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Sample records for lf pe cvd

  1. AFM Morphology Study of Si1-Y GeY:H Films Deposited by LF PE CVD from Silane-Germane with Different

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, L; Kosarev, A

    2005-03-28

    The morphology of Si{sub 1-Y} Ge{sub Y}:H films in the range of Y=0.23 to 0.9 has been studied by AFM. The films were deposited by Low Frequency (LF) PE CVD at substrate temperature T{sub s}=300 C and discharge frequency f=110 kHz from silane+germane mixture with and without, Ar and H{sub 2} dilution. The films were deposited on silicon and glass substrates. AFM images were taken and analyzed for 2 x 2 mm{sup 2} area. All the images demonstrated ''grain'' like structure, which was characterized by the height distribution function F(H) average roughness , standard height deviation Rq, lateral correlation length L{sub c} area distribution function F(s), mean grain area , diameter distribution function F(d), and mean grain diameter . The roughness of the films monotonically increases with Y for all dilutions, but more significantly in the films deposited without dilution. L{sub c} continuously grows with Y in the films deposited without dilution, while more complex behavior L{sub c}(Y) is observed in the films deposited with H- or Ar dilution. The sharpness of F(H) characterized by curtosis {gamma} depends on dilution and the sharpest F(H) are for the films deposited with Ar ({gamma}=5.30,Y=0.23) and without dilution ({gamma}=4.3, Y=0.45). Isothermal annealing caused increase of , L{sub c} in the films deposited with H- and Ar dilutions, while in the films prepared without dilution the behavior was more complex, depending on the substrates. Significant narrowing of the height distribution was observed in the films deposited with H dilution or without dilution.

  2. PE-CVD fabrication of germanium nanoclusters for memory applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerkop, T. [Institut fuer Materialien und Bauelemente der Elektronik, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Appelstrasse 11a, 30167 Hannover (Germany)], E-mail: duerkop@mbe.uni-hannover.de; Bugiel, E. [Institut fuer Materialien und Bauelemente der Elektronik, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Appelstrasse 11a, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Costina, I. [IHP GmbH, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany); Ott, A.; Peibst, R.; Hofmann, K.R. [Institut fuer Materialien und Bauelemente der Elektronik, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Appelstrasse 11a, 30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2008-02-15

    We have investigated Ge nanoclusters (Ge-NC) embedded in silicon dioxide, whose fundamental properties promise improved characteristics in NC flash memory devices as compared to Si nanoclusters. We present a simple new method, based on plasma-enhanced CVD (PE-CVD) deposition of amorphous Ge (a-Ge) onto SiO{sub 2}, to create gate stacks with embedded Ge-NC at vertically well-controlled positions suitable for use in flash memory devices. This process minimizes the exposure of Ge to environmental influences by depositing a-Ge as well as a SiO{sub 2} cap layer in situ within the same deposition chamber. Subsequent high-temperature anneals compatible with the temperature budget of CMOS processing are used for the actual cluster formation. Variation of annealing temperature and duration of this step as well as the thickness of the initial Ge layer controls the average cluster radius and density, as determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Measurements of electrical properties show the capability of samples with NC to store charge.

  3. Synthesis of crystalline Ge nanoclusters in PE-CVD-deposited SiO2 films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leervad Pedersen, T.P.; Skov Jensen, J.; Chevallier, J.

    2005-01-01

    The synthesis of evenly distributed Ge nanoclusters in plasma-enhanced chemical-vapour-deposited (PE-CVD) SiO2 thin films containing 8 at. % Ge is reported. This is of importance for the application of nanoclusters in semiconductor technology. The average diameter of the Ge nanoclusters can...

  4. Synthesis of Few-Layer Graphene Using DC PE-CVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Hyuk; Castro, Edward Joseph D.; Hwang, Yong Gyoo; Lee, Choong Hun

    2011-12-01

    Few layer graphene (FLG) had been successfully grown on polycrystalline Ni films or foils on a large scale using DC Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (DC PE-CVD) as a result of the Raman spectra drawn out of the sample. The size of graphene films is dependent on the area of the Ni film as well as the DC PE-CVD chamber size. Synthesis time has an effect on the quality of graphene produced. However, further analysis and experiments must be pursued to further identify the optimum settings and conditions of producing better quality graphene. Applied plasma voltage on the other hand, had an influence on the minimization of defects in the graphene grown. It has also presented a method of producing a free standing PMMA/graphene membrane on a FeCl3(aq) solution which could then be transferred to a desired substrate.

  5. Simultaneous synthesis of nanodiamonds and graphene via plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MW PE-CVD) on copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Steven; Wöhrl, Nicolas; Schulz, Stephan; Buck, Volker

    2016-01-01

    The simultaneous growth of both nanodiamonds and graphene on copper samples is described for the first time. A PE-CVD process is used to synthesize graphene layers and nanodiamond clusters from a hydrogen/methane gas mixture as it is typically done successfully in thermal CVD processes for graphene synthesis. However, the standard thermal CVD process is not without problems since the deposition of graphene is affected by the evaporation of a notable amount of copper caused by the slow temperature increase typical for thermal CVD resulting in a long process time. In sharp contrast, the synthesis of graphene by PE-CVD can circumvent this problem by substantially shortening the process time at holding out the prospect of a lower substrate temperature. The reduced thermal load and the possibility to industrially scale-up the PE-CVD process makes it a very attractive alternative to the thermal CVD process with respect to the graphene production in the future. Nanodiamonds are synthesized in PE-CVD reactors for a long time because these processes offer a high degree of control over the film's nanostructure and simultaneously providing a significant high deposition rate. To model the co-deposition process, the three relevant macroscopic parameters (pressure, gas mixture and microwave power) are correlated with three relevant process properties (plasma ball size, substrate temperature and C2/Hα-ratio) and the influence on the quality of the deposited carbon allotropes is investigated. For the evaluation of the graphene as well as the nanodiamond quality, Raman spectroscopy used whereas the plasma properties are measured by optical methods. It is found that the diamond nucleation can be influenced by the C2/Hα-ratio in the plasma, while the graphene quality remains mostly unchanged by this parameter. Moreover it is derived from the experimental data that the direct plasma contact with the copper surface is beneficial for the nucleation of the diamond while the growth and

  6. Transport mechanisms through PE-CVD coatings: influence of temperature, coating properties and defects on permeation of water vapour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchheim, Dennis; Jaritz, Montgomery; Mitschker, Felix; Gebhard, Maximilian; Brochhagen, Markus; Hopmann, Christian; Böke, Marc; Devi, Anjana; Awakowicz, Peter; Dahlmann, Rainer

    2017-03-01

    Gas transport mechanisms through plastics are usually described by the temperature-dependent Arrhenius-model and compositions of several plastic layers are represented by the CLT. When it comes to thin films such as plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PE-CVD) or plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) coatings on substrates of polymeric material, a universal model is lacking. While existing models describe diffusion through defects, these models presume that permeation does not occur by other means of transport mechanisms. This paper correlates the existing transport models with data from water vapour transmission experiments.

  7. The life-cycle environmental impacts of etching silicon wafers and (PE)CVD chamber cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schottler, M. [M and W Zander FE, Stuttgart (Germany); De Wild-Scholten, M.J. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-09-15

    Fluorinated gases are used by the semiconductor and photovoltaic industry for etching silicon wafers and (PE)CVD chamber cleaning. The desired result is due to F atoms and other reactive species, but the emission of the undecomposed PFC (perfluorinated) gases is unwanted because they have a high global warming effect and high atmospheric life-time. In this study a full life-cycle assessment is used in order to (1) compare the environmental impacts of the different technologies and (2) to indicate improvement options. The steps in the life cycle are the following: synthesis of the compounds, transportation, distribution in the fab (connection of cylinders), use in the process, abatement to destroy the unreacted gases and take-back of cylinders. Emissions from each step can be direct (from emission of the fluorinated gases) or indirect (from energy use). Results, partly based on best guesses, indicate that fugitive emissions of the fluorinated gases during synthesis, downtime of abatement system and cleaning of the not completely empty cylinders dominate the life-cycle global warming effect. This means that the global warming effect of the gas itself determines the effect being the highest for SF6. F2 turns out to be clearly in advantage over the other fluorinated compounds because it has a global warming potential of zero with moderate efforts for synthesis. Possible improvement options to minimize the use and emission of fluorinated gas are (1) strict procedure for connection of cylinders, (2) complete usage or reliable abatement of the gas from the bottle, (3) the recovery or reliable abatement of unused gases from the process and (4) end-point detection of the process.

  8. Silicon-Germanium Films Deposited by Low Frequency PE CVD: Effect of H2 and Ar Dilution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosarev, A; Torres, A; Hernandez, Y; Ambrosio, R; Zuniga, C; Felter, T E; Asomoza, R R; Kudriavtsev, Y; Silva-Gonzalez, R; Gomez-Barojas, E; Ilinski, A; Abramov, A S

    2005-09-22

    We have studied structure and electrical properties of Si{sub 1-Y}Ge{sub Y}:H films deposited by low frequency PE CVD over the entire composition range from Y=0 to Y=1. The deposition rate of the films and their structural and electrical properties were measured for various ratios of the germane/silane feed gases and with and without dilution by Ar and by H{sub 2}. Structure and composition was studied by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Surface morphology was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). We found: (1) The deposition rate increased with Y maximizing at Y=1 without dilution. (2) The relative rate of Ge and Si incorporation is affected by dilution. (3) Hydrogen preferentially bonds to silicon. (4) Hydrogen content decreases for increasing Y. In addition, optical measurements showed that as Y goes for 0 to 1, the Fermi level moves from mid gap to the conduction band edge, i.e. the films become more n-type. No correlation was found between the pre-exponential and the activation energy of conductivity. The behavior of the conductivity {gamma}-factor suggests a local minimum in the density of states at E {approx} 0.33 eV for the films grown with or without H-dilution and E {approx} 0.25 eV for the films with Ar dilution.

