaxation techniques and he showed complete remission of the symptoms of SP on follow up after 8 months.

  19. Isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Jonbergen, H.P. van; Poolman, R. W.; Kampen, A. van

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The optimal treatment for isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis is unclear at present. We systematically reviewed the highest level of available evidence on the nonoperative and operative treatment of isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis to develop an evidenced-based discussion of treatment options. METHODS: A systematic computerized database search (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE (PubMed), and EMBASE...

  20. Evaluation of effect of oral applying of Bacillus licheniformis CH 200: DSM 5749 and Bacillus subtilis CH 201: DSM 4750 on development and composition of red-eared slider’s (Trachemys scripta elegans intestinal microflora based on water quality changes in aquaterrariums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Rawski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Frequent cases of bacterial infections caused by contact with semi-aquatic turtles and water from their thanks had been reported in US, Japan and many other countries. In Poland the topic of microbiological hazard associated with reptile keeping is very rarely discussed. Even less is mentioned about eventual impact of probiotics as factors limiting the colonization and presence of harmful Enterobacteriaceae. The aim of the study was to investigate the microbiological threat related to turtles and tortoises; evaluating the use of probiotics to reduce intestinal pathogenic microflora of red-eared sliders, which is potentially hazardous to humans. The results of the study suggest that tank water is the potential reservoir of pathogenic microorganisms. Oral application of probiotics containing the Bacillus licheniformis CH 200: DSM 5749 and Bacillus subtilis CH 201: DSM 4750 resulted in building a probiotic population in turtle gastrointestinal tract. It affected the water microflora in aquaterrariums by increasing the total number of bacteria, including lactic acid bacteria. Reduction of the presence and quantity of Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 seems also to be relevant.

  1. Identification of nif genes in N2-fixing bacterial strains isolated from rice fields along the Yangtze River Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guang Hui; Cui, Zongjun; Yu, Jun; Yan, Jing; Hai, Weili; Steinberger, Yosef

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this research was to identify nifH and nifHDKYE ' genes in twenty strains of N2-fixing heterotrophic bacteria isolated from rice fields in the Yangtze River Plain. Southern hybridization of the total DNA from each strain was performed with the Klebsiella pneumoniae nifHDKYE ' gene probe (6.2 kb Eco RI fragment from pSA30) and the Azospirillum brasilense nifH gene probe (0.6 kb Eco RI-Hin dIII fragment from pHU8). We found that Eco RI fragments of total DNA from Aeromonas hydrophila HY2, Bacillus azotoformans FD, Bacillus licheniformis NCH1, NCH5, WH4, Bacillus brevis NC2, Bacillus pumilus NC12, Bacillus cereus NCH2, Citrobacter freundii HY5, HY9, Derxia gummosa HZ5, Pseudomonas mendocina HZ1 and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes WH3 were positively hybridized with both of the probes. Agrobacterium radiobacter HY17, Corynebacterium sp. HY12, YZ and Pseudomonas sp. HY11 had Eco RI fragments hybridized with the K. pneumoniae nifHDKYE ' gene probe. An Eco RI fragment of total DNA from Bacillus megaterium YY4 was positively hybridized to the A. brasilense nifH gene probe. No hybridization sign was found in the total DNA fragments from Alcaligenes cupidus YY6 and Corynebacterium sp. NC11 hybridized with either of the gene probes. The data provide the number and size of EcoRI fragments of the total DNA hybridized with the nif gene probes for these strains of rarely studied species, suggesting additional evidence for N2 fixing and nif gene diversity of N2-fixing bacteria in rice fields along the Yangtze River Plain.

  2. Isolated Splenic Hydatid Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Dilli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease (HD continues to be a significant health problem in areas where animal husbandry is common but no proper veterinary control exists. The involvement of the spleen in HD is rare, and isolated splenic involvement is even less common. In this case report, we present isolated splenic HD in a 26-year-old female with complaint of abdominal pain, and we discuss some of the clinical aspects of HD. Evaluation of the patient with ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed the presence of an isolated splenic HD as a multivesicular cystic mass located near splenic hilus, measuring 12×11 cm. No other organ or system involvement could be demonstrated.

  3. Isolated Fallopian Tube Torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kardakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated torsion of the Fallopian tube is a rare gynecological cause of acute lower abdominal pain, and diagnosis is difficult. There are no pathognomonic symptoms; clinical, imaging, or laboratory findings. A preoperative ultrasound showing tubular adnexal masses of heterogeneous echogenicity with cystic component is often present. Diagnosis can rarely be made before operation, and laparoscopy is necessary to establish the diagnosis. Unfortunately, surgery often is performed too late for tube conservation. Isolated Fallopian tube torsion should be suspected in case of acute pelvic pain, and prompt intervention is necessary.

  4. 普洱茶渥堆发酵过程中嗜热细菌的分离和鉴定%Isolation and identification of thermophilic bacteria during the pile-fermentation of Pu'er tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晨晨; 吕杰; 杨瑞娟; 严亮; 季爱兵; 赵远艳; 李艳华; 盛军

    2012-01-01

    pH values of Pu'er tea samples were measured during the pile-fermentation process. The study found that during the fermentation, pH decreased to 4. 5 at the beginning, stabilized in the mid-term and finally increased. According to the characteristics of high temperature and acidity, combining culture-independent with molecular biology methods allowed bacteria to be isolated and identified from all the tea samples at high temperatures. The results showed the presence of a large number of thermophilic bacteria including Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus thermoamylovorans, Bacillus shackletonii, Geobacillus thermoleovorans, Pediococcus acidilactici and Lactobacillus plantarum. These thermophilic bacteria and thermophilic fungi play a key role in the fermentation of Pu'er tea.%对普洱茶发酵全过程的茶样进行了pH检测,发现在渥堆过程中pH在前期有所下降达到4.5,中期基本趋于稳定,后期又有所回升.根据渥堆过程中高温和偏酸性的特征,采用传统培养与分子生物学方法相结合,对全过程的茶样在高温条件下进行细菌的分离、纯化及鉴定.结果发现有大量嗜热细菌的存在,包括凝结芽孢杆菌Bacillus coagulans,枯草芽孢杆菌Bacillus subtilis,地衣芽孢杆菌Bacillus licheniformis,热嗜淀粉芽孢杆菌Bacillus thermoamylovorans,Bacillus shackletonii,喜热噬油芽胞杆菌Geobacillus thermoleovorans,乳酸片球菌Pediococcus acidilactici,植物乳杆菌Lactobacillus plantarum,等.这些嗜热细菌和嗜热真菌一起在普洱茶的发酵中起到了关键作用.

  5. 两株高产纤维素酶细菌的筛选、鉴定及酶学特性%Isolation,identification and enzymatic characteristics of cellulose-producing strains with high cellulase activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽燕; 张光祥; 黄春萍; 熊艳; 李敏; 常丽梅; 张晓喻

    2011-01-01

    Two cellulose producing strains were isolated from decayed leaf and soil around it. According to morphology, biochemical and physiological characterization, and 16S rRNA sequence analysis,CT1 was identified as Bacillus licheniformis and CM2 was identified as Bacillus subtilis. Through deteminations of CMC enzyme activity and filter paper enzyme activity using liquid fermentation. The result of the CMCasae activity of CT1 is 163.3 U/mL and CM2 is 167.17 U/mL after 4 d, the FPA activity of CT1 is 211.17 U/mL after 2 d and CM2 is 207.83 U/mL after 3 d. The effect of carbon sources on the optimum cellulase-producing conditions of these strains were studied. By silver staining after SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis preliminary separation cellulose enzyme special bands. The result showed that thc utilization capabilities to different source cellulose were different.%从腐烂枯叶及附近土壤筛选分离得到2株产纤维素酶的菌株.经细菌形态观察、生理生化实验并结合16S rRNA序列分析,将其初步鉴定为地衣芽孢杆菌CT1(Bacillus licheniformis CT1)和枯草芽孢杆菌CM2(Bacillus subtilis CM2).经摇瓶发酵,测定其CMCase、FPA酶活力,结果表明CT1和CM2在液体摇瓶培养4 d后的CMC酶活最大,分别可达163.3 U/mL和167.17 U/mL;CT1摇瓶培养2 d后,FPA酶活达到了211.17 U/mL,CM2摇瓶培养3 d后,FPA酶活为207.83 U/mL.进行不同碳源对菌株产酶能力影响的试验,并通过SDS-聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳、银染后初步分析纤维素酶谱条带,发现菌株对不同来源纤维素的降解能力及产纤维素酶的种类均有所不同.

  6. 一株土壤源高产纤维素酶芽孢杆菌的分离与鉴定%Isolation and Identification of a High Yield Cellulase Bacillus Strain from Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董鹤娟; 丁轲; 恒子钤; 贾艳艳; 彭春平; 罗伟光; 李旺

    2013-01-01

    In order to obtain the high yield cellulase bacillus,58 soil samples from different areas in Henan province were collected,the bacillus producing cellulase was isolated by Congo red medium,and the cellulase activity was detected by 3,5-dinitro salicylic acid method.The high cellulase producing bacillus were screened and identified by the colony morphology,microscopic morphology in combination with the physiological and biochemical feature and 16S rDNA sequence.The results showed that the strain B.LY02 with the highest cellulase activity of 0.5351 U · mL-1 was obtained,and it was short rod,forming spores,gram strain positive,and had the ability of fermenting many sugars.The 16S rDNA sequence homology comparative analysis showed that it belonged to the genus Bacillus and most closery related to Bacillus licheniformis strain CICC10095 with 96.5% sequence simmarity.So the strain Bacillus LY02 was identified to be Bacillus licheniformis.%为了获得产纤维素酶的芽孢杆菌,从河南省不同地方采集玉米地、秸杆垛的土壤样品58份,利用刚果红平板法分离产纤维素酶的芽孢杆菌,采用3,5—二硝基水杨酸法测定纤维素酶活,结合茵落特征、显微形态、生理生化试验和16S rDNA序列进行鉴定.结果表明,从样品中分离出的42株产纤维素酶菌株中筛选出一株产纤维素酶较高的菌株B.LY02,纤维素酶活力可达0.5351 U/mL.该菌株呈短杆状,革兰氏染色阳性,能形成芽孢.基于16S rDNA序列同源性比较分析表明该菌株与Bacillus licheni ormis strain CICC10095的亲缘关系最近,基因序列的同源性为96.5%,因此鉴定该菌株为地衣芽孢杆菌.

  7. Isolation of Photons

    CERN Document Server

    Wielers, M

    2001-01-01

    Photon identification in ATLAS is based mainly on the shower shapes in the calorimeters, conversion reconstruction and a track veto. In this note the additional gamma/jet separation power is evaluated if isolation is required around the shower as additional criteria.

  8. Motion of isolated bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choquet-Bruhat, Yvonne [Academie des Sciences, 23 Quai de Conti, 75270 Paris Cedex 06 (France); Friedrich, Helmut [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14476 Golm (Germany)

    2006-10-21

    It is shown that sufficiently smooth initial data for the Einstein-dust or the Einstein-Maxwell-dust equations with non-negative density of compact support develop into solutions representing isolated bodies in the sense that the matter field has spatially compact support and is embedded in an exterior vacuum solution.

  9. Motion of Isolated bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Choquet-Bruhat, Y; Choquet-Bruhat, Yvonne; Friedrich, Helmut

    2006-01-01

    It is shown that sufficiently smooth initial data for the Einstein-dust or the Einstein-Maxwell-dust equations with non-negative density of compact support develop into solutions representing isolated bodies in the sense that the matter field has spatially compact support and is embedded in an exterior vacuum solution.

  10. Biological Isolation Garment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    A spinoff of astronaut's biological garment will allow hospital patients who are highly vulnerable to infection to leave their sterile habitats for several hours, carrying their germ free environment with them. Garments can be used in any of some 200 hospitals where isolation rooms are installed to treat leukemia.

  11. ISOLATED MOLECULES IN METALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, some results obtained on the formation of isolated molecules of composition SnOx in silver and SnFx in copper-are reviewed. Hyperfine interaction and ion beam interaction techniques were used for the identification of these molecules.

  12. ISOLATED MOLECULES IN METALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, some results obtained on the formation of isolated molecules of composition SnOx in silver and SnFx in copper-are reviewed. Hyperfine interaction and ion beam interaction techniques were used for the identification of these molecules.

  13. Isolated lingual leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibzadeh F

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in Fars Province, southern Iran. However, mucosal leishmaniasis is extremely uncommon. Herein, we report a patient with isolated lingual leishmaniasis in an immunocompetent 40-year-old man. The lesion was totally excised. The patient was cured completely and is doing well after four years of follow-up, with no medical treatment

  14. Isolated jejunal varices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagwat S

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Isolated jejunal varices are an uncommon manifestation of portal hypertension. A one and a half year old boy presented with recurrent, massive gastrointestinal bleeding from jejunal varices. The bleeding site was identified at exploratory laparotomy. Jejunal resection and anastomosis resulted in complete resolution of the bleeding and there has been no recurrent bleeding over an eight month follow-up period.

  15. Proteoglycan isolation and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woods, A; Couchman, J R

    2001-01-01

    Proteoglycans can be difficult molecules to isolate and analyze due to large mass, charge, and tendency to aggregate or form macromolecular complexes. This unit describes detailed methods for purification of matrix, cell surface, and cytoskeleton-linked proteoglycans. Methods for analysis...

  16. 角蛋白降解菌分离、鉴定及其降解机制研究%Research on isolation and identification of keratin-degrading bacterias and its degradation mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐志国; 张铁鹰; 董杰丽; 杜家菊

    2012-01-01

    实验旨在筛选具有高效角蛋白水解活性的微生物,并对其降解羽毛角蛋白机制进行研究,为提高角蛋白生物降解率提供理论指导.采用透明圈和完整羽毛降解相结合的方法,从废弃羽毛中筛选角蛋白降解茵,并进一步研究其羽毛角蛋白降解过程.获得一株可高效降解角蛋白菌株,基于形态观察和16S rDNA分子鉴定,该茵被命名为Bacillus licheniformis CP-7,其5d可将天然完整羽毛完全降解.CP-7发酵过程产生大量巯基、可溶性蛋白和亚硫酸盐.分离发酵48 h菌株胞内、胞外粗酶液,发现胞外酶液具有较高的角蛋白酶活性,而胞内酶液具有一定二硫键还原酶活性.胞内酶液能够极显著地促进胞外酶液水解角蛋白活性(P<0.01),但对酪蛋白水解活性无影响(P>0.05).筛选菌CP-7为具有高二硫键还原能力的角蛋白降解茵,二硫键还原酶可能是高效降解羽毛角蛋白的关键.%This study aimed al screening of the microorganisms with high keratinolytic activity and providing a theoretical basis to investigate the mechanism of degradation of feather keratin and improve the utilization of keratin resources. In this work, we isolated keratin-degrading microorganisms from decomposed feathers by combining the method of clearance zone diameter and complete feather degradation, furtherly, analyzed the feather keratin degradation process. After observing the shape feature and se-queneing the 16S rDNA, Strain CP-7 was identified and named as Bacillus licheniformis CP-7, which could completely degrade natural feathers during five days. The liquid fermentation results showed much thiol and soluble protein and sulfite were produced during the fermentation process. Studying the intra-cellular and extracellular crude enzyme (fermentation 48 h) found that extracellular enzyme and intracel-lular enzyme had high keratinase activity and disulfide reductase activity, respectively. Intraceliular enzyme could

  17. Isolating Triggered Star Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, Elizabeth J.; Arnold, Jacob A.; /UC, Irvine; Zentner, Andrew R.; /KICP, Chicago /Chicago U., EFI; Bullock, James S.; /UC, Irvine; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo

    2007-09-12

    Galaxy pairs provide a potentially powerful means of studying triggered star formation from galaxy interactions. We use a large cosmological N-body simulation coupled with a well-tested semi-analytic substructure model to demonstrate that the majority of galaxies in close pairs reside within cluster or group-size halos and therefore represent a biased population, poorly suited for direct comparison to 'field' galaxies. Thus, the frequent observation that some types of galaxies in pairs have redder colors than 'field' galaxies is primarily a selection effect. We use our simulations to devise a means to select galaxy pairs that are isolated in their dark matter halos with respect to other massive subhalos (N= 2 halos) and to select a control sample of isolated galaxies (N= 1 halos) for comparison. We then apply these selection criteria to a volume-limited subset of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey with M{sub B,j} {le} -19 and obtain the first clean measure of the typical fraction of galaxies affected by triggered star formation and the average elevation in the star formation rate. We find that 24% (30.5 %) of these L* and sub-L* galaxies in isolated 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc pairs exhibit star formation that is boosted by a factor of {approx}> 5 above their average past value, while only 10% of isolated galaxies in the control sample show this level of enhancement. Thus, 14% (20 %) of the galaxies in these close pairs show clear triggered star formation. Our orbit models suggest that 12% (16%) of 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc close pairs that are isolated according to our definition have had a close ({le} 30 h{sup -1} kpc) pass within the last Gyr. Thus, the data are broadly consistent with a scenario in which most or all close passes of isolated pairs result in triggered star formation. The isolation criteria we develop provide a means to constrain star formation and feedback prescriptions in hydrodynamic simulations and a very general method of understanding

  18. Offset trench isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, S. S.; Cooper, K. J.; Ray, W.; Kirsch, H. C.; Grove, Charlotte

    1994-08-01

    Feasibility of a new, recessed isolation technique that utilizes an offset, shallow trench in combination with thermal oxidation for achieving near zero final encroachment with excellent planarity is demonstrated. Etch of the shallow trench is offset from the original hardmask by an oxide sidewall spacer. After trench etch, HF is used to remove the hardmask oxide and sidewall spacers and to form a cavity which is self-aligned to the nitride edge. Exposed silicon regions are then reoxidized and encapsulated with polysilicon. Field oxide is then grown. The final field oxide profile exhibits steep sidewall angles without inducing substrate defects as evidenced by low diode leakage. Other isolation sensitive device parametrics such as gate oxide quality and metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor threshold voltage stability are presented and exhibit good characteristics.

  19. Idiopathic isolated orbicularis weakness

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacVie, O P; Majid, M A; Husssin, H M; Ung, T; Manners, R M; Ormerod, I; Pawade, J; Harrad, R A

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Orbicularis weakness is commonly associated with seventh nerve palsy or neuromuscular and myopathic conditions such as myotonic dystrophy and myasethenia gravis. We report four cases of idiopathic isolated orbicularis weakness. Methods All four cases were female and the presenting symptoms of ocular irritation and epiphora had been present for over 7 years in three patients. All patients had lagophthalmos and three had ectropion. Three patients underwent full investigations which excluded known causes of orbicularis weakness. Two patients underwent oribularis oculi muscle biopsy and histological confirmation of orbicularis atrophy. Results All patients underwent surgery to specifically address the orbicularis weakness with satisfactory outcomes and alleviation of symptoms in all cases. Isolated orbicularis weakness may be a relatively common entity that is frequently overlooked. Conclusion Early recognition of this condition may lead to better management and prevent patients undergoing unnecessary surgical procedures. PMID:22322997

  20. Isolated Pulmonary Valve Endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Hatamizadeh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Infective endocarditis is one of the most severe complications of parenteral drug abuse. The outstanding clinical feature of infective endocarditis in intravenous drug abusers is the high incidence of right-sided valve infection, and the tricuspid valve is involved in 60% to 70% of the cases. We herein report a case of isolated pulmonic valve infective endocarditis with a native pulmonary valve.

  1. Isolated unilateral disk edema

    OpenAIRE

    Varner P

    2011-01-01

    Paul VarnerJohn J Pershing VAMC, Poplar Bluff, MO, USAAbstract: Isolated unilateral disk edema is a familiar clinical presentation with myriad associations. Related, non-consensus terminology is a barrier to understanding a common pathogenesis. Mechanisms for the development of disk edema are reviewed, and a new framework for clinical differentiation of medical associations is presented.Keywords: disk edema, axoplasmic flow, clinical multiplier, optic neuritis, ischemic optic neuropathy, papi...

  2. Isolated unilateral disk edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varner P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Paul VarnerJohn J Pershing VAMC, Poplar Bluff, MO, USAAbstract: Isolated unilateral disk edema is a familiar clinical presentation with myriad associations. Related, non-consensus terminology is a barrier to understanding a common pathogenesis. Mechanisms for the development of disk edema are reviewed, and a new framework for clinical differentiation of medical associations is presented.Keywords: disk edema, axoplasmic flow, clinical multiplier, optic neuritis, ischemic optic neuropathy, papilledema

  3. 胡椒经地衣芽孢杆菌发酵脱皮过程中的主要酶系及pH值变化%Dynamic Changes in Main Enzyme Activities and pH during Pepper(Piper nigrum L.) Decortication by Bacillus licheniformis Fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊海波; 侯源源; 刘四新; 苗子健; 李从发

    2011-01-01

    采用地衣芽孢杆菌进行静置液态发酵对胡椒进行脱皮,与生产实践中传统水沤法脱皮对比,研究二者发酵脱皮过程中的果胶酶、木聚糖酶、纤维素酶和发酵液pH值的动态变化。结果表明:在发酵脱皮过程中,两种方法的聚半乳糖醛酸酶(PG)和果胶裂解酶(PL)变化规律相似,都出现两次酶活力高峰;而纤维素酶活力都很低,果胶酯酶(PE)酶活力都比较高;在传统水沤法中木聚糖酶活力出现两个高峰,而在发酵法中木聚糖酶活力在脱皮后期逐渐上升;pH值变化总趋势也相似,脱皮完成时pH值均在5~5.5之间。由此推知,胡椒鲜果发酵脱皮过程中果胶酶系%Static liquid-state Bacillus licheniformis fermentation was used for pepper decortication and compared with traditional water retting.Meanwhile,the dynamic changes of pectinases,xylanase,cellulase and pH during pepper decortication by the two methods were explored.The results showed that the changes of polygalacturonase(PG) and pectin lyase(PL) revealed a similar pattern with two activity peaks during both decortication processes.However,cellulase activity was low and the pectin esterase(PE) activity remained high.Similar pH changes were observed during both decortication processes pH was between 5 and 5.5 at the end of decortication.Xylanase activity showed two peaks in traditional water retting method and a gradual increase in the late stage of Bacillus licheniformis fermentation.Therefore,pectinase might play an important role during pepper decortication.In the early stage of decortication,PG and PL first acted on pectin substances and damaged the pectin complex structure,and then PE hydrolyzed pectin molecules to form pectic acid accompanied with pH decrease.Further,xylanase activity increased gradually in the late stage of decortication and as a result,hemicellulose was rapidly depolymerized.Therefore,pepper decortication was completed under the

  4. Isolating Triggered Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Barton, Elizabeth J; Zentner, Andrew R; Bullock, James S; Wechsler, Risa H

    2007-01-01

    Galaxy pairs provide a potentially powerful means of studying triggered star formation from galaxy interactions. We use a large cosmological N-body simulation coupled with a well-tested semi-analytic substructure model to demonstrate that the majority of galaxies in close pairs reside within cluster or group-size halos and therefore represent a biased population, poorly suited for direct comparison to ``field'' galaxies. Thus, the frequent observation that some types of galaxies in pairs have redder colors than ``field'' galaxies is primarily a selection effect. We select galaxy pairs that are isolated in their dark matter halos with respect to other massive subhalos (N=2 halos) and a control sample of isolated galaxies (N=1 halos) for comparison. We then apply these selection criteria to a volume-limited subset of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey with M_Bj ~ 5 above their average past value, while only 10% of isolated galaxies in the control sample show this level of enhancement. Thus, 14% (20 %) of the galaxi...

