WorldWideScience

Sample records for liberalised energy market

  1. Learnings from liberalised energy markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The paper presents a number of overlooked problems in liberalised electricity markets, including supply security, environmental concerns and establishment of a sustainable energy development.......The paper presents a number of overlooked problems in liberalised electricity markets, including supply security, environmental concerns and establishment of a sustainable energy development....

  2. Integration of liberalised energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinge Jacobsen, H.; Fristrup, P.; Munksgaard, J.; Pade, L.L.; Henriksen, T.C.

    2004-03-01

    The markets for electricity, natural gas and district heating are inter-linked both with respect to the energy flows and with respect to ownership of supply sources and infrastructure. The extent and the possible consequences of these linkages are examined in this report. The options for public interventions in these markets are analysed to compare instruments with respect to their ability to provide the necessary incentives for an efficient functioning of the liberalised markets. Aspects of retail markets with households facing multi-product distribution companies and aspects of the production of combined heat and power based on natural gas has been covered. This project identifies some important aspects related to final consumers and the interaction of markets with different types of regulation and scope for liberalisation. From a Danish perspective the district heat market and the dependence on market conditions for natural gas is a specific concern. Consumer concerns also relate to the creation of multi-product energy distribution companies that are privately owned and possibly controlled by foreign interests. Such companies might use bundled sales of energy products to extent their dominant position in one market e.g. a regulated heat market to a market with considerable competition (electricity). Bundled sales would not necessarily result in a loss for the consumer due to economies of scope in supplying energy products. However, the regulatory authorities responsible for district heat prices will have a more complicated job in surveying the bundled price setting. Integration of activities within natural gas distribution and CHP production has been analysed with respect to incentives and welfare implications. Results of the project point to critical market conditions and identify areas of concern for regulatory policies. The analysis shows that there is a large welfare loss associated with having monopolies in both natural gas supplies and the CHP production

  3. Liberalisation of the Dutch energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cace, J.; Zijlstra, G. J.

    2003-01-01

    The process of liberalisation of the Dutch energy market started in 1998 and will be completed in 2004 by opening the energy market to households and small enterprises. The fundaments of the open market are determined by the Electricity Law from 1998 and the Gas Law from 2000. The green electricity market was opened in July 2001 as a part of the environment protection package. A number of additional legal regulations, codes, procedures and agreements were developed in order to guarantee equal opportunities for all participants, create the market transparency, guarantee the continuity of supply and protect the consumer. These documents were developed by the 'Platform Versnelling Energieliberalisering', PVE (Platform for the acceleration of the liberalisation process). All relevant players from the energy market, including the major consumers, are represented in this advisory body. In the new market situation, the grid operators carry the essential responsibilities within the energy supply system. They are providing the technical security, registering the energy exchange through their grid and are generating the billing and the balance control information for suppliers and transport system operators respectively. The suppliers are the primary contact for the consumers. The complexity of the energy market liberalisation is aggravated by the difference in fundamental choices for the electricity and gas market. Electricity market is based on regulated third party access (TPA) and gas market is based on negotiated TPA. A lack of awareness of the necessity of an adequate information system appeared to be the most the most significant hurdle in establishing the open energy market. (author)

  4. Promotion of Renewable Energy in a Liberalised Energy Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    1998-01-01

    government promotion of energy conservation and of systems based on renewable energy sources. This type of policy may in some instanes conflict with the principles of the unregulated commercial market. The official Danish target is that 35% of energy demand should be covered by renewables by year 2030......Liberalisation of energy markets has been progressing among OECD countries since the early nineties. In Europe this trend was accelerated by the decision in December 1996 by the EU Council of Ministers to adopt a new EU directive on liberalisation of the electricity market. This decision would lead...

  5. On the environmental impact of energy market liberalisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Soest, D.P.; De Groot, H.L.F.

    2000-01-01

    In the literature, attention has been paid to the environmental consequences of lower energy prices caused by market liberalisation: the drop in energy prices reduces the attractiveness of investing in energy-saving technologies. In this paper we develop a simple model of investment decision-making emphasising the importance of not only levels but also volatility of energy prices for actual investment behaviour. The general finding is that lower energy prices and higher uncertainty reduce the propensity to invest. To empirically assess the importance of changes in both levels and volatility, we use US natural gas price data over the market liberalisation period and apply the information to the investment decision with respect to a specific energy-saving technology in the paper industry. We find that energy market liberalisation reduces the propensity to invest in energy-saving technologies substantially, not only because of the lower energy price but also because of its increased volatility. 12 refs

  6. End user prices in liberalised energy markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lijesen, M.G. [Afdeling Energie en Grondstoffen, Centraal Planbureau CPB, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2002-12-01

    As European energy markets move towards deregulation, energy prices shift from classic 'cost plus' prices towards market prices. We develop a model for the retail and wholesale energy markets in Europe, based on Bertrand competition in a two part pricing structure with switching costs. We use the model to forecast end user electricity and natural gas prices and find that the introduction of competition in energy retail and wholesale markets will decrease standing charges, lowering total costs for energy users. A larger number of entrants, a cost advantage for one of the suppliers, or lower switching costs reduces standing charges further.

  7. Energy Market Liberalisation and Renewable Energy Policies in OECD Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vona, Francesco; Nicolli, Francesco

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the effect of energy liberalizations on policies that support renewable energy in a long panel of OECD countries. We estimate this effect accounting for the endogeneity of liberalisation related to joint decisions within a country's energy strategy. Using regulation in other industries as instruments, we find that energy liberalisation increases the public support to renewable energy. The effect of liberalisation is the second largest after the effect of per-capita income and is fully driven by reductions in entry barriers, while the effect of privatisation is negative. Finally, our results are robust to dynamic specifications and various policy indicators. (authors)

  8. Energy Data Management (EDM) in a liberalised energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulbricht, R.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the role of Energy Data Management (EDM) in a liberalised Swiss energy market in the light of increasing international dynamics in this area. The requirements placed on such EDM systems are reviewed and the changes necessary in the structures and processes of electricity supply organisations are discussed. A possible design for future software systems is presented. Such systems have to be flexible enough to cover various structural possibilities as Swiss legislation on the subject has not yet been passed. The handling of data on energy-flow balances when third-party power is transferred in shared mains systems is discussed and scheduling aspects of power generation and transmission are looked at. The billing of power to customers with a free choice of supplier is looked at, as is the situation involving utilities that supply not only electricity but gas, district heating and water too

  9. Liberalising energy markets: Cost management using measurement data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girsberger, H.

    2000-01-01

    This article looks at the various factors involved in assuring good cost management and customer relations in the liberalised energy market such as price levels, additional services and added value for the customer. The additional information required by the utilities to be able to implement such customer-oriented strategies is considered and ways of collecting and processing the data on energy consumption, customer profiles and trends are described. The further analysis of the data and the compilation of reports for management, marketing, engineering and quality assurance departments are discussed, as are the information technology and equipment interfaces required to do this

  10. Integration of liberalised energy market; Samspillet mellem de liberaliserede energimarkeder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinge Jacobsen, H.; Fristrup, P.; Munksgaard, J.; Pade, L.L.; Henriksen, T.C.

    2004-03-01

    The markets for electricity, natural gas and district heating are inter-linked both with respect to the energy flows and with respect to ownership of supply sources and infrastructure. The extent and the possible consequences of these linkages are examined in this report. The options for public interventions in these markets are analysed to compare instruments with respect to their ability to provide the necessary incentives for an efficient functioning of the liberalised markets. Aspects of retail markets with households facing multi-product distribution companies and aspects of the production of combined heat and power based on natural gas has been covered. This project identifies some important aspects related to final consumers and the interaction of markets with different types of regulation and scope for liberalisation. From a Danish perspective the district heat market and the dependence on market conditions for natural gas is a specific concern. Consumer concerns also relate to the creation of multi-product energy distribution companies that are privately owned and possibly controlled by foreign interests. Such companies might use bundled sales of energy products to extent their dominant position in one market e.g. a regulated heat market to a market with considerable competition (electricity). Bundled sales would not necessarily result in a loss for the consumer due to economies of scope in supplying energy products. However, the regulatory authorities responsible for district heat prices will have a more complicated job in surveying the bundled price setting. Integration of activities within natural gas distribution and CHP production has been analysed with respect to incentives and welfare implications. Results of the project point to critical market conditions and identify areas of concern for regulatory policies. The analysis shows that there is a large welfare loss associated with having monopolies in both natural gas supplies and the CHP production

  11. Demands on thermal power plants in the liberalised energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hein, D.; Kwanka, K.; Fischer, T.

    2005-01-01

    In the liberalised energy market, a diversified set (''mix'') of power plants will be needed. By investigating present and anticipated future criteria in detail, available technologies and outlines of further development are identified and discussed. Among them, concepts for efficiency-optimised base load plants as well as units with an improved cycling operation capability are both attributed to a specific valued benefit. Following the demand for a significant reduction of the overall greenhouse gas emissions, centralised power plants fed by fossil fuels and modified for retention of CO 2 are needed to guarantee a supply of energy at moderate costs in the 21st century. (author)

  12. The bumpy road of liberalisation of the Dutch Energy Market. Expectations versus the hardships of reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mik, M.R.

    2006-07-01

    In June 2006 a study was finalized on the Liberalisation of the Dutch Energy Market. The European Commission decided to liberalise the European energy industry, the Netherlands taking the lead. The Dutch electricity and natural gas industries fell prey to a bumpy road of liberalization; initial expectations have proven to be overly optimistic

  13. Protecting the environment in a liberalised energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, A.

    2000-01-01

    The alleged conflicting situation between environmental protection and liberalisation can be resolved if we make both the market and competition serve the interests of environmental and climate protection to a greater extent. The exploitation of the allocation efficiency of markets for protecting the environment is legitimate according to the experience that the well-husbanded and efficient use of sparse resources is not achieved by government planning and control, but allowing market prices to form on functioning markets which reflect the shortage of such resources. This approach would also put into perspective the much debated conflict between economy and ecology. (orig.) [de

  14. Combined heat and power in a liberalised energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Paepe, Michel; Mertens, David

    2007-01-01

    The decision whether or not to install cogeneration units mainly depends on individual economic considerations combined with ecological awareness. In countries with rather unfavourable economic conditions for cogeneration, government support or similar systems are considered to stimulate new investments. Although the economic feasibility of a cogeneration unit still strongly depends on site specific parameters, some general trends can be found. This paper clarifies which are the most important aspects in an economic evaluation of a cogeneration plant considering the context of a liberalised energy market. Also, a methodology for calculating the economic feasibility is set up. Firstly, the methodology is used to make a general analysis of the economic feasibility of cogeneration in Flanders, Belgium, taking into account the specific Flemish support systems. Different cogeneration technologies, including microturbines as a relatively new technology, are considered, as well as a broad range of sizes. Using average data makes it possible to compare those different sizes and technologies and to draw some general conclusions for the Flemish situation. After this case study, simulations are performed to quantify the impact of the variation of some crucial parameters on the economic feasibility of cogeneration. Ranking those parameters by their economic impact shows the high importance of the reliability of the installation and the power prices. The impact of changing energy prices is also examined, concluding that (gas fired) cogeneration should not fear the rise of gas prices. Where quantitative conclusions of this sensitivity analysis are based on specific inputs for Flanders, qualitative conclusions are still applicable to all similar countries

  15. Liberalised energy markets, customer expectations, fiscal greed: a call for more equity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendow, K.

    2003-01-01

    This note describes how, since 2000/2001, a rise of taxes and para-taxes in some western European countries has partly or fully absorbed the gains resulting from the liberalisation of electricity or heat markets. For the energy industry and customers in these countries the question arises: was liberalisation in vain? Have they been led into error? Customers in accession countries may wonder whether this experience and the agreed minimum energy taxation in the European Union imply tariff increases, particularly for households, beyond those previously expected? Could a strengthening of the role and independence of the regulator lead to more equity in sharing the 'dividend of liberalisation'?(author)

  16. On the environmental impact of energy market liberalisation: Environmental policy, economic reform and endogenous technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.P. van Soest (Daan); H.L.F. de Groot (Henri)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn the literature, attention has been paid to the environmental consequences of lower energy prices caused by market liberalisation: the drop in energy prices reduces the attractiveness of investing in energy-saving technologies. In this paper we develop a simple model of investment

  17. Optimisation of fuel stocks under liberalisation of energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipkovs, P.; Sitenko, L.; Kashkarova, G.

    2001-01-01

    The paper discusses the influence of regional fuel stocks on the reliability of the energy sector's activities in a given region. The authors give classification of stocks by their purpose and describe their role in avoiding energy shortage situations. The fuel deficiency at a regional fuel market is shown in connection with the resulting loss for the national economy. The authors employ imitative modelling for investigation of fuel supply schemes acting in Latvia. They estimate possible expenses on the maintenance of fuels - such as gas, residual oil, and coal - for different variants of fuel delivery. (author)

  18. INA's Preparations for Liberalised Energy Market and Privatisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragicevic, T.; Kolundzic, S.

    2001-01-01

    Before opening of the market, energy entities must carry out numerous preparations in order to be ready for challenges of a competitive environment. Some preparations refer to legal and organisational issues, but many of them encompass reengineering of business processes, cost reduction schemes and various improvement measures aimed at maintenance or acquisition of a competitive advantage. INA is actively pursuing some of the above measures, but now, by the end of 2001, we also have to deal with preparations for privatisation. These two processes have some important common elements, competitiveness being certainly one of them. INA must work toward improving its competitive strength in the gas sector, in refining, in marketing of oil products, but also in various supporting activities. However, there are constraints that we have to observe, mainly related to social issues.(author)

  19. Possibilities and Barriers for Energy Conservation in a Liberalised Electricity Market: Danish Utility Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    1999-01-01

    Liberalisation of energy markets in Europe is in progress. The expressed goal is to promote efficiency through commercial competition, with lower energy prices for consumers as a consequence. This priority raises some complex questions in relation to the desire of creating a sustainable energy...... a sustainable energy development in efficiency and energy conservation. The electric utilities play an important role in this relation, but their priority is of commercial nature rather than concern for the environment. This dilemma is analyzed in more detail in the paper....

  20. Can Dutch co-generation survive threats of the liberalisation of the energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battjes, J.J.; Rijkers, F.A.M.

    2000-07-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the effects of liberalisation of the Dutch energy markets on the future development of combined heat and power generation (co-generation) in the Netherlands. First, it reviews the historical growth in co-generation in the Netherlands and the supportive policy measures that have contributed to this growth. Second, the liberalisation process of the Dutch electricity market and the Dutch gas market is described. Subsequently, we discuss the impacts of these new market structures on co-generation by using two scenarios for the Dutch energy markets. Our assessment of the impacts is mainly focused on the cost-effectiveness of co-generation projects. We determine the key aspects that influence the cost-effectiveness of a co-generation project and analyse some of the calculations for different small-scale and large-scale co-generation projects. Based on the results, we conclude that investments in new co-generation plants are unlikely in the short term and the existing plants can barely produce with a positive cash flow. As many parties have an interest in reducing the negative effects of a liberalised energy market on co-generation, approaches are sought to improve the cost-effectiveness of co-generation in the Netherlands. We describe several optional supportive measures for co-generation mainly resulting from the determination of the barriers for co-generation. Moreover, Dutch authorities have already responded to these barriers by preparing policy measures such as investment subsidies and exemption from the energy tax. 2 refs

  1. Liberalisation and Market Opening Versus Energy Policy and Regulation Proposals: the German Experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieners, J.

    2001-01-01

    In 1998 the German electricity market became fully liberalised for competition. Prices for all consumer groups recorded a considerable drop. Service centres accepted measures for cost reduction, new strategies resulted in mergers. However, in view of economic efficiency, the German Government set life surroundings as the primary task. With new electricity market regulation numerous grants were introduced into renewable energy sources as well as the combined production of heat and electricity, which had a destabilising effect on all price savings on the part of the competition.(author)

  2. Coal transport demand in Western Europe and Japan: Impacts of energy market liberalisation and climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golombek, Rolf; Kittelsen, Sverre A.C.; Maestad, Ottar

    2005-12-01

    Western Europe and Japan are among the main importers of coal. Climate policies following the Kyoto agreement are creating pressure to substitute away from coal and turn to less emission intensive energy sources. At the same time, liberalizations of energy markets in Europe and Japan are likely to cause reduced electricity prices, which will boost the overall demand for electricity. This paper analyses the combined effect of electricity market liberalization and climate policies on the international coal trade. Using the numerical equilibrium model LIBEMOD, we find that while liberalization of electricity markets will imply a large increase in aggregate coal transport demand, the negative impact of climate policies may be even larger, in particular if Russia and Ukraine utilise their market power in the market for emission permits. If this market power is exploited, the total effect of liberalisation and climate policy - when including the impact of general economic growth - is a 20% reduction in aggregate coal transport between 2000 and 2010. Further, impacts differ markedly between Western Europe and Japan. A main difference is that liberalisation has a much more positive - and climate policies have a much stronger negative - impact on steam coal demand in Western Europe than in Japan

  3. Liberalising Dutch Energy Markets. Champions and governance, rules and regulations. The 1995-2005 stories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jong, J.

    2006-09-01

    Liberalisation of Dutch energy markets was not a sudden change of policy direction, but rather the result of policy evaluations and discussions which had already been going on for quite some time when the Minister of Economic Affairs issued an Energy White Paper in early 1996, and the EU Directives for the electricity market (1996) and the gas market (1998) were introduced. The Dutch followed a two-way track, aiming at a phased market liberalisation for gas and electricity with full legal electricity network unbundling and a merger of the four large power generators into a national champion. For gas, the Dutch position as a major natural gas producer led to the proposition of a structure that was much more careful, following the EU Directive to the millimetre. Some ten years since the White Paper was issued, Dutch decision-making, legislation and regulation of the energy market has gone through a fascinating, burdensome and complex, and sometimes chaotic and frustrating process. This study highlights the importance of market dynamics and the almost unbearable and unsolvable balance between policy, legislation and regulation. Further attention is given to the role of Dte ( Office of Energy Regulation) and its evolution into a full merger with the NMa (Netherlands Competition Authority), and ownership and privatisation discussions against the backdrop of the developments in the wider European energy markets. Overall, the study concludes that it appears to be too early to tell whether energy market policies of the last decade have delivered the expected results in either quantitative or monetary terms. What the process did deliver, however, was a lot of turbulence and dynamics, a boost for innovation in marketing and technology drives, and increased awareness about consumer power in which the threat to switch in itself produces results of improved service, more transparency and increased accountability

  4. Importance of Electricity Transport Pricing in Liberalised Energy Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlgemuth, N.

    2001-01-01

    Electricity has traditionally been supplied by vertically integrated companies providing generation, transmission and distribution services. Consumers have purchased a bundled commodity - delivered electricity - and there has been no need to price the components individually. This is no longer the case in competitive and unbundled electricity markets. One of the outstanding issues in the restructuring of the electricity markets is the way in which transmission costs are translated into tariffs. The efforts to create a single European electricity market are difficult to reconcile due to different national network pricing approaches. The European Commission's draft regulation on conditions for access to the network for cross-border exchanges of electricity sets general principles for the pricing of international electricity exchanges. Nodal pricing provides incentives for an efficient use of generation and transmission assets. Experience shows that nodal pricing is workable, and its use may be expected to increase progressively. Postage stamp pricing does not generally provide adequate incentives for efficiency. However, inefficiencies may be small under certain conditions, and postage stamp pricing has the advantage of being relatively transparent and easy to implement. This paper presents an overview of objectives related to an effective design of transmission pricing approaches, of transmission pricing models and presents recent developments in Europe in this respect. Due to the great number of institutional designs of electricity market organisations, it will be difficult to design and implement a model of cross-border transmission pricing that results in a high degree of non-discriminatory international competition in electricity markets, a key objective of the Electricity Directive.(author)

  5. Integrated energy markets and varying degrees of liberalisation: price links, bundled sales and CHP production exemplified by Northern European experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, H.K.; Fristrup, P.; Munksgaard, J.

    2006-01-01

    Liberalisation of energy markets has during the last 20 years been gradually introduced in many countries. The liberalisation has led to concerns regarding the markets' state of competition and fears that market power existence can result in less efficiency gains than what is expected from liberalisation. Concerns have also been raised as to whether specific consumer groups will be affected by limited competition in markets. Much of the concern has been concentrated on the electricity markets, but the development of energy sectors with integration of activities within natural gas, electricity and the oil sector creates the need to examine market power aspects across these markets. This paper examines the concentration trends in the Northern European markets for electricity and natural gas, combined with regional district heating aspects, especially with respect to the situation in Denmark. The situation with natural gas companies supplying to both small-scale CHP and to retail heat customers is discussed, for instance, which changes of regulatory regime for domestic heating customers should be considered when the natural gas market is being liberalised? The interlinked nature of the energy markets is described and examples of impacts from one market with limited competition to other markets with seemingly well-functioning competition are given. The specific case of large CHP production facilities with output on the regulated district heating market and the competitive Nordic electricity market is examined. How much of the fluctuations in price experienced in electricity markets should be reflected in the price of heating supplies? To which degree do the heating customers have to bear the burden of low-electricity market prices? Regulation of liberalised markets is discussed focusing on the interaction between one regulated market and the related energy markets that are liberalised. Existing regulation on the markets are compared to a situation where liberalisation

  6. Integrated energy markets and varying degrees of liberalisation: Price links, bundled sales and CHP production exemplified by Northern European experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Fristrup, Peter; Munksgaard, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    Liberalisation of energy markets has during the last 20 years been gradually introduced in many countries. The liberalisation has led to concerns regarding the markets' state of competition and fears that market power existence can result in less efficiency gains than what is expected from liberalisation. Concerns have also been raised as to whether specific consumer groups will be affected by limited competition in markets. Much of the concern has been concentrated on the electricity markets, but the development of energy sectors with integration of activities within natural gas, electricity and the oil sector creates the need to examine market power aspects across these markets. This paper examines the concentration trends in the Northern European markets for electricity and natural gas, combined with regional district heating aspects, especially with respect to the situation in Denmark. The situation with natural gas companies supplying to both small-scale CHP and to retail heat customers is discussed, for instance, which changes of regulatory regime for domestic heating customers should be considered when the natural gas market is being liberalised? The interlinked nature of the energy markets is described and examples of impacts from one market with limited competition to other markets with seemingly well-functioning competition are given. The specific case of large CHP production facilities with output on the regulated district heating market and the competitive Nordic electricity market is examined. How much of the fluctuations in price experienced in electricity markets should be reflected in the price of heating supplies? To which degree do the heating customers have to bear the burden of low-electricity market prices? Regulation of liberalised markets is discussed focusing on the interaction between one regulated market and the related energy markets that are liberalised. Existing regulation on the markets are compared to a situation where liberalisation

  7. Economics of total energy schemes in the liberalised European energy market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampret, Peter

    This thesis is concerned with the liberalisation of the European Energy markets and the affects this has had on total energy systems. The work concentrates on a number of case studies all of which are located in the area surrounding Gelsenkirchen - Bottrop - Gladbeck, the centre of the Ruhr region of Germany.The thesis describes briefly how the legislation of the parliament of the extended European Union has been interpreted and enacted into German legislation and its affects on production, transport, sales and customers. Primarily the legislation has been enacted to reduce energy costs by having a competitive market while enabling security of supply. The legislation whose development has accelerated since 1999 can lead to negative effects and these have been highlighted for the case studies chosen.The legislation and technological advances, each of them successful by themselves, do not provide the expected reduction of carbon dioxide emissions when applied to total energy system. The introduction of human behaviour as a missing link makes the problems evident and gives a theoretical basis to overcome these problems. The hypothesis is proven by eight detailed research projects and four concisely described ones.The base of the research is the experience gained on approximately 1,000 operation years of the simplest total energy system, that of centralised heating. This experience is transferred to different solutions for total energy systems and their economics in combination with the changing legislation and observation of human behaviour.The variety of topics of the case studies includes the production of heat by boiler, solar or combined heat and power and the use of fuel cells. Additionally the transfer of heat, at the place of demand is considered, either as an individual boiler in a building or as de-centralised district heating.The various results of these projects come together in a final project which covers four different heating systems in identical

  8. European energy market liberalisation and integration. An assesment of the new EU energy package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Joode, J.; Van Oostvoorn, F.

    2008-06-01

    The new energy package presented by the European Commission (EC) in September 2007 contains a number of diverse, and sometimes controversial, measures aimed at bringing current European energy markets closer to the ideal of one competitive and fully integrated market. We discuss the flaws and merits of the package and signal a number of concerns regarding the ultimate effectiveness of the new energy market Directive into which the proposed package will culminate

  9. Supporting renewable energy on liberalised markets: green electricity between additionally and consumer sovereignty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menges, R.

    2003-01-01

    The German feed-in regulation has been perhaps the most effective promotional policy for green electricity. However, with the growing momentum of the liberalisation process the current regulation is challenged by structural problems about how to address the demand side. Price regulation leaves little room for private green electricity market activities. Moreover, the success of the feed-in regulation depends on a strict differentiation of the political segment and the emerging green electricity markets. The question, therefore, is about the role green electricity markets can (or should) perform in general. In order to evaluate green electricity markets the additionality criteria is frequently used, implying that markets are only desirable if they lead to additional environmental effects. The additionality criteria has two implications: First, transformed into individual behaviour, additionality implies that consumers are assumed to act as pure altruists. However, there is evidence from empirical studies that green electricity consumers behave more as impure altruists: they are not so much interested in the objective environmental impact of their behaviour but more objected to receive a private satisfaction from buying an environmental friendly product. Whereas theoretical models in the case of pure altruism suggest that private activities crowd out totally when policy becomes active in supporting the public good, this crowding out disappears in the case of impure altruism. Second, using end-state criteria such as the additionality principle as precondition, and neglecting process criteria such as consumer sovereignty, means to prevent establishing competitive market process right at the outset in principle. (author)

  10. Supporting renewable energy on liberalised markets: green electricity between additionality and consumer sovereignty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menges, Roland

    2003-01-01

    The German feed-in regulation has been perhaps the most effective promotional policy for green electricity. However, with the growing momentum of the liberalisation process the current regulation is challenged by structural problems about how to address the demand side. Price regulation lefts only little room for private green electricity market activities. Moreover, the success of the feed-in regulation depends on a strict differentiation of the political segment and the emerging green electricity markets. The question, therefore, is about the role green electricity markets can (or should) perform in general. In order to evaluate green electricity markets the additionality criteria is frequently used, implying that markets are only desirable if they lead to additional environmental effects. The additionality criteria has two implications: First, transformed into individual behaviour, additionality implies that consumers are assumed to act as pure altruists. However, there is evidence from empirical studies that green electricity consumers behave more as impure altruists: they are not so much interested in the objective environmental impact of their behaviour but more objected to receive a private satisfaction from buying an environmental friendly product. Whereas theoretical models in the case of pure altruism suggest that private activities crowd out totally when policy becomes active in supporting the public good, this crowding out disappears in the case of impure altruism. Second, using end-state criteria such as the additionality principle as pre-condition, and neglecting process criteria such as consumer sovereignty, means to prevent establishing competitive market process right at the outset in principle

  11. Implementation of the Third Energy Package and Renewable Energy Sources on Croatian Liberalised Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toljan, I.

    2016-01-01

    The Croatian Third Energy Package was adopted in 2012 and its implementation in the previous period until today has accelerated changes in all areas of Croatian energy sector. The content of The EU's Third Energy Package was made in two directives and three regulations. Directives are implemented into national legislation of EU Member States (they choose the methods). Regulations are implemented directly in the entire EU. The main goal is to establish a unique electricity and gas market with market prices (or lower) and high safety and public service standards. Croatia began with incentives for generation from renewable energy sources in 2004 and by the end of this year, the first contract in that system (wind power plant Ravne on Pag island) will end. The question that presents itself is where and how will the owner sell electricity from now on. Current market suppliers as well as the new organisation in Croatian energy sector, Croatian Power Exchange, are both realistic options. Balancing market led by Croatian TSO is becoming bigger and participates in the business because of the higher amount of installed power connected to the power grid (mostly wind power plants). Can Croatian Transmission Operator still guarantee safe operational planning as before (the last blackout happened 10 years ago)? The existing electricity and gas market design doesn't satisfy its participants any more so an adjustment to new facts of a free market is necessary (power exchange, no more stimulations for renewable sources). What changes should be made in legislation so that the free market can develop and be harmonised with the European market? Decarbonization and digitalisation are a base of European energy policy but they are still waiting for a wider and stronger application in Croatia, is the current legislation enough? With these analysis the paper contributes to the learnings about the implementation of The Third Energy Package in Croatia and a unique energy policy in the EU.(author).

  12. Electricity market liberalisation: a difficult undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graber, W.

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the options available for the implementation of discrimination-free cost allocation for the transport of energy in a liberalised Swiss electricity market. The advantages and disadvantages of two models - the distance-dependent 'path' model and the connection-point model - are discussed. Experience already gained in Germany, England, Finland, Sweden, Norway and Austria is discussed. The structure of the Swiss electricity grid with its seven tiers is looked at. The methods of splitting the transport costs between producers and consumers and also between the various layers of the grid are examined and functions for the matching of load and production are discussed

  13. Credit risk in liberalised power and natural gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapson, E.; Hunter, Richard

    1999-01-01

    This chapter examines the relationship of market structure and price volatility to credit risk, and discusses credit risk and energy market structures, credit risk in bilateral contracts, market evolution, and the effect of liberalising power markets on credit quality considering the power liberalising in Europe, the pace of change, and the new risks and opportunities. The market structure in Europe is addressed, and the EU Directive 96/92/EC, structural requirements, access for new generation capacity, and transmission costs are considered. Details of the liberalisation in the UK electricity market, the German market, and the Nord Pool are given, and the best credit practices in bilateral markets, and the quantifying of expected credit loss are described. Panels highlighting the need to know your counterparty in evaluating and negotiating bilateral contracts, and lessons learnt from the June 1998 US power price spike are presented

  14. Investments in liberalised power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenaa Jensen, S.; Meibom, P.

    2005-01-01

    There is considerable uncertainty in the Nordic electricity system with respect to the long-term development in production capacity. The process towards liberalisation of the electricity sector started with a situation of a large capacity margin, but this margin is gradually vanishing. Since the potential investors in new production capacity are unaccustomed with investments under the new regime, it is unknown if and when investments will take place. The purpose of the present study is to analyze if and when investors choose to invest in new electricity production capacity depending on their existing portfolio of power producing units. Electricity price scenarios generated with a partial equilibrium model (Balmorel) are combined with a model of investment decisions. In this, various scenarios concerning the development in the Nordic power market, such as new transmission lines between neighbouring countries, more installed wind power, and changes in CO 2 emission trading costs, are used to investigate the consequences for investments in a natural gas fired, combined cycle power plant. The main result of the analysis is that new investments are highly sensitive to investors existing power production portfolio, as new production units affect the merit order in the power market, i.e. compete with the existing power plants. (au)

  15. Chance to apply energy storage systems in liberalised electricity markets. Chancen des Einsatzes von Energiespeichern im liberalisierten Strommarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkner, P. (Lech-Elektrizitaetswerke AG, Augsburg (Germany). Abt. Netzbetrieb); Kuebler, B. (Piller Inc., Middletown, NY (United States))

    1999-05-17

    The liberalisation of the European and German electricity market causes an individual and customer specific evaluation of the various services offered by the single electricity supply company. In this connection energy storage systems are a modern technical device to guarantee extremely high customer demands concerning voltage quality. The following deals with the basic requirements to use energy storage systems and the possibilities that are offered by such systems. The installation of an energy storage system is compared with the classic gridbound measures to improve voltage quality. Furthermore, a non-technical attempt to settle the impact of quality deficiencies with the help of an insurance cover with a claim for compensation is discussed. (orig.)

  16. Electricity market liberalisation - the German model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the experience gained as a result of the opening of the German electricity market - not only from the national but also from European and international points of view. The history of electricity market liberalisation in Germany is described and the market's structure is compared with that of Switzerland. Both the advantages and disadvantages that have been brought about by liberalisation are discussed as well as the role of state regulation. Certain problem areas still to be tackled are discussed, such those in the areas of cartels, possibilities of supplier-change and tariffs. Also, liberalisation in the context of the European Union's efforts in this area are discussed, especially with respect to the consideration of differing structures in the various member countries of the Union

  17. NHS market liberalisation and the TTIP agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Paul; Ball, Elaine

    2016-07-01

    Governments over the past three decades have undermined the founding principles of the NHS through reforms and market liberalisation. With greater involvement of commercial interests in health care, the NHS will become less democratic and transparent. Recent reforms, which were intended to improve productivity, quality and cost efficiency, have left the NHS exposed to the unwieldy model of market liberalisation and the attrition of public health care. The role of community nurses has been particularly destabilised by commissioning, as their work is difficult to measure. The advent of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership could further undermine the NHS to the benefit of international commercial interests.

  18. The future of combined heat and power generation. Survey of the economic appeal in a liberalised energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dril, A.W.N.; Rijkers, F.A.M.; Battjes, J.J.; De Raad, A.

    1999-10-01

    Combined heat and power generation (CHP) has made a considerable contribution to Dutch national energy efficiency and is an important element in future energy and environmental policy programs. Recently, the effect of liberalisation of energy markets on prices and tariffs has been signalled to form a threat to CHP. This study calculates effects in two-market scenarios for a wide variety of CHP options and conditions. Results show that indeed profitability of investments in CHP has substantially decreased. Even in a scenario where electricity prices cover more than just marginal costs, most types of CHP are no longer profitable. Cash flow calculations on existing CHP projects also show a substantial decrease. Estimates on the national CHP capacity for 2010 compared to 1999 amount to a decrease in the competitive scenario and a stabilisation in the moderate scenario. The main cause is the fierce competition on the electricity market and the uncertainty whether prices will cover more than just marginal fuel costs in the near future. Part of the study was also to make an update of the technical and cost inputs of CHP projects. Investments and O and M (operation and maintenance) costs seem to have risen substantially, contributing to the decrease in profitability of CHP. 20 refs

  19. Liberalization of the energy market. Outline of the mushroom cultivation; Liberalisering energiemarkt. Verkenning champignonteelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Wel, A.J.; Bakker, R.

    2000-07-01

    As a result of a new Dutch Electricity Law and the liberalization of the natural gas market the mushroom cultivation business requires insight in the consequences of those developments for the energy costs. Also attention is paid to the consequences of the abolition of the limited exemption of the Regular Energy Levy (REB, abbreviated in Dutch). Finally, insight is given into the consequences of changes in the government policy on the so-called long-range agreements on energy efficiency (sector edible mushrooms)18 refs.

  20. Market regulation in Central America and Bit-Energy.CEL as tool for improving the self regulating forces for a liberalised market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisinger, H.; Reuter, A.; Dulle, H.

    2002-01-01

    establishment of regional spot and contracts market comprising 6 Central American countries; 3. the introduction of a retail market, allowing auto generation for industrial consumers; 4. the introduction of a renewable and rural electrification support scheme; 5. the introduction of the stochastic planning tool Bit-Energy.CEL for making offers for the spot market less predictable and more flexible. The proposed paper will show more details on the history of market liberalisation in Central America, summarise ongoing activities for improving market efficiency and explain in more detail which role Bit-Energy.CEL plays in this process. (author)

  1. Renewable energy location and network congestion in a liberalised power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Balbir

    2003-01-01

    The report is a partial study in the SNF projects No. 3080 and 3155, ''Environmental measures and efficiency'' and ''Robust energy markets''. The study presents a spatial equilibrium optimisation model of a power market. The reports concludes that the economic and environmental efficiency of the introduction of renewable energy generation in a congested network is crucially dependent on the location of these resources in relation to the capacity constraints in the network. Physical laws that govern flows in meshed electricity networks introduce important substitution and complementary impacts between generation assets at various locations. Neglect of substitution impacts in location decisions may result in crowding-out of existing generation capacity during times of congestion, while on the other hand complementary relationships between new and existing generation may reduce congestion. In the context of introduction of new renewable technologies, there is need for coordination between the development of renewable generation resources and network capacity to avoid that crowding-out of existing capacity, particularly if the existing capacity is primarily hydropower. This would result in production and environmental inefficiency in policy implementation. It may be emphasized that coordination does not necessarily imply centralization of renewable energy and network developments. The research and policy challenge is to devise grid-access regime and tariff mechanism that promote the necessary coordination. In the Norwegian policy context, it calls for a flexibility for Statnett to determine appropriate access regime for the renewable energy and a greater advisory role in the licensing process undertaken by the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE)

  2. Liberalisation of the German electricity sector and the role of energy policy

    OpenAIRE

    Schleich, J.; Betz, R.; Gagelmann, F.; Jochem, E.; Köwener, D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper gives an account if the impacts of the liberalisation of the German electricity marktet and describes the existing energy policy and recent responses to the liberalisation with respect to the electricity sector. In the first section, supply, electricity consumption and the structure of the electricity market are describes. In the second section, the legal framework for the liberalisation of the electricity market in Germany and the consequences for prices, market structure, legal f...

  3. A green certificate market combined with a liberalised power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morthorst, P.E.

    2003-01-01

    The development of renewable energy sources is expected to play an important role in the implementation of greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction targets in the EU member states. Among the highly relevant instruments for promoting the renewable development is the establishment of a market for tradable green certificates (TGCs) and markets based on TGCs or equivalent instruments are already established a number of places, among these Australia, Holland, England, Italy and Texas. Other countries are in the preparation phase. Sweden and Belgium (Flanders) are moving fast towards certificate-schemes, while although an early mover the Danish Parliament has postponed the introduction in Denmark until 2004-2005. The initiatives for establishing national TGC-markets are very much in line with the fixed targets for renewable development launched by the EU-commission. Thus, although the different countries have not chosen the same concept for establishing national TGC-markets, nevertheless there seems to be a good starting point for establishing an international one. This paper discusses the separate introduction of an international tradable green certificate market into a liberalised power market, especially in relation to cost-effectiveness and the possible contributions to national GHG-reduction strategies. The combination of a TGC and a liberalised power market encounters a number of problems in relation to achieving national GHG-reduction targets. One of the main results from a three-country case study described in the paper is that those countries most ambitious in renewable target setting by increasing their TGC-quotas will only partly be gaining the CO 2 -reduction benefits themselves. How large a share they gain themselves will depend only on the marginal conditions at the spot market

  4. Energy Sector Liberalisation and Privatisation in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlome, J. E.

    2001-01-01

    Due to its geographical situation, Switzerland is important for the transit lines of electricity and gas through the Alps. But Switzerland is not a member of the European Union. Furthermore, Swiss citizens enjoy extended direct-democratic rights. The author presents the story of energy sector liberalisation and privatisation in their three phases: 1. The late nineties: The phase of expectations 2. The phase of legislation: Open electricity market and elements of sustainable development as mitigating factors 3. The new awareness: Public service The Swiss citizens will have to adopt the law installing an open electricity market in June or September 2002. For the case of a (still very possible) rejection of the law, the author presents a no-go-solution and three realistic scenarios.(author)

  5. Capacity choices in liberalised electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro-Rodriguez, Fidel; Marin, Pedro L.; Siotis, Georges

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of investment in electricity generation in the context of a liberalised market. We use the main results derived from a theoretical model where firms invest strategically to simulate the Spanish electricity system with real-world data. Our results indicate that, under reasonable parameter constellations regarding the number of agents, the level of capacity resulting from private decisions falls well short of the social optimum. Last, we show that two regulatory mechanisms that have been used to generate additional incentives for private agents to install capacity (capacity payment and price-adder) are ineffective and/or prohibitively costly.

  6. Electricity market liberalisation in Europe. Who's got the power?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lise, W.; Linderhof, V.

    2004-10-01

    The European electricity market is in the middle of a transformation from monopolistic state-owned production and distribution to privatised markets, with various competing firms. The speed of privatisation differs widely across Europe from full trade of electricity at the wholesale market in Scandinavian countries, to partial trade on the wholesale market in The Netherlands and Germany, and no trade on the wholesale market in France and Belgium. Hence, the market and its rules are no longer fixed, and the electricity market is in the middle of a dynamic and complex process of change. This report discusses whether the liberalisation process can result in more efficient electricity production in Europe. In addition, the environmental impacts of the liberalisation process are studied. Efficiency of electricity production is analysed with a static computational game theoretic model, which compares strategic options of and interactions among energy suppliers. This model is calibrated to the European electricity market in eight countries, namely Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Norway, and Sweden. In a liberalised market, large firms are most likely to behave strategically and exercise market power in order to maximise profits. As a result, wholesale prices might increase, partially or fully off-setting the purpose of liberalisation, namely to decrease wholesale prices. Also, a potential market leader may emerge, who by anticipating on the reaction of followers, could acquire higher profits by increasing production and market share. Finally, firms can also acquire passive ownership in other firms. Passive cross-border ownership can increase a firm's market power and profits, resulting in even higher wholesale prices. The environmental impacts of different scenarios of producer behaviour are ambiguous. Under full competition, greenhouse gas emissions decline compared to the initial situation, while acidification and smog formation increase. In

  7. European Schemes for Promoting Renewables in Liberalised Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I.

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes possibilities and problems for penetration of supply systems based on renewable energy sources in liberalised markets. The analysis is based on recent development in EU with different models for support of installations based on renewable energy. These include feed-in models...... with guaranteed minimum tariffs, tender models for different bands of technologies, and green certificates trading models with obligatory consumer quota. The paper describes the market situation in selected European countries, including Germany, the UK, Holland and Denmark.An EU directive from September 2001 has...

  8. European municipalities and the liberalized energy market; Les municipalites europeennes et le marche liberalise de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    Municipalities are directly affected by the liberalization of the energy markets. Because they all consume or even produce energy, whether it be for their own consumption or to resell it, they often distribute gas, electricity or heat, they plan urban areas and organize the energy networks on their territory, while in addition citizens expect municipalities to inform them and even protect them against the possible excesses of energy salesmen. Elected representatives administrations, local agencies, municipal companies, citizens' associations etc., all have to innovate. This supplement to Energie-Cites INFO is intended to provide you with practical information and further analyses of the liberalization process. (authors)

  9. IT in a liberalised energy economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnat, H.; Urbani, C.

    2007-01-01

    This article takes a look at the large amount of information technology that will have to be installed in connection with the liberalisation of the electricity supply industry in Switzerland. An automatic and standardised flow of data between those instances involved is, according to the authors, a prerequisite for effective competition in the power market. Load profiles will augment monthly or half-yearly metering and provide a basis for new products. Other topics discussed include on-line portals for customers and cheaper tariffs for consumption that is planned in advance. Electricity liberalisation in Switzerland is reviewed and the increase in the amount of data necessary is discussed. Comparisons are made with other European countries and the tasks that the various market players will have to perform are looked at. These are summarised in a diagram. Possible future structures with decentralised production, more differentiated price structures and additional services are discussed

  10. Nuclear power within liberalised electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidd, Stephen W.

    2002-01-01

    Competition between various methods of generating electricity in liberalised markets means that all power plants must be cost-effective. The price of electricity from nuclear power includes all waste disposal and decommissioning costs, unlike other electricity generating technologies. Most existing nuclear power plants are likely to prosper under electricity liberalization. Many will receive operating life extensions and be able to compete in the electricity market for many years to come. Investment costs are particularly heavy for nuclear plants. Capital expenditure appraisal methodologies mean that such plants suffer financial disadvantages in times of high interest rates. Low and stable fuel costs are the prime advantage of nuclear plants against other sources of generating electricity. There will be significant demand for new generating capacity, both incremental and replacement, in the next 20 years. Under present conditions, where there is access to a stable and cheap supply of piped gas, nuclear and coal plants find it difficult to compete against gas-fired plants. The nuclear industry is addressing the need for new reactor designs, offering significant capital and operating cost reductions from the previous generation of reactors. This development and the need for carbon abatement on a worldwide basis offers nuclear plants a further economic advantage against alternative technologies. (author)

  11. Impacts of market liberalisation on the EU gas industry. The Shared Analysis project Energy Policy in Europe and Prospects to 2020. Volume No. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Oostvoorn, F.; Boots, M.G.

    1999-10-01

    This final report presents the results of the analyses at relevant trends and features in the EU gas market enabling or limiting more competition. The study focuses in particular on the possible impacts of the implementation of the EU Gas Directive and subsequently of the expected effects of increasing competition and further integration of gas markets in Europe. The study is conducted in the framework of the Shared Analysis project entitled 'Economic Foundations for Energy Policy', coordinated by FhG-ISI and prepared for the European Commission Directorate General for Energy. The report contains an analysis of the recent changes in the structure of gas demand and the supply and its consequences for enhancement of competition in the EU gas market. lt discusses the role of growing gas demand, changing structure of the supply industry and access to the network. Next, the implementation of the EU Gas Directive is discussed. In order to deal with the uncertainty in the results of the implementation process, two extreme institutional scenarios for future development of the liberalisation process in the EU gas markets are formulated. Finally, the consequences of these two gas market liberalisation scenarios are analysed. Note that part of the conclusions of the expected effects of the Directive, i.e. the expected changes in gas prices and market structures, are based on a model analysis. However, it should be clear that at this stage our conclusions presented in this report are still of a tentative nature. Note also that the final report is based on an extensive collection of EU gas market data both on country and company level, which was described in the first interim report entitled 'The natural gas market in the European Union'. A second interim report was drafted with an energy policy interpretation of the analyses of data and developments over the past ten years. Furthermore, at this moment, facts, opinions and available data are rapidly changing in the beginning of

  12. A critical look at 25 years of liberalisation of electricity markets in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audigier, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The movement to liberalise electricity markets was started in the United Kingdom a quarter of a century ago. A few years later, Germany chose to give priority to renewable energies at the expense of nuclear power. France is banking on renewables, while restraining the role of nuclear power. It has to be recognised that liberalisation, as championed by the European Union, has not produced the desired effects for consumers. (author)

  13. 'There is a danger that we will become outsiders' - Liberalisation of the electricity market has priority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aeberli, O. E.

    2003-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Dr. Walter Steinmann, director of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE), on the liberalisation of the Swiss electricity market and other important aspects of Swiss energy policy. The question of how liberalisation is to be organised after the Electricity Market Law was turned down in a public vote in 2002 is posed and the new alternative legislation that is being developed is discussed. Possible implementation difficulties and the integration of the electricity industry in new legislation are discussed as are the topics of treatment of the particular interests of electricity utilities, possible difficulties resulting from faster market opening in neighbouring countries and the introduction of the CO 2 levy. Also, the effects of voluntary measures taken or proposed by industry and their suggestions for the introduction of a 'Climate Cent' are discussed. Further, the liberalisation of the gas market is looked at and the chances of using renewable energy are examined

  14. Power market liberalisation: an opportunity for the hydroelectricity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loth, P.

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses the future of hydroelectricity in the light of the ongoing liberalisation of the European power market. Compared to fossil electricity, hydroelectricity is a renewable energy source, has a limited impact on the environment, is able to meet strong variations of power demand, but is a little bit more costly. Hydroelectric companies expect the introduction of a quality label for their product as well as the increasing awareness of consumers for environmental aspects to become strong incentives for them to subscribe on green energy despite its higher cost. The cost difference will also be partly reduced by the introduction of a pollution tax on fossil energy sources. Figures on hydroelectricity capacity production, currently and in the near future, in the countries surrounding the Alps are presented. As an example, the business strategy of a Swiss electricity utility is shortly described

  15. Cogeneration and taxation in a liberalised Nordic power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jess Olsen, O.; Munksgaard, J.

    1997-01-01

    This report is about the impact of the liberalisation of the Nordic power market on cogeneration of heat and power. Special attention is given to the effects on competition of the entirely different tax regimes in the Nordic countries. Some of the main questions answered in this study are: Which cogeneration technologies are able to compete on a liberalised power market? What are the consequences of different tax structures in the four countries for cross-border competition? Which principles should be applied if a common Nordic tax structure is to be developed? The following countries are included in the study: Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Today, cogeneration provides a larger contribution to the energy supply in the Nordic countries than elsewhere in the world. Our analysis demonstrates that most cogeneration technologies can compete with the power-only technologies. This is the case with respect to both long- and short-term marginal costs. The main exception is the very expensive straw-fired cogeneration technology. The analysis is extended to include the effects of the existing tax regimes (in 1996) in Denmark, Finland and Sweden as well as of the combines energy/CO 2 -tax that was proposed in 1992 by the European Commission. Each of the four tax regimes preserve the competitiveness of cogeneration within its own regime, i.e. if a given cogeneration technology is competitive without taxes it will remain so in a closed market when either Danish, Finnish, Swedish or European taxes are added. The implication of this is that the same cogeneration technology will be exposed to very different conditions in an open power market with cross-border competition, if the present tax regimes in the Nordic countries are allowed to continue. (EG) Also published in Danish. 15 refs

  16. Cogeneration and taxation in a liberalised Nordic power market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jess Olsen, O.; Munksgaard, J.

    1997-12-31

    This report is about the impact of the liberalisation of the Nordic power market on cogeneration of heat and power. Special attention is given to the effects on competition of the entirely different tax regimes in the Nordic countries. Some of the main questions answered in this study are: Which cogeneration technologies are able to compete on a liberalised power market? What are the consequences of different tax structures in the four countries for cross-border competition? Which principles should be applied if a common Nordic tax structure is to be developed? The following countries are included in the study: Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Today, cogeneration provides a larger contribution to the energy supply in the Nordic countries than elsewhere in the world. Our analysis demonstrates that most cogeneration technologies can compete with the power-only technologies. This is the case with respect to both long- and short-term marginal costs. The main exception is the very expensive straw-fired cogeneration technology. The analysis is extended to include the effects of the existing tax regimes (in 1996) in Denmark, Finland and Sweden as well as of the combines energy/CO{sub 2}-tax that was proposed in 1992 by the European Commission. Each of the four tax regimes preserve the competitiveness of cogeneration within its own regime, i.e. if a given cogeneration technology is competitive without taxes it will remain so in a closed market when either Danish, Finnish, Swedish or European taxes are added. The implication of this is that the same cogeneration technology will be exposed to very different conditions in an open power market with cross-border competition, if the present tax regimes in the Nordic countries are allowed to continue. (EG) Also published in Danish. 15 refs.

  17. Liberalising Gambling Markets : Lessons from Network Industries?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Damme, E.E.C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper, based on my concluding remarks at the “Colloquium on the Economic Aspects of Gambling Regulation: EU and US Perspectives” held at Tilburg in November 2006, discusses the question why, in Europe, some service sectors (such as network industries) are liberalised, while others (like the

  18. Impacts of market liberalisation on the EU gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Oostvoorn, F.; Boots, M.G.

    1999-10-01

    The paper presents an analysis of tbc effects of tbc European Union (EU) Gas Directive on the EU natural gas industry in the next ten years. First, it briefly reviews the current driving factors for increasing competition in the EU gas markets. Second, the different directions of implementation of EU Gas Directive are discussed. Finally we give an assessment of impacts of the different directions of implementation of the Gas Directive, thereby focusing on structural changes of the gas industry and the scope for reduction of consumer gas prices. Note that our assessment of the impacts is partly based on an analysis of recent trends in the EU gas market and partly on calculations with a recently developed model of the EU gas market on company level. The paper summarises the main observations of a study conducted by the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN) last year in the framework of a larger scenario study for the European Committee, Directorate-General 17, in the Shared Analysis Project, 'Economic Foundations for Energy Policy in Europe to 2020' managed by FhG-ISI. For the complete results of the ECN study, see report 'Impacts of Market Liberalisation on the EU Gas Industry', September 1999, forthcoming. Note that the analysis is limited to the gas market and does not include other impacts, i.c. on energy conservation, emissions, etc. 21 refs

  19. Liberalised electricity markets, new bioenergy technologies, and GHG emission reductions: interactions and CO2 mitigation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavsson, L.; Madlener, R.

    1999-01-01

    We contrast recent developments in power and heat production with bioenergy, and natural-gas-fired condensing plants with and without decarbonisation, in the light of electricity market liberalisation. Our main focus is on CO 2 mitigation costs and carbon tax sensitivity of production costs. We find that CO 2 mitigation costs are lower for biomass systems using IGCC technology than for natural gas system using decarbonisation. However, based on current fuel prices natural-gas fired co-generation plants have the lowest production costs. Hence energy policy measures will be needed to promote biomass technologies and decarbonisation options on a liberalised market. (author)

  20. Liberalising European electricity markets: opportunities and risks for a sustainable power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringel, M.