  9. Synthesis of few-layer graphene on a Ni substrate by using DC plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PE-CVD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Hyuk; Castro, Edward Joseph; Hwang, Yong Gyoo; Lee, Choong Hun [Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    In this work, few-layer graphene (FLG) was successfully grown on polycrystalline Ni a large scale by using DC plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (DC PE-CVD), which may serve as an alternative route in large-scale graphene synthesis. The synthesis time had an effect on the quality of the graphene produced. The applied DC voltage, on the other hand, influenced the minimization of the defect densities in the graphene grown. We also present a method of producing a free-standing polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)/graphene membrane on a FeCl{sub 3(aq)} solution, which could then be transferred to the desired substrate.

  10. Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PE-CVD) yields better Hydrolytical Stability of Biocompatible SiOx Thin Films on Implant Alumina Ceramics compared to Rapid Thermal Evaporation Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böke, Frederik; Giner, Ignacio; Keller, Adrian; Grundmeier, Guido; Fischer, Horst

    2016-07-20

    Densely sintered aluminum oxide (α-Al2O3) is chemically and biologically inert. To improve the interaction with biomolecules and cells, its surface has to be modified prior to use in biomedical applications. In this study, we compared two deposition techniques for adhesion promoting SiOx films to facilitate the coupling of stable organosilane monolayers on monolithic α-alumina; physical vapor deposition (PVD) by thermal evaporation and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PE-CVD). We also investigated the influence of etching on the formation of silanol surface groups using hydrogen peroxide and sulfuric acid solutions. The film characteristics, that is, surface morphology and surface chemistry, as well as the film stability and its adhesion properties under accelerated aging conditions were characterized by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), and tensile strength tests. Differences in surface functionalization were investigated via two model organosilanes as well as the cell-cytotoxicity and viability on murine fibroblasts and human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSC). We found that both SiOx interfaces did not affect the cell viability of both cell types. No significant differences between both films with regard to their interfacial tensile strength were detected, although failure mode analyses revealed a higher interfacial stability of the PE-CVD films compared to the PVD films. Twenty-eight day exposure to simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 °C revealed a partial delamination of the thermally deposited PVD films whereas the PE-CVD films stayed largely intact. SiOx layers deposited by both PVD and PE-CVD may thus serve as viable adhesion-promoters for subsequent organosilane coupling agent binding to α-alumina. However, PE-CVD appears to be favorable for long-term direct film exposure to aqueous

  11. Influence of hydrogen dilution on structural, electrical and optical properties of hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) thin films prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PE-CVD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funde, A.M.; Bakr, Nabeel Ali; Kamble, D.K. [School of Energy Studies, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Hawaldar, R.R.; Amalnerkar, D.P. [Center for Materials for Electronics Technology (C-MET), Panchawati, Pune 411 008 (India); Jadkar, S.R. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind Road, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2008-10-15

    Hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) thin films were deposited from pure silane (SiH{sub 4}) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) gas mixture by conventional plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PE-CVD) method at low temperature (200 C) using high rf power. The structural, optical and electrical properties of these films are carefully and systematically investigated as a function of hydrogen dilution of silane (R). Characterization of these films with low angle X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy revealed that the crystallite size in the films tends to decrease and at same time the volume fraction of crystallites increases with increase in R. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis showed at low values of R, the hydrogen is predominantly incorporated in the nc-Si:H films in the mono-hydrogen (Si-H) bonding configuration. However, with increasing R the hydrogen bonding in nc-Si:H films shifts from mono-hydrogen (Si-H) to di-hydrogen (Si-H{sub 2}) and (Si-H{sub 2}){sub n} complexes. The hydrogen content in the nc-Si:H films decreases with increase in R and was found less than 10 at% over the entire studied range of R. On the other hand, the Tauc's optical band gap remains as high as 2 eV or much higher. The quantum size effect may responsible for higher band gap in nc-Si:H films. A correlation between electrical and structural properties has been found. For optimized deposition conditions, nc-Si:H films with crystallite size {proportional_to}7.67 nm having good degree of crystallinity ({proportional_to}84%) and high band gap (2.25 eV) were obtained with a low hydrogen content (6.5 at%). However, for these optimized conditions, the deposition rate was quite small (1.6 Aa/s). (author)

  12. Mechanizing the Metatheory of LF

    CERN Document Server

    Urban, Christian; Berghofer, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    LF is a dependent type theory in which many other formal systems can be conveniently embedded. However, correct use of LF relies on nontrivial metatheoretic developments such as proofs of correctness of decision procedures for LF's judgments. Although detailed informal proofs of these properties have been published, they have not been formally verified in a theorem prover. We have formalized these properties within Isabelle/HOL using the Nominal Datatype Package, closely following a recent article by Harper and Pfenning. In the process, we identified and resolved a gap in one of the proofs and a small number of minor lacunae in others. Besides its intrinsic interest, our formalization provides a foundation for studying the adequacy of LF encodings, the correctness of Twelf-style metatheoretic reasoning, and the metatheory of extensions to LF.

  13. Nystatin LF (Aronex/Abbott).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, S; Rex, J H

    2001-04-01

    Nystatin LF (Nyotran) is a liposomal, intravenous nystatin formulation under development by Aronex, under license from the MD Anderson Cancer Research Center, as a systemic antifungal agent against strains including Aspergillus and Candida. Like amphotericin, nystatin is a polyene derivative that binds to ergosterol, a fungal cell membrane component, creating a pore in the membrane and thus killing the cell. Nystatin is an established antifungal agent, but is restricted to topical use as it is ineffective orally and severely toxic when administered iv [187583], [187589]. It has demonstrated good, broad in vitro antifungal activity against clinically relevant filamentous fungi [319465], including fungi resistant to fluconazole and amphotericin B products [264505], [2869821, [287790], 1289522]. The company is also conducting a phase III trial to evaluate its efficacy against cryptococcal meningitis [305531], [334156]. Aronex filed for approval of nystatin LF in Spain in December 1997 [272986] and expected to file an NDA in the US by the end of 1999 1311208], [342003]. However, in an effort to ensure that its US and European filings contained data from the phase III cryptococcal meningitis trial in its entirety, Aronex's marketing partner requested that all the 70-day data be gathered prior to unblinding this study. The filing had initially been based on interim data at the 14- and 21-day endpoint 1344887]. In September 2000, the company anticipated an NDA filing in the US in the fourth quarter of 2001 1382861], 1387947]. In December 1997, Aronex, together with Grupo Ferrer Internacional, filed an MAA in Spain seeking approval for Nyotran for the treatment of systemic fungal infections. Aronex intended to follow the filing with additional filings in other European countries 1272986]. In 1997, a commercialization agreement was signed with Ferrer for Spain and Portugal, with Aronex intending to form other such partnerships throughout Europe and Asia 1248346]. In

  14. A Practical Module System for LF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Rabe, Florian

    2009-01-01

    morphisms, which provide a semantically transparent module level and permit to represent logic translations as homomorphisms. Modular LF is a conser- vative extension over LF, and integrates an elaboration of modular into core LF signatures. We have implemented our design in the Twelf system and used......Module Systems for proof assistants provide administrative support for large developments when mechanizing the meta-theory of programming languages and logics. In this paper we describe a module system for the logical framework LF. It is based on two main primitives: signatures and signature...... it to modularize large parts of the Twelf example library....

  15. DNA analysis of the genes encoding acidocin LF221 A and acidocin LF221 B, two bacteriocins produced by Lactobacillus gasseri LF221

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majhenič, A.Č.; Venema, K.; Allison, G.E.; Matijašić, B.B.; Rogelj, I.; Klaenhammer, T.R.

    2004-01-01

    Lactobacillus gasseri LF221, an isolate from the feces of a child, produces two bacteriocins. Standard procedures for molecular techniques were used to locate, clone and sequence the fragments of LF221 chromosomal DNA carrying the acidocin LF221 A and B structural genes, respectively. Sequencing ana

  16. DNA analysis of the genes encoding acidocin LF221 A and acidocin LF221 B, two bacteriocins produced by Lactobacillus gasseri LF221

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majhenič, A.Č.; Venema, K.; Allison, G.E.; Matijašić, B.B.; Rogelj, I.; Klaenhammer, T.R.

    2004-01-01

    Lactobacillus gasseri LF221, an isolate from the feces of a child, produces two bacteriocins. Standard procedures for molecular techniques were used to locate, clone and sequence the fragments of LF221 chromosomal DNA carrying the acidocin LF221 A and B structural genes, respectively. Sequencing ana

  17. Developing the Beijing CVD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU JINGXIAN

    2006-01-01

    @@ Slowly but surely, the high-end villa property in Beijing is gaining new momentum. Limited amounts of new properties, rising prices and increasing demand will be the trend in the villa market in 2006, real estate experts predict. Among them, the exclusive Central Villa District(CVD), a top-tier villa area along the Wenyu River in northeast Beijing, has emerged as a hot spot of the market.

  18. PE 100 pipe systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brömstrup, Heiner

    2012-01-01

    English translation of the 3rd edition ""Rohrsysteme aus PE 100"". Because of the considerably increased performance, pipe and pipe systems made from 100 enlarge the range of applications in the sectors of gas and water supply, sewage disposal, industrial pipeline construction and in the reconstruction and redevelopment of defective pipelines (relining). This book applies in particular to engineers, technicians and foremen working in the fields of supply, disposal and industry. Subject matters of the book are all practice-relevant questions regarding the construction, operation and maintenance

  19. Low-Fiend Vector Magnetometer (V-400-LF) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This 2010 NASA SBIR Phase 1 proposal for an innovative Low-Field Vector Magnetometer (V-400-LF) is a response to subtopic S1.06 Particles and Field Sensors and...