  5. Genetic Improvement of α-Amylase Producing Bacillus Licheniformis by Expression of Hemoglobin Gene from Vitreoscilla%透明颤菌vgb基因在地衣芽孢杆菌中表达用于改良α-淀粉酶生产菌株

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤寰; 杨建国; 汪兵

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase is one of the most important enzymes involved in starch hydrolysis and food fermentation processes. To improve the α-amylase productivity and reduce the cost of industrial fermentation, an integrative vector pAX01-sacB-vgb carrying vgb gene encoding the Vitreoscilla hemoglobin was constructed and integrated into the chromosome of B. Licheniforms CICC 10181, an industrial α-amylase producer. The transformant showed remarkably improved cell growth and α-amylase production via vgb gene expression. In batch fermentations under same dissolved oxygen, the biomass and α-amylase of recombinant B. Licheniforms WY were 45.8% and 116.7% higher than those of the parent strain B. Licheniforms CICC 10181. This could be an effective way to enhance the industrial production of α-amylase.%地衣芽孢杆菌高温α-淀粉酶是淀粉加工与食品发酵工业上关键酶制剂之一.为了降低高温α-淀粉酶生产过程中所需要的高溶氧水平对设备的要求,进一步提高α-淀粉酶的生产性能,本研究构建同源整合载体pAX01-sacB-vgb,在地衣芽孢杆菌(B.licheniforms)CICC 10181染色体中表达增强摄氧的透明颤菌血红蛋白基因(Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene,vgb).发酵实验结果表明,在同等溶氧条件下,重组菌比野生菌生物量提高了45.8%,高温α-淀粉酶酶活提高了116.7%,具有良好的工业应用前景.

  6. Isolation by distance, web service

    OpenAIRE

    Bohonak Andrew J; Jensen Jeffrey L; Kelley Scott T

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background The population genetic pattern known as "isolation by distance" results from spatially limited gene flow and is a commonly observed phenomenon in natural populations. However, few software programs exist for estimating the degree of isolation by distance among populations, and they tend not to be user-friendly. Results We have created Isolation by Distance Web Service (IBDWS) a user-friendly web interface for determining patterns of isolation by distance. Using this site, ...

  7. 龟纹瓢虫四虫态肠道细菌分离及鉴定%The isolation and identification of intestinal bacteria of four states of Propylea japonica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秀芝; 刘玉升; 张帆

    2011-01-01

    Objective To intensively study the nutritional physiology of Propylea japonica egg, larvae, pupae and adult gut and analyze their digestion mechanism, and lay a foundation for further study on the Ratio of artificial feed and breed more natural enemies.Method Fifteen bacterial strains were isolated from the intestine of Propylea japonica egg,1 arvae,pupae and adult by traditional methods of separation, purification and cultivation.Their morphology, staining reactions, culture traits, physiological and biochemical reactions were studied systematically.Result Total 4 different isolates of bacteria were obtained from egg intestine.These bacteria belong to Bacillus brevis, Bacillus sphaericus, Clavibacter and an unidentified strain; 6 different isolates of bacteria were obtained fromlarvae intestine, which belong to Citrob acter,Brachybacterium, Microbacterium, Dermabacter, Cellulomonas and Macerans; 4 bacteria strains were isolated from the intestine of pupae, which were identified as Bacillus brevis, Bacillus cereus and Microbacterium acinetobacter.7 different isolates of bacteria were obtained from adult intestine, which belong to Bacillus brevis, Bacillus sphaericus, Citrob acter, Acinetobacter, Bacillus licheniformis, Megaterium and Bacillus coagulans.Conclusion The kinds of intestinal microbial flora in the four states are related with living behavior of Propylea japonica.The results provides a foundation for further research of Propylea japonica's artifical diet, development and reproduction.%目的 通过对龟纹瓢虫四个虫态肠道菌群研究,探讨其营养生理,为改良龟纹瓢虫人工饲料,大量扩繁天敌昆虫奠定基础.方法 按照传统的分离方法从龟纹瓢虫瓢卵、幼虫、蛹及雌成虫或肠道内分离15个不同菌株,对其染色反应、培养性状,菌体形态和生理生化性状进行系统研究.结果 从龟纹瓢虫卵内分离鉴定出短芽胞杆菌(Bacillus brevis)、球性芽胞杆菌(Bacillus sphaericus)、

  8. ADRENALECTOMY FOR ISOLATED METASTASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Shumarova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Isolated adrenal gland metastases are not frequently finding. The aim of the present retrospective study was to estimate clinical and pathological parameters that could be used to predict survival after adrenalectomy. Material and methods: A total of 34 patients with adrenal gland masses suspected to be metastases was included in this study. The group of patients with isolated metastases was19 (56% and a group of patients with adrenal adenomas -15 (44%. Results: The sample of patients consisted of 18 (53% men and 16 (47% women from 40 to 81 years old with a mean (±SD age of 61.6±10.3 years, presented with adrenal mass suspected to be metastases. Nineteen (56% of them had demonstrated metastases and 16 (84% metachronous with median overall survival (OS 54.6 (range 43-66 months. Median OS in the group with metastases was 22.6 months. Lung carcinoma was the most common primary tumour metastasizing in the adrenal gland – 58% of all metastases with a disease-free interval (DFI of 13 months. It was presented by shorter median survival than the rest primary tumour types (37.8 vs. 96.7months; log-rank test, p=0.028. In the multivariate Cox’s hazard analysis of the surgical technique was found to be an independent prognostic factor (p=0.047, together with lung carcinoma vs. renal cell carcinoma (p=0.045. Conclusion: Adrenalectomy due to isolated metastases in the adrenal glands showed the median overall survival of 22.6 months. Shorter survival periods were associated with lung carcinoma, DFI<12months, conversion to open surgery, synchronous metastases, but not with age, tumour size or resection status.

  9. NORMOLIPEMIC ISOLATED XANTHOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gowri Sankar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Xanthomas are often a manifestation of underlying lipid abnormalities.A 17 - year - old female presented to our hospital with pain and swelling over t he left knee joint.Routine investigations and lipid profile were normal. Dermatological examination and Psychiatric examination were done and found to be normal. Histopathology from the lesion revealed macrophages and Touton type of giant cells. We present a case of normolipemic isolated xanthoma, which not only is an an uncommon occurrence but also needs a regular follow up because a high association with reticuloendothelial malignancies has also been reported.

  10. Journey from isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim A. Dreyer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the Ottawa Consultation in 1982, the relationship between the Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk van Afrika (NHKA and the World Alliance of Reformed Churches (WARC was nonexistent. In the NHKA it became progressively clear that it would be impossible to travel the road of faith alone. This article examined the factors which contributed to the growing isolation of the NHKA, especially nationalism, a particularistic ecclesiology and the rejection of Apartheid by international ecumenical bodies. It also reflected on efforts of the NHKA to return to the international ecumenical movement.

  11. Diabetes in population isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grarup, Niels; Moltke, Ida; Albrechtsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is an increasing health problem worldwide with particularly high occurrence in specific subpopulations and ancestry groups. The high prevalence of T2D is caused both by changes in lifestyle and genetic predisposition. A large number of studies have sought to identify...... on glucose-stimulated plasma glucose, serum insulin levels, and T2D. The variant defines a specific subtype of non-autoimmune diabetes characterized by decreased post-prandial glucose uptake and muscular insulin resistance. These and other recent findings in population isolates illustrate the value...

  12. Isolation of RNP granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønson, Lars; Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Christiansen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    be regarded as a supramolecular assembly of RNA and protein, probably representing several overlapping post-transcriptional operons. The present protocol describes how RNP granules may be isolated by the transgenic expression of a 3X FLAG version of an RNA-binding protein under tetracycline control via...... the tetracycline receptor/operator complex. In this way, inclusion of an appropriate tetracycline concentration ensures expression of the tagged version at the endogenous level, and the 3X FLAG tag is a convenient "handle" for the subsequent immunoprecipitation by immobilized anti-FLAG antibody....

  13. [Isolated Ledderhose fibromatosis plantaris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkel, N; Göhring, U; Friedl, W; Roeren, T

    1993-07-01

    Plantar fibromatosis or Ledderhose syndrome has rarely been discussed in the medical literature. This clinical entity includes nodular Dupuytren-like indurations of the plantar aponeurosis. We present a case of a young man with isolated disease of his right foot and describe the clinical and pathomorphological features of this disease as well as its characteristic findings at magnetic resonance tomography. The therapy of choice is a subtotal resection of the plantar aponeurosis to prevent irreversible contractions of the toes. The prognosis following fascietomy is good.

  14. Isolation of Mouse Neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamydas, Muthulekha; Luo, Yi; Dorf, Martin E; Lionakis, Michail S

    2015-08-03

    Neutrophils represent the first line of defense against bacterial and fungal pathogens. Indeed, patients with inherited and acquired qualitative and quantitative neutrophil defects are at high risk for developing bacterial and fungal infections and suffering adverse outcomes from these infections. Therefore, research aiming at defining the molecular factors that modulate neutrophil effector function under homeostatic conditions and during infection is essential for devising strategies to augment neutrophil function and improve the outcome of infected individuals. This unit describes a reproducible density gradient centrifugation-based protocol that can be applied in any laboratory to harvest large numbers of highly enriched and highly viable neutrophils from the bone marrow of mice both at the steady state and following infection with Candida albicans as described in UNIT. In another protocol, we also present a method that combines gentle enzymatic tissue digestion with a positive immunomagnetic selection technique or Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to harvest highly pure and highly viable preparations of neutrophils directly from mouse tissues such as the kidney, the liver or the spleen. Finally, methods for isolating neutrophils from mouse peritoneal fluid and peripheral blood are included. Mouse neutrophils isolated by these protocols can be used for examining several aspects of cellular function ex vivo including pathogen binding, phagocytosis and killing, neutrophil chemotaxis, oxidative burst, degranulation and cytokine production, and for performing neutrophil adoptive transfer experiments.

  15. Schizosaccharomyces isolation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito Santiago

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the optimization of a selective and differential medium which would facilitate the isolation of Schizosaccharomyces (a genus with a low incidence compared to other microorganisms to select individuals from this genus for industrial purposes, especially in light of the recent recommendation of the use of yeasts from this genus in the wine industry by the International Organisation of Vine and Wine, or to detect the presence of such yeasts, for those many authors who consider them food spoilers. To this end, we studied various selective differential agents based on the main physiological characteristics of these species, such as their high resistances to high concentrations of sugar, sulfur dioxide, sorbic acid, benzoic acid, acetic acid or malo ethanolic fermentation. This selective medium is based on the genus resistance to the antibiotic actidione and its high resistance to inhibitory agents such as benzoic acid. Malic acid was used as a differential factor due to the ability of this genus to metabolise it to ethanol, which allows detecting of the degradation of this compound. Lastly, the medium was successfully used to isolate strains of Schizosaccharomyces pombe from honey and honeycombs.

  16. Isolated hepatosplenic tuberculosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vinay Kumar; Durgatosh Pandey

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Tuberculosis rarely involves the liver and spleen and when it does so, it is usually associated with disseminated disease. METHOD:We report a patient with isolated tuberculosis of the liver and spleen. RESULTS:A 50-year-old man presented with weakness and loss of weight for two months. CT scan of the abdomen showed multiple small hypodense lesions in the liver and spleen. Image-guided biopsy of liver lesion was inconclusive as it showed normal hepatocytes with interspersed lymphocytes. On laparotomy, the liver and spleen were studded with multiple small nodules. A 5-cm wedge of the liver was resected. Histopathological examination conifrmed the diagnosis of tubercular hepatitis. A detailed work-up failed to identify any other focus of tuberculosis. CONCLUSION:Although rare, tuberculosis should also be considered in the differential diagnosis for multiple nodules in the liver and spleen, along with lymphoproliferative diseases and metastatic lesions.

  17. Clinically isolated laryngeal sarcoidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plaschke, Christina Caroline; Owen, Hanne Hoejris; Rasmussen, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Laryngeal sarcoidosis is rare (0.5% of patients with sarcoidosis), the pathogenesis is unknown and the optimal treatment remains a matter of debate. We undertook this study to elucidate possible pathogenic factors in clinically isolated laryngeal sarcoidosis and to describe results...... of supraglottoplastic surgery. From 1995 to 2009, we identified six patients with histologically proven sarcoidosis of the larynx treated at Rigshospitalet. All patients were subjected to a panel of blood tests and MR scan of the head and neck. All patients had dyspnoea at admission, and five were subjected...... successful to maintain normal breathing. None of the many parameters examined--some previously having been found to be abnormal in sarcoidosis--were abnormal in the present cohort. We are therefore unable to elucidate the pathogenesis. The combined surgical approach re-established normal airway function...

  18. Isolated sulfite oxidase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relinque, B; Bardallo, L; Granero, M; Jiménez, P J; Luna, S

    2015-03-10

    Sulfite oxidase deficiency is an uncommon metabolic disease. Only few cases of its isolated form have been reported in the literature. We report a case of severe neonatal onset. A newborn baby of 41 weeks gestational age, weighted at birth of 3240 grams and had an Apgar score of 6-10-10. Fifty-three hours after being born, the baby started with seizures that were refractory to antiepileptic treatment. Brain function was monitored using a-EEG. Laboratory and imaging tests were performed. All of them were consistent with sulfite oxidase deficiency. The diagnosis was confirmed by genetic testing. We highlight the importance of this disease as part of the differential diagnosis of seizures during the neonatal period, as well as the importance of the therapeutic support based on dietary restrictions. It's also remarkable the possibility of prenatal diagnosis by quantifying enzyme activity and it's also possible carrying out DNA mutational analysis.

  19. Patients experience of source isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kamilla; Pedersen, Didde; Kragbak, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Patients´ experience of source isolation - a literature review Title: Patients experience of source isolation – a literature review Authors: Nina Kragbak*, Didde Pedersen*, Kamilla Johansen* and Peter E. Jensen** *students, **lecturer, bachelor in science and Ph.D., at VIA University College......, Nursing education in Århus, Hedeager 2, 8200 Aarhus N, Denmark. Background: Medical treatment and care of patients with infections may include source isolation of the patient, to avoid spreading of the infection. However, isolation is a potential physiological and psychological stress factor...... of the patients perspectives of being isolated to identify areas of potential interest for developing new caring strategies to minimize the negative side effects of isolation. Methods: Literature was systematically searched in CINAHL, Nursing Reference Center, Social Care Online, SveMed+, The Cochrane Library...

  20. Protein loss during nuclear isolation

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    Cryomicrodissection makes possible the measurement of the entire in vivo protein content of the amphibian oocyte nucleus and provides a heretofore missing baseline for estimating protein loss during nuclear isolation by other methods. When oocyte nuclei are isolated into an aqueous medium, they lose 95% of their protein with a half-time of 250 s. This result implies an even more rapid loss of protein from aqueously isolated nuclei of ordinary-size cells.

  1. A hybrid base isolation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, G.C. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Lobo, R.F.; Srinivasan, M. [Hart Consultant Group, Santa Monica, CA (United States); Asher, J.W. [kpff Engineers, Santa Monica, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    This paper proposes a new analysis procedure for hybrid base isolation buildings when considering the displacement response of a base isolated building to wind loads. The system is considered hybrid because of the presence of viscous dampers in the building above the isolator level. The proposed analysis approach incorporates a detailed site specific wind study combined with a dynamic nonlinear analysis of the building response.

  2. Isolation and the parish ministry

    OpenAIRE

    Irvine, Andrew R.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to examine the concept of isolation as it occurs within the profession of ministry. Isolation, for the purpose of this thesis, is defined social-psychologically. Within the field research isolation is considered as evidenced professionally, socially and spiritually. This study utilized as its sample base 200 hundred Church of Scotland ministers (15% of total population) which provided 159 usable responses to an extensive mail survey. The mai...

  3. Isolated Pelvic Hyperthermochemotherapeutic Perfusion -An Experimental Study on Isolating Efficacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Hyperthermochemotherapeutic perfusion model through isolated pelvic vessels was developed to evaluate the leakage of hyperthermia and drugs (such as adriamycin) from the isolated pelvic circulation to systemic circulation and its associated side/toxic effects. The isolated pelvic circulation was perfused through a femoral artery catheter with hyperthermic (48 ℃ to 55 ℃) adriamycin solution (50 μg/ml) for 30 min. The efflux was drained through a femoral vein catheter. And the pelvic temperature was kept at the level of 43±0.5 ℃. The temperature of pelvic circulation was kept at 4 ℃ to 5 ℃ greater than the systemic/core temperature. The adriamycin concentration of pelvic efflux was 12 to 46 folds of that of systemic serum. The difference between them was very significant (P<0.001). As the perfusion pressure was increased, which kept lower than the mean systemic artery pressure, the leakage of the adriamycin from the isolated pelvic circulation to systemic circulation was increased, but there was no significant difference between them (P>0.05). During isolated perfusion, the systemic blood dynamics remained stable and there were no organic injuries on the important organs. It was suggested that the isolating efficacy of the modality of isolated pelvic hyperthermochemotherapeutic perfusion through vessels was rather high. The hyperthermia and drugs could be effectively limited in the isolated pelvic region with minor side effects on the systemic circulation and important organs.

  4. 白蚁肠道木质素及纤维素分解菌的分离鉴定及产酶条件优化%Isolation, Identification and Enzyme-producing Conditions Optimization of Lignin-Utilizing and Cellulose-Utilizing Bacterium from the Gut of Termite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高云航; 王巍; 李秋菊; 马红霞; 娄玉杰

    2013-01-01

    Five strains of bacteria with decomposed function for lignin and cellulose were isolated from gut of termite with a congo red and Azure-B plate method. MX5 strain with the strongest decomposed function was identified as Bacillus licheniformis by morphological observation, physiological and biochemical identification and 16S rRNA identification. Optimization test of producing lignin and cellulose show MX5 strain has the highest production activity with 0. 5% of straw as carbon source, mixture of 0. 5% yeast extract and ammonium sulfate as the nitrogen source and cultrue in shake flask at 37 ℃ for 96 h with 1% noculation amount and initial pH 8. 0. Selecting excellent strains which produced ligninase and cellulase has far-reaching significance for improving the utilization of wood fiber feed, reducing environmental pollution and so on..%利用刚果红法、Azure-B平板法从白蚁肠道中分离出5株同时具有木质素降解和纤维素分解功能的菌株,选取其中分解功能最强的菌株MX5经形态观察、生化鉴定和16S rRNA鉴定为芽孢杆菌属的地衣芽孢杆菌Bacillus licheniformis.产酶条件优化试验结果表明,菌株MX5以w=0.5%秸秆为碳源,w=0.5%酵母粉和硫酸铵混合物为氮源,初始pH8.0,37℃摇瓶培养96 h,接种量为1%时,产酶活性最高.筛选出产酶活性优良的菌株,对提高木质纤维素的利用率、降低环境污染等方面意义深远.

  5. Isolation and Molecular Identification of Bacteria from Xiaoqing River of Jinan and Bioremediation of Polluted Water%济南小清河水样细菌的分离、分子鉴定及对污染河水的修复作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳寿松; 边斐; 邹晓凤; 王翠萍; 孙林波; 田顺; 孙凯; 陈文娟

    2014-01-01

    从济南小清河水样中共获得不同菌落特征的细菌微生物13种,利用分子生物学方法对培养得到的菌株进行分子鉴定及系统发育分析,结果表明:13株微生物分属于8个属,分别为肠杆菌属( Enterobacter)、气单胞菌属(Aeromonas)、克雷伯氏菌属(Klebsiella)、微杆菌属(Microbacterium)、希瓦氏菌属(Shewanella)、金黄杆菌属(Chryseobacterium)、芽孢杆菌属(Bacillus)、枸橼酸杆菌属(Citrobacter)和寡养单胞菌属(Stenotroph-omonas)。研究了地衣芽孢杆菌QH11和嗜麦芽寡养(窄食)单胞菌QH13对水体化学需氧量( CODCr )和氨氮(NH3-N)的去除作用,结果表明,处理5天后,QH11对 CODCr和NH3-N的去除率分别为70.6%和84.8%, QH13的去除率分别为58.5%和52.3%。%Total 13 kinds of bacteria were isolated from Xiaoqing River and made genetic identification and phylogenetic analysis by molecular biology method .The 13 strains of bacteria belonged to eight genera , which were Enterobacter, Aeromonas, Klebsiella, Microbacterium, Shewanella, Chryseobacterium, Bacillus, Citrobacter and Stenotrophomonas.The removal effects of Bacillus licheniformis QH11 and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia QH13 on chemical oxygen demand ( CODCr ) and NH3 -N were measured.After treating for 5 days, the CODCr and NH3 -N removal rates of Bacillus licheniformis QH11 were 70.6% and 84.8%, and those of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia QH13 were 58 .5%and 52 .3%respectively .

  6. Geometry of isolated horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Flandera, Aleš

    2016-01-01

    While the formalism of isolated horizons is known for some time, only quite recently the near horizon solution of Einstein's equations has been found in the Bondi-like coordinates by Krishnan in 2012. In this framework, the space-time is regarded as the characteristic initial value problem with the initial data given on the horizon and another null hypersurface. It is not clear, however, what initial data reproduce the simplest physically relevant black hole solution, namely that of Kerr-Newman which describes stationary, axisymmetric black hole with charge. Moreover, Krishnan's construction employs the non-twisting null geodesic congruence and the tetrad which is parallelly propagated along this congruence. While the existence of such tetrad can be easily established in general, its explicit form can be very difficult to find and, in fact it has not been provided for the Kerr-Newman metric. The goal of this thesis was to fill this gap and provide a full description of the Kerr-Newman metric in the framework ...

  7. Isolated subtalar arthrodesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Timur; Sofu, Hakan; Çamurcu, Yalkin; Özcan, Çağri; Öner, Ali; Şahin, Vedat

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study is to review the results of isolated subtalar arthrodesis in adults and to make a comparative analysis of the clinical outcomes between the patients with posttraumatic subtalar arthritis and the ones with other etiologic factors, and to evaluate the effects of grafting. This study included 19 men and 12 women. The mean postoperative follow-up was 36.8 months. The mean AOFAS hindfoot score improved from a mean of 46 preoperatively to a mean of 77.3 postoperatively. Thirty-one of 33 arthrodeses achieved bony union at a mean time of 15.7 weeks. The mean increase in the talocalcaneal height was 3.8 mm in the feet operated without grafting, whereas it was 8.1 mm in the feet for which grafting was performed. Improvement in talocalcaneal angle was significantly better in the feet operated with bone grafting. The feet with posttraumatic subtalar arthritis were more prone to Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy.

  8. Seismic isolation for Advanced LIGO

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, R; Allen, G; Cowley, S; Daw, E; Debra, D; Giaime, J; Hammond, G; Hammond, M; Hardham, C; How, J; Hua, W; Johnson, W; Lantz, B; Mason, K; Mittleman, R; Nichol, J; Richman, S; Rollins, J; Shoemaker, D; Stapfer, G; Stebbins, R

    2002-01-01

    The baseline design concept for a seismic isolation component of the proposed 'Advanced LIGO' detector upgrade has been developed with proof-of-principle experiments and computer models. It consists of a two-stage in-vacuum active isolation platform that is supported by an external hydraulic actuation stage. Construction is underway for prototype testing of a full-scale preliminary design.

  9. Improved Active Vibration Isolation Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The control force, feedback gain, and actuator stroke of several active vibration isolation systems were analyzed based on a single-layer active vibration isolation system. The analysis shows that the feedback gain and actuator stroke cannot be selected independently and the active isolation system design must make a compromise between the feedback gain and actuator stroke. The performance of active isolation systems can be improved by the joint vibration reduction using an active vibration isolation system with an adaptive dynamic vibration absorber. The results show that the joint vibration reduction method can successfully avoid the compromise between the feedback gain and actuator stroke. The control force and the object vibration amplitude are also greatly reduced.

  10. Dynamic isolation technologies in negative pressure isolation wards

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Zhonglin

    2017-01-01

    This book presents novel design principles and technologies for dynamic isolation based on experimental studies. These approaches have now become the local standard in Beijing and are currently being promoted for use nationwide. Further, the book provides details of measures and guidelines for the design process. Departing from the traditional understanding that isolation wards should be designed with high negative pressure, airtight doors and fresh air, it establishes the basis for designing biological clean rooms, including isolation wards, using a simple and convenient scientific approach. This book is intended for designers, engineers, researchers, hospital management staff and graduate students in heating ventilation air conditioning (HVAC), air cleaning technologies and related areas.

  11. Isolated Proofs of Knowledge and Isolated Zero Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Wichs, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    . This is because the prover may just be forwarding messages between the environment and the verifier while the environment performs all the necessary computation. In this paper we consider an ℓ-isolated prover, which is restricted to exchanging at most ℓ bits of information with its environment. We introduce a new...... notion called ℓ-isolated proofs of knowledge (ℓ-IPoK). These protocols securely ensure that an ℓ-isolated prover knows the witness. To prevent the above-mentioned attack, an ℓ-IPoK protocol has to have communication complexity greater than ℓ. We show that for any relation in NP and any value ℓ...

