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Sample records for lib fed rats

  1. Conditioned insulin secretion and meal feeding in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, S C; Vasselli, J R; Kaestner, E; Szakmary, G A; Milburn, P; Vitiello, M V

    1977-02-01

    Previous researchers have reported that rats placed upon a feeding regimen such that they receive only 2 hr of food per day (meal-fed rats) develop hyperinsulinemia at the time of the day associated with feeding, even in the absence of food. Controls fed ad lib had no such response. In a series of several experiments, meal-fed rats had elevated insulin levels at only the specific time of the day associated with feeding, and the increment of insulin at that time could be eliminated with atropine. Free-feeding controls, on the other hand, always had higher insulin levels than the meal-fed rats, did not have an elevation of insulin at the time of the day that the meal-fed rats normally ate, and had insulin values that were unaffected by atropine. Further experimentation showed that hyperinsulinemia could become associated with arbitrary stimuli always associated with eating for meal-fed rats. It is concluded that the hyperinsulinemia of meal-fed rats associated with their feeding time is a learned response.

  2. Secretion of hepatic triglycerides into plasma of rats fed retinol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahuja, H.C.; Misra, U.K.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of feeding 33 mg of retinol daily for two days on liver and plasma lipids of rats has been studied. The secretion of liver TG into plasma of retinol fed rats has been measured by the use of palmitic acid-1- 14 C and of Triton WR 1339. Liver and plasma lipids, TG, phospholipids and PC were significantly higher in retinol fed rats as compared to control rats. The incorporation of palmitic acid-1- 14 C into liver TG, PC and PE was significantly higher in retinol fed rats. The labelling pattern with time of liver and plasma TG and PC shows that the secretion of liver TG and PC into plasma was impaired in retinol fed rats. (auth.)

  3. Bioavailability of cadmium in rats fed various diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabar, I.; Kostial, K.

    1981-01-01

    Six-week-old female albino rats were fed rat diet or human foods 3 days before and 6 days after a single oral dose of 115 sup(m)Cd. All animals were killed 6 days after administration and the radioactivity in the whole body and in the gut-free carcass was determined in a double scintillation counter. Gut retentions were calculated as the difference: whole body minus carcass. All animals fed meat, bread or milk had much higher body retentions than animals fed rat diet. Our results point out the importance of nutritional factors in metal metabolism and toxicity. (orig./MG) [de

  4. Bioavailability of lead in rats fed human diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostial, K.; Kello, D.

    1979-01-01

    The bioavailability of lead was studied in rats fed various baby foods (Babymix-turkey, Babymix-vegetables, Frutolino-fruit, Frutamix-bananas, Babyron-S-26, Truefood), cow's milk, bread, liver and standard rat diet. Lead absorption was determined by measuring the whole body retention of 203 Pb 6 days after a single oral application. Highest absorption values ranging from 17 to 20% were obtained in animals fed cow's milk and fruit foods. Rats on other human diets absorbed between 3 and 8% of the radioactive lead dose. Only in animals on rat diet lead absorption was below 1%. It is concluded that rats fed human diets show absorption values similar to those in humans. This might indicate that the bioavailability of lead is primarily dependent on dietary habits. This experimental model, if confirmed by further work, might be useful for obtaining preliminary data on the bioavailability of metals from various foods

  5. Energy intake of rats fed a cafeteria diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prats, E; Monfar, M; Castellà, J; Iglesias, R; Alemany, M

    1989-02-01

    The proportion of lipid, carbohydrate and protein energy self-selected by male and female rats from a cafeteria diet has been studied for a 48-day period (36-day in female rats). The diet consisted in 12 different items and was offered daily, in excess and under otherwise standard conditions, to rats--caged in groups of three--from weaning to adulthood. Groups of control animals were studied in parallel and compared with the cafeteria groups. Cafeteria diet fed groups of rats ingested more energy and lowered their metabolic efficiency with age. Male rats ate more than females and increased their body weight even after female practically stopped growing. There was a wide variation in the aliments consumed each day by the cafeteria-fed rats. However, the proportion of lipid, protein and carbohydrate the rats ate remained constant. Male rats ingested more lipid than females. Carbohydrate consumption was constant in control and cafeteria fed groups of rats independently of sex. Protein consumption was higher in cafeteria rats than in controls, but the differences were not so important as with liquid. Fiber content of the cafeteria diet was lower than that of the control diet. The cafeteria diet selected by the rats was, thus, hypercaloric and hyperlipidic, with practically the same amount of carbohydrate than the control diet, slightly hyperproteic and, nevertheless, remarkably constant in its composition with respect to time. Cafeteria rats had a higher water intake than controls. All these trends were maintained despite the observed changes in the animals' tastes and their differential consumption of the ailments of the diet.

  6. Triglyceride kinetics in fasted and fed E.coli septic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanza-Jacoby, S.; Tabares, A.

    1990-01-01

    The mechanism for the development of hypertriglyceridemia during gram-negative sepsis was studies by examining the liver production and clearance of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride (TG). To assess the liver output and peripheral clearance the kinetics of VLDL-TG were determined by a constant intravenous infusion of [2- 3 H] glycerol-labeled VLDL in fasted control, fasted E. coli-treated, fed control, and fed E.coli-treated rats. Lewis inbred rats, 275-300 g, were made septic with 8 x 10 7 live E.coli colonies per 100 g body weight. Twenty-four hours following E.coli injection serum TG of fasted E.coli-treated rats was elevated by 170% which was attributed to a 67% decrease in the clearance rate of VLDL-TG in fasted E.coli-treated rats compared with their fasted controls. The secretion of VLDL-TG declined by 31% in the livers of the fasted E.coli-treated rats which was accompanied by a 2-fold increase in the composition of liver TG. In a second series of experiments control and E.coli-treated rats were fed intragastrically (IG) a balanced solution containing glucose plus fat as the sources of nonprotein calories. Serum TG were 26% lower in the fed E.coli-treated rats because the clearance rate increased by 86%. The secretion of TG in the fed septic rats increased by 40% but this difference was not significant. In the septic rat the ability to clear triglycerides from the plasma depends upon the nutritional state

  7. Prophage lambda induction (Inductest) of blood of rats fed irradiated spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J; Andrassy, E [Koezponti Elelmiszeripari Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary)

    1981-01-01

    Lysogenic Escherichia coli K12 strains Nos. GY 5023: envA uvr/sup +/ (lambda) and GY 5027: envA uvrB (lambda) were used as test organisms and E.coli strain No. GY 4015 as the indicator to investigate prophage induction (Inductest) of blood samples of CFY rats fed with black pepper and spice mixture treated with gamma radiation. The dose levels applied for the irradiation of spices were 0.5 and 15 kGy. In the rat feed, the applied concentration of ground black pepper was 3.5%, and that of the spice mixture (: mild paprika, black pepper, allspice, coriander, marjoram, cumin and nutmeg) was 25%. Blood samples were taken for prophage induction after six days' feeding with the tested diet. Tests with pepper were performed both within two weaks after irradiation and again after 90 days of storage following irradiation, while with the spice mixture, Inductest was performed with the blood of rats fed with a spice mixture irradiated 90 days before the start of the feeding test. Neither the blood of rats fed with irradiated pepper nor that of rats fed with irradiated spice mixture did increase, to a statistically significant degree, the occurrence of prophage induction as compared with blood samples of rats fed with a diet containing untreated spices or with commercial rat feed. In agreement with earlier microbial mutagenicity tests performed with extracts of irradiated spices and urine of rats fed with irradiated spices, neither did the present results indicate that spices irradiated with 5 and 15 kGy or their metabolites would be of DNA-modofying potential.

  8. Prophage lambda induction (Inductest) of blood of rats fed irradiated spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.; Andrassy, E.

    1981-01-01

    Lysogenic Escherichia coli K12 strains Nos. GY 5023: envA uvr + (lambda) and GY 5027: envA uvrB (lambda) were used as test organisms and E.coli strain No. GY 4015 as the indicator to investigate prophage induction (Inductest) of blood samples of CFY rats fed with black pepper and spice mixture treated with gamma radiation. The dose levels applied for the irradiation of spices were 0.5 and 15 kGy. In the rat feed, the applied concentration of ground black pepper was 3.5%, and that of the spice mixture (: mild paprika, black pepper, allspice, coriander, marjoram, cumin and nutmeg) was 25%. Blood samples were taken for prophage induction after six days' feeding with the tested diet. Tests with pepper were performed both within two weaks after irradiation and again after 90 days of storage following irradiation, while with the spice mixture, Inductest was performed with the blood of rats fed with a spice mixture irradiated 90 days before the start of the feeding test. Neither the blood of rats fed with irradiated pepper nor that of rats fed with irradiated spice mixture did increase, to a statistically significant degree, the occurrence of prophage induction as compared with blood samples of rats fed with a diet containing untreated spices or with commercial rat feed. In agreement with earlier microbial mutagenicity tests performed with extracts of irradiated spices and urine of rats fed with irradiated spices, neither did the present results indicate that spices irradiated with 5 and 15 kGy or their metabolites would be of DNA-modofying potential. (author)

  9. Biological response of rats fed with tofu treated with high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Préstamo, G; Arroyo, G

    2000-10-01

    Emerging technologies for food preservation have arisen in recent years, such as high-pressure (HP) hydrostatic treatment, and the biological response for this kind of food preservation is not well-known. Forty female rats (six weeks old) were used in the experiment to evaluate the biological effects of HP treatment of tofu. The animals were divided into groups that were fed with tofu (untreated), tofu treated with HP, and conventional food (as control) for 28 days. The glucose level, mineral content (calcium, potassium, zinc, and magnesium), shinbone maximum shear force, weight of the body, and weight of organs (heart, liver, spleen, and kidneys) were analyzed. The biological response for the rats was that significant differences were found in the calcium amount determined on the serum of the rats fed with untreated tofu and those fed with tofu treated with HP, and the calcium amount was lower on the rats fed with tofu treated with HP. Also, there were significant differences in the weight of the liver, and it was lower in the rats fed with tofu treated with HP. It was quite remarkable how the weight of the body and organs were smaller in the rats fed with tofu in comparison to the weight of the control rats. In the other components assayed no significant differences were found. HP produces a potential effect on tofu as it is observed in the rats response to the tofu treated with HP.

  10. Metabolic and cardiac changes in high cholesterol-fructose-fed rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Lene N; Pedersen, Henrik D; Petersen, Jørgen S

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: High cholesterol-fructose (HCF) fed rats have previously been described as an animal model of impaired cardiac insulin signaling and decreased contractile performance. In this study, we evaluated the metabolic and cardiac effects of a HCF diet in rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley r......Introduction: High cholesterol-fructose (HCF) fed rats have previously been described as an animal model of impaired cardiac insulin signaling and decreased contractile performance. In this study, we evaluated the metabolic and cardiac effects of a HCF diet in rats. Methods: Male Sprague...

  11. Gene expression of insulin signal-transduction pathway intermediates is lower in rats fed a beef tallow diet than in rats fed a safflower oil diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y B; Nakajima, R; Matsuo, T; Inoue, T; Sekine, T; Komuro, M; Tamura, T; Tokuyama, K; Suzuki, M

    1996-09-01

    To elucidate the effects of dietary fatty acid composition on the insulin signaling pathway, we measured the gene expression of the earliest steps in the insulin action pathway in skeletal muscle of rats fed a safflower oil diet or a beef tallow diet. Rats were meal-fed an isoenergetic diet based on either safflower oil or beef tallow for 8 weeks. Both diets provided 45%, 35%, and 20% of energy as fat, carbohydrate, and protein, respectively. Insulin resistance, assessed from the diurnal rhythm of plasma glucose and insulin and the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), developed in rats fed a beef tallow diet. Body fat content was greater in rats fed a beef tallow diet versus a safflower oil diet. The level of insulin receptor mRNA, relative expression of the insulin receptor mRNA isoforms, and receptor protein were not affected by the composition of dietary fatty acids. The abundance of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase mRNA and protein was significantly lower in rats fed a beef tallow diet versus a safflower oil diet. We conclude that long-term feeding of a high-fat diet with saturated fatty acids induces decrease in IRS-1 and PI 3-kinase mRNA and protein levels, causing insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.

  12. Frequency of polyploid cells in the bone marrow of rats fed irradiated wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, K.P.; Chaubey, R.C.; Sundaram, K.; Gopal-Ayengar, A.R.

    1976-01-01

    Diets containing different proportions of non-irradiated or irradiated wheat were fed to Wistar rats for 1 or 6 wk. Cytological analysis of the bone marrow showed no significant difference in the frequency of polyploid cells in the rats fed non-irradiated or irradiated wheat diets, even when the treated wheat was fed to the rats within 24 hr of irradiation. (author)

  13. Spirulina vesicolor Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Attenuates Hyperglycemia-Mediated Oxidative Stress in Fructose-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa Hozayen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The current study aimed to investigate the anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic and insulin sensitizing effects of the cyanobacterium Spirulina vesicolor extract in fructose-fed rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were fed 30% fructose solution in drinking water for 4 weeks. Animals exhibited hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia were selected for further investigations. Diabetic and control rats were orally supplemented with 50 mg/kg body weight S. vesicolor extract for 4 weeks. Results: At the end of 8 weeks, fructose-fed rats showed significant increase in serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, cardiovascular risk indices and insulin resistance. Treatment of the fructose-fed rats with S. vesicolor extract improved this metabolic profile. Fructose feeding produced a significant increase in serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and a decrease in adiponectin levels. In addition, fructose-fed rats exhibited a significant increase in liver, kidney and heart lipid peroxidation levels, and declined antioxidant defenses. Supplementation of the fructose-fed rats with S. vesicolor extract reversed these alterations. Conclusion: S. vesicolor attenuates hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress and inflammation, and is thus effective in improving insulin sensitivity in fructose-fed rats. [J Complement Med Res 2016; 5(1.000: 57-64

  14. 54Mn absorption and excretion in rats fed soy protein and casein diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.Y.; Johnson, P.E.

    1989-01-01

    Rats were fed diets containing either soy protein or casein and different levels of manganese, methionine, phytic acid, or arginine for 7 days and then fed test meals labeled with 2 microCi of 54Mn after an overnight fast. Retention of 54Mn in each rat was measured every other day for 21 days using a whole-body counter. Liver manganese was higher (P less than 0.0001) in soy protein-fed rats (8.8 micrograms/g) than in casein-fed rats (5.2 micrograms/g); manganese superoxide dismutase activity also was higher in soy protein-fed rats than in casein-fed rats (P less than 0.01). There was a significant interaction between manganese and protein which affected manganese absorption and biologic half-life of 54Mn. In a second experiment, rats fed soy protein-test meals retained more 54Mn (P less than 0.001) than casein-fed rats. Liver manganese (8.3 micrograms/g) in the soy protein group was also higher than that (5.7 micrograms/g) in the casein group (P less than 0.0001), but manganese superoxide dismutase activity was unaffected by protein. Supplementation with methionine increased 54Mn retention from both soy and casein diets (P less than 0.06); activity of manganese superoxide dismutase increased (P less than 0.05) but liver manganese did not change. The addition of arginine to casein diets had little effect on manganese bioavailability. Phytic acid affected neither manganese absorption nor biologic half-life in two experiments, but it depressed liver manganese in one experiment. These results suggest that neither arginine nor phytic acid was the component in soy protein which made manganese more available from soy protein diets than casein diets

  15. Studies on growth, nitrogen and energy metabolism in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorbek, G; Chwalibog, André; Eggum, B O

    1982-01-01

    Feed intake, growth, nitrogen retention and energy metabolism were measured in 12 male Wistar rats fed ad lib. for 14 weeks with non-purified diets. The feed intake increased rapidly in 4 weeks time from 16 g/d to 25 g/d, and then it was constant in the following 10 weeks. In relation to metabolic...

  16. Isotope dilution measurement of copper absorption and excretion in rats fed different carbohydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.E.; Bowman, T.D.

    1986-01-01

    An isotope dilution method using 67 Cu was developed to measure true absorption (A) and endogenous excretion (EE) of Cu in rats. Specific activity (SA) of injected 67 Cu was least variable in 7 tissues on days 6-8 after injection. SA of feces compared to tissues was used to calculate EE and A. This method was used to study Cu metabolism in rats fed 5 ppm or 0.4 ppm Cu and diets containing fructose (FR), glucose (GL), sucrose (SU), or cornstarch (CS). In rats fed 5 ppm Cu, the A, EE, and balance (B) were greatest for CS animals. There were no differences in A, B, or EE between FR and SU rats (p > .05). Rats fed GL had B and A lower than other groups (p .05). Liver Cu did not differ among groups fed 0.4 ppm Cu. Kidney Cu was higher ( p .05) compared to rats fed GL and 5 ppm Cu. EE was significantly lower in all groups on 0.4 ppm Cu than 5 ppm Cu. EE was 1 μg Cu/d on the 0.4 ppm Cu diet

  17. Biochemical studies on gamma irradiated male rats fed on whey protein concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, N.E; Anwar, M.M.; El-bostany, N.A.

    2010-01-01

    This study carried out to investigate the possible role of whey protein protein concentrate in ameliorating some biochemical disorders induced in gamma irradiated male rats. Forty eight male albino rats were divided into four equal groups: Group 1 fed on normal diet during experimental period. Group 2 where the diet contain 15 % whey protein concentrate instead of soybean protein . Group 3 rats were exposed to whole body gamma radiation with single dose of 5 Gy and fed on the normal diet. Group 4 rate exposed to 5 Gy then fed on diet contain 15 % whey protein concentrate, the rats were decapitated after two and four weeks post irradiation. Exposure to whole body irradiation caused significant elevation of serum ALT, AST, glucose, urea, creatinine and total triiodothyronine with significant decrease in total protein, albumin and thyroxin. Irradiated rats fed on whey protein concentrate revealed significant improvement of some biochemical parameters. It could be conclude that whey protein concentrate may be considered as a useful protein source for reducing radiation injury via metabolic pathway.

  18. Behavioral and Neurochemical Studies in Stressed and Unstressed Rats Fed on Protein, Carbohydrate and Fat Rich Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Moin§, Saida Haider*, Saima Khaliq1, Saiqa Tabassum and Darakhshan J. Haleem

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Stress produces behavioral and neurochemical deficits. To study the relationship between adaptation to stress and macronutrient intake, the present study was designed to monitor the effects of different diets on feed intake, growth rate and serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT metabolism following exposure to restraint stress in rats. Rats were divided into four groups (n=12 as control, sugar, protein and fat rich diet fed rats. After 5 weeks of treatment animals of each group were divided into unrestrained and restrained animals (n=6. Rats of restrained group were given immobilization stress for 2 hours/day for 5 days. Food intake and growth rates of unrestrained and restrained rats were monitored daily. Rats were decapitated on 6th day to collect brain samples for neurochemical estimation. Results show that sugar diet fed rats produced adaptation to stress early as compared to normal diet fed rats. Food intake and growth rates of unrestrained and restrained rats were comparable on 3rd day in sugar diet fed rats and on 4th day in normal diet fed rats. Stress decreased food intake and growth rates of protein and fat treated rats. Repeated stress did not alter brain 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels of normal diet fed rats and sugar diet fed rats. Protein diet fed restrained rats showed elevated brain 5-HT levels. Fat diet fed restrained rats significantly decreased brain TRP and 5-HIAA levels. Finding suggested that carbohydrate diet might protect against stressful conditions. Study also showed that nutritional status could alter different behaviors in response to a stressful environment.

  19. Basis of aggravated hepatic lipid metabolism by chronic stress in high-fat diet-fed rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ying; Lin, Min; Wang, Xiaobin; Guo, Keke; Wang, Shanshan; Sun, Mengfei; Wang, Jiao; Han, Xiaoyu; Fu, Ting; Hu, Yang; Fu, Jihua

    2015-03-01

    Our previous study has demonstrated that long-term stress, known as chronic stress (CS), can aggravate nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed rat. In this study, we tried to figure out which lipid metabolic pathways were impacted by CS in the HFD-fed rat. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (6 weeks of age, n = 8 per group) were fed with either standard diet or HFD with or without CS exposure for 8 weeks. Hepatic lipidosis, biochemical, hormonal, and lipid profile markers in serum and liver, and enzymes involved in de novo lipogenesis (DNL) of fatty acids (FAs) and cholesterol, β-oxidation, FAs uptake, triglycerides synthesis, and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) assembly in the liver were detected. CS exposure reduced hepatic lipidosis but further elevated hepatic VLDL content with aggravated dyslipidemia in the HFD-fed rats. There was a synergism between CS and HFD on VLDL production and dyslipidemia. PCR and western blot assays showed that CS exposure significantly promoted hepatic VLDL assembly in rats, especially in the HFD-fed rats, while it had little impact on DNL, β-oxidation, FAs uptake, and triglycerides synthesis in the HFD-fed rats. This phenomenon was in accordance with elevated serum glucocorticoid level. The critical influence of CS exposure on hepatic lipid metabolism in the HFD-fed rats is VLDL assembly which might be regulated by glucocorticoid.

  20. Chronic central administration of Ghrelin increases bone mass through a mechanism independent of appetite regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Jin Choi

    Full Text Available Leptin plays a critical role in the central regulation of bone mass. Ghrelin counteracts leptin. In this study, we investigated the effect of chronic intracerebroventricular administration of ghrelin on bone mass in Sprague-Dawley rats (1.5 μg/day for 21 days. Rats were divided into control, ghrelin ad libitum-fed (ghrelin ad lib-fed, and ghrelin pair-fed groups. Ghrelin intracerebroventricular infusion significantly increased body weight in ghrelin ad lib-fed rats but not in ghrelin pair-fed rats, as compared with control rats. Chronic intracerebroventricular ghrelin infusion significantly increased bone mass in the ghrelin pair-fed group compared with control as indicated by increased bone volume percentage, trabecular thickness, trabecular number and volumetric bone mineral density in tibia trabecular bone. There was no significant difference in trabecular bone mass between the control group and the ghrelin ad-lib fed group. Chronic intracerebroventricular ghrelin infusion significantly increased the mineral apposition rate in the ghrelin pair-fed group as compared with control. In conclusion, chronic central administration of ghrelin increases bone mass through a mechanism that is independent of body weight, suggesting that ghrelin may have a bone anabolic effect through the central nervous system.

  1. Response of irradiated diet fed rats to whole body X irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, S.S.; Kushwaha, A.K.S.

    1985-01-01

    The response to whole body X irradiation has been studied in the brain of rats fed both on a normal diet (consisting of equal parts of wheat and gram flour) and on a low protein irradiated diet (consisting of a part of normal diet and three parts of wheat). The activity of enzymes related to the glucose metabolism (glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and fructose diphosphate aldolase) is reduced, while that of peroxidant enzymes (catalase and lipid peroxidase) increased in the brain of rats that received a diet poor in proteins and irradiated diets (normal or hypoproteic). DNA and RNA levels and protein content show a significant reduction in the brain of rats with hypoproteic and irradiated diets. The total body irradiation causes serious alterations in the brain in animals with a hypoproteic malnutritions due both to a low protein and an irradiated diet. The brain of rats fed on a low protein and irradiated diet exhibits after whole body irradiation damages more severe than those in rats fed on a normal irradiated diet

  2. Effects of fasting on plasma catecholamine, corticosterone and glucose concentrations under basal and stress conditions in individual rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, S.F.; Koopmans, S.J.; Slangen, J L; Van der Gugten, J

    Plasma noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (A), corticosterone (CS) and glucose concentrations were determined in blood sampled via a cardiac catheter from freely moving male rats under ad lib fed and 24 hr food deprived conditions using a repeated measures within-subject design. Resting plasma NA and

  3. HEPATIC FATTY ACID PROFILE OF RATS FED A TRIHEPTANOIN-BASED KETOGENIC DIET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira de Melo, Ingrid Sofia; Da Rocha Ataide, Terezinha; Lima de Oliveira, Suzana; Bezerra Bueno, Nassib; Duarte de Freitas, Johnnatan; Goulart Sant'Ana, Antônio Euzébio

    2015-07-01

    the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of consumption of a ketogenic diet supplemented with triheptanoin, a medium-chain anaplerotic triacylglycerol, on the liver fatty acid profile of Wistar rats. three groups of male Wistar rats (n = 10) were submitted to an AIN-93 control diet, a triheptanoin- based ketogenic diet, or a soybean oil-based ketogenic diet for 60 days. Excised livers were subjected to lipid extraction and methylation to obtain fatty acids methyl esters, which were subjected to gas chromatography- mass spectrometry. compared to the rats fed the control diet, those fed ketogenic diets showed a significant reduction in the concentrations of 9-hexadecenoic and 9-octadecenoic acids, whereas those fed triheptanoin showed increased levels of octadecanoic acid. changes in the liver fatty acid profiles of the rats fed a triheptanoin-based or a soybean oil-based ketogenic diet did not seem to be related to the dietary fat source, but rather to the characteristics of the ketogenic diets themselves. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. Dietary taurine alters ascorbic acid metabolism in rats fed diets containing polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, H; Oda, H; Yokogoshi, H

    2000-04-01

    The effect of dietary taurine on ascorbic acid metabolism and hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes was investigated in rats fed diets containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) to determine whether taurine has an adaptive and protective function in xenobiotic-treated animals. Young male Wistar rats (60 g) were fed diets containing 0 or 0.2 g/kg diet PCB with or without 30 g/kg diet of taurine for 14 d. The rats fed the PCB-containing diets had greater liver weight, higher ascorbic acid concentrations in the liver and spleen and greater hepatic cytochrome P-450 contents than control rats that were not treated with PCB (P ascorbic acid excretion was enhanced, and serum cholesterol concentration (especially HDL-cholesterol) was significantly elevated compared with those in control rats. Dietary taurine significantly potentiated the increases in the urinary excretion of ascorbic acid and the rise in the levels of cytochrome P-450 which were caused by PCB treatment. On the other hand, the supplementation of taurine to control diet did not alter these variables. Taurine may enhance the hepatic drug-metabolizing systems, leading to the stimulation of the ascorbic acid metabolism in rats fed diets containing PCB.

  5. Inhibition of methylation of DNA by dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) in dehydroepiandrosterone-fed rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasanna, H.R.; Magee, P.N.; Harrington, G.W.; Hart, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of the anticarcinogen dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on the metabolism and macromolecular interactions of the potent hepatocarcinogen dimethylnitrosamine (NDMA) was investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (2-3 mo old) were fed DHEA for 14 d at a dietary level 0.8%. Compared with pair-fed controls, the liver weights of the DHEA-treated animals increased significantly (11.7 vs. 7.1 g) with increase, per total liver, in proteins including those of cytosol and microsomes as well as cytochromes P-450 and b 5 . DNA content of the liver, however, remained constant. Five hours after a single ip dose of [ 14 C]NDMA (30 mg/kg body wt, 42 μCi/rat) DNA methylation was reduced in the DHEA-fed animals as measured by 7-methyl- and O 6 -methylguanine per mole of guanine, by 39 and 31%, respectively. The rate of NDMA metabolism was slightly higher in the DHEA-fed rats as determine in vivo by the exhalation of 14 CO 2 and by the declining concentrations of NDMA in the blood. The incorporation of radioactivity from [ 14 C]NDMA into hepatic proteins in vivo was greater (2.1-fold) in the DHEA-fed rats. Our results suggest that feeding rats with the adrenal steroid DHEA enhances the metabolic activation of NDMA in vivo, and that the increased association of NDMA-derived metabolites with increased hepatic cellular proteins may be partially responsible for protection of hepatic DNA from NDMA-induced damage

  6. Tissue distribution and excretion of copper-67 intraperitoneally administered to rats fed fructose or starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holbrook, J.; Fields, M.; Smith, J.C. Jr.; Reiser, S.

    1986-01-01

    It has been suggested that impaired gut absorption of copper is the cause of the exacerbated copper deficiency signs in rats fed fructose when compared to rats fed starch. The present study was designed to examine how rats fed fructose or starch diets, either copper-deficient or supplemented, distributed and excreted 67 Cu when the isotope was administered i.p. Intraperitoneal administration was chosen in an effort to circumvent primary gut absorption as a factor in the metabolism of 67 Cu. After 7 wk of dietary treatment, rats received an i.p. injection of 67 Cu and were placed in metabolic cages for 4 d. Regardless of dietary carbohydrate, copper-deficient rats retained similar levels of radioactivity in various tissues and excreted similar amounts of 67 Cu in feces and urine. This similarity in copper metabolism in copper-deficient rats fed either fructose or starch when the gut was circumvented for isotope administration suggests that the gut could be responsible, at least in part, for the exacerbated signs associated with the copper deficiency in rats fed fructose. The possibility is discussed that alterations in metabolism may increase the requirement for copper when fructose is the main dietary carbohydrate

  7. Fed, but not Fasted, Adrenalectomized Rats Survive the Stress of Hemorrhage and Hypovolemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, Daniel N.; Neves, Robert B.; Ha, Taryn; Chew, Gordon; Dallman, Mary F.

    1990-01-01

    We have recently shown that conscious adrenalectomized rats exhibit nearly normal recovery of arterial blood pressure during the 5 h after hemorrhage. In those experiments, it appeared that a previous reduction in food intake might have compromised the recovery of blood pressure and increased mortality. These experiments were designed to test in conscious sham-adrenalectomized (control) and adrenalectomized rats prepared with indwelling arterial and venous cannulae: 1. The effects of a 20- to 24-h fast (compared to rats fed ab libitum) on the mobilization of plasma substrates and recovery of arterial blood pressure after a 15 ml/kg - 5 min hemorrhage, and 2. Vascular responsivity to pressor agents in fed or fasted groups before or 2 h after hemorrhage. In all rats hemorrhage resulted in decreased arterial pressure and heart rate. Arterial pressure recovered to near normal in both fed and fasted control groups and in the led adrenalectomized rats, and all of these rats survived for 24 h after stress. By contrast, in the fasted adrenalectomized rats, arterial pressure recovered only during the first 1.5 - 2 h and then failed, resulting in 100% mortality by 3-5 h. Compared to the other three groups, in which substrate levels either increased or remained fairly stable, plasma glucose and beta-hydoxybutyrate concentrations fell steadily, from 1.5-2 h after hemorrhage until death occurred in the fasted adrenalectomized rats. Basal ACTH concentrations were elevated cormpared to control values in both adrenalectomized groups (fed and fasted). Hemorrhage caused increases in plasma ACTH in all groups; the magnitude of the responses did not differ among the groups. The dilution of Evans' blue dve after hemorrhage (used as an index of fluid movement into the vascular space) was not different in contol and adrenalectomized rats (either fed or fasted). There were no differences in pressor responses to phenylephrine, vasopressin, or angiotensin-II between the fed and fasted

  8. Hypolipidemic effect of fruit fibers in rats fed with high dietary fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmael, O A; Sonbul, S N; Kumosani, T A; Moselhy, S S

    2015-03-01

    The hypolipidemic effect of 10% fruit fibers in rats fed with high-fat diet (HFD) was evaluated. This study was conducted on a total of 50 male Albino rats divided into 10 equal groups fed with different types of dietary fruits. The feeding period lasted for 24 weeks. Fasting blood samples were collected and sera separated and subjected to lipid profile assay and atherogenic index. In addition, total antioxidant activity of different fruits was determined. The results obtained showed that pomegranate had higher content of antioxidants followed by apple, strawberry and guava compared with other fruits. Rats fed with 20% coconut oil showed a highly significant elevation in the levels of serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and atherogenic factor while the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly decreased when compared with control rats. Histological examination revealed that there was a large lipid and cholesterol deposition in the livers of rats fed with HFD. The potential in lowering the levels of plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride is in the following order: pomegranate > apple > strawberry > guava > papaya > mandarin and orange. Accumulation of hepatic lipid droplets was diminished when compared with the HFD group. Also, antiatherogenic is better than the untreated groups. Accordingly these hypolipidemic effects may be due to high-fiber content and antioxidant activity of these fruits. © The Author(s) 2012.

  9. Protective Effects of Withania somnifera Root on Inflammatory Markers and Insulin Resistance in Fructose-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Samadi Noshahr

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: We investigated the effects of Withania somnifera root (WS on insulin resistance, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, and interleukin-6 (IL-6 in fructose-fed rats. Methods: Forty-eight Wistar-Albino male rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=12; Group I as control, Group II as sham-treated with WS by 62.5mg/g per diet, Group III fructose-fed rats received 10%W/V fructose, and Group IV fructose- and WS-fed rats. After eight weeks blood samples were collected to measure glucose, insulin, IL-6, and TNF-α levels in sera. Results: Blood glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-R, IL-6, and TNF-α levels were all significantly greater in the fructose-fed rats than in the controls. Treatment with WS significantly (P < 0.05 inhibited the fructose-induced increases in glucose, insulin, HOMA-R, IL-6, and TNF-α. Conclusion: Our data suggest that WS normalizes hyperglycemia in fructose-fed rats by reducing inflammatory markers and improving insulin sensitivity.

  10. Increased Autolysis of μ-Calpain in Skeletal Muscles of Chronic Alcohol-Fed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsyna, Yulia V; Salmov, Nikolay N; Bobylev, Alexander G; Ulanova, Anna D; Kukushkin, Nikolay I; Podlubnaya, Zoya A; Vikhlyantsev, Ivan M

    2017-10-01

    Proteolysis can proceed via several distinct pathways such as the lysosomal, calcium-dependent, and ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent pathways. Calpains are the main proteases that cleave a large variety of proteins, including the giant sarcomeric proteins, titin and nebulin. Chronic ethanol feeding for 6 weeks did not affect the activities of μ-calpain and m-calpain in the m. gastrocnemius. In our research, changes in μ-calpain activity were studied in the m. gastrocnemius and m. soleus of chronically alcohol-fed rats after 6 months of alcohol intake. SDS-PAGE analysis was applied to detect changes in titin and nebulin contents. Titin phosphorylation analysis was performed using the fluorescent dye Pro-Q Diamond. Western blotting was used to determine μ-calpain autolysis as well as μ-calpain and calpastatin contents. The titin and nebulin mRNA levels were assessed by real-time PCR. The amounts of the autolysed isoform (78 kDa) of full-length μ-calpain (80 kDa) increased in the m. gastrocnemius and m. soleus of alcohol-fed rats. The calpastatin content increased in m. gastrocnemius. Decreased intact titin-1 (T1) and increased T2-proteolytic fragment contents were found in the m. gastrocnemius and m. soleus of the alcohol-fed rats. The nebulin content decreased in the rat gastrocnemius muscle of the alcohol-fed group. The phosphorylation levels of T1 and T2 were increased in the m. gastrocnemius and m. soleus, and decreased titin and nebulin mRNA levels were observed in the m. gastrocnemius. The nebulin mRNA level was increased in the soleus muscle of the alcohol-fed rats. In summary, our data suggest that prolonged chronic alcohol consumption for 6 months resulted in increased autolysis of μ-calpain in rat skeletal muscles. These changes were accompanied by reduced titin and nebulin contents, titin hyperphosphorylation, and development of hindlimb muscle atrophy in the alcohol-fed rats. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  11. Effects of milk from goat fed Crotalaria spectabilis seeds on growing rats

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    Rosane Maria Trindade de Medeiros

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of Crotalaria spectabilis, containing the pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA monocrotaline (MCT, were fed to a lactating dairy goat. Milk from this goat was fed to rats for 8 weeks to determine whether MCT or its toxic metabolites are transferred into the goat’s milk. Rats from the experimental group showed significantly higher (p<0.05 serum levels of ALT, AST, GGT and LDH and less weight gains (p<0.05 than control rats. The most significant lesions in rats consuming the experimental ration were mild to moderate interstitial pneumonia and a vacuolar degeneration and occasionally necrosis of periportal hepatocytes. The results of this study indicate that the PA and/or its metabolites are eliminated in milk.

  12. Positive effects of acarbose in the diabetic rat are not altered by feeding schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, B E; Vasselli, J R; Katovich, M J

    1998-03-01

    We previously demonstrated that chronic dietary treatment with acarbose, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, improves glucose homeostasis in the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat. In this study we evaluated the effects of 4 weeks of acarbose treatment on glucose homeostasis in STZ-diabetic rats for both meal-fed (three times daily) and ad libitum feeding conditions. Sprague Dawley male rats (n = 58) were started on a daily meal-feeding paradigm consisting of three 2-h feeding periods: 0700 to 0900 hours, 1300 to 1500 hours, and 1900 to 2100 hours. Following 2 weeks of adaptation, half of the animals were switched to ad libitum feeding. The feeding paradigm itself (meal fed versus ad lib.) affected neither body weight nor daily food intake. Twenty animals from each feeding group then received STZ (60 mg/kg i.v.), whereas control animals received vehicle injections only. Two days later, the diet of 10 STZ-treated animals from each paradigm was supplemented with acarbose (40 mg of BAY G 5421/100-g diet), and the groups were treated for 4 weeks. Untreated diabetic rats had lower body weight than vehicle-injected control rats at all time points after STZ treatment. Acarbose treatment delayed this effect on body weight. STZ treatment induced hyperphagia regardless of feeding paradigm, which was significantly attenuated by acarbose only for the first week of treatment. Untreated diabetic rats had fasting blood glucose values 4 times those of vehicle-injected controls in both the meal-fed and ad libitum-fed conditions. Acarbose significantly lowered fasting blood glucose in the treated STZ groups. Blood glucose was also assessed 0, 90, and 180 min following the start of a meal. The postprandial rise in blood glucose was significantly reduced in acarbose-treated meal-fed diabetic rats, to values not significantly different from those of vehicle-injected control rats. During the fourth week of treatment glycated hemoglobin levels were significantly higher in untreated

  13. Decreased insulin secretion in pregnant rats fed a low protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Haijun; Ho, Eric; Balakrishnan, Meena; Yechoor, Vijay; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2017-10-01

    Low protein (LP) diet during pregnancy leads to reduced plasma insulin levels in rodents, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Glucose is the primary insulin secretagogue, and enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in beta cells contributes to compensation for insulin resistance and maintenance of glucose homeostasis during pregnancy. In this study, we hypothesized that plasma insulin levels in pregnant rats fed LP diet are reduced due to disrupted GSIS of pancreatic islets. We first confirmed reduced plasma insulin levels, then investigated in vivo insulin secretion by glucose tolerance test and ex vivo GSIS of pancreatic islets in the presence of glucose at different doses, and KCl, glibenclamide, and L-arginine. Main findings include (1) plasma insulin levels were unaltered on day 10, but significantly reduced on days 14-22 of pregnancy in rats fed LP diet compared to those of control (CT) rats; (2) insulin sensitivity was unchanged, but glucose intolerance was more severe in pregnant rats fed LP diet; (3) GSIS in pancreatic islets was lower in LP rats compared to CT rats in the presence of glucose, KCl, and glibenclamide, and the response to L-arginine was abolished in LP rats; and (4) the total insulin content in pancreatic islets and expression of Ins2 were reduced in LP rats, but expression of Gcg was unaltered. These studies demonstrate that decreased GSIS in beta cells of LP rats contributes to reduced plasma insulin levels, which may lead to placental and fetal growth restriction and programs hypertension and other metabolic diseases in offspring. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for the Study of Reproduction. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Visceral organ mass and hepatic protein synthetic capacity in fed and fasted rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrin, D.G.; Britton, R.A.; Ferrell, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    Forty-two male rats (avg wt. = 320 g) were used to assess the effect of severe nutrient restriction (72 h fast) on visceral organ mass and hepatic protein synthetic capacity as measured by in vitro incorporation of U- 14 -C-VALINE ( 14 C-VAL) into isolated hepatocytes. Organ weights expressed as a percent of empty body weight for fed vs. fasted rats were; liver (5.21 +/- .54 vs 3.82 +/- .46), kidney (.87 +/- 0.6 vs .89 +/- .05), stomach (.60 +/- .06 vs .61 +/- .06), intestines (3.70 +/- .44 vs 3.41 +/- .37). No differences were observed in in vitro oxygen consumption (15.7 +/- 3.1 vs 16.1 +/- 3.3, umole min -1 g -1 dry tissue) or 14 -C VAL incorporation (4.93 +/- 1.28 vs 4.31 +/- 1.48, dpm min -1 mg -1 dry tissue) for hepatocytes from fed vs. fasted rats. Analysis of perfused liver tissue indicated fed rats had higher protein (152.1 +/- 16.3 vs 136.6 +/- 29.6, mg/g tissue) and RNA (8.81 +/- 1.66 vs 5.97 +/- 1.87, mg/g tissue) with lower DNA (2.19 +/- .31 vs 3.19 +/- .54, mg/g tissue) compared to fasted rats. Protein-nucleic acid ratios suggest liver tissue from fed rats had a greater capacity for protein synthesis compared to fasted rats, however, this was not evident from in vitro hepatocyte 14 -C VAL incorporation estimates. These data indicate that severe nutrient restriction (72 h fast) affects visceral organ mass largely by reduced liver and gut size as well as decreased hepatic protein synthetic capacity

  15. Biological studies on albino rats fed with Sorghum bicolor starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Partially purified amylase was extracted from the culture medium of Rhizopus sp. grown in potato dextrose broth for 48 h at room temperature by precipitation with 96.9% ethanol. The enzyme was used to hydrolyze sorghum starch. The hydrolyzed product was afterwards formulated into rat feed, which was fed to albino rats ...

  16. Lipid Lowering Effect of Punica granatum L. Peel in High Lipid Diet Fed Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Sadeghipour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia. The antilipidemic effect of hydroethanolic extract of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L. was investigated in high lipid diet fed male rats. Intraperitoneally administration of pomegranate peel extract (50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight for 23 days on the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, alkaline phosphatase (AP, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT in high lipid diet fed male rats was evaluated. Treatment of pomegranate extract decreased body weight in treated rats, significantly. Administration of the plant extract significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, alkaline phosphatise, AST, and ALT levels, whereas it increased serum HDL-C in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline control group. Also, histopathological study showed that treatment of pomegranate peel extract attenuates liver damage in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline group. It is concluded that the plant should be considered as an excellent candidate for future studies on dyslipidemia.

  17. Lipid Lowering Effect of Punica granatum L. Peel in High Lipid Diet Fed Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghipour, Alireza; Ilchizadeh Kavgani, Ali; Ghahramani, Reza; Shahabzadeh, Saleh; Anissian, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Many herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia. The antilipidemic effect of hydroethanolic extract of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L.) was investigated in high lipid diet fed male rats. Intraperitoneally administration of pomegranate peel extract (50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight) for 23 days on the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, alkaline phosphatase (AP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in high lipid diet fed male rats was evaluated. Treatment of pomegranate extract decreased body weight in treated rats, significantly. Administration of the plant extract significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, alkaline phosphatise, AST, and ALT levels, whereas it increased serum HDL-C in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline control group. Also, histopathological study showed that treatment of pomegranate peel extract attenuates liver damage in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline group. It is concluded that the plant should be considered as an excellent candidate for future studies on dyslipidemia. PMID:25295067

  18. Physiological and Biochemical Responses of Growing Rats Fed Irradiated Full-Fat Rice Bran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Niely, H.F.G.

    2006-01-01

    Raw and irradiated full-fat rice bran at dose levels of 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy were used in the diets of growing rats to evaluate their effect on plasma and liver lipid profile. Comparison was also done with the use of a standard casein diet. After 49 days of feeding trail, food intake and wt gain were found to be highest with rats received casein diet in comparison with those fed on rice bran diets. Raw and irradiated full-fat rice bran diets, fed to rats caused a significant reduction in the level of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), while a significant elevation in the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) in plasma was recorded compared to those fed on casein diet. Also, similar changes were observed in liver. There was a significant increase in plasma and liver HDL-c/ TC ratio and LDL-c/ HDL-c ratio. Relative liver wt of rats fed on raw and irradiated full-fat rice brain up to 25 kGy was lower compared to those fed on control diet (casein diet). The casein group had the highest total plasma and liver total protein (TP) compared to the other experimental groups. Among the experimental groups, raw and processed full-fat rice brain up to 25 kGy, induced no significant effect on TP content of plasma and liver

  19. Urinary Excretion of N-Nitroso Compounds in Rats Fed Sodium Nitrite and/or Hot Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Nitrite-treated meat is a reported risk factor for colon cancer. Mice that ingested sodium nitrite (NaNO2) or hot dogs (a nitrite-treated product) showed increased fecal excretion of apparent N-nitroso compounds (ANC). Here, we investigated for the first time whether rats excrete increased amounts of ANC in their urine after they are fed NaNO2 and/or hot dogs. Rats were treated for 7 days with NaNO2 in drinking water or were fed hot dogs. Their 24 h urine samples were analyzed for ANC by thermal energy analysis on days 1–4 after nitrite or hot dog treatment was stopped. For two rats fed 480 mg NaNO2/L drinking water, mean urinary ANC excretion on days 1–4 was 30, 5.2, 2.5, and 0.8 nmol/day, respectively. For two to eight rats/dose given varied NaNO2 doses, mean urinary ANC output on day 1 increased from 0.9 (for no nitrite) to 37 (for 1000 mg NaNO2/L drinking water) nmol ANC/day. Urine samples of four rats fed 40–60% hot dogs contained 12–13 nmol ANC on day 1. Linear regression analysis showed highly significant correlations between urinary ANC excretion on day 1 after stopping treatment and varied (a) NaNO2 level in drinking water for rats fed semipurified or commercials diet and (b) hot dog levels in the diet. Some correlations remained significant up to 4 days after nitrite treatment was stopped. Urinary output of ANC precursors (compounds that yield ANC after mild nitrosation) for rats fed semipurified or commercial diet was 11–17 or 23–48 μmol/day, respectively. Nitrosothiols and iron nitrosyls were not detected in urinary ANC and ANCP. Excretion of urinary ANC was about 60% of fecal ANC excretion for 1 to 2 days after NaNO2 was fed. Administered NaNO2 was not excreted unchanged in rat urine. We conclude that urinary ANC excretion in humans could usefully be surveyed to indicate exposure to N-nitroso compounds. PMID:25183213

  20. Cardiac Hypertrophy and Brain Natriuretic Peptide Levels in an Ovariectomized Rat Model Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Gleisy Kelly; de Oliveira, Thiago Henrique Caldeira; de Oliveira Belo, Najara

    2017-01-01

    Background Heart failure in women increases around the time of menopause when high-fat diets may result in obesity. The heart produces brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), also known as B-type natriuretic peptide. This aims of this study were to assess cardiac hypertrophy and BNP levels in ovariectomized rats fed a high-fat diet. Material/Methods Forty-eight female Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sham-operated rats fed a control diet (SC) (n=12); ovariectomized rats fed a control diet (OC) (n=12); sham-operated rats fed a high-fat diet (SF) (n=12); and ovariectomized rats fed a high-fat diet (OF) (n=12). Body weight and blood pressure were measured weekly for 24 weeks. Rats were then euthanized, and plasma samples and heart tissue were studied for gene expression, hydroxyproline levels, and histological examination. Results A high-fat diet and ovariectomy (group OF) increased the weight body and the systolic blood pressure after three months and five months, respectively. Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was associated with increased expression of ventricular BNP, decreased natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR)-A and increased levels of hydroxyproline and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. The plasma levels of BNP and estradiol were inversely correlated; expression of estrogen receptor (ER)β and ERα were reduced. Conclusions The findings of this study showed that, in the ovariectomized rats fed a high-fat diet, the BNP-NPR-A receptor complex was involved in cardiac remodeling. BNP may be a marker of cardiac hypertrophy in this animal model. PMID:29249795

  1. Fructo-oligosaccharides reduce energy intake but do not affect adiposity in rats fed a low-fat diet but increase energy intake and reduce fat mass in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadri, Zouheyr; Rasoamanana, Rojo; Fromentin, Gilles; Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Even, Patrick C; Gaudichon, Claire; Darcel, Nicolas; Bouras, Abdelkader Dilmi; Tomé, Daniel; Chaumontet, Catherine

    2017-12-01

    The ingestion of low or high lipid diets enriched with fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) affects energy homeostasis. Ingesting protein diets also induces a depression of energy intake and decreases body weight. The goal of this study was to investigate the ability of FOS, combined or not with a high level of protein (P), to affect energy intake and body composition when included in diets containing different levels of lipids (L). We performed two studies of similar design over a period of 5weeks. During the first experiment (exp1), after a 3-week period of adaptation to a normal protein-low fat diet, the rats received one of the following four diets for 5weeks (6 rats per group): (i) normal protein (14% P/E (Energy) low fat (10% L/E) diet, (ii) normal protein, low fat diet supplemented with 10% FOS, (iii) high protein (55%P/E) low fat diet, and (iv) high protein, low fat diet supplemented with 10% FOS. In a second experiment (exp2) after the 3-week period of adaptation to a normal protein-high fat diet, the rats received one of the following 4 diets for 5weeks (6 rats per group): (i) normal protein, high fat diet (35% of fat), (ii) normal protein, high fat diet supplemented with 10% FOS, (iii) high protein high fat diet and (iv) high protein high fat diet supplemented with 10% FOS. In low-fat fed rats, FOS did not affect lean body mass (LBM) and fat mass but the protein level reduced fat mass and tended to reduce adiposity. In high-fat fed rats, FOS did not affect LBM but reduced fat mass and adiposity. No additive or antagonistic effects between FOS and the protein level were observed. FOS reduced energy intake in low-fat fed rats, did not affect energy intake in normal-protein high-fat fed rats but surprisingly, and significantly, increased energy intake in high-protein high-fat fed rats. The results thus showed that FOS added to a high-fat diet reduced body fat and body adiposity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Study on the effect of food irradiation on some blood serum enzymes in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metwalli, O.M.

    1977-01-01

    Rats were fed irradiated diets as part of a study of screening tests for the safety of irradiated food. The diet consisted (g/100 g) of casein, 8.5; skim-milk, 9.4; potato starch, 50.00; wheat flour, 16.50; sucrose, 5.00; sunflower oil, 6.00; choline chloride, 0.10; salt mixture, 3.50; and vitamin mix.ure, 1.00. Diets were irradiated at 2.5 or 4.5 Mrad and were fed ad lib. for 4 months. Levels of serum (i) glutanic-pyruvic transaminase, (ii) glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase, and (iii) lactic dehydrogenase were determined. No significant changes were observed in (i) or (iii) on ieeding irradiated diets, or in (ii) for male rats. Significant decreases (P [de

  3. Assessment of the haematological indices of albino rats fed diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Haematology, jackfruit, bulb, seed, supplementation. INTRODUCTION ... Albokhadaim, 2015) and humans (Lavy,. 1994 .... Table 2: Body weights and daily food intake of control and rats fed jackfruit seed diet (g). Experimental.

  4. Vascular filtration function in galactose-fed versus diabetic rats: The role of polyol pathway activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliese, G.; Tilton, R.G.; Speedy, A.; Chang, K.; Province, M.A.; Kilo, C.; Williamson, J.R. (Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (USA))

    1990-07-01

    These studies were undertaken to assess the effects of increased galactose (v increased glucose) metabolism via the polyol pathway on vascular filtration function in the kidneys, eyes, nerves, and aorta. Quantitative radiolabeled tracer techniques were used to assess glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and regional tissue vascular clearance of plasma 131I-bovine serum albumin (BSA) in five groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats: nondiabetic controls, streptozotocin-diabetic rats, nondiabetic rats fed a 50% galactose diet, diabetic rats treated with sorbinil (an aldose reductase inhibitor), and galactose-fed rats treated with sorbinil. Sorbinil was added to the diet to provide a daily dose of approximately .2 mmol/kg body weight. After 2 months of diabetes or galactose ingestion, albumin clearance was increased twofold to fourfold in the eye (anterior uvea, choroid, and retina), sciatic nerve, aorta, and kidney; GFR was increased approximately twofold and urinary excretion of endogenous albumin and IgG were increased approximately 10-fold. Sorbinil treatment markedly reduced or completely prevented all of these changes in galactose-fed, as well as in diabetic rats. These observations support the hypothesis that increased metabolism of glucose via the sorbitol pathway is of central importance in mediating virtually all of the early changes in vascular filtration function associated with diabetes in the kidney, as well as in the eyes, nerves, and aorta. On the other hand, renal hypertrophy in diabetic rats and polyuria, hyperphagia, and impaired weight gain in galactose-fed and in diabetic rats were unaffected by sorbinil and therefore are unlikely to be mediated by increased polyol metabolism.

  5. Vascular filtration function in galactose-fed versus diabetic rats: The role of polyol pathway activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugliese, G.; Tilton, R.G.; Speedy, A.; Chang, K.; Province, M.A.; Kilo, C.; Williamson, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    These studies were undertaken to assess the effects of increased galactose (v increased glucose) metabolism via the polyol pathway on vascular filtration function in the kidneys, eyes, nerves, and aorta. Quantitative radiolabeled tracer techniques were used to assess glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and regional tissue vascular clearance of plasma 131I-bovine serum albumin (BSA) in five groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats: nondiabetic controls, streptozotocin-diabetic rats, nondiabetic rats fed a 50% galactose diet, diabetic rats treated with sorbinil (an aldose reductase inhibitor), and galactose-fed rats treated with sorbinil. Sorbinil was added to the diet to provide a daily dose of approximately .2 mmol/kg body weight. After 2 months of diabetes or galactose ingestion, albumin clearance was increased twofold to fourfold in the eye (anterior uvea, choroid, and retina), sciatic nerve, aorta, and kidney; GFR was increased approximately twofold and urinary excretion of endogenous albumin and IgG were increased approximately 10-fold. Sorbinil treatment markedly reduced or completely prevented all of these changes in galactose-fed, as well as in diabetic rats. These observations support the hypothesis that increased metabolism of glucose via the sorbitol pathway is of central importance in mediating virtually all of the early changes in vascular filtration function associated with diabetes in the kidney, as well as in the eyes, nerves, and aorta. On the other hand, renal hypertrophy in diabetic rats and polyuria, hyperphagia, and impaired weight gain in galactose-fed and in diabetic rats were unaffected by sorbinil and therefore are unlikely to be mediated by increased polyol metabolism

  6. Attenuation of acoustic and tactile startle responses of vitamin B-6 deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, M C

    1987-01-01

    Vitamin B-6 deficient rats exhibit changes in behavior, sensory function, and other nervous system abnormalities such as convulsive seizures and motor disturbances. Sensorimotor reactivity was evaluated quantitatively by measuring auditory and tactile startle responses in 12 week old female Long-Evans rats fed a diet devoid of added vitamin B-6 (DEF) or a control diet, either ad lib (AL-CON) or pair-fed to deficient rats (PF-CON). Deficiency was confirmed with a tryptophan-load test administered to a separate group of rats fed simultaneously according to the same protocol. At week 18, body weight and feed efficiency were different among groups (p less than 0.001), and were lowest in DEF. Amplitude of response to both acoustic and tactile stimuli was depressed in DEF compared to both control groups, which generally did not differ in response. This effect was seen most dramatically in responses to the acoustic stimulus (p = 0.034), and especially to the first presentation (p = 0.017). Latency to maximum response was not affected by diet. Possible mechanisms for this nervous system abnormality, not previously reported in vitamin B-6 deficiency, are discussed.

  7. Study of antidiarrheal and hematology profile of laboratory rat fed with yogurt containing local probiotic and purple sweet potato extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tari, A. I. N.; Handayani, C. B.; Hartati, S.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of local probiotic in yogurt with purple sweet potato extract supplementation on the hematological parameters of albino rats (Spraque dawley). The study was conducted using a Completely Randomized Design with 30 rats divided into 6 groups. In group K-, rats were fed with distilled water from day 1 to 21. In group YTP, Rats were fed with yogurt without probiotics from day 1 to 21. YDP group was rats were fed with probiotic yogurt from day 1 to 21. In group YTP+E, rats were fed with yogurt without probiotic from day 1 to 7, interspersed with exposure to enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) on day 8 to 14. In group YDP+E, rats were fed with probiotic yogurt from day 1 to 7, interspersed by EPEC on day 8 to 24. In group K +, rats were fed with water from day 1 to 7, then fed with EPEC on day 8 to 14, after which water was given back on day 15 to 21. The result showed that probiotic yogurt treatment with supplement of purple sweet potato extract had a significant effect (P<0,05) on feces water content, number of erythrocyte, leucocyte, and hemoglobin. The treatment of YDP had water content in feces 48.422% and the number of erythrocyte, leucocytes, and hemoglobin were 8.578 106/μl, 14.152 106/μl and 13.98 g/dL respectively.

  8. Antidiabetic Effect of Fresh Nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica in Low-Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hwan Hwang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate α-glucosidase inhibitory and antidiabetic effects of Nopal water extract (NPWE and Nopal dry power (NADP in low-dose streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetic rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD. The type 2 diabetic rat model was induced by HFD and low-dose STZ. The rats were divided into four groups as follows: (1 nondiabetic rats fed a regular diet (RD-Control; (2 low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD (HF-STZ-Control; (3 low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD and supplemented with NPWE (100 mg/kg body weight, HF-STZ-NPWE; and (4 low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD and supplemented with comparison medication (rosiglitazone, 10 mg/kg, body weight, HF-STZ-Rosiglitazone. In results, NPWE and NADP had IC50 values of 67.33 and 86.68 μg/mL, both of which exhibit inhibitory activities but lower than that of acarbose (38.05 μg/mL while NPWE group significantly decreased blood glucose levels compared to control and NPDP group on glucose tolerance in the high-fat diet fed rats model (P<0.05. Also, the blood glucose levels of HR-STZ-NPWE group were significantly lower (P<0.05 than HR-STZ-Control group on low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD. Based on these findings, we suggested that NPWE could be considered for the prevention and/or treatment of blood glucose and a potential use as a dietary supplement.

  9. Antidiabetic Effect of Fresh Nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica) in Low-Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seung Hwan; Kang, Il-Jun; Lim, Soon Sung

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate α -glucosidase inhibitory and antidiabetic effects of Nopal water extract (NPWE) and Nopal dry power (NADP) in low-dose streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The type 2 diabetic rat model was induced by HFD and low-dose STZ. The rats were divided into four groups as follows: (1) nondiabetic rats fed a regular diet (RD-Control); (2) low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD (HF-STZ-Control); (3) low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD and supplemented with NPWE (100 mg/kg body weight, HF-STZ-NPWE); and (4) low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD and supplemented with comparison medication (rosiglitazone, 10 mg/kg, body weight, HF-STZ-Rosiglitazone). In results, NPWE and NADP had IC 50 values of 67.33 and 86.68  μ g/mL, both of which exhibit inhibitory activities but lower than that of acarbose (38.05  μ g/mL) while NPWE group significantly decreased blood glucose levels compared to control and NPDP group on glucose tolerance in the high-fat diet fed rats model ( P < 0.05). Also, the blood glucose levels of HR-STZ-NPWE group were significantly lower ( P < 0.05) than HR-STZ-Control group on low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD. Based on these findings, we suggested that NPWE could be considered for the prevention and/or treatment of blood glucose and a potential use as a dietary supplement.

  10. Effects of medium-chain triglycerides on gluconeogenesis and ureagenesis in weaned rats fed a high fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitose Sugiyama

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We explored the effects of Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT on gluconeogenesis and ureagenesis in the liver of weaned male rats fed high fat, carbohydrate-free diets. The rats of three experimental groups and control were fed for 10 days. The diets were high fat, carbohydrate-free diets consisting either of a corn oil or MCT, and high protein carbohydrate-free diet and a control (high carbohydrate diet. The hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase activity increased in the experimental groups. Despite the elevated G6Pase activity in these groups, hepatic activities of glutamic alanine transaminase (GAT, pyruvate carboxylase (PC and arginase differed among the experimental groups. The HF-corn oil rats showed elevation of PC activity, but no elevation of GAT activity, and the lowest arginase activity among the three groups. The HF-MCT diet-fed rats showed higher GAT and arginase activities than the HF-corn oil group. In the HP diet-fed rats, GAT and arginase activities enhanced, PC did not.

  11. Effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on [3H]TdR incorporation into DNA in ad lib fed and fasted CD2F1 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheving, L.A.; Tsai, T.H.; Scheving, L.E.; Hoke, W.S.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of EGF on the incorporation of [ 3 H]TdR into DNA (DNA synthesis) was determined in the esophagus, liver, pancreas, and kidney in mice standardized to 12 hours (hr) of light alternating with 12 hr of darkness. A question asked was whether intraperitoneally administered EGF could alter the circadian patterns of DNA synthesis in these organs. The most marked effects of EGF were: an increase in DNA synthesis but only after a specific duration of time after treatment, ranging from 8 to 23 hr, which differed for each tissue, a similarity in the response of the esophagus in both ad lib fed and fasted mice, but not in the response of the liver, where the stimulatory effect of EGF observed in fed mice was dramatically reduced in fasted ones, and an advance in the phasing of the circadian rhythm in DNA synthesis of the esophagus by about 12 hr. In addition, no sex differences in fasted animals were found under the conditions of this study

  12. Vagus nerve contributes to metabolic syndrome in high-fat diet-fed young and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barella, Luiz F; Miranda, Rosiane A; Franco, Claudinéia C S; Alves, Vander S; Malta, Ananda; Ribeiro, Tatiane A S; Gravena, Clarice; Mathias, Paulo C F; de Oliveira, Júlio C

    2015-01-01

    What is the central question of this study? Different nerve contributes periods of life are known for their differential sensitivity to interventions, and increased parasympathetic activity affects the development and maintenance of obesity. Thus, we evaluated the involvement of the vagus nerve by performing a vagotomy in young or adult rats that were offered an obesogenic high-fat diet. What is the main finding and its importance? Although the accumulation of adipose tissue decreased in both younger and older groups, the younger rats showed a greater response to the effects of vagotomy in general. In addition to the important role of the parasympathetic activity, we suggest that the vagus nerve contributes to the condition of obesity. Obesity has become a global problem, and this condition develops primarily because of an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. The high complexity involved in the regulation of energy metabolism results from several factors besides endocrine factors. It has been suggested that obesity could be caused by an imbalance in the autonomous nervous system, which could lead to a condition of high parasympathetic activity in counterpart to low sympathetic tonus. High-fat (HF) diets have been used to induce obesity in experimental animals, and their use in animals leads to insulin resistance, hyperinsulinaemia and high parasympathetic activity, among other disorders. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of a vagotomy performed at the initiation of a HF diet at two different stages of life, weaning and adulthood. The vagotomy reduced parasympathetic activity (-32 and -51% in normal fat-fed rats and -43 and -55% in HF diet-fed rats; P fat depots (-17 and -33%, only in HF diet-fed rats; P fat diet-fed rats exhibited fasting hyperinsulinaemia (fivefold higher in young rats and threefold higher in older rats; P diet-fed groups was not altered in the vagotomized rats. We suggest that the vagus nerve, in addition to the

  13. Melatonin counteracts changes in hypothalamic gene expression of signals regulating feeding behavior in high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Lugo, María J; Jiménez-Ortega, Vanesa; Cano-Barquilla, Pilar; Mateos, Pilar Fernández; Spinedi, Eduardo J; Cardinali, Daniel P; Esquifino, Ana I

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies indicate that the administration of melatonin caused body weight and abdominal visceral fat reductions in rodent models of hyperadiposity. The objective of the present study performed in high-fat fed rats was to evaluate the activity of melatonin on gene expression of some medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) signals involved in feeding behavior regulation, including neuropeptide Y (NPY), proopiomelanocortin (POMC), prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP), leptin- and insulin-receptors (R) and insulin-R substrate (IRS)-1 and -2. Blood levels of leptin and adiponectin were also measured. Adult Wistar male rats were divided into four groups (n=16 per group): (i) control diet (3% fat); (ii) high-fat (35%) diet; (iii) high-fat diet+melatonin; (iv) control diet+melatonin. Rats had free access to high-fat or control chow and one of the following drinking solutions: (a) tap water; (b) 25 μg/mL of melatonin. After 10 weeks, the high-fat fed rats showed augmented MBH mRNA levels of NPY, leptin-R, PrRP, insulin-R, IRS-1 and IRS-2. The concomitant administration of melatonin counteracted this increase. Feeding of rats with a high-fat diet augmented expression of the MBH POMC gene through an effect insensitive to melatonin treatment. The augmented levels of circulating leptin and adiponectin seen in high-fat fed rats were counteracted by melatonin as was the augmented body weight: melatonin significantly attenuated a body weight increase in high-fat fed rats without affecting chow or water consumption. Melatonin augmented plasma leptin and adiponectin in control rats. The results indicate that an effect on gene expression of feeding behavior signals at the central nervous system (CNS) may complement a peripheral rise of the energy expenditure produced by melatonin to decrease body weight in high-fat fed rats.

  14. Effect of pyridoxine deficiency on cholesterogenesis in rats fed different levels of protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Mitsuko; Iwami, Tamako

    1977-01-01

    Hepatic cholesterol contents in rats fed a 70% or 20% casein diet with or without pyridoxine was determined. In the case of the 70% casein group, pyridoxine-deficient rats showed a higher content than the control. The increment was mainly due to the accumulation of an ester form of the cholesterol. On the other hand, pyridoxine-deficient rats in the 20% casein group showed a slightly lower content. The cholesterol content in liver microsomal fractions was lower in the 20%-casein pyridoxine-deficient group and serum cholesterol level was lower in the 70%-casein pyridoxine-deficient group than those in respective control groups. Incorporation of [ 14 C] acetate into cholesterol was studied using liver slices, and significant stimulation was observed in pyridoxine-deficient rat fed a 20% or 70% casein diet. There was no difference in intestinal cholesterogenesis between the control and the deficient groups. (auth.)

  15. Isoflavone and Protein Constituents of Lactic Acid-Fermented Soy Milk Combine to Prevent Dyslipidemia in Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Maki; Egusa, Shintaro; Fukuda, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    A high cholesterol diet induces dyslipidemia. This study investigated whether isoflavone aglycones in lactic acid-fermented soy milk (LFS) improve lipid metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were fed an AIN-93G diet, a 1% cholesterol diet (a high cholesterol diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 4% isoflavone extract of LFS (LFS extract diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 19.4% ethanol-washed LFS (ethanol-washed LFS diet, isoflavone-poor diet), or a high cholesterol diet containing 23.2% intact LFS (intact LFS diet) for five weeks. The plasma total cholesterol (TC) level was increased in the rats fed the LFS extract diet compared with those fed the high cholesterol diet. The TC level was decreased by the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. The cholesterol-lowering effect was stronger in the rats fed the intact LFS diet than those fed the ethanol-washed LFS diet. The plasma triglyceride (TG) level was unchanged in the rats fed the LFS extract diet, but it decreased in rats fed the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. Although, compared with the high cholesterol diet, the LFS extract and ethanol-washed LFS diets did not reduce hepatic cholesterol and TG, both levels were remarkably lowered by the intact LFS diet. These results suggest that the improvement in lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet containing LFS isoflavone aglycones is not due to an independent effect but due to a cooperative effect with soy protein. PMID:25514389

  16. Isoflavone and Protein Constituents of Lactic Acid-Fermented Soy Milk Combine to Prevent Dyslipidemia in Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Kobayashi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A high cholesterol diet induces dyslipidemia. This study investigated whether isoflavone aglycones in lactic acid-fermented soy milk (LFS improve lipid metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were fed an AIN-93G diet, a 1% cholesterol diet (a high cholesterol diet, a high-cholesterol diet containing 4% isoflavone extract of LFS (LFS extract diet, a high-cholesterol diet containing 19.4% ethanol-washed LFS (ethanol-washed LFS diet, isoflavone-poor diet, or a high cholesterol diet containing 23.2% intact LFS (intact LFS diet for five weeks. The plasma total cholesterol (TC level was increased in the rats fed the LFS extract diet compared with those fed the high cholesterol diet. The TC level was decreased by the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. The cholesterol-lowering effect was stronger in the rats fed the intact LFS diet than those fed the ethanol-washed LFS diet. The plasma triglyceride (TG level was unchanged in the rats fed the LFS extract diet, but it decreased in rats fed the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. Although, compared with the high cholesterol diet, the LFS extract and ethanol-washed LFS diets did not reduce hepatic cholesterol and TG, both levels were remarkably lowered by the intact LFS diet. These results suggest that the improvement in lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet containing LFS isoflavone aglycones is not due to an independent effect but due to a cooperative effect with soy protein.

  17. Haemato-biochemistry of Albino rats fed African Kudzu ( Pueraria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of cooked and acid-extracted kudzu seed meals on some nutritional and blood and liver biochemical parameters were investigated. Rats fed cooked kudzu meal had significantly (p<0.01) slower rates of growth than the casein control. Cooking enhanced feed efficiency (FE) but the acid-extracted meal could not ...

  18. Equisetum sylvaticum base reduces atherosclerosis risk factors in rats fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-He Lin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We identify an Equisetum sylvaticum alkaloid (ESA derived from E. hyemale, which has robust antihyperlipidemic effects in rats fed a high-fat diet. ESA was isolated from E. hyemale and identified by IR, 13C NMR and 1H NMR. Rats were induced to hyperlipidemia and subjected to ESA treatment. In hyperlipidemic model, fed with a high-fat diet, the blood levels of TC, TG and LDL-C were increased. The administration of ESA (20 or 40 mg/kg to those rats significantly improved the HDL-C level and reduced the levels of TC, TG, LDL-C. The atherosclerosis index and atherosclerosis risk of these rats were significantly reduced by ESA. In addition, the administration of ESA in rats increased the activity of SOD and decreased the level of MDA. These results reveal the antihyperlipidemic and anti-oxidative effects of ESA in vivo.

  19. Effects of 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine on the liver of high fat diet fed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Giammanco

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies have highlighted that the administration of 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine (T2 to rats fed diets rich in lipids induces a decrease of cholesterol and triglycerides plasma levels and body weight (BW without inducing liver steatosis. On the basis of these observations we carried out some experimental in vivo studies to assess the effects of multiple high doses of T2 on the pituitary thyroid axis of rats fed diet rich in lipids. Fifteen male Wistar rats were divided into three groups of five animals each. The first group (N group received standard diet, the second group was fed with a high fat diet (HFD group, while the third group (HFDT2 group was additionally given T2 intraperitoneally at a dose level of 70 µg/100 g of BW three times a week up to four weeks. At the end of the treatment, blood sample from each animal was collected, centrifuged and the serum was stored at -20°C. The serum concentrations of thyroidstimulating hormone (TSH, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, adrenocorticotropic hormone, triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase were then determined. In addition, liver of rats was examined by histology in order to assess the presence and degree of steatosis. The administration of T2 to rats fed with a high fat diet suppressed TSH secretion (P=0.013 while no steatosis was observed in the liver of these animals. Our data show that multiple administrations of high doses of T2 to rats fed diets rich in lipid inhibit TSH secretion and prevent the onset of liver steatosis in these animals.