  20. 塑料管材PE、PE-RT、PE-X的快速鉴别%Rapid Identification of Plastic Pipe PE, PE-RT, PE-X

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昌财

    2015-01-01

    文章根据PE、PE-RT和PE-X管材的特点,通过红外光谱、耐热性能、熔体质量流动速率(MFR)、交联度、密度与热分级等研究,建立了可快速鉴别该类管材的分析方法.由于PE-X管材的不溶不熔,PE-RT管材的MFR较大,密度较小,且根据热分级测试得出的不同片晶厚度所占的比例不同,能够快速鉴别出塑料管材PE、PE-RT、PE-X,结果准确性高,且周期短.

  1. The European VLF/LF radio network: current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagi, Pier Francesco; Maggipinto, Tommaso; Ermini, A.

    2014-11-01

    For several years researches about correlation between seismicity and disturbances in radio broadcasting are being carried out: in particular, the Japanese Pacific VLF radio network and the European VLF-LF radio network have been developed during the last years. The European network has been developed starting from two LF receivers located in central Italy in 1996. Up to now, 11 receivers of a new type, able to sample the VLF and LF intensity of ten radio signals, are being into operation in different European countries. The daily updating of data is effective and the data bank is located at the Department of Physics of the University of Bari (Italy) which is the central node of the network. In order to discover anomalies, the software able to carry out automatically a daily data analysis by the Wavelet spectra method has been planned and realized. At the moment, the software operates on four signals (two LF and two VLF) collected by one of the receiver located in Italy. If the anomaly is particularly strong a warning system gives an advise on the work station into operation in the central node of the Network. In any case, before assuming an anomaly as a seismic anomaly, geomagnetic and meteorological data must be checked as well as any possible instrumental malfunction. At present these controls are carried out only discontinuously by the researchers of the Bari Team.

  2. Silica-sandwiched Au nanoparticle arrays by a soft PE-CVD/RF sputtering approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreca, Davide [ISTM-CNR and INSTM, Department of Chemistry, Padova University, Via Marzolo, 1-35131 Padova (Italy); Gasparotto, Alberto; Maccato, Chiara; Tondello, Eugenio [Department of Chemistry, Padova University and INSTM, Via Marzolo, 1-35131 Padova (Italy)], E-mail: alberto.gasparotto@unipd.it

    2008-06-25

    This work is focused on the development of an innovative synthetic route to SiO{sub 2}-sandwiched Au nanoparticle arrays. The adopted strategy consists of: (i) the radio frequency sputtering of gold on thermally oxidized Si(100) and silica substrates from Ar plasmas; (ii) the plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of a SiO{sub 2} overlayer using tetramethoxysilane as precursor from Ar-O{sub 2} plasmas. A common feature of both preparative stages is the use of very soft processing conditions at temperatures close to room temperature, in order to tailor the Au nanoparticle morphology and to preserve it upon SiO{sub 2} coverage. In situ monitoring of gold deposition was accomplished by means of laser reflection interferometry. Valuable information on the system morphology before and after SiO{sub 2} coverage was provided by field emission-scanning electron microscopy for samples with different Au content. Additional important information on the system chemical composition, structure and optical response was gained by the combined use of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, glancing incidence x-ray diffraction and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The results obtained highlight the formation of high-purity SiO{sub 2}/Au/SiO{sub 2}-sandwiched stacks, in which the gold content and distribution, as well as the nanoparticle morphology, could be tailored by the sole variation of the sputtering time, without any further ex situ treatment.

  3. FTIR monitoring of industrial scale CVD processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfe, V.; Mosebach, H.; Meyer, M.; Sheel, D.; Grählert, W.; Throl, O.; Dresler, B.

    1998-06-01

    The goal is to improve chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and infiltration (CVI) process control by a multipurpose, knowledge based feedback system. For monitoring the CVD/CVI process in-situ FTIR spectroscopic data has been identified as input information. In the presentation, three commonly used, and distinctly different, types of industrial CVD/CVI processes are taken as test cases: (i) a thermal high capacity CVI batch process for manufacturing carbon fibre reinforced SiC composites for high temperature applications, (ii) a continuously driven CVD thermal process for coating float glass for energy protection, and (iii) a laser stimulated CVD process for continuously coating bundles of thin ceramic fibers. The feasibility of the concept with FTIR in-situ monitoring as a core technology has been demonstrated. FTIR monitoring sensibly reflects process conditions.

  4. The New P.E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandertie, Joan; Corner, Amy B.; Corner, Kevin J.

    2012-01-01

    Marana Middle School in Tucson, Ariz., scrapped its traditional P.E. program that emphasized team sports and shifted to a program that focuses on lifetime fitness, student choice in activities, and nutrition and health education. The program also includes student leadership development and informal community service. As a result, Marana students…

  5. Fracture Characteristics of Monolayer CVD-Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwangbo, Yun; Lee, Choong-Kwang; Kim, Sang-Min; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Kwang-Seop; Jang, Bongkyun; Lee, Hak-Joo; Lee, Seoung-Ki; Kim, Seong-Su; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Seung-Mo

    2014-03-01

    We have observed and analyzed the fracture characteristics of the monolayer CVD-graphene using pressure bulge testing setup. The monolayer CVD-graphene has appeared to undergo environmentally assisted subcritical crack growth in room condition, i.e. stress corrosion cracking arising from the adsorption of water vapor on the graphene and the subsequent chemical reactions. The crack propagation in graphene has appeared to be able to be reasonably tamed by adjusting applied humidity and stress. The fracture toughness, describing the ability of a material containing inherent flaws to resist catastrophic failure, of the CVD-graphene has turned out to be exceptionally high, as compared to other carbon based 3D materials. These results imply that the CVD-graphene could be an ideal candidate as a structural material notwithstanding environmental susceptibility. In addition, the measurements reported here suggest that specific non-continuum fracture behaviors occurring in 2D monoatomic structures can be macroscopically well visualized and characterized.

  6. Fracture Characteristics of Monolayer CVD-Graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Hwangbo, Yun; Lee, Choong-Kwang; Kim, Sang-Min; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Kwang-Seop; Jang, Bongkyun; Lee, Hak-Joo; Lee, Seoung-Ki; Kim, Seong-Su; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Seung-Mo

    2014-01-01

    We have observed and analyzed the fracture characteristics of the monolayer CVD-graphene using pressure bulge testing setup. The monolayer CVD-graphene has appeared to undergo environmentally assisted subcritical crack growth in room condition, i.e. stress corrosion cracking arising from the adsorption of water vapor on the graphene and the subsequent chemical reactions. The crack propagation in graphene has appeared to be able to be reasonably tamed by adjusting applied humidity and stress. ...

  7. PE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    上好百万创业基金启动南方都市报联合上好便利店,面向全国海选“创业英雄”,宣告百万创业基金正式启动。前50名将获得创业基金的支持,头等奖获得者将独揽高达10万元的创业基金。为帮助有志青年实现创业梦想,创业基金将用来支付开店所需的货款、装修费及设备费等等。

  8. PE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    65%中国私募股权投资流向内陆根据贝恩公司与中国欧盟商会昨日联合发布的《私募股权基金对中国经济和社会的影响2012年调研》结果显示,中国私募股权基金的交易金额从2009年的逾85亿美元增长至2011年的近160亿美元,其中65%的投资流向内陆省份。

  9. PE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    首只葡萄酒投资基金问世鼎红基金(Dinghong Fund)募集10亿元人民币(合1.56亿美元),投资于法国波尔多(Bordeaux)和勃艮第(Burgundy)这两个葡萄酒生产区的佳酿。

  10. Aligned carbon nanotubes catalytically grown on iron-based nanoparticles obtained by laser-induced CVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Normand, F. [Groupe Surfaces and Interfaces, IPCMS, UMR 7504 CNRS, Bat 70, 23 rue du Loess, 67034 Strasbourg Cedex (France)], E-mail: Francois.Le-Normand@ipcms.u-strasbg.fr; Cojocaru, C.S.; Ersen, O. [Groupe Surfaces and Interfaces, IPCMS, UMR 7504 CNRS, Bat 70, 23 rue du Loess, 67034 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Legagneux, P.; Gangloff, L. [THALES R and T, Departementale 128, 91747 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Fleaca, C. [Groupe Surfaces and Interfaces, IPCMS, UMR 7504 CNRS, Bat 70, 23 rue du Loess, 67034 Strasbourg Cedex (France); National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Laser Department, P.O. Box MG-36, R-76900 Bucharest (Romania); Alexandrescu, R.; Dumitrache, F.; Morjan, I. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Laser Department, P.O. Box MG-36, R-76900 Bucharest (Romania)

    2007-12-15

    Iron-based nanoparticles are prepared by a laser-induced chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. They are characterized as body-centered Fe and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (maghemite/magnetite) particles with sizes {<=}5 and 10 nm, respectively. The Fe particles are embedded in a protective carbon matrix. Both kind of particles are dispersed by spin-coating on SiO{sub 2}/Si(1 0 0) flat substrates. They are used as catalyst to grow carbon nanotubes by a plasma- and filaments-assisted catalytic CVD process (PE-HF-CCVD). Vertically oriented and thin carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were grown with few differences between the two samples, except the diameter in relation to the initial size of the iron particles, and the density. The electron field emission of these samples exhibit quite interesting behavior with a low turn-on voltage at around 1 V/{mu}m.

  11. Aligned carbon nanotubes catalytically grown on iron-based nanoparticles obtained by laser-induced CVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Normand, F.; Cojocaru, C. S.; Ersen, O.; Legagneux, P.; Gangloff, L.; Fleaca, C.; Alexandrescu, R.; Dumitrache, F.; Morjan, I.

