WorldWideScience

Sample records for lhc upgrade program

  1. RF upgrade program in LHC injectors and LHC machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, E.

    2012-01-01

    The main themes of the RF upgrade program are: the Linac4 project, the LLRF-upgrade and the study of a tuning-free wide-band system for PSB, the upgrade of the SPS 800 MHz amplifiers and beam controls and the upgrade of the transverse dampers of the LHC. Whilst LHC Splice Consolidation is certainly the top priority for LS1, some necessary RF consolidation and upgrade is necessary to assure the LHC performance for the next 3- year run period. This includes: 1) necessary maintenance and consolidation work that could not fit the shorter technical stops during the last years, 2) the upgrade of the SPS 200 MHz system from presently 4 to 6 cavities and possibly 3) the replacement of one LHC cavity module. On the longer term, the LHC luminosity upgrade requires crab cavities, for which some preparatory work in SPS Coldex must be scheduled during LS1. (author)

  2. LHC luminosity upgrade detector challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; de Roeck, Albert; Bortoletto, Daniela; Wigmans, Richard; Riegler, Werner; Smith, Wesley H

    2006-01-01

    LHC luminosity upgrade: detector challenges The upgrade of the LHC machine towards higher luminosity (1035 cm -2s-1) has been studied over the last few years. These studies have investigated scenarios to achieve the increase in peak luminosity by an order of magnitude, as well as the physics potential of such an upgrade and the impact of a machine upgrade on the LHC DETECTORS. This series of lectures will cover the following topics: • Physics motivation and machine scenarios for an order of magnitude increase in the LHC peak luminosity (lecture 1) • Detector challenges including overview of ideas for R&D programs by the LHC experiments: tracking and calorimetry, other new detector developments (lectures 2-4) • Electronics, trigger and data acquisition challenges (lecture 5) Note: the much more ambitious LHC energy upgrade will not be covered

  3. Tile Calorimeter Upgrade Program for the Luminosity Increasing at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). TileCal is a sampling calorimeter with approximately 10,000 channels and is operating successfully (data quality efficiency above 99%) in ATLAS, since the start of the LHC collisions. The LHC is scheduled to undergo a major upgrade, in 2022, for the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), where the luminosity will be increased by a factor of 10 above the original design value. The ATLAS upgrade program for high luminosity is split into three phases: Phase 0 occurred during 2013-2014 (Long Shutdown 1), and prepared the LHC for run 2; Phase 1, foreseen for 2019 (Long Shutdown 2), will prepare the LHC for run 3, whereafter the peak luminosity reaches 2-3 x 10^{34} cm^{2}s^{-1}; finally, Phase 2, which is foreseen for 2024 (Long Shutdown 3), will prepare the collider for the HL-LHC operation (5-7 x 10^{34} cm^{2}s^{-1}). The TileCal main activities for Phase 0 were the installation of the new low v...

  4. Tile Calorimeter Upgrade Program for the Luminosity Increasing at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). TileCal is a sampling calorimeter with approximately 10,000 channels and is operating successfully (data quality efficiency above 99%) in ATLAS, since the start of the LHC collisions. The LHC is scheduled to undergo a major upgrade, in 2022, for the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), where the luminosity will be increased by a factor of 10 above the original design value. The ATLAS upgrade program for high luminosity is split into three phases: Phase 0 occurred during 2013-2014 (Long Shutdown 1), and prepared the LHC for run 2; Phase 1, foreseen for 2019 (Long Shutdown 2), will prepare the LHC for run 3, whereafter the peak luminosity reaches 2-3 x 10^{34} cm^{2}s^{-1}; finally, Phase 2, which is foreseen for 2023 (Long Shutdown 3), will prepare the collider for the HL-LHC operation (5-7 x 10^{34} cm^{2}s^{-1}). The TileCal main activities for Phase 0 were the installation of the new low v...

  5. ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Readout Electronics Upgrade Program for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Cerqueira, A S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the most central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The ATLAS upgrade program is divided in three phases: The Phase 0 occurs during 2013-2014 and prepares the LHC to reach peak luminosities of 1034 cm2s-1; Phase 1, foreseen for 2018-1019, prepares the LHC for peak luminosity up to 2-3 x 1034 cm2s-1, corresponding to 55 to 80 interactions per bunch-crossing with 25 ns bunch interval; and Phase 2 is foreseen for 2022-2023, whereafter the peak luminosity will reach 5-7 x 1034 cm2s-1 (HL-LHC). With luminosity leveling, the average luminosity will increase with a factor 10. The main TileCal upgrade is focused on the HL-LHC period. The upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off-detector electronics so that all calorimeter signals are directly digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. All new electronics must be able to cope with the increased rad...

  6. ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Readout Electronics Upgrade Program for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Cerqueira, A S

    2013-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the most central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The ATLAS upgrade program is divided in three phases: The Phase~0 occurs during 2013-2014, Phase~1 during 2018-1019 and finally Phase~2, which is foreseen for 2022-2023, whereafter the peak luminosity will reach 5-7 x 10$^{34}$ cm$^2$s$^{-1}$ (HL-LHC). The main TileCal upgrade is focused on the Phase~2 period. The upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off-detector electronics so that all calorimeter signals are directly digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. All new electronics must be able to cope with the increased radiation levels. An ambitious upgrade development program is pursued to study different electronics options. Three options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. The first option is an improved version of the present system built using comm...

  7. Superconducting magnet development for the LHC upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, Lucio

    2012-01-01

    LHC is now delivering proton and heavy ion collisions at the highest energy. Upgrading the LHC beyond its design performance is a long term program that started during the LHC construction, with some fundamental R and D programs. The upgrade program is based on a vigorous superconductor and magnet R and D, aimed at increasing the field in accelerator magnets from 8 T to 12 T for the luminosity upgrade, with the scope of increasing the collider luminosity by a factor 5 to 10 from 2022. The upgrade program might continue with the LHC energy upgrade, which would require magnets producing field in the range of 16-20 T. The results obtained so far and the future challenges are discussed together with the possible plan to reach the goals. (author)

  8. Scenarios and Technological Challenges for a LHC Luminosity Upgrade: Introduction to the LHC Upgrade Program and Summary of Physics Motivations (1/5)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Michelangelo Mangano

    2009-01-01

    After a general introduction to the motivations for a LHC upgrade, the lectures will discuss the beam dynamics and technological challenges of the increase of the LHC luminosity, and the possible scenarios. Items such as a stronger final focus with larger aperture magnets, crab cavities, electron cloud issues, beam-beam interaction, machine protection and collimation will be discussed.

  9. LHC challenges and upgrade options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruning, O [CERN AB/ABP, Y03600, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)], E-mail: Oliver.Bruning@cern.ch

    2008-05-15

    The presentation summarizes the key parameters of the LHC collider. Following a discussion of the main challenges for reaching the nominal machine performance the presentation identifies options for increasing the operation tolerances and the potential performance reach of the LHC by means of future hardware upgrades of the LHC and its injector complex.

  10. LHC challenges and upgrade options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruning, O

    2008-01-01

    The presentation summarizes the key parameters of the LHC collider. Following a discussion of the main challenges for reaching the nominal machine performance the presentation identifies options for increasing the operation tolerances and the potential performance reach of the LHC by means of future hardware upgrades of the LHC and its injector complex

  11. Scenarios for the LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Scandale, Walter

    2008-01-01

    The projected lifetime of the LHC low-beta quadrupoles, the evolution of the statistical error halving time, and the physics potential all call for an LHC luminosity upgrade by the middle of the coming decade. In the framework of the CARE-HHH network three principal scenarios have been developed for increasing the LHC peak luminosity by more than a factor of 10, to values above 1035 cm−2s−1. All scenarios imply a rebuilding of the high-luminosity interaction regions (IRs) in combination with a consistent change of beam parameters. However, their respective features, bunch structures, IR layouts, merits and challenges, and luminosity variation with β∗ differ substantially. In all scenarios luminosity leveling during a store would be advantageous for the physics experiments. An injector upgrade must complement the upgrade measures in the LHC proper in order to provide the beam intensity and brightness needed as well as to reduce the LHC turnaround time for higher integrated luminosity.

  12. Academic Training - LHC luminosity upgrade: detector challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2006-01-01

    ACADEMIC TRAINING LECTURE SERIES 13, 14, 15, March, from 11:00 to 12:00 - 16 March from 10:00 to 12:00 Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 on 14, 15 March, Council Room on 13, 16 March LHC luminosity upgrade: detector challenges A. De Roeck / CERN-PH, D. Bortoletto / Purdue Univ. USA, R. Wigmans / Texas, Tech Univ. USA, W. Riegler / CERN-PH, W. Smith / Wisconsin Univ. USA The upgrade of the LHC machine towards higher luminosity (1035 cm-2s-1) has been studied over the last few years. These studies have investigated scenarios to achieve the increase in peak luminosity by an order of magnitude, as well as the physics potential of such an upgrade and the impact of a machine upgrade on the LHC DETECTORS. This series of lectures will cover the following topics: Physics motivation and machine scenarios for an order of magnitude increase in the LHC peak luminosity (lecture 1) Detector challenges including overview of ideas for R&D programs by the LHC experiments: tracking and calorimetry, other new detector ...

  13. LHC Status and Upgrade Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey

    2009-11-01

    The Large Hadron Collider has had a trying start-up and a challenging operational future lays ahead. Critical to the machine's performance is controlling a beam of particles whose stored energy is equivalent to 80 kg of TNT. Unavoidable beam losses result in energy deposition throughout the machine and without adequate protection this power would result in quenching of the superconducting magnets. A brief overview of the machine layout and principles of operation will be reviewed including a summary of the September 2008 accident. The current status of the LHC, startup schedule and upgrade options to achieve the target luminosity will be presented.

  14. Big advance towards the LHC upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    The LHC is currently the world’s most powerful accelerator. With its technical achievements it has already set world records. However, big science looks very far ahead in time and is already preparing already for the LHC’s magnet upgrade, which should involve a 10-fold increase of the collision rates toward the end of the next decade. The new magnet technology involves the use of an advanced superconducting material that has just started to show its potential.   The first Long Quadrupole Shell (LQS01) model during assembly at Fermilab. The first important step in the qualification of the new technology for use in the LHC was achieved at the beginning of December when the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) – a consortium of Brookhaven National Laboratory, Fermilab, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory founded by US Department Of Energy (DOE) in 2003 – successfully tested the first long focussing magnet th...

  15. Upgrade of the CMS hardron calorimeter for an upgraded LHC

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Jake

    2012-01-01

    The CMS barrel and endcap hadron calorimeters (Hcal) upgrading the current photo-sensors are hybrid photodiodes (HPDs) to meet the demands of the upgraded luminosity of the LHC. A key aspect of the Hcal upgrade is to add longitudinal segmentation to improve background rejection, energy resolution, and electron isolation at L1 trigger. The increased segmentation can be achieved by replacing the HPD's with multi-pixel Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes. The upgraded electron...

  16. Tracking detectors for the sLHC, the LHC upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Sadrozinski, Hartmut F W

    2005-01-01

    The plans for an upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) to the Super-LHC (sLHC) are reviewed with special consideration of the environment for the inner tracking system. A straw-man detector upgrade for ATLAS is presented, which is motivated by the varying radiation levels as a function of radius, and choices for detector geometries and technologies are proposed, based on the environmental constraints. A few promising technologies for detectors are discussed, both for sensors and for the associated front-end electronics. On-going research in silicon detectors and in ASIC technologies will be crucial for the success of the upgrade.

  17. LHC Injectors Upgrade (LIU) Project at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Shaposhnikova, Elena; Damerau, Heiko; Funken, Anne; Gilardoni, Simone; Goddard, Brennan; Hanke, Klaus; Kobzeva, Lelyzaveta; Lombardi, Alessandra; Manglunki, Django; Mataguez, Simon; Meddahi, Malika; Mikulec, Bettina; Rumolo, Giovanni; Scrivens, Richard; Vretenar, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    A massive improvement program of the LHC injector chain is presently being conducted under the LIU project. For the proton chain, this includes the replacement of Linac2 with Linac4 as well as all necessary upgrades to the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB), the Proton Synchrotron (PS) and Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), aimed at producing beams with the challenging High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) parameters. Regarding the heavy ions, plans to improve the performance of Linac3 and the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) are also pursued under the general LIU program. The full LHC injection chain returned to operation after Long Shutdown 1, with extended beam studies taking place in Run 2. A general project Cost and Schedule Review also took place in March 2015, and several dedicated LIU project reviews were held to address issues awaiting pending decisions. In view of these developments, 2014 and 2015 have been key years to define a number of important aspects of the final LIU path. This paper will describe the reviewed LI...

  18. LHC Interaction Region Upgrade Phase I

    CERN Document Server

    Ostojic, R

    2009-01-01

    The LHC is starting operation with beam in 2008. The primary goal of CERN and the LHC community is to ensure that the collider is operated efficiently, maximizing its physics reach, and to achieve the nominal performance in the shortest term. Since several years the community has been discussing the directions for upgrading the experiments, in particular ATLAS and CMS, the LHC machine and the CERN proton injector complex. A well substantiated and coherent scenario for the first phase of the upgrade, which is foreseen in 2013, is now approved by CERN Council. In this paper, we present the goals and the proposed conceptual solution for the Phase-I upgrade of the LHC interaction regions. This phase relies on the mature Nb-Ti superconducting magnet technology, with the target of increasing the luminosity by a factor of 2-3 with respect to the nominal luminosity of 1034 cm-2s-1, while maximising the use of the existing infrastructure.

  19. Detector and System Developments for LHC Detector Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Mandelli, Beatrice; Guida, Roberto; Rohne, Ole; Stapnes, Steinar

    2015-05-12

    The future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Physics program and the consequent improvement of the LHC accelerator performance set important challenges to all detector systems. This PhD thesis delineates the studies and strategies adopted to improve two different types of detectors: the replacement of precision trackers with ever increasingly performing silicon detectors, and the improvement of large gaseous detector systems by optimizing their gas mixtures and operation modes. Within the LHC tracker upgrade programs, the ATLAS Insertable B-layer (IBL) is the first major upgrade of a silicon-pixel detector. Indeed the overall ATLAS Pixel Detector performance is expected to degrade with the increase of luminosity and the IBL will recover the performance by adding a fourth innermost layer. The IBL Detector makes use of new pixel and front-end electronics technologies as well as a novel thermal management approach and light support and service structures. These innovations required complex developments and Quality Ass...

  20. Upgrades of the CMS Outer Tracker for HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067159

    2016-01-01

    The LHC machine is planning an upgrade program which will smoothly bring the luminosity to about 5×1034cm$^{−2}$s$^{−1}$ around 2028, to possibly reach an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb$^{−1}$ in the following decade. This High Luminosity LHC scenario, HL-LHC, will require a preparation program of the LHC detectors known as Phase-2 upgrade. The current CMS Outer Tracker, already running close to its design limits, will not be able to survive HL-LHC radiation conditions and CMS will need a completely new device, in order to fully exploit the highly demanding operating conditions and the delivered luminosity. The new Tracker should have also L1 trigger capabilities. To achieve such goals, R&D; activities are ongoing to explore options and develop solutions that would allow including tracking information at Level-1. The design choices for the CMS Outer Tracker upgrades are discussed along with some highlights of the R&D; activities.

  1. Upgrade of the CMS Tracker for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Auzinger, Georg

    2016-01-01

    The LHC machine is planning an upgrade program which will smoothly bring the luminosity to about $ 5 \\times 10^{34}$cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ in 2028, possibly reaching an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb$^{-1}$ by the end of 2037. This High Luminosity LHC scenario, HL-LHC, will require a preparation program of the LHC detectors known as Phase-2 Upgrade. The current CMS Tracker, including both inner pixel and outer strip systems, is already running beyond design specifications and will not be able to survive HL-LHC radiation conditions. CMS will need a completely new device in order to fully exploit the demanding operating conditions and the delivered luminosity. The upgrade plan includes extending the Pixel Detector in the forward region from the current coverage of $ \\lvert \\eta \\rvert < 2.4 $ to $ \\lvert \\eta \\rvert < 4$, where up to seven forward- and four extension disks will compose the new detector. Additionally, the new outer system should also have trigger capabilities. To achieve such goals, R\\&...

  2. The CMS Tracker upgrade for HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ahuja, Sudha

    2017-01-01

    The LHC machine is planning an upgrade program which will smoothly bring the luminosity to about 5 $\\times$ $10^{34} $cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ in 2028, to possibly reach an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb$^{-1}$ by the end of 2037. This High Luminosity LHC scenario, HL-LHC, will require a preparation program of the LHC detectors known as Phase-2 upgrade. The current CMS Outer Tracker, already running beyond design specifications, and CMS Phase1 Pixel Detector will not be able to survive HL-LHC radiation conditions and CMS will need completely new devices, in order to fully exploit the high-demanding operating conditions and the delivered luminosity. The new Outer Tracker should have also trigger capabilities. To achieve such goals, R$\\&$D activities are ongoing to explore options both for the Outer Tracker, and for the pixel Inner Tracker. Solutions are being developed that would allow including tracking information at Level-1. The design choices for the Tracker upgrades are discussed along with some highlights...

  3. Physics potential of ATLAS upgrades at HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Testa, Marianna; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The High Luminosity-Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) is expected to start in 2026 and to pro- vide an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb−1 in ten years, a factor 10 more than what will be collected by 2023. This high statistics will allow ATLAS to perform precise measurements in the Higgs sector and improve searches for new physics at the TeV scale. The luminosity needed is L ∼ 7.51034 cm−2 s−1, corresponding to ∼200 additional proton-proton pile- up interactions. To face such harsh environment some sub-detectors of the ATLAS experiment will be upgraded or completely substituted. The performances of the new or upgraded ATLAS sub-detectors are presented, focusing in particular on the new inner tracker and a proposed high granularity time device. The impact of those upgrades on crucial physics measurements for HL-LHC program is also shown.

  4. The CMS HGCAL detector for the HL-LHC upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Steen, Arnaud

    2017-01-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) will integrate 10 times more luminosity than the LHC, posing significant challenges for radiation tolerance and event pileup on detectors, especially for forward calorimetry, and hallmarks the issue for future colliders. As part of its HL-LHC upgrade program, the CMS collaboration is designing a High Granularity Calorimeter to replace the existing endcap calorimeters. It features unprecedented transverse and longitudinal segmentation for both electromagnetic (ECAL) and hadronic (HCAL) compartments. This will facilitate particle-flow calorimetry, where the fine structure of showers can be measured and used to enhance pileup rejection and particle identification, whilst still achieving good energy resolution. The ECAL and a large fraction of HCAL will be based on hexagonal silicon sensors of 0.5 - 1 cm$^2$ cell size, with the remainder of the HCAL based on highly-segmented scintillators with SiPM readout. The intrinsic high-precision timing capabilities of the silicon sensors wi...

  5. The CMS HGCAL detector for HL-LHC upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Martelli, Arabella

    2017-01-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) will integrate 10 times more luminosity than the LHC, posing significant challenges for radiation tolerance and event pileup on detectors, especially for forward calorimetry, and hallmarks the issue for future colliders. As part of its HL-LHC upgrade program, the CMS collaboration is designing a High Granularity Calorimeter to replace the existing endcap calorimeters. It features unprecedented transverse and longitudinal segmentation for both electromagnetic (ECAL) and hadronic (HCAL) compartments. This will facilitate particle-flow calorimetry, where the fine structure of showers can be measured and used to enhance pileup rejection and particle identification, whilst still achieving good energy resolution. The ECAL and a large fraction of HCAL will be based on hexagonal silicon sensors of 0.5 - 1 cm$^2$ cell size, with the remainder of the HCAL based on highly-segmented scintillators with SiPM readout. The intrinsic high-precision timing capabilities of the silicon sensors wi...

  6. HL-LHC and HE-LHC Upgrade Plans and Opportunities for US Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apollinari, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    The US HEP community has identified the exploitation of physics opportunities at the High Luminosity-LHC (HL-LHC) as the highest near-term priority. Thanks to multi-year R&D programs, US National Laboratories and Universities have taken the leadership in the development of technical solutions to increase the LHC luminosity, enabling the HL-LHC Project and uniquely positioning this country to make critical contributions to the LHC luminosity upgrade. This talk will describe the shaping of the US Program to contribute in the next decade to HL-LHC through newly developed technologies such as Nb3Sn focusing magnets or superconducting crab cavities. The experience gained through the execution of the HL-LHC Project in the US will constitute a pool of knowledge and capabilities allowing further developments in the future. Opportunities for US participations in proposed hadron colliders, such as a possible High Energy-LHC (HE-LHC), will be described as well.

  7. Novel Materials for Collimators at LHC and its Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2108536; Dallocchio, Alessandro; Garlasche, Marco; Gentini, Luca; Gradassi, Paolo; Guinchard, Michael; Redaelli, Stefano; Rossi, Adriana; Sacristan De Frutos, Oscar; Carra, Federico; Quaranta, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Collimators for last-generation particle accelerators like the LHC, must be designed to withstand the close interaction with intense and energetic particle beams, safely operating over an extended range of temperatures in harsh environments, while minimizing the perturbing effects, such as instabilities induced by RF impedance, on the circulating beam. The choice of materials for collimator active components is of paramount importance to meet these requirements, which are to become even more demanding with the increase of machine performances expected in future upgrades, such as the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). Consequently, a farreaching R&D program has been launched to develop novel materials with excellent thermal shock resistance and high thermal and electrical conductivity, replacing or complementing materials used for present collimators. Molybdenum Carbide - Graphite and Copper-Diamond composites have been so far identified as the most promising materials. The manufacturing methods, properties and...

  8. Upgrade of the LHC Injection Kicker Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, M J; Baglin, V; Bregliozzi, G; Caspers, F; Calatroni, S; Day, H; Ducimetière, L; Garlaschè, M; Gomes Namora, V; Jimenez, J M; Magnin, N; Mertens, V; Métral, E; Salvant, B; Taborelli, M; Uythoven, J; Weterings, W

    2013-01-01

    Two LHC injection kicker systems, each comprising 4 magnets per ring, produce a kick of 1.3 T·m with a rise-time of less than 900 ns and a flattop ripple of less than ±0.5%. A beam screen is placed in the aperture of each magnet, to provide a path for the image current of the LHC beam and screen the ferrite yoke against wake fields. The screen consists of a ceramic tube with conductors in the inner wall. The initially implemented beam screen ensured a low rate of electrical breakdowns and an adequately low beam coupling impedance. Operation with increasingly higher intensity beams, stable for many hours at a time, has resulted in substantial heating of the ferrite yoke, sometimes requiring cool-down over several hours before the LHC can be refilled. During the long shutdown in 2013/2014 all eight kicker magnets will be upgraded with an improved beam screen and an increased emissivity of the vacuum tank. In addition equipment adjacent to the injection kickers and various vacuum components will be modified to...

  9. Maintenance procedure upgrade programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.J.; Zimmerman, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a systematic approach to upgrading nuclear power plant maintenance procedures. The approach consists of four phases: diagnosis, program planning, program implementation, and program evaluation. Each phase is explained as a series of steps to ensure that all factors in a procedure upgrade program are considered

  10. Plans for the upgrade of the LHC injectors

    CERN Document Server

    Garoby, R; Goddard, B; Hanke, K; Meddahi, M; Vretenar, M

    2011-01-01

    The LHC injectors upgrade (LIU) project has been launched at the end of 2010 to prepare the CERN accelerator complex for reliably providing beam with the challenging characteristics required by the high luminosity LHC until at least 2030. Based on the work already started on Linac4, PS Booster, PS and SPS, the LIU project coordinates studies and implementation, and interfaces with the high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project which looks after the upgrade of the LHC itself, expected by the end of the present decade. The anticipated beam characteristics are described, as well as the status of the studies and the solutions envisaged for improving the injector performances.

  11. Injection Protection Upgrade for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067108; Biancacci, Nicolo; Bracco, Chiara; Frasciello, Oscar; Gentini, Luca; Goddard, Brennan; Lechner, Anton; Maciariello, Fausto; Perillo Marcone, Antonio; Salvant, Benoit; Shetty, Nikhil Vittal; Steele, Genevieve; Velotti, Francesco; Zobov, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    The injector complex of the LHC is undergoing important changes in the light of the LIU project to provide brighter beams to the LHC. For this reason and as part of the High Luminosity LHC project the injection protection system of the LHC will be upgraded in the Long Shutdown 2 (2018 - 2019) to be able to protect downstream elements against injection failures with the high brightness, high intensity HL-LHC beams. The upgraded LHC injection protection system will consist of a segmented injection protection absorber TDIS, and auxiliary collimators and masks. The layout modifications are described, and the machine element protection and absorber jaw robustness studies are presented for the new systems.

  12. Towards Optimum Material Choices for HL-LHC Collimator Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Quaranta, E.; Biancacci, N.; Bruce, R.; Carra, F.; Métral, E.; Redaelli, S.; Rossi, A.; Salvant, B.

    2016-01-01

    properties that address different limitations of the present collimation system, solutions have been found to fulfil various upgrade challenges. This paper describes the proposed staged approach to deploy new materials in the upgraded HL-LHC collimation system. Beam tests at the CERN HiRadMat facility were also performed to benchmark simulation methods and constitutive material models.

  13. Selected issues for the LHC luminosity upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laface, E.

    2008-12-01

    The Large Hadron Collider started its operations on September 10. 2008. In a realistic forecast it is supposed to demonstrate (or confute) the existence of the Higgs boson for the year 2014. After this date the physics of rare events will be explored more in details and an upgrade of the luminosity can make an important difference in the program of experiments at CERN. This thesis proposes several ideas to increase the luminosity of ATLAS and CMS experiments and the acceptance of TOTEM experiment. The main object of study is the Interaction Region, that consists in the set of magnets in charge to provide the final beam focalization for the collisions. The Interaction Region is studied with the methods of beam optics and beam dynamics to design new layouts for the upgrade. These layouts are also explored from the point of view of integrability in the existing experiments developing the analysis of energy deposition and misalignment tolerances. This study was performed with the use of analytical methods for the general considerations and numerical methods for the parameters optimization. (author)

  14. Silicon Strip Detectors for the ATLAS sLHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Miñano, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is continuing to deliver an ever-increasing luminosity to the experiments, plans for an upgraded machine called Super-LHC (sLHC) are progressing. The upgrade is foreseen to increase the LHC design luminosity by a factor ten. The ATLAS experiment will need to build a new tracker for sLHC operation, which needs to be suited to the harsh sLHC conditions in terms of particle rates. In order to cope with the increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. To successfully face the increased radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is being designed. The left part of figure 1 shows the simulated layout for the ATLAS tracker upgrade to be installed in the volume taken up by the current ATLAS pixel, strip and transition radiation detectors. Silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness are the subject of an international R&D programme, working on pixel and strip sensors. The...

  15. B-physics studies for HL-LHC ATLAS upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Jakoubek, Tomas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Simulation studies were made to estimate ATLAS HL-LHC upgrade performance for B-physics. In particular, the decay of $B_s^0 \\to J/\\psi\\phi$ is studied in order to measures the $CP$ violating mixing phase and the width difference between the $B_s^0$ eigenstates. The increased sensitivity is related mainly to the improved decay time resolution obtained with the upgraded ITk inner tracking detector.

  16. The LHC Luminosity Upgrade and Related ATLAS Detector Plans

    CERN Document Server

    Hartjes, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    3rd draft of the proposed talk about Atlas Upgrade for MPGD2009 (Instrumentation conference on gaseous pixel detectors) on Friday June 12, 2009. I concentrated my presentation on the upgrade plans and schedule of the LHC and on detector technologies for the new Inner Tracker, putting less emphasis on other subdetectors. Compared to the 2nd draft I modified and clarified a few items about trigger, muon detection and calorimetry and did a number of cosmetic adaptions.

  17. Operational experience of the upgraded LHC injection kicker magnets during Run 2 and future plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, M. J.; Adraktas, A.; Bregliozzi, G.; Goddard, B.; Ducimetière, L.; Salvant, B.; Sestak, J.; Vega Cid, L.; Weterings, W.; Vallgren, C. Yin

    2017-07-01

    During Run 1 of the LHC, one of the injection kicker magnets caused occasional operational delays due to beam induced heating with high bunch intensity and short bunch lengths. In addition, there were also sporadic issues with vacuum activity and electrical flashover of the injection kickers. An extensive program of studies was launched and significant upgrades were carried out during Long Shutdown 1 (LS 1). These upgrades included a new design of beam screen to reduce both beam coupling impedance of the kicker magnet and the electric field associated with the screen conductors, hence decreasing the probability of electrical breakdown in this region. This paper presents operational experience of the injection kicker magnets during the first years of Run 2 of the LHC, including a discussion of faults and kicker magnet issues that limited LHC operation. In addition, in light of these issues, plans for further upgrades are briefly discussed.

  18. Upgrading the ATLAS barrel tracker for the super-LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    It has been proposed to increase the luminosity of the large hadron collider (LHC) at CERN by an order of magnitude, with the upgraded machine dubbed super-LHC. The ATLAS experiment will require a new tracker for this high-luminosity operation due to radiation damage and event density. In order to cope with the order of magnitude increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all-silicon tracker is being designed. The new strip detector will use significantly shorter strips than the current silicon tracker in order to minimize the occupancy. As the increased luminosity will mean a corresponding increase in radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation-hard silicon detectors is required. An R and D program is underway to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness. New front-end electronics and readout systems are being designed to cope with the higher data rates. The challenges facing the sensors and the cooling and mechanical support will be discussed. A possible tracker layout will be described.

  19. How to implement all HL-LHC upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, L; Ballarino, A; Brüning, O; Jensen, E; Redaelli, S; Tavian, L; Todesco, E

    2014-01-01

    The luminosity upgrade will require major changes in the LHC machine layout : about 1.2 km of the machine will undergo major renova tion or modification. In the paper we will review the list of main equipment foreseen to be replaced or to be added. We will review the upgrade plan that should start already in the Long Shutdown (LS) 2 (with the installation of the first dispersion suppressor 11T dipole – collimator unit , the superconducting link in Point 7 and the cryo-plant in Point 4), through to the major works in LS3, synchronized with an upgrade of the LHC detectors. Best estimates of the required duration of the various shutdowns will be discussed, and also the main risks and their mitigation.

  20. ATLAS Muon Spectrometer Upgrades for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Valderanis, Chrysostomos; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS Muon Spectrometer Upgrades for the High Luminosity LHC The luminosity of the LHC will increase up to 2x10^34 cm-2s-1 after the long shutdown in 2019 (phase-1 upgrade) and up to 7x10^34 cm-2s-1 after the long shutdown in 2025 (phase-2 upgrade). In order to cope with the increased particle fluxes, upgrades are envisioned for the ATLAS muon spectrometer. At phase-1, the current innermost stations of the ATLAS muon endcap tracking system (the Small Wheels) will be upgraded with 2x4-layer modules of Micromega detectors, sandwiched by two 4 layer modules of small strip Thin Gap Chambers on either side. Each 4-layer module of the so-called New Small Wheels covers a surface area of approximately 2 to 3 m2 for a total active area of 1200 m2 each for the two technologies. On such large area detectors, the mechanical precision (30 \\mu m along the precision coordinate and 80 \\mu m along the beam) is a key point and must be controlled and monitored along the process of construction and integration. The design and re...

  1. B-physics studies for HL-LHC ATLAS upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00236452; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Performance studies are made to estimate the ATLAS potential in $B$-physics after upgrade for Run2 and HL-LHC. Real data as well as Monte Carlo simulations are used to study the decay of $B^0_s \\to J/\\psi\\phi$ in order to measure the $CP$ violating mixing phase and the width difference between the $B^0_s$ eigenstates. The increased sensitivity is expected mainly due to the improved decay time resolution obtained with the upgraded IBL and ITk inner tracking detector.

  2. Silicon strip detectors for the ATLAS HL-LHC upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez Sevilla, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The LHC upgrade is foreseen to increase the ATLAS design luminosity by a factor ten, implying the need to build a new tracker suited to the harsh HL-LHC conditions in terms of particle rates and radiation doses. In order to cope with the increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. To successfully face the increased radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is being designed. We give an overview of the ATLAS tracker upgrade project, in particular focusing on the crucial innermost silicon strip layers. Results from a wide range of irradiated silicon detectors for the strip region of the future ATLAS tracker are presented. Layout concepts for lightweight yet mechanically very rigid detector modules with high service integration are shown.

  3. Physics potential and experimental challenges of the LHC luminosity upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Gianotti, F.; Virdee, T.; Abdullin, S.; Azuelos, G.; Ball, A.; Barberis, D.; Belyaev, A.; Bloch, P.; Bosman, M.; Casagrande, L.; Cavalli, D.; Chumney, Pamela R.K.; Cittolin, S.; Dasu, S.; De Roeck, A.; Ellis, N.; Farthouat, P.; Fournier, D.; Hansen, J.B.; Hinchliffe, I.; Hohlfeld, M.; Huhtinen, M.; Jakobs, K.; Joram, C.; Mazzucato, F.; Mikenberg, G.; Miagkov, A.; Moretti, M.; Moretti, S.; Niinikoski, T.; Nikitenko, A.; Nisati, A.; Paige, F.; Palestini, S.; Papadopoulos, C.G.; Piccinini, F.; Pittau, R.; Polesello, G.; Richter-Was, E.; Sharp, P.; Slabospitsky, S.R.; Smith, W.H.; Stapnes, S.; Tonelli, G.; Tsesmelis, E.; Usubov, Z.; Vacavant, L.; van der Bij, J.; Watson, A.; Wielers, M.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the physics potential and the experimental challenges of an upgraded LHC running at an instantaneous luminosity of 10**35 cm-2s-1. The detector R&D needed to operate ATLAS and CMS in a very high radiation environment and the expected detector performance are discussed. A few examples of the increased physics potential are given, ranging from precise measurements within the Standard Model (in particular in the Higgs sector) to the discovery reach for several New Physics processes

  4. ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Upgrades for HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Angelidakis, Stylianos; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The High-Luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is expected to begin in 2026, delivering a luminosity of ~5×10^34 cm −2 s −1 , with up to 200 interactions per 25 ns bunch crossing. In order to cope with the expected high trigger rates and intense radiation conditions, the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter will be upgraded with readout architectures that will allow to maintain an optimal performance in its future operation.

  5. LHC vacuum upgrade during LS1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, J.M.; Baglin, V.; Chiggiato, P.; Cruikshank, P.; Gallilee, M.; Garion, C.; Gomes, P.

    2012-01-01

    The last two years of LHC operation have highlighted concerns on the levels of the dynamic vacuum in the long straight sections in presence of high intensity beams. The analysis of the existing data has shown relationship between pressures spikes and beam screen temperature oscillations or micro-sparking in the RF fingers of the bellows on one side and coincidence of pressure bumps with stimulated desorption by electron cloud, beam losses and/or thermal out gassing stimulated by higher order modes (HOM) losses. The electron cloud mitigation solutions will be adapted to the different configurations: cold/warm transitions, non-coated surfaces in direct view of beams, photoelectrons, etc. All scenarios will be presented together with their efficiencies. Additional pumping and re-engineering of components will reduce the sensitivity of the vacuum system to beam losses or HOM inducing out gassing. The expected margin at nominal intensity and energy resulting from these consolidations will be summarized. Finally, the challenges of the Experimental areas will be addressed, more specifically the status of the new Beryllium pipes (ATLAS and CMS) which are in the critical path and the consolidation of vacuum instrumentation, pumping and electron cloud mitigation. The risk corresponding to the proposed consolidations will be shown and the margins with respect to the schedule analysed. (authors)

  6. Physics at HL-LHC with the upgraded ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Dell'Acqua, Andrea; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The physics prospects at the luminosity upgrade of LHC, HL-LHC, with a data set equivalent to 3000 fb-1 simulated in the ATLAS detector, are presented and discussed. The ultimate precision attainable on measurements of 125 GeV Higgs boson couplings to elementary fermions and bosons is discussed, as well as the searches for partners associated with this new particle. The electroweak sector is further studied with the analysis of the vector boson scattering, testing the SM predictions at the LHC energy scale. Supersymmetry is still one of the best motivated extensions of the Standard Model. The current searches at the LHC have yielded sensitivity to TeV scale gluinos and 1st and 2nd generation squarks, as well as to 3rd generation squarks. The sensitivity to electro-weakinos has reached the hundreds of GeV mass range. Benchmark studies are presented to show how the sensitivity improves at the future high-luminosity LHC runs. Prospects for searches for new heavy bosons and dark matter candidates at 14 TeV pp col...

  7. Superconducting link bus design for the accelerator project for upgrade of LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobrega, F.; Brandt, J.; Cheban, S.; Feher, S.; Kaducak, M.; Kashikhin, V.; Peterson, T.

    2011-01-01

    The Accelerator Project for Upgrade of LHC (APUL) is a U.S. project participating in and contributing to CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) upgrade program. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in collaboration with Brookhaven National Laboratory was developing sub-systems for the upgrade of the LHC final focus magnet systems. Part of the upgrade called for various lengths of superconducting power transmission lines known as SC Links which were up to 100 m long. The SC Link electrically connects the current leads in the Distribution Feed Boxes to the interaction region magnets. The SC Link is an extension of the magnet bus housed within a cryostat. The present concept for the bus consists of 22 power cables, 4 x 13 kA, 2 x 7 kA, 8 x 2.5 kA and 8 x 0.6 kA bundled into one bus. Different cable and strand possibilities were considered for the bus design including Rutherford cable. The Rutherford cable bus design potentially would have required splices at each sharp elbow in the SC Link. The advantage of the round bus design is that splices are only required at each end of the bus during installation at CERN. The round bus is very flexible and is suitable for pulling through the cryostat. Development of the round bus prototype and of 2 splice designs is described in this paper. Magnetic analysis and mechanical test results of the 13 kA cable and splices are presented.

  8. High-luminosity LHC prospects with the upgraded ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00379172; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Run 1 at the LHC was very successful with the discovery of a new boson. The boson’s properties are found to be compatible with those of the Standard Model Higgs boson. It is now revealing the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking and (possibly) the discovery of physics beyond the Standard Model that are the primary goals of the just restarted LHC. The ultimate precision will be reached at the high-luminosity LHC run with a proton-proton centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. In this contribution physics prospects are presented for ATLAS for the integrated luminosities 300 and 3000 fb−1: the ultimate precision attainable on measurements of the Higgs boson couplings to elementary fermions and bosons, its trilinear self-coulping, as well as perspectives on the searches for partners associated with it. Benchmark studies are presented to show how the sensitivity improves at the future LHC runs. For all these studies, a parameterised simulation of the upgraded ATLAS detector is used and expected pileup condition...

  9. Radiation-hard Optoelectronics for LHC detector upgrades.

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00375195; Newbold, Dave

    A series of upgrades foreseen for the LHC over the next decade will allow the proton-proton collisions to reach the design center of mass energy of 14 TeV and increase the luminosity to five times (High Luminosity-LHC) the design luminosity by 2027. Radiation-tolerant high-speed optical data transmission links will continue to play an important role in the infrastructure of particle physics experiments over the next decade. A new generation of optoelectronics that meet the increased performance and radiation tolerance limits imposed by the increase in the intensity of the collisions at the interaction points are currently being developed. This thesis focuses on the development of a general purpose bi-directional 5 Gb/s radiation tolerant optical transceiver, the Versatile Transceiver (VTRx), for use by the LHC experiments over the next five years, and on exploring the radiation-tolerance of state-of-the art silicon photonics modulators for HL-LHC data transmission applications. The compliance of the VTRx ...

  10. Tau reconstruction and identification with upgraded CMS detector at LHC.

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2083403

    2016-01-01

    Tau leptons appear in the final state of many important physics processessuch as decay of the Higgs boson, supersymmetric particles and additionalheavy gauge bosons corresponding to a new symmetry. Thus tau leptonsplay very important role in LHC physics programme at all energies. Sincemajority of the tau lepton decays are hadronic, CMS employs a dedicatedprocedure to reconstruct tau leptons from the light hadrons inside jets.In view of the upcoming LHC run at 13-14 TeV, it is crucial to studythe performance of tau reconstruction and identification at high pileup and withthe upgraded CMS detector geometry. An overview of the results fromsimulations, in the context of CMS experiment, will be presented in the talkincluding the fake rates and their dependence of kinematic variables.

  11. LHC Experimental Beam Pipe Upgrade during LS1

    CERN Document Server

    Lanza, G; Baglin, V; Chiggiato, P

    2014-01-01

    The LHC experimental beam pipes are being improved during the ongoing Long Shutdown 1 (LS1). Several vacuum chambers have been tested and validated before their installation inside the detectors. The validation tests include: leak tightness, ultimate vacuum pressure, material outgassing rate, and residual gas composition. NEG coatings are assessed by sticking probability measurement with the help of Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper the motivation for the beam pipe upgrade, the validation tests of the components and the results are presented and discussed.

  12. Physics potential and experimental challenges of the LHC luminosity upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gianotti, F.; Ball, A.; Bloch, P.; Casagrande, L.; Cittolin, S.; Roeck, A. de; Ellis, N.; Farthouat, P.; Hansen, J.-B. [CERN, Experimental Physics Division, Geneva (Switzerland); Mangano, M.L. [CERN, Theoretical Physics Division, Geneva (Switzerland); Virdee, T. [CERN, Experimental Physics Division, Geneva (Switzerland); Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Abdullin, S. [University of Maryland (United States); Azuelos, G. [University of Montreal, Group of Particle Physics, Montreal (Canada); Barberis, D. [Universita di Genova, Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN (Italy); Belyaev, A. [Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL (United States); Bosman, M. [IFAE, Barcelona (Spain); Cavalli, D. [INFN, Milano (Italy); Chumney, P.; Dasu, S. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Fournier, D. [LAL, Orsay (France); Hinchliffe, I.; Hohlfeld, M.; Huhtinen, M.; Jakobs, K.; Joram, C.; Mazzucato, F.; Mikenberg, G.; Miagkov, A.; Moretti, M.; Moretti, S.; Niinikoski, T.; Nikitenko, A.; Nisati, A.; Paige, F.; Palestini, S.; Papadopoulos, C.G.; Piccinini, F.; Pittau, R.; Polesello, G.; Richter-Was, E.; Sharp, P.; Slabospitsky, S.R.; Smith, W.H.; Stapnes, S.; Tonelli, G.; Tsesmelis, E.; Usubov, Z.; Vacavant, L.; Bij, J. van der; Watson, A.; Wielers, M.

    2004-02-01

    We discuss the physics potential and the experimental challenges of an upgraded LHC running at an instantaneous luminosity of 10{sup 35} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The detector R and D needed to operate ATLAS and CMS in a very high radiation environment and the expected detector performance are discussed. A few examples of the increased physics potential are given, ranging from precise measurements within the Standard Model (in particular in the Higgs sector) to the discovery reach for several New Physics processes. (orig.)

  13. Nb3Sn Quadrupoles Designs For The LHC Upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felice, Helene

    2008-01-01

    In preparation for the LHC luminosity upgrades, high field and large aperture Nb 3 Sn quadrupoles are being studied. This development has to incorporate all the relevant features for an accelerator magnet like alignment and cooling channels. The LARP HQ model is a high field and large bore quadrupole that will meet these requirements. The 2-layer coils are surrounded by a structure based on key and bladder technology with supporting iron yoke and aluminum shell. This structure is aimed at pre-stress control, alignment and field quality. We present here the magnetic and mechanical design of HQ, along with recent progress on the development of the first 1-meter model.

  14. Beam dynamics and optics studies for the LHC injectors upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Bartosik, Hannes; Benedikt, Michael

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) upgrade, which aims at reaching significantly higher luminosities at the experiment sites, requires the existing injector chain to provide proton beams with unprecedented beam intensity and brightness. The required beam parameters are out of reach for the CERN accelerator complex in its present state. Therefore, upgrade possibilities of the existing injectors for mitigating their performance limitations or their partial replacement by new machines have been studied. The transition energy plays a central role for the performance of synchrotrons. Designing a lattice with negative momentum compaction (NMC), i.e. imaginary transition energy, allows avoiding transition crossing and thus the associated performance limitations. In the first part of this thesis, the properties of an NMC cell are studied. The limits of betatron stability are evaluated by a combination of analytical and numerical calculations. The NMC cell is then used for the design study of a new synchrotron called P...

  15. Studies on irradiated pixel detectors for the ATLAS IBL and HL-LHC upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00371978; Gößling, Claus; Pernegger, Heinz

    The constant demand for higher luminosity in high energy physics is the reason for the continuous effort to adapt the accelerators and the experiments. The upgrade program for the experiments and the accelerators at CERN already includes several expansion stages of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which will increase the luminosity and the energy of the accelerator. Simultaneously the LHC experiments prepare the individual sub-detectors for the increasing demands in the coming years. Especially the tracking detectors have to cope with fluence levels unprecedented for high energy physics experiments. Correspondingly to the fluence increases the impact of the radiation damage which reduces the life time of the detectors by decreasing the detector performance and efficiency. To cope with this effect new and more radiation hard detector concepts become necessary to extend the life time. This work concentrates on the impact of radiation damage on the pixel sensor technologies to be used in the next upgrade of the ...

  16. Upgrade of the LHC magnet interconnections thermal shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, Andrea; Barlow, Graeme; Bastard, Alain; Charrondiere, Maryline; Chrul, Anna; Damianoglou, Dimitrios; Deferne, Guy; Dib, Gaëlle; Duret, Max; Guinchard, Michael; Prin, Hervé; Strychalski, Michał; Craen, Arnaud Vande; Villiger, Gilles; Wright, Loren

    2014-01-01

    The about 1700 interconnections (ICs) between the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) superconducting magnets include thermal shielding at 50-75 K, providing continuity to the thermal shielding of the magnet cryostats to reduce the overall radiation heat loads to the 1.9 K helium bath of the magnets. The IC shield, made of aluminum, is conduction-cooled via a welded bridge to the thermal shield of the adjacent magnets which is actively cooled. TIG welding of these bridges made in the LHC tunnel at installation of the magnets induced a considerable risk of fire hazard due to the proximity of the multi-layer insulation of the magnet shields. A fire incident occurred in one of the machine sectors during machine installation, but fortunately with limited consequences thanks to prompt intervention of the operators. LHC is now undergoing a 2 years technical stop during which all magnet's ICs will have to be opened to consolidate the magnet electrical connections. The IC thermal shields will therefore have to be removed and re-installed after the work is completed. In order to eliminate the risk of fire hazard when re-welding, it has been decided to review the design of the IC shields, by replacing the welded bridges with a mechanical clamping which also preserves its thermal function. An additional advantage of this new solution is the ease in dismantling for maintenance, and eliminating weld-grinding operations at removal needing radioprotection measures because of material activation after long-term operation of the LHC. This paper describes the new design of the IC shields and in particular the theoretical and experimental validation of its thermal performance. Furthermore a status report of the on-going upgrade work in the LHC is given.

  17. Upgrade of the LHC magnet interconnections thermal shielding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musso, Andrea; Barlow, Graeme; Bastard, Alain; Charrondiere, Maryline; Deferne, Guy; Dib, Gaëlle; Duret, Max; Guinchard, Michael; Prin, Hervé; Craen, Arnaud Vande; Villiger, Gilles [CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research, Meyrin 1211, Geneva 23, CH (Switzerland); Chrul, Anna [The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul.Radzikowskiego 152, 31-324 Krakow (Poland); Damianoglou, Dimitrios [NTUA National Technical University of Athens, Heeron Polytechniou 9, 15780 Zografou (Greece); Strychalski, Michał [Wroclaw University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Wyb. Wyspianskiego 27, Wroclaw, 50-370 (Poland); Wright, Loren [Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4YW (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-29

    The about 1700 interconnections (ICs) between the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) superconducting magnets include thermal shielding at 50-75 K, providing continuity to the thermal shielding of the magnet cryostats to reduce the overall radiation heat loads to the 1.9 K helium bath of the magnets. The IC shield, made of aluminum, is conduction-cooled via a welded bridge to the thermal shield of the adjacent magnets which is actively cooled. TIG welding of these bridges made in the LHC tunnel at installation of the magnets induced a considerable risk of fire hazard due to the proximity of the multi-layer insulation of the magnet shields. A fire incident occurred in one of the machine sectors during machine installation, but fortunately with limited consequences thanks to prompt intervention of the operators. LHC is now undergoing a 2 years technical stop during which all magnet's ICs will have to be opened to consolidate the magnet electrical connections. The IC thermal shields will therefore have to be removed and re-installed after the work is completed. In order to eliminate the risk of fire hazard when re-welding, it has been decided to review the design of the IC shields, by replacing the welded bridges with a mechanical clamping which also preserves its thermal function. An additional advantage of this new solution is the ease in dismantling for maintenance, and eliminating weld-grinding operations at removal needing radioprotection measures because of material activation after long-term operation of the LHC. This paper describes the new design of the IC shields and in particular the theoretical and experimental validation of its thermal performance. Furthermore a status report of the on-going upgrade work in the LHC is given.

  18. Backward compatibility as a key measure for smooth upgrades to the LHC control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggiolini, V.; Csikos, D.; Tarasenko, P.; Zaharieva, Z.; Arruat, M.; Gorbosonov, R.

    2012-01-01

    It is a big challenge to smoothly upgrade the control system of a large operational accelerator such as the LHC without causing unnecessary downtime. We have identified backward compatibility as a key measure to achieve this, because a backward compatible component can be easily upgraded. This document describes the work the CERN Accelerator Controls group does to provide methods and tools supporting backward compatibility. We have identified four areas for which we want to provide tools: (1) dependency analysis to identify incoming dependencies, (2) backward compatibility validation to verify that API (Application Program Interface) changes are really backward compatible, (3) version upgrading with rules to clearly inform the dependent clients if a modification is backward compatible, and (4) API consolidation to clearly specify classes and methods belonging to the API and to enforce their appropriate usage

  19. ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition Upgrades for High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00439268; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at CERN is planning a second phase of upgrades to prepare for the "High Luminosity LHC", a 4th major run due to start in 2026. In order to deliver an order of magnitude more data than previous runs, 14 TeV protons will collide with an instantaneous luminosity of 7.5 × 1034 cm−2s−1, resulting in much higher pileup and data rates than the current experiment was designed to handle. While this extreme scenario is essential to realise the physics programme, it is a huge challenge for the detector, trigger, data acquisition and computing. The detector upgrades themselves also present new requirements and opportunities for the trigger and data acquisition system. Initial upgrade designs for the trigger and data acquisition system are shown, including the real time low latency hardware trigger, hardware-based tracking, the high throughput data acquisition system and the commodity hardware and software-based data handling and event filtering. The motivation, overall architecture and expected ...

  20. ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition Upgrades for High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00421104; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at CERN is planning a second phase of upgrades to prepare for the "High Luminosity LHC", a 4th major run due to start in 2026. In order to deliver an order of magnitude more data than previous runs, 14 TeV protons will collide with an instantaneous luminosity of $7.5 \\times 10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1}$, resulting in much higher pileup and data rates than the current experiment was designed to handle. While this extreme scenario is essential to realise the physics programme, it is a huge challenge for the detector, trigger, data acquisition and computing. The detector upgrades themselves also present new requirements and opportunities for the trigger and data acquisition system. Initial upgrade designs for the trigger and data acquisition system are shown, including the real time low latency hardware trigger, hardware-based tracking, the high throughput data acquisition system and the commodity hardware and software-based data handling and event filtering. The motivation, overall architecture an...

  1. ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition Upgrades for High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    George, Simon; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at CERN is planning a second phase of upgrades to prepare for the "High Luminosity LHC", a 4th major run due to start in 2026. In order to deliver an order of magnitude more data than previous runs, 14 TeV protons will collide with an instantaneous luminosity of 7.5 × 10^{34} cm^{−2}s^{−1}, resulting in much higher pileup and data rates than the current experiment was designed to handle. While this extreme scenario is essential to realise the physics programme, it is a huge challenge for the detector, trigger, data acquisition and computing. The detector upgrades themselves also present new requirements and opportunities for the trigger and data acquisition system. Initial upgrade designs for the trigger and data acquisition system are shown, including the real time low latency hardware trigger, hardware-based tracking, the high throughput data acquisition system and the commodity hardware and software-based data handling and event filtering. The motivation, overall architecture and ...

  2. ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition Upgrades for High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Balunas, William Keaton; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at CERN is planning a second phase of upgrades to prepare for the "High Luminosity LHC", a 4th major run due to start in 2026. In order to deliver an order of magnitude more data than previous runs, 14 TeV protons will collide with an instantaneous luminosity of $7.5 × 10^{34}$ cm$^{−2}$s$^{−1}$, resulting in much higher pileup and data rates than the current experiment was designed to handle. While this extreme scenario is essential to realise the physics programme, it is a huge challenge for the detector, trigger, data acquisition and computing. The detector upgrades themselves also present new requirements and opportunities for the trigger and data acquisition system. Initial upgrade designs for the trigger and data acquisition system are shown, including the real time low latency hardware trigger, hardware-based tracking, the high throughput data acquisition system and the commodity hardware and software-based data handling and event filtering. The motivation, overall architectur...

  3. Design and analysis of the tooling upgrade for the production of the superconductive main dipole magnet prototypes of LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2093638

    Design and analysis of the tooling upgrade for the production of the superconductive main dipole magnet prototypes of LHC Master of Science Thesis, 110 pages, 12 Appendix pages September 2013 Major: Design of machines and systems Examiner: Professor Reijo Kouhia Keywords: CERN, LHC, High Luminosity LHC project, superconductive dipole magnet, welding press, Nb$_{3}$Sn, pre-stress, Ar-inert gas furnace This thesis work has been carried out as a contribution to the development program of superconductive magnets within the LHC High Luminosity study. The thesis provides an insight to the steps that need to be taken in order to produce a superconductive magnet mainly focusing on mechanical assembly. Tooling upgrade is necessary for the production of the superconductive dipole magnet prototypes in near future. Major attention is given by the introduction of the welding assembly in chapter three. The structural compression is given by the so called shell stress defined by the thermal shrinkage of the weld. The associ...

  4. Beam-Beam Simulation of Crab Cavity White Noise for LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Qiang, J; Pieloni, Tatiana; Ohmi, Kazuhito

    2015-01-01

    High luminosity LHC upgrade will improve the luminosity of the current LHC operation by an order of magnitude. Crab cavity as a critical component for compensating luminosity loss from large crossing angle collision and also providing luminosity leveling for the LHC upgrade is being actively pursued. In this paper, we will report on the study of potential effects of the crab cavity white noise errors on the beam luminosity lifetime based on strong-strong beam-beam simulations.

  5. Conceptual Design of the LHC Interaction Region Upgrade Phase-I

    CERN Document Server

    Ostojic, R; Baglin, V; Ballarino, A; Cerutti, F; Denz, R; Fartoukh, S; Fessia, P; Foraz, K; Fürstner, M; Herr, Werner; Karppinen, M; Kos, N; Mainaud-Durand, H; Mereghetti, A; Muttoni, Y; Nisbet, D; Prin, H; Tock, J P; Van Weelderen, R; Wildner, E

    2008-01-01

    The LHC is starting operation with beam. The primary goal of CERN and the LHC community is to ensure that the collider is operated efficiently and that it achieves nominal performance in the shortest term. Since several years the community has been discussing the directions for maximizing the physics reach of the LHC by upgrading the experiments, in particular ATLAS and CMS, the LHC machine and the CERN proton injector complex, in a phased approach. The first phase of the LHC interaction region upgrade was approved by Council in December 2007. This phase relies on the mature Nb-Ti superconducting magnet technology with the target of increasing the LHC luminosity to 2 to 3 10^34 cm^-2s^-1, while maximising the use of the existing infrastructure. In this report, we present the goals and the proposed conceptual solutions for the LHC IR Upgrade Phase-I which include the recommendations of the conceptual design review.

  6. An early separation scheme for the LHC luminosity upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Sterbini, G

    2010-01-01

    The present document is organized in five chapters. In the first chapter the framework of the study is described, developing the motivations, the goals and the requirements for the LHC Luminosity Upgrade. We analyze the need for the crossing angle and its impact on the peak luminosity of the collider. After having introduced the Early Separation Scheme, we explain how it may overcome some limitations of the present machine. We compare the nominal LHC crossing scheme with the proposed one underlining its potential in terms of performance and its issues with respect to the integration in the detectors. An analysis of the integrated magnetic field required is given. In the second chapter we introduce one of the most powerful aspect of the scheme: the luminosity leveling. After the description of the physical model adopted, we compare the results of its analytical and numerical solutions. All the potential improvement due to the Early Separation Scheme are shown on the luminosity plane (peak luminosity versus int...