    2003-01-01

    The process of liberalising European electricity markets, encompassing a wide range of restructuring activities, has mainly been spurred by the attempt to increase the economic efficiency of the whole sector. This process might be used to trigger a development towards a sustainable power sector by increasing the use of renewable energy sources and enhancing energy efficiency on the supply and demand side. However, by taking a closer look at the current trends of the European electricity markets, it becomes obvious that the liberalisation not only implies opportunities but also risks for the creation of a sustainable power sector. Many of these risks are due to market distortions and imperfections caused by the delay in creating a fully functional single European market. Thus, in the short-term, the market liberalisation tends to constitute more risks than opportunities without government actions to prevent these risks. In the long run, though, the efficiency gains of the sector and the appearance of new market factors are likely to bring forth the opportunities of liberalisation and actively foster a transformation towards a sustainable electricity sector. (author)

  1. European schemes for promoting renewables in liberalised markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Niels I.

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes possibilities and problems for penetration of supply systems based on renewable energy sources in liberalised markets. The analysis is based on recent development in EU with different models for support of installations based on renewable energy. These include feed-in models with guaranteed minimum tariffs, tender models for different bands of technologies, and green certificates trading models with obligatory consumer quota. The paper describes the market situation in selected European countries, including Germany, the UK, Holland and Denmark. An EU directive from September 2001 has postponed the decision on a possible harmonisation of promotional models until at least 2005 in order to obtain more practical experience with the different support schemes. A critical evaluation is given in this paper of the different models with proposals for a balanced development between environmental and trading concerns. It is argued that too much emphasis is presently given to the side of free trade at the expense of long range planning for a sustainable energy development

  2. Switzerland - its position within a liberalised European power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiener, E.

    2005-01-01

    This article takes a look at the situation in Switzerland shortly before parliamentary discussions on the liberalisation of Switzerland's electricity market. In particular the interconnection of Switzerland's electricity supply system with that of the rest of Europe is discussed. The power black-out that occurred in Italy in September 2003 is looked at. In particular, its relevance to power supply infrastructures is discussed and the fast-changing international configurations that are resulting from the liberalisation of electricity markets are looked at. Questions of international power transfer capacities and their allocation are looked at in detail in the light of the occurrences in 2003. The lessons that must be learned from the blackout are discussed and Switzerland's geographical position as an important hub of the European power transfer system are considered

  3. First edition of the four-annual Energy Report. Speeding up of liberalisation and wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Gelder, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    In 1995 the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs (EZ) published the so-called Third Energy paper in which the liberalisation of the energy markets and the stimulation of wind energy were the main topics. To evaluate this policy EZ plans to issue an 'Energy Report' every four years. The first edition of this Energy Report was published in November 1999. In the report developments that took place since the publication of the Third Energy paper, and the amendments necessary to realise intended policy, are evaluated. Examples of amendments are the speeding up of the liberalisation of the markets for gas, electricity and sustainable energy. Government interference in appointing locations for windmill parks is also discussed. And finally attention is paid to the position of the Dutch state within the natural gas trading company Gasunie

  4. Review of the timetable for gas and electricity market liberalisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The findings of the review undertaken by PA Consulting Group on behalf of the Ministry of Economic Affairs into the feasibility of accelerating electricity and gas market liberalisation in the Netherlands are set out. The main purpose of the review was to assess the technical and organisational requirements for the two markets and to consider the time required to deliver them. The chosen market models for electricity and gas liberalisation, as set out in the Electricity Act and the draft Gas Act, were to be taken as given. A review of the market models chosen and consideration of how the markets should be delivered were excluded from the study. The results of this review have been used by the Ministry of Economic Affairs as input into the decision making process regarding the revised opening dates for the electricity and gas markets for both medium size and small customers. The report includes: A description of the market models for electricity and gas; The technical and organisational requirements and progress to date; The time required to deliver each of the two markets; and The benefits and disadvantages of synchronising gas and electricity market openings and recommended timescales

  5. Liberalising the European natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, M.

    2002-01-01

    Europe's natural gas market is changing radically. The several national markets dominated by monopolistic suppliers are integrating into one European market in which production and trade are subject to competition, while transport through the networks will be unbundled and placed under regulatory influence. What will be the consequences of these changes on natural gas prices, supply security and the environment?

  6. The Liberalisation of the Electricity Market in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessenibus, A.; Viskovic, A.; Carollo, T.

    2001-01-01

    The electricity sector is under reform in all EU countries on both of the aspects of market organisation and Utilities' restructuring, the latter being a consequence of the former. Until very recently, most governments have considered the whole power sector to be a natural monopoly and therefore it should be closely regulated. Market liberalisation shifts decision-making from the State to the market and, for the first time in the history of electricity Utility, gives consumer a choice. The new framework is featured by the introduction of competition in electricity generation and end-users' supply, non-discriminatory access to the electricity network and a redefinition of the regulatory function of governments. This study briefly resumes the market reforms and the new market organisation in Italy. Italy has implemented the EU directive on internal electricity market since 1999. So far, the process of market liberalisation has not come to an end yet. Currently ENEL, the former vertically integrated monopolist, is dismissing 25 percent of its power generation capacity, by selling in the market three power generation companies (GENCOs). An independent Transmission System Operator is fully operative since July 1999 and a transparent and non-discriminatory access to the network is guaranteed to all of the electricity power generation companies. The Market Pool Operator is defining the code of the Market Pool that will be applied to the price settlement into the Pool. The opening of the market on the demand side is growing year by year, according to the enlargement of the consumers who are allowed to sign freely contracts of supply with distributors (eligible consumers). Three months after the selling of the third Genco, the eligibility threshold will be lowered at 0.1 GWh. At that time, the open market is expected to represent 70 percent of the overall electricity consumption in Italy. Available evidence on liberalisation process in United Kingdom and in Scandinavian

  7. Liberalisation of the German electricity sector and the role of energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, J.; Betz, R.; Gagelmann, F.; Jochem, E.; Koewener, D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper gives an account of the impacts of the liberalisation of the German electricity market and describes the existing energy policy and recent responses to the liberalisation with respect to the electricity sector. In the first section, electricity supply, electricity consumption and the structure of the electricity market are described. In the second section, the legal framework for the liberalisation of the electricity market in Germany and the consequences for prices, market structure, legal form of utilities, investment, cogeneration and products offered are presented. The final section first provides an overview of the national and international climate policy targets as well as the agreed upon phase-out of nuclear energy. Finally, existing electricity policy instruments and policy responses to the liberalised electricity market are reported. These policy instruments include support for hard coal and lignite, the new ecological-tax reform, the promotion of renewable energy sources, support for cogeneration, voluntary agreements, and the flexible mechanisms for greenhouse gas emission reductions as introduced in the Kyoto protocol. (orig./CB)

  8. Main drivers of natural gas prices in the Czech Republic after the market liberalisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slabá, Monika; Gapko, Petr; Klimešová, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    One of the goals of the European Commission in the energy sector is creating a single competitive European market. The decision to liberalise energy markets has far-reaching consequences not only for gas companies, but also for the rest of the real economy in view of the fact that natural gas is being used as an important primary energy source in several sectors of production and in the power industry. We aim to answer how liberalisation/unbundling has influenced gas pricing/prices in the Czech Republic. We investigate the individual components of end-customer gas prices according to the value chain and we define and structure the drivers of these components. We use a case study from the Czech Republic, one of the Central and Eastern European countries, which, contrary to the old Member States, is buying most of its gas from one supplier (high import dependence and low supply diversity) and where the transmission and distribution network is characterised by a sufficient contractual and physical capacity. We stress that next to basic conditions on the European gas market (import dependency on external gas producers) legal and institutional conditions and the initial market structure of each Member State are also important for the results of the liberalisation. - Highlights: ► We deal with gas pricing in the Czech Republic after liberalisation/unbundling. ► The TSO, DSO price components have increased, the SSO price component has decreased. ► Commodity price for Households started to relate to hub prices. ► Commodity price for Corporates remained oil-linked, however discounts were provided. ► Only some Corporates experienced savings in total purchasing costs of gas.

  9. Norwegian electricity market liberalisation: questions of cost calculation and price definition by grid operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, J.; Vaterlaus, S.

    2002-01-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study carried out on the Norwegian electricity market 10 years after its liberalisation. The similarity of the Norwegian market to the Swiss electricity market is discussed. Similarly to the proposed situation in Switzerland, the liberalisation in Norway foresaw no privatisation of public utilities and a model for the regulation of grid access was introduced. The report describes and comments on the various phases in which the liberalisation occurred and examines the various instruments used, e.g. to ensure that individual grid operators did not make undue profits from their monopoly. The methods used for the monitoring of grid operators' costs are described and the mechanisms involved in the definition of prices for grid services are examined, including measures taken when profits were too high or too low. The report is concluded with a discussion of the conclusions that can be drawn from the Norwegian model for Swiss market opening efforts

  10. Energy liberalisation in Europe. A position paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper has been written for the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs to answer the following questions: (1) How will prices react? Will there be much price differentiation?; (2) Will competition lead to more energy efficiency, and will the gains be passed on to consumers? If so, will all groups get their fare share?; (3) What types of contracts will emerge?; (4) Will new suppliers enter the market, and will they be (vertically or horizontally) integrated? (5) Can we expect the rise of a European electricity spot market? (6) Will electricity and gas markets develop in similar ways?; (7) Will there be competition between gas and electricity?; (8) What will happen to the amount of research and development?; (9) What will competition do to energy efficiency schemes and renewable energy? Will it slow their development, or provide new opportunities? What policies can be adopted to promote them? 11 refs

  11. The liberalisation of the continental European electricity market : lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, R.; Auer, H.; Keseric, N.; Glachant, J.M.; Perez, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Before 1990, nearly all electricity supply companies in continental Europe (CE) were vertically integrated in a franchise market, either state-owned or under price-regulated mixed private-public ownership. In 1996, the European Commission (EC) issued a directive for a common electricity market, which launched the liberalisation of the electricity market in continental Europe (CE). The ultimate objective was to lower electricity prices throughout Europe by promoting competition in generation and supply through price deregulation and privatization. The intention of the EC was to create one common European electricity market. This paper analyzed the evolution of this market along with conditions needed to enhance competition in the long term. It also presented background information with major data on electricity supply and demand in the CE markets and outlined EC and national governments' market liberalisation initiatives and the major changes that countries have made. Currently, there are at least 7 distinct sub-markets separated by partly insufficient transmission capacity and differences in access conditions to the grid. In 2004, the total demand in the CE area was 2300 TWh. This paper also summarized generation capacity and load in CE; imports and exports between CE countries; past and current transmission issues; political issues for restructuring; providing non-discriminatory access to the market and to the grid; the new institutional and regulatory environment and the promotion of renewables. The performance of the market was also reviewed with particular reference to market access, mergers, acquisitions, market concentration, and the evolution of both wholesale and retail electricity prices. It was concluded that in order to bring about effective competition in the long run, the following conditions would be required: complete ownership separation of the transmission grid from generation and supply in all countries and sub-markets; adequate capacity margin in

  12. The liberalisation of the continental European electricity market : lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, R.; Auer, H.; Keseric, N. [Vienna Univ. of Technology, Vienna (Austria). Energy Economics Group; Glachant, J.M.; Perez, Y. [Paris-Sud Univ., Paris (France). ADIS-Group Reseaux Jean-Monnet

    2006-10-01

    Before 1990, nearly all electricity supply companies in continental Europe (CE) were vertically integrated in a franchise market, either state-owned or under price-regulated mixed private-public ownership. In 1996, the European Commission (EC) issued a directive for a common electricity market, which launched the liberalisation of the electricity market in continental Europe (CE). The ultimate objective was to lower electricity prices throughout Europe by promoting competition in generation and supply through price deregulation and privatization. The intention of the EC was to create one common European electricity market. This paper analyzed the evolution of this market along with conditions needed to enhance competition in the long term. It also presented background information with major data on electricity supply and demand in the CE markets and outlined EC and national governments' market liberalisation initiatives and the major changes that countries have made. Currently, there are at least 7 distinct sub-markets separated by partly insufficient transmission capacity and differences in access conditions to the grid. In 2004, the total demand in the CE area was 2300 TWh. This paper also summarized generation capacity and load in CE; imports and exports between CE countries; past and current transmission issues; political issues for restructuring; providing non-discriminatory access to the market and to the grid; the new institutional and regulatory environment and the promotion of renewables. The performance of the market was also reviewed with particular reference to market access, mergers, acquisitions, market concentration, and the evolution of both wholesale and retail electricity prices. It was concluded that in order to bring about effective competition in the long run, the following conditions would be required: complete ownership separation of the transmission grid from generation and supply in all countries and sub-markets; adequate capacity

  13. Regulation of distribution grid prices at the beginning of market liberalisation - Experience in Norway and Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippini, M.; Wind, J.; Luchsinger, C.

    2001-01-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews the experience gained in the deregulation of electricity distribution grids in Norway and Sweden and compares it with the possible options for Switzerland. The report looks at the requirements placed on the future Swiss regulation of electricity distribution grids and the various regulation models such as Rate-of-Return, Price-Cap, Revenue-Cap and Benchmarking that could be used in the short and long term. The choice of Sweden and Norway from the list of countries with liberalised electricity markets is discussed. The results of the study of the two countries are discussed individually, including the structure of the sector, the various stages of deregulation, the main characteristics encountered at the start of deregulation, regulation of grid prices at the beginning of liberalisation and experience gained in each case. The report is supplemented by a comprehensive list of the sources used

  14. Imports as a major complication: liberalisation of the green electricity market in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reijnders, L.

    2002-01-01

    Liberalisation of the green electricity market in the Netherlands has proceeded in a context of relatively generous fiscal incentives and in line with the position that demand is the limiting factor to Dutch green electricity production. The main result was a massive rise of imports partly covered by Renewable Energy Credits and partly virtual in nature, whereas the domestic expansion of green electricity production remained limited. This shows the importance of a supply side focus in designing policies aimed at the expansion of domestic green electricity production in the context of a common market with different incentives in place. (Author)

  15. Shaping sustainable energy technologies and use - a system, policy or market responsibility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2002-01-01

    The article present the problem of delegating energy technology innovation to new market condition after liberalisation.......The article present the problem of delegating energy technology innovation to new market condition after liberalisation....

  16. Misreading liberalisation and privatisation: The case of the US energy utilities in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haar, Laura N.; Jones, Trefor

    2008-01-01

    In response to energy market liberalisation and privatisation initiatives promoted by the EU and other European states in the 1990s, a large number of US energy utilities expanded their activities in Europe, mainly through acquisitions. The size of their investment was, a decade later, matched by the ensuing scale of their retreat, wealth destruction and often forced exit. Combining interviews, industry studies, published financial data and company reports, this article examines critically their strategy and, in light of widespread failures, seeks to answer the question of what went wrong. It is argued that mistakes might have been avoided through greater appreciation of how market liberalisation evolves given changing government priorities and general sovereign risk. (author)

  17. Misreading liberalisation and privatisation: The case of the US energy utilities in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haar, Laura N.; Jones, Trefor [Manchester Business School, University of Manchester, Booth Street West, Manchester M15 6PB (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-15

    In response to energy market liberalisation and privatisation initiatives promoted by the EU and other European states in the 1990s, a large number of US energy utilities expanded their activities in Europe, mainly through acquisitions. The size of their investment was, a decade later, matched by the ensuing scale of their retreat, wealth destruction and often forced exit. Combining interviews, industry studies, published financial data and company reports, this article examines critically their strategy and, in light of widespread failures, seeks to answer the question of what went wrong. It is argued that mistakes might have been avoided through greater appreciation of how market liberalisation evolves given changing government priorities and general sovereign risk. (author)

  18. The consequences of liberalisation of the gas market. Part 6. Suppliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Gelder, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    Deregulation in the energy sector has forced companies to scale up. Natural gas suppliers and installers are confronted with more pressure to cut prices and bigger turnover fluctuations. Companies doing business with gas companies try to escape the consequences of deregulation by developing new products and improving their services. In the sixth and last article in the series on the effects of the liberalisation of the Dutch gas market, suppliers express their concern about the changes triggered by the deregulated market. Challenges and opportunities of deregulation are discussed as well. The bigger companies in the installation sector will be looking for opportunities to render energy services independently or in co-operation with (foreign) partners. For smaller installers, however, co-operation seems to be an interesting option, either with other installers or with energy companies

  19. Liberalisation of the EU gas market. Lessons learned from other markets and countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisgaard, T.

    2003-11-01

    In this report the EU's Gas Directive 2003/55/EC is evaluated to determine whether it lays an adequate regulatory foundation to create and enhance a future competitive gas market in Europe; at national level as well as across borders. The aim is to enable the gas market to become an integrated part of the European single market. Experiences are drawn upon from the electricity and telecom markets, and from the UK and the US, that have undergone similar liberalisation processes. A market in transition from a monopoly to a liberalised market should be subject to a certain kind of regulation that is not applicable to other markets. The regulation must be designed in a way that gives the market room for development. The evaluation in this report is based on four requirements deemed important by the OECD for a changing market like the gas market. The four requirements that should be considered when regulating the gas market are: 1. Third party access to infrastructure, 2. The degree of un-bundling, 3. The regulation of tariffs, and 4. The type of regulatory authority to oversee the gas market. The report concludes that the Gas Directive provides sufficient regulation for creating competition in the national gas markets, but that it is vital to provide legislation that will harmonise rules across Europe and create the appropriate incentives for future investments in the gas structure. (BA)

  20. Impacts of Market Liberalisation on the Power Sector: Lessons Learned in Austria and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madlener, R.; Jochem, E.

    2001-01-01

    The specific impacts of market liberalisation on the power supply industry depend on numerous factors and boundary conditions. A comparison of these impacts in Austria and Germany, two countries which both are part of the EU single market and centrally located within Western Europe, and which both have borders and important trade relationships with Central European countries, leads to important insights. The paper also covers the expected influence of the increase in the power trade volumes in the two countries, also with their Central European neighbours, and the concerns that this may lead to conflicts in the achievement of targets in energy policy, environmental policy, and climate change policy aimed for both at the national and European level.(author)

  1. DISPOWER. The Changing Role of Energy Suppliers and Distribution System Operators in the Deployment of Distributed Generation in Liberalised Electricity Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Werven, M.J.N.; Scheepers, M.J.J.

    2005-06-01

    The penetration of distributed generation (DG) is increasing in most electricity markets and it is expected that this development will continue in the near future. The main research question to be answered in this report is how distribution system operators (DSOs) and energy suppliers can adapt to the growth and concurrently can contribute to the competition strength of DG in a regulated and competitive electricity market. DSOs and energy suppliers have to change their business focus in order to keep their business lucrative. By developing new business activities, thereby diversifying the business model, and by changing networks into active networks, DSOs can overcome the threats that arise from the increasing penetration of DG, incentive regulation, regulated connection charges, and unbundling. Apart from the need for a changing attitude of the DSOs, regulation needs to evolve such that it allows DSOs to have access to a wider range of options and incentives available in choosing the most efficient ways to run their businesses. For energy suppliers, the development of new business strategies and new revenue drivers is a more 'natural' process than for DSOs. At least in theory, the dynamic working of this competitive market should give incentives to energy suppliers to improve margins, respond to market challenges, continuously develop new revenue drivers, and to display a certain degree of innovation. The increase of electricity supply from DG is an opportunity for energy suppliers to extend and improve its business. A new business concept related to the growing penetration of DG is, for example, the creation of virtual power plants

  2. Who Gains, who loses? : the impact of market liberalisation on rural households in Northwestern Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mose, L.O.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords:Market liberalisation, rural households, traders,Kenya, market integration, cointegration analysis, difference-in-difference approach, farmer response.Most countries

  3. The impact of liberalisation of the electricity market on the hard coal mining sector in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, Jacek [Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute of Polish Academy of Sciences, Energy and Environmental Policy Division, Wybickiego 7, 31-261 Krakow (Poland)

    2009-03-15

    The liberalisation of the electricity market changed the conditions of operation not only for the power industry, but also for related sectors. One of the particularly sensitive industries in Poland is coal mining, which is the result of coal-based structure of electricity generation. As it is more difficult, in the liberalised market, to burden consumers with all the costs, electricity producers are eager to transfer the risk of operation to the suppliers. That increases uncertainty about the future of the hard coal industry. The aim of this paper was to quantitatively estimate the impact that liberalisation of the electricity markets may have on the coal mining sector in Poland. First of all, the possible areas of that impact were identified. Then the model, which involved detailed relations in the impact areas identified, was developed and employed to evaluate the performance of the mining sector. The comparison of scenarios of a monopolistic electricity sector with a liberalised one enabled an estimation of the scale of the impact on the mining sector to be made. The results showed that liberalisation causes decreased coal consumption and decreased operating profits in coal companies. However, some savings in electricity costs are possible for coal producers. (author)

  4. The impact of liberalisation of the electricity market on the hard coal mining sector in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacek Kaminski [Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute of Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow (Poland). Energy and Environmental Policy Division

    2009-03-15

    The liberalisation of the electricity market changed the conditions of operation not only for the power industry but also for related sectors. One of the particularly sensitive industries in Poland is coal mining, which is the result of coal-based structure of electricity generation. As it is more difficult, in the liberalised market, to burden consumers with all the costs, electricity producers are eager to transfer the risk of operation to the suppliers. That increases uncertainty about the future of the hard coal industry. The aim of this paper was to quantitatively estimate the impact that liberalisation of the electricity markets may have on the coal mining sector in Poland. First of all, the possible areas of that impact were identified. Then the model, which involved detailed relations in the impact areas identified, was developed and employed to evaluate the performance of the mining sector. The comparison of scenarios of a monopolistic electricity sector with a liberalised one enabled an estimation of the scale of the impact on the mining sector to be made. The results showed that liberalisation causes decreased coal consumption and decreased operating profits in coal companies. However, some savings in electricity costs are possible for coal producers. 42 refs., 20 figs., 9 tabs., 1 app.

  5. The impact of liberalisation of the electricity market on the hard coal mining sector in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminski, Jacek

    2009-01-01

    The liberalisation of the electricity market changed the conditions of operation not only for the power industry, but also for related sectors. One of the particularly sensitive industries in Poland is coal mining, which is the result of coal-based structure of electricity generation. As it is more difficult, in the liberalised market, to burden consumers with all the costs, electricity producers are eager to transfer the risk of operation to the suppliers. That increases uncertainty about the future of the hard coal industry. The aim of this paper was to quantitatively estimate the impact that liberalisation of the electricity markets may have on the coal mining sector in Poland. First of all, the possible areas of that impact were identified. Then the model, which involved detailed relations in the impact areas identified, was developed and employed to evaluate the performance of the mining sector. The comparison of scenarios of a monopolistic electricity sector with a liberalised one enabled an estimation of the scale of the impact on the mining sector to be made. The results showed that liberalisation causes decreased coal consumption and decreased operating profits in coal companies. However, some savings in electricity costs are possible for coal producers. (author)

  6. Market development in CEE between regulation and liberalisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parthier, S.

    2002-01-01

    European energy markets are undergoing profound changes. These are characterised by privatisation, deregulation and intensified competition. The energy supply companies are tackling the task of adapting to a changing business environment which is calling for new strategies. This evolution affects also the energy markets of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). The paper highlights the impact of this situation for the gas markets of CEE countries. It discusses three major aspects: the introduction of market prices as requirement for successful market development, strategies for gas companies to master the upcoming challenges and finally main factors influencing the development of the gas markets. Currently, different issues are coming up in CEE countries which will play a major role in the development of the gas industries of these countries. While preparing for entering the EU, CEE energy markets have to develop an appropriate regulatory framework for the time before and after the accession to the EU. This concerns especially the introduction of market prices. In order to tackle successfully the upcoming competition gas companies have to increase efficiency, particularly by increasing sales activities. Economically efficient capital investments are necessary to develop existing market potential. With the further increase of gas demand and cross-border gas trading, more gas will come from the western direction. This development will create good opportunities for successful cooperation between central and western European gas companies. Appropriate strategic investors can support market development while bringing in needed capital for the development of the infrastructure, know-how and expertise in sales and marketing activities and finally experience in facing inter fuel and gas to gas competition. (author)

  7. How to teach an old dog new tricks: liberalisation of the electricity market in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechner, H.

    2000-01-01

    This paper will present the core elements of the existing legal framework for the Austrian electricity sector embodied in the Electricity Act of August 1998, and will also focus on the amendments approved in July 2000 which will result in a 100% market opening by October 2001. It will also highlight some major experiences during the first 2 years of liberalisation in Austria. (author)

  8. In the wake of liberalisation: long-term developments in the EU air transport market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouwt, G.; de Wit, J.G.

    2015-01-01

    Using a 24-year analysis period (1990-2013), a new perspective is offered on long-term first- and second-order developments following liberalisation of the intra-EU air transport market. The focus of the analysis is on supply-side issues, such as airline output, structure of supply, yields, business

  9. Liberalisation versus national protectionism: the European liberalised postal market: finalisation by whom?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh, L.

    2010-01-01

    The new European Postal Directive of 2008 provides the postal market with new opportunities as it allows for the gradual development of competition of services of general interests in Europe. However, the directive leaves room for uncertainties and the full opening of the postal market is hampered

  10. Creating demand for foreign brands in a 'home run' market: tobacco company tactics in South Korea following market liberalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungkyu; Lee, Kelley; Holden, Chris

    2014-05-01

    To analyse the tactics transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) used to increase market share in South Korea after market liberalisation in 1988, and the subsequent impact of TTCs' activities on the domestic industry and ultimately public health. Internal tobacco industry documents were searched iteratively and analysed by keyword related to strategies for increasing market share in Korea since liberalisation. Following market liberalisation, TTCs faced entrenched cultural and institutional barriers in Korea which hindered increased sales of cigarette imports. TTCs identified population groups more favourably inclined towards imported brands, developed new distribution channels and used promotional activities targeting these groups. The growth in market share by TTCs suggests that these activities were successful at challenging the Korea Tobacco & Ginseng Corporation (KTGC) monopoly. In response, KTGC shifted to a proactive marketing approach and adopted strategies similar to TTCs. This, in turn, made the Korean market highly competitive. Findings show that, after market liberalisation, there was an upward trend in cigarette consumption and smoking prevalence among the targeted population groups, notably youth and young women. Governments engaging in trade negotiations that may lead to the opening of domestic tobacco markets need a fuller understanding of previous industry activities for expanding into emerging markets as well as how the domestic industry can change accordingly. To protect public health, the adoption of comprehensive tobacco control measures, guided by WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, are needed as part of such negotiations.

  11. Wind power in the Danish liberalised power market-Policy measures, price impact and investor incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munksgaard, Jesper; Morthorst, Poul Erik

    2008-01-01

    Wind power has a strong position at the Danish electricity market, mainly caused by high feed-in tariffs in the 1990s. Investments in new wind-power installations on land, however, have declined dramatically after the Danish electricity market was liberalised in 1999. First, the paper describes how policy measures directed towards wind power have been redesigned to match the liberalised market. Then, we estimate the impact of the redesigned tariffs on the electricity prices. Finally, we assess whether the new tariffs make an incentive to invest in wind power. The paper concludes that the new tariffs not by itself make evidence for the actual Danish recession in new wind-power installations after the electricity reform. The main causes could include a combination of problems in spatial planning, high risk aversion of new wind turbine investors and perhaps more favourable support schemes in other countries

  12. Liberalisation of the European Electricity Industry: Internal Market or National Champions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domanico, F.

    2007-07-01

    This article offers an analysis of the present competitive and regulatory framework of the European electricity sector. Considering the complexity of this industry, the focus in this work is mainly on the problem of market concentration of incumbents in the sector as a result of the liberalisation process. The new trend toward the creation of ''national champions'' as well as recent mergers between gas suppliers and electricity producers raised serious concerns about abuses of market power and risks of future collusion. Taking account of investment in interconnection as well as other international and regional experiences, the internal market issue is investigated as the solution to the''risks'' from liberalisation. (auth)

  13. The impact of liberalisation on every day's activity of the electricity market participants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beran, H.

    2004-01-01

    This contribution is dedicated to the consequences of the liberalisation of the electricity market. Special attention is paid to activities of electricity suppliers and eligible customers connected with work with load profiles. The first part is dedicated to electricity suppliers and traders. It identifies the main changes brought by the liberalisation process and the activities of the suppliers connected with work with load profiles. Special software tools are mentioned, such as tools for balancing, prediction, optimisation of costs, pricing, and communication tools. The second part of this contribution is dedicated to eligible customers. It describes the main changes for eligible customers and the challenges of the open market. Special software tools for eligible customers are introduced, such as tools for balancing, load profile creation, price calculation and communication. At the end of this contribution, selected consequences of inadequate preparation for the electricity market are mentioned as well as the ways to minimize the negative effects. (author)

  14. Liberalization of energy markets: local policies of public-private contractual relations; Liberalisation des marches energetiques: les politiques locales de relations contractuelles public-prive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahn, M; Schilken, P

    2001-07-01

    This state-of-the-art focusses on the contractual relations between the local authorities and the private sector in the domain of energy. In the past, specialized services were supplied and internally managed by utilities and monopolies, while today the same services are ensured by private companies selected according to their efficiency and competitiveness. In France, country of centralized tradition, such practices are not really developed while they are already in UK and Germany. This study gives an overview of the advantages of these practices using some examples taken in four domains: the helps to the choice of an electricity supplier and of the quality of power, the contracts of concessions of power distribution, the supply of energy advice services by external experts, and the helps for the investment in the domain of mastery of energy demand. Nine case-forms illustrate the experience of nine European countries in these public-private energy partnerships: Basel (CH), Berlin, Hagen and Heidelberg (DE), Brent, Leicester and Waltham Forest (GB), Graz (AT) and Jablonec (CZ). (J.S.)

  15. Evaluation of the impact of the liberalisation of the European electricity market on the CHP, District heating and cooling sector; 'Save CHP/DHC'. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-08-01

    Improved energy efficiency will play a key role in meeting the EU Kyoto target economically. In addition to a significant positive environmental impact, improved energy efficiency will lead to a more sustainable energy policy and enhanced security of supply. The study: 1) Identifies and evaluates parameters and conditions which in relation to the liberalisation of the electricity market will have an impact on the CHP/DHC sector in EU15 and Poland. 2) Establishes an information base on CHP/DHC systems in EU15 and Poland. 3) Analyses the CHP/DHC sector and its ability to meet changing market conditions. 4) Assesses the effect of the liberalised electricity market on electricity production in relation to CHP/district heating and cooling. 5) Identifies threats for the viability of CHP/DHC in a liberalised market and evaluates means and measures to overcome such threats. The study brings forward the goals and commitments in respect of European energy and environmental policy and gives an overview of the present and expected future framework in which CHP/DHC is to operate. The study evaluates the viability of the sector at an overall level and for different groups/categories of CHP/DHC systems in different countries. The effects of existing or proposed national public measures are analysed. The analyses are essential to decision makers in the transition process towards a fully liberalised market. Recognised uncertainties in the market during the transition period may cause either a temporary or a permanent recession for the CHP/DHC sector. Improved understanding and recognition of threats and opportunities is important to all actors just now. The study can be considered a first step of a process to create a market situation, where the energy customers can make their choices under competition rules and where environmentally friendly and efficient CHP and DHC is considered an attractive business opportunity in competition with other energy supplies. (EHS)

  16. Tehcnology Choices for New Entrants in Liberalised Markets: The Value of Operating Flexibility and Contractual Arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Roques, Fabien A.

    2007-01-01

    New entrants in liberalised electricity markets which are not vertically integrated and do not operate a large and diversified portfolio of generation technologies are likely to favour technologies which offer the best prospects to manage fuel and electricity price risks through contractual arrangements and operating flexibility. Monte Carlo simulations of a discounted cash flow model of investment in combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT), coal and nuclear power plant are run to compare the impac...

  17. The role of Swissgrid in a liberalised power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walser, M.

    2007-01-01

    This article takes a look at the role that the Swiss electricity grid operator Swissgrid plays in the open, competition-oriented electricity market in Switzerland. Background information on the founding of this grid operator is presented and the increasingly important role played by international power transfer is discussed. The importance of Switzerland's central position in the European power grid is looked at as well as the balance-groups in Switzerland itself. Swiss and European regulations and stipulations in the electricity area are examined. The article also deals with topics such as security of supply and electricity generation using renewable forms of energy. Production certification and its role in the export, for example of hydro-power, are also commented on

  18. European Gas Market Liberalisation. Competition versus security of supply?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, N.

    2009-01-01

    The problem statement encompasses two basic questions: (1) Which variables determine regulatory regimes and economic performance in European gas markets?; and (2) Can we empirically determine the effect of regulation-for-competition, as applied in the European Union, on the economic performance in the European gas markets? In the first part (chapters 1-5), the theoretical groundwork is laid out and conceptual clarifications are provided. In chapter 2, the main concepts such as governance and regulation, and their interrelations, are determined and the public regulation approach to be followed is outlined. The third chapter discusses our theoretical framework and the support required from other New Institutional approaches to deduce expectations regarding the convergence of regulatory regimes and its effect on economic performance. The fourth chapter contributes to answering our first research question by displaying the relevant variables and outlining how these can be operationalised. Based on the concepts of regulatory comprehensiveness and policy convergence, in chapter 5, a methodology is developed to measure best-practice in terms of regulation-for-competition. The second part (chapters 6-9) covers the first empirical analysis which is quantitative in design and emphasises effects originating at the Community level. Chapter 6 summarises the evolution of European gas policy at the Community level and searches for major changes in general or energy policy objectives and examines their prioritisation. Chapter 7 addresses the formal institutions on the second layer of the fourlayer model. Chapter 8 analyses converging and diverging trends within regulatory regimes in European gas markets. Chapter 9 sets out to assess the extent to which regulation-for-competition, as prescribed by the European provisions, can be empirically studied for its effect on economic performance in the European gas sector. To answer our second main research question, we discuss the effects

  19. Algeria embraces globalisation and liberalisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Saint Jacob, Y.

    2008-07-15

    Algeria's culture of state monopoly and single party rule has been set aside as the country appears to have resolutely chosen globalisation and liberalisation of its markets. The 2-page article is followed by an interview with the Algerian Minister of Energy and President of OPEC for 2008, explaining the energy policy of Algeria.

  20. Algeria embraces globalisation and liberalisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Saint Jacob, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Algeria's culture of state monopoly and single party rule has been set aside as the country appears to have resolutely chosen globalisation and liberalisation of its markets. The 2-page article is followed by an interview with the Algerian Minister of Energy and President of OPEC for 2008, explaining the energy policy of Algeria

  1. The challenges of the electricity trade in liberalised markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanzek, S.

    2001-01-01

    As a consequence of the electricity market liberalization a new market emerged allowing electricity to be traded as a commodity. The structure of the electricity companies has to be adopted in the new market model and the regulatory framework has to ensure a level playing field for the participants in the market. Trading has taken on considerable strategic significance for all market participants. The price of electricity is becoming more and more volatile. In this paper the targets, forms and lessons E. ON's electricity trade are discussed. In addition, the impacts of successful trading and obtained experiences are analysed. At the end an outlook for electricity trade in East and South-East Europe is given. (author)

  2. The Nordic power exchange Nord pool and the Nordic model for a liberalised power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houmoller, A. P.

    2000-01-01

    As the first countries in the world, the Nordic countries Norway, Sweden, Finland and denmark have established a common, multinational power exchange. By means of this common power exchange, these countries also have established a common power market. this is also the first - and for the time being - the only place in the world, where you can find a multinational, truly competitive power market. This Nordic model has attracted much interest from other countries in Europe, Asia, North America and South America. The presentation will explain, how the common power exchange makes it possible for the four countries and the five system operators in Scandinavia physically and financially to operate a common, multinational, competitive power market. The presentation will explain how this systems works in the Nordic countries by discussion the following items: - The non-commercial players: The Transmission System Operators and the local grid operators; - The market players: the producers, the retailers, the traders, the brokers and the end users; - The access to the grid: The point tariff system; - The fairness towards the market players and the security of supply: The balancing power and the regulating power; - The power exchange handles bottlenecks in the grid. The presentation will explain how this is done and will demonstrate how this gives the power market a bottleneck handing method which:- Is neutral and fair towards all the market players, - Ensures that all the capacity of any bottleneck is utilised during every hour of operation, - Is extremely easy to use for the Transmission System Operators - also if the bottleneck is cross-border bottleneck; - The Nord Pool spot market Elspot; - The Nord Pool futures market Eltermin; - Area prices; - How financial contracts replace physical contracts when the power market is liberalised; - The day-to-day market and the market for long-term contracts in a liberalised power market; - How to eliminate the c ounter party risk

  3. Long-term price and environmental effects in a liberalised electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lise, Wietze; Kruseman, Gideon

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of endogenous investment decisions in a liberalised electricity market on prices and the environment in the time horizon 2000-2050. Therefore, a computational, game-theoretic, recursive dynamic model is developed. Simulations with the model indicate that perfect competition leads to lower prices and benefits the environment in the form of lower acid and smog emissions. Continued exercise of market power leads to postponed investments and more diversity in the technology portfolio, while under perfect competition there is an earlier switch to gas-based technologies. (author)

  4. Proceedings of the Tenth forum: Croatian Energy Day: Energy sector liberalisation and privatisation in transition-economy and EU countries: experiences and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Political and economic changes in Europe provided an impetus for the creation of an open energy market with an increasing number of participants, while the new energy sale and purchase system enabled everybody engaged (from producers to operators and consumers) to take over an active part. In the launching of these processes some documents played a decisive role: European Energy Treaty, European Union's Directives on Electricity and Gas Market Liberalisation of the Member Countries. Energy sector liberalisation was in most of the countries carried out in two steps, i.e. first the restructuring took place and than privatisation followed. Restructuring covers the change of organisation and economic relations with the aim of increasing efficiency and cost reduction, and privatisation is the process that ought to enable the creation of a market and competition. Market and competition creation is carried out by means of structural changes, i.e. by business and ownership unbundling (energy generation, transport/transmission and distribution). Energy market strengthening depends on energy efficiency, programmes, utilisation of renewable energy sources, co-generation share in the production of electric and thermal energy, etc. All of these activities are followed by adequate legislative framework as well as by defining a regulatory body to supervise the behaviour of the participants. The primary energy sector's reform concept in the Republic of Croatia was a clear political goal that Croatia become a member of the European Union and that the energy market be congruent to the EU market

  5. Energy technology in the area of tension between climate policy and liberalisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hilten, O.; Battjes, J.J.; Kaal, M.B.T.; Lako, P.; Nahuis, R.; De Raad, A.; Dijkstra, J.W.; Hemmes, K.

    2000-05-01

    The central question in this report is: how do climate change policies on the one hand and the liberalisation of energy markets on the other hand influence the role of new energy technology? To address this question, technological, economical and societal aspects have been studied. With regard to technological aspects a list is made of technologies which could become important when a 50% reduction of annual Dutch CO 2 emission must be realized in the year 2050. For each of these technologies, future energy efficiencies are estimated. Using these figures, three 'blue prints' of the energy supply system in 2050 are described. In two of these blueprints the energy infrastructure changes drastically, in that electricity or hydrogen becomes the dominant final energy carrier in all end-use sectors. In the third blueprint the current final energy carriers (methane, electricity and gasoline/diesel) maintain their dominant position. With regard to economical aspects, 14 interviews were held with representatives of a wide range of companies in the energy sector, focusing on the role of technology in the company strategy. With regard to societal aspects, a number of important energy technologies are analysed in terms of how much societal support or resistance can be expected when these technologies are implemented on a large scale. Also representatives of two environmental organisations and a consumer organisation were interviewed. 75 refs

  6. The European electricity market. What are the effects of market power on prices and the environment? Keywords: Electricity market; liberalisation; market power; game theory; environmental impacts; Northwestern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lise, W.

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents a static computational game theoretic COMPETES model. This model is used to study the economic and environmental effects of the liberalisation of the European electricity market. The COMPETES model takes strategic interaction into account. The model is calibrated to four European countries: Belgium, France, Germany and the Netherlands. To analyse the impact of emission trading, a fixed permit price per tonne CO2 emissions is introduced. The effects are studied under different market structures depending on the ability of firms to exercise market power. The results indicate that the effects of liberalisation depend on the resulting market structure, while a reduction in market power of large producers may be beneficial for the consumer (i.e. lower prices), this is not necessarily true for the environment (i.e. lower reduction in CO2 emissions)

  7. Independents in European Gas Markets after liberalisation - downstream integration of upstream oil and gas companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eikeland, Per Ove

    2005-01-01

    A central objective of gas market liberalisation in Europe in the 1990s was to increase competition by opening end-use markets for independent suppliers. Upstream oil and gas companies in Europe reacted to this opportunity by announcing strategies to integrate forward in European gas markets. By late 2004, however, upstream companies still recorded generally weak downstream strategy implementation in Europe. The article concludes that this general implementation gap should be explained by political failure in EU member states to abolish gas market barriers to entry for independents. Variation between companies in degree of implementation should be explained by variation in conditions in the companies' home markets / wider business spheres and internal company factors. (Author)

  8. Decentral strategies in liberalised markets; Dezentrale Strategien in liberalisierten Maerkten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhardt, W. [Futur 3 Saarbruecker Zentrum fuer integrierte Zukunftskonzepte, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The role of biomass in the field of future energy supply will be extremely important. We will only be able to achieve a complete change in the field of energy, if the field of classic solar energy - examples: photovoltaics, collectors, wind energy - can be extended with the field of stored solar energy, as it is available in each tree, in each plant. This experts' meeting with its numerous contributions to the subject biomass utilisation is only one proof that the problem has been noticed and that we are making very good progress on using these chances and on converting them into specific projects. However, the success does not depend too much on the technical realisation, even though innovative solutions are required, but more on the environmentally friendly production. (orig.) [German] Der Rolle der Biomasse kommt in der kuenftigen Energieversorgung eine ueberragende Bedeutung zu. Wir koennen die Energiewende nur schaffen, wenn zu der klassischen Solarenergie - Beispiele: Photovoltaik, Kollektoren, Windenergie - die gespeicherte Sonnenenergie kommt, wie sie uns in jedem Baum, in jeder Pflanze zur Verfuegung steht. Dass das Problem erkannt ist und wir auf dem besten Weg sind, die neuen Chancen zu nutzen und in konkrete Projekte umzumuenzen, belegt nicht zuletzt diese Fachtagung mit ihrer Vielzahl von Beitraegen zum Thema Biomasse-Nutzung. Entscheidend fuer den Erfolg ist dabei jedoch nicht so sehr die technische Umsetzung, wenngleich auch hier innovative Loesungen gefordert sind, als vielmehr die umweltvertraegliche Produktion. (orig.)

  9. Community liberalisation of the electric power market and public service obligations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristoforetti, Brice

    2008-06-01

    After an overview of original economic and social objectives at the basis of the creation of the European common market, the author examines whether the Community liberalisation of the European domestic electricity market has been an opportunity to acknowledge public service obligations in the European law, and more particularly examines the existence or relevance of the notion of electric power public service. This discussion addresses a period extending from the beginning of the 1960's to the Lisbon Treaty prepared in 2007. The author analyses rules of the European law, and the modalities and consequences of their adoption in the French law, as he considers that the evolution of French administrative legal evolution is the most relevant framework for this study on public service and electric power market. Thus, he first shows that the sector liberalisation, through the conflict between competition and defence of the general interest, actually allowed the existence of public service obligations for State members to be consecrated by the Community law. However, through the study of the electric power public service, the author shows that ambitions which had been initially put forward, are hardly compatible with some modalities of opening to competition

  10. The impact of the liberalisation of electricity markets on nuclear liabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selling, Henk A.

    2003-01-01

    Directive 96/92/EC, concerning common rules of the internal market in electricity, introduced competition in the construction of new electricity generating capacity by a tendering or an authorisation procedure. The Netherlands has implemented this EC Directive by a revision of the Electricity Act which entered into force on 1-8-1998. While the EC Directive originally scheduled to open the market in three steps with the aim to have a fully liberalised system in 2007, the actual developments have accelerated the implementation rate. The liberalisation of the electricity market had two, basically opposite effects: 1. The electricity sector, aware that in a competitive environment less cost-effective activities should be discontinued, decided that Dodewaard NPP, which was mainly intended for nuclear research, be taken out of operation. 2. EPZ, the company which operates Borsele NPP, filed a request to continue operation of the plant after 2003, the year in which the government has agreed to shut down this plant. 3. The argument in favour for continued operation of Borsele NPP is that it has low operating costs, an excellent operating record with a high load factor, it has undergone major upgrading to state of the art safety standards very recently, and it can generate electricity at competitive prices. Following the explorative talks on the involvement of the utilities with future obligations related to electricity generation with nuclear energy, steps have been undertaken to transfer ownership of COVRA to the State. Reasons underlying this intention included the liberalisation of the electricity market which became effective in the Netherlands as of 1-1-2001 and the government decision to phase out of nuclear energy by the envisaged closure of Borssele NPP per 1-1-2004. Although this last decision has been rescinded, the wish to withdraw from COVRA was maintained. After a lengthy negotiation process an agreement was reached between the utilities and the government on

  11. Norwegian electricity market liberalisation: questions of cost calculation and price definition by grid operators; Norwegische Elektrizitaetsmarktoeffnung: Kostenrechnungs- und Preisbildungsfragen der Netzgesellschaften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wild, J.; Vaterlaus, S.

    2002-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study carried out on the Norwegian electricity market 10 years after its liberalisation. The similarity of the Norwegian market to the Swiss electricity market is discussed. Similarly to the proposed situation in Switzerland, the liberalisation in Norway foresaw no privatisation of public utilities and a model for the regulation of grid access was introduced. The report describes and comments on the various phases in which the liberalisation occurred and examines the various instruments used, e.g. to ensure that individual grid operators did not make undue profits from their monopoly. The methods used for the monitoring of grid operators' costs are described and the mechanisms involved in the definition of prices for grid services are examined, including measures taken when profits were too high or too low. The report is concluded with a discussion of the conclusions that can be drawn from the Norwegian model for Swiss market opening efforts.

  12. Colbert's shadow: trade liberalisation and France's energy giants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    The slow pace of liberalisation in France's state-owned Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) companies are examined, and complaints from the British, Austrian, and Spanish power companies that France has failed to implement the EU directives while EdF has not been slow to expand overseas are considered. The climate of change in France illustrated by the hostile takeover battles, and suspicion of spot and futures trading as speculation rather than offsetting risks are noted. (UK)

  13. Liberalisation Reform, 'Neo-centralism', and Black Market: The Political Diseconomy of Lake Nasser Fishery Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Béné

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite its relatively modest importance, and the current difficulties faced by the government in implementing liberalisation in the rest of the country, the Egyptian governement decided to embark on a reform of the Lake Nasser fishery in the early 2000s. The objective of this article is to analyse the evolution of this reform from a political economy perspective. The paper looks retrospectively at the general context of the reform, describes the different institutional and economic changes that have resulted from its realisation, identifies how the distribution of power between the different actors has altered the course of its implementation, and finally assesses the outcomes of the reform. The analysis shows that, while some major institutional changes have taken place, those changes have had little to do with a 'liberalisation' as conventionally understood in neo-classical literature. Instead, the new status quo turns out to be one where the central government and its different parastatal agencies have managed to maintain their existing advantages. The failure to reform more thoroughly the system also led fishers and fish traders to engage in a large-scale black market activity in which a substantial amount of fish is smuggled through unofficial trade channels.

  14. Regulation of distribution grid prices at the beginning of market liberalisation - Experience in Norway and Sweden; Regulierung der Verteilnetzpreise zu Beginn der Marktoeffnung. Erfahrung in Norwegen und Schweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippini, M.; Wind, J.; Luchsinger, C.

    2001-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews the experience gained in the deregulation of electricity distribution grids in Norway and Sweden and compares it with the possible options for Switzerland. The report looks at the requirements placed on the future Swiss regulation of electricity distribution grids and the various regulation models such as Rate-of-Return, Price-Cap, Revenue-Cap and Benchmarking that could be used in the short and long term. The choice of Sweden and Norway from the list of countries with liberalised electricity markets is discussed. The results of the study of the two countries are discussed individually, including the structure of the sector, the various stages of deregulation, the main characteristics encountered at the start of deregulation, regulation of grid prices at the beginning of liberalisation and experience gained in each case. The report is supplemented by a comprehensive list of the sources used.

  15. Meels: municipalities and energy efficiency in a liberalized system. Guidelines for municipalities: adapting to new roles in a liberalized market; Meels: les municipalites et l'efficacite energetique dans un systeme liberalise. Recommandations detinees aux municipalites: comment peuvent-elles s'adapter a leurs nouveaux roles dans un marche liberalise?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Even if the liberalization of energy markets seems to make it more difficult, it also creates opportunities for the committed local authority. Local authorities fulfill their functions in the energy sphere via a number of roles: as a consumer of energy, as a producer of energy, as a distributor of energy, as a trader of energy, as a regulator, planner and policy maker regarding energy using activities, as an awareness tool of the issues relating to energy use and as a provider of incentives to improve energy performance. There are impacts of liberalization on each of these roles. In most, liberalization has not actually changed what they do, only the degree of attention that should be given to it. Only in those areas where trading is involved are new skills necessary, for instance in purchasing energy, in transporting one own energy and in trading energy. In this framework, the following topics are successively analyzed: Improving performance as an energy consumer, improving performance as an energy producer, improving performance as an energy trader, improving performance as an energy distributor, improving performance in delivering sustainable, energy policies at local level and improving performance as a facilitator and awareness programs. (A.L.B.)

  16. The complexity of electricity markets: the limits of the liberalisation of electric industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, Dominique

    2015-12-01

    As electric industries have been liberalised or privatised later than other public utilities, notably in developed countries, this article first recalls that this activity has been during a long time a monopoly hold by a public service, and precisely planned with tariffs regulated by public authorities. Then, the author explains how deregulation is performed for such an industry to allow competition to be introduced at all levels of the electric sector. He describes the operation mode of the wholesale market which is structured in an hourly market due to the non-storable characteristic of electricity, describes retail price formation by pilling up the wholesale price, regulated tariffs of transport and distribution, and a tax aimed at paying the cost of public policies. This price can be compared with the regulated tariff which previously encompassed everything without any dissociation. Finally, he highlights the main defects and drawbacks of this market which do not allow long term investments in base equipment, back up equipment and on low carbon equipment (renewable, nuclear, and others)

  17. A golden age or a false dawn? Energy efficiency in UK competitive energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyre, N.

    1998-01-01

    Liberalisation of energy markets may affect the prospects for energy efficiency in a variety of ways. Downward pressure on prices will reduce incentives for efficiency and the end of a supply monopoly makes more difficult mandating demand side management programmes. On the other hand, the removal of price controls could end some regulatory disincentives, and liberalisation enables suppliers to market energy efficiency bundled with energy units. The overall effects of liberalisation for energy efficiency are therefore complex. This paper focuses on the effects of liberalisation on those characteristics of energy markets which underpin long-term energy inefficiency. These barriers to energy efficiency have been shown to arise from fundamental features of traditional utility markets - notably centralisation, commoditization and the complexity of demand side investment. The extent to which these will be altered in liberalised markets in the UK is considered. It is concluded that some important market imperfections are not addressed by competition in the supply of energy commodities. However, more fundamental changes may in the longer term encourage more differentiation in supply markets, in which there could be higher priority for energy efficiency. The policy measures which might encourage the process are discussed. (author)

  18. Energy policy between sustainability and liberalisation. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, G.

    2001-01-01

    Everyone is talking of energy levies and taxes and it is quite obvious that these are now in fashion. Are they just new forms of income for the state or the first steps towards a modern and environment-friendly energy policy? Representatives of different political, business and scientific communities elaborate their arguments [de

  19. Competition on European energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lijesen, M.; Speck, S; Mulder, M.

    2003-01-01

    The launch of the Directives on Electricity and Gas in the late 1990s was the starting point for creating common and competitive energy markets in the European Union. The main goal of this process was to increase efficiency of allocation of resources and, hence,enhance consumer welfare. More specifically, increasing competition within the energy markets should lead to a reduction of energy prices and to a convergence of prices among EU member states. Within a year from now, end-users in the Netherlands will be free to choose their own supplier, thus finalising the deregulation of Dutch energy markets. What lessons may be learned from the experience thus far? What are the results of the liberalisation process up to now? How have prices developed,and can these developments be explained? How afraid should we be for the lights to go out in a competitive electricity market?