    2007-12-01

    Iron-based nanoparticles are prepared by a laser-induced chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. They are characterized as body-centered Fe and Fe 2O 3 (maghemite/magnetite) particles with sizes ≤5 and 10 nm, respectively. The Fe particles are embedded in a protective carbon matrix. Both kind of particles are dispersed by spin-coating on SiO 2/Si(1 0 0) flat substrates. They are used as catalyst to grow carbon nanotubes by a plasma- and filaments-assisted catalytic CVD process (PE-HF-CCVD). Vertically oriented and thin carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were grown with few differences between the two samples, except the diameter in relation to the initial size of the iron particles, and the density. The electron field emission of these samples exhibit quite interesting behavior with a low turn-on voltage at around 1 V/μm.

  12. Experimental Study on Deep Desulfurizer in LF Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Long; PEI Fen; CHEN Yut; LI Shi-qi

    2012-01-01

    CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-CaF2-MgO was selected as the slag system for desulfurization in LF process.The reaction between steel and slag during desulfurization has been simulated by using Factsage software to study the influence of component on the sulfur distribution ratio.In order to research the influence of CaO content,aluminum powder content and its granularity on desulfurization,laboratory experiments have been carried out in a 200 kg inductive furnace.Results showed that the optimal composition of deep desulfurizer is wCaO=64% and aluminium powder 10% with a granularity of 30 μm.Industrial trials showed that the main composition range of final slag in LF process is wCaO=53.0%-57.0%,wAl2O3=23.4%-25.1%,wSiO2=8.1%-10.0%,and wCaF2=3.2%-4.7%.The sulfur mass percent in steel is lower than 0.0008% with a desulfurization rate above 89%.According to the result of industrial production,this desulfurizer could meet the production requirement for ultra-low sulfur steel,of which sulfur mass percent is under 0.0015%

  13. CVD 908, CVD 908-htrA, and CVD 909 live oral typhoid vaccines: a logical progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacket, Carol O; Levine, Myron M

    2007-07-15

    Typhoid fever remains an important public health problem in many parts of the world. Despite the availability of oral Ty21a (Vivotif; Berna Biotech) and parenteral Vi polysaccharide vaccine (Typhim Vi; Aventis Pasteur), improved typhoid fever vaccines have been sought. These include a series of vaccine candidates developed at the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland, based on attenuation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi by deletions in the aroC, aroD, and htrA genes. These vaccine candidates, designated "CVD 908," "CVD 908-htrA," and "CVD 909," have been developed and tested in volunteers with variable success. This review summarizes the clinical data that directed the logical progression of this vaccine development strategy.

  14. 本土无PE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周阳

    2007-01-01

    @@ 赵令欢说:"作为一家投资管理公司……"采访刚刚开始,他就如此定位自己所在的"弘毅投资",而我们采访的主题是"PE". 赵令欢现任联想控股有限公司副总裁,弘毅投资有限公司总裁,主要负责联想控股旗下的并购投资业务.

  15. Study on Roots of Firmiana plantanifolia (L.f.) Marsili

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI,Hai-Yun; LI,Shuo; HU,Li-Hong

    2004-01-01

    @@ Firmiana plantanifolia (L.f.) Marsili is a Chinese medicine used in the treatment of numerous disorders such as rheumatism, asthma, fracture, and tumor etc.[1] In the course of a search for biological active compounds from medicinal plants,[2] we have examined the water extract of the root of this plant and succeeded in isolating three novel constituents named firmianones A, B and C (Scheme 1), along with 9 known compounds. Their UV, HRMS and NMR spectral data indicated that they are isoprenylated naphthoquinone dimmers. Firmianones A and B have a novel hexacyclo [14.8.0.02,7.06.15.099.14.018,23]tetracosa-1(16),3,9(14),10,12,7,19,21,23-nonaen-8-one skeleton and their absolute stereochemistry was determined by CD exciton-coupling experiments.

  16. Knowledge of risk factors for diabetes or cardiovascular disease (CVD) is poor among individuals with risk factors for CVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilkenny, Monique F; Dunstan, Libby; Busingye, Doreen; Purvis, Tara; Reyneke, Megan; Orgill, Mary; Cadilhac, Dominique A

    2017-01-01

    There is limited evidence on whether having pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD) or risk factors for CVD such as diabetes, ensures greater knowledge of risk factors important for motivating preventative behaviours. Our objective was to compare knowledge among the Australian public participating in a health check program and their risk status. Data from the Stroke Foundation 'Know your numbers' program were used. Staff in community pharmacies provided opportunistic health checks (measurement of blood pressure and diabetes risk assessment) among their customers. Participants were categorised: 1) CVD ± risk of CVD: history of stroke, heart disease or kidney disease, and may have risk factors; 2) risk of CVD only: reported having high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes or atrial fibrillation; and 3) CVD risk free (no CVD or risk of CVD). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed including adjustment for age and sex. Among 4,647 participants, 12% had CVD (55% male, 85% aged 55+ years), 47% were at risk of CVD (40% male, 72% 55+ years) and 41% were CVD risk free (33% male, 27% 55+ years). Participants with CVD (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.55, 0.80) or risk factors for CVD (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.73) had poorer knowledge of the risk factors for diabetes/CVD compared to those who were CVD risk free. After adjustment, only participants with risk factors for CVD (OR: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.93) had poorer knowledge. Older participants (55+ years) and men had poorer knowledge of diabetes/CVD risk factors and complications of diabetes. Participants with poorer knowledge of risk factors were older, more often male or were at risk of developing CVD compared with those who were CVD risk free. Health education in these high risk groups should be a priority, as diabetes and CVD are increasing in prevalence throughout the world.

  17. The effect of three different diets on risk factors for CVD. With focus on whole grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Tenna

    2009-01-01

    of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, from January 2004-2007. WG intake was estimated based on collected information of WG content of the foods, consumed during the 6 month. Results: The MUFA diet resulted in a sigificantly improvement of fasting insulin levels (p=0.027) and insulin resistance...... components on risk factors for CVD. Methods: Analyses were made on 6 month data of 106 healthy, overweight and obese individuals (>28 BMI ...) significantly differed between all groups; with the LF group not reaching the expected officially recommended intake (RI). A higher intake of WG resulted in a significantly lower increase in BW (p=0.041), fat mass (p=0.045), fasting insulin (p

  18. The Charge Collection Properties of CVD Diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Behnke, T; Oh, A; Steuerer, J; Wagner, A; Zeuner, W; Behnke, Ties; Hüntemeyer, Petra; Oh, Alexander; Steuerer, Johannes; Wagner, Albrecht; Zeuner, Wolfram

    1998-01-01

    The charge collection properties of CVD diamond have been investigated with ionising radiation. In this study two CVD diamond samples, prepared with electrical contacts have been used as solid state ionisation chambers. The diamonds have been studied with beta particles and 10 keV photons, providing a homogeneous ionisation density and with protons and alpha particles which are absorbed in a thin surface layer. For the latter case a strong decrease of the signal as function of time is observed, which is attributed to polarisation effects inside the diamond. Spatially resolved measurements with protons show a large variation of the charge collection efficiency, whereas for photons and minimum ionising particles the response is much more uniform and in the order of 18%. These results indicate that the applicability of CVD diamond as a position sensitive particle detector depends on the ionisation type and appears to be promising for homogeneous ionisation densities as provided by relativistic charged particles.

  19. Substrate Strengthening of CVD Coated Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    O.Kessler; M.Heidkamp; F.Hoffmann; P.Mayr

    2004-01-01

    Properties of components and tools can be improved by the combination of coating and heat treatment processes due to the addition of single process advantages and due to the utilization of process interactions. Several low and high alloyed, structural and tool steels (AISI 4140, 52100, H13, A2, D2, etc.) have been treated by CVD-TiN-coating plus laser beam hardening respectively carburizing plus CVD-TiN-coating. Homogeneous, dense TiN-coatings with high hardness,high compressive residual stresses and good adhesion were supported by high strength substrate surfaces. Especially CVD plus laser beam hardening offers the possibility to reduce distortion due to the small heated surface volume.

  20. The modification of the flexibility of radiation crosslinked PE by blending PE with EVA and CPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Zhang; Jiufu, Xu

    1993-07-01

    Polyethylene (PE) is used as an insulation material for wires and cables because of its excellent electrical properties. Most of the properties of PE are improved greatly after irradiation, but, it was harden and split easily in low temperature. According to ethylene-vinyl acetate polymer (EVA) and chlor-poly-ethylene (CPE) possesing good flexibility. Blending of EVA/PE, CPE/PE systems were performed individually. As the results of experiment, suitable radiation dose and percentage of EVA/PE, CPE/PE systems have been determined to overcome the split of heat-shrinking tube after shrinkage.

  1. CVD diamond pixel detectors for LHC experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedenig, R.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Procario, M.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Runolfsson, O.; Russ, J.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, A.; Walsh, A.M.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; Blanquart, L.; Breugnion, P.; Charles, E.; Ciocio, A.; Clemens, J.C.; Dao, K.; Einsweiler, K.; Fasching, D.; Fischer, P.; Joshi, A.; Keil, M.; Klasen, V.; Kleinfelder, S.; Laugier, D.; Meuser, S.; Milgrome, O.; Mouthuy, T.; Richardson, J.; Sinervo, P.; Treis, J.; Wermes, N

    1999-08-01

    This paper reviews the development of CVD diamond pixel detectors. The preparation of the diamond pixel sensors for bump-bonding to the pixel readout electronics for the LHC and the results from beam tests carried out at CERN are described.