  20. Effect of potato on acid-base and mineral homeostasis in rats fed a high-sodium chloride diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narcy, Agnès; Robert, Laetitia; Mazur, Andrzej; Demigné, Christian; Rémésy, Christian

    2006-05-01

    Excessive dietary NaCl in association with a paucity of plant foods, major sources of K alkaline salts, is a common feature in Western eating habits which may lead to acid-base disorders and to Ca and Mg wasting. In this context, to evaluate the effects of potato, rich in potassium citrate, on acid-base homeostasis and mineral retention, Wistar rats were fed wheat starch (WS) or cooked potato (CP) diets with a low (0.5 %) or a high (2 %) NaCl content during 3 weeks. The replacement of WS by CP in the diets resulted in a significant urinary alkalinisation (pH from 5.5 to 7.3) parallel to a rise in citrate and K excretion. Urinary Ca and Mg elimination represented respectively 17 and 62 % of the daily absorbed mineral in rats fed the high-salt WS diet compared with 5 and 28 % in rats fed the high-salt CP diet. The total SCFA concentration in the caecum was 3-fold higher in rats fed the CP diets compared with rats fed the WS diets, and it led to a significant rise in Ca and Mg intestinal absorption (Ca from 39 to 56 %; Mg from 37 to 60 %). The present model of low-grade metabolic acidosis indicates that CP may be effective in alkalinising urine, enhancing citrate excretion and ameliorating Ca and Mg balance.

  1. Influence of dietary fat and selenium fed during initiation or promotion on the development of preneoplastic lesions in rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, S.; Parker, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    Aflatoxin B 1 (AFB1)-induced γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT)-positive foci in rat liver were assessed in animals fed different levels of fat and selenium (Se) during either initiation (IN) or promotion (PR). Male Sprague Dawley rats (50g) were divided into 12 groups. One of six modified AIN-76 experimental diets were fed to groups 1-6 during weeks 1-4.5 (IN) and to groups 7-12 during weeks 4.5-15 (PR). During weeks 3-4, 13 rats/group received 10 daily doses of AFB1 (.4 mg/kg bwt/dose, i.g.). Two levels of corn oil (2% and 20%) were fed, each containing 3 levels of Se: < 0.02; 0.15; 2.5 (IN) or 1.9 (PR) ppm. When not fed the experimental diets rats were fed a standard AIN-76 diet. In groups 1-6, 0.03% phenobarbital was added to the standard diet. At week 15 rats were sacrificed. Compared to all low-fat groups, the high-fat diets with either < 0.02 or 0.15 ppm Se fed during IN resulted in a marked increase in mean diameter of GGT-positive foci and % liver section occupied by foci. In rats fed high-fat 2.5 ppm Se, preneoplastic development was decreased below all low-fat groups. During PR, Se status but not dietary fat level influenced foci formation. Rats fed < 0.02 ppm Se had greater mean diameter of foci and % section occupied by foci than either 0.15 or 1.9 ppm Se. Thus, an interaction was observed between dietary fat and selenium during IN, but not during PR

  2. ZoneLib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Jan Jacob; Schiøler, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    We present a dynamic model for climate in a livestock building divided into a number of zones, and a corresponding modular Simulink library (ZoneLib). While most literature in this area consider air flow as a control parameter we show how to model climate dynamics using actual control signals...... development of ZoneLib....

  3. Docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid are positively associated with insulin sensitivity in rats fed high-fat and high-fructose diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiung-Pang; Cheng, Mei-Ling; Hung, Cheng-Yu; Wang, Chao-Hung; Hsieh, Po-Shiuan; Shiao, Ming-Shi; Chen, Jan-Kan; Li, Dai-Er; Hung, Li-Man

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare insulin resistance and metabolic changes using a global lipidomic approach. Rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or a high-fructose diet (HFrD) for 12 weeks to induce insulin resistance (IR) syndrome. After 12 weeks feeding, physiological and biochemical parameters were examined. Insulin sensitivity and plasma metabolites were evaluated using a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp and mass spectrometry, respectively. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to investigate the strength of correlations. Rats on both diets developed IR syndrome, characterized by hypertension, hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, impaired fasting glucose, and IR. Compared with HFrD-fed rats, non-esterified fatty acids were lower and body weight and plasma insulin levels were markedly higher in HFD-fed rats. Adiposity and plasma leptin levels were increased in both groups. However, the size of adipocytes was greater in HFD- than HFrD-fed rats. Notably, the lipidomic heat map revealed metabolites exhibiting greater differences in HFD- and HFrD-fed rats compared with controls. Plasma adrenic acid levels were higher in HFD- than HFrD-fed rats. Nevertheless, linoleic and arachidonic acid levels decreased in HFrD-fed rats compared with controls. Plasma concentrations of docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were significantly reduced after feeding of both diets, particularly the HFrD. There was a strong positive correlation between these two fatty acids and the insulin sensitivity index. The systemic lipidomic analysis indicated that a reduction in DHA and DPA was strongly correlated with IR in rats under long-term overnutrition. These results provide a potential therapeutic target for IR and metabolic syndrome. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Watermelon consumption improves inflammation and antioxidant capacity in rats fed an atherogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mee Young; Hartig, Nicole; Kaufman, Katy; Hooshmand, Shirin; Figueroa, Arturo; Kern, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. Watermelon, rich in antioxidants and other bioactive components, may be a viable method to improve CVD risk factors through reduced oxidative stress. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of watermelon powder consumption on lipid profiles, antioxidant capacity, and inflammation in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-treated rats fed an atherogenic diet. We hypothesized that watermelon would increase antioxidant capacity and reduce blood lipids and inflammation through modulation of related gene expression. Forty male-weanling (21 days old) Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups (10 per group, total N = 40) in a 2 diets (control or 0.33% watermelon) × 2 treatments (with or without DSS) factorial design using an atherogenic diet. Watermelon-fed groups exhibited significantly lower serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (Pwatermelon-fed rats than the control (P= .001). In addition, oxidative stress as measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances was significantly lower in watermelon groups (P= .001). Total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities were greater in watermelon groups (Pwatermelon was consumed (Pwatermelon group without DSS (Pwatermelon improves risk factors for CVD in rats through better lipid profiles, lower inflammation, and greater antioxidant capacity by altering gene expression for lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Wheel-running reinforcement in free-feeding and food-deprived rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W; Pierce, W David

    2016-03-01

    Rats experiencing sessions of 30min free access to wheel running were assigned to ad-lib and food-deprived groups, and given additional sessions of free wheel activity. Subsequently, both ad-lib and deprived rats lever pressed for 60s of wheel running on fixed ratio (FR) 1, variable ratio (VR) 3, VR 5, and VR 10 schedules, and on a response-initiated variable interval (VI) 30s schedule. Finally, the ad-lib rats were switched to food deprivation and the food-deprived rats were switched to free food, as rats continued responding on the response-initiated VI 30-s schedule. Wheel running functioned as reinforcement for both ad-lib and food-deprived rats. Food-deprived rats, however, ran faster and had higher overall lever-pressing rates than free-feeding rats. On the VR schedules, wheel-running rates positively correlated with local and overall lever pressing rates for deprived, but not ad-lib rats. On the response-initiated VI 30s schedule, wheel-running rates and lever-pressing rates changed for ad-lib rats switched to food deprivation, but not for food-deprived rats switched to free-feeding. The overall pattern of results suggested different sources of control for wheel running: intrinsic motivation, contingencies of automatic reinforcement, and food-restricted wheel running. An implication is that generalizations about operant responding for wheel running in food-deprived rats may not extend to wheel running and operant responding of free-feeding animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Dahl salt-sensitive rats develop hypovitaminosis D and hyperparathyroidism when fed a standard diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry-Palmer, Myrtle; Cephas, Stacy; Sayavongsa, Phouyong; Doherty, Akins; Arnaud, Sara B.

    2005-01-01

    The Dahl salt-sensitive rat (S), a model for salt-sensitive hypertension, excretes protein-bound 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) into urine when fed a low salt diet. Urinary 25-OHD increases during high salt intake. We tested the hypothesis that continuous loss of 25-OHD into urine would result in low plasma 25-OHD concentration in mature S rats raised on a standard diet. Dahl S and salt-resistant (R) male rats were raised to maturity (12-month-old) on a commercial rat diet (1% salt) and switched to 0.3% (low) or 2% (high) salt diets 3 weeks before euthanasia. Urine (24 h) was collected at the end of the dietary treatments. Urinary 25-OHD and urinary 25-OHD binding activity of S rats were three times that of R rats, resulting in lower plasma 25-OHD and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations in S rats than in R rats (P D concentrations than those fed 0.3% salt (P = 0.002). S rats excreted more calcium into urine than R rats (P D and high plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and PTH concentrations seen in the mature S rats have also been reported for elderly patients with low-renin (salt-induced) hypertension. An implication of this study is that low vitamin D status may occur with age in salt-sensitive individuals, even when salt intake is normal.

  7. Sardine protein diet increases plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 levels and prevents tissue oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Zohra; Sener, Abdullah; Malaisse, Willy J; Dalila, Ait Yahia

    2015-11-01

    The current study investigated whether sardine protein mitigates the adverse effects of fructose on plasma glucagon‑like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and oxidative stress in rats. Rats were fed casein (C) or sardine protein (S) with or without high‑fructose (HF) for 2 months. Plasma glucose, insulin, GLP‑1, lipid and protein oxidation and antioxidant enzymes were assayed. HF rats developed obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and oxidative stress despite reduced energy and food intakes. High plasma creatinine and uric acid levels, in addition to albuminuria were observed in the HF groups. The S‑HF diet reduced plasma glucose, insulin, creatinine, uric acid and homeostasis model assessment‑insulin resistance index levels, however increased GLP‑1 levels compared with the C‑HF diet. Hydroperoxides were reduced in the liver, kidney, heart and muscle of S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. A reduction in liver, kidney and heart carbonyls was observed in S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. Reduced levels of nitric oxide (NO) were detected in the liver, kidney and heart of the S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. The S diet compared with the C diet reduced levels of liver hydroperoxides, heart carbonyls and kidney NO. The S‑HF diet compared with the C‑HF diet increased the levels of liver and kidney superoxide dismutase, liver and muscle catalase, liver, heart and muscle glutathione peroxidase and liver ascorbic acid. The S diet prevented and reversed insulin resistance and oxidative stress, and may have benefits in patients with metabolic syndrome.

  8. Effects of NS lactobacillus strains on lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Elevated serum cholesterol level is generally considered to be a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases which seriously threaten human health. The cholesterol-lowering effects of lactic acid bacteria have recently become an area of great interest and controversy for many researchers. In this study, we investigated the effects of two NS lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus plantarum NS5 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus NS12, on lipid metabolism of rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Methods Thirty-two SD rats were assigned to four groups and fed either a normal or a high-cholesterol diet. The NS lactobacillus treated groups received the high-cholesterol diet supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum NS5 or Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus NS12 in drinking water. The rats were sacrificed after a 6-week feeding period. Body weights, visceral organ and fat weights, serum and liver cholesterol and lipid levels, intestinal microbiota and liver mRNA expression levels related to cholesterol metabolism were analyzed. Liver lipid deposition and adipocyte size were evaluated histologically. Results Compared with rats fed a high cholesterol diet, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B and free fatty acids levels were decreased and apolipoprotein A-I level was increased in NS5 or NS12 strain treated rats, and with no significant change in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. Liver cholesterol and triglyceride levels were also significantly decreased in NS lactobacillus strains treated groups. Meanwhile, the NS lactobacillus strains obviously alleviated hepatic injuries, decreased liver lipid deposition and reduced adipocyte size of high cholesterol diet fed rats. NS lactobacillus strains restored the changes in intestinal microbiota compositions, such as the increase in Bacteroides and the decrease in Clostridium. NS lactobacillus strains also regulated the mRNA expression

  9. In vivo determination of triglyceride (TG) secretion in rats fed different dietary saturated fats using [2-3H]-glycerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, H.C.; Yang, H.; Lasekan, J.; Clayton, M.; Ney, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    Male, Sprague-Dawley rats (154±1 g) were fed diets containing 2% corn oil (CO) + 14% butterfat (BF), beef tallow (BT), olive oil (OO) or coconut oil (CN) vs a 16% CO control diet for 5 weeks. Changes in plasma TG specific activity (dpm/mg TG) were determined in individual unanesthetized rats after injection of 100 μCi [2- 3 H]-glycerol via a carotid cannula. Fractional rate constants were obtained using a 2-compartment model and nonlinear regression analysis. Results demonstrated no difference in the fractional rate constants among dietary groups; but, differences in the rates of hepatic TG secretion were noted. Rats fed BT showed a higher rate of hepatic TG secretion than rats fed CO. Rats fed BF, OO or CN showed somewhat higher rates of hepatic TG secretion than CO. VLDL TG, phospholipid, and apolipoprotein B and E levels were higher with saturated fats vs CO. The data suggest that the higher plasma TG levels noted in response to feeding saturated fats vs corn oil can be explained, in part, by an increased flux of hepatic TG secretion

  10. Effects of α-lipoic acid on endothelial function in aged diabetic and high-fat fed rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, C M; Nunes, E; Louro, T; Proença, T; Fernandes, R; Boarder, M R; Seiça, R M

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of α-lipoic acid (α-LA) on endothelial function in diabetic and high-fat fed animal models and elucidate the potential mechanism underlying the benefits of α-LA. Experimental approach: Plasma metabolites reflecting glucose and lipid metabolism, endothelial function, urinary albumin excretion (UAE), plasma and aortic malondialdehyde (MDA) and urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were assessed in non-diabetic controls (Wistar rats), untreated Goto-Kakizaki (GK) diabetic and high-fat fed GK rats (fed with atherogenic diet only, treated with α-LA and treated with vehicle, for 3 months). Vascular eNOS, nitrotyrosine, carbonyl groups and superoxide anion were also assessed in the different groups. Key results: α-LA and soybean oil significantly reduced both total and non-HDL serum cholesterol and triglycerides induced by atherogenic diet. MDA, carbonyl groups, vascular superoxide and 8-OHdG levels were higher in GK and high-fat fed GK groups and fully reversed with α-LA treatment. High-fat fed GK diabetic rats showed significantly reduced endothelial function and increased UAE, effects ameliorated with α-LA. This endothelial dysfunction was associated with decreased NO production, decreased expression of eNOS and increased vascular superoxide production and nitrotyrosine expression. Conclusions and implications: α-LA restores endothelial function and significantly improves systemic and local oxidative stress in high-fat fed GK diabetic rats. Improved endothelial function due to α-LA was at least partially attributed to recoupling of eNOS and increased NO bioavailability and represents a pharmacological approach to prevent major complications associated with type 2 diabetes. PMID:17906683

  11. Effect of L-Carnitine on Skeletal Muscle Lipids and Oxidative Stress in Rats Fed High-Fructose Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panchamoorthy Rajasekar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that high-fructose diet induces insulin resistance, alterations in lipid metabolism, and oxidative stress in rat tissues. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of L-carnitine (CAR on lipid accumulation and peroxidative damage in skeletal muscle of rats fed high-fructose diet. Fructose-fed animals (60 g/100 g diet displayed decreased glucose/insulin (G/I ratio and insulin sensitivity index (ISI0,120 indicating the development of insulin resistance. Rats showed alterations in the levels of triglycerides, free fatty acids, cholesterol, and phospholipids in skeletal muscle. The condition was associated with oxidative stress as evidenced by the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products, protein carbonyls, and aldehydes along with depletion of both enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants. Simultaneous intraperitoneal administration of CAR (300 mg/kg/day to fructose-fed rats alleviated the effects of fructose. These rats showed near-normal levels of the parameters studied. The effects of CAR in this model suggest that CAR supplementation may have some benefits in patients suffering from insulin resistance.

  12. Inhibition of angiotensin-1-converting enzyme activity by two varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in rats fed a high cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemi, Ayodele Jacob; Ademiluyi, Adedayo Oluwaseun; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2014-03-01

    Angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This study sought to investigate the inhibitory effect of two varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) commonly consumed in Nigeria on ACE activity in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. The inhibition of ACE activity of two varieties of ginger (Z. officinale) was investigated in a high cholesterol (2%) diet fed to rats for 3 days. Feeding high cholesterol diets to rats caused a significant (Pginger varieties. Rats that were fed 4% white ginger had the greatest inhibitory effect as compared with a control diet. Furthermore, there was a significant (Pginger (either 2% or 4%) caused a significant (Pginger had the greatest reduction as compared with control diet. In conclusion, both ginger varieties exhibited anti-hypercholesterolemic properties in a high cholesterol diet fed to rats. This activity of the gingers may be attributed to its ACE inhibitory activity. However, white ginger inhibited ACE better in a high cholesterol diet fed to rats than red ginger. Therefore, both gingers could serve as good functional foods/nutraceuticals in the management/treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases.

  13. Arctium lappa ameliorates endothelial dysfunction in rats fed with high fat/cholesterol diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun Jung; Choi, Deok Ho; Cho, Guk Hyun; Kim, Jin Sook; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2012-08-06

    Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae), burdock, is a medicinal plant that is popularly used for treating hypertension, gout, hepatitis, and other inflammatory disorders. This study was performed to test the effect of ethanol extract of Arctium lappa L. (EAL) seeds on vascular reactivity and inflammatory factors in rats fed a high fat/cholesterol diet (HFCD). EAL-I (100 mg·kg-1/day), EAL-II (200 mg·kg-1/day), and fluvastatin (3 mg·kg-1/day) groups initially received HFCD alone for 8 weeks, with EAL supplementation provided during the final 6 weeks. Treatment with low or high doses of EAL markedly attenuated plasma levels of triglycerides and augmented plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL markedly reduced impairments of acetylcholine (ACh)-induced relaxation of aortic rings. Furthermore, chronic treatment with EAL significantly lowered systolic blood pressure (SBP) and maintained smooth and flexible intimal endothelial layers in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL suppressed upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, and E-selectin in the aorta. Chronic treatment with EAL also suppressed increases in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 expression. These results suggested that EAL can inhibit HFCD-induced vascular inflammation in the rat model. The present study provides evidence that EAL ameliorates HFCD-induced vascular dysfunction through protection of vascular relaxation and suppression of vascular inflammation.

  14. Arctium lappa ameliorates endothelial dysfunction in rats fed with high fat/cholesterol diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Yun

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae, burdock, is a medicinal plant that is popularly used for treating hypertension, gout, hepatitis, and other inflammatory disorders. This study was performed to test the effect of ethanol extract of Arctium lappa L. (EAL seeds on vascular reactivity and inflammatory factors in rats fed a high fat/cholesterol diet (HFCD. Method EAL-I (100 mg·kg−1/day, EAL-II (200 mg·kg−1/day, and fluvastatin (3 mg·kg−1/day groups initially received HFCD alone for 8 weeks, with EAL supplementation provided during the final 6 weeks. Results Treatment with low or high doses of EAL markedly attenuated plasma levels of triglycerides and augmented plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL markedly reduced impairments of acetylcholine (ACh-induced relaxation of aortic rings. Furthermore, chronic treatment with EAL significantly lowered systolic blood pressure (SBP and maintained smooth and flexible intimal endothelial layers in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL suppressed upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1, and E-selectin in the aorta. Chronic treatment with EAL also suppressed increases in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 expression. These results suggested that EAL can inhibit HFCD-induced vascular inflammation in the rat model. Conclusion The present study provides evidence that EAL ameliorates HFCD-induced vascular dysfunction through protection of vascular relaxation and suppression of vascular inflammation.

  15. Haloperidol and Rimonabant Increase Delay Discounting in Rats Fed High-Fat and Standard-Chow Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomhower, Steven R.; Rasmussen, Erin B.

    2016-01-01

    The dopamine and endocannabinoid neurotransmitter systems have been implicated in delay discounting, a measure of impulsive choice, and obesity. The current study was designed to determine the extent to which haloperidol and rimonabant affected delay discounting in rats fed standard-chow and high-fat diets. Sprague-Dawley rats were allowed to free-feed under a high-fat diet (4.73 kcal/g) or a standard-chow diet (3.0 kcal/g) for three months. Then, operant sessions began in which rats (n = 9 standard chow; n = 10 high-fat) chose between one sucrose pellet delivered immediately vs. three sucrose pellets after a series of delays. In another condition, carrot-flavored pellets replaced sucrose pellets. After behavior stabilized, acute injections of rimonabant (0.3-10 mg/kg) and haloperidol (0.003-0.1 mg/kg) were administered i.p. before some choice sessions in both pellet conditions. Haloperidol and rimonabant increased discounting in both groups of rats by decreasing percent choice for the larger reinforcer and area-under-the-curve (AUC) values. Rats in the high-fat diet condition demonstrated increased sensitivity to haloperidol compared to chow-fed controls: haloperidol increased discounting in both dietary groups in the sucrose condition,, but only in the high-fat-fed rats in the carrot-pellet condition. These findings indicate that blocking D2 and CB1 receptors results in increased delay discounting, and that a high-fat diet may alter sensitivity to dopaminergic compounds using the delay-discounting task. PMID:25000488

  16. The Efficiency of Irradiated Garlic Powder in Mitigation of Hypercholesterolemic Risk Factor in High cholesterol Fed Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Neily, H.F.G.; El-Shennawy, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to explore the efficiency of radiation processed dried garlic powder at 10, 15 and 20 kGy on the average daily body gain, internal organ weights, certain hematological and biochemical parameters; including total plasma protein, albumin, globulin, total cholesterol, low and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C), triglyceride levels, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities in rats fed with a high-cholesterol diet. Experimental rats were fed a high cholesterol diet (10 g kg -1 ) with and without raw or radiation processed dried garlic powder at the above-mentioned doses for 6 weeks. Control rats were fed a casein diet (C). 20 g kg -1 dietary raw or irradiated dried garlic powder was used to supplemented cholesterol diet (Ch). It was observed that cholesterol-fed (Ch) animals had a significant increase in relative liver weight, plasma total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglyceride levels, LDL/HDL ratio, AST and ALT activities and a significant decrease in HDL-C level compared to the control group of rats fed on a Casein diet (C). However, when the rats were fed with a high cholesterol diet mixed with 20 g kg -1 raw (ChRG) or irradiated dried garlic powder at 10 (ChG10), 15 (ChG15), and 20 kGy (ChG20), there was a significant reduction in their relative liver weight, hemoglobin, haematocrit, plasma total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglyceride levels, LDL/HDL ratio, and increased HDL level and amended AST and ALT activities levels as compared with the group which was on a diet containing high cholesterol without garlic powder (Ch). No significant changes were observed in relative spleen, kidney, lung, heart and testes weights, as well as, the total plasma protein, albumin, globulin concentrations in all of treated groups. These results show that the dietary 20 g kg -1 irradiated dried garlic powder at 10, 15 and 20 kGy are beneficial in reducing plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C levels, El

  17. Effects of Mucuna pruriens on Free Fatty Acid Levels and Histopathological Changes in the Brains of Rats Fed a High Fructose Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgun, Bekir; Sarı, Aysel; Ozturk, Sait; Erol, Fatih Serhat; Ozercan, Ibrahim Hanifi; Ulu, Ramazan

    2017-01-01

    To investigate free fatty acid levels and histopathological changes in the brain of rats fed a high fructose diet (HFrD) and to evaluate the effects of Mucuna pruriens, known to have antidiabetic activity, on these changes. The study comprised 28 mature female Wistar rats. The rats were divided into 4 groups, each included 7 rats. Group 1: control; group 2: fed an HFrD; group 3: fed normal rat chow and M. pruriens; group 4: fed an HFrD and M. pruriens for 6 weeks. At the end of 6 weeks, the rats were decapitated, blood and brain tissues were obtained. Serum glucose and triglyceride levels were measured. Free fatty acid levels were measured in 1 cerebral hemisphere of each rat and histopathological changes in the other. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare quantitative continuous data between 2 independent groups, and the Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare quantitative continuous data between more than 2 independent groups. Arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid levels were significantly higher in group 2 than in group 1 (p pruriens could have therapeutic effects on free fatty acid metabolism and local inflammatory responses in the brains of rats fed an HFrD. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Antioxidant and anti hyperglycemic role of wine grape powder in rats fed with a high fructose diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Hernández-Salinas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome is a growing worldwide health problem. We evaluated the effects of wine grape powder (WGP, rich in antioxidants and fiber, in a rat model of metabolic syndrome induced by a high fructose diet. We tested whether WGP supplementation may prevent glucose intolerance and decrease oxidative stress in rats fed with a high fructose diet. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 180 g were divided into four groups according to their feeding protocols. Rats were fed with control diet (C, control plus 20 % WGP (C + WGP, 50 % high fructose (HF or 50 % fructose plus 20 % WGP (HF + WGP for 16 weeks. Blood glucose, insulin and triglycerides, weight, and arterial blood pressure were measured. Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA index was calculated using insulin and glucose values. A glucose tolerance test was performed 2 days before the end of the experiment. As an index of oxidative stress, thio-barbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS level was measured in plasma and kidney, and superoxide dismutase was measured in the kidney. RESULTS: Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in plasma and renal tissue were significantly higher when compared to the control group. In addition, the area under the curve of the glucose tolerance test was higher in HF fed animals. Furthermore, fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin levels, and the HOMA index, were also increased. WGP supplementation prevented these alterations in rats fed with the HF diet. We did not find any significant difference in body weight or systolic blood pressure in any of the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that WGP supplementation prevented hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and reduced oxidative stress in rats fed with HF diet. We propose that WGP may be used as a supplement in human food as well.

  19. Forskolin- and dihydroalprenolol (DHA) binding sites and adenylate cyclase activity in heart of rats fed diets containing different oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, S.Q.; Ren, Y.F.; Alam, B.S.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to determine if dietary lipids can induce changes in the adenylate cyclase system in rat heart. Three groups of male young Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for 6 weeks diets containing 10% corn oil (I), 8% coconut oil + 2% corn oil (II) or 10% menhaden oil (III). Adenylate cyclase activity (basal, fluoride-, isoproterenol-, and forskolin-stimulated) was higher in heart homogenates of rats in group III than in the other two groups. Concentration of the [ 3 H]-forskolin binding sites in the cardiac membranes were significantly higher in rats fed menhaden oil. The values (pmol/mg protein) were 4.8 +/- 0.2 (I), 4.5 +/- 0.7 (II) and 8.4 +/- 0.5 (III). There was no significant difference in the affinity of the forskolin binding sites among the 3 dietary groups. When measured at different concentrations of forskolin, the adenylate cyclase activity in cardiac membranes of rats fed menhaden oil was higher than in the other 2 groups. Concentrations of the [ 3 H]DHA binding sites were slightly higher but their affinity was lower in cardiac membranes of rats fed menhaden oil. The results suggest that diets containing fish oil increase the concentration of the forskolin binding sites and may also affect the characteristics of the β-adrenergic receptor in rat heart

  20. Influence of fenofibrate treatment on triacylglycerides, diacylglycerides and fatty acids in fructose fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, Thomas; Schaefer, Hans-Ludwig; Troetzmueller, Martin; Koefeler, Harald; Broenstrup, Mark; Konovalova, Tatiana; Schmitz, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Fenofibrate (FF) lowers plasma triglycerides via PPARα activation. Here, we analyzed lipidomic changes upon FF treatment of fructose fed rats. Three groups with 6 animals each were defined as control, fructose-fed and fructose-fed/FF treated. Male Wistar Unilever Rats were subjected to 10% fructose-feeding for 20 days. On day 14, fenofibrate treatment (100 mg/kg p.o.) was initiated and maintained for 7 days. Lipid species in serum were analyzed using mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS; LC-FT-MS, GC-MS) on days 0, 14 and 20 in all three groups. In addition, lipid levels in liver and intestine were determined. Short-chain TAGs increased in serum and liver upon fructose-feeding, while almost all TAG-species decreased under FF treatment. Long-chain unsaturated DAG-levels (36:1, 36:2, 36:4, 38:3, 38:4, 38:5) increased upon FF treatment in rat liver and decreased in rat serum. FAs, especially short-chain FAs (12:0, 14:0, 16:0) increased during fructose-challenge. VLDL secretion increased upon fructose-feeding and together with FA-levels decreased to control levels during FF treatment. Fructose challenge of de novo fatty acid synthesis through fatty acid synthase (FAS) may enhance the release of FAs ≤ 16:0 chain length, a process reversed by FF-mediated PPARα-activation.

  1. Influence of fenofibrate treatment on triacylglycerides, diacylglycerides and fatty acids in fructose fed rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kopf

    Full Text Available Fenofibrate (FF lowers plasma triglycerides via PPARα activation. Here, we analyzed lipidomic changes upon FF treatment of fructose fed rats. Three groups with 6 animals each were defined as control, fructose-fed and fructose-fed/FF treated. Male Wistar Unilever Rats were subjected to 10% fructose-feeding for 20 days. On day 14, fenofibrate treatment (100 mg/kg p.o. was initiated and maintained for 7 days. Lipid species in serum were analyzed using mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS; LC-FT-MS, GC-MS on days 0, 14 and 20 in all three groups. In addition, lipid levels in liver and intestine were determined. Short-chain TAGs increased in serum and liver upon fructose-feeding, while almost all TAG-species decreased under FF treatment. Long-chain unsaturated DAG-levels (36:1, 36:2, 36:4, 38:3, 38:4, 38:5 increased upon FF treatment in rat liver and decreased in rat serum. FAs, especially short-chain FAs (12:0, 14:0, 16:0 increased during fructose-challenge. VLDL secretion increased upon fructose-feeding and together with FA-levels decreased to control levels during FF treatment. Fructose challenge of de novo fatty acid synthesis through fatty acid synthase (FAS may enhance the release of FAs ≤ 16:0 chain length, a process reversed by FF-mediated PPARα-activation.

  2. Identification of The First Limiting Amino Acid In Cooked Polished White Rice Fed To Weanling Holtzman Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mellova Masrizal

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Forty-eight male weanling rats (91 g were utilized to study the nutritional adequacy of cooked polished white rice. Rats were individually housed, and allowed ad libitum access to one of six treatment diets. Treatment diets were 1 polished white rice plus 10% casein and 0.18% methionine, CAS, 2 polished white rice, WHR, 3 polished white rice plus 0.45% lysine, LYS, 4 polished white rice plus0.40% methionine, MET, 5 polished white rice plus 0.30% threonine, THR, 6 polished white rice plus 0.45% lysine, 0.40% methionine, and 0.40% threonine, COM. Rice was cooked prior diet formulation using a 3 to 1 ratio of water to rice. Vitamins (AIN-76 and AIN minerals were added to all diets to meet NRC (1978 requirements. Rats fed CAS diets were significantly heavier on d 21 (P<0.05 than rats on COM, LYS, MET, THR, or WHR diets, (219.9 vs. 171.6, 153.2, 153.2, 148.3, or 155.4 g respectively. Supplementation of the most deficient essential amino acids, lysine (LYS or methionine (MET did not improve (P>0.05 rat performance over WHR fed rats, Average daily gain (ADG for CAS was 6.1 g/d and ADG for LYS and MET was 3.0 g/d. The addition of threonine (THR significantly (P<0.05 reduced ADG when compared to WHR diets (2.7 vs. 3.0 g/d. When rats were fed to COM diet significant (P<0.05 improvement in ADG was observed compared to WHR fed rats (4.8 vs. 3.0 g/d. The increased gains achieved with COM diet and the poor gains observed with the single amino acid diets (LYS, MET, or THR would suggest that polished white rice is limiting in more than one essential amino acid.

  3. Selected Physiological Effects of a Garcinia Gummi-Gutta Extract in Rats Fed with Different Hypercaloric Diets

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    Carolina Guillén-Enríquez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Garcinia gummi-gutta (GGG rind extract is effective for reducing appetite, body weight and adiposity of obese rodents fed high-fat (HF, high-sugar (HS or high fat/sugar (HFS-based diets, but these effects have not been simultaneously evaluated. Thirty obese (~425 g male Wistar rats were fed for eleven weeks with six hypercaloric diets (4.1 kcal/g; five rats/diet non-supplemented (HF, HS, HFS, or supplemented (HF+, HS+, HFS+ with GGG extract (5.9%, while rats from the control group (375 g were fed a normocaloric diet (3.5 kcal/g. Body weight, dietary intake, body fat distribution, and histological and biochemical parameters were recorded. Compared to control rats, non-supplemented and supplemented groups consumed significantly less food (14.3% and 24.6% (−4.3 g/day, respectively (p < 0.05. Weight loss was greater in the HF+ group (35–52 g, which consumed 1.9 times less food than the HS+ or HFS+ fed groups. The HF and HFS groups showed 40% less plasma triacylglycerides and lower glucose levels compared to the HF+. GGG-supplemented diets were associated with lower ketonuria. The HF+ diet was associated with the best anti-adiposity effect (as measured with the dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA and Soxhlet methods. The severity of hepatocyte lipidosis was HF > control > HF+, and no signs of toxicity in the testes were observed. The results indicate that GGG is more effective when co-administered with HF diets in obese rats.

  4. Moderately Low Magnesium Intake Impairs Growth of Lean Body Mass in Obese-Prone and Obese-Resistant Rats Fed a High-Energy Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Bertinato

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The physical and biochemical changes resulting from moderately low magnesium (Mg intake are not fully understood. Obesity and associated co-morbidities affect Mg metabolism and may exacerbate Mg deficiency and physiological effects. Male rats selectively bred for diet-induced obesity (OP, obese-prone or resistance (OR, obese-resistant were fed a high-fat, high-energy diet containing moderately low (LMg, 0.116 ± 0.001 g/kg or normal (NMg, 0.516 ± 0.007 g/kg Mg for 13 weeks. The growth, body composition, mineral homeostasis, bone development, and glucose metabolism of the rats were examined. OP and OR rats showed differences (p < 0.05 in many physical and biochemical measures regardless of diet. OP and OR rats fed the LMg diet had decreased body weight, lean body mass, decreased femoral size (width, weight, and volume, and serum Mg and potassium concentrations compared to rats fed the NMg diet. The LMg diet increased serum calcium (Ca concentration in both rat strains with a concomitant decrease in serum parathyroid hormone concentration only in the OR strain. In the femur, Mg concentration was reduced, whereas concentrations of Ca and sodium were increased in both strains fed the LMg diet. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in an oral glucose tolerance test were similar in rats fed the LMg or NMg diets. These results show that a moderately low Mg diet impairs the growth of lean body mass and alters femoral geometry and mineral metabolism in OP and OR rats fed a high-energy diet.

  5. Comparative evaluation of the hypolipidemic effects of coconut water and lovastatin in rats fed fat-cholesterol enriched diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhya, V G; Rajamohan, T

    2008-12-01

    The coconut water presents a series of nutritional and therapeutic properties, being a natural, acid and sterile solution, which contains several biologically active components, l-arginine, ascorbic acid, minerals such as calcium, magnesium and potassium, which have beneficial effects on lipid levels. Recent studies in our laboratory showed that both tender and mature coconut water feeding significantly (Pcholesterol fed rats [Sandhya, V.G., Rajamohan, T., 2006. Beneficial effects of coconut water feeding on lipid metabolism in cholesterol fed rats. J. Med. Food 9, 400-407]. The current study evaluated the hypolipidemic effect of coconut water (4ml/100g body weight) with a lipid lowering drug, lovastatin (0.1/100g diet) in rats fed fat-cholesterol enriched diet ad libitum for 45 days. Coconut water or lovastatin supplementation lowered the levels of serum total cholesterol, VLDL+LDL cholesterol, triglycerides and increased HDL cholesterol in experimental rats (Pcholesterol in the liver were higher in coconut water treated rats. Coconut water supplementation increased hepatic bile acid and fecal bile acids and neutral sterols (Pcholesterol enriched diet.

  6. Vagal afferents are essential for maximal resection-induced intestinal adaptive growth in orally fed rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelson, David W; Liu, Xiaowen; Holst, Jens Juul

    2006-01-01

    in mucosal mass, protein, DNA, and histology. Both systemic and perivagal capsaicin significantly attenuated by 48-100% resection-induced increases in ileal mucosal mass, protein, and DNA in rats fed orally. Villus height was significantly reduced in resected rats given capsaicin compared with vehicle...

  7. Effects of Food Based Yeast on Oxidant-Antioxidant Systems in Rats fed by High Cholesterol Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Savaş, Hasan Basri; Yüksel, Özlem; Şanlıdere Aloğlu, Hatice; Öner, Zübeyde; Demir Özer, Ezgi; Gültekin, Fatih

    2013-01-01

    In living organisms, oxidant and antioxidant systems are in a balance. In the present study, our aim was to study the effects of Cryptococcus humicola, which is a food based yeast whose cholesterol lowering activity is under investigation, on oxidant and antioxidant systems.31 adult male, Wistar albino rats weighing 200-250 gr were included in the study. Rats were divided into four groups based on their diets. Group 1(Control Group) was fed a normal diet, Group 2 was fed a high cholesterol di...

  8. Contrasting apoptotic responses of conjugated linoleic acid in the liver of obese Zucker rats fed palm oil or ovine fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Paula A; Martins, Susana V; Viana, Ricardo S J; Ramalho, Rita M; Alfaia, Cristina M; Pinho, Mário S; Jerónimo, Eliana; Bessa, Rui J B; Castro, Matilde F; Rodrigues, Cecília M P; Prates, José A M

    2011-08-01

    We hypothesized that reducing weight properties of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) are due to adipocyte apoptosis and that CLA differentially modulates the apoptotic responses in hepatic lipotoxicity from rats fed saturated fat diets. Obese Zucker rats were fed atherogenic diets (2%w/w of cholesterol) formulated with high (15%w/w) saturated fat, from vegetable or animal origin, supplemented or not with 1% of a mixture (1:1) of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers for 14 weeks. CLA induced no changes on retroperitoneal fat depot weight, which was in line with similar levels of apoptosis. Interestingly, CLA had a contrasting effect on cell death in the liver according to the dietary fat. CLA increased hepatocyte apoptosis, associated with upregulation of Fas protein in rats fed palm oil, compared to rats receiving palm oil alone. However, rats fed ovine fat alone displayed the highest levels of hepatic cell death, which were decreased in rats fed ovine fat plus CLA. This reducing effect of CLA was related to positively restoring endoplasmic reticulum (ER) ATF-6α, BiP and CHOP protein levels and increasing phosphorylated c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) and c-Jun, thus suggesting an adaptive response of cell survival. These findings reinforce the role of CLA as regulator of apoptosis in the liver. Moreover, the dietary fat composition is a key factor in activation of apoptosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Jinlida reduces insulin resistance and ameliorates liver oxidative stress in high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yixuan; Song, An; Zang, Shasha; Wang, Chao; Song, Guangyao; Li, Xiaoling; Zhu, Yajun; Yu, Xian; Li, Ling; Wang, Yun; Duan, Liyuan

    2015-03-13

    Jinlida (JLD) is a compound preparation formulated on the basis of traditional Chinese medicine and is officially approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in China. We aimed to elucidate the mechanism of JLD treatment, in comparison to metformin treatment, on ameliorating insulin sensitivity in insulin resistant rats and to reveal its anti-oxidant properties. Rats were fed with standard or high-fat diet for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, the high-fat fed rats were subdivided into five groups and orally fed with JLD or metformin for 8 weeks. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting blood insulin, blood lipid and antioxidant enzymes were measured. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp technique were carried out to measure insulin sensitivity. Gene expression of the major signaling pathway molecules that regulate glucose uptake, including insulin receptor (INSR), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase beta (AKT), and glucose transporter type 2 (GLUT2), were assessed by quantitative RT-PCR. The totle and phosphorylation expression of IRS-1, AKT, JNK and p38MAPK were determined by Western blot. Treatment with JLD effectively ameliorated the high-fat induced hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia. Similar to metformin, the high insulin resistance in high-fat fed rats was significantly decreased by JLD treatment. JLD displayed anti-oxidant effects, coupled with up-regulation of the insulin signaling pathway. The attenuation of hepatic oxidative stress by JLD treatment was associated with reduced phosphorylation protein levels of JNK and p38MAPK. Treatment with JLD could moderate glucose and lipid metabolism as well as reduce hepatic oxidative stress, most likely through the JNK and p38MAPK pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Copper absorption and copper balance during consecutive periods for rats fed varying levels of dietary copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, M.A.; Johnson, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    Copper (Cu) balance and absorption were studied to determine the extent to which absorption is dependent on dietary Cu. Over 12 consecutive 5-d metabolic periods, Cu balance was determined for four groups of young growing rats (n = 8) fed modified AIN-76 diets having different levels of added Cu (2.5, 5.0, 10 or 20 micrograms/g). Among groups, mean body weights did not differ over time (P greater than 0.05). There were no significant differences among groups for liver, heart or plasma Cu. Rats in all groups were in positive Cu balance throughout the study. After consuming the experimental diets for 10 d, rats eating 10 or 20 micrograms Cu/g diet showed a more positive Cu balance than did rats in the other groups. This trend continued until d 60. For rats eating 20 micrograms Cu/g diet, balance varied significantly over time. Three test meals labeled with stable 65Cu were fed at d 10, 40 and 50, respectively. Apparent Cu absorption, as determined by fecal monitoring of 65Cu, did not change appreciably over time for rats eating 2.5 or 5.0 micrograms Cu/g diet. A test meal labeled with radioactive 67Cu was fed at d 40. For rats eating 2.5 micrograms Cu/g diet, apparent absorption was higher (31%) than that for all other groups (5.0, 23%; 10, 19%; 20, 16%; P less than 0.05). Absorption values determined by whole-body retention of 67Cu were similar to those determined by fecal monitoring of 65Cu

  11. Muscle and liver protein synthesis in growing rats fed diets containing raw legumes as the main source of protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goena, M.; Santidrian, S.; Cuevillas, F.; Larralde, J.

    1986-01-01

    Although legumes are widely used as protein sources, their effects on protein metabolism remain quite unexplored. The authors have measured the rates of gastrocnemius muscle and liver protein synthesis in growing rats fed ad libitum over periods of 12 days on diets containing raw field bean (Vicia faba L.), raw kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and raw bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia L.) as the major sources of protein. Diets were isocaloric and contained about 12% protein. Protein synthesis was evaluated by the constant-intravenous-infusion method, using L-/ 14 C/-tyrosine, as well as by the determination of the RNA-activity (g of newly synthesized protein/day/g RNA). Results showed that, as compared to well-fed control animals, those fed the raw legume diets exhibited a marked reduction in the rate of growth with no changes in the amount of food intake (per 100 g b.wt.). These changes were accompanied by a significant reduction in the rate of muscle protein synthesis in all legume-treated rats, being this reduction greater in the animals fed the Ph. vulgaris and V. ervilia diets. Liver protein synthesis was slightly higher in the rats fed the V. faba and V. ervilia diets, and smaller in the Ph. vulgaris-fed rats. It is suggested that both sulfur amino acid deficiency and the presence of different anti-nutritive factors in raw legumes may account for these effects

  12. Enhancement of colon carcinogenesis by the combination of indole-3 carbinol and synbiotics in hemin-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Nelci A; Caetano, Brunno F R; de Moraes, Leonardo N; Carvalho, Robson F; Rodrigues, Maria A M; Barbisan, Luis F

    2018-02-01

    The risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) could be associated with red and processed meat intake. Experimental data supports that hemin iron, found abundantly in red meat, promotes CRC in mice and rats, while indole-3 carbinol (I3C) and synbiotics (syn) exert anti-carcinogenic activities in most studies of colon carcinogenesis. This study aimed to investigate the modifying effects of I3C and syn (inulin + Bifidobacterium lactis), given separately or together, on dimethylhidrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis in hemin-fed rats. All animals were given four subcutaneous DMH injections and then, two weeks after carcinogen exposure, they began a basal diet containing hemin, hemin + I3C, hemin + syn, or hemin + I3C + syn for 23 weeks. The combination of I3C + syn significantly increased fecal water genotoxicity, tumor volume and invasiveness when compared to the hemin-fed control group. The groups fed I3C or syn alone had a significant reduction in the number of preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) lesions compared to the hemin-fed group. Dietary I3C also reduced fecal water genotoxicity. Gene expression analysis of colorectal tumors demonstrated that the combination of dietary I3C + syn increased transcript levels for Raf1 and decreased tumor progression and invasiveness related to the genes Cdh1 and Appl1. This analysis also revealed that the Tnf and Cdh1 genes were significantly up- and down-regulated, respectively, in tumors of rats that received I3C, in comparison with the hemin-fed group. These findings reveal that the joint administration of I3C and syn enhanced the development of colon tumors induced by DMH in hemin-fed rats, while they potentially reduced ACF development when given alone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Shiitake Intake on Serum Lipids in Rats Fed Different High-Oil or High-Fat Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Norihiko; Kairiku, Rumi; Tobo, Mika; Ono, Akifumi

    2018-04-27

    Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) extract, eritadenine, has been shown to reduce cholesterol levels, and its hypocholesterolemic actions are involved in the metabolism of methionine. However, the mechanisms by which eritadenine affects cholesterol metabolism in animals fed a high-fat diet containing different sources of lipids have not yet been elucidated in detail. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of shiitake supplementation on serum lipid concentrations in rats fed a diet including a high amount of a plant oil (HO [high oil] and HOS [high oil with shiitake] groups), animal fat (HF [high fat] and HFS [high fat with shiitake] groups), or MCT- (medium-chain triglyceride-) rich plant oil (HM [high MCT] and HMS [high MCT with shiitake] groups). Rats in the HOS, HFS, and HMS groups were fed shiitake. When rats were fed a diet containing shiitake, serum triglyceride, cholesterol levels, and LCAT (lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase) activities were lower in rats given MCT-rich plant oil than in those that consumed lard. The lipid type in the diet with shiitake also affected serum cholesterol levels and LCAT activities. The diet containing MCT-rich plant oil showed the greatest rates of decrease in all serum lipid profiles and LCAT activities. These results suggest that shiitake and MCT-rich plant oil work together to reduce lipid profiles and LCAT activity in serum.

  14. Long-term Western diet fed apolipoprotein E-deficient rats exhibit only modest early atherosclerotic characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rune, Ida; Rolin, Bidda; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2018-01-01

    In the apolipoprotein E-deficient mouse, the gut microbiota has an impact on the development of atherosclerosis, but whether such correlations are also present in rats requires investigation. Therefore, we studied female SD-Apoe tm1sage (Apoe -/-) rats fed either a Western diet or a low-fat control...

  15. Very-low-density lipoprotein triglyceride kinetics in acute and chronic carbohydrate-fed rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, T.; Mamo, J.; Poapst, M.; Steiner, G.

    1988-01-01

    Very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triglyceride (TG) kinetics were examined in rats maintained on either chow and water (control) or chow and a 10% carbohydrate drinking solution (fructose or glucose). The hexose solutions were available for an acute (16 h) or chronic (14 day) period. The acute fructose (AF), acute glucose (AG), and chronic fructose (CF) groups were hypertriglyceridemic (HTG) compared with control. Plasma TG concentration in chronic glucose (CG)-fed rats was similar to control. VLDL-TG was endogenously radiolabeled in donor rats with [2-3H]-glycerol. The fractional catabolic rate (FCR) was then determined by monitoring the clearance of plasma [3H]VLDL-TG in recipient animals. Donors and recipients were treated in an identical manner. AF and CF groups had an FCR significantly lower than rats given glucose for comparable periods. Both fructose groups and the AG group also had a lower FCR than control. In contrast, FCR in the CG group was significantly higher than controls. TG production rate (TGPR) in both AF and CF fed rats did not significantly differ from controls, suggesting that the HTG observed in these animals was solely from a catabolic defect. AG- and CG-treated glucose animals both had TGPR significantly higher than controls. Therefore, overproduction of VLDL-TG contributed to the HTG associated with this carbohydrate

  16. Increased methylglyoxal formation with upregulation of renin angiotensin system in fructose fed Sprague Dawley rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu Dhar

    Full Text Available The current epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is attributed to a high carbohydrate diet, containing mainly high fructose corn syrup and sucrose. More than two thirds of diabetic patients have hypertension. Methylglyoxal is a highly reactive dicarbonyl generated during glucose and fructose metabolism, and a major precursor of advanced glycation end products (AGEs. Plasma methylglyoxal levels are increased in hypertensive rats and diabetic patients. Our aim was to examine the levels of methylglyoxal, mediators of the renin angiotensin system and blood pressure in male Sprague-Dawley rats treated with a high fructose diet (60% of total calories for 4 months. The thoracic aorta and kidney were used for molecular studies, along with cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs. HPLC, Western blotting and Q-PCR were used to measure methylglyoxal and reduced glutathione (GSH, proteins and mRNA, respectively. Fructose treated rats developed a significant increase in blood pressure. Methylglyoxal level and protein and mRNA for angiotensin II, AT1 receptor, adrenergic α1D receptor and renin were significantly increased, whereas GSH levels were decreased, in the aorta and/or kidney of fructose fed rats. The protein expression of the receptor for AGEs (RAGE and NF-κB were also significantly increased in the aorta of fructose fed rats. MG treated VSMCs showed increased protein for angiotensin II, AT1 receptor, and α1D receptor. The effects of methylglyoxal were attenuated by metformin, a methylglyoxal scavenger and AGEs inhibitor. In conclusion, we report a strong association between elevated levels of methylglyoxal, RAGE, NF-κB, mediators of the renin angiotensin system and blood pressure in high fructose diet fed rats.

  17. Increased methylglyoxal formation with upregulation of renin angiotensin system in fructose fed Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Indu; Dhar, Arti; Wu, Lingyun; Desai, Kaushik M

    2013-01-01

    The current epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is attributed to a high carbohydrate diet, containing mainly high fructose corn syrup and sucrose. More than two thirds of diabetic patients have hypertension. Methylglyoxal is a highly reactive dicarbonyl generated during glucose and fructose metabolism, and a major precursor of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Plasma methylglyoxal levels are increased in hypertensive rats and diabetic patients. Our aim was to examine the levels of methylglyoxal, mediators of the renin angiotensin system and blood pressure in male Sprague-Dawley rats treated with a high fructose diet (60% of total calories) for 4 months. The thoracic aorta and kidney were used for molecular studies, along with cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). HPLC, Western blotting and Q-PCR were used to measure methylglyoxal and reduced glutathione (GSH), proteins and mRNA, respectively. Fructose treated rats developed a significant increase in blood pressure. Methylglyoxal level and protein and mRNA for angiotensin II, AT1 receptor, adrenergic α1D receptor and renin were significantly increased, whereas GSH levels were decreased, in the aorta and/or kidney of fructose fed rats. The protein expression of the receptor for AGEs (RAGE) and NF-κB were also significantly increased in the aorta of fructose fed rats. MG treated VSMCs showed increased protein for angiotensin II, AT1 receptor, and α1D receptor. The effects of methylglyoxal were attenuated by metformin, a methylglyoxal scavenger and AGEs inhibitor. In conclusion, we report a strong association between elevated levels of methylglyoxal, RAGE, NF-κB, mediators of the renin angiotensin system and blood pressure in high fructose diet fed rats.

  18. Underwater inverse LIBS (iLIBS) for marine archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmus, J.; Magde, M.; Elford, J.; Magde, D.; Parfenov, V.

    2013-05-01

    In recent years there have been enormous advances in nautical archaeology through developments in SONAR technologies as well as in manned and robotic submersible vehicles. The number of sunken vessel discoveries has escalated in many of the seas of the world in response to the widespread application of these and other new tools. Customarily, surviving artifacts within the debris field of a wreck are collected and then moved to laboratories, centers, or institutions for analyses and possible conservation. Frequently, the conservation phase involves chemical treatments to stabilize an artefact to standard temperature, pressure, and humidity instead of an undersea environment. Many of the artefacts encountered at an underwater site are now characterized and restored in-situ in accordance with modern trends in art conservation. Two examples of this trend are exemplified by the resting place of the wreck of the Titanic in the Atlantic and the Cancun Underwater Park in the Caribbean Sea. These two debris fields have been turned into museums for diving visitors. Several research groups have investigated the possibility of adapting the well-established analytical tool Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) to in-situ elemental analyses of underwater cultural, historic, and archaeological artefacts where discovered, rather than as a phase of a salvage operation. As the underwater laser ablation associated with LIBS generates a "snowplough" shockwave within the aqueous matrix, the atomic emission spectrum is usually severely attenuated in escaping from the target. Consequently, probative experiments to date generally invoke a submerged air chamber or air jet to isolate water from the interaction zone as well as employ more complex double-pulse lasers. These measures impose severe logistical constraints on the examination of widely dispersed underwater artefacts. In order to overcome this constraint we report on water-immersion LIBS experiments performed with oblique

  19. Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Emblica officinalis (Amla on Glucose Homeostasis in Rats Fed with High Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi S. Kanthe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emblica officinalis contains many biological active components which are found to have some medicinal properties against diseases. Aim and Objectives: To assess hypolipidemic and glucose regulatory actions of Ethanolic Extract of Emblica officinalis (EEO on High Fat Diet (HFD fed experimental rats. Material and Methods: Twenty four rats were divided into four groups, having six rats in each group as following; Group I- Control (20% fat; Group II (EEO 100 mg/kg/b w; Group III (30% fat and Group IV (30% fat + EEO 100 mg/kg/b w. The treatment was continued for 21 days. Gravimetric parameters and lipid profiles of all the groups were measured. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT, fasting and postprandial glucose and fasting insulin levels were estimated. Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR was calculated. Statistical analysis was done. Results: Significant alteration in serum lipid profile, fasting and post prandial blood glucose levels and fasting insulin level were observed in rats of Group III fed with high fat diet. Supplementation of EEO improved both of glycemic and lipid profiles in rats of Group IV fed with high fat diet. Conclusion: Results from the study indicate the beneficial role of EEO on dyslipidemia and glucose homeostasis in rats treated with high fat diet.

  20. Pancreatic growth and cell turnover in the rat fed raw soya flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oates, P.S.; Morgan, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    Growth and differentiation of the pancreatic acinar cell was studied in rats fed raw soya flour (RSF) for up to a year. A second group of rats were fed a control diet. After 1 week of RSF feeding there was a 200% increase in tissue RNA and weight, indicating initial hypertrophy, which was maintained for the 1-year study period. By the second week and over the remainder of the period studied there was also a marked increase in total DNA, suggesting hyperplasia. Cell turnover, as measured by the rate of incorporation of 3H-thymidine into pancreatic DNA, was significantly higher in RSF-fed animals only from the second to fourth weeks; it then returned to control values. Autoradiography showed an 18-fold increase in duct cell labeling at the end of the first week and an 11-fold increase by the end of the second week. Acinar cell labeling doubled from the second to the twelfth week. These studies confirm previous reports that RSF produces pancreatic hypertrophy and hyperplasia. They furthermore show that there is initially marked stimulation of DNA synthesis in the duct cell compartment. The results suggest that cells with the morphologic characteristics of duct cells may be the precursors of acinar cells in hyperplastic pancreatic tissue

  1. The interaction between dietary Fe, Cu and stress in Cu-67 retention and serum ceruloplasmin (Cp) activity in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellett, L.; Kattelmann, K.; Zinn, K.; Trokey, D.; Forrester, I.; Gordon, D.T.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine the effects of dietary Fe and stress on Cu-67 retention and serum Cp activity in the rat. A 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was utilized. Male Sprague Dawley weanling rats were fed AIN-76 diets ad lib containing 0.8 ppm Cu (CuD) or 5.7 ppm Cu (CuA) with 22.5 ppm Fe (FeA) or 280 ppm Fe (FeE). After 19 days, one-half of the animals of each treatment were stressed by an intramuscular injection of 0.1 ml turpentine/100 gm body weight. Forty-eight hours later, animals were gavaged with Cu-67 and counted over a 7 day period in a whole body high resolution gamma counter. Cu-67 retention was 20% higher in CuD rats compared to CuA rats. There were no significant effects caused by Fe or stress or the interaction between these variables on Cu-67 retention. In rats fed FeE-CuA diets, serum Cp activity was significantly depressed compared to rats fed FeA-CuA diets. These reductions in the acute phase protein Cp, were 85% and 70% in nonstressed and stressed rats, respectively. The results of this study suggest that the negative interaction effects of excess Fe on Cu utilization does not occur at the site of Cu absorption, but within the body and specifically in the liver

  2. Biological and physiological changes in rats fed some raw and irradiated legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elwakeil, F.A.; Farag, H.; Sharabash, M.T.M.; Diaa Eldin, M.; Mahrous, S.R.

    1995-01-01

    Body weight of rats fed on raw kidney beans, soybeans, broad beans, chick peas and lupines suftered from poor growth due to the presence of some anti nutritional factors in these pulses. The processed soybeans, kidney beans, bread beans and lupines at 10 KGy could not correct the growth of rats kept on their diets for 8 weeks while irradiated chick beans at 10 KGy indicating some effect of the irradiation in this respect. When extracts of raw legumes were injected by intraperitoneal route, Ld 5 0 were found to be 125, 300, and 1800 mg/kg, for raw kidney beans, raw soybeans, and raw broad beans respectively. However, injecting the extracts of raw chick peas and raw lupines did not kill the rats even at higher concentration levels of 300 mg/kg. Similar results were obtained with irradiated chick peas and lupines (10 KGy). Meanwhile, post irradiation treatment of kidney beans, soybeans, and broad beans caused the Ld 5 0 to be 250,400, and 2000 mg/kg for the above pulses respectively. Both raw and irradiated kidney beans and raw soybeans were most active in stimulating pancreas and liver growth and reducing spleen weight. Irradiated soybeans showed a moderate, but significant, increase in liver weight only. However, rats which received both raw and irradiated broad beans, chick peas and lupins in their diets did not suffer any pancreatic, liver hypertrophy or spleen atrophy. The hematological parameters investigated showed that there was no significant differences between rat groups fed on either the raw or the irradiated legumes. 5 tabs

  3. Effects of potato fiber and potato-resistant starch on biomarkers of colonic health in rats fed diets containing red meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paturi, Gunaranjan; Nyanhanda, Tafadzwa; Butts, Christine A; Herath, Thanuja D; Monro, John A; Ansell, Juliet

    2012-10-01

    The effects of red meat consumption with and without fermentable carbohydrates on indices of large bowel health in rats were examined. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed cellulose, potato fiber, or potato-resistant starch diets containing 12% casein for 2 wk, then similar diets containing 25% cooked beef for 6 wk. After week 8, cecal and colonic microbiota composition, fermentation end-products, colon structure, and colonocyte DNA damage were analyzed. Rats fed potato fiber had lower Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas group compared to other diet groups. Colonic Bifidobacterium spp. and/or Lactobacillus spp. were higher in potato fiber and potato-resistant starch diets than in the cellulose diet. Beneficial changes were observed in short-chain fatty acid concentrations (acetic, butyric, and propionic acids) in rats fed potato fiber compared with rats fed cellulose. Phenol and p-cresol concentrations were lower in the cecum and colon of rats fed potato fiber. An increase in goblet cells per crypt and longer crypts were found in the colon of rats fed potato fiber and potato-resistant starch diets. Fermentable carbohydrates had no effect on colonic DNA damage. Dietary combinations of red meat with potato fiber or potato-resistant starch have distinctive effects in the large bowel. Future studies are essential to examine the efficacy of different types of nondigestible carbohydrates in maintaining colonic health during long-term consumption of high-protein diets. Improved understanding of interactions between the food consumed and gut microbiota provides knowledge needed to make healthier food choices for large bowel health. The impact of red meat on large bowel health may be ameliorated by consuming with fermentable dietary fiber, a colonic energy source that produces less harmful by-products than the microbial breakdown of colonic protein for energy. Developing functional red meat products with fermentable dietary fiber could be one way to promote a healthy and balanced

  4. Can overeating induce conditioned taste avoidance in previously food restricted rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Amanda; Eikelboom, Roelof

    2010-03-30

    While feeding is rewarding, the feeling of satiation has been theorized to have a mixed affect. Using a food restriction model of overeating we examined whether bingeing was capable of supporting conditioned taste avoidance (CTA). Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained on either an ad lib (n=8) or restricted (50% of regular consumption; n=24) food access for 20 days. On Days 9, 14, and 19 all rats were given access to a novel saccharin solution in place of water, and two groups of food restricted rats were given access to either 100% of regular food consumption or ad lib food. Ad lib access in the restricted rats induced significant overeating on all three exposures. After all rats were returned to ad lib feeding, a 24h two-bottle saccharin/water choice test displayed significantly reduced saccharin consumption in the overeating rats, compared to those in the other 3 groups. To determine whether this avoidance was due to a learned association, a second experiment used a latent inhibition paradigm, familiarizing half the rats with the saccharin for 8 days prior to pairing it with overeating. Using the design of Experiment 1, with only the continuously ad lib and the restricted to ad lib feeding groups, it was found that the overeating-induced saccharin avoidance was attenuated by the pre-exposure. These results suggest that self-induced overeating is capable of supporting a learned avoidance of a novel solution suggestive of a conditioned satiety or taste avoidance. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Anti-Nociceptive Effect of Aloe. Vera Aqueous Extract in Fructose-Fed Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Shahraki

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A B S T R A C T Introduction: Aloe Vera extract is used as an anti-inflammatory and anti-bradikinin agent in laboratory animals. The aim of this survey was to evaluate the ant-nociceptive effect of A. Vera aqueous extract in fructose-fed male rats. Methods: Forty-five Wistar-Albino male rats were equally and randomly divided into five groups including sham operated and four test groups. Sham operated group consumed tap water and the test groups consumed fructoseenriched water. Test groups 2, 3 and 4 additionally received, 0, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg of A. Vera extract, respectively, whereas the other test group received distilled water daily. Tail flick reaction time, serum glucose and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT were measured. The results were analyzed by SPSS software using ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results were expressed as mean ± SD. Statistical differences were considered significant at p<0.05. Results: The results showed that tail flick reaction time significantly increased in test group 3 which received 200 mg/kg A. Vera extract comparing with that of sham operated group. However, OGTT and serum glucose value were significantly increased in all fructose-fed male rats comparing with those of sham operated group. Discussion: These results indicated that A. Vera aqueous extract can affect tail flick reaction time in fructose-fed male rats. Further studies are required to show the exact mechanism of anti-nociceptive effect of A. Vera extract.

  6. Vitamin K deficiency in SPF-rats fed a semisynthetic irradiated diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhr, N C; Dietzel, L; Horn, J [Freie Universitaet, Berlin(West). Fachbereich Veterinaermedizin

    1975-01-01

    A case of vitamin K deficiency in male SPF-rats fed an irradiated semisynthetic diet (24% Soyprotein, 0.25% DL-Methionin, 48% Cornstarch, 10% Sucrose, 5% Soyoil and 7% Cellulose and a vitamin- and mineral mixture) with a vitamin K content of 0.63 mg/kg diet is reported including clinical symptoms, pathological findings, coagulation parameters and investigations of intestinal flora. The deficiency could be reproduced experimentally in SPF- and germfree male rats and prevented by vitamin K supplementation (K/sub 3/ in the water or K/sub 1/ parenterally). Monoassoziation with an E. coli strain as well as conventionalization of SPF-rats were effective to prevent deficiency symptoms. The significance of a stable intestinal flora for intestinal vitamin K synthesis is emphasized. Nutrients and their influence on the intestinal flora are discussed with special reference to the mechanism of coprophagy, which makes intestinal vitamin K synthesis available to the rat.

  7. Vitamin K deficiency in SPF-rats fed a semisynthetic irradiated diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhr, N.C.; Dietzel, L.; Horn, J.

    1975-01-01

    A case of vitamin K deficiency in male SPF-rats fed an irradiated semisynthetic diet (24% Soyprotein, 0.25% DL-Methionin, 48% Cornstarch, 10% Sucrose, 5% Soyoil and 7% Cellulose and a vitamin- and mineralmixture) with a vitamin K content of 0.63 mg/kg diet is reported including clinical symptoms, pathological findings, coagulation parameters and investigations of intestinal flora. The deficiency could be reproduced experimentally in SPF- and germfree male rats and prevented by vitamin K supplementation (K 3 in the water or K 1 parenterally). Monoassoziation with an E. coli strain as well as conventionalization of SPF-rats were effective to prevent deficiency symptoms. The significance of a stable intestinal flora for intestinal vitamin K synthesis is emphasized. Nutrients and their influence on the intestinal flora are discussed with special reference to the mechanism of coprophagy, which makes intestinal vitamin K synthesis available to the rat

  8. Changes in UCP expression in tissues of Zucker rats fed diets with different protein content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masanés, R M; Yubero, P; Rafecas, I; Remesar, X

    2002-09-01

    The effect of dietary protein content on the uncoupling proteins (UCP) 1, 2 and 3 expression in a number of tissues of Zucker lean and obese rats was studied. Thirty-day-old male Zucker lean (Fa/?) and obese (fa/fa) rats were fed on hyperproteic (HP, 30% protein), standard (RD, 17% protein) or hypoproteic (LP, 9% protein) diets ad libitum for 30 days. Although dietary protein intake affected the weights of individual muscles in lean and obese animals, these weights were similar. In contrast, huge differences were observed in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and liver weights. Lean rats fed on the LP diet generally increased UCP expression, whereas the HP group had lower values. Obese animals, HP and LP groups showed higher UCP expression in muscles, with slight differences in BAT and lower values for UCP3 in subcutaneous adipose tissue. The mean values of UCP expression in BAT of obese rats were lower than in their lean counterpart, whereas the expression in skeletal muscle was increased. Thus, expression of UCPs can be modified by dietary protein content, in lean and obese rats. A possible thermogenic function of UCP3 in muscle and WAT in obese rats must be taken into account.

  9. Decomposition and correction overlapping peaks of LIBS using an error compensation method combined with curve fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bing; Huang, Min; Zhu, Qibing; Guo, Ya; Qin, Jianwei

    2017-09-01

    The laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique is an effective method to detect material composition by obtaining the plasma emission spectrum. The overlapping peaks in the spectrum are a fundamental problem in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of LIBS. Based on a curve fitting method, this paper studies an error compensation method to achieve the decomposition and correction of overlapping peaks. The vital step is that the fitting residual is fed back to the overlapping peaks and performs multiple curve fitting processes to obtain a lower residual result. For the quantitative experiments of Cu, the Cu-Fe overlapping peaks in the range of 321-327 nm obtained from the LIBS spectrum of five different concentrations of CuSO 4 ·5H 2 O solution were decomposed and corrected using curve fitting and error compensation methods. Compared with the curve fitting method, the error compensation reduced the fitting residual about 18.12-32.64% and improved the correlation about 0.86-1.82%. Then, the calibration curve between the intensity and concentration of the Cu was established. It can be seen that the error compensation method exhibits a higher linear correlation between the intensity and concentration of Cu, which can be applied to the decomposition and correction of overlapping peaks in the LIBS spectrum.

  10. Metabolism of L-leucine-U-14C in young rats fed excess glycine diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Hisanao; Tadauchi, Nobuo; Muramatsu, Keiichiro

    1975-01-01

    As reported previously, while the growth-depressing effect of excess glycine was prevented by supplementing L-arginine and L-methionine, the degradation of glycine-U-(SUP 14)C into expired carbon dioxide was not accelerated by the supplement of both amino acids. However, it was found that the incorporation of the isotope into the lipids of livers and carcasses increased in the rats fed the excess glycine diet containing both amino acids. The lipid synthesis utilizing excess glycine may be accelerated by adding both amino acids to the 10% casein diet containing excess glycine. In the present experiment, the metabolic fate of L-leucine-U-(SUP 14)C was studied with the rats fed the excess glycine diet with or without L-arginine and L-methionine. 10% casein (10C), 10% casein diet containing 7% glycine (10C7G), or 10C7G Supplemented with 1.4% L-arginine-HCL and 0.9% L-methionine (10C7GArgMet) was fed to each rat, and the diet suspension containing 4 sup(μ)Ci of L-leucine-U-(SUP 14)C per 100 g of body weight was fed forcibly after 12 hr fast. The radioactivity in expired carbon dioxide, TCA soluble fraction, protein, glycogen, lipids and urine, and the concentration of free amino acids in blood plasma, livers and urine were measured. The body weight gain and food intake of the 10C7G group were much smaller than those of the other groups. The recovery of (SUP 14)C-radioactivity in expired carbon dioxide was much lower in the 10C7GArgMet group than that of the other groups. (Kako, I.)

  11. Alveolar wound healing in rats fed on high sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baró, María A; Rocamundi, Marina R; Viotto, Javier O; Ferreyra, Ruth S

    2013-01-01

    The potential for bone repair is influenced by various biochemical, biomechanical, hormonal, and pathological mechanisms and factors such as diet and its components, all of which govern the behavior and function of the cells responsible for forming new bone. Several authors suggest that a high sucrose diet could change the calcium balance and bone composition in animals, altering hard tissue mineralization. The mechanism by which it occurs is unclear. Alveolar healing following tooth extraction has certain characteristics making this type of wound unique, in both animals and humans. The general aim of this study was to evaluate and quantify the biological response during alveolar healing following tooth extraction in rats fed on high sucrose diets, by means of osteocyte lacunae histomorphometry, counting empty lacunae and measuring areas of bone quiescence, formation and resorption. Forty-two Wistar rats of both sexes were divided into two groups: an experimental group fed on modified Stephan Harris diet (43% sucrose) and a control group fed on standard balanced diet. The animals were anesthetized and their left and right lower molars extracted. They were killed at 0 hours, 14, 28, 60 and 120 days. Samples were fixed, decalcified in EDTA and embedded in paraffin to prepare sections for optical microscopy which were stained with hematoxylin/eosin. Histomorphometric analysis showed significant differences in the size of osteocyte lacunae between groups at 28 and 60 days, with the experimental group having larger lacunae. There were more empty lacunae in the experimental group at 14 days, and no significant difference in the areas of bone activity. A high sucrose diet could modify the morphology and quality of bone tissue formed in the alveolus following tooth extraction.