  7. Level-1 pixel based tracking trigger algorithm for LHC upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Moon, Chang-Seong

    2015-01-01

    The Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the tracking system of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It precisely determines the interaction point (primary vertex) of the events and the possible secondary vertexes due to heavy flavours ($b$ and $c$ quarks); it is part of the overall tracking system that allows reconstructing the tracks of the charged particles in the events and combined with the magnetic field to measure their impulsion. The pixel detector allows measuring the tracks in the region closest to the interaction point. The Level-1 (real-time) pixel based tracking trigger is a novel trigger system that is currently being studied for the LHC upgrade. An important goal is developing real-time track reconstruction algorithms able to cope with very high rates and high flux of data in a very harsh environment. The pixel detector has an especially crucial role in precisely identifying the primary vertex of the rare physics events from the large pile-up (P...

  8. Upgrade of the beam extraction system of the GTS-LHC electron cyclotron resonance ion source at CERN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivanen, V; Bellodi, G; Dimov, V; Küchler, D; Lombardi, A M; Maintrot, M

    2016-02-01

    Linac3 is the first accelerator in the heavy ion injector chain of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), providing multiply charged heavy ion beams for the CERN experimental program. The ion beams are produced with GTS-LHC, a 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source, operated in afterglow mode. Improvement of the GTS-LHC beam formation and beam transport along Linac3 is part of the upgrade program of the injector chain in preparation for the future high luminosity LHC. A mismatch between the ion beam properties in the ion source extraction region and the acceptance of the following Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) section has been identified as one of the factors limiting the Linac3 performance. The installation of a new focusing element, an einzel lens, into the GTS-LHC extraction region is foreseen as a part of the Linac3 upgrade, as well as a redesign of the first section of the LEBT. Details of the upgrade and results of a beam dynamics study of the extraction region and LEBT modifications will be presented.

  9. Silicon Strip Detectors for ATLAS at the HL-LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Hara, K; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The present ATLAS silicon strip (SCT) and transition radiation (TRT) trackers will be replaced with new silicon strip detectors, as part of the Inner Tracker System (ITK), for the Phase-2 upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider, HL-LHC. We have carried out intensive R&D programs to establish radiation harder strip detectors that can survive in a radiation level up to 3000 fb-1 of integrated luminosity based on n+-on-p microstrip detector. We describe main specifications for this year’s sensor fabrication, followed by a description of possible module integration schema

  10. A silicon strip module for the ATLAS inner detector upgrade in the super LHC collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Sevilla, S., E-mail: Sergio.Gonzalez.Sevilla@cern.ch [DPNC, University of Geneva, CH 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Barbier, G. [DPNC, University of Geneva, CH 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Anghinolfi, F. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Cadoux, F.; Clark, A. [DPNC, University of Geneva, CH 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Dabrowski, W.; Dwuznik, M. [AGH University of Sceince and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, Krakow (Poland); Ferrere, D. [DPNC, University of Geneva, CH 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Garcia, C. [IFIC, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (CSIC-Universitat de Valencia), Edificio Investigacion Paterna, Apartado 22085 46071 Valencia (Spain); Ikegami, Y. [KEK, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Hara, K. [University of Tsukuba, School of Pure and Applied Sciences, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Jakobs, K. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Kaplon, J. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Koriki, T. [KEK, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Lacasta, C. [IFIC, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (CSIC-Universitat de Valencia), Edificio Investigacion Paterna, Apartado 22085 46071 Valencia (Spain); La Marra, D. [DPNC, University of Geneva, CH 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Marti i Garcia, S. [IFIC, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (CSIC-Universitat de Valencia), Edificio Investigacion Paterna, Apartado 22085 46071 Valencia (Spain); Parzefall, U. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Pohl, M. [DPNC, University of Geneva, CH 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Terada, S. [KEK, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2011-04-21

    The ATLAS detector is a general purpose experiment designed to fully exploit the discovery potential of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a nominal luminosity of 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. It is expected that after several years of successful data-taking, the LHC physics program will be extended by increasing the peak luminosity by one order of magnitude. For ATLAS, an upgrade scenario will imply the complete replacement of the Inner Detector (ID), since the current tracker will not provide the required performance due to cumulated radiation damage and a dramatic increase in the detector occupancy. In this paper, a proposal of a double-sided silicon micro-strip module for the short-strip region of the future ATLAS ID is presented. The expected thermal performance based upon detailed FEA simulations is discussed. First electrical results from a prototype version of the next generation readout front-end chips are also shown.

  11. Magnetic Analysis of a Single-Aperture 11T Nb3Sn Demonstrator Dipole for LHC Upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auchmann, B. [CERN; Karppinen, M. [CERN; Kashikhin, V. [Fermilab; Zlobin, A. V. [Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    The planned upgrade of the LHC collimation system foresees additional collimators to be installed in the dispersion suppressor areas around points 2, 3, and 7. The necessary longitudinal space for the collimators could be provided by replacing some 8.33-T 15-m-long NbTi LHC main dipoles with shorter 11-T Nb3Sn dipoles compatible with the LHC lattice and main systems. To demonstrate this possibility, in 2011 Fermilab and CERN started a joint R&D program with the goal of building a 5.5-m-long tw in-aperture dipole prototype suitable for installation in the LHC by 2014. The first step of this program is the development of a 2-m-long single-aperture demonstration dipole with the nominal field of 11 T at the LHC nominal current of ~11.85 kA and 60-m m bore with ~20% margin. This paper presents the results of magnetic analysis of the single-aperture Nb3Sn demonstrator dipole for the LHC collimation system upgrade.

  12. The CMS ECAL Upgrade for Precision Crystal Calorimetry at the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Jofrehei, Arash

    2017-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid Experiment (CMS) is operating at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) with proton-proton collisions at 13 TeV center-of-mass energy and at a bunch spacing of 25 ns. Challenging running conditions for CMS are expected after the High-Luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC). We review the CMS ECAL crystal calorimeter upgrade and present results from the first test beam studies. Particular challenges at HL-LHC are the harsh radiation environment, the increasing data rates and the extreme level of pile-up events, with up to 200 simultaneous proton-proton collisions. Precision timing can be exploited to reduce the effect of the pile-up. We report on the timing resolution studies performed with test-beams. We discuss the new readout and trigger electronics, which must be upgraded due to the increased trigger and latency requirements at the HL-LHC.

  13. Upgrades to the SPS-to-LHC Transfer Line Beam Stoppers for the LHC High-Luminosity Era

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, Verena; Fraser, Matthew; Goddard, Brennan; Meddahi, Malika; Perillo Marcone, Antonio; Steele, Genevieve; Velotti, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Each of the 3 km long transfer lines between the SPS and the LHC is equipped with two beam stoppers (TEDs), one at the beginning of the line and one close to the LHC injection point, which need to absorb the full transferred beam. The beam stoppers are used for setting up the SPS extractions and transfer lines with beam without having to inject into the LHC. Energy deposition and thermo-mechanical simulations have, however, shown that the TEDs will not be robust enough to safely absorb the high intensity beams foreseen for the high-luminosity LHC era. This paper will summarize the simulation results and limitations for upgrading the beam stoppers. An outline of the hardware upgrade strategy for the TEDs together with modifications to the SPS extraction interlock system to enforce intensity limitations for beam on the beam stoppers will be given.

  14. LLL hydrodiagnostics upgrade program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpluk, G.T.; Innes, T.G.; Trost, S.R.

    1978-01-01

    The continued success of the nuclear weapon design and test programs is a direct result of the effective hydrodynamic programs developed at Livermore. Hydrodynamic studies provide the weapon designer with experimental verification and analysis of weapon designs through the use of explosively driven, nonfissile materials. Hydrodiagnostic techniques include (1) flash radiography; (2) high-speed photography; (3) electrical-pin diagnostics; and (4) interferometry. The focus of all hydrodynamic testing at LLL is the Site 300 Explosive Test Area located 18 miles east of Livermore. This remote, 10-mi 2 facility consists of: (1) areas for machining and assembling explosives; (2) environmental test facilities; (3) administrative and support facilities; and (4) five underground, reinforced-concrete bunkers equipped with high-speed cameras, electrical data-acquisition systems, and electron accelerators for flash radiography. The report summarizes the improvements made in radiography, optics, electronics, and interferometry, and indicates the projects that remain to be completed

  15. Upgrade of the ATLAS Calorimeters for Higher LHC Luminosities

    CERN Document Server

    Carbone, Ryne Michael; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The upgrade of the LHC will bring instantaneous and total luminosities which are a factor 5-7 beyond the original design of the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) and Tile Calorimeters and their read-out systems. Due to radiation requirements and a new hardware trigger concept the read-out electronics will be improved in two phases. In Phase-I, a dedicated read-out of the LAr Calorimeters will provide higher granularity input to the trigger, in order to mitigate pile-up effects and to reduce the background rates. In Phase-II, completely new read-out electronics will allow a digital processing of all LAr and Tile Calorimeter channels at the full 40 MHz bunch-crossing frequency and a transfer of calibrated energy inputs to the trigger. Results from system design and performance of the developed read-out components, including fully functioning demonstrator systems already operated on the detector, will be reported. Furthermore, the current Forward Calorimeter (FCal) may suffer from signal degradation and argon bubble form...

  16. Optics and lattice optimizations for the LHC upgrade project

    CERN Document Server

    Holzer, B; Chance, A; Dalena, B; Payet, J; Bogomyagkov, A; Appleby, R; Korostelev, M; Hock, K; Wolski, A; Milardi, C; Faus-Golfe, A; Resta, J

    2012-01-01

    The luminosity upgrade of the LHC collider at CERN is based on a strong focusing scheme to reach lowest values of the beta function at the collision points. Several issues have to be addressed in this context, that are considered as mid term goals for the optimisation of the lattice and beam optics: Firstly a number of beam optics have been developed to establish a baseline for the hardware R&D, and that will define the specifications for the new magnets that will be needed, in Nb$_{3}$Sn as well as in NbTi technology. Secondly, the need for sufficient flexibility of the beam optics especially for smallest β * values, the need for a smooth transition between the injection and the collision optics, the comparison of the optics performance between flat and round beams and finally different ways to optimise the chromatic correction, including the study of local correction schemes. This paper presents the status of this work, which is a result of an international collaboration, and summarises the main parame...

  17. Study with one global crab cavity at IR4 for LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Barranco, J; Morita, A; Ralph Assmann, R; Sun, Y; Tomás, R; Weiler, T; Zimmermann, F; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2009-01-01

    In this note, we discuss the possible installation and impact on the beam of a single global crab cavity (CC) for both nominal LHC optics and one upgrade LHC optics (Lowbetamax). We also summarize the results on dynamic aperture tracking, luminosity, expected closed orbits, preliminary studies on collimation cleaning efficiency, and the emittance growth due to crab cavity ramping and other sources.

  18. Performance of the first short model 150 mm aperture Nb$_3$Sn Quadrupole MQXFS for the High- Luminosity LHC upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chlachidze, G.; et al.

    2016-08-30

    The US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) and CERN combined their efforts in developing Nb3Sn magnets for the High-Luminosity LHC upgrade. The ultimate goal of this collaboration is to fabricate large aperture Nb3Sn quadrupoles for the LHC interaction regions (IR). These magnets will replace the present 70 mm aperture NbTi quadrupole triplets for expected increase of the LHC peak luminosity by a factor of 5. Over the past decade LARP successfully fabricated and tested short and long models of 90 mm and 120 mm aperture Nb3Sn quadrupoles. Recently the first short model of 150 mm diameter quadrupole MQXFS was built with coils fabricated both by the LARP and CERN. The magnet performance was tested at Fermilab’s vertical magnet test facility. This paper reports the test results, including the quench training at 1.9 K, ramp rate and temperature dependence studies.

  19. A 120 mm Bore Quadrupole for the Phase 1 LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Fessia, P; Borgnolutti, F; Regis, F; Richter, D; Todesco, E

    2010-01-01

    The phase I LHC upgrade foresees the installation of a new final focusing for the high luminosity experiences in order to be able to focus the beams in the interaction points to b*~ 0.25 cm. Key element of this upgrade is a large bore (120 mm) superconducting quadrupole. This article proposes a magnet design that will make use of the LHC main dipole superconducting cable. Due to the schedule constraints and to the budget restrictions, it is mandatory to integrate in the design the maximum number of features successfully used during the LHC construction. This paper presents this design option and the rationales behind the several technical choices.

  20. Strip detector for the ATLAS detector upgrade for the high-luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Madaffari, Daniele; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) in 2025 is being designed to maximise the physics potential of the LHC through a sizeable increase in the luminosity, reaching 1x10$^{35}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ after 10 years of operation. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage at an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb$^{-1}$, requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron fluencies to over 1x10$^{16}$ 1 MeV neutron equivalent per cm$^2$. With the addition of increased readout rates, a complete re-design of the current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) is being developed as the Inner Tracker (ITk), which will consist of both strip and pixelated silicon detectors. The physics motivations, required performance characteristics and basic design of the proposed upgrade of the strip detector will be a subject of this talk. Present ideas and solutions for the strip detector and current research and development program will be discussed.

  1. Performance of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter After Three Years of LHC Operation and Plans for a Future Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Ilic, N; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    Performance of the Liquid Argon Calorimeter during three years of LHC operation is presented. Upgrades and plans for future upgrades in order to prepare the LAr calorimeter for higher luminosity are presented.

  2. ATLAS Tracker Upgrade: Silicon Strip Detectors for the sLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Koehler, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    To extend the physics potential of the Large Hadron Colider (LHC) at CERN, upgrades of the accelerator complex and the detectors towards the Super-LHC (sLHC) are foreseen. The upgrades, separated in Phase-1 and Phase-2, aim at increasing the luminosity while leaving the energy of the colliding particles (7 TeV per proton beam) unchanged. After the Phase-2 upgrade the instantaneous luminosity will be a factor of 5-10 higher than the design luminosity of the LHC. Due to the increased track rate and extreme radiation levels for the tracking detectors, upgrades of the detectors are necessary. At ATLAS, one of the two general purpose detectors at the LHC, the current inner detector will be replaced by an all-silicon tracker. This article describes the plans for the Phase-2 upgrade of the silicon strip detector of ATLAS. Radiation hard n-in-p silicon detectors with shorter strips than currently installed in ATLAS are planned. Results of measurements with these sensors and plans for module designs will be discussed.

  3. Expected performance of the upgrade ATLAS experiment for HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Peilian; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been successfully delivering proton-proton collision data at the unprecedented center of mass energy of 13 TeV. An upgrade is planned to increase the instantaneous luminosity delivered by the LHC in what is called the HL-LHC, aiming to deliver a total of up 3000/fb to 4000/fb of data per experiment. To cope with the expected data-taking conditions ATLAS is planning major upgrades of the detector. It is now a critical time for these upgrade projects and during the last year and a half, six Technical Design Reports (TDR) were produced by the ATLAS Collaboration. In these TDRs the physics motivation and benefits of such upgrades are discussed together with details on the upgrade project itself. In this contribution we review the expected performance of the upgraded ATLAS detector and the expected reach for physics measurements as well as the discovery potential for new physics that is expected by the end of the HL-LHC data-taking. The performance of object reconstruction under...

  4. Conceptual Design of the Cryogenic System for the High-luminosity Upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodzinski, K.; Claudet, S.; Ferlin, G.; Tavian, L.; Wagner, U.; Van Weelderen, R.

    The discovery of a Higgs boson at CERN in 2012 is the start of a major program of work to measure this particle's properties with the highest possible precision for testing the validity of the Standard Model and to search for further new physics at the energy frontier. The LHC is in a unique position to pursue this program. Europe's top priority is the exploitation of the full potential of the LHC, including the high-luminosity upgrade of the machine and detectors with an objective to collect ten times more data than in the initial design, by around 2030. To reach this objective, the LHC cryogenic system must be upgraded to withstand higher beam current and higher luminosity at top energy while keeping the same operation availability by improving the collimation system and the protection of electronics sensitive to radiation. This paper will present the conceptual design of the cryogenic system upgrade with recent updates in performance requirements, the corresponding layout and architecture of the system as well as the main technical challenges which have to be met in the coming years.

  5. ATR Technical Specification Upgrade Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCracken, R.T.; Durney, J.L.; Freund, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a 250 MW, uranium-aluminum fueled test reactor which began full power operation in 1969. The initial operation was controlled by an Operating Limits document based on the original Safety Analysis Report. Additional safety bases were later developed to support Technical Specifications which were approved and implemented in 1977. The Technical Specifications which were initially developed with content and format specified in ANSI/ANS--15.1, ''The Development of Technical Specifications for Research Reactors.'' The safety basis documentation and the Technical Specifications have been updated as required to maintain them current with the ATR facility configuration. All revisions have been made with a content, format and style consistent with the original. A major, two-phase program to upgrade the content, format and style is in progress. This paper describes the first phase of this program

  6. Investigations on a Q0 Doublet Optics for the LHC Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Laface, E; Scandale, Walter; Wildner, E

    2008-01-01

    The Q0 scheme of the LHC insertion region is based on the introduction of a doublet of quadrupoles at 13 m from the IP. We present here the doublet optics and the magnets layout such as gradients, lengths, positions and apertures. In this scheme we show the gain in luminosity and chromaticity, with respect to a nominal layout with $\\beta^{*}$ = 0.25 m (i.e. LHC phase 1 upgrade) and $\\beta^{*} = 0.15 m, due to a smaller beta-max. We show the alignment tolerance and the energy deposition issues, in Q0A-Q0B. We also consider shielding the magnets with liners. The capability of Q0 optics to limit the b function could be exploited after the LHC Phase 1 upgrade in order to reduce the $\\beta^{*}$ below 0.25 m, leaving the upgraded triplet unchanged

  7. Silicon Strip Detectors for ATLAS at the HL-LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Hara, K; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    present ATLAS silicon strip tracker (SCT) and transition radiation tracker(TRT) are to be replaced with new silicon strip detectors as part of the Inner Tracker System (ITK) for the Phase-II upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider, HL-LHC. We have carried out intensive R&D programs based on n+-on-p microstrip detectors to fabricate improved radiation hard strip detectors that can survive the radiation levels corresponding to the integrated luminosity of up to 3000 fb−1. We describe the main specifications for this year’s sensor fabrication and the related R&D results, followed by a description of the candidate schema for module integration.

  8. Design and Fabrication of a Single-Aperture 11T Nb3Sn Dipole Model for LHC Upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, N.; Apollinari, G.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.; Turrioni, D.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin, A.V.; Auchmann, B.; Karppinen, M.

    2011-01-01

    The planned upgrade of the LHC collimation system includes additional collimators to be installed in the dispersion suppressor areas of points 2, 3 and 7. To provide the necessary longitudinal space for the collimators, a replacement of 8.33 T Nb-Ti LHC main dipoles with 11 T dipoles based on Nb 3 Sn superconductor compatible with the LHC lattice and main systems is being considered. To demonstrate this possibility FNAL and CERN have started a joint program to develop a 2 m long single-aperture dipole magnet with the nominal field of 11 T at ∼11.85 kA current and 60 mm bore. This paper describes the demonstrator magnet magnetic and mechanical designs and analysis, coil fabrication procedure. The Nb 3 Sn strand and cable parameters and test results are also reported.

  9. Upgrade of the protection system for superconducting circuits in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Denz, R; Formenti, F; Meß, K H; Siemko, A; Steckert, J; Walckiers, L; Strait, J

    2010-01-01

    Prior to the re-start of the Large Hadron Collider LHC in 2009 the protection system for superconducting magnets and bus-bars QPS will be substantially upgraded. The foreseen modifications will enhance the capability of the system in detecting problems related to the electrical interconnections between superconducting magnets as well as the detection of so-called aperture symmetric quenches in the LHC main magnets.

  10. Upgrade of the protection system for superconducting circuits in the LHC

    OpenAIRE

    Denz, R; Dahlerup-Petersen, K; Formenti, F; Meß, K H; Siemko, A; Steckert, J; Walckiers, L; Strait, J

    2009-01-01

    Prior to the re-start of the Large Hadron Collider LHC in 2009 the protection system for superconducting magnets and bus-bars QPS will be substantially upgraded. The foreseen modifications will enhance the capability of the system in detecting problems related to the electrical interconnections between superconducting magnets as well as the detection of so-called aperture symmetric quenches in the LHC main magnets.

  11. Upgrade of the ATLAS Hadronic Tile Calorimeter for the High Luminosity LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortajada, Ignacio Asensi

    2018-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has envisaged a series of upgrades towards a High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) delivering five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity. The ATLAS Phase II upgrade, in 2024, will accommodate the upgrade of the detector and data acquisition system for the HL-LHC. The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) will undergo a major replacement of its on- and off-detector electronics. In the new architecture, all signals will be digitized and then transferred directly to the off-detector electronics, where the signals will be reconstructed, stored, and sent to the first level of trigger at the rate of 40 MHz. This will provide better precision of the calorimeter signals used by the trigger system and will allow the development of more complex trigger algorithms. Changes to the electronics will also contribute to the reliability and redundancy of the system. Three different front-end options are presently being investigated for the upgrade, two of them based on ASICs, and a final solution will be chosen after extensive laboratory and test beam studies that are in progress. A hybrid demonstrator module is being developed using the new electronics while conserving compatibility with the current system. The status of the developments will be presented, including results from the several tests with particle beams.

  12. The CMS ECAL Upgrade for Precision Crystal Calorimetry at the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Marinelli, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid Experiment (CMS) is operating at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) with proton-proton collisions at 13 TeV center-of-mass energy and at a bunch spacing of 25 ns. New further challenging running conditions for CMS are expected after the High-Luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL--LHC). The CMS electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) will need to be upgraded to substain the hardned environment.The design and R\\ and D studies for the ECAL upgrade are presented together with first test beam studies. Particular challenges at HL--LHC are the harsh radiation environment, the increasing data rates and the extreme level of pile-up events, with up to 200 simultaneous proton-proton collisions. Precision timing can be exploited to reduce the effect of the pile-up. Time resolution measurementscarried out during test-beams are shown. Plans are also shown for R\\ and D for the new readout and trigger electronics, which must be upgraded due to the increased trigger and latency requirements at the HL--LHC

  13. Studies on irradiated pixel detectors for the ATLAS IBL and HL-LHC upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallrapp, Christian

    2015-07-01

    The constant demand for higher luminosity in high energy physics is the reason for the continuous effort to adapt the accelerators and the experiments. The upgrade program for the experiments and the accelerators at CERN already includes several expansion stages of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which will increase the luminosity and the energy of the accelerator. Simultaneously the LHC experiments prepare the individual sub-detectors for the increasing demands in the coming years. Especially the tracking detectors have to cope with fluence levels unprecedented for high energy physics experiments. Correspondingly to the fluence increases the impact of the radiation damage which reduces the life time of the detectors by decreasing the detector performance and efficiency. To cope with this effect new and more radiation hard detector concepts become necessary to extend the life time. This work concentrates on the impact of radiation damage on the pixel sensor technologies to be used in the next upgrade of the ATLAS Pixel Detector as well as for applications in the ATLAS Experiment at HL-LHC conditions. The sensors considered in this work include various designs based on silicon and diamond as sensor material. The investigated designs include a planar silicon pixel design currently used in the ATLAS Experiment as well as a 3D pixel design which uses electrodes penetrating the entire sensor material. The diamond designs implement electrodes similar to the design used by the planar technology with diamond sensors made out of single- and poly-crystalline material. To investigate the sensor properties characterization tests are performed before and after irradiation with protons or neutrons. The measurements are used to determine the interaction between the read-out electronics and the sensors to ensure the signal transfer after irradiation. Further tests focus on the sensor performance itself which includes the analysis of the leakage current behavior and the charge

  14. Studies on irradiated pixel detectors for the ATLAS IBL and HL-LHC upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallrapp, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The constant demand for higher luminosity in high energy physics is the reason for the continuous effort to adapt the accelerators and the experiments. The upgrade program for the experiments and the accelerators at CERN already includes several expansion stages of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which will increase the luminosity and the energy of the accelerator. Simultaneously the LHC experiments prepare the individual sub-detectors for the increasing demands in the coming years. Especially the tracking detectors have to cope with fluence levels unprecedented for high energy physics experiments. Correspondingly to the fluence increases the impact of the radiation damage which reduces the life time of the detectors by decreasing the detector performance and efficiency. To cope with this effect new and more radiation hard detector concepts become necessary to extend the life time. This work concentrates on the impact of radiation damage on the pixel sensor technologies to be used in the next upgrade of the ATLAS Pixel Detector as well as for applications in the ATLAS Experiment at HL-LHC conditions. The sensors considered in this work include various designs based on silicon and diamond as sensor material. The investigated designs include a planar silicon pixel design currently used in the ATLAS Experiment as well as a 3D pixel design which uses electrodes penetrating the entire sensor material. The diamond designs implement electrodes similar to the design used by the planar technology with diamond sensors made out of single- and poly-crystalline material. To investigate the sensor properties characterization tests are performed before and after irradiation with protons or neutrons. The measurements are used to determine the interaction between the read-out electronics and the sensors to ensure the signal transfer after irradiation. Further tests focus on the sensor performance itself which includes the analysis of the leakage current behavior and the charge

  15. Electronics for CMS Endcap Muon Level-1 Trigger System Phase-1 and HL LHC upgrades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madorsky, A.

    2017-07-01

    To accommodate high-luminosity LHC operation at a 13 TeV collision energy, the CMS Endcap Muon Level-1 Trigger system had to be significantly modified. To provide robust track reconstruction, the trigger system must now import all available trigger primitives generated by the Cathode Strip Chambers and by certain other subsystems, such as Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC). In addition to massive input bandwidth, this also required significant increase in logic and memory resources. To satisfy these requirements, a new Sector Processor unit has been designed. It consists of three modules. The Core Logic module houses the large FPGA that contains the track-finding logic and multi-gigabit serial links for data exchange. The Optical module contains optical receivers and transmitters; it communicates with the Core Logic module via a custom backplane section. The Pt Lookup table (PTLUT) module contains 1 GB of low-latency memory that is used to assign the final Pt to reconstructed muon tracks. The μ TCA architecture (adopted by CMS) was used for this design. The talk presents the details of the hardware and firmware design of the production system based on Xilinx Virtex-7 FPGA family. The next round of LHC and CMS upgrades starts in 2019, followed by a major High-Luminosity (HL) LHC upgrade starting in 2024. In the course of these upgrades, new Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors and more RPC chambers will be added to the Endcap Muon system. In order to keep up with all these changes, a new Advanced Processor unit is being designed. This device will be based on Xilinx UltraScale+ FPGAs. It will be able to accommodate up to 100 serial links with bit rates of up to 25 Gb/s, and provide up to 2.5 times more logic resources than the device used currently. The amount of PTLUT memory will be significantly increased to provide more flexibility for the Pt assignment algorithm. The talk presents preliminary details of the hardware design program.

  16. The CMS calorimeter trigger upgrade for the LHC Run II

    CERN Document Server

    Zabi, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    The CMS experiment implements a sophisticated two-level online selection system that achieves a rejection factor of nearly 10e5. The first level (L1) is based on coarse information coming from the calorimeters and the muon detectors while the High-Level Trigger combines fine-grain information from all sub-detectors. During Run II, the LHC will increase its centre of mass energy up to 13 TeV and progressively reach an instantaneous luminosity of 2e34 cm-2s-1. In order to guarantee a successful and ambitious physics program under this intense environment, the CMS Trigger and Data acquisition system must be consolidated. In particular the L1 calorimeter Trigger hardware and architecture will be modified. The goal is to maintain the current thresholds (e.g., for electrons and photons) and improve the performance for the selection of tau leptons. This can only be achieved by designing an updated trigger architecture based on the recent microTCA technology. Racks can be equipped with fast optical links and latest...

  17. The CMS ECAL Upgrade for Precision Crystal Calorimetry at the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Petyt, David Anthony

    2018-01-01

    The electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) of the Compact Muon Solenoid Experiment (CMS) is operating at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2016 with proton-proton collisions at 13 TeV center-of-mass energy and at a bunch spacing of 25 ns. Challenging running conditions for CMS are expected after the High-Luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC). We review the design and R and D studies for the CMS ECAL crystal calorimeter upgrade and present first test beam studies. Particular challenges at HL-LHC are the harsh radiation environment, the increasing data rates and the extreme level of pile-up events, with up to 200 simultaneous proton-proton collisions. We present test beam results of hadron irradiated PbWO$_{4}$ crystals up to fluences expected at the HL-LHC. We also report on the R and D for the new readout and trigger electronics, which must be upgraded due to the increased trigger and latency requirements at the HL-LHC.

  18. Upgrade of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter for the High luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Asensi Tortajada, Ignacio; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS detector at the LHC. It is a sampling calorimeter consisting of alternating thin steel plates and scintillating tiles. Wavelength shifting fibers coupled to the tiles collect the produced light and are read out by photomultiplier tubes. An analog sum of the processed signal of several photomultipliers serves as input to the first level of trigger. Photomultiplier signals are then digitized at 40 MHz and stored on detector and are only transferred off detector once the first level trigger acceptance has been confirmed (at a rate of maximum 100 kHz). The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has envisaged a series of upgrades towards a High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) delivering five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity. The ATLAS Phase II upgrade, in 2024, will accommodate the upgrade of the detector and data acquisition system for the HL-LHC. In particular, TileCal will undergo a major replacement of its on- and of...

  19. A proposal to upgrade the ATLAS RPC system for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    ATLAS Collaboration; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The architecture of the present trigger system in the ATLAS Muon Barrel was designed according to a reference luminosity of 10^34 cm-2 s-1 with a safety factor of 5, with respect to the simulated background rates, now confirmed by LHC Run-1 data. HL-LHC will provide a luminosity 5 times higher and an order of magnitude higher background. As a result, the performance demand increases, while the detector being susceptible to ageing effects. Moreover, the present muon trigger acceptance in the barrel is just above 70%, due to the presence of the barrel toroid structures. This scenario induced the ATLAS muon Collaboration to propose an appropriate upgrade plan, involving both detector and trigger-readout electronics, to guarantee the performance required by the physics program for the 20 years scheduled. This consists in installing a layer of new generation RPCs in the inner barrel, to increase the redundancy, the selectivity, and provide almost full acceptance. The first 10% of the system, corresponding to the e...

  20. A silicon strip module for the ATLAS inner detector upgrade in the super LHC collider

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Sevilla, S; Parzefall, U; Clark, A; Ikegami, Y; Hara, K; Garcia, C; Jakobs, K; Dwuznik, M; Terada, S; Barbier, G; Koriki, T; Lacasta, C; Unno, Y; Anghinolfi, F; Cadoux, F; Garcia, S M I; Ferrere, D; La Marra, D; Pohl, M; Dabrowski, W; Kaplon, J

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS detector is a general purpose experiment designed to fully exploit the discovery potential of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a nominal luminosity of 10(34)cm(-2)s(-1). It is expected that after several years of successful data-taking, the LHC physics program will be extended by increasing the peak luminosity by one order of magnitude. For ATLAS, an upgrade scenario will imply the complete replacement of the Inner Detector (ID), since the current tracker will not provide the required performance due to cumulated radiation damage and a dramatic increase in the detector occupancy. In this paper, a proposal of a double-sided silicon micro-strip module for the short-strip region of the future ATLAS ID is presented. The expected thermal performance based upon detailed FEA simulations is discussed. First electrical results from a prototype version of the next generation readout front-end chips are also shown. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. High-luminosity LHC prospects with the upgraded ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Slawinska, Magdalena; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Run-I at the LHC was very successful with the discovery of a new boson with properties compatible with those of the Higgs boson predicted by Standard Model. Precise measurements of the boson properties, and the discovery of physics beyond the Standard Model, are primary goals of the just restarted LHC running at 13 TeV collision energy and all future running at the LHC. The physics prospects with a pp centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV are presented for 300 and 3000 fb-1 at the high-luminosity LHC. The ultimate precision attainable on measurements of the couplings of the 125 GeV boson to elementary fermions and bosons is discussed, as well as perspectives on the searches for partners associated with it. Supersymmetry is one of the best motivated extensions of the Standard Model. The current searches at the LHC have yielded sensitivity to TeV scale gluinos and 1st and 2nd generation squarks, as well as to 3rd generation squarks and electro-weakinos in the hundreds of GeV mass range. Benchmark studies are presente...

  2. Upgrade of the ATLAS Hadronic Tile Calorimeter for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Hildebrand, Kevin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. It is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter read out via wavelength shifting fibers coupled to photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The PMT signals are digitized and stored on detector until a trigger is received. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has envisaged a series of upgrades towards a High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) delivering five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity. The ATLAS Phase II upgrade (2024-2025) will accommodate the upgrade of the detector and data acquisition system for the HL-LHC. In particular, TileCal will undergo a major replacement of its on- and off-detector electronics. In the new architecture, all signals will be digitized and then transferred directly to the off-detector electronics, where the signals will be reconstructed, stored, and sent to the first level of trigger at the rate of 40 MHz. This will provide better precision of the calorimeter signals...

  3. Upgrade of the ATLAS Hadronic Tile Calorimeter for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Hildebrand, Kevin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. It is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter read out via wavelength shifting fibers coupled to photomultiplier tubes (PMT). . The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has envisaged a series of upgrades towards a High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) delivering five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity. The ATLAS Phase II upgrade (2024-2025) will accommodate the upgrade of the detector and data acquisition system for the HL-LHC. In particular, TileCal will undergo a major replacement of its on- and off-detector electronics. In the new architecture, all signals will be digitized and sent to the first level of trigger at the rate of 40 MHz. This will provide better precision of the calorimeter signals used by the trigger system and will allow the development of more complex trigger algorithms. Changes to the electronics will also contribute to the reliability and redundancy of the system. ...

  4. Upgrade of ATLAS and CMS for High Luminosity LHC: Detector performance and Physics potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testa, M.

    2017-01-01

    The High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) is expected to start providing proton-proton collisions by 2026. In the following 10 years it will deliver about 3000 fb −1 of integrated luminosity, more than a factor 10 of the data that will be collected by the end of Run3 at LHC in 2023. For such amount of data, an instantaneous luminosity of ∼ 7.5 × 10 34 cm −2 s −1 is needed. At this luminosity an unprecedented average number of pile-up collision per bunch crossing of 200 is expected. The ATLAS and CMS detectors will be upgraded to fully exploit the HL-LHC potential in this harsh environment. In this document the performances of the ATLAS and CMS upgraded detectors will be described. Their impact on crucial measurements of the Higgs boson sector, of the vector boson fusion process and on new physics searches, will be reported as well.

  5. Towards a new LHC interaction region design for a luminosity upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James Strait et al.

    2003-01-01

    After the LHC operates for several years at nominal parameters, it will be necessary to upgrade it for higher luminosity. Replacing the low-β insertions with a higher performance design based on advanced superconducting magnets is one of the most straightforward steps in this direction. Preliminary studies show that, with magnet technology that is expected to be developed by early in the next decade, a factor of 2 to 5 reduction in β* could be achieved with new insertions, as part of an upgrade aimed at a factor of 10 luminosity increase. In this paper we survey several possible second generation LHC interaction regions designs, which address the expected limitations on LHC performance imposed by the baseline insertions

  6. Towards a new LHC Interaction Region design for a luminosity upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Strait, J; Limon, P; Mokhov, N V; Sen, T; Zlobin, A V; Brüning, Oliver Sim; Ostojic, R; Rossi, L; Ruggiero, F; Taylor, T; ten Kate, H; Devred, A; Gupta, R; Harrison, M; Peggs, S; Pilat, F; Caspi, S; Gourlay, S; Sabbi, G

    2003-01-01

    After the LHC operates for several years at nominal parameters, it will be necessary to upgrade it for higher luminosity. Replacing the low-beta insertions with a higher performance design based on advanced superconducting magnets is one of the most straightforward steps in this direction. Preliminary studies show that, with magnet technology that is expected to be developed by early in the next decade, a factor of 2 to 5 reduction in beta* could be achieved with new insertions, as part of an upgrade aimed at a factor of 10 luminosity increase. In this paper we survey several possible second generation LHC interaction regions designs, which address the expected limitations on LHC performance imposed by the baseline insertions.

  7. Low voltage powering of on-detector electronics for HL-LHC experiments upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Bobillier, Vincent; Vasey, Francois; Karmakar, Sabyasachi; Maity, Manas; Roy, Subhasish; Kundu, Tapas Kumar

    2018-01-01

    All LHC experiments will be upgraded during the next LHC long shutdowns (LS2 and LS3). The increase in resolution and luminosity and the use of more advanced CMOS technology nodes typically implies higher current consumption of the on-detector electronics. In this context, and in view of limiting the cable voltage drop, point-of-load DC-DC converters will be used on detector. This will have a direct impact on the existing powering scheme, implying new AC-DC and/or DC-DC stages as well as changes in the power cabling infrastructure. This paper presents the first results obtained while evaluating different LV powering schemes and distribution layouts for HL-LHC trackers. The precise low voltage power source requirements are being assessed and understood using the CMS tracker upgrade as a use-case.

  8. Radiation hardness of two CMOS prototypes for the ATLAS HL-LHC upgrade project

    CERN Document Server

    Huffman, B T; Arndt, K; Bates, R; Benoit, M; Di Bello, F; Blue, A; Bortoletto, D; Buckland, M; Buttar, C; Caragiulo, P; Das, D; Dopke, J; Dragone, A; Ehrler, F; Fadeyev, V; Galloway, Z; Grabas, H; Gregor, I M; Grenier, P; Grillo, A; Hoeferkamp, M; Hommels, L B A; John, J; Kanisauskas, K; Kenney, C; Kramberger, J; Liang, Z; Mandic, I; Maneuski, D; Martinez-McKinney, F; McMahon, S; Meng, L; Mikuž, M; Muenstermann, D; Nickerson, R; Peric, I; Phillips, P; Plackett, R; Rubbo, F; Segal, J; Seidel, S; Seiden, A; Shipsey, I; Song, W; Stanitzki, M; Su, D; Tamma, C; Turchetta, R; Vigani, L; olk, J; Wang, R; Warren, M; Wilson, F; Worm, S; Xiu, Q; Zhang, J; Zhu, H

    2016-01-01

    The LHC luminosity upgrade, known as the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), will require the replacement of the existing silicon strip tracker and the transistion radiation tracker. Although a baseline design for this tracker exists the ATLAS collaboration and other non-ATLAS groups are exploring the feasibility of using CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) which would be arranged in a strip-like fashion and would take advantage of the service and support structure already being developed for the upgrade. Two test devices made with theAMSH35 process (a High voltage or HV CMOS process) have been subjected to various radiation environments and have performed well. The results of these tests are presented in this paper.

  9. TileCal Trigger Tower studies considering additional segmentation on the ATLAS upgrade for high luminosity at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    March, L; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the most central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels and provides a compact information, called trigger towers (around 2000 signals), to the ATLAS first level online event selection system. The ATLAS upgrade program is divided in three phases: Phase 0 occurs during 2013- 2014 and prepares the LHC to reach peak luminosities of 10^34 cm2s-1; Phase 1, foreseen for 2018-1019, prepares the LHC for peak luminosity up to 2-3 x 10^34 cm2s-1, corresponding to 55 to 80 interactions per bunch-crossing with 25 ns bunch interval; and Phase 2 is foreseen for 2022-2023, whereafter the peak luminosity will reach 5-7 x 1034 cm2s-1 (HL-LHC). The ATLAS experiment is operating very well since 2009 providing large amount of data for physics analysis. The online event selection system (trigger system) was designed to reject the huge amount of background noise generated at LHC and is one of the main systems re...

  10. Upgrade of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter for the High luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Mlynarikova, Michaela; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS detector at the LHC. It is a sampling calorimeter consisting of alternating thin steel plates and scintillating tiles. Wavelength shifting fibers coupled to the tiles collect the produced light and are read out by photomultiplier tubes. Currently, an analog sum of the processed signal of several photomultipliers serves as input to the first level of trigger. Photomultiplier signals are then digitized and stored on detector and are only transferred off detector once the first trigger acceptance has been confirmed. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has envisaged a series of upgrades towards a High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) delivering five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity. The ATLAS Phase II upgrade, in 2024, will accommodate the detector and data acquisition system for the HL-LHC. In particular, TileCal will undergo a major replacement of its on- and off-detector electronics. All signals will be digitiz...

  11. Upgrade of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter for the High luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00236332; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS detector at the LHC. It is a sampling calorimeter consisting of alternating thin steel plates and scintillating tiles. Wavelength shifting fibers coupled to the tiles collect the produced light and are read out by photomultiplier tubes. An analog sum of the processed signal of several photomultipliers serves as input to the first level of trigger. Photomultiplier signals are then digitized and stored on detector and are only transferred off detector once the first trigger acceptance has been confirmed. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has envisaged a series of upgrades towards a High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) delivering five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity. The ATLAS Phase II upgrade, in 2024, will accommodate the detector and data acquisition system for the HL-LHC. In particular, TileCal will undergo a major replacement of its on- and off-detector electronics. All signals will be digitized and then...

  12. Strategy and issues for the LHC upgrades and fair, including longer-term prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, F

    2013-01-01

    This report discusses the time line, goals and key ingredients for the next ten years of LHC operation, including injector upgrade, for the following High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), and for the FAIR project. Results from pertinent EuCARD-WP4 workshops on optics, space charge, crab cavities, crystal collimation, and electron cloud are summarized in this context. A Large Hadron electron Collider, LHeC, would be an additional upgrade, further expanding the physics scope of the LHC, to eventually include both ep and γγ Higgs factories (LHeC-HF and SAPPHiRE). Results from relevant topical WP4 workshops are highlighted. The development of magnet and cable technology based on Nb$_{3}$Sn, and HTS, for the HL-LHC prepares the ground for a future higher-energy hadron collider, either in the LHC tunnel, “HELHC” (33 TeV c.m.), or in a new 80- or 100-km tunnel, “VHE-LHC” (100 TeV c.m.). A large new tunnel could also host an ultimate highest-precision e+e- Higgs factory collider, “TLEP,” exhibiting many synergi...

  13. The High-Luminosity upgrade of the LHC: Physics and Technology Challenges for the Accelerator and the Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Burkhard

    2016-04-01

    In the second phase of the LHC physics program, the accelerator will provide an additional integrated luminosity of about 2500/fb over 10 years of operation to the general purpose detectors ATLAS and CMS. This will substantially enlarge the mass reach in the search for new particles and will also greatly extend the potential to study the properties of the Higgs boson discovered at the LHC in 2012. In order to meet the experimental challenges of unprecedented pp luminosity, the experiments will need to address the aging of the present detectors and to improve the ability to isolate and precisely measure the products of the most interesting collisions. The lectures gave an overview of the physics motivation and described the conceptual designs and the expected performance of the upgrades of the four major experiments, ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb, along with the plans to develop the appropriate experimental techniques and a brief overview of the accelerator upgrade. Only some key points of the upgrade program of the four major experiments are discussed in this report; more information can be found in the references given at the end.

  14. Flat bunch creation and acceleration: a possible path for the LHC luminosity upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Increasing the collider luminosity by replacing bunches having Gaussian line-charge distribution with flat bunches, but with same beam-beam tune shift at collision, has been studied widely in recent years. But, creation of 'stable' flat bunches (and their acceleration) using a multiple harmonic RF system has not been fully explored. Here, we review our experience with long flat bunches in the barrier RF buckets at Fermilab.We presentsome preliminary results from beam dynamics simulations and recent beam studies in the LHC injectors to create stable flat bunches using double harmonic RF systems. The results deduced from these studies will be used to model the necessary scheme for luminosity upgrade in the LHC. We have also described a viable (and economical) way for creation and acceleration of flat bunches in the LHC. The flat bunch scheme may have many advantages over the LHC baseline scenario, particularly because of the reduced momentum spread of the bunch for increased intensities.

  15. Considerations on a Partial Energy Upgrade of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Fartoukh, Stephane; Missiaen, Dominique; Todesco, Ezio; Zimmermann, Frank

    2017-01-01

    In the frame of the HL-LHC project, a few accelerator dipole and quadrupole magnets of higher critical field and/or larger aperture are being produced. The new inner triplet quadrupoles and dispersion-suppressor dipoles are made from Nb$_{3}$Sn superconductor, which supports a higher field than the classical Nb-Ti magnets used for the LHC. For the longer term future, it has been proposed to replace a fraction of the Nb-Ti arc magnets in the LHC arcs with Nb$_{3}$Sn magnets of higher field (e.g. 11 T), in order to boost the beam energy. Here we examine several options: the replacement of every third dipole by a stronger one, the substitution of the present Nb-Ti quadrupole by Nb$_{3}$Sn combined-function magnets, the excitation of the horizontal orbit correctors, and pushing all the dipole magnets to their ultimate field. We discuss challenges and constraints, including issues related to mechanical aperture, powering, or other hardware limitations, and we estimate the potential energy reach for each of the opt...

  16. The Cryogenic Design of the Phase I Upgrade Inner Triplet Magnets for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    van Weelderen, R; Peterson, T

    2011-01-01

    The LHC is operating with beam since end 2009. However, with the present interaction region magnets it cannot reach its nominal performance and a phased approach to upgrading them to reach that nominal performance is taken. The first phase of the LHC interaction region upgrade was approved by Council in December 2007. This phase relies on the mature Nb-Ti superconducting magnet technology with the target of increasing the LHC luminosity to 2 to 3×1034 cm-2s-1, while relying on the existing infrastructure which limits the total heat removal capacity at 1.9 K to 500 W. The Phase I Upgrade LHC interaction region final focus magnets will include four superconducting quadrupoles (low-β triplets) and one superconducting dipole (D1) cooled with pressurized, static superfluid helium (HeII) at 1.9 K. The heat absorbed in pressurized HeII, which may be more than 30 W/m due to dynamic heating from the particle beam halo, will be conducted to saturated He II at about 1.9 K and removed by the low pressure vapour. This p...

  17. Assembly And Test Of A 120 MM Bore 15 T Nb3Sn Quadrupole For The LHC Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felice, H.; Caspi, S.; Cheng, D.; Dietderich, D.; Ferracin, P.; Hafalia, R.; Joseph, J.; Lizarazo, J.; Sabbi, G.L.; Wang, X.; Anerella, M.; Ghosh, A.K.; Schmalzle, J.; Wanderer, P.; Ambrosio, G.; Bossert, R.; Zlobin, A.V.

    2010-01-01

    In support of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) has been developing a 1-meter long, 120 mm bore Nb 3 Sn IR quadrupole magnet (HQ). With a design short sample gradient of 219 T/m at 1.9 K and a peak field approaching 15 T, one of the main challenges of this magnet is to provide appropriate mechanical support to the coils. Compared to the previous LARP Technology Quadrupole and Long Quadrupole magnets, the purpose of HQ is also to demonstrate accelerator quality features such as alignment and cooling. So far, 8 HQ coils have been fabricated and 4 of them have been assembled and tested in HQ01a. This paper presents the mechanical assembly and test results of HQ01a.

  18. 11 T Twin-Aperture Nb$_3$Sn Dipole Development for LHC Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Zlobin, A V; Apollinari, G; Auchmann, B; Barzi, E; Izquierdo Bermudez, S; Bossert, R; Buehler, M; Chlachidze, G; DiMarco, J; Karppinen, M; Nobrega, F; Novitski, I; Rossi, L; Smekens, D; Tartaglia, M; Turrioni, D; Velev, Genadi

    2015-01-01

    FNAL and CERN are developing a twin-aperture 11 T Nb$_{3}$Sn dipole suitable for installation in the LHC. This paper describes the design and parameters of the 11 T dipole developed at FNAL for the LHC upgrades in both single-aperture and twin-aperture configurations, and presents details of the constructed dipole models. Results of studies of magnet quench performance, quench protection and magnetic measurements performed using short 1 m long coils in the dipole mirror and single-aperture configurations are reported and discussed.

  19. 11 T Twin-Aperture Nb$_3$Sn Dipole Development for LHC Upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zlobin, A. V. [Fermilab; Andreev, N. [Fermilab; Apollinari, G. [Fermilab; Auchmann, B. [CERN; Barzi, E. [Fermilab; Izquierdo Bermudez, S. [CERN; Bossert, R. [Fermilab; Buehler, M. [Fermilab; Chlachidze, G. [Fermilab; DiMarco, J. [Fermilab; Karppinen, M. [CERN; Nobrega, F. [Fermilab; Novitski, I. [CERN; Rossi, L. [CERN; Smekens, D. [CERN; Tartaglia, M. [Fermilab; Turrioni, D. [Fermilab; Velev, Genadi [Fermilab

    2015-01-01

    FNAL and CERN are developing a twin-aperture 11 T Nb3Sn dipole suitable for installation in the LHC. This paper describes the design and parameters of the 11 T dipole developed at FNAL for the LHC upgrades in both single-aperture and twin-aperture configurations, and presents details of the constructed dipole models. Results of studies of magnet quench performance, quench protection and magnetic measurements performed using short 1 m long coils in the dipole mirror and single-aperture configurations are reported and discussed.

  20. CMS Hadron Endcap Calorimeter Upgrade Studies for Super-LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilki, Burak

    2011-01-01

    When the Large Hadron Collider approaches Super-LHC conditions above a luminosity of 10 34 cm -2 s -1 , the scintillator tiles of the CMS Hadron Endcap calorimeters will lose their efficiencies. As a radiation hard solution, the scintillator tiles are planned to be replaced by quartz plates. In order to improve the efficiency of the photodetection, various methods were investigated including radiation hard wavelength shifters, p-terphenyl or 4% gallium doped zinc oxide. We constructed a 20 layer calorimeter prototype with pTp coated plates of size 20 cm x 20 cm, and tested the hadronic and the electromagnetic capabilities at the CERN H2 beam-line. The beam tests revealed a substantial light collection increase with pTp or ZnO:Ga deposited quartz plates. Here we report on the current R and D for a viable endcap calorimeter solution for CMS with beam tests and radiation damage studies.

  1. UPGRADES

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Butler and J. Nash

    2011-01-01

    Recent progress on the CMS upgrades was summarised, in a workshop held at Fermilab between 7th and 10th November, attended by more than 150 people, many of whom came from Europe and Asia. Important goals of the workshop were to begin to formulate a schedule for the upgrades and to determine project interdependencies. Input was received from all the upgrade working groups and will be combined into a first-pass schedule over the next several weeks. In addition, technical progress on each of the major subtasks was presented and plans for the near-term future were established. Slides from the more than 100 talks are located at: https://indico.cern.ch/conferenceDisplay.py?confId=153564 In the opening plenary session, Frank Zimmermann, of the CERN Beams Department, gave his view of the LHC luminosity evolution. The luminosity will increase faster than we assumed in designing the upgrades. CMS will need to re-evaluate the current upgrade plans and revise them if necessary. CMS Upgrade Physics coordinator...

  2. The CMS Outer Tracker Upgrade for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Luetic, Jelena

    2017-01-01

    The era of the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider will pose unprecedented challenges for detector design and operation. The planned luminosity of the upgraded machine is $5$x$10^{34} $ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$, reaching an integrated luminosity of more than 3000 fb$^{-1}$ by the end of 2037. The CMS Tracker detector will have to be replaced in order to fully exploit the delivered luminosity and cope with the demanding operating conditions. The new detector will provide robust tracking as well as input for the first level trigger. This report is focusing on the replacement of the CMS Outer Tracker system, describing the new layout and technological choices together with some highlights of research and development activities.

  3. Performance of Drift-Tube Detectors at High Counting Rates for High-Luminosity LHC Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Bittner, Bernhard; Kortner, Oliver; Kroha, Hubert; Manfredini, Alessandro; Nowak, Sebastian; Ott, Sebastian; Richter, Robert; Schwegler, Philipp; Zanzi, Daniele; Biebel, Otmar; Hertenberger, Ralf; Ruschke, Alexander; Zibell, Andre

    2016-01-01

    The performance of pressurized drift-tube detectors at very high background rates has been studied at the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) at CERN and in an intense 20 MeV proton beam at the Munich Van-der-Graaf tandem accelerator for applications in large-area precision muon tracking at high-luminosity upgrades of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The ATLAS muon drifttube (MDT) chambers with 30 mm tube diameter have been designed to cope with and neutron background hit rates of up to 500 Hz/square cm. Background rates of up to 14 kHz/square cm are expected at LHC upgrades. The test results with standard MDT readout electronics show that the reduction of the drift-tube diameter to 15 mm, while leaving the operating parameters unchanged, vastly increases the rate capability well beyond the requirements. The development of new small-diameter muon drift-tube (sMDT) chambers for LHC upgrades is completed. Further improvements of tracking e?ciency and spatial resolution at high counting rates will be achieved with ...

  4. Quench Protection Studies of the 11-T $Nb_3Sn$ Dipole for LHC Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Izquierdo Bermudez, Susana; BAJAS, Hugues; Bajko, Marta; Bordini, Bernardo; Bottura, Luca; Chlachidze, Guram; Karppinen, Mikko; Rysti, Juho; Savary, Frederic; Willering, Gerard; Zlobin, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The planned upgrade of the LHC collimation system foresees additional collimators to be installed in the dispersion suppressor areas. Fermilab and CERN are developing an 11 T Nb$_{3}$Sn dipole to replace some 8.33 T-15-m-long Nb-Ti LHC main dipoles providing longitudinal space for the collimators. In case of a quench, the large stored energy and the low copper stabilizer fraction make the protection of the 11 T Nb$_{3}$Sn dipoles challenging. This paper presents the results of quench protection analysis, including quench protection heater design and efficiency, quench propagation and coil heating. The numerical results are compared with the experimental data from the 2-m-long Nb$_{3}$Sn dipole models. The validated model is used to predict the current decay and hot spot temperature under operating conditions in the LHC and the presently foreseen magnet protection scheme is discussed.

  5. The LHC machine: from beam commissioning to operation and future upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannozzi, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the current status of the LHC. General machine parameters are reviewed and the beam commissioning process is presented, showing the evolution of the machine’s performance over recent years. The highlights of the powerful complex of injectors are described, in order to provide a global picture of the impressive performance of CERN’s flagship machine, which relies on both the astonishing quality of the LHC itself and the incredible flexibility of the injectors. The focus is on proton physics performance, with emphasis on the different possible scenarios leading to an upgrade of the LHC performance. Finally, the prospects for the development of the machine into the far future are briefly discussed.

  6. Upgrade of the LHC Schottky Monitor, Operational Experience and First Results

    CERN Document Server

    Betz, Michael; Lefèvre, Thibaut; Wendt, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    The LHC Schottky system allows the measurement of beam parameters such as tune and chromaticity in an entirely non-invasive way by extracting information from the statistical fluctuations in the incoherent motion of particles. The system was commissioned in 2011 and provided satisfactory beam-parameter measurements during LHC run 1 for lead-ions. However, for protons its usability was substantially limited due to strong interfering signals originating from the coherent motion of the particle bunch. The system has recently been upgraded with optimized travelling-wave pick-ups and an improved 4.8~GHz microwave signal path, with the front-end and the triple down-mixing chain optimized to reduce coherent signals. Design and operational aspects for the complete system are shown and the results from measurements with LHC beams in Run II are presented and discussed.

  7. Fibre optics cabling design for LHC detectors upgrade using variable radiation induced attenuation model

    CERN Document Server

    Shoaie, Mohammad Amin; Machado, Simao; Ricci, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Foreseen upgrades over the next decades enable LHC to operate at a higher luminosity (HL-LHC). Accordingly, the optical links designed to transmit particle collision data need to be hardened against increased radiation level, allowing for a reliable communication. In this paper we study the fibre cabling design of a link between the transceiver optical front-end and the data control room. The radiation penalty calculation takes temperature drop down to ‒30°C into account. The proposed solution concatenates radiation-resistance and conventional fibres using multi-fibre interconnections. The end-to-end link loss during HL-LHC lifetime is estimated strictly less than 3.5 dB complying with predefined margin.

  8. Energy Deposition Studies for the LHC Insertion Region Upgrade Phase-I

    CERN Document Server

    Cerutti, F; Ferrari, A; Mereghetti, A; Wildner, E

    2010-01-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is starting operation with beam, aiming to achieve nominal performance in the shortest term, the upgrade of the LHC interaction regions is actively pursued in order to enhance the physics reach of the machine. Its first phase, with the target of increasing the LHC luminosity to 2-3 1034cm-2s-1, relies on the mature Nb-Ti superconducting magnet technology and is intended to maximize the use of the existing infrastructure. The impact of the increased power of the collision debris has been investigated through detailed energy deposition studies, considering the new aperture requirements for the low-ß quadrupoles and a number of other elements in the insertions. Effective solutions in terms of shielding options and design/layout optimization have been envisaged and the crucial factors have been pointed out.