  12. Helicopter gearbox isolation using periodically layered fluidic isolators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szefi, Joseph Thomas

    2003-07-01

    In rotorcraft transmissions, vibration generation by meshing gear pairs is a significant source of vibration and cabin noise. This high-frequency gearbox noise is primarily transmitted to the fuselage through rigid connections, which do not appreciably attenuate vibratory energy. The high-frequency vibrations typically include discrete gear-meshing frequencies in the range of 500--2000 Hz, and are often considered irritating and can reduce pilot effectiveness and passenger comfort. Periodically-layered isolators were identified as potential passive attenuators of these high frequency vibrations. Layered isolators exhibit transmissibility "stop bands," or frequency ranges in which there is very low transmissibility. An axisymmetric model was developed to accurately predict the location of these stop bands for isolators in compression. A Ritz approximation method was used to model the axisymmetric elastic behavior of layered cylindrical isolators. This model of layered isolators was validated with experiments. The physical design constraints of the proposed helicopter gearbox isolators were then estimated. Namely, constraints associated with isolator mass, axial stiffness, geometry, and elastomeric fatigue were determined. The passive performance limits of layered isolators were then determined using a design optimization methodology employing a simulated annealing algorithm. The results suggest that layered isolators cannot always meet frequency targets given a certain set of design constraints. Many passive and active design enhancements were considered to address this problem, and the use of embedded inertial amplifiers was found to exhibit a combination of advantageous effects. The first benefit was a lowering of the beginning stop band frequency, and thus a widening of the original stop band. The second was a tuned absorber effect, where the elastomer layer stiffness and the amplified tuned mass combined to act as a vibration absorber within the stop band. The

  13. Isolation of rat adrenocortical mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solinas, Paola [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Department of Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Fujioka, Hisashi [Electron Microscopy Facility, Department of Pharmacology, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Tandler, Bernard [Department of Biological Sciences, School of Dental Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Hoppel, Charles L., E-mail: charles.hoppel@case.edu [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Department of Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method for isolation of adrenocortical mitochondria from the adrenal gland of rats is described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The purified isolated mitochondria show excellent morphological integrity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The properties of oxidative phosphorylation are excellent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method increases the opportunity of direct analysis of adrenal mitochondria from small animals. -- Abstract: This report describes a relatively simple and reliable method for isolating adrenocortical mitochondria from rats in good, reasonably pure yield. These organelles, which heretofore have been unobtainable in isolated form from small laboratory animals, are now readily accessible. A high degree of mitochondrial purity is shown by the electron micrographs, as well as the structural integrity of each mitochondrion. That these organelles have retained their functional integrity is shown by their high respiratory control ratios. In general, the biochemical performance of these adrenal cortical mitochondria closely mirrors that of typical hepatic or cardiac mitochondria.

  14. Isolated Echinococcosis of cervical region

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khare, Pratima; Kala, Pooja; Gupta, Renu; Chauhan, Nidhi

    2014-01-01

    .... We report here a very rare case of isolated hydatid cyst in a 45-year-old female patient, who presented with swelling in right cervical region about 5 cm below the angle of mandible with no evidence...

  15. Atomically thin nonreciprocal optical isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiao; Wang, Zuojia; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Baile; Chen, Hongsheng

    2014-01-01

    Optical isolators will play a critical role in next-generation photonic circuits, but their on-chip integration requires miniaturization with suitable nonreciprocal photonic materials. Here, we theoretically demonstrate the thinnest possible and polarization-selective nonreciprocal isolation for circularly polarized waves by using graphene monolayer under an external magnetic field. The underlying mechanism is that graphene electron velocity can be largely different for the incident wave propagating in opposite directions at cyclotron frequency, making graphene highly conductive and reflective in one propagation direction while transparent in the opposite propagation direction under an external magnetic field. When some practical loss is introduced, nonreciprocal isolation with graphene monolayer still possesses good performance in a broad bandwidth. Our work shows the first study on the extreme limit of thickness for optical isolation and provides theoretical guidance in future practical applications. PMID:24569672

  16. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Douglas James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-27

    The mission of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is to demonstrate the safe, environmentally sound, cost effective, permanent disposal of Transuranic (TRU) waste left from production of nuclear weapons.

  17. Pneumothorax complicating isolated clavicle fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hani, Redouane; Ennaciri, Badr; Jeddi, Idriss; El Bardouni, Ahmed; Mahfoud, Mustapha; Berrada, Mohamed Saleh

    2015-01-01

    Isolated clavicle fractures are among the commonest of traumatic fractures in the emergency department. Complications of isolated clavicle fractures are rare. Pneumothorax has been described as a complication of a fractured clavicle only rarely in English literature. In all the reported cases, the pneumothorax was treated by a thoracostomy and the clavicle fracture was treated conservatively. In our case, the pneumothorax required a chest drain insertion and the clavicle fracture was treated surgically with good result.

  18. Base isolation of fluid containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. [Cygna Group Inc./ICF Kaiser International, Oakland, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Fluid containers often constitute critical internal equipment in power plants. However, due to possible structure-equipment interaction effect they are particularly vulnerable during strong earthquake events. An effective technique for protecting fluid containers is base isolation. By deflecting the possible seismic input energy into the superstructure, base isolation can substantially reduce seismic demand on the containers, making it more cost effective than equivalent conventional design.

  19. AN INVESTIGATION OF BASE ISOLATION

    OpenAIRE

    HABASHI, Akbar Sheidaei

    2012-01-01

    The effect of weak shear rigidity is important in the analysis of elastomeric bearings used for base isolation of buildings. In particular, the buckling load is low and the P-Δ effect is significant as compared to standard columns neglecting shear deformations. In this paper, a simple mechanical model accounting for both shear and flexural deformations is proposed to treat the P-Δ effect of elastomeric isolation bearings. With adequate choice of the model parameters, the simplified model agre...

  20. Neuroimmunological Responses to Social Isolation

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez DDS, MSc, PhD, Karol

    2015-01-01

    Objective social isolation and perceived social isolation are psychosocial stressors that may impair the normal functioning of the neuroimmune system. Chronic activation of the neuro-immuno-endocrine communication and the consequent loss of homeostasis may lead to the appearance of pathologies and associated mood disorders. For example, alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary- adrenal axis and sympathetic nervous system dynamics may account for the observed predisposition to inflammatory di...

  1. Market study: Biological isolation garment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The biological isolation garment was originally designed for Apollo astronauts to wear upon their return to earth from the moon to avoid the possibility of their contaminating the environment. The concept has been adapted for medical use to protect certain patients from environmental contamination and the risk of infection. The nature and size of the anticipated market are examined with certain findings and conclusions relative to clinical acceptability and potential commercial viability of the biological isolation garment.

  2. Isolation, biochemical and molecular characterization of 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation, biochemical and molecular characterization of ... Abstract. Pure cultures of 2-chlorophenol degrading bacteria were isolated from a natural enrichment that may be adapted to ... three isolates out of six yielded positive PCR products.

  3. Progress in Exosome Isolation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pin; Kaslan, Melisa; Lee, Sze Han; Yao, Justin; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2017-01-01

    Exosomes are one type of membrane vesicles secreted into extracellular space by most types of cells. In addition to performing many biological functions particularly in cell-cell communication, cumulative evidence has suggested that several biological entities in exosomes like proteins and microRNAs are closely associated with the pathogenesis of most human malignancies and they may serve as invaluable biomarkers for disease diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy. This provides a commanding impetus and growing demands for simple, efficient, and affordable techniques to isolate exosomes. Capitalizing on the physicochemical and biochemical properties of exosomes, a number of techniques have been developed for the isolation of exosomes. This article summarizes the advances in exosome isolation techniques with an emphasis on their isolation mechanism, performance, challenges, and prospects. We hope that this article will provide an overview of exosome isolation techniques, opening up new perspectives towards the development more innovative strategies and devices for more time saving, cost effective, and efficient isolations of exosomes from a wide range of biological matrices. PMID:28255367

  4. Geomorphology of Minnesota - Isolated Landform Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Geomorphology of Minnesota - Isolated Landform Structures are essentially cartographic arcs representing isolated glacial features that were mapped in conjunction...

  5. Base isolation system and verificational experiment of base isolated building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Mikio; Harada, Osamu; Aoyagi, Sakae; Matsuda, Taiji

    1987-05-15

    With the objective of rationalization of the earthquake resistant design and the economical design based thereupon, many base isolation systems have been proposed and its research, development and application have been made in recent years. In order to disseminate the system, it is necessary to accumulate the data obtained from vibration tests and earthquake observations and verify the reliability of the system. From this viewpoint, the Central Research Institute of Electric power Industry and Okumura Corporation did the following experiments with a base isolated building as the object: 1) static power application experiments, 2) shaking experiments, 3) free vibration experiments, 4) regular slight vibration observations and 5) earthquake response observations (continuing). This article reports the outline of the base isolation system and the base isolated building concerned as well as the results of the verification experiments 1) through 3) above. From the results of these verification experiments, the basic vibration characteristics of the base isolation system consisting of laminated rubber and plastic damper were revealed and its functions were able to be verified. Especially during the free vibration experiments, the initial displacement even up to a maximum of 10cm was applied to the portion between the foundation and the structure and this displacement corresponds to the responded amplitude in case of the earthquake of seismic intensity of the 6th degree. It is planned to continue the verification further. (18 figs, 3 tabs, 3 photos, 6 refs)

  6. Effect of mixed-Bacillus spp isolated from pustulose ark Anadara tuberculosa on growth, survival, viral prevalence and immune-related gene expression in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ortiz, Ana Claudia; Angulo, Carlos; Luna-González, Antonio; Álvarez-Ruiz, Píndaro; Mazón-Suástegui, José Manuel; Campa-Córdova, Ángel Isidro

    2016-12-01

    The widespread overuse of antibiotics in aquaculture has led to the emergence of antibiotic-resistance shrimp pathogens, the negative impact on shrimp gut microbiota, and the presence of antimicrobial residues in aquaculture products, with negative consequences on human health. Alternatively, probiotics have positive effects on immunological responses and productive performance of aquatic animals. In this study, three probiotic bacteria, (Bacillus licheniformis MAt32, B. subtilis MAt43 and B. subtilis subsp. subtilis GAtB1), isolated from the Anadara tuberculosa were included in diets for juvenile shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, to evaluate their effects on growth, survival, disease prevalence, and immune-related gene expression. Shrimp naturally infected with WSSV and IHHNV were fed with the basal diet (control, T1) and diets supplemented with four levels of bacilli probiotic mix (1:1:1) at final concentration of (T2) 1 × 10(6), (T3) 2 × 10(6), (T4) 4 × 10(6), and (T5) 6 × 10(6) CFU g(-1) of feed. The specific growth rate of shrimp was significantly higher in T2 than in T1 (control) treatment, and the final growth as well as the survival were similar among treated groups. The prevalence of WSSV and IHHNV infected shrimp was reduced in T2 and T4 treatments, respectively, compared with control. The mRNA expression of proPO gene was higher in treatment T4 than control. The LvToll1 gene was significantly up-regulated in treatments T4 and T5 compared to control. The SOD gene was up-regulated in treatment T5 compared to control. In contrast, the mRNA expression of the Hsp70 gene was down-regulated in treatments T4 and T5 respect to control, and the TGase gene remained unaffected by the level of bacillus probiotic mix. As conclusion, the bacilli probiotic mix (Bacillus spp.) enhanced immune-related gene expression in WSSV and IHHNV naturally infected shrimp. This is the first report of probiotic potential of bacteria isolated from A. tuberculosa on the

  7. Entropy of Isolated Horizons revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Rudranil; Majumdar, Parthasarathi

    2009-01-01

    The decade-old formulation of the isolated horizon classically and within loop quantum gravity, and the extraction of the microcanonical entropy of such a horizon from this formulation, is reviewed, in view of recent renewed interest. There are two main approaches to this problem: one employs an SU(2) Chern-Simons theory describing the isolated horizon degrees of freedom, while the other uses a reduced U(1) Chern-Simons theory obtained from the SU(2) theory, with appropriate constraints imposed on the spectrum of boundary states `living' on the horizon. It is shown that both these ways lead to the same infinite series asymptotic in horizon area for the microcanonical entropy of an isolated horizon. The leading area term is followed by an unambiguous correction term logarithmic in area with a coefficient $-\\frac32$, with subleading corrections dropping off as inverse powers of the area.

  8. VIBRATION ISOLATION SYSTEM PROBABILITY ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov Vladimir Alexandrovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the probability analysis for a vibration isolation system of high-precision equipment, which is extremely sensitive to low-frequency oscillations even of submicron amplitude. The external sources of low-frequency vibrations may include the natural city background or internal low-frequency sources inside buildings (pedestrian activity, HVAC. Taking Gauss distribution into account, the author estimates the probability of the relative displacement of the isolated mass being still lower than the vibration criteria. This problem is being solved in the three dimensional space, evolved by the system parameters, including damping and natural frequency. According to this probability distribution, the chance of exceeding the vibration criteria for a vibration isolation system is evaluated. Optimal system parameters - damping and natural frequency - are being developed, thus the possibility of exceeding vibration criteria VC-E and VC-D is assumed to be less than 0.04.

  9. Isolated Echinococcosis of cervical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratima Khare

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcosis, commonly called as hydatid disease, is a parasitic infestation caused by the larva of the genus Echinococcus in human. Isolated occurrence of Echinococcosis without any evidence of visceral disease is very rare. A thorough search of the literature revealed only 11 cases of isolated cervical Echinococcosis. We report here a very rare case of isolated hydatid cyst in a 45-year-old female patient, who presented with swelling in right cervical region about 5 cm below the angle of mandible with no evidence of the disease elsewhere in the body. The case was diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology. The diagnosis was further supported by histopathology. We propose that the treating physician should also consider the differential diagnosis of Echinococcosis in the presence of an asymptomatic soft tissue mass, especially when the patient lives in an endemic area.

  10. Solo doctors and ethical isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, R J

    2009-11-01

    This paper uses the case of solo doctors to explore whether working in relative isolation from one's peers may be detrimental to ethical decision-making. Drawing upon the relevance of communication and interaction for ethical decision-making in the ethical theories of Habermas, Mead and Gadamer, it is argued that doctors benefit from ethical discussion with their peers and that solo practice may make this more difficult. The paper identifies a paucity of empirical research related to solo practice and ethics but draws upon more general medical ethics research and a study that identified ethical isolation among community pharmacists to support the theoretical claims made. The paper concludes by using the literary analogy of Soderberg's Doctor Glas to illustrate the issues raised and how ethical decision-making in relative isolation may be problematical.

  11. Isolation and use of rafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Deborah A

    2002-11-01

    This unit describes methods for isolating and analyzing rafts by detergent insolubility. To distinguish these rafts from raft-like membranes isolated by other methods, they are referred to here as detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs). DRMs can be isolated by flotation on sucrose density gradients or by pelleting after detergent extraction. DRM proteins can be analyzed by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting. Additionally, radiolabeled DRM proteins can be analyzed, and lipids can be quantitated by high-performance thin layer chromatography. Support protocols needed for the lipid analysis are also provided. Finally, protocols for raft disruption by cholesterol removal and measuring the kinetics of such removal are included together with a method that reverses the cholesterol removal (cholesterol repletion).

  12. Studies on bioemulsifier production by Bacillus licheniformis PTCC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-01-18

    Jan 18, 2010 ... in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and petroleum industries. Biosurfactants are the ... Culture Type Collection, Tehran, Iran. The strain was streaked on .... microorganisms: new trends in surfactants. Comptes. Rendus. Chim.,.

  13. Changing the thermostability of Bacillus licheniformis a-amylase

    OpenAIRE

    De Cordt, S.; Saraiva, J.; Hendrickx, M.; Maesmans, G.; Tobback, P

    1993-01-01

    We applied "solvent engineering" (i.e. variation of environmental conditions) to and/or irnrnobilized Baci//us licheniforrnis a-amylase covalently onto porous glass beads. In this way, important alterations in its thermostability characteristics (kinactrE Ainactw) ere achieved.

  14. Bacteria isolated from amoebae/bacteria consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyndall, Richard L.

    1995-01-01

    New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  15. Active Fault Isolation in MIMO Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2014-01-01

    Active fault isolation of parametric faults in closed-loop MIMO system s are considered in this paper. The fault isolation consists of two steps. T he first step is group- wise fault isolation. Here, a group of faults is isolated from other pos sible faults in the system. The group-wise fault iso...

  16. Completely Isolated? Health Information Seeking among Social Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askelson, Natoshia M.; Campo, Shelly; Carter, Knute D.

    2011-01-01

    To better target messages it is important to determine where people seek their health information. Interpersonal networks are a common way most people gather health information, but some people have limited networks. Using data from the 2004 General Social Survey (N = 984), we compared social isolates and nonisolates in their health…

  17. Completely Isolated? Health Information Seeking among Social Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askelson, Natoshia M.; Campo, Shelly; Carter, Knute D.

    2011-01-01

    To better target messages it is important to determine where people seek their health information. Interpersonal networks are a common way most people gather health information, but some people have limited networks. Using data from the 2004 General Social Survey (N = 984), we compared social isolates and nonisolates in their health…

  18. Is an isolated cleft lip an isolated anomaly?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelder, J. D.; Breugem, C. C.; de Vries, Iris; de Bruin, M.; van der Molen, A. B. Mink; van der Horst, C. M. A. M.

    Introduction: It is well known that patients with cleft lip/palate or cleft palate can have associated anomalies. However, there is a relative paucity of information about the possible anomalies associated with an isolated cleft lip. A recent study (Vallino et al., 2008) showed that children with

  19. Is an isolated cleft lip an isolated anomaly?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelder, J. D.; Breugem, C. C.; de Vries, Iris; de Bruin, M.; van der Molen, A. B. Mink; van der Horst, C. M. A. M.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: It is well known that patients with cleft lip/palate or cleft palate can have associated anomalies. However, there is a relative paucity of information about the possible anomalies associated with an isolated cleft lip. A recent study (Vallino et al., 2008) showed that children with cl

  20. Optical Isolator Utilizing Surface Plasmons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Yuasa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Feasibility of usage of surface plasmons in a new design of an integrated optical isolator has been studied. In the case of surface plasmons propagating at a boundary between a transition metal and a double-layer dielectric, there is a significant difference of optical loss for surface plasmons propagating in opposite directions. Utilizing this structure, it is feasible to fabricate a competitive plasmonic isolator, which benefits from a broad wavelength operational bandwidth and a good technological compatibility for integration into the Photonic Integrated Circuits (PIC. The linear dispersion relation was derived for plasmons propagating in a multilayer magneto-optical slab.

  1. Isolation and Cultivation of Anaerobes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aragao Börner, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic microorganisms play important roles in different biotechnological processes. Their complex metabolism and special cultivation requirements have led to less isolated representatives in comparison to their aerobic counterparts.In view of that, the isolation and cultivation of anaerobic...... microorganisms is still a promising venture, and conventional methodologies as well as considerations and modifications are presented here. An insight into new methodologies and devices as well as a discussion on future perspectives for the cultivation of anaerobes may open the prospects of the exploitation...

  2. Isolation contactor state control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissontz, Jay E.

    2017-05-16

    A controller area network (CAN) installed on a hybrid electric vehicle provides one node with control of high voltage power distribution system isolation contactors and the capacity to energize a secondary electro-mechanical relay device. The output of the secondary relay provides a redundant and persistent backup signal to the output of the node. The secondary relay is relatively immune to CAN message traffic interruptions and, as a result, the high voltage isolation contactor(s) are less likely to transition open in the event that the intelligent output driver should fail.

  3. Spontaneous isolated celiac artery dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Cimilli Ozturk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyspepsia with mild, stabbing epigastric discomfort without history of trauma is a very common symptom that emergency physicians see in their daily practice. Vascular emergencies, mostly the aortic dissection and aneurysm, are always described in the differential diagnosis with persistent symptoms. Isolated celiac artery dissection occurring spontaneously is a very rare diagnosis. The involvement of branch vessels is generally observed and patients show various clinical signs and symptoms according to the involved branch vessel. Here we are presenting a case with spontaneous isolated celiac artery dissection, without any branch vessel involvement or visceral damage, detected by computed tomography scans taken on admission.

  4. Isolated complete corpus callosal agenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaiganesh S, Venkateshwaran A, Naresh Kumar C, Rajasekhar KV

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Isolated complete corpus callosal agenesis is a rare entity. Usually this condition will be an associated finding in other syndromes. 3 month old male child came with complaints of deformed foot on both sides, not having a social smile and neck holding. Patient referred to the Radiology department for MRI brain which showed complete absence of corpus callosum, widely separated and parallely placed lateral ventricles, colpocephaly, high riding of 3rd ventricle and absence of cingulate gyrus and radial arrangement of gyri along the interhemispheric fissure. Hence it was reported as isolated complete corpus callosal agenesis and this article describes the Embryogenesis, anatomy, developmental anomalies and its clinical manifestations & prognosis.

  5. [Isolated giant hydatid in kidney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgör, Faruk; Erbin, Akif; Berberoğlu, Ahmet Yalçın; Binbay, Murat; Sarılar, Omer; Müslümanoğlu, Ahmet Yaser

    2014-06-01

    Cyst hydatid of the kidney is parasitic condition caused by Echinococcus granulosus and identified in many countries, especially associated with sheep farming. Echinococcal larvae enter the bloodstream using the digestive system and invade any organs in the human body. The urinary system is the third most common area affected by parasitic infection after liver and lungs, but isolated renal involvement is a very rare situation, even in endemic areas. İn our case, we aimed to report a 57-year-old female patient with an 18-centimeter isolated renal cyst hydatid treated by retroperitoneal nephrectomy. The diagnosis was based on imaging findings and confirmed by histopathologically.

  6. Isolation of Leptospira from blood culture bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girault, Dominique; Soupé-Gilbert, Marie-Estelle; Geroult, Sophie; Colot, Julien; Goarant, Cyrille

    2017-01-31

    With the increasing use of real-time PCR techniques, Leptospira isolation has mostly been abandoned for the diagnosis of human leptospirosis. However, there is a great value of collecting Leptospira isolates to better understand the epidemiology of this complex zoonosis and to provide the researchers with different isolates. In this study, we have successfully isolated different Leptospira strains from BacT/Alert aerobic blood culture bottles and suggest that this privileged biological material offers an opportunity to isolate leptospires.

  7. Effectiveness of Base Isolation Technique and Influence of Isolator Characteristics on Response of a Base Isolated Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Tolani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns with the seismic response comparison of a fixed base building with a base isolated building and parametric study of a base isolated building. The structural system considered for analysis is a three storey reinforced concrete building, which is idealized as a shear type building with one lateral degree of freedom at each floor level. The isolation systems considered for this study are Laminated Rubber bearing (LRB, Lead Rubber Bearing (N-Z bearing and Friction Pendulum System (FPS. The response of fixed base building and of base isolated building is compared in terms of maximum top floor acceleration, interstorey drift, maximum floor displacements and base shear. For parametric study important isolation system parameters considered are: (i isolation time period, isolator damping for LRB; (ii isolator yield strength, isolation time period, isolator damping for N-Z bearing and (iii isolation time period, friction coefficient for FPS. It is found that base isolation technique is very effective in reducing seismic response of structure and isolation system parameters significantly influence the earthquake response of a base isolated structure.

  8. Providencia stuartii Isolates from Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oikonomou, Olga; Liakopoulos, Apostolos; Phee, Lynette M.; Betts, Jonathan; Mevius, Dik; Wareham, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Providencia stuartii has emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen. We describe an outbreak due to a multidrug-resistant strain over a 4-month period in a critical care unit in Athens. Molecular typing revealed each of the isolates to be clonally related with coresistance to cephalosporins, car

  9. IMPROVED ISOLATION & ELECTROSPINNING OF ZEIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The major historical use of zein, the predominant corn protein, has been in the fibers market. In order to evaluate new formulations of zein in the fibers market a simple means of isolating and generating fibers is necessary. We have evaluated the ability to electrospin zein from numerous solvents...

  10. Isolated superior mesenteric artery dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalitha Palle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated superior mesenteric artery (SMA dissection without involvement of the aorta and the SMA origin is unusual. We present a case of an elderly gentleman who had chronic abdominal pain, worse after meals. CT angiography, performed on a 64-slice CT scanner, revealed SMA dissection with a thrombus. A large artery of Drummond was also seen. The patient was managed conservatively.