  20. Liberalisation and Privatisation of the Energy Sector in the Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepnalkovski, N.

    2001-01-01

    The paper comments the changes of the legislation in the energy field in the Republic of Macedonia in function of the liberalisation and harmonisation to the European regulations. Also in accordance to these changes in the legislation exist the actual interests for concrete energy projects, which could be constructed in the near future on the concession model, as a part of the new investment cycle in the future period in the energy field of our country. At the end of the paper the initial processes for the transformation of the energy sector in the Republic of Macedonia are stated and the activities for the privatisation of the public enterprise E lektrostopanstvo na Makedonija . (author)

  1. Operating requirements for power plants in the liberalised electricity market; Einsatzanforderungen an Kraftwerke im liberalisierten Strommarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarzbach, G. [Vereinigte Energiewerke AG, Berlin (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    The onset of liberalisation in the German electricity market now dates back one and a half years. All processes related to this event are still in a process of rapid change. These developments have already led to a substantial drop in electricity prices, especially for large customers, leaving suppliers with modest margins. Power supply companies such as VEAG, whose operations in East Germany include power transmission, electricity production from brown coal and wholesale trade, are taking measures to meet the new demands placed on them. Unbundling regulations and market processes are forcing companies to review their organisational and operational structures. Risk management, controlling and DP support for processes are indispensable. Profit centre structures and internal performance accounting systems are being used to distribute the market pressure evenly across the company's divisions. Companies' future success will be determined by their success in trading and selling. These developments will also have an impact on power plants, i.e. on the first stage of the supply chain. For one thing, the costs of power plant operation have to be reduced significantly. Reductions in staff costs will necessitate a review of technological processes. Furthermore, maintenance strategies and availability goals have to be reassessed. Another crucial factor is to be seen in power plants' operational flexibility, and this will also have an impact on fuel supply contracts. A particular concern of single-plant companies and small generation systems will be how to deal with strong fluctuations in demand and meet the hourly supply schedules agreed on with the customer without having to resort to the expensive regulating services of the grid operators. Electricity produced in excess of demand will find not always find buyers, not even after the establishment of physical electricity exchanges. Another factor which will increase the volatility of required power generation

  2. Liberalisation of electricity market in Finland as a part of Nordic market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karkkainen, S.; Lakervi, E.

    2001-01-01

    The Finnish electricity market is a part of the physically interconnected Nordic market which also includes Denmark, Norway and Sweden. All countries are nowadays deregulated in slightly different ways, and the central co-ordination of power generation is replaced with the market based power exchange NordPool. In Finland the deregulation was performed step by step, so that first the customers above 500kW were allowed to change their supplier in November 1995. From January 1997 all customers were free to select their suppliers provided that they had a remotely-read hourly meter. Since November 1, 1998 all small customers (below 3 x 63A, about 45kW) have been able to change their supplier without any extra costs. As a result of competition most of the larger customers have changed their suppliers or negotiated new contracts with their existing supplier. Of the 2.2 million small customers, only about 3% have changed supplier, but the electricity prices for all customers have decreased. (Author)

  3. Economic demand response model in liberalised electricity markets with respect to flexibility of consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharifi, Reza; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Fathi, S. Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Before restructuring in the electricity industry, the primary decision-makers of the electricity market were deemed to be power generation and transmission companies, market regulation boards, and power industry regulators. In this traditional structure, consumers were interested in receiving...... electricity at flat rates while paying no attention to the problems of this industry. This attitude was the source of many problems, sometimes leading to collapse of power systems and widespread blackouts. Restructuring of the electricity industry however provided a multitude of solutions to these problems....... The most important solution can be demand response (DR) programs. This paper proposes an economic DR model for residential consumers in liberalized electricity markets to change their consumption pattern from times of high energy prices to other times to maximize their utility functions. This economic...

  4. LIBERALISATION OF THE ELECTRICITY SECTOR IN THE EUROPEAN UNION: PRESENT STATE AND SOME OPEN QUESTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez, A.

    2007-07-01

    The liberalisation of the electricity sector started approximately 10 to 15 years ago, depending on the country. Nonetheless, there is still no general agreement on the liberalisation model this sector should follow, mainly because of the discussion of whether the liberalisation is an end in itself, or a means for -basically- lower energy prices. The complexity of the sector and the resilience of the incumbents' market power have currently placed the liberalisation process at a crossroad. In the EU, entrenched national interests are another obstacle to deal with. In this article, we first give an overview of the different liberalisation processes in the electricity sector and then summarize the pending challenges from an EU perspective. Next, we argue that the EU should focus on conditions aiming at implementing an effective liberalisation process, rather than on a formal liberalisation approach. We show how asymmetries between non-sector regulations in the European states and among companies create an uneven playing field, contrary to the European vision of an internal competitive energy market. We end the article studying the compatibility of the current European regulatory framework with the upcoming challenges in the energy sector. (auth)

  5. Municipal energy and climate policy in a liberalized energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, H.

    2001-05-01

    Due to the ongoing process of liberalisation, Dutch municipal energy policy is undergoing significant changes. The probable privatisation of energy companies, the change from what used to be 'their' local energy company to what will become an energy company, results in a need for local administrations to build up energy knowledge, end-use information and financial resources that 'their' energy companies used to share but, because of operating in a competitive market, are now more reluctant to do so. On the other hand offers privatisation and the selling of shares the possibility for some local governments to collect a significant sum of money which can be addressed to energy policy. This process of growing responsibility of local administrations for their own energy policy coincides with the structural change of the nature of the energy supply in the Netherlands. The change towards a more decentralised energy supply results in more energy systems (e.g. PV and wind) coming under the influence of local regulations. Municipal governments will have to act more like actors in a complex policy network, playing different roles at different times in different situations, often stimulating and regulating at the same time. The growing popularity of platforms like energy agencies, bringing together parties like the local government, energy companies and commercial- and housing associations are examples hereof. In this report, another new role for local governments resulting from the liberalisation process is highlighted: the role of energy consumer. It is estimated that the aggregated electricity demand resulting from activities under direct municipal responsibility (e.g. municipal dwellings, traffic lights, public lighting) amounts to a fairly large share of the market. Due to the public interests vested in the local administrations, it is expected that an important part of this demand is demand for green electricity. Also, local governments can use the energy markets to act

  6. The Effects of Liberalisation of the Passenger Railway Market on the Situation of Regional Rail Connections in Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taczanowski Jakub

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Liberalisation of railway market can be an important instrument for increasing the attractiveness of local rail services and consequently for making the railways more competitive with other means of transport, which could result in changing the modal share in the favour of railways. The differences in the railway liberalisation level as well as in the policies towards rail transport between Central and Eastern European countries are vast, hence the present situation and the future prospects of regional services are diverse. Whereas there is only one railway line in Slovakia which is not operated by the state railway company ZSSK, a few private local connections which complement a very dense network of ČD state railways are in service in the Czech Republic. Poland, by contrast, is a country where liberalisation of railway market is most advanced as several different companies are responsible for transport in the regions. However, the results of this large scale liberalisation are ambiguous as the positive effects (reopening of some lines are balanced by isolation of the new regional government-owned systems from each other. In Austria, by contrast, the existence of several private and regional government-owned local railways which are an indispensable part of the regional transport networks has contributed to maintain an effective transport system. Although the effects of liberalisation on the local railway networks can often be ambiguous, several cases from the Czech Republic, Austria and Poland show that privatisation and municipalisation may have a positive effect on the railway service as it has enabled to maintain the service on many sections which were at risk of closure. However, the most important condition of the effective transport development seems to be an active cooperation between the railway operators and the local governments as an expression of appropriate transport policy.

  7. The Role of Interconnecting Transmission Network in Energy Market Environment in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radmilovic, B.

    2001-01-01

    For energy market liberalisation in a small country like Croatia, it is necessary to build strong interconnecting lines to neighbouring systems. In that way it is possible to get power under favourable market conditions and also to export domestic production (especially from hydro power plants) to external markets. Geographical position of Croatia in Europe (East West, North South) is very interesting under liberalised energy market conditions. In that sense, the possibilities and role of Croatian transmission network (400 and 220 kV) for possible transits and other country needs should be analysed. (author)

  8. Environmental Regulations, Market Structure and Technological Progress in Renewable Energy Technology — A Panel Data Study on Wind Turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk Rübbelke; Pia Weiss

    2011-01-01

    We study the impact of environmental regulations on the patent activities for wind turbines between 1980 and 2008. We explicitly control for energy market liberalisation and take a potential interaction between liberalisation and policy instruments into account. We find a strong and highly significant effect of environmental tax revenues, which we regard as a proxy for the extent to which energy prices changed in favour of renewable energies, as well as foreign demand for wind turbines on inn...

  9. Forward projections of energy market competitiveness rankings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    By July 2007, the provisions of the second Internal Market Directives for Electricity and Gas had been implemented in the majority of EU Member States. These fundamental changes in market opening, ownership structures and network access conditions, together with the increasing maturity of liberalised trading and retail markets, can be expected to affect the behaviour of existing and potential market participants, consequently affecting the energy market competitiveness of alternative countries. While the UK was the most competitive of the EU and G7 energy markets in 2006, the dynamic effect of the liberalisation programme across Continental Europe may challenge that position in the future. This report assesses how competitiveness rankings may evolve in the future, identifying changes that could take place in the UK and the rest of the EU from 2007 to 201 1. It goes on to explore the potential risk that the competitiveness of the UK's energy markets will decline relative to those of other countries in the EU and G7, to the extent that the PSA target will not be met. A detailed analysis of the potential changes in the UK markets is undertaken, including the development of upside and downside scenarios showing the positive and negative effects of changes in market structure and behaviour on the UK's competitiveness score. Changes in market structures required for energy markets in both the 2006 comparator group and the rest of the EU to become as competitive as the UK are then assessed, along with the plausibility of these changes given the current and future market, legislative and regulatory environments

  10. The liberalisation of the European electricity market : an unstructured restructuring process?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisseleau, F.; Hakvoort, R.

    2005-01-01

    The European Union (EU) directive 96/92/EC defines common rules for the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity, paving the way for the liberalization of the electricity markets of EU member states. Member states are obliged to open their national electricity supply markets, meaning that eligible customers can choose their own suppliers. This paper discussed the process by which the countries of the EU have restructured their electricity markets, arguing that the process has focused on legal and organizational issues, rather than specific prescriptions for the economic design of the market. Although the objective of the EU directive was to create a competitive market, restructuring has led to 15 or more fragmented markets, each liberalized to a different degree and shaped following a wide range of different principles. Areas where the EU has failed to provide a coherent market view were discussed. Issues concerning short-term market arrangements, congestion management and long-term investment were examined. Section 1 of the paper focused on policy issues in the liberalization process, while section 2 emphasized the importance of market design. Section 3 addressed the need for market monitoring and the issue of market power. It was concluded that liberalization is only one step in the process that alone cannot deliver the expected benefits of single integrated European-wide market. At present, the European electricity market is hindered by a lack of proper design and sufficient transparency. 32 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  11. Liberalisation and energy security in the European Union. Success and questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clastres, Cedric; Locatelli, Catherine

    2012-09-01

    The energy environment of the European Union as well as its own internal situation have undergone profound changes. The energy security of member states is therefore an important issue that should be examined. This security concerns gas and electricity markets, with infrastructures, long-term contracts, lack of investment and with the increasing use of natural gas to generate electricity. Energy market players have to manage security concerns in these two markets in order to supply socially and economically essential commodities. In this article, we examine two main topics. The first is related to the European Union's capacity to solve the problem of security of supply by finding internal solutions. The second concerns external security of supply. With the upstream structure of the gas market, a problem of investing in trans-national gas pipelines exists, besides relations with gas suppliers outside the EU. (authors)

  12. Future evolution of the liberalised European gas market: Simulation results with a dynamic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lise, Wietze; Hobbs, Benjamin F.

    2008-01-01

    Strategic behaviour by gas producers is likely to affect future gas prices and investments in the European Union (EU). To analyse this issue, a computational game theoretic model is presented that is based on a recursive-dynamic formulation. This model addresses interactions among demand, supply, pipeline and liquefied natural gas (LNG) transport, storage and investments in the natural gas market over the period 2005-2030. Three market scenarios are formulated to study the impact of producer market power. In addition, tradeoffs among investments in pipelines, LNG liquefaction and regasification facilities, and storage are explored. The model runs indicate that LNG can effectively compete with pipelines in the near future. Further, significant decreases in Cournot prices between 2005 and 2010 indicate that near-term investments in EU gas transport capacity are likely to diminish market power by making markets more accessible. (author)

  13. Future evolution of the liberalised European gas market: Simulation results with a dynamic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lise, Wietze [IBS Research and Consultancy, Aga Han, Agahamami Cadessi 1/6, Cihangir, 34433 Beyoglu, Istanbul (Turkey); Energy Markets and International Environmental Policy group, ECN Policy Studies, Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hobbs, Benjamin F. [Department of Geography and Environmental Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, Ames Hall 313, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Strategic behaviour by gas producers is likely to affect future gas prices and investments in the European Union (EU). To analyse this issue, a computational game theoretic model is presented that is based on a recursive-dynamic formulation. This model addresses interactions among demand, supply, pipeline and liquefied natural gas (LNG) transport, storage and investments in the natural gas market over the period 2005-2030. Three market scenarios are formulated to study the impact of producer market power. In addition, tradeoffs among investments in pipelines, LNG liquefaction and regasification facilities, and storage are explored. The model runs indicate that LNG can effectively compete with pipelines in the near future. Further, significant decreases in Cournot prices between 2005 and 2010 indicate that near-term investments in EU gas transport capacity are likely to diminish market power by making markets more accessible. (author)

  14. Proceedings of the Tenth forum: Croatian Energy Day: Energy sector liberalisation and privatisation in transition-economy and EU countries: experiences and perspectives; Zbornik radova Desetog foruma: Dan energije u Hrvatskoj: liberalizacija i privatizacija energetskog sektora u zemljama tranzicije i Europske unije: iskustva i perspektive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Political and economic changes in Europe provided an impetus for the creation of an open energy market with an increasing number of participants, while the new energy sale and purchase system enabled everybody engaged (from producers to operators and consumers) to take over an active part. In the launching of these processes some documents played a decisive role: European Energy Treaty, European Union's Directives on Electricity and Gas Market Liberalisation of the Member Countries. Energy sector liberalisation was in most of the countries carried out in two steps, i.e. first the restructuring took place and than privatisation followed. Restructuring covers the change of organisation and economic relations with the aim of increasing efficiency and cost reduction, and privatisation is the process that ought to enable the creation of a market and competition. Market and competition creation is carried out by means of structural changes, i.e. by business and ownership unbundling (energy generation, transport/transmission and distribution). Energy market strengthening depends on energy efficiency, programmes, utilisation of renewable energy sources, co-generation share in the production of electric and thermal energy, etc. All of these activities are followed by adequate legislative framework as well as by defining a regulatory body to supervise the behaviour of the participants. The primary energy sector's reform concept in the Republic of Croatia was a clear political goal that Croatia become a member of the European Union and that the energy market be congruent to the EU market.

  15. Renewable energy and energy efficiency in liberalized European electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlgemuth, Norbert

    2000-01-01

    Given the projected growth in global energy demand, renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) play a crucial role in the attainment of the environmental dimension of sustainable development. Policy mechanisms to promote RE and EE have been justified on the rationale of market failure, which prevents price signals alone from being sufficient to induce consumers to implement the socially optimal level. The paper shows driving forces for increasing competition in the electricity supply industry and discusses the implication of electricity industry liberalisation on RE/EE activities. Policies of the European Commission to promote RE/EE are presented, including a more detailed description of the experience made in the United Kingdom. Conclusions are that the new market structure may be too short sighted to stimulate RE and EE activities and that the design of policies should be compatible with the new market-orientated structure of the electricity industry. If implemented properly, and compatible with the competitive market organisation, electricity supply liberalisation could pave the way for 'sustainable electricity' in the European Union. (Author)

  16. Modelling long run strategic behaviour on the liberalised European gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, Machiel; Zwart, Gijsbert

    2005-01-01

    In gas markets, intertemporal constraints are of particular importance due to the finiteness of gas resources. In particular in the UK and the Netherlands, gas resources are expected to dry up on the medium term, giving rise to a positive resource rent of the gas. On shorter time scales, decisions on investments in production, transmission, storage and LNG terminal capacities affect short term output decisions in following years, while within the year prices across seasons are related through storage decisions. We develop a model of strategic behaviour on the European gas markets that incorporates such intertemporal relations. We take into account interactions between strategic producers of gas, price-taking transmission companies, and traders arbitraging the markets by transporting gas across borders, storing gas across seasons, and importing LNG. As a case study, we use the model to explore the impacts on producer behaviour and infrastructure investments of a cap on production from a large gas field in the Netherlands. (Author)

  17. Roadmap towards a competitive European energy market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    With the financial crisis evolving into a severe, global economic recession, there have been growing doubts over whether energy markets can continue to operate efficiently under present conditions or whether the shift to non-market mechanisms would be a better choice. This question remains an ongoing source of debate in the recently liberalised electricity sector. Textbook wisdom says that the market is the most efficient place to allocate financial means for investments. Therefore, during a period of a crisis, it should follow that we actually need more market mechanisms, not fewer, if we want to stimulate investments in an economically efficient way. Regulated electricity prices and nationalistic thinking will not help to solve Europe's electricity challenges with regards to either the generation or the transportation of electricity.

  18. Transmission cost allocation for an efficient tariff action of electricity in a liberalised market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassi, C.; Caldon, R.; Lorenzoni, A.

    1999-01-01

    The work is focused on the evaluation of the costs of an electricity transmission system operator and on their allocation among the users of the grid in liberalized market. After a recall of the goals of an efficient tariff for transmission, an original method for the cost allocation is proposed called ZI. Based on the marginal cost approach, this method could be the base for setting an efficient transmission tariff that at the same time covers costs and stimulates efficient behaviours. The performances of such an approach have been tested on a real 47 bus grid and ZI tariffs have been compared to the traditional postage stamp ones, highlighting the strong differences between them [it

  19. Basic Principles of Electrical Network Reliability Optimization in Liberalised Electricity Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleinikova, I.; Krishans, Z.; Mutule, A.

    2008-01-01

    The authors propose to select long-term solutions to the reliability problems of electrical networks in the stage of development planning. The guide lines or basic principles of such optimization are: 1) its dynamical nature; 2) development sustainability; 3) integrated solution of the problems of network development and electricity supply reliability; 4) consideration of information uncertainty; 5) concurrent consideration of the network and generation development problems; 6) application of specialized information technologies; 7) definition of requirements for independent electricity producers. In the article, the major aspects of liberalized electricity market, its functions and tasks are reviewed, with emphasis placed on the optimization of electrical network development as a significant component of sustainable management of power systems.

  20. Solutions for increase of the NPP operators competitiveness in liberalised market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pliska, J.; Rubek, J.

    2004-01-01

    Safe, reliable and efficient operation of equipment is essential for profitable energy production. Ensuring conditions for the continuous safe operation is of primary importance in any nuclear power plant. However, if power production is considered, the important task is to operate the system optimally. This can be achieved by running the system close to its maximum efficiency. The paper describes the on-line monitoring systems integration into the overall plant information system and the process data warehouse built in the Dukovany Nuclear Power Plant and integration of the process data validation and thermal performance monitoring into it. The solution is based on the Industrial SQL server database and the InTouch human machine interface by Invensys' Wonderware, the RECON data validation package by ChemPlant Technology and TEP thermal performance monitoring package by I and C Energo. The solution unifies three different level of integration that should be taken into consideration. These are the data level, the functional level and the operational level. (author)

  1. Natural Gas Liberalisation and Deregulation - The German Gas Industry's View

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czernie, W.

    2001-01-01

    In Europe, the process of creating a single energy market is under way. The 1998 Gas Directive established an important date for the European gas industry. On 10 August 1998, ''Directive 98/30/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 June 1998 concerning common rules for the internal market in natural gas'' came into force. It had to be transposed into national law by the EU member states within two years, i.e. by 10 August 2000. The Directive is a cornerstone in establishing a competitive gas market in the European Union. It is the outcome of several years of negotiations and can be regarded as a compromise between the various interests. On the whole, it leaves EU member states with sufficient scope for adequately taking account of national characteristics in keeping with the principle of subsidiarity. The process of transposing the Gas Directive into the national law of individual EU member states is being closely followed by the European Commission. While acknowledging all the progress made in the single market process, the Commission still detects shortcomings in the implementation of the Gas Directive on the road to an actual single market. This is seen as a justification for new initiatives and intervention, even though the new political framework for the gas industry has not yet been tested in practice and been able to prove itself on a broad scale for any length of time. In the debate on liberalisation, tried-and-tested instruments of secure and market-oriented gas supply on the European continent long-term supply contracts with take-or-pay clauses and competitive oil-indexed gas prices have also come under scrutiny. However, even under the conditions of liberalisation, security of supply has to be achieved mainly by a balanced mix of supply sources and by long-term supply contracts, including competitive pricing as ensured by so-called oil indexing. In the further liberalisation of west European gas industries, it will be essential to ensure

  2. Methodological and Technical Aspects of Power Sector Liberalisation of Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, B.; Viksna, I.; Zeltinsh, N.

    2001-01-01

    A successful liberalisation of energy markets is taking place in the Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania), that is why it is important to investigate the methodological and technical aspects as well as the effect of this process upon the development of energy supply in the North European region. Energy supply to the Baltic countries is characterised by the fact that energy resources there are mainly supplied from the CIS, where there is a rather difficult prognostic energy market with sharp price fluctuations (sometimes supplies are completely cut). At the same time, by using the CIS energy resources, the development of the energy sector may significantly influence the total North European energy supplies. Energy saving measures and energy-efficient technologies in the following years will greatly influence energy market and energy consumption. This is an actual problem for such countries as Latvia, where the main part of its energy carriers is imported from neighbouring countries.(author)

  3. Energy policy and European utilities' strategy: Lessons from the liberalisation and privatisation of the energy sector in Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haar, Laura N., E-mail: laura.n.haar@mbs.ac.u [University of Manchester, Manchester Business School, Booth Street West, Manchester M15 6PB (United Kingdom); Marinescu, Nicolae, E-mail: marinescu@unitbv.r [Transylvania University of Brasov, Faculty of Economic Sciences, 29 Eroilor Bd, Brasov 500 036 (Romania)

    2011-05-15

    In the context of energy sector reforms pursued by Romanian government since 1990s, we compare and contrast the market outcomes of European utilities' investment with the host government policy objectives. We begin with energy market reform in Romania and review governments' efforts to attract foreign direct investment (FDI) and to gradually withdraw from the distribution and supply segments of electricity market. Subsequently, we illustrate the scope European utilities have had, market policy and design notwithstanding, for consolidating market power through regional dominance. We examine the extent to which these utilities have sought to enhance their positions through horizontal and vertical integration, counter to the EU plans for a competitive market structure. We find that the investments of European incumbents have not been resoundingly successful: although market entrance may have been justified on long-term strategic grounds, in the immediate term, segments acquired through competitive auctions have yielded modest regulated returns. Finally, we discuss the extent to which policy makers have achieved their goals. Although the short-term benefits of a competitive market structure have reached some consumers, a renewed interest in promoting 'national champions' reflect frustration with market mechanisms as a means of ensuring long-term strategic investments in the sector. - Research highlights: {yields} We analyze the European Utilities activities in Romania after market liberalization. {yields} We find government efforts to reform energy sector attracted foreign direct investment. {yields} We find utilities consolidated market power horizontally in Central European region. {yields} The short-term benefits of competitive forces contrast the weak returns by utilities. {yields} To encourage further investment, government should not promote national champions.

  4. Energy policy and European utilities' strategy: Lessons from the liberalisation and privatisation of the energy sector in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haar, Laura N.; Marinescu, Nicolae

    2011-01-01

    In the context of energy sector reforms pursued by Romanian government since 1990s, we compare and contrast the market outcomes of European utilities' investment with the host government policy objectives. We begin with energy market reform in Romania and review governments' efforts to attract foreign direct investment (FDI) and to gradually withdraw from the distribution and supply segments of electricity market. Subsequently, we illustrate the scope European utilities have had, market policy and design notwithstanding, for consolidating market power through regional dominance. We examine the extent to which these utilities have sought to enhance their positions through horizontal and vertical integration, counter to the EU plans for a competitive market structure. We find that the investments of European incumbents have not been resoundingly successful: although market entrance may have been justified on long-term strategic grounds, in the immediate term, segments acquired through competitive auctions have yielded modest regulated returns. Finally, we discuss the extent to which policy makers have achieved their goals. Although the short-term benefits of a competitive market structure have reached some consumers, a renewed interest in promoting 'national champions' reflect frustration with market mechanisms as a means of ensuring long-term strategic investments in the sector. - Research highlights: → We analyze the European Utilities activities in Romania after market liberalization. → We find government efforts to reform energy sector attracted foreign direct investment. → We find utilities consolidated market power horizontally in Central European region. → The short-term benefits of competitive forces contrast the weak returns by utilities. → To encourage further investment, government should not promote national champions.

  5. Perspectives of new fossil-fuelled power plants with CO2 capture in the liberalised European electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kober, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Against the background of an increasing importance of climate change mitigation and the liberalization of the European energy supply this study assesses the perspectives of power plants with Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS). CCS power plants represent one option to reduce CO 2 emissions of fossil energy based electricity production significantly. In this study the deployment of CCS power plants is investigated for the European electricity market until 2050 taking different energy and climate policy framework conditions into consideration. By applying an integrated model-based approach, structural changes of the whole energy system are incorporated, including their implications on costs and emissions. The study addresses uncertainties concerning future CCS power plant invest costs and efficiencies explicitly, and analyses the effects of changes of these parameters with respect to the perspectives of CCS power plants in Europe. Thereby, interdependencies on horizontal level related to competition of different technologies within the electricity sector are examined, but also vertical interdependencies resulting from effects between the upstream and energy demand sectors. In order to reflect the heterogeneity among the national energy systems in Europe, country specific particularities on technical aspects and energy policy are taken into account, such as potentials and costs of CO 2 storage, and national regulations on the use of nuclear power and renewable energy. The results of the analysis reveal a strong influence of the stringency of the EU greenhouse gas reduction target and the policy on the use of nuclear energy on the perspectives of CCS power plants in the European electricity market. Comparing the influence of different policy frameworks analysed in this study with the influences of the variation of the technical and economic CCS power plant parameters shows, that uncertainties concerning energy policy measures can have a stronger influence on the

  6. Nuclear communications and deregulated energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruuskanen, Antti

    1998-01-01

    The electricity market a over the world is facing the most profound change ever. The market is to be deregulated, competition will be increased and companies privatised. The boom started from the UK but today the Nordic market is the most liberalised in the world. Nordic market consists of annual power sales around 350 TWh and only a modest growth potential of 12 percent per year. All fuels and all technologies meet in the marketplace. Nuclear has its good one fourth share of the production there. Nuclear is clearly for base-load with low marginal costs next to hydro electric power. There are four major players in the Nordic market. Swedish Vattenfall, IVO Group and Swedish Sydkraft are the three biggest in that order, and all of them have nuclear assets. The market is characterised by lowest power prices in Europe, two electricity exchanges and continuous power trade across the borders. The described market change from national and less open utility driven sector has clear impacts to companies strategies and consequently also to communications. All these circumstances demand, New target groups from corporate communications' point of view; new communications language to change to more business-like; new insider rules and new information practices; new business orientated journalists against a new reference group. This all opens new challenges and possibilities to re-build nuclear image. Market economy in electricity will also ease governmental nationally oriented energy policies and let market forces to decide whether investments are viable or not. This is positive for nuclear - again if and only if the power plants are managed in an economically viable way. Deregulation may open the market from political deadlock to new nuclear investments in case the above mentioned requirements are correct. All in all, market change comes sooner or later to regions not yet liberalised. It will challenge nuclear companies and their communications. The change always creates

  7. The consequences of liberalisation of the gas market. Part 5. Distribution companies and small-scale consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Gelder, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    In the fifth article in the series on the effects of the liberalization of the Dutch natural gas market the effects on distribution companies and small-scale consumers are discussed. Companies that purchase more than 10 million m 3 of natural gas per year are free to choose another supplier. No later than 2007 the small-scale consumer (annual consumption less than 170,000 m 3 or 50,000 kWh) will be able to choose a gas and electricity supplier. Lower prices are not to be expected, but there will be more service, many new suppliers and a more varied supply of products and services. The energy distribution company will be offering tailor-made work. For small-scale consumers, too, price will be the decisive factor in choosing a supplier. Possibilities for distribution companies in this area are quite restricted, though. Obtaining market power in the buyers' market and cutting costs of operation may force prices down. Scaling-up and (international) cooperation therefore seem to be the best survival strategies in the free market. Sound solvency - which turns out to be present in particular in the smaller distribution companies - makes a company less vulnerable during a prolonged price dip

  8. EU Energy Law. Volume 1. The Internal Energy Market. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.; Webster, W.

    2006-06-01

    European energy markets are undergoing rapid and fundamental change. In 2005 the European Council and European Parliament adopted the second energy liberalisation package, including the new electricity and Natural Gas Directives and the Electricity Regulation. In addition, the European Commission tabled new Directives on Security of Supply and a draft Natural Gas Regulation. This is affecting markets not only in the European Union, but throughout Europe, the Mediterranean, the Balkans and Russia. These changes have affected not only energy law. Community competition law in the energy sector has been evolving quickly, reacting to the restructuring of the markets, and the new commercial partnerships that result. EU Energy Law is a complete and essential reference work for all those advising on and implementing in practice the enormous changes in today's electricity and gas markets. It is written for both legal specialists and for those working in industry responsible for overseeing the move towards open and competitive markets

  9. The Energy Market 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-08-01

    This publication describes the markets for network based energy in a Nordic perspective, with an extension to the EU. The ongoing harmonization of the energy market policy is described in more detail in the sections dealing with energy policy and regulations. The network based energy markets differ in size, ownership structure and competition. The electricity and district heating markets in Sweden were deregulated in 1996. However, the natural gas market is being deregulated in stages, and will be completely open to competition by 2007 at the latest. The rules for promoting competition in trading and production on the network based energy markets have therefore been continually changed. The chapters dealing with the markets describe the effects of deregulation and how the market structures have changed. If a market is to perform well, the consumers must be active. A study performed by 'Elkonkurrensutredningen' (Electricity competition committee) shows that switching to a different supplier involves costs that restrict consumer mobility, and that the consumers are not sufficiently well informed. This publication also describes the development of prices and how the trading prices have developed on the competitive market. The markets for network based energy are in the course of continual development. This report gives a coherents view of the way the markets work and their development from a national monopoly to an open, competitive market. On such a deregulated market, consumers enjoy increased diversity and freedom of choice. This, in turn, has created the conditions for better utilization of resources at the production stage.

  10. The Energy Market 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This publication describes the markets for network based energy in a Nordic perspective, with an extension to the EU. The ongoing harmonization of the energy market policy is described in more detail in the sections dealing with energy policy and regulations. The network based energy markets differ in size, ownership structure and competition. The electricity and district heating markets in Sweden were deregulated in 1996. However, the natural gas market is being deregulated in stages, and will be completely open to competition by 2007 at the latest. The rules for promoting competition in trading and production on the network based energy markets have therefore been continually changed. The chapters dealing with the markets describe the effects of deregulation and how the market structures have changed. If a market is to perform well, the consumers must be active. A study performed by 'Elkonkurrensutredningen' (Electricity competition committee) shows that switching to a different supplier involves costs that restrict consumer mobility, and that the consumers are not sufficiently well informed. This publication also describes the development of prices and how the trading prices have developed on the competitive market. The markets for network based energy are in the course of continual development. This report gives a coherents view of the way the markets work and their development from a national monopoly to an open, competitive market. On such a deregulated market, consumers enjoy increased diversity and freedom of choice. This, in turn, has created the conditions for better utilization of resources at the production stage.

  11. Market imperfections on the power markets in northern Europe: A survey paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, K.

    1999-01-01

    Up till now, most analyses of the northern European electricity liberalisation have assumed that a perfect competitive electricity market can be obtained. It has not been taken into account that a number of imperfections will inevitably occur - at least during the transition period. These imperfe...... not be achieved. The aim of this paper is to survey market imperfections and their influence on the liberalisation processes in northern Europe......Up till now, most analyses of the northern European electricity liberalisation have assumed that a perfect competitive electricity market can be obtained. It has not been taken into account that a number of imperfections will inevitably occur - at least during the transition period....... These imperfections can be technical, economic or tradition-bound, and can also have political characteristics. It is important to recognise and incorporate the market imperfections in the liberalisation policy and analysis. Otherwise, the purposes of the liberalisation and other energy policy goals may...

  12. Power plant investment cycles in liberalised markets. A model of the German electricity generation market; Zyklen bei Kraftwerksinvestitionen in liberalisierten Maerkten. Ein Modell des deutschen Stromerzeugungsmarktes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaidosch, Lars

    2008-07-01

    In the course of the next ten to fifteen years almost half of Germany's installed power plant capacity will need to be replaced by the construction of new facilities. The power plant investments required for this will be made in an environment marked by liberalisation and competition. This is the context of the present article, which analyses the causes behind the cyclical behaviour of power plant investment and identifies factors that influence it. Cycles in this connection are defined as recurring oscillations in power plant capacity and electricity prices. The authors also propose measures that could dampen the cyclical course of power plant investment over time. One of the major outcomes of the present model calculations is that the power production market, similarly to other capital-intensive branches of industry, is expected to experience strong price fluctuations in the future as well. As it has been framed up to now, the German electricity wholesale market will not be able to prevent the occurrence investment cycles in power plant construction. One way to counteract investment cycles would be to greatly expand the time horizon of the liquid spot market through greater activity on the part of trading firms. [German] In den naechsten 10 bis 15 Jahren sind in Deutschland und Europa sowie weltweit knapp die Haelfte der installierten Kraftwerksleistung zu ersetzen bzw. neu zu errichten. Die hierfuer erforderlichen Kraftwerksinvestitionen finden heute unter den veraenderten Rahmenbedingungen der Liberalisierung und des Wettbewerbs statt. In diesem Zusammenhang werden Ursachen von Zyklen bei Kraftwerksinvestitionen analysiert und deren Einflussfaktoren aufgezeigt. Zyklen werden als wiederkehrende Schwankungen der Kraftwerkskapazitaeten und Strompreise definiert. Zusaetzlich werden Massnahmen vorgeschlagen, die eine Zyklenbildung bei Kraftwerksinvestitionen abschwaechen koennen. Zunaechst erfolgt eine Untersuchung unter welchen Bedingungen

  13. Wind power and a liberalised North European electricity exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, L H; Morthorst, P E; Skytte, K [and others

    1999-03-01

    Conditions for wind power on a liberalised North European electrical power market are addressed in the paper. Results are presented from a recently completed study carried out by Risoe National Laboratory in collaboration with the Danish electric utilities Eltra, Elsam and Elkraft. A main result from the study is, that the market will be able to provide the necessary power regulation, that will be required year 2005 as consequence of the expected wind power capacity extension, according to the Danish energy plan, Energy21. The averege sales price on the market for the wind-generated electricity is less than the average spot market price, due to provision of power regulation to balance the unpredictability of the wind power. This reduction in the market value of wind power has been calculated to 10-20 DKK/MWh of 1.3-2.7 EUR/MWh. (au)

  14. Regulatory governance of telecommunications liberalisation in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Kuo-Tai; Hebenton, Bill

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the changing role of government and market in regulating the telecommunications sector from since 1996 in Taiwan. It contextualises the theoretical aspects of regulatory governance for institutional design and practices, and reviews the concepts and mechanisms for appraising privatisation and regulatory systems. Using a conceptual framework for researching privatisation and regulation, it describes the process and issues pertinent to telecommunications liberalisation and privatisation in Taiwan, supported by a brief presentation of theoretical points of view as well as practitioners' views. The paper presents results concerning criteria for appraising privatisation and regulatory governance and considers policy lessons that can be learned from the experiences of the Taiwanese telecommunications sector's liberalisation. (author)

  15. German energy market 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm; Weltenergierat, Berlin

    2017-01-01

    The basic orientation of the German energy supply to the increased use of renewable energies, while increasing energy efficiency, is prediscribed by the German government's energy concept and determines the market development. A current overview of the German energy market is given, which provides also this year a concentrated Compilation of the key data of the energy industry. As in the years before, the article not only summarizes general facts about the energy mix, but also goes into detail on the development of the individual energy sources, petroleum, natural gas, brown coal and hard coal, electricity as well as renewable energies. Furthermore, the price trends of international markets and in the domestic market are explained. A current overview of the development of greenhouse gas emissions concludes the contribution. [de

  16. Trade liberalisation, resource sustainability and welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max

    2006-01-01

    that even though liberalising trade in products supplied by such a fishery might cause steady-state welfare reductions in the supplier countries, these welfare reductions are small compared to the welfare gains from a hypothetical change to optimal management. Hence, the introduction of better fisheries......Recent research has warned that liberalising trade in capture fish products originating from inefficiently managed fisheries might cause over-exploitation, reduced fish stocks and thereby a reduced steady-state of welfare. This paper qualifies the warning in a case study of the East Baltic cod...... market by developing an age-structured bio-economic supply model combined with basic theory of trade between two countries. Welfare effects of trade liberalisation are identified taking fishing quotas, input limitations, mesh-size regulations and shared ownership of stocks into account. It is shown...

  17. Tariff liberalisation, price transmission and rural welfare in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jing; Yu, Wusheng; Wang, Junying

    2016-01-01

    in this gap by evaluating empirically the welfare effects of China's actual tariff liberalisation on Chinese farmers during the 1997–2010 period. By estimating the domestic market price effects of China's tariff liberalisation and the associated wage earning effects, we find that on average Chinese farmers...... were able to gain more from reduced consumption prices than they would lose from reduced agricultural and wage income due to tariff liberalisation. Welfare gains over time are estimated to be positively correlated with the actual degrees of tariff liberalisation, implying that relatively more gains...... were realized immediately before and after China's WTO accession in 2001, as compared to the more recent period when relatively little liberalisation was carried out. Farmers’ rising non-agricultural income and increasing consumption shares of non-agricultural products are important determinants...

  18. Energy and commodities market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokermann, Marcus; Prass, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The electricity markets in Central and Western Europe and in the nordic countries have further shown weak in 2014 with falling prices. The key factors were the declining quotations for coal and natural gas and the warm weather. Another driver was the growth of renewable energy. In the power markets conditions remained mostly an oversupply. The upward trending prices on the CO 2 emissions market were not formative enough to turn the market sentiment. They only caused for volatility during the year. [de

  19. InTraCert. Inception report. The role of an integrated tradable green certificate system in a liberalising market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boots, M.G.; Schaeffer, G.J.; De Zoeten, C.; Mitchell, C.; Anderson, T.; Morthorst, P.E.; Nielsen, L.; Gual, M.; Del Rio, P.; Cadenas, A.; Hernandez, F.; Kuehn, I.; Braeur, W.; Stronzik, M.

    2000-12-01

    The InTraCert project aims to explore the possibility of integrating the existing and planned Tradable Green Certificate (TGC) schemes in the European Union and, therefore, creating a plausible unified market for TGCs. Particular attention will be paid to the possibilities of integrating TGCs for green electricity, heat and gas. Furthermore, it intents to examine the possible interactions arising from such a system with more direct GHG abatement measures, i.e. Carbon Emissions Trading (CET). The scope of the InTraCert project requires specific information for EU-15 countries regarding, on the one hand, Renewable Energy Sources (RES) used for electricity, gas and heat generation and. on the other, GHG emission levels and national strategies. In order to account for this information need. specific country inventories have been designed and carried out by InTraCert members in this first phase of the project. The inventory shows that Belgium, Italy, Denmark, the Netherlands, Austria, Sweden and the UK seriously want to implement a TGC system. The systems will indeed be nationally oriented; hardly any provisions for international trade in the different TGCs will be put in place. An essential prerequisite for efficient cross border trade is agreement on the carbon credit that comes with RE production. What is the size of the carbon credit and will this credit be attached to the TGC while traded? These will be the main questions to be answered in the next phase of the InTraCert project. 8 refs

  20. The energy market in Flanders, Belgium, in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-05-01

    The Flemish Regulation Entity for the Electricity and Gas market (VREG) aims at becoming the knowledge centre of the liberalised energy market in Flanders, Belgium. Knowledge must be obtained and made available to the public with respect to the market for energy. This does not only involve aspects pertaining to the physical connection of grids across the borders of districts and countries, but also the effects of economic, political and financial decisions and tendencies in Flanders and surrounding area. In the past, data on the energy market were publishes as part of the annual report. As of 2006, reporting is separated. This Energy Market Report is built up based on data that was made available by the market parties. It focuses on the various actors and their market positions as well as on the specific historical and future evolutions. Moreover, market forces are portrayed. The price evolutions of the past years are analysed. Finally, attention is paid to the growing market of certificates.(mk) [nl

  1. The internal energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The briefs compile the results of the studies the Commission worked out on the subject on the basis of experiences gained on its own part, on the part of the government and on the part of the market. The briefs are based on the schematic inventory annexed which for each energy sector points out the different existing or potential obstacles to a common energy market the most comprehensive and transparent way possible. Step by step part one and part two discuss the general problems connected with the integration of energy into the internal market, priorities which according to the Commission should be investigated into, and guidelines for such investigations. (orig./UA) [de

  2. Energy Sector Market Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arent, D.; Benioff, R.; Mosey, G.; Bird, L.; Brown, J.; Brown, E.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Aabakken, J.; Parks, K.; Lapsa, M.; Davis, S.; Olszewski, M.; Cox, D.; McElhaney, K.; Hadley, S.; Hostick, D.; Nicholls, A.; McDonald, S.; Holloman, B.

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents the results of energy market analysis sponsored by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Weatherization and International Program (WIP) within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The analysis was conducted by a team of DOE laboratory experts from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with additional input from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The analysis was structured to identify those markets and niches where government can create the biggest impact by informing management decisions in the private and public sectors. The analysis identifies those markets and niches where opportunities exist for increasing energy efficiency and renewable energy use.

  3. Electricity market liberalisation in Germany - has it been a flop?; War die Strommarkt-Liberalisierung in Deutschland bisher ein Flop?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, G. [Energy Systems, Berlin Univ. of Tech. (Germany)

    2008-09-15

    By observing the last 10 years of power market reform in Germany, this paper challenges the public view that the first Energiewirtschaftsgesetz (EnWG) from 1998 had less impact on market liberalization than the second EnWG from 2005. According to the author, the opposite is true, at least in the power sector, if traditional competition indicators such as efficiency of the sector, institutional changes and electricity prices are taken as reference. While the first EnWG had changed much in the direction of liberalization and competition, progress since 2005 is rather slow - with the exception of the number of supplier shifts on the retail level and the installation of a regulation authority. The discrepancies between reality and public perception claim for a sound theoretical analysis, from which conclusions can be drawn concerning the further direction of the electricity market regulation. (orig.)

  4. Energy Choices. Energy markets; Vaegval Energi. Energimarknader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damsgaard, Niclas (Econ Poeyry AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    Each of the major energy markets for oil, coal, natural gas, biofuels and electricity has its own character. But markets are dependent on each other in an often complicated way. This interconnection has become even more complex since the market for emissions trading began in Europe in 2005. This report describes the current situation of the different energy markets but also the relationships between them, and some possible future scenarios. The oil market is global, but is dominated by a few producing countries. Coal is traded on the international market with good competition and over time probably a stable price. Other markets are more regional or even local. One example is the natural gas market. In the current situation of natural gas is not particularly important for Sweden's energy supply, but very much so in a European perspective. There may be repercussions also in Sweden. The gas price ups and downs are important for the price of emission rights and electricity. Biofuel markets ranging from global markets, such as ethanol, to regional or local markets, depending on processing. Only with the creation of a single trading venue, Nordpool was a common pricing of electricity possible in the Nordic region. In the near future we will have a common electricity market covering at least the Nordic region and northwestern Europe. This does not mean that prices will become equalized, for that further expansion of the transmission capacity is needed. It is possible to imagine several scenarios for future energy markets, but the interaction between the different markets will persist. To develop appropriate instruments is of great importance to achieve the political objectives in the energy field the next decade

  5. COMPETITION AND REGULATION IN THE EU ENERGY MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Havriş

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available When prices are high and public service obligations are not properly fulfilled, consumers wonder if they obtain what they need from the market. In electricity and gas markets of the EU Member States, apart from the persistence of high, non-transparent regulated prices, a number of shortcomings have been identified by the European Commission, such as a less than optimal network use for energy transmission, a lack of coordination and cooperation across borders by transmission system operators and national authorities, and a lack of transparent and simple procedures for dealing with consumers’ complaints. These are the main elements of the infringement proceedings that the European Commission decided to launch on 25 June 2009 against 25 Member States for non–compliance with certain Community provisions in the Second Internal Energy Market Package, which entered into force on 1 July 2007. Quite emblematic is the fact that it occurred the same day as the adoption of the Third Internal Energy Market Package aiming to ensure a proper functioning of the EU energy market. We intend to analyse what has happened in the recent years at the EU level in order to liberalise and remove the significant remaining obstacles to competition in the energy market.

  6. Bills to pay - Consumers and policymakers' reactions to problems with the liberalised market for electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlstroem, Henrik

    2010-07-01

    Full text: The Norwegian market for electricity has been completely deregulated since 1991 and allows consumers to freely choose their supplier of electricity. Conventional economic theory postulates that consumers will actively exploit price differences and thus drive efficient competition between electricity utilities. However, research shows that most consumers are not particularly active users of the possibilities offered by this free competition, even if some do engage with the options offered by a deregulated market. In the case of the Norwegian market for electricity, prices may multiply rapidly if a series of conditions such as transfer capability problems, import restrictions and increased demand due to low temperatures are met. In the winter of 2002/2003, a combination of all these occurred, leading to an eightfold increase in electricity prices in the course of days and sparking a heated debate over the policy for pricing of electricity. The outcome was the construction of a new, high-emission mobile gas plant, which has yet to be put to use. In the winter of 2009/2010, this situation was repeated, with debate over how to either fix prices at a 'more reasonable' level or how to quickly increase the production of electricity to meet increased demand. Evidently, this situation is fated to reoccur as long as the current regime is operative. Using data from a statistically representative telephone survey about consumer preferences, I analyse responses about opinions on the need for political control over the construction of new electricity production facilities and control over pricing. The data is combined with a large sample of newspaper articles about the problems of prices that are at times very high. Together, this gives us an idea of how policy decisions are constantly up for revision, and how a supposed 'de-politicised' policy field can again be subject to intense political debate. (Author)

  7. Energy market integration and regional institutions in east Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aalto, Pami

    2014-01-01

    This article assesses the case made for energy market integration in East Asia by comparing the role of institutions in South East Asia and North East Asia. The types and functions of institutions and their overall structure are examined in light of global energy market trends. In South East Asia, the shift attempted by ASEAN towards more competitive markets is hampered by the remaining statist variants of the trade institution and bilateral energy diplomacy, which, as regards transaction cost functions, are sub-optimal. As for institutions with order-creating functions, the unresolved status of sovereignty within ASEAN hampers regulatory harmonisation; the great power management institution has since ASEAN's establishment reduced conflicts without providing decisive leadership conducive to integration. North East Asia's dependence on global energy markets overshadows the regional integration potential of the diverse liberalisation efforts and interconnection projects. Bilateral energy diplomacies, new trilateral institutions combined with ‘Track Two’ institutions and remaining great power competition co-exist. In both regions the institutional structure allows for step-wise, technical infrastructure integration. The environmental stewardship institution co-exists with statist energy security and development objectives while it supports cooperation on green energy. The overall structure of informal institutions constrains deeper energy market integration in several ways. - Highlights: • The structures of institutions explain East Asian energy market integration. • Transaction costs are increased by statist trade institutions and bilateralism. • Order-creating institutions are sub-optimal for energy market integration. • Multi-level great power management offers limited leadership for integration. • The environmental stewardship institution supports cooperation on green energy

  8. International energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Boer, A.; Westrus, I.

    2001-01-01

    The industry, and later on households as well, are free to choose which company will be their energy supplier. The chances that it is going to be a foreign company are high. Many Dutch production companies were taken over by a foreign company. American companies, e.g. Reliant, Enron and TXU, Electrabel from Belgium and E.On from Germany all want a part of the Dutch industrial market. It is going to be a crowded market place and each company has it's own strategy to survive

  9. Effects of an accelerated liberalization. Consequences of accelerated liberalization for the competitiveness of Dutch energy companies; Effecten van de versnelde liberalisering. Consequenties van de versnelde liberalisering voor de concurrentiepositie van Nederlandse energiebedrijven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaal, M.B.T. [ECN-Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2001-08-01

    One of the conclusions of the Dutch Energy Report, published at the end of 1999, was that it would be feasible to speed up the pace of liberalization in the Netherlands. This conclusion will lead to the liberalization of the retail customers in 2004 and the market for renewable energy in 2001. This will be an incentive to more competition and put a greater pressure on energy companies to concentrate in order to benefit from economies of scale. Less preparation time implies also that there will be less layers of isolation against cost leaders and hence a more intense (price-based) competition. The central question in this report is whether and to what extent the effects of policy, in particular the accelerated liberalization, affect the strategic behavior and competitiveness of the Dutch Regional Electricity Companies (RECs). To address this question four face-to-face interviews have been held with experts from the four major RECs. In these interviews the experts gave their opinion about the Dutch policy regarding the accelerated liberalization and the rate and extent of the privatization. Subsequently, their perspective on the impact of the policy on their competitiveness and their analysis of the Dutch energy market was recorded. After that, the experts exposed their outlook on the future energy market and the ambition and most likely direction of their companies. The data collection was complemented with numerous relevant public interviews of experts derived from various newspapers and energy magazines. The data thus collected were analyzed by means of a theoretical framework consisting of the insights of Porter, Prahalad and Hamel and at a more detailed level marketing theories regarding positioning and branding. This resulted in an overview of the current market position of the Dutch RECs and an outlook for the years to come. 27 refs.

  10. Regulatory governance of telecommunications liberalisation in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Kuo-Tai [Department of Regional Studies in Humanity and Social Sciences, National Hsin-Chu University of Education, No. 521 Nan-Da Road, Hsin-Chu 300 (China); Hebenton, Bill [School of Law, University of Manchester, M13 9PP (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    This paper examines the changing role of government and market in regulating the telecommunications sector from since 1996 in Taiwan. It contextualises the theoretical aspects of regulatory governance for institutional design and practices, and reviews the concepts and mechanisms for appraising privatisation and regulatory systems. Using a conceptual framework for researching privatisation and regulation, it describes the process and issues pertinent to telecommunications liberalisation and privatisation in Taiwan, supported by a brief presentation of theoretical points of view as well as practitioners' views. The paper presents results concerning criteria for appraising privatisation and regulatory governance and considers policy lessons that can be learned from the experiences of the Taiwanese telecommunications sector's liberalisation. (author)

  11. Risk and promise in energy market liberalization: consumer choice in buying electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, Barry

    1999-01-01

    In many countries, where the electricity industry is being exposed to market liberalisation, it is found that the hardest part of the market to reform is retail supply to small business and domestic consumers. There are two main alternatives for promoting consumer choice, metering and load profiling. Notable developments are occurring in the United Kingdom, the United States, Scandinavia and New Zealand. Significant legal difficulties are encountered with such reforms. Among them are contract law, energy-sector regulation, competition law, privacy and individual rights, and consumer protection. The disaggregation of the industry, especially at the retail end, imposes special demands on contract and industry self-regulation. (Author)

  12. Energy markets and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krozer, Yoram

    2017-01-01

    Innovations mechanisms on energy markets are discussed, in particular valorization of energy products which invokes decarbonization of energy recourses. The valorization, meaning higher value of energy products, is expressed as electrification and entry of modern renewable energy based on

  13. Regulating deregulated energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, M.

    2002-01-01

    The North American gas and electricity markets are fast evolving, and regulators are currently faced with a host of issues such as market-based rates, unbundling, stranded costs, open access, and incentive regulation are surfacing as a result of deregulation. The regulatory environment in Ontario was reviewed by the author. Deregulated markets rule, from commodities to gas and electricity. Additionally, there is an evolution of traditional utility regulation. A look at deregulated markets revealed that there are regulations on boundary conditions on the deregulated market. Under the Ontario Energy Board (OEB), all generators, transmitters, distributors, and retailers of electricity must be licensed. The standard supply service (SSS) offered by electricity distributors and system gas which is still being sold by natural gas distributors continues to be regulated by OEB. One issue that was addressed was separation for revenues and costs of the utility's purchase and sale of gas business, at least for accounting purposes. The next issue discussed was cost of system gas and SSS, followed by timely signals and prudent incurred costs. Historical benefits were reviewed, such as historical commitments to low-cost electricity. Pooling transportation costs, transmission pricing continued, market-based rates, unbundling, stranded costs, open access, incentive regulation/ performance based regulation (PBR) were all discussed. Price cap on PBR, both partial and comprehensive were looked at. A requirement to review guidelines on cost of capital and an application to extend blanket approval provisions for gas storage were discussed, as they are amongst some of the challenges of the future. Other challenges include revised rules and practice and procedure; practice directions for cost awards, appeals, and other functions; confidentiality guidelines; and refinements to the role of and approaches to alternative dispute resolution. The future role of regulators was examined in light

  14. Investments in electricity generation in Croatian liberalized market: energy option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androcec, I.; Viskovic, A.; Slipac, G.