  12. Zinc content of selected tissues and taste perception in rats fed zinc deficient and zinc adequate rations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeckner, L.S.; Kies, C.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of feeding zinc sufficient and zinc deficient rations on taste sensitivity and zinc contents of selected organs in rats. The 36 Sprague-Dawley male weanling rats were divided into 2 groups and fed zinc deficient or zinc adequate rations. The animals were subjected to 4 trial periods in which a choice of deionized distilled water or a solution of quinine sulfate at 1.28 x 10 -6 was given. A randomized schedule for rat sacrifice was used. No differences were found between zinc deficient and zinc adequate rats in taste preference aversion scores for quinine sulfate in the first three trial periods; however, in the last trial period rats in the zinc sufficient group drank somewhat less water containing quinine sulfate as a percentage of total water consumption than did rats fed the zinc deficient ration. Significantly higher zinc contents of kidney, brain and parotid salivary glands were seen in zinc adequate rats compared to zinc deficient rats at the end of the study. However, liver and tongue zinc levels were lower for both groups at the close of the study than were those of rats sacrificed at the beginning of the study

  13. Urine and Serum Metabolite Profiling of Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet and the Anti-Obesity Effects of Caffeine Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyang Yeon Kim

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the clinical changes induced by a high fat diet (HFD and caffeine consumption in a rat model. The mean body weight of the HFD with caffeine (HFDC-fed rat was decreased compared to that of the HFD-fed rat without caffeine. The levels of cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs, and free fatty acid, as well as the size of adipose tissue altered by HFD, were improved by caffeine consumption. To investigate the metabolites that affected the change of the clinical factors, the urine and serum of rats fed a normal diet (ND, HFD, and HFDC were analyzed using ultra performance liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS, gas chromatography (GC-TOF-MS, and linear trap quadruple mass spectrometry (LTQ-XL-MS combined with multivariate analysis. A total of 68 and 52 metabolites were found to be different in urine and serum, respectively. After being fed caffeine, some glucuronide-conjugated compounds, lysoPCs, CEs, DGs, TGs, taurine, and hippuric acid were altered compared to the HFD group. In this study, caffeine might potentially inhibit HFD-induced obesity and we suggest possible biomarker candidates using MS-based metabolite profiling.

  14. Phytase supplementation increases bone mineral density, lean body mass and voluntary physical activity in rats fed a low-zinc diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimgeour, Angus G; Marchitelli, Louis J; Whicker, Jered S; Song, Yang; Ho, Emily; Young, Andrew J

    2010-07-01

    Phytic acid forms insoluble complexes with nutritionally essential minerals, including zinc (Zn). Animal studies show that addition of microbial phytase (P) to low-Zn diets improves Zn status and bone strength. The present study determined the effects of phytase supplementation on bone mineral density (BMD), body composition and voluntary running activity of male rats fed a high phytic acid, low-Zn diet. In a factorial design, rats were assigned to ZnLO (5 mg/kg diet), ZnLO+P (ZnLO diet with 1500 U phytase/kg) or ZnAD (30 mg/kg diet) groups and were divided into voluntary exercise (EX) or sedentary (SED) groups, for 9 weeks. SED rats were significantly heavier from the second week, and no catch-up growth occurred in EX rats. Feed intakes were not different between groups throughout the study. ZnLO animals had decreased food efficiency ratios compared to both phytase-supplemented (ZnLO+P) and Zn-adequate (ZnAD) animals (Pbone mineral content (BMC), bone area (BA) and BMD than rats fed ZnLO diets; and in rats fed ZnAD diets these indices were the highest. The dietary effects on BMC, BA and BMD were independent of activity level. We conclude that consuming supplemental dietary phytase or dietary Zn additively enhances Zn status to increase BMD, LBM and voluntary physical activity in rats fed a low-Zn diet. While the findings confirm that bone health is vulnerable to disruption by moderate Zn deficiency in rats, this new data suggests that if dietary Zn is limiting, supplemental phytase may have beneficial effects on LBM and performance activity. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. No long-term feeding toxicities on the health status in rats fed with cloned Korean native beef cattle (Hanwoo) meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nam-Jin; Yang, Byoung-Chul; Im, Gi-Sun; Lee, Sung-Soo; Seong, Hwan-Hoo; Park, Jin-Ki; Chang, Won-Kyong; Kang, Jong-Koo; Hwang, Seongsoo

    2013-08-01

    This study was designed to undertake a risk assessment to identify the health status of rats fed with somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)-cloned Korean native beef cattle (Hanwoo) meat for 26 weeks. The rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, each consisting of 12 male (142.6 ± 5.23 g) and 12 female (113.7 ± 6.31 g) rats each. The animals were fed commercial pellets (control), pellets containing 5% (N-5) and 10% (N-10) of normal cattle meat, and diets containing 5% (C-5) and 10% (C-10) of cloned cattle meat. The mortality; clinical signs; body weight; food consumption; urinary, hematology, blood biochemistry, and histopathological analyses; and absolute and relative organ weights were analyzed and compared. During the 26-week test period, health status-related factors of the rats fed on cloned Hanwoo meat were found to have no test substance-related toxicities. The only difference was the increased uterus weight in female C-10 rats as compared to their counterparts counterparts (p food consumption risks might arise from the long-term feeding of cloned cattle meat in rats.

  16. Nitrogen sparing by 2-ketoisocaproate in parenterally fed rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, M.; Matthews, D.E.; Walser, M.

    1990-01-01

    In rats receiving total parenteral nutrition with or without sodium 2-ketoisocaproate (KIC; 2.48 g.kg-1.day-1), L-[1- 13 C]leucine and [1- 14 C]KIC were constantly infused for 6 h. CO 2 production, 14 CO 2 production, 13 CO 2 enrichment, urinary urea nitrogen (N) plus ammonia N and total urinary N were measured. Whole body protein synthesis (S) was calculated in non-KIC-infused rats and also in unfed rats infused with [1- 14 C]leucine from fractional oxidation of labeled leucine (1-F), where F is fractional utilization for protein synthesis, and urea N plus ammonia N excretion (C) as S = C x F/(1-F). Addition of KIC caused a significant reduction in N excretion and a significant improvement in N balance. Fractional oxidation of labeled KIC increased, whereas fractional utilization of labeled KIC for protein synthesis decreased, but the extent of incorporation of infused KIC into newly synthesized protein (as leucine) amounted to at least 40% of the total rate of leucine incorporation into newly synthesized whole body protein. We conclude that addition of KIC spares N in parenterally fed rats and becomes a major source of leucine for protein synthesis

  17. Increased albumin permeation in eyes, aorta, and kidney of hypertensive rats fed galactose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilton, R.G.; LaRose, L.; Chang, K.; Weigel, C.J.; Williamson, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    These experiments were undertaken to determine whether ingestion of galactose increases albumin permeation in the vasculature of hypertensive rats. 50% dextrin (control) or 50% galactose diets were fed to unilaterally nephrectomized, male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200 g. Hypertension (systolic pressure >175 mmHg) was induced by weekly IM injections of 25 mg/kg DOCA and 1% saline drinking water; 3 months later 125 I-albumin permeation was assessed in whole eyes, aorta and kidneys. 125 I-albumin permeation was significantly increased in all 3 tissues of hypertensive rats (n = 9) vs controls (n = 9): aorta (3.30 +/- 0.19 (SD) vs 2.87 +/- 0.14), eye (3.15 +/- 0.14 vs 2.59 +/- 0.11), and kidney (6.58 +/- 0.63 vs 3.85 +/- 0.50). Albumin permeation was increased still further in hypertensive rats fed the galactose diet (n = 8): aorta (3.75 +/- 0.38), eye (3.82 +/- 0.17), and kidney (10.74 +/- 3.13). Hypertension +/- galactose feeding had no effect on albumin permeation in lung, skin, or brain. These findings indicate that: (1) hypertension increases albumin permeation in vessels affected by diabetic vascular diseases, and 2) hypertension-induced increases in albumin permeation are increased still further by galactose ingestion, presumably mediated by imbalances in polyol/insitol metabolism (analogous to those induced by diabetes) independent of hyperglycemia and/or insulinopenia

  18. Growth performance and haematology of the laboratory rat, rattus norvegicus fed on protein supplements and heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omotoso, O.T.; Sanya, B.T.

    2007-01-01

    Laboratory rat Rattus norvegicus. fed on poultry growers mash plus additional protein supplements and some heavy metals, was studied for the growth and the haematological parameters. All the dietary supplements resulted in an increase in the growth of the rats. The rats, fed on growers mash and prawn meal showed the best growth within 7 weeks. Effects of diets were significantly, correlated at 0.01 level. Weight loss was recorded in case of all heavy Metal-laced diets, however, calcium sulphate-laced diets resulted in an increase in growth. Mercurous chloride was the most toxic salt which resulted in the greatest weight loss. Haematological analysis of rats revealed that RBC/sub s/ were higher in the case of heavy metal-laced diets than heavy metal-free diets. Generally, RBC counts were higher in females than in males within a group. Fish meal and prawn meal feeding. (author)

  19. The effects of Mucuna pruriens on the renal oxidative stress and transcription factors in high-fructose-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulu, Ramazan; Gozel, Nevzat; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Orhan, Cemal; Yiğit, İrem Pembegül; Dogukan, Ayhan; Telceken, Hafize; Üçer, Özlem; Kemeç, Zeki; Kaman, Dilara; Juturu, Vijaya; Sahin, Kazim

    2018-05-31

    In the present study, we evaluated the effects of M. pruriens administration on metabolic parameters, oxidative stress and kidney nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathways in high-fructose fed rats. Male rats (n = 28) were divided into 4 groups as control, M. pruriens, fructose, and M. pruriens plus fructose. All rats were fed a standard diet supplemented or no supplemented with M. pruriens (200 mg/kg/d by gavage). Fructose was given in drinking water for 8 weeks. High fructose consumption led to an increase in the serum level of glucose, triglyceride, urea and renal malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Although M. pruriens treatment reduced triglyceride and MDA levels, it did not affect other parameters. M. pruriens supplementation significantly decreased the expression of NF-ҡB and decreased expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 proteins in the kidney. This study showed that the adverse effects of high fructose were alleviated by M. pruriens supplementation via modulation of the expression of kidney nuclear transcription factors in rats fed high fructose diet. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Exercise counteracts fatty liver disease in rats fed on fructose-rich diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voltarelli Fabrício A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to analyze the effects of exercise at the aerobic/anaerobic transition on the markers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, insulin sensitivity and the blood chemistry of rats kept on a fructose-rich diet. Methods We separated 48 Wistar rats into two groups according to diet: a control group (balanced diet AIN-93 G and a fructose-rich diet group (60% fructose. The animals were tested for maximal lactate-steady state (MLSS in order to identify the aerobic/anaerobic metabolic transition during swimming exercises at 28 and 90 days of age. One third of the animals of each group were submitted to swimming training at an intensity equivalent to the individual MLSS for 1 hours/day, 5 days/week from 28 to 120 days (early protocol. Another third were submitted to the training from 90 to 120 days (late protocol, and the others remained sedentary. The main assays performed included an insulin tolerance test (ITT and tests of serum alanine aminotransferase [ALT] and aspartate aminotransferase [AST] activities, serum triglyceride concentrations [TG] and liver total lipid concentrations. Results The fructose-fed rats showed decreased insulin sensitivity, and the late-exercise training protocol counteracted this alteration. There was no difference between the groups in levels of serum ALT, whereas AST and liver lipids increased in the fructose-fed sedentary group when compared with the other groups. Serum triglycerides concentrations were higher in the fructose-fed trained groups when compared with the corresponding control group. Conclusions The late-training protocol was effective in restoring insulin sensitivity to acceptable standards. Considering the markers here evaluated, both training protocols were successful in preventing the emergence of non-alcoholic fatty liver status disease.

  1. Influence of integral and decaffeinated coffee brews on metabolic parameters of rats fed with hiperlipidemic diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Ariana de Souza Gomes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of integral and decaffeinated coffee brews (Coffea arabica L and C. canephora Pierre on the metabolic parameters of rats fed with hyperlipidemic diet. Thirty male Wistar rats (initial weight of 270 g ± 20 g were used in the study, which were divided into six groups five each. The treatments were normal diet, hyperlipidemic diet, hyperlipidemic diet associated with integral coffee arabica or canephora brews (7.2 mL/kg/day and hyperlipidemic diet associated to decaffeinated arabica, or canephora brews, using the same dosage. After 41 days, performance analyses were conducted.The rats were then euthanized and the carcasses were used for the analysis of dried ether extract and crude protein. Fractions of adipose tissue were processed for histological analysis. There was a reduction in weight gain and accumulation of lipids in the carcasses, lower diameter of adipocytes and a lower relative weight of the liver and kidneys of rats fed with hyperlipidemic diet associated with integral coffee brew. Integral coffee brew reduced the obesity in the rats receiving hyperlipidemic diet, but the same effect did not occur with the decaffeinated types.

  2. Contribution of several amino acids and lactate to gluconeogenesis in hepatocytes isolated from rats fed various diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaloyianni, M.; Freedland, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    The contribution under various nutritional regimens of several amino acids and lactate to gluconeogenesis was estimated by measuring the glucose formation from 14C-labeled substrates. Isolated rat hepatocytes were incubated for 60 min in a Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer pH 7.4 containing lactate, pyruvate and all the amino acids at concentrations similar to their physiological levels found in rat plasma, with one precursor labeled in each flask. In all conditions, lactate was the major glucose precursor, providing over 60% of the glucose formed. Glutamine and alanine were the major amino acid precursors of glucose, contributing 9.8% and 10.6% of the glucose formed, respectively, in hepatocytes isolated from starved rats. Serine, glycine and threonine also contributed to gluconeogenesis in the starved liver cells at 2.6, 2.1 and 3.8%, respectively, of the glucose formed. The rate of glucose formation from the isolated hepatocytes of the starved rats and those fed either high protein or high fat was higher than that from rats fed a nonpurified diet

  3. Protective effect of kombucha on rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet is mediated by its antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellassoued, Khaled; Ghrab, Ferdaws; Makni-Ayadi, Fatma; Van Pelt, Jos; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Ammar, Emna

    2015-01-01

    Kombucha (KT) is claimed to have various beneficial effects on human health, but there is very little scientific evidence available in the literature. The present study investigates the effects of Camellia sinensis (GT) Linn. (Theaceae) and KT, two natural drinks, on cholesterol and antioxidant status using a hypercholesterolemia rat model. The present study compared the free-radical scavenging abilities and polyphenol levels of GT and KT. Wistar rats fed cholesterol-rich diets were given KT or GT (5 mL/kg body weight per day, po) for 16 weeks, then fasted overnight and sacrificed. The plasma lipid levels, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) serum levels, antioxidant activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and creatinine and urea rats were examined. KT had a phenolic compound of 955 ± 0.75 mg GAE/g) followed, by GT (788.92 ± 0.02 mg GAE/g). The free radical scavenging activity of KT was higher than GT. Compared with GT, KT induced lowered serum levels of TC, TG, VLDL-C, and LDL-C by 26, 27, 28, and 36%, respectively, and increased the serum level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). KT induced a 55% decrease of TBARS level in liver and 44% in kidney, compared with those of rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet alone. Moreover, CAT and SOD activities were reduced by 29 and 33%, respectively, in liver and 31 and 35%, respectively, in kidney, after oral administration of KT, compared with those of HCD-fed rats. The findings revealed that KT administration induced attractive curative effects on hypercholesterolemic, particularly in terms of liver-kidney functions in rats. Its effect on humans needs to be studied further.

  4. Antidiabetic and antihiperlipidemic effect of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees and andrographolide in high-fructose-fat-fed rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, Agung Endro; Andrie, Mohamad; Warditiani, Ni Kadek; Siswanto, Eka; Pramono, Suwidjiyo; Lukitaningsih, Endang

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees originates from India and grows widely in many areas in Southeast Asian countries. Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees has shown an antidiabetic effect in type 1 DM rats. The present study investigates the purified extract of the plant and its active compound andrographolide for antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects in high-fructose-fat-fed rats, a model of type 2 DM rats. Materials and Methods: Hyperglycemia in rats was induced by high-fructose-fat diet containing 36% fructose, 15% lard, and 5% egg yolks in 0.36 g/200 gb.wt. 55 days. The rats were treated with the extract or test compound on the 50th day. Antidiabetic activity was measured by estimating mainly the pre– and postprandial blood glucose levels and other parameters such as cholesterol, LDL, triglyceride, and body weight. Results: The purified extract and andrographolide significantly (PAndrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees or its active compound andrographolide showed hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects in high-fat-fructose-fed rat. PMID:22701250

  5. Using LIBS Method in Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs-Szeles, E.; Almasi, I.

    2015-01-01

    Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is a type of atomic emission spectroscopic technique which is capable to detect almost all the elements from the periodic table in different sample types (solid, liquid or gas). Other advantage of the technique is that a LIBS analysis is much faster than a conventional laboratory technique. Beside the easy usability and fastness of the system the main advantages of the technique is that portable systems are also available. Using a so-called ''backpack'' version in-field analysis can be carried out. Therefore, LIBS is a more and more popular technique also e.g., in the nuclear analytics due to its several advantages. It is also tested for Safeguards purposes as a novel technology. In this work development and test of a portable LIBS system is discussed in detail. Detector system with higher resolution and specific software for evaluation of uranium isotope composition has been developed. Different kind of uranium fuel pellets with various enrichments was analyzed as test samples. Concerning the test measurements the developed LIBS instrument was found well-applicable for analysis of Safeguards samples and determination of higher enrichment of uranium in-field. The method is rapid and simple enough for short in-field sample analysis. (author)

  6. Effects of toluene on protein synthesis and the interaction with ethanol in hepatocytes isolated from fed and fasted rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith-Kielland, A.; Ripel, Aa.; Gadeholt, G.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of three different concentrations (about 20, 100 and 1000 μM) of toluene on protein synthesis were studied in hepatocytes isolated from fed and fasted rats after 60 and 120 min. of incubation. The interaction between ethanol (60 mM) and the low and high toluene concentrations were also tested. To measure protein synthesis, 14 C-valine was used as the precursor amino acid. Total valine concentration was 2 mM to ensure near-constant specific radioactivity of precursor. Toluene concentrations were measured by head-space gas chromatography. Protein synthesis was unchanged in the presence of low toluene concentrations. Intermediate toluene concentration decreased protein synthesis by about 20% and high toluene concentration decreased protein synthesis by about 60%. Protein synthesis was similar in cells from fed and fasted rats. Ethanol alone inhibited protein synthesis by 20-30%, more in fasted than in fed rats. Toluene and ethanol in combination inhibited protein synthesis additively. The high toluene concentration with or without ethanol appeared to inhibit synthesis/secretion of export proteins in hepatocytes from fasted rats. In conclusion, our study indicates that toluene in relatively high concentrations inhibits general protein synthesis in isolated rat hepatocytes. Toluene and ethanol seems to inhibit protein synthesis additively. (author)

  7. Effects of toluene on protein synthesis and the interaction with ethanol in hepatocytes isolated from fed and fasted rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith-Kielland, A.; Ripel, Aa.; Gadeholt, G.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of three different concentrations (about 20, 100 and 1000 ..mu..M) of toluene on protein synthesis were studied in hepatocytes isolated from fed and fasted rats after 60 and 120 min. of incubation. The interaction between ethanol (60 mM) and the low and high toluene concentrations were also tested. To measure protein synthesis, /sup 14/C-valine was used as the precursor amino acid. Total valine concentration was 2 mM to ensure near-constant specific radioactivity of precursor. Toluene concentrations were measured by head-space gas chromatography. Protein synthesis was unchanged in the presence of low toluene concentrations. Intermediate toluene concentration decreased protein synthesis by about 20% and high toluene concentration decreased protein synthesis by about 60%. Protein synthesis was similar in cells from fed and fasted rats. Ethanol alone inhibited protein synthesis by 20-30%, more in fasted than in fed rats. Toluene and ethanol in combination inhibited protein synthesis additively. The high toluene concentration with or without ethanol appeared to inhibit synthesis/secretion of export proteins in hepatocytes from fasted rats. In conclusion, our study indicates that toluene in relatively high concentrations inhibits general protein synthesis in isolated rat hepatocytes. Toluene and ethanol seems to inhibit protein synthesis additively.

  8. Biochemical Effects of Aqueous Extract of Persea americana (Mill) on the Myocardium of Left Ventricle of High Salt-Fed Adult Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olushola, Ayoola I; Aderibigbe, Komolafe O; Stephen, Saka O; Ayodeji, Odukoya S

    2017-10-01

    The cardioprotective effects of Persea americana extract was investigated on biochemical activities of high salt-fed adult Wistar rats in this study. Forty healthy Wistar rats of both sexes weighing 120 to 150 g were randomly assigned into 8 groups of 5 rats each (groups A, B, C, D, E, F, G, and H). Rats in groups A, F, G, and H were fed with standard laboratory pellets, while groups B, C, D, and E were fed on the high-salt diet for 4 weeks. Concomitantly, daily administration of 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg of the P americana extract were given orally to groups C and F, D and G, and E and H, respectively, while rats in groups A and B were administered distilled water. Blood samples were taken by cardiac puncture; concentration of sodium ion, potassium ion, nitric oxide, and activity of lactate dehydrogenase were determined. One-way analysis of variance was used to analyze data, followed by Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK) test for multiple comparison. Results revealed that concentration of potassium ion and nitric oxide was significantly lower ( P < .05) in high salt-fed groups. Sodium ion concentration and activity of lactate dehydrogenase were higher in high salt-fed group while P americana prevented biochemical perturbations in other experimental groups. In conclusion, high salt-diet induced biochemical alterations which were significantly protected by oral administration of P americana extract.

  9. Inhibition of serum cholesterol oxidation by dietary vitamin C and selenium intake in high fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez-Carreño, M; Ansorena, D; Milagro, F I; Campión, J; Martínez, J A; Astiasarán, I

    2008-04-01

    Cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) have been considered as specific in vivo markers of oxidative stress. In this study, an increased oxidative status was induced in Wistar rats by feeding them a high-fat diet (cafeteria diet). Another group of animals received the same diet supplemented with a combination of two different antioxidants, ascorbic acid (100 mg/kg rat/day) and sodium selenite (200 microg/kg rat/day) and a third group fed on a control diet. Total and individual COPs analysis of the different diets showed no differences among them. At the end of the experimental trial, rats were sacrificed and serum cholesterol, triglycerides and COPs were measured. None of the diets induced changes in rats body weight, total cholesterol and triglycerides levels. Serum total COPs in rats fed on the high-fat diet were 1.01 microg/ml, two times the amount of the control rats (0.47 microg/ml). When dietary antioxidant supplementation was given, serum total COPs concentration (0.44 microg/ml) showed the same levels than those of the rats on control diet. 7beta-hydroxycholesterol, formed non-enzymatically via cholesterol peroxidation in the presence of reactive oxygen species, showed slightly lower values in the antioxidant-supplemented animals compared to the control ones. This study confirms the importance of dietary antioxidants as protective factors against the formation of oxysterols.

  10. RNA-sequencing data analysis of uterus in ovariectomized rats fed with soy protein isolate,17B-estradiol and casein

    Science.gov (United States)

    This data file describes the bioinformatics analysis of uterine RNA-seq data comparing genome wide effects of feeding soy protein isolate compared to casein to ovariectomized female rats age 64 days relative to treatment of casein fed rats with 5 ug/kg/d estradiol and relative to rats treated with e...

  11. Search for phosphopeptides in the feces of axenic rats fed radioactive ovine casein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelissier, J.P.; Dubos, F.; Daburon, F.

    1981-01-01

    Radioactive ovine casein was obtained by injecting 100 μCi of 14 C-Ser into the jugular vein of an ewe. The milk collected 17 and 24 h after this injection contained 12% of the radioactivity injected in protein form. The seryl residues were specificially labelled. This casein was used as the only protein source fed to axenic rats; 0.30% of the tracer ingested was found in the feces of those rats. Since phosphoserine represented 25% of the total casein seryl residues, the phosphopeptides may not be selectively unabsorbable [fr

  12. Clofibrate improves glucose tolerance in fat-fed rats but decreases hepatic glucose consumption capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gustafson, LA; Kuipers, F; Wiegman, C; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA; Meijer, AJ

    2002-01-01

    Background/Aims: High-fat (HF) diets cause glucose intolerance. Fibrates improve glucose tolerance. We have tried to obtain information on possible hepatic mechanisms contributing to this effect. Methods: Rats were fed a HF diet, isocaloric with the control diet, for 3 weeks without or with

  13. Functional Comparison for Lipid Metabolism and Intestinal and Fecal Microflora Enzyme Activities between Low Molecular Weight Chitosan and Chitosan Oligosaccharide in High-Fat-Diet-Fed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chen-Yuan; Feng, Shih-An; Liu, Shing-Hwa; Chiang, Meng-Tsan

    2017-07-24

    The present study investigated and compared the regulatory effects on the lipid-related metabolism and intestinal disaccharidase/fecal bacterial enzyme activities between low molecular weight chitosan and chitosan oligosaccharide in high-fat-diet-fed rats. Diet supplementation of low molecular weight chitosan showed greater efficiency than chitosan oligosaccharide in suppressing the increased weights in body and in liver and adipose tissues of high-fat-diet-fed rats. Supplementation of low molecular weight chitosan also showed a greater improvement than chitosan oligosaccharide in imbalance of plasma, hepatic, and fecal lipid profiles, and intestinal disaccharidase activities in high-fat-diet-fed rats. Moreover, both low molecular weight chitosan and chitosan oligosaccharide significantly decreased the fecal microflora mucinase and β-glucuronidase activities in high-fat-diet-fed rats. These results suggest that low molecular weight chitosan exerts a greater positive improvement than chitosan oligosaccharide in lipid metabolism and intestinal disaccharidase activity in high-fat-diet-induced obese rats.

  14. Steroid hormone excretion is enhanced by sucrose feeding to rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, T.C.; Hsu, H.; Saunders, J.P.; Kim, S.S.; Given-Proctor, J.; Ahrens, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The hypothesis tested was that feeding rats sucrose rather than invert sugar (50:50 mixture of glucose and fructose) or cornstarch would result in a more rapid excretion of intravenously injected 1,2- 3 H aldosterone or 1,2,6,7- 3 H cortisol. The three carbohydrate sources provided 45% of dietary energy when fed, respectively, to one of three groups of 10 male, Sprague Dawley rats. After 4 or 8 weeks of ad lib feeding of the three diets 5 μCI of 3 H-labeled hormones were injected intravenously and % recovery in urine and feces was measured for 4 days by liquid scintillation counting. Nearly 90% of the 3 H injected as 1,2- 3 H aldosterone was recovered over 4 days in the excreta of the sucrose fed rats. This recovery of 3 H from aldosterone was significantly greater (P 3 H from intravenously injected 1,2,6,7- 3 H cortisol followed a similar pattern. The authors anticipate that the excretion of all metabolic end products and xenobiotics excreted as glucuronides would be enhanced by sucrose feeding. Oxocarbonium ions from the glucose portion of sucrose digestion in the mammalian small intestine are thought to compete with oxocarbonium ions from the glucuronic acid portion of glucuronide hydrolysis. Such competition may slow glucuronide hydrolysis and promote glucuronide excretion, including the glucuronides derived from aldosterone and cortisol

  15. Effect of skim milk and dahi (yogurt) on blood glucose, insulin, and lipid profile in rats fed with high fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Hariom; Jain, Shalini; Sinha, P R

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of skim milk and the fermented milk product named dahi (yogurt) on plasma glucose, insulin, and lipid levels as well as on liver glycogen and lipid contents in rats fed with high fructose diet has been investigated. Rats were fed with high fructose diet (21%) supplemented with skim milk, dahi (10 g/day each), or no milk product (control group) for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks of high fructose diet administration, the plasma glucose became significantly higher in control animals (246 mg/dL), whereas it was lower in skim milk (178 mg/dL)- and dahi (143 mg/dL)-fed rats. The glucose tolerance became impaired at the third week of feeding of high fructose diet in control animals, whereas in skim milk- and dahi-fed animals achievement of glucose intolerance was delayed until the fourth and fifth week, respectively. Blood glycosylated hemoglobin and plasma insulin were significantly lower in skim milk (10% and 34%, respectively)- and dahi (17%, and 48%, respectively)-fed animals than those of the control group. Plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and very-low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and blood free fatty acids were significantly lower in skim milk (13%, 14%, 14%, 19%, and 14%, respectively)- and dahi (22%, 33%, 30%, 33%, and 29%, respectively)-fed animals as compared with control animals. Moreover, the total cholesterol, triglyceride, and glycogen contents in liver tissues were also lower in skim milk (55%, 50%, and 36%, respectively)- and dahi (64%, 27%, and 4%, respectively)-fed animals as compared with control animals. In contrast, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in plasma was higher in skim milk (14%)- and dahi (29%)-fed animals as compared with control animals. These results indicate that skim milk and its fermented milk product, dahi, delay the progression of fructose-induced diabetes and dyslipidemia in rats and that these may be useful as antidiabetic food supplements that can be

  16. Rats socially-reared and full fed learned an autoshaping task, showing less levels of fear-like behaviour than fasted or singly-reared rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Hernández, Miguel; Téllez-Alcántara, N Patricia

    2004-07-01

    During the learning of instrumental tasks, rats are usually fasted to increase reinforced learning. However, fasting produces several undesirable side effects. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that control rats, i.e. full-fed and group-reared rats, will learn an autoshaping task to the same level as fasted or singly-reared rats. The interaction between fasting and single-rearing of rats was also tested. Results showed that control rats and fasted rats acquired the autoshaping task similarly, independently of rearing condition or gender. However, fasted or singly-reared rats produced fear-like behaviour, since male rats group-reared and fasted (85% body/wt, P autoshaping task to the same level as fasted or singly-reared rats. However, fasting or single-rearing produced fear-like behaviour. Thus, the training of control rats in autoshaping tasks may be an option that improves animal welfare.

  17. Decreased rate of protein synthesis, caspase-3 activity, and ubiquitin-proteasome proteolysis in soleus muscles from growing rats fed a low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batistela, Emanuele; Pereira, Mayara Peron; Siqueira, Juliany Torres; Paula-Gomes, Silvia; Zanon, Neusa Maria; Oliveira, Eduardo Brandt; Navegantes, Luiz Carlos Carvalho; Kettelhut, Isis C; Andrade, Claudia Marlise Balbinotti; Kawashita, Nair Honda; Baviera, Amanda Martins

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the rates of both protein synthesis and breakdown, and the activation of intracellular effectors that control these processes in soleus muscles from growing rats fed a low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC) diet for 15 days. The mass and the protein content, as well as the rate of protein synthesis, were decreased in the soleus from LPHC-fed rats. The availability of amino acids was diminished, since the levels of various essential amino acids were decreased in the plasma of LPHC-fed rats. Overall rate of proteolysis was also decreased, explained by reductions in the mRNA levels of atrogin-1 and MuRF-1, ubiquitin conjugates, proteasome activity, and in the activity of caspase-3. Soleus muscles from LPHC-fed rats showed increased insulin sensitivity, with increased levels of insulin receptor and phosphorylation levels of AKT, which probably explains the inhibition of both the caspase-3 activity and the ubiquitin-proteasome system. The fall of muscle proteolysis seems to represent an adaptive response that contributes to spare proteins in a condition of diminished availability of dietary amino acids. Furthermore, the decreased rate of protein synthesis may be the driving factor to the lower muscle mass gain in growing rats fed the LPHC diet.

  18. Brain glucose content in fetuses of ethanol-fed rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pullen, G.; Singh, S.P.; Snyder, A.K.; Hoffen, B.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have previously demonstrated impaired placental glucose transfer and fetal hypoglycemia in association with ethanol ingestion by pregnant rats. The present study examines the relationship between glucose availability and fetal brain growth under the same conditions. Rats (EF) were fed ethanol (30% of caloric intake) in liquid diet throughout gestation. Controls received isocaloric diet without ethanol by pair-feeding (PF) or ad libitum (AF). On the 22nd day of gestation fetuses were obtained by cesarean section. Fetal brains were removed and freeze-clamped. Brain weight was significantly reduced (p < 0.001) by maternal ethanol ingestion (206 +/- 2, 212 +/- 4 and 194 +/- 2 mg in AF, FP and EF fetuses respectively). Similarly, fetal brain glucose content was lower (p < 0.05) in the EF group (14.3 +/- 0.9 mmoles/g dry weight) than in the PF (18.6 +/- 1.0) or the AF (16.2 +/- 0.9) groups. The protein: DNA ratio, an indicator of cell size, correlated positively (r = 0.371, p < 0.005) with brain glucose content. In conclusion, maternal ethanol ingestion resulted in lower brain weight and reduced brain glucose content. Glucose availability may be a significant factor in the determination of cell size in the fetal rat brain.

  19. Expanding Library Services and Instruction Through LibGuides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ream, Tim; Parker-Kelly, Darlene

    2016-01-01

    Beginning in 2012, the Charles R. Drew University (CDU) Health Sciences Library used LibGuides in a number of innovative ways. Librarians constructed e-book databases, in-depth tutorials on technology-related topics, and web pages highlighting special events. To assess similar LibGuides innovation, CDU librarians developed an eight-question survey distributed to health sciences and hospital libraries throughout Southern California and Arizona. Results showed that libraries used LibGuides primarily to deliver access to online resources and to provide supplementary materials supporting instruction. Responses also revealed that many libraries had not yet adopted LibGuides. These findings were analyzed and compared to past and current LibGuides design at CDU.

  20. Incorporation in vivo of 1-14C-acetate into lipids of rats fed threonine imbalanced diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Hideo; Sugano, Michihiro

    1975-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanism of the fatty liver production in rats fed the thereonine imbalanced diet, time course of lipogenesis was followed after intraperitoneal injection of 1- 14 C-acetate into rats that had been reared on the imbalanced diet for 7 days. 1) The rate of the incorporation of 1- 14 C-acetate into hepatic triglyceride, estimated either on the base of unit weight of liver or of whole liver, in comparison with that of the control rats, did not increase by feeding the imbalanced diet under the condition where the extent of lipogenesis could be measured (30 min after the dose of the label). Also, the specific activity of triglyceride was by no means high at this point. The rate of disappearance of the radioactivity, between 60 min and 180 min after the label injection, from triglyceride was evidently slower in rats fed the imbalanced diet, thus the radioactivity of triglyceride in this animal being to some extent higher after 180 min. 2) The incorporation of radioactivity into phospholipid was not influenced by the imbalanced diet. 3) There was no difference in the incorporation of the radioactivity into kidney lipids between the control and imbalanced groups. 4) From the distribution of the radioactivity in the hepatic lipid fractions, it appeared that the relative incorporation into triglyceride tended to increase after feeding the imbalanced diet. 5) There were no demonstrable differences in the activity of plasma total lipids at any times after the injection of the label. The ratio of the label incorporation into whole plasma and liver total lipids tended to decrease in the imbalanced rat after 180 min. These results suggested that, although alternative explanations are possible, the decreased turnover in hepatic triglyceride, rather than the increased hepatic lipogenesis, would largely be responsible for the production of fatty liver in rats fed the threonine imbalanced diet. (auth.)

  1. Fructose-fed streptozotocin-injected rat: an alternative model for type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rachel D; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to develop an alternative non-genetic rat model for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Six-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (190.56 ± 23.60 g) were randomly divided into six groups, namely: Normal Control (NC), Diabetic Control (DBC), Fructose-10 (FR10), Fructose-20 (FR20), Fructose-30 (FR30) and Fructose-40 (FR40) and were fed a normal rat pellet diet ad libitum for 2 weeks. During this period, the two control groups received normal drinking water whilst the fructose groups received 10, 20, 30 and 40% fructose in drinking water ad libitum, respectively. After two weeks of dietary manipulation, all groups except the NC group received a single injection (i.p.) of streptozotocin (STZ) (40 mg/kg b.w.) dissolved in citrate buffer (pH 4.4). The NC group received only a vehicle buffer injection (i.p.). One week after the STZ injection, animals with non-fasting blood glucose levels > 300 mg/dl were considered as diabetic. Three weeks after the STZ injection, the animals in FR20, FR30 and FR40 groups were eliminated from the study due to the severity of diabetes and the FR10 group was selected for the remainder of the 11 weeks experimental period. The significantly (p < 0.05) higher fluid intake, blood glucose, serum lipids, liver glycogen, liver function enzymes and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and significantly (p < 0.05) lower body weight, oral glucose tolerance, number of pancreatic β-cells and pancreatic β-cell functions (HOMA-β) of FR10 group demonstrate that the 10% fructose-fed followed by 40 mg/kg of BWSTZ injected rat can be a new and alternative model for T2D.

  2. Effect of Atmospheric Conditions on LIBS Spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Effenberger, Andrew J.; Scott, Jill R.

    2010-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is typically performed at ambient Earth atmospheric conditions. However, interest in LIBS in other atmospheric conditions has increased in recent years, especially for use in space exploration (e.g., Mars and Lunar) or to improve resolution for isotopic signatures. This review focuses on what has been reported about the performance of LIBS in reduced pressure environments as well as in various gases other than air.

  3. Isoflavone and Protein Constituents of Lactic Acid-Fermented Soy Milk Combine to Prevent Dyslipidemia in Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Maki; Egusa, Shintaro; Fukuda, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    A high cholesterol diet induces dyslipidemia. This study investigated whether isoflavone aglycones in lactic acid-fermented soy milk (LFS) improve lipid metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were fed an AIN-93G diet, a 1% cholesterol diet (a high cholesterol diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 4% isoflavone extract of LFS (LFS extract diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 19.4% ethanol-washed LFS (ethanol-washed LFS diet, isoflavon...

  4. Rice bran protein hydrolysates reduce arterial stiffening, vascular remodeling and oxidative stress in rats fed a high-carbohydrate and high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senaphan, Ketmanee; Sangartit, Weerapon; Pakdeechote, Poungrat; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan; Thawornchinsombut, Supawan; Greenwald, Stephen E; Kukongviriyapan, Upa

    2018-02-01

    Rice bran protein hydrolysates (RBPH) contain highly nutritional proteins and antioxidant compounds which show benefits against metabolic syndrome (MetS). Increased arterial stiffness and the components of MetS have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to investigate whether RBPH could alleviate the metabolic disorders, arterial stiffening, vascular remodeling, and oxidative stress in rats fed a high-carbohydrate and high-fat (HCHF) diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a standard chow and tap water or a HCHF diet and 15 % fructose solution for 16 weeks. HCHF rats were treated orally with RBPH (250 or 500 mg/kg/day) for the final 6 weeks of the experimental period. Rats fed with HCHF diet had hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, increased aortic pulse wave velocity, aortic wall hypertrophy and vascular remodeling with increased MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression. RBPH supplementation significantly alleviated these alterations (P stress was also alleviated after RBPH treatment by decreasing plasma malondialdehyde, reducing superoxide production and suppressing p47 phox NADPH oxidase expression in the vascular tissues of HCHF rats. RBPH increased plasma nitrate/nitrite level and up-regulated eNOS expression in the aortas of HCHF-diet-fed rats, indicating that RBPH increased NO production. RBPH mitigate the deleterious effects of HCHF through potential mechanisms involving enhanced NO bioavailability, anti-ACE, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. RBPH could be used as dietary supplements to minimize oxidative stress and vascular alterations triggered by MetS.

  5. Assessment of insulin resistance in fructose-fed rats with 125I-6-deoxy-6-iodo-D-glucose, a new tracer of glucose transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perret, Pascale; Slimani, Lotfi; Briat, Arnaud; Villemain, Daniele; Fagret, Daniel; Ghezzi, Catherine; Halimi, Serge; Demongeot, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    Insulin resistance, characterised by an insulin-stimulated glucose transport defect, is an important feature of the pre-diabetic state that has been observed in numerous pathological disorders. The purpose of this study was to assess variations in glucose transport in rats using 125 I-6-deoxy-6-iodo-D-glucose (6DIG), a new tracer of glucose transport proposed as an imaging tool to assess insulin resistance in vivo. Two protocols were performed, a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp and a normoinsulinaemic-normoglycaemic protocol, in awake control and insulin-resistant fructose-fed rats. The tracer was injected at steady state, and activity in 11 tissues and the blood was assessed ex vivo at several time points. A multicompartmental mathematical model was developed to obtain fractional transfer coefficients of 6DIG from the blood to the organs. Insulin sensitivity of fructose-fed rats, estimated by the glucose infusion rate, was reduced by 40% compared with control rats. At steady state, 6DIG uptake was significantly stimulated by insulin in insulin-sensitive tissues of control rats (basal versus insulin: diaphragm, p < 0.01; muscle, p < 0.05; heart, p < 0.001), whereas insulin did not stimulate 6DIG uptake in insulin-resistant fructose-fed rats. Moreover, in these tissues, the fractional transfer coefficients of entrance were significantly increased with insulin in control rats (basal vs insulin: diaphragm, p < 0.001; muscle, p < 0.001; heart, p < 0.01) whereas no significant changes were observed in fructose-fed rats. This study sets the stage for the future use of 6DIG as a non-invasive means for the evaluation of insulin resistance by nuclear imaging. (orig.)

  6. Assessment of insulin resistance in fructose-fed rats with 125I-6-deoxy-6-iodo-D-glucose, a new tracer of glucose transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perret, Pascale; Slimani, Lotfi; Briat, Arnaud; Villemain, Danièle; Halimi, Serge; Demongeot, Jacques; Fagret, Daniel; Ghezzi, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Insulin resistance, characterised by an insulin-stimulated glucose transport defect, is an important feature of the pre-diabetic state and it has been observed in numerous pathological disorders. The purpose of this study was to assess variations in glucose transport in rats with 125I-6-Deoxy-6-Iodo-D-glucose (6DIG), a new tracer of glucose transport proposed as an imaging tool to assess insulin resistance in vivo. Methods Two protocols were performed, a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp and a normoinsulinaemic normoglycaemic protocol, in awake control and insulin-resistant fructose-fed rats. The tracer was injected at steady state, and activity in 11 tissues and the blood were assessed ex vivo at several time points. A multicompartmental mathematical model was developed to obtain fractional transfer coefficients of 6DIG from the blood to the organs. Results Insulin sensitivity of fructose-fed rats, estimated by the glucose infusion rate, was reduced by 40% compared with control rats. At steady-state, 6DIG uptake was significantly stimulated by insulin in insulin-sensitive tissues of control rats (basal versus insulin: diaphragm, p<0.01; muscle, p<0.05; heart, p<0.001), whereas insulin did not stimulate 6DIG uptake in insulin-resistant fructose-fed rats. Moreover, in these tissues, the fractional transfer coefficients of entrance were significantly increased with insulin in control rats (basal vs insulin: diaphragm, p<0.001; muscle, p<0.001; heart, p<0.01) and whereas no significant changes were observed in fructose-fed rats. Conclusion This study sets the stage for the future use of 6DIG as a non-invasive means for the evaluation of insulin resistance by nuclear imaging. PMID:17171359

  7. Effect of Atmospheric Conditions on LIBS Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effenberger, Andrew J.; Scott, Jill R.

    2010-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is typically performed at ambient Earth atmospheric conditions. However, interest in LIBS in other atmospheric conditions has increased in recent years, especially for use in space exploration (e.g., Mars and Lunar) or to improve resolution for isotopic signatures. This review focuses on what has been reported about the performance of LIBS in reduced pressure environments as well as in various gases other than air. PMID:22399914

  8. Effects on reproduction in female offspring from Sprague-Dawley rats fed 10% snakeweed (Gutierrezia microcephala) throughout pregnancy and concurrent treatment with safflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, E C; Smith, G S; Greenberg, J A

    1995-10-01

    Previous studies determined that safflower oil administration provided protection against the embryotoxicity seen following ingestion of 10% snakeweed (Gutierrezia microcephala) throughout pregnancy. Sixty-two young primiparous female rats born in those studies were paired with adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. After 4 d they were removed and carried their litters to term. Observations were made of the presence and extent of reproductive effects attributable to the 10% snakeweed exposure and differences in fecundity that were attributable to dosing with safflower oil or normal saline during the snakeweed exposure. Of the 62 rats, 50 carried litters to term and approximated the reproductive efficiency of normal primiparous Sprague-Dawley rats. There was no significant difference between the fecundity of females born to rats fed the 10% snakeweed and dosed with safflower oil, those born of rats fed snakeweed dosed with normal saline, or those fed a snakeweed-free diet and dosed with normal saline. Regardless of the diet or treatment administered, dams carrying their litters to parturition gave birth to healthy, normo-reproductive offspring. While the toxic principles in Gutierrezia species plants may act as estrogenic or anti-estrogenic compounds, they did not impair fertility in the female offspring of dosed rats.

  9. A cosmology forecast toolkit — CosmoLib

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhiqi, E-mail: zqhuang@cita.utoronto.ca [CEA, Institut de Physique Théorique, Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cédex (France)

    2012-06-01

    The package CosmoLib is a combination of a cosmological Boltzmann code and a simulation toolkit to forecast the constraints on cosmological parameters from future observations. In this paper we describe the released linear-order part of the package. We discuss the stability and performance of the Boltzmann code. This is written in Newtonian gauge and including dark energy perturbations. In CosmoLib the integrator that computes the CMB angular power spectrum is optimized for a l-by-l brute-force integration, which is useful for studying inflationary models predicting sharp features in the primordial power spectrum of metric fluctuations. As an application, CosmoLib is used to study the axion monodromy inflation model that predicts cosine oscillations in the primordial power spectrum. In contrast to the previous studies by Aich et al. and Meerburg et al., we found no detection or hint of the osicllations. We pointed out that the CAMB code modified by Aich et al. does not have sufficient numerical accuracy. CosmoLib and its documentation are available at http://www.cita.utoronto.ca/∼zqhuang/CosmoLib.

  10. Holocene closure of Lib Pond, Marshall Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor L Myhrvold

    Full Text Available Well-preserved sediment from closed water bodies of atolls such as Lib Pond are rare opportunities to reconstruct the past regional climate, which pieced together across a latitude and longitude range identify the range of movement patterns of wider scale climate phenomena such as the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO. We conducted the first physico-chemical survey of Lib Pond, a shallow, closed-water saline lake located on remote and difficult to access Lib Island in the Marshall Islands at 8° 18' 48.99″ N, 167 22' 51.90″ E in the Pacific Ocean, in July 2009. We performed a bathymetric survey, recorded salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, and temperature profiles, monitored the tidal variability, and conducted a vegetation survey surrounding the lake. From bathymetric data we calculated the lake volume, which we used to estimate the lake's salt budget, and ultimately the residence time of water in the lake basin. We took a series of sediment cores from the lake, cores which indicate Lib Island's changing environment and climate. Radiocarbon measurements determined sediment age, and reveal significant mixing over the last 2 ka of deposition. We conclude that prior to 3 ka, Lib Island was an atoll with a central lagoon connected to the open ocean, which was then closed off from the open ocean to form the brackish system that exists today. We predict that the sediment accumulation in Lib Pond evident today will continue. As seawater is inhibited from exchanging with fresh water, Lib Pond will become a shallower lake with increasingly fresh water.

  11. Holocene closure of Lib Pond, Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhrvold, Conor L; Janny, Fran; Nelson, Daniel; Ladd, S Nemiah; Atwood, Alyssa; Sachs, Julian P

    2014-01-01

    Well-preserved sediment from closed water bodies of atolls such as Lib Pond are rare opportunities to reconstruct the past regional climate, which pieced together across a latitude and longitude range identify the range of movement patterns of wider scale climate phenomena such as the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). We conducted the first physico-chemical survey of Lib Pond, a shallow, closed-water saline lake located on remote and difficult to access Lib Island in the Marshall Islands at 8° 18' 48.99″ N, 167 22' 51.90″ E in the Pacific Ocean, in July 2009. We performed a bathymetric survey, recorded salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, and temperature profiles, monitored the tidal variability, and conducted a vegetation survey surrounding the lake. From bathymetric data we calculated the lake volume, which we used to estimate the lake's salt budget, and ultimately the residence time of water in the lake basin. We took a series of sediment cores from the lake, cores which indicate Lib Island's changing environment and climate. Radiocarbon measurements determined sediment age, and reveal significant mixing over the last 2 ka of deposition. We conclude that prior to 3 ka, Lib Island was an atoll with a central lagoon connected to the open ocean, which was then closed off from the open ocean to form the brackish system that exists today. We predict that the sediment accumulation in Lib Pond evident today will continue. As seawater is inhibited from exchanging with fresh water, Lib Pond will become a shallower lake with increasingly fresh water.

  12. Assessment of insulin resistance in fructose-fed rats with {sup 125}I-6-deoxy-6-iodo-D-glucose, a new tracer of glucose transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perret, Pascale; Slimani, Lotfi; Briat, Arnaud; Villemain, Daniele; Fagret, Daniel; Ghezzi, Catherine [INSERM, E340, 38000 Grenoble, (France); Univ Grenoble, 38000 Grenoble, (France); Halimi, Serge [CHRU Grenoble, Hopital Michallon, Service de Diabetologie, 38000 Grenoble, (France); Demongeot, Jacques [Univ Grenoble, 38000 Grenoble, (France); CNRS, UMR 5525, 38000 Grenoble, (France)

    2007-05-15

    Insulin resistance, characterised by an insulin-stimulated glucose transport defect, is an important feature of the pre-diabetic state that has been observed in numerous pathological disorders. The purpose of this study was to assess variations in glucose transport in rats using {sup 125}I-6-deoxy-6-iodo-D-glucose (6DIG), a new tracer of glucose transport proposed as an imaging tool to assess insulin resistance in vivo. Two protocols were performed, a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp and a normoinsulinaemic-normoglycaemic protocol, in awake control and insulin-resistant fructose-fed rats. The tracer was injected at steady state, and activity in 11 tissues and the blood was assessed ex vivo at several time points. A multicompartmental mathematical model was developed to obtain fractional transfer coefficients of 6DIG from the blood to the organs. Insulin sensitivity of fructose-fed rats, estimated by the glucose infusion rate, was reduced by 40% compared with control rats. At steady state, 6DIG uptake was significantly stimulated by insulin in insulin-sensitive tissues of control rats (basal versus insulin: diaphragm, p < 0.01; muscle, p < 0.05; heart, p < 0.001), whereas insulin did not stimulate 6DIG uptake in insulin-resistant fructose-fed rats. Moreover, in these tissues, the fractional transfer coefficients of entrance were significantly increased with insulin in control rats (basal vs insulin: diaphragm, p < 0.001; muscle, p < 0.001; heart, p < 0.01) whereas no significant changes were observed in fructose-fed rats. This study sets the stage for the future use of 6DIG as a non-invasive means for the evaluation of insulin resistance by nuclear imaging. (orig.)

  13. The effect of soy products in the diet on retention of non-heme iron from radiolabeled test meals fed to marginally iron-deficient young rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, D.B.

    1984-01-01

    Diets based either on casein or soy products and containing about 25 ppm iron were fed to weanling rats for 13 days. Rats were fasted overnight and fed a 59 Fe-radiolabeled casein test meal the morning of day 14. On day 21 less 59 Fe was retained by rats fed various diets based on selected soy products than by rats fed the casein-based diet. A similar adverse effect of diet components on 59 Fe retention from a casein test meal was observed for lactalbumin and for psyllium husk. No adverse effect of diet on 59 Fe retention was observed for the fiber of soy cotyledons or for rapeseed protein concentrate. For a commercial soy protein isolated (SPI) fed throughout the 21-day experiment, the adverse effect of diet on 59 Fe retention was observed to the sum of the effect of dietary SPI previous to the 59 Fe-radiolabeled casein test meal fed on day 14 and the effect of dietary SPI subsequent to the casein test meal. An effect of dietary soy products on 59 Fe retention from a casein test meal was not observed with diets containing higher iron levels (83 ppm) or when diets were fed for a longer period prior to the test meal (56 days). The present work shows that in some circumstances the concept of iron bioavailability must be expanded to include not only the influence of meal composition, but also the influence of diet previous to and subsequent to a meal

  14. Effects of Yogurt Containing Fermented Pepper Juice on the Body Fat and Cholesterol Level in High Fat and High Cholesterol Diet Fed Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Su-Jung; Hong, Go-Eun; Kim, Chang-Kyu; Park, Woo Joon; Kim, Soo-Ki; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This experiment investigated whether yogurt containing fermented pepper juice (FPJY) affects cholesterol level in high fat and high cholesterol diet (HFCD) fed rat. Twenty five Sprague-Dawley male rats of 7 wk were divided into 5 groups, and fed following diets for 9 wk; CON (control diet), HFCD (HFCD), PY (HFCD supplemented with 2% of plain yogurt), LFY (HFCD supplemented with 2% of FPJY), and HFY (HFCD supplemented with 5% of FPJY). In the LFY group, hepatic total lipid level decreased significantly compared to the HFCD group (p0.05). In HFY group, body weight and hepatic total lipid level significantly decreased over the HFCD group (p0.05). Liver weight decreased as FPJY content was increased. Results suggested FPJY would inhibit organ hypertrophy and accumulation of body fat, hepatic lipid, and cholesterol in HFCD fed rat.

  15. Preventive Effects of Drinking Hydrogen-Rich Water on Gingival Oxidative Stress and Alveolar Bone Resorption in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Toshiki; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Kunitomo, Muneyoshi; Ekuni, Daisuke; Irie, Koichiro; Azuma, Tetsuji; Machida, Tatsuya; Miyai, Hisataka; Fujimori, Kouhei; Morita, Manabu

    2017-01-13

    Obesity induces gingival oxidative stress, which is involved in the progression of alveolar bone resorption. The antioxidant effect of hydrogen-rich water may attenuate gingival oxidative stress and prevent alveolar bone resorption in cases of obesity. We examined whether hydrogen-rich water could suppress gingival oxidative stress and alveolar bone resorption in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Male Fischer 344 rats ( n = 18) were divided into three groups of six rats each: a control group (fed a regular diet and drinking distilled water) and two experimental groups (fed a high-fat diet and drinking distilled water or hydrogen-rich water). The level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine was determined to evaluate oxidative stress. The bone mineral density of the alveolar bone was analyzed by micro-computerized tomography. Obese rats, induced by a high-fat diet, showed a higher gingival level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and a lower level of alveolar bone density compared to the control group. Drinking hydrogen-rich water suppressed body weight gain, lowered gingival level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, and reduced alveolar bone resorption in rats on a high-fat diet. The results indicate that hydrogen-rich water could suppress gingival oxidative stress and alveolar bone resorption by limiting obesity.

  16. Seaweed supplements normalise metabolic, cardiovascular and liver responses in high-carbohydrate, high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Senthil Arun; Magnusson, Marie; Ward, Leigh C; Paul, Nicholas A; Brown, Lindsay

    2015-02-02

    Increased seaweed consumption may be linked to the lower incidence of metabolic syndrome in eastern Asia. This study investigated the responses to two tropical green seaweeds, Ulva ohnoi (UO) and Derbesia tenuissima (DT), in a rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats (330-340 g) were fed either a corn starch-rich diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with 25% fructose in drinking water, for 16 weeks. High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats showed the signs of metabolic syndrome leading to abdominal obesity, cardiovascular remodelling and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Food was supplemented with 5% dried UO or DT for the final 8 weeks only. UO lowered total final body fat mass by 24%, systolic blood pressure by 29 mmHg, and improved glucose utilisation and insulin sensitivity. In contrast, DT did not change total body fat mass but decreased plasma triglycerides by 38% and total cholesterol by 17%. UO contained 18.1% soluble fibre as part of 40.9% total fibre, and increased magnesium, while DT contained 23.4% total fibre, essentially as insoluble fibre. UO was more effective in reducing metabolic syndrome than DT, possibly due to the increased intake of soluble fibre and magnesium.

  17. Seaweed Supplements Normalise Metabolic, Cardiovascular and Liver Responses in High-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Arun Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Increased seaweed consumption may be linked to the lower incidence of metabolic syndrome in eastern Asia. This study investigated the responses to two tropical green seaweeds, Ulva ohnoi (UO and Derbesia tenuissima (DT, in a rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats (330–340 g were fed either a corn starch-rich diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with 25% fructose in drinking water, for 16 weeks. High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats showed the signs of metabolic syndrome leading to abdominal obesity, cardiovascular remodelling and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Food was supplemented with 5% dried UO or DT for the final 8 weeks only. UO lowered total final body fat mass by 24%, systolic blood pressure by 29 mmHg, and improved glucose utilisation and insulin sensitivity. In contrast, DT did not change total body fat mass but decreased plasma triglycerides by 38% and total cholesterol by 17%. UO contained 18.1% soluble fibre as part of 40.9% total fibre, and increased magnesium, while DT contained 23.4% total fibre, essentially as insoluble fibre. UO was more effective in reducing metabolic syndrome than DT, possibly due to the increased intake of soluble fibre and magnesium.

  18. Seaweed Supplements Normalise Metabolic, Cardiovascular and Liver Responses in High-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Fed Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Senthil Arun; Magnusson, Marie; Ward, Leigh C.; Paul, Nicholas A.; Brown, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Increased seaweed consumption may be linked to the lower incidence of metabolic syndrome in eastern Asia. This study investigated the responses to two tropical green seaweeds, Ulva ohnoi (UO) and Derbesia tenuissima (DT), in a rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats (330–340 g) were fed either a corn starch-rich diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with 25% fructose in drinking water, for 16 weeks. High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats showed the signs of metabolic syndrome leading to abdominal obesity, cardiovascular remodelling and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Food was supplemented with 5% dried UO or DT for the final 8 weeks only. UO lowered total final body fat mass by 24%, systolic blood pressure by 29 mmHg, and improved glucose utilisation and insulin sensitivity. In contrast, DT did not change total body fat mass but decreased plasma triglycerides by 38% and total cholesterol by 17%. UO contained 18.1% soluble fibre as part of 40.9% total fibre, and increased magnesium, while DT contained 23.4% total fibre, essentially as insoluble fibre. UO was more effective in reducing metabolic syndrome than DT, possibly due to the increased intake of soluble fibre and magnesium. PMID:25648511

  19. Effects of Lactobacillus fermented soymilk and soy yogurt on hepatic lipid accumulation in rats fed a cholesterol-free diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitawaki, Ryoko; Nishimura, Yuko; Takagi, Naohiro; Iwasaki, Mitsuhiro; Tsuzuki, Kimiko; Fukuda, Mitsuru

    2009-07-01

    We examined the effects of lactic acid fermented soymilk, in which part of the soymilk was replaced with okara (soy yogurt), on plasma and hepatic lipid profiles in rats fed a cholesterol-free diet. Additionally, we investigated the effects of soy yogurt on hepatic gene expression in rats using DNA microarray analysis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 5 weeks (n=5/group) were fed a control diet (AIN-93) or a test diet in which 20% of the diet was replaced by soy yogurt for 7 weeks. Soy yogurt consumption did not affect body weight or adipose tissue weight as compared with control diet. In the soy yogurt group, the liver weight and hepatic triglyceride content were significantly lower than the control group, and the level of plasma cholesterol was also lower. Furthermore, DNA microarray analysis indicated that soy yogurt ingestion down-regulated the expression of the SREBP-1 gene and enzymes related to lipogenesis in the rat liver, while expression of beta-oxidation-related genes was up-regulated. These results suggest that soy yogurt is beneficial in preventing hepatic lipid accumulation in rats.

  20. High Temperature- and High Pressure-Processed Garlic Improves Lipid Profiles in Rats Fed High Cholesterol Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Chan Wok; Kim, Hyunae; You, Bo Ram; Kim, Min Jee; Kim, Hyo Jin; Lee, Ji Yeon; Sok, Dai-Eun; Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Kun Jong

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Garlic protects against degenerative diseases such as hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular diseases. However, raw garlic has a strong pungency, which is unpleasant. In this study, we examined the effect of high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic on plasma lipid profiles in rats. Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a normal control diet, a high cholesterol (0.5% cholesterol) diet (HCD) only, or a high cholesterol diet supplemented with 0.5% high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic (HCP) or raw garlic (HCR) for 10 weeks. The body weights of the rats fed the garlic-supplemented diets decreased, mostly because of reduced fat pad weights. Plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG) in the HCP and HCR groups decreased significantly compared with those in the HCD group. Additionally, fecal TC and TG increased significantly in the HCP and HCR groups. It is notable that no significant differences in plasma or fecal lipid profiles were observed between the HCP and HCR groups. High temperature/high pressure-processed garlic contained a higher amount of S-allyl cysteine than raw garlic (Pgarlic may be useful as a functional food to improve lipid profiles. PMID:22404600

  1. Silicon Alleviates Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis by Reducing Apoptosis in Aged Wistar Rats Fed a High-Saturated Fat, High-Cholesterol Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcimartín, Alba; López-Oliva, M Elvira; Sántos-López, Jorge A; García-Fernández, Rosa A; Macho-González, Adrián; Bastida, Sara; Benedí, Juana; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2017-06-01

    Background: Lipoapoptosis has been identified as a key event in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and hence, antiapoptotic agents have been recommended as a possible effective treatment for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Silicon, included in meat as a functional ingredient, improves lipoprotein profiles and liver antioxidant defenses in aged rats fed a high-saturated fat, high-cholesterol diet (HSHCD). However, to our knowledge, the antiapoptotic effect of this potential functional meat on the liver has never been tested. Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the effect of silicon on NASH development and the potential antiapoptotic properties of silicon in aged rats. Methods: One-year-old male Wistar rats weighing ∼500 g were fed 3 experimental diets containing restructured pork (RP) for 8 wk: 1 ) a high-saturated fat diet, as an NAFLD control, with 16.9% total fat, 0.14 g cholesterol/kg diet, and 46.8 mg SiO 2 /kg (control); 2 ) the HSHCD as a model of NASH, with 16.6% total fat, 16.3 g cholesterol/kg diet, and 46.8 mg SiO 2 /kg [high-cholesterol diet (Chol-C)]; and 3 ) the HSHCD with silicon-supplemented RP with amounts of fat and cholesterol identical to those in the Chol-C diet, but with 750 mg SiO 2 /kg (Chol-Si). Detailed histopathological assessments were performed, and the NAFLD activity score (NAS) was calculated. Liver apoptosis and damage markers were evaluated by Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. Results: Chol-C rats had a higher mean NAS (7.4) than did control rats (1.9; P silicon substantially affects NASH development in aged male Wistar rats fed an HSHCD by partially blocking apoptosis. These results suggest that silicon-enriched RP could be used as an effective nutritional strategy in preventing NASH. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Diet-induced thermogenesis is lower in rats fed a lard diet than in those fed a high oleic acid safflower oil diet, a safflower oil diet or a linseed oil diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, H; Matsuo, T; Tokuyama, K; Shimomura, Y; Suzuki, M

    1995-04-01

    The objectives of the present study were to examine the effects of dietary fats differing in fatty acid composition on diet-induced thermogenesis, sympathetic activity in brown adipose tissue and body fat accumulation in rats. Rats were meal-fed for 12 wk an isoenergetic diet based on lard, high oleic acid safflower oil, safflower oil or linseed oil, and norepinephrine turnover rates in brown adipose tissue were then estimated. Whole-body oxygen consumption after the meal indicated that diet-induced thermogenesis was significantly lower in rats fed the lard diet than in those fed the other diets. The norepinephrine turnover rate in the interscapular brown adipose tissue was also significantly lower in the lard diet group than in the other diet groups. The carcass fat content was significantly higher in the lard diet group than in the other diet groups, whereas the abdominal adipose tissue weights were the same in all diet groups. These results suggest that the intake of animal fats rich in saturated fatty acids, compared with the intake of vegetable oils rich in monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids, decreases diet-induced thermogenesis by a decline of sympathetic activity in brown adipose tissue, resulting in the promotion of body fat accumulation.

  3. Distribution of 14C after oral administration of [1-14C]linoleic acid in rats fed different levels of essential fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, W.

    1984-01-01

    Rats from an inbred Sprague-Dawley strain were fed semisynthetic diets with a low [0.3 energy percent (en %)], normal (3 en %) or high (10 en %) content of essential fatty acids (EFA) for at least three generations. Twenty-nine- to 33-day-old male rats were given a single intragastric dose of [1-14C]linoleic acid in olive oil, and the respiratory CO2, urine and feces were collected for 46 hours (expt 1) or 20 hours (expt 2). The 14C activity in respiratory CO2, feces, urine and the carcass was determined in both experiments. In experiment 2 it was also measured in samples of the brown fat, liver, adrenals, white fat, skeletal muscles and brain. In both experiments the rats fed the low EFA diet retained significantly more 14C activity than the rats fed the normal or high EFA diets. In all groups the concentration of label was highest in the brown fat and the adrenals, but the above differences among the groups with respect to 14C retention were mainly observed in the liver, skeletal muscles and brain

  4. Cytokine profile of rats fed a diet containing shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Lage Borges

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Studies have shown that shrimps reduced the tensile strength of scars in rat skin. The aim of the present study was to assess the cytokine profile of rats fed shrimp. METHODS: Group 1 (control received a regular diet and Group 2 (experimental received a diet containing 33% shrimp for nine days. The two diets contained the same amounts of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Serum cytokine levels were determined by ELISA and a segment of the jejunum was taken to investigate its histological morphology and eosinophil infiltrate. RESULTS: The experimental group had lower serum levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4 (14.4±1.9 versus 18.11±2.6pg/mL; p<0.05 and IL-10 (5.0±0.98 versus 7.5±1.2pg/mL; p<0.05 and higher levels of IL-6 (17.8±2.3 versus 3.2±0.4pg/mL, p<0.001 than controls. Morphologically, the shrimp-based diet caused an architectural disorganization of the intestinal mucosa and a greater amount of eosinophils in the jejunal villus. CONCLUSION: Our data suggests that shrimp consumption leads to a significant increase in the cytokine IL-6, a decrease in the immunomodulatory cytokine IL-10 in the serum of rats, and high eosinophil infiltration in the jejunum. The cytokine profile typical of inflammation and the histological aspect of the jejunum are compatible with food allergy.

  5. Ameliorating effect of olive oil on fertility of male rats fed on genetically modified soya bean

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    Thanaa A. F. El-Kholy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Genetically modified soya bean (GMSB is a commercialized food. It has been shown to have adverse effects on fertility in animal trials. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO has many beneficial effects including anti-oxidant properties. The aim of this study is to elucidate if addition of EVOO ameliorates the adverse effects on reproductive organs of rats fed on GMSB containing diet. Methods: Forty adult male albino rats (150–180 g of Sprague Dawley strain were separated into four groups of 10 rats each: Group 1 – control group fed on basal ration, Group 2 – fed on basal ration mixed with EVOO (30%, Group 3 – fed on basal ration mixed with GMSB (15%, and Group 4 – fed on basal ration mixed with GMSB (15% and EVOO (30%. This feeding regimen was administered for 65 days. Blood samples were collected to analyze serum zinc, vitamin E, and testosterone levels. Histopathological and weight changes in sex organs were evaluated. Results: GMSB diet reduced weight of testis (0.66±0.06 vs. 1.7±0.06, p<0.001, epididymis (0.489±0.03 vs. 0.7±0.03, p<0.001, prostate (0.04±0.009 vs. 0.68±0.04, p<0.001, and seminal vesicles (0.057±0.01 vs. 0.8±0.04, p<0.001. GMSB diet adversely affected sperm count (406±7.1 vs. 610±7.8, p<0.001, motility (p<0.001, and abnormality (p<0.001. GMSB diet also reduced serum zinc (p<0.05, vitamin E (p<0.05, and testosterone (p<0.05 concentrations. EVOO diet had no detrimental effect. Addition of EVOO to GMSB diet increased the serum zinc (p<0.05, vitamin E (p<0.05, and testosterone (p<0.05 levels and also restored the weights of testis (1.35±0.16 vs. 0.66±0.06, p<0.01, epididymis (0.614±0.13 vs. 0.489±0.03, p<0.001, prostate (0.291±0.09 vs. 0.04±0.009, p<0.001, seminal vesicle (0.516±0.18 vs. 0.057±0.01, p<0.001 along with sperm count (516±3.1 vs. 406±7.1, p<0.01, motility (p<0.01, and abnormality (p<0.05. Conclusion: EVOO ameliorates the adverse effects of GMSB on reproductive organs in adult male

  6. Increase in skeletal muscle protein content by the ß-2 selective adrenergic agonist clenbuterol exacerbates hypoalbuminemia in rats fed a low-protein diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Sawaya

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available This investigation examined how the nutritional status of rats fed a low-protein diet was affected when the animals were treated with the ß-2 selective agonist clenbuterol (CL. Males (4 weeks old from an inbred, specific-pathogen-free strain of hooded rats maintained at the Dunn Nutritional Laboratory were used in the experiments (N = 6 rats per group. CL treatment (Ventipulmin, Boehringer-Ingelheim Ltd., 3.2 mg/kg diet for 2 weeks caused an exacerbation of the symptoms associated with protein deficiency in rats. Plasma albumin concentrations, already low in rats fed a low-protein diet (group A, were further reduced in CL rats (A = 25.05 ± 0.31 vs CL = 23.64 ± 0.30 g/l, P<0.05. Total liver protein decreased below the level seen in either pair-fed animals (group P or animals with free access to the low-protein diet (A = 736.56 ± 26 vs CL = 535.41 ± 54 mg, P<0.05, whereas gastrocnemius muscle protein was higher than the values normally described for control (C animals (C = 210.88 ± 3.2 vs CL = 227.14 ± 1.7 mg/g, P<0.05. Clenbuterol-treated rats also showed a reduction in growth when compared to P rats (P = 3.2 ± 1.1 vs CL = -10.2 ± 1.9 g, P<0.05. This was associated with a marked decrease in fat stores (P = 5.35 ± 0.81 vs CL = 2.02 ± 0.16 g, P<0.05. Brown adipose tissue (BAT cytochrome oxidase activity, although slightly lower than in P rats (P = 469.96 ± 16.20 vs CL = 414.48 ± 11.32 U/BAT x kg body weight, P<0.05, was still much higher than in control rats (C = 159.55 ± 11.54 vs CL = 414.48 ± 11.32 U/BAT x kg body weight, P<0.05. The present findings support the hypothesis that an increased muscle protein content due to clenbuterol stimulation worsened amino acid availability to the liver and further reduced albumin synthesis causing exacerbation of hypoalbuminemia in rats fed a low-protein diet.