  11. Mitochondria: isolation, structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Martin; Taivassalo, Tanja; Gouspillou, Gilles; Hepple, Russell T

    2011-09-15

    Mitochondria are complex organelles constantly undergoing processes of fusion and fission, processes that not only modulate their morphology, but also their function. Yet the assessment of mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle often involves mechanical isolation of the mitochondria, a process which disrupts their normally heterogeneous branching structure and yields relatively homogeneous spherical organelles. Alternatively, methods have been used where the sarcolemma is permeabilized and mitochondrial morphology is preserved, but both methods face the downside that they remove potential influences of the intracellular milieu on mitochondrial function. Importantly, recent evidence shows that the fragmented mitochondrial morphology resulting from routine mitochondrial isolation procedures used with skeletal muscle alters key indices of function in a manner qualitatively similar to mitochondria undergoing fission in vivo. Although these results warrant caution when interpreting data obtained with mitochondria isolated from skeletal muscle, they also suggest that isolated mitochondrial preparations might present a useful way of interrogating the stress resistance of mitochondria. More importantly, these new findings underscore the empirical value of studying mitochondrial function in minimally disruptive experimental preparations. In this review, we briefly discuss several considerations and hypotheses emerging from this work.

  12. Isolation by distance, web service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohonak Andrew J

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The population genetic pattern known as "isolation by distance" results from spatially limited gene flow and is a commonly observed phenomenon in natural populations. However, few software programs exist for estimating the degree of isolation by distance among populations, and they tend not to be user-friendly. Results We have created Isolation by Distance Web Service (IBDWS a user-friendly web interface for determining patterns of isolation by distance. Using this site, population geneticists can perform a variety of powerful statistical tests including Mantel tests, Reduced Major Axis (RMA regression analysis, as well as calculate FST between all pairs of populations and perform basic summary statistics (e.g., heterozygosity. All statistical results, including publication-quality scatter plots in Postscript format, are returned rapidly to the user and can be easily downloaded. Conclusion IBDWS population genetics analysis software is hosted at http://phage.sdsu.edu/~jensen/ and documentation is available at http://www.bio.sdsu.edu/pub/andy/IBD.html. The source code has been made available on Source Forge at http://sourceforge.net/projects/ibdws/.

  13. Vapor-barrier Vacuum Isolation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor); Taminger, Karen M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A system includes a collimated beam source within a vacuum chamber, a condensable barrier gas, cooling material, a pump, and isolation chambers cooled by the cooling material to condense the barrier gas. Pressure levels of each isolation chamber are substantially greater than in the vacuum chamber. Coaxially-aligned orifices connect a working chamber, the isolation chambers, and the vacuum chamber. The pump evacuates uncondensed barrier gas. The barrier gas blocks entry of atmospheric vapor from the working chamber into the isolation chambers, and undergoes supersonic flow expansion upon entering each isolation chamber. A method includes connecting the isolation chambers to the vacuum chamber, directing vapor to a boundary with the working chamber, and supersonically expanding the vapor as it enters the isolation chambers via the orifices. The vapor condenses in each isolation chamber using the cooling material, and uncondensed vapor is pumped out of the isolation chambers via the pump.

  14. NASDA's activities on vibration isolation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The National Space Development Agency's (NASDA) activities in providing various vibration isolation technologies for the Space Station Mission are covered in viewgraph form. Technologies covered include an active vibration isolation system for extra sensitive missions in the low frequency range, a passive damping system consisting of a damping rack for the reduction of resonance amplification, and an isolator for vibration isolation from low frequencies. Information is given in viewgraph form on the active vibration isolation concept, voice coil type electromagnetic suspension, a profile of an active vibration isolation system, a three degree of freedom ground experiment, and acceleration feedback.

  15. Sympathicotomy for isolated facial blushing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Peter Bjørn; Pilegaard, Hans K; Ladegaard, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Background. Facial blushing is one of the most peculiar of human expressions. The pathophysiology is unclear, and the prevalence is unknown. Thoracoscopic sympathectomy may cure the symptom and is increasingly used in patients with isolated facial blushing. The evidence base for the optimal level...... of targeting the sympathetic chain is limited to retrospective case studies. We present a randomized clinical trial. Methods. 100 patients were randomized (web-based, single-blinded) to rib-oriented (R2 or R2-R3) sympathicotomy for isolated facial blushing at two university hospitals during a 6-year period...... in all social and mental domains in both groups. Overall, 85% of the patients had an excellent or satisfactory result, with no significant difference between the R2 procedure and the R2-R3 procedure. Mild recurrence of facial blushing occurred in 30% of patients within the first year. One patient...

  16. Isolated urachal malakoplakia mimicking malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saisriharsha Pakalapati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Malakoplakia is an unusual inflammatory disease with uncertain pathogenesis affecting any organ in the body, but predominantly genitourinary tract, with specific predilection to the bladder. We report a rare case of isolated malakoplakia of the urachus in a 29-year-old male patient who presented with lower urinary tract symptoms without any hematuria. Investigations revealed sterile pyuria with no bacterial growth in urine. Radiological investigations revealed a mass in the urachal region. The patient underwent cystoscopy with biopsy followed by pelvic lymph node dissection and partial cystectomy with excision of the urachal mass. Histopathological examination of the mass revealed malakoplakia. Postoperative course was uneventful. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first ever case report of isolated urachal malakoplakia without any concomitant malignancy or bladder involvement reported in our country and one of the very few reported worldwide.

  17. Pediatric isolated bilateral iliac aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chithra, R; Sundar, R Ajai; Velladuraichi, B; Sritharan, N; Amalorpavanathan, J; Vidyasagaran, T

    2013-07-01

    Aneurysms are rare in children. Isolated iliac artery aneurysms are very rare, especially bilateral aneurysms. Pediatric aneurysms are usually secondary to connective tissue disorders, arteritis, or mycotic causes. We present a case of a 3-year-old child with bilateral idiopathic common iliac aneurysms that were successfully repaired with autogenous vein grafts. Copyright © 2013 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Isolated complete corpus callosal agenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Jaiganesh S, Venkateshwaran A, Naresh Kumar C, Rajasekhar KV

    2014-01-01

    Isolated complete corpus callosal agenesis is a rare entity. Usually this condition will be an associated finding in other syndromes. 3 month old male child came with complaints of deformed foot on both sides, not having a social smile and neck holding. Patient referred to the Radiology department for MRI brain which showed complete absence of corpus callosum, widely separated and parallely placed lateral ventricles, colpocephaly, high riding of 3rd ventricle and absence of cingulate gyrus an...

  19. Transformerless dc-Isolated Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippel, Wally E.

    1987-01-01

    Efficient voltage converter employs capacitive instead of transformer coupling to provide dc isolation. Offers buck/boost operation, minimal filtering, and low parts count, with possible application in photovoltaic power inverters, power supplies and battery charges. In photovoltaic inverter circuit with transformerless converter, Q2, Q3, Q4, and Q5 form line-commutated inverter. Switching losses and stresses nil because switching performed when current is zero.

  20. Isolation of intraflagellar transport trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencarelli, Caterina; Mitchell, Aaron; Leoncini, Roberto; Rosenbaum, Joel; Lupetti, Pietro

    2013-08-01

    The intraflagellar transport (IFT) system was first identified in situ by electron microscopy in thin sections of plastic-embedded flagella as linear arrays of electrondense particles, located between the B tubules of the outer doublets and the flagellar membrane. These arrays of particles are referred to as IFT trains. Upon membrane rupture, IFT trains are thought to easily dissociate to yield soluble IFT particles, which are commonly purified through sucrose gradients as ∼16-17S complexes. The latters easily dissociate into two subcomplexes, named A and B. We report here the isolation, visualization, and identification by immunolabeling of flexible strings of IFT particles, which are structurally similar to in situ IFT trains and appear to be formed by both complex A and complex B polypeptides. Moreover, the particles forming isolated IFT trains are structurally similar to the individual particles found in the ∼17S gradient peak. Our results provide the first direct evidence that ∼17S particles do indeed compose the IFT trains. The paper also represents the first isolation of the IFT trains, and opens new possibilities for higher resolution studies on their structure and how particles are attached to each other to form the particle trains.

  1. Isolation of Cellulolytic Actinomycetes from Marine Sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Veiga, Manuel; Esparis, Azucena; Fabregas, Jaime

    1983-01-01

    The cellulolytic activity of 36 actinomycetes strains isolated from marine sediments was investigated by the cellulose-azure method. Approximately 50% of the isolates exhibited various degrees of cellulolytic activity.

  2. Tiamulin resistance in porcine Brachyspira pilosicoli isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, M; Landén, A; Franklin, A

    2006-02-01

    There are few studies on antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira pilosicoli, therefore this study was performed to investigate the situation among isolates from pigs. The tiamulin and tylosin susceptibility was determined by broth dilution for 93 and 86 porcine B. pilosicoli isolates, respectively. The isolates came from clinical samples taken in Swedish pig herds during the years 2002 and 2003. The tylosin minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was >16 microg/ml for 50% (n=43) of the isolates tested. A tiamulin MIC >2 microg/ml was obtained for 14% (n=13) of the isolates and these were also tested against doxycycline, salinomycin, valnemulin, lincomycin and aivlosin. For these isolates the susceptibility to salinomycin and doxycycline was high but the MICs for aivlosin varied. The relationship between the 13 tiamulin resistant isolates was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Among the 13 isolates 10 different PFGE patterns were identified.

  3. Isolation, production, purification, assay and characterization of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation, production, purification, assay and characterization of fibrinolytic ... are isolated from Bacillus subtilis, β-haemolytic Streptococci and urine sample. ... recombinant E.coli containing short fragment genomic DNA of Pseudomonas sp.

  4. Mycoplasma contamination of Chlamydia pneumoniae isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huniche, BS; Jensen, Lise Torp; Birkelund, Svend

    1998-01-01

    We examined 6 C. pneumonia isolates from The American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and 2 Finnish isolates for Mycoplasma contamination. Three of the ATCC isolates and both of the Finnish isolates were Mycoplasma-contaminated. The contaminants were characterized by means of growth in BEa and BEg...... media, immunoblotting, polymerase chain reaction and pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Two of the 6 ATCC isolates [ATCC VR1355 (TWAR strain 2043) and ATCC VR1356 (TWAR strain 2023)] were infected with Mycoplasma hominis and 1 isolate [ATCC VR2282 (TWAR strain TW183)] was contaminated with both...... Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma orale, whereas 3 of the ATCC isolates [ATCC VR1310, ATCC VR1360 (TWAR strain CM-1) and ATCC 53592 (TWAR strain AR39)] were not contaminated. The Finnish C. pneumoniae isolates Kajaani 6 and Parola were found to be contaminated with M. hominis and M. orale, respectively...

  5. Isolation of haloorganic groundwater humic substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, M.; Grøn, C.

    1995-01-01

    Humic substances were isolated from groundwater according to a revised method designed to avoid organohalogen artefacts. The prepared humic substances exhibited lower halogen contents than humic substances isolated according to the conventionally used method. Excessive oxidation or hydrolysis...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: isolated lissencephaly sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Share on Twitter Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions Search MENU Toggle navigation Home Page Search ... Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions isolated lissencephaly sequence isolated lissencephaly ...

  7. Isolation, characterization and antimicrobial activity of Streptomyces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR TONUKARI

    2013-12-18

    Dec 18, 2013 ... series on all media. The results showed that glycerol yeast extract and starch casein were the best .... MATERIALS AND METHODS. Collection of .... Genomic DNA was isolated from the isolates using a bacterial genomic DNA ...

  8. Are Isolated Indigenous Populations Headed toward Extinction?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walker, Robert S; Kesler, Dylan C; Hill, Kim R

    2016-01-01

    .... Except in emergency situations, the current policy of governments in Brazil, Colombia, and Peru towards isolated tribes is a "leave them alone" strategy, in which isolated groups are left uncontacted...

  9. Isolated Malignant Melanoma Metastasis to the Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne K. Larsen, MD

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Malignant melanomas rarely develop isolated pancreatic metastases. We describe a unique patient who is still alive 22 years following an isolated pancreatic melanoma metastasis, and we review the sparse literature in the field.

  10. common bacterial isolates from infected eyes abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LIVINGSTON

    The common bacterial isolates and their antibiotics susceptibility were studied in 298 bacterial ... Bacteria were isolated most on the eye infections of the conjunctiva ... practitioners to avoid development of resistance from indiscriminate use.

  11. Isolation and identification of bacteria for producing thermophilic β-glucosidase%产耐热β-葡萄糖苷酶细菌的筛选与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖德芳; 陈献忠; 张梁; 王正祥; 石贵阳

    2011-01-01

    From 1323 bacteria strains collected by the Culture Collection Center of Industrial Microorganism sin Jiangnan Uninversity (CIC IM-CU ), 20 strains with relatively high capability of producing therm ophilic β-glucosidase were isolated . 5 strains were identified as Geobacillus sp . and the others were identified as B acillus licheniform is by 16s rDN A sequencing analysis . C rude enzym es was characterized from Geobacillus sp . (170-28-2 ) and B acinus licheniform is (F157043A ) . The Geobacillussp . with a specific activity of 0.36 U/m g showed optimal activity at pH 8 .0 and 53℃ and the B acillus licheniform is with a specific activity of 0.66 U /m g show ed optim alactivity at pH 9 .0 and 55℃ . Based on morpholoigcal, physiological and biochem ical properties , the strain of F157043A was further identfied as Bacillus lichen iform is .%从中国高校工业微生物资源和信息中心(CICIM-CU)菌种库的1323株细菌保藏物中筛选出20株产β-葡萄糖苷酶能力较高的细菌.通过16S rDNA序列鉴定,初步确定其中有5株为嗜热溶胞土芽孢杆菌 (Geobacillus sp.),其余为地衣芽孢杆菌 (Bacillus licheniformis).对其中编号为F157043A的地衣芽孢杆菌和编号为170-28-2的嗜热溶胞土芽孢杆菌进行了粗酶液酶学性质分析,发现地衣芽孢杆菌最适反应温度为55 ℃,最适反应pH值为9.0,该条件下测得粗酶液比酶活为0.66 U/mg;嗜热溶胞土芽孢杆菌最适反应温度为53 ℃,最适反应pH值为8.0,该条件下测得粗酶液比酶活为0.36 U/mg.通过菌体和菌落形态观察以及生理生化特征分析,进一步鉴定编号为F157043A的菌株为地衣芽孢杆菌.

  12. Isolated malignant melanoma metastasis to the pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne K; Krag, Christen; Geertsen, Poul

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY: Malignant melanomas rarely develop isolated pancreatic metastases. We describe a unique patient who is still alive 22 years following an isolated pancreatic melanoma metastasis, and we review the sparse literature in the field.......SUMMARY: Malignant melanomas rarely develop isolated pancreatic metastases. We describe a unique patient who is still alive 22 years following an isolated pancreatic melanoma metastasis, and we review the sparse literature in the field....

  13. Molecular characterization of Danish Cryptosporidium parvum isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi L.; Ahrens, Peter; Juel, Cynthia Dawn

    2002-01-01

    was characterized as C. meleagridis. The porcine Cryptosporidium isolates (N = 4) revealed a pattern which was genetically distinct from human and bovine isolates. Cryptosporidium in a hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus L.) was identified for the first time. By microsatellite sequencing the hedgehog isolate showed...

  14. Fungi isolated in school buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Ejdys

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the species composition of fungi occurring on wall surfaces and in the air in school buildings. Fungi isolated from the air using the sedimentation method and from the walls using the surface swab technique constituted the study material. Types of finish materials on wall surfaces were identified and used in the analysis. Samples were collected in selected areas in two schools: classrooms, corridors, men's toilets and women's toilets, cloakrooms, sports changing rooms and shower. Examinations were conducted in May 2005 after the heating season was over. Fungi were incubated on Czapek-Dox medium at three parallel temperatures: 25, 37 and 40°C, for at least three weeks. A total of 379 isolates of fungi belonging to 32 genera of moulds, yeasts and yeast-like fungi were obtained from 321 samples in the school environment. The following genera were isolated most frequently: Aspergillus, Penicillium and Cladosporium. Of the 72 determined species, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium chrysogenum occurred most frequently in the school buildings. Wall surfaces were characterised by an increased prevalence of mycobiota in comparison with the air in the buildings, with a slightly greater species diversity. A certain species specificity for rough and smooth wall surfaces was demonstrated. Fungi of the genera Cladosporium and Emericella with large spores adhered better to smooth surfaces while those of the genus Aspergillus with smaller conidia adhered better to rough surfaces. The application of three incubation temperatures helped provide a fuller picture of the mycobiota in the school environment.

  15. Thermodynamic laws in isolated systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Stefan; Hänggi, Peter; Dunkel, Jörn

    2014-12-01

    The recent experimental realization of exotic matter states in isolated quantum systems and the ensuing controversy about the existence of negative absolute temperatures demand a careful analysis of the conceptual foundations underlying microcanonical thermostatistics. Here we provide a detailed comparison of the most commonly considered microcanonical entropy definitions, focusing specifically on whether they satisfy or violate the zeroth, first, and second laws of thermodynamics. Our analysis shows that, for a broad class of systems that includes all standard classical Hamiltonian systems, only the Gibbs volume entropy fulfills all three laws simultaneously. To avoid ambiguities, the discussion is restricted to exact results and analytically tractable examples.

  16. [Neuroanatomy of Isolated Body Lateropulsion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazato, Yoshihiko; Tamura, Naotoshi; Ikeda, Kei; Tanaka, Ai; Yamamoto, Toshimasa

    2016-03-01

    Axial body lateropulsion, a phenomenon where the body is pulled toward the side of the lesion, with tendency of falling down, is the well-known transient feature of lateral medullary syndrome. In some cases, axial body lateropulsion occurs without vestibular and cerebellar symptoms (isolated body lateropulsion:[iBL]). Patients with iBL have a lesion located in the spinocerebellar tract, descending lateral vestibulospinal tract, vestibulo-thalamic pathway, dentatorubrothalamic pathway, or thalamocortical fascicle. This review deals with the anatomic basis and clinical significance of iBL.

  17. Isoflavonoids isolated from Cuban propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Campo Fernandez, Mercedes; Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Márquez Hernández, Ingrid; De Simone, Francesco; Rastrelli, Luca

    2005-11-16

    Chemical investigation of a red-type Cuban propolis sample has led to the isolation of 11 isoflavonoids (2 isoflavones, 3 isoflavans, and 6 pterocarpans), together with gallic acid, isoliquiritigenin, and (-)-liquiritigenin. Structural determination, including the absolute stereochemistry, was accomplished by spectroscopic analysis, particularly CD and 2D NMR techniques. The fragmentation behavior of pterocarpans was studied by electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) using an ion-trap analyzer, and a generalized fragmentation pathway, useful in the identification and structural characterization of pterocarpans, is proposed. Isoflavonoids are reported for the first time from propolis samples.

  18. Simplified design procedure for base isolation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takayama, Mineo; Tada, Hideyuki [Fukuoka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-12-01

    This paper presents a simplified design procedure which incorporates an existing response prediction method for base isolated buildings into design methods for isolation devices (rubber bearings and hysteresis dampers). The procedure enables a designer to easily identify the relationship between tile seismic behavior of base-isolated buildings and the characteristics of isolation devices. The prediction method, proposed by Prof. Akiyama, is based on energy balance between the total input seismic energy and the energy absorbed by the isolation devices. The method is very accurate. The design methods for devices were developed by authors based on experimental and finite element analysis results.

  19. From rumors to genetic isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo E. Castilla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we propose a registration process for population genetic isolates, usually geographic clusters of genetic disorders, based on the systematic search of rumors, defined as any type of account regardless of its reliability. Systematically ascertained rumors are recorded, and validated through a progressive process of pre-established steps. This paper outlines the conceptual basis for this approach and presents the preliminary results from a rumor-based nationwide registry of genetically isolated populations, named CENISO (Censo Nacional de Isolados, operating in Brazil since 2009. During the first four years of its existence (2009-2013, a total of 191 Rumors were registered and validated, resulting in a prevalence rate of one per million inhabitants of Brazil. When the five statutory geographic regions of Brazil were considered, more Rumors were registered for the Northeast (2.11; 1.74-2.54 per 10(6 than for the remaining four regions, North, Center-West, Southeast, and South, which did not differ among themselves. About half (86/191 of the recorded rumors were proven to be geographic clusters; of these disorders, 58 were autosomal recessive, 17 autosomal dominant, 5 X-linked, 3 multifactorial, and one environmental (thalidomide embryopathy.

  20. Blackbody Radiation from Isolated Neptunes

    CERN Document Server

    Ginzburg, Sivan; Loeb, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Recent analyses of the orbits of some Kuiper Belt objects hypothesize the presence of an undiscovered Neptune-size planet at a very large separation from the Sun. The energy budget of Neptunes on such distant orbits is dominated by the internal heat released by their cooling rather than solar irradiation (making them effectively "isolated"). The blackbody radiation that these planets emit as they cool may provide the means for their detection. Here we use an analytical toy model to study the cooling and radiation of isolated Neptunes. This model can translate a detection (or a null detection) to a constraint on the size and composition of the hypothesized "Planet Nine". Specifically, the thick gas atmosphere of Neptune-like planets serves as an insulating blanket which slows down their cooling. Therefore, a measurement of the blackbody temperature, $T_{\\rm eff}\\sim 50\\textrm{K}$, at which a Neptune emits can be used to estimate the mass of its atmosphere, $M_{\\rm atm}$. Explicitly, we find the relation $T_{\\r...

  1. Isolation of technogenic magnetic particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catinon, Mickaël, E-mail: mickael.catinon@gmail.com [Laboratoire LECA, UMR 5553, Equipe Pollution, Environnement, Ecotoxicologie et Ecoremédiation, Univ. J. Fourier, 38041 Grenoble (France); Ayrault, Sophie, E-mail: sophie.ayrault@lsce.ispl.fr [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, UMR 8212, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ/IPSL, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Boudouma, Omar, E-mail: boudouma@ccr.jussieu.fr [Service du MEB, UFR928, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 75252 Paris VI (France); Bordier, Louise, E-mail: Louise.Bordier@lsce.ipsl.fr [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, UMR 8212, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ/IPSL, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Agnello, Gregory, E-mail: contact@evinrude.fr [Evinrude, Espace St Germain, 38200 Vienne (France); Reynaud, Stéphane, E-mail: stephane.reynaud@ujf-grenoble.fr [Laboratoire LECA, UMR 5553, Equipe Pollution, Environnement, Ecotoxicologie et Ecoremédiation, Univ. J. Fourier, 38041 Grenoble (France); Tissut, Michel, E-mail: michel.tissut@ujf-grenoble.fr [Laboratoire LECA, UMR 5553, Equipe Pollution, Environnement, Ecotoxicologie et Ecoremédiation, Univ. J. Fourier, 38041 Grenoble (France)

    2014-03-01

    Technogenic magnetic particles (TMPs) emitted by various industrial sources, such as smelting plants, end up after atmospheric transfer on the soil surface. In the present study, we characterised the origin and composition of such particles emitted by a large iron smelting plant and deposited on particular substrates, namely tombstones, which act as a very interesting and appropriate matrix when compared to soil, tree bark, lichens or attic dust. The isolation and subsequent description of TMPs require a critical step of separation between different components of the sample and the magnetic particles; here, we described an efficient protocol that fulfils such a requirement: it resorts to water suspension, sonication, repeated magnetic extraction, sedimentation, sieving and organic matter destruction at 550 °C in some instances. The isolated TMPs displayed a noticeable crystalline shape with variable compositions: a) pure iron oxides, b) iron + Cr, Ni or Zn, and c) a complex structure containing Ca, Si, Mg, and Mn. Using Scanning Electron Microscope Energy Dispersive X-ray (SEM–EDX), we obtained profiles of various and distinct magnetic particles, which allowed us to identify the source of the TMPs. - Highlights: • The developed method offers a low-cost approach of large-scale dry deposition. • Tombstones are excellent supports for sampling these atmospheric deposits. • Smelted elements crystallise after cooling, giving typical technogenic magnetic particles (TMPs). • Coupling microscopic and bulk analyses allows identifying TMP origin. • Magnetic TMPs issued from steel industry were separated by a new technique.