  9. Sensor R&D for the CMS Tracker Upgrade for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Behnamian, Hadi

    2014-01-01

    At an instantaneous luminosity of $5\\times 10^{34} cm^{-2} s^{-1}$, the high-luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) is expected to deliver a total of 3000 $fb^{-1}$ of collisions, hereby increasing the discovery potential of the LHC experiments significantly. However, the radiation environment of the tracking system will be severe, requiring new radiation hard sensors for the CMS tracker. The CMS tracker collaboration has almost completed a large material investigation and irradiation campaign to identify the silicon material and design that fulfills all requirements of a new tracking detector at HL-LHC. Focusing on the upgrade of the outer tracker region, pad diodes as well as fully functional strip sensors have been implemented on silicon wafers with different material properties and thicknesses. The samples were irradiated with a mixture of neutrons and protons corresponding to fluences as expected for various positions in the future tracker. The measurements performed on the structures inc...

  10. Upgrade of the ATLAS Silicon Tracker for the sLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Minano, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    While the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will start taking data this year, scenarios for a machine upgrade to achieve a much higher luminosity are being developed. In the current planning, it is foreseen to increase the luminosity of the LHC at CERN around 2016 by about an order of magnitude, with the upgraded muchine dubbed Super-LHC or SLHC. As radiation damage scales with integrated luminosity, the particle physics experiments at the SLHC will need to be equipped with a new generation of radiation-hard detectors. This is of particular importance for the semiconductor tracking detectors located close to the LHC interaction region, where the higest radiation doses occur. The ATLAS experiment will require a new particle tracking system for SLHC operation. In order to cope with the increase in background events by about one order of magnitude at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector with enhanced radiation hardness is being designed. The new silicon strip detector will use significantly shorter stri...

  11. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Fukun; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment. TileCal will undergo a major replacement of its on- and off-detector electronics in 2024 for the high luminosity program of the LHC. The calorimeter signals will be digitized and sent directly to the off-detector electronics, where the signals are reconstructed and transmitted to the first level of trigger at a rate of 40 MHz. This will provide a better precision of the calorimeter signals used by the trigger system and will allow the development of more complex trigger algorithms. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Extensive test beam studies are being employed to determine which option will be selected. The off-detector electronics are based on the Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) standard and are equipped with high performance optical connectors. The system is designed to operate in a high radiation envi...

  12. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Fukun; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS cover-ing the central region of the ATLAS experiment. TileCal will undergo a major replacement of its on- and off-detector electronics in 2024 for the high luminosity program of the LHC. The calorimeter signals will be digitized and sent directly to the off-detector electronics, where the signals are reconstructed and shipped to the first level of trigger at a rate of 40 MHz. This will provide a better precision of the calorimeter signals used by the trigger system and will allow the development of more complex trigger algorithms. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Extensive test beam studies are being employed to determine which option will be selected. The off-detector electronic is based on the Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) standard and is equipped with high performance optical connectors. The system is designed to operate in a high radiation environmen...

  13. The CMS Pixel Detector Upgrade and R\\&D for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Viliani, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    The High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) at CERN is expected to collide protons at a centre-of-mass energy of 14\\,TeV and to reach an unprecedented peak instantaneous luminosity of $5 \\times 10^{34}\\,{\\rm cm}^{-2} {\\rm s}^{-1}$ with an average number of pileup events of 140. This will allow the ATLAS and CMS experiments to collect integrated luminosities of up to $3000\\,{\\rm fb}^{-1}$ during the project lifetime. To cope with this extreme scenario the CMS detector will be substantially upgraded before starting the HL-LHC, a plan known as CMS Phase-2 Upgrade. In the upgrade the entire CMS silicon pixel detector will be replaced and the new detector will feature increased radiation hardness, higher granularity and capability to handle higher data rate and longer trigger latency. In this report the Phase-2 Upgrade of the CMS silicon pixel detector will be reviewed, focusing on the features of the detector layout and on the development of new pixel devices.

  14. Performance of the first short model 150 mm aperture Nb$_3$Sn Quadrupole MQXFS for the High-Luminosity LHC upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Chlachidze, G; Anerella, M; Bossert, R; Cavanna, E; Cheng, D; Dietderich, D; DiMarco, J; Felice, H; Ferracin, P; Ghosh, A; Grosclaude, P; Guinchard, M; Hafalia, A R; Holik, E; Izquierdo Bermudez, S; Krave, S; Marchevsky, M; Nobrega, F; Orris, D; Pan, H; Perez, J C; Prestemon, S; Ravaioli, E; Sabbi, G L; Salmi, T; Schmalzle, J; Stoynev, S; Strauss, T; Sylvester, C; Tartaglia, M; Todesco, E; Vallone, G; Velev, G; Wanderer, P; Wang, X; Yu, M

    2017-01-01

    The US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) and CERN combined their efforts in developing Nb$_{3}$Sn magnets for the High-Luminosity LHC upgrade. The ultimate goal of this collaboration is to fabricate large aperture Nb$_{3}$Sn quadrupoles for the LHC interaction regions (IR). These magnets will replace the present 70 mm aperture NbTi quadrupole triplets for expected increase of the LHC peak luminosity by a factor of 5. Over the past decade LARP successfully fabricated and tested short and long models of 90 mm and 120 mm aperture Nb$_{3}$Sn quadrupoles. Recently the first short model of 150 mm diameter quadrupole MQXFS was built with coils fabricated both by the LARP and CERN. The magnet performance was tested at Fermilab’s vertical magnet test facility. This paper reports the test results, including the quench training at 1.9 K, ramp rate and temperature dependence studies.

  15. Magnet R and D for the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourlay, S.A.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Anerella, M.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Caspi, S.; Dietderich, D.R.; Ferracin, P.; Gupta, R.; Ghosh, A.; Hafalia, A.R.; Hannaford, C.R.; Harrison, M.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lietzke, A.F.; Mattafirri, S.; McInturff, A.D.; Nobrega, F.; Novitsky, I.; Sabbi, G.L.; Schmazle, J.; Stanek, R.; Turrioni, D.; Wanderer, P.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    In 2004, the US DOE established the LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) with the goal of developing a technology base for future upgrades of the LHC. The focus of the magnet program, which is a collaboration of three US laboratories, BNL, FNAL and LBNL, is on development of high gradient quadrupoles using Nb 3 Sn superconductor. Other program components address issues regarding magnet design, radiation-hard materials, long magnet scale-up, quench protection, fabrication techniques and conductor and cable R and D. This paper presents an overall view of the program with emphasis on the current quadrupole project and outlines the long-term goals of the program

  16. GIF++: A new CERN Irradiation Facility to test large-area particle detectors for the High-Luminosity LHC program

    CERN Document Server

    Guida, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) upgrade is setting a new challenge for particle detector technologies. The increase in luminosity will produce a higher particle background with respect to present conditions. To study performance and stability of detectors at LHC and future HL-LHC upgrades, a new dedicated facility has been built at CERN: the new Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++). The GIF++ is a unique place where high energy charged particle beams (mainly muons) are combined with gammas from a 14 TBq 137Cesium source which simulates the background radiation expected at the LHC experiments. Several centralized services and infrastructures are made available to the LHC detector community to facilitate the different R&D; programs.

  17. Upgrade of the ATLAS Muon Barrel Trigger for HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, Marino; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The present ATLAS muon trigger in the barrel region (|eta|<1.05) is based on three layers of RPC chambers. It was designed to run for 10 years at the LHC luminosity of 10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1} and operated successfully and with high selectivity during the first run of the LHC. In order to ensure a stable performance of the RPCs until 2035 at the higher rates and at luminosities of 5-7x10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1} provided by HL-LHC, the chambers will have to be operated with reduced gas gain to respect the original design limits on currents and integrated charge. The ATLAS muon collaboration proposes an upgrade of the system by installing an inner layer of new generation RPCs during the LHC shutdown expected for the year 2023. This new layer will increase the system redundancy and therefore allow operation with high efficiency and high selectivity during the HL-LHC phase. The insertion of this new layer will also increase the geometrical acceptance in the barrel region from 75% to 95%. Moreover, the additional measu...

  18. Upgrade of the ATLAS Muon Barrel Trigger for HL-LHC.

    CERN Document Server

    Biondi, Silvia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The present ATLAS muon trigger in the barrel region (|η | < 1.05) is based on three layers of RPC chambers. It was designed to run for 10 years at the LHC luminosity of 1034cm−2s−1 and operated successfully and with high selectivity during the first run of the LHC. In order to ensure a stable performance of the RPCs until 2035 at the higher rates and at luminosities of 5−7x1034cm−2s−1 provided by HL-LHC, the chambers will have to be operated with reduced gas gain to respect the original design limits on currents and integrated charge. The ATLAS muon collaboration proposes an upgrade of the system by installing an inner layer of new generation RPCs during the LHC shutdown expected for the year 2023. This new layer will increase the system redundancy and therefore allow operation with high efficiency and high selectivity during the HL-LHC phase. The insertion of this new layer will also increase the geometrical acceptance in the barrel region from 75% to 95%. Moreover, the additional measurements ...

  19. Upgrade Plans for ATLAS Forward Calorimetry for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Krieger, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The upgrade of the LHC Collider foresees increased instantaneous luminosity 3-7 times the original design value of 10$^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$. The increased particle flux at this high luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC) will have an impact on many sub-systems of the ATLAS detector. In particular, in the LAr forward calorimeter (FCal), which was designed for operation at LHC luminosities, the associated increase in the ionization load at HL-LHC luminosities poses a number of problems that can degrade its performance, related to beam heating, space charge effects in the LAr gaps and HV drop due to increased current draws over the HV current-limiting resistors. One solution to these problems, which would require the opening of both ATLAS endcap cryostats, is the construction and installation of a new FCal, with cooling loops, narrower LAr gaps, and lower value protection resistors. The signal performance of the current FCal and of a possible narrow-gap FCal has been measured in a dedicated test-beam campaign ...

  20. A Forward Silicon Strip System for the ATLAS HL-LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Wonsak, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The LHC is successfully accumulating luminosity at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV this year. At the same time, plans are rapidly progressing for a series of upgrades, culminating roughly eight years from now in the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project. The HL-LHC is expected to deliver approximately five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity, resulting in a total integrated luminosity of around 3000 fb-1 by 2030. The ATLAS experiment has a rather well advanced plan to build and install a completely new Inner Tracker (IT) system entirely based on silicon detectors by 2020. This new IT will be made from several pixel and strip layers. The silicon strip detector system will consist of single-sided p-type detectors with five barrel layers and six endcap (EC) disks on each forward side. Each disk will consist of 32 trapezoidal objects dubbed “petals”, with all services (cooling, read-out, command lines, LV and HV power) integrated into the petal. Each petal will contain 18 silicon sensors grouped in...

  1. Summary of Test Results of MQXFS1—The First Short Model 150 mm Aperture Nb$_3$Sn Quadrupole for the High-Luminosity LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Stoynev, S; Anerella, M; Bossert, R; Cavanna, E; Cheng, D; Dietderich, D; DiMarco, J; Felice, H; Ferracin, P; Chlachidze, G; Ghosh, A; Grosclaude, P; Guinchard, M; Hafalia, A R; Holik, E; Izquierdo Bermudez, S; Krave, S; Marchevsky, M; Nobrega, F; Orris, D; Pan, H; Perez, J C; Prestemon, S; Ravaioli, E; Sabbi, G; Salmi, T; Schmalzle, J; Strauss, T; Sylvester, C; Tartaglia, M; Todesco, E; Vallone, G; Velev, G; Wanderer, P; Wang, X; Yu, M

    2017-01-01

    The development of $Nb_3Sn$ quadrupole magnets for the High-Luminosity LHC upgrade is a joint venture between the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP)* and CERN with the goal of fabricating large aperture quadrupoles for the LHC in-teraction regions (IR). The inner triplet (low-β) NbTi quadrupoles in the IR will be replaced by the stronger Nb$_{3}$Sn magnets boosting the LHC program of having 10-fold increase in integrated luminos-ity after the foreseen upgrades. Previously LARP conducted suc-cessful tests of short and long models with up to 120 mm aperture. The first short 150 mm aperture quadrupole model MQXFS1 was assembled with coils fabricated by both CERN and LARP. The magnet demonstrated strong performance at the Fermilab’s verti-cal magnet test facility reaching the LHC operating limits. This paper reports the latest results from MQXFS1 tests with changed pre-stress levels. The overall magnet performance, including quench training and memory, ramp rate and temperature depend-ence, is also sum...

  2. Optics Designs of Final-Focus Systems for Future LHC Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Abelleira, J L; Zimmermann, Frank; Rivkin, Leonid

    2014-01-01

    The main topic of the thesis is the study of a novel option for the high-luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) comprising a large Piwinski angle, flat beams, and crab waists. Flat beams and crab waists are not only pre-requisites for a crab-waist scheme, but, even by themselves; each of these two elements alone could boost the luminosity of the existing collider as built. The new optics involves an upgrade of the interaction region of the two high-luminosity experiments, ATLAS and CMS, in order to provide them with a substantially higher luminosity. To this end, a flat-beam optics scenario has been explored for the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), with a much reduced vertical beta function at the interaction point (IP), $\\beta_y^*$. In addition, a large Piwinski angle is considered. Advantages of a large Piwinski angle include a reduction in the hourglass effect over the length of the collision area, which allows for the significant $\\beta_y^*$ decrease. In addition there is a reduction of the be...

  3. The CMS Tracker Upgrade for HL-LHC\\\\ Sensor R$\\&$D

    CERN Document Server

    Naseri, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    At an instantaneous luminosity of 5~$\\times10^{34}~cm^{-2}~s^{-1}$, the high-luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) is expected to deliver a total of 3000~fb$^{-1}$ of collisions, hereby increasing the discovery potential of the LHC experiments significantly. However, the radiation environment of the tracking system will be severe, requiring new radiation hard sensors for the CMS tracker. Focusing on the upgrade of the outer tracker region, the CMS tracker collaboration has almost completed a large material investigation and irradiation campaign to identify the silicon material and design that fulfils all requirements of a new tracking detector at HL-LHC. Focusing on the upgrade of the outer tracker region, pad diodes as well as fully functional strip sensors have been implemented on silicon wafers with different material properties and thicknesses. The samples were irradiated with a mixture of neutrons and protons corresponding to fluences as expected for various positions in the future track...

  4. Future proton and mixed-field irradiation facilities with slow extraction for LHC operation phase and for LHC upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Assmann, Ralph Wolfgang; Brugger, Markus; Efthymiopoulos, Ilias; Feldbaumer, Eduard; Garrido, Mar Capeans; Glaser, Maurice; Kramer, Daniel; Linssen, Lucie; Losito, Roberto; Moll, Michael; Rembser, Christoph; Silari, Marco; Thurel, Yves; Tsesmelis, Emmanuel; Vincke, Helmut; CERN. Geneva. The LHC experiments Committee; LHCC

    2010-01-01

    In the present proposal we present the need for improved proton and mixed-field irradiation facilities with slow beam extraction at CERN. Strong needs are expressed by both the detector and accelerator communities and concern the LHC operation era as well as the upgrades of machine and experiments. The current facilities and test areas have a number of limitations and drawbacks. Preliminary studies indicate that there are possibilities for a coherent and cost-effective approach towards improved facilities for the future. The aim of this document is to inform the LHCC and seek its recognition for the need of such facilities. In addition we would appreciate the support of the LHCC for pursuing further implementation studies at a PS East Hall location.

  5. ATLAS Tracker Upgrade: Silicon Strip Detectors and Modules for the sLHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefebvre, Michel; Minano Moya, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    It is foreseen to increase the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN by a factor ten, with the upgraded machine dubbed Super-LHC or sLHC. The ATLAS experiment will require a new tracker for sLHC operation. In order to cope with the increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. The new strip detector will use significantly shorter strips than the current SCT in order to minimise the occupancy. As the increased luminosity will mean a corresponding increase in radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is required. Extensive R programmes are underway to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness. In parallel, new front-end electronics and readout systems are being designed to cope with the higher data rates. The challenges of powering and cooling a very large strip detector will be discussed. Ideas on possible schemes for the layout and support mechanics will be shown. (authors)

  6. ATLAS Tracker Upgrade: Silicon Strip Detectors for the sLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Koehler, M

    2010-01-01

    It is foreseen to increase the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN by a factor ten, with the upgraded machine dubbed Super-LHC or sLHC. The ATLAS experiment will require a new tracker for sLHC operation. In order to cope with the increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. The new strip detector will use significantly shorter strips than the current SCT in order to minimise the occupancy. As the increased luminosity will mean a corresponding increase in radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is required. Extensive R&D programmes are underway to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness. In parallel, new front-end electronics and readout systems are being designed to cope with the higher data rates. The challenges of powering and cooling a very large strip detector will be discussed. Ideas on possible schemes for the layout and support mechanics will be shown. A key issue ...

  7. A level-1 pixel based track trigger for the CMS HL-LHC upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    We present feasibility studies to investigate the performances and interest of a Level-1 trigger based on pixels. The Level-1 (real-time) pixel based tracking trigger is a novel trigger system that is based on the real-time track reconstruction algorithms able to cope with very high rates and high flux of data in a very harsh environment. The pixel detector has an especially crucial role in precisely identifying the primary vertex of the rare physics events from the large pile-up (PU) of events. The goal of adding the pixel information already at the real-time level of the selection is to help reducing the total level-1 trigger rate while keeping an high selection capability. This is quite an innovative and challenging objective for the experiments upgrade for the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC).

  8. B Physics at the HL-LHC with the upgraded CMS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Fiorendi, Sara

    2018-01-01

    The high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) run, which is due to start in 2026, is expected to deliver an integrated luminosity of approximately 3000 fb$^-1$ at a pp center of mass value of 14 TeV. Significant upgrades of the CMS detector are foreseen to withstand the highly-demanding operating conditions and to fully exploit the delivered luminosity. More precise investigations of rare decays in the flavour sector will be possible thanks to the large collected data sample. The perspectives for the measurements of the $B^0_s \\to \\mu^+\\mu^-$ and $B^0 \\to \\mu^+\\mu^-$ branching fractions are reported, together with the projections for the exclusion limit on the $\\tau \\to 3\\mu$ branching fraction.

  9. Accelerator Magnet Quench Heater Technology and Quality Control Tests for the LHC High Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2132435; Seifert, Thomas

    The High Luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) foresees the installation of new superconducting Nb$_{3}$Sn magnets. For the protection of these magnets, quench heaters are placed on the magnet coils. The quench heater circuits are chemically etched from a stainless steel foil that is glued onto a flexible Polyimide film, using flexible printed circuit production technology. Approximately 500 quench heaters with a total length of about 3000 m are needed for the HL-LHC magnets. In order to keep the heater circuit electrical resistance in acceptable limits, an approximately 10 µm-thick Cu coating is applied onto the steel foil. The quality of this Cu coating has been found critical in the quench heater production. The work described in this thesis focuses on the characterisation of Cu coatings produced by electrolytic deposition, sputtering and electron beam evaporation. The quality of the Cu coatings from different manufacturers has been assessed for instance by ambient temperature electrica...

  10. Development and Test of a Single-Aperture 11 T $ \\hbox{Nb}_{3}\\hbox{Sn}$ Demonstrator Dipole for LHC Upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zlobin, A. V.; Andreev, N.; Apollinari, G.; Auchmann, B.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Chlachidze, G.; Karppinen, M.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.; Rossi, L.; Smekens, D.; Turrioni, D.; Yamada, R.

    2013-06-01

    The upgrade of the LHC collimation system foresees installation of additional collimators around the LHC ring. The longitudinal space for the collimators could be provided by replacing some 8.33 T NbTi LHC main dipoles with shorter 11 T Nb3Sn dipoles compatible with the LHC lattice and main systems. To demonstrate this possibility, FNAL and CERN have started a joint program with the goal of building a 5.5 m long twin-aperture dipole prototype suitable for installation in the LHC. The first step of this program is the development of a 2 m long single-aperture demonstrator dipole with a nominal field of 11 T at the LHC nominal current of 11.85 kA and ~ 20% margin. This paper describes the design, construction, and test results of the first single-aperture Nb3Sn demonstrator dipole model.

  11. Pixel Sensors with slim edges and small pitches for the CMS upgrades for HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2084134; Bolla, Gino; Rivera, Ryan Allen; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Zoi, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Planar n-in-n silicon detectors with small pitches and slim edges are being investigated for the innermost layers of tracking devices for the foreseen upgrades of the LHC. Sensor prototypes compatible with the CMS readout, fabricated by Sintef, were tested in the laboratory and with a 120~GeV/c proton beam at the Fermilab test beam facility before and after irradiation with up to 2x10$^{15}$ n$_{eq}/$cm$^2$ fluence. Preliminary results of the data analysis are presented.

  12. Construction and Bench Testing of a Rotatable Collimator for the LHC Collimation Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    The Phase II upgrade to the LHC collimation system calls for complementing the 30 high robust Phase I graphite secondary collimators with 30 high Z Phase II collimators. The Phase II collimators must be robust in various operating conditions and accident scenarios. This paper reports on the final construction and testing of the prototype collimator to be installed in the SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) at CERN. Bench-top measurements will demonstrate that the device is fully operational and has the mechanical and vacuum characteristics acceptable for installation in the SPS.

  13. Pixel sensors with slim edges and small pitches for the CMS upgrades for HL-LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernieri, Caterina, E-mail: cvernier@fnal.gov [Fermilab, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Bolla, Gino; Rivera, Ryan; Uplegger, Lorenzo [Fermilab, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Zoi, Irene [Fermilab, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); University of Florence, Firenze, 50121 (Italy)

    2017-02-11

    Planar n-in-n silicon detectors with small pitches and slim edges are being investigated for the innermost layers of tracking devices for the foreseen upgrades of the LHC experiments. Sensor prototypes compatible with the CMS readout, fabricated by Sintef, were tested in the laboratory and with a 120 GeV/c proton beam at the Fermilab test beam facility before and after irradiation with up to 2×10{sup 15} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2} fluence. Preliminary results of the data analysis are presented.

  14. Quench Protection Studies of 11T Nb$_3$Sn Dipole Models for LHC Upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zlobin, Alexander [Fermilab; Chlachidze, Guram [Fermilab; Nobrega, Alfred [Fermilab; Novitski, Igor [Fermilab; Karppinen, Mikko [CERN

    2014-07-01

    CERN and FNAL are developing 11 T Nb3Sn dipole magnets for the LHC collimation system upgrade. Due to the large stored energy, protection of these magnets during a quench is a challenging problem. This paper reports the results of experimental studies of key quench protection parameters including longitudinal and radial quench propagation in the coil, coil heating due to a quench, and energy extraction and quench-back effect. The studies were performed using a 1 m long 11 T Nb3Sn dipole coil tested in a magnetic mirror configuration.

  15. Upgrade programs. Status and prospective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loyer, F.

    1998-01-01

    Arguments for launching a renovation program for GANIL system, taking into account aging and wear, are analyzed. A statistics of failures related to vacuum systems, power supplies, electronics, cooling systems, beam dumps and other equipment is given. The renovation program is targeted to: replacement of obsolete components, introduction of advanced systems of failure diagnosis, augmentation of performances of the new regulating and control system and improvement in the performance characteristics of certain fundamental equipment. The first results and to date status of the program development is reported. Mentioned are the works related to control of HF cavities and the associated amplifiers, electronics, the system of cavity synchronization, power supply, RMN, system commutation grid, pumping equipment, etc. Also, improvements concerning the machine data acquisition and online processing are referred to as well as program cost estimations

  16. The FELIX experimental program and future upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, L.R.; Praeg, W.F.; Lari, R.J.; Wehrle, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    As part of the DOE First Wall/Blanket/Shield (FW/B/S) Engineering Test Program, Argonne National Laboratory FELIX (Fusion ELectromagnetic Induction EXperiment to study electromagnetic effects. T.he earliest test will select and verify appropriate eddy current simulation computer program (codes), followed by component concept tests, component model tests, and finally tests with prototypes. This paper describes the experimental and computer code plans and future upgrades for the FELIX facility

  17. Aurora oil switch upgrade program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, T.

    1989-03-01

    This report describes the short pulse synchronization requirements, the original Aurora trigger scheme, and the PI/SNLA approach to improving the synchronization. It also describes the oil switching design study undertaken as the first phase of the program. A discussion of oil-switch closure analysis and the conceptual design motivated by this analysis are presented. This paper also describes the oil-switch trigger pulser tests required to validate the concept. This includes the design of the testing facility, a description of the test goals, and a discussion of the results. This paper finally describes oil-switch trigger pulser testing on one of the four Aurora Blumlein modules, which includes the hardware design and operation, the testing goals, hardware installation, and test results. 9 refs., 26 figs

  18. Performance Limits and IR Design Challenges of a Possible LHC Luminosity Upgrade Based on Nb-Ti SC Magnet Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Brüning, Oliver Sim; Ostojic, R; Rossi, L; Ruggiero, F; Scandale, Walter; Taylor, T

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the maximum LHC performance for a standard IR design based on classical NbTi insertion magnets. We include in our analysis a ternary Nb-based ductile allow such as NbTi(Ta), a less developed but relatively cheap superconducting material which may allow to gain about 1 T in the peak field in the coils, and discuss the corresponding luminosity reach for a possible LHC upgrade compared to that based on Nb$_{3}$Sn magnets.

  19. Prospects of a search for $t\\bar{t}$ resonances at the High Luminosity LHC with an upgraded ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Duncan, Anna Kathryn; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    A study of the expected mass reach of a search for new high-mass resonances decaying to a top quark pair using a simulation of the upgraded ATLAS experiment and using an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb$^{-1}$ from the High Luminosity LHC has been made. The simulation of the upgraded ATLAS experiment under HL-LHC conditions, including pileup, was done using parameterised estimates of the performance. Expected upper limits are set on the cross section of a $t\\bar{t}$ resonance in a benchmark model for several signal masses and show that particles with masses up to 4 TeV can be seen.

  20. SLC Energy Upgrade Program at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loew, G.A.; Allen, M.A.; Cassel, R.L.; Dean, N.R.; Konrad, G.T.; Koontz, R.F.; Lebacqz, J.V.

    1985-03-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) must reach a nominal center-of-mass energy of 100 GeV to fulfill its high energy physics goals. This paper describes the energy upgrade program that is being implemented on the SLAC linear accelerator to meet these goals. It includes a discussion of the design requirements and available technical options, the rationale for the adopted solution, and the technical problems involved in the engineering and production of klystrons and modulators

  1. SLC energy upgrade program at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loew, G.A.; Allen, M.A.; Cassel, R.L.; Dean, N.R.; Konrad, G.T.; Koontz, R.F.; Lebacqz, J.V.

    1985-01-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) must reach a nominal center-of-mass energy of 100 GeV to fulfill its high energy physics goals. This paper describes the energy upgrade program that is being implemented on the SLAC linear accelerator to meet these goals. It includes a discussion of the design requirements and available technical options, the rationale for the adopted solution, and the technical problems involved in the engineering and production of klystrons and modulators

  2. The SLC energy upgrade program at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loew, G.A.; Allen, M.A.; Cassel, R.L.; Dean, N.R.; Konrad, G.T.; Koontz, R.F.; Lebaaqz, J.V.

    1985-01-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) must reach a nominal center-of-mass energy of 100 GeV to fulfill its high energy physics goals. This paper describes the energy upgrade program that is being implemented on the SLAC linear accelerator to meet these goals. It includes a discussion of the design requirements and available technical options, the rationale for the adopted solution, and the technical problems involved in the engineering and production of klystrons and modulators

  3. The INFN R\\&D: new pixel detector for the High Luminosity Upgrade of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Dinardo, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    The High Luminosity upgrade of the CERN-LHC (HL-LHC) demands for a new high-radiation tolerant solid-state pixel sensor capable of surviving fluencies up to a few $10^{16}$~ particles/cm$^2$ at $\\sim$3~cm from the interaction point. To this extent the INFN ATLAS-CMS joint research activity, in collaboration with Fondazione Bruno Kessler-FBK, is aiming at the development of thin n-in-p type pixel sensors for the HL-LHC. The R\\&D covers both planar and single-sided 3D columnar pixel devices made with the Si-Si Direct Wafer Bonding technique, which allows for the production of sensors with 100~$\\mu {\\rm m}$ and 130~$\\mu {\\rm m}$ active thickness for planar sensors, and 130~$\\mu {\\rm m}$ for 3D sensors, the thinnest ones ever produced so far. First prototypes of hybrid modules bump-bonded to the present CMS and ATLAS readout chips have been tested in beam tests. Preliminary results on their performance before and after irradiation are presented.

  4. Supersymmetry Reach of Tevatron Upgrades and LHC in Gauge-mediated Supersymmetry-breaking Models

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Y

    2002-01-01

    We examine signals for sparticle production at the Fermilab Tevatron and the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) within the framework of gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking models. We divide our analysis into four different model lines, each of which leads to qualitatively different signatures. We identify cuts to enhance the signal above Standard Model backgrounds, and use ISAJET to evaluate the SUSY reach of experiments at the Fermilab Main Injector and at its luminosity upgrades and also at the LHC. We examine the reach of the LHC via the canonical E/ and multilepton channels that have been advocated within the mSUGRA framework. For the model lines that we have examined, we find that the reach is at least as large, and frequently larger, than in the mSUGRA framework. For two of these model lines, we find that the ability to identify b-quarks and τ-leptons with high efficiency and purity is essential for the detection of the signal.

  5. Designing the Four Rod Crab Cavity for the High-Luminosity LHC upgrade.

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Ben

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents the design for a novel compact crab cavity for the HL-LHC upgrade at CERN, Geneva. The LHC requires 400MHz RF cavities that can provide up to 10MV transverse gradient across two to three cavities with suit- ably low surface fields for continual operation. As a result, a cavity design was required that would be optimised to these new parameters. From initial design studies based on Jefferson Laboratory’s CEBAF deflector, extensive optimiza- tion was carried out to design a superconducting crab cavity, dubbed the Four Rod Crab Cavity (4RCC). The design underwent several iterations throughout the course of the project due to changing requirements from CERN, particularly space requirements inside the LHC. In addition, it was decided that a focus on field flatness was required. An aluminium prototype was then constructed from the finalised and computer-simulated design to confirm the designed field flat- ness. Additional computer simulation studies using CST were performed to en-...

  6. The ATLAS Tracker Upgrade Short Strips Detectors for the sLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Soldevila, U; Lacasta, C; Marti i García, S; Miñano, M

    2010-01-01

    It is foreseen to increase the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN around 2018 by about an order of magnitude, with the upgraded machine dubbed Super-LHC or sLHC. The ATLAS experiment will require a new tracker for SLHC operation. In order to cope with the order of magnitude increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. The new strip detector will use significantly shorter strips than the current SCT in order to minimise the occupancy. As the increased luminosity will mean a corresponding increase in radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is required. A massive R&D programme is underway to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness. New front-end electronics and readout systems are being designed to cope with the higher data rates. The challenges of powering and cooling a very large strip detector will be discussed. Ideas on possible schemes for the layout and support mechanics ...

  7. Models and experimental results from the wide aperture Nb-Ti magnets for the LHC upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Kirby, G.; Bajko, M.; Charrondiere, M.; Bourcey, N.; Datskov, V.I.; Fessia, P.; Feuvrier, J.; Galbraith, P.; Tabares, A. Garcia; Garcia-Perez, J.; Granieri, P.; Hagen, P.; Lorin, C.; Perez, J.C.; Russenschuck, S.; Sahner, T.; Segreti, M.; Todesco, E.; Willering, G.

    2013-01-01

    MQXC is a Nb-Ti quadrupole designed to meet the accelerator quality requirements needed for the phase-1 LHC upgrade, now superseded by the high luminosity upgrade foreseen in 2021. The 2-m-long model magnet was tested at room temperature and 1.9 K. The technology developed for this magnet is relevant for other magnets currently under development for the high-luminosity upgrade, namely D1 (at KEK) and the large aperture twin quadrupole Q4 (at CEA). In this paper we present MQXC test results, some of the specialized heat extraction features, spot heaters, temperature sensor mounting and voltage tap development for the special open cable insulation. We look at some problem solving with noisy signals, give an overview of electrical testing, look at how we calculate the coil resistance during at quench and show that the heaters are not working We describe the quench signals and its timing, the development of the quench heaters and give an explanation of an Excel quench calculation and its comparison including the ...

  8. High Intensity Beam Test of Low Z Materials for the Upgrade of SPS-to-LHC Transfer Line Collimators and LHC Injection Absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Maciariello, Fausto; Butcher, Mark; Calviani, Marco; Folch, Ramon; Kain, Verena; Karagiannis, Konstantinos; Lamas Garcia, Inigo; Lechner, Anton; Nuiry, Francois-Xavier; Steele, Genevieve; Uythoven, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of the LHC Injector Upgrade (LIU) and High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, the collimators in the SPS-to LHC transfer lines will undergo important modifications. The changes to these collimators will allow them to cope with beam brightness and intensity levels much increased with respect to their original design parameters: nominal and ultimate LHC. The necessity for replacement of the current materials will need to be confirmed by a test in the High Radiation to Materials (HRM) facility at CERN. This test will involve low Z materials (such as Graphite and 3-D Carbon/Carbon composite), and will recreate the worst case scenario those materials could see when directly impacted by High luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) or Batch Compression Merging and Splitting (BCMS) beams. Thermo-structural simulations used for the material studies and research, the experiment preparation phase, the experiment itself, pre irradiation analysis (including ultrasound and metrology tests on the target materials), the resul...

  9. UPGRADES

    CERN Multimedia

    Didier Contardo

    2012-01-01

      The CMS Upgrade Programme is making good progress on the LS1 and Phase 1 projects, in the planning for Phase 2. The construction of the ME4/2 muon chambers to be installed during LS1 has started and the two first CSC production chambers have been fully qualified. The three muon groups have recently established a set of milestones towards the completion of their project, that will be integrated in the detailed planning and scheduling for the shutdown work established by Technical Coordination. The project to replace the photo-detectors in the HF and HO calorimeters is also well advanced and at the validation stage. The operation of an HF slice with new multi-anode PMTs and back-end electronics has already been demonstrated in 2012. For the Phase 1 data-taking, as discussed in the Chamonix workshop, it is likely that the LHC performance will exceed the nominal luminosity and pile-up before the second shutdown, still scheduled in 2018. The collaboration is therefore pursuing a strategy to upgrade ...

  10. Proposal for the award of a contract for the upgrade of clean and waste water systems for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the upgrade of clean and waste water systems for the LHC. Following a market survey carried out among 61 firms in thirteen Member States, a call for tenders (IT-3176/ST/LHC) was sent on 28 May 2003 to four firms and four consortia in six Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received six tenders from two firms and four consortia in five Member States. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with ABB (CH), the lowest bidder, for the upgrade of clean and waste water systems for the LHC for a total amount of 920 000 Swiss francs, not subject to revision. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: DE - 35%; FR - 31%; CH - 17%; SE - 13%; DK - 4%.

  11. A Time-Multiplexed Track-Trigger for the CMS HL-LHC upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    A new CMS Tracker is under development for operation at the High Luminosity LHC from 2025. It includes an outer tracker based on special modules of two different types which will construct track stubs using spatially coincident clusters in two closely spaced sensor layers, to reject low transverse momentum track hits and reduce the data volume before data transmission to the Level-1 trigger. The tracker data will be used to reconstruct track segments in dedicated processors before onward transmission to other trigger processors which will combine tracker information with data originating from the calorimeter and muon detectors, to make the final L1 trigger decision. The architecture for processing the tracker data outside the detector is under study, using several alternative approaches. One attractive possibility is to exploit a Time Multiplexed design similar to the one which is currently being implemented in the CMS calorimeter trigger as part of the Phase I trigger upgrade. The novel Time Multiplexed Trig...

  12. L1 track trigger for the CMS HL-LHC upgrade using AM chips and FPGAs

    CERN Document Server

    Fedi, Giacomo

    2017-01-01

    The increase of luminosity at the HL-LHC will require the introduction of tracker information in CMS's Level-1 trigger system to maintain an acceptable trigger rate when selecting interesting events, despite the order of magnitude increase in minimum bias interactions. To meet the latency requirements, dedicated hardware has to be used. This paper presents the results of tests of a prototype system (pattern recognition mezzanine) as core of pattern recognition and track fitting for the CMS experiment, combining the power of both associative memory custom ASICs and modern Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices. The mezzanine uses the latest available associative memory devices (AM06) and the most modern Xilinx Ultrascale FPGAs. The results of the test for a complete tower comprising about 0.5 million patterns is presented, using as simulated input events traversing the upgraded CMS detector. The paper shows the performance of the pattern matching, track finding and track fitting, along with the latency...

  13. Low mass hybrid pixel detectors for the high luminosity LHC upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Gonella, Laura; Desch, Klaus

    2013-11-11

    Reducing material in silicon trackers is of major importance for a good overall detector performance, and poses severe challenges to the design of the tracking system. To match the low mass constraints for trackers in High Energy Physics experiments at high luminosity, dedicated technological developments are required. This dissertation presents three technologies to design low mass hybrid pixel detectors for the high luminosity upgrades of the LHC. The work targets specifically the reduction of the material from the detector services and modules, with novel powering schemes, flip chip and interconnection technologies. A serial powering scheme is prototyped, featuring a new regulator concept, a control and protection element, and AC-coupled data transmission. A modified flip chip technology is developed for thin, large area Front-End chips, and a via last Through Silicon Via process is demonstrated on existing pixel modules. These technologies, their developments, and the achievable material reduction are dis...

  14. Resistive plate chambers for 2013-2014 muon upgrade in CMS at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colafranceschi, S.; Sharma, A.; Chudasama, R.; Pant, L.M.; Mohanty, A.K.; Sehgal, R.; Sehgal, S.T.; Thomas, R.G.; Bhandari, V.; Chand, S.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, S.; Singh, A.; Singh, V.; Aly, S.; Aly, R.; Elkafrawy, T.; Ibrahim, A.; Radi, A.; Sayed, A.

    2014-01-01

    During 2013 and 2014 (Long Shutdown LS1) the CMS experiment is upgrading the forward region installing a fourth layer of RPC detectors in order to complete and improve the muon system performances in the view of the foreseen high luminosity run of LHC. The new two endcap disks consists of 144 double-gap RPC chambers assembled at three different production sites: CERN, Ghent (Belgium) and BARC (India). The chamber components as well as the final detectors are subjected to full series of tests established in parallel at all the production sites. All assembly and test operations have been engineered in order to standardize and improve detector production. In this work the complete chamber construction, quality control procedures and preliminary results will be detailed

  15. Trapped Mode Study For A Rotatable Collimator Design For The LHC Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Liling; Ng, Cho-Kuen; Smith, Jeffery Claiborne; Caspers, Fritz; /SLAC /CERN

    2009-06-23

    A rotatable collimator is proposed for the LHC phase II collimation upgrade. When the beam crosses the collimator, it will excite trapped modes that can contribute to the beam energy loss and power dissipation on the vacuum chamber wall. Transverse trapped modes can also generate transverse kicks on the beam and may thus affect the beam quality. In this paper, the parallel eigensolver code Omega3P is used to search for all the trapped modes below 2 GHz in two collimator designs, one with rectangular and the other with circular vacuum chamber. It is found that the longitudinal trapped modes in the circular vacuum chamber design may cause excessive heating. Adding ferrite tiles on the circular vacuum chamber wall can strongly damp these trapped modes. We will present and discuss the simulation results.

  16. A level-1 pixel based track trigger for the CMS HL-LHC upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Moon, Chang-Seong

    2016-01-01

    We present feasibility studies to investigate the performance and interest of a Level-1 trigger based on pixels. The Level-1 (real-time) pixel based tracking trigger is a novel trigger system that is based on real-time track reconstruction algorithms able to cope with very high rates and high flux of data in a very harsh environment. The pixel detector has an especially crucial role in precisely identifying the primary vertex of rare physics events from the large pile-up of events. The goal of adding the pixel information already at the real-time level of the selection is to help reducing the total Level-1 trigger rate while keeping a high selection capability. This is quite an innovative and challenging objective for the upgrade of the experiments for the High Luminosity LHC.

  17. Nonlinear Correction Schemes for the Phase 1 LHC Insertion Region Upgrade and Dynamic Aperture Studies

    CERN Document Server

    de Maria, R; Tomás, R

    2009-01-01

    The Phase 1 LHC Interaction Region (IR) upgrade aims at increasing the machine luminosity essentially by reducing the beam size at the Interaction Point (IP). This requires a total redesign of the full IR. A large set of options has been proposed with conceptually different designs. This paper reports on a general approach for the compensation of the multipolar errors of the IR magnets in the design phase. The goal is to use the same correction approach for the different designs. The correction algorithm is based on the minimization of the differences between the IR transfer map with errors and the design IR transfer map. Its performance is tested using the dynamic aperture as figure of merit. The relation between map coefficients and resonance terms is also given as a way to target particular resonances by selecting the right map coefficients. The dynamic aperture is studied versus magnet aperture using recently established relations between magnetic errors and magnet aperture.

  18. Updates on Performance of Physics Objects with the Upgraded CMS detector for High Luminosity LHC.

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    This document contains a collection of performance plots obtained with the simulation of the upgrade Phase2 CMS detector for HL-LHC at the centre of mass energy of 14 TeV. Two pileup scenarios with and average = 140 and 200 collisions per event have been considered. We present updated results compared to the Technical Proposal (CMS-TDR-15-02) and Scope Document (CERN-LHCC-2015-019) for: track, muon, jet reconstruction and btagging performance. In addition, a set of plots containing studies of performance as a function of the linear pile up density along the beam axis are presented for tracking, vertexing, b-tagging, tau identification, muon isolation and missing $E_T$ resolution.

  19. Study of Quench Protection for the Nb$_3$Sn Low-β Quadrupole for the LHC Luminosity Upgrade (HiLumi-LHC)

    CERN Document Server

    Todesco, E; Bellomo, G; Sorbi, M; Ambrosio, G; Chlachidze, G; Felice, H; Marchevsky, M; Salmi, T

    2015-01-01

    The HiLumi program is aiming to develop and build new Nb$_{3}$Sn, high-field (12 T) and large aperture (150 mm) superconducting quadrupoles, which will be inserted in the LHC interaction regions and will provide the final focusing of the beam, in the program of the luminosity upgrade. The quench protection of these magnets is one of the most challenging aspects, mainly because of the large value of the magnet inductance (160 mH for the configuration with two 8 m long magnets in series), of the large value of the stored magnetic energy density in the coils (0.12 J/mm3, a factor 2 larger than in the conventional NbTi quadrupoles) and of the use of Nb$_{3}$Sn as conductor, which has never been used for large accelerator magnets. Previous works have demonstrated that a “standard” conservative analysis, assuming quench heaters only on the coils outer layer, gives high hot spot temperature, close to the design limit (350 K). In this paper, a new study of quench protection is presented. The benefic effects of la...

  20. Alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector upgraded for the LHC Run II

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00386283; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS is a multipurpose experiment at the LHC proton-proton collider. Its physics goals require high resolution, unbiased measurement of all charged particle kinematic parameters. These critically depend on the layout and performance of the tracking system, notably quality of its offline alignment. ATLAS is equipped with a tracking system built using different technologies, silicon planar sensors (pixel and micro-strip) and gaseous drift- tubes, all embedded in a 2T solenoidal magnetic field. For the LHC Run II, the system has been upgraded with the installation of a new pixel layer, the Insertable B-layer (IBL). Offline track alignment of the ATLAS tracking system has to deal with about 700,000 degrees of freedom (DoF) defining its geometrical parameters. The task requires using very large data sets and represents a considerable numerical challenge in terms of both CPU time and precision. The adopted strategy uses a hierarchical approach to alignment, combining local and global least squares techniques. An o...

  1. Alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector Upgraded for the LHC Run II

    CERN Document Server

    Butti, Pierfrancesco; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS is a multipurpose experiment at the LHC proton-proton collider. Its physics goals require high resolution, unbiased measurement of all charged particle kinematic parameters. These critically depend on the layout and performance of the tracking system, notably quality of its offline alignment. ATLAS is equipped with a tracking system built using different technologies, silicon planar sensors (pixel and micro-strip) and gaseous drift- tubes, all embedded in a 2T solenoidal magnetic field. For the LHC Run II, the system has been upgraded with the installation of a new pixel layer, the Insertable B-layer (IBL). Offline track alignment of the ATLAS tracking system has to deal with about 700,000 degrees of freedom (DoF) defining its geometrical parameters. The task requires using very large data sets and represents a considerable numerical challenge in terms of both CPU time and precision. The adopted strategy uses a hierarchical approach to alignment, combining local and global least squares techniques. An o...

  2. Upgraded readout electronics for the ATLAS LAr Calorimeter at the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Andeen, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters produce a total of 182,486 signals which are digitized and processed by the front-end and back-end electronics at every triggered event. In addition, the front-end electronics is summing analog signals to provide coarsely grained energy sums, called trigger towers, to the first-level trigger system, which is optimized for nominal LHC luminosities. However, the pile-up noise expected during the High Luminosity phases of LHC will be increased by factors of 3 to 7. An improved spatial granularity of the trigger primitives is therefore proposed in order to improve the identification performance for trigger signatures, like electrons or photons, at high background ejection rates. For the first upgrade phase [1] in 2018, new digital tower builder boards (sTBB) are being designed to receive higher granularity signals, digitize them on detector and send them via fast optical links to a new digital processing system (DPS). The DPS applies a digital filtering and identifies sig...

  3. Upgraded Readout Electronics for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters at the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Andeen, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters produce a total of 182,486 signals which are digitized and processed by the front-end and back-end electronics at every triggered event. In addition, the front-end electronics is summing analog signals to provide coarsely grained energy sums, called trigger towers, to the first-level trigger system, which is optimized for nominal LHC luminosities. However, the pile-up noise expected during the High Luminosity phases of LHC will be increased by factors of 3 to 7. An improved spatial granularity of the trigger primitives is therefore proposed in order to improve the identification performance for trigger signatures, like electrons or photons, at high background ejection rates. For the first upgrade phase cite{pahse1loi} in 2018, new LAr Trigger Digitizer Boards (LTDB) are being designed to receive higher granularity signals, digitize them on detector and send them via fast optical links to a new digital processing system (DPS). The DPS applies a digital filtering and id...

  4. Upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters for the High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    McCarthy, Tom; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The increased particle flux at the high luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), with instantaneous luminosities of up to 7.5 times the original design value, will have an impact on many sub-systems of the ATLAS detector. This contribution highlights the particular impacts on the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter system, together with an overview of the various upgrade plans leading up to the HL-LHC. The higher luminosities are of particular importance for the forward calorimeters (FCal), where the expected increase in the ionization load poses a number of problems that can degrade the FCal performance such as beam heating and space-charge effects in the liquid argon gaps and high-voltage drop due to increased current drawn over the current-limiting resistors. A proposed FCal replacement as a way to counter some of these problems is weighed against the risks associated with the replacement. To further mitigate the effects of increased pile-up, the installation of a high-granularity timing detector...

  5. Upgrade readout and trigger electronics for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters for future LHC running

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanaka, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters produce almost 200K signals that must be digitized and processed by the front-end and back-end electronics at every triggered event. Additionally, the front-end electronics sums analog signals to provide coarse-grained energy sums to the first-level (L1) trigger system. The current design was optimized for the nominal LHC luminosity of 10^34 cm^-2s^-1. However, in future higher-luminosity phases of LHC operation, the luminosity (and associated pile-up noise) will be 3-7 times higher. An improved spatial granularity of the trigger primitives is therefore proposed, in order to improve the trigger performance at high background rejection rates. For the first upgrade phase in 2018, new LAr Trigger Digitizer Boards are being designed to receive the higher granularity signals, digitize them on-detector and send them via fast optical links to a new digital processing system (DPS). This applies digital filtering and identifies significant energy depositions in each trigger ch...

  6. Upgraded readout and trigger electronics for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters for future LHC running

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanaka, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters produce almost 200K signals that must be digitized and processed by the front-end and back-end electronics at every triggered event. Additionally, the front-end electronics sums analog signals to provide coarse-grained energy sums to the first-level (L1) trigger system. The current design was optimized for the nominal LHC luminosity of 10^34 cm^-2s^-1. However, in future higher-luminosity phases of LHC operation, the luminosity (and associated pile-up noise) will be 3-7 times higher. An improved spatial granularity of the trigger primitives is therefore proposed, in order to improve the trigger performance at high background rejection rates. For the first upgrade phase in 2018, new LAr Trigger Digitizer Boards are being designed to receive the higher granularity signals, digitize them on-detector and send them via fast optical links to a new digital processing system (DPS). This applies digital filtering and identifies significant energy depositions in each trigger ch...

  7. Upgrade of the ATLAS Monitored Drift Tube Frontend Electronics for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Junjie; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS monitored drift tube (MDT) chambers are the main component of the precision tracking system in the ATLAS muon spectrometer. The MDT system is capable of measuring the sagitta of muon tracks to an accuracy of 60 μm, which corresponds to a momentum accuracy of about 10% at pT=1 TeV. To cope with large amount of data and high event rate expected from the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) upgrade, ATLAS plans to use the MDT detector at the first-trigger level to improve the muon transverse momentum resolution and reduce the trigger rate. The new MDT trigger and readout system will have an output event rate of 1 MHz and a latency of 6 us at the first-level trigger. The signals from MDT tubes are first processed by an Amplifier/Shaper/Discriminator (ASD) ASIC, and the binary differential signals output by the ASDs are then router to the Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC) ASIC, where the arrival times of leading and trailing edges are digitized in a time bin of 0.78 ns which leads to an RMS timing error of 0.25 n...

  8. Thin n-in-p planar pixel modules for the ATLAS upgrade at HL-LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savic, N.; Bergbreiter, L.; Breuer, J.; La Rosa, A.; Macchiolo, A.; Nisius, R.; Terzo, S.

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment will undergo a major upgrade of the tracker system in view of the high luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC) foreseen to start around 2025. Thin planar pixel modules are promising candidates to instrument the new pixel system, thanks to the reduced contribution to the material budget and their high charge collection efficiency after irradiation. New designs of the pixel cells, with an optimized biasing structure, have been implemented in n-in-p planar pixel productions with sensor thicknesses of 270 μm. Using beam tests, the gain in hit efficiency is investigated as a function of the received irradiation fluence. The outlook for future thin planar pixel sensor productions will be discussed, with a focus on thin sensors with a thickness of 100 and 150 μm and a novel design with the optimized biasing structure and small pixel cells (50×50 and 25×100 μm"2). These dimensions are foreseen for the new ATLAS read-out chip in 65 nm CMOS technology and the fine segmentation will represent a challenge for the tracking in the forward region of the pixel system at HL-LHC. To predict the performance of 50×50 μm"2 pixels at high η, FE-I4 compatible planar pixel sensors have been studied before and after irradiation in beam tests at high incidence angle with respect to the short pixel direction. Results on cluster shapes, charge collection- and hit efficiency will be shown.

  9. Thin n-in-p planar pixel modules for the ATLAS upgrade at HL-LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savic, N., E-mail: natascha.savic@mpp.mpg.de; Bergbreiter, L.; Breuer, J.; La Rosa, A.; Macchiolo, A.; Nisius, R.; Terzo, S.

    2017-02-11

    The ATLAS experiment will undergo a major upgrade of the tracker system in view of the high luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC) foreseen to start around 2025. Thin planar pixel modules are promising candidates to instrument the new pixel system, thanks to the reduced contribution to the material budget and their high charge collection efficiency after irradiation. New designs of the pixel cells, with an optimized biasing structure, have been implemented in n-in-p planar pixel productions with sensor thicknesses of 270 μm. Using beam tests, the gain in hit efficiency is investigated as a function of the received irradiation fluence. The outlook for future thin planar pixel sensor productions will be discussed, with a focus on thin sensors with a thickness of 100 and 150 μm and a novel design with the optimized biasing structure and small pixel cells (50×50 and 25×100 μm{sup 2}). These dimensions are foreseen for the new ATLAS read-out chip in 65 nm CMOS technology and the fine segmentation will represent a challenge for the tracking in the forward region of the pixel system at HL-LHC. To predict the performance of 50×50 μm{sup 2} pixels at high η, FE-I4 compatible planar pixel sensors have been studied before and after irradiation in beam tests at high incidence angle with respect to the short pixel direction. Results on cluster shapes, charge collection- and hit efficiency will be shown.

  10. Low mass hybrid pixel detectors for the high luminosity LHC upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonella, Laura

    2013-10-15

    Reducing material in silicon trackers is of major importance for a good overall detector performance, and poses severe challenges to the design of the tracking system. To match the low mass constraints for trackers in High Energy Physics experiments at high luminosity, dedicated technological developments are required. This dissertation presents three technologies to design low mass hybrid pixel detectors for the high luminosity upgrades of the LHC. The work targets specifically the reduction of the material from the detector services and modules, with novel powering schemes, flip chip and interconnection technologies. A serial powering scheme is prototyped, featuring a new regulator concept, a control and protection element, and AC-coupled data transmission. A modified flip chip technology is developed for thin, large area Front-End chips, and a via last Through Silicon Via process is demonstrated on existing pixel modules. These technologies, their developments, and the achievable material reduction are discussed using the upgrades of the ATLAS pixel detector as a case study.

  11. Upgrade of the ATLAS Muon System for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Amelung, Christoph; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The muon spectrometer of the ATLAS detector will be significantly upgraded during the Phase-II upgrade in Long Shutdown 3 in order to cope with the operational conditions at the High-Luminosity LHC in Run 4 and beyond. Most of the electronics for the Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC), Thin Gap Chambers (TGC), and Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) chambers will be replaced to make them compatible with the higher trigger rates and longer latencies necessary for the new level-0 trigger. The MDT chambers will be integrated into the level-0 trigger in order to sharpen the momentum threshold. Additional RPC chambers will be installed in the inner barrel layer to increase the acceptance and robustness of the trigger. Some of the MDT chambers in the inner barrel layer will be replaced with new small-diameter MDTs. New TGC triplet chambers in the barrel-endcap transition region will replace the current TGC doublets to suppress the high trigger rate from random coincidences in this region. The power system for the RPC, TGC, and ...

  12. Low mass hybrid pixel detectors for the high luminosity LHC upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonella, Laura

    2013-10-01

    Reducing material in silicon trackers is of major importance for a good overall detector performance, and poses severe challenges to the design of the tracking system. To match the low mass constraints for trackers in High Energy Physics experiments at high luminosity, dedicated technological developments are required. This dissertation presents three technologies to design low mass hybrid pixel detectors for the high luminosity upgrades of the LHC. The work targets specifically the reduction of the material from the detector services and modules, with novel powering schemes, flip chip and interconnection technologies. A serial powering scheme is prototyped, featuring a new regulator concept, a control and protection element, and AC-coupled data transmission. A modified flip chip technology is developed for thin, large area Front-End chips, and a via last Through Silicon Via process is demonstrated on existing pixel modules. These technologies, their developments, and the achievable material reduction are discussed using the upgrades of the ATLAS pixel detector as a case study.

  13. FE-I4 Chip Development for Upgraded ATLAS Pixel Detector at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Barbero, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    A new ATLAS pixel chip FE-I4 has been developed for use in upgraded LHC luminosity environments, including the near-term Insertable B-Layer upgrade. FE-I4 is designed in a 130 nm CMOS technology, presenting advantages in terms of radiation tolerance and digital logic density compared to the 0.25 μm CMOS technology used for the current ATLAS pixel IC, FE-I3. FE-I4 architecture is based on an array of 80×336 pixels, each 50×250 μm2, consisting of analog and digital sections. The analog pixel section is designed for low power consumption and compatibility to several sensor candidates. It is based on a two-stage architecture with a pre-amp AC-coupled to a second stage of amplification. It features leakage current compensation circuitry, local 4-bit pre-amp feedback tuning and a discriminator locally adjusted through 5 configuration bits. The digital architecture is based on a 4-pixel unit called Pixel Digital Region (PDR) allowing for local storage of hits in 5-deep data buffers at pixel level for the duratio...

  14. A proposal for the GridPixel Tracker for the ATLAS sLHC upgrade.

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    A proposal for GridPix Tracker for the ATLAS sLHC upgrade. F. Hartjes, M.Fransen, W. Koppert, K.Konovalov, S.Morozov, A.Romaniouk, M. Rogers, H. van der Graaf. A concept of the GridPix detector as a tracker for the ATLAS Inner Detector proposed for SLHC upgrade is presented. The detector can combine precise vector tracking function and particle identification features using a transition radiation and dE/dX measurements. Test beam and MC studies of the tracking and the particle identification properties have been performed with the dedicated GridPix prototype. Data was taken with the different gas mixtures. Special accuracy achieved in the test beam is ~30 m. For one layer of the GridPix detector a vector angular accuracy of about 10 mrad was obtained. It was shown that for one layer of the real detector at very realistic conditions one should expect angular accuracy better than 5 mrad. For particle identification studies detector was filled with a Xe/CO2(70/30) mixture. A block of a transition radiation ra...