  7. Effects of grape wine and apple cider vinegar on oxidative and antioxidative status in high cholesterol-fed rats

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    Atıf Can Seydim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress is the result of an imbalance between the rates of free radical production and elimination via endogenous antioxidant mechanisms such as antioxidant enzymes, which include glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT. There are mainly two vinegar production methods. The first is the surface method which is also known as the traditional method. The second method is known as the industrial method or submerged method which involves the use of a submerged culture with supplemented aeration. Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the effects of grape and apple cider vinegar consumption against oxidative stress in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Methods: Fifty-four male, adult Wistar albino rats were included in this study. Rats were fed for 7 weeks by oral gavage as given in the experimental procedure. Rats were sacrificed at the end of the experiment and blood samples were collected. Catalase (CAT activity, malondialdehyde level (MDA, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity were analyzed. Grape and apple vinegar fermentation products prepared using both the surface culture method and submerged methods were prepared. The total antioxidant activity of vinegar samples were measured by Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC and 2,2’-azinobis (3- ethlybenzthiazoline-6- sulfonic acid (ABTS methods. Results: Levels of CAT, GSH-Px, SOD in high cholesterol diet group (CHCNT were significantly decreased while MDA levels were significantly increased when compared to control-diet group (CNT (P<0.05. Levels of MDA, which is the end-product of lipid peroxidation, were significantly decreased in the apple cider vinegar administered groups when compared to the CHCNT (P<0.05. GSH-Px levels were significantly increased in rat groups, which were fed with the vinegars produced by traditional surface methods (P=0.03, P=0.001 respectively as compared to the

  8. Insulin sensitivity is normalized in the third generation (F3 offspring of developmentally programmed insulin resistant (F2 rats fed an energy-restricted diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin John F

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background/Aims The offspring and grandoffspring of female rats fed low protein diets during pregnancy and lactation, but fed nutritionally adequate diets thereafter, have been shown to exhibit altered insulin sensitivity in adulthood. The current study investigates the insulin sensitivity of the offspring and grandoffspring of female rats fed low protein diets during pregnancy, and then maintained on energy-restricted diets post weaning over three generations. Methods Female Sprague Dawley rats (F0 were mated with control males and protein malnourished during pregnancy/lactation. F1 offspring were then weaned to adequate but energy-restricted diets into adulthood. F1 dams were fed energy-restricted diets throughout pregnancy/lactation. F2 offspring were also fed energy-restricted diets post weaning. F2 pregnant dams were maintained as described above. Their F3 offspring were split into two groups; one was maintained on the energy-restricted diet, the other was maintained on an adequate diet consumed ad libitum post weaning. Results F2 animals fed energy-restricted diets were insulin resistant (p ad libitum postweaning diets (p Conclusion Maternal energy-restriction did not consistently program reduced insulin sensitivity in offspring over three consecutive generations. The reasons for this remain unclear. It is possible that the intergenerational transmission of developmentally programmed insulin resistance is determined in part by the relative insulin sensitivity of the mother during pregnancy/lactation.

  9. Hypolipidaemic and anti-oxidative potential of encapsulated herb (Terminalia arjuna) added vanilla chocolate milk in high cholesterol fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawale, Pravin Digambar; Pothuraju, Ramesh; Abdul Hussain, Shaik; Kumar, Anuj; Kapila, Suman; Patil, Girdhari Ramdas

    2016-03-15

    Atherosclerosis is associated with coronary artery disease and occurs in developing as well as developed countries. In the present investigation, hypolipidaemic and anti-oxidative properties of encapsulated herb (Terminalia arjuna, 1.8%) added vanilla chocolate dairy drink was evaluated in high cholesterol fed Wistar rats for 60 days. At the end of the experimental period, a significant decrease in the body weight gain by rats receiving the encapsulated herb extract was noted as compared to high cholesterol fed rats. Administration of microencapsulated herb showed a statistically significant decrease in organ weights (epididymal fat and liver). Moreover, a significant decrease in serum lipids such as triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and atherogenic index was observed with encapsulated Terminalia arjuna extract in high cholesterol fed group. Increases in reduced glutathione and decreases in TBARS levels were also reported in both liver and red blood cell lysates with encapsulated herb supplementation. The results demonstrated that the bioactive components (phytosterols, flavanoids, saponins and tannins etc.) which are present in the encapsulated T. arjuna not only withstand the processing conditions but also are effectively released in the intestine and show their effects, such as hypolipidaemic and antioxidant activities, for better treating cardiovascular disease. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Moderate red-wine consumption partially prevents body weight gain in rats fed a hyperlipidic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadillo, Montserrat; Bargalló, Montserrat Vadillo; Ardévol, Anna; Grau, Anna Ardévol; Fernández-Larrea, Juan; Fernández-Larrea, Juan de Dios; Pujadas, Gerard; Anguiano, Gerard Pujadas; Bladé, Cinta; Segarra, Maria Cinta Bladé; Salvadó, Maria Josepa; Rovira, Maria Josepa Salvadó; Arola, Lluís; Ferré, Lluia Arola; Blay, Mayte; Olivé, Mayte Blay

    2006-02-01

    Red wine is a beverage that can exert a broad spectrum of health-promoting actions both in humans and laboratory animal models if consumed moderately. However, information about its effect on body weight is scarce. We have evaluated the effect of moderate red wine consumption on body weight and energy intake in male Zucker lean rats fed a hypercaloric diet for 8 weeks. For this purpose, we used three 5-animal groups: a high-fat diet group (HFD), a high-fat-diet red-wine-drinking group (HFRWD), and a standard diet group (SD). After 8 weeks, the HFRWD group had a lower body weight gain (175.66 +/- 2.78% vs 188.22 +/- 4.83%; Pred wine didn't modified the fed efficiency 0.012 +/- 0.001 g/KJ for HFRWD group versus 0.013 +/- 0.001 g/KJ for the HFD one (P=.080). These findings, though preliminary, show that moderate red wine intake can prevent the increase of body weight by modulating energy intake in a rat diet-induced model of obesity.

  11. Plasma lipids and prothrombin time in rats fed palm oil and other commonly used fats in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein, Mona M.; Salama, Fawzy M.; Ebada, Karina M.

    1993-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for a total period of 8 weeks on six diets that were different in the source of their fat content. The fat content was provided either, palm oil or palm olein or corn oil or hydrogenated fat, or frying palm oil and mixture of corn oil + hydrogenated fat in the ratio (1:1). The latter was given to the control group. Animals fed these various experimental diets showed statistically significant differences in serum cholesterol and serum triglycerides content amo...

  12. Effect of dietary supplementation with olive and sunflower oils on lipid profile and liver histology in rats fed high cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duavy, Sandra Mara Pimentel; Salazar, Gerson Javier Torres; Leite, Gerlânia de Oliveira; Ecker, Assis; Barbosa, Nilda Vargas

    2017-06-01

    To compare the effects of high-monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) against the metabolic disorders elicited by a high-cholesterol diet (HC) in rats. Using in vivo dietary manipulation, rats were fed with different diets containing 4% soybean oil (cholesterol free diet) and 1% HC containing 12% olive oil (HC + OO) enriched with MUFA and 12% sunflower oil (HC + SO) enriched with PUFA for 60 d. Serum lipid levels and hepatic steatosis were evaluated after the treatment period. Comparatively, rats treated with HC + OO diet experienced a decrease in the serum LDL-C, VLDL-C and CT levels compared to those fed with HC + SO diet (P blood. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of the antituberculous drug ethambutol on zinc absorption, turnover and distribution in rats fed diet marginal and adequate in zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, A.B.; Schwartz, R.

    1987-04-01

    Ethambutol, (CH/sub 3/CH/sub 2/-CH(CH/sub 2/OH)-NH-CH/sub 2/)/sub 2/ (EMB), is an oral antituberculous agent that is administered therapeutically over extended time periods. It has chelating properties and may affect mineral metabolism. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats received 0, 400 or 600 mg EMB per kilogram body weight daily by gavage for 30 d. They were fed a casein-based diet with either adequate (49 ppm) or marginal (11 ppm) zinc. Both adequate-Zn (AZn) and marginal-Zn (MZn) rats receiving EMB showed alopecia and dose-dependent reductions in feed intake, weight gain and feed efficiency. None of these changes was seen in rats fed the MZn diet without EMB. Serum and tissue zinc levels were similar in rats not receiving EMB, regardless of the dietary zinc level. Serum zinc was consistently lower in AZn and MZn rats receiving EMB than in rats without EMB. Apparent zinc absorption, measured by /sup 65/Zn balance, was higher in AZn rats receiving EMB than in AZn rats without EMB. Thus, changes in absorption could not account for lower serum zinc levels in EMB-treated rats. However, /sup 65/Zn turnover was also higher in EMB groups. This suggests that EMB may have increased urinary zinc losses resulting in reduced circulating zinc and a consequent increase in zinc absorption.

  14. Effects of the antituberculous drug ethambutol on zinc absorption, turnover and distribution in rats fed diet marginal and adequate in zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, A.B.; Schwartz, R.

    1987-01-01

    Ethambutol, [CH 3 CH 2 -CH(CH 2 OH)-NH-CH 2 ] 2 (EMB), is an oral antituberculous agent that is administered therapeutically over extended time periods. It has chelating properties and may affect mineral metabolism. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats received 0, 400 or 600 mg EMB per kilogram body weight daily by gavage for 30 d. They were fed a casein-based diet with either adequate (49 ppm) or marginal (11 ppm) zinc. Both adequate-Zn (AZn) and marginal-Zn (MZn) rats receiving EMB showed alopecia and dose-dependent reductions in feed intake, weight gain and feed efficiency. None of these changes was seen in rats fed the MZn diet without EMB. Serum and tissue zinc levels were similar in rats not receiving EMB, regardless of the dietary zinc level. Serum zinc was consistently lower in AZn and MZn rats receiving EMB than in rats without EMB. Apparent zinc absorption, measured by 65 Zn balance, was higher in AZn rats receiving EMB than in AZn rats without EMB. Thus, changes in absorption could not account for lower serum zinc levels in EMB-treated rats. However, 65 Zn turnover was also higher in EMB groups. This suggests that EMB may have increased urinary zinc losses resulting in reduced circulating zinc and a consequent increase in zinc absorption

  15. Overview of applications of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremers, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a method of performing elemental analyses of solids, liquids, and gases using the microplasma produced by a focused laser pulse. Because the microplasma is formed by optical radiation, LIBS has some important advantages compared to conventional laboratory based analytical methods. Three applications are discussed which use the LIBS method. 6 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  16. The Effect of Exercise on the Skeletal Muscle Phospholipidome of Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

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    Jong Sam Lee

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effect of endurance training on skeletal muscle phospholipid molecular species from high-fat fed rats. Twelve female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet (78.1% energy. The rats were randomly divided into two groups, a sedentary control group and a trained group (125 min of treadmill running at 8 m/min, 4 days/wk for 4 weeks. Forty-eight hours after their last training bout phospholipids were extracted from the red and white vastus lateralis and analyzed by electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry. Exercise training was associated with significant alterations in the relative abundance of a number of phospholipid molecular species. These changes were more prominent in red vastus lateralis than white vastus lateralis. The largest observed change was an increase of ~30% in the abundance of 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl phosphatidylcholine ions in oxidative fibers. Reductions in the relative abundance of a number of phospholipids containing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were also observed. These data suggest a possible reduction in phospholipid remodeling in the trained animals. This results in a decrease in the phospholipid n-3 to n-6 ratio that may in turn influence endurance capacity.

  17. Effect of vitamin E supplementation on serumic levels of lipids and lipoproteins in cholesterol-fed male rat

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    M.H Khayat Nouri

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia is one of the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. High blood cholesterol affects the general health and increases the mortality rate of cardiovascular diseases. High levels of cholesterol in the diet increases LDL levels and decreases the activity of LDL receptors in the liver. Oxidation of vascular LDL lipoproteins increases the development of atherosclerosis. Previous studies have indicated that consumption of antioxidants decreases hypercholesterolemia. This study evaluates the effect of vitamin E supplementation on blood lipid levels in high cholesterol-fed rats. In this experimental study, three groups of male rats (n=10 for each group were used. The control group received basic diet and one of the other two groups received a diet containing one percent cholesterol and while the other received the same diet plus vitamin E supplement (2500 IU/kg in dry matter of the diet for one month. After determining the values of TC, LDL, VLDL, HDL and TG the results indicated that in rats fed with 1% cholesterol apart from HDL and VLDL the other lipids had increased significantly compared with the control group (p

  18. Dietary phytic acid modulates characteristics of the colonic luminal environment and reduces serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Yukako; Katayama, Tetsuyuki

    2014-12-01

    Dietary phytic acid (PA; myo-inositol [MI] hexaphosphate) is known to inhibit colon carcinogenesis in rodents. Dietary fiber, which is a negative risk factor of colon cancer, improves characteristics of the colonic environment, such as the content of organic acids and microflora. We hypothesized that dietary PA would improve the colonic luminal environment in rats fed a high-fat diet. To test this hypothesis, rats were fed diets containing 30% beef tallow with 2.04% sodium PA, 0.4% MI, or 1.02% sodium PA + 0.2% MI for 3 weeks. Compared with the control diet, the sodium PA diet up-regulated cecal organic acids, including acetate, propionate, and n-butyrate; this effect was especially prominent for cecal butyrate. The sodium PA + MI diet also significantly increased cecal butyrate, although this effect was less pronounced when compared with the sodium PA diet. The cecal ratio of Lactobacillales, cecal and fecal mucins (an index of intestinal barrier function), and fecal β-glucosidase activity were higher in rats fed the sodium PA diet than in those fed the control diet. The sodium PA, MI, and sodium PA + MI diets decreased levels of serum tumor necrosis factor α, which is a proinflammatory cytokine. Another proinflammatory cytokine, serum interleukin-6, was also down-regulated by the sodium PA and sodium PA + MI diets. These data showed that PA may improve the composition of cecal organic acids, microflora, and mucins, and it may decrease the levels of serum proinflammatory cytokines in rats fed a high-fat, mineral-sufficient diet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Portulaca oleracea reduces triglyceridemia, cholesterolemia, and improves lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase activity in rats fed enriched-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Y; Bouderbala, S; Djellouli, F; Lacaille-Dubois, M A; Bouchenak, M

    2014-10-15

    The effects of Portulaca oleracea (Po) lyophilized aqueous extract were determined on the serum high-density lipoproteins (HDL2 and HDL3) amounts and composition, as well as on lecithin: cholesterol acyltansferase (LCAT) activity. Male Wistar rats (n = 12) were fed on 1% cholesterol-enriched diet for 10 days. After this phase, hypercholesterolemic rats (HC) were divided into two groups fed the same diet supplemented or not with Portulaca oleracea (Po-HC) (0.5%) for four weeks. Serum total cholesterol (TC) and triacylglycerols (TG), and liver TG values were respectively 1.6-, 1.8-, and 1.6-fold lower in Po-HC than in HC group. Cholesterol concentrations in LDL-HDL1, HDL2, and HDL3 were respectively 1.8, 1.4-, and 2.4-fold decreased in Po-HC group. HDL2 and HDL3 amounts, which were the sum of apolipoproteins (apos), TG, cholesteryl esters (CE), unesterified cholesterol (UC), and phospholipids (PL) contents, were respectively 4.5-fold higher and 1.2-fold lower with Po treatment. Indeed, enhanced LCAT activity (1.2-fold), its cofactor-activator apo A-I (2-fold) and its reaction product HDL2-CE (2.1-fold) were observed, whereas HDL3-PL (enzyme substrate) and HDL3-UC (acyl group acceptor) were 1.2- and 2.4-fold lower. Portulaca oleracea reduces triglyceridemia, cholesterolemia, and improves reverse cholesterol transport in rat fed enriched-cholesterol diet, contributing to anti-atherogenic effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Detection of Riddelliine-Derived DNA Adducts in Blood of Rats Fed Riddelliine

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    Ming W. Chou

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We have previously shown that riddelliine, a naturally occurring genotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, induces liver tumors in rats and mice through a genotoxic mechanism mediated by the formation of a set of eight 6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5Hpyrrolizine ( DHP-derived DNA adducts. In this study we report the formation of these DHP-derived DNA adducts in blood DNA of rats fed riddelliine. In an adduct formation and removal experiment, male and female F344 rats (8 weeks of age were administered riddelliine by gavage at a single dose of 10.0 mg/kg body weight in 0.1 M phosphate buffer. At 8, 24, 48, and 168 hrs after dosing, the levels of DHP-derived DNA adduct in blood and liver were determined by 32P-postlabeling/HPLC. Maximum DNA adduct formation occurred at 48 hr after treatment. From 48 to 168 hours, the adduct levels in female rat blood were 4-fold greater than those in male rats. In a dose response experiment, female rats were gavaged 0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg doses of riddelliine for three consecutive days and the DHPderived DNA adducts in blood DNA were assayed. The levels of the DHP-derived DNA adducts in blood of rats receiving 0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg doses were 12.9 and 51.8 adducts/107 nucleotides. These results suggest that: (i leucocyte DNA can bind with DHP to form a set of DHP-derived DNA adducts generated in liver; (ii DHP-derived DNA adducts in blood can serve as a potential non-invasive biomarkers for assessing the exposure to riddelliine.

  1. Grape powder consumption affects the expression of neurodegeneration-related brain proteins in rats chronically fed a high-fructose-high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hsiang; Chou, Liang-Mao; Chien, Yi-Wen; Wu, Chi-Hao; Chang, Jung-Su; Lin, Ching-I; Lin, Shyh-Hsiang

    2017-05-01

    Abnormal glucose metabolism in the brain is recognized to be associated with cognitive decline. Because grapes are rich in polyphenols that produce antioxidative and blood sugar-lowering effects, we investigated how grape consumption affects the expression and/or phosphorylation of neurodegeneration-related brain proteins in aged rats fed a high-fructose-high-fat (HFHF) diet. Wistar rats were maintained on the HFHF diet from the age of 8 weeks to 66 weeks, and then on an HFHF diet containing either 3% or 6% grape powder as an intervention for 12 weeks. Western blotting was performed to measure the expression/phosphorylation levels of several cortical and hippocampal proteins, including amyloid precursor protein (APP), tau, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGEs), erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Inclusion of up to 6% grape powder in the diet markedly reduced RAGE expression and tau hyperphosphorylation, but upregulated the expression of Nrf2 and BDNF, as well as the phosphorylation of PI3K and ERK, in the brain tissues of aged rats fed the HFHF diet. Thus, grape powder consumption produced beneficial effects in HFHF-diet-fed rats, exhibiting the potential to ameliorate changes in neurodegeneration-related proteins in the brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. LiB and its boron-deficient variants under pressure

    KAUST Repository

    Hermann, Andreas

    2012-10-15

    Results of computational investigations of the structural and electronic properties of the ground states of binary compounds LiB x with 0.67 ≤x≤1.00 under pressure are reported. Structure predictions based on evolutionary algorithms and particle swarm optimization reveal that with increasing pressure, stoichiometric 1:1-LiB undergoes a variety of phase transitions, is significantly stabilized with respect to the elements and takes up a diamondoid boron network at high pressures. The Zintl picture is very useful in understanding the evolution of structures with pressure. The experimentally seen finite range of stability for LiB x phases with 0.8≤x≤1.00 is modeled both by boron-deficient variants of the 1:1-LiB structure and lithium-enriched intercalation structures. We find that the finite stability range vanishes at pressures P≥40GPa, where stoichiometric compounds then become more stable. A metal-to-insulator transition for LiB is predicted at P = 70 GPa. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  3. LiB and its boron-deficient variants under pressure

    KAUST Repository

    Hermann, Andreas; Suarez-Alcubilla, Ainhoa; Gurtubay, Idoia G.; Yang, Li-Ming; Bergara, Aitor; Ashcroft, N. W.; Hoffmann, Roald

    2012-01-01

    Results of computational investigations of the structural and electronic properties of the ground states of binary compounds LiB x with 0.67 ≤x≤1.00 under pressure are reported. Structure predictions based on evolutionary algorithms and particle swarm optimization reveal that with increasing pressure, stoichiometric 1:1-LiB undergoes a variety of phase transitions, is significantly stabilized with respect to the elements and takes up a diamondoid boron network at high pressures. The Zintl picture is very useful in understanding the evolution of structures with pressure. The experimentally seen finite range of stability for LiB x phases with 0.8≤x≤1.00 is modeled both by boron-deficient variants of the 1:1-LiB structure and lithium-enriched intercalation structures. We find that the finite stability range vanishes at pressures P≥40GPa, where stoichiometric compounds then become more stable. A metal-to-insulator transition for LiB is predicted at P = 70 GPa. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  4. Prebiotic and synbiotic effects on rats fed malted barley with selected bacteria strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadong Zhong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Butyric acid, one of the key products formed when β-glucans are degraded by the microbiota in the colon, has been proposed to be important for colonic health. Glutamine bound to the fibre may have similar effects once it has been liberated from the fibre in the colon. Both β-glucans and glutamine are found in high amounts in malted barley. Lactobacillus rhamnosus together with malt has been shown to increase the formation of butyric acid further in rats. Objective: To investigate whether Lactobacillus rhamnosus 271, Lactobacillus paracasei 87002, Lactobacillus plantarum HEAL 9 and 19, and Bifidobacterium infantis CURE 21 affect the levels of short-chain fatty acids and glutamine in caecum and portal blood of rats fed barley malt. Design: The experimental diets were fed for 12 days. The daily dose of the probiotic strain was 1×109 colony forming units and the intake of fibre 0.82 g/day. Results: The malt mostly contained insoluble fibre polymers (93%, consisting of glucose and xylose (38–41 g/kg and some arabinose (21 g/kg. The fibre polysaccharides were quite resistant to fermentation in the rats, regardless of whether or not probiotics were added (25–30% were fermented. Caecal and portal levels of acetic acid decreased in the rats after the addition of L. plantarum HEAL 9 and L. rhamnosus 271, and also the levels of butyric acid. Viable counts of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Enterobacteriaceae were unaffected, while the caecal composition of Lactobacilli was influenced by the type of strain administrated. Portal levels of glutamine were unchanged, but glycine levels increased with L. plantarum HEAL 9 and 19 and phenylalanine with L. rhamnosus 271. Conclusions: Although the probiotic strains survived and reached the caecum, except B. infantis CURE 21, there were no effects on viable counts or in the fermentation of different fibre components, but the formation of some bacterial metabolites decreased. This may be due to

  5. Protein and energy metabolism of young male Wistar rats fed conjugated linoleic acid as structured triacylglycerol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, H.; Hansen, C. H.; Mu, Huiling

    2010-01-01

    Twelve 4-week-old male Wistar rats weighing 100 g were fed diets semi-ad libitum for 22 d containing either 1.5% conjugated linoleic acid (CLA-diet) or high oleic sunflower oil (Control-diet). The CLA was structured triacylglycerol with predominantly cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 fatty acid...

  6. Beneficial effects of calcitriol on hypertension, glucose intolerance, impairment of endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation, and visceral adiposity in fructose-fed hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chu-Lin; Pang, Cheng-Yoong; Lee, Tony J F; Fang, Te-Chao

    2015-01-01

    Besides regulating calcium homeostasis, the effects of vitamin D on vascular tone and metabolic disturbances remain scarce in the literature despite an increase intake with high-fructose corn syrup worldwide. We investigated the effects of calcitriol, an active form of vitamin D, on vascular relaxation, glucose tolerance, and visceral fat pads in fructose-fed rats. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 6 per group). Group Con: standard chow diet for 8 weeks; Group Fru: high-fructose diet (60% fructose) for 8 weeks; Group Fru-HVD: high-fructose diet as Group Fru, high-dose calcitriol treatment (20 ng / 100 g body weight per day) 4 weeks after the beginning of fructose feeding; and Group Fru-LVD: high-fructose diet as Group Fru, low-dose calcitriol treatment (10 ng / 100 g body weight per day) 4 weeks after the beginning of fructose feeding. Systolic blood pressure was measured twice a week by the tail-cuff method. Blood was examined for serum ionized calcium, phosphate, creatinine, glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol. Intra-peritoneal glucose intolerance test, aortic vascular reactivity, the weight of visceral fat pads, adipose size, and adipose angiotensin II levels were analyzed at the end of the study. The results showed that the fructose-fed rats significantly developed hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance, heavier weight and larger adipose size of visceral fat pads, and raised adipose angiotensin II expressions compared with the control rats. High- and low-dose calcitriol reduced modestly systolic blood pressure, increased endothelium-dependent aortic relaxation, ameliorated glucose intolerance, reduced the weight and adipose size of visceral fat pads, and lowered adipose angiotensin II expressions in the fructose-fed rats. However, high-dose calcitriol treatment mildly increased serum ionized calcium levels (1.44 ± 0.05 mmol/L). These results suggest a protective role of calcitriol treatment on endothelial function, glucose

  7. Beneficial effects of calcitriol on hypertension, glucose intolerance, impairment of endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation, and visceral adiposity in fructose-fed hypertensive rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu-Lin Chou

    Full Text Available Besides regulating calcium homeostasis, the effects of vitamin D on vascular tone and metabolic disturbances remain scarce in the literature despite an increase intake with high-fructose corn syrup worldwide. We investigated the effects of calcitriol, an active form of vitamin D, on vascular relaxation, glucose tolerance, and visceral fat pads in fructose-fed rats. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 6 per group. Group Con: standard chow diet for 8 weeks; Group Fru: high-fructose diet (60% fructose for 8 weeks; Group Fru-HVD: high-fructose diet as Group Fru, high-dose calcitriol treatment (20 ng / 100 g body weight per day 4 weeks after the beginning of fructose feeding; and Group Fru-LVD: high-fructose diet as Group Fru, low-dose calcitriol treatment (10 ng / 100 g body weight per day 4 weeks after the beginning of fructose feeding. Systolic blood pressure was measured twice a week by the tail-cuff method. Blood was examined for serum ionized calcium, phosphate, creatinine, glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol. Intra-peritoneal glucose intolerance test, aortic vascular reactivity, the weight of visceral fat pads, adipose size, and adipose angiotensin II levels were analyzed at the end of the study. The results showed that the fructose-fed rats significantly developed hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance, heavier weight and larger adipose size of visceral fat pads, and raised adipose angiotensin II expressions compared with the control rats. High- and low-dose calcitriol reduced modestly systolic blood pressure, increased endothelium-dependent aortic relaxation, ameliorated glucose intolerance, reduced the weight and adipose size of visceral fat pads, and lowered adipose angiotensin II expressions in the fructose-fed rats. However, high-dose calcitriol treatment mildly increased serum ionized calcium levels (1.44 ± 0.05 mmol/L. These results suggest a protective role of calcitriol treatment on endothelial

  8. Characterization of organic materials by LIBS for exploration of correlation between molecular and elemental LIBS signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Rai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study is performed for the preparation of a database by accumulating LIBS spectra of 4-nitroaniline and 4-nitrotoluene in air and argon. Changes in the behavior of the molecular bands of the C2 Swan system and CN violet system as well as of atomic lines of C, H and N in the LIBS signal are appreciable in argon. In order to explore the correlation between observed LIBS signal and molecular composition of these materials, normalized intensities of the emission lines have been estimated for each compound. It has been found that the relative rates of increase/decrease in the normalized intensities for all sets are higher for 4-nitrotoluene in argon. The cause of the higher rate for 4-nitrotoluene might be due to the possession of a distinctive functional group. The ultimate goal behind the whole study is to use this data-base as input for the discrimination of energetic materials.

  9. Effect of 60Co-irradiation on normal and low protein diet fed rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, S.S.; Habibullah, M.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of whole-body irradiation (Co-60) on the brain tissue in Holtzmann strain adult male rats was studied. Two doses of irradiation (450 R,950 R) were tried on animals which were fed on normal as well as low protein diets over a period of 10 generations. In the normal rats, 450 R initially caused a lowered total protein. DNA and RNA content in the brain. After 7 days a tendency towards normalcy was observed. In the 950 R irradiated normal rats the diminution of protein content appeared irreversible. In malnourished 450 R irradiated rats, the protein content rose less steeply over the 7 days of observation. A higher dose of 950 R enhanced this effect on protein and also lowered the DNA content on day 5. The RNA content in the 950 R group with malnutrition showed a marked increase towards or beyond control perhaps as an expression of uncoupled feedback control. The paper gives evidence that protein deficiency may interfere with cellular regeneration in irradiated brain. (orig.) [de

  10. Differential effects of restricted versus unlimited high-fat feeding in rats on fat mass, plasma hormones and brain appetite regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraev, T; Chen, H; Morris, M J

    2009-07-01

    The rapid rise in obesity has been linked to altered food consumption patterns. There is increasing evidence that, in addition to total energy intake, the macronutrient composition of the diet may influence the development of obesity. The present study aimed to examine the impact of high dietary fat content, under both isocaloric and hypercaloric conditions, compared with a low fat diet, on adiposity, glucose and lipid metabolism, and brain appetite regulators in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to one of three diets: control (14% fat), ad lib high-fat palatable (HFD, 35% fat) or high-fat palatable restricted (HFD-R, matched to the energy intake of control) and were killed in the fasting state 11 weeks later. Body weight was increased by 28% in unrestricted HFD fed rats, with an almost tripling of caloric intake and fat mass (P < 0.001) and double the plasma triglycerides of controls. Glucose intolerance and increased insulin levels were observed. HFD-R animals calorie matched to control had double their fat mass, plasma insulin and triglycerides (P < 0.05). Only ad lib consumption of the HFD increased the hypothalamic mRNA expression of the appetite-regulating peptides, neuropeptide Y and pro-opiomelanocortin. Although restricted consumption of palatable HFD had no significant impact on hypothalamic appetite regulators or body weight, it increased adiposity and circulating triglycerides, suggesting that the proportion of dietary fat, independent of caloric intake, affects fat deposition and the metabolic profile.

  11. High doses of garlic extract significantly attenuated the ratio of serum LDL to HDL level in rat-fed with hypercholesterolemia diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Tahereh; Behdad, Behnoosh; Abbasi, Maryam Agha; Rabati, Rahman Ghaffarzadegan; Fayyaz, Amir Farshid; Behnod, Vahid; Asgari, Ali

    2015-06-20

    Hypercholesterolemia is associated with an increased risk of heart disease. In this study, we investigated the antihyperlipidemic effects of garlic (Allium sativum L.) in rat models of hypercholesterolemic. Wistar male rats were randomly divided into 4 diet groups with garlic supplementation. Male Wistar rats were fed by standard pellet diet (group I), standard diet supplemented with 4% garlic (group II), lipogenic diet (containing sunflower oil, cholesterol and ethanol) equivalent to 200 mg raw garlic/kg body weight (raw) (group III) and lipogenic diet equivalent to 400 mg raw garlic/kg body weight (raw) (group IV). Rats fed 400 g/kg garlic extract(GE), had a significantly lower concentration of serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) cholesterol and elevated HDL -C cholesterol at day 28 (P garlic supplementation (P garlic in reducing lateral side effects of hyperlipidemia. Our data demonstrate that GE has protective effects on HDL in rats with high LDL intake. Therefore, it could be used to remedy hypercholesterolemia with help reduce risk of coronary heart disease The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1834155749171141.

  12. Molecular factors involved in the hypolipidemic- and insulin-sensitizing effects of a ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) extract in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Las Heras, Natalia; Valero-Muñoz, María; Martín-Fernández, Beatriz; Ballesteros, Sandra; López-Farré, Antonio; Ruiz-Roso, Baltasar; Lahera, Vicente

    2017-02-01

    Hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic properties of ginger in animal models have been reported. However, information related to the mechanisms and factors involved in the metabolic effects of ginger at a hepatic level are limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate molecular factors involved in the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of a hydroethanolic ginger extract (GE) in the liver of rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The study was conducted in male Wistar rats divided into the following 3 groups: (i) Rats fed a standard diet (3.5% fat), the control group; (ii) rats fed an HFD (33.5% fat); and (iii) rats fed an HFD treated with GE (250 mg·kg -1 ·day -1 ) for 5 weeks (HFD+GE). Plasma levels of glucose, insulin, lipid profile, leptin, and adiponectin were measured. Liver expression of glycerol phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR), PPARα and PPARγ, glucose transporter 2 (GLUT-2), liver X receptor, sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP1c), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), and collagen I was measured. Data were analyzed using a 1-way ANOVA, followed by a Newman-Keuls test if differences were noted. The study showed that GE improved lipid profile and attenuated the increase of plasma levels of glucose, insulin, and leptin in HFD rats. This effect was associated with a higher liver expression of PPARα, PPARγ, and GLUT-2 and an enhancement of plasma adiponectin levels. Furthermore, GE reduced liver expression of GPAT, SREBP1c, CTGF, and collagen I. The results suggest that GE might be considered as an alternative therapeutic strategy in the management of overweight and hepatic and metabolic-related alterations.

  13. Effect of berberine on the ratio of high-molecular weight adiponectin to total adiponectin and adiponectin receptors expressions in high-fat diet fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue-Yue; Zha, Ying; Liu, Jun; Wang, Fang; Xu, Jiong; Chen, Zao-Ping; Ding, He-Yuan; Sheng, Li; Han, Xiao-Jie

    2016-11-17

    To assess the effects of berberine (BBR) on high-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin and adiponectin receptors (adipoR1/adipoR2) expressions in high-fat (HF) diet fed rats. Forty Wistar male rats were randomly assigned into a normal diet fed group and three HF diet (fat for 45% calories) fed groups (n=10 for each group). All rats underwent 12 weeks of feeding. After 4 weeks feeding, rats in the two of three HF diet fed groups were treated with 150 mg·kg -1 ·day -1 BBR (HF+LBBR group) and 380 mg·kg -1 ·day -1 BBR (HF+HBBR group) by gavage once a day respectively for the next 8 weeks while the rats in other groups treated with vehicle (NF+Veh and HF+Veh). Body weight and food intake were observed and recorded on daily basis. At the end of 12 weeks, the blood, liver, epididymal fat tissues and quadriceps femoris muscles were collected. Fasting insulin, plasma fasting glucose, serum free fatty acid (FFA), total adiponectin and HMW adiponectin levels were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method. Glucose tolerance test (GTT) and insulin tolerance test (ITT) were performed to determine the insulinsensitizing. Meanwhile the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) method was used to determine insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The expressions of adipoR1, adipoR2 and adenosine monophophate activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation level in skeletal muscle and liver tissue were detected by Western blot. Liver and kidney toxicity were evaluated during treatment. The body weight of rats in high- or low-dose BBR group reduced as well as HOMA-IR, FFA concentrations and fasting insulin levels decreased compared with HF+Veh group (Pinsulin resistance by increasing the expression of adiponectin receptors and the ratio of HMW to total adiponectin.

  14. Blunted hypothalamic ghrelin signaling reduces diet intake in rats fed a low-protein diet in late pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet intake in pregnant rats fed a low-protein (LP) diet was significantly reduced during late pregnancy despite elevated plasma levels of ghrelin. In this study, we hypothesized that ghrelin signaling in the hypothalamus is blunted under a low-protein diet condition and therefore, it does not stimu...

  15. RNA-sequencing data analysis of uterus in ovariectomized rats fed with soy protein isolate, 17β-estradiol and casein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J. Ronis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This data file describes the bioinformatics analysis of uterine RNA-seq data comparing genome wide effects of feeding soy protein isolate compared to casein to ovariectomized female rats age 64 days relative to treatment of casein fed rats with 5 μg/kg/d estradiol and relative to rats treated with estradiol and also fed soy protein isolate. Complete raw data files were deposited in the gene Expression Omnibus (GEO at NCBI (http:/www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.geo/ under the GEO accession number GEO: GSE69819. Data presented here incudes a summary of the differential expression analysis with top 30 genes up- and down-regulated by soy protein isolate (SPI, estradiol (E2 and SPI+E2. Additional functional annotation analysis of KEGG pathways is also presented for each treatment, together with networks of interaction between those pathways. Further interpretation and discussion of this data can be found in the article “Uterine responses to feeding soy protein isolate and treatment with 17β-estradiol differ in ovariectomized female rats” Ronis et al. (2016 [1].

  16. Hypothyroidism Exacerbates Thrombophilia in Female Rats Fed with a High Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Mangge

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Clotting abnormalities are discussed both in the context with thyroid dysfunctions and obesity caused by a high fat diet. This study aimed to investigate the impact of hypo-, or hyperthyroidism on the endogenous thrombin potential (ETP, a master indicator of clotting activation, on Sprague Dawley rats fed a normal or high fat diet. Female Sprague Dawley rats (n = 66 were grouped into normal diet (ND; n = 30 and high-fat diet (HFD; n = 36 groups and subdivided into controls, hypothyroid and hyperthyroid groups, induced through propylthiouracil or triiodothyronine (T3 treatment, respectively. After 12 weeks of treatment ETP, body weight and food intake were analyzed. Successfully induced thyroid dysfunction was shown by T3 levels, both under normal and high fat diet. Thyroid dysfunction was accompanied by changes in calorie intake and body weight. In detail, compared to euthyroid controls, hypothyroid rats showed significantly increased—and hyperthyroid animals significantly decreased—ETP levels. High fat diet potentiated these effects in both directions. In summary, we are the first to show that hypothyroidism and high fat diet potentiate the thrombotic capacity of the clotting system in Sprague Dawley rats. This effect may be relevant for cardiovascular disease where thyroid function is poorly understood as a pathological contributor in the context of clotting activity and obesogenic nutrition.

  17. Study of different concentric rings inside gallstones with LIBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Ashok Kumar; Singh, Vivek Kumar; Rai, Nilesh Kumar; Rai, Awadhesh Kumar; Rai, Pradeep Kumar; Rai, Pramod Kumar; Rai, Suman; Baruah, G D

    2011-07-01

    Gallstones obtained from patients from the north-east region of India (Assam) were studied using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique. LIBS spectra of the different layers (in cross-section) of the gallstones were recorded in the spectral region 200-900 nm. Several elements, including calcium, magnesium, manganese, copper, silicon, phosphorus, iron, sodium and potassium, were detected in the gallstones. Lighter elements, including carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen were also detected, which demonstrates the superiority of the LIBS technique over other existing analytical techniques. The LIBS technique was applied to investigate the evolution of C(2) swan bands and CN violet bands in the LIBS spectra of the gallstones in air and an argon atmosphere. The different layers (dark and light layers) of the gallstones were discriminated on the basis of the presence and intensities of the spectral lines for carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and copper. An attempt was also made to correlate the presence of major and minor elements in the gallstones with the common diet of the population of Assam.

  18. Muscle protein turnover in rats treated with corticosterone (CC) or/and nandrolone decanoate (ND) and fed an adequate or a low-protein diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santidrian, S.; Cuevillas, F.; Goena, M.; Larralde, J.

    1986-03-01

    In order to investigate the possible antagonistic effect between glucocorticoids and androgens on muscle protein turnover, the authors have measured the fractional rates of gastrocnemius muscle protein synthesis (k/sub s/) and degradation (k/sub d/) by the constant-intravenous-infusion method using L-//sup 14/C/-tyrosine in rats receiving via s.c. per 100 g b.wt. 10 mg of CC, or 2 mg of ND or CC+ND at the indicated doses, and fed either an 18% or 5% protein diets over a period of 5 days. As an additional index of protein synthesis, RNA activity (g of synthesized protein/day/g RNA) was determined as well. Results showed that as compared to vehicle-injected animals fed the adequate diet, CC-treated rats exhibited a reduction of muscle k/sub d/, while ND-treated rats had an outstanding increase of muscle k/sub s/. However, rats receiving CC+ND showed k/sub s/ and k/sub d/ values similar to those displayed by control animals. Nevertheless, when the steroids were injected to rats fed the low-protein diet, CC has a catabolic effect on muscle protein but by reducing k/sub s/, while the anabolic action of ND is still displayed but by a significant reduction of muscle k/sub d/. CC+ND given to these protein-deficient rats caused an increase in muscle k/sub s/ and a reduction in k/sub d/. These results might indicate that, at least in part, ND antagonizes the catabolic action of high doses of CC on muscle protein metabolism.

  19. Muscle protein turnover in rats treated with corticosterone (CC) or/and nandrolone decanoate (ND) and fed an adequate or a low-protein diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santidrian, S.; Cuevillas, F.; Goena, M.; Larralde, J.

    1986-01-01

    In order to investigate the possible antagonistic effect between glucocorticoids and androgens on muscle protein turnover, the authors have measured the fractional rates of gastrocnemius muscle protein synthesis (k/sub s/) and degradation (k/sub d/) by the constant-intravenous-infusion method using L-/ 14 C/-tyrosine in rats receiving via s.c. per 100 g b.wt. 10 mg of CC, or 2 mg of ND or CC+ND at the indicated doses, and fed either an 18% or 5% protein diets over a period of 5 days. As an additional index of protein synthesis, RNA activity (g of synthesized protein/day/g RNA) was determined as well. Results showed that as compared to vehicle-injected animals fed the adequate diet, CC-treated rats exhibited a reduction of muscle k/sub d/, while ND-treated rats had an outstanding increase of muscle k/sub s/. However, rats receiving CC+ND showed k/sub s/ and k/sub d/ values similar to those displayed by control animals. Nevertheless, when the steroids were injected to rats fed the low-protein diet, CC has a catabolic effect on muscle protein but by reducing k/sub s/, while the anabolic action of ND is still displayed but by a significant reduction of muscle k/sub d/. CC+ND given to these protein-deficient rats caused an increase in muscle k/sub s/ and a reduction in k/sub d/. These results might indicate that, at least in part, ND antagonizes the catabolic action of high doses of CC on muscle protein metabolism

  20. Structural changes of gut microbiota during berberine-mediated prevention of obesity and insulin resistance in high-fat diet-fed rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zhang

    Full Text Available Berberine, a major pharmacological component of the Chinese herb Coptis chinensis, which was originally used to treat bacterial diarrhea, has recently been demonstrated to be clinically effective in alleviating type 2 diabetes. In this study, we revealed that berberine effectively prevented the development of obesity and insulin resistance in high-fat diet (HFD-fed rats, which showed decreased food intake. Increases in the levels of serum lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and leptin and decrease in the serum level of adiponectin corrected for body fat in HFD-fed rats were also significantly retarded by the co-administration of berberine at 100 mg/kg body weight. Bar-coded pyrosequencing of the V3 region of 16S rRNA genes revealed a significant reduction in the gut microbiota diversity of berberine-treated rats. UniFrac principal coordinates analysis revealed a marked shift of the gut microbiota structure in berberine-treated rats away from that of the controls. Redundancy analysis identified 268 berberine-responding operational taxonomic units (OTUs, most of which were essentially eliminated, whereas a few putative short-chain fatty acid (SCFA-producing bacteria, including Blautia and Allobaculum, were selectively enriched, along with elevations of fecal SCFA concentrations. Partial least square regression models based on these 268 OTUs were established (Q(2>0.6 for predicting the adiposity index, body weight, leptin and adiponectin corrected for body fat, indicating that these discrete phylotypes might have a close association with the host metabolic phenotypes. Taken together, our findings suggest that the prevention of obesity and insulin resistance by berberine in HFD-fed rats is at least partially mediated by structural modulation of the gut microbiota, which may help to alleviate inflammation by reducing the exogenous antigen load in the host and elevating SCFA levels in the intestine.

  1. Structural changes of gut microbiota during berberine-mediated prevention of obesity and insulin resistance in high-fat diet-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Zhao, Yufeng; Zhang, Menghui; Pang, Xiaoyan; Xu, Jia; Kang, Chaoying; Li, Meng; Zhang, Chenhong; Zhang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Yifei; Li, Xiaoying; Ning, Guang; Zhao, Liping

    2012-01-01

    Berberine, a major pharmacological component of the Chinese herb Coptis chinensis, which was originally used to treat bacterial diarrhea, has recently been demonstrated to be clinically effective in alleviating type 2 diabetes. In this study, we revealed that berberine effectively prevented the development of obesity and insulin resistance in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed rats, which showed decreased food intake. Increases in the levels of serum lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and leptin and decrease in the serum level of adiponectin corrected for body fat in HFD-fed rats were also significantly retarded by the co-administration of berberine at 100 mg/kg body weight. Bar-coded pyrosequencing of the V3 region of 16S rRNA genes revealed a significant reduction in the gut microbiota diversity of berberine-treated rats. UniFrac principal coordinates analysis revealed a marked shift of the gut microbiota structure in berberine-treated rats away from that of the controls. Redundancy analysis identified 268 berberine-responding operational taxonomic units (OTUs), most of which were essentially eliminated, whereas a few putative short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing bacteria, including Blautia and Allobaculum, were selectively enriched, along with elevations of fecal SCFA concentrations. Partial least square regression models based on these 268 OTUs were established (Q(2)>0.6) for predicting the adiposity index, body weight, leptin and adiponectin corrected for body fat, indicating that these discrete phylotypes might have a close association with the host metabolic phenotypes. Taken together, our findings suggest that the prevention of obesity and insulin resistance by berberine in HFD-fed rats is at least partially mediated by structural modulation of the gut microbiota, which may help to alleviate inflammation by reducing the exogenous antigen load in the host and elevating SCFA levels in the intestine.

  2. Prolonged decrease of adipocyte size after rosiglitazone treatment in high- and low-fat-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Julia A; Trasino, Steven E; Ferrante, Anthony W; Vasselli, Joseph R

    2007-11-01

    The anti-diabetic thiazolidinediones (TZDs) stimulate adipocyte differentiation and decrease mean adipocyte size. However, whether these smaller, more insulin-sensitive adipocytes maintain their size after TZD therapy is discontinued has not been studied. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a low-fat (10% fat) diet or, to elevate body weight (BW), a high-fat (HF) diet (45% fat) for 6 weeks. Rats were initially randomized to groups (n = 12) fed either low-fat or HF diets, with or without the TZD rosiglitazone (ROSI; 5 mg/kg per day), for 6 weeks. ROSI was then discontinued, and all animals were fed HF for another 6 weeks before sacrifice. Retroperitoneal (RP) adipose tissue morphology was determined from tissue collected by serial biopsies before and after 6 weeks of ROSI treatment and at sacrifice. Measures of BW and adiposity did not differ among groups 6 weeks after stopping ROSI treatment. However, during treatment, ROSI in both diets significantly decreased RP adipocyte size and increased RP DNA content, and these effects continued to be observed after discontinuing treatment. ROSI administration also decreased circulating insulin, leptin, and triglycerides and increased circulating adiponectin levels; however, these effects were reversed on stopping treatment. These results demonstrated that TZD-induced effects on adipocyte size and number were maintained after discontinuing treatment, even with consumption of an obesigenic diet. However, additional studies are needed to determine whether TZD-treated animals eventually achieve an adipocyte size similar to that of untreated animals at the expense of a higher BW.

  3. Identification of Polymers by Means of LIBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzano, Jesús M.; Bello-Gálvez, Cristina; Lasheras, Roberto J.

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is mainly an elemental analysis technique which is applied several fields. However, molecular materials are almost entirely atomized when exposed to intense laser radiation sufficient for breakdown. This limitation has been solved by researchers using statistical tools as chemometric techniques. In this chapter, the authors expose one review about the identification of polymeric materials using LIBS; and particularly, the different chemometric techniques.

  4. Enterohepatic circulation of nonconjugated bilirubin in rats fed with human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, E.M.; Whitington, P.F.; Whitington, S.H.; Rivard, W.A.; Given, G.

    1991-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that enhanced intestinal absorption of bilirubin may contribute to prolonged nonconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in human milk-fed infants, we studied a cross-section of 36 healthy infants and mothers. Milk from mothers and serum from infants were collected at 16.3 +/- 2.4 days. Milk was studied for its effect on the absorption of bilirubin labeled with carbon 14 in rats and compared with buffer and iron-fortified infant formula (Similac With Iron). The percentage of a 1 mg bilirubin dose absorbed by the rat was 25.29 +/- 4.0% when it was administered into the duodenum with buffer, 4.67 +/- 2.4% with Similac formula, and 7.7 +/- 2.9% with human milk. Linear regression analysis, using the infant's serum nonconjugated bilirubin level as the dependent variable and the percentage of (14C)bilirubin absorbed by the rat with the corresponding mother's milk as the independent variable, revealed a significant correlation (r = 0.40; p = 0.016). Inspection of the data suggested that absorptive permissiveness correlated closely with infant serum bilirubin values greater than 24 mumol/L (1.4 mg/dl) (r = 0.55; p = 0.007), whereas in those with bilirubin values less than or equal to 24 mumol/L, there was no apparent correlation. Milk was also analyzed for beta-glucuronidase, nonesterified fatty acids, and the ability to inhibit glucuronosyltransferase activity of rat liver microsomes in vitro, none of which correlated with the infant's serum bilirubin. These data support the theory that enhanced intestinal absorption of bilirubin contributes to the jaundice associated with breast-feeding

  5. Lipid metabolism in rats fed diets containing different types of lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Águila Márcia Barbosa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of different types of lipid diets on the lipid metabolism of aging rats. METHODS: Fifty male Wistar rats were studied from the time of weaning to 12 and 18 months of age. Their diets were supplemented as follows: with soybean oil (S, canola oil (CA, lard and egg yolk (LE, and canola oil + lard and egg yolk (CA + LE. Blood pressure (BP was measured every month, and the heart/body ratio (H/BR was determined. The rats were euthanized at the age of 12 and 18 months, and blood samples were collected for lipid analysis as follows: total cholesterol (TC, LDL-C, VLDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides (TG, and glucose. RESULTS: The type of oil ingested by the animals significantly altered BP, H/BR, and serum lipid levels in rats at 12 and 18 months. No difference was observed in the survival curve of the animals in the different groups. The LE group had the highest BP, and the CA group was the only one in which BP did not change with aging. A reduction in the H/BR was observed in the LE and CA+LE animals. At the age of 12 months, differences in TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, VLDL-C, TG, and glucose were observed. At the age of 18 months, a significant difference in TC, HDL-C, and glucose was observed. The highest TC value was found in the CA group and the lowest in the S group. CONCLUSION: No increase in BP occurred, and an improvement was evident in the lipid profile of rats fed a diet supplemented with CA, in which an elevation in HDL-C levels was observed, as compared with levels with the other types of diet.

  6. Ketoprofen and antinociception in hypo-oestrogenic Wistar rats fed on a high sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-Morales, Osmar Antonio; Espinosa-Juárez, Josué Vidal; García-Martínez, Betzabeth Anali; López-Muñoz, Francisco Javier

    2016-10-05

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ketoprofen are the most commonly used analgesics for the treatment of pain. However, no studies have evaluated the analgesic response to ketoprofen in conditions of obesity. The aim of this study was to analyse the time course of nociceptive pain in Wistar rats with and without hypo-oestrogenism on a high sucrose diet and to compare the antinociceptive response using ketoprofen. Hypo-oestrogenic and naïve rats received a hyper caloric diet (30% sucrose) or water ad libitum for 17 weeks, the thermal nociception ("plantar test" method) and body weight were tested during this period. A biphasic response was observed: thermal latency decreased in the 4th week (hyperalgesia), while from 12th to 17th week, thermal latency increased (hypoalgesia) in hypo-oestrogenic rats fed with high sucrose diet compared with the hypo-oestrogenic control group. At 4th and 17th weeks, different doses of ketoprofen (1.8-100mg/kg p.o.), were evaluated in all groups. The administration of ketoprofen at 4th and 17th weeks showed dose-dependent effects in the all groups; however, a greater pharmacological efficacy was observed in the 4th week in the hypo-oestrogenic animals that received sucrose. Nevertheless, in all the groups significantly diminish the antinociceptive effects in the 17th week. Our data showed that nociception was altered in the hypo-oestrogenic animals that were fed sucrose (hyperalgesia and hypoalgesia). Ketoprofen showed a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect at both time points. However, hypo-oestrogenism plus high-sucrose diet modifies the antinociceptive effect of ketoprofen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Regular Exercise on the Histochemical Changes of d-Galactose-Induced Oxidative Renal Injury in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sok; Kim, Chan-Sik; Lee, Jin; Suk Kim, Jung; Kim, Junghyun

    2013-01-01

    Renal lipid accumulation exhibits slowly developing chronic kidney disease and is associated with increased oxidative stress. The impact of exercise on the obese- and oxidative stress-related renal disease is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a high-fat diet (HFD) would accelerate d-galactose-induced aging process in rat kidney and to examine the preventive effect of regular exercise on the obese- and oxidative stress-related renal disease. Oxidative stress was induced by an administration of d-galactose (100 mg/kg intraperitoneally injected) for 9 weeks, and d-galactose-treated rats were also fed with a high-fat diet (60% kcal as fat) for 9 weeks to induce obesity. We investigated the efficacy of regular exercise in reducing renal injury by analyzing Nε-carboxymethyllysine (CML), 8-hydroxygluanine (8-OHdG) and apoptosis. When rats were fed with a HFD for 9 weeks in d-galactose-treated rats, an increased CML accumulation, oxidative DNA damage and renal podocyte loss were observed in renal glomerular cells and tubular epithelial cells. However, the regular exercise restored all these renal changes in HFD plus d-galactose-treated rats. Our data suggested that long-term HFD may accelerate the deposition of lipoxidation adducts and oxidative renal injury in d-galactose-treated rats. The regular exercise protects against obese- and oxidative stress-related renal injury by inhibiting this lipoxidation burden

  8. Effect of /sup 60/Co-irradiation on normal and low protein diet fed rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, S S [Garhwal Univ., Srinagar, Uttar Pradesh (India). Dept. of Zoology; Habibullah, M [Jawaharlal Nehru Univ., New Delhi (India). Neurobiology Lab.

    1980-06-01

    The effect of whole-body irradiation (Co-60) on the brain tissue in Holtzmann strain adult male rats was studied. Two doses of irradiation (450 R,950 R) were tried on animals which were fed on normal as well as low protein diets over a period of 10 generations. In the normal rats, 450 R initially caused a lowered total protein. DNA and RNA content in the brain. After 7 days a tendency towards normalcy was observed. In the 950 R irradiated normal rats the diminution of protein content appeared irreversible. In malnourished 450 R irradiated rats, the protein content rose less steeply over the 7 days of observation. A higher dose of 950 R enhanced this effect on protein and also lowered the DNA content on day 5. The RNA content in the 950 R group with malnutrition showed a marked increase towards or beyond control perhaps as an expression of uncoupled feedback control. The paper gives evidence that protein deficiency may interfere with cellular regeneration in irradiated brain.

  9. LIBS analysis of artificial calcified tissues matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasem, M A; Gonzalez, J J; Russo, R E; Harith, M A

    2013-04-15

    In most laser-based analytical methods, the reproducibility of quantitative measurements strongly depends on maintaining uniform and stable experimental conditions. For LIBS analysis this means that for accurate estimation of elemental concentration, using the calibration curves obtained from reference samples, the plasma parameters have to be kept as constant as possible. In addition, calcified tissues such as bone are normally less "tough" in their texture than many samples, especially metals. Thus, the ablation process could change the sample morphological features rapidly, and result in poor reproducibility statistics. In the present work, three artificial reference sample sets have been fabricated. These samples represent three different calcium based matrices, CaCO3 matrix, bone ash matrix and Ca hydroxyapatite matrix. A comparative study of UV (266 nm) and IR (1064 nm) LIBS for these three sets of samples has been performed under similar experimental conditions for the two systems (laser energy, spot size, repetition rate, irradiance, etc.) to examine the wavelength effect. The analytical results demonstrated that UV-LIBS has improved reproducibility, precision, stable plasma conditions, better linear fitting, and the reduction of matrix effects. Bone ash could be used as a suitable standard reference material for calcified tissue calibration using LIBS with a 266 nm excitation wavelength. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Implementing LibGuides 2: An Academic Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Vicky; Lucky, Shannon; McLean, Jaclyn

    2015-01-01

    Since 1997, the University of Saskatchewan Library has used "subject pages" to highlight key library resources. When Springshare announced it was launching LibGuides v2, a project team was assembled to transition a mixture of locally produced guides and guides created with the original LibGuides v1 software. This article synthesizes best…

  11. Downhole Elemental Analysis with LIBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreschini, Paolo; Zacny, Kris; Rickman, Doug

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a novel instrument, currently under development at Honeybee Robotics with SBIR funding from NASA. The device is designed to characterize elemental composition as a function of depth in non-terrestrial geological formations. The instrument consists of a miniaturized laser-induced breakdown spectrometer (LIBS) analyzer integrated in a 2" diameter drill string. While the drill provides subsurface access, the LIBS analyzer provides information on the elemental composition of the borehole wall. This instrument has a variety of space applications ranging from exploration of the Moon for which it was originally designed, to Mars, as well as a variety of terrestrial applications. Subsurface analysis is usually performed by sample acquisition through a drill or excavator, followed by sample preparation and subsequent sample presentation to an instrument or suite of instruments. An alternative approach consisting in bringing a miniaturized version of the instrument to the sample has many advantages over the traditional methodology, as it allows faster response, reduced probability of cross-contamination and a simplification in the sampling mechanisms. LIBS functions by focusing a high energy laser on a material inducing a plasma consisting of a small fraction of the material under analysis. Optical emission from the plasma, analyzed by a spectrometer, can be used to determine elemental composition. A triangulation sensor located in the sensor head determines the distance of the sensor from the borehole wall. An actuator modifies the position of the sensor accordingly, in order to compensate for changes due to the profile of the borehole walls. This is necessary because LIBS measurements are negatively affected by changes in the relative position of the focus of the laser with respect to the position of the sample (commonly referred to as the "lens to sample distance"). Profiling the borehole is done by adjusting the position of the sensor with a

  12. The Colonic Microbiome and Epithelial Transcriptome Are Altered in Rats Fed a High-Protein Diet Compared with a Normal-Protein Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Chunlong; Yang, Yuxiang; Luo, Zhen; Guan, Leluo; Zhu, Weiyun

    2016-03-01

    A high-protein diet (HPD) can produce hazardous compounds and reduce butyrate-producing bacteria in feces, which may be detrimental to gut health. However, information on whether HPD affects intestinal function is limited. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of an HPD on the microbiota, microbial metabolites, and epithelial transcriptome in the colons of rats. Adult male Wistar rats were fed either a normal-protein diet (20% protein, 56% carbohydrate) or an HPD (45% protein, 30% carbohydrate) for 6 wk (n = 10 rats per group, individually fed). After 6 wk, the colonic microbiome, microbial metabolites, and epithelial transcriptome were determined. Compared with the normal-protein diet, the HPD adversely altered the colonic microbiota by increasing (P 0.7, P < 0.05) with genes and metabolites generally regarded as being involved in disease pathogenesis, suggesting these bacteria may mediate the detrimental effects of HPDs on colonic health. Our findings suggest that the HPD altered the colonic microbial community, shifted the metabolic profile, and affected the host response in the colons of rats toward an increased risk of colonic disease. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Changes in gut microbiota in rats fed a high fat diet correlate with obesity-associated metabolic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, Virginie; Kaakoush, Nadeem O; Maloney, Christopher A; Raipuria, Mukesh; Huinao, Karina D; Mitchell, Hazel M; Morris, Margaret J

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota is emerging as a new factor in the development of obesity. Many studies have described changes in microbiota composition in response to obesity and high fat diet (HFD) at the phylum level. In this study we used 16s RNA high throughput sequencing on faecal samples from rats chronically fed HFD or control chow (n = 10 per group, 16 weeks) to investigate changes in gut microbiota composition at the species level. 53.17% dissimilarity between groups was observed at the species level. Lactobacillus intestinalis dominated the microbiota in rats under the chow diet. However this species was considerably less abundant in rats fed HFD (Pdevelopment of the obese phenotype, we correlated their abundance with metabolic parameters associated with obesity. Of the taxa contributing the most to dissimilarity between groups, 10 presented significant correlations with at least one of the tested parameters, three of them correlated positively with all metabolic parameters: Phascolarctobacterium, Proteus mirabilis and Veillonellaceae, all propionate/acetate producers. Lactobacillus intestinalis was the only species whose abundance was negatively correlated with change in body weight and fat mass. This species decreased drastically in response to HFD, favouring propionate/acetate producing bacterial species whose abundance was strongly correlated with adiposity and deterioration of metabolic factors. Our observations suggest that these species may play a key role in the development of obesity in response to a HFD.

  14. Preventive effect of curcumin on inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in high-fat fed obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maithilikarpagaselvi, Nachimuthu; Sridhar, Magadi Gopalakrishna; Swaminathan, Rathinam Palamalai; Sripradha, Ramalingam

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigated the beneficial effects of curcumin on inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in high-fat fed male Wistar rats. Five-month-old male Wistar rats (n=20) were divided into two groups (10 rats in each group). Among the two groups, one group received 30 % high-fat diet (HFD) and another group received 30 % HFD with curcumin (200 mg/kg body weight). Food intake, body weight and biochemical parameters were measured at the beginning and at the end of the study. After 10 weeks, oxidative stress parameters in skeletal muscle and hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) content were estimated. Histological examinations of the liver samples were performed at the end of the experiment. High-fat feeding caused increase in body weight, liver and adipose tissue mass. Rats fed with HFD showed increased levels of fasting plasma glucose, insulin, Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), total cholesterol (TC), TAG, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-c) and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c). There was also increase in the plasma inflammatory markers [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP)] and skeletal muscle oxidative stress parameters [malondialdehyde (MDA), total oxidant status (TOS)] in these rats. In addition, high-fat feeding increased liver TAG content and caused fat accumulation in the liver. Treatment with curcumin significantly reduced body weight, relative organ weights (liver, adipose tissue), glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR. Curcumin supplementation decreased plasma levels of TC, TAG, VLDL-c, TNF-α and increased HDL-c. Administration of curcumin also reduced MDA, TOS in skeletal muscle, hepatic TAG content and liver fat deposition. Curcumin supplementation improved HFD-induced dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation and insulin resistance.

  15. Rotating and propagating LIB stabilized by self-induced magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, H.; Aoki, T.; Kawata, S.; Niu, K.

    1984-01-01

    Rotating motion of a propagating LIB is analyzed in order to suppress the mixed mode of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, the tearing instability and the sausage instability by the action of a self-induced magnetic field in the axial direction. The beams are assumed to be charge-neutralized but not current-neutralized. The steady-state solutions of a propagating LIB with rotation are first obtained numerically. Through the dispersion relation with respect to the ikonal type of perturbations, which are added to the steady-state solutions, the growth rates of instabilities appearing in an LIB are obtained. It is concluded that if the mean rotating velocity of an LIB is comparable to the propagation velocity, the instability disappears in the propagating ion beam. (author)

  16. Effects of dietary inulin, statin, and their co-treatment on hyperlipidemia, hepatic steatosis and changes in drug-metabolizing enzymes in rats fed a high-fat and high-sucrose diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugatani Junko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rats fed a high-fat and high-sucrose (HF diet develop hepatic steatosis and hyperlipidemia. There are several reports that a change in nutritional status affects hepatic levels of drug-metabolizing enzymes. Synthetic inulin is a dietary component that completely evades glucide digestion. Supplementing a HF diet with inulin ameliorates hypertriglycemia and hepatic steatosis, but not hypercholesterolemia. This study aimed at distinguishing the effects of synthetic inulin and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor (statin, which inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis. Methods We examined effects of co-treatment with synthetic inulin (5% and fluvastatin (0, 4, and 8 mg/kg, per os on body weight, epidydimal white adipose tissue weight, serum and hepatic lipid profiles, and hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP mRNA and protein profiles in rats fed a standard diet or a HF diet for 3 weeks. Results Treatment with the synthetic inulin (5% or fluvastatin at 4 mg/kg (lethal dose in rats fed the HF diet, 8 mg/kg ameliorated the elevation in hepatic triacylglycerol and total cholesterol levels in rats fed the HF diet. Whereas co-treatment with the inulin (5% and fluvastatin (4 mg/kg had a tendency to more strongly suppress the elevation in serum levels of very low density lipoprotein triacylglycerol than either treatment alone, no additive or synergistic effect was found in decrease in hepatic lipid levels. Hepatic levels of CYP1A1/2 and CYP2E1 mRNA and protein and methoxyresorufin O-demethylase and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activities were reduced in rats fed the HF diet. The synthetic inulin alleviated the reduction in hepatic levels of CYP1A1/2 and CYP2E1 mRNA and protein more strongly than fluvastatin, and no synergistic effects were observed on co-treatment. Furthermore, hepatic levels of aryl hydrocarbon receptor mRNA were decreased in rats fed the HF diet and recovered to near normal values with the intake of dietary inulin

  17. AD-LIBS: inferring ancestry across hybrid genomes using low-coverage sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Nathan K; Shapiro, Beth; Green, Richard E

    2017-04-04

    Inferring the ancestry of each region of admixed individuals' genomes is useful in studies ranging from disease gene mapping to speciation genetics. Current methods require high-coverage genotype data and phased reference panels, and are therefore inappropriate for many data sets. We present a software application, AD-LIBS, that uses a hidden Markov model to infer ancestry across hybrid genomes without requiring variant calling or phasing. This approach is useful for non-model organisms and in cases of low-coverage data, such as ancient DNA. We demonstrate the utility of AD-LIBS with synthetic data. We then use AD-LIBS to infer ancestry in two published data sets: European human genomes with Neanderthal ancestry and brown bear genomes with polar bear ancestry. AD-LIBS correctly infers 87-91% of ancestry in simulations and produces ancestry maps that agree with published results and global ancestry estimates in humans. In brown bears, we find more polar bear ancestry than has been published previously, using both AD-LIBS and an existing software application for local ancestry inference, HAPMIX. We validate AD-LIBS polar bear ancestry maps by recovering a geographic signal within bears that mirrors what is seen in SNP data. Finally, we demonstrate that AD-LIBS is more effective than HAPMIX at inferring ancestry when preexisting phased reference data are unavailable and genomes are sequenced to low coverage. AD-LIBS is an effective tool for ancestry inference that can be used even when few individuals are available for comparison or when genomes are sequenced to low coverage. AD-LIBS is therefore likely to be useful in studies of non-model or ancient organisms that lack large amounts of genomic DNA. AD-LIBS can therefore expand the range of studies in which admixture mapping is a viable tool.

  18. The involvement of ginseng berry extract in blood flow via regulation of blood coagulation in rats fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Hee Kim

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: These results suggest the possibility that GBx can ameliorate blood flow by decreasing intima-media thickness via the regulation of blood coagulation factors related to lipid metabolites in rats fed a HFD.

  19. Glucose Tolerance, Lipids, and GLP-1 Secretion in JCR:LA-cp Rats Fed a High Protein Fiber Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Raylene A.; Russell, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Background We have shown that individually, dietary fiber and protein increase secretion of the anorexigenic and insulinotropic hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Objective Our objective was to combine, in one diet, high levels of fiber and protein to maximize GLP-1 secretion, improve glucose tolerance, and reduce weight gain. Methods and Procedures Lean (+/?) and obese (cp/cp) male James C Russell corpulent (JCR:LA-cp) rats lacking a functional leptin receptor were fed one of four experimental diets (control, high protein (HP), high fiber (HF, prebiotic fiber inulin), or combination (CB)) for 3 weeks. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed to evaluate plasma GLP-1, insulin and glucose. Plasma lipids and intestinal proglucagon mRNA expression were determined. Results Energy intake was lower with the HF diet in lean and obese rats. Weight gain did not differ between diets. Higher colonic proglucagon mRNA in lean rats fed a CB diet was associated with higher GLP-1 secretion during OGTT. The HP diet significantly reduced plasma glucose area under the curve (AUC) during OGTT in obese rats, which reflected both an increased GLP-1 AUC and higher fasting insulin. Diets containing inulin resulted in the lowest plasma triglyceride and total cholesterol levels. Discussion Overall, combining HP with HF in the diet increased GLP-1 secretion in response to oral glucose, but did not improve glucose tolerance or lipid profiles more than the HF diet alone did. We also suggest that glycemic and insulinemic response to prebiotics differ among rat models and future research work should examine their role in improving glucose tolerance in diet-induced vs. genetic obesity with overt hyperleptinemia. PMID:18223610

  20. Analysis of gene expression changes in relation to toxicity and tumorigenesis in the livers of Big Blue transgenic rats fed comfrey (Symphytum officinale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Nan; Guo, Lei; Zhang, Lu; Shi, Leming; Sun, Yongming Andrew; Fung, Chris; Moland, Carrie L; Dial, Stacey L; Fuscoe, James C; Chen, Tao

    2006-09-06

    Comfrey is consumed by humans as a vegetable and a tea, and has been used as an herbal medicine for more than 2000 years. Comfrey, however, is hepatotoxic in livestock and humans and carcinogenic in experimental animals. Our previous study suggested that comfrey induces liver tumors by a genotoxic mechanism and that the pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the plant are responsible for mutation induction and tumor initiation in rat liver. In this study, we identified comfrey-induced gene expression profile in the livers of rats. Groups of 6 male transgenic Big Blue rats were fed a basal diet and a diet containing 8% comfrey roots, a dose that resulted in liver tumors in a previous carcinogenicity bioassay. The animals were treated for 12 weeks and sacrificed one day after the final treatment. We used a rat microarray containing 26,857 genes to perform genome-wide gene expression studies. Dietary comfrey resulted in marked changes in liver gene expression, as well as in significant decreases in the body weight and increases in liver mutant frequency. When a two-fold cutoff value and a P-value less than 0.01 were selected, 2,726 genes were identified as differentially expressed in comfrey-fed rats compared to control animals. Among these genes, there were 1,617 genes associated by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis with particular functions, and the differentially expressed genes in comfrey-fed rat livers were involved in metabolism, injury of endothelial cells, and liver injury and abnormalities, including liver fibrosis and cancer development. The gene expression profile provides us a better understanding of underlying mechanisms for comfrey-induced hepatic toxicity. Integration of gene expression changes with known pathological changes can be used to formulate a mechanistic scheme for comfrey-induced liver toxicity and tumorigenesis.

  1. Elemental misinterpretation in automated analysis of LIBS spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübert, Waldemar; Ankerhold, Georg

    2011-07-01

    In this work, the Stark effect is shown to be mainly responsible for wrong elemental allocation by automated laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) software solutions. Due to broadening and shift of an elemental emission line affected by the Stark effect, its measured spectral position might interfere with the line position of several other elements. The micro-plasma is generated by focusing a frequency-doubled 200 mJ pulsed Nd/YAG laser on an aluminum target and furthermore on a brass sample in air at atmospheric pressure. After laser pulse excitation, we have measured the temporal evolution of the Al(II) ion line at 281.6 nm (4s(1)S-3p(1)P) during the decay of the laser-induced plasma. Depending on laser pulse power, the center of the measured line is red-shifted by 130 pm (490 GHz) with respect to the exact line position. In this case, the well-known spectral line positions of two moderate and strong lines of other elements coincide with the actual shifted position of the Al(II) line. Consequently, a time-resolving software analysis can lead to an elemental misinterpretation. To avoid a wrong interpretation of LIBS spectra in automated analysis software for a given LIBS system, we recommend using larger gate delays incorporating Stark broadening parameters and using a range of tolerance, which is non-symmetric around the measured line center. These suggestions may help to improve time-resolving LIBS software promising a smaller probability of wrong elemental identification and making LIBS more attractive for industrial applications.