  2. Braking Index of Isolated Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Hamil, Oliver Q; Urbanec, Martin; Urbancova, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Isolated pulsars are rotating neutron stars with accurately measured angular velocities $\\Omega$, and their time derivatives that show unambiguously that the pulsars are slowing down. The commonly accepted view is that it arises through emission of magnetic dipole radiation (MDR) from a rotating magnetized body. The calculated energy loss by a rotating pulsar with a constant moment of inertia is assumed proportional to a model dependent power of $\\Omega$. This relation leads to the power law $\\dot{\\Omega}$ = -K $\\Omega^{\\rm n}$ where $n$ is called the braking index. The MDR model predicts $n$ exactly equal to 3. Selected observations of isolated pulsars provide rather precise values of $n$, individually accurate to a few percent or better, in the range 1$ <$ n $ < $ 2.8, which is consistently less than the predictions of the MDR model. In spite of an extensive investigation of various modifications of the MDR model, no satisfactory explanation of observation has been found yet. The aim of this work is t...

  3. Isolation and identification of bacillus species from soil samples in anthrax epidemic area%炭疽高发地区土壤样本中常见芽胞杆菌的分离及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧娟; 魏建春; 张恩民; 张建华

    2012-01-01

    Objective To isolate and identify bacillus species in soil samples in anthrax epidemic area and evaluate the disinfection effect and understand the distributions of common bacillus species in the area. Methods Sixty soil samples were collected from the anthrax epidemic area to isolate and identify related bacillus species with PCR assay. Results No Bacillus anthracis was identified, but 13 strains of Bacillus licheniformis, 8 strains of Bacillus subtilis, 11 strains of Bacillus pumilus and 1 strain of Bacillus cereus were identified in 33 gene fragments from 48 clones by sequencing and blast alignment. The specificities of the primers for Bacillus megatherium and Bacillus circulans were not high. Conclusion The disinfection effect in the anthrax epidemic area was good. The related bacillus species exist widely in the soil, suggesting that their identifications are needed in anthrax surveillance by specific genes amplification%目的 通过分离鉴定炭疽可疑污染土壤样本的芽胞杆菌,评价消毒效果和了解监测地区土壤中的芽胞杆菌分布情况.方法 采集炭疽监测点土壤样本60份,对炭疽芽胞杆菌和其他芽胞杆菌进行分离培养和聚合酶链反应扩增鉴定.结果 在可疑污染土壤样本中未分离到炭疽芽胞杆菌;从分离到的48个单克隆菌落中扩增到33个目的片段,经测序和blast比对,确定得到地衣芽胞杆菌13株,枯草芽胞杆菌8株,短小芽胞杆菌扩增11株,蜡样芽胞杆菌扩增到1株,巨大芽胞杆菌引物和环状芽胞杆菌引物特异性不好.结论 本研究提示该监测点炭疽疫情消毒效果可信,但需要进一步研究验证;几种芽胞杆菌在土壤中广泛存在,在炭疽监测工作中进行病原体分离时需要加以鉴别,可通过特异基因扩增来辅助检验.

  4. Molecular characterization of bacteria isolated from the Kingdom of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ola

    2012-11-06

    Nov 6, 2012 ... ... bacterial isolation. Bacterial isolates were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities against pathogenic fungi which cause ... Molecular techniques based on genomic DNA have ... Isolation of total DNA from isolated strains.

  5. Reovirus, isolated from SARS patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Qing; SONG Lihua; GAN Yonghua; TAN Hua; JIN Baofeng; LI Huiyan; ZUO Tingting; CHEN Dehui; ZHANG Xuemin; ZHU Hong; YANG Yi; LI Weihua; ZHOU Yusen; HE Jun; HE Kun; ZHANG Haojie; ZHOU Tao

    2003-01-01

    Beijing has been severely affected by SARS, and SARS-associated coronavirus has been confirmed as its cause. However, clinical and experimental evidence implicates the possibility of co-infection. In this report, reovirus was isolated from throat swabs of SARS patients, including the first case in Beijing andher mother. Identification with the electron microscopy revealed the characteristic features of reovirus. 24 of 38 samples from other SARS cases were found to have serologic responses to the reovirus. Primers designed for reovirus have amplified several fragments of DNA, one of which was sequenced (S2 gene fragment), which indicates it as a unique reovirus (orthoreovirus). Preliminary animal experiment showed that inoculation of the reovirus in mice caused death with atypical pneumonia. Nevertheless, the association of reovirus with SARS outbreak requires to be further investigated.

  6. Multiple isolated cutaneous plexiform schwannomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas A. S. Attia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plexiform schwannoma is a rare neurogenic tumor, arising from skin and subcutaneous tissue. The presence of multiple schwannomas suggests a possible association with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2. A 50-year old male patient presented with multiple papulo-nodular cutaneous lesions on both arms and forearms. Histopathological examination revealed a dermal multinodular pattern of well-circumscribed masses of closely packed cells, with peripheral myxoid tissue, well-encapsulated in a thin collagenous capsule. S-100 immunohistochemical staining was diffusely and strongly positive. Neuron-specific enolase was positive, confirming a neural tissue tumor. An audiogram and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI of cerebro-pontine angle showed no detected abnormality, excluding acoustic neuroma. Thus, we present a case of multiple bilateral isolated cutaneous plexiform schwannomas, not associated with NF2. Multiple plexiform schwannomas is a very rare entity, distinct from neurofibromatosis (NF, and being confined to the dermis is even more rarely reported.

  7. Propellant isolation shutoff valve program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, F. L.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis and design effort directed to advancing the state-of-the-art of space storable isolation valves for control of flow of the propellants liquid fluorine/hydrazine and Flox/monomethylhydrazine is discussed. Emphasis is on achieving zero liquid leakage and capability of withstanding missions up to 10 years in interplanetary space. Included is a study of all-metal poppet sealing theory, an evaluation of candidate seal configurations, a valve actuator trade-off study and design description of a pneumo-thermally actuated soft metal poppet seal valve. The concepts and analysis leading to the soft seal approach are documented. A theoretical evaluation of seal leakage versus seal loading, related finishes and yield strengths of various materials is provided. Application of a confined soft aluminum seal loaded to 2 to 3 times yield strength is recommended. Use of either an electro-mechanical or pneumatic actuator appears to be feasible for the application.

  8. Bacterial isolates degrading aliphatic polycarbonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, T; Hosoya, H; Tokiwa, Y

    1998-04-15

    Bacteria that degrade an aliphatic polycarbonate, poly(hexamethylene carbonate), were isolated from river water in Ibaraki. Prefecture, Japan, after enrichment in liquid medium containing poly(hexamethylene carbonate) suspensions as carbon source, and dilution to single cells. Four of the strains, 35L, WFF52, 61A and 61B2, degraded poly(hexamethylene carbonate) on agar plate containing suspended poly(hexamethylene carbonate). Degradation of poly(hexamethylene carbonate) was confirmed by gel permeation chromatography. Besides poly(hexamethylene carbonate), the strains were found to degrade poly(tetramethylene carbonate). The strains were characterized morphologically, physiologically, and by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Strains 35L and WFF52 were tentatively identified as Pseudomonas sp. and Variovorax sp., respectively, while strains 61A and 61B2 constitute an unidentified branch within the beta subclass of the Proteobacteria.

  9. An isolated nasolacrimal duct osteoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joo Yeon; Kwon, Jae Hwan

    2013-07-01

    Osteomas of the nose and paranasal sinus are common benign tumors that can extend to surrounding structures and result in orbital or intracranial involvement. Presenting symptoms include facial pain, headache, cerebral symptoms, ocular symptoms, and so on, depending on the location and size of the tumor. They commonly occur within the frontal, ethmoid, maxillary, and sphenoid sinuses; however, there are rare cases of reported osteomas in the nasal cavity, turbinate, or orbit. Our case report describes a patient with nasolacrimal duct osteoma who presented with ipsilateral ocular pain, epiphora, and medial canthal swelling. We performed intranasal dacryocystorhinostomy using a nasal endoscope and removed the lacrimal duct osteoma. This report describes symptoms and management of an isolated nasolacrimal duct stone with a review of the literature.

  10. Viruses isolated from Panamanian sloths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, C; Peralta, P H; Montgomery, G G

    1983-11-01

    Seven virus strains were isolated in Vero cells from whole blood samples from 80 wild-caught sloths, Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni, from Central Panamá. Four strains of at least two different serotypes are related to Changuinola virus; two of these were associated with prolonged or recrudescent viremias. One strain is an antigenic subtype of Punta Toro virus, and another, described here as Bradypus-4 virus, is a new, antigenically ungrouped virus. A second new virus from sloths, Utive virus, forms an antigenic complex within the Simbu serogroup with Utinga and Pintupo viruses. Tests on sequential plasma samples from radio-marked free-ranging sloths and from recently captured animals maintained in captivity showed that both species develop neutralizing antibodies following naturally acquired virus infections. Antibodies against the Changuinola and Simbu serogroup viruses are widespread in both sloth species and are especially prevalent in Choloepus, but are virtually absent in all other wild vertebrate species tested.

  11. Spectroscopy of Isolated Prebiotic Nucleobases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svadlenak, Nathan; Callahan, Michael P.; Ligare, Marshall; Gulian, Lisa; Gengeliczki, Zsolt; Nachtigallova, Dana; Hobza, Pavel; deVries, Mattanjah

    2011-01-01

    We use multiphoton ionization and double resonance spectroscopy to study the excited state dynamics of biologically relevant molecules as well as prebiotic nucleobases, isolated in the gas phase. Molecules that are biologically relevant to life today tend to exhibit short excited state lifetimes compared to similar but non-biologically relevant analogs. The mechanism is internal conversion, which may help protect the biologically active molecules from UV damage. This process is governed by conical intersections that depend very strongly on molecular structure. Therefore we have studied purines and pyrimidines with systematic variations of structure, including substitutions, tautomeric forms, and cluster structures that represent different base pair binding motifs. These structural variations also include possible alternate base pairs that may shed light on prebiotic chemistry. With this in mind we have begun to probe the ultrafast dynamics of molecules that exhibit very short excited states and search for evidence of internal conversions.

  12. Cladal relatedness among Aspergillus oryzae isolates and Aspergillus flavus S and L morphotype isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Perng-Kuang; Ehrlich, Kenneth C; Hua, Sui-Sheng T

    2006-04-25

    Aspergillus flavus is the main etiological agent for aflatoxin contamination of crops. Its close relative, A. oryzae, does not produce aflatoxins and has been widely used to produce fermented foods. We compared the phylogeny of A. oryzae isolates and L- and S-type sclerotial isolates of A. flavus using single nucleotide polymorphisms in the omtA gene in the aflatoxin biosynthesis gene cluster and deletions in and distal to the norB-cypA intergenic region as phylogenetic signals. Aflatoxin-producing ability and sclerotial size also were weighted in the analysis. Like A. flavus, the A. oryzae isolates form a polyphyletic assemblage. A. oryzae isolates in one clade strikingly resemble an A. flavus subgroup of atoxigenic L-type isolates. All toxigenic S-type isolates closely resemble another subgroup of atoxigenic L-type isolates. Because atoxigenic S-type isolates are extremely rare, we hypothesize that loss of aflatoxin production in S-type isolates may occur concomitantly with a change to L-type sclerotia. All toxigenic L-type isolates, unlike A. oryzae, have a 1.0 kb deletion in the norB-cypA region. Although A. oryzae isolates, like S-type, have a 1.5 kb deletion in the norB-cypA region, none were cladally related to S-type A. flavus isolates. Our results show that A. flavus populations are genetically diverse. A. oryzae isolates may descend from certain atoxigenic L-type A. flavus isolates.

  13. Steady compression characteristics of laminated MRE isolator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, N. A. A.; Mazlan, S. A.; Ubaidillah; Sharif, A. H. R.; Kamaruddin, S.

    2016-11-01

    This paper focused on an experimental setup on laminated magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) isolator under steady state compression test. An isotropic type natural rubber (NR) based MRE were fabricated and layered with a steel plate to form a multilayer sandwich structure adopted from the conventional laminated rubber bearing design. A set of static compression test was conducted to explore the potential of semi-active laminated MRE isolator in field-dependent stiffness properties. Stress versus strain relationship was assessed under different magnetic fields application. Based on the examination, the stress altered as the application of magnetic fields. Consequently, the effective stiffness of isolator also influenced by the magnetic fields induction. The experimental results show that the proposed laminated MRE isolator can effectively alter the compression stiffness up to the 14.56%. The preliminary results have confirmed the tunability of the semi-active laminated MRE isolator in which it would be beneficial for improving building isolator in general.

  14. Isolation and Identification of Concrete Environment Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwan, J. M.; Anneza, L. H.; Othman, N.; Husnul, T.; Alshalif, A. F.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the isolation and molecular method for bacteria identification through PCR and DNA sequencing. Identification of the bacteria species is required in order to fully utilize the bacterium capability for precipitation of calcium carbonate in concrete. This process is to enable the addition of suitable catalyst according to the bacterium enzymatic pathway that is known through the bacteria species used. The objective of this study is to isolate, enriched and identify the bacteria species. The bacteria in this study was isolated from fresh urine and acid mine drainage water, Kota Tinggi, Johor. Enrichment of the isolated bacteria was conducted to ensure the bacteria survivability in concrete. The identification of bacteria species was done through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and rRDNA sequencing. The isolation and enrichment of the bacteria was done successfully. Whereas, the results for bacteria identification showed that the isolated bacteria strains are Bacillus sp and Enterococus faecalis.

  15. Klebsiella pneumoniae KPC: first isolations in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Fontana; Marco Favaro; Loredana Sarmati; Silvia Natoli; Anna Altieri; Maria Cristina Bossa; Silvia Minelli; Cartesio Favalli

    2009-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) was detected in two isolates of carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae in an italian teaching hospital. This is the first report of a KPC-producing isolates in our country. The first strain was isolated from a urine sample collected from a indwelling urinary catheter in a ICU-patient with subdural haematoma, while the second was from the culture of the central venous catheter (CVC) in a patient affected by Crohn’s disease admitted in gastroenterology ward...

  16. Isolated trochlear nerve palsy with midbrain hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Midbrain hemorrhage causing isolated fourth nerve palsy is extremely rare. Idiopathic, traumatic and congenital abnormalities are the most common causes of fourth nerve palsy. We report acute isolated fourth nerve palsy in an 18-year-old lady due to a midbrain hemorrhage probably due to a midbrain cavernoma. The case highlights the need for neuroimaging in selected cases of isolated trochlear nerve palsy.

  17. Variable stiffness and damping magnetorheological isolator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang ZHOU; Xingyu WANG; Xianzhou ZHANG; Weihua LI

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the development and characterization of a magnetorheological (MR) fluid-based variable stiffness and damping isolator. The prototype of the MR fluid isolator is fabricated, and its dynamic behavior is measured under various applied magnetic fields. The parameters of the model under various magnetic fields are identified, and the dynamic perfor-mance of the isolator is evaluated in simulation. Experi-mental results indicate that both the stiffness and damping capability of the developed MR isolator can be controlled by an external magnetic field.

  18. Fault Isolation for Shipboard Decision Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lajic, Zoran; Blanke, Mogens; Nielsen, Ulrik Dam

    2010-01-01

    Fault detection and fault isolation for in-service decision support systems for marine surface vehicles will be presented in this paper. The stochastic wave elevation and the associated ship responses are modeled in the frequency domain. The paper takes as an example fault isolation of a containe......Fault detection and fault isolation for in-service decision support systems for marine surface vehicles will be presented in this paper. The stochastic wave elevation and the associated ship responses are modeled in the frequency domain. The paper takes as an example fault isolation...

  19. Isolated Fast High-Voltage Switching Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Anthony

    1992-01-01

    Electrically isolated switching circuit supplies pulses at potentials up to 6.5 kV and currents up to 6.5 A, lasting as long as few microseconds. Turn-on time about 40 ns; turn-off time about 3 microseconds. Electrically isolated from control circuitry by means of fiber-optic signal coupling and isolated power supply. Electrical isolation protects both technician and equipment. This and similar circuits useful in such industrial and scientific applications as high-voltage, high-frequency test equipment; electrostatic-discharge test equipment; plasma-laboratory instrumentation; spark chambers; and electromagnetic-interference test equipment.

  20. Hydrologic considerations in defining isolated wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, T.C.; LaBaugh, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    Wetlands that are not connected by streams to other surface-water bodies are considered to be isolated. Although the definition is based on surface-water connections to other water bodies, isolated wetlands commonly are integral parts of extensive ground-water flow systems, and isolated wetlands can spill over their surface divides into adjacent surface-water bodies during periods of abundant precipitation and high water levels. Thus, characteristics of ground-water flow and atmospheric-water flow affect the isolation of wetlands. In general, the degree that isolated wetlands are connected through the ground-water system to other surface-water bodies depends to a large extent on the rate that ground water moves and the rate that hydrologic stresses can be transmitted through the ground-water system. Water that seeps from an isolated wetland into a gravel aquifer can travel many kilometers through the ground-water system in one year. In contrast, water that seeps from an isolated wetland into a clayey or silty substrate may travel less than one meter in one year. For wetlands that can spill over their surface watersheds during periods of wet climate conditions, their isolation is related to the height to a spill elevation above normal wetland water level and the recurrence interval of various magnitudes of precipitation. The concepts presented in this paper indicate that the entire hydrologic system needs to be considered in establishing a definition of hydrologic isolation.

  1. Biodegradation of norfloxacin by Penicillium frequentans isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... One norfloxacin-degrading fungi was isolated from soil contaminated by norfloxacin and preliminary identified as ... Keywords: Norfloxacin, soil, biodegradation, microbial consortium.

  2. Permanent isolation surface barrier: Functional performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wing, N.R.

    1993-10-01

    This document presents the functional performance parameters for permanent isolation surface barriers. Permanent isolation surface barriers have been proposed for use at the Hanford Site (and elsewhere) to isolate and dispose of certain types of waste in place. Much of the waste that would be disposed of using in-place isolation techniques is located in subsurface structures, such as solid waste burial grounds, tanks, vaults, and cribs. Unless protected in some way, the wastes could be transported to the accessible environment via transport pathways, such as water infiltration, biointrusion, wind and water erosion, human interference, and/or gaseous release.

  3. Recent advances in micro-vibration isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunchuan; Jing, Xingjian; Daley, Steve; Li, Fengming

    2015-05-01

    Micro-vibration caused by disturbance sources onboard spacecraft can severely degrade the working environment of sensitive payloads. Some notable vibration control methods have been developed particularly for the suppression or isolation of micro-vibration over recent decades. Usually, passive isolation techniques are deployed in aerospace engineering. Active isolators, however, are often proposed to deal with the low frequency vibration that is common in spacecraft. Active/passive hybrid isolation has also been effectively used in some spacecraft structures for a number of years. In semi-active isolation systems, the inherent structural performance can be adjusted to deal with variation in the aerospace environment. This latter approach is potentially one of the most practical isolation techniques for micro-vibration isolation tasks. Some emerging advanced vibration isolation methods that exploit the benefits of nonlinearity have also been reported in the literature. This represents an interesting and highly promising approach for solving some challenging problems in the area. This paper serves as a state-of-the-art review of the vibration isolation theory and/or methods which were developed, mainly over the last decade, specifically for or potentially could be used for, micro-vibration control.

  4. Isolated systems with wind power. Main report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundsager, P.; Bindner, Henrik W.; Clausen, Niels-Erik;

    2001-01-01

    approach for assessing the technical and economical feasibility of isolated power supply systems with wind energy. As a part of the project the following tasks were carried out: Review of literature, fieldmeasurements in Egypt, development of an inventory of small isolated systems, overview of end......The overall objective of this research project is to study the development of methods and guidelines rather than "universal solutions" for the use of wind energy in isolated communities. The main specific objective of the project is to develop and present amore unified and generally applicable...... for Isolated Systems with Wind Power, applicable for international organisations such as donoragencies and development banks....

  5. Blackbody Radiation from Isolated Neptunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzburg, Sivan; Sari, Re'em; Loeb, Abraham

    2016-05-01

    Recent analyses of the orbits of some Kuiper belt objects hypothesize the presence of an undiscovered Neptune-size planet at a very large separation from the Sun. The energy budget of Neptunes on such distant orbits is dominated by the internal heat released by their cooling rather than solar irradiation (making them effectively “isolated”). The blackbody radiation that these planets emit as they cool may provide the means for their detection. Here, we use an analytical toy model to study the cooling and radiation of isolated Neptunes. This model can translate a detection (or a null detection) to a constraint on the size and composition of the hypothesized “Planet Nine.” Specifically, the thick gas atmosphere of Neptune-like planets serves as an insulating blanket that slows down their cooling. Therefore, a measurement of the blackbody temperature, {T}{{eff}}˜ 50 {{K}}, at which a Neptune emits, can be used to estimate the mass of its atmosphere, {M}{{atm}}. Explicitly, we find the relation {T}{{eff}}\\propto {M}{{atm}}1/12. Despite this weak relation, a measurement of the flux at the Wien tail can constrain the atmospheric mass, at least to within a factor of a few, and provide useful limits to possible formation scenarios of these planets. Finally, we constrain the size and composition of Planet Nine by combining our model with the null results of recent all-sky surveys.

  6. Isolated and Combined Remethylation Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Richard PhD

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic defects affecting the remethylation pathway cause hyperhomocysteinemia. Isolated remethylation defects are caused by mutations of the 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR, methionine synthase reductase (MTRR, methionine synthase (MTR, and MMADHC genes, and combined remethylation defects are the result of mutations in genes involved in the synthesis of either methylcobalamin or adenosylcobalamin, that is, the active cofactors of MTRR and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. Diagnosis is based on the biochemical analysis of amino acids, homocysteine, propionylcarnitine, methylmalonic acid, S-adenosylmethionine, and 5-methylentetrahydrofolate in physiological fluids. Gene-by-gene Sanger sequencing has long been the gold standard genetic analysis for confirming the disorder and identifying the gene involved, but massive parallel sequencing is now being used to examine all those potentially involved in one go. Early treatment to rescue metabolic homeostasis is based on the following of an appropriate diet, betaine administration, and, in some cases, oral or intramuscular administration of vitamin B12 or folate. Elevated ROS levels, apoptosis, endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, the activation of autophagy, and alterations in Ca2+ homeostasis may all contribute toward the pathogenesis of the disease. Pharmacological agents to restore the function of the ER and mitochondria and/or to reduce oxidative stress-induced apoptosis might provide novel ways of treating patients with remethylation disorders.

  7. Single Cell Isolation and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Hu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence shows that the heterogeneity of individual cells within a genetically identical population can be critical to their peculiar function and fate. Conventional cell based assays mainly analysis the average responses from a population cells, while the difference within individual cells may often be masked. The cell size, RNA transcripts and protein expression level are quite different within individual cells and these variations are key point to answer the problems in cancer, neurobiology, stem cell biology, immunology and developmental biology. To better understand the cell-to-cell variations, the single cell analysis can provide much more detailed information which may be helpful for therapeutic decisions in an increasingly personalized medicine. In this review, we will focus on the recent development in single cell analysis, including methods used in single cell isolation, analysis and some application examples. The review provides the historical background to single cell analysis, discusses limitations, and current and future possibilities in this exciting field of research.

  8. Isolated and Combined Remethylation Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Richard PhD

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic defects affecting the remethylation pathway cause hyperhomocysteinemia. Isolated remethylation defects are caused by mutations of the 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR , methionine synthase reductase (MTRR , methionine synthase (MTR , and MMADHC genes, and combined remethylation defects are the result of mutations in genes involved in the synthesis of either methylcobalamin or adenosylcobalamin, that is, the active cofactors of MTRR and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. Diagnosis is based on the biochemical analysis of amino acids, homocysteine, propionylcarnitine, methylmalonic acid, S-adenosylmethionine, and 5-methylentetrahydrofolate in physiological fluids. Gene-by-gene Sanger sequencing has long been the gold standard genetic analysis for confirming the disorder and identifying the gene involved, but massive parallel sequencing is now being used to examine all those potentially involved in one go. Early treatment to rescue metabolic homeostasis is based on the following of an appropriate diet, betaine administration, and, in some cases, oral or intramuscular administration of vitamin B 12 or folate. Elevated ROS levels, apoptosis, endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, the activation of autophagy, and alterations in Ca 2+ homeostasis may all contribute toward the pathogenesis of the disease. Pharmacological agents to restore the function of the ER and mitochondria and/or to reduce oxidative stress-induced apoptosis might provide novel ways of treating patients with remethylation disorders.