  15. A Multivariate Approach to Dilepton Analyses in the Upgraded ALICE Detector at CERN-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2242451; Weber, Michael

    ALICE, the dedicated heavy-ion experiment at CERN-LHC, will undergo a major upgrade in 2019/20. This work aims to assess the feasibility of conventional and multivariate analysis techniques for low-mass dielectron measurements in Pb-Pb collisions in a scenario involving the upgraded ALICE detector with a low magnetic field ($B=0.2~\\text{T}$). These electron-positron pairs are promising probes for the hot and dense medium, which is created in collisions of ultra-relativistic heavy nuclei, as they traverse the medium without significant final-state modifications. Due to their small signal-to-background ratio, high-purity dielectron samples are required. They can be provided by conventional analysis methods, which are based on sequential cuts, however at the price of low signal efficiency. This work shows that existing methods can be improved by employing multivariate approaches to reject different background sources of the dielectron invariant mass spectrum. The major background components are dielectrons from ...

  16. submitter Search for Dark Matter in the Upgraded High Luminosity LHC at CERN: Sensitivity of ATLAS phase II upgrade to dark matter production

    CERN Document Server

    Hallsjö, Sven-Patrik; Johansson, Magnus

    The LHC at CERN is now undergoing a set of upgrades to increase the center of mass energy for the colliding particles to be able to explore new physical processes. The focus of this thesis lies on the so called phase II upgrade which will preliminarily be completed in 2023. After the upgrade the LHC will be able to accelerate proton beams to such a velocity thateach proton has a center of mass energy of 14 TeV. One disadvantage of the upgrade is that it will be harder for the atlas detector to isolate unique particle collisions since more and more collisions will occur simultaneously, so called pile-up. For 14 TeV there does not exist a full simulation of the atlas detector. This thesis instead uses data from Monte Carlo simulations for the particle collisions and then uses so called smearing functions to emulate the detector responses. This thesis focuses on how a mono-jet analysis looking for different wimp models of dark matter will be affected by this increase in pile-up rate. The signal models which are ...

  17. Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant Safety Upgrading Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, A.; Fagula, L.

    1996-01-01

    Bohunice nuclear Power Plant generation represents almost 50% of the Slovak republic electric power production. Due to such high level of commitment to nuclear power in the power generation system, a special attention is given to safe and reliable operation of NPPs. Safety upgrading and operational reliability improvement of Bohunice V-1 NPP was carried out by the Bohunice staff continuously since the plant commissioning. In the 1990 - 1993 period extensive projects were realised. As a result of 'Small Reconstruction of the Bohunice V-1 NPP', the standards of both the nuclear safety and operational reliability have been significantly improved. The implementation of another modifications that will take place gradually during extended refuelling outages and overhauls in the course of 1996 through 1999, is referred to as the Gradual Reconstruction of the Bohunice V-1 Plant. The general goal of the V-1 NPP safety upgrading is the achievement of internationally acceptable level of nuclear safety. Extensive and financially demanding modification process of Bohunice V-2 NPP is likely to be implemented after a completion of the Gradual Reconstruction of the Bohunice V-1 NPP, since the year 1999. With this in mind, a first draft of the strategy of the Bohunice V-2 NPP upgrading program based on Probabilistic Safety assessment consideration was developed. A number of actions with a general effect on Bohunice site safety is evident. All these activities are aimed at reaching the essential objective of Bohunice NPP Management - to ensure a safe, reliable and effective electric energy and heat generation at the Bohunice site. (author)

  18. Measurements and TCAD simulation of novel ATLAS planar pixel detector structures for the HL-LHC upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nellist, C.; Dinu, N.; Gkougkousis, E.; Lounis, A.

    2015-01-01

    The LHC accelerator complex will be upgraded between 2020–2022, to the High-Luminosity-LHC, to considerably increase statistics for the various physics analyses. To operate under these challenging new conditions, and maintain excellent performance in track reconstruction and vertex location, the ATLAS pixel detector must be substantially upgraded and a full replacement is expected. Processing techniques for novel pixel designs are optimised through characterisation of test structures in a clean room and also through simulations with Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD). A method to study non-perpendicular tracks through a pixel device is discussed. Comparison of TCAD simulations with Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) measurements to investigate the doping profile of structures and validate the simulation process is also presented

  19. Measurements and TCAD simulation of novel ATLAS planar pixel detector structures for the HL-LHC upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00304438; Gkougkousis, E.; Lounis, A.

    2015-01-01

    The LHC accelerator complex will be upgraded between 2020-2022, to the High-Luminosity-LHC, to considerably increase statistics for the various physics analyses. To operate under these challenging new conditions, and maintain excellent performance in track reconstruction and vertex location, the ATLAS pixel detector must be substantially upgraded and a full replacement is expected. Processing techniques for novel pixel designs are optimised through characterisation of test structures in a clean room and also through simulations with Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD). A method to study non-perpendicular tracks through a pixel device is discussed. Comparison of TCAD simulations with Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) measurements to investigate the doping profile of structures and validate the simulation process is also presented.

  20. The Phase-1 Upgrade for the Level-1 Muon Barrel Trigger of the ATLAS Experiment at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Izzo, Vincenzo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Level-1 Muon Barrel Trigger of the ATLAS Experiment at LHC makes use of Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) detectors. The on-detector trigger electronics modules are able to identify muons with predefined transverse momentum values (pT) by executing a coincidence logic on signals coming from the various detector layers. On-detector trigger boards then transfer trigger data to the off-detector electronics. A complex trigger system processes the incoming data by combining trigger information from the barrel and the endcap regions, and providing the combined muon candidate to the Central Trigger Processor (CTP). For almost a decade, the Level-1 Trigger system operated very well, despite the challenging requirements on trigger efficiency and performance, and the continuously increasing LHC luminosity. In order to cope with these constraints, various upgrades for the full trigger system were already deployed, and others have been designed to be installed in the next years. Most of the upgrades to the trigger system...

  1. Radiation-hard ASICs for optical data transmission in the first phase of the LHC upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, K.K.; Buchholz, P.; Kagan, H.P.; Kass, R.D.; Moore, J.R.; Smith, D.S.; Wiese, A.; Ziolkowskic, M.

    2011-01-01

    We have designed two ASICs for possible applications in the optical links of a new layer of the pixel detector to be install inside the ATLAS Pixel detector for the first phase of the LHC luminosity upgrade. The ASICs include a high-speed driver for a VCSEL and a receiver/decoder to decode the signal received at a PIN diode to extract the data and clock. Both ASICs contain 4 channels for operation with a VCSEL or PIN array. The ASICs were designed using a 130 nm CMOS process to enhance the radiation-hardness. We have characterized the fabricated ASICs and the performance of the ASICs is satisfactory. The receiver/decoder properly decodes the bi-phase marked input stream with low PIN current and the driver can operate a VCSEL up to ∼5 Gb/s. The added functionalities are also successful, including redundancy to bypass a broken VCSEL or PIN channel, individual control of VCSEL current, and power-on reset circuit to set all VCSEL currents to a nominal value.

  2. Radiation-hard ASICs for optical data transmission in the first phase of the LHC upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, K K; Kagan, H P; Kass, R D; Moore, J R; Smith, D S; Buchholz, P; Wiese, A; Ziolkowskic, M

    2010-01-01

    We have designed two ASICs for possible applications in the optical links of a new layer of the pixel detector to be install inside the ATLAS Pixel detector for the first phase of the LHC luminosity upgrade. The ASICs include a high-speed driver for the VCSEL and a receiver/decoder to decode the signal received at the PIN diode to extract the data and clock. Both ASICs contain 4 channels for operation with a VCSEL or PIN array. The ASICs were designed using a 130 nm CMOS process to enhance the radiation-hardness. We have characterized the fabricated ASICs and the performance of the ASICs is satisfactory. The receiver/decoder can properly decode the bi-phase marked input stream with low PIN current and the driver can operate a VCSEL up to ∼ 5 Gb/s. The added functionalities are also successful, including redundancy to bypass a broken VCSEL or PIN channel, individual control of VCSEL current, and power-on reset circuit to set all VCSEL currents to a nominal value. The ASICs were irradiated to a dose of 46 Mrad with 24 GeV/c protons. The observed modest degradation is acceptable and the single event upset rate is negligible.

  3. Radiation-hard ASICs for optical data transmission in the first phase of the LHC upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Gan, K K; Kagan, H P; Kass, R D; Moore, J R; Smith, D S; Wiese, A; Ziolkowskic, M; 10.1088/1748-0221/5/12/C12006

    2010-01-01

    We have designed two ASICs for possible applications in the optical links of a new layer of the pixel detector to be install inside the ATLAS Pixel detector for the first phase of the LHC luminosity upgrade. The ASICs include a high-speed driver for the VCSEL and a receiver/decoder to decode the signal received at the PIN diode to extract the data and clock. Both ASICs contain 4 channels for operation with a VCSEL or PIN array. The ASICs were designed using a 130 nm CMOS process to enhance the radiation-hardness. We have characterized the fabricated ASICs and the performance of the ASICs is satisfactory. The receiver/decoder can properly decode the bi-phase marked input stream with low PIN current and the driver can operate a VCSEL up to ~ 5 Gb/s. The added functionalities are also successful, including redundancy to bypass a broken VCSEL or PIN channel, individual control of VCSEL current, and power-on reset circuit to set all VCSEL currents to a nominal value. The ASICs were irradiated to a dose of 46 Mrad ...

  4. Strip detector for the ATLAS detector upgrade for the High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Veloce, Laurelle Maria; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is currently preparing for an upgrade of the tracking system in the course of the High Luminosity LHC, scheduled for 2025. The expected radiation damage at an integrated luminosity of 3000fb-1 will require the tracking detectors to withstand hadron fluencies to over 1x1016 1 MeV neutron equivalent per cm2. With the addition of increased readout rates, the existing Inner Detector will have to be replaced by an all-silicon Inner Tracker (ITk) with a pixel detector surrounded by a strip detector. The ITk strip detector consists of a four-layer barrel and a forward region composed of six discs on each side of the barrel. The current prototyping phase has resulted in the ITk Strip Detector Technical Design Report (TDR), which starts the pre-production readiness phase at the involved institutes. In this contribution we present the design of the ITk Strip Detector and current status of R&D of various detector components.

  5. L1 track trigger for the CMS HL-LHC upgrade using AM chips and FPGAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedi Giacomo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase of luminosity at the HL-LHC will require the introduction of tracker information in CMS’s Level-1 trigger system to maintain an acceptable trigger rate when selecting interesting events, despite the order of magnitude increase in minimum bias interactions. To meet the latency requirements, dedicated hardware has to be used. This paper presents the results of tests of a prototype system (pattern recognition ezzanine as core of pattern recognition and track fitting for the CMS experiment, combining the power of both associative memory custom ASICs and modern Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA devices. The mezzanine uses the latest available associative memory devices (AM06 and the most modern Xilinx Ultrascale FPGAs. The results of the test for a complete tower comprising about 0.5 million patterns is presented, using as simulated input events traversing the upgraded CMS detector. The paper shows the performance of the pattern matching, track finding and track fitting, along with the latency and processing time needed. The pT resolution over pT of the muons measured using the reconstruction algorithm is at the order of 1% in the range 3-100 GeV/c.

  6. L1 track trigger for the CMS HL-LHC upgrade using AM chips and FPGAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedi, Giacomo

    2017-08-01

    The increase of luminosity at the HL-LHC will require the introduction of tracker information in CMS's Level-1 trigger system to maintain an acceptable trigger rate when selecting interesting events, despite the order of magnitude increase in minimum bias interactions. To meet the latency requirements, dedicated hardware has to be used. This paper presents the results of tests of a prototype system (pattern recognition ezzanine) as core of pattern recognition and track fitting for the CMS experiment, combining the power of both associative memory custom ASICs and modern Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices. The mezzanine uses the latest available associative memory devices (AM06) and the most modern Xilinx Ultrascale FPGAs. The results of the test for a complete tower comprising about 0.5 million patterns is presented, using as simulated input events traversing the upgraded CMS detector. The paper shows the performance of the pattern matching, track finding and track fitting, along with the latency and processing time needed. The pT resolution over pT of the muons measured using the reconstruction algorithm is at the order of 1% in the range 3-100 GeV/c.

  7. The Control and Configuration Software of the ATLAS Data Acquisition System: Upgrades for LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksandrov, Igor; The ATLAS collaboration; Avolio, Giuseppe; Caprini, Mihai; Corso-Radu, Alina; D'ascanio, Matteo; De Castro Vargas Fernandes, Julio; Kazarov, Andrei; Kolobara, Bernard; Lankford, Andrew; Laurent, Florian; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Magnoni, Luca; Papaevgeniou, Lykourgos; Ryabov, Yury; Santos, Alejandro; Seixas, Jose; Soloviev, Igor; Unel, Gokhan; Yasu, Yoshiji

    2016-01-01

    The Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is composed of a large number of distributed hardware and software components which in a coordinated manner provide the data-taking functionality of the overall system. The Controls and Configuration (CC) software offers services to configure, control and monitor the TDAQ system. It is a framework which provides essentially the glue that holds the various sub-systems together. While the overall architecture, established at the end of the 90’s, has proven to be solid and flexible, many software components (from core services, like the Run Control and the error management system, to end- user tools) have undergone a complete redesign or re-implementation during the LHC’s Long Shutdown I period. The upgrades were driven by the need to fold-in the additional requirements that appeared in the course of LHC’s Run 1, to profit from new technologies and to re-factorize and cleanup the code. This paper...

  8. Layout and Optics Solution for the LHC Insertion Upgrade Phase I

    CERN Document Server

    Fartoukh, S

    2010-01-01

    The main guidelines of the LHC IR upgrade Phase I project are the development of wider aperture (120 mm) and lower gradient (120 T/m) quadrupoles using the wellcharacterized Nb-Ti technology in order to build new inner triplets (IT) for the ATLAS and CMS experimental insertions, while minimizing the hardware modifications in the other parts of these insertions, in particular leaving unchanged the so-called "matching section" (MS) and "dispersion suppressor" (DS). While one of the initial goal was to squeeze the optics down to a B* of 25 cm, optics solutions with a B* of 30 cm are already at the edge of feasibility, both in terms of the IT and MS mechanical acceptance, gradients of the MS and DS quadrupole magnets, and correctability by the arc sextupoles of the huge chromatic aberrations generated at low B*. The layout of the new inner triplet and the corresponding injection and collision optics will be presented and analyzed in terms of aperture and chromatic correction.

  9. Optics Challenges and Solutions for the LHC Insertion Upgrade Phase I

    CERN Document Server

    Fartoukh, S

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the LHC Insertion (IR) Upgrade Phase-I is to enable a reliable operation of the machine with a performance at least doubled with respect to its design luminosity. One key ingredient is ideally a reduction of Beta* down to 25 cm, using a new inner triplet (IT) with longer Nb-Ti quadrupoles operating at a lower gradient (~ 120 T/m) and therefore offering a larger aperture (120 mm). Reducing Beta*, but also operating at a lower IT gradient (which, at a given Beta*, further increases the size of the Beta-functions all over the long straight section), has however a certain number of drawbacks which cannot be solved by only increasing the aperture of the new low-beta quadrupoles. Without modifying the current layout of the matching section (MS) and assuming that the arc sextupoles cannot safely operate above nominal current (550A), optics solutions with a Beta* of 30 cm are already at the edge of feasibility, both in terms of mechanical aperture in the MS and new IT (assuming 120 mm aperture), in terms ...

  10. A time-multiplexed track-trigger for the CMS HL-LHC upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, G., E-mail: g.hall@imperial.ac.uk

    2016-07-11

    A new CMS Tracker is under development for operation at the High Luminosity LHC from 2025. It includes an outer tracker based on special modules of two different types which will construct track stubs using spatially coincident clusters in two closely spaced sensor layers, to reject low transverse momentum track hits and reduce the data volume before data transmission to the Level-1 trigger. The tracker data will be used to reconstruct track segments in dedicated processors before onward transmission to other trigger processors which will combine tracker information with data originating from the calorimeter and muon detectors, to make the final L1 trigger decision. The architecture for processing the tracker data outside the detector is under study, using several alternative approaches. One attractive possibility is to exploit a Time Multiplexed design similar to the one which is currently being implemented in the CMS calorimeter trigger as part of the Phase I trigger upgrade. The novel Time Multiplexed Trigger concept is explained, the potential benefits for processing future tracker data are described and a feasible design based on currently existing hardware is outlined.

  11. The Upgrade of the CMS RPC System during the First LHC Long Shutdown

    CERN Document Server

    Tytgat, M.; Verwilligen, P.; Zaganidis, N.; Aleksandrov, A.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Shopova, M.; Sultanov, G.; Assran, Y.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Colaleo, A.; Iaselli, G.; Loddo, F.; Maggi, M.; Pugliese, G.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Caponero, M.; Colafranceschi, S.; Felli, F.; Piccolo, D.; Saviano, G.; Carrillo, C.; Berzano, U.; Gabusi, M.; Vitulo, P.; Kang, M.; Lee, K.S.; Park, S.K.; Shin, S.; Sharma, A.

    2012-01-01

    The CMS muon system includes in both the barrel and endcap region Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC). They mainly serve as trigger detectors and also improve the reconstruction of muon parameters. Over the years, the instantaneous luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider gradually increases. During the LHC Phase 1 (~first 10 years of operation) an ultimate luminosity is expected above its design value of 10^34/cm^2/s at 14 TeV. To prepare the machine and also the experiments for this, two long shutdown periods are scheduled for 2013-2014 and 2018-2019. The CMS Collaboration is planning several detector upgrades during these long shutdowns. In particular, the muon detection system should be able to maintain a low-pT threshold for an efficient Level-1 Muon Trigger at high particle rates. One of the measures to ensure this, is to extend the present RPC system with the addition of a 4th layer in both endcap regions. During the first long shutdown, these two new stations will be equipped in the region |eta|<1.6 with...

  12. Upgrades of the CMS muon system in preparation of HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Teyssier, Daniel Francois

    2017-01-01

    The present CMS muon system operates three different detector types in the barrel drift tubes (DT) and resistive plate chambers (RPC), along with cathode strip chambers (CSC) and another set of RPCs in the forward regions. In order to cope with increasingly challenging conditions various upgrades are planned to the trigger and muon systems. New detectors will be added to improve the performance in the critical forward region large-area triple-foil gas electron multiplier (GEM) detectors will already be installed in LS2 in the pseudo-rapidity region $1.6 < \\eta < 2.4$, aiming at suppressing the rate of background triggers while maintaining high trigger efficiency for low transverse momentum muons. For the High Luminosity (HL)-LHC operations, the muon forward region should be enhanced with another large area GEM based station, called GE2/1, and with two new generation RPC stations, called RE3/1 and RE4/1, having low resistivity electrodes. These detectors will combine tracking and triggering capabil...

  13. The Upgrade of the ATLAS Electron and Photon Triggers for LHC Run 2 and their Performance

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00220717; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Electron and photon triggers covering transverse energies from 5 GeV to several TeV are essential for signal selection in a wide variety of ATLAS physics analyses to study Standard Model processes and to search for new phenomena. Final states including leptons and photons had, for example, an important role in the discovery and measurement of the Higgs particle. Dedicated triggers are also used to collect data for calibration, efficiency and fake rate measurements. The ATLAS trigger system is divided in a hardware-based (Level 1) and a software based high level trigger (HLT), both of which were upgraded during the long shutdown of the LHC in preparation for data taking at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13TeV. The increasing luminosity and more challenging pile-up conditions as well as the planned higher center-of-mass energy demanded the optimisation of the trigger selections at each level, to control the rates and keep efficiencies high. To improve the performance multivariate analysis techniques are introduced at the HLT. Th...

  14. The ATLAS Muon to Central Trigger Processor Interface Upgrade for the Run 3 of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Armbruster, Aaron James; The ATLAS collaboration; Chelstowska, Magda Anna

    2017-01-01

    To cope with the higher luminosity and physics cross-sections for the third run of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and beyond, the Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system of ATLAS experiment at CERN is being upgraded. Part of the TDAQ system, the Muon to Central Trigger Processor Interface (MUCTPI) receives muon candidates information from each of the 208 barrel and endcap muon trigger sectors, counts muon candidates for each transverse momentum threshold and sends the result to the Central Trigger Processor (CTP). The MUCTPI takes into account the possible overlap between trigger sectors in order to avoid double counting of muon candidates. A full redesign and replacement of the existing MUCTPI is required in order to provide full-granularity muon position information at the bunch crossing rate to the Topological Trigger processor (L1Topo) and to be able to interface with the new sector logic modules. State-of-the-art FPGA technology and high-density ribbon fiber-optic transmitters and receivers is being...

  15. Effect of gamma irradiation on leakage current in CMOS read-out chips for the ATLAS upgrade silicon strip tracker at the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Lynn, Dave; Kierstead, James; Kuczewski, Philip; van Nieuwenhuizen, Gerrit J; Rosin, Guy; Tricoli, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    The increase of the leakage current of NMOS transistors in detector readout chips in certain 130 nm CMOS technologies during exposure to ionising radiation needs special consideration in the design of detector systems, as this can result in a large increase of the supply current and power dissipation. As part of the R&D; program for the upgrade of the ATLAS inner detector tracker for the High Luminosity upgrade of the LHC at CERN, a dedicated set of irradiations have been carried out with the $^60$Co gamma-ray source at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. Measurements will be presented that characterise the increase in the digital leakage current in the 130 nm-technology ABC130 readout chips. The variation of the current as a function of time and total ionising dose has been studied under various conditions of dose rate, temperature and power applied to the chip. The range of variation of dose rates and temperatures has been set to be close to those expected at the High Luminosity LHC, i.e. in the range 0...

  16. Large area thinned planar sensors for future high-luminosity-LHC upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittig, T.; Lawerenz, A.; Röder, R.

    2016-01-01

    Planar hybrid silicon sensors are a well proven technology for past and current particle tracking detectors in HEP experiments. However, the future high-luminosity upgrades of the inner trackers at the LHC experiments pose big challenges to the detectors. A first challenge is an expected radiation damage level of up to 2⋅ 10 16 n eq /cm 2 . For planar sensors, one way to counteract the charge loss and thus increase the radiation hardness is to decrease the thickness of their active area. A second challenge is the large detector area which has to be built as cost-efficient as possible. The CiS research institute has accomplished a proof-of-principle run with n-in-p ATLAS-Pixel sensors in which a cavity is etched to the sensor's back side to reduce its thickness. One advantage of this technology is the fact that thick frames remain at the sensor edges and guarantee mechanical stability on wafer level while the sensor is left on the resulting thin membrane. For this cavity etching technique, no handling wafers are required which represents a benefit in terms of process effort and cost savings. The membranes with areas of up to ∼ 4 × 4 cm 2 and thicknesses of 100 and 150 μm feature a sufficiently good homogeneity across the whole wafer area. The processed pixel sensors show good electrical behaviour with an excellent yield for a suchlike prototype run. First sensors with electroless Ni- and Pt-UBM are already successfully assembled with read-out chips.

  17. Large area thinned planar sensors for future high-luminosity-LHC upgrades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittig, T.; Lawerenz, A.; Röder, R.

    2016-12-01

    Planar hybrid silicon sensors are a well proven technology for past and current particle tracking detectors in HEP experiments. However, the future high-luminosity upgrades of the inner trackers at the LHC experiments pose big challenges to the detectors. A first challenge is an expected radiation damage level of up to 2ṡ 1016 neq/cm2. For planar sensors, one way to counteract the charge loss and thus increase the radiation hardness is to decrease the thickness of their active area. A second challenge is the large detector area which has to be built as cost-efficient as possible. The CiS research institute has accomplished a proof-of-principle run with n-in-p ATLAS-Pixel sensors in which a cavity is etched to the sensor's back side to reduce its thickness. One advantage of this technology is the fact that thick frames remain at the sensor edges and guarantee mechanical stability on wafer level while the sensor is left on the resulting thin membrane. For this cavity etching technique, no handling wafers are required which represents a benefit in terms of process effort and cost savings. The membranes with areas of up to ~ 4 × 4 cm2 and thicknesses of 100 and 150 μm feature a sufficiently good homogeneity across the whole wafer area. The processed pixel sensors show good electrical behaviour with an excellent yield for a suchlike prototype run. First sensors with electroless Ni- and Pt-UBM are already successfully assembled with read-out chips.

  18. The ITk strips tracker for the phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS detector of the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Koutoulaki, Afroditi; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The inner detector of the present ATLAS detector has been designed and developed to function in the environment of the present Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At the next-generation tracking detector proposed for the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the so-called ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade, the particle densities and radiation levels will be higher by as much as a factor of ten. The new detectors must be faster, they need to be more highly segmented, and covering more area. They also need to be more resistant to radiation, and they require much greater power delivery to the front-end systems. At the same time, they cannot introduce excess material which could undermine performance. For those reasons, the inner tracker of the ATLAS detector must be redesigned and rebuilt completely. The design of the ATLAS Upgrade inner tracker (ITk) has already been defined. It consists of several layers of silicon particle detectors. The innermost layers will be composed of silicon pixel sensors, and the outer layers will consist of s...

  19. Prospects for a precision timing upgrade of the CMS PbWO crystal electromagnetic calorimeter for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Massironi, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    The upgrade of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) crystal electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL), which will operate at the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), will achieve a timing resolution of around 30 ps for high energy photons and electrons. In this talk we will discuss the benefits of precision timing for the ECAL event reconstruction at HL-LHC. Simulation studies focused on the timing properties of PbWO$_4$ crystals, as well as the impact of the photosensors and the readout electronics on the timing performance, will be presented. Test beam studies intended to measure the timing performance of the PbWO$_4$ crystals with different photosensors and readout electronics will be shown.

  20. Prospects for a precision timing upgrade of the CMS PbWO crystal electromagnetic calorimeter for the HL-LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massironi, A.

    2018-04-01

    The upgrade of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) crystal electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL), which will operate at the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), will achieve a timing resolution of around 30 ps for high energy photons and electrons. In this talk we will discuss the benefits of precision timing for the ECAL event reconstruction at HL-LHC. Simulation studies focused on the timing properties of PbWO4 crystals, as well as the impact of the photosensors and the readout electronics on the timing performance, will be presented. Test beam studies intended to measure the timing performance of the PbWO4 crystals with different photosensors and readout electronics will be shown.

  1. UPGRADES

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Spalding and D. Contardo

    2012-01-01

      The CMS Upgrade Programme consists of four classes of projects: (a) Detector and Systems upgrades which are ongoing and largely (though not entirely) target LS1. (b) Full system upgrades for three projects that are preparing TDRs: Pixels, HCAL and L1 Trigger. The projects target completion by LS2. (c) Infrastructure consolidation and upgrades to improve operational robustness and to support the above projects. (d) Phase 2 replacement of the Tracker and major upgrades of the Trigger and Forward Detectors. For (a) and (c), detailed costing exists and is being integrated into a common reporting system. The schedule milestones for each project will be linked into the overall schedule planning for LS1. For the three TDR projects, the designs have progressed significantly since the Technical Proposal in 2010. Updated detailed cost estimates and schedules will be prepared with the TDRs to form the basis for tracking the projects through completion. To plan the upgrades and the supporting simulati...

  2. Quench protection studies of 11T 2-in-1 Nb$_{3}$Sn dipole models for LHC upgrades

    OpenAIRE

    Zlobin, AV; Chlachidze, G; Nobrega, F; Novitski, I; Karppinen, M

    2014-01-01

    CERN and FNAL are developing 11 T Nb3Sn dipole magnets for the LHC collimation system upgrade. Due to the large stored energy, protection of these magnets during a quench is a challenging problem. This paper reports the results of experimental studies of key quench protection parameters including longitudinal and radial quench propagation in the coil, coil heating due to a quench, and energy extraction and quench-back effect. The studies were performed using a 1 m long 11 T Nb3Sn dipole coil ...

  3. Quench protection studies of 11T 2-in-1 Nb$_{3}$Sn dipole models for LHC upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Zlobin, AV; Nobrega, F; Novitski, I; Karppinen, M

    2014-01-01

    CERN and FNAL are developing 11 T Nb$_{3}$Sn dipole magnets for the LHC collimation system upgrade. Due to the large stored energy, protection of these magnets during a quench is a challenging problem. This paper reports the results of experimental studies of key quench protection parameters including longitudinal and radial quench propagation in the coil, coil heating due to a quench, and energy extraction and quench-back effect. The studies were performed using a 1 m long 11 T Nb$_{3}$Sn dipole coil tested in a magnetic mirror configuration.

  4. An Upgraded Front-End Switching Power Supply Design For the ATLAS TileCAL Detector of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, Gary; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    We present the design of an upgraded switching power supply brick for the front-end electronics of the ATLAS hadron tile calorimeter (TileCAL) at the LHC. The new design features significant improvement in noise, improved fault detection, and generally a more robust design, while retaining the compact size, water-cooling, output control, and monitoring features in this 300 KHz design. We discuss the improvements to the design, and the radiation testing that we have done to qualify the design. We also present our plans for the production of 2400 new bricks for installation on the detector in 2013.

  5. An Upgraded Front-End Switching Power Supply Design for the ATLAS TileCAL Detector of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, G; The ATLAS collaboration; De Lurgio, P; Henriques, A; Minashvili, I; Nemecek, S; Price, L; Proudfoot, J; Stanek, R

    2011-01-01

    We present the design of an upgraded switching power supply brick for the front-end electronics of the ATLAS hadron tile calorimeter (TileCAL) at the LHC. The new design features significant improvement in noise, improved fault detection, and generally a more robust design, while retaining the compact size, water-cooling, output control, and monitoring features in this 300 KHz design. We discuss the improvements to the design, and the radiation testing that we have done to qualify the design. We also present our plans for the production of 2400 new bricks for installation on the detector in 2013.

  6. Upgraded G-optk program for electron gun characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasao, K.; Takebe, M.; Ushio, W.; Fujita, S.; Ohye, T.; Shimoyama, H.

    2011-01-01

    The generalized trajectory theory (the G-optk program) has been extended in order to make the method applicable to electron guns with curved and/or asymmetric cathodes. The object-image analysis mode has also been added. Enhanced capability of the upgraded G-optk program was demonstrated by applying the program to three electron optical systems: (a) the point cathode gun, (b) the hairpin-type cathode gun, and (c) the LEEM objective lens. The Canonical Mapping Transformation (CMT) diagrams were calculated both by direct ray tracing and by the upgraded G-optk program. In each case, it was found that the upgraded program reproduces well the results obtained by ray tracing. The generalized trajectory method has several advantages over direct ray tracing, such as substantially lighter calculation load and easy interpretation of the calculation results in terms of the optical parameters.

  7. Study of ZZ to four leptons events in ATLAS at the LHC and upgrade of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    Kouskoura, V

    2014-01-01

    The study of the ZZ and ZZ* production in proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is presented. The data analyzed in this study were recorded by the ATLAS experiment at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV and of 8 TeV. The selected events are consistent with fully leptonic ZZ decays, in particular to electrons and muons. The total ZZ production cross section is measured and is found to be in agreement with the Standard Model (SM) prediction. The ZZ production allows the study of the anomalous neutral Triple Gauge Couplings. No deviation from the SM prediction is found that could indicate the presence of New Physics. In view of the forthcoming increase of the instantaneous luminosity of the LHC, the ATLAS Collaboration foresees upgrades of the detector. An upgrade of the Muon Spectrometer is presented. The integration of the new detection elements in the ATLAS Geometry is illustrated, as well as the increase in the total Barrel acceptance.

  8. The Phase-1 Upgrade for the Level-1 Muon Barrel Trigger of the ATLAS Experiment at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Izzo, Vincenzo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Level-1 Muon Barrel Trigger of the ATLAS Experiment at LHC makes use of Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) detectors. The on-detector trigger electronics modules are able to identify muons with predefined transverse momentum values (pT) by executing a coincidence logic on signals coming from the various detector layers. Then, on-detector trigger boards transfer trigger data to the off-detector electronics. A complex trigger system processes the incoming data by combining trigger information from the Barrel and the End-cap regions, and by providing the combined muon candidate to the Central Trigger Processor (CTP). For almost a decade, the Level-1 Trigger system has been operating very well, despite the challenging requirements on trigger efficiency and performance, and the continuously increasing LHC luminosity. In order to cope with these constraints, various upgrades for the full trigger system were already deployed, and others have been designed to be installed in the next years. Most of the upgrades to the...

  9. Fabrication and Test of a 1 m Long Single-Aperture 11 T Nb$_3$Sn Dipole for LHC Upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zlobin, A. V. [Fermilab; Andreev, N. [Fermilab; Apollinari, G. [Fermilab; Barzi, E. [Fermilab; Bossert, R. [Fermilab; Chlachidze, G. [Fermilab; DiMarco, J. [Fermilab; Nobrega, F. [Fermilab; Novitski, I. [Fermilab; Turrioni, D. [Fermilab; Velev, G. [Fermilab; Auchmann, B. [CERN; Karppinen, M. [CERN; Rossi, L. [CERN; Smekens, D. [CERN

    2013-06-01

    FNAL and CERN are carrying out a joint R&D program with the goal of building a 5.5-m long twin-aperture Nb$_3$Sn dipole prototype suitable for installation in the LHC. An important part of the program is the development and test of a series of short single-aperture demonstration dipoles with a nominal field of 11 T at the LHC nominal current of 11.85 kA and 20% margin. This paper describes design features and test results of a 1 m long single-aperture Nb3Sn demonstrator dipole.

  10. Safety upgrading program in NPP Mochovce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumeister, P.

    1999-01-01

    EMO interest is to operate only nuclear power plants with high standards of nuclear safety. This aim EMO declare on preparation completion and commissioning of Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant. Wide co-operation of our company with International Atomic Energy Agency and west European Inst.ions and companies has been started with aim to fulfil the nuclear safety requirements for Mochovce NPP. Set of 87 safety measures was implemented at Mochovce Unit 1 and is under construction at Unit 2. Mochovce NPP approach to safety upgrading implementation is showed on chosen measures. This presentation is focused on the issues category III.(author)

  11. Upgrade plans for the Hadronic-Endcap Calorimeter of ATLAS for the high luminosity stage of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmadov, F; The ATLAS collaboration; Cheplakov, A; Dominguez, R; Fischer, A; Habring, J; Hambarzumjan, A; Javadov, N; Kiryunin, A; Kurchaninov, L; Menke, S; Molinas Conde, I; Nagel, M; Oberlack, H; Reimann, O; Schacht, P; Strizenec, P; Vogt, S; Wichmann, G; Cadabeschi, Mircea Ioan; Langstaff, Reginald Roy; Lenckowski, Mark Stanley

    2015-01-01

    The expected increase of the instantaneous luminosity of a factor seven and of the total integrated luminosity by a factor 3-5 at the second phase of the upgraded high luminosity LHC compared to the design goals for LHC makes it necessary to re-evaluate the radiation hardness of the read-out electronics of the ATLAS Hadronic Endcap Calorimeter. The current cold electronics made of GaAs ASICs have been tested with neutron and proton beams to study their degradation under irradiation and the effect it would have on the ATLAS physics programme. New, more radiation hard technologies which could replace the current amplifiers have been studied as well: SiGe bipolar, Si CMOS FET and GaAs FET transistors have been irradiated with neutrons and protons with fluences up to ten times the total expected fluences for ten years of running of the high luminosity LHC. The performance measurements of the current read-out electronics and potential future technologies and expected performance degradations under high luminosity ...

  12. Progress on the Development of the $Nb_3Sn$ 11T Dipole for the High Luminosity Upgrade of LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Savary, Frederic; Bordini, Bernardo; Bottura, Luca; Fiscarelli, Lucio; Fleiter, Jerome; Foussat, Arnaud; Izquierdo Bermudez, Susana; Karppinen, Mikko; Lackner, Friedrich; Loffler, Christian H; Nilsson, Emelie; Perez, Juan Carlos; Prin, Herve; Principe, Rosario; Ramos, Delio; de Rijk, Gijs; Rossi, Lucio; Smekens, David; Sequeira Tavares, Sandra; Willering, Gerard; Zlobin, Alexander V

    2017-01-01

    The high-luminosity large hadron collider (LHC) project at CERN entered into the production phase in October 2015 after the completion of the design study phase. In the meantime, the development of the 11 T dipole needed for the upgrade of the collimation system of the machine made significant progress with very good performance of the first two-in-one magnet model of 2-m length made at CERN. The 11 T dipole, which is more powerful than the current main dipoles of LHC, can be made shorter with an equivalent integrated field. This will allow creating space for the installation of additional collimators in specific locations of the dispersion suppressor regions. Following tests carried out during heavy ions runs of LHC in the end of 2015, and a more recent review of the project budget, the installation plan for the 11 T dipole was revised. Consequently, one 11 T dipole full assembly containing two 11 T dipoles of 5.5-m length will be installed on either side of interaction point 7. These two units shall be inst...

  13. Status of beta measurement evaluation and upgrade program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.

    1986-01-01

    In 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a program to evaluate and upgrade beta dosimetry capabilities at DOE and DOE-contractor facilities. The program has several elements which structure the development of improvements in beta measurement practices. In addition to Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), universities, private corporations, and other DOE facilities are involved in the research efforts

  14. Work effort in the LHC injector complex for the upgrade scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikulec, B; Lallement, J B; Chapochnikova, E; Damerau, H; Gilardoni, S; Goddard, B; Hanke, K; Hay, D; Mataguez, S; Mcfarlane, D

    2014-01-01

    This document describes the work in the PSB, PS and SPS that is required for upgrade scenario 1. It will be shown that the requirements on the hardware work needed for upgrade scenario 1 are identical to the ones of the upgrade scenario 2. The various activities are detailed as well as their dependencies and an estimate given for the duration of the necessary shutdowns and recommissioning periods with beam. It is mentioned whether some decisions are still to be taken and are related to information to be obtained after LS1. Another important aspect is the evaluation of the risks related to the upgrade interventions and operational complexity, which concern schedule, beam characteristics as well as reliability and overall performance. It has been studied if part of the activities could be spread out over several machine stops, and as conclusion the preferred scenario will be presented

  15. Performance of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter after three years of LHC operation and plans for a future upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiforou, Nikiforos

    2013-06-01

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Liquid argon sampling calorimeters are used for all electromagnetic calorimetry as well as hadronic calorimetry in the end-caps. After installation in 2004-2006, the calorimeters were extensively commissioned over the three-year period prior to first collisions in 2009, using cosmic rays and single LHC beams. Since then, approximately 27 fb -1 of data have been collected at an unprecedented center of mass energy. During all these stages, the calorimeter and its electronics have been operating almost optimally, with a performance very close to specifications. This paper covers all aspects of these first years of operation. The excellent performance achieved is especially presented in the context of the discovery of the elusive Higgs boson. The future plans to preserve this performance until the end of the LHC program are also presented. (authors)

  16. Emergency operating procedure upgrade program and audit results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, P.D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the method and results of upgrading the River Bend station boiling water reactor 6 emergency operating procedures (EOPs). The upgrade program replaced difficult-to-implement narrative procedures with well-developed flowcharts. The flowcharts eliminate a number of human factors problems, are user friendly, provide for easy implementation, and provide technical information in a clear, concise format. Positive results were seen immediately. The operating crews found the flowcharts to be clear, understandable, and usable. Simulator training and EOP implementation became something that the operators no longer dreaded, and their confidence in their ability to control emergency situations was greatly improved. The paper provides a summary of the EOP upgrade program

  17. UPGRADES

    CERN Document Server

    D. Contardo and J. Spalding

    2013-01-01

    There is very good progress in the execution of the LS1 projects and in launching construction of the Phase 1 upgrades. We focus here on two main achievements since the last CMS Week. The approval of the third Phase 1 TDR The preparation of the L1 Trigger Upgrade Technical Design Report has been a major effort of the collaboration at the beginning of this year, especially to develop supporting Trigger menu and physics performance studies. These studies have demonstrated the efficiency of the upgraded system to ensure low lepton and jet trigger thresholds, leading to a significant increase of the acceptance for the Higgs measurements, in the associated production mode and in the ττ decays, as well as for the stop searches involving multiple jets in the final state. The TDR was submitted to the LHCC in May and approved at the June committee meeting. It is now a public document, completing the series of the three TDRs describing the Phase 1 upgrades, with the new Pixel system and the HCAL rea...

  18. Low Gradient, Large Aperture IR Upgrade Options for the LHC compatible with Nb-Ti Magnet Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Brüning, Oliver Sim; Ostojic, R

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents three different layout and optics solutions for the upgrade of LHC insertions using Nb-Ti superconducting quadrupoles. Each solution is the outcome of different driving design criteria: a) a compact triplet using low gradient quadrupoles; b) a triplet using low gradient quadrupoles of modular design, and c) a layout minimizing the B-max while using modular magnets. The paper discusses the different strategies and design criteria for the three solutions. It also discusses their relative advantages and disadvantages and identifies outstanding studies that need to be addressed in order to develop the solutions further. All cases assume that the first quadrupole magnet requires a smaller minimum aperture and therefore, can feature a slightly larger gradient than the remaining final focus quadrupole magnets.

  19. The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter: upgrade plans for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Novgorodova, O; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and built to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to 1034cm-2s-1. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are employed for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudorapidity region |η|<3.2, and for hadronic calorimetry in the region from |η|=1.5 to |η|=4.9. Although the nominal LHC experimental programme is still in progress, plans for a High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) are already being developed for operation of the collider and associated detectors at luminosities of up to (5-7)×1034 cm-2s-1, with the goal of accumulating an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1. The proposed instantaneous and integrated luminosities are both well beyond the values for which the detectors were designed. The electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters will be able to tolerate the increased particle flux, but the performance of the forward calorimeter (FCal) will be affected. Two solutions for this are un...

  20. Upgrade plans for the ATLAS Forward Calorimeter at the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Rutherfoord, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Although data-taking at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is expected to continue for a number of years, plans are already being developed for operation of the LHC and associated detectors at an increased instantaneous luminosity about 5 times the original design value of 10^34 cm^-2 s^-1. The increased particle flux at this high luminosity (HL) will have an impact on many sub-systems of the ATLAS detector. In particular, in the liquid argon forward calorimeter (FCal), which was designed for operation at LHC luminosities, the associated increase in the ionization load at HL-LHC luminosities creates a number of problems which can degrade its performance. These include space-charge effects in the liquid argon gaps, excessive drop in potential across the gaps due to large HV supply currents through the protection resistors, and an increase in temperature which may cause the liquid argon to boil. One solution, which would require opening both End-Cap cryostats, is the construction and installation of new FCals w...

  1. Upgrade Plans for ATLAS Forward Calorimetry for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Krieger, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and built to study proton-proton (pp) collisions produced by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to $10^{34}{\\rm cm}^{-2}{\\rm s}^{-1}$. At the higher instantaneous luminosity ($5\\times 10^{34}{\\rm cm}^{-2}{\\rm s}^{-1}$) proposed for the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), some components of ATLAS will not operate properly, while others may not survive the dose that will be accumulated while collecting the proposed 3000 fb$^{-1}$ of pp collision data. For the ATLAS liquid argon (LAr) calorimeter, problems are anticipated in the forward region where the particle flux is particularly high. The existing Forward Calorimeter (FCal) was designed with very narrow LAr gaps (250-500 $\\mu$m) in order to avoid problems due to ion build-up that would distort the electric field. At HL-LHC luminosities, these gaps are no longer sufficiently narrow. The resulting distortions of the electric field in the gaps would be exacerbated b...

  2. Upgrade plans for the ATLAS Forward Calorimeter at the HL-LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherfoord, John; ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Group

    2012-12-01

    Although data-taking at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is expected to continue for a number of years, plans are already being developed for operation of the LHC and associated detectors at an increased instantaneous luminosity about 5 times the original design value of 1034 cm-2 s-1. The increased particle flux at this high luminosity (HL) will have an impact on many sub-systems of the ATLAS detector. In particular, in the liquid argon forward calorimeter (FCal), which was designed for operation at LHC luminosities, the associated increase in the ionization load at HL-LHC luminosities creates a number of problems which can degrade its performance. These include space-charge effects in the liquid argon gaps, excessive drop in potential across the gaps due to large HV supply currents through the protection resistors, and an increase in temperature which may cause the liquid argon to boil. One solution, which would require opening both End-Cap cryostats, is the construction and installation of new FCals with narrower liquid argon gaps, lowering the values of the protection resistors, and the addition of cooling loops. A second proposed solution, which does not require opening the cryostat cold volume, is the addition of a small, warm calorimeter in front of each existing FCal, resulting in a reduction of the particle flux to levels at which the existing FCal can operate normally.

  3. Upgrade plans for the ATLAS Forward Calorimeter at the HL-LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherfoord, John

    2012-01-01

    Although data-taking at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is expected to continue for a number of years, plans are already being developed for operation of the LHC and associated detectors at an increased instantaneous luminosity about 5 times the original design value of 10 34 cm −2 s −1 . The increased particle flux at this high luminosity (HL) will have an impact on many sub-systems of the ATLAS detector. In particular, in the liquid argon forward calorimeter (FCal), which was designed for operation at LHC luminosities, the associated increase in the ionization load at HL-LHC luminosities creates a number of problems which can degrade its performance. These include space-charge effects in the liquid argon gaps, excessive drop in potential across the gaps due to large HV supply currents through the protection resistors, and an increase in temperature which may cause the liquid argon to boil. One solution, which would require opening both End-Cap cryostats, is the construction and installation of new FCals with narrower liquid argon gaps, lowering the values of the protection resistors, and the addition of cooling loops. A second proposed solution, which does not require opening the cryostat cold volume, is the addition of a small, warm calorimeter in front of each existing FCal, resulting in a reduction of the particle flux to levels at which the existing FCal can operate normally.

  4. Level-1 track trigger for the upgrade of the CMS detector at HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ahuja, Sudha

    2016-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) studies proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. With the LHC colliding proton bunches every 25 nanoseconds, the volume and rate of raw data produced by the detector are much larger than what can be read out, recorded, and reconstructed. Therefore, an efficient trigger system is required to identify events of interest in real time and to reduce the rate of events to a manageable level for later software reconstruction. The CMS trigger system consists of two processing stages, a level-1 (L1) hardware trigger and a high level software trigger. The current L1 trigger decision relies solely on calorimetric and muon system information. During the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) era, the instantaneous luminosity of the collider is expected to increase by approximately an order of magnitude, resulting in a significantly larger number of collisions per bunch crossing than observed in the current run. In order to preserve ...

  5. Upgrade Plans for ATLAS Forward Calorimetry for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, J

    2012-01-01

    Even though data-taking has just started with the LHC, plans are being developed to operate the machine and its detectors at up to 10 times the original design luminosity. This has a major impact on the Forward Calorimeter (FCal), which is exposed to some of the highest radiation rates in ATLAS. The FCal detector and its associated components were designed for operation at the maximum LHC luminosity of \\(\\text{10}^{\\text{34}} \\text{ cm}^{-2}\\text{s}^{-1}\\). However at the higher luminosities projected for the HL-LHC, operation of the FCal may be compromised. Beam heating in the FCal could lead to the formation of argon bubbles in the detector, the ionization rate will result in space charge effects that will reduce the signal and the current draw will result in a voltage drop across the HV current limiting resistors. Two possible solutions are being considered to maintain FCal operation at HL-LHC. One is a complete replacement of the FCal system. A replacement FCal would have a similar design to the current c...

  6. Upgrade Plans for ATLAS Forward Calorimetry for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Fincke-Keeler, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Although LHC data-taking is expected to continue for a number or years, plans are already being developed for operation of the LHC and associated detectors at a increased instantaneous luminosity about 5 times the original design value of 10^34 cm^-2 s^-1. The increased particle flux at this high luminosity (HL) will have an impact on many sub-systems of the ATLAS detector. In particular, in the LAr forward calorimeter (FCal), which was designed for operation at LHC luminosities, the associated increase in the ionization load at HL-LHC luminosities poses a number of problems that can degrade its performance, related to beam heating, space charge effects in the LAr gaps and HV losses due to increased current draws over the HV current-limiting resistors. One solution to these problems, which would require the opening of both endcap cryostats, is the construction and installation of a new FCal, with cooling loops, narrower LAr gaps, and lower value protection resistors. A second proposed solution, which does not...

  7. Upgrade plans for the ATLAS Forward Calorimeter at the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Rutherfoord, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Although LHC data-taking is expected to continue for a number of years, plans are already being developed for operation of the LHC and associated detectors at an increased instantaneous luminosity about 5 times the original design value of 10^34 cm^-2 s^-1. The increased particle flux at this high luminosity (HL) will have an impact on many sub-systems of the ATLAS detector. In particular, in the LAr forward calorimeter (FCal), which was designed for operation at LHC luminosities, the associated increase in the ionization load at HL-LHC luminosities poses a number of problems that can degrade its performance, related to beam heating, space charge effects in the LAr gaps and HV losses due to increased current draws over the HV current-limiting resistors. One solution to the problems, which would require the opening of both endcap cryostats, is the construction and installation of a new FCal, with cooling loops, narrower LAr gaps, and lower value protection resistors. A second proposed solution, which does not ...

  8. Upgrade of the Cold Electronics of the ATLAS HEC Calorimeter for sLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Oberlack, H G; Fischer, A; Hambarzumjan, A; Pospelov, G; Reimann, O; Rudert, A; Schacht, P

    2009-01-01

    The signal amplification and summation electronics of the ATLAS Hadronic End-cap Calorimeter (HEC) is operated at the circumference of the HEC calorimeters inside the cryostats in liquid argon. The present electronics is designed to operate at irradiation levels expected for the LHC. For operation at the sLHC the irradiation levels are expected to be a factor 10 higher, therefore a new electronic system might be needed. The technological possibilities are investigated. From irradiation tests of the present HEC electronics it is known that it will operate up to a dose of 55 kGy of ionizing radiation and up to a neutron fluence of 3 * 10**14 n/cm**2, where it shows some degradation of performance. This matches well the requirements of up to 1.5 * 10**13 n/cm**2 for 10 years of LHC operation, including safety factors. For a subsequent sLHC running phase with 10 times higher expected irradiation levels, a more radiation hard HEC electronics will be needed. Therefore generic studies of different technologies have ...

  9. Analysis of integrated plant upgrading/life extension programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCutchan, D.A.; Massie, H.W. Jr.; McFetridge, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    A present-worth generating cost model has been developed and used to evaluate the economic value of integrated plant upgrading life extension project in nuclear power plants. This paper shows that integrated plant upgrading programs can be developed in which a mix of near-term availability, power rating, and heat rate improvements can be obtained in combination with life extension. All significant benefits and costs are evaluated from the viewpoint of the utility, as measured in discounted revenue requirement differentials between alternative plans which are equivalent in system generating capacity. The near-term upgrading benefits are shown to enhance the benefit picture substantially. In some cases the net benefit is positive, even if the actual life extension proves to be less than expected

  10. The D0 Upgrade Program and its physics potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijssenbeek, M.

    1992-10-01

    The Fermilab Collider will be upgraded in a series of steps over the coming five years, with a 50-fold luminosity increase and shortening of the bunch crossing time from 3.5 μs to 400 ns. These changes in environment necessitate changes in several of the D0 detectors, their electronics and the triggers. In addition, we expect that with the large increase in accumulated luminosity and based upon the analysis of data from the first few runs, new physics opportunities shall be available. This evolution of the physics program in the era preceeding the SSC also affects the choices for the D0 upgrade. The upgraded detector which has been proposed and partially approved will be motivated and described

  11. State of the Short Dipole Model Program for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Andreyev, N I; Kurtyka, T; Oberli, L R; Perini, D; Russenschuck, Stephan; Siegel, N; Siemko, A; Tommasini, D; Vanenkov, I; Walckiers, L

    1998-01-01

    Superconducting single and twin aperture 1-m long dipole magnets are currently being fabricated at CERN at a rate of about one per month in the framework of the short dipole model program for the LHC. The program allows to study performance improvements coming from refinements in design, components and assembly options and to accumulate statistics based on a small-scale production. The experience thus gained provides in turn feedback into the long magnet program in industry. In recent models initial quenching fields above 9 T have been obtained and after a short training the conductor limit at 2 K is reached, resulting in a central bore field exceeding 10 T. The paper describes the features of recent single aperture models, the results obtained during cold tests and the plans to ensure the continuation of a vigorous model program providing input for the fabrication of the main LHC dipoles.

  12. Parametric study on the thermal performance of beam screen samples of the High-Luminosity LHC upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges de Sousa, P.; Morrone, M.; Hovenga, N.; Garion, C.; van Weelderen, R.; Koettig, T.; Bremer, J.

    2017-12-01

    The High-Luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) will increase the accelerator’s luminosity by a factor 10 beyond its original design value, giving rise to more collisions and generating an intense flow of debris. A new beam screen has been designed for the inner triplets that incorporates tungsten alloy blocks to shield the superconducting magnets and the 1.9 K superfluid helium bath from incoming radiation. These screens will operate between 60 K and 80 K and are designed to sustain a nominal head load of 15 Wm-1, over 10 times the nominal heat load for the original LHC design. Their overall new and more complex design requires them and their constituent parts to be characterised from a thermal performance standpoint. In this paper we describe the experimental parametric study carried out on two principal thermal components: a representative sample of the beam screen with a tungsten-based alloy block and thermal link and the supporting structure composed of an assembly of ceramic spheres and titanium springs. Results from both studies are shown and discussed regarding their impact on the baseline considerations for the thermal design of the beam screens.

  13. LHC IR Upgrade Nb-Ti, 120mm Aperture Model Quadrupole Test Results at 1.8K

    CERN Document Server

    Kirby, G A; Bajko, M; Datskov, V I; Durante, M; Fessia, P; Feuvrier, J; Guinchard, M; Giloux, C; Granieri, P P; Manil, P; Perez, J C; Ravaioli, E; Rifflet, J M; Russenschuck, S; Sahner, T; Segreti, M; Todesco, E; Willering, G

    2014-01-01

    Over the last five years, the model MQXC quadruple, a 120 mm aperture, 120 T/m, 1.8 m long, Nb-Ti version of the LHC insertion upgrade (due in 2021), has been developed at CERN. The magnet incorporates several novel concepts to extract high levels of heat flux and provide high quality field harmonics throughout the full operating current range. Existing LHC-dipole cable with new, open cable and ground insulation was used. Two, nominally identical 1.8 m long magnets were built and tested at 1.8 K at the CERN SM18 test facility. This paper compares in detail the two magnet tests and presents: quench performance, internal stresses, heat extraction simulating radiation loading in the superconducting coils, and quench protection measurements. The first set of tests highlighted the conflict between high magnet cooling capability and quench protection. The second magnet had additional instrumentation to investigate further this phenomenon. Finally we present test results from a new type of superconducting magnet pro...

  14. Development of the DAQ System of Triple-GEM Detectors for the CMS Muon Spectrometer Upgrade at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00387583

    The Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) upgrade project aims at improving the performance of the muon spectrometer of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment which will suffer from the increase in luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). After a long technical stop in 2019-2020, the LHC will restart and run at a luminosity of 2 × 1034 cm−2 s−1, twice its nominal value. This will in turn increase the rate of particles to which detectors in CMS will be exposed and affect their performance. The muon spectrometer in particular will suffer from a degraded detection efficiency due to the lack of redundancy in its most forward region. To solve this issue, the GEM collaboration proposes to instrument the first muon station with Triple-GEM detectors, a technology which has proven to be resistant to high fluxes of particles. Within the GEM collaboration, the Data Acquisition (DAQ) subgroup is in charge of the development of the electronics and software of the DAQ system of the detectors. This thesis presents th...

  15. Radiation-hard Active Pixel Sensors for HL-LHC Detector Upgrades based on HV-CMOS Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Miucci, A; Hemperek, T.; Hügging, F.; Krüger, H.; Obermann, T.; Wermes, N.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Backhaus, M.; Capeans, M.; Feigl, S.; Nessi, M.; Pernegger, H.; Ristic, B.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Ferrere, D.; Iacobucci, G.; Rosa, A.La; Muenstermann, D.; George, M.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Quadt, A.; Rieger, J.; Weingarten, J.; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Buttar, C.; Hynds, D.; Kreidl, C.; Peric, I.; Breugnon, P.; Pangaud, P.; Godiot-Basolo, S.; Fougeron, D.; Bompard, F.; Clemens, J.C.; Liu, J; Barbero, M.; Rozanov, A

    2014-01-01

    Luminosity upgrades are discussed for the LHC (HL-LHC) which would make updates to the detectors necessary, requiring in particular new, even more radiation-hard and granular, sensors for the inner detector region. 1Corresponding author. c CERN 2014, published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License by IOP Publishing Ltd and Sissa Medialab srl. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article’s title, journal citation and DOI. doi:10.1088/1748-0221/9/05/C050642014 JINST 9 C05064 A proposal for the next generation of inner detectors is based on HV-CMOS: a new family of silicon sensors based on commercial high-voltage CMOS technology, which enables the fabrication of part of the pixel electronics inside the silicon substrate itself. The main advantages of this technology with respect to the standard silicon sensor technology are: low material budget, fast charge collection time, high radiation tolerance, low cost and operation a...