  2. Influence of two cultivars of persimmon on atherosclerosis indices in rats fed cholesterol-containing diets: Investigation in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorinstein, Shela; Leontowicz, Hanna; Leontowicz, Maria; Jesion, Iwona; Namiesnik, Jacek; Drzewiecki, Jerzy; Park, Yong-Seo; Ham, Kyung-Sik; Giordani, Edgardo; Trakhtenberg, Simon

    2011-01-01

    To assess the influence of two persimmon cultivars on some atherosclerosis indices in rats fed cholesterol (Chol)-containing diets. Persimmon cultivars "Fuyu" and "Jiro" as supplementation to rats' diets were investigated in vitro to compare the contents of their bioactive compounds (polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins, carotenoids, and ascorbic acid) and antioxidant potentials. In the in vivo investigation, 36 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six diet groups, each with six rats: control, control/Fuyu, control/Jiro, Chol, Chol/Fuyu, and Chol/Jiro. During a period of 47 d (42 d of feeding and 5-d adaptation before the experiment) of the trial, rats in the control group were fed a basal diet and two additional control groups (control/Fuyu and control/Jiro) a basal diet plus 5% of lyophilized Fuyu and Jiro, respectively. The Chol, Chol/Fuyu, and Chol/Jiro rat groups were fed a basal diet supplemented with 1% Chol (Chol group) and 1% Chol plus 5% lyophilized Fuyu (Chol/Fuyu group) and plus 5% lyophilized Jiro (Chol/Jiro group), respectively. After completion of the experiment, the rats were anesthetized using Narcotan (halothane) and sacrificed and the atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta were assessed. The obtained results of the investigation of all six groups were compared. Testing of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerols, total cholesterol in the liver, electrophoretic patterns of liver tissue, and three-dimensional fluorescence of serum protein fractions was performed. The polyphenols and tannins were significantly higher in the Fuyu cultivar (Pacid) (ABTS) assay (Pcholesterol 19.4% and 9.5%, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 25.6% and 13.1%, respectively, P<0.05) and hindered the decrease in plasma antioxidant activity versus the Chol group by 40.0% and 16.8% and by 39.6% and 11.3% for the ABTS and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assays, respectively. The atherosclerotic

  3. Leptin and glucocorticoid signaling pathways in the hypothalamus of female and male fructose-fed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojnović-Milutinović Danijela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in leptin and glucocorticoid signaling pathways in the hypothalamus of male and female rats subjected to a fructose-enriched diet were studied. The level of expression of the key components of the leptin signaling pathway (neuropeptide Y /NPY/ and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 /SOCS3/, and the glucocorticoid signaling pathway (glucocorticoid receptor /GR/, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 /11βHSD1/ and hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase /H6PDH/ did not differ between fructose-fed rats and control animals of both genders. However, in females, a fructose-enriched diet provoked increases in the adiposity index, plasma leptin and triglyceride concentrations, and displayed a tendency to decrease the leptin receptor (ObRb protein and mRNA levels. In male rats, the fructose diet caused elevations in plasma non-esterified fatty acids and triglycerides, as well as in both plasma and hypothalamic leptin concentrations. Our results suggest that a fructose-enriched diet can induce hyperleptinemia in both female and male rats, but with a more pronounced effect on hypothalamic leptin sensitivity in females, probably contributing to the observed development of visceral adiposity. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III41009

  4. Simvastatin-induced cardiac autonomic control improvement in fructose-fed female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Juliana da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Because autonomic dysfunction has been found to lead to cardiometabolic disorders and because studies have reported that simvastatin treatment has neuroprotective effects, the objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of simvastatin treatment on cardiovascular and autonomic changes in fructose-fed female rats. METHODS: Female Wistar rats were divided into three groups: controls (n=8, fructose (n=8, and fructose+ simvastatin (n=8. Fructose overload was induced by supplementing the drinking water with fructose (100 mg/L, 18 wks. Simvastatin treatment (5 mg/kg/day for 2 wks was performed by gavage. The arterial pressure was recorded using a data acquisition system. Autonomic control was evaluated by pharmacological blockade. RESULTS: Fructose overload induced an increase in the fasting blood glucose and triglyceride levels and insulin resistance. The constant rate of glucose disappearance during the insulin intolerance test was reduced in the fructose group (3.4+ 0.32%/min relative to that in the control group (4.4+ 0.29%/min. Fructose+simvastatin rats exhibited increased insulin sensitivity (5.4+0.66%/min. The fructose and fructose+simvastatin groups demonstrated an increase in the mean arterial pressure compared with controls rats (fructose: 124+2 mmHg and fructose+simvastatin: 126 + 3 mmHg vs. controls: 112 + 2 mmHg. The sympathetic effect was enhanced in the fructose group (73 + 7 bpm compared with that in the control (48 + 7 bpm and fructose+simvastatin groups (31+8 bpm. The vagal effect was increased in fructose+simvastatin animals (84 + 7 bpm compared with that in control (49 + 9 bpm and fructose animals (46+5 bpm. CONCLUSION: Simvastatin treatment improved insulin sensitivity and cardiac autonomic control in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome in female rats. These effects were independent of the improvements in the classical plasma lipid profile and of reductions in arterial pressure. These results

  5. Influence of chronic stress on the compositions of hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride in male Wistar rats fed a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Siyuan; Han, Xue; Fu, Jihua; Yuan, Xiaoling; Sun, Xing; Li, Qiang

    2012-07-01

      We determined the influence of chronic stress (CS) on the compositions of hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) in rats fed a high fat diet (HFD).   Male Wistar rats were fed either a standard diet or a HFD and half of the HFD fed rats were given CS (electric foot shock assisted with noise) for 8 weeks.   Compared with the control group, the levels of hepatic total cholesterol (TC) and TG were significantly elevated in the HFD and HFD with chronic stress (HFD+CS) groups, and the more severe elevations of them were found in the HFD group. Inversely, the more severe elevations of hepatic water-soluble parts of TC and TG were found in the HFD+CS group, as the elevations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in liver and serum, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and malondialdehyde in liver. Meanwhile, downregulated mRNA expressions of hepatic liver X receptor-α (LXR-α) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) were also more severe in the HFD+CS group.   CS can aggravate the high levels of water-soluble compositions of hepatic TC and TG induced by HFD as it aggravates hepatic inflammation and oxidative stress; in spite of that, however, it cannot further promote hepatic lipidosis. This is consistent with the downregulated mRNA expressions of LXR-α and PPAR-γ. © 2012 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  6. Data on body weight and liver functionality in aged rats fed an enriched strawberry diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Giampieri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present new original data on the effects of strawberry consumption on body weight and liver status of aged rats. Wistar rats aged 19–21 months were fed a strawberry enriched diet prepared by substituting 15% of the total calories with freeze-dried strawberry powder for two months. Body weight, plasma biomarkers of liver injury (alanine transferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase and liver histological analysis were assessed. These data indicate that strawberry supplementation did not interfere with normal animal maintenance and with liver structure and functionality. For further details and experimental findings please refer to the article “Strawberry consumption improves aging-associated impairments, mitochondrial biogenesis and functionality through the AMP-Activated Protein Kinase signaling cascade” in FOOD CHEMISTRY (Giampieri et al., 2017 [1].

  7. Testicular damage in rats fed on irradiated diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushwaha, A.K.S.; Hasan, S.S.

    1986-01-01

    Feeding effect of irradiated diets was studied on the pups born to mother fed either on irradiated normal diet or irradiated low protein diet. The study indicated that pups born to mother fed on the irradiated low protein diet had fewer spermatogonial cells in the testes than those given irradiated normal diet and unirradiated low protein diet. Similarly, pups maintained on the irradiated low protein diet showed marked decrease in alkaline phosphatase and cholesterol contents in the testes rather than in the pups fed irradiated normal as well as unirradiated low protein diets. The irradiated low protein diet fed pups showed increased depletion and vacuolization of adrenocortical and medullary cells. 13 refs., 15 figures. (author)

  8. Testicular damage in rats fed on irradiated diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushwaha, A K.S.; Hasan, S S

    1986-12-01

    Feeding effect of irradiated diets was studied on the pups born to mother fed either on irradiated normal diet or irradiated low protein diet. The study indicated that pups born to mother fed on the irradiated low protein diet had fewer spermatogonial cells in the testes than those given irradiated normal diet and unirradiated low protein diet. Similarly, pups maintained on the irradiated low protein diet showed marked decrease in alkaline phosphatase and cholesterol contents in the testes rather than in the pups fed irradiated normal as well as unirradiated low protein diets. The irradiated low protein diet fed pups showed increased depletion and vacuolization of adrenocortical and medullary cells. 13 refs., 15 figures.

  9. OML for the Libs+ system using PFW

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, J A

    1999-01-01

    Passport for Windows (PFW) is not limited to accessing OCLC's systems. It can also access a local Libs+ system through the Internet. Such a connection makes it possible to use the automation capabilities of the OCLC Macro Language (OML), which is built into PFW, for the local Libs+ system. Once certain setup requirements have been completed, PFW can be used to quickly accomplish many routine tasks and thereby increase productivity and decrease error rates. Because it can be used to automate many local tasks, PFW remains an important tool for librarians. (0 refs).

  10. Effect of ornithine on ammonia utilization and urea synthesis in isolated hepatocytes from fed rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garwacki, S.; Wiechetek, M.; Souffrant, W.B.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of ornithine on the ammonia utilization and urea synthesis in hepatocytes isolated from fed male Wistar rats was investigated. On the basis of the 15 N tracer technique, it was found that ornithine stimulated urea synthesis with an increased utilization of the exogenously marked ammonia for urea, but deminished its utilization in other N-metabolic processes. The results also showed that the stimulation of urea synthesis due to ornithine resulted from the utilization of both exogenous and endogenous sources. (author)

  11. Plasma lipids and prothrombin time in rats fed palm oil and other commonly used fats in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein, Mona M.

    1993-02-01

    Full Text Available Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for a total period of 8 weeks on six diets that were different in the source of their fat content. The fat content was provided either, palm oil or palm olein or corn oil or hydrogenated fat, or frying palm oil and mixture of corn oil + hydrogenated fat in the ratio (1:1. The latter was given to the control group. Animals fed these various experimental diets showed statistically significant differences in serum cholesterol and serum triglycerides content among all group. Increased HDL-cholesterol content was evident in animals fed on palm-olein and palm oil. The frying oil fed group showed lowest HDL-cholesterol content. In these experiments palm olein fed animals showed highest ratio of HDL-cholesterol to total cholesterol while the lowest ratio was shown in rats fed on frying oil. Prothrombin (PT and activated partial thromboplastin time (PTT showed higher values In palm oil, palm olein and corn oil diets as compared to all groups with each other.

    Ratas Sprague-Dawley fueron alimentadas durante un periodo total de 8 semanas con seis dietas diferentes en su contenido graso. El contenido graso fue proporcionado por aceite de palma u oleína de palma o aceite de maíz o grasa hidrogenada o aceite de palma de fritura y mezcla de aceite de maíz + grasa hidrogenada en la relación (1:1. El último fue dado al grupo de control. Los animales alimentados con las diferentes dietas experimentales mostraron diferencias significativas estadísticamente en el contenido en colesterol y triglicéridos en suero entre todos los grupos. El aumento en contenido HDL-colesterol fue evidente en animales alimentados con oleína de palma y aceite de palma. El grupo alimentado con aceite de fritura mostró el más bajo contenido en HDL-colesterol. En estos experimentos, los animales alimentados con oleína de palma mostraron la mayor relación de HDL-colesterol a colesterol total, mientras que la relación más baja fue mostrada

  12. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as a rapid tool for material analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, T; Gondal, M A

    2013-01-01

    Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a novel technique for elemental analysis based on laser-generated plasma. In this technique, laser pulses are applied for ablation of the sample, resulting in the vaporization and ionization of sample in hot plasma which is finally analyzed by the spectrometer. The elements are identified by their unique spectral signatures. LIBS system was developed for elemental analysis of solid and liquid samples. The developed system was applied for qualitative as well as quantitative measurement of elemental concentration present in iron slag and open pit ore samples. The plasma was generated by focusing a pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm on test samples to study the capabilities of LIBS as a rapid tool for material analysis. The concentrations of various elements of environmental significance such as cadmium, calcium, magnesium, chromium, manganese, titanium, barium, phosphorus, copper, iron, zinc etc., in these samples were determined. Optimal experimental conditions were evaluated for improving the sensitivity of developed LIBS system through parametric dependence study. The laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) results were compared with the results obtained using standard analytical technique such as inductively couple plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP). Limit of detection (LOD) of our LIBS system were also estimated for the above mentioned elements. This study demonstrates that LIBS could be highly appropriate for rapid online analysis of iron slag and open pit waste.

  13. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as a rapid tool for material analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, T.; Gondal, M. A.

    2013-06-01

    Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a novel technique for elemental analysis based on laser-generated plasma. In this technique, laser pulses are applied for ablation of the sample, resulting in the vaporization and ionization of sample in hot plasma which is finally analyzed by the spectrometer. The elements are identified by their unique spectral signatures. LIBS system was developed for elemental analysis of solid and liquid samples. The developed system was applied for qualitative as well as quantitative measurement of elemental concentration present in iron slag and open pit ore samples. The plasma was generated by focusing a pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm on test samples to study the capabilities of LIBS as a rapid tool for material analysis. The concentrations of various elements of environmental significance such as cadmium, calcium, magnesium, chromium, manganese, titanium, barium, phosphorus, copper, iron, zinc etc., in these samples were determined. Optimal experimental conditions were evaluated for improving the sensitivity of developed LIBS system through parametric dependence study. The laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) results were compared with the results obtained using standard analytical technique such as inductively couple plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP). Limit of detection (LOD) of our LIBS system were also estimated for the above mentioned elements. This study demonstrates that LIBS could be highly appropriate for rapid online analysis of iron slag and open pit waste.

  14. Nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) protects from metabolic endotoxemia by modifying gut microbiota in obese rats fed high fat/sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Tapia, Mónica; Aguilar-López, Miriam; Pérez-Cruz, Claudia; Pichardo-Ontiveros, Edgar; Wang, Mei; Donovan, Sharon M; Tovar, Armando R; Torres, Nimbe

    2017-07-05

    Current efforts are directed to reducing the gut dysbiosis and inflammation produced by obesity. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether consuming nopal, a vegetable rich in dietary fibre, vitamin C, and polyphenols can reduce the metabolic consequences of obesity by modifying the gut microbiota and preventing metabolic endotoxemia in rats fed a high fat and sucrose diet. With this aim, rats were fed a high fat diet with 5% sucrose in the drinking water (HFS) for 7 months and then were fed for 1 month with HFS + 5% nopal (HFS + N). The composition of gut microbiota was assessed by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene. Nopal modified gut microbiota and increased intestinal occludin-1 in the HFS + N group. This was associated with a decrease in metabolic endotoxemia, glucose insulinotropic peptide, glucose intolerance, lipogenesis, and metabolic inflexibility. These changes were accompanied by reduced hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress in adipose tissue and brain, and improved cognitive function, associated with an increase in B. fragilis. This study supports the use of nopal as a functional food and prebiotic for its ability to modify gut microbiota and to reduce metabolic endotoxemia and other obesity-related biochemical abnormalities.

  15. [Quantitative analysis of Cu in water by collinear DP-LIBS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Mei-Lan; Yao, Ming-Yin; Chen, Tian-Bing; Lin, Yong-Zeng; Li, Wen-Bing; Liu, Mu-Hua

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to study the influence of double pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (DP-LIBS) on the sensitivity of Cu in water. The water solution of Cu was tested by collinear DP-LIBS in this article. The results show that spectral intensity of Cu can be enhanced obviously by DP-LIBS, compared with single pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (SP-LIBS). Besides, the experimental results were significantly impacted by delay time between laser pulse and spectrometer acquisition, delay time of double laser pulse and energy of laser pulse and so on. The paper determined the best conditions for DP-LIBS detecting Cu in water. The optimal acquisition delay time was 1 380 ns. The best laser pulse delay time was 25 ns. The most appropriate energy of double laser pulse was 100 mJ. Characteristic analysis of spectra of Cu at 324.7 and 327.4 nm was done for quantitative analysis. The detection limit was 3.5 microg x mL(-1) at 324.7 nm, and the detection limit was 4.84 microg x mL(-1) at 327.4 nm. The relative standard deviation of the two characteristic spectral lines was within 10%. The calibration curve of characteristic spectral line, established by 327.4 nm, was verified with 500 microg x mL(-1) sample. Concentration of the sample was 446 microg x mL(-1) calculated by the calibration curve. This research shows that the detection sensitivity of Cu in water can be improved by DP-LIBS. At the same time, it had high stability.

  16. Dietary L-cysteine improves the antioxidative potential and lipid metabolism in rats fed a normal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seulki; Han, Kyu-Ho; Nakamura, Yumi; Kawakami, Sakura; Shimada, Ken-ichiro; Hayakawa, Touru; Onoue, Hirotake; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2013-01-01

    L-cysteine works as a precursor of the antioxidant, glutathione. We investigated the effects of L-cysteine (1% and 2%) on lipid metabolism and the antioxidative system in rats fed a normal diet. Administering L-cysteine dependently decreased the food intake, fat mass weight and body weight dose. Dietary L-cysteine also decreased the triglyceride levels in the serum and liver. However, there were no significant differences in the hepatic TBARS and glutathione (GSH) levels among the groups. The activities of catalase and glutathione reductase in the rats receiving 2% L-cysteine were significantly higher (pL-cysteine dose-dependently affected the antioxidative enzyme activities, and the lipid levels in the serum and liver which might be related to the reduced food intake.

  17. Rutin ameliorates glycemic index, lipid profile and enzymatic activities in serum, heart and liver tissues of rats fed with a combination of hypercaloric diet and chronic ethanol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuffa, Luiz Gustavo A; Fioruci-Fontanelli, Beatriz A; Bordon, Juliana G; Pires, Rafaelle B; Braga, Camila P; Seiva, Fábio R F; Fernandes, Ana Angélica H

    2014-06-01

    Alcoholism and obesity are strongly associated with several disorders including heart and liver diseases. This study evaluated the effects of rutin treatment in serum, heart and liver tissues of rats subjected to a combination of hypercaloric diet (HD) and chronic ethanol consumption. Rats were divided into three groups: Control: rats fed a standard diet and drinking water ad libitum; G1: rats fed the HD and receiving a solution of 10% (v/v) ethanol; and G2: rats fed the HD and ethanol solution, followed by injections of 50 mg/kg(-1) rutin as treatment. After 53 days of HD and ethanol exposure, the rutin was administered every three days for nine days. At the end of the experimental period (95 days), biochemical analyses were carried out on sera, cardiac and hepatic tissues. Body weight gain and food consumption were reduced in both the G1 and G2 groups compared to control animals. Rutin effectively reduced the total lipids (TL), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), VLDL, LDL-cholesterol and glucose levels, while it increased the HDL-cholesterol in the serum of G2 rats, compared to G1. Although rutin had no effect on total protein, albumin, uric acid and cretinine levels, it was able to restore serum activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and creatine kinase (CK) in animals fed HD and receiving ethanol. Glycogen stores were replenished in both hepatic and cardiac tissues after rutin treatment. Moreover, rutin consistently reduced hepatic levels of TG and TC and cardiac AST, ALT and CK activities. Thus, rutin treatment was effective in reducing the risk factors for cardiac and hepatic disease caused by both HD and chronic ethanol consumption.

  18. Attenuation of liver pro-inflammatory responses by Zingiber officinale via inhibition of NF-kappa B activation in high-fat diet-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Hong; McGrath, Kristine C-Y; Nammi, Srinivas; Heather, Alison K; Roufogalis, Basil D

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether treatment with a ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract of high-fat diet (HFD)-fed rats suppresses Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB)-driven hepatic inflammation and to subsequently explore the molecular mechanisms in vitro. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with an ethanolic extract of Zingiber officinale (400 mg/kg) along with a HFD for 6 weeks. Hepatic cytokine mRNA levels, cytokine protein levels and NF-κB activation were measured by real-time PCR, Western blot and an NF-κB nuclear translocation assay, respectively. In vitro, cell culture studies were carried out in human hepatocyte (HuH-7) cells by treatment with Zingiber officinale (100 μg/mL) for 24 hr prior to interleukin-1β (IL-1β, 8 ng/mL)-induced inflammation. We showed that Zingiber officinale treatment decreased cytokine gene TNFα and IL-6 expression in HFD-fed rats, which was associated with suppression of NF-κB activation. In vitro, Zingiber officinale treatment decreased NF-κB-target inflammatory gene expression of IL-6, IL-8 and serum amyloid A1 (SAA1), while it suppressed NF-κB activity, IκBα degradation and IκB kinase (IKK) activity. In conclusion, Zingiber officinale suppressed markers of hepatic inflammation in HFD-fed rats, as demonstrated by decreased hepatic cytokine gene expression and decreased NF-κB activation. The study demonstrates that the anti-inflammatory effect of Zingiber officinale occurs at least in part through the NF-κB signalling pathway. © 2011 The Authors. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2011 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

  19. Study of archaeological coins of different dynasties using libs coupled with multivariate analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Shikha; Kumar, Rohit; Rai, G. K.; Rai, A. K.

    2016-04-01

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is an atomic emission spectroscopic technique having unique capability of an in-situ monitoring tool for detection and quantification of elements present in different artifacts. Archaeological coins collected form G.R. Sharma Memorial Museum; University of Allahabad, India has been analyzed using LIBS technique. These coins were obtained from excavation of Kausambi, Uttar Pradesh, India. LIBS system assembled in the laboratory (laser Nd:YAG 532 nm, 4 ns pulse width FWHM with Ocean Optics LIBS 2000+ spectrometer) is employed for spectral acquisition. The spectral lines of Ag, Cu, Ca, Sn, Si, Fe and Mg are identified in the LIBS spectra of different coins. LIBS along with Multivariate Analysis play an effective role for classification and contribution of spectral lines in different coins. The discrimination between five coins with Archaeological interest has been carried out using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The results show the potential relevancy of the methodology used in the elemental identification and classification of artifacts with high accuracy and robustness.

  20. [Comparative investigation of underwater-LIBS using 532 and 1 064 nm lasers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiao-Jian; Tian, Ye; Lu, Yuan; Li, Ying; Zheng, Rong-Er

    2014-11-01

    With the hope of applying laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to the ocean applications, the laser energy at 532 and 1 064 nm wavelength with 3 and 40 mj respectively was used, which was near their breakdown threshold. Extensive experimental investigations of LIBS from CaCl2 water solution were carried out in this paper using different laser wavelengths of 532 and 1 064 nm. The obtained results show that compared with the 532 nm laser, the 1 064 nm laser can induce the plasma in water with higher emission intensity and longer lifetime, while the reproducibility of LIBS signal under 1 064 nm laser is poorer. On the other hand, due to the different attenuation ratios of 532 and 1 064 nm laser energies in water, the LIBS signal of 1 064 nm laser decreases a lot within the transmission distance range 2-5 cm, while LIBS signal of 532 nm remains the same, because that the wavelength of 532 nm lies in the "transmission window" of the water solution. This study will provide valuable design considerations for the development of LIBS-sea system in near future.

  1. Relations between passage rates of rumen fluid and particulate matter and foam production in rumen contents of cattle fed on different diets ad lib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okine, E K; Mathison, G W; Hardin, R T

    1989-03-01

    1. A group of six cattle, three of which had a non-bloating history (group A) and had been ruminally cannulated for the previous 2 years, and three with a history of being bloat-prone (group B) and which had been ruminally cannulated only 3 months before the study, were fed ad lib. on chopped lucerne (Medicago sativa) hay, lucerne pellets, or a 100 g chopped hay and 900 g rolled barley grain/kg diet over three periods of 30 d each. Flow of rumen digesta, by reference to CoEDTA and chromium-mordanted fibres, and foam production from samples of rumen contents were measured. 2. Samples of rumen contents (50 ml) from group A produced foam heights of 150 and 60 mm, 2 and 4 h after feeding respectively, compared with 240 and 150 mm for group B (P less than 0.05). 3. The fractional passage rate of the 1-2 mm particles mordanted with Cr did not differ (P greater than 0.05) between groups. 4. The fractional outflow rates (FOR) for CoEDTA 0-2 h and 2-7 h after feed was offered were 0.205 and 0.160/h for group A and 0.093 and 0.086/h for group B respectively (P less than 0.05). 5. Rumen-fluid FOR 0-2 h and 2-7 h after provision of feed were significantly (P less than 0.05) inversely correlated (r -0.74 and -0.85 respectively) with the amount of foam produced from rumen contents at these times.

  2. Thyroid function in post-weaning rats whose dams were fed a low-protein diet during suckling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos C.F.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the thyroid and pituitary hormone levels in post-weaning rats whose dams were fed a low-protein diet during suckling (21 days. The dams and pups were divided into 2 groups: a control group fed a diet containing 22% protein that supplies the necessary amount of protein for the rat and is the usual content of protein in most commercial rat chow, and a diet group fed a low-protein (8% diet in which the protein was substituted by an isocaloric amount of starch. After weaning all dams and pups received the 22% protein diet. Two hours before sacrifice of pups aged 21, 30 and 60 days, a tracer dose (0.6 µCi of 125I was injected (ip into each animal. Blood and thyroid glands of pups were collected for the determination of serum T4, T3 and TSH and radioiodine uptake. Low protein diet caused a slight decrease in radioiodine uptake at 21 days, and a significant decrease in T3 levels (128 ± 14 vs 74 ± 9 ng/dl, P<0.05, while T4 levels did not change and TSH was increased slightly. At 30 days, T3 and TSH did not change while there was a significant increase in both T4 levels (4.8 ± 0.3 vs 6.1 ± 0.2 µg/dl, P<0.05 and in radioiodine uptake levels (0.34 ± 0.02 vs 0.50 ± 0.03%/mg thyroid, P<0.05. At 60 days serum T3, T4 and TSH levels were normal, but radioiodine uptake was still significantly increased (0.33 ± 0.02 vs 0.41 ± 0.03%/mg thyroid, P<0.05. Thus, it seems that protein malnutrition of the dams during suckling causes hypothyroidism in the pups at 21 days that has a compensatory mechanism increasing thyroid function after refeeding with a 22% protein diet. The radioiodine uptake still remained altered at 60 days, when all the hormonal serum levels returned to the normal values, suggesting a permanent change in the thyroid function

  3. Influence of fasting on the myocardial metabolsim of [123I] 16-iodohexadecenoic acid (IHA): a study on isolated rat heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghezzi, C.; Bontemps, L.; Demaison, L.; Dubois, F.; Comet, M.; Cuchet, P.

    1986-01-01

    IHA has been proposed for the study of myocardial metabolism by external detection. This requires numerical data on the iodinated fatty acid metabolism of the myocardium which can be derived from an analysis of the time activity curve. We developed a mathematical 4-compartment model for this purpose with compartments 0, 1, 2 and 3 representing vascular IHA, intracellular IHA, esterified forms and iodide, respectively. To validate this model it was applied to the study of the effect of fasting on rat myocardial metabolism. Two groups of rats were used, one fed ad lib. and the other fasted for 36 hours. After a bolus injection of IHA into the perfused rat coronaries myocardial time activity curves were recorded for 30 minutes and the activity distribution in the 4 compartments was simulated. Then intracellular activity in perfused rat heart homogenates was determined at different intervals p.i.. Measured and computed values were found to agree well in all compartments. A 36-hour fast was associated with increased uptake and accelerated β-oxidation, while esterification was unchanged. In conclusion, the proposed mathematical model helps to demonstrate even discrete changes of myocardial fatty acid metabolism in the isolated rat heart. Our results, once again, document the excellent suitability of IHA for assessing myocardial metabolism. (Author)

  4. Proteomic changes associated with metabolic syndrome in a fructose-fed rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Cheng-Chu; Liao, Chen-Chung; Liao, Yi-Chun; Hwang, Lucy Sun; Wu, Liang-Yi; Hsieh, Shu-Chen

    2016-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS), characterized by a constellation of disorders such as hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and hypertension, is becoming a major global public health problem. Fructose consumption has increased dramatically over the past several decades and with it the incidence of MetS. However, its molecular mechanisms remain to be explored. In this study, we used male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats to study the pathological mechanism of fructose induced MetS. The SD rats were fed a 60% high-fructose diet for 16 weeks to induce MetS. The induction of MetS was confirmed by blood biochemistry examination. Proteomics were used to investigate the differential hepatic protein expression patterns between the normal group and the MetS group. Proteomic results revealed that fructose-induced MetS induced changes in glucose and fatty acid metabolic pathways. In addition, oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress-related proteins were modulated by high-fructose feeding. In summary, our results identify many new targets for future investigation. Further characterization of these proteins and their involvement in the link between insulin resistance and metabolic dyslipidemia may bring new insights into MetS. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Proteomic changes associated with metabolic syndrome in a fructose-fed rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chu Hsieh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS, characterized by a constellation of disorders such as hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and hypertension, is becoming a major global public health problem. Fructose consumption has increased dramatically over the past several decades and with it the incidence of MetS. However, its molecular mechanisms remain to be explored. In this study, we used male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats to study the pathological mechanism of fructose induced MetS. The SD rats were fed a 60% high-fructose diet for 16 weeks to induce MetS. The induction of MetS was confirmed by blood biochemistry examination. Proteomics were used to investigate the differential hepatic protein expression patterns between the normal group and the MetS group. Proteomic results revealed that fructose-induced MetS induced changes in glucose and fatty acid metabolic pathways. In addition, oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress-related proteins were modulated by high-fructose feeding. In summary, our results identify many new targets for future investigation. Further characterization of these proteins and their involvement in the link between insulin resistance and metabolic dyslipidemia may bring new insights into MetS.

  6. Fecal excretion of Maillard reaction products and the gut microbiota composition of rats fed with bread crust or bread crumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helou, C; Anton, P M; Niquet-Léridon, C; Spatz, M; Tessier, F J; Gadonna-Widehem, P

    2017-08-01

    A comparison between the impacts of advanced (N ε -carboxymethyllysine - CML) and terminal (melanoidins) Maillard reaction products from bread on gut microbiota was carried out in this study. Gut microbiota composition as well as fecal excretion of CML from both bread crust and bread crumb, and of melanoidins from bread crust were assessed on a rodent model. Rats were fed with pellets supplemented or not with 13% of bread crust, bread crumb, a fiber-free bread crust model (glucose, starch and gluten heated together) or a fiber-free-melanoidin-free bread model (glucose-starch and gluten heated separately) for four weeks. These model systems were developed to limit the presence of wheat-native dietary fibers such as cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. CML and melanoidins in pellets and feces were evaluated by LC/MS-MS and HPLC/fluorescence respectively, and gut microbiota composition was determined by cultivation and molecular approaches. Diets supplemented with crumb or the fiber-free-melanoidin-free model contained respectively 17% and 64% less melanoidins than their respective controls. A higher excretion of melanoidins was observed for rats fed with crust or bread crust model compared to their controls, confirming that melanoidins are in contact with gut microbiota. No impact of diets was observed on Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and lactic flora. A decrease of enterobacteria was only observed for rats fed with the diet supplemented with the fiber-free bread crust model. Moreover, a significant increase of bifidobacteria numbers in the presence of crust, crumb and both bread models was observed, showing that this bifidogenic effect of bread is not due to the presence of melanoidins or wheat-native dietary fibers.

  7. SeqLib: a C ++ API for rapid BAM manipulation, sequence alignment and sequence assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wala, Jeremiah; Beroukhim, Rameen

    2017-03-01

    We present SeqLib, a C ++ API and command line tool that provides a rapid and user-friendly interface to BAM/SAM/CRAM files, global sequence alignment operations and sequence assembly. Four C libraries perform core operations in SeqLib: HTSlib for BAM access, BWA-MEM and BLAT for sequence alignment and Fermi for error correction and sequence assembly. Benchmarking indicates that SeqLib has lower CPU and memory requirements than leading C ++ sequence analysis APIs. We demonstrate an example of how minimal SeqLib code can extract, error-correct and assemble reads from a CRAM file and then align with BWA-MEM. SeqLib also provides additional capabilities, including chromosome-aware interval queries and read plotting. Command line tools are available for performing integrated error correction, micro-assemblies and alignment. SeqLib is available on Linux and OSX for the C ++98 standard and later at github.com/walaj/SeqLib. SeqLib is released under the Apache2 license. Additional capabilities for BLAT alignment are available under the BLAT license. jwala@broadinstitue.org ; rameen@broadinstitute.org. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  8. Long-wave, infrared laser-induced breakdown (LIBS) spectroscopy emissions from energetic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Clayton S-C; Brown, Ei E; Hommerich, Uwe; Jin, Feng; Trivedi, Sudhir B; Samuels, Alan C; Snyder, A Peter

    2012-12-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has shown great promise for applications in chemical, biological, and explosives sensing and has significant potential for real-time standoff detection and analysis. In this study, LIBS emissions were obtained in the mid-infrared (MIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) spectral regions for potential applications in explosive material sensing. The IR spectroscopy region revealed vibrational and rotational signatures of functional groups in molecules and fragments thereof. The silicon-based detector for conventional ultraviolet-visible LIBS operations was replaced with a mercury-cadmium-telluride detector for MIR-LWIR spectral detection. The IR spectral signature region between 4 and 12 μm was mined for the appearance of MIR and LWIR-LIBS emissions directly indicative of oxygenated breakdown products as well as dissociated, and/or recombined sample molecular fragments. Distinct LWIR-LIBS emission signatures from dissociated-recombination sample molecular fragments between 4 and 12 μm are observed for the first time.

  9. LIBS coupled with ICP/OES for the spectral analysis of betel leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehan, I.; Rehan, K.; Sultana, S.; Khan, M. Z.; Muhammad, R.

    2018-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system was optimized and was applied for the elemental analysis and exposure of the heavy metals in betel leaves in air. Pulsed Nd:YAG (1064 nm) in conjunction with a suitable detector (LIBS 2000+, Ocean Optics, Inc) having the optical resolution of 0.06 nm was used to record the emission spectra from 200 to 720 nm. Elements like Al, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, P, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, S, Sr, and Zn were found to be present in the samples. The abundances of observed elements were calculated through normalized calibration curve method, integrated intensity ratio method, and calibration free-LIBS approach. Quantitative analyses were accomplished under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and optically thin plasma. LIBS findings were validated by comparing its results with the results obtained using a typical analytical technique of inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP/OES). Limit of detection (LOD) of the LIBS system was also estimated for heavy metals.

  10. LIBS Sensor for Sub-surface CO2 Leak Detection in Carbon Sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinesh JAIN

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring carbon sequestration poses numerous challenges to the sensor community. For example, the subsurface environment is notoriously harsh, with large potential mechanical, thermal, and chemical stresses, making long-term stability and survival a challenge to any potential in situ monitoring method. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS has been demonstrated as a promising technology for chemical monitoring of harsh environments and hard to reach places. LIBS has a real- time monitoring capability and can be used for the elemental and isotopic analysis of solid, liquid, and gas samples. The flexibility of the probe design and the use of fiber- optics has made LIBS particularly suited for remote measurements. The paper focuses on developing a LIBS instrument for downhole high-pressure, high-temperature brine experiments, where CO2 leakage could result in changes in the trace mineral composition of an aquifer. The progress in fabricating a compact, robust, and simple LIBS sensor for widespread subsurface leak detection is presented.

  11. Changes in gut microbiota in rats fed a high fat diet correlate with obesity-associated metabolic parameters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Lecomte

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota is emerging as a new factor in the development of obesity. Many studies have described changes in microbiota composition in response to obesity and high fat diet (HFD at the phylum level. In this study we used 16s RNA high throughput sequencing on faecal samples from rats chronically fed HFD or control chow (n = 10 per group, 16 weeks to investigate changes in gut microbiota composition at the species level. 53.17% dissimilarity between groups was observed at the species level. Lactobacillus intestinalis dominated the microbiota in rats under the chow diet. However this species was considerably less abundant in rats fed HFD (P<0.0001, this being compensated by an increase in abundance of propionate/acetate producing species. To further understand the influence of these species on the development of the obese phenotype, we correlated their abundance with metabolic parameters associated with obesity. Of the taxa contributing the most to dissimilarity between groups, 10 presented significant correlations with at least one of the tested parameters, three of them correlated positively with all metabolic parameters: Phascolarctobacterium, Proteus mirabilis and Veillonellaceae, all propionate/acetate producers. Lactobacillus intestinalis was the only species whose abundance was negatively correlated with change in body weight and fat mass. This species decreased drastically in response to HFD, favouring propionate/acetate producing bacterial species whose abundance was strongly correlated with adiposity and deterioration of metabolic factors. Our observations suggest that these species may play a key role in the development of obesity in response to a HFD.

  12. Glycine-U-14C metabolism in young rats fed the 10% casein diets containing excess glycine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Hisanao; Wakatsuki, Tetsuo; Muramatsu, Keiichiro

    1975-01-01

    Nine hours after rats fed ad libitum for 14 days a 10% casein diet (10C), a 10% casein diet containing 7% glycine (10C7G) and a 10% casein diet containing 7% glycine with 1.4% L-arginine.HCl and 0.9% L-methionine (10C7GArgMet) were force-fed 10 ml of each diet suspension containing 5μCi of glycine-U- 14 C per 100 g of body weight, the radioactivity recoveries of 14 C in expired CO 2 , tissue components and urine were determined. The radioactivity recovery of 14 C in the expired CO 2 of the 10C7G group was generally higher than that of the 10C7GArgMet group. The recovery of 14 C in the trichloroacetic acid (TCA) soluble fraction of muscle of the 10C7G and the 10C7GArgMet groups were greater than that of the 10C group. The recoveries of 14 C in the TCA soluble fraction and protein of plasma and liver, and the muscle protein were negligible in all the groups. The amount of glycine- 14 C incorporated into the carcass lipids of the 10C7GArgMet group was larger than that of other groups. The recoveries of 14 C in the liver and muscle glycogen, and liver lipids were remarkably small in all the groups. From the above results, it was suggested that the degradation of glycine- 14 C to expiratory CO 2 was not accelerated, but the rate of incorporation of the isotope into carcass lipids was increased by the supplementation of L-arginine and L-methionine to the 10C7G diet as compared with that of rats fed the 10C7G diet. (JPN)

  13. The effects of Bifidobacteria on the lipid profile and oxidative stress biomarkers of male rats fed thermally oxidized soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awney, Hala A

    2011-08-01

    Over the years, there has been concern about the changes taking place in heated oils and the effects on individuals consuming them. The present study investigated the effects of a diet containing thermally oxidized soybean oil (TO) or TO supplemented with probiotic Bifidobacteria (TO+Pro) on the serum lipid profile and oxidative stress biomarkers of male rats. The data showed several indicators of oil deterioration after thermal processing, including high levels of % free fatty acid (FFA; 15-fold), acid value (AV; 14-fold), peroxide value (8-fold), p-anisidine value (AnV; 39-fold), total oxidation value (TOTOX; 19-fold), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) value (8.5-fold), and trans-FA (TFA) isomers (2.5-fold) compared to the control. The rats that were fed a diet containing TO showed a significant (p blood serum samples. High levels of TBARS, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione reductase (GR) activities were also detected in the livers, kidneys, testes, and brains of rats. Interestingly, a diet containing TO+Pro restored all biological parameters to their control values. The present data suggested that Bifidobacteria may ameliorate the serum lipid profile and oxidative stress biomarkers that are generated in animals that are fed a TO diet.

  14. Lipoprotein lipase activity and chylomicron clearance in rats fed a high fat diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.M.; Layman, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    The relationships of tissue and plasma lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activities to tissue uptake and plasma clearance of 14 C-labeled chylomicron-triglyceride ( 14 C-CM-TG) were studied in female rats fed isoenergetic and isonitrogenous control (12% kJ from fat) or high fat diets (72% kJ from fat) for 8 wk. Animals fed the high-fat diet had higher levels of fasting plasma triglycerides and lower LPL activities in heart, renal adipose tissue and post-heparin plasma. Changes in LPL activities of skeletal muscles varied among muscles with higher values in the soleus and plantaris (32-61%) and no differences in the gastrocnemius. The lower LPL activity in renal adipose tissue was associated with lower uptake of fatty acids from 14 C-CM-TG by adipose. Fatty-acid uptake from labeled TG was not associated with tissue LPL activity in other tissues. Clearance of 14 C-CM-TG from plasma and the half-lives of 14 C-CM-TG were similar in both dietary groups. These data indicate that tissue and plasma LPL activities are not a direct index of uptake of fatty acids by tissues or clearance of chylomicron triglycerides

  15. ImgLib2--generic image processing in Java.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietzsch, Tobias; Preibisch, Stephan; Tomancák, Pavel; Saalfeld, Stephan

    2012-11-15

    ImgLib2 is an open-source Java library for n-dimensional data representation and manipulation with focus on image processing. It aims at minimizing code duplication by cleanly separating pixel-algebra, data access and data representation in memory. Algorithms can be implemented for classes of pixel types and generic access patterns by which they become independent of the specific dimensionality, pixel type and data representation. ImgLib2 illustrates that an elegant high-level programming interface can be achieved without sacrificing performance. It provides efficient implementations of common data types, storage layouts and algorithms. It is the data model underlying ImageJ2, the KNIME Image Processing toolbox and an increasing number of Fiji-Plugins. ImgLib2 is licensed under BSD. Documentation and source code are available at http://imglib2.net and in a public repository at https://github.com/imagej/imglib. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics Online. saalfeld@mpi-cbg.de

  16. A Ketone Ester Diet Increases Brain Malonyl-CoA and Uncoupling Proteins 4 and 5 while Decreasing Food Intake in the Normal Wistar Rat*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwaya, Yoshihiro; Pawlosky, Robert; Markis, William; King, M. Todd; Bergman, Christian; Srivastava, Shireesh; Murray, Andrew; Clarke, Kieran; Veech, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Three groups of male Wistar rats were pair fed NIH-31 diets for 14 days to which were added 30% of calories as corn starch, palm oil, or R-3-hydroxybutyrate-R-1,3-butanediol monoester (3HB-BD ester). On the 14th day, animal brains were removed by freeze-blowing, and brain metabolites measured. Animals fed the ketone ester diet had elevated mean blood ketone bodies of 3.5 mm and lowered plasma glucose, insulin, and leptin. Despite the decreased plasma leptin, feeding the ketone ester diet ad lib decreased voluntary food intake 2-fold for 6 days while brain malonyl-CoA was increased by about 25% in ketone-fed group but not in the palm oil fed group. Unlike the acute effects of ketone body metabolism in the perfused working heart, there was no increased reduction in brain free mitochondrial [NAD+]/[NADH] ratio nor in the free energy of ATP hydrolysis, which was compatible with the observed 1.5-fold increase in brain uncoupling proteins 4 and 5. Feeding ketone ester or palm oil supplemented diets decreased brain l-glutamate by 15–20% and GABA by about 34% supporting the view that fatty acids as well as ketone bodies can be metabolized by the brain. PMID:20529850

  17. A ketone ester diet increases brain malonyl-CoA and Uncoupling proteins 4 and 5 while decreasing food intake in the normal Wistar Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwaya, Yoshihiro; Pawlosky, Robert; Markis, William; King, M Todd; Bergman, Christian; Srivastava, Shireesh; Murray, Andrew; Clarke, Kieran; Veech, Richard L

    2010-08-20

    Three groups of male Wistar rats were pair fed NIH-31 diets for 14 days to which were added 30% of calories as corn starch, palm oil, or R-3-hydroxybutyrate-R-1,3-butanediol monoester (3HB-BD ester). On the 14th day, animal brains were removed by freeze-blowing, and brain metabolites measured. Animals fed the ketone ester diet had elevated mean blood ketone bodies of 3.5 mm and lowered plasma glucose, insulin, and leptin. Despite the decreased plasma leptin, feeding the ketone ester diet ad lib decreased voluntary food intake 2-fold for 6 days while brain malonyl-CoA was increased by about 25% in ketone-fed group but not in the palm oil fed group. Unlike the acute effects of ketone body metabolism in the perfused working heart, there was no increased reduction in brain free mitochondrial [NAD(+)]/[NADH] ratio nor in the free energy of ATP hydrolysis, which was compatible with the observed 1.5-fold increase in brain uncoupling proteins 4 and 5. Feeding ketone ester or palm oil supplemented diets decreased brain L-glutamate by 15-20% and GABA by about 34% supporting the view that fatty acids as well as ketone bodies can be metabolized by the brain.

  18. Wavelength dependence of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) on questioned document investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsherbiny, Nany; Aied Nassef, O

    2015-07-01

    The fast and nearly non-destructive criteria of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique has been exploited for forensic purposes, specifically, document investigation. The dependence of the optical emission spectra of different black gel ink samples on the excitation laser wavelength, namely the visible wavelength at λ=532 nm and the IR wavelength at λ=1064 nm, was studied. The inks of thirty black gel-ink pens comprising ten brands were analyzed to determine the variation of the chemical composition of ink and to discriminate among them with minimum mass removal and minimum damage to the document's paper. Under the adopted experimental conditions, the ability of the visible LIBS to differentiate among the different ink samples was successful compared to IR LIBS at the same laser pulse energy (~25 mJ/pulse, laser fluence is ~1400J·cm(-2) for visible laser and ~1100J·cm(-2) for IR laser) which could be attributed to the IR absorption effects by the black ink. However, the visible LIBS produces deeper crater with respect to that produced by IR LIBS. Applying IR LIBS with higher pulse energy of ~87mJ (laser fluence is ~4100J·cm(-2)), identification and differentiation of the adopted samples was performed with producing a larger-diameter but superficial crater. The plasma parameters are discussed at the adopted experimental conditions. The results support the potential of LIBS technique using both the visible and IR lasers to be commercially developed for forensic document examination. Copyright © 2015 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of diet on growth and survival of rats fed toxic levels of tartrazine (FD & C Yellow No. 5) and sunset yellow FCF (FD & C Yellow No. 6).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershoff, B H

    1977-05-01

    Tests were conducted on the effects of diet on the response of immature male rats to massive doses of tartrazine (FD&C Yellow No.5) and Sunset Yellow FCF (FD&C Yellow No. 6). When incorporated at a 5% level in a stock diet, tartrazine and Sunset Yellow FCF had no grossly observable toxic effects. When fed with a purified diet, however, both tartrazine and Sunset Yellow FCF at 5% level in the diet resulted in a marked retardation in growth, an unthrifty appearance of the fur and death of 50% or more of the rats within an experimental period of 14 days. The toxic effects obtained by feeding the latter diets were counteracted by the concurrent feeding of blond psyllium seed powder, carrot root powder, alfalfa leaf meal and wheat bran. Supplements of the known nutrients had little if any protective effect. Supplements of purified cellulose were without protective effect for the rats fed tartrazine but had a moderate protective effect for those fed Sunset Yellow FCF.

  20. Identification and sorting of materials with portable LIBS before decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vors, Evelyne; Sirven, Jean-Baptiste; Dehayem-Massop, Alix; Gallou, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is a technique of elemental analysis. A laser beam is focused on the surface of the sample to be analyzed. A small quantity of matter is ablated and a plasma formed by the atomized compounds is created. The spectral lines of the light emitted by the plasma are detected by an optical spectrometer. LIBS is a fully optical, multi-elementary and fast analytical technique, requiring no or little sample preparation. These features make the LIBS technique particularly suited for in situ measurements, and portable instruments are currently developed. LIBS analysis can be applied to the identification of materials using chemometric statistical methods (multivariate analysis) connecting the spectrum to the nature of the sample. Such methods have been successfully applied in our laboratory to the determination of the geographical origin of yellow cakes and to the identification of alloys. We present here the work performed with a portable LIBS instrument to meet the needs of waste sorting in industrial domain and in nuclear domain (inventory before decommissioning). A data base of LIBS spectra was built with a commercial instrument (IVEA SAS Easylibs) with samples of four categories of interest for industrial waste sorting: alloys, plastics, concrete and glasses. Different correct identification rates are requested by categories. The alloy spectra contain characteristic spectral lines and sub-categories can be easily discriminated (for example, different steel classes can be identified). The components of the plastics (mainly C, H, O and N) give rise to less characteristic lines and the plastics identification requires a separate study. Supervised statistical models are built with the data base spectra and predictions are instantly calculated for the spectra of unknown materials to identify in order to direct them to the correct waste stream. (authors)

  1. [Rapid measurement of trace mercury in aqueous solutions with optical-electrical dual pulse LIBS technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Xiong, Wei; Chen, Yu-Qi; Li, Run-Hua

    2011-02-01

    A wood slice was used as absorber to transfer liquid sample to solid sample in order to solve the problems existing in directly analyzing aqueous solutions with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). An optical-electrical dual pulse LIBS (OEDP-LIBS) technique was first used to enhance atomic emission of mercury in laser-induced plasma. The calibration curves of mercury were obtained by typical single pulse LIBS and OEDP-LIBS techniques. The limit of detection (LOD) of mercury in these two techniques reaches 2.4 and 0.3 mg x L(-1), respectively. Under current experimental conditions, the time-integrated a tomic emission of mercury at 253.65 nm was enhanced 50 times and the LOD of mercury was improved by one order, if comparing OEDP-LIBS to single pulse LIBS. The required time for a whole analysis process is less than 5 minutes. As the atomic emission of mercury decays slowly while increasing the delay time between electrical pulse and laser pulse, increasing the electrical pulse width can further enhance the time integrated intensity of mercury emission and improve the detection sensitivity of mercury by OEDP-LIBS technique.

  2. Rats Fed a Diet Rich in Fats and Sugars Are Impaired in the Use of Spatial Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dominic M D; Westbrook, R Frederick

    2015-12-01

    A diet rich in fats and sugars is associated with cognitive deficits in people, and rodent models have shown that such a diet produces deficits on tasks assessing spatial learning and memory. Spatial navigation is guided by two distinct types of information: geometrical, such as distance and direction, and featural, such as luminance and pattern. To clarify the nature of diet-induced spatial impairments, we provided rats with standard chow supplemented with sugar water and a range of energy-rich foods eaten by people, and then we assessed their place- and object-recognition memory. Rats exposed to this diet performed comparably with control rats fed only chow on object recognition but worse on place recognition. This impairment on the place-recognition task was present after only a few days on the diet and persisted across tests. Critically, this spatial impairment was specific to the processing of distance and direction. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Utilization of [1-14C]carbon of glycine of high glycine diet fed young and old rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzke, K.J.; Albrecht, V.; Medovar, B.Ya.; Pisarczuk, K.L.; Grigorov, Yu.G.

    1987-01-01

    The incorporation of radioactivity from [1- 14 C]glycine was studied in various organ (serum, liver, muscle) fractions (acid soluble, proteins, lipids, liver glycogen) and carbon dioxide in rats fed with isonitrogenous isocaloric purfied diets. The diets contained 30% casein (control), gelatin (exchange of half of the 30% casein) or glycine (corresponding level of glycine in relation to the gelatin diet). The incorporation of radioactivity into proteins was reduced by feeding high glycine diets in young (20-weeks-old) and old (18-month-old) rats in relation to the control diet. The modifications of the results for old animals may be partially explained on the base of a reduced protein turnover rate and adaptation to a high gelatin (glycine) diet. (author)

  4. Body retention and tissue distribution of 59Fe and 54Mn in newborn rats fed iron-supplemented cow's milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruden, Nevenka

    1980-01-01

    The effect of iron-fortified cow's milk on body 59 Fe and 54 Mn retention and selective tissue distribution has been studied in newborn rats. Six-day old rats, divided into three groups were artificially fed for 7 hrs 0,45 ml of cow's milk or cow's milk enriched with either 52 or 103 μg of Fe /ml and marked with 59 Fe and 54 Mn. After 4 days there was no significant difference in whole body or carcass activity between the groups. Iron added to milk in large amounts did not influence body 59 Fe or 54 Mn retention in newborn rats, whereas it enhanced 59 Fe deposition in the liver and the intestinal wall and, to a lesser extent, 54 Mn deposition in the liver

  5. Combination of soya pulp and Bacillus coagulans lilac-01 improves intestinal bile acid metabolism without impairing the effects of prebiotics in rats fed a cholic acid-supplemented diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeonmi; Yoshitsugu, Reika; Kikuchi, Keidai; Joe, Ga-Hyun; Tsuji, Misaki; Nose, Takuma; Shimizu, Hidehisa; Hara, Hiroshi; Minamida, Kimiko; Miwa, Kazunori; Ishizuka, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    Intestinal bacteria are involved in bile acid (BA) deconjugation and/or dehydroxylation and are responsible for the production of secondary BA. However, an increase in the production of secondary BA modulates the intestinal microbiota due to the bactericidal effects and promotes cancer risk in the liver and colon. The ingestion of Bacillus coagulans improves constipation via the activation of bowel movement to promote defaecation in humans, which may alter BA metabolism in the intestinal contents. BA secretion is promoted with high-fat diet consumption, and the ratio of cholic acid (CA):chenodeoxycholic acid in primary BA increases with ageing. The dietary supplementation of CA mimics the BA environment in diet-induced obesity and ageing. We investigated whether B. coagulans lilac-01 and soya pulp influence both BA metabolism and the maintenance of host health in CA-supplemented diet-fed rats. In CA-fed rats, soya pulp significantly increased the production of secondary BA such as deoxycholic acid and ω-muricholic acids, and soya pulp ingestion alleviated problems related to plasma adiponectin and gut permeability in rats fed the CA diet. The combination of B. coagulans and soya pulp successfully suppressed the increased production of secondary BA in CA-fed rats compared with soya pulp itself, without impairing the beneficial effects of soya pulp ingestion. In conclusion, it is possible that a combination of prebiotics and probiotics can be used to avoid an unnecessary increase in the production of secondary BA in the large intestine without impairing the beneficial functions of prebiotics.

  6. Trigonella foenum-graecum water extract improves insulin sensitivity and stimulates PPAR and γ gene expression in high fructose-fed insulin-resistant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Mohammadi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrates the beneficial effects of trigonella foenum-graecum extract on insulin resistance in rats fed on a high-fructose diet. At least three mechanisms are involved, including direct insulin-like effect, increase in adiponectin levels, and PPARγ protein expression.

  7. Laser induced spectroscopy breakdown (LIBS) application to heavy metal detection in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbini, R.; Fantoni, R.; Palucci, A.; Ribezzo, S.; Colao, F.; Capitelli, F.

    2000-01-01

    LIBS (Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy) is a new spectroscopic technique suitable to the use in the analysis of samples of environmental interest, such as soils and rocks, and of industrial interest, such as alloys. Results dealing with the application of the technique to heterogeneous soil samples certified by Ispra Joint Research Centre in the contest of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) with an agronomical interest are presented in this report. In the LIBS technique, a high power laser beam is focused onto the sample in order to generate a small volume of plasma at its surface. Emissions from single atomic species are collected by a lens system coupled to an optical fiber bundle, dispersed on a monochromator and analyzed by an iCCD. the identification and the assignment of emission lines relevant to single atomic species allows to determine the sample elemental composition and, after calibration against reference samples, to perform quantitative analysis for a large number of species. This technique requires no sample pre-treatment, a part from eventually compacting powders by mechanical press. This is a considerable advantage with respect to traditional spectroscopic techniques, such as the ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma) which needs sample mineralization by acid attack. Measurements performed on soil samples by means of the LIBS technique at ENEA Frascati were compared with the results obtained by ICP, which is considered a traditional technique for this kind of analysis. Results showed a general overestimation of the LIBS values with respect to the ICP ones, probably due to differences in lytologic matrix between the analyzed samples and the standard. The phenomenon is usually referred to the matrix effect, which is held responsible for the deviation from linearity between single element concentration and its row intensity. The effect is due to local plasma density variations and limit the correlation between the plasma elemental composition

  8. A 90-day safety study in Sprague-Dawley rats fed milk powder containing recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF) derived from transgenic cloned cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cui; Wang, Jian Wu; Huang, Kun Lun; He, XiaoYun; Chen, Xiu Ping; Sun, Hong; Yu, Tian; Che, Hui Lian

    2011-10-01

    Transgenic cloned animals expressing beneficial human nutritional traits offer a new strategy for large-scale production of some kinds of functional substances. In some cases, the required safety testing for genetically modified (GM) foods do not seem appropriate for human food safety, though regulations do not seem to provide alternatives. A 90-day rat feeding study is the core study for the safety assessment of GM foods. The test material in this 90-day study was prepared nonfat milk powder containing recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF), which was expressed in transgenic cloned cattle. Groups of 10 male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were given a nutritionally balanced purified diet containing 7.5, 15, or 30% transgenic or conventional milk powder for 90 days. A commercial AIN93G diet was used as an additional control group. Clinical, biological, and pathological parameters were compared between groups. The only significant effect of treatment was higher mean ferritin and Fe(+) concentrations for both male and female rats fed the transgenic milk powder diets, as compared to rats fed nontransgenic milk diets or the commercial diet. The results of the present study are consistent with previous research, which indicates that milk powder containing rhLF derived from healthy transgenic cloned cattle is as safe as conventional milk powder.

  9. LibKiSAO: a Java library for Querying KiSAO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukova, Anna; Adams, Richard; Laibe, Camille; Le Novère, Nicolas

    2012-09-24

    The Kinetic Simulation Algorithm Ontology (KiSAO) supplies information about existing algorithms available for the simulation of Systems Biology models, their characteristics, parameters and inter-relationships. KiSAO enables the unambiguous identification of algorithms from simulation descriptions. Information about analogous methods having similar characteristics and about algorithm parameters incorporated into KiSAO is desirable for simulation tools. To retrieve this information programmatically an application programming interface (API) for KiSAO is needed. We developed libKiSAO, a Java library to enable querying of the KiSA Ontology. It implements methods to retrieve information about simulation algorithms stored in KiSAO, their characteristics and parameters, and methods to query the algorithm hierarchy and search for similar algorithms providing comparable results for the same simulation set-up. Using libKiSAO, simulation tools can make logical inferences based on this knowledge and choose the most appropriate algorithm to perform a simulation. LibKiSAO also enables simulation tools to handle a wider range of simulation descriptions by determining which of the available methods are similar and can be used instead of the one indicated in the simulation description if that one is not implemented. LibKiSAO enables Java applications to easily access information about simulation algorithms, their characteristics and parameters stored in the OWL-encoded Kinetic Simulation Algorithm Ontology. LibKiSAO can be used by simulation description editors and simulation tools to improve reproducibility of computational simulation tasks and facilitate model re-use.

  10. Gut microbiota are linked to increased susceptibility to hepatic steatosis in low aerobic capacity rats fed an acute high fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poor aerobic fitness is linked to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and increased all-cause mortality. We previously found that low capacity running (LCR) rats fed acute high fat diet (HFD; 45% kcal from fat) for 3 days resulted in positive energy balance and increased hepatic steatosis compared with...

  11. Modern 'junk food' and minimally-processed 'natural food' cafeteria diets alter the response to sweet taste but do not impair flavor-nutrient learning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palframan, Kristen M; Myers, Kevin P

    2016-04-01

    Animals learn to prefer and increase consumption of flavors paired with postingestive nutrient sensing. Analogous effects have been difficult to observe in human studies. One possibility is experience with the modern, processed diet impairs learning. Food processing manipulates flavor, texture, sweetness, and nutrition, obscuring ordinary correspondences between sensory cues and postingestive consequences. Over time, a diet of these processed 'junk' foods may impair flavor-nutrient learning. This 'flavor-confusion' hypothesis was tested by providing rats long-term exposure to cafeteria diets of unusual breadth (2 or 3 foods per day, 96 different foods over 3 months, plus ad libitum chow). One group was fed processed foods (PF) with added sugars/fats and manipulated flavors, to mimic the sensory-nutrient properties of the modern processed diet. Another group was fed only 'natural' foods (NF) meaning minimally-processed foods without manipulated flavors or added sugars/fats (e.g., fresh fruits, vegetables, whole grains) ostensibly preserving the ordinary correspondence between flavors and nutrition. A CON group was fed chow only. In subsequent tests of flavor-nutrient learning, PF and NF rats consistently acquired strong preferences for novel nutrient-paired flavors and PF rats exhibited enhanced learned acceptance, contradicting the 'flavor-confusion' hypothesis. An unexpected finding was PF and NF diets both caused lasting reduction in ad lib sweet solution intake. Groups did not differ in reinforcing value of sugar in a progressive ratio task. In lick microstructure analysis the NF group paradoxically showed increased sucrose palatability relative to PF and CON, suggesting the diets have different effects on sweet taste evaluation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. HYPOLIPIDEMIC EFFECT OF CURCUMIN OR CO-ENZYME Q1-0 AND THEIR MIXTURE ON OBESE RATS FED A HIGH CHOLESTEROL DIET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHAHIN, M.I.M.

    2008-01-01

    In the current study, hyperlipidemia was induced in the rats by feeding diet enriched with cholesterol for two weeks. After 2 weeks of induction of hypercholesterolemia in rats and in comparison to normal rats, the results showed that incorporation of extra cholesterol in diet led to significant increases in serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, leptin and MDA levels. On the other hand, total serum triiodothyronine (T3), liver glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were decreased significantly in cholesterol fed rats. The concentration of TBARS in the liver was elevated.All previous parameters were corrected after the hypercholesterolemic rats were treated with curcumin or co-enzyme Q 1 -0 or a mixture of them dependent on the time of treatment. These findings are consistent with the concept that curcumin and co-enzyme Q 10 are antioxidant agents. The underlying mechanisms of these effects were discussed

  13. Food-anticipatory activity and liver per1-luc activity in diabetic transgenic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Alec J.; Stokkan, Karl-Arne; Yamazaki, Shin; Menaker, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The mammalian Per1 gene is an important component of the core cellular clock mechanism responsible for circadian rhythms. The rodent liver and other tissues rhythmically express Per1 in vitro but typically damp out within a few cycles. In the liver, the peak of this rhythm occurs in the late subjective night in an ad lib-fed rat, but will show a large phase advance in response to restricted availability of food during the day. The relationship between this shift in the liver clock and food-anticipatory activity (FAA), the circadian behavior entrained by daily feeding, is currently unknown. Insulin is released during feeding in mammals and could serve as an entraining signal to the liver. To test the role of insulin in the shift in liver Per1 expression and the generation of FAA, per-luciferase transgenic rats were made diabetic with a single injection of streptozotocine. Following 1 week of restricted feeding and locomotor activity monitoring, liver was collected for per-luc recording. In two separate experiments, FAA emerged and liver Per1 phase-shifted in response to daytime 8-h food restriction. The results rule out insulin as a necessary component of this system.

  14. Extract of mangosteen increases high density lipoprotein levels in rats fed high lipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Laksono Adiputro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background In cardiovascular medicine, Garcinia mangostana has been used as an antioxidant to inhibit oxidation of low density lipoproteins and as an antiobesity agent. The effect of Garcinia mangostana on hyperlipidemia is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp on lipid profile in rats fed a high lipid diet. Methods A total of 40 rats were divided into five groups control, high lipid diet, and high lipid diet + ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp at dosages of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight. The control group received a standard diet for 60 days. The high lipid diet group received standard diet plus egg yolk, goat fat, cholic acid, and pig fat for 60 days with or without ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp by the oral route. After 60 days, rats were anesthesized with ether for collection of blood by cardiac puncture. Analysis of blood lipid profile comprised colorimetric determination of cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL, and high density lipoprotein (HDL. Results From the results of one-way ANOVA it was concluded that there were significant between-group differences in cholesterol, trygliceride, LDL, and HDL levels (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly decreased cholesterol, trygliceride, and LDL levels, starting at 400 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly increased HDL level starting at 200 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. Conclusion Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp has a beneficial effect on lipid profile in rats on a high lipid diet.

  15. Extract of mangosteen increases high density lipoprotein levels in rats fed high lipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Laksono Adiputro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In cardiovascular medicine, Garcinia mangostana has been used as an antioxidant to inhibit oxidation of low density lipoproteins and as an antiobesity agent. The effect of Garcinia mangostana on hyperlipidemia is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp on lipid profile in rats fed a high lipid diet. METHODS A total of 40 rats were divided into five groups control, high lipid diet, and high lipid diet + ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp at dosages of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight. The control group received a standard diet for 60 days. The high lipid diet group received standard diet plus egg yolk, goat fat, cholic acid, and pig fat for 60 days with or without ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp by the oral route. After 60 days, rats were anesthesized with ether for collection of blood by cardiac puncture. Analysis of blood lipid profile comprised colorimetric determination of cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL, and high density lipoprotein (HDL. RESULTS From the results of one-way ANOVA it was concluded that there were significant between-group differences in cholesterol, trygliceride, LDL, and HDL levels (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly decreased cholesterol, trygliceride, and LDL levels, starting at 400 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly increased HDL level starting at 200 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. CONCLUSION Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp has a beneficial effect on lipid profile in rats on a high lipid diet.

  16. libRoadRunner: a high performance SBML simulation and analysis library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Endre T; Bouteiller, Jean-Marie; Glazier, James A; König, Matthias; Medley, J Kyle; Swat, Maciej H; Sauro, Herbert M

    2015-10-15

    This article presents libRoadRunner, an extensible, high-performance, cross-platform, open-source software library for the simulation and analysis of models expressed using Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML). SBML is the most widely used standard for representing dynamic networks, especially biochemical networks. libRoadRunner is fast enough to support large-scale problems such as tissue models, studies that require large numbers of repeated runs and interactive simulations. libRoadRunner is a self-contained library, able to run both as a component inside other tools via its C++ and C bindings, and interactively through its Python interface. Its Python Application Programming Interface (API) is similar to the APIs of MATLAB ( WWWMATHWORKSCOM: ) and SciPy ( HTTP//WWWSCIPYORG/: ), making it fast and easy to learn. libRoadRunner uses a custom Just-In-Time (JIT) compiler built on the widely used LLVM JIT compiler framework. It compiles SBML-specified models directly into native machine code for a variety of processors, making it appropriate for solving extremely large models or repeated runs. libRoadRunner is flexible, supporting the bulk of the SBML specification (except for delay and non-linear algebraic equations) including several SBML extensions (composition and distributions). It offers multiple deterministic and stochastic integrators, as well as tools for steady-state analysis, stability analysis and structural analysis of the stoichiometric matrix. libRoadRunner binary distributions are available for Mac OS X, Linux and Windows. The library is licensed under Apache License Version 2.0. libRoadRunner is also available for ARM-based computers such as the Raspberry Pi. http://www.libroadrunner.org provides online documentation, full build instructions, binaries and a git source repository. hsauro@u.washington.edu or somogyie@indiana.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. Published by Oxford University Press 2015. This work is written

  17. Higher insulin sensitivity in EDL muscle of rats fed a low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet inhibits the caspase-3 and ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic systems but does not increase protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Maísa Pavani; Batistela, Emanuele; Pereira, Mayara Peron; Paula-Gomes, Silvia; Zanon, Neusa Maria; Kettelhut, Isis do Carmo; Karatzaferi, Christina; Andrade, Claudia Marlise Balbinotti; de França, Suélem Aparecida; Baviera, Amanda Martins; Kawashita, Nair Honda

    2016-08-01

    Compared with the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle of control rats (C), the EDL muscle of rats fed a low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet (LPHC) showed a 36% reduction in mass. Muscle mass is determined by the balance between protein synthesis and proteolysis; thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the components involved in these processes. Compared with the muscle from C rats, the EDL muscle from LPHC diet-fed rats showed a reduction (34%) in the in vitro basal protein synthesis and a 22% reduction in the in vitro basal proteolysis suggesting that the reduction in the mass can be associated with a change in the rate of the two processes. Soon after euthanasia, in the EDL muscles of the rats fed the LPHC diet for 15days, the activity of caspase-3 and that of components of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (atrogin-1 content and chymotrypsin-like activity) were decreased. The phosphorylation of p70(S6K) and 4E-BP1, proteins involved in protein synthesis, was also decreased. We observed an increase in the insulin-stimulated protein content of p-Akt. Thus, the higher insulin sensitivity in the EDL muscle of LPHC rats seemed to contribute to the lower proteolysis in LPHC rats. However, even with the higher insulin sensitivity, the reduction in p-E4-BP1 and p70(S6K) indicates a reduction in protein synthesis, showing that factors other than insulin can have a greater effect on the control of protein synthesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of umbelliferone in chronic alcohol-fed rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Mi-Ok; Lee, Hae-In; Ham, Ju Ri; Seo, Kwon-Il; Kim, Myung-Joo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Inflammation is associated with various types of acute and chronic alcohol liver diseases. In this study, we examined whether umbelliferone (7-hydroxycoumarin, UF) ameliorates chronic alcohol-induced liver damage by modulating inflammatory response and the antioxidant system. METHODS Rats were fed a Liber-Decarli liquid diet containing 5% alcohol with or without UF (0.05 g/L) for 8 weeks, while normal rats received an isocaloric carbohydrate liquid diet. RESULTS Chronic alcohol intake significantly increased serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 levels and decreased interleukin 10 level; however, UF supplementation reversed the cytokines related to liver damage. UF significantly suppressed hepatic lipopolysaccharide binding protein, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), nuclear factor kappa B, and TNF-α gene expression increases in response to chronic alcohol intake. Masson's trichrome staining revealed that UF improved mild hepatic fibrosis caused by alcohol, and UF also significantly increased the mRNA expressions and activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in liver, and thus, decreased lipid peroxide and mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide levels. CONCLUSIONS The findings of this study indicate that UF protects against alcohol-induced liver damage by inhibiting the TLR4 signaling pathway and activating the antioxidant system. PMID:26244074

  19. 3,5 Diiodo-L-Thyronine (T2 Does Not Prevent Hepatic Steatosis or Insulin Resistance in Fat-Fed Sprague Dawley Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F Vatner

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone mimetics are alluring potential therapies for diseases like dyslipidemia, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, and insulin resistance. Though diiodothyronines are thought inactive, pharmacologic treatment with 3,5- Diiodo-L-Thyronine (T2 reportedly reduces hepatic lipid content and improves glucose tolerance in fat-fed male rats. To test this, male Sprague Dawley rats fed a safflower-oil based high-fat diet were treated with T2 (0.25 mg/kg-d or vehicle. Neither 10 nor 30 days of T2 treatment had an effect on weight, adiposity, plasma fatty acids, or hepatic steatosis. Insulin action was quantified in vivo by a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. T2 did not alter fasting plasma glucose or insulin concentration. Basal endogenous glucose production (EGP rate was unchanged. During the clamp, there was no difference in insulin stimulated whole body glucose disposal. Insulin suppressed EGP by 60% ± 10 in T2-treated rats as compared with 47% ± 4 suppression in the vehicle group (p = 0.32. This was associated with an improvement in hepatic insulin signaling; insulin stimulated Akt phosphorylation was ~2.5 fold greater in the T2-treated group as compared with the vehicle-treated group (p = 0.003. There was no change in expression of genes thought to mediate the effect of T2 on hepatic metabolism, including genes that regulate hepatic lipid oxidation (ppara, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a, genes that regulate hepatic fatty acid synthesis (srebp1c, acetyl coa carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, and genes involved in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis (L-pyruvate kinase, glucose 6 phosphatase. Therefore, in contrast with previous reports, in Sprague Dawley rats fed an unsaturated fat diet, T2 administration failed to improve NAFLD or whole body insulin sensitivity. Though there was a modest improvement in hepatic insulin signaling, this was not associated with significant differences in hepatic insulin action. Further study will be

  20. Disparate metabolic effects of blackcurrant seed oil in rats fed a basal and obesogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgoński, Adam; Fotschki, Bartosz; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy

    2015-09-01

    It was hypothesised that blackcurrant seed oil beneficially modulates metabolic disorders related to obesity and its complications. The study also aimed to investigate the potentially adverse effects of an unbalanced diet on the distal intestine. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups of eight animals each and were fed a basal or obesogenic (high in fat and low in fibre) diet that contained either rapeseed oil (Canola) or blackcurrant seed oil. A two-way analysis of variance was then applied to assess the effects of diet and oil and the interaction between them. After 8 weeks, the obesogenic dietary regimen increased the body weight, altered the plasma lipid profile and increased the liver fat content and the plasma transaminase activities. In addition, the obesogenic diet decreased bacterial glycolytic activity and short-chain fatty acid formation in the distal intestine. Dietary blackcurrant seed oil improved the lipid metabolism by lowering liver fat accumulation and the plasma triglyceride concentration and atherogenicity as well by increasing the plasma HDL-cholesterol concentration. However, in rats fed an obesogenic diet containing blackcurrant seed oil, the plasma HDL-cholesterol concentration was comparable with both rapeseed oil-containing diets, and a significant elevation of the plasma transaminase activities was noted instead. The obesogenic dietary regimen causes a number of metabolic disorders, including alterations in the hindgut microbial metabolism. Dietary blackcurrant seed oil ameliorates the lipid metabolism; however, the beneficial effect is restricted when it is provided together with the obesogenic diet, and a risk of liver injury may occur.