  9. Isolated Pancreatic Uncinate Duct IPMN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maker, Ajay V; Maker, Vijay K

    2017-04-01

    The ventral pancreas originally forms as an evagination of the common bile duct at 32 days gestation and its duct, the uncinate duct, eventually rotates with the ventral anlage to join the dorsal pancreas and fuse with the main pancreatic duct. Thus, though often considered a "branch" duct of the pancreas, embryologically, the uncinate duct is the "main" pancreatic duct of the ventral pancreas. This concept is not fully addressed in the current definitions of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas (IPMN) where international consensus guidelines consider the main-duct IPMN as high risk for malignancy and most small branch-duct IPMN as low risk for malignancy. Thus, it is important to recognize that isolated uncinate-duct IPMN can occur and, based on its embryologic origin and increased association with high-grade dysplasia and invasive cancer, may be managed conceptually as a main duct type of disease rather than a branch duct until better biomarkers of malignancy are discovered. The images provide an example of this unique disease process.

  10. Fault Detection and Isolation for Spacecraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans-Christian Becker; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2002-01-01

    This article realizes nonlinear Fault Detection and Isolation for actuators, given there is no measurement of the states in the actuators. The Fault Detection and Isolation of the actuators is instead based on angular velocity measurement of the spacecraft and knowledge about the dynamics...

  11. Isolation and characterization of extreme halophilic archaea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franze, Madlen; Cherkouk, Andrea [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). HZDR Young Investigator Group

    2017-06-01

    Extreme halophilic archaea from the family Halobactereacea represent a dominant part of the microbial community present in saline soils as well as rock salts. By using a culture-dependent approach different Haloarchaea could be isolated and were phylogenetic analysed. Interestingly, isolates closely related to different Halobacterium spp. were found in both environments.

  12. Scalable Detection and Isolation of Phishing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Moura, G.C.; Pras, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a proposal for scalable detection and isolation of phishing. The main ideas are to move the protection from end users towards the network provider and to employ the novel bad neighborhood concept, in order to detect and isolate both phishing e-mail senders and phishing web server

  13. Decode Fish Lymphocystis Virus Isolated from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Aresearch group headed by Prof. Zhang Qiya from the CAS Institute of Hydrobiology (IHB) has succeeded in sequencing the complete genome of lymphocystis disease virus isolated from China (LCDV-C), a virus isolated from cultured flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) with lymphocystis disease in China. Their work has been published in the recent issue of Journal of Virology (2004, 78 (13): 6982- 6994).

  14. Epidemic model with isolation in multilayer networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zuzek, L G Alvarez; Braunstein, L A

    2014-01-01

    The Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) model has successfully mimicked the propagation of such airborne diseases as influenza A (H1N1). Although the SIR model has recently been studied in a multilayer networks configuration, in almost all the research the dynamic movement of infected individuals, e.g., how they are often kept in isolation, is disregarded. We study the SIR model in two multilayer networks and use an isolation parameter, indicating time period, to measure the effect of isolating infected individuals from both layers. This isolation reduces the transmission of the disease because the time in which infection can spread is reduced. In this scenario we find that the epidemic threshold increases with the isolation time and the isolation parameter and the impact of the propagation is reduced. We also find that when isolation is total there is a threshold for the isolation parameter above which the disease never becomes an epidemic. We also find that regular epidemic models always overestimate the e...

  15. Professional Isolation and Stress in Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussault, Marc; And Others

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between professional isolation and occupational stress in teachers. A systematic random sample of 1158 French Canadian teachers were administered French Canadian versions of the "UCLA Loneliness Scale and Teacher Stress Inventory." Professional isolation was measured by the subjects'…

  16. Gene Diversity of Trichomonas Vaginalis Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Valadkhani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trichomonas vaginalis is protozoan parasite responsible for trichomoniasis and is more common in high-risk behavior group such as prostitute individuals. Interest in trichomoni­asis is due to increase one's susceptibility to viruses such as herpes, human papillomavirus and HIV. The aim of this study was to find genotypic differences between the isolates.Methods: Forty isolates from prisoners' women in Tehran province were used in this study. The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD technique was used to determine genetic differ­ences among isolates and was correlated with patient's records. By each primer the banding pat­tern size of each isolates was scored (bp, genetic differences were studied, and the genealogical tree was constructed by using NTSYS software program and UPGMA method.Results: The least number of bands were seen by using primer OPD8 and the most by using OPD3. Results showed no significant difference in isolates from different geographical areas in Iran. By using primer OPD1 specific amplified fragment with length 1300 base pair were found in only 8 isolates. All these isolates were belonged to addicted women; however, six belonged to asymptomatic patients and two to symptomatic ones.Conclusion: There was not much genetic diversity in T vaginalis isolates from three different geo­graphical areas.

  17. Understanding the differences in gelling properties between lupin protein isolate and soy protein isolate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghout, J.A.M.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2015-01-01

    The gelling properties of lupin protein isolate (LPI) were compared with those of soy protein isolate (SPI). It was found that LPI behaves fundamentally different than SPI, evidenced by the formation of weaker and deformable gels. Further investigation shows that both protein isolates can be conside

  18. Sexually dimorphic neuronal responses to social isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senst, Laura; Baimoukhametova, Dinara; Sterley, Toni-Lee; Bains, Jaideep Singh

    2016-01-01

    Many species use social networks to buffer the effects of stress. The mere absence of a social network, however, may also be stressful. We examined neuroendocrine, PVN CRH neurons and report that social isolation alters the intrinsic properties of these cells in sexually dimorphic fashion. Specifically, isolating preadolescent female mice from littermates for neurons. These changes were not evident in age-matched males. By contrast, subjecting either males (isolated or grouped) or group housed females to acute physical stress (swim), increased FSL. The increase in FSL following either social isolation or acute physical stress was blocked by the glucocorticoid synthesis inhibitor, metyrapone and mimicked by exogenous corticosterone. The increase in FSL results in a decrease in the excitability of CRH neurons. Our observations demonstrate that social isolation, but not acute physical stress has sex-specific effects on PVN CRH neurons. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18726.001 PMID:27725087

  19. Isolation of Pasteurella multocida from broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Poernomo

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida, the etiological agent of fowl cholera, was isolated from five, 32 days oldbroilerchickens in the late of 1992. The chickens were from a farm located in Bogor area, raised in cages and each flock consisted of 1,550 broilers . Therewere 230 birds, aging from 28-31 days old, died with clinical signs of lameness and difficulty in breathing. Serological test of the isolate revealed serotype Aof Carter classification . To prove its virulences, the isolate was then inoculated into 3 mice subcutaneously. The mice died less then 24 hours postinoculation and P. multocida can be reisolated . The sensitivity test to antibiotics and sulfa preparations showed that the isolate was sensitive to ampicillin, doxycyclin, erythromycin, gentamycin, sulfamethoxazol-trimethoprim and baytril, but resistance to tetracyclin, kanamycin and oxytetracyclin. This is the first report of P. multocida isolation in broiler chickens in Indonesia, and it is intended to add information on bacterial diseases in poultry in Indonesia.

  20. Listeria fleischmannii sp. nov., isolated from cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsch, David; Rau, Jörg; Eugster, Marcel R; Haug, Martina C; Lawson, Paul A; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

    2013-02-01

    A study was performed on three isolates (LU2006-1(T), LU2006-2 and LU2006-3), which were sampled independently from cheese in western Switzerland in 2006, as well as a fourth isolate (A11-3426), which was detected in 2011, using a polyphasic approach. The isolates could all be assigned to the genus Listeria but not to any known species. Phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data were compatible with the genus Listeria and phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed that the closest relationships were with members of this genus. However, DNA-DNA hybridization demonstrated that the isolates did not belong to any currently described species. Cell-wall-binding domains of Listeria monocytogenes bacteriophage endolysins were able to attach to the isolates, confirming their tight relatedness to the genus Listeria. Although PCR targeting the central portion of the flagellin gene flaA was positive, motility was not observed. The four isolates could not be discriminated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy or pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. This suggests that they represent a single species, which seems to be adapted to the environment in a cheese-ripening cellar as it was re-isolated from the same type of Swiss cheese after more than 5 years. Conjugation experiments demonstrated that the isolates harbour a transferable resistance to clindamycin. The isolates did not exhibit haemolysis or show any indication of human pathogenicity or virulence. The four isolates are affiliated with the genus Listeria but can be differentiated from all described members of the genus Listeria and therefore they merit being classified as representatives of a novel species, for which we propose the name Listeria fleischmannii sp. nov.; the type strain is LU2006-1(T) ( = DSM 24998(T)  = LMG 26584(T)).

  1. Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated in 1965 are more susceptible to triclosan than current isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Sissel; Nielsen, Lene Nørby; Larsen, Marianne Halberg;

    2013-01-01

    pathogen Staphylococcus epidermidis with isolates collected in the 1960s prior to introduction of triclosan to the market. Of 64 current S. epidermidis isolates 12.5% were found to have tolerance towards triclosan defined as MIC≥0.25 mg/l compared to none of 34 isolates obtained in the 1960s. When passaged...... in the laboratory in the presence of triclosan, old and current susceptible isolates could be adapted to the same triclosan MIC level as found in current tolerant isolates. DNA sequence analysis revealed that laboratory-adapted strains carried mutations in fabI encoding the enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase...

  2. Isolation of nuc mutant isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from bovine clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zastempowska, E; Orczykowska-Kotyna, M; Lassa, H

    2014-06-01

    Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus with a mutation in the nuclease (nuc) gene were recovered from cases of bovine mastitis in Poland. Three S. aureus isolates from cows in one herd had a 42 base pair duplication in the nuc gene. These isolates belonged to sequence type 97 (ST97) and clonal complex 97 (CC97). They had a different spa type and multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat fingerprinting (MLVF) subtype than a S. aureus isolate without the nuc mutation from the same herd. Isolation of nuc mutant S. aureus strains from cases of bovine mastitis may confound diagnostic PCRs based on detection of the nuc gene.

  3. Molecular characterization of mycobacteria isolated from seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumárraga, M J; Bernardelli, A; Bastida, R; Quse, V; Loureiro, J; Cataldi, A; Bigi, F; Alito, A; Castro Ramos, M; Samper, S; Otal, I; Martin, C; Romano, M I

    1999-09-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) was diagnosed in 10 seals from three species (Arctocephalus australis, Arctocephalus tropicalis and Otaria flavescens) found in South America. The mycobacteria isolated from these cases belonged to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, as determined by RFLP using an IS6110 probe, spoligotyping, analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence and by PCR-restriction analysis of hsp65. Polymorphisms in gyrA, katG, oxyR and pncA were investigated in some of the isolates, as well as the presence of the MPB70 antigen. The insertion sequence IS6110 was present in three to seven copies in the genome of the mycobacteria isolated from seals. Using the IS6110 probe, six patterns (designated A, B, C, D, E and F) were identified from 10 different isolates. Patterns A and B were found for the mycobacteria isolated from two and four seals, respectively, indicating an epidemiological relationship between isolates grouped according to their IS6110 RFLP. The mycobacteria isolated from seals shared the majority of their IS6110 DNA-containing restriction fragments, and nine isolates had an identical spoligotype; only one isolate showed a minor difference in its spoligotype. In addition, none of these spoligotypes were found in other M. tuberculosis complex strains. These results suggest that the isolates from seals constitute a unique group of closely related strains. The mycobacteria isolated from seals showed polymorphisms at gyrA codon 95 and katG codon 463, as do group 1 M. tuberculosis, and M. bovis. Group 1 mycobacteria are associated with cluster cases. The spoligotypes found in the mycobacteria isolated from seals lack spacers 39-43, as does M. bovis, but the MPB70 antigen, which is highly expressed in M. bovis and minimally expressed in M. tuberculosis, was not detected in these mycobacteria. The mycobacteria isolated from seals also showed oxyR and pncA polymorphisms specific to M. tuberculosis. In conclusion, the mycobacteria that cause TB in seals in the South

  4. Genetic and phylogenetic analysis of feline calicivirus isolates in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yaxin; Deng, Mingliang; Peng, Zhong; Hu, Ruiming; Chen, Huanchun; Wu, Bin

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of Chinese feline calicivirus (FCV) isolates and their phylogenetic relationship with isolates from elsewhere in the world. Phylogenetic analysis was performed based on the partial open reading frame (ORF) 2 sequences (regions B-F) of 21 Chinese FCV isolates and 30 global isolates. The Chinese isolates included 13 isolates from Wuhan, which were isolated in this study, and eight previously published isolates. Sixteen Chinese isolates and two Japanese isolates formed a distinct phylogenetic cluster. Phylogenetic analysis based on the sequences of the complete genome, ORF1, ORF2 and ORF3 of selected isolates supported the above findings. Genogroup analysis revealed that FCV genogroup II is present in China. These findings suggest that Chinese FCV isolates are closely related to Japanese FCV isolates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Are Isolated Indigenous Populations Headed toward Extinction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S Walker

    Full Text Available At least 50 indigenous groups spread across lowland South America remain isolated and have only intermittent and mostly hostile interactions with the outside world. Except in emergency situations, the current policy of governments in Brazil, Colombia, and Peru towards isolated tribes is a "leave them alone" strategy, in which isolated groups are left uncontacted. However, these no-contact policies are based on the assumption that isolated populations are healthy and capable of persisting in the face of mounting external threats, and that they can maintain population viability in the long-term. Here, we test this assumption by tracking the sizes and movements of cleared horticultural areas made by 8 isolated groups over the last 10-14 years. We used deforestation data derived from remote sensing Landsat satellite sensors to identify clearings, and those were then validated and assessed with high-resolution imagery. We found only a single example of a relatively large and growing population (c. 50 cleared ha and 400 people, whereas all of the other 7 groups exhibited much smaller villages and gardens with no sizable growth through time. These results indicated that the smaller groups are critically endangered, and it prompts an urgent re-thinking of policies toward isolated populations, including plans for well-organized contacts that may help save lives and rescue isolated indigenous populations from imminent extinction.

  6. Behavioural reproductive isolation and speciation in Drosophila

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Punita Nanda; Bashisth Narayan Singh

    2012-06-01

    The origin of premating reproductive isolation continues to help elucidate the process of speciation and is the central event in the evolution of biological species. Therefore, during the process of species formation the diverging populations must acquire some means of reproductive isolation so that the genes from one gene pool are prevented from dispersing freely into a foreign gene pool. In the genus Drosophila, the phenomenon of behavioural reproductive isolation, which is an important type of premating (prezygotic) reproductive isolating mechanisms, has been extensively studied and interesting data have been documented. In many cases incomplete sexual isolation has been observed and the pattern and degree of isolation within and between the species have often been used to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships. The present review documents an overview of speciation mediated through behavioural incompatibility in different species groups of Drosophila with particular reference to the models proposed on the basis of one-sided ethological isolation to predict the direction of evolution. This study is crucial for understanding the mechanism of speciation through behavioural incompatibility and also for an understanding of speciation genetics in future prospects.

  7. Seismic isolation of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittaker, Andrew S.; Kuma, Manish [Dept. of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, State University of New York, Buffalo (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Seismic isolation is a viable strategy for protecting safety-related nuclear structures from the effects of moderate to severe earthquake shaking. Although seismic isolation has been deployed in nuclear structures in France and South Africa, it has not seen widespread use because of limited new build nuclear construction in the past 30 years and a lack of guidelines, codes and standards for the analysis, design and construction of isolation systems specific to nuclear structures. The funding by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission of a research project to the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and MCEER/University at Buffalo facilitated the writing of a soon-to-be-published NUREG on seismic isolation. Funding of MCEER by the National Science Foundation led to research products that provide the technical basis for a new section in ASCE Standard 4 on the seismic isolation of safety-related nuclear facilities. The performance expectations identified in the NUREG and ASCE 4 for seismic isolation systems, and superstructures and substructures are described in the paper. Robust numerical models capable of capturing isolator behaviors under extreme loadings, which have been verified and validated following ASME protocols, and implemented in the open source code OpenSees, are introduced.

  8. Insulin Secretory Defect and Insulin Resistance in Isolated Impaired Fasting Glucose and Isolated Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sae Aoyama-Sasabe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the characteristics of isolated impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and isolated impaired fasting glucose (IFG, we analyzed the factors responsible for elevation of 2-hour postchallenge plasma glucose (2 h PG and fasting plasma glucose (FPG levels. Methods. We investigated the relationship between 2 h PG and FPG levels who underwent 75 g OGTT in 5620 Japanese subjects at initial examination for medical check-up. We compared clinical characteristics between isolated IGT and isolated IFG and analyzed the relationships of 2 h PG and FPG with clinical characteristics, the indices of insulin secretory capacity, and insulin sensitivity. Results. In a comparison between isolated IGT and isolated IFG, insulinogenic index was lower in isolated IGT than that of isolated IFG (0.43 ± 0.34 versus 0.50 ± 0.47, resp.; p<0.01. ISI composite was lower in isolated IFG than that of isolated IGT (6.87 ± 3.38 versus 7.98 ± 4.03, resp.; p<0.0001. In isolated IGT group, insulinogenic index showed a significant correlation with 2 h PG (r=-0.245, p<0.0001 and had the strongest correlation with 2 h PG (β=-0.290. In isolated IFG group, ISI composite showed a significant correlation with FPG (r=-0.162, p<0.0001 and had the strongest correlation with FPG (β=-0.214. Conclusions. We have elucidated that decreased early-phase insulin secretion is the most important factor responsible for elevation of 2 h PG levels in isolated IGT subjects, and decreased insulin sensitivity is the most important factor responsible for elevation of FPG levels in isolated IFG subjects.

  9. Genetic differences between avian and human isolates of Candida dubliniensis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McManus, Brenda A

    2009-09-01

    When Candida dubliniensis isolates obtained from seabird excrement and from humans in Ireland were compared by using multilocus sequence typing, 13 of 14 avian isolates were genetically distinct from human isolates. The remaining avian isolate was indistinguishable from a human isolate, suggesting that transmission may occur between humans and birds.

  10. Isolation of Klebsiella terrigena from clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podschun, R; Ullmann, U

    1992-04-01

    In a three-year survey conducted from 1988 to 1990 Klebsiella isolates from human clinical specimens were subjected to additional tests to identify any Klebsiella terrigena strains. Ten strains of Klebsiella terrigena (0.4%) were found among 2355 indole-negative Klebsiella isolates. Most of the isolates were recovered from the respiratory tract. In the API20EC system almost exclusively biotypes no. 1777771 and 1777671 were observed. Serotyping revealed capsule types K2, K5 and K18 in two strains each. In antibiotic susceptibility tests the strains were shown to be comparable in sensitivity to Klebsiella pneumoniae.

  11. Plasmid profiles of Moraxella bovis isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, T J; Pugh, G W

    1986-04-01

    Two-hundred isolates of Moraxella bovis were selected at random and examined for the presence of plasmid DNA by a rapid alkaline-detergent lysis method. All isolates contained from 1 to 6 plasmids, with varying agarose-gel electrophoretic migration patterns. Most (80%) isolates carried 2 to 4 plasmids, which ranged in molecular weight from 2.6 to 80 megadaltons. Seemingly, plasmid profiles can be used as a simple, reliable epizootiologic tool to establish a strain identification scheme for M bovis.

  12. Isolation of Chloroplasts from Plant Protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Shiu-Cheung; Smith, Matthew D; Chuong, Simon D X

    2015-10-01

    Chloroplasts can be isolated from higher plants directly following homogenization; however, the resulting yield, purity, and intactness are often low, necessitating a large amount of starting material. This protocol is optimized to produce a high yield of pure chloroplasts from isolated Arabidopsis protoplasts. The two-part method is a simple, scaled-down, and low-cost procedure that readily provides healthy mesophyll protoplasts, which are then ruptured to release intact chloroplasts. Chloroplasts isolated using this method are competent for use in biochemical, cellular, and molecular analyses.

  13. Isolated Galaxies in Observations and Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilipenko, S.; Doroshkevich, A.

    2010-10-01

    A comparison of observed and simulated isolated galaxies allows us to check their evolution in a wide range of redshifts and to reveal and evaluate a possible impact of their environment. Using the Minimal Spanning Tree (MST) technique we select samples of isolated galaxies, in the SDSS DR7 and in the moderate resolution dark matter simulation. We find that the separation to the nearest neighbour should be 4-5 h-1 Mpc to produce a sample of isolated objects with substantially peculiar environment.

  14. ISOLATION OF CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI FROM SOIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SANADA, I; NISHIDA, S

    1965-03-01

    Sanada, Ichiro (Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan), and Shoki Nishida. Isolation of Clostridium tetani from soil. J. Bacteriol. 89:626-629. 1965.-The higher the temperatures applied to soil specimens, the weaker the toxigenicity of Clostridium tetani strains isolated from them. The glucose- and maltose-fermenting ability of these isolates was inversely proportional to their toxigenicity. The biological properties of atoxic strains were indistinguishable from those of C. tetanomorphum. Since a considerable number of toxic strains fermented glucose and maltose, these criteria are of doubtful value for differentiating C. tetani from C. tetanomorphum.

  15. Isolation of Leptospira noguchii from sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Everton F; Brod, Claudiomar S; Cerqueira, Gustavo M; Bourscheidt, Débora; Seyffert, Núbia; Queiroz, Adriano; Santos, Cleiton S; Ko, Albert I; Dellagostin, Odir A

    2007-03-31

    The main goal of this study was to obtain new isolates of Leptospira spp. from sheep. A total of 10 kidney samples and 44 blood samples were collected from sheep slaughtered in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. One isolate was obtained which was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and serogrouping to be Leptospira noguchii serogroup Autumnalis. Microscopic agglutination test (MAT) evaluation revealed that 4.5% of the sheep sera reacted against the Autumnalis serogroup. This is the first report of isolation of L. noguchii from sheep. Together these findings indicate that L. noguchii infections may be a potentially important veterinary problem in this domestic animal species.

  16. Protein distribution in lupin protein isolates from Lupinus angustifolius L. prepared by various isolation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muranyi, Isabel S; Volke, Daniela; Hoffmann, Ralf; Eisner, Peter; Herfellner, Thomas; Brunnbauer, Markus; Koehler, Peter; Schweiggert-Weisz, Ute

    2016-09-15

    Differences in the protein distribution of various protein isolates from Lupinus angustifolius L. Vitabor were identified as affected by the isolation procedure (alkaline and/or salt-induced extraction followed by isoelectric and/or dilutive precipitation). Protein isolates extracted in alkaline solution showed higher protein yields (26.4-31.7%) compared to salt-induced extraction (19.8-30.0%) or combined alkaline and salt-induced extraction (23.3-25.6%). Chemical variations among the protein isolates especially occurred within the albumins. Protein isolates precipitated isoelectrically showed the highest contents, whereas protein isolates precipitated by dilutive showed the lowest contents of conglutin δ. Furthermore, the alkaline subunits of conglutin α and conglutin γ decreased during alkaline extraction compared to salt-induced extraction. A decrease in protein-bound polar and basic amino acids was shown after protein isolation. In contrast, the amounts of nonpolar, aliphatic, aromatic, hydroxylated and sulfur-rich amino acids were higher in the lupin protein isolates compared to the lupin flakes. However, the functional side chains could not be related to the specific molecular arrangements of the protein isolates, as a similar amino acid composition was found among the protein isolates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A case of familial isolated hemihyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bacino Carlos A

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemihyperplasia (hemihypertrophy is defined as asymmetric body overgrowth of one or more body parts. Hemihyperplasia can be isolated or be part of well-defined syndromes such as in the case of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS. Isolated hemihyperplasia is usually sporadic, but a number of familial occurrences have been described. Case presentation We describe a Tunisian family in which three maternal cousins and their maternal grandfather present with isolated hemihyperplasia. Conclusions The etiology of isolated hemihyperplasia is unknown although in BWS, genomic imprinting has been shown to play a role in the asymmetric overgrowth. Given the similarity between these two conditions, it is possible that both may share a common pathogenesis. We also discuss the possible genetic mechanisms leading to the production of hemihyperplasia in this family.