  16. Radiation-hard Active Pixel Sensors for HL-LHC Detector Upgrades based on HV-CMOS Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miucci, A; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S; Ferrere, D; Iacobucci, G; Rosa, A La; Muenstermann, D; Gonella, L; Hemperek, T; Hügging, F; Krüger, H; Obermann, T; Wermes, N; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Backhaus, M; Capeans, M; Feigl, S; Nessi, M; Pernegger, H; Ristic, B; George, M

    2014-01-01

    Luminosity upgrades are discussed for the LHC (HL-LHC) which would make updates to the detectors necessary, requiring in particular new, even more radiation-hard and granular, sensors for the inner detector region. A proposal for the next generation of inner detectors is based on HV-CMOS: a new family of silicon sensors based on commercial high-voltage CMOS technology, which enables the fabrication of part of the pixel electronics inside the silicon substrate itself. The main advantages of this technology with respect to the standard silicon sensor technology are: low material budget, fast charge collection time, high radiation tolerance, low cost and operation at room temperature. A traditional readout chip is still needed to receive and organize the data from the active sensor and to handle high-level functionality such as trigger management. HV-CMOS has been designed to be compatible with both pixel and strip readout. In this paper an overview of HV2FEI4, a HV-CMOS prototype in 180 nm AMS technology, will be given. Preliminary results after neutron and X-ray irradiation are shown

  17. Upgraded Readout and Trigger Electronics for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter at the LHC at the Horizons 2018-2022

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira Damazio, Denis; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters produce a total of 182,486 signals which are digitized and processed by the front-end and back-end electronics at every triggered event. In addition, the front-end electronics is summing analog signals to provide coarsely grained energy sums, called trigger towers, to the first-level trigger system, which is optimized for nominal LHC luminosities. However, the pile-up noise expected during the High Luminosity phases of LHC will be increased by factors of 3 to 7. An improved spatial granularity of the trigger primitives is therefore proposed in order to improve the identification performance for trigger signatures, like electrons, photons, tau leptons, jets, total and missing energy, at high background rejection rates. For the first upgrade phase in 2018, new LAr Trigger Digitizer Board (LTDB) are being designed to receive higher granularity signals, digitize them on detector and send them via fast optical links to a new digital processing system (DPS). The DPS applies...

  18. The ATLAS Trigger Core Configuration and Execution System in Light of the ATLAS Upgrade for LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Heinrich, Lukas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    During the 2013/14 shutdown of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) the ATLAS first level trigger (L1T) and the data acquisition system (DAQ) were substantially upgraded to cope with the increase in luminosity and collision multiplicity, expected to be delivered by the LHC in 2015. To name a few, the L1T was extended on the calorimeter side (L1Calo) to better cope with pile-up and apply better-tuned isolation criteria on electron, photon, and jet candidates. The central trigger (CT) was widened to analyze twice as many inputs, provide more trigger lines, and serve multiple sub-detectors in parallel during calibration periods. A new FPGA-based trigger, capable of analyzing event topologies at 40 MHz, was added to provide further input to forming the level 1 trigger decision (L1Topo). On the DAQ side the dataflow was completely remodeled, merging the two previously existing stages of the software-based high level trigger into one. Partially because of these changes, partially because of the new trigger paradigm to h...

  19. Pixel Detector Developments for Tracker Upgrades of the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Meschini, Marco; Dalla Betta, G. F; Dinardo, Mauro; Giacomini, G; Menasce, Dario; Mendicino, R; Messineo, Alberto; Moroni, Luigi; Ronchin, S; Sultan, D.M.S; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Viliani, Lorenzo; Zoi, Irene; Zuolo, Davide

    2017-01-01

    and 3D devices. The results on the 3D pixel sensors before irradiation are very satisfactory and % make us confident support the conclusion that columnar devices are % 3D devices very good candidates for the inner layers of the upgrade pixel detectors.

  20. Submission of the First Full Scale Prototype Chip for Upgraded ATLAS Pixel Detector at LHC, FE-I4A

    CERN Document Server

    Barbero, M; The ATLAS collaboration; Beccherle, R; Darbo, G; Dube, S; Elledge, D; Fleury, J; Fougeron, D; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Gensolen, F; Gnani, D; Gromov, V; Jensen, F; Hemperek, T; Karagounis, M; Kluit, R; Kruth, A; Mekkaoui, A; Menouni, M; Schipper, JD; Wermes, N; Zivkovic, V

    2010-01-01

    A new ATLAS pixel chip FE-I4 is being developed for use in upgraded LHC luminosity environments, including the near-term Insertable B-Layer (IBL) upgrade. FE-I4 is designed in a 130nm CMOS technology, presenting advantages in terms of radiation tolerance and digital logic density compared to the 250nm CMOS technology used for the current ATLAS pixel IC, FE-I3. The FE-I4 architecture is based on an array of 80x336 pixels, each 50x250um^2, consisting of analog and digital sections. In the summer 2010, a first full scale prototype FE-I4A was submitted for an engineering run. This IC features the full scale pixel array as well as the complex periphery of the future full-size FE-I4. The FE-I4A contains also various extra test features which should prove very useful for the chip characterization, but deviate from the needs for standard operation of the final FE-I4 for IBL. In this paper, focus will be brought to the various features implemented in the FE-I4A submission, while also underlining the main differences b...

  1. The Phase-1 Upgrade for the Level-1 Muon Barrel Trigger of the ATLAS Experiment at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Izzo, Vincenzo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Level-1 Barrel Trigger of the ATLAS Experiment is based on Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) detectors. The on-detector trigger electronics identifies muons with specific values of transverse momentum (pT), by using coincidences between different layers of detectors. Trigger data is then transferred from on-detector to the off-detector trigger electronics boards. Data is processed by a complex system, which combines trigger data from the Barrel and the End-cap regions, and provides the combined muon candidate to the Central Trigger Processor (CTP). The system has been performing very well for almost a decade. However, in order to cope with continuously increasing LHC luminosity and more demanding requirements on trigger efficiency and performance, various upgrades for the full trigger system were already deployed, and others are foreseen in the next years. Most of the trigger upgrades are based on state-of-the-art technologies and allow designing more complex trigger menus, increasing processing power and da...

  2. Performance assesment of pre-series beam wire scanner prototypes for the LHC injectors upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2243534

    The BEAM department (BE), is in charge of the development and operation of the accelerator components. Inside this department, the Beam Instrumentation group (BE-BI) works on the instruments that allows the operators and scientists to observe the accelerated beam and its characteristics. Finally, the Profile Measurement section (BE-BI-PM) deals with all the instruments capable of measuring the particles transverse distribution (often called transverse beam profile). Among the different systems developed and maintained by the section, the Beam Wire Scanners (BWS) are particularly relevant, because ensures the accurate beam profile measurements in all the circular accelerators and serves as calibration for other instruments. A total of 31 BWS are installed in the PS, PSB, SPS and LHC (see Fig. 1 to recognize the different accelerators). All of these instruments present a different design, depending on their location, and are not satisfying the HL-LHC needs. In order to harmonize the CERN’s BWS with a single d...

  3. Testing Long-Range Beam-Beam Compensation for the LHC Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Rijoff, T L

    2012-01-01

    The performance of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN and its minimum crossing angle are limited by the effect of long-range beam-beam collisions. A wire compensators can mitigate part of the long-range effects and may allow for smaller crossing angles, or higher beam intensity. A prototype long-range wire compensator could be installed in the LHC by 2014/15. Since the originally reserved position for such a wire compensator is not available for this first step, we explore other possible options. Our investigations consider various longitudinal and transverse locations, different wire shapes, different optics configurations and several crossing angles between the two colliding beams. Simulations are carried out with the weak-strong code BBtrack. New postprocessing tools are introduced to analyse tune footprints and particle stability. In particular, a new method for the Lyapunov coefficient calculation is implemented. Submitted as "Tesi di laurea" at the University of Milano, 2012.

  4. The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter: upgrade plans for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Novgorodova, Olga; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and built to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to 10$^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are employed for electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry. The LAr has to withstand a High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) operation of the collider and associated detectors at luminosities of up to (5-7)$\\times$10$^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$, with the goal of accumulating an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb$^{-1}$. This is well beyond the values for which the detectors were designed. The electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters will be able to tolerate the increased particle flux, but the performance of the forward calorimeter (FCal) will be affected. Two possible solutions for keeping the current performance are being discussed. The electronics readout will also need to withstand a 3-5 times larger radiation environment. In the hadronic endcap calorimeter (HEC) cold GaAs preampl...

  5. Upgrade of the ATLAS hadronic Tile Calorimeter for the High luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00127668; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment. TileCal is a sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillators as active medium. The scintillators are read-out by wavelength shifting fibers coupled to photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The analogue signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) will have a peak luminosity of 5 1034cm2s1, five times higher than the design luminosity of the LHC. TileCal will undergo a major replacement of its on- and off-detector electronics for the high luminosity programme of the LHC starting in 2026. All signals will be digitized and then transferred directly to the off-detector electronics, where the signals will be reconstructed, stored, and sent to the first level of trigger at a rate of 40 MHz. This will provide better precision of the calorimeter signals used by the trigger system and will allow ...

  6. Upgrade of the ATLAS hadronic Tile Calorimeter for the High luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Solodkov, Alexander; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment. TileCal is a sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillators as active medium. The scintillators are read-out by wavelength shifting fibers coupled to photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The analogue signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) will have a peak luminosity of 5x10ˆ34 cm-2s-1, five times higher than the design luminosity of the LHC. TileCal will undergo a major replacement of its on- and off-detector electronics for the high luminosity programme of the LHC starting in 2026. All signals will be digitized and then transferred directly to the off-detector electronics, where the signals will be reconstructed, stored, and sent to the first level of trigger at a rate of 40 MHz. This will provide better precision of the calorimeter signals used by the trigger system and will a...

  7. Upgrade plans for ATLAS Forward Calorimetry for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    Even though data taking has just started with the LHC, plans are being developed to operate the machine and its detectors at up to 10 times the original design luminosity. This has an impact on many components of the ATLAS detector, particularly the Forward calorimeter, which is exposed to some of the highest radiation rates in ATLAS. The FCal detector and its associated components were designed for operation at the maximum LHC luminosity of 1034 cm2s-1. However at the higher luminosities (HL), which are projected for the HL-LHC, operation of the FCal will be compromised. Beam heating in the FCal which is located on a liquid argon filled cryostat could lead to the formation of argon bubbles in the detector, the ionization rate will result in space charge effects that will reduce the signal and the current draw will result in a voltage drop across the HV current limiting resistors. The space charge and ionization rates will result in the FCal becoming insensitive to particles at its inner edge and the insensit...

  8. Recent upgrading of the modelling program COMFORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkes, C.; Lee, M.

    1986-01-01

    The computer code COMFORT, developed for the online control of machine functions at the SLC, has recently undergone several modifications to overcome some of its limitations. This note describes the reasons for these changes, the methods employed, some test results and the applications of the new version of the program

  9. Upgrade Plans for ATLAS Forward Calorimetry for the HL-LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, J.; ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Group

    Even though the LHC is still in an early phase of operation, plans are being developed to operate the machine and its detectors at up to 10 times the original design luminosity. This has a major impact on the Forward Calorimeter (FCal), which is exposed to some of the highest radiation rates in ATLAS. The FCal detector and its associated components were designed for operation at the maximum LHC luminosity of 1034 cm-2s-1. However at the higher luminosities projected for the HL-LHC, operation of the FCal may be compromised. Beam heating in the FCal could lead to the formation of argon bubbles in the detector, the ionization rate will result in space charge effects that will reduce the signal and the current draw will result in a voltage drop across the HV current limiting resistors. Two possible solutions are being considered to maintain FCal operation at HL-LHC. One is a complete replacement of the FCal system. A replacement FCal would have a similar design to the current calorimeter except for the addition of cooling loops, lower value HV protection resistors and the use of smaller ionization gaps, as small as 100 microns in the first compartment. The second solution is the installation of a small warm calorimeter, referred to as the Mini-FCal, to be placed in front of the FCal. This addition would reduce the ionization load in the first FCal compartment, which would keep a larger region of the FCal active and reduce the heat load to an acceptable level. The current concept for the Mini-FCal is a standard parallel plate calorimeter with copper absorbers and diamond sensors, which were chosen for their inherent radiation resistance. It is anticipated that neutrons will be the major cause of damage to the diamond sensors and the integrated flux of neutrons in the Mini-FCal after 3000 fb-1 at the HL-LHC will be up to 2 x 1017 neutrons/cm2. Recent irradiation tests carried out by members of the ATLAS Liquid Argon group show that these sensors can still operate after

  10. 76 FR 23795 - Low-Power Television and Translator Upgrade Program: Notice of Final Closing Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    .... 110418247-1247-01] Low-Power Television and Translator Upgrade Program: Notice of Final Closing Date AGENCY... receipt of applications for the Low-Power Television and Translator Upgrade Program (Upgrade Program) will... Rules to Establish Rules for Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster...

  11. The Level-1 Tile-Muon Trigger in the Tile Calorimeter upgrade program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryzhov, A.

    2016-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). TileCal provides highly-segmented energy measurements for incident particles. Information from TileCal's outermost radial layer can assist in muon tagging in the Level-1 Muon Trigger by rejecting fake muon triggers due to slow charged particles (typically protons) without degrading the efficiency of the trigger. The main activity of the Tile-Muon Trigger in the ATLAS Phase-0 upgrade program was to install and to activate the TileCal signal processor module for providing trigger inputs to the Level-1 Muon Trigger. This report describes the Tile-Muon Trigger, focusing on the new detector electronics such as the Tile Muon Digitizer Board (TMDB) that receives, digitizes and then provides the signal from eight TileCal modules to three Level-1 muon endcap Sector-Logic Boards.

  12. Upgrade of the ATLAS Hadronic Tile Calorimeter for the High Luminosity LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tortajada Ignacio Asensi

    2018-01-01

    Three different front-end options are presently being investigated for the upgrade, two of them based on ASICs, and a final solution will be chosen after extensive laboratory and test beam studies that are in progress. A hybrid demonstrator module is being developed using the new electronics while conserving compatibility with the current system. The status of the developments will be presented, including results from the several tests with particle beams.

  13. Nova Upgrade program: ignition and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storm, E.; Campbell, E.M.; Hogan, W.J.; Lindl, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program is addressing the critical physics and technology issues directed toward demonstrating and exploiting ignition and propagating burn to high gain with ICF targets for both defense and civilian applications. Nova is the primary U.S. facility employed in the study of the X-ray-driven (indirect drive) approach to ICF. Nova's principal objective is to demonstrate that laser-driven hohlraums can achieve the conditions of driver-target coupling efficiency, driver irradiation symmetry, driver pulseshaping, target preheat, and hydrodynamic stability required by hot-spot ignition and fuel compression to realize a fusion gain. (author)

  14. UPGRADES

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Contardo and J. Spalding

    2012-01-01

      Good progress is being made on the projects that will be installed during LS1. CSC chamber production for ME4/2 is progressing at a rate of four chambers per month, with 25 built so far, and the new electronics for ME1/1 is undergoing a pre-production integration testing. For the RPC chambers, gap production is underway with first deliveries to the chamber assembly sites at CERN and Ghent. The third site at Mumbai will begin production next month. For the PMT replacement in the forward hadron calorimeters (HF), the 1728 PMTs are all characterised and ready to be installed. Testing of the electronics boards is going well. Preparations to replace the HPDs in the outer calorimeter (HO) with SiPMs are also on-track. All components are at CERN and burn-in of the new front-end electronics is proceeding. There are three major upgrade projects targeting the period from LS1 through LS2: a new pixel detector, upgraded photo-detectors and electronics for HCAL, and development of a new L1 Trigger. The new ...

  15. UPGRADES

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Contardo and J. Spalding

    2013-01-01

    The three post-LS1 Phase 1 Upgrade projects (the L1-Trigger, Pixel Tracker, and HCAL) are all making excellent progress and are transitioning from the prototype to the execution phase. Meanwhile plans are developing for Phase 2, a major Upgrade programme targeting the third long shutdown, LS3. News on Phase 1 is included under the respective projects; we only provide a brief summary here. Phase 1 The plan for the L1 Trigger relies on the installation during the present shutdown of optical splitting for the Trigger input signals. This will allow the new Trigger system to be brought online and fully commissioned during beam operation in 2015, while CMS relies on the existing legacy Trigger for physics. Once fully commissioned the experiment can switch over to the new Trigger, which will provide greatly improved performance at high event pile-up, by 2016. System tests of the splitter system, and of the new architecture of the calorimeter trigger were very successful, and the work in LS1 is on-track. Prototype ...

  16. High-Rate Glass Resistive Plate Chambers For LHC Muon Detectors Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Laktineh, I; Cauwenbergh, S; Combret, C; Crotty, I; Haddad, Y; Grenier, G; Guida, R; Kieffer, R; Lumb, N; Mirabito, L; Schirra, F; Seguin, N; Tytgat, M; Van der Donckt, M; Wang, Y; Zaganidis, N

    2012-01-01

    The limitation of the detection rate of standard bakelite resistive plate chambers (RPC) used as muon detector in LHC experiments is behind the absence of such detectors in the high TJ regions in both CMS and ATLAS detectors. RPCs made with low resistivity glass plates (10ID O.cm) could be an adequate solution to equip the high TJ regions extending thus both the trigger efficiency and the physics performance. Different beam tests with single and multi-gap configurations using the new glass have shown that such detectors can operate at few thousands Hzlcm2 with high efficiency( > 90%).

  17. Quench Performance of the First Twin-aperture 11 T Dipole for LHC upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Zlobin, A V; Apollinari, G; Barzi, E; Chlachidze, G; Nobrega, A; Novitski, I; Stoynev, S; Turrioni, D; Auchmann, B; Izquierdo Bermudez, S; Karppinen, M; Rossi, L; Savary, F; Smekens, D

    2015-01-01

    FNAL and CERN are developing a twin-aperture 11 T Nb$_{3}$Sn dipole suitable for installation in the LHC. A single-aperture 2-m long dipole demonstrator and two 1-m long dipole models have been fabricated and tested at FNAL in 2012-2014. The two 1 m long collared coils were then assembled into the first twin-aperture Nb$_{3}$Sn demonstrator dipole and tested. Test results of this twin-aperture Nb$_{3}$Sn dipole model are reported and discussed.

  18. Prospects for a precision timing upgrade of the CMS PbWO$_{4}$ crystal electromagnetic calorimeter for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Marzocchi, Badder

    2017-01-01

    The upgrade of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) crystal electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL), which will operate at the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), will achieve a timing resolution of around 30 ps for high energy photons and electrons. In this talk we will discuss the benefits of precision timing for the ECAL event reconstruction at HL-LHC. Simulation studies on the timing properties of PbWO crystals, as well as the impact of the photosensors and the readout electronics on the timing performance, will be presented. Test beam studies on the timing performance of PbWO$_{4}$ crystals with various photosensors and readout electronics will be shown.

  19. Upgrade of the ATLAS hadronic Tile Calorimeter for the High luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez Bosca, Sergi; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. It is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter read out via wavelength shifting fibers coupled to photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The PMT signals are digitized and stored on detector until a trigger is received. The High-Luminosity phase of LHC (HL-LHC) expected to begin in year 2026 requires new electronics to meet the requirements of a 1 MHz trigger, higher ambient radiation, and for better performance under higher pileup. All the TileCal on- and off-detector electronics will be replaced during the shutdown of 2024-2025. PMT signals from every TileCal cell will be digitized and sent directly to the back-end electronics, where the signals are reconstructed, stored, and sent to the first level of trigger at a rate of 40 MHz. This will provide better precision of the calorimeter signals used by the trigger system and will allow the development of more complex trigger algorithms. Change...

  20. Upgrade of the ATLAS hadronic Tile Calorimeter for the High luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez Bosca, Sergi; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. It is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter read out via wavelength shifting fibers coupled to photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The PMT signals are digitized and stored on detector until a trigger is received. The High-Luminosity phase of LHC (HL-LHC)expected to begin in year 2026 requires new electronics to meet the requirements of a 1 MHz trigger, higher ambient radiation, and for better performance under higher pileup. All the TileCal on- and off-detector electronics will be replaced during the shutdown of 2024-2025. PMT signals from every TileCal cell will be digitized and sent directly to the back-end electronics, where the signals are reconstructed, stored, and sent to the first level of trigger at a rate of 40 MHz. This will provide better precision of the calorimeter signals used by the trigger system and will allow the development of more complex trigger algorithms. Changes...

  1. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Scuri, Fabrizio; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment. TileCal is a sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillators as active medium. The scintillators are read-out by wavelength shifting fibers coupled to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analogue signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped, digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns and stored on detector until a trigger decision is received. The High-Luminosity phase of LHC (HL-LHC) expected to begin in year 2026 requires new electronics to meet the requirements of a 1 MHz trigger, higher ambient radiation, and for better performance under high pileup. Both the on- and off-detector TileCal electronics will be replaced during the shutdown of 2024-2025. PMT signals from every TileCal cell will be digitized and sent directly to the back-end electronics, where the signals are reconstructed, stored, and sent to the first level of trigger at a rate of 40 MHz. This will provide better precis...

  2. Progress on DC-DC Converters for a Silicon Tracker for the sLHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Dhawan, S; Chen, H; Khanna, R; Kierstead, J; Lanni, F; Lynn, D; Musso, C; Rescia, S; Smith, H; Tipton, P; M. Weber, M

    2009-01-01

    There is a need for DC-DC converters which can operate in the extremely harsh environment of the sLHC Si Tracker. The environment requires radiation qualification to a total ionizing radiation dose of 50 Mrad and a displacement damage fluence of 5 x 1014 /cm2 of 1 MeV equivalent neutrons. In addition a static magnetic field of 2 Tesla or greater prevents the use of any magnetic components or materials. In February 2007 an Enpirion EN5360 was qualified for the sLHC radiation dosage but the converter has an input voltage limited to a maximum of 5.5V. From a systems point of view this input voltage was not sufficient for the application. Commercial LDMOS FETs have developed using a 0.25 μm process which provided a 12 volt input and were still radiation hard. These results are reported here and in previous papers. Plug in power cards with ×10 voltage ratio are being developed for testing the hybrids with ABCN chips. These plug-in cards have air coils but use commercial chips that are not designed to be radiatio...

  3. Design of a Large Single-Aperture Dipole Magnet for HL-LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Qingjin, Xu; Iio, Masami; Ogitsu, Toru; Sasaki, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Akira; Todesco, Ezio

    2013-01-01

    An upgrade of the low-beta insertion system for the ATLAS and Compact Muon Solenoid experiments is proposed in the high luminosity Large Hadron Collider upgrade project. It includes final beam focusing quadrupoles, beam separation and recombination dipoles, and larger aperture matching section quadrupoles. KEK is in charge of the conceptual design of the large aperture separation dipole D1. The latest design parameters are a main field of ~ 5 T at 1.9 K with Nb-Ti superconducting technology, a coil aperture of 160 mm, and a cos-theta one-layer coil with Large Hadron Collider dipole cable. Because the new D1 is expected to be operated in a very high radiation environment, radiation resistance and a cooling scheme are being carefully considered. The collaring-yoke structure is adopted to provide the mechanical support for the single-layer Nb-Ti coil. We summarize the design study of this magnet, including i) the very large iron saturation effect on field quality due to the large aperture and limited size of the...

  4. A Level 1 Tracking Trigger for the CMS Experiment at the LHC Phase 2 Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Pozzobon, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    The second decade of Large Hadron Collider operations, from about 2020 onwards, envisages a remarkable increase in collider instantaneous luminosity, one order of magnitude above the project one. This luminosity increase presents several challenges to the LHC experiments. The present tracker of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment must be replaced with a system providing excellent tracking quality at higher luminosities, as well as Tracking Trigger inputs to the existing “Level 0” CMS trigger system at the full 40 MHz bunch-crossing rate. The minimal requirements for a Tracking Trigger would be the capability to confirm the presence of high-pT tracks associated with Calorimeter and/or Muon Level 0 triggers. The ability to provide eective isolation criteria may also be required, and would in any case substantially improve the Trigger performance. Maintaining the data rates generated by Tracking Trigger inputs within a manageable bandwidth requires sensor modules able to locally sparsify the data. Measuring...

  5. NbTi Superferric Corrector Magnets for the LHC Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Volpini, G; Bellomo, G; Broggi, F; Paccalini, A; Pedrini, D; Leone, A; Quadrio, M; Somaschini, L; Sorbi, M; Todero, M; Uva, C; Fessia, P; Todesco, E; Toral, F

    2015-01-01

    CERN and INFN, Italy, have signed an agreement for R&D activities relating to high-luminosity LHC superconducting magnets, which include the design, construction, and cryogenic test of a set of five prototypes, one for each type foreseen, from the skew quadrupole to the dodecapole. The reference layout of these magnets is based on a superferric design type, which allows reaching the required integrated field strength with a relatively simple design. Since the number of magnets of all the types required for the series is 36, emphasis has been put on modularity, reliability, ease of construction, and on the use of an available superconducting wire. This paper presents the status of the development work being performed at INFN, LASA Laboratory, and at CERN, focusing on the following issues: the electromagnetic 2- and 3-D design including harmonic component study; the fringe field analysis; the magnet powering and quench protection; mechanical and construction main choices.

  6. Development of n-in-p pixel modules for the ATLAS upgrade at HL-LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchiolo, A.; Nisius, R.; Savic, N.; Terzo, S.

    2016-09-01

    Thin planar pixel modules are promising candidates to instrument the inner layers of the new ATLAS pixel detector for HL-LHC, thanks to the reduced contribution to the material budget and their high charge collection efficiency after irradiation. 100-200 μm thick sensors, interconnected to FE-I4 read-out chips, have been characterized with radioactive sources and beam tests at the CERN-SPS and DESY. The results of these measurements are reported for devices before and after irradiation up to a fluence of 14 ×1015 neq /cm2 . The charge collection and tracking efficiency of the different sensor thicknesses are compared. The outlook for future planar pixel sensor production is discussed, with a focus on sensor design with the pixel pitches (50×50 and 25×100 μm2) foreseen for the RD53 Collaboration read-out chip in 65 nm CMOS technology. An optimization of the biasing structures in the pixel cells is required to avoid the hit efficiency loss presently observed in the punch-through region after irradiation. For this purpose the performance of different layouts have been compared in FE-I4 compatible sensors at various fluence levels by using beam test data. Highly segmented sensors will represent a challenge for the tracking in the forward region of the pixel system at HL-LHC. In order to reproduce the performance of 50×50 μm2 pixels at high pseudo-rapidity values, FE-I4 compatible planar pixel sensors have been studied before and after irradiation in beam tests at high incidence angle (80°) with respect to the short pixel direction. Results on cluster shapes, charge collection and hit efficiency will be shown.

  7. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile hadronic calorimeter for high-luminosity LHC run

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spoor, Matthew

    2017-02-11

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) will undergo a major replacement of its on- and off-detector electronics for the Long Shutdown 3 that is planned for 2024 and 2025. All signals will be digitised and transferred directly to the off-detector electronics, where the signals are reconstructed, stored, and sent to the first level of trigger at a rate of 40 MHz. This will provide better precision of the calorimeter signals used by the trigger system and will allow the development of more complex trigger algorithms. Changes to the electronics will also contribute to the reliability and redundancy of the system. Three different front-end options are presently being investigated for the upgrade and will be chosen after extensive test beam studies. A Hybrid Demonstrator module has been developed. The demonstrator is undergoing extensive testing and is planned for insertion in ATLAS.

  8. Nb3Sn High Field Magnets for the High Luminosity LHC Upgrade Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosio, Giorgio

    2015-06-01

    The High Luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN requires a new generation of high field superconducting magnets. High field large aperture quadrupoles (MQXF) are needed for the low-beta triplets close to the ATLAS and CMS detectors, and high field two-in-one dipoles (11 T dipoles) are needed to make room for additional collimation. The MQXF quadrupoles, with a field gradient of 140 T/m in 150 mm aperture, have a peak coil field of 12.1 T at nominal current. The 11 T dipoles, with an aperture of 60 mm, have a peak coil field of 11.6 T at nominal current. Both magnets require Nb3Sn conductor and are the first applications of this superconductor to actual accelerator magnets.

  9. Validation of the Data Consolidation in Layout Database for the LHC Tunnel Cryogenics Controls Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Tovar-Gonzalez, A; Blanco, E; Fortescue-Beck, E; Fluder, C; Inglese, V; Pezzetti, M; Gomes, P; Wolak, T; Dudek, M; Frassinelli, F; Drozd, A; Zapolski, M

    2014-01-01

    The control system of the Large Hadron Collider cryogenics manages over 34’000 instrumentation and actuator channels. The complete information on their characteristics and parameters can be extracted from a set of views on the Layout database, to generate the specifications of the control system; from these, the code to populate PLCs (Programmable Logic Controller) and SCADA (Supervisory Control & Data Acquisition) is automatically produced, within the UNICOS framework (Unified Industrial Control System). The Layout database is, since 2003, progressively integrating and centralizing information on the whole CERN Accelerator complex. It models topographical organization (layouts) as functional positions and relationships. After three years of machine operation, many parameters have been manually adjusted in SCADA and PLCs; they now differ from their original values in the Layout database. Furthermore, to accommodate the upgrade of the UNICOS Continuous Process Control package to version 6, some data stru...

  10. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile hadronic calorimeter for high-luminosity LHC run

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoor, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) will undergo a major replacement of its on- and off-detector electronics for the Long Shutdown 3 that is planned for 2024 and 2025. All signals will be digitised and transferred directly to the off-detector electronics, where the signals are reconstructed, stored, and sent to the first level of trigger at a rate of 40 MHz. This will provide better precision of the calorimeter signals used by the trigger system and will allow the development of more complex trigger algorithms. Changes to the electronics will also contribute to the reliability and redundancy of the system. Three different front-end options are presently being investigated for the upgrade and will be chosen after extensive test beam studies. A Hybrid Demonstrator module has been developed. The demonstrator is undergoing extensive testing and is planned for insertion in ATLAS.

  11. UPGRADES

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Contardo and J. Spalding

    2013-01-01

      LS1 and Phase 1 The detector projects targeting LS1 are progressing well, and a fully integrated schedule developed by Technical Coordination includes installation milestones and a detailed work-plan. The first chambers of the RPC system were produced and are being qualified. Production will ramp up this year to a rate of 20 chambers per month. 32 chambers of the CSC system have been fabricated for the ME4/2 CSC stations, and production proceeds at a rate of 4 per month. The new ME1/1 Front-End Board is in production and the off-detector electronics integration tests are ongoing. The new Theta Trigger Boards for the DT readout production is started and the relocation of the Sector Collector boards with new Optical Links as been successfully tested. All the components for the upgrade of the Forward Hadron Calorimeter PMTs have been received at CERN and assemblies are being qualified. The situation is similar for the Hadron Outer Calorimeter new SiPMs and readout modules. Three projects are plan...

  12. The Level-1 Tile-Muon Trigger in the Tile Calorimeter Upgrade Program

    CERN Document Server

    Ryzhov, Andrey; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The TileCal provides highly-segmented energy measurements for incident particles. Information from TileCal's last radial layer can assist in muon tagging using Level-1 muon trigger. It can help in the rejection of fake muon triggers arising from background radiation (slow charged particles - protons) without degrading the efficiency of the trigger. The TileCal main activity for Phase-0 upgrade ATLAS program (2013-2014) was the activation of the TileCal third layer signal for assisting the muon trigger at 1.0<|η|<1.3 (Tile-Muon Trigger). This report describes the Tile-Muon Trigger at TileCal upgrade activities, focusing on the new on-detector electronics such as Tile Muon Digitizer Board (TMDB) to provide (receive and digitize) the signal from eight TileCal modules to three Level-1 muon endcap sector logic blocks.

  13. Evaluation of the combined betatron and momentum cleaning in point 3 in terms of cleaning efficiency and energy deposition for the LHC Collimation upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Lari, L; Boccone, V; Brugger, M; Cerutti, F; Ferrari, A; Rossi, A; Versaci, R; Vlachoudis, V; Wollmann, D; Mereghetti, A; Faus-Golfe, A

    2011-01-01

    The Phase I LHC Collimation System Upgrade could include moving part of the Betatron Cleaning from LHC Point 7 to Point 3 to improve both operation flexibility and intensity reach. In addition, the partial relocation of beam losses from the current Betatron cleaning region at Point 7 will mitigate the risks of Single Event Upsets to equipment installed in adjacent and partly not sufficient shielded areas. The combined Betatron and Momentum Cleaning at Point 3 implies that new collimators have to be added as well as to implement a new collimator aperture layout. This paper shows the whole LHC Collimator Efficiency variation with the new layout at different beam energies. As part of the evaluation, energy deposition distribution in the IR3 region give indications about the effect of this new implementations not only on the collimators themselves but also on the other beam line elements as well as in the IR3 surrounding areas.

  14. Thin n-in-p planar pixel sensors and active edge sensors for the ATLAS upgrade at HL-LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terzo, S; Macchiolo, A; Nisius, R; Paschen, B

    2014-01-01

    Silicon pixel modules employing n-in-p planar sensors with an active thickness of 200 μm, produced at CiS, and 100-200 μm thin active/slim edge sensor devices, produced at VTT in Finland have been interconnected to ATLAS FE-I3 and FE-I4 read-out chips. The thin sensors are designed for high energy physics collider experiments to ensure radiation hardness at high fluences. Moreover, the active edge technology of the VTT production maximizes the sensitive region of the assembly, allowing for a reduced overlap of the modules in the pixel layer close to the beam pipe. The CiS production includes also four chip sensors according to the module geometry planned for the outer layers of the upgraded ATLAS pixel detector to be operated at the HL-LHC. The modules have been characterized using radioactive sources in the laboratory and with high precision measurements at beam tests to investigate the hit efficiency and charge collection properties at different bias voltages and particle incidence angles. The performance of the different sensor thicknesses and edge designs are compared before and after irradiation up to a fluence of 1.4 × 10 16 n eq /cm 2

  15. Improved beam extraction for a negative hydrogen ion source for the LHC injector chain upgrade, Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Midttun, Øystein; Scrivens, Richard

    In the scope of an upgrade of the injector chain of CERN’s accelerator complex, a new linear accelerator, Linac4, is under construction. This accelerator will replace the existing 50 MeV proton linac, Linac2. By increasing the beam energy to 160 MeV, Linac4 makes it possible to double the brightness in the PSB, and ultimately increase the luminosity in the LHC. Linac4 will accelerate beams of negative hydrogen (H-) to be injected into the PSB by multi-turn, charge exchange injection. The ion source was initially based on the non-caesiated RF-volume source from DESY. However, the beam extraction from this source could not handle the 45 keV beam energy required by the RFQ. A new beam extraction system has therefore been designed, via IBSimu simulations [1], to extract and transport the H- ion beam respecting the Linac4 requirements. Key features of the extraction system is a tuneable puller voltage to adapt the extraction field to the ion and electron beam currents, and a magnetized Einzel lens to dump the co...

  16. Electron-cloud simulation studies for the CERN-PS in the framework of the LHC Injectors Upgrade project

    CERN Document Server

    Rioja Fuentelsaz, Sergio

    The present study aims to provide a consistent picture of the electron cloud effect in the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS) and to investigate possible future limitations due to the requirements foreseen by the LHC Injectors Upgrade (LIU) project. It consists of a complete simulation survey of the electron cloud build-up in the different beam pipe sections of the ring depending on several controllable beam parameters and vacuum chamber surface properties, covering present and future operation parameters. As the combined function magnets of the accelerator constitute almost the $80\\%$ in length of the ring, the implementation of a new feature for the simulation of any external magnetic field on the PyECLOUD code, made it possible to perform this study. All the results of the simulations are given as a function of the vacuum chamber surface properties in order to deduce them, both locally and globally, when compared with experimental data. In a first step, we characterize locally the maximum possible number of ...

  17. The development of the Global Feature Extractor for the LHC Run-3 upgrade of L1 Calorimeter trigger system

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00065614; The ATLAS collaboration; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Kai; Lanni, Francesco; Takai, Helio; Tang, Shaochun; Wu, Weihao; ATLAS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Global Feature Extractor (gFEX) is one of several modules in LHC Run-3 upgrade of Level 1 Calorimeter (L1Calo) trigger system in ATLAS experiment. It is a single Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) module for large-area jet identifying with three Xilinx Virtex UltraScale FPGAs for data processing and a system-on-chip (SoC) FPGA for control and monitoring. A pre-prototype board has been designed to verify all functionalities, which includes one Xilinx Virtex-7 FPGA, one Zynq FPGA, several MiniPODs, MicroPODs, DDR3 SDRAM and other components. The performance of pre-prototype has been tested and evaluated. As a major challenge, the high-speed links in FPGAs are stable at 12.8 Gb/s with Bit Error Ratio (BER) < 10-15 (no error detected). The low-latency parallel GPIO (General Purpose I/O) buses for communication between FPGAs are stable at 960 Mb/s. The peripheral components of Zynq FPGA like DDRs, UART, SPI flashes, Ethernet and so on, have also been verified. The test results of pre-...

  18. Design of a Rad-Hard eFuse Trimming Circuit for Bandgap Voltage Reference for LHC Experiments Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Besirli, Mustafa; Koukab, Adil; Michelis, Stefano

    A precise and stable reference voltage is required to generate a stable output voltage in DC/DC converters. This reference voltage must be independent of temperature, power supply, radiation, intrinsic technology mismatch and process variation. This master's thesis reports the development of a rad-hard bandgap voltage reference with electrical fuse (eFuse) based analog calibration circuit in a commercial 130nm technology. According to the test results, the maximum error in the bandgap voltage (300mV in this application) was reduced from ±30mV to less than ±0.6mV thanks to the eFuse trimming. A temperature, power supply, radiation, mismatch and process-independent reference voltage was generated to provide reference voltage to first (bPOL12V) and second (bPOL2V5) stage DC/DC converters. This circuit will be integrated in bPOL12V and bPOL2V5 converters for high-luminosity LHC upgrades.

  19. Active Pixel Sensors in ams H18/H35 HV-CMOS Technology for the ATLAS HL-LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Ristic, Branislav

    2016-09-21

    Deep sub micron HV-CMOS processes offer the opportunity for sensors built by industry standard techniques while being HV tolerant, making them good candidates for drift-based, fast collecting, thus radiation-hard pixel detectors. For the upgrade of the ATLAS Pixel Detector towards the HL-LHC requirements, active pixel sensors in HV-CMOS technology were investigated. These implement amplifier and discriminator stages directly in insulating deep n-wells, which also act as collecting electrodes. The deep n-wells allow for bias voltages up to 150V leading to a depletion depth of several 10um. Prototype sensors in the ams H18 180nm and H35 350nm HV-CMOS processes have been manufactured, acting as a potential drop-in replacement for the current ATLAS Pixel sensors, thus leaving higher level processing such as trigger handling to dedicated read-out chips. Sensors were thoroughly tested in lab measurements as well as in testbeam experiments. Irradiation with X-rays and protons revealed a tolerance to ionizing doses o...

  20. The ATLAS Muon-to-Central Trigger Processor Interface Upgrade for the Run 3 of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Armbruster, Aaron James; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    To cope with the higher luminosity and physics cross-sections for the third run of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and beyond, the Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system of ATLAS experiment at CERN is being upgraded. Part of the TDAQ system, the Muon to Central Trigger Processor Interface (MUCTPI) receives muon candidates information from each of the 208 barrel and endcap muon trigger sectors, counts muon candidates for each transverse momentum threshold and sends the result to the Central Trigger Processor (CTP). The MUCTPI takes into account the possible overlap between trigger sectors in order to avoid double counting of muon candidates. A full redesign and replacement of the existing MUCTPI is required in order to provide full-granularity muon position information at the bunch crossing rate to the Topological Trigger processor (L1Topo) and to be able to interface with the new sector logic modules. State-of-the-art FPGA technology and high-density ribbon fiber-optic transmitters and receivers is being...

  1. Development of n-in-p pixel modules for the ATLAS Upgrade at HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Macchiolo, Anna; Savic, Natascha; Terzo, Stefano

    2016-09-21

    Thin planar pixel modules are promising candidates to instrument the inner layers of the new ATLAS pixel detector for HL-LHC, thanks to the reduced contribution to the material budget and their high charge collection efficiency after irradiation. 100-200 $\\mu$m thick sensors, interconnected to FE-I4 read-out chips, have been characterized with radioactive sources and beam tests at the CERN-SPS and DESY. The results of these measurements are reported for devices before and after irradiation up to a fluence of $14\\times10^{15}$ n$_{eq}$/cm$^2$. The charge collection and tracking efficiency of the different sensor thicknesses are compared. The outlook for future planar pixel sensor production is discussed, with a focus on sensor design with the pixel pitches (50x50 and 25x100 $\\mu$m$^2$) foreseen for the RD53 Collaboration read-out chip in 65 nm CMOS technology. An optimization of the biasing structures in the pixel cells is required to avoid the hit efficiency loss presently observed in the punch-through region...

  2. Upgrade of the TCDQ: A dumping protection system for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Antonakakis, T

    2012-01-01

    In the context of the LHC, an asynchronous beam dump could be destructive. In order to ensure the safety of the machine and its surroundings a model of the TCDQ dump has been designed. The length of the TCDQ dump is increased by 50% and its material distribution along its length is changed from graphite to a carbon composite that clearly withstands higher stresses then its counterpart. There are two different density composites used along the dump‘s length in a similar distribution than that of the TCDS, varying from high density to low then back to high. The power deposition within the duration of a pulse is given by FLUKA simulations and is used to predict temperature and stress distributions in space and time. The results are compared with previous studies in which graphite material was used. The difference in the thermal expansion coefficient of the two materials explains the reduced stresses in the newer design. Due to the high cost of carbon composites an alternative solution is thought without jeopar...

  3. Electronics for CMS Endcap Muon Level-1 Trigger System Phase-1 and HL LHC Upgrades Summary

    CERN Document Server

    Madorsky, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    To accommodate high-luminosity LHC operation at 13 TeV collision energy, the CMS Endcap Muon Level-1 Trigger system had to be significantly modified. To provide the best track reconstruction, the trigger system must now import all available trigger primitives generated by Cathode Strip Chambers and by certain other subsystems, such as Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC). In addition to massive input bandwidth, this also required significant increase in logic and memory resources.To satisfy these requirements, a new Sector Processor unit has been designed. It consists of three modules. The Core Logic module houses the large FPGA that contains the track-finding logic and multi-gigabit serial links for data exchange. The Optical module contains optical receivers and transmitters; it communicates with the Core Logic module via a custom backplane section. The Pt Lookup Table (PTLUT) module contains 1 GB of low-latency memory that is used to assign the final Pt to reconstructed muon tracks. The µTCA architecture (ado...

  4. The Upgraded Pixel Detector of the ATLAS Experiment for Run-2 at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00084948; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Run-2 of the LHC is providing new challenges to track and vertex reconstruction with higher energies, denser jets and higher rates. Therefore the ATLAS experiment has constructed the first 4-layer Pixel detector in HEP, installing a new Pixel layer, also called Insertable B-Layer (IBL). IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 at a radius of 3.3 cm between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe. The new detector, built to cope with high radiation and expected occupancy, is the first large scale application of 3D detectors and CMOS 130 nm technology. In addition the Pixel detector was refurbished with a new service quarter panel to recover about 3% of defective modules lost during run-1 and a new optical readout system to readout the data at higher speed while reducing the occupancy when running with increased luminosity. The commissioning and performance of the 4-layer Pixel Detector, in particular the IBL, will be presented using collision data.

  5. Expression of Interest for a Phase-II LHCb Upgrade: Opportunities in flavour physics, and beyond, in the HL-LHC era

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Anelli, Mario; Appleby, Robert; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Arnau Romeu, Joan; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Babuschkin, Igor; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baker, Sophie; Balagura, Vladislav; Baldini, Wander; Balla, Alessandro; Baranov, Alexander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Baryshnikov, Fedor; Baszczyk, Mateusz; Batozskaya, Varvara; Batsukh, Baasansuren; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Beiter, Andrew; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Beranek, Sarah; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Betancourt, Christopher; Betti, Federico; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bezshyiko, Iaroslava; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Birnkraut, Alex; Bitadze, Alexander; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frederic; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Boettcher, Thomas; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Bordyuzhin, Igor; Borgheresi, Alessio; Borghi, Silvia; Borisyak, Maxim; Borsato, Martino; Bossu, Francesco; Boubdir, Meriem; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brundu, Davide; Buchanan, Emma; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel Hugo; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carletti, Maurizio; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Casu, Luigi; Cattaneo, Marco; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Chamont, David; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chatzikonstantinidis, Georgios; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chobanova, Veronika; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Chubykin, Alexsei; Ciambrone, Paolo; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Citterio, Mauro; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Coelli, Simone; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombs, George; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Costa Sobral, Cayo Mar; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Serio, Marilisa; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Demmer, Moritz; Dendek, Adam; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Dijkstra, Hans; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Su{á}rez, Alvaro; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dungs, Kevin; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; D{é}l{é}age, Nicolas; Easo, Sajan; Ebert, Marcus; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Fazzini, Davide; Felici, Giulietto; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez, Gerard; Fernandez Prieto, Antonio; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fini, Rosa Anna; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fleuret, Frederic; Fohl, Klaus; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forshaw, Dean Charles; Forty, Roger; Franco Lima, Vinicius; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Fresch, Paolo; Fu, Jinlin; Funk, Wolfgang; Furfaro, Emiliano; F{ä}rber, Christian; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; Garcia Martin, Luis Miguel; Garc{í}a Pardi{ñ}as, Juli{á}n; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Garsed, Philip John; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gatta, Maurizio; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gian{ì}, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier G{ö}ran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gizdov, Konstantin; Gligorov, Vladimir; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gorelov, Igor Vladimirovich; Gotti, Claudio; Govorkova, Ekaterina; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graug{é}s, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greim, Roman; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Gruberg Cazon, Barak Raimond; Gr{ü}nberg, Oliver; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; G{ö}bel, Carla; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; Hatch, Mark; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heister, Arno; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adl{è}ne; Hill, Donal; Hombach, Christoph; Hopchev, P H; Huard, Zachary; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hushchyn, Mikhail; Hutchcroft, David; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jiang, Feng; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Karacson, Matthias; Kariuki, James Mwangi; Karodia, Sarah; Kecke, Matthieu; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khairullin, Egor; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Kirn, Thomas; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Koliiev, Serhii; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koppenburg, Patrick; Kosmyntseva, Alena; Kotriakhova, Sofia; Kozachuk, Anastasiia; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Krzemien, Wojciech; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Langenbruch, Christoph; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Leflat, Alexander; Lefran{ç}ois, Jacques; Lef{è}vre, Regis; Lemaitre, Florian; Lemos Cid, Edgar; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Tenglin; Li, Yiming; Li, Zhuoming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Lindner, Rolf; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Loi, Angelo; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusiani, Alberto; Lyu, Xiao-Rui; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Maltsev, Timofei; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean Fran{ç}ois; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marinangeli, Matthieu; Marino, Pietro; Marks, J{ö}rg; Marras, Davide; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Massafferri, Andr{é}; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurice, Emilie; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Merli, Andrea; Michielin, Emanuele; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Mogini, Andrea; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monroy, Igancio Alberto; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Morello, Michael Joseph; Morgunova, Olga; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Mulder, Mick; Mussini, Manuel; M{ü}ller, Dominik; M{ü}ller, Janine; M{ü}ller, Katharina; M{ü}ller, Vanessa; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Thi Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nieswand, Simon; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Nogay, Alla; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Pais, Preema Rennee; Palano, Antimo; Palutan, Matteo; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Pappenheimer, Cheryl; Parker, William; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Pastore, Alessandra; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petrov, Aleksandr; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pikies, Malgorzata; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Placinta, Vlad-Mihai; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poli Lener, Marco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Pomery, Gabriela Johanna; Ponce, Sebastien; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Poslavskii, Stanislav; Potterat, C{é}dric; Price, Eugenia; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Chen; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Ramos Pernas, Miguel; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Ratnikov, Fedor; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; dos Reis, Alberto; Remon Alepuz, Clara; Renaudin, Victor; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vicente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Rogozhnikov, Alexey; Roiser, Stefan; Rollings, Alexandra Paige; Romanovskiy, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Ronayne, John William; Rotondo, Marcello; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sadykhov, Elnur; Sagidova, Naylya; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Gonzalo, David; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Saputi, Alessandro; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schael, Stefan; Schellenberg, Margarete; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schreiner, HF; Schubert, Konstantin; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sergi, Antonino; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Simone, Saverio; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Soares Lavra, Lais; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefko, Pavol; Stefkova, Slavomira; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stemmle, Simon; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevens, Holger; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tilley, Matthew James; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Toriello, Francis; Tourinho Jadallah Aoude, Rafael; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Traill, Murdo; Tran, Minh T{â}m; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tully, Alison; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valassi, Andrea; Valat, Sebastien; Valenti, Giovanni; Van Dijk, Maarten; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vecchi, Stefania; van Veghel, Maarten; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Venkateswaran, Aravindhan; Verlage, Tobias Anton; Vernet, Maxime; Vesterinen, Mika; Viana Barbosa, Joao Vitor; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Viemann, Harald; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vitti, Marcela; Volkov, Vladimir; Vollhardt, Achim; Voneki, Balazs; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; V{á}zquez Sierra, Carlos; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Wark, Heather Mckenzie; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Winn, Michael Andreas; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wraight, Kenneth; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yang, Zishuo; Yao, Yuezhe; Yin, Hang; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zarebski, Kristian Alexander; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhu, Xianglei; Zhukov, Valery; Zucchelli, Stefano; CERN. Geneva. The LHC experiments Committee; LHCC

    2017-01-01

    A Phase-II Upgrade is proposed for the LHCb experiment in order to take full advantage of the flavour-physics opportunities at the HL-LHC, and other topics that can be studied with a forward spectrometer. This Upgrade, which will be installed in Long Shutdown 4 of the LHC (2030), will build on the strengths of the current experiment and the Phase-I Upgrade, but will consist of re-designed sub-systems that can operate at a luminosity of $2 \\times 10^{34}\\,{\\rm cm}^{-2} s^{-1}$, ten times that of the Phase-I Upgrade detector. New and improved detector components will increase the intrinsic performance of the experiment in certain key areas. In particular the installation of a tungsten sampling electromagnetic calorimeter will widen LHCb's capabilities for decays involving $\\pi^0$ and $\\eta$ mesons, electrons, and photons from loop-level penguin processes. The physics motivation is presented, and the prospects for operating the LHCb Interaction Point at high luminosity are assessed. The challenges for the detect...

  6. LHC@home takes centre stage : some of the people behind the CPSS and LHC@home programs

    CERN Multimedia

    maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    From left to right: Frank Schmidt (AB), Jukka Klem (Helsinki Institute of Physics), Andreas Wagner (IT), Eric McIntosh (IT) and Ben Segal (IT). The program of LHC@home, which aims to use the computing power of PCs when the screen saver is activated, is being relauched as part of the World Year of Physics.

  7. submitter Quench Protection Heater Study With the 2-m Model Magnet of Beam Separation Dipole for the HL-LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Kento; Higashi, Norio; Iida, Masahisa; Ikemoto, Yukiko; Kawamata, Hiroshi; Kimura, Nobuhiro; Nakamoto, Tatsushi; Ogitsu, Toru; Ohata, H; Okada, Naoki; Okada, Ryutaro; Sugano, Michinaka; Musso, Andrea; Todesco, Ezio

    2018-01-01

    The beam separation dipole magnet (D1), which is being operated in the large hadron collider (LHC), has to be replaced in accordance with upgrade to the high-luminosity LHC. The new D1 will be equipped with several circuits of heaters by which most of the stored energy is dissipated in the whole of the magnet during its quench, thereby avoiding localization of hot spots. Prior to construction of the production magnet, the 2-m mechanical short model is fabricated, and performance of this quench protection heater is evaluated through a series of the cold tests. As a result, we confirm that the maximum hot spot temperature obtained in the measurement reaches the practical limit of 300 K, and determine to design a new heater circuit. In this paper, we report the heater studies together with the prospect for future design of the quench protection heater.

  8. ATLAS ITk Short Strip Prototype Module with Integrated DCDC Powering and Control Phase II Upgrade of the ATLAS Inner Tracker detector at the HL - LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Greenall, Ashley; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The prototype Barrel module design, for the Phase II upgrade of the of the new Inner Tracker (ITk) detector at the LHC, has adopted an integrated low mass assembly featuring single-sided flexible circuits, with readout ASICs, glued to the silicon strip sensor. Further integration has been achieved by the attachment of module DCDC powering, HV sensor biasing switch and autonomous monitoring and control to the sensor. This low mass, integrated module approach benefits further in a reduced width stave structure to which the modules are attached. The results of preliminary electrical tests of such an integrated module will be presented.

  9. Energy Reconstruction and high-speed Data Transmission with FPGAs for the Upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Stärz, Steffen

    The Liquid Argon calorimeter of the ATLAS detector at CERN near Geneva is equipped with improved readout and trigger electronics for the operation at higher luminosity LHC in the frame of several upgrades (Phase-0, I, and II). Special attention is given to an early digitisation of detector raw data and their following digital data transmission and processing via FPGAs already for the Level-1 trigger. The upgrades additionally foresee to provide higher spatial granularity information for the Level-1 trigger in order to improve its performance for low momentum single particles at increased collision rates. The first part of this dissertation contains the development and implementation of a modular detector simulation framework, AREUS, which allows to analyse different filter algorithms for the energy reconstruction as well as their performance with respect to the expected digitised detector raw data. In this detector simulation framework the detailed algorithmic functionality of the FPGAs has been taken into ac...

  10. An experimental research program on chirality at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markert, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Heavy-ion collisions provide a unique opportunity to investigate the fundamental laws of physics of the strong force. The extreme conditions created by the collisions within a finite volume are akin to the properties of the deconfined partonic state which existed very shortly after the Big Bang and just prior to visible matter formation in the Universe. In this state massless quarks and gluons (partons) are ''quasi free'' particles, the so-called Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP). By following the expansion and cooling of this state, we will map out the process of nucleonic matter formation, which occurs during the phase transition. The fundamental properties of this early partonic phase of matter are not well understood, but they are essential for confirming QCD (Quantum Chromo-Dynamics) and the Standard Model. The specific topic, chiral symmetry restoration, has been called ''the remaining puzzle of QCD.'' This puzzle can only be studied in the dense partonic medium generated in heavy-ion collisions. The research objectives of this proposal are the development and application of new analysis strategies to study chirality and the properties of the medium above the QGP phase transition using hadronic resonances detected with the ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the CERN research laboratory in Switzerland. This grant funded a new effort at the University of Texas at Austin (UT Austin) to investigate the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP) at the highest possible energy of 2.76 TeV per nucleon at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN via the ALICE experiment. The findings added to our knowledge of the dynamical evolution and the properties of the hot, dense matter produced in heavy-ion collisions, and provided a deeper understanding of multi-hadron interactions in these extreme nuclear matter systems. Our group contributed as well to the hardware and software for the ALICE USA-funded Calorimeter Detector (EMCal). The LHC research program and its connection to

  11. Status of LHC crab activity simulations and beam studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calaga, R.; Assman, R.; Barranco, J.; Barranco, J.; Calaga, R.; Caspers, F.; Ciapala, E.; De-Maria, R.; Koutchouk, J. P.; Linnecar, T.; Metral, E.; Morita, A.; Solyak, N.; Sun, Y.; Tomas, R.; Tuckmantel, J.; Weiler, T.; Zimmermann, F.

    2009-01-01

    The LHC crab cavity program is advancing rapidly towards a first prototype which is anticipated to be tested during the early stages of the LHC phase I upgrade and commissioning. The general project status and some aspects related to crab optics, collimation, aperture constraints, impedances, noise effects. beam transparency and machine protection critical for a safe and robust operation of LHC beams with crab cavities are addressed here

  12. Status of the Upgrade of the CERN PS Booster

    CERN Document Server

    Hanke, K; Angoletta, M; Bartmann, W; Bartolome, S; Benedetto, E; Bertone, C; Blas, A; Bonnal, P; Borburgh, J; Bozzini, D; Butterworth, A; Carli, C; Carlier, E; Cole, J; Dahlen, P; Delonca, M; Dobers, T; Findlay, A; Froeschl, R; Hansen, J; Hay, D; Jensen, S; Lacroix, J; Le Roux, P; Lopez Hernandez, L; Maglioni, C; Masi, A; Mason, G; Mathot, S; Mikulec, B; Muttoni, Y; Newborough, A; Nisbet, D; Olek, S; Paoluzzi, M; Perillo-Marcone, A; Pittet, S; Puccio, B; Raginel, V; Riffaud, B; Ruehl, I; Sarrió Martínez, A; Tan, J; Todd, B; Venturi, V; Weterings, W

    2013-01-01

    The CERN PS Booster (PSB) is presently undergoing an ambitious consolidation and upgrade program within the frame of the LHC Injectors Upgrade (LIU) project. This program comprises a new injection scheme for H- ions from CERN’s new Linac4, the replacement of the main RF systems and an energy upgrade of the PSB rings from 1.4 to 2 GeV which includes the replacement of the main magnet power supply as well as the upgrade of the extraction equipment. This paper describes the status and plans of this work program.