  1. Dietary Shiitake Mushroom (Lentinus edodes Prevents Fat Deposition and Lowers Triglyceride in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Handayani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available High-fat diet (HFD induces obesity. This study examined the effects of Shiitake mushroom on the prevention of alterations of plasma lipid profiles, fat deposition, energy efficiency, and body fat index induced by HFD. Rats were given a low, medium, and high (7, 20, 60 g/kg = LD-M, MD-M, HD-M Shiitake mushroom powder in their high-fat (50% in kcal diets for 6 weeks. The results showed that the rats on the HD-M diet had the lowest body weight gain compared to MD-M and LD-M groups (P<0.05. The total fat deposition was significantly lower (−35%, P<0.05 in rats fed an HD-M diet than that of HFD group. Interestingly, plasma triacylglycerol (TAG level was significantly lower (−55%, P<0.05 in rats on HD-M than HFD. This study also revealed the existence of negative correlations between the amount of Shiitake mushroom supplementation and body weight gain, plasma TAG, and total fat masses.

  2. Laser induced spectroscopy breakdown (LIBS) application to heavy metal detection in soils; Applicazioni della tecnica Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) alla determinazione dei metalli pesanti nei suoli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbini, R.; Fantoni, R.; Palucci, A.; Ribezzo, S.; Colao, F. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Frascati, RM (Italy). Div. Fisica Applicata; Capitelli, F. [Bari, Univ., Bari (Italy). Dipt. di Biologia e Chimica Agroforestale ed Ambientale

    2000-07-01

    LIBS (Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy) is a new spectroscopic technique suitable to the use in the analysis of samples of environmental interest, such as soils and rocks, and of industrial interest, such as alloys. Results dealing with the application of the technique to heterogeneous soil samples certified by Ispra Joint Research Centre in the contest of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) with an agronomical interest are presented in this report. In the LIBS technique, a high power laser beam is focused onto the sample in order to generate a small volume of plasma at its surface. Emissions from single atomic species are collected by a lens system coupled to an optical fiber bundle, dispersed on a monochromator and analyzed by an iCCD. the identification and the assignment of emission lines relevant to single atomic species allows to determine the sample elemental composition and, after calibration against reference samples, to perform quantitative analysis for a large number of species. This technique requires no sample pre-treatment, a part from eventually compacting powders by mechanical press. This is a considerable advantage with respect to traditional spectroscopic techniques, such as the ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma) which needs sample mineralization by acid attack. Measurements performed on soil samples by means of the LIBS technique at ENEA Frascati were compared with the results obtained by ICP, which is considered a traditional technique for this kind of analysis. Results showed a general overestimation of the LIBS values with respect to the ICP ones, probably due to differences in lytologic matrix between the analyzed samples and the standard. The phenomenon is usually referred to the matrix effect, which is held responsible for the deviation from linearity between single element concentration and its row intensity. The effect is due to local plasma density variations and limit the correlation between the plasma elemental composition

  3. Effective laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) detection using double pulse at optimum configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo Jin; Yoh, Jack J

    2011-08-01

    A short laser pulse is irradiated on a sample to create a highly energetic plasma that emits light of a specific peak wavelength according to the material. By identifying different peaks for the analyzed samples, their chemical composition can be rapidly determined. The characteristics of the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) plasma are strongly dependent on the ambient conditions. Research aimed at enhancing LIBS intensity is of great benefit in advancing LIBS for the exploration of harsh environments. By using double-pulse LIBS, the signal intensity of Al and Ca lines was enhanced by five times compared to the single-pulse signal. Also, the angles of the target and detector are adjusted to simulate samples of arbitrary shape. We verified that there exists an optimal angle at which specific elements of a test sample may be detected with stronger signal intensity. We provide several optimum configurations for the LIBS system for maximizing the signal intensity for the analysis of a nonstandard aluminum sample.

  4. Endothelial dysfunction in high fructose containing diet fed rats: Increased nitric oxide and decreased endothelin-1 levels in liver tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Arı

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Dietary high fructose consumption which is closely associated with endothelial dysfunction via insulin re-sistance has recently increased in developed countries. Insulin resistance has a promoter effect on many metabolic disorders such as syndrome X, polycystic ovary syndrome, Type 2 diabetes mellitus etc. Our aim in this study is to understand the impact of increased fructose intake on metabolisms of glucose, insulin and endothelial dysfunction by measuring nitric oxide (NO and endothelin-1 (ET-1 levels in hepatic tissue which is crucial in fructose metabolism.Materials and Methods: We designed an animal study to understand increased fructose intake on hepatic endothe-lium. Twenty adult male albino rats were divided into two groups; the study group (group 1, n=10 received isocaloric fructose enriched diet (fructose-fed rats, containing 18.3% protein, 60.3% fructose and 5.2% fat while the control group received purified regular chow (group 2, n=10 for 2 weeks. After feeding period, blood and hepatic tissue samples were collected and glucose, insulin, NO and ET-1 levels were analysed.Results: We found increased fasting glucose and insulin levels and impaired glucose tolerance in fructose fed rats. Higher NO and lower ET–1 levels were also detected in hepatic tissue samples of the group 1.Conclusion: Increased fructose consumption has deleterious effects on glucose tolerance, insulin resistance and may cause to endothelial dysfunction.

  5. Fast LIBS Identification of Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawfik W.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS has been applied to analysis aluminum alloy targets. The plasma is generated by focusing a 300 mJ pulsed Nd: YAG laser on the target in air at atmospheric pressure. Such plasma emission spectrum was collected using a one-meter length wide band fused-silica optical fiber connected to a portable Echelle spectrometer with intensified CCD camera. Spectroscopic analysis of plasma evolution of laser produced plasmas has been characterized in terms of their spectra, electron density and electron temperature assuming the LTE and optically thin plasma conditions. The LIBS spectrum was optimized for high S/N ratio especially for trace elements. The electron temperature and density were determined using the emission intensity and stark broadening, respectively, of selected aluminum spectral lines. The values of these parameters were found to change with the aluminum alloy matrix, i.e. they could be used as a fingerprint character to distinguish between different aluminum alloy matrices using only one major element (aluminum without needing to analysis the rest of elements in the matrix. Moreover, It was found that the values of T(e and N(e decrease with increasing the trace elements concentrations in the aluminum alloy samples. The obtained results indicate that it is possible to improve the exploitation of LIBS in the remote on-line industrial monitoring application, by following up only the values of T(e and N(e for the aluminum in aluminum alloys using an optical fiber probe.

  6. Tea decoctions prevent body weight gain in rats fed high-fat diet; black tea being more efficient than green tea

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    Mohamed Hédi Hamdaoui

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Chronic GTD and BTD prevent fat storage in the liver, lowering blood lipids and glucose, increasing fecal excretion of TG, decreasing AT and weight gains in rats fed HFD, with a strong effect of BTD compared to GTD. Therefore, these beverages containing high amounts of TPC and caffeine could constitute a natural alternative in the prevention of obesity.

  7. Virgin Coconut Oil Prevents Blood Pressure Elevation and Improves Endothelial Functions in Rats Fed with Repeatedly Heated Palm Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badlishah Sham Nurul-Iman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to explore the effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO in male rats that were fed with repeatedly heated palm oil on blood pressure, plasma nitric oxide level, and vascular reactivity. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: (i control (basal diet, (ii VCO (1.42 mL/kg, oral, (iii five-times-heated palm oil (15% (5HPO, and (iv five-times-heated palm oil (15% and VCO (1.42 mL/kg, oral (5HPO + VCO. Blood pressure was significantly increased in the group that was given the 5HPO diet compared to the control group. Blood pressure in the 5HPO + VCO group was significantly lower than the 5HPO group. Plasma nitric oxide (NO level in the 5HPO group was significantly lower compared to the control group, whereas in the 5HPO + VCO group, the plasma NO level was significantly higher compared to the 5HPO group. Aortic rings from the 5HPO group exhibited attenuated relaxation in response to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside as well as increased vasoconstriction to phenylephrine compared to the control group. Aortic rings from the 5HPO + VCO group showed only attenuated vasoconstriction to phenylephrine compared to the 5HPO group. In conclusion, VCO prevents blood pressure elevation and improves endothelial functions in rats fed with repeatedly heated palm oil.

  8. Remote-LIBS characterization of ITER-like plasma facing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almaviva, S.; Caneve, L.; Colao, F.; Fantoni, R.; Maddaluno, G.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Description of a LIBS set-up as remote diagnostics in new generation fusion machines. ► Identification of the atomic composition of samples simulating plasma facing components. ► Submicrometric resolution in depth profiling the elemental composition of the samples. ► Identification of elements present in traces or as impurities on the sample surface. ► Discussion on the applicability of the Calibration Free method for quantitative analysis. - Abstract: The occurrence of several plasma-wall interaction processes, eventually affecting the overall system performances, is expected in a working fusion device chamber. Monitoring the changes in the composition of the plasma facing component (PFC) surface layer, as a result of erosion and redeposition mechanisms, can provide useful information on the possible plasma pollution and fuel retention. To this aim, suitable diagnostic techniques able to perform depth profiling analysis of the superficial layers on the PFCs have been developed. Due to the constraints commonly found in fusion devices, the measuring apparatus must be non invasive, remote and sensitive to light elements. These requirements make LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) an ideal candidate for on-line monitoring the walls of current and of next generation (as ITER) fusion devices. LIBS is a well established tool for qualitative, semi-quantitative and quantitative analysis of surfaces, with micro-destructive characteristics and some capabilities for stratigraphy. In this work, LIBS depth profiling capability has been verified for the determination of the composition of multilayer structures simulating plasma facing components covered with deposited impurity layers. A new experimental setup has been designed and realized in order to optimize the characteristics of a LIBS system working in vacuum conditions and remotely, two noticeable properties for an ITER-relevant diagnostics. A quantitative

  9. Effects of Simulated Hypogravity and Diet on Estrous Cycling in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tou, Janet C.; Grindeland, Richard E.; Baer, Lisa A.; Wade, Charles E.

    2003-01-01

    Environmental factors can disrupt ovulatory cycles. The study objective was to determine the effect of diet and simulated hypogravity on rat estrous cycles. Age 50 d Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to he fed either a purified or chow diet. Only normal cycling rats were used. Experimental rats (n=9-10/group) were kept as ambulatory controls (AC) or subjected to 40 d simulated hypogravity using a disuse atrophy hindlimb suspension (HLS) model. There was no effect on estrous cycles of AC fed either diet. At day 18, HLS rats fed either diet, had lengthened estrous cycles due to prolonged diestrus. HLS rats fed purified diet also had reduced time in estrus. Plasma estradiol was reduced in HLS rats fed purified diet but there was no effect on progesterone. This may have occurred because blood was collected from rats in estrus. Urinary progesterone collected during initial HLS was elevated in rats fed purified diet. In AC, corticosterone was elevated in chow vs purified diet fed rats. Differences were particularly striking following the application of a stressor with HLS/chow-fed rats displaying an enhanced stress response. Results emphasize the importance of diet selection when measuring endocrine-sensitive endpoints. HLS is a useful model for investigating the effects of environment on reproduction and providing insight about the impact extreme environment such as spaceflight on female reproductive health.

  10. Toxicological parameters of albino rats fed with extruded snacks from Aerial yam (Dioscoria bulbifera) and African breadfruit seed (Treculia africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatoye, Kazeem K; Arueya, Gibson L

    2018-01-01

    In this study, safety of novel food from aerial yam and Treculia africana , underutilized food materials with high-nutritive value and health benefits were investigated. Animal experiment involving the use of thirty (30) male albino rats was conducted for 28 days.Thereafter, rats in all groups were sacrificed and blood samples collected for biochemical analysis and hematological assay. Some vital organs were harvested and used for histological analysis. Biochemical and hematological parameters were not significantly p  ≤ .05 different among the treatment and controls. However there was an increase in monocytes, which is a reflection of immune boosting potential of the novel snack. No significant pathological changes were observed in liver and kidney of rats fed with this snack. Rats showed no signs of toxicity within the study period. These findings suggest that product may be safe and useful as an Immune adjuvant.

  11. A krill oil supplemented diet suppresses hepatic steatosis in high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Burri, Lena; Berge, Kjetil; De Nuccio, Francesco; Giudetti, Anna Maria; Zara, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Krill oil (KO) is a dietary source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly represented by eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid bound to phospholipids. The supplementation of a high-fat diet with 2.5% KO efficiently prevented triglyceride and cholesterol accumulation in liver of treated rats. This effect was accompanied by a parallel reduction of the plasma levels of triglycerides and glucose and by the prevention of a plasma insulin increase. The investigation of the molecular mechanisms of KO action in high-fat fed animals revealed a strong decrease in the activities of the mitochondrial citrate carrier and of the cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase, which are both involved in hepatic de novo lipogenesis. In these animals a significant increase in the activity of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase I and in the levels of carnitine was also observed, suggesting a concomitant stimulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation. The KO supplemented animals also retained an efficient mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, most probably as a consequence of a KO-induced arrest of the uncoupling effects of a high-fat diet. Lastly, the KO supplementation prevented an increase in body weight, as well as oxidative damage of lipids and proteins, which is often found in high-fat fed animals.

  12. Quantitative LIBS analysis of vanadium in samples of hexagonal mesoporous silica catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouzar, Miloslav; Kratochvíl, Tomás; Capek, Libor; Smoláková, Lucie; Cernohorský, Tomás; Krejcová, Anna; Hromádko, Ludek

    2011-02-15

    The method for the analysis of vanadium in hexagonal mesoporous silica (V-HMS) catalysts using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectrometry (LIBS) was suggested. Commercially available LIBS spectrometer was calibrated with the aid of authentic V-HMS samples previously analyzed by ICP OES after microwave digestion. Deposition of the sample on the surface of adhesive tape was adopted as a sample preparation method. Strong matrix effect connected with the catalyst preparation technique (1st vanadium added in the process of HMS synthesis, 2nd already synthesised silica matrix was impregnated by vanadium) was observed. The concentration range of V in the set of nine calibration standards was 1.3-4.5% (w/w). Limit of detection was 0.13% (w/w) and it was calculated as a triple standard deviation from five replicated determinations of vanadium in the real sample with a very low vanadium concentration. Comparable results of LIBS and ED XRF were obtained if the same set of standards was used for calibration of both methods and vanadium was measured in the same type of real samples. LIBS calibration constructed using V-HMS-impregnated samples failed for measuring of V-HMS-synthesized samples. LIBS measurements seem to be strongly influenced with different chemical forms of vanadium in impregnated and synthesised samples. The combination of LIBS and ED XRF is able to provide new information about measured samples (in our case for example about procedure of catalyst preparation). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Vitamin E and experimental caries in rats fed a cariogenic diet and zinc].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapisarda, E; Longo, A

    1981-01-01

    A cariogenic diet with zinc and vitamin E administered to rats for 90 days led to a reduction in caries of 21.87% by comparison with animals fed with the cariogenic diet only, and 3.12% by comparison with those that received the diet plus zinc. Although the details of the mechanism of action of vitamin E are not fully known, it is felt that its demonstrated cariostatic effect depends on its antioxidant activity and its protection of the sulphydryl groups of some enzyme system, together with its direct intervention in cell respiration. Since both vitamin E and zinc activate NAD-dependent LDH, their simultaneous administration enhances their individual cariostatic effects by bringing about a lower accumulation of lactic acid in the bacterial plaque.

  14. Emission Characteristics of Laser-Induced Plasma Using Collinear Long and Short Dual-Pulse Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenzhen; Deguchi, Yoshihiro; Liu, Renwei; Ikutomo, Akihiro; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Chong, Daotong; Yan, Junjie; Liu, Jiping; Shiou, Fang-Jung

    2017-09-01

    Collinear long and short dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (DP-LIBS) was employed to clarify the emission characteristics from laser-induced plasma. The plasma was sustained and became stable by the long pulse-width laser with the pulse width of 60 μs under free running (FR) conditions as an external energy source. Comparing the measurement results of stainless steel in air using single-pulse LIBS (SP-LIBS) and DP-LIBS, the emission intensity was markedly enhanced using DP-LIBS. The temperature of plasma induced by DP-LIBS was maintained at a higher temperature under different gate delay time and short pulse-width laser power conditions compared with those measured using short SP-LIBS. Moreover, the variation rates of plasma temperatures measured using DP-LIBS were also lower. The superior detection ability was verified by the measurement of aluminum sample in water. The spectra were clearly detected using DP-LIBS, whereas it cannot be identified using SP-LIBS of short and long pulse widths. The effects of gate delay time and short pulse-width laser power were also discussed. These results demonstrate the feasibility and enhanced detection ability of the proposed collinear long and short DP-LIBS method.

  15. Effect of diet protein quality on growth and protein synthesis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinchalkar, D.V.; Mehta, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of diet protein quality on albino rats was studied by feeding normal and opaque-2 maize. The weight gain in rats was 60 percent higher on opaque-2 maize as compared to those fed on normal maize. Rats converted 1.0 g of dietary opaque-2 maize to 0.226 g weight gain as compared to 0.131 g for normal maize. The protein content per liver was higher with opaque-2 maize diet suggesting a higher net protein synthesis in opaque-2 maize fed rat livers. In vitro 14 C-phenylalanine incorporation showed that polysomes from opaque-2 maize fed rat livers were more efficient in protein synthesis than those from normal maize fed rat livers. Addition of poly-U resulted in more enhanced amino acid incorporation with polysomes from normal maize fed rats as compared to other group indicating greater limitation of mRNA in polysomes from normal maize fed rats. The total yield of liver polysomes from opaque-2 maize fed rats was substantially higher. (author)

  16. Influence of Dietary Avocado on Gut Health in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paturi, Gunaranjan; Butts, Christine A; Bentley-Hewitt, Kerry L

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the impact of diets containing various levels of avocado (5, 10 and 15%) on gut health in rats fed for six weeks. Avocado-fed rats had significantly higher food intakes while their body weights remained similar to the control diet-fed rats. No significant changes in intestinal bacterial populations (ileum, cecum and colon) were found in rats fed avocado diets compared to the control diet. Ileum and colon tissues of rats fed avocado diets showed significantly higher expression of genes (β-defensin 1, mucin 3 or mucin 4) and a greater number of mucin-producing goblet cells in the colon. The percentage of avocado in the diet had varying effects in altering the biomarkers, whereby diet containing 15% avocado was the more effective diet. This study delivers new knowledge on the role of avocado on gut health in rats.

  17. Studies on the hypolipidemic effects of Coconut oil when blended with Tiger nut oil and fed to albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Anany, A. M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia is a predominant risk factor for atherosclerosis and associated cardiovascular diseases (CVD. The international guidelines issued by the World Health Organization recommend a reduction in dietary saturated fat and cholesterol intake as a means to prevent hypercholesterolemia and CVD. The main objective of the current investigation was to evaluate the effects of feeding blended oils consisting of coconut oil (CNO with different proportions of Tiger nut oil (TNO on serum lipid levels in Albino rats. GLC analysis was performed to illustrate the fatty acid composition of the blended oils. Blended oils were obtained by mixing tiger nut oil with coconut oil at the volume ratios of 100:0, 70:30, 50:50, 25:75, 10:90 and 0:100. Fifty-six male albino rats were randomly divided into 7 groups of 8 rats each according to the oil type. The blended oils were fed to rats for a period of up to 10 weeks. Total cholesterol (T-Ch, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-Ch, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-Ch, and triglycerides (TG, were determined. The atherogenic Index (AI was calculated. The results showed that non-significant changes in all nutritional parameters were observed between the control group and the rats fed with the tested oils. The results also indicate that coconut oil had 86% saturated fatty acids. On TNO contains 66% oleic acid. Therefore, blending coconut oil with tiger nut oil can reduce the proportions of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in CNO. The rats that were fed blended oils showed significantly reduced levels of serum cholesterol as compared to those fed CNO. The HDL levels were marginally enhanced in the rats that were fed blended oils. The total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels were controlled when TNO/CNO proportions varied between 25/75 and 70/30. This was reflected in the calculation of the atherogenic index. Similar changes were observed with serum triglyceride levels.

    La hiperlipidemia

  18. Fish Oil and Microalga Omega-3 as Dietary Supplements: A Comparative Study on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in High-Fat Fed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimeur, Adil; Mimouni, Virginie; Ulmann, Lionel; Martineau, Anne-Sophie; Messaouri, Hafida; Pineau-Vincent, Fabienne; Tremblin, Gérard; Meskini, Nadia

    2016-09-01

    Dietary supplementation with marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) can have beneficial effects on a number of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We compared the effects of two n-3 PUFA rich food supplements (freeze-dried Odontella aurita and fish oil) on risk factors for CVD. Male rats were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each and fed with the following diets: control group (C) received a standard diet containing 7 % lipids; second group (HF high fat) was fed with a high-fat diet containing 40 % lipids; third group (HFFO high fat+fish oil) was fed with the high-fat diet supplemented with 0.5 % fish oil; and fourth group (HFOA high fat+O. aurita) received the high-fat diet supplemented with 12 % of freeze-dried O. aurita. After 8 weeks rats fed with the high-fat diet supplemented with O. aurita displayed a significantly lower bodyweight than those in the other groups. Both the microalga and the fish oil significantly reduced insulinemia and serum lipid levels. O. aurita was more effective than the fish oil in reducing hepatic triacyglycerol levels and in preventing high-fat diet-induced steatosis. O. aurita and fish oil also reduced platelet aggregation and oxidative status induced by high fat intake. After an OA supplementation, the adipocytes in the HFOA group were smaller than those in the HF group. Freeze-dried O. aurita showed similar or even greater biological effects than the fish oil. This could be explained by a potential effect of the n-3 PUFA but also other bioactive compounds of the microalgae.

  19. Influence of caffeine consumption on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary gland tumorigenesis in female rats fed a chemically defined diet containing standard and high levels of unsaturated fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, C W; DeHoog, J V

    1988-04-15

    The effect of caffeine (430-500 mg/liter of drinking water) on the initiation and promotion phases of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary gland tumorigenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats fed a chemically defined diet containing standard (5%) or high (20%) levels of fat (corn oil) was examined. In the initiation studies, caffeine and the standard or high fat diet treatments were provided for 34 days, from 24-29 days of age to 58-63 days of age. Three days prior to termination of caffeine-fat diet treatments, each rat received a single dose of DMBA. In the promotion studies, caffeine and the standard or high fat diets were provided commencing 3 days after a single dose of DMBA (at 56-61 days of age) and until termination of the study. Caffeine consumption, during the initiation phase significantly (P less than 0.05) reduced mammary carcinoma multiplicity (number of tumors/rat), in rats fed either a standard or high fat diet. In the promotion studies, prolonged consumption of caffeine in rats fed either a standard or high fat diet did not significantly effect mammary carcinoma multiplicity. In the early stages of promotion, an apparent increase in mammary carcinoma multiplicity was observed; this increase in mammary carcinoma multiplicity did not, however, reach the 5% level of statistical probability. When caffeine was administered during both the initiation and promotion phases, no significant effect on mammary carcinoma multiplicity was observed. Treatment of rats during the initiation or promotion phases with caffeinated coffee (via drinking water) mimicked the mammary tumor modulating activities of caffeine. Decaffeinated coffee consumption did not effect either the initiation or promotion phases of this tumorigenic process. In both the initiation and promotion studies, caffeine and/or coffee consumption did not significantly affect the incidence of mammary carcinomas (percentage of rats bearing mammary carcinomas) or the mean latency period of

  20. Increased induction of aberrant crypt foci by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine in rats fed diets containing purified genistein of genistein-rich soya protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gee, J.M.; Noteborn, H.P.J.M.; Polley, A.C.J.; Johnson, I.T.

    2000-01-01

    The isoflavonoid genistein inhibits mitosis and increases apoptosis in a variety of tumour cell lines in vitro, and may exert anticarcinogenic effects in vivo. To assess its effects on the colon, rats were fed a semi-synthetic control diet, or similar diets enriched with genistein (0.25 g/kg),

  1. Effects of herbal mixture extracts on obesity in rats fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Yin Chien

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the effects of three herbal mixture extracts on obesity induced by high-fat diet (HFD in rats. The prescriptions—Pericarpium citri reticulatae and Fructus crataegi—were used as matrix components and mixed with Ampelopsis grossedentata, Salvia miltiorrhiza, and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG to form T1, T2, and T3 complexes, respectively. Results revealed that HFD feeding significantly increased body weight gain, fat deposition, plasma lipid profiles, hepatic lipid accumulation, and hepatic vacuoles formation, but decreased plasma levels of adiponectin in rats. Only the T1 complex showed the tendency, although not significantly so, for decreased HFD-induced body weight gain. T1 and T3 complexes significantly reduced HFD-induced fat deposition, and plasma levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Only the T1 complex significantly increased HFD-reduced adiponectin levels in plasma, but decreased HFD-increased triglyceride content in liver tissues. All complexes effectively inhibited HFD-induced vacuoles formation. The content of dihydromyricetin, salvianolic acid B, and EGCG in T1, T2, and T3 complexes was 18.25 ± 0.07%, 22.20 ± 0.10%, and 18.86 ± 0.04%, respectively. In summary, we demonstrated that herbal mixture extracts, especially T1 complex, exhibit antiobesity activity in HFD-fed rats.

  2. Effect of high dietary calcium on weight management in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, M.T.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to find out a suitable dietary regime to maintain a lower prevalence of overweight or obesity by adjusting the diet components. Therefore, male Swiss albino rats were selected according to their ages and divided into two main groups, i.e., premature and mature groups. Each rat group was divided into 4 subgroups and each subgroup was fed on a diet of varied composition. Serum levels of lipids, calcium, phosphorous and testosterone were determined in addition to body weight measurement. The results indicate non-significant decrease of percentage of body weight gain in premature rats fed on high-calcium diets while significant decrease of percentage of body weight gain in mature rats fed on the same diet composition. The levels of serum HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides and testosterone were significantly decreased in premature rats fed high- calcium diets. In premature rats, only rat subgroup fed on high calcium from milk, showed a significant decrease in serum cholesterol levels. Calcium and phosphorus levels exhibited non- significant change between premature rats. In mature rats, LDL-C data demonstrate nonsignificant changes while cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly decreased in rats fed high -calcium diet compared to control. HDL-C level revealed a significant decrease in sera of mature rats fed on high calcium from milk. Serum testosterone levels were significantly decreased in mature rats fed low- fat diets or low fat diets supplemented with high- calcium level. In general, one would suggest to consume low fat diet (4%) supplemented with high calcium from dry skimmed milk fortified with hydroxyapatite as suitable dietary program to avoid overweight or obesity.

  3. Effect of a multivitamin preparation supplemented with phytosterol on serum lipids and infarct size in rats fed with normal and high cholesterol diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Although complex multivitamin products are widely used as dietary supplements to maintain health or as special medical food in certain diseases, the effects of these products were not investigated in hyperlipidemia which is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, here we investigated if a preparation developed for human use containing different vitamins, minerals and trace elements enriched with phytosterol (VMTP) affects the severity of experimental hyperlipidemia as well as myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Methods Male Wistar rats were fed a normal or cholesterol-enriched (2% cholesterol + 0.25% cholate) diet for 12 weeks to induce hyperlipidemia. From week 8, rats in both groups were fed with a VMTP preparation or placebo for 4 weeks. Serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels were measured at week 0, 8 and 12. At week 12, hearts were isolated, perfused according to Langendorff and subjected to a 30-min coronary occlusion followed by 120 min reperfusion to measure infarct size. Results At week 8, cholesterol-fed rats showed significantly higher serum cholesterol level as compared to normal animals, however, serum triglyceride level did not change. VMTP treatment significantly decreased serum cholesterol level in the hyperlipidemic group by week 12 without affecting triglyceride levels. However, VMTP did not show beneficial effect on infarct size. The inflammatory marker hs-CRP and the antioxidant uric acid were also not significantly different. Conclusions This is the first demonstration that treatment of hyperlipidemic subjects with a VMTP preparation reduces serum cholesterol, the major risk factor for cardiovascular disease; however, it does not provide cardioprotection. PMID:24063587

  4. libChEBI: an API for accessing the ChEBI database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swainston, Neil; Hastings, Janna; Dekker, Adriano; Muthukrishnan, Venkatesh; May, John; Steinbeck, Christoph; Mendes, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    ChEBI is a database and ontology of chemical entities of biological interest. It is widely used as a source of identifiers to facilitate unambiguous reference to chemical entities within biological models, databases, ontologies and literature. ChEBI contains a wealth of chemical data, covering over 46,500 distinct chemical entities, and related data such as chemical formula, charge, molecular mass, structure, synonyms and links to external databases. Furthermore, ChEBI is an ontology, and thus provides meaningful links between chemical entities. Unlike many other resources, ChEBI is fully human-curated, providing a reliable, non-redundant collection of chemical entities and related data. While ChEBI is supported by a web service for programmatic access and a number of download files, it does not have an API library to facilitate the use of ChEBI and its data in cheminformatics software. To provide this missing functionality, libChEBI, a comprehensive API library for accessing ChEBI data, is introduced. libChEBI is available in Java, Python and MATLAB versions from http://github.com/libChEBI, and provides full programmatic access to all data held within the ChEBI database through a simple and documented API. libChEBI is reliant upon the (automated) download and regular update of flat files that are held locally. As such, libChEBI can be embedded in both on- and off-line software applications. libChEBI allows better support of ChEBI and its data in the development of new cheminformatics software. Covering three key programming languages, it allows for the entirety of the ChEBI database to be accessed easily and quickly through a simple API. All code is open access and freely available.

  5. Exercise training modulates the hepatic renin-angiotensin system in fructose-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Eliete Dalla Corte; Medeiros, Renata Frauches; Giori, Isabele Gomes; Lima, Juliana Bittencourt Silveira; Bento-Bernardes, Thais; Gaique, Thaiane Gadioli; Fernandes-Santos, Caroline; Fernandes, Tiago; Oliveira, Edilamar Menezes; Vieira, Carla Paulo; Conte-Junior, Carlos Adam; Oliveira, Karen Jesus; Nobrega, Antonio Claudio Lucas

    2017-09-01

    What is the central question of this study? What are the effects of exercise training on the hepatic renin-angiotensin system and their contribution to damage resulting from fructose overload in rats? What is the main finding and its importance? Exercise training attenuated the deleterious actions of the angiotensin-converting enzyme/angiotensin II/angiotensin II type 1 receptor axis and increased expression of the counter-regulatory (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2/angiotensin (1-7)/Mas receptor) axis in the liver. Therefore, our study provides evidence that exercise training modulates the hepatic renin-angiotensin system, which contributes to reducing the progression of metabolic dysfunction and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in fructose-fed rats. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been implicated in the development of metabolic syndrome. We investigated whether the hepatic RAS is modulated by exercise training and whether this modulation improves the deleterious effects of fructose overload in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into (n = 8 each) control (CT), exercise control (CT-Ex), high-fructose (HFr) and exercise high-fructose (HFr-Ex) groups. Fructose-drinking rats received d-fructose (100 g l -1 ). After 2 weeks, CT-Ex and HFr-Ex rats were assigned to a treadmill training protocol at moderate intensity for 8 weeks (60 min day -1 , 4 days per week). We assessed body mass, glucose and lipid metabolism, hepatic histopathology, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) activity, the angiotensin concentration and the expression profile of proteins affecting the hepatic RAS, gluconeogenesis and inflammation. Neither fructose overload nor exercise training influenced body mass gain and serum ACE and ACE2 activity. The HFr group showed hyperinsulinaemia, but exercise training normalized this parameter. Exercise training was effective in preventing hepatic steatosis and in preventing triacylglycerol and

  6. The use and effectiveness of the eLib subject gateways: a preliminary investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Mackie, M.; Burton, P.F.

    1999-01-01

    Internet subject gateways were set up under the Electronic Libraries Programme (eLib) in order to address some of the problems of searching the Internet which have been identified by information professionals, i.e. locating relevant, good quality information. This preliminary study examines the extent to which academics in two universities use three eLib subject gateways (EEVL, OMNI and SOSIG). The results are generally encouraging for the eLib programme, but it is necessary for the gateways ...

  7. The effects of chromium complex and level on glucose metabolism and memory acquisition in rats fed high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Kazim; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Orhan, Cemal; Agca, Can A; Sahin, Nurhan; Guvenc, Mehmet; Krejpcio, Zbigniew; Staniek, Halina; Hayirli, Armagan

    2011-11-01

    Conditions in which glucose metabolism is impaired due to insulin resistance are associated with memory impairment. It was hypothesized that supplemental chromium (Cr) may alleviate insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes and consequently improve memory acquisition, depending upon its source and level. In a complete randomized design experiment, male Wistar rats (n=60; weighing 200-220 g) were fed either normal (8%, normal diet (ND)) or high-fat (40%, high-fat diet (HFD)) diet and supplemented with Cr as either chromium-glycinate (CrGly) or chromium-acetate (CrAc) at doses of 0, 40, or 80 μg/kg body weight (BW) via drinking water from 8 to 20 weeks of age. Feeding HFD induced type 2 diabetes, as reflected by greater glucose/insulin ratio (2.98 vs. 2.74) comparing to feeding ND. Moreover, HFD rats had greater BW (314 vs. 279 g) and less serum (53 vs. 68 μg/L) and brain (14 vs. 24 ng/g) Cr concentrations than ND rats. High-fat diet caused a 32% reduction in expressions of glucose transporters 1 and 3 (GLUTs) in brain tissue and a 27% reduction in mean percentage time spent in the target quadrant and a 38% increase in spatial memory acquisition phase (SMAP) compared with ND. Compared with supplemental Cr as CrAc, CrGly was more effective to ameliorate response variables (i.e., restoration of tissue Cr concentration, enhancement of cerebral GLUTs expressions, and reduction of the glucose/insulin ratio and SMAP) in a dose-response manner, especially in rats fed HFD. Supplemental Cr as CrGly may have therapeutic potential to enhance insulin action and alleviate memory acquisition in a dose-dependent manner, through restoring tissue Cr reserve and enhancing cerebral GLUTs expressions.

  8. Fatty acid and lipidomic data in normal and tumor colon tissues of rats fed diets with and without fish oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zora Djuric

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Data is provided to show the detailed fatty acid and lipidomic composition of normal and tumor rat colon tissues. Rats were fed either a Western fat diet or a fish oil diet, and half the rats from each diet group were treated with chemical carcinogens that induce colon cancer (azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate. The data show total fatty acid profiles of sera and of all the colon tissues, namely normal tissue from control rats and both normal and tumor tissues from carcinogen-treated rats, as obtained by gas chromatography with mass spectral detection. Data from lipidomic analyses of a representative subset of the colon tissue samples is also shown in heat maps generated from hierarchical cluster analysis. These data display the utility lipidomic analyses to enhance the interpretation of dietary feeding studies aimed at cancer prevention and support the findings published in the companion paper (Effects of fish oil supplementation on prostaglandins in normal and tumor colon tissue: modulation by the lipogenic phenotype of colon tumors, Djuric et al., 2017 [1].

  9. High fat diet-fed obese rats are highly sensitive to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Mayurranjan S.; Donthamsetty, Shashikiran; White, Brent; Mehendale, Harihara M.

    2008-01-01

    Often, chemotherapy by doxorubicin (Adriamycin) is limited due to life threatening cardiotoxicity in patients during and posttherapy. Recently, we have shown that moderate diet restriction remarkably protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. This cardioprotection is accompanied by decreased cardiac oxidative stress and triglycerides and increased cardiac fatty-acid oxidation, ATP synthesis, and upregulated JAK/STAT3 pathway. In the current study, we investigated whether a physiological intervention by feeding 40% high fat diet (HFD), which induces obesity in male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-275 g), sensitizes to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. A LD 10 dose (8 mg doxorubicin/kg, ip) administered on day 43 of the HFD feeding regimen led to higher cardiotoxicity, cardiac dysfunction, lipid peroxidation, and 80% mortality in the obese (OB) rats in the absence of any significant renal or hepatic toxicity. Doxorubicin toxicokinetics studies revealed no change in accumulation of doxorubicin and doxorubicinol (toxic metabolite) in the normal diet-fed (ND) and OB hearts. Mechanistic studies revealed that OB rats are sensitized due to: (1) higher oxyradical stress leading to upregulation of uncoupling proteins 2 and 3, (2) downregulation of cardiac peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-α, (3) decreased plasma adiponectin levels, (4) decreased cardiac fatty-acid oxidation (666.9 ± 14.0 nmol/min/g heart in ND versus 400.2 ± 11.8 nmol/min/g heart in OB), (5) decreased mitochondrial AMP-α2 protein kinase, and (6) 86% drop in cardiac ATP levels accompanied by decreased ATP/ADP ratio after doxorubicin administration. Decreased cardiac erythropoietin and increased SOCS3 further downregulated the cardioprotective JAK/STAT3 pathway. In conclusion, HFD-induced obese rats are highly sensitized to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by substantially downregulating cardiac mitochondrial ATP generation, increasing oxidative stress and downregulating the JAK/STAT3

  10. Fast LIBS Identification of Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawfik W.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS has been applied to analysis aluminum alloy targets. The plasma is generated by focusing a 300 mJ pulsed Nd: YAG laser on the target in air at atmospheric pressure. Such plasma emission spectrum was collected using a one-meter length wide band fused-silica optical fiber connected to a portable Echelle spectrometer with intensified CCD camera. Spectroscopic analysis of plasma evolution of laser produced plasmas has been characterized in terms of their spectra, electron density and electron temperature assuming the LTE and optically thin plasma conditions. The LIBS spectrum was optimized for high S/N ratio especially for trace elements. The electron temperature and density were determined using the emission intensity and stark broadening, respectively, of selected aluminum spectral lines. The values of these parameters were found to change with the aluminum alloy matrix, i.e. they could be used as a fingerprint character to distinguish between different aluminum alloy matrices using only one major element (aluminum without needing to analysis the rest of elements in the matrix. Moreover, It was found that the values of T e and N e decrease with increasing the trace elements concentrations in the aluminum alloy samples. The obtained results indicate that it is possible to improve the exploitation of LIBS in the remote on-line industrial monitoring application, by following up only the values of T e and N e for aluminum in aluminum alloys as a marker for the correct alloying using an optical fiber probe.

  11. GLP-1 and GLP-2 act in concert to inhibit fasted, but not fed, small bowel motility in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozkurt, Ayhan; Näslund, Erik; Holst, Jens Juul

    2002-01-01

    Small bowel motility was studied in rats at increasing (1-20 pmol/kg/min) intravenous doses of either glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) or glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) alone, or in combination in the fasted and fed state. There was a dose-dependent inhibitory action of GLP-1 on the migrating myo...... demonstrates an additive effect of peripheral administration of GLP-1 and GLP-2 on fasted small bowel motility. In the fed state, GLP-1 and GLP-2 seem to display counter-balancing effects on motility of the small intestine....... myoelectric complex (MMC), where the dose of 5 pmol/kg/min induced an increased MMC cycle length. No effect was seen with GLP-2 alone, but the combination of GLP-1 and GLP-2 induced a more pronounced inhibitory effect, with significant increase of the MMC cycle length from a dose of 2 pmol/kg/min. During fed...

  12. Green tea polyphenols ameliorate non-alcoholic fatty liver disease through upregulating AMPK activation in high fat fed Zucker fatty rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yi; Kim, Jane; Cheng, Jing; Ong, Madeleine; Lao, Wei-Guo; Jin, Xing-Liang; Lin, Yi-Guang; Xiao, Linda; Zhu, Xue-Qiong; Qu, Xian-Qin

    2017-06-07

    To investigate protective effects and molecular mechanisms of green tea polyphenols (GTP) on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in Zucker fatty (ZF) rats. Male ZF rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 2 wk then treated with GTP (200 mg/kg) or saline (5 mL/kg) for 8 wk, with Zucker lean rat as their control. At the end of experiment, serum and liver tissue were collected for measurement of metabolic parameters, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), inflammatory cytokines and hepatic triglyceride and liver histology. Immunoblotting was used to detect phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1c). Genetically obese ZF rats on a HFD presented with metabolic features of hepatic pathological changes comparable to human with NAFLD. GTP intervention decreased weight gain (10.1%, P = 0.052) and significantly lowered visceral fat (31.0%, P liver in GTP treated rats. The protective effects of GTP against HFD-induced NAFLD in genetically obese ZF rats are positively correlated to reduction in hepatic lipogenesis through upregulating the AMPK pathway.

  13. Feasibility of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for classification of sea salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Man Minh; Cui, Sheng; Yoo, Jonghyun; Han, Song-Hee; Ham, Kyung-Sik; Nam, Sang-Ho; Lee, Yonghoon

    2012-03-01

    We have investigated the feasibility of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as a fast, reliable classification tool for sea salts. For 11 kinds of sea salts, potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), and aluminum (Al), concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), and the LIBS spectra were recorded in the narrow wavelength region between 760 and 800 nm where K (I), Mg (I), Ca (II), Al (I), and cyanide (CN) band emissions are observed. The ICP-AES measurements revealed that the K, Mg, Ca, and Al concentrations varied significantly with the provenance of each salt. The relative intensities of the K (I), Mg (I), Ca (II), and Al (I) peaks observed in the LIBS spectra are consistent with the results using ICP-AES. The principal component analysis of the LIBS spectra provided the score plot with quite a high degree of clustering. This indicates that classification of sea salts by chemometric analysis of LIBS spectra is very promising. Classification models were developed by partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and evaluated. In addition, the Al (I) peaks enabled us to discriminate between different production methods of the salts. © 2012 Society for Applied Spectroscopy

  14. Analysis of LiSn alloy at several depths using LIBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suchoňová, M., E-mail: maria.suchonova@fmph.uniba.sk [Dept. of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Mathematics Physics and Informatics, Comenius University in Bratislava, Mlynská dolina F2, 842 48 Bratislava (Slovakia); Krištof, J.; Pribula, M. [Dept. of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Mathematics Physics and Informatics, Comenius University in Bratislava, Mlynská dolina F2, 842 48 Bratislava (Slovakia); Veis, M. [Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Science, Comenius University, Mlynská dolina, Ilkovičova 6, 842 15 Bratislava 4 (Slovakia); Tabarés, F.L. [Fusion Department, Ciemat, Av Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Veis, P., E-mail: pavel.veis@fmph.uniba.sk [Dept. of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Mathematics Physics and Informatics, Comenius University in Bratislava, Mlynská dolina F2, 842 48 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2017-04-15

    The difference between the composition of the surface and the inner part of the LiSn sample was studied using Calibration Free Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (CF-LIBS) method. The sample was analysed under the low pressure (1330 Pa) in Ar atmosphere. The spectra were record using Echelle spectrometer (Mechelle ME5000). Gate delay and gate width was optimised and set to 300 ns. In order to analyse depth profile the LIBS spectra was recorded after each laser shot. The electron density analysed by laser induced plasma was determined separately for each laser shot, which means for each ablated layer of investigated sample. The difference between the individual shots taken at distinct sites of the sample are shown. The CF-LIBS method was used to determine the elemental composition near the surface and in the central part of the LiSn sample.

  15. Factors influencing zinc bioavailability in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahalko, J.R.; Johnson, P.E.; Swan, P.B.

    1986-01-01

    The amount of Zn fed, its source, and the Zn status of experimental animals may affect Zn bioavailability. To test this, rats were fed doses of Zn from ZnCl 2 or from various foods labeled extrinsically. Three weeks before and after the test meal, rats were fed an AIN diet modified in Zn content. Absorption was calculated by monitoring whole body retention and extrapolating to zero time. In rats fed 12 ppm Zn and test doses of 6 to 275 μg, absorption decreased from 80 to 50%, and the amount absorbed increased quadratically (r 2 = 0.998), but turnover was unaffected. Rats fed 38 or 77 ppm Zn absorbed less of test doses of 290, 613, or 1700 μg Zn than did those fed 12 ppm, and their Zn turnover rate was higher. In two 2 x 7 factorial experiments, rats fed 12 or 38 ppm Zn were given 16 or 98 μg Zn from 7 Zn sources. Bioavailability from some foods was higher than from ZnCl 2 except in rats eating only 12 ppm Zn and receiving the small dose. There were greater differences in bioavailability among foods when tested at the higher Zn status or dose. This may explain inconsistencies seen in comparing Zn bioavailability by traditional growth assay with that seen in 65 Zn tracer studies. The authors conclude that Zn status of the experimental animal, as well as the amount of Zn and its source, will affect Zn bioavailability

  16. Increased cardiovascular reactivity to acute stress and salt-loading in adult male offspring of fat fed non-obese rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Rudyk

    Full Text Available Diet-induced obesity in rat pregnancy has been shown previously to be associated with consistently raised blood pressure in the offspring, attributed to sympathetic over-activation, but the relative contributions to this phenotype of maternal obesity versus raised dietary fat is unknown. Sprague-Dawley female rats were fed either a control (4.3% fat, n = 11 or lard-enriched (23.6% fat, n = 16 chow 10 days prior to mating, throughout pregnancy and lactation. In conscious adult (9-month-old offspring cardiovascular parameters were measured (radiotelemetry. The short period of fat-feeding did not increase maternal weight versus controls and the baseline blood pressure was similar in offspring of fat fed dams (OF and controls (OC. However, adult male OF showed heightened cardiovascular reactivity to acute restraint stress (p<0.01; Δ systolic blood pressure (SBP and Δheart rate (HR with a prolonged recovery time compared to male OC. α1/β-adrenergic receptor blockade normalised the response. Also, after dietary salt-loading (8%-NaCl ad libitum for 1 week male OF demonstrated higher SBP (p<0.05 in the awake phase (night-time and increased low/high frequency ratio of power spectral density of HR variability versus OC. Baroreflex gain and basal power spectral density components of the heart rate or blood pressure were similar in male OF and OC. Minor abnormalities were evident in female OF. Fat feeding in the absence of maternal obesity in pregnant rats leads to altered sympathetic control of cardiovascular function in adult male offspring, and hypertension in response to stressor stimuli.

  17. Effects of telmisartan and olmesartan on insulin sensitivity and renal function in spontaneously hypertensive rats fed a high fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayato Yanagihara

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Although telmisartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB, has an agonistic action for proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-γ in vitro, it remains to be determined whether telmisartan exerts such an action in vivo using a non-toxic dose (<5 mg/kg in rats. To address the issue, telmisartan (2 mg/kg and olmesartan (2 mg/kg, another ARB without PPAR-γ agonistic action, were given to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR fed a high fat diet (HFD. HFD decreased plasma adiponectin, and caused insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia and renal damage, which were improved by ARBs. Protective effects of telmisartan and olmesartan did not significantly differ. In addition, in vitro study showed that 1 μM of telmisartan did not elevate the mRNA expression of adipose protein 2, which is a PPAR-γ-stimulated adipogenic marker gene, in preadipocytes with 3% albumin. To obtain 1 μM of plasma concentration, oral dose of telmisartan was calculated to be 6 mg/kg, which indicates that PPAR-γ agonistic action is negligible with a non-toxic dose of telmisartan (<5 mg/kg in rats. This study showed that 2 mg/kg of telmisartan and olmesartan ameliorated insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia and renal damage in SHR fed a HFD. As beneficial effects of telmisartan and olmesartan did not significantly differ, these were mediated through the PPAR-γ-independent actions.

  18. A combined remote Raman and LIBS instrument for characterizing minerals with 532 nm laser excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shiv K; Misra, Anupam K; Lucey, Paul G; Lentz, Rachel C F

    2009-08-01

    The authors have developed an integrated remote Raman and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system for measuring both the Raman and LIBS spectra of minerals with a single 532 nm laser line of 35 mJ/pulse and 20 Hz. The instrument has been used for analyzing both Raman and LIBS spectra of carbonates, sulfates, hydrous and anhydrous silicates, and iron oxide minerals in air. These experiments demonstrate that by focusing a frequency-doubled 532 nm Nd:YAG pulsed laser beam with a 10x beam expander to a 529-microm diameter spot on a mineral surface located at 9 m, it is possible to measure simultaneously both the remote Raman and LIBS spectra of calcite, gypsum and olivine by adjusting the laser power electronically. The spectra of calcite, gypsum, and olivine contain fingerprint Raman lines; however, it was not possible to measure the remote Raman spectra of magnetite and hematite at 9 m because of strong absorption of 532 nm laser radiation and low intensities of Raman lines from these minerals. The remote LIBS spectra of both magnetite and hematite contain common iron emission lines but show difference in the minor amount of Li present in these two minerals. Remote Raman and LIBS spectra of a number of carbonates, sulfates, feldspars and phyllosilicates at a distance of 9 m were measured with a 532-nm laser operating at 35 mJ/pulse and by changing photon flux density at the sample by varying the spot diameter from 10 mm for Raman to 530 microm for LIBS measurements. The complementary nature of these spectra is highlighted and discussed. The combined Raman and LIBS system can also be re-configured to perform micro-Raman and micro-LIBS analyses, which have applications in trace/residue analysis and analysis of very small samples in the nano-gram range.

  19. Developmental programming of aortic and renal structure in offspring of rats fed fat-rich diets in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armitage, James A.; Lakasing, Lorin; Taylor, Paul D.

    2005-01-01

    Evidence from human and animal studies suggests that maternal nutrition can induce developmental programming of adult hypertension in offspring. We have previously described a model of maternal dietary imbalance in Sprague-Dawley rats whereby administration of a maternal diet rich in animal lard......-Dawley rats fed a control diet (OC) or lard-rich diet (OHF) during pregnancy and suckling followed by a control diet post-weaning. To gain further insight, we assessed aortic reactivity and elasticity in an organ bath preparation and renal renin and Na+,K+-ATPase activity. Plasma aldosterone concentration...... weight, glomerular number or volume in OHF compared with OC, but renin and Na+,K+-ATPase activity were significantly reduced in OHF compared with controls. Programmed alterations to aortic structure and function are consistent with previous observations that exposure to maternal high fat diets produces...

  20. Taurine ameliorates cholesterol metabolism by stimulating bile acid production in high-cholesterol-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Shigeru; Fujita, Michiko; Nakamura, Masakazu; Sakono, Masanobu; Nishizono, Shoko; Sato, Masao; Imaizumi, Katsumi; Mori, Mari; Fukuda, Nobuhiro

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary taurine on cholesterol metabolism in high-cholesterol-fed rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two dietary groups (n = 6 in each group): a high-cholesterol diet containing 0.5% cholesterol and 0.15% sodium cholate, and a high-cholesterol diet with 5% (w/w) taurine. The experimental diets were given for 2 weeks. Taurine supplementation reduced the serum and hepatic cholesterol levels by 37% and 32%, respectively. Faecal excretion of bile acids was significantly increased in taurine-treated rats, compared with untreated rats. Biliary bile acid concentrations were also increased by taurine. Taurine supplementation increased taurine-conjugated bile acids by 61% and decreased glycine-conjugated bile acids by 53%, resulting in a significant decrease in the glycine/taurine (G/T) ratio. Among the taurine-conjugated bile acids, cholic acid and deoxycholic acid were significantly increased. In the liver, taurine supplementation increased the mRNA expression and enzymatic activity of hepatic cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis, by three- and two-fold, respectively. Taurine also decreased the enzymatic activity of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP). These observations suggest that taurine supplementation increases the synthesis and excretion of taurine-conjugated bile acids and stimulates the catabolism of cholesterol to bile acid by elevating the expression and activity of CYP7A1. This may reduce cholesterol esterification and lipoprotein assembly for very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion, leading to reductions in the serum and hepatic cholesterol levels. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Characterization and forensic analysis of soil samples using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantzi, Sarah C; Almirall, José R

    2011-07-01

    A method for the quantitative elemental analysis of surface soil samples using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was developed and applied to the analysis of bulk soil samples for discrimination between specimens. The use of a 266 nm laser for LIBS analysis is reported for the first time in forensic soil analysis. Optimization of the LIBS method is discussed, and the results compared favorably to a laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) method previously developed. Precision for both methods was LIBS limits of detection were LIBS method successfully discriminated samples from two different sites in Dade County, FL. Analysis of variance, Tukey's post hoc test and Student's t test resulted in 100% discrimination with no type I or type II errors. Principal components analysis (PCA) resulted in clear groupings of the two sites. A correct classification rate of 99.4% was obtained with linear discriminant analysis using leave-one-out validation. Similar results were obtained when the same samples were analyzed by LA-ICP-MS, showing that LIBS can provide similar information to LA-ICP-MS. In a forensic sampling/spatial heterogeneity study, the variation between sites, between sub-plots, between samples and within samples was examined on three similar Dade sites. The closer the sampling locations, the closer the grouping on a PCA plot and the higher the misclassification rate. These results underscore the importance of careful sampling for geographic site characterization.

  2. Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart. Upregulates Paraoxonase 1 Gene Expression and Activity with Concomitant Reduction of Hepatic Steatosis in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Rebeca Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart., a fruit from the Amazon region, has emerged as a promising source of polyphenols. Açai consumption has been increasing owing to ascribed health benefits and antioxidant properties; however, its effects on hepatic injury are limited. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant effect of filtered açai pulp on the expression of paraoxonase (PON isoforms and PON1 activity in rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. The rats were fed a standard AIN-93M (control diet or a high-fat (HF diet containing 25% soy oil and 1% cholesterol with or without açai pulp (2 g/day for 6 weeks. Our results show that açai pulp prevented low-density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation, increased serum and hepatic PON1 activity, and upregulated the expression of PON1 and ApoA-I in the liver. In HF diet-fed rats, treatment with açai pulp attenuated liver damage, reducing fat infiltration and triglyceride (TG content. In rats receiving açai, increased serum PON1 activity was correlated with a reduction in hepatic steatosis and hepatic injury. These findings suggest the use of açai as a potential therapy for liver injuries, supporting the idea that dietary antioxidants are a promising approach to enhance the defensive systems against oxidative stress.

  3. Saponins, especially platycodin D, from Platycodon grandiflorum modulate hepatic lipogenesis in high-fat diet-fed rats and high glucose-exposed HepG2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yong Pil [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, International University of Korea, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jae Ho; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Khanal, Tilak; Song, Gye Young [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Myoung Soo [College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun-Sun [Molecular Cancer Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young Chul; Lee, Young Chun [Division of Food Science, International University of Korea, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hye Gwang, E-mail: hgjeong@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a central role in controlling hepatic lipid metabolism through modulating the downstream acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) pathway. Saponins, particularly platycodin D, from the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum (Changkil saponins, CKS) have a variety of pharmacological properties, including antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CKS on hepatic lipogenesis and on the expression of genes involved in lipogenesis, and the mechanisms involved. CKS attenuated fat accumulation and the induction of the lipogenic genes encoding SREBP-1c and fatty acid synthase in the livers of HFD-fed rats and in steatotic HepG2 cells. Blood biochemical analyses and histopathological examinations showed that CKS prevented liver injury. CKS and platycodin D each increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase in HFD-fed rats and HepG2 cells. The use of specific inhibitors showed that platycodin D activated AMPK via SIRT1/CaMKKβ in HepG2 cells. This study demonstrates that CKS or platycodin D alone can regulate hepatic lipogenesis via an AMPK-dependent signalling pathway. - Highlights: ► CKS attenuated fat accumulation in HFD-fed rats and in steatotic HepG2 cells. ► CKS and its major component, platycodin D, inhibited the levels of SREBP-1 and FAS. ► CKS and platycodin D increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC. ► Platycodin D activated AMPK via SIRT1/CaMKKβ in HepG2 cells.

  4. The role of artichoke leaf tincture (Cynara scolymus) in the suppression of DNA damage and atherosclerosis in rats fed an atherogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogavac-Stanojevic, Natasa; Kotur Stevuljevic, Jelena; Cerne, Darko; Zupan, Janja; Marc, Janja; Vujic, Zorica; Crevar-Sakac, Milkica; Sopic, Miron; Munjas, Jelena; Radenkovic, Miroslav; Jelic-Ivanovic, Zorana

    2018-12-01

    Polyphenols and flavonoids in artichoke leaf tincture (ALT) protect cells against oxidative damage. We examined ALT effects on deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage and lipid profiles in rat plasma and gene expression in rat aorta [haemeoxygenase-1 (HO1), haemeoxygenase-2 (HO2), NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX-4), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)]. Eighteen male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups (n = 6/group): The control group (CG) was fed with standard pellet chow for 11 weeks; the AD group was fed for a similar period of time with pellet chow supplemented with 2% cholesterol, 3% sunflower oil and 1% sodium cholate. The ADA group was fed with pellet chow (for 1 week), the atherogenic diet (see above) for the following 4 weeks and then with ALT (0.1 mL/kg body weight) and atherogenic diet for 6 weeks. According to HPLC analysis, the isolated main compounds in ALT were chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, isoquercitrin and rutin. Normalized HO-1 [0.11 (0.04-0.24)] and MCP-1 [0.29 (0.21-0.47)] mRNA levels and DNA scores [12.50 (4.50-36.50)] were significantly lower in the ADA group than in the AD group [0.84 (0.35-2.51)], p = 0.021 for HO-1 [0.85 (0.61-3.45)], p = 0.047 for MCP-1 and [176.5 (66.50-221.25)], p = 0.020 for DNA scores. HO-1 mRNA was lower in the ADA group than in the CG group [0.30 (0.21-0.71), p = 0.049]. Supplementation with ALT limited the effects of the atherogenic diet through reduced MCP-1 expression, thereby preventing oxidative damage.

  5. Colon luminal content and epithelial cell morphology are markedly modified in rats fed with a high-protein diet

    OpenAIRE

    Andriamihaja, Mireille; Davila-Gay, Anne-Marie; Eklou, Mamy; Petit, Nathalie; Delpal, Serge; Allek, Fadhila; Blais, Anne; Delteil, Corine; Tomé, Daniel; Blachier, Francois

    2010-01-01

    Andriamihaja M, Davila A, Eklou-Lawson M, Petit N, Delpal S, Allek F, Blais A, Delteil C, Tome D, Blachier F. Colon luminal content and epithelial cell morphology are markedly modified in rats fed with a high-protein diet. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 299: G1030-G1037, 2010. First published August 5, 2010; doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00149.2010.-Hyperproteic diets are used in human nutrition to obtain body weight reduction. Although increased protein ingestion results in an increased transf...

  6. Dietary n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids modify phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity and lipid synthesis from glucose in adipose tissue of rats fed a high-sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londero, Lisiane G; Rieger, Débora K; Hansen, Fernanda; Silveira, Simone L; Martins, Tiago L; Lulhier, Francisco; da Silva, Roselis S; Souza, Diogo O; Perry, Marcos L S; de Assis, Adriano M

    2013-12-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) have hypolipidemic effects and modulate intermediary metabolism to prevent or reverse insulin resistance in a way that is not completely elucidated. Here, effects of these fatty acids on the lipid profile, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) activity, lipid synthesis from glucose in epididymal adipose tissue (Ep-AT) and liver were investigated. Male rats were fed a high-sucrose diet (SU diet), containing either sunflower oil or a mixture of sunflower and fish oil (SU-FO diet), and the control group was fed a standard diet. After 13 weeks, liver, adipose tissue and blood were harvested and analysed. The dietary n-3 LCPUFAs prevented sucrose-induced increase in adiposity and serum free fat acids, serum and hepatic triacylglycerol and insulin levels. Furthermore, these n-3 LCPUFAs decreased lipid synthesis from glucose and increased PEPCK activity in the Ep-AT of rats fed the SU-FO diet compared to those fed the SU diet, besides reducing lipid synthesis from glucose in hepatic tissue. Thus, the inclusion of n-3 LCPUFAs in the diet may be beneficial for the prevention or attenuation of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, and for reducing the risk of related chronic diseases. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Differential effects of low-fat and high-fat diets on fed-state hepatic triacylglycerol secretion, hepatic fatty acid profiles, and DGAT-1 protein expression in obese-prone Sprague–Dawley rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heden, Timothy D.; Morris, E. Matthew; Kearney, Monica L.; Liu, Tzu-Wen; Park, Young-min; Kanaley, Jill A.; Thyfault, John P.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of short-term low-fat (LF) and high-fat (HF) diets on fed-state hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) secretion, the content of proteins involved in TAG assembly and secretion, fatty acid oxidation (FAO), and the fatty acid profile of stored TAG. Using selectively bred obese-prone Sprague–Dawley rats, we directly measured fed-state hepatic TAG secretion, using Tyloxapol (a lipoprotein lipase inhibitor) and a standardized oral mixed meal (45% carbohydrate, 40% fat, 15% protein) bolus in animals fed a HF or LF diet for 2 weeks, after which the rats were maintained on their respective diet for 1 week (washout) prior to the liver being excised to measure protein content, FAO, and TAG fatty acid profiles. Hepatic DGAT-1 protein expression was ~27% lower in HF- than in LF-fed animals (p < 0.05); the protein expression of all other molecules was similar in the 2 diets. The fed-state hepatic TAG secretion rate was ~39% lower (p < 0.05) in HF- (4.62 ± 0.18 mmol·h−1) than in LF- (7.60 ± 0.57 mmol·h−1) fed animals. Hepatic TAG content was ~2-fold higher (p < 0.05) in HF- (1.07 ± 0.15 nmol·g−1 tissue) than in LF- (0.50 ± 0.16 nmol·g−1 tissue) fed animals. In addition, the fatty acid profile of liver TAG in HF-fed animals closely resembled the diet, whereas in LF-fed animals, the fatty acid profile consisted of mostly de novo synthesized fatty acids. FAO was not altered by diet. LF and HF diets differentially alter fed-state hepatic TAG secretion, hepatic fatty acid profiles, and DGAT-1 protein expression. PMID:24669989

  8. Differential effects of low-fat and high-fat diets on fed-state hepatic triacylglycerol secretion, hepatic fatty acid profiles, and DGAT-1 protein expression in obese-prone Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heden, Timothy D; Morris, E Matthew; Kearney, Monica L; Liu, Tzu-Wen; Park, Young-Min; Kanaley, Jill A; Thyfault, John P

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of short-term low-fat (LF) and high-fat (HF) diets on fed-state hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) secretion, the content of proteins involved in TAG assembly and secretion, fatty acid oxidation (FAO), and the fatty acid profile of stored TAG. Using selectively bred obese-prone Sprague-Dawley rats, we directly measured fed-state hepatic TAG secretion, using Tyloxapol (a lipoprotein lipase inhibitor) and a standardized oral mixed meal (45% carbohydrate, 40% fat, 15% protein) bolus in animals fed a HF or LF diet for 2 weeks, after which the rats were maintained on their respective diet for 1 week (washout) prior to the liver being excised to measure protein content, FAO, and TAG fatty acid profiles. Hepatic DGAT-1 protein expression was ∼27% lower in HF- than in LF-fed animals (p < 0.05); the protein expression of all other molecules was similar in the 2 diets. The fed-state hepatic TAG secretion rate was ∼39% lower (p < 0.05) in HF- (4.62 ± 0.18 mmol·h(-1)) than in LF- (7.60 ± 0.57 mmol·h(-1)) fed animals. Hepatic TAG content was ∼2-fold higher (p < 0.05) in HF- (1.07 ± 0.15 nmol·g(-1) tissue) than in LF- (0.50 ± 0.16 nmol·g(-1) tissue) fed animals. In addition, the fatty acid profile of liver TAG in HF-fed animals closely resembled the diet, whereas in LF-fed animals, the fatty acid profile consisted of mostly de novo synthesized fatty acids. FAO was not altered by diet. LF and HF diets differentially alter fed-state hepatic TAG secretion, hepatic fatty acid profiles, and DGAT-1 protein expression.

  9. Vitamin E decreases extra-hepatic menaquinone-4 concentrations in rats fed menadione or phylloquinone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Sherry M; Leonard, Scott W; Labut, Edwin M; Raines, Hannah F; Card, David J; Harrington, Dominic J; Mustacich, Debbie J; Traber, Maret G

    2012-06-01

    The mechanism for increased bleeding and decreased vitamin K status accompanying vitamin E supplementation is unknown. We hypothesized that elevated hepatic α-tocopherol (α-T) concentrations may stimulate vitamin K metabolism and excretion. Furthermore, α-T may interfere with the side chain removal of phylloquinone (PK) to form menadione (MN) as an intermediate for synthesis of tissue-specific menaquinone-4 (MK-4). In order to investigate these hypotheses, rats were fed phylloquinone (PK) or menadione (MN) containing diets (2 μmol/kg) for 2.5 weeks. From day 10, rats were given daily subcutaneous injections of either α-T (100 mg/kg) or vehicle and were sacrificed 24 h after the seventh injection. Irrespective of diet, α-T injections decreased MK-4 concentrations in brain, lung, kidney, and heart; and PK in lung. These decreases were not accompanied by increased excretion of urinary 5C- or 7C-aglycone vitamin K metabolites, however, the urinary α-T metabolite (α-CEHC) increased ≥ 100-fold. Moreover, α-T increases were accompanied by downregulation of hepatic cytochrome P450 expression and modified expression of tissue ATP-binding cassette transporters. Thus, in rats, high tissue α-T depleted tissue MK-4 without significantly increasing urinary vitamin K metabolite excretion. Changes in tissue MK-4 and PK levels may be a result of altered regulation of transporters. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Glucose and lipid metabolism in rats supplemented with glycyrrhizic acid exposed to short- or long- term stress and fed on a high-calorie diet

    OpenAIRE

    Yaw, Hui Ping

    2017-01-01

    Stress and consumption of high-calorie diet are well-recognized as the primary contributor to various metabolic diseases such as the metabolic syndrome. Glycyrrhizic acid (GA), an active compound in the root extract of the licorice plant, Glycyrrhiza glabra has been shown to improve hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia in rats fed on a high- calorie diet. However, the effect of GA on glucose and lipid metabolism in rats under stress in combination with high- calorie diet has yet to be expl...

  11. Optimalizace experimentálních parametrů v sestavě dvoupulzní LIBS

    OpenAIRE

    Roščák, Michal

    2010-01-01

    V diplomovej práci je opísaná metóda spektroskopie laserom indukovanej plazmy (LIBS) ako aj možnosť zníženia detekčných limitov použitím metódy dvojpulznej LIBS (DP-LIBS). Práca taktiež pojednáva o vlastnostiach laserom indukovanej plazmy (LIP). Obsahuje opis DP-LIBS aparatúry laboratória laserovej spektroskopie Fakulty strojního inženýrství, Vysoké učení technické v Brně, ako aj postup optimalizácie jej parametrov. Optimalizácia bola vykonaná pre detekciu chrómu v oceli s ohľadom na detekčné...

  12. Novel high-density packaging of solid state diode pumped eye-safe laser for LIBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bares, Kim; Torgerson, Justin; McNeil, Laine; Maine, Patrick; Patterson, Steve

    2018-02-01

    Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) has proven to be a useful research tool for material analysis for decades. However, because of the amount of energy required in a few nanosecond pulse to generate a stable and reliable LIBS signal, the lasers are often large and inefficient, relegating their implementation to research facilities, factory floors, and assembly lines. Small portable LIBS systems are now possible without having to compromise on energy needs by leveraging off of advances in high-density packaging of electronics, opto-mechanics, and highly efficient laser resonator architecture. This paper explores the integration of these techniques to achieve a mJ class eye-safe LIBS laser source, while retaining a small, light-weight package suitable for handheld systems.

  13. Hypocaloric high-protein diet improves fatty liver and hypertriglyceridemia in sucrose-fed obese rats via two pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebanso, Takashi; Taketani, Yutaka; Fukaya, Makiko; Sato, Kazusa; Takei, Yuichiro; Sato, Tadatoshi; Sawada, Naoki; Amo, Kikuko; Harada, Nagakatsu; Arai, Hidekazu; Yamamoto, Hironori; Takeda, Eiji

    2009-07-01

    The mechanism by which replacement of some dietary carbohydrates with protein during weight loss favors lipid metabolism remains obscure. In this study, we investigated the effect of an energy-restricted, high-protein/low-carbohydrate diet on lipid metabolism in obese rats. High-sucrose-induced obese rats were assigned randomly to one of two energy-restricted dietary interventions: a carbohydrate-based control diet (CD) or a high-protein diet (HPD). Lean rats of the same age were assigned as normal control. There was significantly greater improvement in fatty liver and hypertriglyceridemia with the HPD diet relative to the CD diet. Expression of genes regulated by fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) and involved in liver lipolysis and lipid utilitization, such as lipase and acyl-CoA oxidase, increased in obese rats fed the HPD. Furthermore, there was an inverse correlation between levels of FGF21 gene expression (regulated by glucagon/insulin balance) and increased triglyceride concentrations in liver from obese rats. Expression of hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), regulated primarily by the dietary carbohydrate, was also markedly reduced in the HPD group (similar to plasma triglyceride levels in fasting animals) relative to the CD group. In conclusion, a hypocaloric high-protein diet improves fatty liver and hypertriglyceridemia effectively relative to a carbohydrate diet. The two cellular pathways at work behind these benefits include stimulation of hepatic lipolysis and lipid utilization mediated by FGF21 and reduction of hepatic VLDL-TG production by SCD1 regulation.