  18. Fault Detection and Isolation using Eigenstructure Assignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, R.B.; Patton, R.J.; Chen, J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the robustness to model uncertainties of observer based fault detection and isolation. The approach is designed with a straight forward dynamic nad the observer....

  19. Thermolysin in human cultured keratinocyte isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gragnani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: When treating extensively burned patients using cultured epidermal sheets, the main problem is the time required for its production. Conventional keratinocyte isolation is usually done using Trypsin. We used a modification of the conventional isolation method in order to improve this process and increase the number of colonies from the isolated epidermal cell population. PURPOSE: To compare the action of trypsin and thermolysin in the keratinocyte isolation using newborn foreskin. METHODS: This method used thermolysin as it selectively digests the dermo-epidermal junction. After dermis separation, the epidermis was digested by trypsin in order to obtain a cell suspension. RESULTS: Compared to the conventional procedure, these experiments demonstrated that in the thermolysin group, the epidermis was easily detached from the dermis, there was no fibroblast contamination and there were a larger number of keratinocyte colonies which had a significant statistical difference. CONCLUSION: The number of colonies in the thermolysin group was significantly greater than in the trypsin group.

  20. Antigenic typing Polish isolates of canine parvovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizak, B. [National Veterinary Research Institute, Pulawy (Poland); Plucienniczak, A. [Polish Academy ofd Sciences. Microbiology and Virology Center, Lodz (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    Polish strains of canine parvovirus isolated between 1982 and 1993 were examined to determine the extent to which the virus has evolved antigenically and genetically over eleven years. Two CPV isolates obtained in Warsaw in 1982 and Pulawy in 1993, were examined using monoclonal antibody typing, restriction analysis and sequencing VP-2 protein gene. Five other isolates from Warsaw and Pulawy were tested with the panel of monoclonal antibodies specific to CPV-2, CPV-2a and common for canine parvovirus, feline panleukopenia virus and milk enteritis virus. Results of the studies demonstrated that all isolates tested represented CPV-2a antigenic type. Rapid antigenic strain replacement recorded by Parrish and Senda in the U.S.A and Japan was not confirmed in Poland. (author). 30 refs, 2 tabs.

  1. Characterization of microorganisms isolated from counterfeit toothpaste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezinski, Jennifer L; Craft, David L

    2012-09-01

    The appearance of potentially counterfeit "Colgate" toothpaste on the American market prompted a criminal investigation by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), including the collection of c. 60,000 tubes of toothpaste from retail outlets and product distributors. Microbiological testing was performed based on the FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual, which determined the presence and number of bacteria present in the products. Bacteria were isolated from each "Colgate" variety; up to 2 × 10(6) cfu/g were isolated from some of the product units. Using conventional microscopic and biochemical bacterial identification methods, most of the bacteria isolated from these samples were Gram-negative rods of several genera, including Pseudomonas, Serratia, and Klebsiella. Most of the organisms isolated represent opportunistic pathogens, and therefore, counterfeit "Colgate" toothpaste containing high levels of bacteria pose a human health hazard. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Isolation and culture of neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehler, Elisabeth; Moore-Morris, Thomas; Lange, Stephan

    2013-09-06

    Cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes have long been used to study myofibrillogenesis and myofibrillar functions. Cultured cardiomyocytes allow for easy investigation and manipulation of biochemical pathways, and their effect on the biomechanical properties of spontaneously beating cardiomyocytes. The following 2-day protocol describes the isolation and culture of neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes. We show how to easily dissect hearts from neonates, dissociate the cardiac tissue and enrich cardiomyocytes from the cardiac cell-population. We discuss the usage of different enzyme mixes for cell-dissociation, and their effects on cell-viability. The isolated cardiomyocytes can be subsequently used for a variety of morphological, electrophysiological, biochemical, cell-biological or biomechanical assays. We optimized the protocol for robustness and reproducibility, by using only commercially available solutions and enzyme mixes that show little lot-to-lot variability. We also address common problems associated with the isolation and culture of cardiomyocytes, and offer a variety of options for the optimization of isolation and culture conditions.

  3. Neglected isolated fracture of the trochlea humeri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ajay Pal Singh; Ish Kumar Dhammi; Anil Kumar Jain; Saurabh Jain

    2010-01-01

    A 15 years old girl was found to have isolated trochlea fracture 10 weeks after an injury caused by a fall on her left elbow. Movement of the elbow was severely restricted. Radiographs showed a half moon-shaped and anterosuperiorly displaced osteochondral fragment. Medial approach capsulotomy of the elbow and excision of the intraarticular adhesions were done to expose the isolated trochlea fracture. Headless screws were used for fixation,combined with bone grafting. The follow-up showed union and excellent functional recovery of the elbow. Isolated trochlea fracture in adults is rare and usually associated with capitellar fractures and/or elbow dislocations. A neglected trochlea fracture is rarely reported in the English language literature to the best of our knowledge. Recognition of isolated trochlea fracture is vital to apprehend the pathomechanics of the injury and to devise a suitable treatment approach.

  4. Collection, Isolation and Culture of Marine Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Daniel E.

    1984-01-01

    Methods of collecting, isolating, and culturing microscopic and macroscopic marine algae are described. Three different culture media list of chemicals needed and procedures for preparing Erdschreiber's and Provasoli's E. S. media. (BC)

  5. Broadband optical isolator based on helical metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hu; Yang, ZhenYu; Zhao, Ming; Wu, Lin; Zhang, Peng

    2015-05-01

    Based on helical metamaterials, a new broadband optical isolator with a triple-helix structure is proposed in this paper. The right-handed circularly polarized light can transmit through the isolator with its polarization unchanged. The reverse propagating light, which is caused by the reflection of the latter optical devices, is converted into left-handed circularly polarized light that is suppressed by the proposed isolator because of absorption. Our design has some unprecedented advantages such as broad frequency ranges and a compact structure; moreover, neither polarizers nor adscititious magnetic fields are required. Properties of the isolator are investigated using the finite-difference time-domain method, and this phenomenon is studied by the mechanism of helical antenna theory.

  6. Gene finding in genetically isolated populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Heutink (Peter); B.A. Oostra (Ben)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe struggle to identify susceptibility genes for complex disorders has stimulated geneticists to develop new approaches. One approach that has gained considerable interest is to focus on genetically isolated populations rather than on the general population. There rema

  7. Do O-stars form in isolation?

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Richard J

    2007-01-01

    Around 4% of O-stars are observed in apparent isolation, with no associated cluster, and no indication of having been ejected from a nearby cluster. We define an isolated O-star as a star > 17.5 M_\\odot in a cluster with total mass 10 M_\\odot) stars. We show that the fraction of apparently isolated O-stars is reproduced when stars are sampled (randomly) from a standard initial mass function and a standard cluster mass function of the form N(M) \\propto M^-2. This result is difficult to reconcile with the idea that there is a fundamental relationship between the mass of a cluster and the mass of the most massive star in that cluster. We suggest that such a relationship is a typical result of star formation in clusters, and that `isolated O-stars' are low-mass clusters in which massive stars have been able to form.

  8. Nitrogen uptake kinetics of freshly isolated zooxanthellae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.; Wafar, S.; Rajkumar, R.

    Zooxanthellae freshly isolated from the coral host Pocillopora damicornis exhibited substrate-saturable uptake kinetics for ammonium, nitrate and urea. Maximum uptake velocity for ammonium [10.1 nmol. ( mu chl-a)./1h/1] was greater than...

  9. Genetic homogeneity among Ugandan isolates of Xanthomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averaging (UPGMA) analysis did not reveal any ... The bacterium causing BXW disease was originally .... Genomic DNA was extracted from Xcm isolates using the small-.

  10. Compact, Lightweight, High Voltage Propellant Isolators Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TA&T, Inc. proposes an enabling fabrication process for high voltage isolators required in high power solar electric and nuclear electric propulsion (SEP and...

  11. Extracellular enzymatic activities of Bipolaris sorokiniana isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geimba, Mercedes P; Brandelli, Adriano

    2002-01-01

    Several enzymatic activities were investigated in six isolates of the fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana, originating from different areas of Brazil. Among the glycosidases studied, beta-glucosidase, beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase, beta-xylosidase, cellobiohydrolase, and chitobiohydrolase were the major activities. In some isolates, beta-glucuronidase, beta-galactosidase, and alpha-mannosidase activities were also present. Polysaccharide-hydrolyzing enzymes, such as pectin lyase and carboxymethyl cellulase were detected in significant amounts, and their activities were variable among the different isolates. Other enzymes, namely phosphatases, proteinases and phenol oxidase, were also examined, showing variable amounts depending on the isolate. The pH dependence of all enzymes tested was investigated. Endoproteinase, carboxymethyl cellulase, and phenoloxidase had maximum activity in the pH range of 6-8, whilst all other enzymes showed maximum activity at pH 4-6.

  12. Compact, Lightweight, High Voltage Propellant Isolators Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TA&T, Inc. proposes an enabling fabrication process for high voltage isolators required in high power solar electric and nuclear electric propulsion (SEP and...

  13. Genetics Home Reference: isolated hyperCKemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal. While elevated creatine kinase often accompanies various muscle diseases, individuals with isolated hyperCKemia have no muscle weakness ... related distal myopathy , limb-girdle muscular dystrophy , rippling muscle disease , and a heart disorder called hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Several ...

  14. Enumeration, Isolation and Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibiotic susceptibility testing of the isolates indicated that S. aureus species had the highest susceptibility of 14(93.3%) .... which sterile forceps were used to carefully remove the disc from its ..... micro-organisms found in public telephones.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: isolated growth hormone deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetic Testing (4 links) Genetic Testing Registry: Ateleiotic dwarfism Genetic Testing Registry: Autosomal dominant isolated somatotropin deficiency ... in my area? Other Names for This Condition dwarfism, growth hormone deficiency dwarfism, pituitary growth hormone deficiency ...

  16. Isolation, cultivation and transfection of human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Sona; Zarei, Mohammad Ali; Ghadimi, Tayyeb; Fathi, Fardin; Jalili, Ali; Hakhamaneshi, Mohammad Saeed

    2014-04-01

    Human keratinocytes could be used in the repair of damaged skin, in tissue engineering applications, gene therapy and recently, the generation of iPS cells. We isolated human keratinocytes from foreskin and subsequently cultured them on fibronectin, collagen type I, gelatin and laminin-coated dishes that contained three different types of serum-free medium (epilife, KSM or CnT). We developed improved conditions for efficient transfection of these human keratinocytes by testing three common transfection methods and a GFP plasmid vector. The isolated cells showed typical keratinocyte morphology and expressed the epithelial cell specific antigen, cytokeratin 14. Collagen type 1, epilife medium and lipofectamin 2000 gave the best results for isolation and transfection of human keratinocytes. Our protocol can be used as a reproducible, simple and efficient method for isolation, cultivation and genetic manipulation of human keratinocytes, which may be useful in cell and gene therapy applications.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: isolated Duane retraction syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for This Condition co-contractive retraction syndrome Duane anomaly, isolated Duane retraction syndrome Duane syndrome Duane's syndrome ... of a gene for Duane retraction syndrome to chromosome 2q31. Am J Hum Genet. 1999 Dec;65( ...

  18. Connectivity and Linkages Between Isolated Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Proposed areas where connectiviy and linkages between isolated habitat on the San Joaquin Valley floor and natural lands in the surrounding foothills should be...

  19. methicillin resistance in staphylococcal isolates from

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to the cheap, readily available brand-spectrum antibiotics; ampicllin, amoxicillin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline and ... Analysis of the multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index of isolates and the production of - ... microorganisms, thus infection.

  20. Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern of Microorganisms Isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ciprofloxacin and showed resistance to zinnacef and rocephin. These findings show that ... Keywords: fishes, bacterial and fungal, isolates, antibiotic. Correspondence: ... shelf life under ambient condition is very imperative (Okoro et al., 2010).

  1. Isolated gallbladder rupture following blunt abdominal trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-11-03

    Nov 3, 2011 ... partially embedded in the liver substance, cushioned by ... abdominal pains and abrasions on his left hypochondrial region for which he was ... and usually associated with other visceral injuries. Isolated ... teased out Figure 2.

  2. Isolated neck-lifting procedure: isolated stork lift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarino, Sheila C; Wu, Allan Y; Morrow, David M

    2013-04-01

    Many patients desire cosmetic improvement of neck laxity when consulting with a plastic surgeon about their face. Neck laxity and loss of the cervicomental angle can be due to multiple components of aging such as skin quality/elasticity, loss of platysma muscle tone, and submental fat accumulation. Traditionally, the procedure of choice for patients with an aging lower face and neck is a cervicofacial rhytidectomy. However, occasionally, a patient wishes to have no other facial surgery than an improvement of their excessive skin of the anterior, lateral, and/or posterior neck. In other instances, a patient may present with having had a face/neck-lifting procedure that left objectionable vertical/diagonal lines at the lateral neck. In both these instances, a surgeon should consider an isolated stork lift (ISL) procedure. An ISL procedure avoids and/or corrects problematic vertical/diagonal lateral neck folds by "walking" the excess skin flaps around the posterior inferior occipital hairline bilaterally, bringing the flaps together at the lateral and posterior neck, which sometimes involves a midline posterior dart excision of the dog ear. A patient presenting with excessive skin of the neck (anterior, lateral, and/or posterior) and/or residual vertical/diagonal skin folds is an excellent candidate for the ISL. The ISL procedure was performed on 273 patients over a 2-year period at The Morrow Institute. Patients were included if they had excessive skin of the anterior, lateral, and/or posterior neck and/or diagonal/vertical lateral bands and did not desire a full face-lifting procedure. Patients were excluded from this study if they would not accept having longer hair in order to cover the scar along the posterior inferior occipital hairline or a midline T-flap skin closure scar at the base of the posterior midline neck. Under a combination of local anesthesia and IV sedation, a postauricular face-lift incision was made that was extended in a circumoccipital fashion

  3. Fault Detection and Isolation using Eigenstructure Assignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, R.B.; Patton, R.J.; Chen, J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the robustness to model uncertainties of observer based fault detection and isolation. The approach is designed with a straight forward dynamic nad the observer.......The purpose of this article is to investigate the robustness to model uncertainties of observer based fault detection and isolation. The approach is designed with a straight forward dynamic nad the observer....

  4. Hybrid Isolation Forest - Application to Intrusion Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Marteau, Pierre-François; Soheily-Khah, Saeid; Béchet, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    From the identification of a drawback in the Isolation Forest (IF) algorithm that limits its use in the scope of anomaly detection, we propose two extensions that allow to firstly overcome the previously mention limitation and secondly to provide it with some supervised learning capability. The resulting Hybrid Isolation Forest (HIF) that we propose is first evaluated on a synthetic dataset to analyze the effect of the new meta-parameters that are introduced and verify that the addressed limi...

  5. Isolation of plant cell wall proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Jamet, Elisabeth; Boudart, Georges; Borderies, Gisèle; Charmont, Stéphane; Lafitte, Claude; Rossignol, Michel; Canut, Hervé; Pont-Lezica, Rafael F

    2007-01-01

    The quality of a proteomic analysis of a cell compartment strongly depends on the reliability of the isolation procedure for the cell compartment of interest. Plant cell walls possess specific drawbacks: (i) the lack of a surrounding membrane may result in the loss of cell wall proteins (CWP) during the isolation procedure; (ii) polysaccharide networks of cellulose, hemicelluloses and pectins form potential traps for contaminants such as intracellular proteins; (iii) the presence of proteins ...

  6. Isolation of genomic DNA from mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Cheryl M

    2013-01-01

    The isolation of genomic DNA from mammalian cells is a routine molecular biology laboratory technique with numerous downstream applications. The isolated DNA can be used as a template for PCR, cloning, and genotyping and to generate genomic DNA libraries. It can also be used for sequencing to detect mutations and other alterations, and for DNA methylation analyses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Complete Isolation System for Laboratory Infectious Animal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean; Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Contents:Duringthe development of biological medical science,a great number of research experiments are carried out andthe various infectious animal experiments are necessary part of them.For lab animal experiments,it is necessary tochoose proper isolation equipments accordingto experiment hazardlevels.1.FunctionsAnimal isolation systemare used broadlyin laboratory research,pharmaceuticals and medical areas.The isolationsystemhas become excellent equipmentsin animal breeding,disease diagnosis,analysis,test ...

  8. Isolation and damping properties of magnetorheologic elastomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collette, C; Kroll, G; Avraam, M; Preumont, A [University of Brussels, 50 av. F.D. Roosevelt, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Saive, G [Techspace Aero (SAFRAN Group), 121, route de Liers, 4041 Herstal (Belgium); Guillemier, V [MATIS Benelux, 121, route de Liers, 4041 Herstal (Belgium)], E-mail: christophe.collette@ulb.ac.be

    2009-02-01

    This paper considers two systems based on a magnetorheological elastomer (MRE): a MRE isolator under a frequency varying harmonic excitation and a MRE Dynamic Vibration Absorber (DVA) mounted on a frequency-varying structure under a random excitation. It is shown that the commandability of the elastomer improves the isolation performances in the first case, and decreases the stress level in the structure in the second case.

  9. Combating isolation: Building mutual mentoring networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Anne J.

    2015-12-01

    Women physicists can often feel isolated at work. Support from a grant through the ADVANCE program of the National Science Foundation (U.S. government funding) created mutual mentoring networks aimed at combating isolation specifically for women faculty at undergraduate-only institutions. This paper will discuss the organization of one such network, what contributed to its success, some of the outcomes, and how it might be implemented in other contexts.

  10. Criteria: waste tank isolation and stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, W.P.; Ogren, W.E.

    1976-09-01

    The crystallized Hanford high-level wastes stored in single-shell underground tanks consist of sludges and salt cakes covered with supernatural liquor. Purpose of stabilization and isolation is to reduce the releases and losses as a result of a loss of tank integrity. The tanks will be modified so that no inadvertent liquid additions can be made. Criteria for the isolation and stabilization are given and discussed briefly. (DLC)

  11. Isolation of herpotrichiellacious fungi from the environment

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente Vânia Aparecida; Angelis Derlene Attili de; Queiróz-Telles Filho Flávio; Pizzirani-Kleiner Aline Aparecida

    2001-01-01

    Herpotrichiellaceous fungi, common agents of chromoblastomycosis and phaeohyphomycosis, were searched in samples of rotten wood, leaf littler, bark and soil of the rhizosphere, collected in the Centro Nacional de Pesquisas de Florestas/EMBRAPA, Colombo, PR, Brazil. Morphological analyses of macro, optic and scanning electron microscopy, as well as the determination of the nutritional pattern of the isolated strains were carried out for a taxonomical study. In a total of 17 colonies, 3 isolate...

  12. An isolated current monitor for iontophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, S E; Cohen, S A

    1976-01-01

    An inexpensive isolated current monitor has been developed as an effort to minimize stimulus artifact in experimental systems which include iontophoresis as the source of stimulus. The monitor becomes an element of the iontophoresis circuit, but provides an output voltage isolated from the iontophoresis current. The voltage is proportional to the iontophoresis current and will represent currents of 1/2 nA to 5 muA. It is this ability to detect minute currents that is valuable in iontophoresis measurements.

  13. Isolated menthone reductase and nucleic acid molecules encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, Rodney B; Davis, Edward M; Ringer, Kerry L

    2013-04-23

    The present invention provides isolated menthone reductase proteins, isolated nucleic acid molecules encoding menthone reductase proteins, methods for expressing and isolating menthone reductase proteins, and transgenic plants expressing elevated levels of menthone reductase protein.

  14. evaluation of native fungal isolates of metrahizium anisopliae var

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    preferred customer

    isolates against GWM and assessed the non-target effect of one isolate of Beauveria (IITA 18) and five isolates of ... distributed and devastating insect pest to honey production in ..... to Non-Target. Invertebrates of Fungal Biocontrol Agents, pp.

  15. Geographically isolated wetlands: Rethinking a misnomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushet, David M.; Calhoun, Aram J. K.; Alexander, Laurie C.; Cohen, Matthew J.; DeKeyser, Edward S.; Fowler, Laurie G.; Lane, Charles R.; Lang, Megan W.; Rains, Mark C.; Walls, Susan

    2015-01-01

    We explore the category “geographically isolated wetlands” (GIWs; i.e., wetlands completely surrounded by uplands at the local scale) as used in the wetland sciences. As currently used, the GIW category (1) hampers scientific efforts by obscuring important hydrological and ecological differences among multiple wetland functional types, (2) aggregates wetlands in a manner not reflective of regulatory and management information needs, (3) implies wetlands so described are in some way “isolated,” an often incorrect implication, (4) is inconsistent with more broadly used and accepted concepts of “geographic isolation,” and (5) has injected unnecessary confusion into scientific investigations and discussions. Instead, we suggest other wetland classification systems offer more informative alternatives. For example, hydrogeomorphic (HGM) classes based on well-established scientific definitions account for wetland functional diversity thereby facilitating explorations into questions of connectivity without an a priori designation of “isolation.” Additionally, an HGM-type approach could be used in combination with terms reflective of current regulatory or policymaking needs. For those rare cases in which the condition of being surrounded by uplands is the relevant distinguishing characteristic, use of terminology that does not unnecessarily imply isolation (e.g., “upland embedded wetlands”) would help alleviate much confusion caused by the “geographically isolated wetlands” misnomer.

  16. Seismic behavior of variable frequency pendulum isolator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V. R. Panchal; R. S. Jangid

    2008-01-01

    Earthquake performance of a flexible one-story building isolated with a variable frequency pendulum isolator(VFPI) under near-fault and far-field ground motions is investigated. The frictional forces mobilized at the interface of theVFPI are assumed to be velocity dependent. The interaction between frictional forces of the VFPI in two horizontal directionsis duly considered and coupled differential equations of motion of the isolated system in the incremental form are solvediteratively. The response of the system with bi-directional interaction is compared with those without interaction. In addition,the effects of velocity dependence on the response of the isolated system are also investigated. Moreover, a parametricstudy is carried out to critically examine the influence of important parameters on bi-directional interaction effects of thefrictional forces of the VFPI. These parameters are: the superstructure time period, frequency variation factor (FVF) andfriction coefficient of the VFPI. From the above investigations, it is observed that the dependence of the friction coefficienton relative velocity of the system does not have a noticeable effect on the peak response of the system isolated with VFPI, andthat the bi-directional interaction of frictional forces of the VFPI is important and if neglected, isolator displacements will beunderestimated and the superstructure acceleration and base shear will be overestimated.

  17. Isolation of cellulose microfibrils - An enzymatic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sain, M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Isolation methods and applications of cellulose microfibrils are expanding rapidly due to environmental benefits and specific strength properties, especially in bio-composite science. In this research, we have success-fully developed and explored a novel bio-pretreatment for wood fibre that can substantially improve the microfibril yield, in comparison to current techniques used to isolate cellulose microfibrils. Microfibrils currently are isolated in the laboratory through a combination of high shear refining and cryocrushing. A high energy requirement of these procedures is hampering momentum in the direction of microfibril isolation on a sufficiently large scale to suit potential applications. Any attempt to loosen up the microfibrils by either complete or partial destruction of the hydrogen bonds before the mechanical process would be a step forward in the quest for economical isolation of cellulose microfibrils. Bleached kraft pulp was treated with OS1, a fungus isolated from Dutch Elm trees infected with Dutch elm disease, under different treatment conditions. The percentage yield of cellulose microfibrils, based on their diameter, showed a significant shift towards a lower diameter range after the high shear refining, compared to the yield of cellulose microfibrils from untreated fibres. The overall yield of cellulose microfibrils from the treated fibres did not show any sizeable decrease.

  18. Effects of Metallothionein on Isolated Rat Heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Zhongdong; XIA Jiahong; DONG Nianguo; DU Xinling; CHI Yifan; YANG Tienan; YANG Chenyuan

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the effects of metallothionein (MT) on isolated rat heart, 16 Wistar rats were randomly divided into 2 groups. In control group (group C), distilled water was injected intraperitoneally and 24 h later isolated hearts were perfused with Langendorff and stored at 4℃ for 3 h with histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK) solutions, and then isolated hearts were perfused for 2 h by Langendorff. In experimental group (group E), 3.6% ZnSO4 was injected intraperitoneally, 24 h later isolated hearts were perfused by Langendorff and stored at 4℃ for 3 h with HTK solutions, and then the isolated herts were perfused for 2 h with Langendorff. MT content, the recovery of hemodynamics, myocardial water content (MWC), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) leakage, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, myocardial cell Ca2+ content, Ca2+-ATPase activity of mitochondria ([Ca2+-ATPase]m) and its Ca2+ content ([Ca2+]m), synthesizing ATP activity of mitochondria ([ATP]m), and the ultrastructure of cells were examined. There were a significant increase in group E in hemodynamic recovery, ATP content, SOD activity, [Ca2+-ATPase]m activity, [ATP]m activity, and substantial reduction in MWC, LDH and CK leakage, MDA content, myocardial cell Ca2+ content, [Ca2+]m content,and the ultrastructural injury were obviously milder than that of group C. This study demonstrated that MT has protective effects on isolated rat heart.