    2004-01-01

    The Republic of Croatia should have enough capacities built on its own territory to cover system's peak load at any time for ensuring a long-term reliability of its operation. According to annual increasing of electricity consumption and progressive shutdown of the oldest generating plants, the security of future electricity supply depends on new investments. The market, i.e. a competitive generation, is the driving force in the construction of new power plants. The main stimulus for the construction is the possibility of definite return of invested capital and enabling potential investors to realize the expected revenues (profit). The construction of generating capacities is subject of authorisation procedure or tendering procedure, by approval of the Energy Regulatory Council. The electricity market opening in Croatia is parallel process with establishment of regional energy market in South East Europe where the decision of investment in new power plant will be defined by regional investment priorities, all in the aspect of European Union enlargement. In those liberalisation conditions it is necessary to realize all possible energy options according to the Strategy of Energy Development of Republic of Croatia and to the regional energy market requirements or European Union Directives. New power plant will be realized, because of objective circumstances, through construction of gas power plant or coal power plant and possible nuclear power plant, and in much smaller size through construction of hydro power plants or power plants on renewable energy sources. The possibility of any energy option will be considered in view of: investment cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel price, external costs, public influence, and through investor's risk. This paper is aiming to analyse the possibility of nuclear power plant construction in Croatia as well as in other small and medium electricity grids. Nuclear option will be comprehensively considered in technical

  15. Liberalisation and the security of gas supply in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Philip

    2005-01-01

    This paper contests the view held by the current UK government and its industry regulator, OFGEM, that liberalisation is good for security of supply. Focusing on the downstream aspects of the security of UK gas supply, on system security, it considers the impact of the different aspects of liberalisation: of legal governance, supply competition, de-integration, market simulation, regulation and the interaction of liberalised gas and electricity markets. Categorising these impacts in terms of security threats and threats to security response, it finds that individually and as a complex collectivity they have increased the risks of supply failure, either potential or already realised, in a variety of ways: from creating increased uncertainty and failing to signal adequate or appropriate investment, to legal ambiguity which divorces responsibility from liability and renders legal liability indeterminate ex ante. Moreover, one of the UK government's responses to these increased dangers, which it does appear to perceive, is revealed as itself paralysed by the liberalisation paradigm: the government can only intervene pre-emptively with information in attempt to persuade the market to behave as it thinks it should. Meanwhile, however, the government has also had to recognise its default responsibility for security of supply and make preparations to intervene in an emergency situation: liberalisation can only be challenged when it is already too late

  16. Energy at what price? Energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favennec, J.P.; Amic, E.; Darmois, G.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, the whole world had to stand a real energy shock due to the rise of oil, gas and electricity prices. The perspective of a possible shortage, even at the prospect of several decades, has led to a deep change of the world energy market. In this context, this book supplies a clear and didactical presentation of the mechanisms of petroleum, gas and electricity markets, with their advantages and limitations. At the time of a globalization of economy, the book analyzes the consequences of markets deregulation on the energy prices and tries to answer several main questions: why such a price volatility? Who will take the risk of investing now? Will the energy actors of the present day concentration be in a dominating position? Content: 1 - energy, markets and energy markets; 2 - crude oil and petroleum product markets; 3 - gas markets; 4 - electric power markets; 5 - perspectives. Glossary. Index. (J.S.)

  17. International Energy Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doringoni, S.; Pontoni, F.

    2008-01-01

    The paper analyzes recent market trends in the oil and natural gas sector. For the latter, a focus on the European gas market is then presented, whose consumption has grown considerably in these last ten years. As for the oil sector this paper investigates the key elements that have shaped its market in these years. As for oil consumption, we show that in these last 15 years China, India and the Middle East are the main responsible for the increase in World consumption. On the other hand, European OECD Countries have consistently reduced (almost 9%) their oil demand. This is due both to the dematerialization of their economy and their significant improvements in energy efficiency. As for energy intensity, in fact, Europe by far is the most efficient region in the World. On the other hand, OPEC has drastically raised its share of total production: at present the cartel accounts for more than 40% of overall production. OPEC members were the only producers to meet World's needs as oil demand expanded. The difficulties of other producers to keep up with the demand originated in the nineties, when no investment in new production capacity was brought about due to low oil prices. In the end of 2008, anyway, recession has eased the situation: for the first time in fifteen years, demand has not grown, compared to 2007 consumption. Recession has also shrunk prices, which, as soon as the demand started decreasing, have collapsed by almost 70%. As for the gas sector, the paper focuses on the European market where, after ten years from the beginning of the liberalization process, competition is still missing. In particular, the paper discusses whether LNG can bring about the competition so desperately needed. Unlike investments in pipelines, those in the LNG chain present a much lower degree of specificity, since the importer is not physically tied with the producer; moreover, it is getting increasingly common that part of the plant capacity is made available for spot

  18. Present market for nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzo, M.A.S.

    1987-01-01

    The present market for nuclear energy is present since nuclear production and electric power generation to the utilization of radioisotopes in medicine and biology. Some data about the main world suppliers to this market are shown. (E.G.) [pt

  19. Liberalisation and green patent registrations of electric utilities in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salies, Evens; Nesta, Lionel

    2010-10-01

    The authors report a study of the influence of reforms which introduce a liberalisation of energy markets on the innovation behaviour of electric utilities in some countries. Within a context of concentration of this sector, the hypothesis of a negative impact on patent registration by electric utilities is tested by the authors. They first define the notion of environmental innovation and its evolution in the electric energy sector as the climate and environment issues are nowadays extremely important for the energy sector. R and D here addresses micro-generation, fuel cells, tidal turbine systems, energy production by using solar energy, and biomass gasification. They discuss numbers of pattern registrations by European utilities before and after laws on energy market reform. They present an econometric model and data used to test the hypothesis and comment the obtained results. The model comprises a knowledge production function, and various explicative variables (firm size and R and D, reforms, technological opportunities, energy mix, and influence of demand)

  20. The Third EU Energy Market Package. Are We Singing the Right Song?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Jong, Jacques [Clingendael International Energy Programme CIEP, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2008-02-15

    The liberalisation of EU energy markets has been a key objective of EU policy makers for many years. Proposals issuing from Brussels have met with both applause and resistance from many business and political circles. Ever since the project of a 'single European market for gas and electricity' began in the early 1990s, the debate has been alternatingly dominated by rational and emotional arguments, resulting in more or less effective compromises. In this new CIEP Briefing Paper the author takes a thorough look at energy policy in the European Union. He author offers a detailed and thoughtful expose of the current discussions on European electricity and gas markets, and offers key suggestions for fruitful discussions on how to secure competitive EU markets with a reliable external security of (gas) supply.

  1. Liberalization of energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    During the last decade, the supply of electricity has been liberalized in the Nordic countries - first in Norway in 1991 and most recently in Iceland in 2003. After the liberalization process the consumers can freely choose the end-use supplier that offers the most attractive prices and conditions of supply. This development has opened up new opportunities for the consumer, but has also created new problems. The amount of kWh consumed and the composition of the electricity price determines the extent to which a consumer can influence annual expenses by being active on the market. After liberalization the consumer price is composed of: The market price for electricity; Transmission tariffs; Consumer and energy taxes. Only the market price can be influenced by an active consumer. Most consumer problems are a result of the system with indirect metering that was introduced to make it costless for small consumers to change supplier. An individual consumer's consumption is calculated according to the average consumption profile for all small consumers in the local distribution area and not according to her actual consumption. As metering is only taking place with intervals of one to several years many consumers have received invoices with large additional payments. Complaints are also common against distribution companies that have taken too long time to transfer the necessary information to the suppliers or have done it wrongly. The right solution would be to introduce intelligent meters that, in addition, could provide the consumers with new opportunities to monitor their electricity consumption. Such initiatives are now taking place in all four countries but it will take some years to provide intelligent meters to all consumers. Liberalization has caused an increasing number of consumer complaints. However, it has become less transparent to whom the complaint should be directed. When is it the distribution company and when the end-use supplier? This problem continues

  2. 'Normal' markets, market imperfections and energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanstad, A.H.; Howarth, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    The conventional distinction between 'economic' and 'engineering' approaches to energy analysis obscures key methodological issues concerning the measurement of the costs and benefits of policies to promote the adoption of energy-efficient technologies. The engineering approach is in fact based upon firm economic foundations: the principle of lifecycle cost minimization that arises directly from the theory of rational investment. Thus, evidence that so-called 'market barriers' impede the adoption of cost-effective energy-efficient technologies implies the existence of market failures as defined in the context of microeconomic theory. A widely held view that the engineering view lacks economic justification, is based on the fallacy that markets are 'normally' efficient. (author)

  3. Efficient integration of renewable energies in the German electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabe, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    Liberalisation of the electricity sector aims to carry out coordination tasks within the system by markets and market prices. This study examines how markets need to be designed to carry out coordination tasks caused by integration of renewable energies in an efficient way. This question is applied to the German electricity system and recommendations are derived from identified deficits. The examination uses the structure-conduct-performance approach of industrial organisation economics. Integration of renewable energies does not result in entirely new coordination tasks but complicates those that exist in any electricity supply system. Within the short-term coordination tasks provision and operation of reserve capacity is affected by renewable energies. Long-term coordination means that the relation between fixed and variable costs of generators as well as generator flexibility has to be adjusted to the characteristics of renewable energies. The relevant short-term coordination task with the network is congestion management. In the long run costs of grid expansion and permanent congestion management have to be balanced. For the execution of short-run coordination tasks integrated and centralised market architectures are superior to decentralised architectures. The increase of short-term coordination tasks due to renewable energies caused by inflexibilities of consumers and conventional generators results in more information that has to be considered. By centralising that information in one market, an increase in productive efficiency can be obtained. In Germany the increased coordination tasks are determined by the integration of wind generators into the electricity system. The present German market architecture results in inefficiencies in short-term coordination. This is demonstrated by an analysis of procedural rules and prices of the ancillary service markets. They demonstrate that market performance is low and significant deviations from competitive prices

  4. Proceedings of the 11th forum: Croatian Energy Day: Regulation problems relating to energy service markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The main goals of the majority of processes and developments relating to energy sectors of today present the enhancement of energy sector efficiency, ensuring of stable financial sources and safe return of the means invested through practice of activities at the market of energy and energy services, i.e. public services or monopoly. This is to be achieved by means of energy sector restructuring and liberalisation, pluralism of ownership and transparency of the organisational and management scheme. Thereby, an important role and significance for the realisation of these aims, for the development and energy market functioning on the national level, as well as for the achievement of reciprocity and complementarity of national markets with regional and multi-national energy markets, is held by models and forms of energy activity regulation. In a limited sense, the regulation itself should constitute an adequate stimulating framework for free energy flows, transparent and non- discriminating conditions for the utilisation of transmission and transportation systems and networks, protection of supplier choice rights, pluralism of ownership and ownership rights, protection of energy and energy services' quality, environmental protection, protection of purchasers and consumers and protection of energy subjects. For all these reasons, aspects and problems appertaining to energy sector and energy activities' regulation have been chosen as the theme and contents of the 11th Forum. Various countries have undertaken and implemented or are in the process of implementation of different models and contents referring to energy sector and energy activity regulation. Experience and legislative practice are quoted as the main criteria. The aim of this Forum is to set forth and clarify experiences and solutions connected to the regulation of energy activities in numerous European countries or in the world

  5. Liberalisation of the Venezuelan power sector: what is stalling it?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolas, P. Ventura [Av. Sanz, calle Convento II, edif. E, apto. 8D, El Marques Caracas (Venezuela)

    2005-07-01

    For the past eight years, Venezuelan power sector has been attempting to be liberalised. The first step was made in 1996 through the 'Decree 1558'. The second step in 1999 was legally stronger and better received by players of the different sectors; however, it did not show any sign of progress after five years. At the same time, the need for investments is increasing and the expectation of demand's growth is also rising. Hence, the intention of this research paper is to identify the factors that are constraining the liberalisation in the Venezuelan power sector. This paper concludes that the lack of consensus of the government about the nature of the reform, the popular fear of losses, the lack of regulation and the lack of autonomy in its formal structure, and the nonliberalisation of the gas market are just some of the most significant reasons that are constraining the liberalisation in the Venezuelan power sector. (Author)

  6. Market-price-based calculation and control of profit contributions in energy supply companies; Marktpreisbasierte Kalkulation und Steuerung von Ergebnisbeitraegen in Energieversorgungsunternehmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brehme, Annett

    2013-08-01

    As a result of the liberalisation of the electricity markets starting in the 1990s energy supply companies are confronted with the task of implementing some means of profit centre control along with a suitable risk management system for the business areas production, trade and marketing. Traditionally results accounting and profitability analysis are still done using the cost plus method. However this method does not do justice to the fact that power plant deployment and the marketing department's task of offer pricing have to be geared to wholesale prices. This has led the author to develop a market-price-based calculation and control concept for energy supply companies.

  7. Opening up electricity markets: contributions of research in the energy economics area - Proceedings of the conference on 22 November 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, R.; Bacher, R.; Bodmer, F.; Dettli, R.; Ott, W.; Fillipini, M.; Graber, W.; Iten, R.; Renggli, M.; Romerio, F.; Sommer, H.

    2001-01-01

    These proceedings of the conference organised by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) that took place on the 22nd of November 2001 present nine papers on various topics involved in the liberalisation of the Swiss electricity market. The topics covered include the labelling of electricity to indicate its source, whereby the problems to be overcome in connection with the import of electrical power are examined, and the results of a focus-group survey on the labelling of electricity that covers the requirements of consumers. Further, a paper on the fundamentals for the definition of charges for the use of the electricity grid for the transport of energy by third parties as well as two papers on the benchmarking of Swiss electricity grids are presented. Two further papers discuss the billing of costs between grids operating at different voltage levels and the regulation of prices in the distribution grids at the start of liberalisation. The conditions for hydropower in a liberalised Swiss electricity market and the importance of water taxation and its possible differentiation by location are discussed in two further papers

  8. Housing liberalisation and gentrification: the social effects of tenure conversions in Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boterman, W.R.; van Gent, W.P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Privatisation and liberalisation of the housing market are often used as governmental strategies for engineering the social composition of urban neighbourhoods. Drawing on longitudinal register data, this study reports findings from the highly-regulated housing context of Amsterdam. Through

  9. Policy options when giving negative externalities market value. Clean energy policymaking and restructuring the Western Australian energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHenry, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Uncertainty surrounds the choice of instruments that internalise fossil-fuel pollution at the local, regional and global level. This work outlines the considerable growth in the Western Australian (WA) energy sector and explores the available options and potential hazards of using specific instruments to internalise externalities. These core options are discussed with respect to liberalising energy markets, providing private investment certainty, and imparting commentary on the developments and consequences of reform in the WA context. As a large energy exporter, providing certainty for the WA energy sector investment and the community is necessary to maintain the current prosperity. Remarkably, in the decades of market reform progress, the absence of one essential element is evident: economic externalities. Policymakers are under increasing pressure to understand economic reform, new energy markets and the multifaceted repercussions they entail. With modern energy reform sitting squarely within the milieu of more efficient governments and climate policy, there are clear economic advantages to internalising negative and positive externalities and other market distortions during energy market developments. Ignoring market failures when commercialising government-owned energy utilities in de-regulated and competitive markets invites continued ad-hoc government interference that generates investment uncertainty in addition to a perplexed electorate. (author)

  10. The Swedish Energy Market 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-10-01

    The Swedish Energy Market, 2005 is an annual publication that presents information and statistics on the network based energy markets in Sweden, i.e. the markets for electricity, natural gas and district heating. It also provides an overview of the issues that have arisen on these markets during the second half of 2004 and the first half of 2005. Considerable work is being carried out in the EU on creating a single market for electricity and natural gas. This publication therefore describes expansion of the Swedish market towards a Nordic and a European market. The publication normally includes a theme chapter, describing some event of particular interest for the Swedish energy market during the year. This year, the theme chapter is devoted to the Storm Gudrun, which struck the south of the country at the beginning of January, and its effects on electricity supply throughout the country. The chapter is based on the report submitted to the Government by the Energy Markets Inspectorate in the spring of 2005, and also includes a summary of the Inspectorate's proposals for measures to improve the security of electricity transmission. Energy in Sweden, which is another of the Swedish Energy Agency's annual publications, provides information and statistics on the development of the entire Swedish energy system.

  11. The Swedish Energy Market 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    The Swedish Energy Market, 2005 is an annual publication that presents information and statistics on the network based energy markets in Sweden, i.e. the markets for electricity, natural gas and district heating. It also provides an overview of the issues that have arisen on these markets during the second half of 2004 and the first half of 2005. Considerable work is being carried out in the EU on creating a single market for electricity and natural gas. This publication therefore describes expansion of the Swedish market towards a Nordic and a European market. The publication normally includes a theme chapter, describing some event of particular interest for the Swedish energy market during the year. This year, the theme chapter is devoted to the Storm Gudrun, which struck the south of the country at the beginning of January, and its effects on electricity supply throughout the country. The chapter is based on the report submitted to the Government by the Energy Markets Inspectorate in the spring of 2005, and also includes a summary of the Inspectorate's proposals for measures to improve the security of electricity transmission. Energy in Sweden, which is another of the Swedish Energy Agency's annual publications, provides information and statistics on the development of the entire Swedish energy system

  12. Opening the gas market - Effects on energy consumption, energy prices and the environment and compensation measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dettli, R.; Signer, B.; Kaufmann, Y.

    2001-01-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the effects of a future liberalisation of the gas market in Switzerland. The report first examines the current situation of the gas supply industry in Switzerland. The contents of European Union Guidelines are described and their implementation in Switzerland is discussed. Experience already gained in other countries is looked at, including market opening already implemented in the USA and Great Britain. The effect of market-opening on gas prices is discussed; the various components of the gas price are examined and comparisons are made with international figures. The pressure of competition on the individual sectors of the gas industry are looked at and the perspectives in the gas purchasing market are examined. The report presents basic scenarios developed from these considerations. Further effects resulting from a market opening are discussed, including those on the structure of the gas industry, its participants, electricity generation, energy use and the environment, consumers in general, security of supply and the national economy. Possible compensatory measures are discussed and factors for increasing efficiency and the promotion of a competitive environment are discussed. In the appendix, two price scenarios are presented

  13. Forecasting and decision-making in electricity markets with focus on wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Tryggvi

    This thesis deals with analysis, forecasting and decision making in liberalised electricity markets. Particular focus is on wind power, its interaction with the market and the daily decision making of wind power generators. Among recently emerged renewable energy generation technologies, wind power...... derivation of practically applicable tools for decision making highly relevant. The main characteristics of wind power differ fundamentally from those of conventional thermal power. Its effective generation capacity varies over time and is directly dependent on the weather. This dependency makes future...... has become the global leader in terms of installed capacity and advancement. This makes wind power an ideal candidate to analyse the impact of growing renewable energy generation capacity on the electricity markets. Furthermore, its present status of a significant supplier of electricity makes...

  14. Demand response in energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skytte, K.; Birk Mortensen, J.

    2004-11-01

    Improving the ability of energy demand to respond to wholesale prices during critical periods of the spot market can reduce the total costs of reliably meeting demand, and the level and volatility of the prices. This fact has lead to a growing interest in the short-run demand response. There has especially been a growing interest in the electricity market where peak-load periods with high spot prices and occasional local blackouts have recently been seen. Market concentration at the supply side can result in even higher peak-load prices. Demand response by shifting demand from peak to base-load periods can counteract the market power in the peak-load. However, demand response has so far been modest since the current short-term price elasticity seems to be small. This is also the case for related markets, for example, green certificates where the demand is determined as a percentage of the power demand, or for heat and natural gas markets. This raises a number of interesting research issues: 1) Demand response in different energy markets, 2) Estimation of price elasticity and flexibility, 3) Stimulation of demand response, 4) Regulation, policy and modelling aspects, 5) Demand response and market power at the supply side, 6) Energy security of supply, 7) Demand response in forward, spot, ancillary service, balance and capacity markets, 8) Demand response in deviated markets, e.g., emission, futures, and green certificate markets, 9) Value of increased demand response, 10) Flexible households. (BA)

  15. The Ontario Energy Marketers Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, W.F.C.

    1998-01-01

    An overview of the role of the Ontario Energy Marketers Association (OEMA) and its future orientation was presented. Participants in the OEMA include agents, brokers, marketers, local distribution companies, public interest representatives, associations and government representatives. The role of the OEMA is to encourage open competition for the benefit and protection of all energy consumer and market participants. As well, the OEMA serves as a forum for key industry stakeholders to resolve market issues outside the regulatory arena, set standards and codes of practice, establish customer education programs, and develop industry input into public policy making

  16. Energy independence versus world market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    2003-01-01

    The geo-policy is the unity of the rules and political actions coming from taking into account the problem of the national energy demands facing the world energy market. The aim of this paper is to show that these actions are confronted to two paradigms of public policy. One is the research of the energy policy, the other is the effort of building and safety of the world market. (A.L.B.)

  17. Vigorous marketing concepts for the energy supply industry. Products, services, advertising; Markiger Auftritt in der Energiewirtschaft. Produkte, Dienstleistungen, Werbung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zenke, I.; Ellwanger, N. (eds.)

    2003-07-01

    The authors present a variety of marketing concepts tailored to the needs of electric utilities and gas utilities as marketers in the liberalising energy markets. Concepts for developing particular marketing policies for the 'commodities' and related services are designed and explained in the context of an integrated approach for implementation in compliance with the changing market environment and the legal framework governing the internal market within the European Union. (orig./CB) [German] Das Buch stellt Zusammenhaenge verschiedener Marketing-Massnahmen, die im Einzelnen erlaeutert werden, und deren rechtliche Umsetzung in einem integrierten Ansatz dar und gibt damit vielseitige Hilfestellungen hinsichtlich der Vermarktung von Energieprodukten und Services durch Strom- und Gasversorger im liberalisierten Binnenmarkt der Europaeischen Union. (orig./CB)

  18. Energy economics and financial markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorsman, Andre [Vrije Univ. Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Finance; Simpson, John L. [Curtin Univ., Perth, WA (Australia). School of Economics and Finance; Westerman, Wim (eds.) [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Faculty of Economics and Business Economics, Econometrics and Finance

    2013-10-01

    Deals with the upcoming theme of energy issues. Links energy issues with economics and financial markets. Combines global focus with specific regional and local examples. Unites theoretical insights with timely data and practical insights. Specialized author team from all over the world. Energy issues feature frequently in the economic and financial press. Specific examples of topical energy issues come from around the globe and often concern economics and finance. The importance of energy production, consumption and trade raises fundamental economic issues that impact the global economy and financial markets. This volume presents research on energy economics and financial markets related to the themes of supply and demand, environmental impact and renewables, energy derivatives trading, and finance and energy. The contributions by experts in their fields take a global perspective, as well as presenting cases from various countries and continents.

  19. Proceedings of the 12. forum: Croatian Energy Day: Energy consumers in open market conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granic, G.; Jelavic, B.

    2003-01-01

    The theme of the 12. Forum: Energy Day in Croatia is energy sector liberalisation and the new position of the consumers, changing rapidly and acquiring a completely new perspective. By means of market opening of various energy forms the consumer gains right to choose the energy supplier, quite a radical change in relation to the former, monopolistic relationship. This means that the consumer becomes the centre of attention, as has already been achieved at the mobile phone market. Within new market environment, the consumer becomes product buyer, buyer of the product in principle bearing market characteristics as any other product. However, energy markets reveal numerous peculiarities, distinguishing them from the markets of goods and services, as we have known them for centuries, which function according to well-known market conditions. While part of the energy sector will permanently remain a natural monopoly (transmission / transportation and distribution networks), the opening of the considered market requires information science development, which means it is necessary to apply advanced technology for e.g. measuring devices, etc. In view of such market circumstances it is essential to define the quality of the product including supply stability, voltage quality or agility in responding to customer complaints. On the other hand, these factors cannot be adjusted to each individual consumer-buyer at the moment or at least not ones. The position of the customers-buyers has been solved differently in various countries. The aim of this Forum is to put forward and explain experience and solutions connected to the new customer-buyer role in market circumstances. It is our wish that the participants discuss problems connected to the consumer-buyer position under the following aspects: Present status of market opening for various energy forms in the countries of the EU and in the transition countries; technical preconditions for energy market opening such as information

  20. Energy consultancy in the year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeve, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Liberalisation of the energy markets, shifting emphasis from energy carriers to energy products, improving insights in the areas of saving energy and energy efficiency, changes in the company itself. These are the developments which will continue to influence the profession of energy consultant, according to the author. A brief impression is given of what the energy consultant can do in the year 2000

  1. Liberalisation and Corporate Strategic Behaviours: A Taxonomy of the European Electric Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Schiavone Francesco; Quintano Michele

    2012-01-01

    Liberalisation in the European electricity market greatly increased the number of corporate mergers and acquisitions. This article proposes a taxonomy of the strategic behaviours of European electricity firms after the recent continental industry liberalisation. We analysed the operations of mergers and acquisitions of these companies. The «five competitive forces» model by Michael Porter was used in order to develop the taxonomy. Our analysis outlines three main strategic types: "omnivorou"s...

  2. Portfolio diversification in energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvani, Valentina; Plourde, Andre

    2010-01-01

    This paper's results indicate that futures for crude oil, natural gas and unleaded gasoline fail to enhance the performance of representative energy stocks in terms of return to risk, but do decrease the overall level of risk exposure borne by passive equity investors. Our findings suggest that futures contracts on energy commodities are valuable to market participants with an interest in hedging against price fluctuations in energy markets by buy-and-hold strategies. However, this conclusion is reversed when one takes the perspective of traders whose core interests can be better approximated through the return to risk-bearing. In fact, this paper documents that return-to-risk maximizing agents are unlikely to profit from trading energy futures in addition to energy stocks. Moreover, futures for energy commodities fail to offer significant diversification gains with respect to energy stocks once investors adopt simple dynamic trading strategies that rely on readily available pricing information. (author)

  3. Portfolio diversification in energy markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvani, Valentina; Plourde, Andre [Department of Economics at the University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-03-15

    This paper's results indicate that futures for crude oil, natural gas and unleaded gasoline fail to enhance the performance of representative energy stocks in terms of return to risk, but do decrease the overall level of risk exposure borne by passive equity investors. Our findings suggest that futures contracts on energy commodities are valuable to market participants with an interest in hedging against price fluctuations in energy markets by buy-and-hold strategies. However, this conclusion is reversed when one takes the perspective of traders whose core interests can be better approximated through the return to risk-bearing. In fact, this paper documents that return-to-risk maximizing agents are unlikely to profit from trading energy futures in addition to energy stocks. Moreover, futures for energy commodities fail to offer significant diversification gains with respect to energy stocks once investors adopt simple dynamic trading strategies that rely on readily available pricing information. (author)

  4. The European gaseous market deregulation and its consequences for Russia; La liberalisation du marche gazier europeen et ses consequences pour la Russie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finon, D.; Locatelli, C

    2002-07-01

    Russia, the first world producer of gas in 2001 is also the main producer in the european gas market. In this framework the evolution of its gas exportations market is a major stake for the russian gas industry and for the country economy. The consequences of this gas market deregulation are analyzed in this document. (A.L.B.)

  5. Competing in changing energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannell, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents two perspectives: first, that of a successful exporter of energy products into world markets and second, that of a producer and seller of energy to consumers in South Australia and New South Wales - a large proportion of whom are privately and publicly owned trading organisations. It looks at Santos' experience in winning export markets for its liquid products; provides an overview of the changes - occurring and prospective to the Australian energy sector; and finally, discusses the outlook for Santos' South Australian gas business. The Australian energy-supply sectors have entered a period of unprecedented change. With energy being a contributor, and in many cases accounting for a large share of a traded good's cost, the impact of the emerging developments in the energy sector are of considerable significance

  6. Solar energy enters the market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coehoorn, M.; Sinke, W.C.

    1995-11-01

    Everybody agrees that there is a bright future for solar energy. After two decades of research and development, the market introduction of solar hot water systems is now taking off. In several countries, including the Netherlands, preparations are also underway for the large-scale introduction of photovoltaic systems. Although the share of thermal and photovoltaic solar energy in the energy supply sector in the Netherlands is very small (0.1 PJ) there are signs of imminent change. According to the Follow-up Policy Document on Energy Conservation, the share of solar energy should increase to 7 PJ by the year 2010. After years of concentrating on research and development, it is now generally recognised that it is time to introduce these technologies onto the market in order to realize the long-term objectives. In this respect, thermal solar energy is ahead of photovoltaics. 4 ills

  7. Trade Liberalisation and Economic Growth in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mano-Bakalinov Viktorija

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to explore the effects of trade on Macedonian economic growth. The autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL model is applied on yearly data over the period of 1993-2014. Empirical investigation reveals that an increase of population and openness demonstrate a positive and significant effect on Macedonian economic growth. Given other diverging findings, this suggests that the relationship between trade reforms and growth through the productivity function may vary across transition economies. Nevertheless, the findings of this paper indicate that policies focusing on market liberalisation and opening the economy to trade have a positive effect on Macedonian economic growth, both in the short run and the long run.

  8. Trade Liberalisation and Vertical Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Peter Arendorf; Laugesen, Anders Rosenstand

    We build a three-country model of international trade in final goods and intermediate inputs and study the relation between four different types of trade liberalisation and vertical integration. Firms are heterogeneous with respect to both productivity and factor (headquarter) intensity. Final......-good producers face decisions on exporting, vertical integration of intermediate-input production, and whether the intermediate-input production should be offshored to a low-wage country. We find that the fractions of final-good producers that pursue either vertical integration, offshoring, or exporting are all...... increasing when intermediate-input trade or final-goods trade is liberalised. Finally, we provide guidance for testing the open-economy property rights theory of the firm using firm-level data and surprisingly show that the relationship between factor (headquarter) intensity and the likelihood of vertical...

  9. Trade Liberalisation and Vertical Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Peter Arendorf; Laugesen, Anders

    We build a three-country model of international trade in final goods and intermediate inputs and study the relation between different types of trade liberalisation and vertical integration. Firms are heterogeneous with respect to both productivity and factor intensity as observed in data. Final......-good producers face decisions on exporting, vertical integration of intermediate-input production, and whether the intermediate-input production should be offshored to a low-wage country. We find that the fractions of final-good producers that pursue either vertical integration, offshoring, or exporting are all...... increasing when intermediate-input or final-goods trade is liberalised and when the fixed cost of vertical integration is reduced. At the same time, one observes firms that shift away from either vertical integration, offshoring, or exporting. Further, we provide guidance for testing the open...

  10. Decision modelling tools for utilities in the deregulated energy market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makkonen, S. [Process Vision Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2005-07-01

    This thesis examines the impact of the deregulation of the energy market on decision making and optimisation in utilities and demonstrates how decision support applications can solve specific encountered tasks in this context. The themes of the thesis are presented in different frameworks in order to clarify the complex decision making and optimisation environment where new sources of uncertainties arise due to the convergence of energy markets, globalisation of energy business and increasing competition. This thesis reflects the changes in the decision making and planning environment of European energy companies during the period from 1995 to 2004. It also follows the development of computational performance and evolution of energy information systems during the same period. Specifically, this thesis consists of studies at several levels of the decision making hierarchy ranging from top-level strategic decision problems to specific optimisation algorithms. On the other hand, the studies also follow the progress of the liberalised energy market from the monopolistic era to the fully competitive market with new trading instruments and issues like emissions trading. This thesis suggests that there is an increasing need for optimisation and multiple criteria decision making methods, and that new approaches based on the use of operations research are welcome as the deregulation proceeds and uncertainties increase. Technically, the optimisation applications presented are based on Lagrangian relaxation techniques and the dedicated Power Simplex algorithm supplemented with stochastic scenario analysis for decision support, a heuristic method to allocate common benefits and potential losses of coalitions of power companies, and an advanced Branch- and-Bound algorithm to solve efficiently nonconvex optimisation problems. The optimisation problems are part of the operational and tactical decision making process that has become very complex in the recent years. Similarly

  11. Competition ambiguities. Electricite de France and the electricity market liberalization; Les ambiguites de la concurrence. Electricite de France et la liberalisation du marche de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boiteux, M. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    2007-04-15

    The European Union decided to open the electricity market to the competition and the last step will be in July 2007. Meanwhile the first part, the opening to big consumers, is a deception. The market saw an increase of the electricity prices. The author explains the effects of the liberalization, presenting the inevitable limits of the competition, the disappointing evaluation, the historical aspects of the electric market facing the today situation. (A.L.B.)

  12. Modelling Danish local CHP on market conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Hans V.; Riisom, Jannik; Schaumburg-Müller, Camilla

    2004-01-01

    with the liberalisation process of the energy sectors of the EU countries, it is however anticipated that Danish local CHP are to begin operating on market conditions within the year 2005. This means that the income that the local CHPs previously gained from selling electricity at the feed-in tariff is replaced in part...... the consequences of acting in a liberalised market for a given CHP plant, based on the abovementioned bottom-up model. The key assumption determining the bottom line is the electricity spot price. The formation of the spot price in the Nordic area depends heavily upon the state of the water reservoirs in Norway...

  13. Risk premia in energy markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veraart, Almut E.D.; Veraart, Luitgard A.M.

    Risk premia between spot and forward prices play a key role in energy markets. This paper derives analytic expressions for such risk premia when spot prices are modelled by Lévy semistationary processes. While the relation between spot and forward prices can be derived using classical no......-arbitrage arguments as long as the underlying commodities are storable, the situation changes in the case of electricity. Hence, in an empirical study based on electricity spot prices and futures from the European Energy Exchange market, we investigate the empirical behaviour of electricity risk premia from...

  14. POWERS. Simulation of pricing and investment decisions in a liberalized Dutch electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijkers, F.A.M.; Battjes, J.J.; Janszen, F.H.A.; Kaag, M.

    2001-02-01

    With the liberalisation of the Dutch electricity market the electricity price will be divided into a network component and a commodity component. Further, liberalisation will change the determination of the commodity price. Before liberalisation the commodity price was centrally determined by the Sep (Samenwerkende Electriciteitsproductiebedrijven or Dutch Electricity Generating Board), but with the introduction of liberalisation prices will be determined by the market itself. To analyse the liberalised market a new model (POWERS) has been developed in which the new structure of the electricity market is incorporated and the increasing competition between energy companies is taken into account. An overview of the POWERS-model is presented in this report. The model is based on the system dynamics. This means that the decisions (regarding production volume, allocation of the plants, price setting) made by each market player is based on information from the previous period. Optimisation models that are based on the assumption of 'perfect foresight' do not apply to the electricity market. Currently, the model contains a detailed description of the production capacity of the current market players in the Netherlands. Among other purposes the model is suitable for determining an outlook of forward prices on the Dutch electricity market and for analysing the impacts of alternative strategies of the different market players on their profits. 4 refs

  15. Sustainable markets for sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millan, J.; Smyser, C.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses how the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) is involved in sustainable energy development. It presently has 50 loans and grants for non conventional renewable energy projects and ten grants for efficiency programs for $600 and $17 million respectively, representing 100 MW of power. The IDB is concerned with how to create a sustainable market for sustainable energy projects. The IDB is trying to work with government, private sector, NGOs, trading allies, credit sources, and regulators to find proper roles for such projects. He discusses how the IDB is working to expand its vision and objectives in renewable energy projects in Central and South America.

  16. Governance variety in the energy service contracting market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostertag, Katrin; Huelsmann, Friederike

    2008-07-01

    There is a surprisingly high variety of actors involved in the supply of energy service contracting arrangements. Based on an empirical record of approximately 2,500 contracting projects in the domain of space heating in Germany, the paper analyses specialisation patterns of contractors. An econometric model is used to test hypotheses derived from transaction cost economics, which contractor type should be expected for which kind of contracting project. According to our results, if physical, site and human asset specificity are high, governance modes are preferred, for which contracting represents a downward integration of business activities along the value-added chain. This includes the supply of contracting by municipal utilities. More specifically, municipal utilities occur as superior suppliers of contracting if combined heat and power is implemented, if the building served is connected to their gas grid and if it is a public building. This pattern could orient the development of contracting activities for utilities reconsidering their strategic position following the liberalisation of the electricity market. (orig.)

  17. From nuclear phase-out to renewable energies in the Swiss electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio, Sebastian; Ackere, Ann van

    2016-01-01

    Liberalisation and the ever larger share of variable renewable energies (VRES), e.g. photovoltaic (PV) and wind energy, affect security of supply (SoS). We develop a system dynamics model to analyse the impact of VRES on the investment decision process and to understand how SoS is affected. We focus on the Swiss electricity market, which is currently undergoing a liberalisation process, and simultaneously faces the encouragement of VRES and a nuclear phase out. Our results show that nuclear production is replaced mainly by PV and imports; the country becomes a net importer. This evolution points to a problem of capacity adequacy. The resulting price rise, together with the subsidies needed to support VRES, lead to a rise in tariffs. In the presence of a high share of hydro, the de-rated margin may give a misleading picture of the capacity adequacy. We thus propose a new metric, the annual energy margin, which considers the energy available from all sources, while acknowledging that hydro-storage can function as a battery. This measure shows a much less reassuring picture of the country’s capacity adequacy. - Highlights: •We model the long-term dynamics of the Swiss electricity market. •Nuclear power is expected to be partially replaced by PV and imports. •These changes in the energy mix and exchange patterns cause prices to rise. •Import dependency and price rise are symptoms of a decreasing capacity adequacy. •The annual energy margin shows a less reassuring picture than the de-rated margin.

  18. Essays on liberalized energy markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nese, Gjermund

    2003-07-01

    This thesis consists of four essays that aim at contributing to the understanding of some of the new challenges associated by the liberalized energy markets. More specifically the essays consider investments in energy generation projects; international trade of Green Certificates, market power in a Green Certificate system, and finally the behaviour of public firms in liberalized markets. Essay 1 considers energy investment, when a choice has to be made between fossil fuel and biomass fired production technologies. A dynamic model is presented to illustrate the effect of the different degrees of input price uncertainty on the choice of technology and the timing of the investment. It is shown that when the choice of technology is irreversible, it may be optimal to postpone the investment even if it would otherwise be optimal to invest in one or both of the plant types. We provide a numerical example based on cost estimates of two different power plant types. Essay 2 presents an analytical equilibrium model for simultaneously functioning international markets for electricity and Green Certificates is formulated. The percentage requirement is perceived as the policy instrument affecting the level of green electricity in end-use consumption. In none of the cases considered does an increase in the country's percentage requirement necessarily result in an increase in the generation of green electricity in that country, but it may have a positive effect on the trading partner's generation of green electricity. Further, under quite realistic assumptions, a country maximizes its generation of green electricity by setting the percentage requirement to zero. In essay 3 an analytic equilibrium model for a simultaneously functioning electricity market and a market for Green Certificates is formulated. The major focus of the paper is the effect of market power in a Green Certificate system. One of the main results is that the certificate system faced with market power

  19. Essays on liberalized energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nese, Gjermund

    2003-01-01

    This thesis consists of four essays that aim at contributing to the understanding of some of the new challenges associated by the liberalized energy markets. More specifically the essays consider investments in energy generation projects; international trade of Green Certificates, market power in a Green Certificate system, and finally the behaviour of public firms in liberalized markets. Essay 1 considers energy investment, when a choice has to be made between fossil fuel and biomass fired production technologies. A dynamic model is presented to illustrate the effect of the different degrees of input price uncertainty on the choice of technology and the timing of the investment. It is shown that when the choice of technology is irreversible, it may be optimal to postpone the investment even if it would otherwise be optimal to invest in one or both of the plant types. We provide a numerical example based on cost estimates of two different power plant types. Essay 2 presents an analytical equilibrium model for simultaneously functioning international markets for electricity and Green Certificates is formulated. The percentage requirement is perceived as the policy instrument affecting the level of green electricity in end-use consumption. In none of the cases considered does an increase in the country's percentage requirement necessarily result in an increase in the generation of green electricity in that country, but it may have a positive effect on the trading partner's generation of green electricity. Further, under quite realistic assumptions, a country maximizes its generation of green electricity by setting the percentage requirement to zero. In essay 3 an analytic equilibrium model for a simultaneously functioning electricity market and a market for Green Certificates is formulated. The major focus of the paper is the effect of market power in a Green Certificate system. One of the main results is that the certificate system faced with market power may

  20. Carbon auctions, energy markets and market power: An experimental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormady, Noah C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an experimental analysis of a simultaneous energy-emissions market under conditions of market power. The experimental design employs real-world institutional features; including stochastic demand, permit banking, inter-temporal (multi-round) dynamics, a tightening cap, and resale. The results suggest that dominant firms can utilize energy-emissions market linkages to simultaneously inflate the price of energy and suppress the price of emissions allowances. Whereas under prior market designs, regulators were concerned with dominant firms exercising their market power over the emissions market to exclude rivals and manipulate the permit market by hoarding permits; the results of this paper suggest that this strategy is less profitable to dominant firms in contemporary auction-based markets than strategic capacity withholding in the energy market and associated demand reduction in the emissions market. - Highlights: • Laboratory simulation of joint energy-emissions market. • Evaluates market power under collusion and real-world institutional features. • Dominant firms can exercise market power to inflate energy prices. • Dominant firms can exercise market power to suppress emissions prices. • Supply withholding is an implicit demand reduction in the emissions market

  1. Energy and the Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    1996-01-01

    Denmark was one of the first countries in the world to commit itself to reduction targets for CO2 emission. Official Danish energy plans are reviewed in the light of the actual energy development. The EU Commission has been promoting a liberalisation of the electricity market for some years. At a...

  2. New energy paradigm?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldoni, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    The rise of oil prices, the difficulties in markets liberalization, and the poor results of competition have convinced many that a new energy paradigm is necessary. Taking the original definition of scientific paradigm, it doesn't seem that a practical solution could be found outside the present paradigm of energy policy, made of privatisation, liberalisation and competition [it

  3. Renewable energy market overview 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahoney, Nicholas

    2001-01-01

    The article discusses the findings of a recent survey on the renewable energy market carried out in 164 countries and across a wide range of sectors of industry. The survey found almost unanimous optimism regarding the growth of the renewable energy market over the coming year. Tables show (i) the survey sample (in terms of continents, database population and responses); (ii) subsidiaries and locations of parent companies; (iii) expectations of sales next year (by continent) and (iv) expectations of sales in the coming year by sector. Figures show (a) regional distribution of companies (by continent); (b) companies' activities and (c) index of expectations of sales, by continent. The survey is intended for inclusion in the World Directory of Renewable Energy Suppliers and Services

  4. Renewable energy market overview 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Nicholas

    2001-02-01

    The article discusses the findings of a recent survey on the renewable energy market carried out in 164 countries and across a wide range of sectors of industry. The survey found almost unanimous optimism regarding the growth of the renewable energy market over the coming year. Tables show (i) the survey sample (in terms of continents, database population and responses); (ii) subsidiaries and locations of parent companies; (iii) expectations of sales next year (by continent) and (iv) expectations of sales in the coming year by sector. Figures show (a) regional distribution of companies (by continent); (b) companies' activities and (c) index of expectations of sales, by continent. The survey is intended for inclusion in the World Directory of Renewable Energy Suppliers and Services.

  5. Pollution Under Environmental Regulation in Energy Markets

    CERN Document Server

    Gullì, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Pollution Under Environmental Regulation in Energy Markets provides a study of environmental regulation when energy markets are imperfectly competitive. This theoretical treatment focuses on three relevant cases of energy markets. First, the residential space heating sector where hybrid regulation such as taxation and emissions trading together are possible. Second, the electricity market where transactions are organized in the form of multi-period auctions. Third, namely natural gas (input) and electricity (output) markets where there is combined imperfect competition in vertical related energy markets.   The development of free or low carbon technologies supported by energy policies, aiming at increasing security of supply, is also explored whilst considering competition policies that reduce market power in energy markets thus improving market efficiency. Pollution Under Environmental Regulation in Energy Markets discusses the key issues of whether imperfect competition can lessen the ability of environmen...

  6. Haalbaarheid voortijdige liberalisering na 1 april 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baarsma, B.

    2009-01-01

    Al geruime tijd worden door de politiek, postbedrijven en vakbonden gesprekken gevoerd over de liberalisering van de postmarkt. In april 2008 is door de sociale partners een beginselakkoord gesloten en november 2008 is een CAO opgesteld. Het is de bedoeling om binnen 3½ jaar na liberalisering ten

  7. Market introduction of renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    On 11 and 12 November 1997 the VDI Society for Energy Technology (VDI-GET) held a congress in Neuss on the ''Market introduction of renewable energy technologies'' The focal topics of the congress were as follows: market analyses for renewable energy technologies, the development of markets at home and abroad, and the framework conditions governing market introduction. Specifically it dealt with the market effects of national and international introduction measures, promotion programmes and their efficiency, the legal framework conditions governing market introduction, advanced and supplementary training, market-oriented research (e.g., for cost reduction), and improved marketing [de

  8. The marketing of solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coehoorn, M.; Sinke, W.C.

    1994-01-01

    After two decades of research and development the market introduction of solar water heaters finally is developing rapidly. In a number of progressive countries, amongst which the Netherlands, preparations are made for the large-scale introduction of photovoltaic (PV) power systems. A brief overview is given of market introduction activities with regard to solar energy applications in several countries. Also attention is paid to new technological developments for the improvement of solar boilers: the Integrated Collector Storage system, the integration of the storage tank in the solar water heater (combi-boiler), and the new principle for a combined system for the production of hot tap water and space heating, the so-called solar-gas-combi. The Dutch-developed boilers, however, must compete with the the foreign thermosyphon boilers, although these boilers probably require more maintenance than the Dutch boilers. The market for PV-systems is still in its infancy. The marketing efforts and research activities in Japan, USA and European countries for PV-systems are briefly discussed. Although financial incentives from the national governments are still necessary contributions from other market parties for the development of PV-systems are expected. 4 ills

  9. Residential/commercial market for energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glesk, M M

    1979-08-01

    The residential/commercial market sector, particularly as it relates to energy technologies, is described. Buildings account for about 25% of the total energy consumed in the US. Market response to energy technologies is influenced by several considerations. Some considerations discussed are: industry characteristics; market sectors; energy-consumption characeristics; industry forecasts; and market influences. Market acceptance may be slow or nonexistent, the technology may have little impact on energy consumption, and redesign or modification may be necessary to overcome belatedly perceived market barriers. 7 figures, 20 tables.

  10. Model of Nordic energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjelsvik, E.; Johnsen, T.; Mysen, H.T.

    1992-01-01

    Simulation results are given of the consumption of electricity and oil in Denmark, Norway and Sweden based on the demand section of a Nordic energy market model which is in the process of being developed in Oslo under the auspices of the Nordic Council of Ministers. The model incorporates supply, and trade between countries so that it can be analyzed how trading can contribute to goals within energy and environmental policies and to cost effective activities aimed at reducing pollution. The article deals in some detail with the subject of how taxation on carbon dioxide emission can influence pollution abatement and with energy consumption development within individual sectors in individual Northern countries. The model of energy demand is described with emphasis on the individual sectors of industry, transport, service and private households. Simulation results giving the effects of energy consumption and increased taxation on fossil fuels are given. On this background the consequences of the adaption of power plants is discussed and a sketch is given of a Nordic electric power market incorporating trading. (AB) (15 refs.)

  11. Bundling and mergers in energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granier, Laurent; Podesta, Marion

    2010-01-01

    Does bundling trigger mergers in energy industries? We observe mergers between firms belonging to various energy markets, for instance between gas and electricity providers. These mergers enable firms to bundle. We consider two horizontally differentiated markets. In this framework, we show that bundling strategies in energy markets create incentives to form multi-market firms in order to supply bi-energy packages. Moreover, we find that this type of merger is detrimental to social welfare. (author)

  12. Energy and commodities market; Energie- und Rohstoffmaerkte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bokermann, Marcus; Prass, Markus [Vattenfall Markets, Berlin (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The electricity markets in Central and Western Europe and in the nordic countries have further shown weak in 2014 with falling prices. The key factors were the declining quotations for coal and natural gas and the warm weather. Another driver was the growth of renewable energy. In the power markets conditions remained mostly an oversupply. The upward trending prices on the CO{sub 2} emissions market were not formative enough to turn the market sentiment. They only caused for volatility during the year. [German] Die Strommaerkte in Mittel- und Westeuropa sowie in den nordischen Laendern haben sich auch im Jahr 2014 weiterhin schwach bei fallenden Preisen gezeigt. Die wesentlichen Einflussfaktoren waren die sinkenden Notierungen fuer Steinkohle und Erdgas sowie das warme Wetter. Ein weiterer Treiber war das Wachstum der erneuerbaren Energien. Auf den Strommaerkten herrschte weiterhin ueberwiegend ein Ueberangebot. Die aufwaerts tendierenden Preise auf dem CO{sub 2}-Emissionsmarkt waren nicht praegend genug, um die Marktstimmung zu drehen. Sie sorgten lediglich fuer Volatilitaet im Jahresverlauf.

  13. Northeast Solar Energy Market Coalition (NESEMC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabago, Karl R. [Pace Energy and Climate Center Pace University School of Law

    2018-03-31

    The Northeast Solar Energy Market Coalition (NESEMC) brought together solar energy business associations and other stakeholders in the Northeast to harmonize regional solar energy policy and advance the solar energy market. The Coalition was managed by the Pace Energy and Climate Center, a project of the Pace University Elisabeth Haub School of Law. The NESEMC was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative as a cooperative agreement through 2017 as part of Solar Market Pathways.

  14. Vision document Energy Market Concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Maa, J.; Van Gemert, M.; Giesbertz, P.; Vermeulen, M.; Beusmans, P.; Te Velthuis, M.; Drahos, M.

    2006-11-01

    June 2006 the second consultation document of the Netherlands Competition Authority (NMa) on the title subject (the first was in 2002) was published. The purpose of the consultation is to involve all the relevant and interested parties in the development of the energy market in the Netherlands and to consult those parties on studies that have been carried out by the NMa so far: (1) defining (possible) relevant markets in the electricity sector, and (2) the vision and opinion of the NMa with respect to mergers and take-overs. Also, the consultation document is a contribution to the response of the letter from the Dutch Minister of Economic Affairs of May 2005 in which the NMa was requested to give an overview of the preconditions with regard to competition and it's legal aspects. In this vision document all the relevant parties and stakeholders are informed about the development of energy markets in the Netherlands and abroad. Also an overview is given of the reactions from many stakeholders, involved and interested parties. [nl

  15. WEC Europe - Road Map Towards a Competitive Energy Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundberg, G.

    2009-01-01

    G. Lundberg, the chair of regional task force presented the final draft report. The main conclusions and recommendations that the study has provided may be resumed as follows: 1) The creation of single European electricity market should be initiated with the formation of a core-European market by merging at first, two of the existing more advanced markets, in term of liberalization and effective operation, namely the Nordic and the Central Western European one. Thus, it will include 10 countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden) representing more than 50% of the EU-29 (plus Norway + Switzerland) electricity generation. Then, it would likely become attractive for joining by other currently fragmented European markets. The formation of the new core-European market should start immediately despite the current recession and it should be designed in a flexible frame, in order to ease the accommodation of the remaining markets; 2) The so-created core-European initial market will undoubtedly requires a set of common regional rules, to be elaborated in compliance with the third package provisions and the guidelines/market codes following the third package approval. Thus, it will provide a model for the remaining isolated markets, to be subsequently integrated. In this regulatory process, all the stake holders (power industry, TSO, regulators, consumers, related national and EU-bodies) must be involved, with a purpose to providing a practical input and thus, to minimize potential frictions, during the implementation phase; 3) The grid development in Europe is the key challenge to promote more competition and in particular, to accommodate the targeted 20% of electricity increases from renewable energy sources, by 2020. For this purpose, what ENTSO is preparing for the grid development and extension by 2020 is of primary importance. Crucial for the success of this plan will be how efficient would be the

  16. Consultation document Energy Market Concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Maa, J.; Van Gemert, M.; Karel, A.; La Bastide, G.; Giesbertz, P.; Buijs, F.; Vermeulen, M.; Beusmans, P.