  14. Virtual determination of liver and muscle glycogen obtained from fed rats and from 24-hour fasted rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M.T.T. Trindidade et al

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Glycogen is the storage polysaccharide of animals, composed by glucoseresidues forming a branched polymer. The liver glycogen metabolism and hepaticgluconeogenesis are important buffer systems of blood glucose in different physiological orpathological situations, such as, during a fast period. Fasting muscle glycogenolysis alsooccurs, however, the release of glucose into the bloodstream is negligible because themuscle doesn’t have the enzyme glucose-6-P phosphatase, which is present in the liver.Objectives: This panel presents a learning object, mediated by computer, which simulatesthe determination of liver and muscle glycogen obtained from fed rats and from 24-hourfasted rats Materials and Methods: At first, cartoons were planned in order to show themethodology procedures and biochemical fundamentals. The most representative imageswere selected, edited, organized in a scene menu and inserted into an animationdeveloped with the aid of the Adobe ® Flash 8 software. The validation of this object wasperformed by the students of Biochemistry I (Pharmacy-UFRGS from the secondsemester of 2009 until the second semester of 2013. Results and Discussion: Theanalysis of students' answers revealed that 83% of them attributed the excellence rate tothe navigation program, to the display format and to the learning help. Conclusion:Therefore, this learning object can be considered an adequate teaching resource as wellas an innovative support in the construction of theoretical and practical knowledge ofBiochemistry. Support: SEAD-UFRGSAvailable at: http://www.ufrgs.br/gcoeb/obtencaodosagemglicogenio/

  15. The role of Odontella aurita, a marine diatom rich in EPA, as a dietary supplement in dyslipidemia, platelet function and oxidative stress in high-fat fed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haimeur Adil

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary changes are a major factor in determining cardiovascular risk. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate the risk factors for metabolic syndrome via multiple mechanisms, including the regulation of the lipid metabolism. We therefore investigated the effect of Odontella aurita, a microalga rich in EPA, which is already used as a food supplement, on the risk factors for high-fat diet induced metabolic syndrome in rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups and were fed with a standard diet (control; with the standard diet supplemented with 3% freeze-dried O. aurita (COA; with a high-fat diet (HF; or with the high-fat diet supplemented with 3% of freeze-dried O. aurita (HFOA for 7 weeks. In this study we evaluated the impact of these different diets on the risk factors for metabolic syndrome, such as hyperlipidemia, platelet aggregation, thromboxane B2 production, and oxidative stress. Results After 7 weeks of treatment, high fat feeding had increased final body weight, glycemia, triacylglycerol, and total cholesterol levels in plasma and liver compared to the control diet. Collagen-induced platelet aggregation and basal platelet thromboxane B2 were also higher in the high-fat fed rats than in those in the control group. In the liver, oxidative stress was greater in the HF group than in the control group. O. aurita intake in HFOA-fed rats resulted in lower glycemia and lipid levels in the plasma and liver relative than in the HF group. Thus, in the HFOA group, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in the tissues studied (plasma, liver, and platelets were higher than in the HF group. Platelet hyper-aggregability tended to decrease in HFOA-fed rats as basal platelet thromboxane B2 production decreased. Finally, O. aurita reduced oxidative stress in the liver, with lower malondialdehyde levels and increased glutathione peroxidase activity. Conclusions O. aurita is a marine diatom rich in EPA as well as in other

  16. The role of Odontella aurita, a marine diatom rich in EPA, as a dietary supplement in dyslipidemia, platelet function and oxidative stress in high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimeur, Adil; Ulmann, Lionel; Mimouni, Virginie; Guéno, Frédérique; Pineau-Vincent, Fabienne; Meskini, Nadia; Tremblin, Gérard

    2012-10-31

    Dietary changes are a major factor in determining cardiovascular risk. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate the risk factors for metabolic syndrome via multiple mechanisms, including the regulation of the lipid metabolism. We therefore investigated the effect of Odontella aurita, a microalga rich in EPA, which is already used as a food supplement, on the risk factors for high-fat diet induced metabolic syndrome in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups and were fed with a standard diet (control); with the standard diet supplemented with 3% freeze-dried O. aurita (COA); with a high-fat diet (HF); or with the high-fat diet supplemented with 3% of freeze-dried O. aurita (HFOA) for 7 weeks. In this study we evaluated the impact of these different diets on the risk factors for metabolic syndrome, such as hyperlipidemia, platelet aggregation, thromboxane B2 production, and oxidative stress. After 7 weeks of treatment, high fat feeding had increased final body weight, glycemia, triacylglycerol, and total cholesterol levels in plasma and liver compared to the control diet. Collagen-induced platelet aggregation and basal platelet thromboxane B2 were also higher in the high-fat fed rats than in those in the control group. In the liver, oxidative stress was greater in the HF group than in the control group. O. aurita intake in HFOA-fed rats resulted in lower glycemia and lipid levels in the plasma and liver relative than in the HF group. Thus, in the HFOA group, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in the tissues studied (plasma, liver, and platelets) were higher than in the HF group. Platelet hyper-aggregability tended to decrease in HFOA-fed rats as basal platelet thromboxane B2 production decreased. Finally, O. aurita reduced oxidative stress in the liver, with lower malondialdehyde levels and increased glutathione peroxidase activity. O. aurita is a marine diatom rich in EPA as well as in other bioactive molecules, such as pigments. The synergistic effect

  17. Alterations in lipids & lipid peroxidation in rats fed with flavonoid rich fraction of banana (Musa paradisiaca) from high background radiation area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Kripa; Vijayalakshmi, N R

    2005-12-01

    A group of villages in Kollam district of Kerala, southern part of India are exposed to a higher dose of natural radiation than global average. Yet no adverse health effects have been found in humans, animals and plants in these areas. The present study was carried out to understand whether radiation affects the quantity and quality of flavonoids in plants grown in this area of high radiation, and to assess the effect of feeding flavonoid rich fraction (FRF) of the two varieties of banana to rats on their biochemical parameters like lipids, lipid peroxides and antioxidant enzyme levels. A total of 42 albino rats were equally divided into 7 groups. Rats fed laboratory diet alone were grouped under group I (normal control). Groups II and V received flavonoid rich fraction (FRF) from the fruits of two varieties of Musa paradisiaca, Palayamkodan and Rasakadali respectively from normal background radiation area (Veli) and treated as controls. Rats of groups III and IV received FRF of Palayamkodan from high background radiation areas (HBRAs) - Neendakara and Karunagappally respectively while groups VI and VII received FRF of Rasakadali from HBRAs. At the end of the experimental period of 45 days, lipids, lipid peroxides and antioxidant enzymes from liver, heart and kidney were analyzed. FRF of Palayamkodan and Rasakadali varieties showed significant hypolipidaemic and antioxidant activities. But these activities were found to be lowered in plants grown in HBRAs, particularly in Karunagappally area. Of the two, Palayamkodan variety was more effective in reducing lipids and lipid peroxides. MDA and hydroperoxides were significantly diminished in rats given FRF of banana from Veli (control area) only. FRF from plants grown in HBRAs exerted inhibition in the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the liver of rats and this inhibitory effect was maximum in rats fed FRF from Karunagappally. Banana grown in HBRAs is of lower quality with less efficient antioxidant system

  18. The effect of nutrient media water purity on LIBS based identification of bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Single pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is used as the basis for discrimination between 3 genera of Gram-negative bacteria and 2 genera of gram-positive bacteria representing pathogenic threats commonly found in poultry processing rinse waters. Because LIBS-based discrimination reli...

  19. Decaffeinated coffee consumption induces expression of tight junction proteins in high fat diet fed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazzone G

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent evidence indicates that gut microbiota plays a key role in the development of NAFLD through the gut-liver axis. An altered gut permeability induced by alterations of tight junction (TJ proteins allows the passage of bacteria and substances leading to liver inflammation, hepatocyte damage and fibrosis. This study aims to evaluate the influence of decaffeinated coffee on gut permeability in a rat model of fat liver damage induced by a high fat diet (HFD. Methods: Twelve male Wistar rats were assigned to 3 groups. The first group received HFD for 5 months and drank water. The second group received HFD for 5 months and drank water added with 1.2mL decaffeinated coffee/day starting from the 4th month. The third group received standard diet (SD and drank water. Protein and mRNA expression levels of Toll-Like Receptor- 4 (TLR-4, Occludin and Zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1 were assessed in rat intestines. Results: A significant reduction of Occludin and ZO-1 was observed in HFD fed rats (0.97±0.05 vs 0.15±0.08 p˂0.01, and 0.97±0.05 vs 0.57±0.14 p˂0.001 respectively. This reduction was reverted in HFD+COFFEE rats (0.15±0.08 vs 0.83±0.27 p˂0.01 and 0.57±0.14 vs 0.85±0.12 p˂0.01 respectively. The TLR-4 expression up-regulated by HFD was partially reduced by coffee administration. Conclusions: HFD impairs the intestinal TJ barrier integrity. Coffee increases the expression of TJ proteins, reverting the altered gut permeability and reducing TLR-4 expression.

  20. [An automatic peak detection method for LIBS spectrum based on continuous wavelet transform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng-Fei; Tian, Di; Qiao, Shu-Jun; Yang, Guang

    2014-07-01

    Spectrum peak detection in the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an essential step, but the presence of background and noise seriously disturb the accuracy of peak position. The present paper proposed a method applied to automatic peak detection for LIBS spectrum in order to enhance the ability of overlapping peaks searching and adaptivity. We introduced the ridge peak detection method based on continuous wavelet transform to LIBS, and discussed the choice of the mother wavelet and optimized the scale factor and the shift factor. This method also improved the ridge peak detection method with a correcting ridge method. The experimental results show that compared with other peak detection methods (the direct comparison method, derivative method and ridge peak search method), our method had a significant advantage on the ability to distinguish overlapping peaks and the precision of peak detection, and could be be applied to data processing in LIBS.

  1. Comparative evaluation of flavone from Mucuna pruriens and coumarin from Ionidium suffruticosum for hypolipidemic activity in rats fed with high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmarajan, Satheesh Kumar; Arumugam, Kottai Muthu

    2012-10-02

    The objective of the study is a comparative evaluation of flavone isolated from Mucuna pruriens and coumarin isolated from Ionidium suffruticosum was assessed for the hypolipidemic activity in rats fed with high fat diet. The acute toxicity study was found that flavone (M.pruriens) and coumarin (I.suffruticosum) are safe up to 100 mg/kg, so one tenth of this dose (10 mg/kg) was consider as a evaluation dose. High fat diet group of rats showed significant (ppruriens) and coumarin isolated from (I.suffruticosum) at the dose of 10mg/kg b.wt/day along with high fat diet significantly (ppruriens).

  2. Detection of Anomalies in Citrus Leaves Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Sindhuja; Ehsani, Reza; Morgan, Kelly T

    2015-08-01

    Nutrient assessment and management are important to maintain productivity in citrus orchards. In this study, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied for rapid and real-time detection of citrus anomalies. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra were collected from citrus leaves with anomalies such as diseases (Huanglongbing, citrus canker) and nutrient deficiencies (iron, manganese, magnesium, zinc), and compared with those of healthy leaves. Baseline correction, wavelet multivariate denoising, and normalization techniques were applied to the LIBS spectra before analysis. After spectral pre-processing, features were extracted using principal component analysis and classified using two models, quadratic discriminant analysis and support vector machine (SVM). The SVM resulted in a high average classification accuracy of 97.5%, with high average canker classification accuracy (96.5%). LIBS peak analysis indicated that high intensities at 229.7, 247.9, 280.3, 393.5, 397.0, and 769.8 nm were observed of 11 peaks found in all the samples. Future studies using controlled experiments with variable nutrient applications are required for quantification of foliar nutrients by using LIBS-based sensing.

  3. Evaluation of biochemical and redox parameters in rats fed with corn grown in soil amended with urban sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotto, Denise; Carneiro, Maria Fernanda Hornos; Sauer, Elisa; Garcia, Solange Cristina; de Melo, Wanderley José; Barbosa, Fernando

    2013-09-01

    The increased production of urban sewage sludge requires alternative methods for final disposal. A very promising choice is the use of sewage sludge as a fertilizer in agriculture, since it is rich in organic matter, macro and micronutrients. However, urban sewage sludge may contain toxic substances that may cause deleterious effects on the biota, water and soil, and consequently on humans. There is a lack of studies evaluating how safe the consumption of food cultivated in soils containing urban sewage sludge is. Thus, the aim of this paper was to evaluate biochemical and redox parameters in rats fed with corn produced in a soil treated with urban sewage sludge for a long term. For these experiments, maize plants were grown in soil amended with sewage sludge (rates of 5, 10 and 20 t/ha) or not (control). Four different diets were prepared with the corn grains produced in the field experiment, and rats were fed with these diets for 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Biochemical parameters (glucose, total cholesterol and fractions, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase) as well the redox state biomarkers such as reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase, glutathione peroxidase and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) were assessed. Our results show no differences in the biomarkers over 1 or 2 weeks. However, at 4 weeks BuChE activity was inhibited in rats fed with corn grown in soil amended with sewage sludge (5, 10 and 20 t/ha), while MDA levels increased. Furthermore, prolonged exposure to corn cultivated in the highest amount per hectare of sewage sludge (8 and 12 weeks) was associated with an increase in MDA levels and a decrease in GSH levels, respectively. Our findings add new evidence of the risks of consuming food grown with urban sewage sludge. However, considering that the amount and type of toxic substances present in urban sewage sludge varies considerably among different sampling areas, further studies are needed to

  4. Gallium Content in PuO2 Using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.A.; Martinez, M.A.; Veirs, D.K.

    1999-01-01

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) has been applied to the semi-quantitative analysis of gallium in plutonium oxide at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. The oxide samples were generated by the Thermally Induced Gallium Removal (TIGR) process, a pretreatment step prior to MOX fuel processing. The TIGR process uses PuO 2 containing 1 wt% gallium (nominal) as feed material. Following the TIGR process, gallium content was analyzed by LIBS and also by conventional wet chemical analysis (ICP-MS). Although the data range was insufficient to obtain an adequate calibration, general agreement between the two techniques was good. LIBS was found to have a useful analytical range of 34-400 ppm for Ga in PuO 2

  5. Serum lipid profile and inflammatory markers in the aorta of cholesterol-fed rats supplemented with extra virgin olive oil, sunflower oils and oil-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsarou, Ageliki I; Kaliora, Andriana C; Papalois, Apostolos; Chiou, Antonia; Kalogeropoulos, Nick; Agrogiannis, George; Andrikopoulos, Nikolaos K

    2015-01-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) major and minor component anti-inflammatory effect on aorta was evaluated; Wistar rats were fed (9 weeks) on either a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) or a HCD supplemented with oils, i.e. EVOO, sunflower oil (SO), high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO), or oil-products modified to their phenolic content, i.e. phenolics deprived-EVOO [EVOO(-)], SO enriched with the EVOO phenolics [SO(+)], HOSO enriched with the EVOO phenolics [HOSO(+)]. HCD induced dyslipidemia and resulted in higher aorta adhesion molecules levels at euthanasia. Groups receiving EVOO, EVOO(-), HOSO, HOSO(+) presented higher serum TC and LDL-c levels compared to cholesterol-fed rats; attenuation of aorta E-selectin levels was also observed. In EVOO/EVOO(-) groups, aorta vascular endothelial adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) was lower compared to HCD animals. SO/SO(+) diets had no effect on endothelial dysfunction amelioration. Overall, our results suggest that major and/or minor EVOO constituents improve aorta E-selectin and VCAM-1, while serum lipids do not benefit.

  6. Relationship of adipocyte size to hyperphagia in developing male obese Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasselli, J R; Fiene, J A; Maggio, C A

    1992-01-01

    In growing male obese Zucker rats, hyperphagia reaches a maximum or "breakpoint" and declines at an earlier age with high fat than with chow-type diets. A serial adipose tissue biopsy technique was used to correlate changes of retroperitoneal adipocyte size and feeding behavior in 5- to 7-wk-old male lean and obese rats fed laboratory chow or a 35% fat diet until 30 wk of age. Although chow-fed groups had significantly greater cumulative intake, fat-fed groups had significantly greater body weight gain, retroperitoneal depot weight, and adipocyte number. Mean adipocyte size increased continuously in chow-fed groups but decreased over weeks 20-30 in fat-fed groups, reflecting increased adipocyte number. In fat-fed obese rats, hyperphagia reached a breakpoint at 11 wk and disappeared by 13 wk. In chow-fed obese rats, hyperphagia reached a breakpoint at 15-16 wk and disappeared by 19 wk. Biopsy samples revealed that adipocyte size of fat-fed obese rats was already close to maximal at 10 wk (1.12 micrograms lipid), while that of chow-fed obese rats only approached maximal at 20 wk (0.81 microgram lipid). At these time points, lipoprotein lipase activity paralleled adipocyte size. These data indicate that the duration of the growing obese rat's hyperphagia coincides with adipocyte filling and suggest the existence of feeding stimulatory and inhibitory signals from adipose tissue.

  7. Monitoring of toxic elements present in sludge of industrial waste using CF-LIBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rohit; Rai, Awadhesh K; Alamelu, Devanathan; Aggarwal, Suresh K

    2013-01-01

    Industrial waste is one of the main causes of environmental pollution. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied to detect the toxic metals in the sludge of industrial waste water. Sludge on filter paper was obtained after filtering the collected waste water samples from different sections of a water treatment plant situated in an industrial area of Kanpur City. The LIBS spectra of the sludge samples were recorded in the spectral range of 200 to 500 nm by focusing the laser light on sludge. Calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (CF-LIBS) technique was used for the quantitative measurement of toxic elements such as Cr and Pb present in the sample. We also used the traditional calibration curve approach to quantify these elements. The results obtained from CF-LIBS are in good agreement with the results from the calibration curve approach. Thus, our results demonstrate that CF-LIBS is an appropriate technique for quantitative analysis where reference/standard samples are not available to make the calibration curve. The results of the present experiment are alarming to the people living nearby areas of industrial activities, as the concentrations of toxic elements are quite high compared to the admissible limits of these substances.

  8. Inulin oligofructose attenuates metabolic syndrome in high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Senthil A; Ward, Leigh C; Brown, Lindsay

    2016-11-01

    Prebiotics alter bacterial content in the colon, and therefore could be useful for obesity management. We investigated the changes following addition of inulin oligofructose (IO) in the food of rats fed either a corn starch (C) diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (H) diet as a model of diet-induced metabolic syndrome. IO did not affect food intake, but reduced body weight gain by 5·3 and 12·3 % in corn starch+inulin oligofructose (CIO) and high-carbohydrate, high-fat with inulin oligofructose (HIO) rats, respectively. IO reduced plasma concentrations of free fatty acids by 26·2 % and TAG by 75·8 % in HIO rats. IO increased faecal output by 93·2 %, faecal lipid excretion by 37·9 % and weight of caecum by 23·4 % and colon by 41·5 % in HIO rats. IO improved ileal morphology by reducing inflammation and improving the density of crypt cells in HIO rats. IO attenuated H diet-induced increases in abdominal fat pads (C 275 (sem 19), CIO 264 (sem 40), H 688 (sem 55), HIO 419 (sem 32) mg/mm tibial length), fasting blood glucose concentrations (C 4·5 (sem 0·1), CIO 4·2 (sem 0·1), H 5·2 (sem 0·1), HIO 4·3 (sem 0·1) mmol/l), systolic blood pressure (C 124 (sem 2), CIO 118 (sem 2), H 152 (sem 2), HIO 123 (sem 3) mmHg), left ventricular diastolic stiffness (C 22·9 (sem 0·6), CIO 22·9 (sem 0·5), H 27·8 (sem 0·5), HIO 22·6 (sem 1·2)) and plasma alanine transaminase (C 29·6 (sem 2·8), CIO 32·1 (sem 3·0), H 43·9 (sem 2·6), HIO 33·6 (sem 2·0) U/l). IO attenuated H-induced increases in inflammatory cell infiltration in the heart and liver, lipid droplets in the liver and plasma lipids as well as impaired glucose and insulin tolerance. These results suggest that increasing soluble fibre intake with IO improves signs of the metabolic syndrome by decreasing gastrointestinal carbohydrate and lipid uptake.

  9. Effects of house type and early feed restriction on performance and fat deposition in unsexed broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Santoso

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of house type and early feed restriction on performance and fat deposition of unsexed broilers. Four hundreds seven-day old unsexed broilers (Arbor Acres CP 707 were distributed into eight treatment groups. Each treatment group was represented by five replicates of ten broilers each. Two types of house (cage vs litter and four levels of feeding (ad lib., 75% ad lib., 50% ad lib. and 25% ad lib. were tested as treatment factors. Broilers were feed-restricted for 6 days from 7 to 13 days of age and thereafter they were fed ad lib. Feed intake of restricted broilers during restriction period was calculated from feed consumed by ad lib. group in the previous day. Results showed that unsexed broilers raised in litter had higher body weight (P<0.05, lower abdominal fat and higher triglyceride concentration at 42 days of age (P<0.05, and lower liver fat and higher carcass percentage at 56 days of age (P<0.05. Early feed restriction reduced body weight of 42-day old unsexed broilers except for broilers fed 75% ad lib. At 56 days of age, restricted broilers had similar body weight to those fed ad lib. At 56 days of age, broilers fed 25% ad lib. had lower FCR (P<0.05, lower abdominal fat (P<0.05 and lower triglyceride concentration (P<0,05. In conclusion, unsexed broilers fed 25% ad lib. showed compensatory growth with better FCR and lower fat accumulation at 56 days of age. Broilers raised in litter had higher body weight and lower abdominal and liver fat deposition.

  10. Diminished metabolic responses to centrally-administered apelin-13 in diet-induced obese rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, K J; Whitaker, K W; Reyes, T M

    2009-02-01

    The central administration of apelin, a recently identified adipokine, has been shown to affect food and water intake. The present study investigated whether body weight could affect an animal's response to apelin. The effects of centrally-administered apelin-13 on food and water intake, activity and metabolic rate were investigated in adult male diet-induced obese (DIO) rats fed either a high fat (32%) or control diet. Rats were administered i.c.v. apelin-13, 15-30 min prior to lights out, and food and water intake, activity and metabolic rate were assessed. Intracerebroventricular administration of apelin-13 decreased food and water intake and respiratory exchange ratio in DIO rats on the control diet, but had no effect in DIO rats on the high-fat diet. In an effort to identify potential central mechanisms explaining the observed physiological responses, the mRNA level of the apelin receptor, APJ, was examined in the hypothalamus. A high-fat diet induced an up-regulation of the expression of the receptor. Apelin induced a down-regulation of the receptor, but only in the DIO animals on the high-fat diet. In conclusion, we have demonstrated a diminished central nervous system response to apelin that is coincident with obesity.

  11. Quantitative analysis of titanium concentration using calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitun; Prasetyo, S.; Suliyanti, M. M.; Isnaeni; Herbani, Y.

    2018-03-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) can be used for quantitative and qualitative analysis. Calibration-free LIBS (CF-LIBS) is a method to quantitatively analyze concentration of elements in a sample in local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions without using available matrix-matched calibration. In this study, we apply CF-LIBS for quantitative analysis of Ti in TiO2 sample. TiO2 powder sample was mixed with polyvinyl alcohol and formed into pellets. An Nd:YAG pulsed laser at a wavelength of 1064 nm was focused onto the sample to generate plasma. The spectrum of plasma was recorded using spectrophotometer then compared to NIST spectral line to determine energy levels and other parameters. The value of plasma temperature obtained using Boltzmann plot is 8127.29 K and electron density from calculation is 2.49×1016 cm-3. Finally, the concentration of Ti in TiO2 sample from this study is 97% that is in proximity with the sample certificate.

  12. Effect of Dietary Intake of Avocado Oil and Olive Oil on Biochemical Markers of Liver Function in Sucrose-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Carvajal-Zarrabal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic changes, along with cardiovascular and hepatic factors, are associated with the development of diseases such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity. We evaluated the effect of avocado oil supplementation (centrifuged and solvent extracted, compared with olive oil, upon the hepatic function in sucrose-fed rats. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: control (basal diet, a sucrose-fed group (basal diet plus 30% sucrose solution, and three other groups (S-OO, S-AOC, and S-AOS, indicating basal diet plus 30% sucrose solution plus olive oil OO, avocado oil extracted by centrifugation AOC or using solvent AOS, resp.. Glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, albumin, globulin, direct bilirubin, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, cholinesterase, and α-amylase concentrations were determined and avocado oil effect on them was studied. In some cases the induced metabolic alteration significantly affected total protein and bilirubin levels and also had a highly significant effect on α-amylase levels. AOC and AOS exhibited effects similar to those of olive oil, according to the nonsignificant difference in fatty acid profile observed by other authors. Avocado oil consumption could be beneficial in the control of altered metabolic profile illnesses as it presents effects on hepatic function biochemical markers similar to olive oil.

  13. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS): an overview of recent progress and future potential for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehse, S J; Salimnia, H; Miziolek, A W

    2012-02-01

    The recent progress made in developing laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has transformed LIBS from an elemental analysis technique to one that can be applied for the reagentless analysis of molecularly complex biological materials or clinical specimens. Rapid advances in the LIBS technology have spawned a growing number of recently published articles in peer-reviewed journals which have consistently demonstrated the capability of LIBS to rapidly detect, biochemically characterize and analyse, and/or accurately identify various biological, biomedical or clinical samples. These analyses are inherently real-time, require no sample preparation, and offer high sensitivity and specificity. This overview of the biomedical applications of LIBS is meant to summarize the research that has been performed to date, as well as to suggest to health care providers several possible specific future applications which, if successfully implemented, would be significantly beneficial to humankind.

  14. An experimental evaluation of the anti-atherogenic potential of the plant, Piper betle, and its active constitutent, eugenol, in rats fed an atherogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkadeswaran, Karuppasamy; Thomas, Philip A; Geraldine, Pitchairaj

    2016-05-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for systemic atherosclerosis and subsequent cardiovascular disease. Lipoperoxidation-mediated oxidative damage is believed to contribute strongly to the progression of atherogenesis. In the current investigation, putative anti-atherogenic and antioxidative properties of an ethanolic extract of Piper betle and of its active constituent, eugenol, were sought in an experimental animal model of chronic hypercholesterolemia. Atherogenic diet-fed rats that received either Piper betle extract orally (500mg/kg b.wt) or eugenol orally (5mg/kg b.wt) for 15days (commencing 30days after the atherogenic diet had been started) exhibited the following variations in different parameters, when compared to atherogenic diet-fed rats that received only saline: (1) significantly lower mean levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol in both serum and hepatic tissue samples; (2) lower mean serum levels of aspartate amino-transferase, alanine amino-transferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and lipid-metabolizing enzymes (lipoprotein lipase, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase; (3) significantly lower mean levels of enzymatic antioxidants (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione, vitamin C and vitamin E) and significantly higher mean levels of malondialdehyde in haemolysate and hepatic tissue samples. Histopathological findings suggested a protective effect of the Piper betle extract and a more pronounced protective effect of eugenol on the hepatic and aortic tissues of atherogenic diet-fed (presumed atherosclerotic) rats. These results strongly suggest that the Piper betle extract and its active constituent, eugenol, exhibit anti-atherogenic effects which may be due to their anti-oxidative properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights

  15. Effects of Arginine Supplementation on Amino Acid Profiles in Blood and Tissues in Fed and Overnight-Fasted Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Holecek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic arginine intake is believed to have favorable effects on the body. However, it might be hypothesized that excessive consumption of an individual amino acid exerts adverse effects on distribution and metabolism of other amino acids. We evaluated the effect of chronic intake of arginine on amino acid concentrations in blood plasma, liver, kidneys, and soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles. Rats were fed a standard diet or a high-arginine diet (HAD for two months. Half of the animals in each group were sacrificed in the fed state, and the other half after fasting overnight. HAD increased blood plasma concentrations of urea, creatinine, arginine, and ornithine and decreased most other amino acids. Arginine and ornithine also increased in muscles and kidneys; an increase of lysine was observed in both muscle types. Methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, asparagine, glycine, serine, and taurine decreased in most tissues of HAD fed animals. Most of the effects of HAD disappeared after overnight fasting. It is concluded that (i enhanced dietary arginine intake alters distribution of almost all amino acids; and (ii to attain a better assessment of the effects of various nutritional interventions, an appropriate number of biochemical measurements must be performed in both postprandial and postabsorptive states.

  16. Induction of monooxygenases and incorporation of radioactivity from 2-14C-lysine into hepatic microsomes of phenobarbital-treated rats fed a diet deficient in lysine, methionine, threonine and vitamines A, C, E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurmagambetov, T.Zh.; Amirov, B.B.; Kuanysheva, T.G.; Sharmanov, T.Sh.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of diet on induction of monooxygenases and distribution of radioactivity from 2- 14 C-lysine in fractions of liver homogenate, muscle homogenate and blood of male rats treated with phenobarbital was studied. 2- 14 C-lysin was injected intraperitoneally 24 h before the first injection of phenobarbital. It was demonstrated that monooxygenase induction, increase of relative liver weight and incorporation of radioactivity from 2- 14 C-lysine into fractions of liver homogenate in phenobarbital-treated rats fed diet deficient in lysine, methionine, threonine and vitamins A, C, E were more pronounced as compared with the similarly treated rats which were fed a balanced diet. The possibility of mobilization of deficient essencial components to liver from other organs and tissues for maintenance of monooxygenase induction iis discussed

  17. Effects of dietary triacylglycerol structure on triacylglycerols of resultant chylomicrons from fish oil- and seal oil-fed rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Carl-Erik; Christensen, Michael Søberg

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the influence of the intramolecular fatty acid distribution of dietary triacyl-sn-glycerols (TAG) rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the structure of chylomicron TAG. Fish oil and seal oil, comparable in fatty acid compositions but with different contents of major n-3...... PUFA esterified at the sn-2 position (20:5n-3, 46,6%, and 5.3%; 22:6n-3, 75.5% and 3.8%, respectively), were fed to rats. Mesenteric lymph was collected and the chylomicrons were isolated by ultracentrifugation. The fatty acid compostition of chylomicrons largely reflected the fatty acid composition...... of the oils administered. The intramolecular fatty acid distributions of the TAG fed were reflected in the chylomicron TAG as the fraction of the total contents observed in the sn-2 postition of 20:5n-3 were 23.6 and 13.3% and of 22:6n-3 were 30.6 and 5.4% for resultant chylomicrons following fish oil...

  18. Blood Glucose Levels in Portal and Peripheral Circulation and Their Relation to Food Intake in the Rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strubbe, J.H.; Steffens, A.B.

    1977-01-01

    Rats weighing about 450 g were provided with permanent catheters in the portal vein and the right auricle. This method allows blood sampling from the portal and peripheral circulation at the same moment in the nondisturbed unanesthetized rat. In the ad lib condition the portal glucose level was

  19. Tocotrienol rich tocomin attenuates oxidative stress and improves endothelium-dependent relaxation in aortae from rats fed a high-fat western diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saher F Ali

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported that tocomin, a mixture high in tocotrienol content and also containing tocopherol, acutely preserves endothelial function in the presence of oxidative stress. In this study we investigated whether tocomin treatment would preserve endothelial function in aortae isolated from rats fed a high fat diet known to cause oxidative stress. Wistar hooded rats were fed a western diet (WD, 21% fat or control rat chow (SD, 6% fat for 12 weeks. Tocomin (40 mg/kg/day sc or its vehicle (peanut oil was administered for the last 4 weeks of the feeding regime. Aortae from WD rats showed an impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation that was associated with an increased expression of the NADPH oxidase Nox2 subunit and an increase in the vascular generation of superoxide measured using L-012 chemiluminescence. The increase in vascular oxidative stress was accompanied by a decrease in basal NO release and impairment of the contribution of NO to ACh-induced relaxation. The impaired relaxation is likely contributed to by a decreased expression of eNOS, calmodulin and phosphorylated Akt and an increase in caveolin-Tocotrienol rich tocomin, which prevented the diet-induced changes in vascular function, reduced vascular superoxide production and abolished the diet-induced changes in eNOS and other protein expression. Using selective inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (NOS, soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC and calcium activated potassium (KCa channels we demonstrated that tocomin increased NO mediated relaxation, without affecting the contribution of endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization type relaxation to the endothelium-dependent relaxation. The beneficial actions of tocomin in this diet-induced model of obesity suggests that it may have potential to be used as a therapeutic agent to prevent vascular disease in obesity.

  20. Applications of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) in Molten Metal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Shaymus W.; Craparo, Joseph; De Saro, Robert; Apelian, Diran

    2017-10-01

    In order for metals to meet the demand for critical applications in the automotive, aerospace, and defense industries, tight control over the composition and cleanliness of the metal must be achieved. The use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for applications in metal processing has generated significant interest for its ability to perform quick analyses in situ. The fundamentals of LIBS, current techniques for deployment on molten metal, demonstrated capabilities, and possible avenues for development are reviewed and discussed.

  1. Obesity does not aggravate osteoporosis or osteoblastic insulin resistance in orchiectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potikanond, Saranyapin; Rattanachote, Pinyada; Pintana, Hiranya; Suntornsaratoon, Panan; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn

    2016-02-01

    The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that testosterone deprivation impairs osteoblastic insulin signaling, decreases osteoblast survival, reduces bone density, and that obesity aggravates those deleterious effects in testosterone-deprived rats. Twenty four male Wistar rats underwent either a bilateral orchiectomy (O, n=12) or a sham operation (S, n=12). Then the rats in each group were further divided into two subgroups fed with either a normal diet (ND) or a high-fat diet (HF) for 12 weeks. At the end of the protocol, blood samples were collected to determine metabolic parameters and osteocalcin ratios. The tibiae were collected to determine bone mass using microcomputed tomography and for osteoblast isolation. The results showed that rats fed with HF (sham-operated HF-fed rats (HFS) and ORX HF-fed rats (HFO)) developed peripheral insulin resistance and had decreased trabecular bone density. In ND-fed rats, only the ORX ND-fed rats (NDO) group had decreased trabecular bone density. In addition, osteoblastic insulin resistance, as indicated by a decrease in tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and Akt, were observed in all groups except the sham-operated ND-fed rats (NDS) rats. Those groups, again with the exception of the NDS rats, also had decreased osteoblastic survival. No differences in the levels of osteoblastic insulin resistance and osteoblastic survival were found among the NDO, HFS, and HFO groups. These findings suggest that either testosterone deprivation or obesity alone can impair osteoblastic insulin signaling and decrease osteoblastic survival leading to the development of osteoporosis. However, obesity does not aggravate those deleterious effects in the bone of testosterone-deprived rats. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  2. ANALISIS KUALITATIF PADA BATU KECUBUNG KOPI MENGGUNAKAN LIBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Ayu Gede Kusuma Dewi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available It has been conducted research on the qualitative analysis on amethyst coffee using LIBS.This study aims to determine the content of the element in amethyst coffee that can later be used as a comparison or reference further research in the elemental analysis amethyst coffee. With treatment, the laser irradiated amethyst coffee at 100 mJ, and the data retrieved by the accumulation of 3, delay time 1 µs and repetition as much as 3 points in different areas of each region analysis of depth function (Depth Profile with 60 times the laser irradiation. The main element as a constituent amethyst Coffee is silicon (Si, Sodium (Na, calcium (Ca, potassium (K and oxygen (O2, while the element on its outer surface is iron (Fe and phosphorus (P were analyzed using LIBS.

  3. Tocotrienols Reverse Cardiovascular, Metabolic and Liver Changes in High Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng-Yew Wong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tocotrienols have been reported to improve lipid profiles, reduce atherosclerotic lesions, decrease blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin concentrations, normalise blood pressure in vivo and inhibit adipogenesis in vitro, yet their role in the metabolic syndrome has not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the effects of palm tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF on high carbohydrate, high fat diet-induced metabolic, cardiovascular and liver dysfunction in rats. Rats fed a high carbohydrate, high fat diet for 16 weeks developed abdominal obesity, hypertension, impaired glucose and insulin tolerance with increased ventricular stiffness, lower systolic function and reduced liver function. TRF treatment improved ventricular function, attenuated cardiac stiffness and hypertension, and improved glucose and insulin tolerance, with reduced left ventricular collagen deposition and inflammatory cell infiltration. TRF improved liver structure and function with reduced plasma liver enzymes, inflammatory cell infiltration, fat vacuoles and balloon hepatocytes. TRF reduced plasma free fatty acid and triglyceride concentrations but only omental fat deposition was decreased in the abdomen. These results suggest that tocotrienols protect the heart and liver, and improve plasma glucose and lipid profiles with minimal changes in abdominal obesity in this model of human metabolic syndrome.

  4. Administration of structured lipid composed of MCT and fish oil reduces net protein catabolism in enterally fed burned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, T C; DeMichele, S J; Selleck, K M; Babayan, V K; Blackburn, G L; Bistrian, B R

    1989-01-01

    The effects of enteral feeding with safflower oil or a structured lipid (SL) derived from 60% medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) and 40% fish oil (MCT/fish oil) on protein and energy metabolism were compared in gastrostomy-fed burned rats (30% body surface area) by measuring oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, nitrogen balance, total liver protein, whole-body leucine kinetics, and rectus muscle and liver protein fractional synthetic rates (FSR, %/day). Male Sprague-Dawley rats (195 +/- 5g) received 50 ml/day of an enteral regimen containing 50 kcal, 2 g amino acids, and 40% nonprotein calories as lipid for three days. Protein kinetics were estimated by using a continuous L-[1-14C] leucine infusion technique on day 2. Thermally injured rats enterally fed MCT/fish oil yielded significantly higher daily and cumulative nitrogen balances (p less than or equal to 0.025) and rectus muscle (39%) FSR (p less than or equal to 0.05) when compared with safflower oil. MCT/fish oil showed a 22% decrease (p less than or equal to 0.005) in per cent flux oxidized and a 7% (p less than or equal to 0.05) decrease in total energy expenditure (TEE) versus safflower oil. A 15% increase in liver FSR was accompanied by a significant elevation (p less than or equal to 0.025) in total liver protein with MCT/fish oil. This novel SL shares the properties of other structured lipids in that it reduces the net protein catabolic effects of burn injury, in part, by influencing tissue protein synthetic rates. The reduction in TEE is unique to MCT/fish oil and may relate to the ability of fish oil to diminish the injury response. PMID:2500898

  5. A Moderate Zinc Deficiency Does Not Alter Lipid and Fatty Acid Composition in the Liver of Weanling Rats Fed Diets Rich in Cocoa Butter or Safflower Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, Edgar; Egenolf, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine whether a moderate zinc deficiency alters hepatic lipid composition. Male weanling rats, assigned to five groups (8 animals each), were fed low-carbohydrate high-fat diets supplemented with 7 or 50 mg Zn/kg (LZ or HZ) and 22% cocoa butter (CB) or 22% safflower oil (SF) for four weeks. One group each had free access to the LZ-CB and LZ-SF diets, one group each was restrictedly fed the HZ-CB and HZ-SF diets in matching amounts, and one group had free access to the HZ-SF diet (ad libitum control). The rats fed the LZ diets had significantly lower energy intakes and final body weights than the ad libitum control group, and lower plasma and femur Zn concentrations than the animals consuming the HZ diets. Hepatic cholesterol, triacylglycerol and phospholipid concentrations, and fatty acid composition of hepatic triacylglycerols and phospholipids did not significantly differ between the LZ and their respective HZ groups, but were greatly affected by dietary fat source. In conclusion, the moderate Zn deficiency did not significantly alter liver lipid concentrations and fatty acid composition.

  6. A Moderate Zinc Deficiency Does Not Alter Lipid and Fatty Acid Composition in the Liver of Weanling Rats Fed Diets Rich in Cocoa Butter or Safflower Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Weigand

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine whether a moderate zinc deficiency alters hepatic lipid composition. Male weanling rats, assigned to five groups (8 animals each, were fed low-carbohydrate high-fat diets supplemented with 7 or 50 mg Zn/kg (LZ or HZ and 22% cocoa butter (CB or 22% safflower oil (SF for four weeks. One group each had free access to the LZ-CB and LZ-SF diets, one group each was restrictedly fed the HZ-CB and HZ-SF diets in matching amounts, and one group had free access to the HZ-SF diet (ad libitum control. The rats fed the LZ diets had significantly lower energy intakes and final body weights than the ad libitum control group, and lower plasma and femur Zn concentrations than the animals consuming the HZ diets. Hepatic cholesterol, triacylglycerol and phospholipid concentrations, and fatty acid composition of hepatic triacylglycerols and phospholipids did not significantly differ between the LZ and their respective HZ groups, but were greatly affected by dietary fat source. In conclusion, the moderate Zn deficiency did not significantly alter liver lipid concentrations and fatty acid composition.

  7. Development of LIBS for online analysis of solid nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picard, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    With the objective to implement a fast, online analysis technique for control of solid metal nuclear materials, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique is developed for quantitative analysis in uranium and plutonium. Since these matrices have a very dense emission spectrum in the UV-Visible range, the Vacuum Ultra-Violet (VUV) spectral range, less rich in lines, is explored. The aim of this thesis is to perform the analytical development of VUV-LIBS for quantitative analysis between 500 and 5000 ppm with an uncertainty of 3%. For that purpose, four steps were defined. First, for practical and safety reasons, it is generally better to perform experiments on surrogate materials. LIBS based on laser-material interaction, it is relevant to seek a surrogate of material of interest from the viewpoint of the ablated mass. Thus, a complete study of laser ablation of several metals was enabled to build a predictive model of the ablation efficiency. Titanium and stainless steel were defined as surrogate materials of plutonium and uranium for laser ablation. Secondly, the VUV-LIBS setup analytical performances were optimized for several elements of interest in four metals. Then, two calibration methods are used to determine the analytical performances. The limits of quantification are of the order of a few hundreds of ppm for all studied matrices, which validates the objective of impurities quantitation in the 500-5000 ppm range. Uncertainty is lower than 3% in the best cases. Finally, the calibration transfer between the four matrices was studied. A normalization of the nickel net signal measured in three matrices was presented. (author) [fr

  8. Feasibility Study for Monitoring Actinide Elements in Process Materials Using FO-LIBS at Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Bo-Young; Choi, Daewoong; Park, Se Hwan; Kim, Ho-Dong [Nonproliferation System Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Dae, Dongsun [Department of Chemistry, Mokpo National University, Jeonnam 534-729 (Korea, Republic of); Whitehouse, Andrew I. [Applied Photonics Ltd., Unit 8 Carleton Business Park, Skipton, North Yorkshire BD23 2DE (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) have been developing the design and deployment methodology of Laser- Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument for safeguards application within the argon hot cell environment at Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process Facility (ACPF), where ACPF is a facility being refurbished for the laboratory-scaled demonstration of advanced spent fuel conditioning process. LIBS is an analysis technology used to measure the emission spectra of excited elements in the local plasma of a target material induced by a laser. The spectra measured by LIBS are analyzed to verify the quality and quantity of the specific element in the target matrix. Recently LIBS has been recognized as a promising technology for safeguards purposes in terms of several advantages including a simple sample preparation and in-situ analysis capability. In particular, a feasibility study of LIBS to remotely monitor the nuclear material in a high radiation environment has been carried out for supporting the IAEA safeguards implementation. Fiber-Optic LIBS (FO-LIBS) deployment was proposed by Applied Photonics Ltd because the use of fiber optics had benefited applications of LIBS by delivering the laser energy to the target and by collecting the plasma light. The design of FO-LIBS instrument for the measurement of actinides in the spent fuel and high temperature molten salt at ACPF had been developed in cooperation with Applied Photonics Ltd. FO-LIBS has some advantages as followings: the detectable plasma light wavelength range is not limited by the optical properties of the thick lead-glass shield window and the potential risk of laser damage to the lead-glass shield window is not considered. The remote LIBS instrument had been installed at ACPF and then the feasibility study for monitoring actinide elements such as uranium, plutonium, and curium in process materials has been carried out. (authors)

  9. Feasibility Study for Monitoring Actinide Elements in Process Materials Using FO-LIBS at Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Bo-Young; Choi, Daewoong; Park, Se Hwan; Kim, Ho-Dong; Dae, Dongsun; Whitehouse, Andrew I.

    2015-01-01

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) have been developing the design and deployment methodology of Laser- Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument for safeguards application within the argon hot cell environment at Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process Facility (ACPF), where ACPF is a facility being refurbished for the laboratory-scaled demonstration of advanced spent fuel conditioning process. LIBS is an analysis technology used to measure the emission spectra of excited elements in the local plasma of a target material induced by a laser. The spectra measured by LIBS are analyzed to verify the quality and quantity of the specific element in the target matrix. Recently LIBS has been recognized as a promising technology for safeguards purposes in terms of several advantages including a simple sample preparation and in-situ analysis capability. In particular, a feasibility study of LIBS to remotely monitor the nuclear material in a high radiation environment has been carried out for supporting the IAEA safeguards implementation. Fiber-Optic LIBS (FO-LIBS) deployment was proposed by Applied Photonics Ltd because the use of fiber optics had benefited applications of LIBS by delivering the laser energy to the target and by collecting the plasma light. The design of FO-LIBS instrument for the measurement of actinides in the spent fuel and high temperature molten salt at ACPF had been developed in cooperation with Applied Photonics Ltd. FO-LIBS has some advantages as followings: the detectable plasma light wavelength range is not limited by the optical properties of the thick lead-glass shield window and the potential risk of laser damage to the lead-glass shield window is not considered. The remote LIBS instrument had been installed at ACPF and then the feasibility study for monitoring actinide elements such as uranium, plutonium, and curium in process materials has been carried out. (authors)

  10. Fire debris analysis for forensic fire investigation using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soojin; Yoh, Jack J.

    2017-08-01

    The possibility verification of the first attempt to apply LIBS to arson investigation was performed. LIBS has capabilities for real time in-situ analysis and depth profiling. It can provide valuable information about the fire debris that are complementary to the classification of original sample components and combustion residues. In this study, fire debris was analyzed to determine the ignition source and existence of a fire accelerant using LIBS spectra and depth profiling analysis. Fire debris chemical composition and carbon layer thickness determines the possible ignition source while the carbon layer thickness of combusted samples represents the degree of sample carbonization. When a sample is combusted with fire accelerants, a thicker carbon layer is formed because the burning rate is increased. Therefore, depth profiling can confirm the existence of combustion accelerants, which is evidence of arson. Also investigation of fire debris by depth profiling is still possible when a fire is extinguished with water from fire hose. Such data analysis and in-situ detection of forensic signals via the LIBS may assist fire investigation at crime scenes.

  11. LIBS: study of elemental profile of different layers of the optical window of Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurya, Gulab Singh; Jyotsna, Aradhana; Rai, Awadhesh Kumar; Ajai Kumar

    2012-01-01

    In the Tokamak, during confinement of plasma, impurities are deposited on optical window, mirror, limiters, etc. of the tokamak. Thus a layer of impurity on the surface of the optical window causes less visibility which creates problem in the study of plasma parameters and other diagnostics of the plasma generated in the tokamak. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is a useful atomic spectroscopic technique for analysis of materials in any phase (Solid, Liquid, Gas etc). LIBS spectra of optical window have been recorded in the spectral range of 200-500 nm. In present study we have focused laser on the surface of the window, to study the layer-wise elemental profile of optical window, we have recorded the LIBS spectra with increasing number of laser shots on the same point of the window. In first laser shot, spectral signature of Cr, Fe, and Ni etc. are present in the LIBS spectra, which is related with the impurity but after five to six laser shots at the same point of the optical window spectral signature Si, B are observed which is related to the glass material. Thus our study demonstrates the capability of LIBS as an in-situ monitoring tool for detection of elemental profile in different layers of optical window of the Tokamak. (author)

  12. ZINC-INDUCED HYPERLEPTINEMIA IN RATS RELATED TO THE AMELIORATION OF SUCROSE-INDUCED OBESITY WITH ZINC REPLETION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HEIBASHY, M.I.; EL-NAHLA, A.M.; ASHOUR, I.; SALEH, SH.Y.A.

    2008-01-01

    Thirty adult albino rats (Rattus rattus) at 6 weeks of age were divided into three groups (ten for each). The first group was fed a standard laboratory diet for 8 weeks (control). The second group was made obese by giving them 32% sucrose solution in addition to the standard laboratory diet .The third group was received zinc supplementation (50 mg zinc acetate/ litre) with their sucrose solution. Body weight of all rats was measured weekly for 8 weeks. At 14 weeks of age, rats were killed and fasting blood samples were obtained. Serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglyceride, leptin, tumour necrosis factor-α and zinc were measured.Results showed remarkable changes in body weights in sucrose fed rats only when compared to control and supplemented zinc rats group. Serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly increased in sucrose fed rats than both control and sucrose with zinc group. Serum leptin showed significant increase in sucrose fed rats than control and also showed higher significant value in sucrose fed rats supplemented with zinc comparing with sucrose fed rats and control ones. Tumour necrosis factor-? did not show any significant difference between all groups. Serum zinc concentration was decreased significantly in sucrose fed rats as compared to control. On the other hand, it was increased significantly in sucrose fed rats supplemented with zinc than other both groups. It could be concluded that zinc supplementation induced hyperleptinemia caused ameliorating effects in obese rats

  13. Does LibQUAL+[TM] Account for Student Loyalty to a University College Library?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgesen, Oyvind; Nesset, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to find out whether LibQUAL+[TM]can account for student loyalty to the library of an institution of higher education. LibQUAL+[TM] is a marketing tool that is used to measure perceived service quality of libraries, and the present analysis aims at validating this service quality instrument within a more…

  14. Metabolic characteristics of skeletal muscle from lean and obese Zucker rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campion, D.R.; Shapira, J.F.; Allen, C.E.; Hausman, G.J.; Martin, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the metabolic response to obesity and to pair feeding of obese Zucker rats to lean Zucker rats was similar across skeletal muscles. Oxidation of glucose, palmitate and isoleucine was studied in muscle strips in vitro using appropriate 14- carbon substrates as tracers. The plantaris muscle was subjected to histochemical analyses using an alkaline actomyosin ATPase, NADH-tetrazolium reductase and an oil red 0 stain. Soleus muscles from both ad libitum and pair fed obese rats oxidized less glucose to CO 2 , but released similar amounts of lactate when compared to the soleus muscles of lean rats. Oxidation of glucose was similar in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle of ad libitum fed obese rats, but lower when pair fed to the intake of lean rats. No differences were apparent in palmitate oxidation to CO 2 or in incorporation into lipid, except in the EDL muscle of pair-fed obese rats which exhibited a higher rate for palmitate metabolism when compared with lean rats. Isoleucine oxidation to CO 2 was higher in the EDL and plantaris muscles, but similar in the soleus muscle of ad libitum-fed obese rats when compared with lean rats. The magnitude of the difference in isoleucine oxidation was similar when the obese rats were pair fed. No differences in the percentage of plantaris muscle fibers sensitive to alkaline ATPase staining were observed. The plantaris muscle of obese rats, contained a higher proportion of oxidative fibers. These results indicate the great risk in generalizing about metabolic activity of the whole skeletal muscle mass based on observations made on one, or even two, distinct muscles in this animal model. Also, pair feeding of obese to lean Zucker rats did not result in uniform change sin metabolism between muscles of the obese rats

  15. Rapid detection of soils contaminated with heavy metals and oils by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gibaek; Kwak, Jihyun; Kim, Ki-Rak; Lee, Heesung; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Yang, Hyeon; Park, Kihong

    2013-12-15

    A laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) coupled with the chemometric method was applied to rapidly discriminate between soils contaminated with heavy metals or oils and clean soils. The effects of the water contents and grain sizes of soil samples on LIBS emissions were also investigated. The LIBS emission lines decreased by 59-75% when the water content increased from 1.2% to 7.8%, and soil samples with a grain size of 75 μm displayed higher LIBS emission lines with lower relative standard deviations than those with a 2mm grain size. The water content was found to have a more pronounced effect on the LIBS emission lines than the grain size. Pelletizing and sieving were conducted for all samples collected from abandoned mining areas and military camp to have similar water contents and grain sizes before being analyzed by the LIBS with the chemometric analysis. The data show that three types of soil samples were clearly discerned by using the first three principal components from the spectral data of soil samples. A blind test was conducted with a 100% correction rate for soil samples contaminated with heavy metals and oil residues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of some selected blood parameters and histopathology of liver and kidney of rats fed protein-substituted mucuna flour and derived protein rich product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngatchic, Josiane Therese Metsagang; Sokeng, Selestion Dongmo; Njintang, Nicolas Yanou; Maoundombaye, Theophile; Oben, Julius; Mbofung, Carl Moses F

    2013-07-01

    This comparative study reports the nutritional and toxicological characteristics of Mucuna pruriens flour and a protein-rich product developed from it. The protein-rich mucuna product (PRMP) was obtained by the three steps procedure: protein solubilization, heat-coagulation and sieving. Three weeks rats (n=6 per group) were fed for 28 days on standard protein-substituted rat feed with mucuna flour or PRMP. The experimental design was a factorial design with three mucuna accessions (Velvet, Black and White) and two treatments (flour and PRMP). The protein content ranged 27.2-31.5 g/100 g for flour and 58.8-61.1% for PRMP. Processing flour into PRMP led to a significant (pmucuna flour lost weight. The levels of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol observed in animals groups fed mucuna flour and PRMP were significantly lower (pmucuna flour were significantly (pmucuna flour. PRMP then represents a good alternative of using mucuna proteins for human nutrition. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Morphological study on dental caries induced in WBN/KobSlc rats (Rattus norvegicus) fed a standard laboratory diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuzato, Yoko; Matsuura, Tetsuro; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Matsuura, Masahiro; Sano, Tomoya; Nakahara, Yutaka; Kodama, Yasushi; Nakagawa, Akihito; Okamura, Sumie; Suido, Hirohisa; Torii, Kayo; Makino, Taketoshi; Narama, Isao

    2009-10-01

    In our previous studies, WBN/KobSlc was characterized as a rat strain in which only males began to develop pancreatitis, and then presented with diabetic symptoms. In the course of studying their pancreatic inflammation, we detected molar caries in prediabetic males feeding on a standard diet (CRF-1) widely used for experimental animals. The purpose of this study is to confirm whether the WBN/KobSlc strain is caries-susceptible to the diet reported to be non-cariogenic, and to examine the effect of a prediabetic condition on their dental caries. For a morphological study, 25 male WBN/KobSlc rats aged 3.2-7.8 months and 24 females of the same strain aged 3.3-6.6 months were used, along with 10 males and 10 females of 8.2-month-old F344 rats. Marked dental caries were detected in the mandibular molars of male and female WBN/KobSlc rats regardless of pancreatitis, although no similar changes were observed in any teeth of the F344 strain fed the same diet. Soft X-ray examination revealed that the caries began in the crown and progressed horizontally and vertically, and that a severe radiolucent lesion extensively expanded to the entire crown, corresponding to a macroscopically deleted molar. The caries had gradually developed mainly in the second mandibular molar from more than 3.5 months of age, while none were seen in any rats before that time. The WBN/KobSlc rats were caries-susceptible even to the standard laboratory diet, and pancreatitis was not directly associated with the onset of dental caries in this strain.

  18. In situ semi-quantitative analysis of polluted soils by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaël, Amina; Bousquet, Bruno; Michel-Le Pierrès, Karine; Travaillé, Grégoire; Canioni, Lionel; Roy, Stéphane

    2011-05-01

    Time-saving, low-cost analyses of soil contamination are required to ensure fast and efficient pollution removal and remedial operations. In this work, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been successfully applied to in situ analyses of polluted soils, providing direct semi-quantitative information about the extent of pollution. A field campaign has been carried out in Brittany (France) on a site presenting high levels of heavy metal concentrations. Results on iron as a major component as well as on lead and copper as minor components are reported. Soil samples were dried and prepared as pressed pellets to minimize the effects of moisture and density on the results. LIBS analyses were performed with a Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm, 60 mJ per 10 ns pulse, at a repetition rate of 10 Hz with a diameter of 500 μm on the sample surface. Good correlations were obtained between the LIBS signals and the values of concentrations deduced from inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). This result proves that LIBS is an efficient method for optimizing sampling operations. Indeed, "LIBS maps" were established directly on-site, providing valuable assistance in optimizing the selection of the most relevant samples for future expensive and time-consuming laboratory analysis and avoiding useless analyses of very similar samples. Finally, it is emphasized that in situ LIBS is not described here as an alternative quantitative analytical method to the usual laboratory measurements but simply as an efficient time-saving tool to optimize sampling operations and to drastically reduce the number of soil samples to be analyzed, thus reducing costs. The detection limits of 200 ppm for lead and 80 ppm for copper reported here are compatible with the thresholds of toxicity; thus, this in situ LIBS campaign was fully validated for these two elements. Consequently, further experiments are planned to extend this study to other chemical elements and other

  19. Combined Raman/LIBS spectrometer elegant breadboard: built and tested - and flight model spectrometer unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, B.; Hutchinson, I.; Ingley, R.

    2017-11-01

    A spectrometer for combined Raman and Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is amongst the different instruments that have been pre-selected for the Pasteur payload of the ExoMars rover. It is regarded as a fundamental, next-generation instrument for organic, mineralogical and elemental characterisation of Martian soil, rock samples and organic molecules. Raman spectroscopy and LIBS will be integrated into a single instrument sharing many hardware commonalities [1]. The combined Raman / LIBS instrument has been recommended as the highest priority mineralogy instrument to be included in the rover's analytical laboratory for the following tasks: Analyse surface and sub-surface soil and rocks on Mars, identify organics in the search for life and determine soil origin & toxicity. The synergy of the system is evident: the Raman spectrometer is dedicated to molecular analysis of organics and minerals; the LIBS provides information on the sample's elemental composition. An international team, under ESA contract and with the leadership of TNO Science and Industry, has built and tested an Elegant Bread Board (EBB) of the combined Raman / LIBS instrument. The EBB comprises a specifically designed, extremely compact, spectrometer with high resolution over a large wavelength range, suitable for both Raman spectroscopy and LIBS measurements. The EBB also includes lasers, illumination and imaging optics as well as fibre optics for light transfer. A summary of the functional and environmental requirements together with a description of the optical design and its expected performance are described in [2]. The EBB was developed and constructed to verify the instruments' end-to-end functional performance with natural samples. The combined Raman / LIBS EBB realisation and test results of natural samples will be presented. For the Flight Model (FM) instrument, currently in the design phase, the Netherlands will be responsible for the design, development and verification of the

  20. Amelioration of oxidative and inflammatory status in hearts of cholesterol-fed rats supplemented with oils or oil-products with extra virgin olive oil components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsarou, Ageliki I; Kaliora, Andriana C; Chiou, Antonia; Kalogeropoulos, Nick; Papalois, Apostolos; Agrogiannis, George; Andrikopoulos, Nikolaos K

    2016-04-01

    The contribution of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) macro- and micro-constituents in heart oxidative and inflammatory status in a hypercholesterolemic rat model was evaluated. Fatty acid profile as well as α-tocopherol, sterol, and squalene content was identified directly in rat hearts to distinguish the effect of individual components or to enlighten the potential synergisms. Oils and oil-products with discernible lipid and polar phenolic content were used. Wistar rats were fed a high-cholesterol diet solely, or supplemented with one of the following oils, i.e., EVOO, sunflower oil (SO), and high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) or oil-products, i.e., phenolics-deprived EVOO [EVOO(-)], SO enriched with the EVOO phenolics [SO(+)], and HOSO enriched with the EVOO phenolics [HOSO(+)]. Dietary treatment lasted 9 weeks; at the end of the intervention blood and heart samples were collected. High-cholesterol-diet-induced dyslipidemia was shown by increase in serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triacylglycerols. Dyslipidemia resulted in increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels, while glutathione and interleukin 6 levels remained unaffected in all intervention groups. Augmentation observed in MDA and TNF-α was attenuated in EVOO, SO(+), and HOSO(+) groups. Heart squalene and cholesterol content remained unaffected among all groups studied. Heart α-tocopherol was determined by oil α-tocopherol content. Variations were observed for heart β-sitosterol, while heterogeneity was reported with respect to heart fatty acid profile in all intervention groups. Overall, we suggest that the EVOO-polar phenolic compounds decreased MDA and TNF-α in hearts of cholesterol-fed rats.

  1. Alcohol and acute pancreatitis. An experimental study in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalovaara, P; Apaja, M

    1978-01-01

    The effect of chronic alcohol pretreatment and various pancreatobiliary secretions on the severity of experimental pancreatitis was studied in the rat. 95 rats were pretreated with ethanol (20% w/v, 1.1 ml/100 g body weight) five times weekly for 10 to 12 weeks by gastric intubation. 88 rats served as controls. Pancreatic lesions were produced by retograde injection of different pancreatobiliary secretions into the pancreatic ducts. The secretions were collected from both normal and chronically alcohol-fed rats, and each was used for induction of experimental pancreatitis in the control and alcohol pretreated rats. Bile obtained from normal rats was no more toxic to the pancreas than 0.9% saline solution, while bile obtained from the chronically alcohol-fed rats caused significantly more serious lesions to the pancreas than did normal rat bile. Bile-pancreatic juice (mixture of secretions at papilla of Vater) of normal and chronically alcohol-fed rats was as toxic as the bile of the alcohol-fed rats. Alcohol pretreatment had no significant effect on the severity of pancreatitis when control and alcohol-fed groups separately or the whole material according to pretreatment was examined. These results suggest that the metabolic effects of ethanol on the pancreas as such do not sensitize the pancreas to acute pancreatitis. An exogenous mechanism is required. The reflux of toxic alcoholic bile into the pancreas might act as an induction factor in acute alcohol pancreatitis.

  2. Study on Biochemical Indices of Liver Function Tests of Albino Rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bilirubin, ALT (in rats fed with palm and groundnut oil-based diet), AST (in rats fed with coconut ... These results therefore, indicate a compromise in liver of rats administered 10% oil - based diet. ..... medicinal plants II: Effects of Aplotaxis lappa.

  3. Influence of fat/carbohydrate ratio on progression of fatty liver disease and on development of osteopenia in male rats fed alcohol via total enteral nutrition (TEN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol abuse is associated with the development of fatty liver disease and also with significant bone loss in both genders. In this study, we examined ethanol (EtOH)-induced pathology in response to diets with differing fat/carbohydrate ratios. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed intragastrically wit...

  4. A Simple LIBS (Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) Laboratory Experiment to Introduce Undergraduates to Calibration Functions and Atomic Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinni, Rosemarie C.

    2012-01-01

    This laboratory experiment introduces students to a different type of atomic spectroscopy: laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). LIBS uses a laser-generated spark to excite the sample; once excited, the elemental emission is spectrally resolved and detected. The students use LIBS to analyze a series of standard synthetic silicate samples…

  5. Comparison of LIBS and {mu}-XRF measurements on bronze alloys for monitoring plasma effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberghina, M F; Barraco, R; Brai, M; Schillaci, T; Tranchina, L, E-mail: tschillaci@unipa.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Tecnologie Relative, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze Ed. 18, 90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2011-01-01

    The laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique is often used as atomic spectroscopic technique for elemental analysis of materials. However, it presents some drawbacks that make an accurate quantitative analysis difficult. Since the plasma properties, such as spatial inhomogeneity and plume stoichiometry strongly depend on the experimental conditions, the measurements are less reproducible. In order to evaluate the measurement fluctuations, we propose to use the more established micro X-Ray fluorescence ({mu}-XRF) technique for validating LIBS data. In particular, the quantitative data, obtained by varying the laser fluence, the shot numbers and the temporal acquisition parameters, were compared with those obtained by {mu}-XRF on laboratory made samples of binary, ternary and quaternary bronze alloys. For LIBS measurements a mobile double pulse laser instrument equipped with an high resolution Echelle type monochromator coupled to an intensified CCD camera was used. {mu}-XRF analyses were performed with a portable instrument that uses a micro collimated X-Ray beam and it is equipped with an high resolution detector. The LIBS results show a strong dependence both on the instrumental set up and the chemical-physical properties of the sample. With our findings we could identify the most suitable parameters to be used in the investigation of the different bronze alloys. The possibility to carry out a quantitative analysis by using the LIBS technique was checked through the comparison with related {mu}-XRF data. In particular in this paper we identified a set of reliable LIBS parameters for the quantitative analysis of copper, tin and zinc. Further analyses will be necessary to reach this goal also for the minor constituents as lead.

  6. Effects of salicylic acid-induced wine rich in anthocyanins on metabolic parameters and adipose insulin signaling in high-fructose fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Lanzi, Cecilia; de Rosas, Inés; Perdicaro, Diahann J; Ponce, María Teresa; Martinez, Liliana; Miatello, Roberto M; Cavagnaro, Bruno; Vazquez Prieto, Marcela A

    2016-12-01

    We evaluated the effects of Syrah red wine treated with salicylic acid (RW SA) and its control red wine (RW) on metabolic parameters, systolic blood pressure and adipose tissue insulin signaling in high-fructose (F) fed rats. Grape treated with SA increased the anthocyanin (ANTs) levels in RW. F induced increased systolic blood pressure, dislipidemia and insulin resistance (HOMA:IR). F rats treated with RW significantly prevented these alterations while RW SA partially attenuated triglycerides levels and HOMA:IR without modifications in HDL cholesterol levels. F impaired the adipose tissue response to insulin. Supplementation with RW and RW SA partially attenuated these alterations. Rats supplemented with RW SA had lesser beneficial effects on metabolic alterations than control RW, while both RW and RW SA attenuated altered adipose response to insulin. More studies are necessary to deeply evaluate the effect on SA-induced RW rich in ANTs levels on metabolic alterations associated to MetS.

  7. Effects of laser wavelengths and pulse energy ratio on the emission enhancement in dual pulse LIBS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Rizwan; Iqbal, Javed; Baig, M Aslam

    2015-01-01

    We present new studies on the effects of laser wavelengths, pulse energy ratio and interpulse delay between two laser pulses in the collinear dual pulse configuration of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) on an iron sample in air using the fundamental (1064 nm) and the second harmonics (532 nm) of Nd:YAG lasers. In the dual pulse LIBS, an optimum value of interpulse delay with an appropriate combination of laser wavelengths, and laser pulse energy ratio, yields a 30 times signal intensity enhancement in the neutral iron lines as compared with single pulse LIBS. A comparison in the spatial variations of electron temperature along the axis of the plume expansion in single and double pulse LIBS has also been studied. (letter)

  8. New Library, New Librarian, New Student: Using LibGuides to Reach the Virtual Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sara; Hunter, Dwight

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the virtual pathfinder and its relationship with distance education students. Various topics are addressed in relation to virtual students, LibGuides and collaborative efforts between librarians and teaching faculty. A brief history of the subject guide is presented, advantages and disadvantages of LibGuides are discussed and…

  9. Effect of thiabendazole on some rat hepatic xenobiotic metabolising enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Price, R.J.; Scott, M.P.; Walters, D.G.; Stierum, R.H.; Groten, J.P.; Meredith, C.; Lake, B.G.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of thiabendazole (TB) on some rat hepatic xenobiotic metabolising enzymes has been investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed control diet or diets containing 102-5188 ppm TB for 28 days. As a positive control for induction of hepatic xenobiotic metabolism, rats were also fed diets

  10. Accuracy Enhancement of Raman Spectroscopy Using Complementary Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) with Geologically Mixed Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soojin; Kim, Dongyoung; Yang, Junho; Yoh, Jack J

    2017-04-01

    Quantitative Raman analysis was carried out with geologically mixed samples that have various matrices. In order to compensate the matrix effect in Raman shift, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis was performed. Raman spectroscopy revealed the geological materials contained in the mixed samples. However, the analysis of a mixture containing different matrices was inaccurate due to the weak signal of the Raman shift, interference, and the strong matrix effect. On the other hand, the LIBS quantitative analysis of atomic carbon and calcium in mixed samples showed high accuracy. In the case of the calcite and gypsum mixture, the coefficient of determination of atomic carbon using LIBS was 0.99, while the signal using Raman was less than 0.9. Therefore, the geological composition of the mixed samples is first obtained using Raman and the LIBS-based quantitative analysis is then applied to the Raman outcome in order to construct highly accurate univariate calibration curves. The study also focuses on a method to overcome matrix effects through the two complementary spectroscopic techniques of Raman spectroscopy and LIBS.

  11. Kefir milk enhances intestinal immunity in young but not old rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoreux, K; Schmucker, D L

    2001-03-01

    The adjuvant effect of kefir fermented milk on the mucosal and systemic immune systems was examined in young (6 mo old) and old (26 mo old) rats. Kefir-fed rats consisted of young or old rats consuming kefir-fermented milk ad libitum on a daily basis in addition to the standard diet, for 28 d. Control rats consumed only the standard diet. The rats were immunized intraduodenally with cholera toxin (CT) on d 7 and 21 and killed on d 28. The nonspecific serum immunoglobulin (Ig)A titers in kefir-fed and control rats did not differ in either age group. The serum anti-CT IgA antibody concentrations were significantly higher in the kefir-fed young rats compared with their age-matched controls (+86%, P: 120%, P: kefir-fed rats compared with their respective controls. Nevertheless, these results demonstrate that a kefir-supplemented diet affects the intestinal mucosal and systemic immune responses to intraduodenal CT differently in young and old rats. Most importantly, our data suggest that orally administered kefir enhances the specific intestinal mucosal immune response against CT in young adult, but not in senescent rats.

  12. Ultrasonic Nebulizer Assisted LIBS: a Promising Metal Elements Detection Method for Aqueous Sample Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Shilei; Zheng Ronger; Lu Yuan; Cheng Kai; Xiu Junshan

    2015-01-01

    A newly developed approach for trace metal elements detection for aqueous samples analysis is presented in this paper. The idea of this approach is to improve ablation efficiency by transforming the liquid sample into a dense cloud of droplets using an ultrasonic nebulizer. The resulting droplets are then subjected to analysis by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). A purpose-built ultrasonic nebulizer assisted LIBS (UN-LIBS) system has been applied to the analysis of aqueous samples at trace levels of concentration. Experimental investigations of solution samples were carried out with various dissolved trace metal elements (Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Fe, Mg and Na) using this approach. The characteristics of UN-LIBS signal of the elements were investigated regarding the lifetime and S/B ratio and the calibration curves for trace metal elements analyses. The obtained LODs are comparable or much better than the LODS of the reported signal enhancement approaches when the laser pulse energy was as low as 30 mJ. The good linearity of calibration curves and the low LODs shows the potential ability of this method for metal elements analysis application. The density of the electrons was calculated by measuring the Stark width of the line of H α . The possible mechanism of the LIBS signal enhancement of this approach was briefly discussed. (paper)

  13. [Rapid multi-elemental analysis on four precious Tibetan medicines based on LIBS technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-na; Shi, Xin-yuan; Jia, Shuai-yun; Zhao, Na; Wu, Zhi-sheng; Qiao, Yan-jiang

    2015-06-01

    The laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied to perform a qualitative elementary analysis on four precious Tibetan medicines, i. e. Renqing Mangjue, Renqing Changjue, 25-herb coral pills and 25-herb pearl pills. The specific spectra of the four Tibetan medicines were established. In the experiment, Nd: YAG and 1 064 nm-baseband pulse laser were adopted to collect the spectra. A laser beam focused on the surface of the samples to generate plasma. Its spectral signal was detected by using spectrograph. Based on the National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST) database, LIBS spectral lines were indentified. The four Tibetan medicines mainly included Ca, Na, K, Mg and other elements and C-N molecular band. Specifically, Fe was detected in Renqing Changjue and 25-herb pearl pills; heavy mental elements Hg and Cu were shown in Renqing Mangjue and Renqing Changjue; Ag was found in Renqing Changjue. The results demonstrated that LIBS is a reliable and rapid multi-element analysis on the four Tibetan medicines. With Real-time, rapid and nondestructive advantages, LIBS has a wide application prospect in the element analysis on ethnic medicines.