  19. Molecular typing of Chinese Streptococcus pyogenes isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yuanhai; Wang, Haibin; Bi, Zhenwang; Walker, Mark; Peng, Xianhui; Hu, Bin; Zhou, Haijian; Song, Yanyan; Tao, Xiaoxia; Kou, Zengqiang; Meng, Fanliang; Zhang, Menghan; Bi, Zhenqiang; Luo, Fengji; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2015-06-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes causes human infections ranging from mild pharyngitis and impetigo to serious diseases including necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. The objective of this study was to compare molecular emm typing and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) for genotyping of Chinese S. pyogenes isolates. Molecular emm typing and PFGE were performed using standard protocols. Seven variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) loci reported in a previous study were used to genotype 169 S. pyogenes geographically-diverse isolates from China isolated from a variety of disease syndromes. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis provided greater discrimination between isolates when compared to emm typing and PFGE. Removal of a single VNTR locus (Spy2) reduced the sensitivity by only 0.7%, which suggests that Spy2 was not informative for the isolates screened. The results presented support the use of MLVA as a powerful epidemiological tool for genotyping S. pyogenes clinical isolates.

  20. Characterization of Candida parapsilosis complex isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Toro, M; Torres, M J; Maite, Ruiz; Aznar, J

    2011-03-01

    Candida parapsilosis former groups II and III have recently been established as independent species, named Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis, respectively. We investigated the distribution of C. parapsilosis complex species in 122 isolates from blood and other sources in a southern Spain tertiary-care hospital, and we examined the relationship between species, site of isolation and biofilm positivity. We also evaluated the planktonic MICs and sessile MICs (SMICs) of voriconazole, amphotericin B and anidulafungin. One hundred and eleven isolates (91%) were categorized as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, whereas ten isolates (8.2%) were categorized as C. orthopsilosis and one (0.8%) as C. metapsilosis. Biofilm positivity was observed in 58.5% (65 of 111) of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolates vs. 0% (0 of 11) of C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis isolates (p orthopsilosis than for C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (0.03 mg/L). In contrast to planktonic cells, the SMICs show that amphotericin B and anidulafungin are moderately effective against the biofilm of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, whereas voriconazole is ineffective.

  1. Forty Years of Research on Isolated Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Sulentic, J W

    2009-01-01

    Isolated galaxies have not been a hot topic over the past four decades. This is partly due to uncertainties about their existence. Are there galaxies isolated enough to be interesting? Do they exist in sufficient numbers to be statistically useful? Most attempts to compile isolated galaxy lists were marginally successful--too small number and not very isolated galaxies. If really isolated galaxies do exist then their value becomes obvious in a Universe where effects of interactions and environment (i.e. nurture) are important. They provide a means for better quantifying effects of nurture. The Catalog of Isolated Galaxies (CIG) compiled by Valentina Karachentseva appeared near the beginning of the review period. It becomes the focus of this review because of its obvious strengths and because the AMIGA project has increased its utility through a refinement (a vetted CIG). It contains almost 1000 galaxies with nearest neighbor crossing times of 1-3Gyr. It is large enough to serve as a zero-point or control samp...

  2. Isolation and resistance test of several isolates of Lactobacillus in low pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RIANI HARDININGSIH

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Several isolates of Lactobacillus had been isolated from Indonesian fermented foods. Four isolates where isolated from tongcai (TT2, saguer drink (Sg.Mnd.N2, pindang ikan selar (PSl1 and sawi asin (S5 had been used in this research. The aim of the research was to get Lactobacillus isolates as probiotic candidate and to know its resistance to low pH. The treatment were several concentration of low pH of MRS broth medium, i.e. 2; 2.5; 3; and 6.5 (optimal pH. The optical density (OD was measured after 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours respectively, with three replication by using spectrophotometer ( = 600 nm. The results showed that all Lactobacillus isolates (i.e. TT2, Sg.Mnd.N2, PSl1, and S5 could been used as probiotic candidate because they were resistant to all of low pH used.

  3. Isolation and Characterization of Pollulan Produced by a Local Isolate of Aureobasidium Pullulans

    OpenAIRE

    Kassim, Mohammad Bashir Ismail [محمد بشيراسماعيل قاسم

    2000-01-01

    A local isolate of Aureobasidium pullulans was obtained from fig leaves surface. The isolate was identified as A. pullulans on the basis of appearance of polymorphism in the colonies, melanin pigment and pullulan production in shake flask cultures. Pullulan production by the local isolate of A pullulans was two thirds of that produced by ATCC 42023. The studies of physico — chemical properties, chemical analysis, sugar composition periodate oxidation and smith degradation showed that the pull...

  4. Isolation and screening of azo dye decolorizing bacterial isolates from dye-contaminated textile wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Shahid Mahmood; Muhammad Arshad; Azeem Khalid; Zilli Huma Nazli; Tariq Mahmood

    2011-01-01

    Azo dyes are released into wastewater streams without any pretreatment and pollute water and soilenvironments. To prevent contamination of our vulnerable resources, removal of these dye pollutants is of greatimportance. For this purpose, wastewater samples were collected from dye-contaminated sites of Faisalabad. About200 bacterial isolates were isolated through enrichment and then tested for their potential to remove RemazolBlack-B azo dye in liquid medium. Five bacterial isolates capable of...

  5. Isolation and characterization of Vibrio cholerae isolates from seafood in Hat Yai City, Songkhla, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preeprem, Sutima; Mittraparp-arthorn, Pimonsri; Bhoopong, Phuangthip; Vuddhakul, Varaporn

    2014-11-01

    Seafood has been identified as an important source of Vibrio cholerae in Thailand, especially in the Southern coastal region. In this study, we isolated and characterized V. cholerae from seafood obtained from several markets in Hat Yai city, Southern Thailand. A total of 100 V. cholerae isolates were obtained from 55 of 125 seafood samples. The dominant serotype was non-O1/non-O139. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was used to detect the presence of pathogenesis-related genes. The stn/sto and hlyA El Tor virulence genes were detected in 20% and 96% of the isolates, respectively. None of the isolates were positive for the ctxA, tcpA, zot, and ace genes. Only 6% of the isolates carried the T3SS gene (vcsV2); however, the majority of the isolates (96%) carried the T6SS gene (vasH). Representative isolates (n=35) that exhibited various virulence gene patterns were randomly selected and analyzed for their hemolytic activity, antibiotic susceptibility, biofilm formation, and genotype. Hemolytic activity using sheep red blood cells was detected in only one of the hlyA-negative isolates. Apart from ampicillin, all isolates were pansusceptible to five test antibiotics. Biofilm production was observed in most of the isolates, and there was no difference in the presence of a biofilm between the smooth and rugose isolates. Using the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR method, clonal relationships were observed among the isolates that exhibited identical virulence gene patterns.

  6. Bacterial isolates from the bryozoan Membranipora membranacea: influence of culture media on isolation and antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heindl, Herwig; Thiel, Vera; Wiese, Jutta; Imhoff, Johannes F

    2012-03-01

    From specimens of the bryozoan Membranipora membranacea collected in the Baltic Sea, bacteria were isolated on four different media, which significantly increased the diversity of the isolated groups. All isolates were classified according to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and tested for antimicrobial properties using a panel of five indicator strains and six different media. Each medium featured a unique set of isolated phylotypes, and a phylogenetically diverse collection of isolates was obtained. A total of 96 isolates were assigned to 49 phylotypes and 29 genera. Only one-third of the members of these genera had been isolated previously from comparable sources. The isolates were affiliated with Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria, Bacilli, and Actinobacteria. A comparable large portion of up to 22 isolates, i.e., 15 phylotypes, probably represent new species. Likewise, 47 isolates (approximately 50%) displayed antibiotic activities, mostly against grampositive indicator strains. Of the active strains, 63.8 % had antibiotic traits only on one or two of the growth media, whereas only 12.7 % inhibited growth on five or all six media. The application of six different media for antimicrobial testing resulted in twice the number of positive hits as obtained with only a single medium. The use of different media for the isolation of bacteria as well as the variation of media considered suitable for the production of antibiotic substances significantly enhanced both the number of isolates obtained and the proportion of antibiotic active cultures. Thus the approach described herein offers an improved strategy in the search for new antibiotic compounds.

  7. Yeasts isolated from clinical samples of AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves Rejane Pereira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate yeasts in oropharyngeal secretion, urine, sputum and inguinal scales from AIDS patients, clinical samples were collected from one hundred patients interned in the Infectious and Parasitic Diseases Sector of the Hospital das Clínicas of the Universidade Federal de Pernambuco and in Hospital Universitário Osvaldo Cruz of the Universidade de Pernambuco. Yeasts were isolated from seventy-two out of one hundred and eight clinical samples. The isolated yeasts were: Candida albicans (sixty-two isolates, Candida tropicalis (four isolates, Candida glabrata (two isolates, Candida parapsilosis (two isolates, Candida krusei (one isolate and Trichosporon pullulans (one isolate.

  8. Exopolysaccharide Production by Four Cyanobacterial Isolates and Preliminary Identification of These Isolates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yunyi; CHI Zhenming; LU Weidong

    2007-01-01

    Four marine cyanobacterial isolates, named 104, 109, 113 and 115, from marine water off China's coast can release a large amount of exopolysaccharide (EPS) to medium. The effects of different components in medium on EPS production by the four isolates were investigated. Under the optimal condition, the EPS released by isolates 104,109, 113 and 115 reached 7.48 g L-1, 8.33 g L-1, 18.26 g L-1, and 6.78 g L-1 within 14 d,respectively. Based on the conventional identification methods for cyanobacteria,these isolates were assigned to genus Cyanothece.

  9. Single spore isolation and morphological characterization of local Malaysian isolates of rice blast fungus Magnoporthe grisea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ankitta; Ratnam, Wickneswari; Bhuiyan, Md Atiqur Rahman; Ponaya, Ariane; Jena, Khisord K.

    2015-09-01

    Rice blast is a destructive disease, caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe grisea. It causes considerable damage to rice and leads to crop loss in rice growing regions worldwide. Although fungicides can be used to control rice blast, they generate additional cost in rice production and contamination of environment and food. Therefore, the use of resistant varieties is thought to be one of the most economically and environmentally efficient ways of crop protection from the disease. Six new local Malaysian isolates of M. grisea were isolated using single spore isolation method. Five isolates were from infected leaf samples collected from Kompleks Latihan MADA, Kedah and one was from Kelantan. These isolates were identified using morphological characteristics and microscopic studies and later confirmed by ITSequences. These isolates were induced to sporulate and used for greenhouse screening on two differential rice varieties: Mahsuri (susceptible) and Pongsu Seribu 2 (resistant). Among the 6 isolates, isolate number 3 was found to be the most virulent showing high sporulation while isolate number 4 was very slow growing, and the least virulent.

  10. A retrospective review of a tertiary Hospital’s isolation and de-isolation policy for suspected pulmonary tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background Effective protocols for the isolation and de-isolation of patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) are essential determinants of health-care costs. Early de-isolation needs to be balanced with the need to prevent nosocomial transmission of PTB. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficiency of our hospital’s current protocol for isolating and de-isolating patients with suspected PTB, in particular assessing the timeliness to de-isolation of patients with AFB smear ...

  11. Permanent isolation surface barrier development plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wing, N.R.

    1994-01-01

    The exhumation and treatment of wastes may not always be the preferred alternative in the remediation of a waste site. In-place disposal alternatives, under certain circumstances, may be the most desirable alternatives to use in the protection of human health and the environment. The implementation of an in-place disposal alternative will likely require some type of protective covering that will provide long-term isolation of the wastes from the accessible environment. Even if the wastes are exhumed and treated, a long-term barrier may still be needed to adequately dispose of the treated wastes or any remaining waste residuals. Currently, no {open_quotes}proven{close_quotes} long-term barrier is available. The Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Program (BDP) was organized to develop the technology needed to provide a long-term surface barrier capability for the Hanford Site. The permanent isolation barrier technology also could be used at other sites. Permanent isolation barriers use engineered layers of natural materials to create an integrated structure with redundant protective features. Drawings of conceptual permanent isolation surface barriers are shown. The natural construction materials (e.g., fine soil, sand, gravel, riprap, asphalt) have been selected to optimize barrier performance and longevity. The objective of current designs is to use natural materials to develop a maintenance-free permanent isolation surface barrier that isolates wastes for a minimum of 1,000 years by limiting water drainage to near-zero amounts; reducing the likelihood of plant, animal, and human intrusion; controlling the exhalation of noxious gases; and minimizing erosion-related problems.

  12. Isolation of Campylobacter from human stool samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Salim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Campylobacter is an undetected cause of diarrhoea especially under 5 years of age in most of the countries. Isolation of this organism is difficult, expensive and cumbersome. Aims: Our objective of this study was to isolate this pathogen from the stool specimens on routinely available blood containing laboratory media using the candle jar for creating the microaerophilic atmosphere in our setup. Settings and Designs: A descriptive study. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 stool samples were inoculated onto selective and non-selective media with and without filtration using a 0.45 μm membrane. The inoculated media were simultaneously incubated in microaerophilic conditions using the Anoxomat as well as in candle jars at temperatures 37°C and 42°C. The culture isolates were confirmed by standard phenotypic tests. A simplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting the 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid of Campylobacter was performed on the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA of the culture isolates as well as on the DNA extracted from the stool filtrates. Statistical Analysis: Data was expressed as a proportion. Results: Campylobacter could be isolated in 5 out of 50 stool samples using both the Anoxomat as well as the candle jar. Furthermore, we did not find any difference between the isolation using the selective and blood containing media as well as the different incubation temperatures. All the five were confirmed phenotypically and genotypically to be Campylobacter jejuni. The PCR results corroborated with that of the culture. Conclusions: Isolation by culture was as sensitive as that of the PCR.

  13. [Antioxidant activity of cationic whey protein isolate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    titova, M E; Komolov, S A; Tikhomirova, N A

    2012-01-01

    The process of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in biological membranes of cells is carried out by free radical mechanism, a feature of which is the interaction of radicals with other molecules. In this work we investigated the antioxidant activity of cationic whey protein isolate, obtained by the cation-exchange chromatography on KM-cellulose from raw cow's milk, in vitro and in vivo. In biological liquids, which are milk, blood serum, fetal fluids, contains a complex of biologically active substances with a unique multifunctional properties, and which are carrying out a protective, antimicrobial, regenerating, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, regulatory and others functions. Contents of the isolate were determined electrophoretically and by its biological activity. Cationic whey protein isolate included lactoperoxidase, lactoferrin, pancreatic RNase, lysozyme and angeogenin. The given isolate significantly has an antioxidant effect in model experimental systems in vitro and therefore may be considered as a factor that can adjust the intensity of lipid oxidation. In model solutions products of lipid oxidation were obtained by oxidation of phosphatidylcholine by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a source of iron. The composition of the reaction mixture: 0,4 mM H2O2; 50 mcM of hemin; 2 mg/ml L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine from soybean (Sigma, German). Lipid peroxidation products were formed during the incubation of the reaction mixture for two hours at 37 degrees C. In our studies rats in the adaptation period immediately after isolation from the nest obtained from food given orally native cationic whey protein isolate at the concentration three times higher than in fresh cow's milk. On the manifestation of the antioxidant activity of cationic whey protein isolate in vivo evidence decrease of lipid peroxidation products concentration in the blood of rats from the experimental group receipt whey protein isolate in dos 0,6 mg/g for more than 20% (pwhey protein isolate has an

  14. Isolation and culture of chicken primordial follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leghari, Imdad Hussain; Zhao, Dan; Mi, Yuling; Zhang, Caiqiao

    2015-10-01

    The establishment of a primordial follicle culture system is important for the study of follicular development. Hence, the objective of this study was to isolate chicken primordial follicles and establish culture methods. Ovaries from 2-wk-old chickens were treated with trypsin-EDTA, collagenase II, or collagenase type IA, along with a mechanical isolation technique. Isolated follicles were cultured under different conditions. Results showed a significant difference in the follicular recovery and survival rates among different enzymes and methods used. The maximal follicular yield was obtained by trypsin+EDTA and collagenase II digestion, followed by collagenase type IA digestion. However, the highest follicular viability rate was observed in groups of collagenase type IA digestion and the mechanical isolation method. Enzymatic treatment resulted in higher misshapen oocytes or follicles, though the diameters of the follicles were not significantly changed. In addition, our follicle culture results for different conditions showed maximal survival rates of primordial follicles in alginate hydrogel beads after 12 d of culture. Thus, we successfully established methods for isolating and culturing chicken primordial follicles. The present method will greatly facilitate investigation of the regulation of follicular development. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. Passive earthquake-resistance through base isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ting-Shu; Seidensticker, R.W.

    1990-04-01

    Base isolation is an effective approach in mitigating the seismic forces transmitted to the superstructure. It is able to provide reliable protection for the superstructure, its contents and occupants. With base isolation, dynamic characteristics of the superstructure and its contents become more predictable and controllable. In recent years, different base isolation systems have been installed in various new and existing buildings, including office buildings, computer centers, buildings for high technology industries, emergency and communication centers, buildings for high technology industries, emergency and communication centers. The concept of seismic isolation is also under active investigation for nuclear power plants, where safety and reliability of these systems are of utmost importance. One such system uses laminated high-damping rubber and steel shim plates vulcanized into a solid bearing. Under a joint program between Shimizu of Japan and Argonne National Laboratory of the United States, such high-damping rubber bearings were installed in the spring of 1989 in a three-story full size test building at the Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan. Within a period of six months after their installation, this test building and the bearings have experienced more than fifteen earthquakes. Valuable information on the performance of the isolation bearings and the building has been (and is continuing to be) gathered and analyzed. Simulation studies of the effects of these earthquakes using lumped mass systems have been conducted, and are in close agreement with the actual observed responses. 3 refs., 11 figs.

  16. Seismic base isolation by nonlinear mode localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y. [University of Illinois, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Urbana, IL (United States); Washington University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, St. Louis, MO (United States); McFarland, D.M. [University of Illinois, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Urbana, IL (United States); Vakakis, A.F. [National Technical University of Athens, Division of Mechanics (Greece); Bergman, L.A. [University of Illinois, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Urbana, IL (United States)

    2005-03-01

    In this paper, the performance of a nonlinear base-isolation system, comprised of a nonlinearly sprung subfoundation tuned in a 1:1 internal resonance to a flexible mode of the linear primary structure to be isolated, is examined. The application of nonlinear localization to seismic isolation distinguishes this study from other base-isolation studies in the literature. Under the condition of third-order smooth stiffness nonlinearity, it is shown that a localized nonlinear normal mode (NNM) is induced in the system, which confines energy to the subfoundation and away from the primary or main structure. This is followed by a numerical analysis wherein the smooth nonlinearity is replaced by clearance nonlinearity, and the system is excited by ground motions representing near-field seismic events. The performance of the nonlinear system is compared with that of the corresponding linear system through simulation, and the sensitivity of the isolation system to several design parameters is analyzed. These simulations confirm the existence of the localized NNM, and show that the introduction of simple clearance nonlinearity significantly reduces the seismic energy transmitted to the main structure, resulting in significant attenuation in the response. (orig.)

  17. Legionella spp. isolation and quantification from greywater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Sara; Blanky, Marina; Friedler, Eran; Halpern, Malka

    2015-01-01

    Legionella, an opportunistic human pathogen whose natural environment is water, is transmitted to humans through inhalation of contaminated aerosols. Legionella has been isolated from a high diversity of water types. Due its importance as a pathogen, two ISO protocols have been developed for its monitoring. However, these two protocols are not suitable for analyzing Legionella in greywater (GW). GW is domestic wastewater excluding the inputs from toilets and kitchen. It can serve as an alternative water source, mainly for toilet flushing and garden irrigation; both producing aerosols that can cause a risk for Legionella infection. Hence, before reuse, GW has to be treated and its quality needs to be monitored. The difficulty of Legionella isolation from GW strives in the very high load of contaminant bacteria. Here we describe a modification of the ISO protocol 11731:1998 that enables the isolation and quantification of Legionella from GW samples. The following modifications were made:•To enable isolation of Legionella from greywater, a pre-filtration step that removes coarse matter is recommended.•Legionella can be isolated after a combined acid-thermic treatment that eliminates the high load of contaminant bacteria in the sample.

  18. Tetracycline Susceptibility in Chlamydia suis Pig Isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Donati

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence of Chlamydia suis in an Italian pig herd, determine the tetracycline susceptibility of C. suis isolates, and evaluate tet(C and tetR(C gene expression. Conjunctival swabs from 20 pigs were tested for C. suis by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and 55% (11 were positive. C. suis was then isolated from 11 conjunctival swabs resampled from the same herd. All positive samples and isolates were positive for the tet(C resistance gene. The in vitro susceptibility to tetracycline of the C. suis isolates showed MIC values ranging from 0.5 to 4 μg/mL. Tet(C and tetR(C transcripts were found in all the isolates, cultured both in the absence and presence of tetracycline. This contrasts with other Gram-negative bacteria in which both genes are repressed in the absence of the drug. Further investigation into tet gene regulation in C. suis is needed.

  19. Isolation and characterization of oenological yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatbardha Lamce

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic fermentation is carried out by all microorganisms presented in must, which vary by technological characteristics of interest to oenology. So far, in Albania the fermentation is spontaneous and not directed, resulting in an absence of a standard product. The object of the present study is the isolation, identification and determination of yeasts, isolated in different phases of fermentation of musts from different varieties of grapes, with the purpose of selecting autochthonous yeasts for a directed fermentation. In the present study were isolated 14 strains, with P.D.A. and Y.M.A. mediums. After isolation, purity controls were made to the strains through cultivation and re-cultivation of them in Petri dish, and also, by running a stereomicroscopic and microscopic examination. Classification and identification of yeast strains in genus and species were based on macro-morphological characteristics of the colonies. Then, morphological characteristics of the cell were observed as an important taxonomic indicator. For the determination of the physiological and biochemical characteristics of yeasts, the assimilation of sugars and the fermenting ability of yeast were used. At the end were isolated and identified 9 strains of the genus Saccharomyces, 1 strain of the genus Schizosaccharomyces, 2 strains of the genus Brettanomyces, 2 strains of the genus Kloeckera. These will serve to further work towards their selection based on their fermenting technological characteristics.

  20. [Protoplast isolation and transformation of Exserohilum turcicum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong-Li; Tanaka, Chihiro; Matsushim, Satoshi; Tsuda, Mitsuya

    2003-05-01

    Northern corn leaf blight, caused by the fungus Exserohirum turcicum Pass. (Leonard and Suggs), is one of the major diseases in most corn-growing areas of the world. Research on gene tagging of E. turcicum has been limited due to the lack of an efficient transformation system. Since E. turcicum produces and accumulates melamin in cell walls during vegetative growth, it is difficult to efficiently isolate its protoplast. To isolate the protoplast of this pathogen with a high frequency, the effects of cell wall degradation enzymes, including beta-1,3-glucanase (Fungase, Funcelase, Novozyme and Glucanex) and beta-glucuronidase (Driselase, Uskizyme and Kitalase), enzyme concentrations, combinations, strains and medium on the isolation frequency were tested. The isolation frequencies were high enough for transformation when the combinations of (Kitalase + Glucanex + Driselase), (Kitalase + Glucanex) or (Kitalase + Uskizyme) were used. Moreover, the isolation frequencies of protoplast were significantly affected by the cultural morphologies of strain and the growth stage of mycelia. Among the plasmids tested, only plasmid pAN71 is efficient for transformation of E. turcicum. This result will provide some useful information for gene tagging of E. turcicum and other species in Exserohirum.