    2006-06-01

    This the second consultation document of the Netherlands Competition Authority (NMa) on the title subject (the first was in 2002). The purpose of the consultation is to involve all the relevant and interested parties in the development of the energy market in the Netherlands and to consult those parties on studies that have been carried out by the NMa so far: (1) defining (possible) relevant markets in the electricity sector, and (2) the vision and opinion of the NMa with respect to mergers and take-overs. Also, the consultation document is a contribution to the response of the letter from the Dutch Minister of Economic Affairs of May 2005 in which the NMa was requested to give an overview of the preconditions with regard to competition and it's legal aspects [nl

  17. Measuring transformers in energy measurement technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vock, E.

    2009-01-01

    This article takes a look at the use of measurement transformers in energy measurement installations in the light of electricity market liberalisation. Such equipment is quoted as being long living and capital-intensive. Increasing requirements on the installation of measurement equipment between partners in a liberalised market are examined. The requirements placed by electricity market legislation on the systems for the various grid voltage levels are discussed. Both current and voltage measurement transformers are looked at and the requirements placed on their accuracy are discussed in detail.

  18. Essays on market design and strategic behaviour in energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenczik, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    The thesis at hand consists of four essays which are divided into two parts. In the first part, consisting of the first two essays, market design issues in electricity markets are discussed. More precisely, it deals with concerns regarding security of supply: First, the concerns regarding the availability of sufficient flexibility to cope with intermittent renewable energy electricity generation. And second, the consequences of insufficient investments signals in energy only markets in interconnected electricity markets. Part two deals with strategic behaviour in spatial natural resource markets. Strategic behaviour and the exertion of market power have always been a matter of concern in energy markets, especially in natural resource markets. The exertion of market power can result in deadweight losses - regulatory bodies try to address this by market regulations aiming for a welfare maximising market outcome. The first problem is to detect collusive behaviour as available data is frequently limited. The second question is how regulatory decisions may influence the market outcome. Both topics are investigated by using the example of the international metallurgical coal market.

  19. Essays on market design and strategic behaviour in energy markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenczik, Stefan

    2017-11-13

    The thesis at hand consists of four essays which are divided into two parts. In the first part, consisting of the first two essays, market design issues in electricity markets are discussed. More precisely, it deals with concerns regarding security of supply: First, the concerns regarding the availability of sufficient flexibility to cope with intermittent renewable energy electricity generation. And second, the consequences of insufficient investments signals in energy only markets in interconnected electricity markets. Part two deals with strategic behaviour in spatial natural resource markets. Strategic behaviour and the exertion of market power have always been a matter of concern in energy markets, especially in natural resource markets. The exertion of market power can result in deadweight losses - regulatory bodies try to address this by market regulations aiming for a welfare maximising market outcome. The first problem is to detect collusive behaviour as available data is frequently limited. The second question is how regulatory decisions may influence the market outcome. Both topics are investigated by using the example of the international metallurgical coal market.

  20. Past and Present Development of INA's Liberalisation and Privatisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesic, A.; Stimac, B.

    2001-01-01

    The paper deals with the historical development aspects of the Croatian oil and gas industry INA. It describes the period from the very start of oil and gas production to the data of establishment of the Croatian state and afterwards. Some important milestones and political and economic events that impacted the development of the Croatian oil industry are described and commented, including changes toward liberalisation and privatisation of the oil and gas sector. The paper emphasises the role of INA in the Croatian economy and proposes some solutions for the liberalisation process and privatisation of the company that could prevent undesirable effects of privatisation and protect the interests of Croatia in the energy sector which is one of the main sectors of economy having influence on other production and service sectors and their competitiveness.(author)

  1. Prising open the markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Enron, the US power and gas marketer, well known for its aggressive market reputation now seeks to enter the European arena, but the company is finding the slow pace of energy liberalisation there frustrating. The company's progress into European markets, outside the UK and Scandinavia, is viewed as piecemeal and is widely dispersed. Unwilling to reveal the turnover of its European operations, the company is finding it difficult to meet its ambitious promises to shareholders. Nevertheless Enron has committed itself to remaining in the European market for at least the next fifteen years. (UK)

  2. Smart market. From smart grid to the intelligent energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aichele, Christian; Doleski, Oliver D.

    2014-01-01

    Dare more market. - The design of this postulate provides an important contribution to the success of the German energy transition. The Bundesnetzagentur has shown with its highly regarded benchmark paper on smart grids and markets leads the way towards more market in the energy sector. The therein required differentiation in a network and market sphere contributes to greater transparency on the consumer side and enables a gid releaving shift in energy consumption. The book focuses on actors and roles in the modified market circumstances as well as components and products of a future Smart Markets. Finally, to the reader concrete business models are offered. Authors from science and practice give in this book answers on how the interaction of Smart Grid and Smart Market works. [de

  3. Market conditions affecting energy efficiency investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seabright, J.

    1996-01-01

    The global energy efficiency market is growing, due in part to energy sector and macroeconomic reforms and increased awareness of the environmental benefits of energy efficiency. Many countries have promoted open, competitive markets, thereby stimulating economic growth. They have reduced or removed subsidies on energy prices, and governments have initiated energy conservation programs that have spurred the wider adoption of energy efficiency technologies. The market outlook for energy efficiency is quite positive. The global market for end-use energy efficiency in the industrial, residential and commercial sectors is now estimated to total more than $34 billion per year. There is still enormous technical potential to implement energy conservation measures and to upgrade to the best available technologies for new investments. For many technologies, energy-efficient designs now represent less than 10--20% of new product sales. Thus, creating favorable market conditions should be a priority. There are a number of actions that can be taken to create favorable market conditions for investing in energy efficiency. Fostering a market-oriented energy sector will lead to energy prices that reflect the true cost of supply. Policy initiatives should address known market failures and should support energy efficiency initiatives. And market transformation for energy efficiency products and services can be facilitated by creating an institutional and legal structure that favors commercially-oriented entities

  4. Niche energy markets in rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, M.; McCarthy, S.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project is the development of a standard methodology for integrating non-food crops in rural areas with niche energy markets. This has involved a number of steps including (i) identification of 3 niche markets for energy crops which are of common interest to the partners, (ii) application of the standard costing methodology to investigate these three niche markets and (iii) comparison of the results from this work in three workshops (one for each market). Three tightly defined niche markets were identified; these were chosen following an examination of the national energy marekts in each of the partners countries (Ireland, Germany, Netherlands, UK, Greece and Portugal). This paper gives an overview of the national energy markets which were examined. The three niche markets are introduced and the reasons for their selection given. The application of the methodology to each of the niche markets is presented along with the conclusions of the partners regarding the niche markets. (Author)

  5. Trade liberalisation in Mexico: rhetoric and reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pennelope Pacheco-Lopez

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Trade liberalisation in Mexico started in a significant way in 1985/86, and was consolidated by the NAFTA agreement 1994. Mexico was expected to benefit in terms of increased export growth, employment, real wages, and above all, a faster rate of economic growth. In practice, there has been a divorce between rhetoric and reality. The growth of GDP post-liberalisation has been only one-half that pre-liberalisation. This paper gives three explanations. Firstly, export growth has hardly changed. Secondly, there has been a sharp increase in the propensity to import (partly related to US direct foreign investment which has reduced the growth of GDP consistent with a sustainable balance of payments equilibrium on current account. Thirdly, liberalisation has been used as a substitute for a development strategy.

  6. Electricity market readiness plan : Ontario Energy Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    This document informs electric power market participants of the Ontario Energy Board's newly developed market readiness plan and target timelines that local distribution companies (LDCs) must meet for retail marketing. The Ontario Energy Board's plan incorporates relevant independent market operator (IMO)-administered market milestones with retail market readiness targeted for September 2001. The market readiness framework involves a self-certification process for LDCs by August 10, 2001, through which the Board will be able to monitor progress and assess the feasibility of meeting the target timelines. For retail market readiness, all LDCs will have to calculate settlement costs, produce unbundled bills, provide standard supply service, change suppliers and accommodate retail transactions. LDCs must be either authorized participants in the IMO-administered market or become retail customers of their host LDC. Unbundled bills will include itemized charges for energy price, transmission, distribution and debt retirement charge. 1 tab., 1 fig

  7. Integrated energy systems and local energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, Henrik; Muenster, Ebbe

    2006-01-01

    Significant benefits are connected with an increase in the flexibility of the Danish energy system. On the one hand, it is possible to benefit from trading electricity with neighbouring countries, and on the other, Denmark will be able to make better use of wind power and other types of renewable energy in the future. This paper presents the analysis of different ways of increasing flexibility in the Danish energy system by the use of local regulation mechanisms. This strategy is compared with the opposite extreme, i.e. trying to solve all balancing problems via electricity trade on the international market. The conclusion is that it is feasible for the Danish society to include the CHP plants in the balancing of fluctuating wind power. There are major advantages in equipping small CHP plants as well as the large CHP plants with heat pumps. By doing so, it will be possible to increase the share of wind power from the present 20 to 40% without causing significant problems of imbalance between electricity consumption and production. Investment in increased flexibility is in itself profitable. Furthermore, the feasibility of wind power is improved

  8. The Liberalisation Process of the Spanish Electricity Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, P. R.

    2001-01-01

    At the beginning of 1998, the 54/1997 Electricity Law entered into force, introducing a new configuration for the Spanish electricity system. Before this, the electric utilities and the Spanish Ministry of Industry and Energy signed a Protocol outlining the general structure of the future changes which would lead to the transformation of the Spanish electricity system from one based on a central purchasing agent model to one based on wholesale and retail competition. The structure of the power industry prior to the 54/1997 Electricity Law consisted of a number of vertically integrated electricity companies, most of them privately owned. One company (REE, Red Electrica de Espana) controlled by the State, was the System Operator, with the property of most of the Transmission Network. This company was created in 1984, as an attempt to improve overall efficiency in the sector by central co-ordination of all available resources and by central planning of new investments. Later, in 1987 a New Legal Framework (Marco Legal Estable) was established in order to assure financial stabilisation to the electric utilities, fixing revenues based on standard costs and setting a National tariff system. The start for the liberalisation process began with the 1994 Electricity Act (LOSEN) with the creation of the Regulatory Commission and the allowance to open access to new entrants. The Spanish electricity model finally set in 1998 seeks the introduction of competitiveness in the power sector through a few basic principles: Shorter state intervention by rationalisation of the energy policy constraints and by leaving to the market forces the system operation and planning (except for transmission planning); Separation of activities: Regulated activities (transmission and distribution) are separated form non-regulated activities (generation, trading); The design of a bulk power competitive market, including competition in generation, freedom of entry, a power pool managed by a market

  9. International Voluntary Renewable Energy Markets (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.

    2012-06-01

    This presentation provides an overview of international voluntary renewable energy markets, with a focus on the United States and Europe. The voluntary renewable energy market is the market in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. In 2010, the U.S. voluntary market was estimated at 35 terawatt-hours (TWh) compared to 300 TWh in the European market, though key differences exist. On a customer basis, Australia has historically had the largest number of customers, pricing for voluntary certificates remains low, at less than $1 megawatt-hour, though prices depend on technology.

  10. Market performance and distributional effects on renewable energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutstaal, P.; Bijlsma, M.; Zwart, G.; Van Tilburg, X.; Ozdemir, O.

    2009-08-01

    A renewable obligation (RO) combined with tradable renewable energy certificates is a market-based instrument used to promote the production of electricity from renewable energy sources. A renewable obligation is an alternative for subsidies. A renewable obligation will only be an efficient instrument if certificate markets are efficient. This requires that there is no market power and no anti-competitive behaviour on the certificate market. If the current developments in Dutch renewable energy production continue, market power on a future renewable certificate market in the Netherlands will probably not be an issue, even if the RO should only rest on the retail market instead of on the whole electricity market. A renewable obligation will raise the retail price for consumers, thereby reducing consumer surplus. Simulations show that the retail electricity price increases with 30 euro per MWh to a level of 104 euro per MWh in case of a 30% renewable target. Consumer surplus is reduced with 19% compared to the baseline scenario. In contrast, a subsidy such as the Dutch SDE (Promoting Renewable Energy scheme or 'Stimulering Duurzame Energie') which is financed from the state budget has the effect to (slightly) lower the retail electricity price, thereby increasing consumer surplus. It should however be realised that the costs of the subsidy will indirectly affect electricity consumers through their tax payments.

  11. Integration of energy markets with neighbouring countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, M.; Vermeulen, M.

    2008-01-01

    The Dutch wholesale markets for energy are still hindered by the various bottlenecks, which lead to higher costs for energy consumers than in well operating markets. A more efficient utilization of the import infrastructure could result in savings for energy consumers up to several tens of millions of euros. The managers of the transport infrastructure must take on a more active approach to eliminate these market obstacles. [mk] [nl

  12. Energy efficiency, market failures, and government policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, M.D.; Koomey, J.G.; McMahon, J.E.; Sanstad, A.H.; Hirst, E.

    1994-03-01

    This paper presents a framework for evaluating engineering-economic evidence on the diffusion of energy efficiency improvements. Four examples are evaluated within this framework. The analysis provides evidence of market failures related to energy efficiency. Specific market failures that may impede the adoption of cost-effective energy efficiency are discussed. Two programs that have had a major impact in overcoming these market failures, utility DSM programs and appliance standards, are described

  13. Does wind energy mitigate market power in deregulated electricity markets?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Moshe, Ori; Rubin, Ofir D.

    2015-01-01

    A rich body of literature suggests that there is an inverse relationship between wind power penetration rate into the electricity market and electricity prices, but it is unclear whether these observations can be generalized. Therefore, in this paper we seek to analytically characterize market conditions that give rise to this inverse relationship. For this purpose, we expand a recently developed theoretical framework to facilitate flexibility in modeling the structure of the electric industry with respect to the degree of market concentration and diversification in the ownership of wind power capacity. The analytical results and their attendant numerical illustrations indicate that the introduction of wind energy into the market does not always depress electricity prices. Such a drop in electricity prices is likely to occur when the number of firms is large enough or the ownership of wind energy is sufficiently diversified, or most often a combination of the two. Importantly, our study defines the circumstances in which the question of which type of firm invests in wind power capacity is crucial for market prices. - Highlights: • Studies show that electricity prices decrease with increased wind power capacity. • We investigate market conditions that give rise to this inverse relationship. • Average prices for wind energy are systematically lower than average market prices. • Conventional generation firms may increase market power by investing in wind farms. • Energy policy should seek to diversify the ownership of wind power capacity

  14. Energy price forecast by market analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jongepier, A.G.

    2000-01-01

    A power trader benefits from accurate price predictions. Based on market analyses, KEMA Connect has developed - in cooperation with Essent Energy Trading - a market model, enhancing the insight into market operation and one's own actions and thus resulting in accurate price predictions

  15. The effect of trade liberalisation on Syrian agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basel Abbas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Syrian agricultural policy should be characterized by a high level of government intervention, including fixed prices, government monopoly in strategic crop marketing, government distribution of industrial fertilizers, significant barriers on food and agricultural commodities import and so on. Although there were certain changes and liberalization in this area during several last years, the Syrian agriculture remains as the most regulated sector of national economy in Near east and northern Africa.On the other hand, we may state the fact that Syrian governmental agriculture policy was successful considering so called strategic crops most of all in achieving self-sufficiency in wheat production, also an essential increase of cotton production volume which represents most important export crop of this near east country, took a part. Besides this progress there was restriction of disparity development in countryside and municipal household’s incomes, which is partial reason for slowing down of Syrian countryside poverty. These positive outcomes were reached at the expense of increasing go­vern­men­tal expenses and worsening of resources efficiency usage both in agriculture production and energy sectors. Considering forecasted spend of oil sources, the Syrian government will be ne­ce­s­sa­ri­ly forced to search for alternative resources of economic growth and government budget incomes in near future.The last five year country plan presumes consequental delimitation of grants and implication of value added tax. There is to be a quite large liberalisation in agriculture sector, which should lead to consequential down of wheat production, sugar beet and cotton and increase of barley, lentil and chickpea production.

  16. Capital Account Liberalisation and Foreign Direct Investmentin Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    capital account liberalisation. In effect, the liberalisation of capital account transactions ... empirical studies (see Hsiao, 2003), the use of annualized data sets within a ..... Note: The choice of lag 2 was optimally chosen by Akaike Information ...

  17. Integrated marketing communications at solar energy equipment market

    OpenAIRE

    I.L. Litovchenko; I.A. Shkurupskaya

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the article. The article is devoted to the development of the concept of «integrated marketing communications», as well as its adaptation to a specific market of solar energy equipment. The theoretical development of foreign and domestic scholars in the field of IMC is considered. The aim of the article is to define the concept of «integrated marketing communications» and use them in the market of solar еnergy equipment in an information economy. The author's definition of the c...

  18. German energy market 2014; Deutscher Energiemarkt 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm [World Energy Council, London (United Kingdom). World Energy Resources; Weltenergierat - Deutschland, Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe ' Energie fuer Deutschland'

    2015-03-15

    In 2014 the German government's primary goal of engaging German power suppliers to step up their production of renewable energy while speeding up energy efficiency improvement measures continued to dominate the debate. The present article provides an updated overview of the German energy market. Following on from last year's edition it gives a condensed synopsis of key indicators of the energy economy. Besides summarising general facts about the energy mix it goes into detail about the following individual energy resources: crude oil, natural gas, brown coal, hard coal, nuclear energy and renewable energies. It also explains current price trends in both the international and domestic markets.

  19. Energy Choices. The energy markets and the energy policy choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, Lars; Lindh, Hampus

    2009-03-01

    Well-functioning energy markets are in society's interests whatever the circumstances. Furthermore, supply, demand and the competitive situation in the various energy markets influence the effect of energy and climate change policy measures. There are therefore good reasons to examine and evaluate how the energy markets operate. In this report we specifically focus on the energy markets. The analysis has been carried out against the background of the overall objectives for energy and climate change policy in Sweden and the EU. However, for these goals to be attainable a number of concrete energy and climate change policy decisions will have to be taken in the coming years. Some of these are key issues that will prove decisive for the formulation of energy and climate change policy, and we therefore also discuss these. The first of these concerns which policy instruments should be chosen to influence the energy markets. The second key issue concerns the power companies' prospects for using nuclear power even in the future. We will also focus on the extent to which energy and climate change policy chooses to prioritise measures which mean that climate change policy objectives can be achieved at the lowest possible cost. We can briefly summarize our results in the following conclusions: The cost of achieving the climate change policy objectives set by Sweden and the EU will probably be very high. It is therefore important that the choices made ensure that climate change policy objectives are achieved at the lowest possible cost. Focusing on keeping costs to a minimum may in actual fact be the very thing that makes it at all possible to achieve these goals. The best solution then is as far as possible to base energy and climate change policy on so-called market-based instruments, such as emission charges and tradable emission permits. Emissions of carbon dioxide are easy to measure and the siting of emission sources is irrelevant in terms of the effect of the emissions

  20. Power marketing and renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Power marketing refers to wholesale and retail transactions of electric power made by companies other than public power entities and the regulated utilities that own the generation and distribution lines. The growth in power marketing has been a major development in the electric power industry during the last few years, and power marketers are expected to realize even more market opportunities as electric industry deregulation proceeds from wholesale competition to retail competition. This Topical Issues Brief examines the nature of the power marketing business and its relationship with renewable power. The information presented is based on interviews conducted with nine power marketing companies, which accounted for almost 54% of total power sales by power marketers in 1995. These interviews provided information on various viewpoints of power marketers, their experience with renewables, and their respective outlooks for including renewables in their resource portfolios. Some basic differences exist between wholesale and retail competition that should be recognized when discussing power marketing and renewable power. At the wholesale level, the majority of power marketers stress the commodity nature of electricity. The primary criteria for developing resource portfolios are the same as those of their wholesale customers: the cost and reliability of power supplies. At the retail level, electricity may be viewed as a product that includes value-added characteristics or services determined by customer preferences

  1. MARKETING MIX IN OLTENIA ENERGY COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Păunescu Alberto Nicolae

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Electricity generation in Romania it’s realized in percentage 30 % in OLTENIA ENERGY COMPLEX. This is the biggest producer of energy, end coal in the country. Therefore Marketing mix is very important to ensure that the company grows. The final objective is that the volume of sales, market share and growth.

  2. Energy challenges of the Single Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakey, S.

    1991-01-01

    The Single Market Initiatives promise to reshape many areas of western Europe's energy markets. They will entail a number of changes for the Continent's oil, gas, electricity, and coal businesses. Some of those changes promise to improve market efficiency, others threaten to restrict it. Current negotiations could have a particularly far-reaching impact on western Europe's gas markets, which according to some reports, do not require any alternations. While western Europe's energy industry makes ready for the single market, eastern Europe's energy sector awaits the European Energy Charger, a multilateral agreement that could completely renovate the rules of this region's energy game. The rule changes could prove to be especially important for businesses from the United States. This paper examines this reshaping of Europe. It considers the ways in which old arrangements might be transformed into a new, but not necessarily improved, European order

  3. Did liberalising bar hours decrease traffic accidents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Colin P; Heywood, John S; Navarro, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Legal bar closing times in England and Wales have historically been early and uniform. Recent legislation liberalised closing times with the object of reducing social problems thought associated with drinking to "beat the clock." Indeed, using both difference in difference and synthetic control approaches we show that one consequence of this liberalisation was a decrease in traffic accidents. This decrease is heavily concentrated among younger drivers. Moreover, we provide evidence that the effect was most pronounced in the hours of the week directly affected by the liberalisation: late nights and early mornings on weekends. This evidence survives a series of robustness checks and suggests at least one socially positive consequence of extending bar hours. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A market without tension. Market monitor, development of the Dutch small-scale consumer market for electricity and natural gas. January 2006 - June 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Liere, M.; Postema, B.; Te Velthuis, M.

    2006-11-01

    The energy market is liberalized since 1 July 2004. The Dutch government has liberalized the energy market to stimulate competition between suppliers and to offer the consumer freedom of choice of their own energy supplier. As energy suppliers must put continuous effort in acquiring and preserving customers, the customers may expect better quality and service at relatively lower prices. In a well-functioning energy market the customer will benefit from the liberalisation. DTe (Dutch Office of Energy Regulation) is the regulator of the energy sector and supervises the energy companies adhering to the rules of the energy markets, protecting customers where needed. Moreover, DTe also monitors the developments in the energy markets. In the market monitor private consumers market DTe reports on the operating of the consumer market, also called the private consumers market. [mk] [nl

  5. Market survey China. Wind Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-07-01

    The title survey presents an overview of the wind developments in China, an analysis of the key market players in this sector, and an assessment of the potential future market for wind-related activities in China. The survey is concluded with a number of conclusions and recommendations

  6. The energy services market in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-06-01

    This study aims to answer the following questions: what is the french market value? What are its development perspectives? What services range is necessary? How increase the added value of proposed services? Which choice between the competence internalization and the subcontracting? What threat represent the providers on a market usually dominated by the energy suppliers and services providers? How will the french and european market combine? The following operators are studied (key data, energy services policy) by Eurostaf: Amec Spie, Cegelec, Dalkia, EDF, Elyo, Endesa Energia, Energie Rhone, GDF, RWE Solutions, Vinci Energies. (A.L.B.)

  7. Energy Technology and Market Risk Reduction | Integrated Energy Solutions |

    Science.gov (United States)

    renewable energy projects, including: Debt financing and structures that use cash flows generated by your ; project costs; and evolving regulatory, permitting, and retail markets through activities such as

  8. Energy sector in transition - technologies and regulatory policies in flux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2005-01-01

    Liberalising the energy sector has been followed by a number of new regulatory measures that are argued to maintain a process towards a sustainable energy sector. The article argues based on empirical material from Denmark and other European countries that the EU regulations and especially...... the simple market oriented models do not lead to or secure sustainability....

  9. Renewable Energy Policies and Market Developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dijk, A.L.; Beurskens, L.W.M.; Boots, M.G.; Kaal, M.B.T.; De Lange, T.J.; Van Sambeek, E.J.W.; Uyterlinde, M.A.

    2003-03-01

    Reviews and an analysis of the policy support for the stimulation of renewable electricity in the current energy market are presented, and an overview is given of the main new developments influencing the renewable energy market. The report is part of the analysis phase of the project REMAC 2000, which has led to the publication of a roadmap for the acceleration of the RE market. REMAC 2000 aims to promote a sustainable growth of the renewable energy market. For such a sustainable growth, important success factors are not only effectiveness of policy, but also security for investors, which is essential for building up a sector and developing the renewable energy market. Consistency of regulations and policies at different levels and between policy fields form a condition for security, as does the active involvement of market stakeholders. Further, the increasing role of trade within the energy and renewable energy sector leads to a priority for international coherence of policies and markets. To guarantee a sustainable growth of the renewable energy sector, a broad perspective of policy makers and planners is required- to include a long time frame, a comprehensive view of related policy fields and authorities involved, and an orientation that looks beyond national borders

  10. Heat Energy Markets: Trends of Spatial Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Valeryevna Dyomina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The author reviews competing forms of heat supply. It is shown that in Finland, Denmark, China and Russia the dominant form of heat supply is district heating system; in the United States and Canada the dominant form of heat supply is individual one. Using the countries’ data the author allocates 4 models of heat energy markets. The analysis is based on combinations of the following characteristics: the type of market, the orientation of market, the stage of market development, forms of state support of district heating systems and the approach to pricing. The results identified the failure of the current model of heat energy market in Russia (noncompetitive, manufacturer-oriented and evolved market with massive state support of its district heating system. The ‘target’ model of heat energy market in Russia is a model of noncompetitive, customer-oriented and evolved market with no state support of its district heating system. However, the ‘target’ model takes into account spatial heterogeneity of local heat energy markets in Russia only technically

  11. Energy market for energy. Natural gas and electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Scherpenzeel, H.; De Boer, I.

    2000-10-01

    The aim of the title market study is to provide insight into the energy market in Argentina for the Dutch industry and business sector, focusing on the structure of the natural gas and electricity sector and the market for equipment for the production and processing of natural gas and equipment for electricity generation

  12. Energy security: between markets and sovereign politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudau Radu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy security is a constant presence in the energy-related political discourse all over the world. States strive to secure steady inflows of needed energy supplies, as well as the price affordability of those supplies. However, what are deemed to be the best means to meet such goals depends on one’s theoretical vantage point. On the one hand, economically-minded theorists maintain that energy security is only a matter of market rules and interactions. Thus, they call upon energy markets to deliver both steady supplies and competitive prices. On the other hand, politically-minded scholars emphasize the political and hard-power nature of international energy trades, especially in a global context market by the emergence of state-centered, authoritarian regimes that use large national energy companies as foreign policy instruments. These two positions delineate competing approaches to how energy security risks ought to be managed. The former approaches energy security risks by means similar to portfolio management, requiring diversification of investments in order to insulate them from market shocks. The latter approaches energy security as a matter of foreign policy, by which states envisage interest coordination and favorable alignments within countervailing alliances against the agent of energy security risk. The present paper goes beyond the uncontentious point that these two dimensions are complementary. It argues that, depending on the international context, a more market-driven or a more-politically driven behavior may be adequate.

  13. Energy markets and European Integration: The World Energy Council role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.

    2002-01-01

    Energy market reform brings many benefits. Central and East Europe's challenge is to establish such markets when, at list in the case of electricity, the established market economies are still wrestling with how to apply competitive principles to this market. Design challenges include the natural monopoly elements within the electricity supply chain and the fact that it is, in practical terms, as essential social service. There is no one single model suitable to all markets at all stages of development. At the same time, there is a need for sustainable energy pricing, which means prices should cover all costs, with transparent and time-limited subsidies bringing the afford ability gap. Cross-border integration extends the benefits available from market reform by overcoming constraints at the national level and by broadening the geographical limits of a market. The World Energy Council works with its Central and East European members to analyse, understand and meet these challenges. (author)

  14. Abstract Collection of 25th Forum: Energy Day in Croatia: A Unique Energy and Climate Policy in Open Energy Market - A Year After COP 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Ever since Croatian Energy Association was founded and became a member of the World Energy Council (WEC), a total of 25 Forums were organised, with subjects of utter importance for the energy sector. Experts and the public were familiarized with problems, trends, visions and experiences from different countries through papers and presentations presented on those forums, which were also an outlook to the future. The subjects of the forums already held were as following: 1992, Croatian Energy During and After the War; 1993, New Technologies and Energy Management; 1994, Problems of the Energy Sector Transition; 1995, Prices and Tariff Policy in the Energy Industry; 1996, Expectations in the Energy Consumption until 2020; 1997, Goals, Methodology and Experiences of Regional Planning as a part of a National Energy Sector; 1998, Future of the Energy Industry After the Kyoto Protocol; 1999, Energy Market and Energy Efficiency in the Transition Countries; 2000, Restructure, Privatisation and Market Change of Linked Energy Systems; 2001, Liberalisation and Privatisation of the Energy Sector in Transition Countries and in the European Union - Experiences and Perspective; 2002, Regulation Problem on the Energy Services Market; 2003, Energy Consumers in the Open Market Conditions; 2004, Long-term Planning and Supply Security in the Open Market Conditions; 2005, Energy Perspectives Today and Tomorrow - WORLD EUROPE CROATIA; 2006, Energy Perspectives to 2050 - WORLD EUROPE CROATIA; 2007, Energy Future in the Light of Conditions and Integration Processes in Europe; 2008, Europe, Region and Croatia in 2030; 2009, Quo Vadis Energy in the Period of Climate Change; 2010, Energy Future - Vision Until 2050; 2011, Third package and other energy directives - What they do and do not bring, and what we can expect in the future; 2012, Reducing CO2 Emissions by 80 percent by 2050 - Reality or Utopia; 2013, How to Accomplish Goals of Reducing CO2 Emissions by 2050; 2014, How to Define and

  15. Perspectives of new fossil-fuelled power plants with CO{sub 2} capture in the liberalised European electricity market; Energiewirtschaftliche Anforderungen an neue fossil befeuerte Kraftwerke mit CO{sub 2}-Abscheidung im liberalisierten europaeischen Elektrizitaetsmarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kober, Tom

    2014-03-15

    Against the background of an increasing importance of climate change mitigation and the liberalization of the European energy supply this study assesses the perspectives of power plants with Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS). CCS power plants represent one option to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions of fossil energy based electricity production significantly. In this study the deployment of CCS power plants is investigated for the European electricity market until 2050 taking different energy and climate policy framework conditions into consideration. By applying an integrated model-based approach, structural changes of the whole energy system are incorporated, including their implications on costs and emissions. The study addresses uncertainties concerning future CCS power plant invest costs and efficiencies explicitly, and analyses the effects of changes of these parameters with respect to the perspectives of CCS power plants in Europe. Thereby, interdependencies on horizontal level related to competition of different technologies within the electricity sector are examined, but also vertical interdependencies resulting from effects between the upstream and energy demand sectors. In order to reflect the heterogeneity among the national energy systems in Europe, country specific particularities on technical aspects and energy policy are taken into account, such as potentials and costs of CO{sub 2} storage, and national regulations on the use of nuclear power and renewable energy. The results of the analysis reveal a strong influence of the stringency of the EU greenhouse gas reduction target and the policy on the use of nuclear energy on the perspectives of CCS power plants in the European electricity market. Comparing the influence of different policy frameworks analysed in this study with the influences of the variation of the technical and economic CCS power plant parameters shows, that uncertainties concerning energy policy measures can have a stronger

  16. Promoting healthy competition across the energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    As of August 1 last year, Finland's Electricity Market Authority became the Energy Market Authority. The timing of the change coincided with the introduction of Finland's new Natural Gas Market Act and reflected the extension of the Authority's responsibility to cover promoting healthy and efficient competition on both the electricity and natural gas market and to secure reasonable and equitable service principles in the operations of both networks. The Electricity Market Authority began operations in mid-1995 as an expert body subordinate to the Ministry of Trade and industry when Finland's Electricity Market Act came into force, bringing with it a phased opening-up of the Finnish electricity market. The principle task of the Authority was, and remains, to supervise the pricing of transmission, distribution, and other network services, and to ensure a healthy level of competition

  17. Evolution of gas markets and energy security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrova, Tatiana

    2007-07-01

    Questions of energy security and international gas trade became indissolubly connected during the last years. Paradoxically during the evolution of natural gas markets concerns about security issues in gas trade are only growing at the same time as transaction costs. Market participants have developed several mechanisms of adaptation (vertical integration, mutual penetration of capital and long-term contracts) which should be regarded not as a market failure but as an essential part of energy security guarantees at the moment. Further gas market evolution will demand more unified institutional framework to decrease threats to energy security and transaction costs. But this framework should be a result of mutual compromise of all market participants. (auth)

  18. UK market for waste-to-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, D.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper four key questions relating to the UK market for waste-to-energy have been addressed. (1) What has happened in the market place over the last 20 years? (2) What are the driving forces behind the recent upsurge of interest? (3) What are the problems currently facing us? (4) What is the outlook likely to be for the future? (author)

  19. Renewable energy markets in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinot, E.; Chaurey, A.; Lew, D.

    2002-01-01

    Renewable energy is shifting from the fringe to the mainstream of sustainable development. Past donor efforts achieved modest results but often were not sustained or replicated, which leads now to greater market orientation. Markets for rural household lighting with solar home systems, biogas...

  20. Renewable energy investment: Policy and market impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, Wolf Heinrich; Szolgayová, Jana; Fuss, Sabine; Obersteiner, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Feedback of decisions to the market: large companies can have an impact on prices in the market. ► Multiple uncertainties: analysis of uncertainties emanating from both markets and environment. ► Policy analysis: impact of uncertainty about the durability of feed-in tariffs. -- Abstract: The liberalization of electricity markets in recent years has enhanced competition among power-generating firms facing uncertain decisions of competitors and thus uncertain prices. At the same time, promoting renewable energy has been a key ingredient in energy policy seeking to de-carbonize the energy mix. Public incentives for companies to invest in renewable technologies range from feed-in tariffs, to investment subsidies, tax credits, portfolio requirements and certificate systems. We use a real options model in discrete time with lumpy multiple investments to analyze the decisions of an electricity producer to invest into new power generating capacity, to select the type of technology and to optimize its operation under price uncertainty and with market effects. We account for both the specific characteristics of renewables and the market effects of investment decisions. The prices are determined endogenously by the supply of electricity in the market and by exogenous electricity price uncertainty. The framework is used to analyze energy policy, as well as the reaction of producers to uncertainty in the political and regulatory framework. In this way, we are able to compare different policies to foster investment into renewables and analyze their impacts on the market.

  1. Characteristics of the Romanian energy market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stet, M.

    2017-05-01

    This paper highlights the main characteristics of the energy market in Romania. Starting from the mode of organization and operation of the electricity market, there are revealed prices and tariffs for electricity for different categories of customers and their evolution in time. There are pointed also ways of setting electricity prices and tariffs, taking into account the expenditures actually recorded by economic operators.

  2. Wood energy markets, 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Aguilar; Christopher Gaston; Rens Hartkamp; Warren Mabee; Kenneth Skog

    2011-01-01

    Global wood energy markets continue to grow, driven primarily by demand in the EU and its commitment to meet 20% of energy consumption from renewable sources by 2020. Large investments in industrial pellet-production capacity have been made under expectations of a continuously growing demand, mainly from the EU. Concern about how energy and climate-change policies may...

  3. Introduction : Energy economics and financial markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simpson, John L.; Westerman, Wim; Dorsman, André

    2015-01-01

    Energy issues feature frequently in the economic and financial press. It is argued that the importance of energy production, consumption and trade and raises fundamental economic issues that impact the global economy and financial markets. Specific examples of daily energy issues stem from various

  4. Energy policy and the market economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruehle, H.; Miegel, M.

    1980-01-01

    The consistent supply of the people with cheap energy is one of the biggest challenges of our time. There is hardly any other sphere where the opinions on the correct means and ways are as different as in energy policy. While some people see only the market as a suitable instrument to solve the energy problems, others are of the opinion that the problems can only be solved by planning by the government, quantitative restrictions, and other directive measures. The answer to this question involves long-term results, not only for our future energy policy. Planned economy in the energy section and marketing in all other sections cannot be continued for ever. The clarification of this question is the goal of these lectures and discussions held on the experts' meeting 'energy policy in marketing'. (orig.) [de

  5. The United States and world energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsay, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    The United States, dominating the world's energy markets as a producer and consumer, is sensitive to changes in this market and intends to influence the development of global energy policy. Supply will be increased by nations such as Venezuela, Indonesia and perhaps in the future a United Yemen and the Commonwealth of Independent States, moving to freer market economies which will allow investment opportunities previously inaccessible to foreign companies. Although world energy demand will grow, little of this will be in the US where, under the National Energy Strategy, comprehensive measures are being introduced to improve energy efficiency. The US energy security will be further improved by such measures as diversification of supply, larger domestic production and increasing interdependence between suppliers, traders and consumers. (author)

  6. Energy in transition. Between regulation and market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horzetzky, Guenther

    2016-01-01

    Actually, the energy industry is affected in a changing market environment. The expansion of the renewables led to a share of about 30 % of the German electricity production and is always rising. The renewables energy levy has reached a level of 6.35 Euro Cents per kWh, which is actually a high level. Investments in new power plants are stopped due to low market electricity prices. The market pressure on the utilities is high and their business models have to be scrutinised. The NRW state government supports the magic political triangle of a secure, affordable and environmentally friendly energy supply. Instead of further interventions we have to develop our existing energy system cautiously. Anything else would not meet the requirements for invests in the energy supply and the magic triangle of energy politics.

  7. Renewable energy technologies: costs and markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitsch, J.; Langniss, O.

    1997-01-01

    A prominent feature of renewable energy utilisation is the magnitude of renewable energy that is physically available worldwide. The present paper attempts an economic valuation of development strategies for renewable energy sources (RES) on the basis of the past development of RES markets. It comes to the conclusion that if current energy prices remain largely unchanged, it will be necessary to promote RES technologies differentially according to the technique and type of energy employed or to provide start-up funding. The more probable a long-term increase in energy prices becomes, the greater will be the proportion of successfully promoted technologies. Energy taxes on exhaustible or environmentally harmful energy carriers and other instruments to this end would contribute greatly to the attractivity of RES investment both in terms of national economy and from the viewpoint of the private investor. Renewable energies will play an important role in the hardware and services sectors of the energy market in the decades to come. Long-term promotion of market introduction programmes and unequivocal energy-political aims on the part of the government are needed if the German industry is to have a share in this growing market and be able to offer internationally competitive products [de

  8. The European market of renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-09-01

    This market study on renewable energies presents: 1 - the different renewable energy industries for power generation: the field of renewable energies (hydropower, wind power, solar energy, geothermal energy and biomass power plants) and their common points, their characteristics, advantages and constraints; 2 - the political and regulatory context with its ambitious goals: main steps of worldwide negotiations, Europe and the management of CO 2 emissions, stiffening of the environmental regulation, the energy/climate package and the efforts to be borne by the different member states; 3 - Economy of the sector and the necessary public support: investment and production costs by industry, wholesale prices and competitiveness of the different power generation means, government's incentives for projects profitability; 4 - dynamics of the European market of renewable energies: energy-mix and evolution of the renewable energies contribution in the world and in the European Union, key-figures by country and by industry (installed capacity, production, turnover, employment); 5 - medium-term development perspectives: 2020 prospect scenarios, evolution of the energy mix, perspectives of development for each industry; 6 - the strengths in presence in the domain of facilities: main manufacturers, market shares, innovations, vertical integration, external growth; 7 - the strengths in presence in the domain of power facilities operation: main European operators, position and ranking, installed capacities, projects portfolio; 8 - medium-term perspectives of reconfiguration: best-positioned operators in a developing market, future of European manufacturers with respect to Asian ones, inevitable concentration in the operation sector. (J.S.)

  9. Battery energy storage market feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, S. [Frost and Sullivan, Mountain View, CA (United States); Akhil, A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Dept.

    1997-07-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) contracted Frost and Sullivan to conduct a market feasibility study of energy storage systems. The study was designed specifically to quantify the energy storage market for utility applications. This study was based on the SNL Opportunities Analysis performed earlier. Many of the groups surveyed, which included electricity providers, battery energy storage vendors, regulators, consultants, and technology advocates, viewed energy storage as an important enabling technology to enable increased use of renewable energy and as a means to solve power quality and asset utilization issues. There are two versions of the document available, an expanded version (approximately 200 pages, SAND97-1275/2) and a short version (approximately 25 pages, SAND97-1275/1).

  10. Spillover effects in energy futures markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, S.X.; Tamvakis, M.N.

    2001-01-01

    Price discovery in crude oil and refined oil products has been extensively undertaken in organised futures markets for over a decade now. There are two dominant such markets today: the first one in the New York Mercantile Exchange; and the second in London's International Petroleum Exchange. With the demise of OPEC as the leading price setter for crude and products, NYMEX light sweet crude and Brent crude have usurped the role of benchmark grades for price setting. To date considerable work has been done to scrutinise the degree to which these two markets price efficiently, but little with regard to the way the two markets interact. Participants in these markets move with relative ease from one market to the other and usually take positions in both of them. It is of interest, therefore, to investigate the information transmission mechanism by looking at spillover effects and, perhaps, identify which market is the true price leader. This paper is a first attempt to look at such a problem in the energy market, although similar studies have been done on stock market indices. It is found that substantial spillover effects do exist when both markets are trading simultaneously, although IPE morning prices seem to be considerably affected by the close of the previous day on NYMEX

  11. Renewable energy markets in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinot, Eric; Chaurey, Akanksha; Lew, Debra; Moreira, Jose Roberto; Wamukonya, Njeri

    2003-01-01

    Roughly 400 million households, or 40% of the population of developing countries, do not have access to electricity. Household and community demand for lighting, TV, radio, and wireless telephony in rural areas without electricity has driven markets for solar home systems, biogas-fueled lighting, small hydro mini-grids, wind or solar hybrid mini-grids, and small wind turbines. These technologies are not strictly comparable with each other, however; the level of service that households receive varies considerably by technology and by the specific equipment size used. Regardless of size, surveys and anecdotal evidence suggest that rural households value both electric lighting and television viewing. Growing numbers of individual equipment purchases, beyond government-driven programs, point to growing market demand. As energy consumption rises with increases in population and living standards, awareness is growing about the environmental costs of energy and the need to expand access to energy in new ways. As recognition grows of the contribution renewable energy can make to development, renewable energy is shifting from the fringe to the mainstream of sustainable development. Support for renewable energy has been building among those in government, multilateral organizations, industry, and non-governmental organizations. Commercial markets for renewable energy are expanding, shifting investment patterns away from traditional government and donor sources to greater reliance on private firms and banks. In this paper we take a market orientation, providing an aggregate review of past market experience, existing applications, and results of policies and programs. (BA)

  12. Energy subsidies in California's electricity market deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritschel, Alexander; Smestad, G.P.

    2003-01-01

    Deregulation and re-regulation of California's electricity market not only failed in terms of anticipated cost reductions, improved customer service and higher competition, it also led to the introduction of various additional energy subsidies. This paper analyzes California's electricity market deregulation process from a subsidy viewpoint. Under deregulation in California, investor-owned utilities were not allowed to pass their energy procurement costs fully on to their customers, and therefore subsequently, and inevitably, ran into severe financial problems. Such retail price regulation is an energy subsidy that is both economically and environmentally unfavorable, because it veils true price signals to electricity consumers and, in this way, discourages energy conservation. Other policies implemented in California that represent perverse energy subsidies are the purchase of power by the state of California, the suspension of retail competition, and the potential misuse of money from the recovery of stranded costs. Many interventions implemented by the state to smooth out the impacts of the energy crisis insulated electricity consumers from market realities, supported the existing structure of California's electricity market, which is predominantly based on fossil fuels, and suppressed market incentives to improve energy conservation

  13. Electronic market places in the energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mons, L.

    2001-12-01

    Electronic market places in the energy domain occurred at the end of the 90's in the US and have started to develop in Europe in the year 2000. About 60 platforms are registered today and this development can be explained by the advantages raised by such an infrastructure: simplification of purchase procedures, reduction of delays in the purchase decision, reduction of administrative costs etc.. However, today none of these electronic market places is profitable and several have closed down. On the other hand, this tool will certainly become necessary in the future and all energy actors are developing projects in this way. This study analyzes the electronic market places phenomenon in the energy domain using 10 market places examples with their key-factors of success. It draws out a complete status of the initiatives developed today and presents some scenarios of evolution. (J.S.)

  14. Advanced reactors and future energy market needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillere, Henri; )

    2017-01-01

    Based on the results of a very well-attended international workshop on 'Advanced Reactor Systems and Future Energy Market Needs' that took place in April 2017, the NEA has embarked on a two-year study with the objective of analysing evolving energy market needs and requirements, as well as examining how well reactor technologies under development today will fit into tomorrow's low-carbon world. The NEA Expert Group on Advanced Reactor Systems and Future Energy Market Needs (ARFEM) held its first meeting on 5-6 July 2017 with experts from Canada, France, Italy, Japan, Korea, Poland, Romania, Russia and the United Kingdom. The outcome of the study will provide much needed insight into how well nuclear can fulfil its role as a key low-carbon technology, and help identify challenges related to new operational, regulatory or market requirements

  15. Combined Heat and Power in an open market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, A.

    1999-01-01

    The chances and risks for combined heat and power (CHP) installations presented by the future liberalisation of the electricity market in Switzerland are discussed. A summary of papers and speeches presented at a conference in Basle is presented. New developments in the electricity marketplace are looked at from the point of view of CHP unit manufacturers, the Federal Administration, energy policy makers and marketing experts. Examples are quoted concerning the situation in Germany and possible changes in power generation philosophy

  16. German energy market 2016; Deutscher Energiemarkt 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm [World Energy Council, London (United Kingdom). World Energy Resources; Weltenergierat, Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Energie fuer Deutschland

    2017-03-15

    The basic orientation of the German energy supply to the increased use of renewable energies, while increasing energy efficiency, is prediscribed by the German government's energy concept and determines the market development. A current overview of the German energy market is given, which provides also this year a concentrated Compilation of the key data of the energy industry. As in the years before, the article not only summarizes general facts about the energy mix, but also goes into detail on the development of the individual energy sources, petroleum, natural gas, brown coal and hard coal, electricity as well as renewable energies. Furthermore, the price trends of international markets and in the domestic market are explained. A current overview of the development of greenhouse gas emissions concludes the contribution. [German] Die im Energiekonzept der Bundesregierung vorgegebene Grundausrichtung der deutschen Energieversorgung hin zur verstaerkten Nutzung erneuerbarer Energien bei gleichzeitiger Steigerung der Energieeffizienz bestimmt die Marktentwicklung. Vorliegend wird ein aktueller Ueberblick ueber den deutschen Energiemarkt gegeben, der auch in diesem Jahr eine konzentrierte Zusammenstellung der zentralen Eckdaten der Energiewirtschaft leistet. Wie in den Jahren zuvor fasst der Artikel nicht nur allgemeine Fakten zum Energiemix zusammen, sondern geht auch ausfuehrlich auf die Entwicklung der einzelnen Energietraeger Erdoel, Erdgas, Braun- und Steinkohle, Elektrizitaet sowie regenerative Energien ein. Ferner werden die Preistendenzen auf den internationalen Maerkten und im Inland erlaeutert. Eine aktuelle Uebersicht ueber die Entwicklung der Treibhausgas-Emissionen schliesst den Beitrag ab.

  17. Integrated energy systems and local energy markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Münster, Ebbe

    2006-01-01

    Significant benefits are connected with an increase in the flexibility of the Danish energy system. On the one hand, it is possible to benefit from trading electricity with neighbouring countries, and on the other, Denmark will be able to make better use of wind power and other types of renewable...... energy in the future. This paper presents the analysis of different ways of increasing flexibility in the Danish energy system by the use of local regulation mechanisms. This strategy is compared with the opposite extreme, i.e. trying to solve all balancing problems via electricity trade...

  18. Battery energy storage market feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, S.; Akhil, A.

    1997-07-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy's Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) contracted Frost and Sullivan to conduct a market feasibility study of energy storage systems. The study was designed specifically to quantify the energy storage market for utility applications. This study was based on the SNL Opportunities Analysis performed earlier. Many of the groups surveyed, which included electricity providers, battery energy storage vendors, regulators, consultants, and technology advocates, viewed energy storage as an important enabling technology to enable increased use of renewable energy and as a means to solve power quality and asset utilization issues. There are two versions of the document available, an expanded version (approximately 200 pages, SAND97-1275/2) and a short version (approximately 25 pages, SAND97-1275/1)

  19. Renewable Energy: Markets and Prospects by Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This information paper accompanies the IEA publication Deploying Renewables 2011: Best and Future Policy Practice (IEA, 2011a). It provides more detailed data and analysis, and explores the markets, policies and prospects for a number of renewable energy technologies. This paper provides a discussion of ten technology areas: bioenergy for electricity and heat, biofuels, geothermal energy, hydro energy, ocean energy, solar energy (solar photovoltaics, concentrating solar power, and solar heating), and wind energy (onshore and offshore). Each technology discussion includes: the current technical and market status; the current costs of energy production and cost trends; the policy environment; the potential and projections for the future; and an analysis of the prospects and key hurdles to future expansion.

  20. Measuring market performance in restructured electricity markets: An empirical analysis of the PJM energy market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Russell Jay

    2002-09-01

    Today the electric industry in the U.S. is transitioning to competitive markets for wholesale electricity. Independent system operators (ISOs) now manage broad regional markets for electrical energy in several areas of the U.S. A recent rulemaking by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) encourages the development of regional transmission organizations (RTOs) and restructured competitive wholesale electricity markets nationwide. To date, the transition to competitive wholesale markets has not been easy. The increased reliance on market forces coupled with unusually high electricity demand for some periods have created conditions amenable to market power abuse in many regions throughout the U.S. In the summer of 1999, hot and humid summer conditions in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, Delaware, and the District of Columbia pushed peak demand in the PJM Interconnection to record levels. These demand conditions coincided with the introduction of market-based pricing in the wholesale electricity market. Prices for electricity increased on average by 55 percent, and reached the $1,000/MWh range. This study examines the extent to which generator market power raised prices above competitive levels in the PJM Interconnection during the summer of 1999. It simulates hourly market-clearing prices assuming competitive market behavior and compares these prices with observed market prices in computing price markups over the April 1-August 31, 1999 period. The results of the simulation analysis are supported with an examination of actual generator bid data of incumbent generators. Price markups averaged 14.7 percent above expected marginal cost over the 5-month period for all non-transmission-constrained hours. The evidence presented suggests that the June and July monthly markups were strongly influenced by generator market power as price inelastic peak demand approached the electricity generation capacity constraint of the market. While this analysis of the

  1. Energy, environment and the market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letta, E.

    2000-01-01

    Policy choices regarding energy and sustainable development need to be geared to the instruments that science and the economy make available in each country, partly because competitiveness restrictions be sustainable for the economy [it

  2. Selling power : marketing energy under deregulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, J.; Hanna, F.

    2001-07-01

    This book discussed the marketing of energy in a deregulated environment. Experience from long distance telephone service providers has shown that historical dominance is not a guarantee for future success. As new brands are introduced and as consumer choice increases, so does the ability to change from one provider to another. Price is only one of the factors prompting that change. Old rules and practices do not bind new competitors who must face the challenge of open competition and must be aware of the ever-changing face of business. It was recommended that the strategic solution would be to build a brand and to develop significant market shares and create effective customer retention programs. This book focused on the elements that energy marketing professionals must use to maintain and increase share without product differentiation. It also explained how energy providers can effectively attract and retain customers over the long term while keeping marketing and service delivery costs down. It was suggested that small players can compete with the growing strength of regional providers by creating new alliances between larger energy conglomerates. The chapters of the book were entitled: (1) Introduction, (2) The Goals of Deregulation, (3) Strategic Marketing Choices, (4) Relationship Marketing, (5) The Role of Customer Service, (6) The Question of Outsourcing, and (7) Final Thoughts and Observations. 24 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Selling power : marketing energy under deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drummond, J.; Hanna, F.