  13. The US Department of Energy Personnel Dosimetry Evaluation and Upgrade Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, L.G.; Stroud, C.M.; Swinth, K.L.; Vallario, E.J.

    1987-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Personnel Dosimetry Evaluation and Upgrade Program is designed to identify and evaluate dosimetry deficiencies and to conduct innovative research and development programs that will improve overall capabilities, thus ensuring that DOE can comply with applicable standards and regulations for dose measurement. To achieve these goals, two programs were initiated to evaluate and upgrade beta measurement and neutron dosimetry. 3 refs

  14. Rice Physicist to direct $40M LHC Program

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "Rice Universty announced that physicist B. Paul Padley has been chosen to lead the scientific operations for one of the particle detector systems at the European Organization for Nuclear Research's Large Hadron Collider (LHC)."

  15. HL-LHC Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, F

    2013-01-01

    The tentative schedule, key ingredients, as well as progress of pertinent R&D and component prototypes for the LHC luminosity upgrade, "HL-LHC," are reviewed. Also alternative scenarios based on performance-improving consolidations (PICs) instead of a full upgrade are discussed. Tentative time schedules and expected luminosity evolutions for the different scenarios are sketched. The important role of HL-LHC development as a step towards a future HE-LHC or VHE-LHC is finally highlighted. Presented at "Higgs & Beyond" Conference Tohoku University, Sendai 7 June 2013.

  16. Overview of the TCV tokamak program: scientific progress and facility upgrades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coda, S.; Ahn, J.; Albanese, R.

    2017-01-01

    The TCV tokamak is augmenting its unique historical capabilities (strong shaping, strong electron heating) with ion heating, additional electron heating compatible with high densities, and variable divertor geometry, in a multifaceted upgrade program designed to broaden its operational range with...

  17. Overview of the TCV tokamak program : scientific progress and facility upgrades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coda, S.; Ahn, J.; Albanese, R.; Alberti, S.; Alessi, E.; Allan, S.; Anand, H.; Anastassiou, G.; Andrèbe, Y.; Angioni, C.; Ariola, M.; Bernert, M.; Beurskens, M.N.A.; Bin, W.; Blanchard, P.; Blanken, T.C.; Boedo, J.A.; Bolzonella, T.; Bouquey, F.; Braunmüller, F.H.; Bufferand, H.; Buratti, P.; Calabró, G.; Camenen, Y.; Carnevale, D.; Carpanese, F.; Causa, F.; Cesario, R.; Chapman, I.T.; Chellai, O.; Choi, D.; Cianfarani, C.; Ciraolo, G.; Citrin, J.; Costea, S.; Crisanti, F.; Cruz, N.; Czarnecka, A.; Decker, J.; De Masi, G.; De Tommasi, G.; Douai, D.; Dunne, M.; Duval, B.P.; Eich, T.; Elmore, S.; Esposito, B.; Faitsch, M.; Fasoli, A.; Fedorczak, N.; Felici, F.; Février, O.; Ficker, O.; Fietz, S.; Fontana, M.; Frassinetti, L.; Furno, I.; Galeani, S.; Gallo, A.; Galperti, C.; Garavaglia, S.; Garrido, I.; Geiger, B.; Giovannozzi, E.; Gobbin, M.; Goodman, T.P.; Gorini, G.; Gospodarczyk, M.; Granucci, G.; Graves, J.P.; Guirlet, R.; Hakola, A.; Ham, C.; Harrison, J.; Hawke, J.; Hennequin, P.; Hnat, B.; Hogeweij, D.; Hogge, J.- P.; Honoré, C.; Hopf, C.; Horáček, J.; Huang, Z.; Igochine, V.; Innocente, P.; Ionita-Schrittwieser, C.; Isliker, H.; Jacquier, R.; Jardin, A.; Kamleitner, J.; Karpushov, A.; Keeling, D.L.; Kirneva, N.; Kong, M.; Koubiti, M.; Kovacic, J.; Krämer-Flecken, A.; Krawczyk, N.; Kudlacek, O.; Labit, B.; Lazzaro, E.; Le, H.B.; Lipschultz, B.; Llobet, X.; Lomanowski, B.; Loschiavo, V.P.; Lunt, T.; Maget, P.; Maljaars, E.; Malygin, A.; Maraschek, M.; Marini, C.; Martin, P.; Martin, Y.; Mastrostefano, S.; Maurizio, R.; Mavridis, M.; Mazon, D.; McAdams, R.; McDermott, R.; Merle, A.; Meyer, H.; Militello, F.; Miron, I.G.; Molina Cabrera, P.A.; Moret, J.M.; Moro, A.; Moulton, D.; Naulin, V.; Nespoli, F.; Nielsen, A.H.; Nocente, M.; Nouailletas, R.; Nowak, S.; Odstrčil, T.; Papp, G.; Papřok, R.; Pau, A.; Pautasso, G.; Pericoli Ridolfini, V.; Piovesan, P.; Piron, C.; Pisokas, T.; Porte, L.; Preynas, M.; Ramogida, G.; Rapson, C.; Rasmussen, J.J.; Reich, M.; Reimerdes, H.; Reux, C.; Ricci, P.; Rittich, D.; Riva, F.; Robinson, T.; Saarelma, S.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Sauter, O.; Scannell, R.; Schlatter, Ch.; Schneider, B.; Schneider, P.; Schrittwieser, R.; Sciortino, F.; Sertoli, M.; Sheikh, U.; Sieglin, B.; Silva, M.; Sinha, J.; Sozzi, C.; Spolaore, M.; Stange, T.; Stoltzfus-Dueck, T.; Tamain, P.; Teplukhina, A.; Testa, D.; Theiler, C.; Thornton, A.; Tophøj, L.; Tran, M.Q.; Tsironis, C.; Tsui, C.; Uccello, A.; Vartanian, S.; Verdoolaege, G.; Verhaegh, K.H.A.; Vermare, L.; Vianello, N.; Vijvers, W.A.J.; Vlahos, L.; Vu, N.M.T.; Walkden, N.; Wauters, T.; Weisen, H.; Wischmeier, M.; Zestanakis, P.; Zuin, M.

    2017-01-01

    The TCV tokamak is augmenting its unique historical capabilities (strong shaping, strong electron heating) with ion heating, additional electron heating compatible with high densities, and variable divertor geometry, in a multifaceted upgrade program designed to broaden its operational range without

  18. Development of the ATLAS FE-I4 pixel readout IC for b-layer Upgrade and Super-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Karagounis, M

    2008-01-01

    Motivated by the upcoming upgrade of the ATLAS hybrid pixel detector, a new Front-End (FE) IC is being developed in a 130nm technology to face the tightened requirements of the upgraded pixel system. The main design goals are the reduction of material and a decrease in power consumption combined with the capability to handle the higher hit rates that will result from the upgraded machine. New technology features like the higher integration density for digital circuits, better radiation tolerance and Triple-Well transistors are used for optimization and the implementation of new concepts. A description of the ongoing design work is given, focusing more on the analog part and peripheral design blocks.

  19. Development of the jet Feature EXtractor (jFEX) for the ATLAS Level 1 calorimeter trigger upgrade at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00547698; The ATLAS collaboration; Brogna, Andrea Salvatore; Buescher, Volker; Degele, Reinhold; Herr, Holger; Kahra, Christian; Rave, Stefan; Rocco, Elena; Schaefer, Uli; Vieira De Souza, Julio; Tapprogge, Stefan; Bauss, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    To cope with the enhanced luminosity delivered by the Large Hadron Collider from 2021 onwards, the ATLAS experiment has planned several upgrades. The first level trigger based on calorimeter data will be upgraded to exploit fine-granularity readout using a new system of Feature EXtractors (FEXs, FPGA-based trigger boards), each optimized to trigger on different physics objects. This contribution is focused on the jet FEX. The main challenges of such a board are the input bandwidth of up to 3.1 Tbps, dense routing of high-speed signals and power consumption. The design, PCB simulations and results of integrated tests of a prototype are shown in this document.

  20. Upgraded Readout and Trigger Electronics for the ATLAS Liquid-Argon Calorimeters at the LHC at the Horizons 2018-2022

    CERN Document Server

    Damazio, D O; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters produce a total of 182,486 signals which are digitized and processed by the front-end and back-end electronics at every triggered event. In addition, the front-end electronics is summing analog signals to provide coarsely grained energy sums, called trigger towers, to the first-level trigger system, which is optimized for nominal LHC luminosities. However, the pile-up noise expected during the High Luminosity phases of LHC will be increased by factors of 3 to 7. An improved spatial granularity of the trigger primitives is therefore proposed in order to improve the identification performance for trigger signatures, like electrons, photons, tau leptons, jets, total and missing energy, at high background rejection rates. For the first upgrade phase in 2018, new LAr Trigger Digitizer Board (LTDB) are being designed to receive higher granularity signals, digitize them on detector and send them via fast optical links to a new digital processing system (DPS). The DPS applies...

  1. The CMS muon system status and upgrades for LHC run-2 and performance of muon reconstruction with 13 TeV data

    CERN Document Server

    Battilana, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The CMS muon system has played a key role for many physics results obtained from the LHC Run-1 and Run-2 data. During the Long Shutdown (2013-2014), as well as during the last year-end technical stop (2015-2016), significant consolidation and upgrades have been carried out on the muon detectors and on the L1 muon trigger. The algorithms for muon reconstruction and identification have also been improved for both the High-Level Trigger and the offline reconstruction. Results of the performance of muon detectors, reconstruction and trigger, obtained using data collected at 13 TeV center-of-mass energy during the 2015 and 2016 LHC runs, will be presented. Comparison of simulation with experimental data will also be discussed where relevant. The system's state of the art performance will be shown, and the improvements foreseen to achieve excellent overall quality of muon reconstruction in CMS, in the conditions expected during the high-luminosity phase of Run-2, will be described.

  2. Thin n-in-p pixel sensors and the SLID-ICV vertical integration technology for the ATLAS upgrade at the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Macchiolo, A

    2013-01-01

    The R&D activity presented is focused on the development of new modules for the upgrade of the ATLAS pixel system at the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). The performance after irradiation of n-in-p pixel sensors of different active thicknesses is studied, together with an investigation of a novel interconnection technique offered by the Fraunhofer Institute EMFT in Munich, the Solid-Liquid-InterDiffusion (SLID), which is an alternative to the standard solder bump-bonding. The pixel modules are based on thin n-in-p sensors, with an active thickness of 75 um or 150 um, produced at the MPI Semiconductor Laboratory (MPI HLL) and on 100 um thick sensors with active edges, fabricated at VTT, Finland. Hit efficiencies are derived from beam test data for thin devices irradiated up to a fluence of 4e15 neq/cm^2. For the active edge devices, the charge collection properties of the edge pixels before irradiation is discussed in detail, with respect to the inner ones, using measurements with radioactive sources. Beyond ...

  3. Specifications of the Field Quality at Injection Energy of the New Magnets for the HL-LHC Upgrade Project

    CERN Document Server

    De Maria, R; Giovannozzi, M

    2013-01-01

    The HL-LHC project relies on new magnet designs and technologies to achieve very small beta* values. In particular, Nb$_{3}$Sn magnets show large allowed multipole imperfections at low current. These field imperfections may have a non-negligible impact on the dynamic aperture and beam life time in the HL-LHC, also because of the smaller-than- nominal beta* values foreseen IR1 and IR5 at injection energy, which aims at decreasing the dynamic range of the squeeze and therefore contributing to optimize the turn around time. The paper describes an analysis of the machine performance based on analytical estimates and tracking simulations with the goal of providing field quality specifications for the new magnets.

  4. Field Quality Study of a 1-m-Long Single-Aperture 11-T Nb$_3$Sn Dipole Model for LHC Upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chlachidze, G. [Fermilab; DiMarco, J. [Fermilab; Andreev, N. [Fermilab; Apollinari, G. [Fermilab; Auchmann, B. [CERN; Barzi, E. [Fermilab; Bossert, R. [Fermilab; Fiscarelli, L. [CERN; Karppinen, M. [CERN; Nobrega, F. [Fermilab; Novitski, I. [Fermilab; Rossi, L. [CERN; Smekens, D. [CERN; Turrioni, D. [Fermilab; Velev, G. V. [Fermilab; Zlobin, A. V. [Fermilab

    2014-01-01

    FNAL and CERN are carrying out a joint R&D program with the goal of building a 5.5-m-long twin-aperture 11-T Nb_3Sn dipole prototype that is suitable for installation in the LHC. An important part of the program is the development and test of a series of short single-aperture and twin-aperture dipole models with a nominal field of 11 T at the LHC operation current of 11.85 kA and 20% margin. This paper presents the results of magnetic measurements of a 1-m-long single-aperture Nb_3Sn dipole model fabricated and tested recently at FNAL, including geometrical field harmonics and effects of coil magnetization and iron yoke saturation.

  5. Optimization of thin n-in-p planar pixel modules for the ATLAS upgrade at HL-LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macchiolo, A.; Beyer, J.; Rosa, A. La; Nisius, R.; Savic, N.

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment will undergo around the year 2025 a replacement of the tracker system in view of the high luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC) with a new 5-layer pixel system. Thin planar pixel sensors are promising candidates to instrument the innermost region of the new pixel system, thanks to the reduced contribution to the material budget and their high charge collection efficiency after irradiation. The sensors of 50-150 μm thickness, interconnected to FE-I4 read-out chips, have been characterized with radioactive sources and beam tests. In particular active edge sensors have been investigated. The performance of two different versions of edge designs are compared: the first with a bias ring, and the second one where only a floating guard ring has been implemented. The hit efficiency at the edge has also been studied after irradiation at a fluence of 10 15  n eq /cm 2 . Highly segmented sensors will represent a challenge for the tracking in the forward region of the pixel system at HL-LHC. In order to reproduce the performance of 50x50 μm 2 pixels at high pseudo-rapidity values, FE-I4 compatible planar pixel sensors have been studied before and after irradiation in beam tests at high incidence angles with respect to the short pixel direction. Results on the hit efficiency in this configuration are discussed for different sensor thicknesses.

  6. The LHCb RICH system: current detector performance and status of the upgrade program

    CERN Document Server

    Fiorini, Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    LHCb is a precision experiment devoted to the study of CP violation and rare decays of b and c quarks, and to the search for new physics beyond the Standard Model at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The Ring-Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) system is a key component of the LHCb experiment: it consists of two RICH detectors that provide charged particle identification over a wide momentum range (2-100 GeV/c) and angular acceptance (15-300 mrad). The LHCb RICH system has been performing extremely well during Run 1 and is providing the LHCb experiment also in Run 2 with a robust, reliable and precise particle identification system. Performance of the RICH detectors measured from data will be presented, with special reference to its dependence on calibration parameters and event multiplicities. The LHCb experiment is preparing for an upgrade during the second LHC long shutdown (2019-2020) in order to fully exploit the LHC flavour physics potential. A five-fold increase in instantaneous luminosity is foreseen reac...

  7. Planar n-in-n quad module prototypes for the ATLAS ITk upgrade at HL-LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisen, A.; Altenheiner, S.; Burmeister, I.; Gößling, C.; Klingenberg, R.; Kröninger, K.; Lönker, J.; Weers, M.; Wizemann, F.

    2017-12-01

    In order to meet the requirements of the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), it will be necessary to replace the current tracker of the ATLAS experiment. Therefore, a new all-silicon tracking detector is being developed, the so-called Inner Tracker (ITk). The use of quad chip modules is intended in its pixel region. These modules consist of a silicon sensor that forms a unit along with four read-out chips. The current ATLAS pixel detector consists of planar n-in-n silicon pixel sensors. Similar sensors and four FE-I4 read-out chips were assembled to first prototypes of planar n-in-n quad modules. The main focus of the investigation of these modules was the region between the read-out chips, especially the central area between all four read-out chips. There are special pixel cells placed on the sensor which cover the gap between the read-out chips. This contribution focuses on the characterization of a non-irradiated device, including important sensor characteristics, charge collection determined with radioactive sources as well as hit efficiency measurements, performed in the laboratory and at testbeams. In addition, first laboratory results of an irradiated device are presented.

  8. Performance of the ATLAS Hadronic Tile Calorimeter in Run-2 and its Upgrade for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Solovyanov, Oleg; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal frontend electronics reads out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the Tile calorimeter has been studied in-situ employing cosmic ray muons and a large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired during the operations of the LHC. Prompt isolated muons of high moment...

  9. arXiv Planar n-in-n quad module prototypes for the ATLAS ITk upgrade at HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Gisen, A.; Burmeister, I.; Gößling, C.; Klingenberg, R.; Kröninger, K.; Lönker, J.; Weers, M.; Wizemann, F.

    2017-12-15

    In order to meet the requirements of the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), it will be necessary to replace the current tracker of the ATLAS experiment. Therefore, a new all-silicon tracking detector is being developed, the so-called Inner Tracker (ITk). The use of quad chip modules is intended in its pixel region. These modules consist of a silicon sensor that forms a unit along with four read-out chips. The current ATLAS pixel detector consists of planar n-in-n silicon pixel sensors. Similar sensors and four FE-I4 read-out chips were assembled to first prototypes of planar n-in-n quad modules. The main focus of the investigation of these modules was the region between the read-out chips, especially the central area between all four read-out chips. There are special pixel cells placed on the sensor which cover the gap between the read-out chips. This contribution focuses on the characterization of a non-irradiated device, including important sensor characteristics, charge collection determined with radioactive so...

  10. Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile Calorimeter in Run-2 and its upgrade for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00223789; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tauparticles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudo-rapidity up to 1.7, with almost 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ∼30 MeV to ∼2 TeV. Each stage of the signal production, from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction, is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the Tile calorimeter has been studied in-situ employing cosmic ray muons and a large sample of proton-proton collisions, acquired during the operations of the LHC. Prompt isolated muons of high momentum from electroweak bosons decays are employed to study the energy response of the calorimeter at the electromagnetic scale. The calorimeter response to hadronic particles is evaluated with a sample of isolated hadrons. The modelling of the response by the Monte Carlo simulation is discussed. T...

  11. Proton Beam Intensity Upgrades for the Neutrino Program at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, C. M. [Fermilab

    2016-12-15

    Fermilab is committed to upgrading its accelerator complex towards the intensity frontier to pursue HEP research in the neutrino sector and beyond. The upgrade has two steps: 1) the Proton Improvement Plan (PIP), which is underway, has its primary goal to start providing 700 kW beam power on NOvA target by the end of 2017 and 2) the foreseen PIP–II will replace the existing LINAC, a 400 MeV injector to the Booster, by an 800 MeV superconducting LINAC by the middle of next decade, with output beam intensity from the Booster increased significantly and the beam power on the NOvA target increased to <1.2 MW. In any case, the Fermilab Booster is going to play a very significant role for the next two decades. In this context, we have recently developed and commissioned an innovative beam injection scheme for the Booster called "early injection scheme". This scheme is already in operation and has a potential to increase the Booster beam intensity from the PIP design goal by a considerable amount with a reduced beam emittance and beam loss. In this paper, we will present results from our experience from the new scheme in operation, current status and future plans.

  12. Cryogenics for HL-LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavian, L.; Brodzinski, K.; Claudet, S.; Ferlin, G.; Wagner, U.; van Weelderen, R.

    The discovery of a Higgs boson at CERN in 2012 is the start of a major program of work to measure this particle's properties with the highest possible precision for testing the validity of the Standard Model and to search for further new physics at the energy frontier. The LHC is in a unique position to pursue this program. Europe's top priority is the exploitation of the full potential of the LHC, including the high-luminosity upgrade of the machine and detectors with an objective to collect ten times more data than in the initial design, by around 2030. To reach this objective, the LHC cryogenic system must be upgraded to withstand higher beam current and higher luminosity at top energy while keeping the same operation availability by improving the collimation system and the protection of electronics sensitive to radiation. This chapter will present the conceptual design of the cryogenic system upgrade with recent updates in performance requirements, the corresponding layout and architecture of the system as well as the main technical challenges which have to be met in the coming years.

  13. Thin n-in-p pixel sensors and the SLID-ICV vertical integration technology for the ATLAS upgrade at the HL-LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macchiolo, A.; Andricek, L.; Ellenburg, M.; Moser, H.G.; Nisius, R.; Richter, R.H.; Terzo, S.; Weigell, P.

    2013-01-01

    This R and D activity is focused on the development of new modules for the upgrade of the ATLAS pixel system at the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). The performance after irradiation of n-in-p pixel sensors of different active thicknesses is studied, together with an investigation of a novel interconnection technique offered by the Fraunhofer Institute EMFT in Munich, the Solid–Liquid-InterDiffusion (SLID), which is an alternative to the standard solder bump-bonding. The pixel modules are based on thin n-in-p sensors, with an active thickness of 75μm or 150μm, produced at the MPI Semiconductor Laboratory (MPI HLL) and on 100μm thick sensors with active edges, fabricated at VTT, Finland. Hit efficiencies are derived from beam test data for thin devices irradiated up to a fluence of 4×10 15 n eq /cm 2 . For the active edge devices, the charge collection properties of the edge pixels before irradiation are discussed in detail, with respect to the inner ones, using measurements with radioactive sources. Beyond the active edge sensors, an additional ingredient needed to design four side buttable modules is the possibility of moving the wire bonding area from the chip surface facing the sensor to the backside, avoiding the implementation of the cantilever extruding beyond the sensor area. The feasibility of this process is under investigation with the FE-I3 SLID modules, where Inter Chip Vias are etched, employing an EMFT technology, with a cross section of 3μm×10μm, at the positions of the original wire bonding pads

  14. Thin n-in-p pixel sensors and the SLID-ICV vertical integration technology for the ATLAS upgrade at the HL-LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macchiolo, A., E-mail: Anna.Macchiolo@mpp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Andricek, L. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut Halbleiterlabor, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D-81739 München (Germany); Ellenburg, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Moser, H.G. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut Halbleiterlabor, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D-81739 München (Germany); Nisius, R. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Richter, R.H. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut Halbleiterlabor, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D-81739 München (Germany); Terzo, S.; Weigell, P. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany)

    2013-12-11

    This R and D activity is focused on the development of new modules for the upgrade of the ATLAS pixel system at the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). The performance after irradiation of n-in-p pixel sensors of different active thicknesses is studied, together with an investigation of a novel interconnection technique offered by the Fraunhofer Institute EMFT in Munich, the Solid–Liquid-InterDiffusion (SLID), which is an alternative to the standard solder bump-bonding. The pixel modules are based on thin n-in-p sensors, with an active thickness of 75μm or 150μm, produced at the MPI Semiconductor Laboratory (MPI HLL) and on 100μm thick sensors with active edges, fabricated at VTT, Finland. Hit efficiencies are derived from beam test data for thin devices irradiated up to a fluence of 4×10{sup 15}n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. For the active edge devices, the charge collection properties of the edge pixels before irradiation are discussed in detail, with respect to the inner ones, using measurements with radioactive sources. Beyond the active edge sensors, an additional ingredient needed to design four side buttable modules is the possibility of moving the wire bonding area from the chip surface facing the sensor to the backside, avoiding the implementation of the cantilever extruding beyond the sensor area. The feasibility of this process is under investigation with the FE-I3 SLID modules, where Inter Chip Vias are etched, employing an EMFT technology, with a cross section of 3μm×10μm, at the positions of the original wire bonding pads.

  15. Upgrade of the ATLAS detectors and trigger at the High Luminosity LHC: tracking and timing for pile-up suppression

    CERN Document Server

    Testa, Marianna; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The High Luminosity-Large Hadron Collider  is expected to start data-taking in 2026 and to provide an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1, giving a factor 10 more data than will be collected by 2023. This high statistics will make it possible to perform precise measurements in the Higgs sector and improve searches of new physics at the TeV scale. The luminosity is expected to be 7.5 ×1034 cm-2 s-1, corresponding to about 200 proton-proton pile-up interactions, which will increase the rates at each level of the trigger and degrade the reconstruction performance. To cope with such a harsh environment some sub-detectors of the ATLAS experiment will be upgraded or completely substituted and the Trigger-DAQ system will be upgraded. In this talk an overview of two new sub-detectors enabling powerful pile-up suppression, a new Inner Tracker and a proposed High Granularity Timing Detector, will be given, describing the two technologies, their performance, and their interplay. Emphasis will also be given to the possi...

  16. Upgrade of the ATLAS detectors and trigger at the High Luminosity LHC: tracking and timing for pile-up suppression

    CERN Document Server

    Testa, Marianna; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The High Luminosity-Large Hadron Collider is expected to start data-taking in 2026 and to provide an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb^{-1}, giving a factor 10 more data than will be collected by 2023. This high statistics will make it possible to perform precise measurements in the Higgs sector and improve searches of new physics at the TeV scale. The luminosity is expected to be 7.5 \\times 10^{34} cm^{-2} s^{-1}, corresponding to about 200 proton-proton pile-up interactions, which will increase the rates at each level of the trigger and degrade the reconstruction performance. To cope with such a harsh environment some sub-detectors of the ATLAS experiment will be upgraded or completely substituted and the Trigger-DAQ system will be upgraded. In this talk an overview of two new sub-detectors enabling powerful pile-up suppression, a new Inner Tracker and a proposed High Granularity Timing Detector, will be given, describing the two technologies, their performance, and their interplay. Emphasis will also be giv...

  17. Quench Performance and Field Quality of FNAL Twin-Aperture 11 T Nb$_{3}$Sn Dipole Model for LHC Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Stoynev, S; Apollinari, G; Auchmann, B; Barzi, E; Izquierdo Bermudez, S; Bossert, R; Chlachidze, G; DiMarco, J; Karppinen, M; Nobrega, F; Novitski, I; Rossi, F; Savary, F; Smekens, D; Strauss, T; Turrioni, D; Velev, G; Zlobin, A V

    2017-01-01

    A 2 m long single-aperture dipole demonstrator and two 1 m long single-aperture models based on Nb$_{3}$Sn superconductor have been built and tested at FNAL. The two 1 m long collared coils were then assembled in a twin-aperture Nb$_{3}$Sn dipole demonstrator compatible with the LHC main dipole and tested in two thermal cycles. This paper summarizes the quench performance of the FNAL twin-aperture Nb$_{3}$Sn 11 T dipole in the temperature range of 1.9-4.5 K. The results of magnetic measurements for one of the two apertures are also presented. Test results are compared to the performance of coils in a single-aperture configuration. A summary of quench propagation studies in both apertures is given.

  18. Status of the Atlas Calorimeters: their performance during three years of LHC operation and plans for future upgrades.

    CERN Document Server

    Majewski, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Its calorimeter system measures the energy and direction of final state particles over the pseudorapidity range $|\\eta| < 4.9$. Accurate identification and measurement of the characteristics of electromagnetic objects (electrons/photons) are performed by liquid argon (LAr)-lead sampling calorimeters in the region $|\\eta| < 3.2$, using an innovative accordion geometry that provides a fast, uniform response without azimuthal gaps. This system played a critical role in the ATLAS analyses contributing to the Higgs boson discovery announced in 2012. The hadronic calorimeters measure the properties of hadrons, jets, and tau leptons, and also contribute to the measurement of the missing transverse energy and the identification of muons. A scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter (TileCal) is employed in the region $|\\eta| < 1.7$, while the region $1.5 < |\\eta| < 3.2$ is covered wi...

  19. Status of the Atlas Calorimeters: their performance after two years of LHC operation and plans for future upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Solans, CA; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Its calorimeter system measures the energy and direction of final state particles with pseudo rapidity $|eta| < 4.9$. Accurate identification and measurement of the characteristics of electromagnetic objects (electrons/photons) are performed by liquid argon (LAr)-lead sampling calorimeters in the region $|eta| < 3.2$, using an innovative accordion geometry that provides a fast, uniform azimuthal response without gaps. The hadronic calorimeters measure the properties of hadrons, jets, and tau leptons, and also contribute to the measurement of the missing transverse energy and identification of muons. This is done in the region $|eta| < 1.7$ with a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter, and in the region $1.4 < |eta| < 3.2$ with a copper-LAr sampling calorimeter. The coverage is extended to $|eta| < 4.9$ by an integrated forward calorimeter (FCal...

  20. Risk Assessment on the Transition Program for Air Traffic Control Automation System Upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dong Bin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the safety risks of the transition program for Air Traffic Control (ATC automation system upgrade by using the event tree analysis method in this paper. We decomposed the occurrence progress of the three transition phase and built the event trees corresponding to the three stages, and then we determined the probability of success of each factor and calculated probability of success of the air traffic control automation system upgrade transition. In the conclusion, we illustrate the transition program safety risk according to the results.

  1. Research program of the high temperature engineering test reactor for upgrading the HTGR technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunitomi, Kazuhiko; Tachibana, Yukio; Takeda, Takeshi; Saikusa, Akio; Sawa, Kazuhiro

    1997-07-01

    The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) is a graphite-moderated and helium-cooled reactor with an outlet power of 30 MW and outlet coolant temperature of 950degC, and its first criticality will be attained at the end of 1997. In the HTTR, researches establishing and upgrading the technology basis necessary for an HTGR and innovative basic researches for a high temperature engineering will be conducted. A research program of the HTTR for upgrading the technology basis for the HTGR was determined considering realization of future generation commercial HTGRs. This paper describes a research program of the HTTR. (author)

  2. Aging and environmental tolerance of an optical transmitter for the ATLAS Phase-I upgrade at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, F.X. [Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, H.T. [Liverage Technology Inc., Chupei, Taiwan (China); Duh, T.S. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Longtan, Taiwan (China); Hayamizu, T. [CYRIC, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Hou, S. [Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hu, X. [Michigan University, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Liu, C.; Liu, T. [Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX (United States); Sakemi, Y. [CYRIC, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Schwarz, T. [Michigan University, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Teng, P.K.; Tsai, P.R. [Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wang, C.H. [National United University, Miaoli, Taiwan (China); Wang, S.Y. [Liverage Technology Inc., Chupei, Taiwan (China); Yang, Y. [National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Ye, J. [Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2016-09-21

    The dual channel Miniature optical Transmitter (MTx) is developed for the ATLAS Phase-I upgrade requiring durable performance in the Large Hadron Collider environment. The data transmission has achieved 8 Gbps per channel with a custom-designed LOCld laser driver and 850 nm VCSELs packaged in transmitter optical sub-assemblies (TOSAs). The performance of the MTx opto-electronics is evaluated. Accelerated aging tests of the VCSELs were conducted in a chamber at 85 °C, 85% relative humidity, with TOSA and bare-die samples prepared in non-hermetic condition. Radiation tolerance of the VCSELs was investigated with 30 MeV and 70 MeV protons. The radiation induced effects in data transmission were investigated for light-power degradation and parameters of eye-diagrams.

  3. submitter Simulation of a quench event in the upgraded High-Luminosity LHC Main dipole circuit including the 11 T Nb$_{3}$Sn dipole magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez Navarro, Alejandro Manuel; Verweij, Arjan P; Bortot, Lorenzo; Mentink, Matthias; Prioli, Marco; Auchmann, Bernhard; Izquierdo Bermudez, Susana; Ravaioli, Emmanuele; Yammine, Samer

    2018-01-01

    To achieve the goal of increased luminosity, two out of eight main dipole circuits of the accelerator will be reconfigured in the coming LHC upgrade by replacing one standard 14.3-m long, Nb-Ti-based, 8.3 T dipole magnet by two 5.3-m long, Nb$_{3}$Sn-based, 11.2 T magnets (MBH). The modified dipole circuits will contain 153 Nb-Ti magnets and two MBH magnets. The latter will be connected to an additional trim power converter to compensate for the differences in the magnetic transfer functions. These modifications imply a number of challenges from the point of view of the circuit integrity, operation, and quench protection. In order to assess the circuit performance under different scenarios and to validate the circuit quench protection strategy, reliable and accurate numerical transient simulations have to be performed. We present the field/circuit coupling simulation of the reconfigured main dipole magnet chain following the introduction of the MBH magnets. 2-D distributed LEDET models of the MBH's have been ...

  4. The development of the Global Feature Extractor for the LHC Run-3 upgrade of the ATLAS L1 Calorimeter trigger system

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Weihao; The ATLAS collaboration; Chen, Hucheng; Lanni, Francesco; Takai, Helio; Tang, Shaochun; ATLAS TDAQ Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Global Feature Extractor (gFEX) is one of several modules in LHC Run-3 upgrade of Level 1 Calorimeter (L1Calo) trigger system in the ATLAS experiment. It is a single Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) module for large-area jet identification with three Xilinx UltraScale FPGAs for data processing and a system-on-chip (SoC) FPGA for control and monitoring. A pre-prototype board has been designed to verify all functionalities. The performance of this pre-prototype has been tested and evaluated. As a major achievement, the high-speed links in FPGAs are stable at 12.8 Gb/s with Bit Error Ratio (BER) < 10-15 (no error detected). The low-latency parallel GPIO (General Purpose I/O) buses for communication between FPGAs are stable at 960 Mb/s. Besides that, the peripheral components of Soc FPGA have also been verified. After laboratory tests, the link speed test with LAr (Liquid Argon Calorimeter) Digital Processing Blade (LDPB) AMC card has been carried out at CERN for determination of t...

  5. CMS Phase II Upgrade Scope Document

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, J; Klute, M; Mans, J; Silvestris, L; on behalf of the CMS, Collaboration; CERN. Geneva. The LHC experiments Committee; LHCC

    2015-01-01

    The High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) has been identified as the highest priority program in High Energy Physics by both the European Strategy Group and the US Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel. To fulfil the full potential of this program, which includes the study of the nature of the Higgs boson, the investigation of the properties of any newly discovered particles in the upcoming LHC runs, and the extension of the mass reach for further discoveries, an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1 will have to be accumulated by the end of the program. In preparation for operation at the HL-LHC , CMS has documented the necessary upgrades and their expected costs in a Technical Proposal submitted to the CERN LHC Committee (LHCC) in mid-2015. The material presented in the current “Scope Document” provides additional information to assist the LHCC and the CERN Resource Review Board (RRB) in their review of the CMS upgrade. The document commences with a summary of the process followed to develop the scope of t...

  6. Status of the Atlas Calorimeters: their performance after two years of LHC operation and plans for future upgrades.

    CERN Document Server

    Solans, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Its calorimeter system measures the energy and direction of final state particles with pseudo rapidity $|eta| < 4.9$. Accurate identification and measurement of the characteristics of electromagnetic objects (electrons/photons) are performed by liquid argon (LAr)-lead sampling calorimeters in the region $|eta| < 3.2$, using an innovative accordion geometry that provides a fast, uniform azimuthal response without gaps. The hadronic calorimeters measure the properties of hadrons, jets, and tau leptons, and also contribute to the measurement of the missing transverse energy and identification of muons. This is done in the region $|eta| < 1.7$ with a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter, and in the region $1.4 < |eta| < 3.2$ with a copper-LAr sampling calorimeter. The coverage is extended to $|eta| < 4.9$ by an integrated forward calorimeter (FCal) based on LAr with copp...

  7. Hydrocarbon upgrading demonstration program (HUDP): an investment in the future of the oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Plessis, Duke; Isaacs, Eddy [AI-EES (Canada); Hill, Rich; McPhee, Anne; Keesom, Bill; Arnold, Ed [Jacobs Consultancy (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Alberta Innovates Energy and Environment Solutions (AIEES), the technology arm of the Alberta Government in terms of energy and the environment, has initiated the hydrocarbon upgrading demonstration program (HUDP). Since lighter products have a better market value, this program aims to develop technologies for upgrading heavy oil into light, transportable fuel. The program also aims to improve SAGD efficiency while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. To do so, the gaps between typical and ideal operations were identified and quantified, life cycle analyses were performed, current studies were reviewed and future issues and opportunities were assessed. With the HUDP program, AIEES is supporting the industry through investment and technology support to develop innovative technologies which will improve margins and the sustainability of oil sands operations.

  8. The CMS Outer Tracker for HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Dierlamm, Alexander Hermann

    2018-01-01

    The LHC is planning an upgrade program, which will bring the luminosity to about $5-7\\times10^{34}$~cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ in 2026, with a goal of an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb$^{-1}$ by the end of 2037. This High Luminosity LHC scenario, HL-LHC, will require a preparation program of the LHC detectors known as Phase-2 Upgrade. The current CMS Tracker is already running beyond design specifications and will not be able to cope with the HL-LHC radiation conditions. CMS will need a completely new Tracker in order to fully exploit the highly demanding operating conditions and the delivered luminosity. The new Outer Tracker system is designed to provide robust tracking as well as Level-1 trigger capabilities using closely spaced modules composed of silicon macro-pixel and/or strip sensors. Research and development activities are ongoing to explore options and develop module components and designs for the HL-LHC environment. The design choices for the CMS Outer Tracker Upgrade are discussed along with some highlig...

  9. The super-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Mangano, Michelangelo L

    2010-01-01

    We review here the prospects of a long-term upgrade programme for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), CERN laboratory's new proton-proton collider. The super-LHC, which is currently under evaluation and design, is expected to deliver of the order of ten times the statistics of the LHC. In addition to a non-technical summary of the principal physics arguments for the upgrade, I present a pedagogical introduction to the technological challenges on the accelerator and experimental fronts, and a review of the current status of the planning.

  10. ATLAS Upgrade Plans

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, W; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    After the successful LHC operation at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010-2012, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, delivering of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity leveling. The final goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb−1 expected for LHC running to 3000/fb by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. In parallel, the experiments need to be keep lockstep with the accelerator to accommodate running beyond the nominal luminosity this decade. Current planning in ATLAS envisions significant upgrades to the detector during the consolidation of the LHC to reach full LHC energy and further upgrades. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for a new...

  11. Upgrading program of the experimental fast reactor Joyo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, A.; Yogo, S.

    2001-01-01

    The experimental fast reactor Joyo finished its operation as an irradiation core in June, 2000. Throughout the operation of MK-I (breeder core) and MK-II (irradiation core), the net operation time has exceeded 60,000 hours. During these operations there were no fuel failures or serious plant problems. The MK-III modification program will improve irradiation capability to demonstrate advanced technologies for commercial Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR). When the MK-III core is started, it will support irradiation tests in feasibility studies for fast reactor and related fuel cycle research and development in Japan. (authors)

  12. DOE personnel neutron dosimetry evaluation and upgrade program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, L.G.; Stroud, C.M.; Vallario, E.J.

    1988-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsors an extensive research program to improve the methods, dosimeters, and instruments available to DOE facilities for measuring neutron dose and assessing its effects on the work force. The Total Dose Meter was recently developed for measuring in real time the absorbed dose of mixed neutron and gamma radiation and for calculating the dose equivalent. The Field Neutron Spectrometer was developed to provide a portable instrument for determining neutron spectra in the workplace for flux-to-dose equivalent conversion and quality factor calculation. The Combination Thermoluminescence/Track Etch Dosimeter (TLD/TED) was developed to extend the effective neutron energy range of the conventional TLDs to improve detection of fast-energy neutrons. An Optically Stimulated Luminescence Dosimeter is presently being developed for application to gamma, neutron, and beta radiation. An Effective Dose Equivalent System is being developed to provide guidance in implementing the January 1987 Presidential Directive to determine effective dose equivalent. Superheated Drop Detectors are being investigated for their potential as real time neutron dosimeters. This paper includes discussions of these improvements brought about by the DOE research program

  13. The LHCb VELO upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez Pérez, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    LHCb is a forward spectrometer experiment dedicated to the study of new physics in the decays of beauty and charm hadrons produced in proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The VErtex LOcator (VELO) is the microstrip silicon detector surrounding the interaction point, providing tracking and vertexing measurements. The upgrade of the LHCb experiment, planned for 2018, will increase the luminosity up to 2×10 33 cm −2 s −1 and will perform the readout as a trigger-less system with an event rate of 40 MHz. Extremely non-uniform radiation doses will reach up to 5×10 15 1 MeV n eq /cm 2 in the innermost regions of the VELO sensors, and the output data bandwidth will be increased by a factor of 40. An upgraded detector is under development based in a pixel sensor of the Timepix/Medipix family, with 55×55μm 2 pixels. In addition a microstrip solution with finer pitch, higher granularity and thinner than the current detector is being developed in parallel. The current status of the VELO upgrade program will be described together with recent testbeam results

  14. New magnets for the IR: How far are we from the HL-LHC target?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbi, G.L.

    2012-01-01

    Insertion quadrupoles with large aperture and high gradient are required to upgrade the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) is a collaboration of US DOE National Laboratories aiming at demonstrating the feasibility of Nb 3 Sn magnet technology for this application. Several series of magnets with increasing performance and complexity have been fabricated, with particular emphasis on addressing length scale-up issues. Program results and future directions are discussed. (author)

  15. The Role of Nuclear Power in Slovak Republic; Safety Upgrading Program for WWER Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, A.

    1998-01-01

    Implementation of Slovenske elektrarne Production Base Development Program, where all these safety upgrading projects of nuclear power sources at Slovak Republic are included will ensure first of all safety of nuclear power sources on internationally acceptable level, operational reliability of nuclear power units, balanced consumption and production of electric energy in Slovakia and decrease of long term ecological impact in according with international commitments of Slovakia

  16. Upgrading the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Carrio, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the most central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. Its main upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (phase 2) where the luminosity will have increased 5-fold compared to the design luminosity (1034 cm−2s−1) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). An additional luminosity increase by a factor of 2 can be achieved by luminosity leveling. This upgrade will probably happen around 2022. The upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off- detector electronics so that all calorimeter signals are directly digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. An ambitious upgrade development program is pursued studying different electronics options. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Which one to u...

  17. ATLAS Upgrade Programme

    CERN Document Server

    Hillier, S J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    With the already outstanding LHC luminosity performance, and planned LHC upgrades in the upcoming shutdowns, it is expected that within a short time-scale, the general purpose LHC experiments will have to cope with luminosities beyond their original design. In order to maintain detector performance and sensitivity to expected and new physics processes, ATLAS has defined a continuous upgrade programme which foresees staged enhancements during the next 10 years of operation, and then more widespread changes before the transition to the highest luminosities after 2022. This talk will describe several components of the ATLAS upgrade, focusing in particular on the Inner Detector and Trigger. The Inner Detector faces two challenges in the higher luminosity environment: high particle multiplicities and increased radiation dose. These will be addressed in the short term by a new layer of Pixel detectors, and in the long term by a complete replacement. The Trigger faces an increasingly difficult task of distinguishing...

  18. Keys to the House: Unlocking Residential Savings With Program Models for Home Energy Upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grevatt, Jim [Energy Futures Group (United States); Hoffman, Ian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hoffmeyer, Dale [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-07-05

    After more than 40 years of effort, energy efficiency program administrators and associated contractors still find it challenging to penetrate the home retrofit market, especially at levels commensurate with state and federal goals for energy savings and emissions reductions. Residential retrofit programs further have not coalesced around a reliably successful model. They still vary in design, implementation and performance, and they remain among the more difficult and costly options for acquiring savings in the residential sector. If programs are to contribute fully to meeting resource and policy objectives, administrators need to understand what program elements are key to acquiring residential savings as cost effectively as possible. To that end, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored a comprehensive review and analysis of home energy upgrade programs with proven track records, focusing on those with robustly verified savings and constituting good examples for replication. The study team reviewed evaluations for the period 2010 to 2014 for 134 programs that are funded by customers of investor-owned utilities. All are programs that promote multi-measure retrofits or major system upgrades. We paid particular attention to useful design and implementation features, costs, and savings for nearly 30 programs with rigorous evaluations of performance. This meta-analysis describes program models and implementation strategies for (1) direct install retrofits; (2) heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) replacement and early retirement; and (3) comprehensive, whole-home retrofits. We analyze costs and impacts of these program models, in terms of both energy savings and emissions avoided. These program models can be useful guides as states consider expanding their strategies for acquiring energy savings as a resource and for emissions reductions. We also discuss the challenges of using evaluations to create program models that can be confidently applied in

  19. The Need for an R&D and Upgrade Program for CMS Software and Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Elmer, Peter; Stenson, Kevin; Wittich, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Over the next ten years, the physics reach of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) will be greatly extended through increases in the instantaneous luminosity of the accelerator and large increases in the amount of collected data. Due to changes in the way Moore's Law computing performance gains have been realized in the past decade, an aggressive program of R&D is needed to ensure that the computing capability of CMS will be up to the task of collecting and analyzing this data.

  20. Advantages of customer/supplier involvement in the upgrade of River Bend`s IST program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Womack, R.L.; Addison, J.A.

    1996-12-01

    At River Bend Station, IST testing had problems. Operations could not perform the test with the required repeatability; engineering could not reliably trend test data to detect degradation; licensing was heavily burdened with regulatory concerns; and maintenance could not do preventative maintenance because of poor prediction of system health status. Using Energy`s Total Quality principles, it was determined that the causes were: lack of ownership, inadequate test equipment usage, lack of adequate procedures, and lack of program maintenance. After identifying the customers and suppliers of the IST program data, Energy management put together an upgrade team to address these concerns. These customers and suppliers made up the IST upgrade team. The team`s mission was to supply River Bend with a reliable, functional, industry correct and user friendly IST program. The IST program in place went through a verification process that identified and corrected over 400 individual program discrepancies. Over 200 components were identified for improved testing methods. An IST basis document was developed. The operations department was trained on ASME Section XI testing. All IST tests have been simplified and shortened, due to heavy involvement by operations in the procedure development process. This significantly reduced testing time, resulting in lower cost, less dose and greater system availability.

  1. Advantages of customer/supplier involvement in the upgrade of River Bend's IST program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Womack, R.L.; Addison, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    At River Bend Station, IST testing had problems. Operations could not perform the test with the required repeatability; engineering could not reliably trend test data to detect degradation; licensing was heavily burdened with regulatory concerns; and maintenance could not do preventative maintenance because of poor prediction of system health status. Using Energy's Total Quality principles, it was determined that the causes were: lack of ownership, inadequate test equipment usage, lack of adequate procedures, and lack of program maintenance. After identifying the customers and suppliers of the IST program data, Energy management put together an upgrade team to address these concerns. These customers and suppliers made up the IST upgrade team. The team's mission was to supply River Bend with a reliable, functional, industry correct and user friendly IST program. The IST program in place went through a verification process that identified and corrected over 400 individual program discrepancies. Over 200 components were identified for improved testing methods. An IST basis document was developed. The operations department was trained on ASME Section XI testing. All IST tests have been simplified and shortened, due to heavy involvement by operations in the procedure development process. This significantly reduced testing time, resulting in lower cost, less dose and greater system availability

  2. ATLAS Plans for the High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Walkowiak, Wolfgang; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Despite the excellent performance of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN an upgrade to a High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) with a peak instantaneous luminosity of up to $7.5\\times 10^{34}$ fb$^{-1}$ will be required after collecting a total dataset of approximately 300 fb$^{-1}$ by the end of Run 3 (in 2023). The upgrade will substantially increase the statistics available to the experiments for addressing the remaining open puzzles of particle physics. The HL-LHC is expected to start operating in 2026 and to deliver up to 4000 fb$^{-1}$ within twelve years. The corresponding upgrades of the ATLAS detector and the ATLAS beauty physics program at the HL-LHC are being discussed. As examples, preliminary results on the expected sensitivities for the search for CP-violation in the decay channel $B^0_s \\to J/\\psi \\,\\phi$ using the parameters $\\Delta\\Gamma_s$ and $\\phi_s$ as well as projections for the branching fractions of the rare decays $B^0_s \\to \\mu^+\\mu^-$ and $B^0\\to\\mu^+\\mu^-$ are provided.

  3. Future of LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Dova, Maria-Teresa; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The High-Luminosity LHC aims to provide a total integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1 from p-p collisions at  14 TeV over the course of 10 years. The upgraded ATLAS detector must be able to cope well with increased occupancies and data rates. The large data samples at the High-Luminosity LHC will enable precise measurements of the Higgs boson and other Standard Model particles, as well as searches for new phenomena BSM.

  4. Theory Support for the Excited Baryon Analysis Program at the JLAB 12 GeV Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkert, Volker; Lee, Tsung-Shung; Mokeev, Viktor; Aznauryan, Inna; Braun, Vladimir; Capstick, Simon; Cloet, Ian; Edwards, Robert; Gianinni, M.; Lin, Huey-Wen; Roberts, C.D.; Stoler, Paul; Zhao, Qiang; Zou, Bing-Song

    2009-01-01

    This document summarizes the contributions of the Electromagnetic $\\gamma_vNN^*$ Transition Form Factors workshop participants that provide theoretical support of the excited baryon program at the 12 GeV energy upgrade at JLab. The main objectives of the workshop were (a) review the status of the $\\gamma_vNN^*$ transition form factors extracted from the meson electroproduction data, (b) call for the theoretical interpretations of the extracted $N$-$N^*$ transition form factors, that enable access to the mechanisms responsible for the N* formation and to their emergence from QCD.

  5. Sleep and quality of life in urban poverty: the effect of a slum housing upgrading program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonelli, Guido; Leanza, Yvan; Boilard, Alexandra; Hyland, Martín; Augustinavicius, Jura L; Cardinali, Daniel P; Vallières, Annie; Pérez-Chada, Daniel; Vigo, Daniel E

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of a housing transition on sleep quality and quality of life in slum dwellers, participating in a slum housing upgrading program. Observational before-and-after study with a convergent-parallel mixed method design. Five slums located in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina. A total of 150 slum dwellers benefited by a housing program of the nonprofit organization TECHO (spanish word for "roof"). Participants moved from their very low-quality house to a basic prefabricated 18 m(2) modular house provided by TECHO. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and World Health Organization Quality of Life brief scale (WHOQOL-BREF) were administered before and after housing upgrading. Data about housing conditions, income, education, sleeping conditions, and cardiovascular risk were also collected. Semistructured interviews were used to expand and nuance quantitative data obtained from a poorly educated sample. Results showed that sleep quality significantly increased after the housing program (z = -6.57, P urban settlements could help to define what kind of low-cost intervention may improve sleep quality, quality of life, and reduce existent sleep disparity.

  6. Development of LHC-IR model quadrupoles in the US

    CERN Document Server

    Sabbi, G

    2007-01-01

    Insertion quadrupoles with large aperture and high gradient are required to achieve the luminosity upgrade goal of 1035 cm-2 s-1 at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In 2004, the US Department of Energy established the LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) to develop a technology base for the upgrade. The focus of the magnet program, which is a collaboration of three US laboratories, BNL, FNAL and LBNL, is on development of high gradient quadrupoles using Nb$_{3}$Sn in order to operate at high field and with sufficient temperature margin. Other program components address issues regarding magnet design, radiation-hard materials, long magnet scale-up, quench protection, fabrication techniques and conductor and cable R&D. This paper reports on the development od model quadrupoles and outlines the long-term goals of the program.

  7. ATLAS Detector Upgrade Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobre, M

    2017-01-01

    After the successful operation at the centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010-2012, the LHC was ramped up and successfully took data at the centre-of-mass energies of 13 TeV in 2015 and 2016. Meanwhile, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, which will deliver of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity levelling. The ultimate goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb −1 expected for LHC running by the end of 2018 to 3000 fb −1 by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for a new all-silicon tracker, significant upgrades of the calorimeter and muon systems, as well as improved triggers and data acquisition. ATLAS is also examining potential benefits of extensions to larger pseudorapidity, particularly in tracking and muon systems. This report summarizes various improvements to the ATLAS detector required to cope with the anticipated evolution of the LHC luminosity during this decade and the next. A brief overview is also given on physics prospects with a pp centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. (paper)

  8. The Ural Electrochemical Integrated Plant Sustainability Program of Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting System Upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakhonin, Alexander; Yuldashev, Rashid; Dabbs, Richard D.; Carroll, Michael F.; Garrett, Albert G.; Patrick, Scott W.; Ku, Eshter M.

    2009-01-01

    UEIP has been working on a comprehensive sustainability program that includes establishing a site sustainability working group, information gathering, planning, organizing, developing schedule and estimated costs, trhough joint UEIP-US DOE/NNSA National Laboratory sustainability contracts. Considerable efforts have been necessary in the sustainability planning, monitoring, and control of the scope of work using tools such as Microsoft Excel, Microsoft Project and SAP R/3. While information interchanges within the sustainability program provides adequate US assurances that US funds are well spent through its quarterly reporting methodology, proper information security and protection measures are taken throughout the process. Decommissioning of outdated equipment has also become part of determining sustainability requirements and processes. The site's sustainability program has facilitated the development of a transition plan toward eventual full Russian funding of sustaining nuclear security upgrades.

  9. Upgrading the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Oreglia, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the most central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The main upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (phase 2) which is scheduled around 2022. The upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off- detector electronics so that all calorimeter signals are directly digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. An ambitious upgrade development program is pursued studying different electronics options. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Which one to use will be decided after extensive test beam studies. High speed optical links are used to read out all digitized data to the counting room. For the off-detector electronics a new back-end architecture is being developed, including the initial trigger processing and pipeline memories. A demonstrator prototype read-out for a slice of the ...

  10. Safety analysis report upgrade program at the Plutonium Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, P.Y.

    1993-01-01

    Plutonium research and development activities have resided at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) since 1943. The function of the Plutonium Facility (PF-4) has been to perform basic special nuclear materials research and development and to support national defense and energy programs. The original Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for PF-4 was approved by DOE in 1978. This FSAR analyzed design-basis and bounding accidents. In 1986, DOE/AL published DOE/AL Order 5481.1B, ''Safety Analysis and Review System'', as a requirement for preparation and review of safety analyses. To meet the new DOE requirements, the Facilities Management Group of the Nuclear Material Technology Division submitted a draft FSAR to DOE for approval in April 1991. This draft FSAR analyzed the new configurations and used a limited-scope probabilistic risk analysis for accident analysis. During the DOE review of the draft FSAR, DOE Order 5480.23 ''Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports'', was promulgated and was later officially released in April 1992. The new order significantly expands the scope, preparation, and maintenance efforts beyond those required in DOE/AL Order 5481.1B by requiring: description of institutional and human-factor safety programs; clear definitions of all facility-specific safety commitments; more comprehensive and detailed hazard assessment; use of new safety analysis methods; and annual updates of FSARs. This paper describes the safety analysis report (SAR) upgrade program at the Plutonium Facility in LANL. The SAR upgrade program is established to meet the requirements in DOE Order 5480.23. Described in this paper are the SAR background, authorization basis for operations, hazard classification, and technical program elements

  11. ATLAS Pixel Detector Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Flick, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The first upgrade for higher luminosity at LHC for the ATLAS pixel detector is the insertion of a forth layer, the IBL. The talk gives an overview about what the IBL is and how it will be set up, as well as to give a status of the research and develoment work.

  12. The CMS High Granularity Calorimeter for HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Mastrolorenzo, Luca

    2017-01-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) will integrate 10 times more luminosity than the LHC, posing significant challenges for radiation tolerance and event pileup on detectors, especially for forward calorimetry, and hallmarks the issue for future colliders. As part of its HL-LHC upgrade program, the CMS collaboration is designing a High Granularity Calorimeter to replace the existing endcap calorimeters. It features unprecedented transverse and longitudinal segmentation for both electromagnetic (ECAL) and hadronic (HCAL) compartments. This will facilitate particle-flow calorimetry, where the fine structure of showers can be measured and used to enhance pileup rejection and particle identification, whilst still achieving good energy resolution. The ECAL and a large fraction of HCAL will be based on hexagonal silicon sensors of 0.5 - 1 cm$^2$ cell size, with the remainder of the HCAL based on highly-segmented scintillators with SiPM readout. The intrinsic high-precision timing capabilities of the silicon sensors wi...

  13. The CMS High Granularity Calorimeter for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Sauvan, Jean-baptiste

    2017-01-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) will integrate 10 times more luminosity than the LHC, posing significant challenges for radiation tolerance and event pileup on detectors, especially for forward calorimetry, and hallmarks the issue for future colliders. As part of its HL-LHC upgrade program, the CMS collaboration is designing a High Granularity Calorimeter to replace the existing endcap calorimeters. It features unprecedented transverse and longitudinal segmentation for both electromagnetic (ECAL) and hadronic (HCAL) compartments. This will facilitate particle-flow calorimetry, where the fine structure of showers can be measured and used to enhance pileup rejection and particle identification, whilst still achieving good energy resolution. The ECAL and a large fraction of HCAL will be based on hexagonal silicon sensors of 0.5 - 1 cm$^2$ cell size, with the remainder of the HCAL based on highly-segmented scintillators with silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) readout. The intrinsic high-precision timing capabilities...