  2. Disturbances in LF radio-signals as seismic precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Kingsley

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Low Frequency (LF radio signals lie in the band 30-300 kHz. Monitoring equipment able to measure the electric strength of such signals, at field sites with very low noise levels, were designed and assembled in Italy. From 1993 onwards, the electric field strength of the MCO (216 kHz, France broadcasting station has been measured at two sites in Central Italy. At the end of 1996, radio signals from the CLT (189 kHz, Italy and the CZE (270 kHz, Czech Republic broadcasting stations were included in the measurements. During this monitoring period, evident attenuation of the electric field strength in some of the radio signals was observed at some of the receivers. The duration of the attenuation observed was several days and so it could have been related to particular meteorological conditions. On the other hand, this phenomenon could also represent precursors of moderate (3.0 =M =3.5 earthquakes that occurred near the receivers (within 50 km along the transmitter-receiver path. In this case it is possible that some local troposphere defocusing of the radio signals, produced by the pre-seismic processes, might have occurred. These observations were related only to moderate earthquakes and in these cases it may be that suitable meteorological conditions are needed to observe the effect. During February-March 1998 at one measuring site, we observed a significant increase in the CZE electric field strength. Unfortunately, the data of the other receiver could not be used in this case because of frequent interruptions in the recordings. The increase might have been a precursor of a strong earthquake (M = 5.3 that occurred on March 26, 1998 in the Umbria-Marche zone at a location over 100 km from the receiver, but which lay along the transmitter-receiver path. In this case, it is possible that an ionospheric disturbance, produced by the pre-seismic processes, might have occurred. If this pre-seismic behaviour of the LF signals could be confirmed then this

  3. Ex vivo intestinal adhesion of Escherichia coli LF82 in Crohn’s disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Stina Rikke; Fink, Lisbeth Nielsen; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2011-01-01

    Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) are reported to inhabit the gut mucosa in Crohn’s disease (CD), however, little is known about the importance of host factors for the interplay between AIEC and the human gut.To examine if differences in bacterial adhesion patterns are disease associated......, the AIEC-prototype strain LF82 was evaluated for its ability to adhere to ileal and colonic biopsies from CD and healthy controls (HC). Moreover, the efficacy of the non-pathogenic E. coli Nissle 1917 (ECN) in averting LF82 adhesion to ileal mucosa was assessed.Similar numbers of LF82 adhered to biopsies...... from CD and HC. A significantly greater LF82 attachment to ileal versus colonic mucosa was found in HC (P adhesion of LF82 to ileal specimens in CD or HC.These results show that enhanced bacterial adhesion ability is unlikely to play any significant...

  4. The European VLF/LF Radio Network: the current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagi, Pier Francesco; Maggipinto, Tommaso; Schiavulli, Luigi; Ligonzo, Teresa; Colella, Roberto; Ermini, Anita; Martinelli, Giovanni; Palangio, Paolo; Moldovan, Iren; Silva, Hugo; Contadakis, Michael; Frantzis, Xenophon; Katzis, Konstantinos; Buyuksarac, Aydin; D'Amico, Sebastiano

    2014-05-01

    Since 2009 a network of VLF (20-60 kHz) and LF (150-300 kHz) radio receivers has been put into operation in Europe in order to study earthquakes precursors. At the moment the network consists of eleven receivers four of which are located in Italy, two in Greece and one in Portugal, Romania, Malta, Cyprus and Turkey. The data (sampling rate of 1min) are downloaded automatically at the end of each day and they are stored in the server located at the Department of Physics of the University of Bari (Italy), that is the central node of the network. Still, in some case, problems of connection exist. The different trends are open and visible on the web site: http://beta.fisica.uniba.it/infrep/Hom.aspx. The data files can be downloaded by the same web site but they are protected by username and password. Among the different methods of data analysis the Wavelet spectra appear to be the most sensitive ones. The software able to apply this technique on the radio data automatically at the end of each day has been planned and realized. At the moment it operates on four signals collected by one of the Italian receivers; if an anomaly stands up and it is over a fixed threshold a warning advise appears. In the web site, this activity is protected by a specific username and password.

  5. Highly predictive support vector machine (SVM) models for anthrax toxin lethal factor (LF) inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xia; Amin, Elizabeth Ambrose

    2016-01-01

    Anthrax is a highly lethal, acute infectious disease caused by the rod-shaped, Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus anthracis. The anthrax toxin lethal factor (LF), a zinc metalloprotease secreted by the bacilli, plays a key role in anthrax pathogenesis and is chiefly responsible for anthrax-related toxemia and host death, partly via inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK) enzymes and consequent disruption of key cellular signaling pathways. Antibiotics such as fluoroquinolones are capable of clearing the bacilli but have no effect on LF-mediated toxemia; LF itself therefore remains the preferred target for toxin inactivation. However, currently no LF inhibitor is available on the market as a therapeutic, partly due to the insufficiency of existing LF inhibitor scaffolds in terms of efficacy, selectivity, and toxicity. In the current work, we present novel support vector machine (SVM) models with high prediction accuracy that are designed to rapidly identify potential novel, structurally diverse LF inhibitor chemical matter from compound libraries. These SVM models were trained and validated using 508 compounds with published LF biological activity data and 847 inactive compounds deposited in the Pub Chem BioAssay database. One model, M1, demonstrated particularly favorable selectivity toward highly active compounds by correctly predicting 39 (95.12%) out of 41 nanomolar-level LF inhibitors, 46 (93.88%) out of 49 inactives, and 844 (99.65%) out of 847 Pub Chem inactives in external, unbiased test sets. These models are expected to facilitate the prediction of LF inhibitory activity for existing molecules, as well as identification of novel potential LF inhibitors from large datasets.

  6. Main: PE1ASPHYA3 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available PE1ASPHYA3 S000196 17-May-1998 (last modified) kehi PE1; Positively acting element ...found at -381 to -348 of oat (A.s.) phyA3 promoter; A general positive element (Terzaghi & Cashmore, 1995);

  7. Main: PE2FNTRNR1A [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available PE2FNTRNR1A S000455 29-November-2004 (last modified) kehi pE2F (proximal E2F elemen...of the cell cycle; Important for regulating specific RNR1a (ribonucleotide reductase large subunit) gene exp

  8. Lipids, atherosclerosis and CVD risk: is CRP an innocent bystander?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, B G; Zacho, J

    2009-01-01

    exclude that genetically elevated CRP cause CVD. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that elevated CRP per se does not cause CVD; however, inflammation per se possibly contributes to CVD. Elevated CRP levels more likely is a marker for the extent of atherosclerosis or for the inflammatory activity...

  9. A compact PE memory for vision chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Shi; Zhe, Chen; Jie, Yang; Nanjian, Wu; Zhihua, Wang

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a novel compact memory in the processing element (PE) for single-instruction multiple-data (SIMD) vision chips. The PE memory is constructed with 8 × 8 register cells, where one latch in the slave stage is shared by eight latches in the master stage. The memory supports simultaneous read and write on the same address in one clock cycle. Its compact area of 14.33 μm2/bit promises a higher integration level of the processor. A prototype chip with a 64 × 64 PE array is fabricated in a UMC 0.18 μm CMOS technology. Five types of the PE memory cell structure are designed and compared. The testing results demonstrate that the proposed PE memory architecture well satisfies the requirement of the vision chip in high-speed real-time vision applications, such as 1000 fps edge extraction.

  10. Synergistic Antimycobacterial Actions of Knowltonia vesicatoria (L.f Sims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoinette Labuschagné

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Euclea natalensis A.DC., Knowltonia vesicatoria (L.f Sims, and Pelargonium sidoides DC. are South African plants traditionally used to treat tuberculosis. Extracts from these plants were used in combination with isoniazid (INH to investigate the possibility of synergy with respect to antimycobacterial activity. The ethanol extract of K. vesicatoria was subjected to fractionation to identify the active compounds. The activity of the Knowltonia extract remained superior to the fractions with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of 625.0 μg/mL against Mycobacterium smegmatis and an MIC of 50.00 μg/mL against M. tuberculosis. The K. vesicatoria extract was tested against two different drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis, which resulted in an MIC of 50.00 μg/mL on both strains. The combination of K. vesicatoria with INH exhibited the best synergistic antimycobacterial activity with a fractional inhibitory concentration index of 0.25 (a combined concentration of 6.28 μg/mL. A fifty percent inhibitory concentration of this combination against U937 cells was 121.0 μg/mL. Two compounds, stigmasta-5,23-dien-3-ol (1 and 5-(hydroxymethylfuran-2(5H-one (2, were isolated from K. vesicatoria as the first report of isolation for both compounds from this plant and the first report of antimycobacterial activity. Compound (1 was active against drug-sensitive M. tuberculosis with an MIC of 50.00 μg/mL.