    2001-01-01

    This book discussed the marketing of energy in a deregulated environment. Experience from long distance telephone service providers has shown that historical dominance is not a guarantee for future success. As new brands are introduced and as consumer choice increases, so does the ability to change from one provider to another. Price is only one of the factors prompting that change. Old rules and practices do not bind new competitors who must face the challenge of open competition and must be aware of the ever-changing face of business. It was recommended that the strategic solution would be to build a brand and to develop significant market shares and create effective customer retention programs. This book focused on the elements that energy marketing professionals must use to maintain and increase share without product differentiation. It also explained how energy providers can effectively attract and retain customers over the long term while keeping marketing and service delivery costs down. It was suggested that small players can compete with the growing strength of regional providers by creating new alliances between larger energy conglomerates. The chapters of the book were entitled: (1) Introduction, (2) The Goals of Deregulation, (3) Strategic Marketing Choices, (4) Relationship Marketing, (5) The Role of Customer Service, (6) The Question of Outsourcing, and (7) Final Thoughts and Observations. 24 refs., 3 figs

  4. Energy market barometer report 1 - Fall 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, Joachim; Cateura, Olivier; Faure, Corinne; Molecke, Greg; Olsthoorn, Mark; Pinkse, Jonatan; Vernay, Anne-Lorene

    2014-01-01

    The Grenoble Ecole de Management (GEM) Energy Market Barometer Report aims to track the key trends and challenges of the energy market, on a regular basis, in collaboration with the 'ZEW', the Center for European Economic Research. This edition analyses the expectations of the energy market experts on the role of shale gas, the future electricity mix in France, and the development of energy prices. Key findings: - Two out of three experts believe that exploring shale gas will be authorized in France in the future; - It will take France approximately 30 years to meet the government's goal of reducing the share of nuclear power in the electricity mix from 76% (current) to 50%; - Most experts believe the prices for electricity, gas, oil, coal and CO_2 certificates will remain relatively stable over the next 6 months, but they will increase over the next 5 years

  5. Canadian wind energy technical and market potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templin, R.J.; Rangli, R.S.

    1992-01-01

    The current status of wind energy technology in Canada is reviewed, the technical potential of wind energy in Canada is estimated, and the economic market potential is assessed under several scenarios over about the next 25 years. The technical potential is seen to be large, with applications to water pumping on farms, the coupling of wind turbines to diesel-electric systems in remote communities where fuel costs are high, and the supply of electricity to main power grids. The main-grid application has greatest technical potential, but it cannot be economically exploited under the present utility buyback rate structure for intermittent power sources. A change in government policy toward market development of renewable energy sources, such as is already taking place in several European countries, would greatly increase market potential, decrease emissions of CO 2 and SO 2 , and benefit the Canadian wind energy industry. 2 figs., 1 tab

  6. On transparency and trust. Market monitor, development of the Dutch small-scale consumer market for electricity and natural gas. July 2006 - June 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Liere, M.; Postema, B.; Te Velthuis, M.

    2007-10-01

    The energy market is liberalized since 1 July 2004. The Dutch government has liberalized the energy market to stimulate competition between suppliers and to offer the consumer freedom of choice of their own energy supplier. As energy suppliers must put continuous effort in acquiring and preserving customers, the customers may expect better quality and service at relatively lower prices. In a well-functioning energy market the customer will benefit from the liberalisation. DTe (Dutch Office of Energy Regulation) is the regulator of the energy sector and supervises the energy companies adhering to the rules of the energy markets, protecting customers where needed. Moreover, DTe also monitors the developments in the energy markets. In the market monitor private consumers market DTe reports on the operating of the consumer market, also called the private consumers market. [mk] [nl

  7. German energy market 2017; Deutscher Energiemarkt 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm [Weltenergierat - Deutschland, Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Energie fuer Deutschland; World Energy Council, London (United Kingdom). World Energy Resources

    2018-03-15

    The basic orientation of the German energy supply as specified in the energy concept of the Federal Government towards the increased use of renewable energies with simultaneous increase of energy efficiency still determines the market development. In the present case, a current overview of the German energy market 2017 is given, which provides a concentrated compilation of the key figures of the energy industry. As in previous years, the article not only summarizes general facts about the energy mix, but also deals in detail with the development of the individual energy sources oil, natural gas, brown and hard coal, nuclear energy and renewable energies. Furthermore, the price trends are explained on the international markets and inland. An overview of the development of greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 to 2017 concludes the contribution. [German] Die im Energiekonzept der Bundesregierung vorgegebene Grundausrichtung der deutschen Energieversorgung hin zur verstaerkten Nutzung erneuerbarer Energien bei gleichzeitiger Steigerung der Energieeffizienz bestimmt nach wie vor die Marktentwicklung. Vorliegend wird ein aktueller Ueberblick ueber den deutschen Energiemarkt 2017 gegeben, der eine konzentrierte Zusammenstellung der zentralen Eckdaten der Energiewirtschaft leistet. Wie in den Jahren zuvor fasst der Artikel nicht nur allgemeine Fakten zum Energiemix zusammen, sondern geht auch ausfuehrlich auf die Entwicklung der einzelnen Energietraeger Erdoel, Erdgas, Braun und Steinkohle, Kernenergie sowie regenerative Energien ein. Ferner werden die Preistendenzen auf den internationalen Maerkten und im Inland erlaeutert. Eine Uebersicht ueber die Entwicklung der Treibhausgas-Emissionen von 1990 bis 2017 schliesst den Beitrag ab.

  8. Economically sustainable: market synergies in hydrogen systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, D.

    2000-01-01

    As interest in the use of hydrogen as an energy carrier grows, it is important to understand the advantages and disadvantages of a market-based approach to its introduction. While there will always be niche markets in which it makes sense to employ what is currently a comparatively expensive form of energy storage and delivery, this will not enable the sort of large-scale penetration that will allow for economies of mass-manufacture to bring the cost of hydrogen down. In addition, energy markets are becoming increasingly liberalised, and because of this it is important to understand the sort of market pressures that are arising where none have existed before. These pressures may actually lead to opportunities for hydrogen in energy storage and for use in power generation and transport fuel modes, and allow market penetration to occur more rapidly than might be the case in a centralised energy structure. In the liberalised energy market within the UK, for example, there are two areas of potentially major growth in hydrogen production and consumption: energy storage for renewable generators; and backup systems at weak electricity grid links. The first of these is due, in part, to potential changes in regulation governing the way that electricity is sold into the market, while the second is dependent more on an increasingly congested electricity grid and the high costs of building supplementary infrastructure. In both cases there is potential for the early use of hydrogen energy systems in an economically competitive environment. (author)

  9. Wind offering in energy and reserve markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago; Pinson, Pierre; Morais, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    The increasing penetration of wind generation in power systems to fulfil the ambitious European targets will make wind power producers to play an even more important role in the future power system. Wind power producers are being incentivized to participate in reserve markets to increase...... their revenue, since currently wind turbine/farm technologies allow them to provide ancillary services. Thus, wind power producers are to develop offering strategies for participation in both energy and reserve markets, accounting for market rules, while ensuring optimal revenue. We consider a proportional...... offering strategy to optimally decide upon participation in both markets by maximizing expected revenue from day-ahead decisions while accounting for estimated regulation costs for failing to provide the services. An evaluation of considering the same proportional splitting of energy and reserve in both...

  10. Renewable energies enter the stock market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulanger, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the new context created by the obligation for renewable energy installations to sell their electricity directly on the market. Thus, new practices and new actors appear like aggregators which belong to three categories: trading departments or subsidiary companies of national operators, trading departments or subsidiary companies of developers and producers of renewable energy, or independent market operators. The author describes the different cases in which renewable electricity producers will need aggregators (the mandatory purchase contract reaches its end, an additional income in the case of bidding or outside this case). The author also describes the role and responsibilities of aggregators, notably with respect to RTE. Such a market operation of course results in the taking of the electricity price on the stock market into account, and in the associated risks for aggregators

  11. Breezing ahead: the Spanish wind energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avia Aranda, Felix; Cruz, I.C.

    2000-01-01

    This article traces the rapid increase in Spain's wind generating capacity, and examines Spain's wind strategy, the assessment of wind power potential at regional level, and the guaranteeing of the market price for power generators using wind energy with yearly reviews of the price of electricity from wind power. Prices payable for electricity generated from renewable sources are listed, and the regional distribution of wind energy production is illustrated. Recent wind power installations in Spain, target levels for wind energy installations, wind farms larger than 1MW installed in 1999, and the impact of the growth of the wind energy market on the manufacturing industry and the manufacturers are discussed. Details of the wind energy capacity in the provinces of Navarra and Galicia are given, and plans for wind energy projects in the New National Plan for Scientific research, Development and Technological innovation (2000-2003) are considered

  12. Renewable energy and the need for local energy markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Frede

    2006-01-01

    green energy policy should be introduced in order to secure both public and political acceptance. Local markets should be established in order to secure the technical integration of a large proportion of wind power and other fluctuating renewable energy sources into the energy system....

  13. Law project relative to the energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document presents the law project relative to the energy markets. It aims to open the french gas market to the competition and defines the gas utilities obligations. The first part presents the main topics of the law: the natural gas distribution access, the natural gas sector regulation, the gas utilities, the natural gas transport and distribution, the underground storage, the control and penalties. The second part details the commission works concerning this law project. (A.L.B.)

  14. Market penetration of new energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Packey, D.J.

    1993-02-01

    This report examines the characteristics, advantages, disadvantages, and, for some, the mathematical formulas of forecasting methods that can be used to forecast the market penetration of renewable energy technologies. Among the methods studied are subjective estimation, market surveys, historical analogy models, cost models, diffusion models, time-series models, and econometric models. Some of these forecasting methods are more effective than others at different developmental stages of new technologies.

  15. Marketing of fuels - energy from refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tweedale, A W

    1986-03-01

    Ways of utilising low grade materials, achieving market acceptance and proving their technical and financial viability are discussed. Alternative ways in which wastes can be used to produce energy are outlined covering the incineration process whereby heat normally lost in the waste gases after the combustion of waste materials is recovered to produce heat and sometimes electricity, waste shredding and use in fluidised bed boilers, and combustion of waste pellets. Employment of utilities company and innovative and energetic approach to marketing are considered.

  16. Energy market opportunities post-Maui

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, G.

    1995-01-01

    As supply from the Maui and other existing producing fields decline, petroleum explorers and developers need to address the question who will be the indigenous oil and gas customers post Maui? This paper discusses major macro- and micro-environmental trends which will influence likely market opportunities. Two sub-markets are examined. First, what trends impact on current oil and gas customers. Second, what other new customers might arise. The macro-environment trends cover important economic, political, legislation, socio-economic and technical parameters. The micro-environment trends cover energy market structures and pricing parameters. (Author)

  17. Energy markets and price relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergendahl, P.A.

    1986-10-01

    The aim of the report is to elucidate the way and extent of the dependence of the price of different energy species of one another and particularly of crude oil prices. Oil, coal and natural gas can substitute each other at many applications. The prices are dependent on mining, processing and transporting. Forecasting of prices and future trends are discussed

  18. Photovoltaic energy in power market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, D.T.; Frunt, J.; Myrzik, J.M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) penetration in the grid connected power system has been growing. Currently, PV electricity is usually directly sold back to the energy supplier at a fixed price and subsidy. However, subsidies should always be a temporary policy, and will eventually be terminated. A question is

  19. Neo-liberalisation, Universities and the Values of Bureaucracy

    OpenAIRE

    Nash, Kate

    2018-01-01

    Neo-liberalisation of universities is advancing through a bureaucratic revolution. ‘Marketising bureaucracy’ advances neo-liberalisation through audit and rankings in the name of ensuring value for money and consumer choice. However, bureaucracy in universities is not total, just as neo-liberalisation is a project which advances on an uneven terrain of values. This article argues that to exercise academic autonomy, to continue to value education, we must learn to distinguish between ‘marketis...

  20. Wind offering in energy and reserve markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, T.; Pinson, P.; Morais, H.

    2016-09-01

    The increasing penetration of wind generation in power systems to fulfil the ambitious European targets will make wind power producers to play an even more important role in the future power system. Wind power producers are being incentivized to participate in reserve markets to increase their revenue, since currently wind turbine/farm technologies allow them to provide ancillary services. Thus, wind power producers are to develop offering strategies for participation in both energy and reserve markets, accounting for market rules, while ensuring optimal revenue. We consider a proportional offering strategy to optimally decide upon participation in both markets by maximizing expected revenue from day-ahead decisions while accounting for estimated regulation costs for failing to provide the services. An evaluation of considering the same proportional splitting of energy and reserve in both day- ahead and balancing market is performed. A set of numerical examples illustrate the behavior of such strategy. An important conclusion is that the optimal split of the available wind power between energy and reserve strongly depends upon prices and penalties on both market trading floors.

  1. Liberalization of electricity markets and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yajima, Masayuki

    2004-01-01

    Liberalization of electricity markets begun in England in 1990 and became the trends of the times. Its effects on the energy security and atomic power generation are discussed. On the effects on energy security, change of construction of fuel of power generation, decrease of fuel feed by high efficiency of power generation, decrease of fuel stock by pressure of cost-cutting, increase of import rate of electricity, increase of power consumption with decrease of power cost, flexibility of supply contract, diversification of service, international cooperation on energy security and mutual dependence relation by international investment are discussed. On the effects of liberalization on the electricity markets, characteristics of nuclear power generation, risk of investment, effects of introduction of competition on development of the existing and new nuclear power generation, relation between development of nuclear power generation and market failure and what the government should do for development of nuclear power generation are discussed. (S.Y.)

  2. European municipalities and the liberalized energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    Municipalities are directly affected by the liberalization of the energy markets. Because they all consume or even produce energy, whether it be for their own consumption or to resell it, they often distribute gas, electricity or heat, they plan urban areas and organize the energy networks on their territory, while in addition citizens expect municipalities to inform them and even protect them against the possible excesses of energy salesmen. Elected representatives administrations, local agencies, municipal companies, citizens' associations etc., all have to innovate. This supplement to Energie-Cites INFO is intended to provide you with practical information and further analyses of the liberalization process. (authors)

  3. The India market for sustainable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakthavatsalam, V.

    2000-01-01

    Sustainable and qualitative growth of developing economics and habitats require increased energy input from renewable sources. To mainstream these innovative options, we need to continue to develop cost-effective renewable energy technologies, to focus our efforts on replicable innovative institutional and financial models which are based on cost recovery principles and fostering private partnerships to enable the developing countries to use these technologies. In response to these challenges the points energy policy, energy conservation, marketing, promoting energy conservation and efficient management are discussed

  4. Market penetration rates of new energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The market penetration rates of 11 different new energy technologies were studied covering energy production and end-use technologies. The penetration rates were determined by fitting observed market data to an epidemical diffusion model. The analyses show that the exponential penetration rates of new energy technologies may vary from 4 up to over 40%/yr. The corresponding take-over times from a 1% to 50% share of the estimated market potential may vary from less than 10 to 70 years. The lower rate is often associated with larger energy impacts. Short take-over times less than 25 years seem to be mainly associated with end-use technologies. Public policies and subsides have an important effect on the penetration. Some technologies penetrate fast without major support explained by technology maturity and competitive prices, e.g. compact fluorescent lamps show a 24.2%/yr growth rate globally. The penetration rates determined exhibit some uncertainty as penetration has not always proceeded close to saturation. The study indicates a decreasing penetration rate with increasing time or market share. If the market history is short, a temporally decreasing functional form for the penetration rate coefficient could be used to anticipate the probable behavior

  5. Developing markets for renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charters, W.W.S.

    2001-01-01

    Although renewable energy resources are now being utilised more on a global scale than ever before, there is no doubt their contribution to the energy economy can still be greatly increased. Recently international support for developing these relatively new sources of energy has been driven by their benefits as assessed by reduced environmental impact, particularly reduced greenhouse gas emissions. After several decades of continuous but somewhat erratic funding for research and development of renewables, it is time to take stock of the key issues to be addressed in terms of implementation of major renewable energy programmes on a large scale worldwide. One of the first steps in this process is the identification and encouragement of reliable continuous markets both in developed and developing nations. Future energy policy and planning scenarios should take into account the factors necessary to integrate renewables in all their diverse forms into the normal energy economy of the country. Other critical factors in market development will include the mass production of high quality, reliable and reasonable cost technical products and the provision of adequate finance for demonstrating market ready and near market renewables equipment. Government agencies need to aid in the removal of legislative and institutional barriers hindering the widespread introduction of non-conventional energy sources and to encourage the implementation of government purchasing schemes. Recent moves by companies in Australia to market 'green energy' to customers should also aid in the public awareness of the ultimate potential of renewables leading to greater use in the industrial, commercial and domestic sectors. (author)

  6. Energy market barometer report - Winter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, Joachim; Cartel, Melodie; Shao, Evan; Vernay, Anne-Lorene

    2017-01-01

    This Winter 2016 edition of the Grenoble Ecole de Management (GEM) Energy Market Barometer explores the opinion of French energy experts about the decentralization of the electricity sector in France. French experts were also asked where the focus of French energy policy should be in the next five years. Key findings: - French energy experts sense a clear trend toward the decentralization of the French electricity system; - Technology innovation and self-sufficiency for corporations and municipalities are the two major promises of decentralization; - The major barriers to faster decentralization in France are the high price of energy storage systems and the lack of political will; - 74% of experts believe that energy efficiency should be a top priority for French energy policy in the next five years; - Reducing greenhouse gas emissions and facilitating the decentralization of the electricity sector should also be a top priority for French energy policy in the next five years; - Experts are divided over the future of nuclear energy

  7. The market for tradable renewable energy credits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, David

    2002-01-01

    As states seek to foster the development of renewable energy resources, some have introduced renewable portfolio standards (RPSs) which require retailers of electricity to derive a specified amount of their energy supply from renewable energy resources. RPSs in Texas, Arizona, Wisconsin and Nevada allow for or require the use of tradable renewable energy credits. The price of such credits is expected to reflect the cost premium for generating electricity from renewable resources relative to the market price of conventionally generated electricity. Using the market to trade renewable energy credits exposes buyers and sellers to risks of imperfect information, poor performance, and opportunism. These risks can be managed through contractual arrangements and regulatory requirements pertaining to property rights in credits, pricing, term of the contract, and assurance of performance

  8. BDI position on energy policy and energy market deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreklau, C.

    2003-01-01

    Secure energy supplies are indispensable for our modern way of life and our economy. Energy policy is a part of economic policy and must be shaped within the magic triangle of objectives, i.e. security, competitiveness, environmental compatibility. As a result of their outstanding role, electricity and natural gas, with respective shares of 70% in industrial energy use and 85% in energy costs, are in the focus of energy policy interest of the Federation of German Industries (BDI). One important development over the past few years has been the deregulation of the markets for electricity and gas. However, the markedly lower electricity rates to be paid by industry, commercial tariff consumers, and private customers are being offset by new burdens arising from government intervention and taxes. Other dirigistic interventions into the energy market by the red-green federal government since 1998, referred to as 'turning point of energy policy', are invalidating what market opening had been achieved. With a view to a sustainable energy policy for the future, BDI pleads in favor of a broad energy mix. In a mix neutral with respect to competition, this includes the classical energy sources, the renewables, and low-cost, environmentally friendly nuclear power. In principle, it is the forces of the market, coupled with responsible action, which are to steer further developments. On a European level, speedy implementation of the opening of the electricity and gas markets, as decided, should be urged. It is important that the leeway won as a result of deregulation not be constrained again by new regulations. More market, less regulation, and more direct responsibility must provide room for a powerful energy supply system under the premises of the triangle of objectives referred to above. (orig.) [de

  9. Efficient integration of renewable energies in the German electricity market; Effiziente Integration erneuerbarer Energien in den deutschen Elektrizitaetsmarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabe, C.A.

    2006-07-01

    Liberalisation of the electricity sector aims to carry out coordination tasks within the system by markets and market prices. This study examines how markets need to be designed to carry out coordination tasks caused by integration of renewable energies in an efficient way. This question is applied to the German electricity system and recommendations are derived from identified deficits. The examination uses the structure-conduct-performance approach of industrial organisation economics. Integration of renewable energies does not result in entirely new coordination tasks but complicates those that exist in any electricity supply system. Within the short-term coordination tasks provision and operation of reserve capacity is affected by renewable energies. Long-term coordination means that the relation between fixed and variable costs of generators as well as generator flexibility has to be adjusted to the characteristics of renewable energies. The relevant short-term coordination task with the network is congestion management. In the long run costs of grid expansion and permanent congestion management have to be balanced. For the execution of short-run coordination tasks integrated and centralised market architectures are superior to decentralised architectures. The increase of short-term coordination tasks due to renewable energies caused by inflexibilities of consumers and conventional generators results in more information that has to be considered. By centralising that information in one market, an increase in productive efficiency can be obtained. In Germany the increased coordination tasks are determined by the integration of wind generators into the electricity system. The present German market architecture results in inefficiencies in short-term coordination. This is demonstrated by an analysis of procedural rules and prices of the ancillary service markets. They demonstrate that market performance is low and significant deviations from competitive prices

  10. European energy market in 1980. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, G; Robinson, C

    1975-01-01

    Three important general influences now affecting energy markets are: (1) exploitation of bargaining power by exporters of raw materials (especially oil); (2) changing attitudes in the developed world towards economic growth; and (3) the unprecedented combination of rapid inflation and serious recession. Fears of energy shortages helped precipitate the world crisis, but there is no energy famine imminent. The rise in energy prices resulted from use of OPEC's quasi-monopoly power rather than from real energy shortages. It is projected that European fuel markets in the next few years will be influenced by: poorer economic growth prospects, the increase in energy prices, oil-saving measures caused by consumers' adjustments over some years to the past huge oil price increases, and attempts by European governments to reduce dependence on OPEC oil. Possible substitutes for OPEC oil are their own various sources of crude oil, European natural gas, and electricity from nuclear fission. EEC's latest energy strategy calls for adequate supplies of cheap energy with minimum damage to the environment. Energy forecasts up to 1980 are given for the nine EEC countries and for Norway and Sweden. Data on energy demand, fuel consumption, and production are summarized. It is felt that, by 1980, Netherlands, United Kingdom, and Norway should be producing more energy than they consume. (MCW)

  11. Energy. The choice is yours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-09-01

    There are major changes taking place in the world of energy, largely due to the liberalisation of the energy sector. The two principal objectives of the Dutch government: (1) accelerating the pace of liberalisation and (2) meeting its objectives in the areas of renewable energy and energy efficiency, remain the same. Because the government is increasingly taking a back seat in the energy market, its role is naturally changing. Crucially, the government's role is no less important. On the contrary. This brochure sets out the changes that have taken place, the reasons for them and the consequences for consumers. The introduction sketches the background to these developments. Chapter 1 deals with competition in the energy sector. Chapter 2 looks at the changing role of the government and Chapter 3 provides information on renewable energy and energy conservation

  12. Liberalization turns energy market upside down

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lousberg, H.H.J.

    2002-01-01

    The consequences of free energy trade are discussed, i.e. the changes caused by liberalization of the energy market. The ability to purchase energy freely, thus creating competition between sources of energy, is changing the relationships between gas and electricity prices. The implications are very significant for building services contractors and energy companies and also for the selection of technical concepts. It also, of course, has implications for the environment. liberalization also gives certain customers the opportunity to consider their energy supply on an integrated basis. Who is going to supply me with energy, rather than who supplies electricity and who supplies gas? For example, the customer wants heating, cooling and electricity, and the conversion methods are not immediately relevant. This creates the possibility of offering, or outsourcing, a total 'energy' package [nl

  13. Trends in the development of energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penkov, P.; Donchev, A.; Stefanova, E.

    2000-01-01

    The 20th annual energy symposium (7-8 Dec., 1999, Houston) has been organized by 'Arthur Andersen' company. The main subjects presented are: research, monitoring and assessment of the market risk by BUMP system; electro-energy systems development; energy markets transformation including their liberalization and convergence; necessity of investment capital and possibilities for its effective increasing; structural reform in electric energy sector, in accordance with the European requirements. A review on the achievements and problems in the energy field in the Central and Eastern European countries during the years after the democratic changes is presented at the round table discussion. It is outlined the significance of the operating energy laws in this countries and increasing productivity, and efficiency of the former government electricity companies for the development of corporations. The process of transformation and privatization in some countries in Central and Eastern Europe: Hungary, Poland, Romania, Czech Republic, Latvia, Lithuania is analyzed. As a result of the reports delivered at the 20th yearly symposium, conclusions are made that even in the developed countries the production competition gets into trouble. The right field of market competition in electric-energy field isn't a struggle for production but it is a struggle for investments

  14. Wind energy. Market prospects to 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckle, R.

    2002-01-01

    Renewable energy is becoming an increasingly significant source in the energy portfolio of most countries. Several sources of renewable energy are now being pursued commercially and wind energy is the most advanced in terms of installed electricity generation capacity. Of all types of renewable energy wind energy is the one with which there is the greatest experience - wind wheels and windmills have been used in various forms for hundreds of years. Chapter 1 is an introduction to the market study. Chapter 2 begins with a review of the wind energy industry. Topics included here are the case for wind energy (sustainability, security, non-polluting etc), market structure (the relationship between developers, operators, manufacturers, consortia etc) and environmental issues. This is followed by a discussion of the wind energy market for major countries in terms of installed wind power capacity. Within each country market there is an account of government policy, major wind energy programmes, major projects with information on developers and wind turbine manufacturers. A market analysis is given which includes an economic review, wind energy targets (where they exist) and forecasts to 2006. Chapter 3 is a review of wind turbine applications covering electricity generation for public supply networks, stand alone/community applications, water pumping and water desalination. Chapter 4 provides the basic principles of wind turbine operation and associated technologies. A brief account is given of the development of wind turbines and the main components such as the tower, rotor blades, gearbox, generator and electrical controls. Electricity generation and control are outlined and the challenge of electricity storage is also discussed. Meteorological factors (wind speed etc) and the move towards off-shore wind farms are also covered. Chapter 5 contains profiles of leading wind project developers and wind turbine manufacturers. A selection of existing and proposed wind farms

  15. Report 2 Energy Market Barometer - Summer 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, Joachim; Cateura, Olivier; Faure, Corinne; Jacob, Jojo; Javaudin, Laurent; Molecke, Greg; Olsthoorn, Mark; Pinkse, Jonatan; Vernay, Anne-Lorene

    2014-09-01

    This Summer's edition of the Grenoble Ecole de Management (GEM) Energy Market Barometer documents the French energy experts' expectations of the impact of the Ukraine crisis on energy supply, the focus of energy policy in France, the economic implications of the energy transition, and the development of energy prices. The findings on the Ukraine crisis are also compared to a parallel survey in Germany, which was carried out by the Center for European Economic Research (ZEW). Key findings: - Half the French experts believe that the Ukraine crisis has worsened the security of natural gas supply in France; - Appropriate responses to the Ukraine crisis include strengthening the EU energy market integration, and investing in pipelines and in liquefied natural gas infrastructure; - The high perceived emphasis on energy efficiency in the current French energy policy is justified, but the focus on affordability for households and security of supply appears somewhat overrated; - The French energy transition is expected to hurt utilities, but to benefit technology providers and the economy as a whole; - Most experts believe the prices for electricity, gas, oil, and coal will remain relatively stable over the next 6 months, but they will increase over the next 5 years (except coal); - Expected prices of CO_2 certificates have slightly increased since the previous barometer report, in particular for the medium term

  16. Energy sector in conditions of market economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schervashidze, N.

    1993-01-01

    The main dilemma of energy sector in market conditions is: regulation of the monopole producer and/or competition. There is no simple answer and the arguments for and against should be based on the macro economical determination of what kind of market is available for particular energy goods (perfect, monopolistic, oligopolistic, competition of monopolists) and what is the final purpose (improvement in efficiency, service, energy independence, regional development, etc.). Two polar models of economic management in energy sector are distinguished: 1) Free access to transfer net or competition between producers. 2) State regulation of the local monopolist. The experience of Great Britain and US are described as examples of both models. A special attention is paid to pricing methods at regulated monopole. 7 refs. (author)

  17. Renewable energy promotion in competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlgemuth, Norbert

    1999-01-01

    The opening of electricity markets to competition involves fundamental structural changes in the electricity supply industry. There is, however, doubt that the new industrial organisation will provide the right price signals that will ensure that renewable energy options will be adopted. Therefore, one of the numerous challenges in the energy industry restructuring process is to ensure that renewable energy has a fair opportunity to compete with other supply resources. This paper presents mechanisms to promote the use of renewable energy in competitive electricity markets. These mechanisms include the Non Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO), the Renewables Portfolio Standard (RPS) and the Systems Benefit Charge (SBC). The paper discusses merits and disadvantages of these mechanisms, given the experience made in the United States and the United Kingdom. (author)

  18. Opening up electricity markets: contributions of research in the energy economics area - Proceedings of the conference on 22 November 2001; Oeffnung des Strommarktes - Beitraege der energiewirtschaftlichen Forschung / Ouverture du marche de l'electricite - Apports de la recherche sur l'economie energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, R. [ed.] [Programmleitung Energiewirtschaftliche Grundlagen, Berne (Switzerland); Bacher, R. [Bacher Consulting, Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland); Bodmer, F. [Wirtschaftswissenschaftliches Zentrum der Universitaet Basel, Basel (Switzerland); Dettli, R.; Ott, W. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Fillipini, M. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Centre for Energy Policy and Economics, Zuerich (Switzerland)]|[Universita della Svizzera italiana, Lugano (Switzerland); Graber, W. [Verband Schweizerischer Elektrizitaetsunternehmen VSE, Berne (Switzerland); Iten, R. [Infras, Zuerich (Switzerland); Renggli, M. [Swiss Federal Office of Energy, Berne (Switzerland); Romerio, F. [Centre universitaire d' etude des problemes de l' energie (CUEPE), Carouge (Switzerland); Sommer, H. [Ecoplan, Altdorf (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    These proceedings of the conference organised by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) that took place on the 22nd of November 2001 present nine papers on various topics involved in the liberalisation of the Swiss electricity market. The topics covered include the labelling of electricity to indicate its source, whereby the problems to be overcome in connection with the import of electrical power are examined, and the results of a focus-group survey on the labelling of electricity that covers the requirements of consumers. Further, a paper on the fundamentals for the definition of charges for the use of the electricity grid for the transport of energy by third parties as well as two papers on the benchmarking of Swiss electricity grids are presented. Two further papers discuss the billing of costs between grids operating at different voltage levels and the regulation of prices in the distribution grids at the start of liberalisation. The conditions for hydropower in a liberalised Swiss electricity market and the importance of water taxation and its possible differentiation by location are discussed in two further papers.

  19. Requirements for success in competitive energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallis, E.

    1997-01-01

    A summary of a lecture delivered to the Institute of Energy on a power generator's experience of the UK competitive electricity market is given. It is concluded that privatization has met the public interest better than nationalisation and that the future lies in international growth and globalisation. (UK)

  20. Recent developments in European energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, E.

    1981-01-01

    The industrial development in Europe which has created a remarkable prosperity was originally based on the availability of indigenous energy. At a later stage Europe accepted the offer of low cost crude from the world market. Since a few years we have lost our influence to moderately adjust prises to the changing circumstances in the world market for primary energies since - the multinationally operating companies have lost their balancing power and - the direct dialogue between producing and consuming countries has so far not resulted in any success. The use of the flowery expression energy crisis pretends that we are suffering from a lack of available primary energy. But the actual situation is more to the contrary. At the privailing energy price level there is a manifold offer. Considerable efforts, however, are necessary to create the prerequisits for an utilization of the options among different primary energies. Infrastructures have to be changed requiring impulse on the part of the state. There is no reason to assume a limited availability of crude oil and petroleum products for the use in such sectors in which an early substitution would cause an excessive economic burden. Besides lignite only nuclear energy does offer for the time beeing a remarkable contribution for a reduction of the energy bill in Europe. Starting with the power plants of the first generation which are sufficiently tested and via the breeder technology nuclear power production will most probably approach the aime of the utilization of renewable energies at reasonable costs over the long term. (orig.) [de

  1. Direct Energy Marketing Ltd. 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A corporate profile of Direct Energy Marketing Ltd. was presented for the benefit of shareholders. Direct Energy is responsible for marketing and distributing natural gas to residential, commercial and industrial customers. The company owns physical natural gas reserves that serve as a supply hedge to its growing customer base. The highlights for the natural gas distribution income fund (OPTUS) for 1998 were described. OPTUS acquired WestCastle Energy, adding 38 mmcf/d of natural gas supply. It also amalgamated Channel Lake Petroleum and WestCastle Energy into Direct Energy and created the production division, Direct Energy Resources. It also formed Energy America with Sempra Energy, adding over 160,000 retail customers in Michigan and Ohio. Direct Energy's consolidated financial statements were presented for the benefit of shareholders. These included statements of earnings and deficit, balance sheets, and statements of changes in financial position. Notes to the consolidated financial statements included highlights of significant accounting policies, changes in accounting policies, acquisitions, discontinued operations, and capital assets. tabs., figs

  2. Independent regulatory authorities in European electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, Anders; Pedersen, Lene Holm; Sorensen, Eva Moll; Olsen, Ole Jess

    2006-01-01

    Liberalisation of the electricity market has taken place in most European countries within the last decade. It is considered a precondition of successful liberalisation to establish so-called independent regulatory authorities. In this article, we compare the status and practice of them in 16 European countries, and discuss the relationship between the organisation of the regulation and the market outcome

  3. Liberalisation of municipal waste handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Ole Gunni

    2006-01-01

    for improved performance of municipal waste management. The study stresses the need for training and guidance of municipal administrators. Highlighting ‘best practice’ examples the study shows, however, that it is perfectly possible to end up with quality service on contract. It takes a mixture of careful...... of price reductions in stead of quality demands in both environmental and working environmental terms. A recent study showed major deficits in the capacities of the municipalities to administer qualitative requirements in the tender process and to manage the contracts as an integral part of a scheme...... forces and low quality performance. By assuming responsibility, setting and following up on high quality standards the tender instrument presents an additional instrument to legislation and market based means to institutionalize more sustainable practices in waste management...

  4. Energy market opening and the national energy programme in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomsic, M. G.; Urbancic, A.

    2000-01-01

    Slovenia is now moving fast toward market opening, at least in the electricity sector, due to the new Energy Law adopted in 1999. The Energy Law defines the main energy policy directions, including the sustainable development criterion. It also calls for the preparation of a National Energy Programme (NEP) to be adopted by the Parliament. According to the Law, local governments are expected to prepare local energy concepts, in line with the NEP and space planning decisions. Two most difficult challenges for national energy policies are: opening of the electricity market and meeting the Kyoto Protocol targets in the reduction of greenhouse gasses. The success of the energy sector reform depends on the fine-tuning of various instruments: market structuring and state interventions. The immediate concern for the sector in the secondary legislation, the fifty regulations that the Energy Law calls for. These regulations have to be prepared well before the date of internal electricity market opening on April 15th, 2001. The institutional structure to be established should be adapted for international competition that will start in electricity and gas no later than January 1st, 2003. It is expected that the NEP, to be prepared by spring of the year 2001, will propose complementary development strategies to cope with partially conflicting targets. Four groups of criteria shall be applied to compare the alternatives: security of supply, competitiveness of the society, preserving the space and environment quality and social cohesion. It is expected that energy market opening, not a final goal by itself, can be instrumental for the improvement of the energy sector performance on all accounts. (author)

  5. Nuclear energy in the increasingly deregulated brazilian energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathias, Sergio G

    2003-01-01

    The Brazilian Electric Energy Market is presently undergoing an institutional transition from a strictly regulated to a commercially competitive market, due to be completed by January, 2006. The operation and maintenance costs of the two presently existing Brazilian nuclear power plants allow them to be economically competitive with other types of plants for meeting the load demand in the country. The commercialization of the energy produced by the two existing nuclear power plants must cope with the impact of the new market rules, which establish that power purchase contracts must be freely negotiated between generating and distributing companies. The projected costs for the construction and operation of a third NPP also indicate that it may be economically feasible under the new market rules (author)

  6. Pakistan liberalises the petroleum sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    With the independence of the Indian sub-continent, Pakistan was declared a Dominion on 14 August 1947. Following political turbulence, East Pakistan declared itself an independent state, Bangladesh in December 1971. Although Pakistan has some coal, oil, natural gas and hydroelectricity (the huge Tarbela Dam on the Indus) it is an importer of energy. Many of the population of 90 million live in the 44000 villages only about half of which have mains electricity supplies. About 85 percent of the energy consumption in rural areas is provided by non-commercial sources such as dung and firewood. To replace these non-commercial fuels, even with considerable increases in energy efficiency, would mean a trebling of the present levels of burning kerosine and gas oil consumption. (?)

  7. Polish model of electric energy market-bulk energy tariff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malysa, H.

    1994-01-01

    The key problem of electric energy supply industry reform is gradually launching a competitive wholesale generation market since 1994. In process of this transformation the important role plays bulk energy supply tariff in electricity transactions between Polish Power Grid Company and distribution and retail supply companies (distributors). Premises, factors and constrains having influence on shaping of the bulk energy supply tariff are presented. A brief outline of economic foundation for calculation of demand charges and energy rate is given. Particular attention has been paid to description of bulk energy supply tariff structure. The scope and manner of adjustment of this tariff to circumstances and constrains in the initial stage of the wholesale electric energy market have been described as well. (author). 8 refs

  8. The renewable energy market in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Australia is committed to an 8 per cent reduction in its emissions of greenhouse gases above 1990 levels as a result of the Kyoto Protocol for the period 2008-2012. At present, the emissions stand at 17.4 per cent above 1990 levels. Total electrical power in Australia resulting from renewable energy is in the order of 10.5 per cent. A mandatory renewable energy target of 9500 gigawatt hour (GWh) of extra renewable energy is to be produced annually by 2010, under the Renewable Energy (Electricity) Act. An emissions trading system has been implemented, involving one renewable energy certificate (REC) created for each megawatt hour of renewable energy generated. A significant expansion of the demand for renewable energy is expected in Australia over the next ten years, according to the Australian Greenhouse Office. Increased opportunities for local and international firms operating in the field of renewable energy are being created by the Australian government through initiatives such as the Renewable Energy Commercialization Program, and the Renewable Remote Power Generation Program. Solar, biomass, and wind power are comprised in the wealth of renewable energy resources in Australia. The market remains largely undeveloped. Firms from the United States and the European Union are the leading exporters of renewable energy technology to Australia. Public utilities and independent power producers having entered the deregulated electricity market are the consumers of renewable energy technology and services. A country with minimal duties in most cases, Australia has much in common with Canada, including similar regulatory and legal systems. Australia applies a 10 per cent goods and services tax, which would apply to Canadian exports. It was advised to consult the Australian Customs Service for additional information concerning duties that might be applicable to the renewable energy industry. 28 refs., 3 tabs

  9. The energy in Colombia: A wholesale market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    One year ago, the national government's energy politics, gave beginning to a novel strategy for the restructuring of the sector: The setting in march of the wholesale energy market -WEM - and the opening of the energy bag under the administration of interconnection electric S.A. E. P. S., ISA. After a year of works, the positive balance of the market and their permanent growth, are the best letter in presentation of this sector of the national economy. The wholesale energy market is conformed by generating companies. The generating ones are the companies with capacity of superior generation to the 20 MW that they are connected to the national interconnected system; it doesn't care if the origin of this energy is hydraulic, gas, coal or liquid fuel. The generators participate in the WEM with energy offers for price and with their long-term contracts. In the bag they can also offer or to buy energy the generators with capacity between 1 and 20 MW, registered in the National Center of Office CO of ISA, as WEM participants. These can be associated to a generator, to a distributor, to be conformed by one or several groups of big consumers or for organized companies for this purpose, as Mamonal in Cartagena. These users with more demand to 2 MW assisted in oneself place, receive the name of Not Regulated Clients -NRC - and they can hire their energy in free form. The commission of energy regulation and gas ERG modified the tops for these clients starting from January of 1997, the not regulated clients will be this way those that have a same demand or superior to 1 MW; and in January of 1998, bigger than 0.5 MW

  10. Decentralized energy supply on the liberalized market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauli, H.

    1999-01-01

    Starting in 2001, the electricity market is to be progressively liberalized. The process will be completed by the year 2006. What role will decentralized power generation using combined cycle power plants play on a liberalized market ? The background conditions are essentially favourable: both the new energy act, which has been in force since 1 January 1999, and the planned energy levy suggest that this technology will become increasingly widespread. In addition, the price trend for combined cycle plants components together with low energy costs are having a favourable impact. On the other hand, great uncertainty is being created by the process of liberalization and the current flood of investments in power generation. However, electricity supply is unlikely to be in surplus for long in a context of sustained economic growth. (author)

  11. Energy market integration in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammons, T.J.; Franco, N. de; Sbertoli, L.V.; Khelil, C.; Rudnick, H.; Clerici, A.; Longhi, A.

    1997-01-01

    This article is a summary of presentations made during the 1997 Winter Meeting panel session on Power and Natural Gas in Latin America: Towards an Integrated Market. Reregulation and demand for energy resources to support economic growth are driving international natural gas and electricity exchange initiatives. Panelists focused on the gas and electric power industry in Latin America in terms of the: transport of gas or transmission of electricity; energy market integration in the southern cone of South America; and issues on gas use for electricity generation in South America countries. Countries such as Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru will export natural gas to Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay and Chile, an the energy matrices of these countries will change

  12. Transforming Global Markets for Clean Energy Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This paper looks at three clean energy product categories: equipment energy efficiency; low-carbon transport, including high-efficiency vehicles and electric/plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EV/PHEVs); and solar photovoltaic (PV) power. Each section identifies ways to enhance global co-operation among major economies through case studies and examples, and ends with specific suggestions for greater international collaboration on market transformation efforts. An annex with more detailed case studies on energy-efficient electric motors, televisions, external power supplies and compact fluorescent lights is included in the paper.

  13. Predictability of Wave Energy and Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chozas, Julia Fernandez

    2012-01-01

    The articlw addresses an important challenge ahead the integration of the electricity generated by wave energy conversion technologies into the electric grid. Particularly, it looks into the role of wave energy within the day-ahead electricity market. For that the predictability of the theoretical...... power outputs of three wave energy technologies in the Danish North Sea are examined. The simultaneous and co-located forecast and buoy-measured wave parameters at Hanstholm, Denmark, during a non-consecutive autumn and winter 3-month period form the basis of the investigation. The objective...

  14. Electricity market design in the context of the energy turnaround. The role of capacity mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exner, Henning

    2014-01-01

    This publication starts out by presenting the fundamentals of the liberalised electricity market and goes on to focus on price formation in the electricity wholesale market. After this it investigates the degree to which lacking willingness to invest in conventional production technologies poses a danger to long-term security of supply. The main task undertaken in this study has been to present and analyse various capacity mechanisms that could act as incentives, reviving the willingness to invest. The study closes with a summarising conclusion.

  15. On market integration of renewable energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeer, Sebastian

    2014-12-05

    Since the liberalization of electricity and gas markets in Europe, the energy sector has changed in every respect with one constant: most actors have underestimated renewable energies with regard to their growth, their economies of scale and their impact on existing energy markets. If that trend continues, the urgency for policy measures will increase. Given the security of supply, integration of renewables into energy markets is necessary to replace fossil and nuclear capacities. However, the further development of renewable energies plays a crucial role in the ability to meet the energy and climate policy targets. Thus, it increases the need for regulation to achieve societally desirable outcomes. This thesis has examined the effects of renewable energies on existing energy markets. It has also investigated the various other cost-efficient options that policy makers have in striving to reach energy and climate policy targets. We assumed that cost efficiency is a relevant side condition. In the past, this has not always been the case. Today, cost efficiency is definitely relevant and might also be an essential target in the future (see Bundesregierung 2013, p. 50). We contributed to the analysis of power prices as a result of increasing shares of renewables by showing that shutting down conventional capacities will have a merit order effect. This is necessary if renewable energies are to replace fossil and nuclear capacities. Any discussion of a change of market design should make mention of this effect, since spot market revenues impact a company's behaviour within potential capacity markets. From a consumer perspective, we have shown that there is a substantial need for secured capacity with low marginal costs to keep spot prices stable. This outcome has important implications for policy makers if they are to provide consumers with low-cost renewable market integration. Policy makers have numerous ways to reach policy targets than rapidly expanding

  16. On market integration of renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeer, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Since the liberalization of electricity and gas markets in Europe, the energy sector has changed in every respect with one constant: most actors have underestimated renewable energies with regard to their growth, their economies of scale and their impact on existing energy markets. If that trend continues, the urgency for policy measures will increase. Given the security of supply, integration of renewables into energy markets is necessary to replace fossil and nuclear capacities. However, the further development of renewable energies plays a crucial role in the ability to meet the energy and climate policy targets. Thus, it increases the need for regulation to achieve societally desirable outcomes. This thesis has examined the effects of renewable energies on existing energy markets. It has also investigated the various other cost-efficient options that policy makers have in striving to reach energy and climate policy targets. We assumed that cost efficiency is a relevant side condition. In the past, this has not always been the case. Today, cost efficiency is definitely relevant and might also be an essential target in the future (see Bundesregierung 2013, p. 50). We contributed to the analysis of power prices as a result of increasing shares of renewables by showing that shutting down conventional capacities will have a merit order effect. This is necessary if renewable energies are to replace fossil and nuclear capacities. Any discussion of a change of market design should make mention of this effect, since spot market revenues impact a company's behaviour within potential capacity markets. From a consumer perspective, we have shown that there is a substantial need for secured capacity with low marginal costs to keep spot prices stable. This outcome has important implications for policy makers if they are to provide consumers with low-cost renewable market integration. Policy makers have numerous ways to reach policy targets than rapidly expanding

  17. Managing companies in an open energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaeser, A.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a comparison of management methods in the electricity supply industry in Germany and Switzerland and of the measures that can be taken in order to meet the new regulatory demands resulting from the opening of the electricity market. The development of legislation on the opening of the electricity market in Switzerland is briefly looked at and the situation to be found in many Swiss companies in the energy sector is looked at. The equivalent situation to be found in Germany is also reviewed as well as various prerequisites for the unbundling of the market, including the so-called 'revenue-cap' method. Quality-assurance in this area is also looked at, as are performance management and other controlling aspects. Also, transport lines and mains-usage are discussed, along with their appropriate regulation. An example is given of a system that allows computer access to the relevant data

  18. The economics of energy market transformation programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duke, R.; Kammen, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper evaluates three energy-sector market transformation programs: the US Environmental Protection Agency's Green Lights program to promote on-grid efficient lighting; the World Bank Group's new Photovoltaic Market Transformation Initiative; and the federal grain ethanol subsidy. The authors develop a benefit-cost model that uses experience curves to estimate unit cost reductions as a function of cumulative production. Accounting for dynamic feedback between the demand response and price reductions from production experience raises the benefit-cost ratio (BCR) of the first two programs substantially. The BCR of the ethanol program, however, is approximately zero, illustrating a technology for which subsidization was not justified. Their results support a broader role for market transformation programs to commercialize new environmentally attractive technologies, but the ethanol experience suggests moderately funding a broad portfolio composed of technologies that meet strict selection criteria

  19. Market penetration of energy supply technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condap, R. J.

    1980-03-01

    Techniques to incorporate the concepts of profit-induced growth and risk aversion into policy-oriented optimization models of the domestic energy sector are examined. After reviewing the pertinent market penetration literature, simple mathematical programs in which the introduction of new energy technologies is constrained primarily by the reinvestment of profits are formulated. The main results involve the convergence behavior of technology production levels under various assumptions about the form of the energy demand function. Next, profitability growth constraints are embedded in a full-scale model of U.S. energy-economy interactions. A rapidly convergent algorithm is developed to utilize optimal shadow prices in the computation of profitability for individual technologies. Allowance is made for additional policy variables such as government funding and taxation. The result is an optimal deployment schedule for current and future energy technologies which is consistent with the sector's ability to finance capacity expansion.

  20. Sustainable resource planning in energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamalinia, Saeed; Shahidehpour, Mohammad; Wu, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Sustainable resource planning with the consideration of expected transmission network expansion. • Incomplete information non-cooperative game-theoretic method for GEP. • Maximizing utility value whiling considering merits of having various generation portfolios. • Minimizing risk of investment using renewable generation options. • Application of the stochastic approach for evaluating the unpredictability of opponent payoffs and commodity values. - Abstract: This study investigates the role of sustainable energy volatility in a market participant’s competitive expansion planning problem. The incomplete information non-cooperative game-theoretic method is utilized in which each generation company (GENCO) perceives strategies of other market participants in order to make a decision on its strategic generation capacity expansion. Sustainable generation incentives, carbon emission penalties, and fuel price forecast errors are considered in the strategic decisions. The market clearing process for energy and reserves is simulated by each GENCO for deriving generation expansion decisions. A merit criterion (i.e., the utility value) is proposed for a more realistic calculation of the expected payoff of a GENCO with sustainable energy resources. Finally, the impact of transmission constraints is investigated on the GENCO’s expansion planning decision. The case studies illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method

  1. Stakes and consequences of the opening of energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    This colloquium on the European energy market was organized by the group of energy studies of the commission of economic affairs of the French Senate. The aim of the colloquium was to debate the industrial organization of France in the context of opened energy markets. This article summarizes the point of view of the different participants concerning: the security of energy supplies, the situation of the opening of energy markets in the different European countries, the role of market regulation authorities, the necessary evolutions, the legal risks linked with open markets, and the examples of the German and US markets. (J.S.)

  2. A GLANCE AT THE EUROPEAN ENERGY MARKET LIBERALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Vasilica Rotaru

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a presentation on the liberalization process on the energy markets that started two decades ago and takes place across Europe in the attempt to create a single European energy market. Several benefits are expected following the deregulation process such as higher competition, market transparency, lower prices, increased efficiency and product development in the clients favour. Three very different energy markets are analyzed before and after the liberalization process – UK, Germany and France – a short insight on the current Romanian energy market is also offered. The aim of this paper is to provide a better understanding on liberalizing European energy markets.

  3. 75 FR 35017 - Brookfield Energy Marketing LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... Energy Marketing LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding of Brookfield Energy Marketing LP's application for market-based rate authority, with an... protests and interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov . To...

  4. Regulatory problems relating to energy in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remenyi, K.

    2002-01-01

    One of basic problems of the transition in the energy economy is, how far the process of liberalisation and privatisation could go, i.e. to what extent the control of state/government would be given up, and how the breakdown of the commanding positions of the government would be managed. The transition in the energy sector toward a market economy is characterised by restructuring the regulatory framework of the energy industry, changing the operational structure of the sector and profound reshaping of ownership structures of the enterprises. In Hungary the government, being convinced of the importance of the implementation of the market forces, in 1991 made the first step on the way of restructuring the energy sector in order to increase economic efficiency, to enable companies to react to market forces and to privatise them. Parallel and partly after the restructuring, a profound modification of legal and regulatory framework took place and finally a relatively large scale of privatisation has newly emerged, which will continue in future, too. The process of the energy sector liberalisation in Hungary has a stop and go character and the game is not over. The process can be characterised by institutional restructuring in the energy sector (coal, oil/gas, power ), which is the basic condition for market liberalisation and privatisation, and by the creation of an appropriate environment (regulatory framework, pricing policy, etc. ) for the smooth implementation of the liberation process(author)

  5. Report 3 energy market barometer - Winter 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, Joachim; Cateura, Olivier; Faure, Corinne; Jacob, Jojo; Javaudin, Laurent; Molecke, Greg; Olsthoorn, Mark; Pinkse, Jonatan; Shomali, Azadeh; Vernay, Anne-Lorene

    2015-01-01

    This Winter 2014 edition of the Grenoble Ecole de Management (GEM) Energy Market Barometer documents the French energy experts' estimates of the future electricity mix in France and in the European Union, their assessment of the regulatory conditions in France for investments in energy technologies, and their expectations about the development of energy and CO_2-certificate prices. Key findings: - Fewer than one in four experts believes that the target to decrease nuclear power's share of the French power mix to 50% by 2025 will be met; - The share of renewable energy sources (other than hydropower) in the French power mix is expected to almost quadruple by 2030; - Renewable energy sources (other than hydropower) are believed to become the dominating source of electricity in the EU in 2030; - About two thirds of the experts think that current regulatory conditions in France are particularly accommodating for investments in energy efficiency and renewable energies; - Experts are divided over how supportive current and future regulatory conditions are for encouraging investments in nuclear power in France; - Electricity prices are expected to remain stable over the next six months but to increase over the next 5 years; - Oil prices are expected to continue to decrease over the next six month, but increase over the next 5 years; - CO_2 certificate prices are expected to rise only in the medium to longer term but levels remain rather low

  6. National energy ombudsman. 2013 activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaubert, Jean; Merville, Denis; Lechevin, Bruno; Mialot, Stephane

    2014-06-01

    The National Energy Ombudsman is an independent administrative authority that was created by the law of 7 December 2006 relating to the energy sector, in preparation for the imminent liberalisation of the French gas and electricity markets. It has two legal roles: participating in the process of informing consumers about their rights, and recommending solutions for settling disputes. The Ombudsman reports directly to the French Parliament. This report summarizes the 2013 national energy ombudsman's activity in the domains of energy transition, conciliation between energy operators and consumers, consumers information, mediation, dispute settlement, markets opening, energy prices, quality of supply, smart meters, fight against energy poverty etc

  7. Active Market Share: measuring competitiveness in retail energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, D.; Malm, E.