  14. In-vitro analysis of early calcification in aortic valvular interstitial cells using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davari, Seyyed Ali; Masjedi, Shirin; Ferdous, Zannatul; Mukherjee, Dibyendu

    2018-01-01

    Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a major cardiovascular disorder caused by osteogenic differentiation of valvular interstitial cells (VICs) within aortic valves. Conventional methods like colorimetric assays and histology fail to detect small calcium depositions during in-vitro VIC cultures. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a robust analytical tool used for inorganic materials characterizations, but relatively new to biomedical applications. We employ LIBS, for the first time, for quantitative in-vitro detection of calcium depositions in VICs at various osteogenic differentiation stages. VICs isolated from porcine aortic valves were cultured in osteogenic media over various days. Colorimetric calcium assays based on arsenazo dye and Von Kossa staining measured the calcium depositions within VICs. Simultaneously, LIBS signatures for Ca I (422.67 nm) atomic emission lines were collected for estimating calcium depositions in lyophilized VIC samples. Our results indicate excellent linear correlation between the calcium assay and our LIBS measurements. Furthermore, unlike the assay results, the LIBS results could resolve calcium signals from cell samples with as early as 2 days of osteogenic culture. Quantitatively, the LIBS measurements establish the limit of detection for calcium content in VICs to be ∼0.17±0.04 μg which indicates a 5-fold improvement over calcium assay. Picture: Quantitative LIBS enables in-vitro analysis for early stage detection of calcium deposition within aortic valvular interstitial cells (VICs). © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Final report on feasibility of real-time geochemical analysis at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, using LIBS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blacic, J.D.; Pettit, D.R.; Cremers, D.A.

    1996-12-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an analytic method whereby an intense laser pulse is used to vaporize and excite a small volume of material into atomic emission. Calibrated spectral analysis of the laser spark light provides detection and quantification of the elemental composition of the target material. We performed laboratory and field tests to assess the feasibility of developing field-portable LIBS-based instruments for real-time analyses of Yucca Mountain rocks in conjunction with Yucca Mountain Project drilling, coring, sampling, and characterization tasks. We developed one prototype instrument designed to analyze air core drilling dust and another prototype instrument designed to analyze rock and fracture surfaces. In realistic field tests at the Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, we demonstrated that the LIBS prototypes are capable of measuring major, minor, and some trace elements in real time. Laboratory LIBS analyses show that we can identify characteristic element ratios in a range of manganese oxide minerals present at Yucca Mountain as fracture surface coatings and matrix grains. Preliminary LIBS analyses also indicate that the U/Na ratio may distinguish tuffs containing the hazardous zeolite mineral erionite from non-erionite bearing tuffs, and that a LIBS-based instrument may be useful to detect in real time the probable presence of erionite encountered in core drilling and other operations at Yucca Mountain

  16. Calibration of the MSL/ChemCam/LIBS Remote Sensing Composition Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, R. C.; Maurice S.; Bender, S.; Barraclough, B. L.; Cousin, A.; Forni, O.; Ollila, A.; Newsom, H.; Vaniman, D.; Clegg, S.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument suite on board the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover, Curiosity, will provide remote-sensing composition information for rock and soil samples within seven meters of the rover using a laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system, and will provide context imaging with a resolution of 0.10 mradians using the remote micro-imager (RMI) camera. The high resolution is needed to image the small analysis footprint of the LIBS system, at 0.2-0.6 mm diameter. This fine scale analytical capability will enable remote probing of stratigraphic layers or other small features the size of "blueberries" or smaller. ChemCam is intended for rapid survey analyses within 7 m of the rover, with each measurement taking less than 6 minutes. Repeated laser pulses remove dust coatings and provide depth profiles through weathering layers, allowing detailed investigation of rock varnish features as well as analysis of the underlying pristine rock composition. The LIBS technique uses brief laser pulses greater than 10 MW/square mm to ablate and electrically excite material from the sample of interest. The plasma emits photons with wavelengths characteristic of the elements present in the material, permitting detection and quantification of nearly all elements, including the light elements H, Li, Be, B, C, N, O. ChemCam LIBS projects 14 mJ of 1067 nm photons on target and covers a spectral range of 240-850 nm with resolutions between 0.15 and 0.60 nm FWHM. The Nd:KGW laser is passively cooled and is tuned to provide maximum power output from -10 to 0 C, though it can operate at 20% degraded energy output at room temperature. Preliminary calibrations were carried out on the flight model (FM) in 2008. However, the detectors were replaced in 2009, and final calibrations occurred in April-June, 2010. This presentation describes the LIBS calibration and characterization procedures and results, and details plans for final analyses during rover system thermal testing

  17. GABA dramatically improves glucose tolerance in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats fed with high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabipour, Shahla; Sharifi, Mohammad Reza; Talebi, Ardeshir; Sharifi, Mohammadreza; Soltani, Nepton

    2018-05-05

    Skeletal muscle, hepatic insulin resistance, and beta cell dysfunction are the characteristic pathophysiological features of type 2 diabetes mellitus. GABA has an important role in pancreatic islet cells. The present study attempted to clarify the possible mechanism of GABA to improve glucose tolerance in a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats. Fifty Wistar rats were divided into five groups: NDC that was fed the normal diet, CD which received a high-fat diet with streptozotocin, CD-GABA animals that received GABA via intraperitoneal injection, plus CD-Ins1 and CD-Ins2 groups which were treated with low and high doses of insulin, respectively. Body weight and blood glucose were measured weekly. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT), insulin tolerance test (ITT), urine volume, amount of water drinking, and food intake assessments were performed monthly. The hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp was done for assessing insulin resistance. Plasma insulin and glucagon were measured. Abdominal fat was measured. Glucagon receptor, Glucose 6 phosphatase, Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase genes expression were evaluated in liver and Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) genes expression and protein translocation were evaluated in the muscle. GABA or insulin therapy improved blood glucose, insulin level, IPGTT, ITT, gluconeogenesis pathway, Glucagon receptor, body weight and body fat in diabetic rats. GLUT4 gene and protein expression increased. GABA whose beneficial effect was comparable to that of insulin, also increased glucose infusion rate during an euglycemic clamp. GABA could improve insulin resistance via rising GLUT4 and also decreasing the gluconeogenesis pathway and Glucagon receptor gene expression. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Application and development of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) instrumentation for international safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barefield, II, James E.; Le, Loan; Lopez, Leon; Jolin, John L.; Clegg, Samuel M. [Chemical Diagnostic and Engineering and Physical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Advanced methodologies and improvements to current measurements techniques are needed to strengthen the effectiveness and efficiency of international safeguards. The primary tool employed by the IAEA to detect undeclared processes and activities at special nuclear material facilities and sites still is environmental sampling. This type of environmental sampling is both time consuming and costly since many samples must be collected, packaged, and shipped to an analytical laboratory for analysis that in some cases can take weeks to months to complete. Los Alamos National Laboratory is currently investigating potential uses of LIBS for safeguards applications, including(1) a user-friendly man-portable LIBS system to characterize samples in real to near-real time (typical analysis time are on the order of minutes) across a wide range of elements in the periodic table from hydrogen up to heavy elements like plutonium and uranium, (2) a LIBS system that can be deployed in harsh environments such as hot cells and glove boxes providing relative compositional analysis of process streams for example, ratios like Cm Division-Slash Pu and Cm Division-Slash / U, (3) an inspector field deployable system that can be used to analyze microscopic and single particle samples containing plutonium and uranium, and (4) a high resolution LIBS system that can be used to determine the isotopic composition of samples containing for example uranium and plutonium. In this paper, we will describe our current development and performance testing results for LIBS instrumentation both in a fixed lab and measurements in field deployable configurations.

  19. Effect of honey consumption on intestinal motility in male albino rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: This study investigated the effects of honey on intestinal motility and transit using twenty (20) male albino rats of Wistar strain weighing 210-220g. The rats were randomly grouped into control and honey-fed (test) groups of ten (10) rats each. The control group was fed on normal rat chow ( Pfizer Company, Nigeria ) ...

  20. Estrogen restores brain insulin sensitivity in ovariectomized non-obese rats, but not in ovariectomized obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratchayasakul, Wasana; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2014-06-01

    We previously demonstrated that obesity caused the reduction of peripheral and brain insulin sensitivity and that estrogen therapy improved these defects. However, the beneficial effect of estrogen on brain insulin sensitivity and oxidative stress in either ovariectomy alone or ovariectomy with obesity models has not been determined. We hypothesized that ovariectomy alone or ovariectomy with obesity reduces brain insulin sensitivity and increases brain oxidative stress, which are reversed by estrogen treatment. Thirty female rats were assigned as either sham-operated or ovariectomized. After the surgery, each group was fed either a normal diet or high-fat diet for 12 weeks. At week 13, rats in each group received either the vehicle or estradiol for 30 days. At week 16, blood and brain were collected for determining the peripheral and brain insulin sensitivity as well as brain oxidative stress. We found that ovariectomized rats and high-fat diet fed rats incurred obesity, reduced peripheral and brain insulin sensitivity, and increased brain oxidative stress. Estrogen ameliorated peripheral insulin sensitivity in these rats. However, the beneficial effect of estrogen on brain insulin sensitivity and brain oxidative stress was observed only in ovariectomized normal diet-fed rats, but not in ovariectomized high fat diet-fed rats. Our results suggested that reduced brain insulin sensitivity and increased brain oxidative stress occurred after either ovariectomy or obesity. However, the reduced brain insulin sensitivity and the increased brain oxidative stress in ovariectomy with obesity could not be ameliorated by estrogen treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of black adzuki bean (Vigna angularis, Geomguseul extract on body composition and hypothalamic neuropeptide expression in rats fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is often considered to result from either excessive food intake or insufficient physical activity. Adzuki beans have been evaluated as potential remedies for various health conditions, and recent studies have reported their effects on the regulation of lipid metabolism, but it remains to be determined whether they may be effective in overcoming obesity by regulating appetite and satiety. Objective: This study investigated the effect of black adzuki bean (BAB extract on body composition and hypothalamic neuropeptide expression in Sprague Dawley rats (Rattus norvegicus fed a high-fat diet. Design: The rats were fed for 8 weeks with a control diet containing 10 kcal% from fat (CD, a high-fat diet containing 60 kcal% from fat (HD, or a high-fat diet with 1% or 2% freeze-dried ethanolic extract powder of BAB (BAB-1 and BAB-2. Results: The body weights and epididymal fat weights were significantly reduced and the serum lipid profiles were improved in the group fed the diet containing BAB compared to the HD group. The expression of AGRP mRNA significantly decreased in the BAB groups, and treatment with BAB-2 resulted in a marked induction of the mRNA expression of POMC and CART, which are anorexigenic neuropeptides that suppress food intake. Furthermore, mRNA expression levels of ObRb, a gene related to leptin sensitivity in the hypothalamus, were significantly higher in the BAB groups than in the HD group. Conclusions: These results suggest that supplementation with BAB has a significant effect on body weight via regulation of hypothalamic neuropeptides.

  2. Comparison of Antiobesity Effects Between Gochujangs Produced Using Different Koji Products and Tabasco Hot Sauce in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Hee-Kyoung; Shin, Hye-Won; Jang, Eun-Seok; Moon, Byoung-Seok; Lee, Choong-Hwan; Lee, Jae-Joon

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we compared the antiobesity effects between gochujangs prepared using different koji products and Tabasco hot sauce in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed HFD containing four different types of 10% gochujang powder or 0.25% commercial Tabasco sauce powder for 8 weeks. The body weight gain, liver and epididymal and mesenteric fat pad weights, serum leptin levels, and lipogenesis-related mRNA levels of HFD-gochujang supplementation groups were significantly decreased compared with those of the HFD group. In addition, gochujang supplement significantly reduced adipocyte size; hepatic triglyceride and total cholesterol levels; the occurrence of fatty liver deposits and steatosis by inhibiting lipogenesis through downregulation of fatty acid synthase, acetly-CoA carboxylase, and glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase. These effects were greater in the gochujang-supplemented groups than the Tabasco hot sauce-supplemented group. The gochujang prepared by nutritious giant embryo rice koji and soybean koji was most effective in terms of antiobesity effects, compared with the other tested gochujangs. In gochujangs, the antiobesity effects are mediated by high levels of secondary metabolites such as isoflavone, soyasaponin, capsaicin, and lysophosphatidylcholine. The current results indicated that the gochujang products have the potential to reduce fat accumulation and obesity.

  3. Muscle glycogen metabolism changes in rats fed early postnatal a fructose-rich diet after maternal protein malnutrition: effects of acute physical exercise at the maximal lactate steady-state intensity

    OpenAIRE

    Cambri, Lucieli Teresa [UNESP; Ribeiro, Carla [UNESP; Botezelli, Jose Diego [UNESP; Ghezzi, Ana Carolina [UNESP; Mello, Maria Alice Rostom de [UNESP

    2014-01-01

    Background: The objective was to evaluate the muscle glucose metabolism in rats fed a fructose-rich diet after fetal protein malnutrition, at rest and after acute physical exercise at maximal lactate steady-state intensity.Methods: The male offspring born of mothers fed on a balanced or low-protein diet were split in four groups until 60 days: Balanced (B): balanced diet during the whole period; Balanced/Fructose (BF): balanced diet in utero and fructose-rich diet after birth; Low protein/Bal...

  4. Effect of Grape Seeds Oil Extracted from Radiation Processed Seeds on Lipid Metabolism and on Antioxidant Activity in Rats Fed Diets Containing Cholesterol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Neily, H.F.G.; El-Shennawy, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Grape seeds were separated from fresh grape pomace and dried at room temperature then packed in polyethylene bags and subjected to gamma rays at dose level of 10 kGy. The grape seeds oil was extracted from non and irradiated seeds. The oil quality, fatty acid composition and total phenolic compounds of oil extracted from non or irradiated seeds have been studied. The results indicated that there were significant increases in the acid value, saponification value and peroxide value of oil extracted from irradiated seeds at 10 kGy by 46.2%, 2.5% and 95.2%, respectively, and the total phenolic compounds and total radical trapping antioxidant potential (TRAP) were reduced by 22.13% and 10%, respectively, as compared to those of oil extracted from non-irradiated seeds. No degradation of the fatty acids; palmitic, linoleic, linolenic and arachidic acids, were observed for oil extracted from irradiated seeds at 10 kGy. However, significant decrease in oleic acid by 11.35% and increase in stearic acid by 26.22% were recorded corresponding to those for oil extracted from non-irradiated seeds. The effect of grape seeds oils extracted from non or irradiated seeds on lipid metabolism and antioxidant activity was investigated using 60 male Albino rats divided into six groups: (1) Control group: animals fed casein diet. (2) Ch group: animals received casein diet contains 10 g cholesterol per kg diet. (3) RGSO group: animals received diet contains grape seeds oil extracted from non-irradiated seeds (100 g oil per kg diet). (4) RGSO + Ch group: rats received diet contains grape seeds oil extracted from non-irradiated seeds (100 g oil per kg diet) + 100 g cholesterol per kg diet. (5) IGSO group: rats received diet contains grape seeds oil extracted from irradiated seeds at 10 kGy (100 g oil per kg diet). (6) IGSO + Ch group: rats received diet contains grape seeds oil extracted from irradiated seeds at 10 kGy (100 g oil per kg diet) + 10 g cholesterol per kg diet. Animals received

  5. Fish oil versus arachis oil food supplementation in relation to pregnancy duration in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1990-01-01

    Throughout pregnancy, Lewis rats were fed standard rat chow supplemented with 15% (w/w) of either MaxEPA fish oil (FO) or arachis oil (AO); a third group was fed standard rat chow only (St) (n = 15, 15, and 16 rats, respectively). Compared to AO-rats, FO-rats had substantially higher levels of n-3...

  6. Chronic blood pressure and appetite responses to central leptin infusion in rats fed a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinion, John H; da Silva, Alexandre A; Hall, John E

    2011-04-01

    Obesity has been suggested to induce selective leptin resistance whereby leptin's anorexic effects are attenuated, whereas the effects to increase sympathetic nervous system activity and blood pressure remain intact. Most studies, however, have tested only the acute responses to leptin administration. This study tested whether feeding a high-fat diet causes resistance to the appetite and cardiovascular responses to chronic central leptin infusion. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed high-fat diet (40% kcal from fat, n=5) or normal-fat diet (13% kcal from fat, n=5) for a year. Radiotelemeters were implanted for continuous monitoring of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR). A 21G steel cannula was implanted in the lateral cerebral ventricle [intracerebroventricular (ICV)]. After recovery, leptin was infused ICV at 0.02 μg/kg per min for 10 days. High-fat rats were heavier than normal-fat rats (582±12 vs. 511±19 g) and exhibited significantly higher MAP (114±3 vs. 96±7 mmHg). Although the acute (24 h) effects of leptin were attenuated in high-fat rats, chronic ICV leptin infusion decreased caloric intake in both groups similarly (50±8 vs. 40±10%) by day 5. Despite decreased food intake and weight loss, leptin infusion significantly increased MAP and HR in both high-fat and normal-fat rats (7±2 and 5±1 mmHg; 18±11 and 21±10 b.p.m., respectively). These results suggest that obesity induced by feeding a high-fat diet blunts the acute anorexic effects of leptin but does not cause significant resistance to the chronic central nervous system effects of leptin on appetite, MAP, or HR.

  7. Resistant starch but not enzymatic treated waxy maize delays development of diabetes in Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Hermansen, Kjeld; Pedersen, Sven

    2017-01-01

    excretion during week 8 in rats fed the GLU and EMS diets than that of rats fed S and RS showed that they were diabetic. Urinary nontargeted metabolomics revealed that the diabetic state of rats fed S, GLU, and EMS diets influenced microbial metabolism, as well as amino acid, lipid, and vitamin metabolism......Background: The incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing worldwide, and nutritional management of circulating glucose may be a strategic tool in the prevention of T2D. Objective: We studied whether enzymatically modified waxy maize with an increased degree of branching delayed the onset...... glucose concentrations in feed-deprived rats, none of the groups developed diabetes. However, in week 9, plasma glucose after feed deprivation was significantly lower in rats fed the S and RS diets (13.5 mmol/L) than in rats fed the GLU and EMS diets (17.0–18.9 mmol/L), and rats fed RS had lower HbA1c (4...

  8. Effects of chronic ethanol administration on hepatic glycoprotein secretion in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorrell, M.F.; Nauss, J.M.; Donohue, T.M. Jr.; Tuma, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of chronic ethanol feeding on protein and glycoprotein synthesis and secretion were studied in rat liver slices. Liver slices from rats fed ethanol for 4-5 wk showed a decreased ability to incorporate [ 14 C]glucosamine into medium trichloracetic acid-precipitable proteins when compared to the pair-fed controls; however, the labeling of hepatocellular glycoproteins was unaffected by chronic ethanol treatment. Immunoprecipitation of radiolabeled secretory (serum) glycoproteins with antiserum against rat serum proteins showed a similar marked inhibition in the appearance of glucosamine-labeled proteins in the medium of slices from ethanol-fed rats. Minimal effects, however, were noted in the labeling of intracellular secretory glycoproteins. Protein synthesis, as determined by measuring [ 14 C]leucine incorporation into medium and liver proteins, was decreased in liver slices from ethanol-fed rats as compared to the pair-fed controls. This was the case for both total proteins as well as immunoprecipitable secretory proteins, although the labeling of secretory proteins retained in the liver slices was reduced to a lesser extent than total radiolabeled hepatic proteins. When the terminal sugar, [ 14 C]fucose, was employed as a precursor in order to more closely focus on the final steps of hepatic glycoprotein secretion, liver slices obtained from chronic ethanol-fed rats exhibited impaired secretion of fucose-labeled proteins into the medium. When ethanol (5 or 10 mM) was added to the incubation medium containing liver slices from the ethanol-fed rats, the alterations in protein and glycoprotein synthesis and secretion caused by the chronic ethanol treatment were further potentiated. The results of this study indicate that liver slices prepared from chronic ethanol-fed rats exhibit both impaired synthesis and secretion of proteins and glycoproteins, and these defects are further potentiated by acute ethanol administration

  9. Effect of dietary zinc deficiency on the endogenous phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of rat erythrocyte membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterson, P.G.; Allen, O.B.; Bettger, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of dietary zinc deficiency on patterns of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of rat erythrocyte membrane proteins and erythrocyte filterability was examined. Weanling male Wistar rats were fed an egg white-based diet containing less than 1.1 mg zinc/kg diet ad libitum for 3 wk. Control rats were either pair-fed or ad libitum-fed the basal diet supplemented with 100 mg zinc/kg diet. Net phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of erythrocyte membrane proteins were carried out by an in vitro assay utilizing [gamma- 32 P]ATP. The membrane proteins were subsequently separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the 32 P content of gel slices was counted by Cerenkov counting. Erythrocyte filterability was measured as the filtration time of suspensions of erythrocytes, both untreated and preincubated with diamide, under constant pressure. Erythrocyte ghosts from zinc-deficient rats demonstrated greater dephosphorylation of protein bands R1 plus R2 and R7 than pair-fed rats and greater net phosphorylation of band R2.2 than pair-fed or ad libitum-fed control rats (P less than 0.05). Erythrocytes from ad libitum-fed control rats showed significantly longer filtration times than those from zinc-deficient or pair-fed control rats. In conclusion, dietary zinc deficiency alters in vitro patterns of erythrocyte membrane protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, whereas the depression in food intake associated with the zinc deficiency increases erythrocyte filterability. 71 references

  10. Resveratrol Increases Nephrin and Podocin Expression and Alleviates Renal Damage in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Rong Pan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol is well known for its anti-inflammation and anti-oxidant properties, and has been shown to be effective in alleviating the development of obesity. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the effect of resveratrol on renal damage in obese rats induced by a high-fat diet (HFD and its possible mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control, HFD, and HFD plus resveratrol (treated with 100 mg/kg/day resveratrol. Body weight, serum and urine metabolic parameters, and kidney histology were measured. Meanwhile, the activities of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB and superoxide dismutase (SOD, the content of malondialdehyde (MDA, and the protein levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, nephrin and podocin in kidney were detected. Our work showed that resveratrol alleviated dyslipidemia and renal damage induced by HFD, decreased MDA level and increased SOD activity. Furthermore, the elevated NF-κB activity, increased TNF-α and MCP-1 levels, and reduced expressions of nephrin and podocin induced by HFD were significantly reversed by resveratrol. These results suggest resveratrol could ameliorate renal injury in rats fed a HFD, and the mechanisms are associated with suppressing oxidative stress and NF-κB signaling pathway that in turn up-regulate nephrin and podocin protein expression.

  11. Qualitative evaluation of maternal milk and commercial infant formulas via LIBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Salam, Z; Al Sharnoubi, J; Harith, M A

    2013-10-15

    This study focuses on the use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the evaluation of the nutrients in maternal milk and some commercially available infant formulas. The results of such evaluation are vital for adequate and healthy feeding for babies during lactation period. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy offers special advantages in comparison to the other conventional analytical techniques. Specifically, LIBS is a straightforward technique that can be used in situ to provide qualitative analytical information in few minutes for the samples under investigation without preparation processes. The samples studied in the current work were maternal milk samples collected during the first 3 months of lactation (not colostrum milk) and samples from six different types of commercially available infant formulas. The samples' elemental composition has been compared with respect to the relative abundance of the elements of nutrition importance, namely Mg, Ca, Na, and Fe using their spectral emission lines in the relevant LIBS spectra. In addition, CN and C2 molecular emission bands in the same spectra have been studied as indicators of proteins content in the samples. The obtained analytical results demonstrate the higher elemental contents of the maternal milk compared with the commercial formulas samples. Similar results have been obtained as for the proteins content. It has been also shown that calcium and proteins have similar relative concentration trends in the studied samples. This work demonstrates the feasibility of adopting LIBS as a fast, safe, less costly technique evaluating qualitatively the nutrients content of both maternal and commercial milk samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Energy expenditures & physical activity in rats with chronic suboptimal nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rising, Russell; Lifshitz, Fima

    2006-01-31

    Sub-optimally nourished rats show reduced growth, biochemical and physiological changes. However, no one has assessed metabolic rate adaptations in rats subjected to chronic suboptimal nutrition (CSN). In this study energy expenditure (EE; kcal/100 g body weight) and physical activity (PA; oscillations in weight/min/kg body weight) were assessed in rats subjected to three levels of CSN. Body weight gain was diminished (76.7 +/- 12.0 and 61.6 +/- 11.0 g) in rats fed 70 and 60% of the ad-libitum fed controls which gained more weight (148.5 +/- 32.3 g). The rats fed 80% gained weight similarly to controls (136.3 +/- 10.5 g). Percent Fat-free body mass was reduced (143.8 +/- 8.7 and 142.0 +/- 7.6 g) in rats fed 70 and 60% of ad-libitum, but not in those fed 80% (200.8 +/- 17.5 g) as compared with controls (201.6 +/- 33.4 g). Body fat (g) decreased in rats fed 80% (19.7 +/- 5.3), 70% (15.3 +/- 3.5) and 60% (9.6 +/- 2.7) of ad-libitum in comparison to controls (26.0 +/- 6.7). EE and PA were also altered by CSN. The control rats increased their EE and PA during the dark periods by 1.4 +/- 0.8 and 1.7 +/- 1.1 respectively, as compared with light the period; whereas CSN rats fed 80 and 70% of ad-libitum energy intake had reduced EE and PA during the dark periods as compared with the light period EE(7.5 +/- 1.4 and 7.8 +/- 0.6 vs. 9.0 +/- 1.2 and 9.7 +/- 0.8; p vs. 4.1 +/- 0.9 and 2.4 +/- 0.4; p vs. 0.95 +/- 0.03 and 0.91 +/- 0.05 p light (7.1 +/- 1.4) and dark period (6.2 +/- 1.0) EE and PA (3.4 +/- 0.9 and 2.5 +/- 0.5 respectively) were reduced in rats fed 60% of ad-libitum energy intake. CSN rats adapt to mild energy restriction by reducing body fat, EE and PA mainly during the dark period while growth proceeds and lean body mass is preserved. At higher levels of energy restrictions there is decreased growth, body fat and lean mass. Moreover EE and PA are also reduced during both light and dark periods.

  13. The effects of leptin in combination with a cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist, AM 251, or cannabidiol on food intake and body weight in rats fed a high-fat or a free-choice high sugar diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierucka-Rybak, M; Wolak, M; Bojanowska, E

    2014-08-01

    High intake of fats and sugars has prompted a rapid growth in the number of obese individuals worldwide. To further investigate whether simultaneous pharmacological intervention in the leptin and cannabinoid system might change food and water intake, preferences for palatable foods, and body weight, we have examined the effects of concomitant intraperitoneal administration of leptin and AM 251, a cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor antagonist, or cannabidiol (CBD), a plant cannabinoid, in rats maintained on either a high-fat (HF) diet (45% energy from fat) or free-choice (FC) diet consisting of high-sucrose and normal rat chow (83% and 61% energy from carbohydrates, respectively). Leptin at a dose of 100 μg/kg injected individually for 3 subsequent days to rats fed a HF diet reduced significantly the daily caloric intake and inhibited body weight gain. The hormone had no significant effects, however, on either caloric intake, body weight or food preferences in rats fed an FC diet. Co-injection of leptin and 1 mg/kg AM 251 resulted in a further significant decrease in HF diet intake and a profound reduction in body weight gain both in HF diet- and FC diet-fed rats. This drug combination, however, had no effect on the consumption of high-sucrose chow. In contrast, 3mg/kg of CBD co-injected with leptin did not modify leptin effects on food intake in rats maintained on an FC or HF diet. None of the drug combinations affected water consumption. It is concluded that the concomitant treatment with leptin and AM 251 attenuated markedly body weight gain in rats maintained on high-calorie diets rich in fat and carbohydrates but did not affect preferences for sweet food.

  14. Effects of alcohol feeding on androgen receptors in the rat pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.W.

    1987-01-01

    Specific binding of testosterone-1β,2β- 3 H by cytosol from anterior pituitary gland of ethanol-fed, isocaloric control, and castrated control and ethanol-fed rats with or without testosterone treatment has been investigated by charcoal assay. The number of androgen binding sites was significantly reduced in alcohol-fed rats when compared to the isocaloric control value, with no significant change in Kd. Castration significantly increased the number of receptor sites in control rats and when castrated control animals were treated with testosterone the binding sites were decreased to the intact control level. In contrast, castration or testosterone given to castrated alcohol-fed rats did not alter alcohol-induced reduction of the receptor sites. The binding affinity (Kd) is identical in all groups. The concentration of serum luteinizing hormone (LH) was significantly lower in alcohol-fed rats when compared to that of normal controls. An increased serum LH level with a decreased testosterone level was noted in castrated control rats. However, castration of alcohol-fed rats had little or no effects on the concentrations of LH and testosterone. Administration of testosterone suppressed castration-induced high LH in control rats but alcohol induced reduction of LH level was not altered by this treatment. These findings indicate that alcohol exerts a suppressive effect on the content of androgen receptors and secretory functions of gonadotropins in the pituitary gland. 23 references, 1 figure, 1 table

  15. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) in a Novel Molten Salt Aerosol System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ammon N; Phongikaroon, Supathorn

    2017-04-01

    In the pyrochemical separation of used nuclear fuel (UNF), fission product, rare earth, and actinide chlorides accumulate in the molten salt electrolyte over time. Measuring this salt composition in near real-time is advantageous for operational efficiency, material accountability, and nuclear safeguards. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been proposed and demonstrated as a potential analytical approach for molten LiCl-KCl salts. However, all the studies conducted to date have used a static surface approach which can lead to issues with splashing, low repeatability, and poor sample homogeneity. In this initial study, a novel molten salt aerosol approach has been developed and explored to measure the composition of the salt via LIBS. The functionality of the system has been demonstrated as well as a basic optimization of the laser energy and nebulizer gas pressure used. Initial results have shown that this molten salt aerosol-LIBS system has a great potential as an analytical technique for measuring the molten salt electrolyte used in this UNF reprocessing technology.

  16. Effects of the group I metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist, DHPG, and injection stress on striatal cell signaling in food-restricted and ad libitum fed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carr Kenneth D

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic food restriction augments the rewarding effect of centrally administered psychostimulant drugs and this effect may involve a previously documented upregulation of D-1 dopamine receptor-mediated MAP kinase signaling in nucleus accumbens (NAc and caudate-putamen (CPu. Psychostimulants are known to induce striatal glutamate release, and group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR have been implicated in the cellular and behavioral responses to amphetamine. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether chronic food restriction increases striatal MAP kinase signaling in response to the group I mGluR agonist, DHPG. Results Western immunoblotting was used to demonstrate that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v. injection of DHPG (500 nmol produces greater activation of ERK1/2 and CREB in CPu and NAc of food-restricted as compared to ad libitum fed rats. Fos-immunostaining induced by DHPG was also stronger in CPu and NAc core of food-restricted relative to ad libitum fed rats. However, i.c.v. injection of saline-vehicle produced greater activation of ERK1/2 and CREB in CPu and NAc of food-restricted relative to ad libitum fed rats, and this difference was not seen when subjects received no i.c.v. injection prior to sacrifice. In addition, although DHPG activated Akt, there was no difference in Akt activation between feeding groups. To probe whether the augmented ERK1/2 and CREB activation in vehicle-injected food-restricted rats are mediated by one or more GluR types, effects of an NMDA antagonist (MK-801, 100 nmol, AMPA antagonist (DNQX, 10 nmol, and group I mGluR antagonist (AIDA, 100 nmol were compared to saline-vehicle. Antagonist injections did not diminish activation of ERK1/2 or CREB. Conclusions These results indicate that a group I mGluR agonist induces phosphorylation of Akt, ERK1/2 and CREB in both CPu and NAc. However, group I mGluR-mediated signaling may not be upregulated in food-restricted rats

  17. Analysis of heterogeneous gallstones using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaswal, Brij Bir S; Kumar, Vinay; Sharma, Jitendra; Rai, Pradeep K; Gondal, Mohammed A; Gondal, Bilal; Singh, Vivek K

    2016-04-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an emerging analytical technique with numerous advantages such as rapidity, multi-elemental analysis, no specific sample preparation requirements, non-destructiveness, and versatility. It has been proven to be a robust elemental analysis tool attracting interest because of being applied to a wide range of materials including biomaterials. In this paper, we have performed spectroscopic studies on gallstones which are heterogeneous in nature using LIBS and wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF) techniques. It has been observed that the presence and relative concentrations of trace elements in different kind of gallstones (cholesterol and pigment gallstones) can easily be determined using LIBS technique. From the experiments carried out on gallstones for trace elemental mapping and detection, it was found that LIBS is a robust tool for such biomedical applications. The stone samples studied in the present paper were classified using the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. WD-XRF spectroscopy has been applied for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of major and trace elements present in the gallstone which was compared with the LIBS data. The results obtained in the present paper show interesting prospects for LIBS and WD-XRF to study cholelithiasis better.

  18. Plasma lipids, lipoproteins, and triglyceride turnover in eu- and hypo-thyroid rats and rats on a hypocaloric diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dory, L; Krause, B R; Roheim, P S

    1981-08-01

    Lipid and lipoprotein concentration, and triglyceride turnover were studied in control, thyroidectomized, and pair-fed control rats (pair-fed to match the food intake of the thyroidectomized rats). Thyroidectomy induced a significant increase in plasma cholesterol (and low density lipoprotein) concentrations and a decrease in plasma triglyceride (and very low density lipoprotein) concentrations. Changes in similar direction but of smaller magnitude were observed in the plasma of the pair-fed control rats. To further investigate triglyceride metabolism in these three groups of animals, triglyceride turnover was studied in fasted, unrestrained, and unanesthetized rats, following injection of [2-3H]glycerol. Peak incorporation of [2-3H]glycerol into plasma triglyceride occurred in all three groups of animals at 25 min after precursor administration, although the maximal incorporation was substantially lower in the thyroidectomized group than in either of the control groups. Thereafter, plasma triglyceride radioactivity decayed monoexponentially with a half-life of 24 +/- 1 min for both normal and pair-fed control rats, compared with the half-life of 41 +/- 3 min observed in the thyroidectomized rats. The calculated apparent fractional catabolic rates were thus 0.029 min-1 for both control groups and only 0.017 min-1 for the thyroidectomized animals. The apparent total catabolic rates of plasma triglyceride were 299 +/- 11, 138 +/- 11, and 48 +/- 4 micrograms triglyceride . min-1 for the normal controls, pair-fed controls, and thyroidectomized rats, respectively. These data further emphasize the importance of thyroid hormones in regulating plasma lipid and lipoprotein metabolism and, specifically, indicate that hypothyroidism results in a reduction of triglyceride secretion into, and the removal from, circulation. Furthermore, evidence was presented that the decreased caloric intake of the hypothyroid animals cannot, in itself, account for this observation.

  19. Effect of dietary carbohydrates on plasma lipoproteins in Sprague-Dawley and LA/N-corpulent rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellwood, K.C.

    1989-01-01

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets containing 54% carbohydrate as either sucrose (S), fructose (F) or cooked cornstarch (CS) for 5 weeks. Plasma lipoproteins (LP) were isolated by density gradient ultracentrifugation and separated into very low density P (VLDL), low density LP (LDL) and high density LP (HDL) by gel filtration and affinity chromatography. ApoLP E-rich (R 1 and R 2 ) and apoLP E-poor subfractions (NR) of HDL were prepared by heparin-sepharose affinity chromatography. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with 3 H-leucine and sacrificed 2 hours later. Plasma lipoproteins were isolated as described above. The level of 3 H-protein in plasma was greater in Sprague-Dawley rats fed F than those fed S or CS. The amount of 3 H-protein in the chylomicron + VLDL fraction was affected by type of dietary carbohydrate: S > F > CS. Similar studies were conducted with the carbohydrate-sensitive obese and lean LA/N-corpulent rats. Levels of HDL-protein were lower in LA/N-corpulent rats fed S or F than in those fed CS. 3 H-chylomicron + VLDL was higher in rats fed S or F than those fed CS. The concentration of 3 H-protein in plasma and chylomicron + VLDL was greater in obese rats than in lean

  20. Antidiabetic Potential of Kefir Combination from Goat Milk and Soy Milk in Rats Induced with Streptozotocin-Nicotinamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmayani, Eni; Sunarti

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effect of kefir combination from goat milk and soy milk on lipid profile, plasma glucose, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and the improvement of pancreatic β-cell in diabetic rats. Male rats were divided into five treatments: normal control, diabetic control, goat milk kefir, combination of goat milk-soy milk kefir and soy milk kefir. All rats were induced by streptooztocin-nicotinamide (STZ-NA), except for normal control. After 35 d experiment, the rats were sampled for blood, sacrificed and sampled for pancreatic tissues. Results showed that diabetic rats fed kefir combination had higher (p<0.05) triglyceride than the rats fed goat milk or soy milk kefir. Decreasing of plasma glucose in diabetic rats fed kefir combination was higher (p<0.05) than rats fed goat millk kefir. The activity of GPx in diabetic rats fed three kinds of kefir were higher (p<0.01) than untreated diabetic rats. The average number of Langerhans and β-cells in diabetic rats fed kefir combination was the same as the normal control, but it was higher than diabetic control. It was concluded that kefir combination can be used as antidiabetic through maintaining in serum triglyceride, decreasing in plasma glucose, increasing in GPx activity and improving in pancreatic β-cells. PMID:26877646

  1. Effect of dietary protein quality and feeding level on milk secretion and mammary protein synthesis in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampson, D.A.; Jansen, G.R.

    1985-01-01

    Protein synthesis was studied in mammary tissue of rats fed diets deficient in protein quality and/or restricted in food intake throughout gestation and lactation. Diets containing 25% wheat gluten (WG), wheat gluten plus lysine and threonine (WGLT), or casein (C) were pair-fed from conception until day 15 of lactation at 100% or 85% of WG ad libitum consumption (PF100 and PF85, respectively). A seventh group was fed C ad libitum. Rates of protein synthesis were measured in vivo at day 15 of lactation from incorporation of [3- 3 H]phenylalanine. At both PF100 and PF85, fractional and absolute rates of mammary gland protein synthesis were two- to three-fold higher in rats fed C than in those fed WG. Pup weights showed similar treatment effects. Both mammary protein synthesis rates and pup weights were significantly higher in rats fed C at PF85 than rats fed WG ad libitum. Food restriction from PF100 to PF85 depressed pup weights and mammary protein synthesis rates in rats fed WGLT, but had no effect in rats fed WG. These results demonstrate that when food intake is restricted, improvement of protein quality of the maternal diet increases milk output in the rat in association with increased rates of mammary protein synthesis

  2. Bioavailability in rats of bound residues from radishes treated with either radiolabeled dieldrin or carbofuran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.U.; Kacew, S.; Dupont, S.; Stratton, G.D. Jr.; Wheeler, W.B.

    1987-01-01

    The bioavailability of bound residues from radishes treated with [ 14 C]dieldrin and [ 14 C]carbofuran was investigated by feeding the rats 14 C material obtained after exhaustive solvent extraction. For comparison, nonextracted radishes were also fed to rats. The 14 C residues were predominantly excreted in feces. Urinary excretion of 14 C from rats fed nonextracted material was relatively greater than from those fed extracted radishes. The excreted material from rats fed dieldrin-treated radishes contained mainly parent compounds as residue. However, carbofuran and two of its metabolites, 3-hydroxycarbofuran and 3-ketocarbofuran, were present in feces and urine samples of rats fed carbofuran-treated radishes. These data demonstrated that bound residues in radishes treated with dieldrin and carbofuran have a low degree of bioavailability in rats. The results also show that bound residues in dieldrin-treated radishes would be more bioavailable than in the carbofuran-treated samples

  3. A Simple Device for Lens-to-Sample Distance Adjustment in Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, Juliana; Farias Filho, Benedito B; Fontes, Laiane M; Pasquini, Celio; Raimundo, Ivo M; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; de Souza Lins Borba, Flávia

    2017-04-01

    A simple device based on two commercial laser pointers is described to assist in the analysis of samples that present uneven surfaces and/or irregular shapes using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The device allows for easy positioning of the sample surface at a reproducible distance from the focusing lens that conveys the laser pulse to generate the micro-plasma in a LIBS system, with reproducibility better than ±0.2 mm. In this way, fluctuations in the fluence (J cm -2 ) are minimized and the LIBS analytical signals can be obtained with a better precision even when samples with irregular surfaces are probed.

  4. Soybean diet breast tumor incidence in irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troll, W.; Wiesner, R.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between feeding a diet rich in protease inhibitors and the reduction of mammary cancer induced by x-irradiation in Sprague-Dawley rats was examined. Of a total of 145 irradiated animals, 44% of the 45 rats fed a raw soybean diet containing a high concentration of protease inhibitor developed mammary tumors as compared to 74% of 50 rats fed a casein diet containing no protease inhibitor. Animals fed Purina rat chow which contained low levels of protease inhibitor exhibited a 70% mammary tumor incidence. No spontaneous neoplasms were found in any of the non-irradiated animals on the raw soybean diet whereas about 10% of the animals on the protease-free diet developed tumors. Thus, soybeans which are rich in protease inhibitors reduced the induction of mammary cancer in x-irradiated rats. This suggested that diets rich in protease inhibitors may contribute to reducing cancer incidence in man. (author)

  5. Cardiac and metabolic changes in long-term high fructose-fat fed rats with severe obesity and extensive intramyocardial lipid accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Lene N; Lademann, Jacob B; Petersen, Jørgen S

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome and obesity-related diseases are affecting more and more people in the Western world. The basis for an effective treatment of these patients is a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiology. Here, we characterize fructose- and fat-fed rats (FFFRs) as a new animal model....... FFFRs developed severe obesity, decreased glucose tolerance, increased serum insulin and triglyceride levels, and an initial increased fasting glucose, which returned to control levels after 24 wk of feeding. The diet had no effect on blood pressure but decreased hepatic PEPCK levels. FFFRs showed...

  6. Regulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase expression by Zingiber officinale in the liver of high-fat diet-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nammi, Srinivas; Kim, Moon S; Gavande, Navnath S; Li, George Q; Roufogalis, Basil D

    2010-05-01

    Zingiber officinale has been used to control lipid disorders and reported to possess remarkable cholesterol-lowering activity in experimental hyperlipidaemia. In the present study, the effect of a characterized and standardized extract of Zingiber officinale on the hepatic lipid levels as well as on the hepatic mRNA and protein expression of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase was investigated in a high-fat diet-fed rat model. Rats were treated with an ethanol extract of Zingiber officinale (400 mg/kg) extract along with a high-fat diet for 6 weeks. The extract of Zingiber officinale significantly decreased hepatic triglyceride and tended to decrease hepatic cholesterol levels when administered over 6 weeks to the rats fed a high-fat diet. We found that in parallel, the extract up-regulated both LDL receptor mRNA and protein level and down-regulated HMG-CoA reductase protein expression in the liver of these rats. The metabolic control of body lipid homeostasis is in part due to enhanced cholesterol biosynthesis and reduced expression of LDL receptor sites following long-term consumption of high-fat diets. The present results show restoration of transcriptional and post-transcriptional changes in low-density lipoprotein and HMG CoA reductase by Zingiber officinale administration with a high-fat diet and provide a rational explanation for the effect of ginger in the treatment of hyperlipidaemia.

  7. Effects of excess dietary tyrosine or certain xenobiotics on the cholesterogenesis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaoka, S.; Masaki, H.; Aoyama, Y.; Yoshida, A.

    1986-01-01

    Comparison of the effects of excess dietary tyrosine, DDT, chlorobutanol (Chloretone) or butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) on serum cholesterol, hepatic activities of the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol synthesis,3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and in vivo rates of the hepatic cholesterol synthesis measured by 3 H 2 O incorporation were investigated in rats. Serum cholesterol concentration was significantly higher in rats fed the DDT, chlorobutanol, BHA or excess tyrosine diets than in rats fed the control diet for 7 days. Serum cholesterol concentration remained higher compared to control rats when excess tyrosine was fed for 21 d. When rats were fed a basal diet after feeding a tyrosine excess diet for 2 wk, liver weight and serum cholesterol level returned to normal within 7 d. The incorporation of 3 H 2 O into liver cholesterol and the activity of liver 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase were greater in rats fed excess tyrosine or certain xenobiotics than in control rats. Present results suggested that the increase in serum cholesterol concentration due to excess dietary tyrosine or certain xenobiotics is mainly attributable to the stimulation of liver cholesterol synthesis

  8. Energy expenditures & physical activity in rats with chronic suboptimal nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifshitz Fima

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-optimally nourished rats show reduced growth, biochemical and physiological changes. However, no one has assessed metabolic rate adaptations in rats subjected to chronic suboptimal nutrition (CSN. In this study energy expenditure (EE; kcal/100 g body weight and physical activity (PA; oscillations in weight/min/kg body weight were assessed in rats subjected to three levels of CSN. Results Body weight gain was diminished (76.7 ± 12.0 and 61.6 ± 11.0 g in rats fed 70 and 60% of the ad-libitum fed controls which gained more weight (148.5 ± 32.3 g. The rats fed 80% gained weight similarly to controls (136.3 ± 10.5 g. Percent Fat-free body mass was reduced (143.8 ± 8.7 and 142.0 ± 7.6 g in rats fed 70 and 60% of ad-libitum, but not in those fed 80% (200.8 ± 17.5 g as compared with controls (201.6 ± 33.4 g. Body fat (g decreased in rats fed 80% (19.7 ± 5.3, 70% (15.3 ± 3.5 and 60% (9.6 ± 2.7 of ad-libitum in comparison to controls (26.0 ± 6.7. EE and PA were also altered by CSN. The control rats increased their EE and PA during the dark periods by 1.4 ± 0.8 and 1.7 ± 1.1 respectively, as compared with light the period; whereas CSN rats fed 80 and 70% of ad-libitum energy intake had reduced EE and PA during the dark periods as compared with the light period EE(7.5 ± 1.4 and 7.8 ± 0.6 vs. 9.0 ± 1.2 and 9.7 ± 0.8; p Conclusion CSN rats adapt to mild energy restriction by reducing body fat, EE and PA mainly during the dark period while growth proceeds and lean body mass is preserved. At higher levels of energy restrictions there is decreased growth, body fat and lean mass. Moreover EE and PA are also reduced during both light and dark periods.

  9. MEvoLib v1.0: the first molecular evolution library for Python.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Jarreta, Jorge; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo

    2016-10-28

    Molecular evolution studies involve many different hard computational problems solved, in most cases, with heuristic algorithms that provide a nearly optimal solution. Hence, diverse software tools exist for the different stages involved in a molecular evolution workflow. We present MEvoLib, the first molecular evolution library for Python, providing a framework to work with different tools and methods involved in the common tasks of molecular evolution workflows. In contrast with already existing bioinformatics libraries, MEvoLib is focused on the stages involved in molecular evolution studies, enclosing the set of tools with a common purpose in a single high-level interface with fast access to their frequent parameterizations. The gene clustering from partial or complete sequences has been improved with a new method that integrates accessible external information (e.g. GenBank's features data). Moreover, MEvoLib adjusts the fetching process from NCBI databases to optimize the download bandwidth usage. In addition, it has been implemented using parallelization techniques to cope with even large-case scenarios. MEvoLib is the first library for Python designed to facilitate molecular evolution researches both for expert and novel users. Its unique interface for each common task comprises several tools with their most used parameterizations. It has also included a method to take advantage of biological knowledge to improve the gene partition of sequence datasets. Additionally, its implementation incorporates parallelization techniques to enhance computational costs when handling very large input datasets.

  10. Multivariate analysis of remote LIBS spectra using partial least squares, principal component analysis, and related techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clegg, Samuel M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barefield, James E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wiens, Roger C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sklute, Elizabeth [MT HOLYOKE COLLEGE; Dyare, Melinda D [MT HOLYOKE COLLEGE

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative analysis with LIBS traditionally employs calibration curves that are complicated by the chemical matrix effects. These chemical matrix effects influence the LIBS plasma and the ratio of elemental composition to elemental emission line intensity. Consequently, LIBS calibration typically requires a priori knowledge of the unknown, in order for a series of calibration standards similar to the unknown to be employed. In this paper, three new Multivariate Analysis (MV A) techniques are employed to analyze the LIBS spectra of 18 disparate igneous and highly-metamorphosed rock samples. Partial Least Squares (PLS) analysis is used to generate a calibration model from which unknown samples can be analyzed. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) are employed to generate a model and predict the rock type of the samples. These MV A techniques appear to exploit the matrix effects associated with the chemistries of these 18 samples.

  11. The effect of fluorine and homeopathic medicines in rats fed cariogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, N T; Dalmeida, V; Pustiglione, M

    2004-07-01

    Although some sectors of dentistry have benefited from technological advances, dental caries is still a major problem. Prevention and treatment of dental caries by fluorine is considered a major advance in public health. Nevertheless fluorosis, caused by ingestion of excessive amounts of fluorine during the period of teeth formation, is of great concern. In accordance with the homeopathic doctrine, minimum doses of fluorine and other substances could prevent and/or treat caries. In this experiment, we compared the preventive action of fluorine and evaluated the effect of homeopathic medicines on the teeth of rats fed a cariogenic diet. None of the groups included in this study developed caries. However, microscopy revealed the presence of precipitate and/or deposit in the groups treated with homeopathic medicines. This phenomenon might be due to deposit in the dental surface or precipitation of bacterial plaque or calcium salts. It was not possible to identify the composition of the deposit/precipitate due for technical reasons. In one of the groups treated with homeopathic medicines fur loss was observed in 40% of animals. These reactions might be caused due to the action of the homeopathic medicines.

  12. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), part II: review of instrumental and methodological approaches to material analysis and applications to different fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, David W; Omenetto, Nicoló

    2012-04-01

    The first part of this two-part review focused on the fundamental and diagnostics aspects of laser-induced plasmas, only touching briefly upon concepts such as sensitivity and detection limits and largely omitting any discussion of the vast panorama of the practical applications of the technique. Clearly a true LIBS community has emerged, which promises to quicken the pace of LIBS developments, applications, and implementations. With this second part, a more applied flavor is taken, and its intended goal is summarizing the current state-of-the-art of analytical LIBS, providing a contemporary snapshot of LIBS applications, and highlighting new directions in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, such as novel approaches, instrumental developments, and advanced use of chemometric tools. More specifically, we discuss instrumental and analytical approaches (e.g., double- and multi-pulse LIBS to improve the sensitivity), calibration-free approaches, hyphenated approaches in which techniques such as Raman and fluorescence are coupled with LIBS to increase sensitivity and information power, resonantly enhanced LIBS approaches, signal processing and optimization (e.g., signal-to-noise analysis), and finally applications. An attempt is made to provide an updated view of the role played by LIBS in the various fields, with emphasis on applications considered to be unique. We finally try to assess where LIBS is going as an analytical field, where in our opinion it should go, and what should still be done for consolidating the technique as a mature method of chemical analysis. © 2012 Society for Applied Spectroscopy

  13. Teratological studies in defatted jojoba meal-supplemented rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokelaere, M; Flo, G; Lievens, S; Van Boven, M; Vermaut, S; Decuypere, E

    2001-03-01

    To look for possible developmental effects in the offspring of jojoba meal-treated Wistar rats, and to distinguish between the effects of reduced food intake and the specific developmental effects of jojoba meal itself, mated female rats were divided into three groups of 20 rats. They received during gestation: (a) normal rodent food (control group); (b) normal rodent food supplemented with 3% defatted jojoba meal (jojoba group); or (c) normal rodent food pair-fed with the jojoba group (pair-fed group). The jojoba meal group showed approximately 30% inhibition of food intake. Ten rats from each group were killed on gestation day 21. Compared to the control group, foetal body weight was reduced in both the jojoba and pair-fed groups, with a greater reduction in the jojoba group. Skeletal ossification was retarded to the same extent in both the jojoba and pair-fed groups. The other 10 rats from each group were left to produce litters. Compared with controls, the body weight of the pups was lower in both the jojoba and pair-fed groups; the reduction was slightly greater in the jojoba group, but this difference disappeared after 1 week. The offspring showed no other abnormalities and reproduced normally. We conclude that, at the dose used, the retardation in foetal skeletal ossification, induced by jojoba meal supplementation during gestation, is due to food intake inhibition. Moreover, the lower birth weight of the young of jojoba-treated dams compared with the pair-fed group is merely due to a lower body weight gain during gestation.

  14. Raman/LIBS Data Fusion via Two-Way Variational Autoencoders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, M.; Gemp, I.

    2018-04-01

    We propose an original solution to extracting mineral abundances from Raman spectra by combining Raman data with LIBS using a novel deep learning model based on variational autoencoders and data fusion, which outperforms the current state of the art.

  15. Secular Variation and Physical Characteristics Determination of the HADS Star EH Lib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, J. H.; Villarreal, C.; Pina, D. S.; Renteria, A.; Soni, A., Guillen, J. Calderon, J.

    2017-12-01

    Physical parameters of EH Lib have been determined based on observations carried out in 2015 with photometry. They have also served, along with samples from the years 1969 and 1986, to analyse the frequency content of EH Lib with Fourier Transforms. Recent CCD observations increased the times of maximum with twelve new times which helped us study the secular variation of the period with a method based on the minimization of the standard deviation of the O-C residuals. It is concluded that there may be a long-term period change.

  16. Red algae (Gelidium amansii reduces adiposity via activation of lipolysis in rats with diabetes induced by streptozotocin-nicotinamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Han Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Gelidium amansii (GA is an edible red algae that is distributed mainly in northeastern Taiwan. This study was designed to investigate the effects of GA on plasma glucose, lipids, and adipocytokines in rats with streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetes. Rats were divided into four groups: (1 rats without diabetes fed a high-fat diet (control group; (2 rats with diabetes fed a high-fat diet; (3 rats with diabetes fed a high-fat diet with thiazolidinedione in the diet; and (4 rats with diabetes fed a high-fat diet and GA. The experimental diet and drinking water were available ad libitum for 11 weeks. After the 11-week feeding study, plasma glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol concentrations were lower in rats with diabetes fed the GA diet than in animals with diabetes fed the control diet. In addition, cholesterol and triglyceride excretion were significantly higher in rats with diabetes fed the GA diet. Moreover, GA feeding induced lipolysis in both paraepididymal and perirenal adipose tissues. Adipose tissue (paraepididymal and perirenal weight and triglyceride contents were lower after GA treatment. Plasma adipocytokines including tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were reduced by GA feeding in rats with diabetes. The results of the current study suggest that GA feeding may regulate plasma glucose and lipid levels and prevent adipose tissue accumulation in rats with diabetes.

  17. Effect of ovariectomy and 17 beta-estradiol implantation on bone metabolism in female rats fed 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, M.; Sherman, S.; Soares, J.H. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Eight-week old Sprague-Dawley female rats were used in two experiments to test the effects of 17-B estradiol (E 2 ) via silastic tubing implants on 3 H-labelled tetracycline (TC) incorporation into bone. 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 was the dietary source of vitamin D in a low calcium (.2%) semipurified eggwhite diet. In experiment I, the Ovx + E 2 animals showed a significantly (p 3 H TC uptake in scapula during a 2-week labelling experiment. An increase in 3 H TC content resulted (p 2 was implanted in 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 fed Ovx rats. However, the calcium content was not significantly different. The effect of dietary 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 and E 2 implantation appears to be additive. Optimal action of the Vitamin D endocrine system may be dependent on presence of E 2

  18. Zlepšování limitů detekce spektroskopie laserem indukovaného plazmatu (LIBS) pomocí aplikace nanočástic

    OpenAIRE

    Képeš, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Bakalárska práca popisuje možnosti zlepšovania detekčných limít metódy spektroskopie laserom indukovanej plazmy (LIBS). Zhŕňa modifikácie klasickej aparatúry, ktoré využívajú metódy double-pulsed LIBS (DPLIBS), Townsend effect plasma sectroscopy (TEPS), resonance enhanced LIBS (RELIBS), spark discharge LIBS (SDLIBS), flame-enhanced LIBS (FELIBS) aj nové postupy pri príprave vzoriek, ktoré používa metóda nanoparticle enhanced LIBS (NELIBS). Popisuje mechanizmy, ktoré využívajú jednotlivé metód...

  19. Phyto chemical Protection against Diethylnitrosoamine Induced Hepato carcinogenesis by Trigonella foenum graecum in Female Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelgawad, M R; Mustafa, M M.M.; Kottb, M K.I. [Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, Nuclear Research Center, Biological Applications Department, Cairo (Egypt)

    2012-05-15

    Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek) is traditionally used to treat. Recent studies suggest that fenugreek and its active constituents may possess anti carcinogenic potential. The preventive efficacy of dietary fenugreek seed 2% and 4% (w/w feed) on diethylnitrosamine-induced rat liver carcinogenesis were evaluated. Rats were sacrificed when rats became very weak with unstable shelf live were chosen as an end point. Egypt is an Islamic country alcoholic prohibition so the possible use of ethanol extraction may be accepted with high restriction towards its applications in human, that it may affect the active constituents of fenugreek seeds. Whereby, fenugreek seeds contain >8% oil, many valuable phenolic compounds, protein and amino acids, etc ... with different concentrations according to the extraction method. So, the present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of fenugreek powder on adult female rats fed experimental diets containing 2% or 4% (w/w) fenugreek seed powder (FSP) for 2 weeks and have phenobarbital in a dose of 200 mg/L ad lib. before and after a single injection with diethylnitrosamine (200 mg/kg body weight). Rats were sacrificed 20 weeks after intra-peritoneal (i.p) diethylnitrosamine injection and their livers, spleens, kidneys and lungs were excised washed well with cold saline, weighted and processed through paraffin wax preparation, staining and pathological changes were examined. It was found that, by comparison with control, continuous feeding of FSP 2% and 4% suppressed hepatocarcinogensity up to 20% and 50%, respectively. In addition, on the basis of these findings, the invaluable and precious fenugreek constituents are diosgenin [(25 R)-5-spirosten-3h-ol] and [5,7-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-6-(3,4,5-trihydroxy-6(hydroxymethyl) tetra- hydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)chroman-4-one] besides, others. Finally, fenugreek seeds seem to have potential role as a novel cancer preventive agent and that needs further investigations

  20. A brief history of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: From the concept of atoms to LIBS 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radziemski, Leon; Cremers, David

    2013-01-01

    LIBS did not appear de novo in 1962, but was built upon accomplishments of the past. These started with very old concepts of indivisible units (atomos), chemical and physical experiments and theoretical advances that took place in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the development of the laser, the discovery of gas breakdown, and the realization of the application to spectrochemistry. We sketch the historical developments and focus as well on the advances in LIBS methodology and instrumentation over the past 50 years, culminating with a synopsis of the LIBS 2012 Conference in Luxor, Egypt

  1. A brief history of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: From the concept of atoms to LIBS 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radziemski, Leon, E-mail: ljrbwr@comcast.net [Tucson, AZ (United States); Cremers, David [Applied Research Associates Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-09-01

    LIBS did not appear de novo in 1962, but was built upon accomplishments of the past. These started with very old concepts of indivisible units (atomos), chemical and physical experiments and theoretical advances that took place in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the development of the laser, the discovery of gas breakdown, and the realization of the application to spectrochemistry. We sketch the historical developments and focus as well on the advances in LIBS methodology and instrumentation over the past 50 years, culminating with a synopsis of the LIBS 2012 Conference in Luxor, Egypt.

  2. Application of Handheld Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) to Geochemical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Brendan; Somers, Andrew; Day, David

    2016-05-01

    While laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been in use for decades, only within the last two years has technology progressed to the point of enabling true handheld, self-contained instruments. Several instruments are now commercially available with a range of capabilities and features. In this paper, the SciAps Z-500 handheld LIBS instrument functionality and sub-systems are reviewed. Several assayed geochemical sample sets, including igneous rocks and soils, are investigated. Calibration data are presented for multiple elements of interest along with examples of elemental mapping in heterogeneous samples. Sample preparation and the data collection method from multiple locations and data analysis are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Evaluation of the efficacy of a portable LIBS system for detection of CWA on surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Hermite, D; Vors, E; Vercouter, T; Moutiers, G

    2016-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a laser-based optical technique particularly suited for in situ surface analysis. A portable LIBS instrument was tested to detect surface chemical contamination by chemical warfare agents (CWAs). Test of detection of surface contamination was carried out in a toxlab facility with four CWAs, sarin (GB), lewisite (L1), mustard gas (HD), and VX, which were deposited on different substrates, wood, concrete, military green paint, gloves, and ceramic. The CWAs were detected by means of the detection of atomic markers (As, P, F, Cl, and S). The LIBS instrument can give a direct response in terms of detection thanks to an integrated interface for non-expert users or so called end-users. We have evaluated the capability of automatic detection of the selected CWAs. The sensitivity of our portable LIBS instrument was confirmed for the detection of a CWA at surface concentrations above 15 μg/cm(2). The simultaneous detection of two markers may lead to a decrease of the number of false positive.

  4. Remote quantitative analysis of minerals based on multispectral line-calibrated laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiong; Wang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a feasible remote sensing technique used for mineral analysis in some unapproachable places where in situ probing is needed, such as analysis of radioactive elements in a nuclear leak or the detection of elemental compositions and contents of minerals on planetary and lunar surfaces. Here a compact custom 15 m focus optical component, combining a six times beam expander with a telescope, has been built, with which the laser beam of a 1064 nm Nd ; YAG laser is focused on remote minerals. The excited LIBS signals that reveal the elemental compositions of minerals are collected by another compact single lens-based signal acquisition system. In our remote LIBS investigations, the LIBS spectra of an unknown ore have been detected, from which the metal compositions are obtained. In addition, a multi-spectral line calibration (MSLC) method is proposed for the quantitative analysis of elements. The feasibility of the MSLC and its superiority over a single-wavelength determination have been confirmed by comparison with traditional chemical analysis of the copper content in the ore.

  5. Dietary creatine supplementation lowers hepatic triacylglycerol by increasing lipoprotein secretion in rats fed high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Robin P; Leonard, Kelly-Ann; Jacobs, René L

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that dietary creatine supplementation can prevent lipid accumulation in the liver. Creatine is a small molecule that plays a large role in energy metabolism, but since the enzyme creatine kinase is not present in the liver, the classical role in energy metabolism does not hold in this tissue. Fat accumulation in the liver can lead to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a progressive disease that is prevalent in humans. We have previously reported that creatine can directly influence lipid metabolism in cell culture to promote lipid secretion and oxidation. Our goal in the current study was to determine whether similar mechanisms that occur in cell culture were present in vivo. We also sought to determine whether dietary creatine supplementation could be effective in reversing steatosis. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet or a high-fat diet supplemented with creatine for 5 weeks. We found that rats supplemented with creatine had significantly improved rates of lipoprotein secretion and alterations in mitochondrial function that were consistent with greater oxidative capacity. We also find that introducing creatine into a high-fat diet halted hepatic lipid accumulation in rats with fatty liver. Our results support our previous report that liver cells in culture with creatine secrete and oxidize more oleic acid, demonstrating that dietary creatine can effectively change hepatic lipid metabolism by increasing lipoprotein secretion and oxidation in vivo. Our data suggest that creatine might be an effective therapy for NAFLD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Islet inflammation, hemosiderosis, and fibrosis in intrauterine growth-restricted and high fat-fed Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delghingaro-Augusto, Viviane; Madad, Leili; Chandra, Arin; Simeonovic, Charmaine J; Dahlstrom, Jane E; Nolan, Christopher J

    2014-05-01

    Prenatal and postnatal factors such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and high-fat (HF) diet contribute to type 2 diabetes. Our aim was to determine whether IUGR and HF diets interact in type 2 diabetes pathogenesis, with particular attention focused on pancreatic islet morphology including assessment for inflammation. A surgical model of IUGR (bilateral uterine artery ligation) in Sprague-Dawley rats with sham controls was used. Pups were fed either HF or chow diets after weaning. Serial measures of body weight and glucose tolerance were performed. At 25 weeks of age, rat pancreases were harvested for histologic assessment. The birth weight of IUGR pups was 13% lower than that of sham pups. HF diet caused excess weight gain, dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, and mild glucose intolerance, however, this was not aggravated further by IUGR. Markedly abnormal islet morphology was evident in 0 of 6 sham-chow, 5 of 8 sham-HF, 4 of 8 IUGR-chow, and 8 of 9 IUGR-HF rats (chi-square, P = 0.007). Abnormal islets were characterized by larger size, irregular shape, inflammation with CD68-positive cells, marked fibrosis, and hemosiderosis. β-Cell mass was not altered by IUGR. In conclusion, HF and IUGR independently contribute to islet injury characterized by inflammation, hemosiderosis, and fibrosis. This suggests that both HF and IUGR can induce islet injury via converging pathways. The potential pathogenic or permissive role of iron in this process of islet inflammation warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Long-term toxicity and carcinogenicity studies of cake made from chlorinated flour. 1. Studies in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, N; Hutchinson, J B; Berry, R; Hardy, J; Ginocchio, A V

    1983-08-01

    Wistar rats were fed for 104 wk on cake-based diets in which the cake, prepared from unchlorinated flour, or flour treated with 1250 or 2500 ppm chlorine, formed 79% of the diet on a 12.6% moisture basis. A fourth group was fed stock diet 41B. No differences in appearance, health, behaviour or mortalities attributable to the flour treatment were observed. Female but not male mortalities were significantly higher for cake-fed rats than for those fed diet 41B. Dose-related haematological effects were seen at various stages in cake-fed rats. Dose-related increases in plasma alanine and aspartate aminotransferases were noted at 12 months in males but not in females, for whom all the values were elevated. A dose-related diminution in blood sugar at 12 months was seen only in females. A dose-related increase in urinary aspartate aminotransferase was seen only in males. Urinary N-acetylglucosaminidase activity per mg creatinine did not differ significantly between groups. At post mortem a dose-related reduction in spleen weight was found in the females only. The lesions found were those expected in ageing rats, but were observed earlier in rats fed cake. Glomerulonephrosis affected rats fed cake more than those fed diet 41B. Cake diets promoted nephrocalcinosis, unrelated to flour treatment. Increased splenic haematopoiesis occurred in about half of the females in the cake diet groups but less frequently in males or in rats fed diet 41B. Tumours were mainly chromophobe adenomas of the pituitary, common in rats. Insulomas were seen in two males in each of the groups fed on cake made from chlorinated flour, but an earlier form of this tumour was found in all cake groups and its incidence is thus regarded as unrelated to the flour treatment. The incidence of tumours of the reticuloendothelial system was not related to flour treatment. Covalent chlorine concentrations in the perirenal fat of the cake-fed rats were correlated with treatment levels, with values of 50-912 ppm in

  8. Modification of sympathetic neuronal function in the rat tail artery by dietary lipid treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panek, R.L.; Dixon, W.R.; Rutledge, C.O.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of dietary lipid treatment on sympathetic neuronal function was examined in isolated perfused tail arteries of adult rats. The hypothesis that dietary manipulations alter the lipid environment of receptor proteins which may result in the perturbation of specific membrane-associated processes that regulate peripheral adrenergic neurotransmission in the vasculature was the basis for this investigation. In the present study, rats were fed semisynthetic diets enriched in either 16% coconut oil (saturated fat) or 16% sunflower oil (unsaturated fat). The field stimulation-evoked release of endogenous norepinephrine and total 3 H was decreased significantly in rats receiving the coconut oil diet when compared to either sunflower oil- or standard lab chow-fed rats. Norepinephrine content in artery segments from coconut oil-treated rats was significantly higher compared to either sunflower oil- or standard lab chow-fed rats. Tail arteries from rats receiving the coconut oil diet displayed significantly lower perfusion pressure responses to nerve stimulation at all frequencies tested when compared to the sunflower oil- or standard lab chow-fed rats. Vasoconstrictor responses of perfused tail arteries exposed to exogenous norepinephrine resulted in an EC50 for norepinephrine that was not changed by the dietary treatment, but adult rats receiving the sunflower oil diet displayed a significantly greater maximum response to exogenous norepinephrine (10(-5) M) compared to arteries from either coconut oil- or standard lab chow-fed rats

  9. epsilon-fructoselysine in urine of rats fed 14C-lysine-labeled casein browned by amino-carbonyl reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Bunpei; Kojima, Kazumi; Saito, Susumu

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive substances were identified in urine of rats fed on browned casein, which had been labeled with U- 14 C-L-lysine. When browned casein was ingested by growing rats, high radioactivity was found in urine taken for 24 hr after feeding. Urinary recovery of radioactivity and specific radioactivity were about 9-times as high as those of the control. The radioactive substances were separated by Sephadex gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography 75 - 83% of the total radioactivity was recovered in the first peak of Sephadex gel filtration. The material with radioactivity was separated into two fractions by ionexchange chromatography. The ratio of radioactivity of these peaks on the chromatogram was about 30 to 70. The main peak was identified as epsilon-fructoselysine with an amino acid autoanalyzer. Urinary epsilon-fructoselysine content of 24 hr after a single dose feeding of 600 mg browned labeled casein was 13 - 18 mg per head. The relationship between epsilon-fructoselysine content as an absorption delayed-material in the small intestinal lumen and the amount excreted in urine was explained in a scheme together with results from previous studies. (author)

  10. Identification of offal adulteration in beef by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velioglu, Hasan Murat; Sezer, Banu; Bilge, Gonca; Baytur, Süleyman Efe; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki

    2018-04-01

    Minced meat is the major ingredient in sausages, beef burgers, and similar products; and thus it is the main product subjected to adulteration with meat offal. Determination of this kind of meat adulteration is crucial due to religious, economic and ethical concerns. The aim of the present study is to discriminate the beef meat and offal samples by using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). To this end, LIBS and multivariate data analysis were used to discriminate pure beef and offal samples qualitatively and to determine the offal mixture adulteration quantitatively. In this analysis, meat samples were frozen and LIBS analysis were performed. The results indicate that by using principal component analysis (PCA), discrimination of pure offal and offal mixture adulterated beef samples can be achieved successfully. Besides, adulteration ratio can be determined using partial least square analysis method (PLS) with 0.947 coefficient of determination (R 2 ) and 3.8% of limit of detection (LOD) values for offal mixture adulterated beef samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.