  11. Karakteristik Bubuk Instan Cemcem ( spondiaz pinnata lf kurz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luh Putu Wrasiati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available One of tropical plant used as a traditional beverage in Bali is Kecemcem or Cemcem (Spondias pinnata (Lf Kurz or in Indonesian called Kedondong Hutan. Empirically, the beverage is mentioned for treating coughs, increasing appetite, and body refreshment. Besides used as a beverage, Cemcem leafs are also used as a flavor enhancer of fish products. The study was carried out to determine the characteristics of Cemcem instant powder produced by encapsulation using maltodextrin and dried by the thin layer drying method. Cemcem instant powder was then analyzed its content of vitamin C, total phenols, tannins, antioxidant capacity, water cntent, ash content, and solubility. The flavor compounds in Cemcem instant powder obtained in Bukit Jimbaran area are identified by GC-MS devices. The result showed that cemcem instant powder which was produced by 24 hours of maceration time has the best characteristics and potential to be developed as a natural antioxidant products. It has the highest of total phenol, tannin, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacity. The content of vitamin C, total phenol, and tannin were 135.06 mg/100g, 38.95 mg GAE/g, and 11.01% respectively. The antioxidant activity of cemcem instant powder which analyzed by DPPH method was about 43.80%. There are 17 compounds detected by GC-MS, these compounds belonged alkenesalcoholsphenols compounds and esters of fatty acidsThe whole compounds were the building blocks of flavor cemcem leaves.Keywords : Characteristic of cemcem instant powder, antioxidant capacity, andflavor compounds of cemcem leaves

  12. Deposition and Coating Properties on CVD Tungsten

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Ji-hong; LI Zheng-xiang; LIU Gao-jian; ZHOU Hui-Huang; CHUN liang

    2004-01-01

    Surface characterization and microstructure studies are performed on chemical vapor deposited (CVD) tungsten coating. There is about 2 μm thickness diffusion layer of tungsten in the molybdenum substrate. The thermal shock test shows tungsten coating has good adhesion with molybdenum substrate, but the elements of oxygen and carbon in the tungsten coating have the bad affection to the adhesion. The result of high-temperature diffusion experiment is the diffusion rate from molybdenum substrate to tungsten coating is faster.

  13. COPD and PE: A clinical dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moua, Teng; Wood, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Dyspnea in patients with known chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can be a clinical challenge due to the nonspecific nature of atypical presentations. Typical features of fever, productive cough, and wheezing on presentation support COPD exacerbation, while absence of such findings may warrant further evaluation for underlying etiologies, including pulmonary embolism (PE). It is suspected that one in four patients with atypical COPD exacerbation may have PE as an underlying or concomitant cause of acute dyspnea. This review discusses the clinical presentation of COPD and PE, and presents an overview of the rationale for pursuing work-up for thromboembolic disease in the setting of known obstructive lung diseases. PMID:18686736

  14. Possible earthquake precursors revealed by LF radio signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. F. Biagi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Among radio signals, low frequency (LF radio signals lie in the band between 30–300 kHz. Monitoring equipment with the ability to measure the electric strength of such signals at field sites, were designed and assembled in Italy. From 1993 onwards, the electric field strength of the MCO (216 kHz, France broadcasting station has been collecting measurements at two sites in central Italy that were chosen according to very low noise levels. At the end of 1996, radio signals from the CLT (189 kHz, Italy and CZE (270 kHz, Czech Republic broadcasting stations were included in the measurements. Meteorological data from central Italy were also collected over the same time period in order to study the influence of weather conditions on the experimental measurements. During the monitoring period, we observed some evident attenuation of the electric field strength in some of the radio signals at some of the receivers. The duration of the attenuation observed was several days, so it could possibly be related to particular meteorological conditions. On the other hand, this phenomenon might represent precursors of moderate (3.0 M 3.5 earthquakes that occurred near the receivers (within 50 km along the transmitter-receiver path. In this case, it is possible that the pre-seismic processes could have produced irregularities in the troposphere, such as ducts, reflecting layers and scattering zones, so that some local troposphere defocusing of the radio signals might have occurred. These observations were related only to moderate earthquakes and in these cases, suitable meteorological conditions were probably needed to observe the effect. Between February – March 1998, we observed at one measuring site, a significant increase in the CZE electric field strength. Unfortunately, we could not use the data of the other receiver in this case, due to frequent interruptions in the data set. The increase might have been a precursor of the strong seismic sequence (M = 5

  15. Modeling for CVD of Solid Oxide Electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starr, T.L.

    2002-09-18

    Because of its low thermal conductivity, high thermal expansion and high oxygen ion conductivity yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is the material of choice for high temperature electrolyte applications. Current coating fabrication methods have their drawbacks, however. Air plasma spray (APS) is a relatively low-cost process and is suitable for large and relatively complex shapes. it is difficult to produce uniform, relatively thin coatings with this process, however, and the coatings do not exhibit the columnar microstructure that is needed for reliable, long-term performance. The electron-beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) process does produce the desirable microstructure, however, the capital cost of these systems is very high and the line-of-sight nature of the process limits coating uniformity and the ability to coat large and complex shapes. The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process also produces the desirable columnar microstructure and--under proper conditions--can produce uniform coatings over complex shapes. CVD has been used for many materials but is relatively undeveloped for oxides, in general, and for zirconia, in particular. The overall goal of this project--a joint effort of the University of Louisville and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)--is to develop the YSZ CVD process for high temperature electrolyte applications. This report describes the modeling effort at the University of Louisville, which supports the experimental work at ORNL. Early work on CVD of zirconia and yttria used metal chlorides, which react with water vapor to form solid oxide. Because of this rapid gas-phase reaction the water generally is formed in-situ using the reverse water-gas-shift reaction or a microwave plasma. Even with these arrangements gas-phase nucleation and powder formation are problems when using these precursors. Recent efforts on CVD of zirconia and YSZ have focused on use of metal-organic precursors (MOCVD). These are more stable in the gas

  16. Mo-C Multilayered CVD Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sagalovych

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Production processes of multi-layered Mo-C coatings by the method of chemical vapor deposition (CVD with the use of organometallic compounds were developed. Coatings are applied on technical purpose steel DIN 1.2379 (H12F1 and DIN 1.7709 (25H2MF (ÉI10 heat-treated ball with the high class of surface roughness (> 10. The average deposition rate was 50 μm / h. The optimal conditions of deposition coatings for different technological schemas were defined. Metallographic investigations of the obtained coatings were carried out. Tribological studies of the friction and wear characteristics of sliding friction in conditions of boundary lubrication of Ï-S multilayered CVD coatings shows, that coatings have low friction coefficients (0075-0095 at loads up to 2.0 kN, showed high resistance to wear and are effective in increasing the stability of the pair for precision friction pairs of hydraulical units.

  17. High collection efficiency CVD diamond alpha detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergonzo, P.; Foulon, F.; Marshall, R.D.; Jany, C.; Brambilla, A. [CEA/Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); McKeag, R.D.; Jackman, R.B. [University College London (United Kingdom). Electronic and Electrical Engineering Dept.

    1998-06-01

    Advances in Chemical Vapor Deposited (CVD) diamond have enabled the routine use of this material for sensor device fabrication, allowing exploitation of its unique combination of physical properties (low temperature susceptibility (> 500 C), high resistance to radiation damage (> 100 Mrad) and to corrosive media). A consequence of CVD diamond growth on silicon is the formation of polycrystalline films which has a profound influence on the physical and electronic properties with respect to those measured on monocrystalline diamond. The authors report the optimization of physical and geometrical device parameters for radiation detection in the counting mode. Sandwich and co-planar electrode geometries are tested and their performances evaluated with regard to the nature of the field profile and drift distances inherent in such devices. The carrier drift length before trapping was measured under alpha particles and values as high as 40% of the overall film thickness are reported. Further, by optimizing the device geometry, they show that a gain in collection efficiency, defined as the induced charge divided by the deposited charge within the material, can be achieved even though lower bias values are used.

  18. Comparative evaluation of CVD diamond technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony, T.R. [General Electric Corporate Research & Development Center, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of diamonds occurs from hydrogen-hydrocarbon gas mixtures in the presence of atomic hydrogen at subatmospheric pressures. Most CVD methods are based on different means of generating and transporting atomic hydrogen in a particular system. Evaluation of these different techniques involves their capital costs, material costs, energy costs, labor costs and the type and quality of diamond that they produce. Currently, there is no universal agreement on which is the best technique and technique selection has been largely driven by the professional background of the user as well as the particular application of interest. This article discusses the criteria for evaluating a process for low-pressure deposition of diamond. Next, a brief history of low-pressure diamond synthesis is reviewed. Several specific processes are addressed, including the hot filament process, hot filament electron-assisted chemical vapor deposition, and plasma generation of atomic hydrogen by glow discharge, microwave discharge, low pressure radio frequency discharge, high pressure DC discharge, high pressure microwave discharge jets, high pressure RF discharge, and high and low pressure flames. Other types of diamond deposition methods are also evaluated. 101 refs., 15 figs.

  19. TSC response of irradiated CVD diamond films

    CERN Document Server

    Borchi, E; Bucciolini, M; Guasti, A; Mazzocchi, S; Pirollo, S; Sciortino, S

    1999-01-01

    CVD diamond films have been irradiated with electrons, sup 6 sup 0 Co photons and protons in order to study the dose response to exposure to different particles and energies and to investigate linearity with dose. The Thermally Stimulated Current (TSC) has been studied as a function of the dose delivered to polymethilmetacrilate (PMMA) in the range from 1 to 12 Gy with 20 MeV electrons from a linear accelerator. The TSC spectrum has revealed the presence of two components with peak temperatures of about 470 and 520 K, corresponding to levels lying in the diamond band gap with activation energies of the order of 0.7 - 1 eV. After the subtraction of the exponential background the charge emitted during the heating scan has been evaluated and has been found to depend linearly on the dose. The thermally emitted charge of the CVD diamond films has also been studied using different particles. The samples have been irradiated with the same PMMA dose of about 2 Gy with 6 and 20 MeV electrons from a Linac, sup 6 sup 0 ...

  20. Superconductivity and low temperature electrical transport in B-doped CVD nanocrystalline diamond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milos Nesladek, Jiri J. Mares, Dominique Tromson, Christine Mer, Philippe Bergonzo, Pavel Hubik and Jozef Kristofik

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we report on superconductivity (SC found in thin B-doped nanocrystalline diamond films, prepared by the PE-CVD technique. The thickness of the films varies from about 100 to 400 nm, the films are grown on low-alkaline glass at substrate temperatures of about 500–700 °C. The SIMS measurements show that films can be heavily doped with boron in concentrations in the range of 3×1021 cm−3. The Raman spectra show Fano resonances, confirming the substitutional B-incorporation. The low temperature magnetotransport measurements reveal a positive magnetoresistance. The SC transition is observed at about Tc=1.66 K. A simple theory exploiting the concept of weak localization accounting for this transition is proposed.