    1999-01-01

    As retail electric and gas markets deregulate, market share measurement becomes critical for marketers, regulators, and incumbent utilities. Yet traditional market share measures miss important features of these network industries. In this paper we model provider choice in network industries and develop two alternate market share measures - The Active Market Share (AMS) and the New Mover Market Share (NMMS), that are based on 'active demand'. These measures are shown to provide more accurate real-time measures of market activity. The NMMS is a special case of the AMS which is easy to measure empirically. Numerical simulations are used to provide comparisons between each measure over time. Both the AMS and NMMS will be important tools for anyone interested in measuring the competitiveness of deregulating markets. (author)

  8. Agent-based simulation of electricity markets. A literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sensfuss, F.; Ragwitz, M. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Genoese, M.; Moest, D. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Industriebetriebslehre und Industrielle Produktion

    2007-07-01

    Liberalisation, climate policy and promotion of renewable energy are challenges to players of the electricity sector in many countries. Policy makers have to con-sider issues like market power, bounded rationality of players and the appear-ance of fluctuating energy sources in order to provide adequate legislation. Fur-thermore the interactions between markets and environmental policy instru-ments become an issue of increasing importance. A promising approach for the scientific analysis of these developments is the field of agent-based simulation. The goal of this article is to provide an overview of the current work applying this methodology to the analysis of electricity markets. (orig.)

  9. Development of the energy consumption of households in a liberalized energy market. Effects on purchasing and consumption behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeeninga, H.; Boots, M.G.

    2001-01-01

    The study on the title subject focuses on effects on purchase behaviour and changes in hours of usage of domestic appliances. It is concluded that prices for natural gas are expected to rise considerably, as a result of the application of the Commodity Distribution System (CDS) and the increase in taxes on energy and VAT (value-added taxes). Compared to prices of natural gas in 2000, prices are expected to increase by 45% in 2004. As a result of increasing competition due to the liberalisation of the energy market, electricity prices (before tax) in 2004 are expected to decrease by 15% compared to 2000. However, as a result of the increase in taxes (VAT as well as the Regulating Energy Tax (REB)), the total electricity price increases slightly (+3%). Especially for low-income households, the expenditures on energy as percentage of the disposable income increase significantly. By means of price elasticities, the effects of changes in energy prices on the development of residential energy use are estimated. In order to be able to translate the price elasticities to the future Dutch situation, attention is paid to the way the reported values of the price elasticities are determined. In general, price elasticities are based on historical data. However, the availability of energy conservation options as well as the knowledge of consumers with respect to the application of energy saving options may be of influence on the value of the price elasticities. It is expected that within the period up to 2010, the difference between reference technologies and more efficient energy conservation options will decrease. Therefore, it is expected that the price elasticities based on historical data are an upper estimate of the future long-term price elasticities. A delayed purchase or not purchasing an appliance at all is expected to be of more significance on the development of residential energy use than a change in purchase behaviour towards more efficient appliances. However

  10. Demand response and energy efficiency in the capacity resource procurement: Case studies of forward capacity markets in ISO New England, PJM and Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yingqi

    2017-01-01

    Demand-side resources like demand response (DR) and energy efficiency (EE) can contribute to the capacity adequacy underpinning power system reliability. Forward capacity markets are established in many liberalised markets to procure capacity, with a strong interest in procuring DR and EE. With case studies of ISO New England, PJM and Great Britain, this paper examines the process and trends of procuring DR and EE in forward capacity markets, and the design for integration mechanisms. It finds that the contribution of DR and EE varies wildly across these three capacity markets, due to a set of factors regarding mechanism design, market conditions and regulatory provisions, and the offering of EE is more heavily influenced by regulatory utility EE obligation. DR and EE are complementary in targeting end-uses and customers for capacity resources, thus highlighting the value of procuring them both. System needs and resources’ market potential need to be considered in defining capacity products. Over the long-term, it is important to ensure the removal of barriers for these demand-side resources and the capability of providers in addressing risks of unstable funding and forward planning. For the EDR Pilot in the UK, better coordination with forward capacity auction needs to be achieved. - Highlights: • Trends of demand response and energy efficiency in capacity markets are analysed. • Integration mechanisms, market conditions and regulatory provisions are key factors. • Participation of energy efficiency is influenced by regulatory utility obligations. • Procuring both demand response and energy efficiency in capacity market is valuable. • Critical analysis of the design of capacity products and integration mechanisms.

  11. Integration of the North American energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapointe, A.

    2002-07-01

    The US energy policy of President Bush administration proposes to develop a North American energy framework with a greater energy integration between Canada, the USA and Mexico in the respect of the sovereignty of each country. This article tries to evaluate the integration status of the energy sector in Northern America with respect to the North American free-exchange agreement and to the deregulation process observed in the natural gas and electric power sectors. The commercial energy fluxes between Canada, Mexico and the US show that the integration is a reality and that it is in constant progress. This integration is particularly important in the case of Canada and the USA while major constraints remain in Mexico where the property and exploitation of natural resources is a government monopoly. For this reason, Mexico could never exploit the full potentialities of its resources and suffers from a chronical under-investment in its energy infrastructures which limits the energy trade. Despite this, there is a strong will from the Mexican authorities to ensure the modernization of its energy sector and to contribute more to the integration process of the north American energy market. A series of reforms, and in particular the fiscal reform started by the government should reduce the excessive dependence of the government incomes with the dividends from the energy sector. This should allow the different government companies to reinvest more its benefits in order to improve the existing infrastructures and to increase the capacities (in particular in the gas and electricity sectors). Finally, the recent will of the government to open the gas sector should allow the development of this energy source. (J.S.)

  12. Market survey of the state of affairs in the Dutch energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this market survey: to get insight in the knowledge, perception and behavior of consumers in relation to the energy market; to offer insight in developments in aforementioned aspects; to get insight in the effectiveness of the actions of the Dutch Office of Energy Regulation. Derived purposes/functions of the research include: an own measuring instrument for the Office of Energy Regulation, which makes them less dependent on other parties for obtaining data on the energy market; enabling periodical contact with the consumer and sounding out the mood on the energy market. The target can be translated into the following research questions: To what extent are consumers informed about the energy market, or to what extent do they know how to access relevant information?; To what extent is the energy market transparent in the eyes of the consumer?; How much confidence do consumers have in the energy market?; How do people judge the service provision of the energy companies?. [nl

  13. Energy market barometer report - Summer 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, Joachim; Cartel, Melodie; Cateura, Olivier; Faure, Corinne; Grover, David; Jacob, Jojo; Javaudin, Laurent; Molecke, Greg; Olsthoorn, Mark; Shomali, Azadeh; Vernay, Anne-Lorene

    2015-01-01

    This Summer 2015 edition of the Grenoble Ecole de Management (GEM) Energy Market Barometer explored the expectations of French Energy experts regarding the Climate Summit (COP21) in Paris next December, and the future evolution of CO_2 certificate prices. The experts were also asked about the development of energy prices. Key findings: - 62 % of the French energy experts do not expect a legally binding agreement to emerge from the Paris Climate Summit - this share was 77 % among the German experts; - A majority of the French energy experts think that failing to reach a legally binding agreement at the Paris Climate Summit would not change the French climate policy targets; - A legally binding agreement would have positive effects on investment in the energy sector and, in particular, the electrical industry; - Two-thirds of the French energy experts believe that an agreement in Paris would generate a momentum for climate innovation in OECD countries, but less so in non-OECD countries; - CO_2 certificate prices rise only in the medium to long term but levels remain rather low. The announced intention of the G7 to phase out all fossil fuels by the end of this century did not affect the experts' expectations about CO_2 certificate prices or medium-term fuel prices; - Electricity and coal prices are expected to remain stable over the next six months. The majority of the experts consider the current low oil and gas prices to be a rather temporary phenomenon

  14. Renewable Energy: Markets and Prospects by Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This information paper accompanies the IEA publication Deploying Renewables 2011: Best and Future Policy Practice (IEA, 2011a). It provides more detailed data and analysis on policies for Deploying Renewables and is intended to complement the main publication. This information paper provides an in-depth account of the regional markets and policy trends in all six focus regions; 56 countries in total. Each region is discussed with regards to: recent market developments in the electricity, heat and transport sector; policy developments; IEA projections; an analysis of the mid-term (2030) potential of renewable energy technologies in these regions; and an analysis of the strategic drivers underpinning the deployment of RE in each region.

  15. Renewable energy: Externality costs as market barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, Anthony D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the impact of environmentally based market failure constraints on the adoption of renewable energy technologies through the quantification in financial terms of the externalities of electric power generation, for a range of alternative commercial and almost-commercial technologies. It is shown that estimates of damage costs resulting from combustion of fossil fuels, if internalised into the price of the resulting output of electricity, could lead to a number of renewable technologies being financially competitive with generation from coal plants. However, combined cycle natural gas technology would have a significant financial advantage over both coal and renewables under current technology options and market conditions. On the basis of cost projections made under the assumption of mature technologies and the existence of economies of scale, renewable technologies would possess a significant social cost advantage if the externalities of power production were to be 'internalised'. Incorporating environmental externalities explicitly into the electricity tariff today would serve to hasten this transition process. (author)

  16. The opening of energy markets in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    After the last 2002 change of government in France, the new changes in the energy policy have started to be implemented. These changes will have some consequences on the energy markets, on the rate of development of competition, and on the institutional modifications of the historical electricity and gas utilities and of their respective regulation authority. During the colloquium on energy, organized at the Senate on June 2002, F. Mer, minister of economy, and N. Fontaine, delegate minister of industry, have expressed their will in this way. This article reworks the highlights of the most significant talks given at this colloquium and makes a selection of some key information, opinions and proposals published in the press during summer. (J.S.)

  17. Market survey Hungary. Bio-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Basic characteristics of the market for bioenergy (biomass, biogas and biofuels) in Hungary and consequences for business environment are summarized, based on a SWOT analysis. RES is the priority issue to which a lot of attention is paid both at governmental and private level; private investors should view RES as a new niche for their business activities. Standard approach based on a thoroughly done preparation of the project in terms of profitability and risk assessment is necessary in order to avoid potential financial losses due to changed market conditions or differences between assumptions and business reality. Some recommendations for entry on the Hungarian bio energy market are presented: (1) Generally, look for success stories in the Netherlands first and then look for places where such proved and time-tested technologies could be used in Hungary with respect to local specifics. In such way, you can find market niches where investment can be made or new products can be launched; (2) For retail selling it is appropriate to establish business contacts with existing dealers and associations and offer own products through their distribution network. This scheme has the advantage of low initial costs as well as risks involved; (3) In the case of large investments into equipment complexes using RES it seems more appropriate to refer directly either to municipal authorities on whose cadastre the investment should take place or to specialized consultancy agencies that can support the plan with additional information on legal requirements, national programmes supporting RES or available technology. Of course, direct collaboration with well-established local partner can be beneficial for both sides too; (4) If you want to receive up-to-date information on particular aspects of the biomass market in Hungary, you can refer to some governmental organisations associations referred in the key contact addresses

  18. An Agent-based Application to Enable Deregulated Energy Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capodieci, Nicola; Cabri, Giacomo; Pagani, Giuliano Andrea; Aiello, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Private houses are more and more enabled with devices that can produce renewable energy, and the not so remote chance of selling the surplus energy makes them new players in the energy market. This market is likely to become deregulated since each energy home-producer can negotiate the energy price

  19. Liberalisation in network based industries. An economic analysis by case studies of railway, telecommunication and energy utilities; Liberalisierung von Netzindustrien. Eine oekonomische Analyse am Beispiel der Eisenbahn, der Telekommunikation und der Leitungsgebundenen Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, A.

    2006-07-01

    The liberalisation of network based industries represents an economic problem, which raises on the one hand a multiplicity of theoretically unresolved questions and for which exist now on the other hand experiences in economic policy in Germany. The causes of the economic problems are not only to be found thereby in certain industry characteristics of the network based industries, but also in a missed special treatment of the network based economic sectors in the past by the economic policy. However, competition pushes in network based industries at borders, because the infrastructure necessary for the production of network based services typically represents an non-open to attack, natural monopoly in the hand of an established, vertically integrated supplier. From it extensive possibilities for the discrimination of competitors result, the competition political action need draw. It applies to analyze these in the available work and to discuss alternative solutions of the discrimination problem. (orig.)

  20. Energy market barometer report - Winter 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, Joachim; Cartel, Melodie; Javaudin, Laurent; Molecke, Greg; Olsthoorn, Mark; Vernay, Anne-Lorene

    2016-01-01

    This Winter 2015 edition of the Grenoble Ecole de Management (GEM) Energy Market Barometer gauged the expectations of French energy experts regarding the low oil price and its consequences on alternative energy technologies. The experts were also asked about the investment climate for energy technologies in France. Key findings: - The energy experts consider the current low oil price a temporary phenomenon. The price of a barrel of crude oil (Brent) to reach US$ 55 at the end of the year (2016). About three quarters of respondents expect the price of oil to increase in 5 years and to exceed US$ 100 per barrel within 10 years. - The current weak price of crude oil is thought to have an adverse impact on the amount of investment in renewables for heat generation, in biofuels, and in energy efficiency technologies. - The experts view the current regulatory environment in France for investments in renewables, e-mobility, smart grids and energy efficiency favorably. They expect it to continue to improve over the next 5 years. However, nuclear energy and natural gas will not see their investment climate improved. - The recent developments on the global and national political stage have not moved most energy and CO_2 price expectations. The experts chart a progressive yet under-whelming raise in the price of CO_2 certificates in the medium to long term, from currently 8.5 euro/ton to euro 10-15 euro/ton in 5 years and 20-25 euro/ton in 10 years. - Prices of electricity, oil and natural gas are expected to rise in the medium term but remain stable over the next six months temporary phenomenon. Coal is the only energy carrier for which experts expect a decrease in price over the next five years

  1. Energy policy and energy market performance: The Argentinean case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recalde, Marina

    2011-01-01

    In the early 1990s Argentina liberalized and privatized the energy system, trending to a total market oriented system and abandoning the use of energy policy. Since 2004, as a result of a boom in energy demand and constrains in energy supply, Argentina has gone through an energy problem mainly related to natural gas and electricity, which derived in energy shutdowns. In this frame, this study explores the role of energy policy and institutions in Argentina, with the aim of discussing whether it has been properly used to contrast the observed lack of coordination between fossil energy reserves management and the demand of fuels in power generation. The results of the analysis enhance the relevance of regulatory and control authorities, as well as the active use of long run energy policy for the energy system performance in order to avoid coordination failures between subsectors of the system. The relevance of energy consumption for the development process, and the particular characteristics of energy systems require a wide planning perspective. - Highlights: → This paper examines some aspects of the performance of the Argentinean energy system and energy policy. → There is a lack of coordination between fossil energy reserves management and electricity demand. → It is required an improvement of the regulatory framework, and an active role of the regulatory authorities. → A better planning for electricity supply and strengthening aspects related to the linking with other energy chains. → Promoting a systematic exploitation of NG and oil reserves' and increasing the share of RETs in the energy mix.

  2. Energy market and investment - political economy of supply security in the market of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leban, R.

    2005-01-01

    A market structure that appears to be adapted to achieving a supply security purpose in the sectors of oil power and gas, is an organisation where upstream energy markets include industrial players of adequate sizes involved downstream and where futures exchanges prevail at prices translating anticipations on 'basics' since spot markets are more of adjustment markets. Policy weighs hugely on those markets. The extra competition lately instilled in the electrical and gas markets in developed countries results in no decrease, as complicated exchange rules need to be thought up and the market power needs to be monitored. Political intervention is also carried out in the name of environmental policies, in a strong interaction with the operation of the said markets and therefore with a not insignificant risk of disruption. The oil market is a highly political one, since the key to exchanges, i.e. access to primary resources, is played between producing countries and huge oil and gas companies close to consuming countries. There is a strong temptation in the electrical sector, to add security policies in order to prevail over the market. Gas, which is oil upstream and electrical downstream, requires, in consuming countries, a delicate balance of policies to support operators as buyers and to control the same operators as players of the gas- gas competition. The prognosis on the market's ability to provide safe supply efficiently to citizens if security policies are implemented is rather good in areas where demand is moderately growing and networks are developed. It is however not as good in areas where there are high needs for production and transport investments, i.e. in countries that are developing now, and will be...in Europe soon. (author)

  3. The integration of the periodic production in the liberalized electric power markets: from the technic expenditures to the economic taxes imposed by the operating rules of the markets; L'integration de la production intermittente dans les marches electriques liberalises: des surcouts techniques aux penalites economiques imposees par les regles de fonctionnement des marches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menanteau, Ph.; Finon, D.; Lamy, M.L

    2003-03-01

    In the framework of the climatic change and the energy supply safety, the european directive aims to promote the renewable energy production in Europe. Some of the renewable energy sources, as the wind power or the micro-hydroelectric power, are naturally periodic. Their introduction in the electric networks will create problems because of this periodic nature, problems which are new for the electric network producers and managers. These problems generate technical expenditures, which may be compensate by the economic penalties of the electric power market operating. In this context the document details the expenditures associated to the periodicity, the economic penalties by an analysis of the british market and analyses the possibilities to limit these economic penalties in order to reduce the conflicts between the electric market liberalization and the promotion of the renewable energies development. (A.L.B.)

  4. Investment in the Western Hemisphere energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillam, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the main characteristics of Western Hemisphere energy markets are well known to those in the energy industry. The United States sits in the northern half of the hemisphere, importing more and more oil from the rest of the world. Brazil, with a market one-tenth of the size of the United Sates, sits in the southern half of the hemisphere, importing less and less oil from the rest of the world. Venezuela sits in the center with an eye to the future as a long-term player in the world petroleum industry. Venezuela has 6 or 7 percent of the world's known conventional petroleum reserves, plus an uncountable bitumen resource which is now being commercialized as Orimulsion, a low-emission substitute for coal. The United States is circled by major producing countries with smaller exports, such as Mexico and Canada, and there are smaller producing or consuming countries of which Colombia is the largest exporter and Argentian the largest importer. The United States dominates the numbers. Half of British Petroleum's (BP) investments have been in the energy industry of the Western Hemisphere. We are maintaining that proportion, but opportunities are becoming more difficult to find

  5. Wind energy market study Eastern Europe. Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjerk Christensen, P.

    1994-04-01

    The main objective of the THERMIE Associated Measure WE05 is to study market conditions and estimate the market for wind power in Eastern Europe. This report describes the results of a study of the conditions in Poland, which has been concentrated on the following areas: wind energy potential in Poland; data concerning the present structure of the power production system including costs; payback prices, subsidies, etc. with relation to renewable energy sources, especially wind power; information on existing wine turbines and their production in Poland; possibilities for co-production of wind turbines by Polish and EC factories, and rules and legislation pertaining to the establishment of wind turbines and to power production by wind, eg regulations related to grid connection, safety and environment. According to existing data there are possibilities for using the wind potential in certain parts of poland. The wind data have to be improved if particular sites are considered for wind parks. The current official plans concerning the energy system have taken renewable sources into consideration, including wind power that is estimated to contribute ∼ 1 GWh by 2005-2010. Wind turbines may be connected to the public grid with due regard to the strength of the line. Presently, the owner has to pay all the costs, however, new rules are under consideration. The conditions for the connection and operation of wind turbines have to be discussed with the particular utility on an an-hoc basis. (EG)

  6. Market power in interactive environmental and energy markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amundsen, Eirik S; Nese, Gjermund

    2017-01-01

    electricity and TGC markets, and focus on the role of market power (i.e., Stackelberg leadership). One result is that a certificate system faced with market power may collapse into a system of per-unit subsidies. Also, the model shows that TGCs may be an imprecise instrument for regulating the generation......A market for tradable green certificates (TGCs) is strongly interwoven in the electricity market in that the producers of green electricity are also the suppliers of TGCs. Therefore, strategic interaction may result. We formulate an analytic equilibrium model for simultaneously functioning...

  7. Energy Efficiency Market Report 2013: Market Trends and Medium-Term Prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    Energy efficiency has been referred to as a ''hidden fuel'', one that extends energy supplies, increases energy security, lowers carbon emissions and generally supports sustainable economic growth. Yet it is hiding in plain sight: in 2011, investments in the energy efficiency market globally were at a similar scale to those in renewable energy or fossil-fuel power generation. The Energy Efficiency Market Report provides a practical basis for understanding energy efficiency market activities, a review of the methodological and practical challenges associated with measuring the market and its components, and statistical analysis of energy efficiency and its impact on energy demand. It also highlights a specific technology sector in which there is significant energy efficiency market activity, in this instance appliances and ICT. The report presents a selection of country case studies that illustrate current energy efficiency markets in specific sectors, and how they may evolve in the medium term. The energy efficiency market is diffuse, varied and involves all energy-consuming sectors of the economy. A comprehensive overview of market activity is complicated by the challenges associated with quantifying the components of the market and the paucity of comparable reported data. This report underscores how vital high-quality and timely energy efficiency data is to understanding this market.

  8. Backwardation in energy futures markets: Metalgesellschaft revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charupat, N.; Deaves, R.

    2003-01-01

    Energy supply contracts negotiated by the US Subsidiary of Metalgesellschaft Refining and Marketing (MGRM), which were the subject of much subsequent debate, are re-examined. The contracts were hedged by the US Subsidiary barrel-for-barrel using short-dated energy derivatives. When the hedge program experienced difficulties, the derivatives positions were promptly liquidated by the parent company. Revisiting the MGRM contracts also provides the opportunity to explore the latest evidence on backwardation in energy markets. Accordingly, the paper discusses first the theoretical reasons for backwardation, followed by an empirical examination using the MGRM data available at the time of the hedge program in 1992 and a second set of data that became available in 2000. By using a more up-to-date data set covering a longer time period and by controlling the time series properties of the data, the authors expect to provide more reliable empirical evidence on the behaviour of energy futures prices. Results based on the 1992 data suggest that the strategy employed by MGRM could be expected to be profitable while the risks are relatively low. However, analysis based on the 2000 data shows lower, although still significant profits, but higher risks. The final conclusion was that the likelihood of problems similar to those faced by MGRM in 1992 are twice as high with the updated 2000 data, suggesting that the risk-return pattern of the stack-and-roll hedging strategy using short-dated energy future contracts to hedge long-tem contracts is less appealing now than when MGRM implemented its hedging program in 1992. 24 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs

  9. Economic effect of fusion in energy market. Economic impact of fusion deployment in energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Satoshi

    2002-01-01

    Energy model analysis estimates the significant contribution of fusion in the latter half of the century under the global environment constraints if it will be successfully developed and introduced into the market. The total possible economical impact of fusion is investigated from the aspect of energy cost savings, sales, and its effects on Gross Domestic Products. Considerable economical possibility will be found in the markets for fusion related devices, of currently developing countries, and for synthesized fuel. The value of fusion development could be evaluated from these possible economic impact in comparison with its necessary investment. (author)

  10. Energy policy for Europe. Ensuring secure and low-carbon energy in the EU's internal market. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egenhofer, C.; Hammes, J.J.; Pedersen, K.

    2006-12-01

    In early March 2006, the European Commission re-launched the discussion on an Energy Policy for Europe with the 2006 publication of its Green Paper 'Secure, Competitive and Sustainable Energy for Europe'. This manifests the EU's will to broaden its reflection on its future energy systems, taking into account increasing market liberalisation and globalisation, environmental pressures, technological challenges and the growing import dependency from politically unstable regions. Other major contributions to this debate include the climate change communication 'Winning the battle against climate change' (published in 2005), the Green Paper on Energy Efficiency (2005), the Energy Efficiency Action Plan (2006), the ongoing works of the High Level Group on Competitiveness, Energy and the Environment (2006) and the enquiry into the energy sector by DG Competition of the European Commission in 2006. The Spring European Council in March 2006 welcomed the Energy Policy Green Paper and committed itself adopting a prioritised Action Plan at its spring session in 2007, to be prepared by the European Commission and the Energy Council. Early next year, the European Commission will table both the EU Strategic Energy Review, accompanied by a number of sectoral policies and a Green Paper on future climate change policy for the period post-2012 when the Kyoto Protocol expires. Both the EU Strategic Energy Review and the post-2012 Green Paper will outline the European Union (EU) 'energy and climate change vision' and propose a roadmap towards achieving EU energy and climate change objectives, namely, how to ensure the competitiveness of European industries while at the same time combating climate change and ensuring security of energy supply. To contribute to this debate, the CEPS multi-stakeholder Task Force on 'energy policy for Europe' has presented this Interim Report, which attempts to develop the key elements for an EU energy policy framework. Although this report will focus

  11. Developing business in emerging biomass energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadyszewski, J.

    2005-01-01

    Global market trends for forest products were reviewed in this PowerPoint presentation. The status of biomass energy products in relation to climate change and renewable energy portfolio standards was also examined. It was noted that China has increased investment in processing capacity and has increased imports of raw logs. India has doubled its imports of raw logs. Details of major tropical log producers and consumers were presented. Details of the biomass industry in the United States were presented, as well as data on fuel use at biomass energy plants and biomass energy capacity. An overview of biomass energy in the Russian far east and Siberia was presented, as well as details of activities and opportunities in Brazil and Indonesia. An economic analysis for small dry kilns was presented. Issues concerning boiler capacity in Russian companies for 2001-2005 were discussed. A case study of a biomass project from Congo was presented. It was noted that projects that replace fossil fuels can obtain revenues from the sale of carbon benefits, and that biomass energy offers the most attractive current option for the removal of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from the atmosphere. Details of a district heating project in Siberia were presented, and it was noted that in remote regions, costs for heat and power from biomass can be lower than costs from diesel and coal. It was concluded that there will be significant growth for biomass energy systems in the developing world, and that climate change will be an increasingly important element in advancing biomass energy. tabs., figs

  12. Independent regulatory authorities in European electricity market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ole Jess; Larsen, Anders; Sørensen, Eva Moll

    2006-01-01

    Liberalisation of the electricity market has taken place in most European countries within the last decade. It is considered a precondition of successful liberalisation to establish so-called independent regulatory authorities. In this article, we compare the status and practice of them in 16...

  13. Spanish generation market: structure, design and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agosti, L.; Padilla, A. J.; Requejo, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the structure, design and outcome of the Spanish generation market from 1998, when the market was liberalised, to date. More precisely, this paper reviews the history of the liberalisation process; describes the structure of the generation market and its evolution over time; analyses the existence of market power; and evaluates the outcome of the liberalisation process from the viewpoint of its impact on al locative efficiency, productive efficiency and dynamic efficiency. The paper concludes with a brief summary of recent regulatory reforms. (Author)

  14. Four essays on market power in energy economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Petter Vegard

    2008-07-01

    Market power in energy markets is discussed intensively in both academic and public arenas. There has been an intense energy debate on market power at least since the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) exercised its market power and caused the 'oil crisis' of the 1970s, and again following the deregulation of electricity markets at the beginning of the 1990s. However, this debate is not new. In 1911, for example, the US Supreme Court divided Standard Oil into 34 separate companies using antitrust law. With increasing energy prices and the ongoing process of liberalization of electricity markets throughout the world, the topic is still relevant for future markets. The four essays in this dissertation discuss specific aspects of market power in energy markets. The first essay concerns the crude oil market, and the remaining three essays relate to market power in the Nordic and Norwegian electricity markets. In the first essay, a multi-equation dynamic econometric model tests whether the behaviour of OPEC, as a whole or as different subgroups, is consistent with the behaviour of dominant producers in the world crude oil market. The second essay is a theoretical work that introduces uncertainty in inflow to the discussion of market power in hydropower markets by analysing the effects of uncertainty in inflow on market performance under alternative assumptions about market structure. In the third essay, high-frequency data are used to analyse how price signals from the spot market affect end-user demand in the Norwegian and Swedish electricity markets. Finally, in the fourth essay, retailer and household behaviour in the Norwegian electricity market are analysed using detailed information on prices and other market characteristics. In the following section, I provide highlights from a general discussion of market power in order to set the essays included in this dissertation in context. (Author). refs., figs., tabs

  15. Trade Liberalisation and Poverty in Bangladesh: A General Equilibrium Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Nahar, Bodrun; Siriwardana, Mahinda

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to investigate the impact on poverty of trade liberalisation in Bangladesh. The simulation results show that the complete removal of tariffs favours export oriented sectors in the economy. With trade liberalisation, rural and urban areas experience an overall reduction in poverty in the short run. However, a marginal increase in the poverty gap and poverty severity for urban areas is projected, implying that the poor become poorer i...

  16. Energy market review releases draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2002-01-01

    The Energy Market Review Releases draft report has made recommendations consistent with the Australian Gas Association (AGA)'s submissions in a number of areas. In particular, it has endorsed: 1. the need for an independent review of the gas access regime, to address the deficiencies with current access regulation identified by the Productivity Commission's Review of the National Access Regime; 2. the need for greater upstream gas market competition; 3. the principle that significant regulatory decisions should be subject to clear merits and judicial review; and 4. the need to avoid restrictions on retail energy prices. The report also endorses the need for a 'technology neutral' approach to greenhouse emissions abatement policy. It states that 'many of the current measures employed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions are poorly targeted', and that they 'target technologies or fuel types rather than greenhouse gas abatement.' Additionally, it explicitly recognises the key conclusions of the AGA's recently-released Research Paper, Reducing Greenhouse Emissions from Water Heating: Natural Gas as a Cost-effective Option. The draft report recommends the development of an economy-wide emissions trading system, to achieve a more cost-effective approach to greenhouse abatement

  17. The biomass energy market in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    In 2001, it was estimated that the Finnish biomass market was in excess of 235 million dollars. The development of renewable energy, with special emphasis on biomass, was supported by the development of an energy strategy by the government of Finland. The installed capacity of biomass in Finland in 2002 was 1400 megawatt electrical (MWe). Extensive use of combined heat and power (CHP) is made in Finland, and district heating (DH) systems using biomass are gaining in popularity. Wood-based biomass technologies, retrofits to fluidized bed combustion, and wood procurement technologies were identified as the best opportunities for Canadian companies interested in operating in Finland. A country with high standards, Finland seems to look favorably on new innovative solutions. Joint ventures with Finnish companies might be an excellent way for Canadian companies to gain a foothold in Finland and expand into the European Union, the Nordic countries, the Baltic, Russia and the Central and Eastern European markets. It was further noted that Finland is one of the leading exporters of biomass technology in the world. The document provided quick facts, examined opportunities, and looked at key players. 19 refs., 4 tabs

  18. Energy brands lack vitality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godri, S.; Wilders, E.

    2004-01-01

    The three Dutch energy companies (Nuon, Essent and Eneco Energie) have relatively little brand strength. The brands are not perceived to be sufficiently different from one another and are not valued by consumers. With liberalisation imminent, this is hardly a strong starting point. How can you win over consumers if it is not clear what is on offer? In the business market, decision-makers are better placed to distinguish between brands. However, the brands lack vitality in this sector of the market too. The only consolation is that the situation is by no means exclusive to the Netherlands [nl

  19. Energy storage systems: power grid and energy market use cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarnicki Przemysław

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Current power grid and market development, characterized by large growth of distributed energy sources in recent years, especially in Europa, are according energy storage systems an increasingly larger field of implementation. Existing storage technologies, e.g. pumped-storage power plants, have to be upgraded and extended by new but not yet commercially viable technologies (e.g. batteries or adiabatic compressed air energy storage that meet expected demands. Optimal sizing of storage systems and technically and economically optimal operating strategies are the major challenges to the integration of such systems in the future smart grid. This paper surveys firstly the literature on the latest niche applications. Then, potential new use case and operating scenarios for energy storage systems in smart grids, which have been field tested, are presented and discussed and subsequently assessed technically and economically.

  20. Analysis of the Russian Market for Building Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lychuk, Taras; Evans, Meredydd; Halverson, Mark A.; Roshchanka, Volha

    2012-12-01

    This report provides analysis of the Russian energy efficiency market for the building sector from the perspective of U.S. businesses interested in exporting relevant technologies, products and experience to Russia. We aim to help U.S. energy efficiency and environmental technologies businesses to better understand the Russian building market to plan their market strategy.

  1. The competitive environment of the North American energy marketing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonkin, S.L.

    1999-01-01

    Various issues regarding U.S. wholesale energy marketing were discussed with particular emphasis on how energy marketing is changing industries in North America. In 1998, the energy industry reported a growth in revenue of 26 per cent despite declining natural gas prices. It was emphasized that several major competitive issues need to be addressed by industry competitors in order to operate in this unpredictable market. These issues include profitability, market volatility and mergers and acquisitions. This paper presented a list of the top 10 North American Energy marketers in 1998. Although the number of marketers in the energy sector continues to grow, it is expected that the numbers will decline significantly within three years. This will be due mostly to the continuation of major mergers and acquisitions. It was concluded that in general, energy marketing may become an even more attractive industry because of increasing operating margins. 5 tabs., 2 figs

  2. 77 FR 20375 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Rainbow Energy Marketing Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... Rainbow to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as a power marketer for a two-year... is a power marketer authorized by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to sell energy, capacity...

  3. Market Brief. Status of the Voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate Market (2011 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Armstrong, Philip [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-09-01

    This report documents the status and trends of U.S. 'voluntary' markets -- those in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. Voluntary REC markets continue to exhibit growth and spur renewable energy development. Voluntary green power markets provide an additional revenue stream for renewable energy projects and raise consumer awareness of the benefits of renewable energy. Although a full estimate of the size of the voluntary market is not available for 2011, this review uses indicative metrics to capture 2011 voluntary market trends.

  4. Market Brief: Status of the Voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate Market (2011 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Armstrong, P.; Bird, L.

    2012-09-01

    This report documents the status and trends of U.S. 'voluntary' markets -- those in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. Voluntary REC markets continue to exhibit growth and spur renewable energy development. Voluntary green power markets provide an additional revenue stream for renewable energy projects and raise consumer awareness of the benefits of renewable energy. Although a full estimate of the size of the voluntary market is not available for 2011, this review uses indicative metrics to capture 2011 voluntary market trends.

  5. Marketing strategy for retailing small-scale wind energy turbines in Indian markets

    OpenAIRE

    Harjula, Nina

    2009-01-01

    The study analyzes the small-scale wind energy markets in Mumbai, focusing on questions: How feasible is the wind energy for SME businesses in Mumbai, and what are the main challenges and opportunities of small-scale wind energy in Mumbai? The study is a qualitative case study, in which, the data has been collected through observing the markets by visiting wind energy sites and companies, interviewing and meeting potential customers and other stakeholders in the market. Theoretical frame...

  6. Security of supply in the liberalized energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boffa, Federico

    2007-01-01

    The incentive schemes in the liberalized energy markets do not ensure short-term security of supply. The paper analyzes the regulatory measures suitable to tackle the issue, and evaluates their effects on market power [it

  7. Benefits from Liberalisation. Update to EURELECTRIC-KEMA report confirms price reductions for customers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-07-01

    EURELECTRIC believes it important to consider facts and figures when discussing electricity prices. Electricity markets have delivered - and still deliver - lower prices since the beginning of the liberalisation process for a majority of customer categories. A report drawn up by KEMA on behalf of EURELECTRIC in November 2005 ('Review of European Electricity Prices') looked at price evolution from a European perspective. The figures included in this update are based on that report, updated by KEMA for the years 2005 and 2006. It is important to note that all data on electricity prices used are based on official Eurostat data

  8. Preparing Europe for a single market in energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    By the end of 1992 a ''single market'' in the European Community should be in place. While the energy sector was not included in the ''White Paper'' which planned the single market, it soon became obvious that it could not be excluded. The single market in energy is intended to integrate energy supply in the member states and remove barriers to trade. It has been calculated that these barriers cost the Community 20-30 billion ecus ($15-20 billion) every year. Removing the barriers will result in much greater competition within the energy market. The Commission published a working document, the internal energy market, in May 1988. This report described the real and potential obstacles to the single energy market for each of the principal energy sources and suggested priorities which should be addressed. The strategy suggested in the report is outlined here, and recent developments briefly reviewed. (author)

  9. Solar energy market penetration models - Science or number mysticism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, E. H., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The forecast market potential of a solar technology is an important factor determining its R&D funding. Since solar energy market penetration models are the method used to forecast market potential, they have a pivotal role in a solar technology's development. This paper critiques the applicability of the most common solar energy market penetration models. It is argued that the assumptions underlying the foundations of rigorously developed models, or the absence of a reasonable foundation for the remaining models, restrict their applicability.

  10. Renewable energy and the need for local energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hvelplund, Frede

    2006-01-01

    In Denmark, a technological change towards cleaner energy technologies has been developed and implemented since around 1975. This development has had two phases: The first from 1975 until around 1996, when wind power was a niche production that supplied only 3.5% of the electricity consumption and was brought close to cost competitiveness, and the present second phase, in which wind power supplies an increasing share (in 2004 18.6%) of electricity consumption along with combined heat and power plants, which supply around 50% of consumption. Denmark succeeded in overcoming the first phase, and a large green energy technology cluster was established. During the second phase, new difficulties and challenges have arisen, both with regard to local public acceptance and the need for integrating an increasing percentage of fluctuating energy sources into the energy system. In this Phase 2, a new offensive green energy policy should be introduced in order to secure both public and political acceptance. Local markets should be established in order to secure the technical integration of a large proportion of wind power and other fluctuating renewable energy sources into the energy system

  11. Market survey Slovak Republic. Bio-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The study presents an overview of Slovakian bioenergy market, its current state and future prospects in terms of size and potentials. In the opening, the basic structure of Slovakian energy sources is presented from IEA energy statistics, then a list of programmes and valid legislation relating to RES follow. Figures from several sources show possible potential accomplishable in biomass utilisation in Slovakia. Some most promising areas containing interesting amounts of unutilised biomass are quoted. Chapter 4 contains overview of programmes supporting the use of RES, examples of already realised projects and some planned projects. In Chapter 5 there is a list of main stakeholders in the bioenergy sector, description of legal requirements and procedures necessary for starting a business in Slovakia and some ways how to promote bioenergy business in Slovakia. As the most promising opportunities identified in Slovakia we can consider projects of biomass utilisation in the form of installation of boilers and creation of distribution channels enabling steady supply of biomass for competitive prices. A lot of waste and other residues from woodworking industries or forestry is available for this purpose. Dutch companies should make maximum use of their technological know-how and try to offer equipment for biomass utilisation. Biogas is produced only on a very limited scale. The reason for that lies in relatively high initial costs that cannot be covered from farming companies and low rentability of realised projects. Still, projects solving disposal of agricultural waste on the one hand and energy production on the other are worth paying attention to. Success stories from the Netherlands could serve as a source of inspiration but doing of thoroughgoing analysis preceding investment itself is of necessity in order to cope with hidden risks and uncertainties. In any case, Dutch companies can offer technological equipment to Slovakian buyers without risks connected with

  12. Market survey Slovakia. Bio-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The study presents an overview of Slovakian bioenergy market, its current state and future prospects in terms of size and potentials. In the opening, the basic structure of Slovakian energy sources is presented from IEA energy statistics, then a list of programmes and valid legislation relating to RES follow. Figures from several sources show possible potential accomplishable in biomass utilisation in Slovakia. Some most promising areas containing interesting amounts of unutilised biomass are quoted. Chapter 4 contains overview of programmes supporting the use of RES, examples of already realised projects and some planned projects. In Chapter 5 there is a list of main stakeholders in the bioenergy sector, description of legal requirements and procedures necessary for starting a business in Slovakia and some ways how to promote bioenergy business in Slovakia. As the most promising opportunities identified in Slovakia we can consider projects of biomass utilisation in the form of installation of boilers and creation of distribution channels enabling steady supply of biomass for competitive prices. A lot of waste and other residues from woodworking industries or forestry is available for this purpose. Dutch companies should make maximum use of their technological know-how and try to offer equipment for biomass utilisation. Biogas is produced only on a very limited scale. The reason for that lies in relatively high initial costs that cannot be covered from farming companies and low rentability of realised projects. Still, projects solving disposal of agricultural waste on the one hand and energy production on the other are worth paying attention to. Success stories from the Netherlands could serve as a source of inspiration but doing of thoroughgoing analysis preceding investment itself is of necessity in order to cope with hidden risks and uncertainties. In any case, Dutch companies can offer technological equipment to Slovakian buyers without risks connected with

  13. Using energy storage for strategic advantage in competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurwitch, J.W.; Symons, P.

    1998-01-01

    Energy storage products are emerging for use in power quality, electric transmission and distribution, and renewable energy applications. Despite this emergence into high-value markets, widespread market penetration will only occur when the value of the services that energy storage products can deliver are clearly delineated. The emergence of competitive electricity markets will more clearly define the flexible benefits of energy storage devices. This paper presents a summary of the ESA's position of the status of energy storage technologies, the market barriers, and steps the ESA is undertaking to reduce these barriers. (author)

  14. Benefits for whom? Energy efficiency within the efficient market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chello, Dario

    2015-01-01

    How should the lack of an efficient energy market affect the design of energy efficiency policies and their implementation? What the consequences of an inefficient energy market on end users’ behaviour? This article tries to give an answer to such questions, by considering the decision making of domestic users following a few fundamental concepts of behavioural economics. The mechanism of price formation in the market, with particular reference to the internal energy market in Europe, will be examined and we will show that price remains the inflexible attribute in making an energy choice. Then, some conclusions will be addressed to policy makers on how to overcome the barriers illustrated.

  15. The challenges of energy markets in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumas, D.

    1999-01-01

    The transition period includes the processes as follows: liberalization, deregulation, privatization and restructuring. Liberalization consists of multiple changes: 1. Ownership - from public to private; 2. Industry structure - from vertically integrated to unbundled; 3. Market competition - from monopoly to competitive; 4. Product-mix - from single to multi-products; 5. Market approach - from service to product (wholesale); 6. System management - from self-managed to decentralized; 7. Planning horizon - from long to short term and 8. Participants - from national to trans-national. The energy sector is to ensure a reliable, long-term supply of energy in sufficient quantities at affordable prices from processes that are compatible with prudent environmental standards. The evolutionary model of an energy utility foresees a transition from traditional utility (integrated monopoly utility) through local wholesale trading and partial competition (competition for large customers) to competition for all customers and to redefined utilities (bundling multi-product services). Substantial liberalization of electricity have taken place as follows: in 6 countries in Western Europe and 12 plan to do it; in 4 countries in Eastern Europe and 8 - plan to do it; in 2 countries in Asia and Australasia and 12 plan to do it; in 4 countries in South America and 3 plan to do it. There is no liberalization of electricity in Central and North America till now but 6 in Central and 3 in North America plan to do it in future. Substantial liberalization of downstream gas have taken place: only in one country in Western Europe but 6 plan to do it in future; also in one country in Asia and Australasia and 3 plan to do it; in one country in South America and 2 plan to do it and in two countries in North America and only one plan to do it in future. The goals of liberalization include: reducing the cost of energy; improving economic efficiency; attracting capitals and paying off government debt

  16. Interactions between the German Electricity Spot Market and the Reserve Energy Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graeber, Bernhardt

    2005-01-01

    Eight years after market opening, Germany has well established spot and future markets for electricity. Besides OTC and Internet broker platforms the main market place is the European Energy Exchange in Leipzig (EEX) with its spot and future market. Less known is the reserve energy market in Germany. The four German transmission system operators (TSOs) EnBW, EON, RWE and Vattenfall purchase network services on the reserve energy market. Products with specific technical requirements are primary, secondary and tertiary reserve. (Details about the technical requirements and typical means for providing the required services will be presented.) Each TSO organises a separate auction for these products - for primary and secondary reserve half-yearly, for tertiary reserve daily. Due to the technical requirements the liquidity on these markets is limited, but especially on the tertiary reserve market it is recently growing significantly due to new participants marketing several smaller municipal and industrial reserve power plants as combined bids which meet the 30 MW min. capacity requirement. Every power plant or interruptible load could not only be offered as capacity on the reserve market but could also be dispatched for the spot market. Therefore the developments of prices on these markets are not independent and opportunity costs against the spot market can be estimated for different type of plants bidding in the reserve market. Another interaction between reserve and spot market is caused by the balancing price system in Germany. Prices for balancing energy meeting deviations between load, trading balance and production of a market participant are based on quarter-hourly reserve energy costs encountered by the TSO. As unbiased load and production forecasts are not strictly enforced by the TSOs so far, part of the planned demand could be met with balancing energy if EEX spot market prices rise above expected balancing energy prices. This interrelationship has a

  17. Interaction of Compliance and Voluntary Renewable Energy Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Lokey, E.

    2007-10-01

    In recent years, both compliance and voluntary markets have emerged to help support the development of renewable energy resources. Both of these markets are growing rapidly and today about half of U.S. states have RPS policies in place, with a number of these policies adopted in the last several years. In addition, many states have recently increased the stringency of their RPS policies. This paper examines key market interaction issues between compliance and voluntary renewable energy markets. It provides an overview of both the compliance and voluntary markets, addressing each market's history, purpose, size, scope, and benefits while addressing issues, including double counting.

  18. Norway in a liberalized European energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aune, Finn Roar; Golombek, Rolf; Rosendahl, Knut Einar; Kittelsen, Sverre A.C.

    2000-01-01

    The authors study the short-term effects of a comprehensive liberalization of the gas and power markets in Europe. The analysis is based on a statically applied general equilibrium model which gives an overall and consistent treatment of the energy markets in Europe. The model preserves the structural features in the production, transport and consumption of gas and electricity in Europe, as well as the new competitive situation arising from the liberalization. It is found that the liberalization leads to a strong fall in the price of electricity. The fall in price reflects increased competition and that idle capacity in the power sector is used to increase the production of electricity. In comparison with the real observations in 1996 (the basis year of the model) the price to the end-user is cut in half. The liberalization also leads to a fall in the price of gas. The price fall reflects in part increased competition, in part the fact that falling prise of electricity reduces the demand for gas. However, the price reduction (in per cent) is not as great as for electricity. The model is also used to study the effects in Norway of increased gas production when the gas is either used in increased gas power production in Norway, or is exported. The main conclusion is that (1) the total emission of carbon dioxide goes down in Western Europe, (2) the reduction is greatest if the gas is burned as gas power in Norway

  19. Emerging Markets for Renewable Energy Certificates: Opportunities and Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, E.; Bird, L.

    2005-01-01

    Renewable energy certificates (RECs) represent the attributes of electricity generated from renewable energy sources. These attributes are unbundled from the physical electricity, and the two products-the attributes embodied in the certificates and the commodity electricity-may be sold or traded separately. RECs are quickly becoming the currency of renewable energy markets because of their flexibility and the fact that they are not subject to the geographic and physical limitations of commodity electricity. RECs are currently used by utilities and marketers to supply renewable energy products to end-use customers as well as to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements, such as renewable energy mandates. The purpose of this report is to describe and analyze the emerging market for renewable energy certificates. It describes how RECs are marketed, examines RECs markets including scope and prices, and identifies and describes the key challenges facing the growth and success of RECs markets.

  20. Market survey Austria. Bio-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Austria has a well developed bioenergy infrastructure as regards solid biomass and a strong growth in the biogas and biofuel sector. The results of a SWOT analysis show the major issues for the development in each of these sectors now and in the short to medium-term future. Based on the SWOT analyses the following conclusions are formulated: (1)The development of the wood biomass sector in Austria is successful. This can be seen from the point of view of the end user, biomass for heating in single houses as well in district heating systems is very widely spread. This created opportunities for Austrian firms producing biomass technology, now having a large market and expending abroad. This development creates, however, major challenges for players from other countries like the Netherlands. It may be difficult to enter this market, unless one offers a cheaper product with the same quality or finding a niche market with a new unique product; (2) The growth of the wood biomass application for heat and electricity has led to the occurrence of another problem, a competition for wood as resource between the energy sector and other applications as pulp and paper industry. Wood imports are nowadays increasing but in the longer term Austria cannot rely on that because of the growing biomass use in neighbouring countries. Austria will therefore have to look for ways how to optimise biomass use for the energy sector and increasing the use of other fuels like straw and other forms of agricultural waste: (3) The production of biogas presents a number of new applications, production of renewable electricity, production of biogas for the transport sector as well as the possibility to inject cleaned biogas into the natural gas grid. In the short term, production of renewable electricity is the most promising for investors as feed-in tariffs are available for these projects. The other applications are still in a pilot phase but may become interesting in the coming years; (4) The

  1. 78 FR 65978 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Brookfield Energy Marketing Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... Energy Marketing Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Brookfield Energy Marketing Inc. (BEMI) has applied to renew its authority... President of Legal Services and General Counsel, Brookfield Energy Marketing Inc., 480 de la Cite Blvd...

  2. 75 FR 38514 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Brookfield Energy Marketing LP

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... Energy Marketing LP AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Brookfield Energy Marketing LP (BEM LP) has applied for authority to transmit electric... surplus energy purchased from electric utilities, Federal power marketing agencies and other entities...

  3. Design of energy markets and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birk Mortensen, J.; Olsen, O.J.; Skytte, K.

    1999-01-01

    The introduction of competition in electricity and gas markets has necessitated the creation of new markets, power pools and financial markets. Such markets are well known from other industries (e.g. oil) but have not been applied for the gas and electricity industries during the monopoly era. To which extent can market design applied elsewhere be transferred to gas and electricity and to which extent must they be modified? The interest in new market designs has recently been extended to environmentally goals, but existing policies to encourage them are considered inefficient and a burden for the state budget. This conference brings some of these subjects into focus. (au)

  4. Eurelectric annual conference (electric power industry union) on the energy liberalization; Conference annuelle Eurelectric (Union de l'industrie electrique) sur la liberalisation de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-06-01

    This document is a reprint of the talk given by P. Devedjian, French minister of industry, at the Eurelectric 2004 conference. After a brief recall of the energy situation of the European Union, P. Devedjian treats of the following points: the evolution of electricity prices, the increase of CO{sub 2} emissions despite a courageous environmental policy, the three main goals of the energy policy: European economic competitiveness, European solidarity, fight against greenhouse effect, implementation of a common energy policy based on 4 guidelines: common rules, better convergence of energy policies, reinforcement of research, definition of a common energy diplomacy. (J.S.)

  5. Sustainable design options for the German electricity market. A comparison of the energy-only market with capacity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keles, Dogan; Renz, Lea; Bublitz, Andreas; Zimmermann, Florian; Genoese, Massimo; Fichtner, Wolf

    2016-01-01

    This study intensively discusses the further developments of the electricity market design in Germany based on substantial scientific insights. For this purpose, an agent-based simulation model is applied to evaluate the operability of the energy only market extended with a strategic reserve. Furthermore, the effects of the implementation of a centralized or decentralized capacity market are analyzed.

  6. The energy supply of China. Markets and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.; Meidan, M.

    2005-07-01

    China is a great part of the energy world economy. In 2003 and 2004, the chinese economic growth had a direct impact on the world energy markets: it is a main factor of the great world economic demand growth and the energy prices increase. In the other hand this growth generates new investment of energy offer in the world. The author details the China energy policy and its efficiency quest, the insertion in the gas markets and the petroleum market facing the chinese energy security. (A.L.B.)