  14. The ALICE TPC Upgrad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Andrew; Alice-Usa Collaboration; Alice-Tpc Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) currently used for ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment at CERN) is a gaseous tracking detector used to study both proton-proton and heavy-ion collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) In order to accommodate the higher luminosit collisions planned for the LHC Run-3 starting in 2021, the ALICE-TPC will undergo a major upgrade during the next LHC shut down. The TPC is limited to a read out of 1000 Hz in minimum bias events due to the intrinsic dead time associated with back ion flow in the multi wire proportional chambers (MWPC) in the TPC. The TPC upgrade will handle the increase in event readout to 50 kHz for heavy ion minimum bias triggered events expected with the Run-3 luminosity by switching the MWPCs to a stack of four Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM) foils. The GEM layers will combine different hole pitches to reduce the dead time while maintaining the current spatial and energy resolution of the existing TPC. Undertaking the upgrade of the TPC represents a massive endeavor in terms of design, production, construction, quality assurance, and installation, thus the upgrade is coordinated over a number of institutes worldwide. The talk will go over the physics motivation for the upgrade, the ALICE-USA contribution to the construction of Inner Read Out Chambers IROCs, and QA from the first chambers built in the U.S

  15. Can the proton injectors meet the HL-LHC requirements after LS2?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goddard, B.; Bartosik, H.; Bracco, C.; Bruening, O.; Carli, C.; Cornelis, K.; Damerau, H.; Garoby, R.; Gilardoni, S.; Hancock, S.; Hanke, K.; Kain, V.; Meddahi, M.; Mikulec, B.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Rumolo, G.; Shaposhnikova, E.; Steerenberg, R.; Vretenar, M.

    2012-01-01

    The LIU project has as mandate the upgrade of the LHC injector chain to match the requirements of HL-LHC. The present planning assumes that the upgrade work will be completed in LS2, for commissioning in the following operational year. The known limitations in the different injectors are described, together with the various upgrades planned to improve the performance. The expected performance reach after the upgrade with 25 and 50 ns beams is examined. The project planning is discussed in view of the present LS1 and LS2 planning. The main unresolved questions and associated decision points are presented, and the key issues to be addressed by the end of 2012 are detailed in the context of the machine development programs and hardware construction activities. (authors)

  16. ATLAS Detector Upgrade Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Dobre, Monica; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    After the successful operation at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010 - 2012, the LHC is ramped up and successfully took data at the center-of-mass energies of 13 TeV in 2015. Meanwhile, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, delivering of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity leveling. The ultimate goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb−1 expected for LHC running to 3000 fb−1 by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for a new all-silicon tracker, significant upgrades of the calorimeter and muon systems, as well as improved triggers and data acquisition. ATLAS is also examining potential benefits of extens...

  17. ATLAS detector upgrade prospects

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00184940; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    After the successful operation at the centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010-2012, the LHC is ramped up and successfully took data at the centre-of-mass energies of 13 TeV in 2015. Meanwhile, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, delivering of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity levelling. The ultimate goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb$^{-1}$ expected for LHC running to 3000 fb $^{-1}$ by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for a new all-silicon tracker, significant upgrades of the calorimeter and muon systems, as well as improved triggers and data acquisition. ATLAS is also examining potential benefits of ...

  18. HE upgrade beyond phase 1. Finger scintillator option.

    CERN Document Server

    Afanasiev, Sergey; Boyarintsev, A.Yu; Emeliantchik, Igor; Golutvin, Igor; Grinyov, B.V; Ershov, Yuri; Levchuk, Leonid; Litomin, Aliaksandr; Malakhov, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Popov, V.F; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Sorokin, Pavlo; Zhmurin, Petro

    2014-01-01

    CMS hadron calorimeters (HB, HE, HO) have been in operation for several years and contributed substantially to the success of the CMS Physics Program. The endcap calorimeter HE suffered more radiation damage than anticipated causing rapid degradation of scintillator segments (tiles) which have a higher radiation flux from secondary particles than HB and HO. A proposal to upgrade of HE calorimeter will provide a solution for survivability at future LHC higher luminosity. A finger-strip plastic scintillator option has many advantages and is a lower cost alternative to keep the excellent HE performance at high luminosity. Measurements and simulations have been performed and this method is a good upgrade strategy.

  19. Proposal for the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the supply and upgrade of positioning sensors for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the supply of 60 new Hydrostatic Leveling Systems (HLS sensors) and 25 new Wire Positioning Systems (WPS sensors) and for the upgrade of 63 existing sensors. For the reasons explained in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with FOGALE NANOTECH (FR), for the supply and upgrade of HLS and WPS sensors for a total amount of 412 913 euros (631 757 Swiss francs), not subject to revision. The amount in Swiss francs has been calculated using the present rate of exchange.

  20. Safe LHC beam commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uythoven, J.; Schmidt, R.

    2007-01-01

    Due to the large amount of energy stored in magnets and beams, safety operation of the LHC is essential. The commissioning of the LHC machine protection system will be an integral part of the general LHC commissioning program. A brief overview of the LHC Machine Protection System will be given, identifying the main components: the Beam Interlock System, the Beam Dumping System, the Collimation System, the Beam Loss Monitoring System and the Quench Protection System. An outline is given of the commissioning strategy of these systems during the different commissioning phases of the LHC: without beam, injection and the different phases with stored beam depending on beam intensity and energy. (author)

  1. Noise evaluation of silicon strip super-module with ABCN250 readout chips for the ATLAS detector upgrade at the High Luminosity LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todome, K., E-mail: todome@hep.phys.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama 2-12-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Solid State Div., Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 1126-1, Ichino-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu-shi, Shizuoka 435-8558 (Japan); Jinnouchi, O. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama 2-12-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Solid State Div., Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 1126-1, Ichino-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu-shi, Shizuoka 435-8558 (Japan); Clark, A.; Barbier, G.; Cadoux, F.; Favre, Y.; Ferrere, D.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Iacobucci, G.; La Marra, D.; Perrin, E.; Weber, M. [DPNC, University of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Solid State Div., Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 1126-1, Ichino-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu-shi, Shizuoka 435-8558 (Japan); Ikegami, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Takubo, Y.; Unno, Y. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Study, KEK, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Solid State Div., Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 1126-1, Ichino-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu-shi, Shizuoka 435-8558 (Japan); Takashima, R. [Department of Science Education, Kyoto University of Education, Kyoto 612-8522 (Japan); Solid State Div., Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 1126-1, Ichino-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu-shi, Shizuoka 435-8558 (Japan); Tojo, J. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Solid State Div., Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 1126-1, Ichino-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu-shi, Shizuoka 435-8558 (Japan); Kono, T. [Ochadai Academic Production, Ochanomizu University, 2-1-1, Otsuka, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8610 (Japan); Solid State Div., Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 1126-1, Ichino-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu-shi, Shizuoka 435-8558 (Japan); and others

    2016-09-21

    Toward High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the whole ATLAS inner tracker will be replaced, including the semiconductor tracker (SCT) which is the silicon micro strip detector for tracking charged particles. In development of the SCT, integration of the detector is the important issue. One of the concepts of integration is the “super-module” in which individual modules are assembled to produce the SCT ladder. A super-module prototype has been developed to demonstrate its functionality. One of the concerns in integrating the super-modules is the electrical coupling between each module, because it may increase intrinsic noise of the system. To investigate the electrical performance of the prototype, the new Data Acquisition (DAQ) system has been developed by using SEABAS. The electric performance of the super-module prototype, especially the input noise and random noise hit rate, was investigated by using SEABAS system.

  2. Design of the new front-end electronics for the readout of the upgraded CMS electromagnetic calorimeter for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Cometti, Simona

    2017-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid detector was originally designed to operate for about ten years, for LHC instantaneous luminosities up to $1 \\cdot 10^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ and integrated luminosity of 500 fb$^{-1}$. The High Luminosity LHC will increase the instantaneous luminosity by about a factor of 5 from current levels and CMS will accumulate an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb$^{-1}$ by about 2035. With such high luminosity the electromagnetic calorimeter of CMS will have to cope with a challenging increase in the number of interactions per bunch crossing and in radiation levels. The front-end readout electronics will be completely redesigned, with the goals of providing precision timing, low noise and added flexibility in the trigger system. It will use a faster pre-amplifier, increase the sampling frequency from 40 MS/s to 160 MS/s and implement a trigger system that resides entirely off-detector.

  3. A Pattern Recognition Mezzanine based on Associative Memory and FPGA technology for Level 1 Track Triggers for the HL-LHC upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalotti, D.; Alunni, L.; Bilei, G.M.; Fanò, L.; Servoli, L.; Storchi, L.; Placidi, P.; Spiezia, A.; Biesuz, N.; Fedi, G.; Magazzù, G.; Palla, F.; Rossi, E.; Citraro, S.; Crescioli, F.

    2016-01-01

    The increment of luminosity at HL-LHC will require the introduction of tracker information at Level-1 trigger system for the experiments in order to maintain an acceptable trigger rate for selecting interesting events despite the one order of increased magnitude in the minimum bias interactions. In order to extract the track information in the required latency (∼ 5–10 μ s depending on the experiment), a dedicated hardware processor needs to be used. We here propose a prototype system (Pattern Recognition Mezzanine) as core of pattern recognition and track fitting for HL-LHC experiments, combining the power of both Associative Memory custom ASIC and modern Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices

  4. Mechanical studies towards a silicon micro-strip super module for the ATLAS inner detector upgrade at the high luminosity LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, G; Cadoux, F; Clark, A; Favre, Y; Ferrere, D; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S; Iacobucci, G; Marra, D La; Perrin, E; Seez, W; Endo, M; Hanagaki, K; Hara, K; Ikegami, Y; Nakamura, K; Takubo, Y; Terada, S; Jinnouchi, O; Nishimura, R; Takashima, R

    2014-01-01

    It is expected that after several years of data-taking, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) physics programme will be extended to the so-called High-Luminosity LHC, where the instantaneous luminosity will be increased up to 5 × 10 34  cm −2  s −1 . For the general-purpose ATLAS experiment at the LHC, a complete replacement of its internal tracking detector will be necessary, as the existing detector will not provide the required performance due to the cumulated radiation damage and the increase in the detector occupancy. The baseline layout for the new ATLAS tracker is an all-silicon-based detector, with pixel sensors in the inner layers and silicon micro-strip detectors at intermediate and outer radii. The super-module (SM) is an integration concept proposed for the barrel strip region of the future ATLAS tracker, where double-sided stereo silicon micro-strip modules (DSM) are assembled into a low-mass local support (LS) structure. Mechanical aspects of the proposed LS structure are described

  5. Scintillator performance at low dose rates and low temperatures for the CMS High Granularity Calorimeter for HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ricci-Tam, Francesca

    2018-01-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) will integrate 10 times more luminosity than the LHC, posing significant challenges for radiation tolerance, especially for forward calorimetry, and highlights the issue for future colliders. As part of its HL-LHC upgrade program, the CMS collaboration is designing a High Granularity Calorimeter to replace the existing endcap calorimeters. The upgrade includes both electromagnetic and hadronic components, with the latter using a mixture of silicon sensors (in the highest radiation regions at high pseudorapidity) and scintillator as its active components. The scintillator will nevertheless receive large doses accumulated at low dose rates, and will have to operate at low temperature - around -30 degrees Celsius. We discuss measurements of scintillator radiation tolerance, from in-situ measurements from the current CMS endcap calorimeters, and from measurements at low temperature and low dose-rate at gamma sources in the laboratory.

  6. Upgrade of the CERN SPS Extraction Protection Elements TPS

    CERN Document Server

    Borburgh, Jan; Barnes, Michael; Baud, Cedric; Fraser, Matthew; Kain, Verena; Maciariello, Fausto; Steele, Genevieve; Velotti, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    In 2006 the protection devices upstream of the septa in both extraction channels of the CERN SPS to the LHC were installed. Since then, new beam parameters have been proposed for the SPS beam towards the LHC in the framework of the LIU project. The mechanical parameters and assumptions on which these protection devices presently have been based, need validation before the new upgraded versions can be designed and constructed. The paper describes the design assumptions for the present protection device and the testing program for the TPSG4 at HiRadMat to validate them. Finally the requirements and the options to upgrade both extraction protection elements in the SPS are described.

  7. Silicon strip detectors for the ATLAS upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez Sevilla, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN will extend its current physics program by increasing the peak luminosity by one order of magnitude. For ATLAS, one of the two general-purpose experiments of the LHC, an upgrade scenario will imply the complete replacement of its internal tracker due to the harsh conditions in terms of particle rates and radiation doses. New radiation-hard prototype n-in-p silicon sensors have been produced for the short-strip region of the future ATLAS tracker. The sensors have been irradiated up to the fluences expected in the high-luminous LHC collider. This paper summarizes recent results on the performance of the irradiated n-in-p detectors.

  8. Present State of the Single and Twin Aperture Short Dipole Model Program for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Andreyev, N I; Kurtyka, T; Leroy, D; Oberli, L R; Perini, D; Russenschuck, Stephan; Siegel, N; Siemko, A; Tommasini, D; Vanenkov, I; Walckiers, L; Weterings, W

    1998-01-01

    The LHC model program for main dipoles is based on the design, fabrication and testing at CERN of a number of single and twin aperture 1m long magnets. So far, a number of single aperture models, each with specific characteristics, were tested at 2 K at a rate of about one per month. These magnets are the main tool used to check coil performance as a function of design and assembly options in view of optimizing and finalizing choices of components and procedures. Initial quenching field levels of 8.8 T were obtained and the short sample limit of the cable at 1.9 K was reached corresponding to a central bore field of 10 T. A few twin aperture dipole models were also built and tested, using the same structural components as for the long magnets which are now being built in industry. The paper discusses the main characteristics of the models built so far, the instrumentation developed to date and the experience obtained. Finally it describes the plans aimed at continuing a vigorous program to provide input to th...

  9. Prospects for forward photon measurements at LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Leeuwen Marco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the opportunities to experimentally probe the gluon density at small x in nuclei to explore non-linear gluon evolution, saturation and the physics of the Color Glass Condensate by measuring photon production at forward rapidity in proton-nucleus collisions at the LHC. Performance studies for π0 and direct photon measurements based on simulations of a Forward Calorimeter (FoCal, which is under consideration as an upgrade for the ALICE detector, are presented. Other aspects of the FoCal physics program for pp, p+Pb and Pb+Pb collisions are briefly discussed as well.

  10. Keeping HL-LHC accountable

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    This week saw the cost and schedule of the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) and LHC Injectors Upgrade (LIU) projects come under close scrutiny from the external review committee set up for the purpose.    HL-LHC, whose implementation requires an upgrade to the CERN injector complex, responds directly to one of the key recommendations of the updated European Strategy for Particle Physics, which urges CERN to prepare for a ‘major luminosity upgrade’, a recommendation that is also perfectly in line with the P5 report on the US strategy for the field. Responding to this recommendation, CERN set up the HL-LHC project in 2013, partially supported by FP7 funding through the HiLumi LHC Design Study (2011-2015), and coordinated with the American LARP project, which oversees the US contribution to the upgrade. A key element of HL-LHC planning is a mechanism for receiving independent expert advice on all aspects of the project.  To this end, several technical reviews h...

  11. LHC physics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Binoth, T

    2012-01-01

    "Exploring the phenomenology of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, LHC Physics focuses on the first years of data collected at the LHC as well as the experimental and theoretical tools involved...

  12. A Muon Trigger with high pT-resolution for Phase-II of the LHC Upgrade, based on the ATLAS Muon Drift Tube Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Nowak, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Muon Trigger in the ATLAS end-cap region is based on Thin Gap Chambers (TGC) which have an excellent time resolution but a moderate spatial resolution. The Muon Trigger efficiency curves show that for a transverse momentum ($p_{t}$) threshold of 20 GeVc$^{-1}$ the trigger rate is mainly dominated by muons with a $p_{t}$ between 10 GeVc$^{-1}$ and 20 GeVc$^{-1}$. To cope with the expected Muon Trigger rate at HL-LHC luminosities, we propose to include the precision tracking chambers (MDT) in the Muon Trigger. According to a potential study based on ATLAS data and assuming the HL-LHC scenario, this leads to a dramatical reduction of the Muon Trigger rate below the nominal threshold. As the already existing MDT chamber read-out chain is not capable of reading out the MDT fast enough to be used for the Muon Trigger, an additional fast read-out (FRO) chain with moderate spatial resolution but low latency is necessary. To conduct fast track reconstruction and muon $p_{t}$ determination with the data acqui...

  13. Data acquisition and processing in the ATLAS tile calorimeter phase-II upgrade demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00306349; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The LHC has planned a series of upgrades culminating in the High Luminosity LHC which will have an average luminosity 5-7 times larger than the nominal Run 2 value. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter will undergo an upgrade to accommodate the HL-LHC parameters. The TileCal readout electronics will be redesigned, introducing a new readout strategy. A Demonstrator program has been developed to evaluate the new proposed readout architecture and prototypes of all the components. In the Demonstrator, the detector data received in the Tile PreProcessors (PPr) are stored in pipeline buffers and upon the reception of an external trigger signal the data events are processed, packed and readout in parallel through the legacy ROD system, the new Front-End Link eXchange system and an ethernet connection for monitoring purposes. This contribution describes in detail the data processing and the hardware, firmware and software components of the TileCal Demonstrator readout system.

  14. Greenbelt Homes Pilot Program: Summary of Building Envelope Retrofits, Planned HVAC Equipment Upgrades, and Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Del Bianco, M. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Mallay, D. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2015-05-01

    In the fall of 2010, a multiyear pilot energy efficiency retrofit project was undertaken by Greenbelt Homes, Inc, (GHI) a 1,566 home cooperative of circa 1930 and 1940 homes in Greenbelt, Maryland. GHI established this pilot project to serve as a basis for decision making for the rollout of a decade-long community-wide upgrade program that will incorporate energy efficiency improvements to the building envelope and mechanical equipment. It presents a unique opportunity to evaluate and prioritize the wide-range of benefits of high-performance retrofits based on member experience with and acceptance of the retrofit measures implemented during the pilot project. Addressing the complex interactions between benefits, trade-offs, construction methods, project management implications, realistic upfront costs, financing, and other considerations, serves as a case study for energy retrofit projects to include high-performance technologies based on the long-term value to the homeowner. The pilot project focused on identifying the added costs and energy savings benefits of improvements.

  15. FLUKA studies of hadron-irradiated scintillating crystals for calorimetry at the High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Quittnat, Milena Eleonore

    2015-01-01

    Calorimetry at the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) will be performed in a harsh radiation environment with high hadron fluences. The upgraded CMS electromagnetic calorimeter design and suitable scintillating materials are a focus of current research. In this paper, first results using the Monte Carlo simulation program FLUKA are compared to measurements performed with proton-irradiated LYSO, YSO and cerium fluoride crystals. Based on these results, an extrapolation to the behavior of an electromagnetic sampling calorimeter, using one of the inorganic scintillators above as an active medium, is performed for the upgraded CMS experiment at the HL-LHC. Characteristic parameters such as the induced ambient dose, fluence spectra for different particle types and the residual nuclei are studied, and the suitability of these materials for a future calorimeter is surveyed. Particular attention is given to the creation of isotopes in an LYSO-tungsten calorimeter that might contribute a prohibitive background to the measu...

  16. Upgrade of the Gas Flow Control System of the Resistive Current Leads of the LHC Inner Triplet Magnets: Simulation and Experimental Validation

    CERN Document Server

    Perin, A; Casas-Cubillos, J; Pezzetti, M

    2014-01-01

    The 600 A and 120 A circuits of the inner triplet magnets of the Large Hadron Collider are powered by resistive gas cooled current leads. The current solution for controlling the gas flow of these leads has shown severe operability limitations. In order to allow a more precise and more reliable control of the cooling gas flow, new flowmeters will be installed during the first long shutdown of the LHC. Because of the high level of radiation in the area next to the current leads, the flowmeters will be installed in shielded areas located up to 50 m away from the current leads. The control valves being located next to the current leads, this configuration leads to long piping between the valves and the flowmeters. In order to determine its dynamic behaviour, the proposed system was simulated with a numerical model and validated with experimental measurements performed on a dedicated test bench.

  17. Upgrade of the gas flow control system of the resistive current leads of the LHC inner triplet magnets: Simulation and experimental validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perin, A.; Casas-Cubillos, J.; Pezzetti, M. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Almeida, M. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    2014-01-29

    The 600 A and 120 A circuits of the inner triplet magnets of the Large Hadron Collider are powered by resistive gas cooled current leads. The current solution for controlling the gas flow of these leads has shown severe operability limitations. In order to allow a more precise and more reliable control of the cooling gas flow, new flowmeters will be installed during the first long shutdown of the LHC. Because of the high level of radiation in the area next to the current leads, the flowmeters will be installed in shielded areas located up to 50 m away from the current leads. The control valves being located next to the current leads, this configuration leads to long piping between the valves and the flowmeters. In order to determine its dynamic behaviour, the proposed system was simulated with a numerical model and validated with experimental measurements performed on a dedicated test bench.

  18. Construction and Quality Assurance of Large Area Resistive Strip Micromegas for the Upgrade of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer at LHC/CERN

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00389527; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Large area Micromegas detectors will be employed for the first time in high-energy physics experiments. To cope with increasing background rates, associated with the steadily increasing luminosity of LHC to 10 times design luminosity, the present detector technology in the current innermost stations of the muon endcap system of the ATLAS experiment (the Small Wheel), will be replaced in 2019 by resistive strip Micromegas and small strip TGC detectors. Both technologies will provide tracking and trigger information. In the ``New Small Wheel'' the Micromegas will be arranged in eight detection layers built of trapezoidally shaped quadruplets of four different sizes covering in total about 1200\\,m$^2$ of detection plane. In order to achieve 15\\,\\% transverse momentum resolution for 1 TeV muons, a challenging mechanical precision is required in the construction of each active plane, with an alignment of the readout strips at the level of 30\\,\\textmu m along the precision coordinate and 80\\,\\textmu m perpendicular...

  19. ATLAS calorimeter and topological trigger upgrades for Phase 1

    CERN Document Server

    Silverstein, S

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger (L1Calo) collaboration is pursuing two hardware upgrade programs for Phase 1 of the LHC upgrade. The first of these is development of a new mixed-signal multi-chip module (MCM) for the PreProcessor system. based on faster FADCs and a modern FPGA. Designed as a drop-in replacement for the existing MCM, the FPGA also enables future upgrades to the PreProcessor algorithms, including enhanced digital filtering and compensation for time-variation of pedestals. It is also planned to augment the current multiplicity-based trigger by adding topology-based algorithms. This is made possible by adding jet and EM/hadron Regions of Interest (ROIs) to the L1Calo real time data path. A synchronous, pipelined topological processor (TP) based on high-density FPGAs and multi-Gbit optical links gathers all ROI information and performs topological algorithms.

  20. W boson helicity measurement in tt̄ di-electron channel with the CMS detector at the LHC and the CMS outer tracker upgrade for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00346024

    This thesis presents a measurement of the W boson helicity fractions in the tt̄ di-electron final state. The top pair events are produced in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, collected by the CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb −1 . Only events with two energetic opposite-sign electrons, at least two b-tagged jets and large missing transverse energy in the final state, are considered as di-electron tt̄ signal. The tt̄ event is fully reconstructed using the Analytical Matrix Weighting Technique (AMWT). The helicity fractions of the W boson are estimated from the cos θl∗ distribution using an event-by-event re-weighting technique. Within the quoted statistic and systematic uncertainties, the results are in good agreement with the Standard Model prediction at the 95% confidence level. The results are also consistent with other W boson polarization measurements in the CMS and the ATLAS experiments. While the W ...

  1. Measurement of Z boson production in association with jets at the LHC and study of a DAQ system for the Triple-GEM detector in view of the CMS upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Léonard, Alexandre

    This PhD thesis presents the measurement of the differential cross section for the production of a Z boson in association with jets in proton-proton collisions taking place at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV. A development of a data acquisition (DAQ) system for the Triple-Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector in view of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector upgrade is also presented. The events used for the data analysis were collected by the CMS detector during the year 2012 and constitute a sample of 19.6/fb of integrated luminosity. The cross section measurements are performed as a function of the jet multiplicity, the jet transverse momentum and pseudorapidity, and the scalar sum of the jet transverse momenta. The results were obtained by correcting the observed distributions for detector effects. The measured differential cross sections are compared to some state of the art Monte Carlo predictions MadGraph 5, Sherpa 2 and MadGraph5_aMC@NLO. These measureme...

  2. TU-G-BRD-02: Automated Systematic Quality Assurance Program for Radiation Oncology Information System Upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, B; Yi, B; Eley, J; Mutaf, Y; Rahman, S; D’Souza, W

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To: (1) describe an independent, automated, systematic software-based protocol for verifying clinical data accuracy/integrity for mitigation of data corruption/loss risks following radiation oncology information system (ROIS) upgrades; and (2) report on application of this approach in an academic/community practice environment. Methods: We propose a robust approach to perform quality assurance on the ROIS after an upgrade, targeting four data sources: (1) ROIS relational database; (2) ROIS DICOM interface; (3) ROIS treatment machine data configuration; and (4) ROIS-generated clinical reports. We investigated the database schema for differences between pre-/post-upgrade states. Paired DICOM data streams for the same object (such as RT-Plan/Treatment Record) were compared between pre-/post-upgrade states for data corruption. We examined machine configuration and related commissioning data files for changes and corruption. ROIS-generated treatment appointment and treatment parameter reports were compared to ensure patient encounter and treatment plan accuracy. This protocol was supplemented by an end-to-end clinical workflow test to verify essential ROI functionality and integrity of components interfaced during patient care chain of activities. We describe the implementation of this protocol during a Varian ARIA system upgrade at our clinic. Results: We verified 1,638 data tables with 2.4 billion data records. For 222 under-treatment patients, 605 DICOM RT plans and 13,480 DICOM treatment records retrieved from the ROIS DICOM interface were compared, with no differences in fractions, doses delivered, or treatment parameters. We identified 82 new data tables and 78 amended/deleted tables consistent with the upgrade. Reports for 5,073 patient encounters over a 2-week horizon were compared and were identical to those before the upgrade. Content in 12,237 xml machine files was compared, with no differences identified. Conclusion: An independent QA

  3. TU-G-BRD-02: Automated Systematic Quality Assurance Program for Radiation Oncology Information System Upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, B; Yi, B; Eley, J; Mutaf, Y; Rahman, S; D’Souza, W [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To: (1) describe an independent, automated, systematic software-based protocol for verifying clinical data accuracy/integrity for mitigation of data corruption/loss risks following radiation oncology information system (ROIS) upgrades; and (2) report on application of this approach in an academic/community practice environment. Methods: We propose a robust approach to perform quality assurance on the ROIS after an upgrade, targeting four data sources: (1) ROIS relational database; (2) ROIS DICOM interface; (3) ROIS treatment machine data configuration; and (4) ROIS-generated clinical reports. We investigated the database schema for differences between pre-/post-upgrade states. Paired DICOM data streams for the same object (such as RT-Plan/Treatment Record) were compared between pre-/post-upgrade states for data corruption. We examined machine configuration and related commissioning data files for changes and corruption. ROIS-generated treatment appointment and treatment parameter reports were compared to ensure patient encounter and treatment plan accuracy. This protocol was supplemented by an end-to-end clinical workflow test to verify essential ROI functionality and integrity of components interfaced during patient care chain of activities. We describe the implementation of this protocol during a Varian ARIA system upgrade at our clinic. Results: We verified 1,638 data tables with 2.4 billion data records. For 222 under-treatment patients, 605 DICOM RT plans and 13,480 DICOM treatment records retrieved from the ROIS DICOM interface were compared, with no differences in fractions, doses delivered, or treatment parameters. We identified 82 new data tables and 78 amended/deleted tables consistent with the upgrade. Reports for 5,073 patient encounters over a 2-week horizon were compared and were identical to those before the upgrade. Content in 12,237 xml machine files was compared, with no differences identified. Conclusion: An independent QA

  4. Letter of Intent for the Phase-I Upgrade of the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    After the first successful years of running at the LHC, the ATLAS Collaboration is preparing to fully exploit the unprecedented physics opportunities offered by exploration of a completely new energy domain. This program builds on the excellent LHC accelerator complex performance demonstrated to date. A plan to consolidate and improve the physics capabilities of the current detector over the next decade, targeting the 2018 LHC shutdown as installation milestone, is presented in this Letter of Intent. The document primarily addresses the proposed enhancements to the ATLAS trigger system to cope with luminosities beyond the LHC nominal design value, while retaining the same physics performance. The Phase-I upgrades will allow ATLAS to maintain low pT trigger thresholds for isolated leptons by increasing the granularity of the calorimeters involved in the Level-1 trigger and by introducing new muon trigger and tracking detectors in the forward direction. Precision measurements of the couplings of the Higgs boson...

  5. Evaluation of Young’s modulus of MgB2 filaments in composite wires for the superconducting links for the high-luminosity LHC upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugano, Michinaka; Ballarino, Amalia; Bartova, Barbora; Bjoerstad, Roger; Gerardin, Alexandre; Scheuerlein, Christian

    2016-02-01

    MgB2 wire is a promising superconductor for the superconducting links for the high-luminosity upgrade of the large Hadron collider at CERN. The mechanical properties of MgB2 must be fully quantified for the cable design, and in this study, we evaluate the Young’s modulus of MgB2 filaments in wires with a practical level of critical current. The Young’s moduli of MgB2 filaments by two different processes, in situ and ex situ, were compared. Two different evaluation methods were applied to an in situ MgB2 wire, a single-fiber tensile test and a tensile test after removing Monel. In addition, the Young’s modulus of the few-micron-thick Nb-Ni reaction layer in an ex situ processed wire was evaluated using a nanoindentation testing technique to improve the accuracy of analysis based on the rule of mixtures. The Young’s moduli of the in situ and ex situ MgB2 wires were in the range of 76-97 GPa and no distinct difference depending on the fabrication process was found.

  6. submitter Evaluation of Young’s modulus of MgB2 filaments in composite wires for the superconducting links for the high-luminosity LHC upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Sugano, Michinaka; Bartova, Barbora; Bjoerstad, Roger; Gerardin, Alexandre; Scheuerlein, Christian

    2015-01-01

    MgB2 wire is a promising superconductor for the superconducting links for the high-luminosity upgrade of the large Hadron collider at CERN. The mechanical properties of MgB2 must be fully quantified for the cable design, and in this study, we evaluate the Young's modulus of MgB2 filaments in wires with a practical level of critical current. The Young's moduli of MgB2 filaments by two different processes, in situ and ex situ, were compared. Two different evaluation methods were applied to an in situ MgB2 wire, a single-fiber tensile test and a tensile test after removing Monel. In addition, the Young's modulus of the few-micron-thick Nb–Ni reaction layer in an ex situ processed wire was evaluated using a nanoindentation testing technique to improve the accuracy of analysis based on the rule of mixtures. The Young's moduli of the in situ and ex situ MgB2 wires were in the range of 76–97 GPa and no distinct difference depending on the fabrication process was found.

  7. A radiation-hard dual-channel 12-bit 40 MS/s ADC prototype for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter readout electronics upgrade at the CERN LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuppambatti, J. [Columbia University, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, New York, NY (United States); Ban, J. [Columbia University, Nevis Laboratories, Irvington, NY (United States); Andeen, T., E-mail: tandeen@utexas.edu [Columbia University, Nevis Laboratories, Irvington, NY (United States); Brown, R.; Carbone, R. [Columbia University, Nevis Laboratories, Irvington, NY (United States); Kinget, P. [Columbia University, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, New York, NY (United States); Brooijmans, G.; Sippach, W. [Columbia University, Nevis Laboratories, Irvington, NY (United States)

    2017-05-21

    The readout electronics upgrade for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters at the CERN Large Hadron Collider requires a radiation-hard ADC. The design of a radiation-hard dual-channel 12-bit 40 MS/s pipeline ADC for this use is presented. The design consists of two pipeline A/D channels each with four Multiplying Digital-to-Analog Converters followed by 8-bit Successive-Approximation-Register analog-to-digital converters. The custom design, fabricated in a commercial 130 nm CMOS process, shows a performance of 67.9 dB SNDR at 10 MHz for a single channel at 40 MS/s, with a latency of 87.5 ns (to first bit read out), while its total power consumption is 50 mW/channel. The chip uses two power supply voltages: 1.2 and 2.5 V. The sensitivity to single event effects during irradiation is measured and determined to meet the system requirements.

  8. Overview of the TCV tokamak program: scientific progress and facility upgrades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coda, S.; Ahn, J.; Albanese, R.; Alberti, S.; Alessi, E.; Allan, S.; Anand, H.; Anastassiou, G.; Andrèbe, Y.; Angioni, C.; Ariola, M.; Bernert, M.; Beurskens, M.; Bin, W.; Blanchard, P.; Blanken, T. C.; Boedo, J. A.; Bolzonella, T.; Bouquey, F.; Braunmüller, F. H.; Bufferand, H.; Buratti, P.; Calabró, G.; Camenen, Y.; Carnevale, D.; Carpanese, F.; Causa, F.; Cesario, R.; Chapman, I. T.; Chellai, O.; Choi, D.; Cianfarani, C.; Ciraolo, G.; Citrin, J.; Costea, S.; Crisanti, F.; Cruz, N.; Czarnecka, A.; Decker, J.; De Masi, G.; De Tommasi, G.; Douai, D.; Dunne, M.; Duval, B. P.; Eich, T.; Elmore, S.; Esposito, B.; Faitsch, M.; Fasoli, A.; Fedorczak, N.; Felici, F.; Février, O.; Ficker, O.; Fietz, S.; Fontana, M.; Frassinetti, L.; Furno, I.; Galeani, S.; Gallo, A.; Galperti, C.; Garavaglia, S.; Garrido, I.; Geiger, B.; Giovannozzi, E.; Gobbin, M.; Goodman, T. P.; Gorini, G.; Gospodarczyk, M.; Granucci, G.; Graves, J. P.; Guirlet, R.; Hakola, A.; Ham, C.; Harrison, J.; Hawke, J.; Hennequin, P.; Hnat, B.; Hogeweij, D.; Hogge, J.-Ph.; Honoré, C.; Hopf, C.; Horáček, J.; Huang, Z.; Igochine, V.; Innocente, P.; Ionita Schrittwieser, C.; Isliker, H.; Jacquier, R.; Jardin, A.; Kamleitner, J.; Karpushov, A.; Keeling, D. L.; Kirneva, N.; Kong, M.; Koubiti, M.; Kovacic, J.; Krämer-Flecken, A.; Krawczyk, N.; Kudlacek, O.; Labit, B.; Lazzaro, E.; Le, H. B.; Lipschultz, B.; Llobet, X.; Lomanowski, B.; Loschiavo, V. P.; Lunt, T.; Maget, P.; Maljaars, E.; Malygin, A.; Maraschek, M.; Marini, C.; Martin, P.; Martin, Y.; Mastrostefano, S.; Maurizio, R.; Mavridis, M.; Mazon, D.; McAdams, R.; McDermott, R.; Merle, A.; Meyer, H.; Militello, F.; Miron, I. G.; Molina Cabrera, P. A.; Moret, J.-M.; Moro, A.; Moulton, D.; Naulin, V.; Nespoli, F.; Nielsen, A. H.; Nocente, M.; Nouailletas, R.; Nowak, S.; Odstrčil, T.; Papp, G.; Papřok, R.; Pau, A.; Pautasso, G.; Pericoli Ridolfini, V.; Piovesan, P.; Piron, C.; Pisokas, T.; Porte, L.; Preynas, M.; Ramogida, G.; Rapson, C.; Rasmussen, J. Juul; Reich, M.; Reimerdes, H.; Reux, C.; Ricci, P.; Rittich, D.; Riva, F.; Robinson, T.; Saarelma, S.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Sauter, O.; Scannell, R.; Schlatter, Ch.; Schneider, B.; Schneider, P.; Schrittwieser, R.; Sciortino, F.; Sertoli, M.; Sheikh, U.; Sieglin, B.; Silva, M.; Sinha, J.; Sozzi, C.; Spolaore, M.; Stange, T.; Stoltzfus-Dueck, T.; Tamain, P.; Teplukhina, A.; Testa, D.; Theiler, C.; Thornton, A.; Tophøj, L.; Tran, M. Q.; Tsironis, C.; Tsui, C.; Uccello, A.; Vartanian, S.; Verdoolaege, G.; Verhaegh, K.; Vermare, L.; Vianello, N.; Vijvers, W. A. J.; Vlahos, L.; Vu, N. M. T.; Walkden, N.; Wauters, T.; Weisen, H.; Wischmeier, M.; Zestanakis, P.; Zuin, M.; the EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2017-10-01

    The TCV tokamak is augmenting its unique historical capabilities (strong shaping, strong electron heating) with ion heating, additional electron heating compatible with high densities, and variable divertor geometry, in a multifaceted upgrade program designed to broaden its operational range without sacrificing its fundamental flexibility. The TCV program is rooted in a three-pronged approach aimed at ITER support, explorations towards DEMO, and fundamental research. A 1 MW, tangential neutral beam injector (NBI) was recently installed and promptly extended the TCV parameter range, with record ion temperatures and toroidal rotation velocities and measurable neutral-beam current drive. ITER-relevant scenario development has received particular attention, with strategies aimed at maximizing performance through optimized discharge trajectories to avoid MHD instabilities, such as peeling-ballooning and neoclassical tearing modes. Experiments on exhaust physics have focused particularly on detachment, a necessary step to a DEMO reactor, in a comprehensive set of conventional and advanced divertor concepts. The specific theoretical prediction of an enhanced radiation region between the two X-points in the low-field-side snowflake-minus configuration was experimentally confirmed. Fundamental investigations of the power decay length in the scrape-off layer (SOL) are progressing rapidly, again in widely varying configurations and in both D and He plasmas; in particular, the double decay length in L-mode limited plasmas was found to be replaced by a single length at high SOL resistivity. Experiments on disruption mitigation by massive gas injection and electron-cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) have begun in earnest, in parallel with studies of runaway electron generation and control, in both stable and disruptive conditions; a quiescent runaway beam carrying the entire electrical current appears to develop in some cases. Developments in plasma control have benefited from

  9. LHC computing (WLCG) past, present, and future

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, I G

    2016-01-01

    The LCG project, and the WLCG Collaboration, represent a more than 10-year investment in building and operating the LHC computing environment. This article gives some of the history of how the WLCG was constructed and the preparations for the accelerator start-up. It will discuss the experiences and lessons learned during the first 3 year run of the LHC, and will conclude with a look forwards to the planned upgrades of the LHC and the experiments, discussing the implications for computing.

  10. The Pierre Auger Observatory status and the AugerPrime upgrade program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martello Daniele

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The nature and the origin of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs, above 1017 eV, are still unknown. The Pierre Auger Observatory with its huge exposure provides us with a large set of high quality data. The analysis of these data has led to major breakthroughs in the last decade, but a coherent interpretation is still missing. To answer the open questions the Observatory has started a major upgrade, with an emphasis on improved mass composition determination using the surface detectors. The latest results and the planned detector upgrade will be presented. The expected performance and the improved physics sensitivity of the Observatory will be discussed.

  11. High-field Magnet Development toward the High Luminosity LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apollinari, Giorgio [Fermilab

    2014-07-01

    The upcoming Luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC) will rely on the use of Accelerator Quality Nb3Sn Magnets which have been the focus of an intense R&D effort in the last decade. This contribution will describe the R&D and results of Nb3Sn Accelerator Quality High Field Magnets development efforts, with emphasis on the activities considered for the HL-LHC upgrades.

  12. The CMS High-Granularity Calorimeter (HGCAL) for Operation at the High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Pitters, Florian Michael

    2017-01-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) will integrate 10 times more luminosity than the LHC, posing significant challenges for radiation tolerance and event pileup on detectors, especially for forward calorimetry, and hallmarks the issue for future colliders. As part of its HL-LHC upgrade program, the CMS collaboration is designing a High Granularity Calorimeter to replace the existing endcap calorimeters. It features unprecedented transverse and longitudinal segmentation for both electromagnetic (ECAL) and hadronic (HCAL) compartments. This will facilitate particle-flow calorimetry, where the fine structure of showers can be measured and used to enhance pileup rejection and particle identification, whilst still achieving good energy resolution. The ECAL and a large fraction of HCAL will be based on hexagonal silicon sensors of 0.5 - 1 cm^2 cell size, with the remainder of the HCAL based on highly-segmented scintillators with SiPM readout. The intrinsic high-precision timing capabilities of the silicon sensors will...

  13. Construction and quality assurance of large area resistive strip Micromegas for the upgrade of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer at LHC/CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lösel, P.

    2017-06-01

    Large area Micromegas detectors will be employed for the first time in high-energy physics experiments. To cope with increasing background rates, associated with the steadily increasing luminosity of LHC to 10 times design luminosity, the present detector technology in the current innermost stations of the muon endcap system of the ATLAS experiment (the Small Wheel), will be replaced in 2019/2020 by resistive strip Micromegas and small strip TGC detectors. Both technologies will provide tracking and trigger information. In the "New Small Wheel" the Micromegas will be arranged in eight detection layers built of trapezoidally shaped quadruplets of four different sizes covering in total about 1200 m2 of detection plane. In order to achieve 15 % transverse momentum resolution for 1 TeV muons, a challenging mechanical precision is required in the construction of each active plane, with an alignment of the readout strips at the level of 30 μm RMS along the precision coordinate and 80 μm RMS perpendicular to the plane. Each individual Micromegas plane must achieve a spatial resolution better than 100 μm at background rates up to 15 kHz/cm2 while being operated in an inhomogeneous magnetic field (B <= 0.3 T). The required mechanical precision for the production of the components and their assembly, on such large area detectors, is a key point and must be controlled during construction and integration. Particularly the alignment of the readout strips within a quadruplet appears to be demanding. The readout strips are etched on PCB boards using photolithographic processes. Depending on the type of the module, 3 or 5 PCB boards need to be joined and precisely aligned to form a full readout plane. The precision in the alignment is reached either by use of precision mechanical holes or by optical masks, both referenced to the strip patterns. Assembly procedures have been developed to build the single panels with the required mechanical precision and to assemble them in a

  14. High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) general infographics

    CERN Multimedia

    Landua, Fabienne

    2016-01-01

    The High-Luminosity LHC, which is expected to be operational after 2025, will increase the LHC’s luminosity by a factor of 10. To achieve this major upgrade, several technologies, some of which are completely innovative, are being developed.

  15. The ALICE Inner Tracking System Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Siddhanta, Sabyasachi

    2015-01-01

    The long term plan of ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a detailed investigation and characterisation of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). ALICE has devised a comprehensive upgrade strategy to enhance its physics capabilities and to exploit the LHC running conditions after the second long shutdown of the LHC scheduled in 2019-20. The upgraded ALICE will focus on high precision measurements of rare probes over a wide range of momenta, which will significantly improve the performance with respect to the present experimental set up. The upgrade strategy is based on the fact that after LS2 LHC will progressively increase its luminosity with Pb beams eventually reaching an interaction rate of about 50 kHz. To exploit the new LHC capabilities, several existing detectors will undergo a substantial upgrade and new detectors will be added. Within this upgrade strategy, the Inner Tracking System (ITS) upgrade forms an important cornerstone, providing precise measurements for...

  16. Status of the 11 T Nb$_{3}$Sn Dipole Project for the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savary, F.; et al.

    2015-01-01

    The planned upgrade of the LHC collimation system includes additional collimators in the LHC lattice. The longitudinal space for the collimators could be obtained by replacing some LHC main dipoles with shorter but stronger dipoles compatible with the LHC lattice and main systems. A joint development program with the goal of building a 5.5 m long two-in-one aperture Nb_3Sn dipole prototype suitable for installation in the LHC is being conducted by FNAL and CERN magnet groups. As part of the first phase of the program, 1 m long and 2 m long single aperture models are being built and tested, and the collared coils from these magnets will be assembled and tested in two-in-one configuration in both laboratories. In parallel with the short model magnet activities, the work has started on the production line in view of the scale-up to 5.5 m long prototype magnet. The development of the final cryo-assembly comprising two 5.5 m long 11 T dipole cold masses and the warm collimator in the middle, fully compatible with the LHC main systems and the existing machine interfaces, has also started at CERN. This paper summarizes the progress made at CERN and FNAL towards the construction of 5.5 m long 11 T Nb_3Sn dipole prototype and the present status of the activities related to the integration of the 11 T dipole and collimator in the LHC.

  17. Concept of a Machine Protection System for the High-Energy LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Raginel, Vivien; Wollmann, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    The High-Energy LHC (HE-LHC) is setting new precedents in stored energy in both, the superconducting magnet system (∼ 20 GJ) and the beams (1.34 GJ) as compared to LHC and the LHC upgrade to increase the luminosity (HL-LHC). Therefore, the requirements and performance of the existing machine protection systems have to be reviewed and adapted to the new HE-LHC beam parameters, failure cases and machine availability requirements.

  18. ATLAS upgrades for the next decades

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, Walter; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    After the successful LHC operation at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010-2012, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, delivering of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity leveling. The final goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred \\ifb\\ expected for LHC running to 3000 fb$^{-1}$ by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. In parallel, the experiments need to be keep lockstep with the accelerator to accommodate running beyond the nominal luminosity this decade. Current planning in ATLAS envisions significant upgrades to the detector during the consolidation of the LHC to reach full LHC energy and further upgrades. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for...

  19. First Test Results of the 150 mm Aperture IR Quadrupole Models for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosio, G; Wanderer, P; Ferracin, P; Sabbi, G

    2017-01-01

    The High Luminosity upgrade of the LHC at CERN will use large aperture (150 mm) quadrupole magnets to focus the beams at the interaction points. The high field in the coils requires Nb$_{3}$Sn superconductor technology, which has been brought to maturity by the LHC Accelerator Re-search Program (LARP) over the last 10 years. The key design targets for the new IR quadrupoles were established in 2012, and fabrication of model magnets started in 2014. This paper discusses the results from the first single short coil test and from the first short quadrupole model test. Remaining challenges and plans to address them are also presented and discussed.

  20. First Test Results of the 150 mm Aperture IR Quadrupole Models for the High Luminosity LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosio, G. [Fermilab; Chlachidze, G. [Fermilab; Wanderer, P. [Brookhaven; Ferracin, P. [CERN; Sabbi, G. [LBNL, Berkeley

    2016-10-06

    The High Luminosity upgrade of the LHC at CERN will use large aperture (150 mm) quadrupole magnets to focus the beams at the interaction points. The high field in the coils requires Nb3Sn superconductor technology, which has been brought to maturity by the LHC Accelerator Re-search Program (LARP) over the last 10 years. The key design targets for the new IR quadrupoles were established in 2012, and fabrication of model magnets started in 2014. This paper discusses the results from the first single short coil test and from the first short quadrupole model test. Remaining challenges and plans to address them are also presented and discussed.

  1. Chemical Technology Division Comprehensive Self-Assessment and Upgrade Program (CSAUP). Performance Objectives and Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has placed strong emphasis on a new way of doing business patterned on the lessons learned in the nuclear power industry after the accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2. The new way relies on strict adherence to policies and procedures, a greatly expanded training program, and much more rigor and formality in operations. Another key element is more visible oversight by upper management and auditability by DOR Although the Chemical Technology Division (Chem Tech) has functioned in a safe manner since its beginning, the policies and methods of the past are no longer appropriate. Therefore, in accordance with these directives, Chem Tech is improving its operational performance by making a transition to greater formality in the observance of policies and procedures and a more deliberate consideration of the interrelationships between organizations at ORNL. This transition to formality is vitally important because both our staff and our facilities are changing with time. For example, some of the inventors and developers of the processes and facilities in use are now ''passing the torch'' to the next generation of Chem Tech staff. Our faculties have also served us well for many years, but the newest of these are now over 20 years old. All have increasing needs of refurbishment and repair, and some of the older ones need to be replaced. The Comprehensive Self-Assessment and Upgrade Program (CSAUP) has been patterned on a similar activity performed at the High Flux Isotope Reactor. Using the Draft DOE Performance Objectives and Criteria for Technical Safety Appraisals (May 1987) as a starting point, it was determined that 14 functional areas for evaluation listed in the report were suitable for Chem Tech use. An additional 5 functional areas were added for completeness since Chem Tech has a broader set of missions than a reactor facility. The Performance Objectives and Criteria (POC) for each functional area in the DOE report were

  2. Proposal to upgrade the MIPP experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isenhower, D.; Sadler, M.; Towell, R.; Watson, S. [Abilene Christian Univ., TX (United States); Peterson, R. J. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Baker, W.; Carey, D.; Christian, D.; Demarteau, M.; Jensen, D.; Johnstone, C.; Meyer, H.; Raja, R.; Ronzhin, A.; Solomey, N.; Wester, W. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Gutbrod, H.; Peters, K. [GSI-Darmstadt (Germany); Feldman, G. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Torun, Y. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Messier, M. D.; Paley, J. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2006-09-01

    The upgraded MIPP physics results are needed for the support of NuMI projects, atmospheric cosmic ray and neutrino programs worldwide and will permit a systematic study of non-perturbative QCD interactions. The MIPP TPC is the largest contributor to the MIPP event size by far. Its readout system and electronics were designed in the 1990's and limit it to a readout rate of 60 Hz in simple events and {approx} 20 Hz in complicated events. With the readout chips designed for the ALICE collaboration at the LHC, we propose a low cost scheme of upgrading the MIPP data acquisition speed to 3000 Hz. This will also enable us to measure the medium energy numi target to be used for the NOvA/MINERvA experiments. We outline the capabilities of the upgraded MIPP detector to obtain high statistics particle production data on a number of nuclei that will help towards the understanding and simulation of hadronic showers in matter. Measurements of nitrogen cross sections will permit a better understanding of cosmic ray shower systematics in the atmosphere. In addition, we explore the possibilities of providing tagged neutral beams using the MIPP spectrometer that may be crucial for validating the Particle Flow Algorithm proposed for calorimeters for the International Linear Collider detectors. Lastly, we outline the physics potential of such a detector in understanding non-perturbative QCD processes.

  3. Upgrade of the cryogenic infrastructure of SM18, CERN main test facility for superconducting magnets and RF cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perin, A.; Dhalla, F.; Gayet, P.; Serio, L.

    2017-12-01

    SM18 is CERN main facility for testing superconducting accelerator magnets and superconducting RF cavities. Its cryogenic infrastructure will have to be significantly upgraded in the coming years, starting in 2019, to meet the testing requirements for the LHC High Luminosity project and for the R&D program for superconducting magnets and RF equipment until 2023 and beyond. This article presents the assessment of the cryogenic needs based on the foreseen test program and on past testing experience. The current configuration of the cryogenic infrastructure is presented and several possible upgrade scenarios are discussed. The chosen upgrade configuration is then described and the characteristics of the main newly required cryogenic equipment, in particular a new 35 g/s helium liquefier, are presented. The upgrade implementation strategy and plan to meet the required schedule are then described.

  4. LHC crab-cavity aspects and strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calaga, R.; Tomas, R.; Zimmermann, F.

    2010-01-01

    The 3rd LHC Crab Cavity workshop (LHC-CC09) took place at CERN in October 2009. It reviewed the current status and identified a clear strategy towards a future crab-cavity implementation. Following the success of crab cavities in KEK-B and the strong potential for luminosity gain and leveling, CERN will pursue crab crossing for the LHC upgrade. We present a summary and outcome of the variousworkshop sessions which have led to the LHC crab-cavity strategy, covering topics like layout, cavity design, integration, machine protection, and a potential validation test in the SPS.

  5. Silicon Sensors for the Upgrades of the CMS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Centis Vignali, Matteo; Schleper, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a general purpose detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC luminosity is constantly increased through upgrades of the accel- erator and its injection chain. Two major upgrades will take place in the next years. The rst upgrade involves the LHC injector chain and allows the collider to achieve a luminosity of about 2 10 34 cm-2 s-1 A further upgrade of the LHC foreseen for 2025 will boost its luminosity to 5 10 34 cm-2 s1. As a consequence of the increased luminosity, the detectors need to be upgraded. In particular, the CMS pixel detector will undergo two upgrades in the next years. The rst upgrade (phase I) consists in the substitution of the current pixel detector in winter 2016/2017. The upgraded pixel detector will implement new readout elec- tronics that allow ecient data taking up to a luminosity of 2 10 34 cm-2s-1,twice as much as the LHC design luminosity. The modules that will constitute the upgraded detector are being produced at dierent institutes. Ham...

  6. CMS pixel upgrade project

    CERN Document Server

    Kaestli, Hans-Christian

    2010-01-01

    The LHC machine at CERN finished its first year of pp collisions at a center of mass energy of 7~TeV. While the commissioning to exploit its full potential is still ongoing, there are plans to upgrade its components to reach instantaneous luminosities beyond the initial design value after 2016. A corresponding upgrade of the innermost part of the CMS detector, the pixel detector, is needed. A full replacement of the pixel detector is planned in 2016. It will not only address limitations of the present system at higher data rates, but will aggressively lower the amount of material inside the fiducial tracking volume which will lead to better tracking and b-tagging performance. This article gives an overview of the project and illuminates the motivations and expected improvements in the detector performance.

  7. CMS pixel upgrade project

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00575876

    2011-01-01

    The LHC machine at CERN finished its first year of pp collisions at a center of mass energy of 7 TeV. While the commissioning to exploit its full potential is still ongoing, there are plans to upgrade its components to reach instantaneous luminosities beyond the initial design value after 2016. A corresponding upgrade of the innermost part of the CMS detector, the pixel detector, is needed. A full replacement of the pixel detector is planned in 2016. It will not only address limitations of the present system at higher data rates, but will aggressively lower the amount of material inside the fiducial tracking volume which will lead to better tracking and b-tagging performance. This article gives an overview of the project and illuminates the motivations and expected improvements in the detector performance.

  8. Greenbelt Homes Pilot Program. Summary of Building Envelope Retrofits, Planned HVAC Equipment Upgrades, and Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Marlboro, MD (United States); Del Bianco, M. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Marlboro, MD (United States); Mallay, D. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2015-05-22

    The U.S. Department of Energy Building America team Partnership for Home Innovation wrote a report on Phase 1 of the project that summarized a condition assessment of the homes and evaluated retrofit options within the constraints of the cooperative provided by GHI. Phase 2 was completed following monitoring in the 2013–2014 winter season; the results are summarized in this report. Phase 3 upgrades of heating equipment will be implemented in time for the 2014–2015 heating season and are not part of this report.

  9. Tevatron energy and luminosity upgrades beyond the Main Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amidei, D.; Kamon, T.; Lopez, J.; McIntyre, P.; White, J.

    1994-08-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron will be the world's highest energy hadron collider until the LHC is commissioned, it has the world's highest energy fixed target beams, and Fermilab will be the leading high energy physics laboratory in the US for the foreseeable future. Following the demise of the SSC, a number of possible upgrades to the Tevatron complex, beyond construction of the Main Injector, are being discussed. Using existing technology, it appears possible to increase the luminosity of the bar pp Collider to at least 10 33 cm -2 sec -1 (Tevatron-Star) and to increase the beam energy to 2 TeV (DiTevatron). Fixed target beam of energy about 1.5 TeV could also be delivered. Leaving the existing Tevatron in the tunnel and constructing bypasses around the collider halls would allow simultaneous 800 GeV fixed target and √s = 4 TeV collider operation. These upgrades would give Fermilab an exciting physics program which would be complementary to the LHC, and they would lay the groundwork for the construction of a possible post-LHC ultra-high energy hadron collider

  10. The upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Ravasenga, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    In 2021, for the third run of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), Pb-Pb collisions will be performed at a centre-of-mass energy per nucleon of 5.5 TeV, with an integrated luminosity of $6 \\times 10^{27}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ and at an unprecedented interaction rate up to 50 kHz. To fulfil the requirements of the ALICE physics program for Run 3, the ALICE experiment at LHC is planning a major upgrade during the Long Shutdown 2 of LHC in 2019-2020. One of the key elements, is the construction of a new ultra-light and high-resolution Inner Tracking System (ITS). The upgraded ITS will significantly enhance the determination of the distance of closest approach to the primary vertex, the tracking efficiency at low transverse momenta, and the read-out rate capabilities, with respect to what can be achieved with the current detector. It will consist of seven layers equipped with silicon Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) with a pixel size of the order of $30 \\times 30 \\mu m^2$. They will be produced by Towerjazz ...

  11. Westinghouse Hanford Company safety analysis reports and technical safety requirements upgrade program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busche, D.M.