  1. PLC-δ1-Lf, a novel N-terminal extended phospholipase C-δ1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Na Young; Ahn, Sang Jung; Kim, Moo-Sang; Seo, Jung Soo; Kim, Bo Seong; Bak, Hye Jin; Lee, Jin Young; Park, Myoung-Ae; Park, Ju Hyeon; Lee, Hyung Ho; Chung, Joon Ki

    2013-10-10

    Phospholipase C-δ (PLC-δ), a key enzyme in phosphoinositide turnover, is involved in a variety of physiological functions. The widely expressed PLC-δ1 isoform is the best characterized and the most well understood phospholipase family member. However, the functional and molecular mechanisms of PLC-δ1 remain obscure. Here, we identified that the N-terminal region of mouse PLC-δ1 gene has two variants, a novel alternative splicing form, named as long form (mPLC-δ1-Lf) and the previously reported short form (mPLC-δ1-Sf), having exon 2 and exon 1, respectively, while both the gene variants share exons 3-16 for RNA transcription. Furthermore, the expression, identification and enzymatic characterization of the two types of PLC-δ1 genes were compared. Expression of mPLC-δ1-Lf was found to be tissue specific, whereas mPLC-δ1-Sf was widely distributed. The recombinant mPLC-δ1-Sf protein exhibited higher activity than recombinant mPLC-δ1-Lf protein. Although, the general catalytic and regulatory properties of mPLC-δ1-Lf are similar to those of PLC-δ1-Sf isozyme, the mPLC-δ1-Lf showed some distinct regulatory properties, such as tissue-specific expression and lipid binding specificity, particularly for phosphatidylserine.

  2. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Set Point Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PHILIPP, B.L.

    2000-01-12

    This document provides the calculations used to determine the error of safety class signals used for the CVD process These errors are used with the Parameter limits to arrive at the initial set point. The Safety Class Instrumentation and Control (SCIC) system provides active detection and response to process anomalies that, if unmitigated would result in a safety event. Specifically actuation of the SCIC system includes two portions. The portion which isolates the MCO and initiates the safety-class helium (SCHe) purge, and the portion which detects and stops excessive heat input to the MCO on high tempered water MCO inlet temperature. For the MCO isolation and purge the SCIC receives signals from MCO pressure (both positive pressure and vacuum) helium flow rate, bay high temperature switches, seismic trips and time under vacuum trips.

  3. CVD diamond sensors for charged particle detection

    CERN Document Server

    Krammer, Manfred; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bertuccio, G; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; D'Angelo, P; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Dencuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Hallewell, G D; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Kass, R; Koeth, T W; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; MacLynne, L; Manfredotti, C; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Moroni, L; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Perera, L P; Pirollo, S; Procario, M; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Rousseau, L; Rudge, A; Russ, J; Sala, S; Sampietro, M; Schnetzer, S; Sciortino, S; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R; Trischuk, W; Tromson, D; Vittone, E; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Wetstein, M; White, C; Zeuner, W; Zöller, M

    2001-01-01

    CVD diamond material was used to build position-sensitive detectors for single-charged particles to be employed in high-intensity physics experiments. To obtain position information, metal contacts shaped as strips or pixels are applied to the detector surface for one- or two- dimensional coordinate measurement. Strip detectors 2*4 cm/sup 2/ in size with a strip distance of 50 mu m were tested. Pixel detectors of various pixel sizes were bump bonded to electronics chips and investigated. A key issue for the use of these sensors in high intensity experiments is the radiation hardness. Several irradiation experiments were carried out with pions, protons and neutrons exceeding a fluence of 10/sup 15/ particles/cm/sup 2/. The paper presents an overview of the results obtained with strip and pixel detectors in high-energy test beams and summarises the irradiation studies. (8 refs).

  4. Premature menopause linked to CVD and osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Claire; Overton, Caroline

    2010-03-01

    Premature menopause affects 1% of women under the age of 40, the usual age of the menopause is 51. Most women will present with irregular periods or no periods at all with or without climacteric symptoms. Around 10% of women present with primary amenorrhoea. A careful history and examination are required. It is important to ask specifically about previous chemotherapy or radiotherapy and to look for signs of androgen excess e.g. polycystic ovarian syndrome, adrenal problems e.g. galactorrhoea and thyroid goitres. Once pregnancy has been excluded, a progestagen challenge test can be performed in primary care. Norethisterone 5 mg tds po for ten days or alternatively medroxyprogesterone acetate 10 mg daily for ten days is prescribed. A withdrawal bleed within a few days of stopping the norethisterone indicates the presence of oestrogen and bleeding more than a few drops is considered a positive withdrawal bleed. The absence of a bleed indicates low levels of oestrogen, putting the woman at risk of CVD and osteoporosis. FSH levels above 30 IU/l are an indicator that the ovaries are failing and the menopause is approaching or has occurred. It should be remembered that FSH levels fluctuate during the month and from one month to the next, so a minimum of two measurements should be made at least four to six weeks apart. The presence of a bleed should not exclude premature menopause as part of the differential diagnosis as there can be varying and unpredictable ovarian function remaining. The progestagen challenge test should not be used alone, but in conjunction with FSH, LH and oestradiol. There is no treatment for premature menopause. Women desiring pregnancy should be referred to a fertility clinic and discussion of egg donation. Women not wishing to become pregnant should be prescribed HRT until the age of 50 to control symptoms of oestrogen deficiency and reduce the risks of osteoporosis and CVD.

  5. The Designation Method of Bend Forming Dies for Aluminum Tube of PE-Al-PE Composite Pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The PE-Al-PE composite pipe is a multiplayer pipe t hat is composed of PE (polyethylene) and Aluminum. Al is inlayed the inner PE la yer and the outer PE layer. In the producing technological process of this kind of pipe the bend forming of Al belt to tube is very important. It is the bend fo rming dies that are used in the process of producing PE-Al-PE pipe that is stu died in this article. To make a elaborate division, these dies can be classified as bending dies and forming dies here. In this paper, t...

  6. Rare genetic variants associated with early onset CVD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maiwald, S.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in Western societies. CVD is mainly triggered by atherosclerosis. A combination of lipid accumulation, inflammation at the vessel wall and thrombotic reactions are underlying its pathobiology. Despite improvements in the ther

  7. Prevention: Reducing the risk of CVD in patients with periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genco, Robert J; Van Dyke, Thomas E

    2010-09-01

    The association between periodontitis and other chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus, could be related to systemic inflammation initiated by a local inflammatory challenge. Oliveira et al. have added lack of oral hygiene, and its link with systemic inflammation, to the spectrum of risk factors for CVD.

  8. Heat transfer model of an iCVD reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.; Verlaan, V.; Verkerk, A.D.; van der Werf, C.H.M.; van Dijk, L.; Rudolph, H.; Rath, J.K.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2009-01-01

    Contrary to conventional HWCVD, the power consumption in the iCVD process is dominated by heat conduction rather than radiation. This is due to the fact that while the typical wire temperature for HWCVD is about 1750–2200 °C, for iCVD the temperature is only 250–500 °C. Typical deposition pressures

  9. Brukarens roll i välfärdsforskning och utvecklingsarbete

    OpenAIRE

    Ander, Birgitta; Bennich, Maria; Bolling, Jamie; Bülow, Pia; Cedersund, Elisabet; Eriksson, Bengt.G.; Felizia, Inga-Lill; Granerud, Arild; Hanson, Elizabeth; Hummelvoll, Jan Kåre; Jonsson, Oskar; Karlsson, Per-Åke; Kogstad, Ragnfrid Eline; Käcker, Pia; Magnusson, Lennart

    2011-01-01

    Fra omslag: På 1980-talet blev ”brukare” ett modeord i offentlig förvaltning och förvaltningsforskning. Termen betecknar den som använder sig av välfärdsservice (jfr. engelskans service user), eller ”slutmottagare” av offentlig nyttighet eller åtgärd. Brukare av välfärdstjänster vet hur hjälp och service fungerar i praktiken och kan därför ge synnerligen viktig återkoppling enligt devisen: ”Den som har skorna på fötterna vet var de skaver”. Välfärdsorganisationer har all anledn...

  10. Ileal adhesion of virulent E. coli LF82 is not enhanced in Crohn’s disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke S.; Fink, Lisbeth Nielsen; Pedersen, Susanne Brix

    2011-01-01

    of CD has been further strengthened from the evidence that the ileum in CD harbors an abnormally high number of E. coli species. S16 2010 IBD Abstracts The aim of this study was to examine the adhesion of the AIEC reference strain, LF82, to tissue samples from ileum and colon in CD and healthy controls....... A second purpose was to assess the probiotic efficacy of E. coli Nissle 1917 (ECN) in averting LF82 adhesion to ileal mucosa. Ileal and colonic specimens were obtained from patients with CD ileitis and controls (n¼10). A model was developed to investigate bacterial adhesion to intestinal biopsies...... and employed for investigation of the bacterial adherence to human intestinal specimens. LF82 adhered to intestinal biopsies in both CD and controls. Enhanced adhesion was, however, not observed in the ileum as compared to the colon in CD, which was in contradiction to controls that had a significantly higher...

  11. Ileal adhesion of virulent E. coli LF82 is not enhanced in Crohn’s disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke S.; Fink, Lisbeth Nielsen; Pedersen, Susanne Brix

    2011-01-01

    of CD has been further strengthened from the evidence that the ileum in CD harbors an abnormally high number of E. coli species. S16 2010 IBD Abstracts The aim of this study was to examine the adhesion of the AIEC reference strain, LF82, to tissue samples from ileum and colon in CD and healthy controls...... and employed for investigation of the bacterial adherence to human intestinal specimens. LF82 adhered to intestinal biopsies in both CD and controls. Enhanced adhesion was, however, not observed in the ileum as compared to the colon in CD, which was in contradiction to controls that had a significantly higher...