  7. Essays on Environmental Policy in Energy Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomhower, Judson Paul

    Producing and consuming energy involves costly environmental externalities, which are addressed through a wide range of public policy interventions. This dissertation examines three economic questions that are important to environmental regulation in energy. The first chapter measures the effect of bankruptcy protection on industry structure and environmental outcomes in oil and gas extraction. The second chapter measures additionality in an appliance replacement rebate program. Finally, the third chapter focuses on the environmental impacts of subsidizing electricity production from forest-derived biomass fuels. The first chapter measures the incentive effect of limited liability. When liability is limited by bankruptcy, theory says that firms will take excessive environmental and public health risks. In the long run, this "judgment-proof problem'' may increase the share of small producers, even when there are economies of scale. I use quasi-experimental variation in liability exposure to measure the effects of bankruptcy protection on industry structure and environmental outcomes in oil and gas extraction. Using firm-level data on the universe of Texas oil and gas producers, I examine the introduction of an insurance mandate that reduced firms' ability to avoid liability through bankruptcy. The policy was introduced via a quasi-randomized rollout, which allows me to cleanly identify its effects on industry structure. The insurance requirement pushed about 6% of producers out of the market immediately. The exiting firms were primarily small and were more likely to have poor environmental records. Among firms that remained in business, the bond requirement reduced oil production among the smallest 80% of firms by about 4% on average, which is consistent with increased internalization of environmental costs. Production by the largest 20% of firms, which account for the majority of total production, was unaffected. Finally, environmental outcomes, including those

  8. A business case modelling framework for smart multi-energy districts

    OpenAIRE

    Good, Nicholas; Martinez Cesena, Eduardo Alejandro; Liu, Xuezhi; Mancarella, Pierluigi

    2017-01-01

    The potential energy, environmental, technical and economic benefits that might arise from multi-energy systems are increasing interest in smart districts. However, in a liberalised market, it is essential to develop a relevant attractive business case. This paper presents a holistic techno-economic framework that couples building/district, multi-network and business case assessment models for the development of robust business cases for smart multi-energy districts. The framework is demonstr...

  9. Energy market barometer report - Summer 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, Joachim; Cartel, Melodie; Javaudin, Laurent; Molecke, Greg; Olsthoorn, Mark; Vernay, Anne-Lorene

    2016-01-01

    This Summer 2016 edition of the Grenoble Ecole de Management (GEM) Energy Market Barometer explored the assessment of French Energy experts regarding the digital transformation of the electricity sector in France. These findings are compared to the responses of German experts for Germany. Key findings: - 58% of the experts consider that the degree of digital transformation achieved in France's electricity sector is average for western countries, and more than half of them judge that the speed of this transition is too slow. - In France and Germany, an unfavourable cost-benefit ratio is seen as the most important barrier to digitalization in the electricity sector. The second most important barrier identified for France was an onerous regulatory framework, and for Germany it was cyber-security issues. - A large majority of experts in both countries thought that the technology itself was not an obstacle to the digitalization of the electricity sector. - While weighing the balance of priorities between digitalization and cyber-security in France, the panel of experts was split: 19% believed that digitalization was treated as the priority, while 24% thought cyber-security had been given precedence. 38% thought that a balanced approach was followed. - The top 3 domains where digitalization of the electricity sector is likely to create efficiency gains in France were improved predictions for load management in the grid (selected by 61% of respondents), enhanced flexibility in demand from the industry sector (53%), and better dispatching of electricity production (47%). - Our expert's assessment regarding the impact of the Energy transition on the competitiveness of French energy sector businesses has remained stable between 2014 and 2016: competitiveness of utilities will deteriorate the most. More generally, the experts believed that the energy transition will have a positive (46%) or very positive (11%) impact on the French economy. - Despite plans to reform the EU

  10. European energy markets deregulation observatory. Winter 2002/2003 period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    Launched in 2002, the European energy markets deregulation observatory (EEMDO/OELME) aims at actualizing the main energy market indicators and at observing the advance of deregulation within the European countries. While for most of these markets, the deregulation of electricity has preceded the deregulation of gas, the natural gas market is at the evidence a key-market in Europe. For this reason, the 4. edition of the observatory (October 2003) takes into consideration for the first time the specific elements of gas markets, in addition to those of electricity markets. This article presents some excerpts of this last edition, published by Cap Gemini Ernst and Young, and synthesizes the present day situation of gas supplies and the conditions of network access by third parties. The informations reported in the EEMDO come from organizations like UCTE, Nordel, Eurelectric or from energy stock exchanges. (J.S.)

  11. A fair price for energy? Ownership versus market opening in the EU15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorio, Carlo V.; Florio, Massimo [Milan Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Economics, Business and Statistics

    2010-07-15

    In the past two decades privatisation and liberalisation of network industries providing services of general economic interest (SGEI), have been particularly significant in the European Union. Wide variations around a common policy trend can, however, be observed across countries and sectors. We focus on electricity and gas sectors because energy sectors have usually been profit makers, not affected by direct government transfers, in contrast to other SGEI. We study the effects of privatisation and other reforms on consumer prices using both subjective data on consumers' perception of utility prices and data on average prices paid. (orig.)

  12. Unilateral liberalisation of services: a case study of the mobile phone sector in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf, Mohammad Abu

    2017-01-01

    Unilateral liberalisation of trade in goods and services has been considered an important policy objective. Most trade in services liberalisation in the developing world has taken place unilaterally; but it is not common among Least Developed Countries (LDCs). Among LDCs Bangladesh is a forerunner in pursuing unilateral liberalisation of mobile telephone services. There is a dearth of empirical studies on Bangladesh’s unilateral liberalisation of mobile phone services and its impact on use...

  13. The influence of distributed generation penetration levels on energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahl, Fabrício Peter; Rüther, Ricardo; Casarotto Filho, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    Planning of national energy policies brings new dilemmas with the introduction of distributed generators (DG). Economic theory suggests that a perfectly competitive market would lead to efficient pricing. In the absence of competition, regulators play a fundamental role in attracting reasonably priced finance in order to maintain, refurbish and increase the infrastructure and provide services at a reasonable cost. Energy market price equilibrium is mainly dependent on suppliers, generators, energy sources and demand, represented by conventional utility grid users. Its behavior is similar to that of other commodities. As generation becomes less centralized with the increasing economic viability of renewable energy sources, new suppliers are being connected to the grid. Such evolution means the transition from a monopolistic market to a broader and more open environment, with an increasing number of competitors. We make use of variational inequalities to model a hypothetical DG market in different scenarios, from monopoly, to oligopoly, to open market. Such an approach enables different equilibrium outcomes due to different DG penetration levels. Based on these findings, we argue that energy policies for such markets must be developed according to each specific stage of the grid's lifecycle. We show how energy policies and market regulations may affect such a transition, which may be catastrophic if not managed properly, and which is dependent on the energy mix. -- Highlights: •DG affects energy markets depending on technologies, penetration and infrastructure. •Energy prices vary when the market moves from centralized to several suppliers. •Variational inequalities are presented to simulate a market under such transitions. •The increase of DG penetration level may present different energy prices variation. •If technical and political issues of smart grids are not improved, markets may crash

  14. Marketing strategy - sales system for energy saving technology in the heat market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dommann, D

    1984-06-04

    Modern industrial society is undergoing a period of upheaval which is sparing no company. Today's greatest challenge to management is to get this transition under control. The process of change inevitably effects marketing policies and company employees. There are doubtlessly many viable marketing strategies available, but they are of little use if they cannot be applied in the market by qualified personnel. In this article the author gives suggestions for selling energy conserving technology in today's heat market using a systematic sales method.

  15. Stimuli, competence and markets. 3. Partial report within the research project 'Renewable energy in the internal energy market'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjersgaard, A.

    1996-01-01

    The trends behind the developing of wind turbine market are analyzed with regard to the effect of wind energy use regulations. National- specific differences in customer and market habits as well as public and private companies result in different approach to the political and economic marketing factors. (EG)

  16. Wind energy: A review of technical and market issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrad, A.D. [Garrad Hassan & Partners Ltd., Bristol (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    Opinions on the world market for wind power are presented in this paper. The paper is divided into three sections: the market, the technology, and general conclusions. The market section compares European and US wind energy growth and contributing factors and barriers to growth. A technology overview discusses wind turbine concepts, mass reduction, blade structural flexibility, and growth in machine size. Political decisions, economic aspects, public acceptance, and technology limitations are assessed for their influence on the growth of wind energy. 11 figs.

  17. Financing Renewable Energy in the European Energy Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Jager, D.; Klessmann, C.; Stricker, E.; Winkel, T.; De Visser, E.; Koper, M. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands); Ragwitz, M.; Held, A. [Fraunhofer ISI, Karlsruhe (Germany); Resch, G.; Busch, S.; Panzer, C. [Energy Economics Group EEG, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria); Gazzo, A.; Roulleau, T.; Gousseland, P.; Henriet, M.; Bouille, A. [Ernst and Young, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    The Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources (RES) sets the overall target to reach 20% renewable energy in gross final energy consumption in 2020. This target is broken down into binding individual Member State targets. Reaching these targets will require a huge mobilization of investments in renewable energies in the coming decade. In order to improve financing and coordination with a view to the achievement of the 20 % target, Article 23 (7) of the Directive requires the Commission to present an analysis and action plan with a view to: (a) The better use of structural funds and framework programmes; (b) The better and increased use of funds from the European Investment Bank and other public finance institutions; (c) Better access to risk capital; (d) The better coordination of Community and national funding and other forms of support; (e) The better coordination in support of renewable energy initiatives whose success depends on action by actors in several Member States. This report presents the results of the title project. The study provides an up to date and thorough assessment of the costs of renewable energy and the support and financing instruments available for renewable energy R and D, demonstration projects and large-scale deployment. This includes details of each Member State's expenditure (via grants, support schemes, loans etc.) and use of Community funds, including loans of the EIB (European Investment Bank) and the EBRD (European Bank for Reconstruction and Development). It also explores the possible instruments for use in the future and constraints in the capital market, which hinder the development of renewable energy. Finally, it develops recommendations for improving financing and support instruments, improving the sector's access to capital, and closing the financing gap for reaching the 2020 targets. The chapters of the report represent separate tasks: (1) Costs of renewable energy

  18. The Energy Markets of the APEC Countries: Opportunities for Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Valeryevna Dyomina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article evaluates the export possibilities of Russian energy resources to the markets of the APEC countries. The analysis is made with the help of the IEA Model of short-term energy security (MOSES Primary Energy Sources and Secondary Fuels. This model addresses four dimensions of energy security. These include external and domestic factors, reflecting both risk exposure and resilience, the ability of energy systems to adapt to or withstand disruptions. In MOSES countries with similar characteristics are grouped in the energy profiles (from A to E by each energy resource. Countries with profiles from B to E present potential markets for Russian energy resources, while countries with the profile A are our competitors. The most promising market of energy resources is China, but for Russia it is likely to become a monopsony market. The authors assume that Russia will retain its position with respect to the concluded long-term contracts for energy resources supply, but expectations about the formation of a large market niche are overestimated. The study concludes that Russia can strengthen its competitive positions due to the launch of complete products on the markets of the APEC countries, especially, due to the creation of new market niches on the basis of technological leadership

  19. Economic Dispatch of Hydrogen Systems in Energy Spot Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Nørgård, Per Bromand

    2015-01-01

    of energy spot markets. The generic hydrogen system is comprised of an electrolysis for hydrogen production, a hydrogen storage tank and a fuel cell system for cogeneration of electricity and heat. A case study is presented with information from practical hydrogen systems and the Nordic energy markets...

  20. Causality Between Market Liquidity and Depth for Energy and Grains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Sari (Ramazan); S.M. Hammoudeh (Shawkat); C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines the roles of futures prices of crude oil, gasoline, ethanol, corn, soybeans and sugar in the energy-grain nexus. It also investigates the own- and cross-market impacts for lagged grain trading volume and open interest in the energy and grain markets. According to the

  1. What is the optimum social marketing mix to market energy conservation behaviour: an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheau-Ting, Low; Mohammed, Abdul Hakim; Weng-Wai, Choong

    2013-12-15

    This study attempts to identify the optimum social marketing mix for marketing energy conservation behaviour to students in Malaysian universities. A total of 2000 students from 5 major Malaysian universities were invited to provide their preferred social marketing mix. A choice-based conjoint analysis identified a mix of five social marketing attributes to promote energy conservation behaviour; the mix is comprised of the attributes of Product, Price, Place, Promotion, and Post-purchase Maintenance. Each attribute of the mix is associated with a list of strategies. The Product and Post-purchase Maintenance attributes were identified by students as the highest priority attributes in the social marketing mix for energy conservation behaviour marketing, with shares of 27.12% and 27.02%, respectively. The least preferred attribute in the mix is Promotion, with a share of 11.59%. This study proposes an optimal social marketing mix to university management when making decisions about marketing energy conservation behaviour to students, who are the primary energy consumers in the campus. Additionally, this study will assist university management to efficiently allocate scarce resources in fulfilling its social responsibility and to overcome marketing shortcomings by selecting the right marketing mix. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The design of tomorrow's European electricity market; Das europaeische Strommarktdesign der Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kranner, Karl; Sharma, Stephan [Verbund AG, Wien (Austria). Geschaefststeuerung und Marketing

    2013-01-15

    In today's times of rising feed-in rates from renewable energy and competing market models, the need for an integrated European energy market is growing ever more urgent. The first phase of liberalisation of the European electricity markets was marked by the development of national sub-markets which differed in their degree of liberty. Due to network bottlenecks at the borders, substantial price differences were seen to arise between market regions, with the exception of those between Germany and Austria. This leads to the question as to how the integration of the internal European energy market can best be brought about. A six-point programme elaborated by Verbund AG banks on market mechanisms rather than regulation as a means of strengthening the electricity market.

  3. The single European energy market: the electricity supply sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliwell, A.A.

    1991-01-01

    The completion of the Internal Market in the Community by the end of 1992 has become a key objective and the focal point of the revival of the European Community. Within this overall objective, the development of the Single European Energy Market, the Internal Energy market, is a major element. The energy objectives for the Community, adopted in 1986 by the Council of Ministers and relating to targets in the energy sector to be achieved by 1995, contain what are effectively the aims of the Internal Energy Market. This is in a reference to the need for greater integration, free from barriers to trade, of the Internal Energy Market with a view to improving security of supply, reducing costs and improving economic competitiveness. In the light of these aims, the Commission drew up, in 1988, an inventory of potential obstacles to the achievement of the Internal Energy Market. This was accepted by the Council, together with a list of suggested priority areas of work, and has formed the basis of the Commission's efforts to move forward as quickly as possible in the development of the Internal Energy Market, in all branches of the energy sector. The impact on the electricity sector, in particular, is considered here. (author)

  4. On the economic analysis of problems in energy efficiency: Market barriers, market failures, and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanstad, A.H.; Koomey, J.G.; Levine, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    In his recent paper in The Energy Journal, Ronald Sutherland argues that several so-called ''market barriers'' to energy efficiency frequently cited in the literature are not market failures in the conventional sense and are thus irrelevant for energy policy. We argue that Sutherland has inadequately analyzed the idea of market barrier and misrepresented the policy implications of microeconomics. We find that economic theory, correctly interpreted, does not provide for the categorical dismissal of market barriers. We explore important methodological issues underlying the debate over market barriers, and discuss the importance of reconciling the findings of non-economic social sciences with the economic analysis of energy demand and consumer decision-making. We also scrutinize Sutherland's attempt to apply finance theory to rationalize high implicit discount rates observed in energy-related choices, and find this use of finance theory to be inappropriate

  5. On the economic analysis of problems in energy efficiency: Market barriers, market failures, and policy implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanstad, A.H.; Koomey, J.G.; Levine, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    In his recent paper in The Energy Journal, Ronald Sutherland argues that several so-called ``market barriers`` to energy efficiency frequently cited in the literature are not market failures in the conventional sense and are thus irrelevant for energy policy. We argue that Sutherland has inadequately analyzed the idea of market barrier and misrepresented the policy implications of microeconomics. We find that economic theory, correctly interpreted, does not provide for the categorical dismissal of market barriers. We explore important methodological issues underlying the debate over market barriers, and discuss the importance of reconciling the findings of non-economic social sciences with the economic analysis of energy demand and consumer decision-making. We also scrutinize Sutherland`s attempt to apply finance theory to rationalize high implicit discount rates observed in energy-related choices, and find this use of finance theory to be inappropriate.

  6. On the economic analysis of problems in energy efficiency: Market barriers, market failures, and policy implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanstad, A.H.; Koomey, J.G.; Levine, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    In his recent paper in The Energy Journal, Ronald Sutherland argues that several so-called market barriers'' to energy efficiency frequently cited in the literature are not market failures in the conventional sense and are thus irrelevant for energy policy. We argue that Sutherland has inadequately analyzed the idea of market barrier and misrepresented the policy implications of microeconomics. We find that economic theory, correctly interpreted, does not provide for the categorical dismissal of market barriers. We explore important methodological issues underlying the debate over market barriers, and discuss the importance of reconciling the findings of non-economic social sciences with the economic analysis of energy demand and consumer decision-making. We also scrutinize Sutherland's attempt to apply finance theory to rationalize high implicit discount rates observed in energy-related choices, and find this use of finance theory to be inappropriate.

  7. Natural gas market - Market opening in Switzerland and a selection of European Union countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, J.; Vaterlaus, S.; Worm, H.; Spielmann, Ch.; Finger, M.

    2007-02-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the situation in Switzerland and Europe as far as the liberalisation of the natural gas market is concerned. Comparisons are made between the situation for natural gas and electricity markets. The report discusses the economical and technical characteristics of the gas business such as gas sources, transport, storage and trading as well as the associated investment risks. The gas and electricity supply systems are compared from the supply and demand viewpoints and as far as trading and the increasing of efficiency are concerned. The Swiss gas market is compared with those of selected European countries. Market structures and regulatory aspects are examined and the resulting effects on the market and gas prices are reviewed. The effects of market opening are discussed from both the supplier and consumer points of view

  8. TRADE LIBERALISATION IN EUROPE AND THE REST OF THE WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Spiridon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to disseminate how liberalisation processes were conducted around the globe and especially in Europe since the XIXth century up to date. The research objective is to review the liberalisation of trade dynamics and create an image of the architecture of the most important trading blocs. Analysis will be conducted considering the three major regional blocs: Europe, North America and East Asia. The main findings will show that, despite the few mutations that occurred in international trade as a result of the emergence of developing nations as major trade partners, the European Union and the United States remain the economic and trade hegemons.

  9. Introduction to energy storage with market analysis and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Robert [Institut für Experimentelle Physik, Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, Leipziger Straße 23, 09596 Freiberg (Germany); Pillot, Christophe [AVICENNE Energy, LITWIN Building, 10 rue Jean-Jaurès, La Défense 11, Puteaux Cedex (France)

    2014-06-16

    At first, the rechargeable battery market in 2012 will be described by technology - lead acid, NiCd, NiMH, lithium ion - and application - portable electronics, power tools, e-bikes, automotive, energy storage. This will be followed by details of the lithium ion battery market value chain from the raw material to the final application. The lithium ion battery market of 2012 will be analyzed and split by applications, form factors and suppliers. There is also a focus on the cathode, anode, electrolyte and separator market included. This report will also give a forecast for the main trends and the market in 2020, 2025. To conclude, a forecast for the rechargeable battery market by application for 2025 will be presented. Since energy storage plays an important role for the growing Electric Vehicle (EV) market, this EV issue is closely considered throughout this analysis.

  10. Introduction to energy storage with market analysis and outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Robert; Pillot, Christophe

    2014-06-01

    At first, the rechargeable battery market in 2012 will be described by technology - lead acid, NiCd, NiMH, lithium ion - and application - portable electronics, power tools, e-bikes, automotive, energy storage. This will be followed by details of the lithium ion battery market value chain from the raw material to the final application. The lithium ion battery market of 2012 will be analyzed and split by applications, form factors and suppliers. There is also a focus on the cathode, anode, electrolyte and separator market included. This report will also give a forecast for the main trends and the market in 2020, 2025. To conclude, a forecast for the rechargeable battery market by application for 2025 will be presented. Since energy storage plays an important role for the growing Electric Vehicle (EV) market, this EV issue is closely considered throughout this analysis.

  11. Introduction to energy storage with market analysis and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, Robert; Pillot, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    At first, the rechargeable battery market in 2012 will be described by technology - lead acid, NiCd, NiMH, lithium ion - and application - portable electronics, power tools, e-bikes, automotive, energy storage. This will be followed by details of the lithium ion battery market value chain from the raw material to the final application. The lithium ion battery market of 2012 will be analyzed and split by applications, form factors and suppliers. There is also a focus on the cathode, anode, electrolyte and separator market included. This report will also give a forecast for the main trends and the market in 2020, 2025. To conclude, a forecast for the rechargeable battery market by application for 2025 will be presented. Since energy storage plays an important role for the growing Electric Vehicle (EV) market, this EV issue is closely considered throughout this analysis

  12. Marketing of renewable energies. Foundations, business models, case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbes, Carsten; Friege, Christian

    2015-01-01

    How to market green electricity or biomethane? What is the right price for renewable energy and how do you design the optimal use of social media? What impact have the EEG or electromobility to the Green Power Marketing? Does direct marketing works or is online marketing the guarantee of success? Answers to these and many other basic questions provides the band with contributions from leading scientists and renowned practitioners. For the first time they describe in a structured form the basics of marketing of renewable energies, provide an introduction to the legal and market-based features and present new business models. The book is based on the latest research results, treats all questions of marketing issues important for practitioners, provides case studies and specific recommendations. [de

  13. Electric utilities strategies in final energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, A.

    2000-01-01

    In rapidly changing markets, electric utilities pay growing attention to customers and service. They are aware that competition needs strategies capable of transforming and strengthening the privileged position resulting from the knowledge of the market. Moreover, this aspect is the link between different value chains to describe new multi utility approaches [it

  14. EU Energy Market and Regulation enter a new Framework: Energy Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sencar, M.

    2015-01-01

    Energy Union provides a new framework for market and regulation. This contribution discusses its main elements (dimensions), in particular energy market functioning. Energy Union adds some new focal points to its development, e.g. research and innovation, in addition to sustainability. Energy Union also aims at improving customers position on the market, and paves the way for efficiency enhancements in regulation and market monitoring at European level. Three aspects of potential future improvements are discussed how the existing Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators may further contribute to the efficient market functioning and implementation of planned infrastructure investment. (author).

  15. Solar Renewable Energy Certificate (SREC) Markets: Status and Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Kreycik, C.

    2011-11-01

    This paper examines experience in solar renewable energy certificate (SREC) markets in the United States. It describes how SREC markets function--key policy design provisions, eligible technologies, state and regional eligibility rules, solar alternative compliance payments, measurement and verification methods, long-term contracting provisions, and rate caps. It also examines the trends of SREC markets--trading volumes, sourcing trends, trends in the size of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems driven by these markets, and trends in price and compliance. Throughout, the paper explores key issues and challenges facing SREC markets and attempts by policymakers to address some of these market barriers. Data and information presented in this report are derived from SREC tracking systems, brokers and auctions, published reports, and information gleaned from market participants and interviews with state regulators responsible for SREC market implementation. The last section summarizes key findings.

  16. Fostering renewable energy markets in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Jeremy [North American Comission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC), (United States)

    2007-06-15

    This presentation describes projects, programs and other issues addressed in order to promote renewable energy markets in North America. These are carried out by the North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC). In the first part of this presentation, there are going to be found some of the rules imposed by the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC). Then, it is shown the structure of the CEC as well as its programs, besides, there are presented the environment projects and the objectives along with their respective trades. There are described both benefits environmental and non-environmental. Also, there are shown the issues which the CEC is working in. And finally, it is shown a list mentioning the aspects that would change if: the expansion of the Mexico's Federal Commission of Electricity (CFE), happens, the grid-interconnected and the self supply of Renewable Electricity increase. [Spanish] En esta presentacion se describen los proyectos, los programas y otras cuestiones, cuyo objetivo es impulsar los mercados de energia renovable en America del Norte, realizadas por la North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation. En la primera parte, se encuentran algunas de las reglas impuestas por el Acuerdo de Cooperacion Ambiental de America del Norte (ACAAN). Enseguida, se muestra la estructura y los programas de la Comision para la Cooperacion Ambiental (CCA). Asimismo, se describen los proyectos ambientales, los objetivos junto con sus correspondientes tratados. Mas adelante, se explican tanto los beneficios ambientales como aquellos que no lo son. Igualmente, explican las cuestiones que podrian cambiar de: suceder la expansion de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), incrementarse el auto- suministro de la energia renovable y los sistemas interconectados.

  17. Prospects of the international energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, H.K.

    1977-01-01

    The findings of two studies on the international prospects of energy development are discussed: 1) Energy: Global Prospects 1985-2000. Report of the Workshop on Alternative Energy Strategies (WAES) and 2) World Energy Outlook, a recent OECD energy study which is a supplement to the Energy prospects to 1985 study, which was completed in 1974. (UA) [de

  18. Netherlands: Dutch policy centres on marrying green concerns and market forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This review of the Dutch energy policy covers the need for efficient use of their natural gas as a finite resource; natural gas reserves, production, and exports, refining in the Netherlands; Dutch oil production; the fragmented and decentralised electricity generation and supply sectors; and prospects for a single merged generating company. Multi service utilities, the White Paper focussing on energy efficiency, replacement of 10% of fossil fuels with renewable energy sources by the year 2020 and greater market orientation; and the liberalisation of the electricity market are discussed. (UK)

  19. Organization and regulation of energy markets in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, J.

    2002-01-01

    The energy regulation policy and the organization of power matters in the European Union as well as the energy markets are discussed in this Keynote Paper. The Council of European Energy Regulators is introduced. The goal of the European Union regarding energy generation and consumption in the future are analyzed. (R.P.)

  20. The German energy market: chronicle of a promised liberalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuraux, Ch.

    2002-01-01

    This book treats of: the German energy sector, its historical evolution since its creation during the second industrial revolution, the German energy market, the nuclear energy policy and its debate in the public opinion, and the present day trend towards the development of renewable energy sources. (J.S.)

  1. Market distortions and aggregate productivity: Evidence from Chinese energy enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Xiaoyong; Cheng, Liwei

    2016-01-01

    Market distortions can generate resource misallocations across heterogeneous firms and reduce aggregate productivity. This paper measures market distortions and aggregate productivity growth in China's energy sector. We use the wedge between output elasticities and factor shares in revenues to recover a measure of firm-level market distortions. Using data on a large sample of Chinese energy enterprises from 1999 to 2007, our estimations provide strong evidence of the existence of both factor and product market distortions within and across China's various energy industries. The productivity aggregation and decomposition results demonstrate that the estimated aggregate productivity growth (APG) is, on average, 2.595% points per year, of which technological change, resource reallocation, and firm entries and exits account for 1.981, 0.068, and 0.546% points, respectively. The weak contributions of resource reallocation and firm turnover to APG are also found in energy sub-industries, except in the coal industry. Our research suggests that China's energy sector has major potential for productivity gains from resource reallocation through the reduction of market distortions. - Highlights: •We estimate market distortions and productivity growth of China's energy sector. •We use a large sample of Chinese energy enterprises. •There are evidences of the existence of factor and product market distortions. •Aggregate productivity growth is largely driven by firm-level technological change. •China's energy sector can realize productivity gains from resource reallocations.

  2. Energy market reform and greenhouse gas emission reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    The report reviews micro-economic reform in the energy market and measures the impact that energy market reform is expected to have on greenhouse gas outcomes. It indicates that reform in the electricity and gas industries is delivering what was promised, an efficient market with lower energy prices and, over the longer term, will deliver a gradually reducing rate of greenhouse gas emissions per unit of energy produced. It also recognises that energy market reform has removed some barriers to the entry of less greenhouse gas intense fuels. These trends will result in reduced greenhouse gas intensity in the supply of energy and significant reductions in the growth in greenhouse gas emissions compared to what may have been expected without the reforms

  3. Asia's growing role in the global energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Three articles are drawn together in this special Petroleum Economist survey on the growing role played by Asian countries in global energy markets, both as world gas suppliers and as important markets for various oil products. The first looks at independent storage in the Asian countries in global energy markets, both as world gas suppliers and as important markets for various oil products. The first looks at independent storage in the Asian Pacific area; the second describes the growth of Asia's natural gas industry and the third item celebrates the product surplus produced due to recent refinery expansion programs. (UK)

  4. Analysis of the results of the energy market operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovska, V.; Diankov, M.

    2006-01-01

    The paper focuses on the results of the market operation. It includes: analysis of the active market participants and steps to be undertaken in respect of access to the grid and registration on the market, as well as a comparative analysis of the trade at regulated and freely negotiated prices. This report analyses the imbalances of the consumers of energy, generators, including generators operating with one unit. Information about the special role of the public supplier as a main provider of balancing energy, market interruption in case of emergency situation and force major events, circumstances for the parties and contractual relationship is also included. (authors)

  5. Changing market for renewable energy in New England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, M. [Second Wind Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The author discusses the rapidly changing power market in New England in the face of deregulation of the electric power industry. Utilities are moving to sell their generation assets, and the new players in the market are striving to present themselves as active in a green market. But there is little knowledge about renewable energy sources on the part of the new marketers, and little capacity available, while there does appear to be customer demand. Legislative action seems to be putting in place policies making renewable energy a more attractive option. The author looks at the disparity between demand and availability at this time.

  6. Market survey Czech Republic. Bio-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Basic characteristics of the market for bioenergy (biomass, biogas and biofuels) in the Czech Republic and consequences for business environment are summarized, based on a SWOT analysis. The Czech biomass market is still developing and is segmented and disintegrated to many regional or sector markets where also prices of biomass differ significantly and could be affected by dominant players. There were several attempts to establish a kind of biomass exchange, but were unsuccessful. The biomass trade is done usually on bilateral basis but without clear long-term agreements on contracts which would secure stable supply and prices

  7. Energy is not Coffee. An assessment of blind spots on energy spot-markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jepma, C.J.; Spijker, E.; Van der Gaast, W.; De Jong, F.; Overmars, P.

    2006-01-01

    This study was to be the first in a series of studies on the title subject. It specifically focuses on the differences and similarities with a number of other spot-markets and aims to frame the energy spot markets and their potential development into a broader perspective. Main conclusion is that energy spot-markets differ from several other physical and non-physical spot-markets in many ways. This implies that 'perfect' energy spot-markets may inherently be (much) less perfect than other spot-markets that have approximated the stage of theoretical perfection

  8. Study on the Swiss electricity market - the current situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walti, N. O.

    2007-01-01

    This short article discusses the results of a study made on the opinions of energy suppliers in Switzerland with respect to future power generation in Switzerland. In particular, questions concerning new nuclear power stations and gas-fueled generating facilities are examined. The study was commissioned to tackle questions concerning the liberalisation of the electricity market, a future possible gap in supply, mains regulation and changes in market structure. The article discusses the findings of the study, in which 87 utilities took part, and lists strategic areas for action to be taken by electricity utilities such as efficiency analysis, regulation management, co-operative sourcing and possible mergers and acquisitions

  9. Buying and selling green: deregulation and green power marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses the increasing trend towards deregulation of electricity markets, and the driving forces for liberalisation in the EU and North America. The use of green tariffs offered by utilities to differentiate themselves from competitors and to gain and keep customers is reported, and the situation with regard to green energy within the deregulated electricity markets in Australia, the EU, Denmark, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden, the UK, Canada and the USA is outlined. Customers switching as a result of green tariffs, the growing role of renewables, and opportunities for the promotion of green tariffs are discussed. (UK)

  10. Energy independence versus world market; Independance energetique versus marche mondial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, P

    2003-07-01

    The geo-policy is the unity of the rules and political actions coming from taking into account the problem of the national energy demands facing the world energy market. The aim of this paper is to show that these actions are confronted to two paradigms of public policy. One is the research of the energy policy, the other is the effort of building and safety of the world market. (A.L.B.)

  11. 2008 Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremper, C.

    2009-07-01

    This report assesses the market for Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) services as it existed in FY 2008. It discusses Federal energy management goal progress in FY 2008, and examines the environment in which agencies implemented energy management projects over the last three years. The report also discusses some recent events that will increase the market for FEMP services, and outlines FEMP's major strategies to address these changes in FY 2009 and beyond.

  12. The true and fake advantages of opening energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, D.

    2000-01-01

    The energy market used to be restricted to a small number of operators who often held a monopoly. To clarify the debate, now more than ten years old, about opening up this market, we need to assess the impact of doing so on energy policies and their finalities, namely: making a supply of quality energy available to consumers at reasonable prices under conditions respectful of the environment and in a way coherent with major economic and social policies. (authors)

  13. Price determinants of the European carbon market and interactions with energy markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Katja; Cludius, Johanna; Matthes, Felix [Oeko Institut e.V., Berlin (Germany); Diekmann, Jochen; Zaklan, Aleksandar [Deutsches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung, Berlin (Germany); Schleich, Joachim [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    This report explores the determinants of short run price movements in the carbon market and their interaction with energy markets, in particular with the electricity market. Focusing on Phase 2 of the EU ETS we conduct econometric time series analysis based on continental EU and UK market data. Our findings suggest that market fundamentals have a dominant effect on the EUA price, but that non-fundamental factors may also play a role. We further found that the electricity price has a significant positive impact on the carbon price in the short run.

  14. Market potential and market hindrances for thermal solar energy; Marktpotentiale und Markthindernisse fuer die thermische Solarenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerheuser, F. W.

    2002-10-15

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the market potential and market hindrances for thermal solar energy systems. The author notes that solar systems for heating domestic hot water have a considerable market potential, especially for single-family homes. Such installations are discussed in detail, whereby not only technicalities but also market image and the latent potential for such systems are discussed. The results of surveys made are presented and discussed. The lower potential for installations on apartment blocks is also mentioned.

  15. Large-scale offshore wind energy. Cost analysis and integration in the Dutch electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Noord, M.

    1999-02-01

    The results of analysis of the construction and integration costs of large-scale offshore wind energy (OWE) farms in 2010 are presented. The integration of these farms (1 and 5 GW) in the Dutch electricity distribution system have been regarded against the background of a liberalised electricity market. A first step is taken for the determination of costs involved in solving integration problems. Three different types of foundations are examined: the mono-pile, the jacket and a new type of foundation: the concrete caisson pile: all single-turbine-single-support structures. For real offshore applications (>10 km offshore, at sea-depths >20 m), the concrete caisson pile is regarded as the most suitable. The price/power ratios of wind turbines are analysed. It is assumed that in 2010 turbines in the power range of 3-5 MW are available. The main calculations have been conducted for a 3 MW turbine. The main choice in electrical infrastructure is for AC or DC. Calculations show that at distances of 30 km offshore and more, the use of HVDC will result in higher initial costs but lower operating costs. The share of operating and maintenance (O ampersand M) costs in the kWh cost price is approximately 3.3%. To be able to compare the two farms, a base case is derived with a construction time of 10 years for both. The energy yield is calculated for a wind regime offshore of 9.0 m/s annual mean wind speed. Per 3 MW turbine this results in an annual energy production of approximately 12 GWh. The total farm efficiency amounts to 82%, resulting in a total farm capacity factor of 38%. With a required internal rate of return of 15%, the kWh cost price amounts to 0.24 DFl and 0.21 DFl for the 1 GW and 5 GW farms respectively in the base case. The required internal rate of return has a large effect on the kWh cost price, followed by costs of subsystems. O ampersand M costs have little effect on the cost price. Parameter studies show that a small cost reduction of 5% is possible when

  16. Marketing and selling solar energy equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Book, Tony

    1999-01-01

    The literature on creating consumer awareness and acceptance of solar water heating systems for marketing purposes is sparse. This paper discusses some of the sophisticated marketing techniques available and some results. Selling solar water heating systems in Northern European latitudes requires a degree of persistence and commitment that is probably not required in what are regarded as the 'sunny climes' around the Mediterranean., the Middle East, Africa, South East Asia and Australia. (Author)

  17. The Island Smart Energy System and Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2017-01-01

    developing island smart energy systems with the integration of renewable energy resources can increase the energy supply and address the global island energy issues. The island smart energy system operates either in a single-island or in multi-islands. However the island characteristics and influ...

  18. Improving the Energy Market: Algorithms, Market Implications, and Transmission Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipka, Paula Ann

    This dissertation aims to improve ISO operations through a better real-time market solution algorithm that directly considers both real and reactive power, finds a feasible Alternating Current Optimal Power Flow solution, and allows for solving transmission switching problems in an AC setting. Most of the IEEE systems do not contain any thermal limits on lines, and the ones that do are often not binding. Chapter 3 modifies the thermal limits for the IEEE systems to create new, interesting test cases. Algorithms created to better solve the power flow problem often solve the IEEE cases without line limits. However, one of the factors that makes the power flow problem hard is thermal limits on the lines. The transmission networks in practice often have transmission lines that become congested, and it is unrealistic to ignore line limits. Modifying the IEEE test cases makes it possible for other researchers to be able to test their algorithms on a setup that is closer to the actual ISO setup. This thesis also examines how to convert limits given on apparent power---as is in the case in the Polish test systems---to limits on current. The main consideration in setting line limits is temperature, which linearly relates to current. Setting limits on real or apparent power is actually a proxy for using the limits on current. Therefore, Chapter 3 shows how to convert back to the best physical representation of line limits. A sequential linearization of the current-voltage formulation of the Alternating Current Optimal Power Flow (ACOPF) problem is used to find an AC-feasible generator dispatch. In this sequential linearization, there are parameters that are set to the previous optimal solution. Additionally, to improve accuracy of the Taylor series approximations that are used, the movement of the voltage is restricted. The movement of the voltage is allowed to be very large at the first iteration and is restricted further on each subsequent iteration, with the restriction

  19. Proceedings of the 10. international conference on energy - the new energy infrastructures market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The main focus of this international conference was on reform and deregulation of the electrical industry and how these will impact on energy markets around the world. Energy source development, power project financing in developing countries, integration of energy market and partnering in the energy projects development in a global context, were some of the individual topics that received considerable attention. tabs., figs

  20. 75 FR 6378 - Covanta Pylmouth Renewable Energy Limited Partnership Covanta Energy Marketing LLC Covanta Power...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ..., ER10-410-000] Covanta Pylmouth Renewable Energy Limited Partnership Covanta Energy Marketing LLC... Pylmouth Renewable Energy Limited Partnership, Covanta Energy Marketing LLC, and Covanta Power, LLC filed... assistance with any FERC Online service, please e-mail [email protected] , or call (866) 208-3676...

  1. The British Columbia natural gas market overview and assessment : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-04-01

    The National Energy Board monitors the supply of all energy commodities in Canada along with the demand for Canadian energy commodities in domestic and export markets. This report provides an assessment of the natural gas market in British Columbia (BC) and discusses several issues facing the market. The main challenges facing the market in recent years have been rising prices, price spikes and increased price volatility. New exploration and development projects have been announced along with new gas pipeline projects that move gas to eastern markets. Industrial consumers are exploring fuel alternatives to reduce natural gas consumption. Despite these challenges, the Board believes the natural gas market in British Columbia is working well. Natural gas prices are integrated with the North American market, consumers have responded to higher prices by reducing demand, and producers have increased exploration and production. Price discovery has improved due to better pricing reporting standards and access to electronic gas trading at pricing points for BC gas. The small market size in British Columbia and the lack of storage in the Lower Mainland limit market liquidity in comparison with other major market centres. 20 figs

  2. Stocks and energy shocks : the impact of energy accidents on stock market value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, B.; Boersen, A.

    We investigate how financial market participants value energy accidents. We employ an event study to look into the response of stock markets to 209 accidents. These accidents were derived from Sovacool's (2008) database on major energy accidents from 1907 to 2007. It appears that the stock market in

  3. 75 FR 78980 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Direct Energy Marketing, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... Marketing, Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Application. SUMMARY: Direct Energy Marketing, Inc. (DEMI) has applied to renew its authority to transmit..., Federal power marketing agencies, and other entities within the United States. The existing international...

  4. Nonlinear Pricing in Energy and Environmental Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Koichiro

    This dissertation consists of three empirical studies on nonlinear pricing in energy and environmental markets. The first investigates how consumers respond to multi-tier nonlinear price schedules for residential electricity. Chapter 2 asks a similar research question for residential water pricing. Finally, I examine the effect of nonlinear financial rewards for energy conservation by applying a regression discontinuity design to a large-scale electricity rebate program that was implemented in California. Economic theory generally assumes that consumers respond to marginal prices when making economic decisions, but this assumption may not hold for complex price schedules. The chapter "Do Consumers Respond to Marginal or Average Price? Evidence from Nonlinear Electricity Pricing" provides empirical evidence that consumers respond to average price rather than marginal price when faced with nonlinear electricity price schedules. Nonlinear price schedules, such as progressive income tax rates and multi-tier electricity prices, complicate economic decisions by creating multiple marginal prices for the same good. Evidence from laboratory experiments suggests that consumers facing such price schedules may respond to average price as a heuristic. I empirically test this prediction using field data by exploiting price variation across a spatial discontinuity in electric utility service areas. The territory border of two electric utilities lies within several city boundaries in southern California. As a result, nearly identical households experience substantially different nonlinear electricity price schedules. Using monthly household-level panel data from 1999 to 2008, I find strong evidence that consumers respond to average price rather than marginal or expected marginal price. I show that even though this sub-optimizing behavior has a minimal impact on individual welfare, it can critically alter the policy implications of nonlinear pricing. The second chapter " How Do

  5. Nonlinearity and intraday efficiency tests on energy futures markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tao; Yang, Jian

    2010-01-01

    Using high frequency data, this paper first time comprehensively examines the intraday efficiency of four major energy (crude oil, heating oil, gasoline, natural gas) futures markets. In contrast to earlier studies which focus on in-sample evidence and assume linearity, the paper employs various nonlinear models and several model evaluation criteria to examine market efficiency in an out-of-sample forecasting context. Overall, there is evidence for intraday market inefficiency of two of the four energy future markets (heating oil and natural gas), which exists particularly during the bull market condition but not during the bear market condition. The evidence is also robust against the data-snooping bias and the model overfitting problem, and its economic significance can be very substantial. (author)

  6. Nonlinearity and intraday efficiency tests on energy futures markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Tao [Department of Economics, Queens College and the Graduate Center, The City University of New York, Flushing, NY 11367 (United States); Yang, Jian [The Business School, PO Box 173364, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO 80217-3364 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Using high frequency data, this paper first time comprehensively examines the intraday efficiency of four major energy (crude oil, heating oil, gasoline, natural gas) futures markets. In contrast to earlier studies which focus on in-sample evidence and assume linearity, the paper employs various nonlinear models and several model evaluation criteria to examine market efficiency in an out-of-sample forecasting context. Overall, there is evidence for intraday market inefficiency of two of the four energy future markets (heating oil and natural gas), which exists particularly during the bull market condition but not during the bear market condition. The evidence is also robust against the data-snooping bias and the model overfitting problem, and its economic significance can be very substantial. (author)

  7. Mortgage market regulation: Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers, M.B.; Smith, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite several European Union (EU) initiatives, there is only limited pan-European mortgage market regulation. The EU strategy can be characterised as one of parallel liberalisation and consolidation. This article highlights the key differences in regulation among European mortgage markets.

  8. Smart market. From smart grid to the intelligent energy market; Smart Market. Vom Smart Grid zum intelligenten Energiemarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aichele, Christian [Hochschule Kaiserslautern, Zweibruecken (Germany). Fachbereich Betriebswirtschaft; Doleski, Oliver D. (ed.)

    2014-07-01

    Dare more market. - The design of this postulate provides an important contribution to the success of the German energy transition. The Bundesnetzagentur has shown with its highly regarded benchmark paper on smart grids and markets leads the way towards more market in the energy sector. The therein required differentiation in a network and market sphere contributes to greater transparency on the consumer side and enables a gid releaving shift in energy consumption. The book focuses on actors and roles in the modified market circumstances as well as components and products of a future Smart Markets. Finally, to the reader concrete business models are offered. Authors from science and practice give in this book answers on how the interaction of Smart Grid and Smart Market works. [German] Mehr Markt wagen. - Die Ausgestaltung dieses Postulats liefert einen wichtigen Beitrag zum Gelingen der deutschen Energiewende. Die Bundesnetzagentur hat mit ihrem vielbeachteten Eckpunktepapier zu intelligenten Netzen und Maerkten diesen Weg in Richtung mehr Markt in der Energiewirtschaft gewiesen. Die darin geforderte Differenzierung in eine Netz- und Marktsphaere traegt zu mehr Transparenz auf der Verbraucherseite bei und ermoeglicht eine netzentlastende Verlagerung des Energieverbrauchs. Das Buch beleuchtet Akteure und Rollen im geaenderten Marktumfeld ebenso wie Komponenten und Produkte eines zukuenftigen Smart Markets. Schliesslich werden dem Leser konkrete Geschaeftsmodelle angeboten. Autoren aus Wissenschaft und Praxis geben in diesem Buch Antworten darauf, wie das Zusammenspiel von Smart Grid und Smart Market funktioniert.

  9. Liberalisation of Trade in Health Services and the Implication for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... hence proxy measure of health services were utilised in the paper and this might blur the expected impacts. The implication of the paper is for African countries to adequately participate in GATS as it involves trade in health services. Key Words: Liberalisation, health system, mortality, services supply modes, WTO, general ...

  10. Evaluation of NEB energy markets and supply monitoring function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    Canada's National Energy Board regulates the exports of oil, natural gas, natural gas liquids and electricity. It also regulates the construction, operation and tolls of international and interprovincial pipelines and power lines. It also monitors energy supply and market developments in Canada. The Board commissioned an evaluation of the monitoring function to ensure the effectiveness and efficiency of the monitoring activities, to identify gaps in these activities and to propose recommendations. The objectives of the monitoring mandate are to provide Canadians with information regarding Canadian energy markets, energy supply and demand, and to ensure that exports of natural gas, oil, natural gas liquids and electricity do not occur at the detriment of Canadian energy users. The Board ensures that Canadians have access to domestically produced energy on terms that are as favourable as those available to export buyers. The following recommendations were proposed to improve the monitoring of energy markets and supply: (1) increase focus and analysis on the functioning of gas (first priority) and other commodity markets, (2) increase emphasis on forward-looking market analysis and issue identification, (3) demonstrate continued leadership by encouraging public dialogue on a wide range of energy market issues, (4) improve communication and increase visibility of the NEB within the stakeholder community, (5) build on knowledge management and organizational learning capabilities, (6) improve communication and sharing of information between the Applications and Commodities Business Units, and (7) enhance organizational effectiveness of the Commodities Business Unit. figs

  11. An improved market penetration model for wind energy technology forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, P D [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Advanced Energy Systems

    1996-12-31

    An improved market penetration model with application to wind energy forecasting is presented. In the model, a technology diffusion model and manufacturing learning curve are combined. Based on a 85% progress ratio that was found for European wind manufactures and on wind market statistics, an additional wind power capacity of ca 4 GW is needed in Europe to reach a 30 % price reduction. A full breakthrough to low-cost utility bulk power markets could be achieved at a 24 GW level. (author)

  12. An improved market penetration model for wind energy technology forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, P.D.

    1995-01-01

    An improved market penetration model with application to wind energy forecasting is presented. In the model, a technology diffusion model and manufacturing learning curve are combined. Based on a 85% progress ratio that was found for European wind manufactures and on wind market statistics, an additional wind power capacity of ca 4 GW is needed in Europe to reach a 30 % price reduction. A full breakthrough to low-cost utility bulk power markets could be achieved at a 24 GW level. (author)

  13. An improved market penetration model for wind energy technology forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, P.D. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Advanced Energy Systems

    1995-12-31

    An improved market penetration model with application to wind energy forecasting is presented. In the model, a technology diffusion model and manufacturing learning curve are combined. Based on a 85% progress ratio that was found for European wind manufactures and on wind market statistics, an additional wind power capacity of ca 4 GW is needed in Europe to reach a 30 % price reduction. A full breakthrough to low-cost utility bulk power markets could be achieved at a 24 GW level. (author)

  14. Four Essays on the Economics of Energy and Resource Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Hecking, Harald

    2015-01-01

    The thesis at hand seeks to improve the understanding of resource and energy markets, their specific characteristics and their interaction with each other. Therefore, the thesis includes four research papers on the markets for natural gas, coking coal, iron ore, electricity and heat. Each paper, representing one chapter of this thesis, addresses one or more of the specific characteristics outlined above. Chapter 2 assesses the effects of a supply shock on the world market for natural gas....

  15. Gains from an integrated market for tradable renewable energy credits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozumder, Pallab; Marathe, Achla

    2004-01-01

    Decoupling the environmental attributes of renewable energy (RE) generation from the physical unit of energy is an innovative mechanism for marketing green or renewable power. The introduction of 'Tradable Renewable Energy Credits' (TRECs) allows the green power attributes of energy to be sold or traded separately from the physical unit of energy. Since the green power certificate system removes potential locational and physical bottlenecks, both suppliers and consumers gain flexibility in the marketplace. The TREC is also an efficient tool to meet 'Renewable Portfolio Standard' (RPS) required by different states in the US. This paper discusses the RPS requirements for different states and examines the implications of an integrated TREC market. It offers a competitive setting to the consumers to pay for renewable energy and a cost effective tool to support renewable energy generation [Grace and Wiser, 2002]. This paper also highlights some practical difficulties that should be addressed in order to establish an efficient integrated TREC market

  16. Impact of energy prices: a housing-market analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaki, A.S.; Isakson, H.R.

    1983-04-01

    This paper investigates the effect of energy costs on the housing-market response. As the effect of energy costs has not been specifically investigated before in the literature, both a linear and nonlinear model were investigated. The choice of the appropriate model was determined using the Box-Cox transformation technique. The chosen model was then validated. The results reveal that in the Spokane, Washington, area, where energy costs are relatively low, energy prices do not have a significant effect on market response. However, applying the same methodology to areas where energy costs are higher might produce different results. 29 references, 3 tables.

  17. Energy Savings in a Market Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The paper outlines the concept of energy savings as opposed to energy efficency. Afterwards are described briefly the up and down role of energy savings in recent Danish energy policy. It discusses the failure of leaving electricity savings and Integrated Resource Planning to the electricity...

  18. Market in Germany. Renewable energy and energy conservation in the German construction industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-02-01

    This market survey for Germany is on the subject of renewable energy and energy efficient constructing and housing improvement. In order to meet sectoral or thematic information needs of Dutch exporting industries and investing companies, the EVD facilitates the realisation of up-to-date market surveys on promising markets in selected countries. The requested study is very relevant for the Dutch exporting industry, as the German building and construction market is of increasing importance to the Dutch building, installation and equipment building sector. Moreover the German market is a European innovator on renewable energy (RE) and energy efficient (EE) homes or even so-called 'passive' houses. The developments in the German market can guide the Dutch industry in the development of their export strategies. The main target groups for the market surveys are small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the Netherlands. Interesting groups among these SMEs are those enterprises that start their business on a foreign market [nl

  19. International energy market dynamics: a modelling approach. Tome 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachet, S.

    1996-01-01

    This work is an attempt to model international energy market and reproduce the behaviour of both energy demand and supply. Energy demand was represented using sector versus source approach. For developing countries, existing link between economic and energy sectors were analysed. Energy supply is exogenous for energy sources other than oil and natural gas. For hydrocarbons, exploration-production process was modelled and produced figures as production yield, exploration effort index, etc. The model built is econometric and is solved using a software that was constructed for this purpose. We explore the energy market future using three scenarios and obtain projections by 2010 for energy demand per source and oil natural gas supply per region. Economic variables are used to produce different indicators as energy intensity, energy per capita, etc. (author). 378 refs., 26 figs., 35 tabs., 11 appends

  20. International energy market dynamics: a modelling approach. Tome 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachet, S.

    1996-01-01

    This work is an attempt to model international energy market and reproduce the behaviour of both energy demand and supply. Energy demand was represented using sector versus source approach. For developing countries, existing link between economic and energy sectors were analysed. Energy supply is exogenous for energy sources other than oil and natural gas. For hydrocarbons, exploration-production process was modelled and produced figures as production yield, exploration effort index, ect. The model build is econometric and is solved using a software that was constructed for this purpose. We explore the energy market future using three scenarios and obtain projections by 2010 for energy demand per source and oil and natural gas supply per region. Economic variables are used to produce different indicators as energy intensity, energy per capita, etc. (author). 378 refs., 26 figs., 35 tabs., 11 appends