    1995-09-01

    During Fiscal Year 1992, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) separately transmitted the following US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders to Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for compliance: DOE 5480.21, ''Unreviewed Safety Questions,'' DOE 5480.22, ''Technical Safety Requirements,'' and DOE 5480.23, ''Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.'' WHC has proceeded with its impact assessment and implementation process for the Orders. The Orders are closely-related and contain some requirements that are either identical, similar, or logically-related. Consequently, WHC has developed a strategy calling for an integrated implementation of the three Orders. The strategy is comprised of three primary objectives, namely: Obtain DOE approval of a single list of DOE-owned and WHC-managed Nuclear Facilities, Establish and/or upgrade the ''Safety Basis'' for each Nuclear Facility, and Establish a functional Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process to govern the management and preservation of the Safety Basis for each Nuclear Facility. WHC has developed policy-revision and facility-specific implementation plans to accomplish near-term tasks associated with the above strategic objectives. This plan, which as originally submitted in August 1993 and approved, provided an interpretation of the new DOE Nuclear Facility definition and an initial list of WHC-managed Nuclear Facilities. For each current existing Nuclear Facility, existing Safety Basis documents are identified and the plan/status is provided for the ISB. Plans for upgrading SARs and developing TSRs will be provided after issuance of the corresponding Rules

  12. Upgrade program of the high current heavy ion UNILAC as an injector for FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, W.; Bayer, W.; Dahl, L.; Groening, L.; Richter, S.; Yaramyshev, S.

    2007-01-01

    Presently, the GSI facility consists of the heavy ion high current linac UNILAC and the synchrotron SIS 18. For the FAIR project the existing GSI accelerator complex is foreseen to serve as an injector for up to 10 12 U 28+ particles/s on the target. For this purpose an U 28+ beam current of 15 emA inside of the SIS 18 acceptance is required from the UNILAC for the multi-turn injection to the synchrotron up to its space charge limit. Different hardware measures and careful fine tuning in all sections of the UNILAC during the last years resulted in an increase of the beam intensity of up to a factor of seven. To meet the FAIR requirements a further improvement of the beam brilliance at the synchrotron entrance of about a factor of five is necessary. Several upgrade measures are planned and are partially on the realization stage. Simultaneously experimental and numerical studies of the UNILAC are going on and directed to the optimization of the machine and to investigations of the influence of the upgrade measures to the performance of the whole accelerator

  13. The CMS Data Acquisition - Architectures for the Phase-2 Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Andre, Jean-Marc Olivier; Branson, James; Brummer, Philipp Maximilian; Chaze, Olivier; Cittolin, Sergio; Contescu, Cristian; Craigs, Benjamin Gordon; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Deldicque, Christian; Demiragli, Zeynep; Dobson, Marc; Doualot, Nicolas; Erhan, Samim; Fulcher, Jonathan F; Gigi, Dominique; Michail Gladki; Glege, Frank; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Hegeman, Jeroen Guido; Holzner, Andre Georg; Janulis, Mindaugas; Jimenez Estupinan, Raul; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Franciscus; Meschi, Emilio; Mommsen, Remigius; Morovic, Srecko; O'Dell, Vivian; Orsini, Luciano; Paus, Christoph Maria Ernst; Petrova, Petia; Pieri, Marco; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Sakulin, Hannes; Schwick, Christoph; Simelevicius, Dainius; Zejdl, Petr

    2017-01-01

    The upgraded High Luminosity LHC, after the third Long Shutdown (LS3), will provide an instantaneous luminosity of $7.5\\times10^{34}$ cm$^{-2} s^{-1}$ (levelled), at the price of extreme pileup of up to 200 interactions per crossing. In LS3, the CMS Detector will also undergo a major upgrade to prepare for the phase-2 of the LHC physics program, starting around 2025. The upgraded detector will be read out at an unprecedented data rate of up to 50 Tb/s and an event rate of 750 kHz. Complete events will be analysed by software algorithms running on standard processing nodes, and selected events will be stored permanently at a rate of up to 10 kHz for offline processing and analysis. In this paper we discuss the baseline design of the DAQ and HLT systems for the phase-2, taking into account the projected evolution of high speed network fabrics for event building and distribution, and the anticipated performance of general purpose CPU. Implications on hardware and infrastructure requirements for the DAQ "data cen...

  14. New Physics at HL-LHC with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Rosten, Rachel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The prospects for new physics at the luminosity upgrade of LHC, HL-LHC, with a data set equivalent to 3000 fb-1, simulated in the upgrade ATLAS detector, are presented and discussed. Benchmark studies are presented to show how the sensitivity improves at the future high-luminosity LHC runs. Prospects for searches for new heavy bosons and dark matter candidates at 14 TeV pp collisions are explored, as well as the sensitivity of searches for anomalous top decays. For all these studies, a parameterised simulation of the upgraded ATLAS detector response is used, taking into account the expected pileup conditions.

  15. Performance of New and Upgraded Detectors for Luminosity and Beam Condition Measurement at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Leonard, Jessica Lynn

    2015-01-01

    The beam monitoring and luminosity systems of the CMS experiment are enhanced by several new and upgraded sub-detectors to match the challenges of the LHC operation and physics program at increased energy and higher luminosity. A dedicated pixelated luminosity telescope is installed for a fast and precise luminosity measurement. This detector measures coincidences between several three-layer telescopes of silicon pixel detectors to arrive at luminosity for each colliding LHC bunch pair. An upgraded fast beam conditions monitor measures the particle flux using single crystalline diamond sensors. It is equipped with a dedicated front-end ASIC produced in 130 nm CMOS technology. The excellent time resolution is used to separate collision products from machine induced background, thus serving as online luminosity measurement. A new beam-halo monitor at larger radius exploits Cerenkov light from fused silica to provide direction sensitivity and excellent time resolution to separate incoming and outgoing particles....

  16. Assembly and Test of SQ01b, a Nb3Sn Quadrupole Magnet for the LHC Accelerator Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferracin, P.; Ambrosio, G.; Bartlett, S. E.; Bordini, B.; Carcagno, R.H.; Caspi, S.; Dietderich, D.R.; Feher, S.; Gourlay, S.A.; Hafalia, A.R.; Lamm, M.J.; Lietzke, A.F.; Mattafirri, S.; McInturff, A.D.; Orris, D.F.; Pischalnikov, Y.M.; Sabbi, G.L.; Sylvester, C.D.; Tartaglia, M.A.; Velev, G.V.; Zlobin, A.V.; Kashikhin, V.V.

    2006-06-01

    The US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) consists of four US laboratories (BNL, FNAL, LBNL, and SLAC) collaborating with CERN to achieve a successful commissioning of the LHC and to develop the next generation of Interaction Region magnets. In 2004, a large aperture Nb{sub 3}Sn racetrack quadrupole magnet (SQ01) has been fabricated and tested at LBNL. The magnet utilized four subscale racetrack coils and was instrumented with strain gauges on the support structure and directly over the coil's turns. SQ01 exhibited training quenches in two of the four coils and reached a peak field in the conductor of 10.4 T at a current of 10.6 kA. After the test, the magnet was disassembled, inspected with pressure indicating films, and reassembled with minor modifications. A second test (SQ01b) was performed at FNAL and included training studies, strain gauge measurements and magnetic measurements. Magnet inspection, test results, and magnetic measurements are reported and discussed, and a comparison between strain gauge measurements and 3D finite element computations is presented

  17. Assembly and Test of SQ01b, a Nb3Sn Quadrupole Magnet for the LHC Accelerator Research Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferracin, P.; Ambrosio, G.; Bartlett, S. E.; Bordini, B.; Carcagno, R.H.; Caspi, S.; Dietderich, D.R.; Feher, S.; Gourlay, S.A.; Hafalia, A.R.; Lamm, M.J.; Lietzke, A.F.; Mattafirri, S.; McInturff, A.D.; Orris, D.F.; Pischalnikov, Y.M.; Sabbi, G.L.; Sylvester, C.D.; Tartaglia, M.A.; Velev, G.V.; Zlobin, A.V.; Kashikhin, V.V.

    2006-01-01

    The US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) consists of four US laboratories (BNL, FNAL, LBNL, and SLAC) collaborating with CERN to achieve a successful commissioning of the LHC and to develop the next generation of Interaction Region magnets. In 2004, a large aperture Nb 3 Sn racetrack quadrupole magnet (SQ01) has been fabricated and tested at LBNL. The magnet utilized four subscale racetrack coils and was instrumented with strain gauges on the support structure and directly over the coil's turns. SQ01 exhibited training quenches in two of the four coils and reached a peak field in the conductor of 10.4 T at a current of 10.6 kA. After the test, the magnet was disassembled, inspected with pressure indicating films, and reassembled with minor modifications. A second test (SQ01b) was performed at FNAL and included training studies, strain gauge measurements and magnetic measurements. Magnet inspection, test results, and magnetic measurements are reported and discussed, and a comparison between strain gauge measurements and 3D finite element computations is presented

  18. Intensity issues and machine protection of the HE-LHC

    OpenAIRE

    Assmann, R.

    2011-01-01

    The HE-LHC study investigates the possibilities for upgrading the beam energy of the Large Hadron Collider CERN from 7 TeV to 16.5 TeV. This paper presents a preliminary investigation of intensity issues and machine protection for the HE-LHC. The HE-LHC study investigates the possibilities for upgrading the beam energy of the Large Hadron Collider CERN from 7 TeV to 16.5 TeV. This paper presents a preliminary investigation of intensity issues and machine protection for the HE-LHC.

  19. Heavy-ion operation of HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Jowett, J M; Versteegen, R

    2015-01-01

    The heavy-ion physics programme of the LHC will continue during the HL-LHC period with upgraded detectors capable of exploiting several times the design luminosity for nucleus–nucleus (Pb–Pb) collisions. For proton–nucleus (p–Pb) collisions, unforeseen in the original design of the LHC, a comparable increase beyond the 2013 luminosity should be attainable. We present performance projections and describe the operational strategies and relatively modest upgrades to the collider hardware that will be needed to achieve these very significant extensions to the physics potential of the High Luminosity LHC.

  20. A review of a radioactive material shipping container including design, testing, upgrading compliance program and shipping logistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celovsky, A.; Lesco, R.; Gale, B.; Sypes, J.

    2003-01-01

    Ten years ago Atomic Energy of Canada developed a Type B(U)-85 shipping container for the global transport of highly radioactive materials. This paper reviews the development of the container, including a summary of the design requirements, a review of the selected materials and key design elements, and the results of the major qualification tests (drop testing, fire test, leak tightness testing, and shielding integrity tests). As a result of the testing, improvements to the structural, thermal and containment design were made. Such improvements, and reasons thereof, are noted. Also provided is a summary of the additional analysis work required to upgrade the package from a Type B(U) to a Type B(F), i.e. essentially upgrading the container to include fissile radioisotopes to the authorized radioactive contents list. Having a certified shipping container is only one aspect governing the global shipments of radioactive material. By necessity the shipment of radioactive material is a highly regulated environment. This paper also explores the experiences with other key aspects of radioactive shipments, including the service procedures used to maintain the container certification, the associated compliance program for radioactive material shipments, and the shipping logistics involved in the transport. (author)

  1. Status and perspectives of ALICE at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corral, Gerardo H. [Physics Department, CINVESTAV, P.O. Box 14740, Mexico, D.F (Mexico); Collaboration: ALICE Collaboration

    2013-04-15

    ALICE is one of the four large experiments at the LHC. It focuses on the study of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. Its main goal is to study in great detail the properties of matter under extreme energy densities. We discuss some aspects of the ALICE research program, the experiment future plans as well as some general items of the ALICE upgrade. The present detector allows to study diffractive physics and photon induced processes. A proposal to install detectors in the forward region is presented here. These detectors would allow to study processes with rapidity gaps larger than those presently covered.

  2. Status and perspectives of ALICE at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corral, Gerardo H.

    2013-01-01

    ALICE is one of the four large experiments at the LHC. It focuses on the study of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. Its main goal is to study in great detail the properties of matter under extreme energy densities. We discuss some aspects of the ALICE research program, the experiment future plans as well as some general items of the ALICE upgrade. The present detector allows to study diffractive physics and photon induced processes. A proposal to install detectors in the forward region is presented here. These detectors would allow to study processes with rapidity gaps larger than those presently covered.

  3. Research and Development for the ATLAS Forward Calorimetry at the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Cheplakov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    A total luminosity of 3000/fb is expected at the HL-LHC, which corresponds to total irradiation doses which are more than doubled compared to the original design, taking into account a safety factor of 2 representing our confidence in radiation background simulations. Moreover, the increased instantaneous luminosity will result in a much higher detector occupancy. The ATLAS Forward Calorimeters (FCal) will be affected by these factors. A rich R&D program is ongoing to evaluate the consequences of the LHC modernization and to investigate di_erent scenarios proposed for the Phase-II detector upgrade. This contribution will concentrate on simulation studies of the FCal degradation and on irradiation tests performed at the IBR-2m reactor in Dubna. Results from radiation-tolerant sensors and components of the future read-out and voltage distribution system for various upgrade options of the forward calorimetry will be presented.

  4. The LHC and its successors

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    Not too long before the first long technical stop of the LHC, engineers and physicists are already working on the next generation of accelerators: HL-LHC and LHeC. The first would push proton-proton collisions to an unprecedented luminosity rate; the second would give a second wind to electron-proton collisions.   The ring-ring configuration of the LHeC would need this type of magnets, currently being studied for possible future use. In one year, the LHC will begin to change. During the first long shutdown, from December 2012 to late 2014, the machine will go through a first phase of major upgrades, with the objective of running at 7 TeV per beam at the beginning of 2015. With this long technical stop and the two others that will follow (in 2018 and 2022), a new project will see the light of day. Current plans include the study of something that looks more like a new machine rather than a simple upgrade: the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). Much more powerful than the current machine, the HL-...

  5. Digital measurement system for the LHC klystron high voltage modulator.

    CERN Document Server

    Mikkelsen, Anders

    Accelerating voltage in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is created by a means of 16 superconducting standing wave RF cavities, each fed by a 400MHz/300kW continuous wave klystron amplifier. Part of the upgrade program for the LHC long shutdown one is to replace the obsolete analogue current and voltage measurement circuitry located in the high voltage bunkers by a new, digital system, using ADCs and optical fibres. A digital measurement card is implemented and integrated into the current HV modulator oil tank (floating at -58kV) and interfaced to the existing digital VME boards collecting the data for several klystrons at the ground potential. Measured signals are stored for the logging, diagnostics and post-mortem analysis purposes.

  6. "Upgraded" physics at the LHC and RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llope, W. J. [Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2017-09-03

    Closeout materials enclosed. This grant supported a postdoctoral scientist (S. Jowzaee) and the tuition for a graduate student (B. Erko), both working under the supervision of Prof. W.J. Llope at Wayne State University. Travel to a STAR Collaboration Meeting and the Quark Matter 2017 conference was also supported. The physics research concentrated on particle-identified two-particle correlations in the Beam Energy Scan data from the STAR experiment at RHIC. S. Jowzaee gave an oral presentation on this research at the Quark Matter 2017 conference.

  7. The life-extension and upgrade program of the Tsing Hua Open-pool Reactor (THOR) and its research prospectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, J.-J.

    1992-01-01

    The Tsing Hua Open-Pool Reactor (THOR) has been operated for thirty years. It is the regulations of the ROCAEC that any reactor shall be decommissioned after forty-year operation since the first fuel loading. Therefore, for extending the lifetime of THOR, it is necessary to have a life-extension program to be approved by the ROCAEC and also completed by the year of 1997. At the same time, for proceeding new research purposes, it is planed to upgrade the thermal power of THOR from 1 Wth up to 3 Wth and hopefully to reach the maximum thermal neutron flux of 5x10 13 n/cm 2 .s and the fast flux close to that order. New research directions involve (a) boron-captured neutron cancer therapy (BNCT) (b) small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). (author)

  8. Education and training for operators using a full scope simulator and an its upgrading program in JOYO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Makoto; Terano, Toshihiro; Hunaki, Isao

    1996-01-01

    A JOYO full scope operator training simulator installed in 1983, is being used with high average unit availability factor of more than 70% per annum. The education and training for the operators using it has been greatly contributing to safety operation of the experimental fast reactor JOYO. The simulator mainly consisting of five control panels, a computer system having two computers and an instructor's console, is able to simulate the plant behaviors and the sequential processes with real time under normal or anomaly conditions. Now, according as the JOYO MK-ILL project which enhances the irradiation capability of JOYO, an upgrading program of the simulator is proceeding with the aim of advancing its efficient usage by improving the training function and the analytical accuracy of the simulator. (author)

  9. Status of TMX upgrade diagnostics construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornady, R.S.; Davis, J.C.; Simonen, T.C.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the status of the initial TMX Upgrade diagnostics and the state of development of additional diagnostics being prepared for later TMX Upgrade experiments. The initial diagnostic instrument set has been described in the TMX Upgrade Proposal. This set is required to get TMX Upgrade operational and to evaluate its initial performance. Additional diagnostic instruments are needed to then carry out the more detailed experiments outlined by the TMX Upgrade program milestones. The relation of these new measurements to the physics program is described in The TMX Upgrade Program Plan

  10. Upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    OpenAIRE

    Reidt, Felix; Collaboration, for the ALICE

    2014-01-01

    During the Long Shutdown 2 of the LHC in 2018/2019, the ALICE experiment plans the installation of a novel Inner Tracking System. It will replace the current six layer detector system with a seven layer detector using Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors. The upgraded Inner Tracking System will have significantly improved tracking and vertexing capabilities, as well as readout rate to cope with the expected increased Pb-Pb luminosity of the LHC. The choice of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors has be...

  11. LHC report

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    This week's Report, by Gianluigi Arduini,  will be included in the LHC Physics Day, dedicated to the reviews of the LHC physics results presented at ICHEP 2010. Seehttp://indico.cern.ch/conferenceDisplay.py?confId=102669 

  12. Do we really need a collimator upgrade?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redaelli, S.

    2012-01-01

    Several improvements are foreseen for the LHC collimation system during the LS1 and beyond. The changes are matched to the required performance reach during the HL-LHC era. The scenarios for system upgrades are determined based on the present operational experience with the operation at 3.5 TeV, well about the beam stored energy regime of 100 MJ. The present upgrade strategy, and the uncertainties on the performance extrapolation to 7 TeV are presented. The collimation activities in LS1 are outlined and the possible works for LS2 and LS3 are presented. (author)

  13. Timing distribution and Data Flow for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Phase II Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)713745; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Hadronic Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) detector is one of the several subsystems composing the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC upgrade program plans an increase of order five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity culminating in the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). In order to accommodate the detector to the new HL-LHC parameters, the TileCal read out electronics is being redesigned introducing a new read out strategy with a full-digital trigger system. In the new read out architecture, the front-end electronics allocates the MainBoards and the DaughterBoards. The MainBoard digitizes the analog signals coming from the PhotoMultiplier Tubes (PMTs), provides integrated data for minimum bias monitoring and includes electronics for PMT calibration. The DaughterBoard receives and distributes Detector Control System (DCS) commands, clock and timing commands to the rest of the elements of the front-end electronics, as well as, collects and transmits the digitized data to the back-e...

  14. FPGA-based algorithms for the new trigger system for the phase 2 upgrade of the CMS drift tubes detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cela-Ruiz, J.-M.

    2017-01-01

    The new luminosity conditions imposed after the LHC upgrade will require a dedicated upgrade of several subdetectors. To cope with the new requirements, CMS drift tubes subdetector electronics will be redesigned in order to achieve the new foreseen response speed. In particular, it is necessary to enhance the first stage of the trigger system (L1A). In this document we present the development of a software algorithm, based on the mean timer paradigm, capable of reconstructing muon trajectories and rejecting spurious signals. It has been initially written in C++ programming language, but designed with its portability to a FPGA VHDL code in mind.

  15. The INFN-FBK pixel R&D program for HL-LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meschini, M.; Dalla Betta, G. F.; Boscardin, M.; Calderini, G.; Darbo, G.; Giacomini, G.; Messineo, A.; Ronchin, S.

    2016-09-01

    We report on the ATLAS and CMS joint research activity, which is aiming at the development of new, thin silicon pixel detectors for the Large Hadron Collider Phase-2 detector upgrades. This R&D is performed under special agreement between Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and FBK foundation (Trento, Italy). New generations of 3D and planar pixel sensors with active edges are being developed in the R&D project, and will be fabricated at FBK. A first planar pixel batch, which was produced by the end of year 2014, will be described in this paper. First clean room measurement results on planar sensors obtained before and after neutron irradiation will be presented.

  16. The INFN-FBK pixel R&D program for HL-LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meschini, M.; Dalla Betta, G.F.; Boscardin, M.; Calderini, G.; Darbo, G.; Giacomini, G.; Messineo, A.; Ronchin, S.

    2016-01-01

    We report on the ATLAS and CMS joint research activity, which is aiming at the development of new, thin silicon pixel detectors for the Large Hadron Collider Phase-2 detector upgrades. This R&D is performed under special agreement between Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and FBK foundation (Trento, Italy). New generations of 3D and planar pixel sensors with active edges are being developed in the R&D project, and will be fabricated at FBK. A first planar pixel batch, which was produced by the end of year 2014, will be described in this paper. First clean room measurement results on planar sensors obtained before and after neutron irradiation will be presented.

  17. MAPS development for the ALICE ITS upgrade

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, P; Aglieri, G; Cavicchioli, C; Chalmet, P L; Chanlek, N; Collu, A; Gao, C; Hillemanns, H; Junique, A; Kofarago, M; Keil, M; Kugathasan, T; Kim, D; Kim, J; Lattuca, A

    2015-01-01

    Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) offer the possibility to build pixel detectors and tracking layers with high spatial resolution and low material budget in commercial CMOS processes. Significant progress has been made in the field of MAPS in recent years, and they are now considered for the upgrades of the LHC experiments. This contribution will focus on MAPS detectors developed for the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS) upgrade and manufactured in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS imaging senso...

  18. The CMS High Granularity Calorimeter for the High Luminosity LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvan, J.-B.

    2018-02-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) will integrate 10 times more luminosity than the LHC, posing significant challenges for radiation tolerance and event pileup on detectors, especially for forward calorimetry, and hallmarks the issue for future colliders. As part of its HL-LHC upgrade program, the CMS collaboration is designing a High Granularity Calorimeter to replace the existing endcap calorimeters. It features unprecedented transverse and longitudinal segmentation for both electromagnetic (ECAL) and hadronic (HCAL) compartments. This will facilitate particle-flow calorimetry, where the fine structure of showers can be measured and used to enhance pileup rejection and particle identification, whilst still achieving good energy resolution. The ECAL and a large fraction of HCAL will be based on hexagonal silicon sensors of 0.5-1 cm2 cell size, with the remainder of the HCAL based on highly-segmented scintillators with silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) readout. The intrinsic high-precision timing capabilities of the silicon sensors will add an extra dimension to event reconstruction, especially in terms of pileup rejection.

  19. 3rd report from the LHC performance workshop

    CERN Multimedia

    Bulletin's correspondent from Chamonix

    2012-01-01

    Outside it's a little warmer but Wednesday was spent inside looking forward to the long shutdown (LS1) planned for 2013/14. The total length of the shutdown for the LHC is provisionally around 20 months and there is a huge, huge amount of work on the cards. Provisional planning was presented. The key driver is the splice consolidation work which foresees opening every magnet interconnect in the ring, measuring carefully the resistance of each joint in the cables which carry the current between the dipole and quadrupoles in the arcs of the LHC. It is estimated that 15% of the splices will be re-done; shunts and clamps will be installed across each splice. The aim is to definitively exclude the possibility of a repeat of the incident of 19 September 2008. Besides this, each of the LHC experiments have extensive programs of maintenance and upgrades. Some of the key LHC systems (cryogenics, vacuum, quench protection system, electrical distribution, cooling, ventilation, access, and RF) will undergo m...

  20. The 11 T Dipole for HL-LHC: Status and Plan

    CERN Document Server

    Savary, F; Bordini, B; Bottura, L; Chlachidze, G; Ramos, D; Izquierdo Bermudez, S; Karppinen, M; Lackner, F; Loffler, C H; Moron-Ballester, R; Nobrega, A; Perez, J C; Prin, H; Smekens, D; de Rijk, G; Redaelli, S; Rossi, L; Willering, G; Zlobin, A V; Giovannozzi, M

    2016-01-01

    The upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) collimation system includes additional collimators in the LHC lattice. The longitudinal space for these collimators will be created by replacing some of the LHC main dipoles with shorter but stronger dipoles compatible with the LHC lattice and main systems. The project plan comprises the construction of two cryoassemblies containing each of the two 11-T dipoles of 5.5-m length for possible installation on either side of interaction point 2 of LHC in the years 2018-2019 for ion operation, and the installation of two cryoassemblies on either side of interaction point 7 of LHC in the years 2023-2024 for proton operation. The development program conducted in conjunction between the Fermilab and CERN magnet groups is progressing well. The development activities carried out on the side of Fermilab were concluded in the middle of 2015 with the fabrication and test of a 1-m-long two-in-one model and those on the CERN side are ramping up with the construction of 2-m-long ...

  1. Technical Proposal for the Phase-II Upgrade of the CMS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration; Contardo, D; Klute, M; Mans, J; Silvestris, L; Butler, J; CERN. Geneva. The LHC experiments Committee; LHCC

    2015-01-01

    This Technical Proposal presents the upgrades foreseen to prepare the CMS experiment for the High Luminosity LHC. In this second phase of the LHC physics program, the accelerator will provide to CMS an additional integrated luminosity of about 2500 fb-1 over 10 years of operation, starting in 2025. This will substantially enlarge the mass reach in the search for new particles and will also greatly extend the potential to study the properties of the Higgs boson discovered at the LHC in 2012. In order to meet the experimental challenges of unprecedented p-p luminosity, the CMS collaboration will need to address the aging of the present detector and to improve the ability of the apparatus to isolate and precisely measure the products of the most interesting collisions. This document describes the conceptual designs and the expected performance of the upgrades, along with the plans to develop the appropriate experimental techniques. The infrastructure upgrades and the logistics of the installation in the experim...

  2. The LHCb VELO Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    de Capua, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The upgrade of the LHCb experiment, scheduled for LHC Run-3, will transform the experiment to a triggerless system reading out the full detector at 40 MHz event rate. All data reduction algorithms will be executed in a high-level software farm, enabling the detector to run at luminosities of 2×1033 cm−2 s −1 . The Vertex Locator (VELO) is the silicon vertex detector surrounding the interaction region. The current strip detector will be replaced with a hybrid pixel system equipped with electronics capable of reading out at 40 MHz. The upgraded VELO will allow for fast pattern recognition and track reconstruction in the software trigger. The silicon pixel sensors have 55×55 µm2 pitch, and are read out by the VeloPix ASIC. The VeloPix builds on the currently available Timepix3, modified to deliver a radiation hard design capable of an order of magnitude increase in output rate. The hottest regions will have pixel hit rates of 900 Mhits/s, yielding a total data rate more than 3 Tbit/s for the upgraded VELO...

  3. LHCb VELO Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Hennessy, Karol

    2016-01-01

    The upgrade of the LHCb experiment, scheduled for LHC Run-III, scheduled to start in 2021, will transform the experiment to a trigger-less system reading out the full detector at 40 MHz event rate. All data reduction algorithms will be executed in a high-level software farm enabling the detector to run at luminosities of $2\\times10^{33} \\mathrm{cm}^{-2}\\mathrm{s}^{-1}$. The Vertex Locator (VELO) is the silicon vertex detector surrounding the interaction region. The current detector will be replaced with a hybrid pixel system equipped with electronics capable of reading out at 40 MHz. The upgraded VELO will provide fast pattern recognition and track reconstruction to the software trigger. The silicon pixel sensors have $55\\times55 \\mu m^{2}$ pitch, and are read out by the VeloPix ASIC, from the Timepix/Medipix family. The hottest region will have pixel hit rates of 900 Mhits/s yielding a total data rate of more than 3 Tbit/s for the upgraded VELO. The detector modules are located in a separate vacuum, separate...

  4. Upgrades of the ATLAS trigger system

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00221618; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    In coming years the LHC is expected to undergo upgrades to increase both the energy of proton-proton collisions and the instantaneous luminosity. In order to cope with these more challenging LHC conditions, upgrades of the ATLAS trigger system will be required. This talk will focus on some of the key aspects of these upgrades. Firstly, the upgrade period between 2019-2021 will see an increase in instantaneous luminosity to $3\\times10^{34} \\rm{cm^{-2}s^{-1}}$. Upgrades to the Level 1 trigger system during this time will include improvements for both the muon and calorimeter triggers. These include the upgrade of the first-level Endcap Muon trigger, the calorimeter trigger electronics and the addition of new calorimeter feature extractor hardware, such as the Global Feature Extractor (gFEX). An overview will be given on the design and development status the aforementioned systems, along with the latest testing and validation results. \\\\ By 2026, the High Luminosity LHC will be able to deliver 14 TeV collisions ...

  5. Upgrading Licensed Practical Nurse to Registered Nurse Program, September 1971 - June 1973. Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Sally

    Twenty Licensed Practical Nurses (LPN) became Registered Nurses (RN) in a pilot program giving partial academic credit for their LPN training and building on their existing skills. The program revolved around three needs: (1) trained nurses; (2) eliminating the notion that jobs were dead-end; and (3) achieving upward mobility for hospital staff.…

  6. Progress with the single-sided module prototype for the ATLAS tracker upgrade server

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allport, P.P.; et al., [Unknown; Colijn, A.P.; Hessey, N.P.; Koffeman, E.

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is preparing for the planned luminosity upgrade of the LHC (the super-luminous LHC or sLHC) with a programme of development for tracking able to withstand an order of greater magnitude radiation fluence and much greater hit occupancy rates than the current detector. This has led

  7. The LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The LHC will use the latest technologies on an enormous scale. 8000 superconducting magnets will keep the beams on track. The entire 27 km ring will be cooled by 700 000 litres of liquid helium to a temperature of -271 degrees Celsius , making the LHC the world's largest superconducting installation. Conventional superconducting wire will form the magnet coils, while high-temperature superconductors will carry a total of 2 300 000 amperes from the power supplies into the magnet cryostat

  8. LHC magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Preparations for the LHC proton collider to be built in CERN's LEP tunnel continue to make good progress. In particular development work for the high field superconducting magnets to guide the almost 8 TeVproton beams through the 'tight' curve of the 27-kilometre ring are proceeding well, while the magnet designs and lattice configuration are evolving in the light of ongoing experience. At the Evian LHC Experiments meeting, this progress was covered by Giorgio Brianti

  9. LHCb PID Upgrade Technical Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    LHCb Collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb upgrade will take place in the second long shutdown of the LHC, currently scheduled to begin in 2018. The upgrade will enable the experiment to run at luminosities of $2 \\times 10^{33}cm^{-2}s^{-1}$ and will read out data at a rate of 40MHz into a exible software-based trigger. All sub-detectors of LHCb will be re-designed to comply with these new operating conditions. This Technical Design Report presents the upgrade plans of the Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) system, the calorimeter system and the muon system, which together provide the particle identication capabilities of the experiment.

  10. LHCb VELO upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennessy, Karol

    2017-02-11

    The upgrade of the LHCb experiment, scheduled for LHC Run-III, scheduled to start in 2021, will transform the experiment to a trigger-less system reading out the full detector at 40 MHz event rate. All data reduction algorithms will be executed in a high-level software farm enabling the detector to run at luminosities of 2×10{sup 33} cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}. The Vertex Locator (VELO) is the silicon vertex detector surrounding the interaction region. The current detector will be replaced with a hybrid pixel system equipped with electronics capable of reading out at 40 MHz. The upgraded VELO will provide fast pattern recognition and track reconstruction to the software trigger. The silicon pixel sensors have 55×55 μm{sup 2} pitch, and are read out by the VeloPix ASIC, from the Timepix/Medipix family. The hottest region will have pixel hit rates of 900 Mhits/s yielding a total data rate of more than 3 Tbit/s for the upgraded VELO. The detector modules are located in a separate vacuum, separated from the beam vacuum by a thin custom made foil. The foil will be manufactured through milling and possibly thinned further by chemical etching. The material budget will be minimised by the use of evaporative CO{sub 2} coolant circulating in microchannels within 400 μm thick silicon substrates. The current status of the VELO upgrade is described and latest results from operation of irradiated sensor assemblies are presented.

  11. SPACE 365: Upgraded App for Aviation and Space-Related Information and Program Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S.; Maples, J. E.; Castle, C. E.

    2014-12-01

    Foreknowledge of upcoming events and anniversary dates can be extraordinarily valuable in the planning and preparation of a variety of aviation and Space-related educational programming. Alignment of programming with items "newsworthy" enough to attract media attention on their own can result in effective program promotion at low/no cost. Similarly, awareness and avoidance of dates upon which media and public attention will likely be elsewhere can keep programs from being lost in the noise.NASA has created a useful and entertaining app called "SPACE 365" to help supply that foreknowledge. The app contains an extensive database of historical aviation and Space exploration-related events, along with other events and birthdays to provide socio-historical context, as well as an extensive file of present and future space missions, complete with images and videos. The user can search by entry topic category, date, and key words. Upcoming Events allows the user to plan, participate, and engage in significant "don't miss" happenings.The historical database was originally developed for use at the National Air and Space Museum, then expanded significantly to include more NASA-related information. The CIMA team at NASA MSFC, sponsored by the Planetary Science Division, added NASA current events and NASA educational programming information, and are continually adding new information and improving the functionality and features of the app. Features of SPACE 365 now include: NASA Image of the Day, Upcoming NASA Events, Event Save, Do Not Miss, and Ask Dr. Steve functions, and the CIMA team recently added a new start page and added improved search and navigation capabilities. App users can now socialize the Images of the Day via Twitter, Pinterest, Facebook, and other social media outlets.SPACE 365 is available at no cost from both the Apple appstore and GooglePlay, and has helped NASA, NASM, and other educators plan and schedule programming events. It could help you, too!

  12. LHC(ATLAS, CMS, LHCb) Run 2 commissioning status

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, Stephanie; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    After a very successful run-1, the LHC accelerator and the LHC experiments had undergone intensive consolidation, maintenance and upgrade activities during the last 2 years in what has become known as Long-Shutdown-1 (LS1). LS1 ended in February this year, with beams back in the LHC since Easter. This talk will give a summary on the major shutdown activities of ATLAS, CMS and LHCb and review the status of commissioning for run-2 physics data taking.

  13. HL-LHC updates in Japan

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    At a recent meeting in Japan, updates on the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project were presented, including the progress made so far and the deadlines still to be met for the upgraded machine to be operational from 2020.   New magnets made with advanced superconductor Nb3Sn in the framework of the HL-LHC project. These magnets are currently under construction at CERN by the TE-MSC group. The LHC is the world’s most powerful particle accelerator, and in 2015 it will reach yet another new record for the energy of its colliding beams. One key factor of its discovery potential is its ability to produce collisions described in mathematical terms by the parameter known as “luminosity”. In 2025, the HL-LHC project will allow the total number of collisions in the LHC to increase by a factor of 10. The first step in this rich upgrade programme is the delivery of the Preliminary Design Report (PDR), which is also a key milestone of the HiLumi LHC Design Study partly fund...

  14. Readout of the upgraded ALICE-ITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepankiewicz, A.; ALICE Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The ALICE experiment will undergo a major upgrade during the second long shutdown of the CERN LHC. As part of this program, the present Inner Tracking System (ITS), which employs different layers of hybrid pixels, silicon drift and strip detectors, will be replaced by a completely new tracker composed of seven layers of monolithic active pixel sensors. The upgraded ITS will have more than twelve billion pixels in total, producing 300 Gbit/s of data when tracking 50 kHz Pb-Pb events. Two families of pixel chips realized with the TowerJazz CMOS imaging process have been developed as candidate sensors: the ALPIDE, which uses a proprietary readout and sparsification mechanism and the MISTRAL-O, based on a proven rolling shutter architecture. Both chips can operate in continuous mode, with the ALPIDE also supporting triggered operations. As the communication IP blocks are shared among the two chip families, it has been possible to develop a common Readout Electronics. All the sensor components (analog stages, state machines, buffers, FIFOs, etc.) have been modelled in a system level simulation, which has been extensively used to optimize both the sensor and the whole readout chain design in an iterative process. This contribution covers the progress of the R&D efforts and the overall expected performance of the ALICE-ITS readout system.

  15. Readout of the upgraded ALICE-ITS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczepankiewicz, A.

    2016-01-01

    The ALICE experiment will undergo a major upgrade during the second long shutdown of the CERN LHC. As part of this program, the present Inner Tracking System (ITS), which employs different layers of hybrid pixels, silicon drift and strip detectors, will be replaced by a completely new tracker composed of seven layers of monolithic active pixel sensors. The upgraded ITS will have more than twelve billion pixels in total, producing 300 Gbit/s of data when tracking 50 kHz Pb–Pb events. Two families of pixel chips realized with the TowerJazz CMOS imaging process have been developed as candidate sensors: the ALPIDE, which uses a proprietary readout and sparsification mechanism and the MISTRAL-O, based on a proven rolling shutter architecture. Both chips can operate in continuous mode, with the ALPIDE also supporting triggered operations. As the communication IP blocks are shared among the two chip families, it has been possible to develop a common Readout Electronics. All the sensor components (analog stages, state machines, buffers, FIFOs, etc.) have been modelled in a system level simulation, which has been extensively used to optimize both the sensor and the whole readout chain design in an iterative process. This contribution covers the progress of the R&D efforts and the overall expected performance of the ALICE-ITS readout system.

  16. Readout of the upgraded ALICE-ITS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczepankiewicz, A., E-mail: Adam.Szczepankiewicz@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Institute of Computer Science, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-07-11

    The ALICE experiment will undergo a major upgrade during the second long shutdown of the CERN LHC. As part of this program, the present Inner Tracking System (ITS), which employs different layers of hybrid pixels, silicon drift and strip detectors, will be replaced by a completely new tracker composed of seven layers of monolithic active pixel sensors. The upgraded ITS will have more than twelve billion pixels in total, producing 300 Gbit/s of data when tracking 50 kHz Pb–Pb events. Two families of pixel chips realized with the TowerJazz CMOS imaging process have been developed as candidate sensors: the ALPIDE, which uses a proprietary readout and sparsification mechanism and the MISTRAL-O, based on a proven rolling shutter architecture. Both chips can operate in continuous mode, with the ALPIDE also supporting triggered operations. As the communication IP blocks are shared among the two chip families, it has been possible to develop a common Readout Electronics. All the sensor components (analog stages, state machines, buffers, FIFOs, etc.) have been modelled in a system level simulation, which has been extensively used to optimize both the sensor and the whole readout chain design in an iterative process. This contribution covers the progress of the R&D efforts and the overall expected performance of the ALICE-ITS readout system.

  17. HL-LHC parameter space and scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruning, O.S.

    2012-01-01

    The HL-LHC project aims at a total integrated luminosity of approximately 3000 fb -1 over the lifetime of the HL-LHC. Assuming an exploitation period of ca. 10 years this goal implies an annual integrated luminosity of approximately 200 fb -1 to 300 fb -1 per year. This paper looks at potential beam parameters that are compatible with the HL-LHC performance goals and discusses briefly potential variation in the parameter space. It is shown that the design goal of the HL-LHC project can only be achieved with a full upgrade of the injector complex and the operation with β* values close to 0.15 m. Significant margins for leveling can be achieved for β* values close to 0.15 m. However, these margins can only be harvested during the HL-LHC operation if the required leveling techniques have been demonstrated in operation

  18. Application of the SQUG-GIP to the seismic upgrade program of the Savannah River reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antaki, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    In August 1991, the Savannah River Site (SRS) seismic evaluation program using the Generic Implementation Procedure (GIP) celebrated its third anniversary-a respectable age for such a new methodology. During these three years, the GIP, developed for the commercial nuclear industry's Seismic Qualification Utility Group (SQUG), had evolved through Revision 01, Revision 1, Revision 2 and a Revision 2 open-quotes updateclose quotes which is currently in the works. This evolution is not surprising for such an important, and in many ways pioneering, document. The various revisions were anticipated at SRS, and the program adjusted accordingly. The verification of seismic adequacy of equipment at the SRS nuclear reactors has been outlined in previous publications. The purpose of this paper is to relate the more practical and managerial aspects of our relatively mature SQUG-GIP implementation program, which will hopefully prove useful to future users of the GIP. This report is divided into four sections, which follow the normal flow of work under GIP: (1) Program Prerequisites; (2) Definition of Scope; (3) Equipment Evaluations; and (4) Resolution of Outliers

  19. Calibration techniques and strategies for the present and future LHC electromagnetic calorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksa, M.

    2018-02-01

    This document describes the different calibration strategies and techniques applied by the two general purpose experiments at the LHC, ATLAS and CMS, and discusses them underlining their respective strengths and weaknesses from the view of the author. The resulting performances of both calorimeters are described and compared on the basis of selected physics results. Future upgrade plans for High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) are briefly introduced and planned calibration strategies for the upgraded detectors are shown.

  20. Overview of the Calorimeter Readout Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Straessner, Arno; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS and CMS calorimeter electronics will be upgraded for the HL-LHC data taking phase to cope with higher event pile-up and to allow improved trigger strategies. This presentations gives an overview of the ongoing developments for the CMS barrel calorimeters and the ATLAS LAr and Tile calorimeters.

  1. LHC-ILC synergy

    CERN Document Server

    Godbole, Rohini M

    2006-01-01

    I will begin by making a few general comments on the synergy between the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which will go in action in 2007 and the International Linear Collider (ILC) which is under planning. I will then focus on the synergy between the LHC and the PLC option at the ILC, which is expected to be realised in the later stages of the ILC program. In this I will cover the possible synergy in the Higgs sector (with and without CP violation), in the determination of the anomalous vector boson couplings and last but not the least, in the search for extra dimensions and radions.

  2. The ALICE Central Trigger Processor (CTP) upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivda, M.; Alexandre, D.; Barnby, L.S.; Evans, D.; Jones, P.G.; Jusko, A.; Lietava, R.; Baillie, O. Villalobos; Pospíšil, J.

    2016-01-01

    The ALICE Central Trigger Processor (CTP) at the CERN LHC has been upgraded for LHC Run 2, to improve the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) data-taking efficiency and to improve the physics performance of ALICE. There is a new additional CTP interaction record sent using a new second Detector Data Link (DDL), a 2 GB DDR3 memory and an extension of functionality for classes. The CTP switch has been incorporated directly onto the new LM0 board. A design proposal for an ALICE CTP upgrade for LHC Run 3 is also presented. Part of the development is a low latency high bandwidth interface whose purpose is to minimize an overall trigger latency

  3. AGS intensity upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1995-01-01

    After the successful completion of the AGS Booster and several upgrades of the AGS, a new intensity record of 6.3 x 10 13 protons per pulse accelerated to 24 GeV was achieved. The high intensity slow-extracted beam program at the AGS typically serves about five production targets and about eight experiments including three rare Kaon decay experiments. Further intensity upgrades are being discussed that could increase the average delivered beam intensity by up to a factor of four

  4. Physics at LHC and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The topics addressed during this Conference are as follows. ---An overview of the legacy results of the LHC experiments with 7 and 8 TeV data on Standard Model physics, Scalar sector and searches for New Physics. ---A discussion of the readiness of the CMS, ATLAS, and LHCb experiments for the forthcoming high-energy run and status of the detector upgrades ---A review of the most up-to-date theory outcome on cross-sections and uncertainties, phenomenology of the scalar sector, constraints and portals for new physics. ---The presentation of the improvements and of the expected sensibilities for the Run 2 of the LHC at 13 TeV and beyond. ---A comparison of the relative scientific merits of the future projects for hadron and e+e- colliders (HL-LHC, HE-LHC, ILC, CLIC, TLEP, VHE-LHC) towards precision measurements of the Scalar boson properties and of the Electroweak-Symmetry-Breaking parameters, and towards direct searches for New Physics.

  5. Thes - Website for Thermal Shields Upgrade Management

    CERN Document Server

    Micula, Adina

    2013-01-01

    There are a total of 1695 thermal shields (TS) in the interconnections between the superconducting magnets. During LHC Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) all of these TS are being upgraded with a new fixation design. This procedure involves the transport of all the TS from LHC to a workshop on the surface where they are being modified and the subsequent transport of the upgraded TS back to the tunnel where they are laid on the cryostats and await the closure of the interconnection. These operations have to be carefully coordinated in order to ensure that there are always enough modified TS to satisfy the demand in the tunnel and respect the time constraint imposed by the schedule of LS1. As part of my summer project, I developed a database driven website whose aim is to enable the TS upgrade monitoring.

  6. Heavy ion operation from run 2 to HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Jowett, J M; Versteegen, R

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear collision programme of the LHC will continue with Pb-Pb and p-Pb collisions in Run 2 and beyond. Extrapolating from the performance at lower energies in Run 1, it is already clear that Run 2 will substantially exceed design performance. Beyond that, future high-luminosity heavy ion operation of LHC depends on a somewhat different set of (more modest) upgrades to the collider and its injectors from p-p. The high-luminosity phase will start sooner, in Run 3, when necessary upgrades to detectors should be completed. It follows that the upgrades for heavy-ion operation need high priority in LS2.

  7. Radiation protection issues after 20 years of LHC operation

    CERN Document Server

    Forkel-Wirth, D.; Roesler, S.; Theis, C.; Ulrici, L.; Vincke, H.; Vincke, Hz.

    2011-01-01

    Since November 2009, the LHC commissioning progresses very well, both with proton and lead beams. It will continue in 2011 and nominal LHC operation is expected to be attained in 2013. In parallel, plans for various LHC upgrades are under discussion, suggesting a High-Luminosity (HL) upgrade first and a High-Energy (HE) upgrade in a later state. Whereas the upgrade in luminosity would require the modification of only some few key accelerator components like the inner triplets, the upgrade in beam energy from 7 TeV to 16.5 TeV would require the exchange of all dipoles and of numerous other accelerator components. The paper gives an overview of the radiation protection issues related to the dismantling of LHC components prior to the installation of the HE-LHC components, i.e. after about 20 years of LHC operation. Two main topics will be discussed: (i) the exposure of workers to ionizing radiation during the dismantling of dipoles, inner triplets or collimators and experiments and (ii) the production, condition...

  8. Physics Prospects at the HL-LHC with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Duncan, Anna Kathryn; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The High-Luminosity LHC aims to provide a total integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1 from p-p collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 14 TeV over the course of $\\sim$ 10 years, reaching instantaneous luminosities of up to L = 7.5 $\\times$ 1034cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$, corresponding to an average ($\\mu$) of 200 inelastic p-p collisions per bunch crossing. The upgraded ATLAS detector must be able to cope well with increased occupancies and data rates. The performance of the upgrade has been estimated in full simulation studies, assuming expected HL-LHC conditions and a detector configuration intended to maximise physics performance and discovery potential at the HL-LHC. The performance is expected to be similar to what we have now. Simulation studies have been carried out to evaluate the prospects of various benchmark physics analyses to be performed using the upgraded ATLAS detector with the full HL-LHC dataset.

  9. An IMPI-compliant control system for the ATLAS TileCal Phase II Upgrade PreProcessor module

    CERN Document Server

    Zuccarello, Pedro Diego; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    TileCal is the Tile hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The LHC upgrade program, currently under development, will culminate in the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), which is expected to increase about five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity. The readout electronics of the Tile calorimenter being redesigned introducing a new read-out strategy in order to accommodate the detector to the new HL-LHC parameters. The data generated inside the detector at every bunch crossing will be transmitted to the PreProcessor (PPR) boards before any event selection is applied. The PPRs will be located at off-detector sites. The PPR will be responsible of providing preprocessed trigger information to the ATLAS first level of trigger (L1). In overall it will represent the interface between the data acquisition, trigger and control systems and the on-detector electronics. The PPR, being an important part of the readout system, needs to be remotely accessed and monitored to prevent failures or, in cas...

  10. PSI: Upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The accelerator complex at the Paul Scherrer Institute in Villigen near Zurich (PSI - formed in 1988 by combining the Federal Institute for Reactor Research and the Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research) is in the throes of a major and lengthy upgrade

  11. PSI: Upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1992-09-15

    The accelerator complex at the Paul Scherrer Institute in Villigen near Zurich (PSI - formed in 1988 by combining the Federal Institute for Reactor Research and the Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research) is in the throes of a major and lengthy upgrade.

  12. Search for heavy lepton resonances decaying to a Z boson and a lepton in proton-proton collisions at √(s)=8 TeV with the ATLAS detector and investigations of radiation tolerant silicon-strip detectors for the high-luminosity LHC upgrade of the ATLAS inner detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiik-Fuchs, Liv

    2017-03-09

    The success of particle physics experiments, like those at the Large Hardon Collider (LHC) at CERN, relies on a worldwide interdisciplinary collaboration in a variety of different fields. This thesis contributes to two vital aspects in this area of research:in the first part of a search for heavy trilepton resonances decaying to a Z boson and an electron or muon is presented, while the second part focusses on research and development of radiation tolerant silicon tracking detectors designed for the upgrade of the ATLAS detector for the future luminosity upgrade of the LHC. The search for trilepton resonances is based on pp collision data taken at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb{sup -1}. To reconstruct the narrow resonance, events with at least three leptons (electrons or muons) with a high-transverse momentum are selected. Two of these leptons are required to be consistent with originating from a Z boson decay. Since no significant excess above Standard Model background predictions is observed, 95% confidence level upper limits on the production cross section of trilepton resonances beyond the Standard Model are derived. The results of this analysis are interpreted in the context of vector-like lepton and type-III seesaw models. For the vector-like lepton model, most heavy lepton mass values in the range 113-176 GeV are excluded. For the type-III seesaw model, most mass values in the range 100-474 GeV are excluded. The second part of this thesis focusses on the development of radiation-tolerant silicon strip detectors for the luminosity upgrade of the ATLAS detector envisaged to commence in the year 2016. This thesis includes the results of several studies which contribute to multiple key aspects required for a successful upgrade of the silicon strip detector of the ATLAS Inner Tracker. Among these are the results of a beam test providing the first comparative results between

  13. Search for heavy lepton resonances decaying to a Z boson and a lepton in proton-proton collisions at √(s)=8 TeV with the ATLAS detector and investigations of radiation tolerant silicon-strip detectors for the high-luminosity LHC upgrade of the ATLAS inner detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiik-Fuchs, Liv

    2017-01-01

    The success of particle physics experiments, like those at the Large Hardon Collider (LHC) at CERN, relies on a worldwide interdisciplinary collaboration in a variety of different fields. This thesis contributes to two vital aspects in this area of research:in the first part of a search for heavy trilepton resonances decaying to a Z boson and an electron or muon is presented, while the second part focusses on research and development of radiation tolerant silicon tracking detectors designed for the upgrade of the ATLAS detector for the future luminosity upgrade of the LHC. The search for trilepton resonances is based on pp collision data taken at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb"-"1. To reconstruct the narrow resonance, events with at least three leptons (electrons or muons) with a high-transverse momentum are selected. Two of these leptons are required to be consistent with originating from a Z boson decay. Since no significant excess above Standard Model background predictions is observed, 95% confidence level upper limits on the production cross section of trilepton resonances beyond the Standard Model are derived. The results of this analysis are interpreted in the context of vector-like lepton and type-III seesaw models. For the vector-like lepton model, most heavy lepton mass values in the range 113-176 GeV are excluded. For the type-III seesaw model, most mass values in the range 100-474 GeV are excluded. The second part of this thesis focusses on the development of radiation-tolerant silicon strip detectors for the luminosity upgrade of the ATLAS detector envisaged to commence in the year 2016. This thesis includes the results of several studies which contribute to multiple key aspects required for a successful upgrade of the silicon strip detector of the ATLAS Inner Tracker. Among these are the results of a beam test providing the first comparative results between

  14. Long-range and head-on beam-beam compensation studies in RHIC with lessons for the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, W.; Luo, Y.; Abreu, N.; Calaga, R.; Montag, C.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Dorda, U.; Koutchouk, J.-P.; Sterbini, G.; Zimmermann, F.; Kim, H.-J.; Sen, T.; Shiltsev, V.; Valishev, A.; Qiang, J.; Kabel, A.

    2009-01-01

    Long-range as well as head-on beam-beam effects are expected to limit the LHC performance with design parameters. They are also important consideration for the LHC upgrades. To mitigate long-range effects, current carrying wires parallel to the beam were proposed. Two such wires are installed in RHIC where they allow studying the effect of strong long-range beam-beam effects, as well as the compensation of a single long-range interaction. The tests provide benchmark data for simulations and analytical treatments. Electron lenses were proposed for both RHIC and the LHC to reduce the head-on beam-beam effect. We present the experimental long-range beam-beam program at RHIC and report on head-on compensations studies based on simulations

  15. Introduction to the HL-LHC Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, L.; Brüning, O.

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is one of largest scientific instruments ever built. It has been exploring the new energy frontier since 2010, gathering a global user community of 7,000 scientists. To extend its discovery potential, the LHC will need a major upgrade in the 2020s to increase its luminosity (rate of collisions) by a factor of five beyond its design value and the integrated luminosity by a factor of ten. As a highly complex and optimized machine, such an upgrade of the LHC must be carefully studied and requires about ten years to implement. The novel machine configuration, called High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), will rely on a number of key innovative technologies, representing exceptional technological challenges, such as cutting-edge 11-12 tesla superconducting magnets, very compact superconducting cavities for beam rotation with ultra-precise phase control, new technology for beam collimation and 300-meter-long high-power superconducting links with negligible energy dissipation. HL-LHC federates efforts and R&D of a large community in Europe, in the US and in Japan, which will facilitate the implementation of the construction phase as a global project.

  16. Introduction to the HL-LHC Project

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi , L

    2015-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is one of largest scientific instruments ever built. It has been exploring the new energy frontier since 2010, gathering a global user community of 7,000 scientists. To extend its discovery potential, the LHC will need a major upgrade in the 2020s to increase its luminosity (rate of collisions) by a factor of five beyond its design value and the integrated luminosity by a factor of ten. As a highly complex and optimized machine, such an upgrade of the LHC must be carefully studied and requires about ten years to implement. The novel machine configuration, called High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), will rely on a number of key innovative technologies, representing exceptional technological challenges, such as cutting-edge 11–12 tesla superconducting magnets, very compact superconducting cavities for beam rotation with ultra-precise phase control, new technology for beam collimation and 300-meter-long high-power superconducting links with negligible energy dissipation. HL-LHC federa...

  17. LHC milestone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    At the December meeting of CERN's Council, the Organization's Governing Body, the delegates from the 16 Member States unanimously agreed that the LHC proton-proton collider proposed for the 27-kilometre LEP tunnel is the 'right machine for the advance of the subject and of the future of CERN'

  18. LHC Create

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    LHC Create is an upcoming 2-day workshop held at IdeaSquare in November. Participants from CERN and IPAC school of design will compete to design an exhibit that explains why CERN does what it does. The winner will have their exhibit fully realised and made available to experiments, institutes, and tourism agencies around the world.

  19. LHC Supertable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, M.; Lahey, T.E.; Lamont, M.; Mueller, G.J.; Teixeira, D.D.; McCrory, E.S.

    2012-01-01

    LHC operations generate enormous amounts of data. This data is being stored in many different databases. Hence, it is difficult for operators, physicists, engineers and management to have a clear view on the overall accelerator performance. Until recently the logging database, through its desktop interface TIMBER, was the only way of retrieving information on a fill-by-fill basis. The LHC Supertable has been developed to provide a summary of key LHC performance parameters in a clear, consistent and comprehensive format. The columns in this table represent main parameters that describe the collider operation such as luminosity, beam intensity, emittance, etc. The data is organized in a tabular fill-by-fill manner with different levels of detail. Particular emphasis was placed on data sharing by making data available in various open formats. Typically the contents are calculated for periods of time that map to the accelerator's states or beam modes such as Injection, Stable Beams, etc. Data retrieval and calculation is triggered automatically after the end of each fill. The LHC Supertable project currently publishes 80 columns of data on around 100 fills. (authors)

  20. QPS/LHC Activities requiring important Tunnel Work During a future long Shutdown

    CERN Document Server

    Dahlerup-Petersen, K

    2011-01-01

    The MPE/circuit protection section is presently establishing a road map for its future LHC activities. The tasks comprise essential consolidation work, compulsory upgrades and extensions of existing machine facilities. The results of a first round of engineering exertion were presented and evaluated at a MPE activity review in December 2010. The technical and financial aspects of this program will be detailed in the ‘QPS Medium and Long-Term Improvement Plan’, to be published shortly. The QPS activities in the LHC tunnel during a future, long shutdown are closely related to this improvement chart. A project-package based program for the interventions has been established and will be presented in this report, together with estimates for the associated human and financial resources necessary for its implementation.