  12. Reference: PE3ASPHYA3 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available PE3ASPHYA3 Bruce WB, Deng X-W, Quial PH A negatively acting DNA sequence element mediates phytochrome-dire...cted repression of phyA gene transcription. EMBO J 10:3015-3024 (1991) PubMed: 1915276; ...

  13. Approximations in the PE-method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arranz, Marta Galindo

    1996-01-01

    Two differenct sources of errors may occur in the implementation of the PE methods; a phase error introduced in the approximation of a pseudo-differential operator and an amplitude error generated from the starting field. First, the inherent phase errors introduced in the solution are analyzed...

  14. School PE through Internet Discussion Forums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauritsalo, Kirsti; Sääkslahti, Arja; Rasku-Puttonen, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Background: Physical education is a subject that generates strong feelings and emotions, as can be seen in written accounts of PE experiences. It is also important to listen to students' voices in the research context. Nowadays, students can be listened to in a new way--through the Internet. Various discussion forums on the Internet make it…

  15. What Is the PE Password? Incorporating Vocabulary in Your Elementary PE Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelee, Margaret E.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a novel program for third through fifth grade called "What is the PE Password?" that teaches vocabulary words and concepts without sacrificing activity time in order to support Common Core learning.

  16. CVD carbon powders modified by ball milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazmierczak Tomasz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon powders produced using a plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD methods are an interesting subject of research. One of the most interesting methods of synthesizing these powders is using radio frequency plasma. This method, originally used in deposition of carbon films containing different sp2/sp3 ratios, also makes possible to produce carbon structures in the form of powder. Results of research related to the mechanical modification of these powders have been presented. The powders were modified using a planetary ball mill with varying parameters, such as milling speed, time, ball/powder mass ratio and additional liquids. Changes in morphology and particle sizes were measured using scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Phase composition was analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. The influence of individual parameters on the modification outcome was estimated using statistical method. The research proved that the size of obtained powders is mostly influenced by the milling speed and the amount of balls. Powders tend to form conglomerates sized up to hundreds of micrometers. Additionally, it is possible to obtain nanopowders with the size around 100 nm. Furthermore, application of additional liquid, i.e. water in the process reduces the graphitization of the powder, which takes place during dry milling.

  17. Raman modes in transferred bilayer CVD graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niilisk Ahti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic experimental Raman spectroscopic study of twisted bilayer graphene (tBLG domains localized inside wide-area single layer graphene (SLG produced by low-pressure CVD on Cu foil and transferred onto SiO2/Si substrate has been performed. According to the Raman characterization the tBLG domains had a great variety of twisting angles θ between the bottom and top graphene layers (6° < θ < 25°. The twisting angle θ was estimated from the spectral position of the rotating R and R' modes in the Raman spectrum.Under G band resonance conditions the breathing mode ZO' with a frequency of 95- 97 cm−1 was detected, and a breathing mode ZO was found in the spectra between 804 cm−1 and 836 cm−1, its position depending on the twisting angle θ. An almost linear relationship was found between the frequencies ωZO and ωR. Also a few other spectral peculiarities were found, e.g. a high-energy excitation of the G band resonance, the 2G overtone appearing at 3170-3180 cm−1 by the G band resonance, revealing a linear dispersion of 80 cm−1/eV of the 2D band in tBLG

  18. An assessment of radiotherapy dosimeters based on CVD grown diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Ramkumar, S; Conway, J; Whitehead, A J; Sussman, R S; Hill, G; Walker, S

    2001-01-01

    Diamond is potentially a very suitable material for use as a dosimeter for radiotherapy. Its radiation hardness, the near tissue equivalence and chemical inertness are some of the characteristics of diamond, which make it well suited for its application as a dosimeter. Recent advances in the synthesis of diamond by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technology have resulted in the improvement in the quality of material and increased its suitability for radiotherapy applications. We report in this paper, the response of prototype dosimeters based on two different types (CVD1 and CVD2) of CVD diamond to X-rays. The diamond devices were assessed for sensitivity, dependence of response on dose and dose rate, and compared with a Scanditronix silicon photon diode and a PTW natural diamond dosimeter. The diamond devices of CVD1 type showed an initial increase in response with dose, which saturates after approx 6 Gy. The diamond devices of CVD2 type had a response at low fields (1162.8 V/cm), the CVD2-type devices show...

  19. Anthrax lethal factor (LF) mediated block of the anthrax protective antigen (PA) ion channel: effect of ionic strength and voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumeyer, Tobias; Tonello, Fiorella; Dal Molin, Federica; Schiffler, Bettina; Orlik, Frank; Benz, Roland

    2006-03-07

    The anthrax toxin complex consists of three different molecules, protective antigen (PA), lethal factor (LF), and edema factor (EF). The activated form of PA, PA(63), forms heptamers that insert at low pH in biological membranes forming ion channels and that are necessary to translocate EF and LF in the cell cytosol. LF and EF are intracellular active enzymes that inhibit the host immune system promoting bacterial outgrowth. Here, PA(63) was reconstituted into artificial lipid bilayer membranes and formed ion-permeable channels. The heptameric PA(63) channel contains a binding site for LF on the cis side of the channel. Full-size LF was found to block the PA(63) channel in a dose- and ionic-strength-dependent way with half-saturation constants in the nanomolar concentration range. The binding curves suggest a 1:1 relationship between (PA(63))(7) and bound LF that blocks the channel. The presence of a His(6) tag at the N-terminal end of LF strongly increases the affinity of LF toward the PA(63) channel, indicating that the interaction between LF and the PA(63) channel occurs at the N terminus of the enzyme. The LF-mediated block of the PA(63)-induced membrane conductance is highly asymmetric with respect to the sign of the applied transmembrane potential. The result suggested that the PA(63) heptamers contain a high-affinity binding site for LF inside domain 1 or the channel vestibule and that the binding is ionic-strength-dependent.

  20. Characteristics of VLF/LF Sferics from Elve-producing Lightning Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaes, P.; Zoghzoghy, F. G.; Marshall, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Lightning return strokes radiate an electromagnetic pulse (EMP) which interacts with the D-region ionosphere; the largest EMPs produce new ionization, heating, and optical emissions known as elves. Elves are at least six times more common than sprites and other transient luminous events. Though the probability that a lightning return stroke will produce an elve is correlated with the return stroke peak current, many large peak current strokes do not produce visible elves. Apart from the lightning peak current, elve production may depend on the return stroke speed, lightning altitude, and ionospheric conditions. In this work we investigate the detailed structure of lightning that gives rise to elves by analyzing the characteristics of VLF/LF lightning sferics in conjunction with optical elve observations. Lightning sferics were observed using an array of six VLF/LF receivers (1 MHz sample-rate) in Oklahoma, and elves were observed using two high-speed photometers pointed over the Oklahoma region: one located at Langmuir Laboratory, NM and the other at McDonald Observatory, TX. Hundreds of elves with coincident LF sferics were observed during the summer months of 2013. We present data comparing the characteristics of elve-producing and non-elve producing lightning as measured by LF sferics. In addition, we compare these sferic and elve observations with FDTD simulations to determine key properties of elve-producing lightning.

  1. Studies on the Constituents of Ficus microcarpa L.f. 1. Triterpenoids from the Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Higa, Matsutake; Yogi, Seiichi; Hokama, Kozo; 比嘉, 松武; 与儀, 誠一; 外間, 宏三

    1987-01-01

    The following triterpenoids were isolated from the ethanol extracts of the leaves of Ficus microcarpa L.f., together with aliphatic compounds and steroids: lupenyl acetate, friedelin, glutinol, epifriedelinol, taraxerol and oleanolic acid. Two unknown pentacyclic triterpenoids were also isolated and their structures were discussed from spectroscopic evidences.

  2. 1047-nm all-solid-state laser based on Nd: LuLF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Li; Ting Yu; Lianhan Zhang; Weibiao Chen; Yin Hang

    2011-01-01

    @@ A compact all-solid-state continuous-wave (CW) laser at 1047 nm is developed based on Nd:LuLF, which is grown through the Czochralski technique. From the laser system, 1.3-W laser can be obtained, which corresponds to the slope efficiencies of 20.1% and 49.5% with respect to the incident and absorbed pump powers, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest power level achieved at 1047 nm based on the Nd:LuLF crystal.%A compact all-solid-state continuous-wave (CW) laser at 1047 nm is developed based on Nd:LuLF, which is grown through the Czochralski technique. From the laser system, 1.3-W laser can be obtained, which corresponds to the slope efficiencies of 20.1% and 49.5% with respect to the incident and absorbed pump powers, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest power level achieved at 1047 nm based on the Nd:LuLF crystal.

  3. The LF of TP-AGB stars in the LMC/SMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzual, Gustavo; Charlot, Stephane; GonzalezLopezlira, Rosa; Srinivasan, Sundar; Boyer, Martha L.

    2013-01-01

    We show that Monte Carlo simulations of the TP-AGB stellar population in the LMC and SMC galaxies using the CB. models produce LF and color distributions that are in closer agreement with observations than those obtained with the BC03 and CB07 models. This is a progress report of work that will be published elsewhere.

  4. Demonstration of a hybrid Ho:YLF Ho:LuLF slab laser

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Esser, MJD

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a continuous-wave slab laser utilising both Ho:YLF and Ho:LuLF as laser gain media. 30 W of output power at 2 µm was demonstrated in a stable concave-plane resonator while 13 W was achieved in a hybrid stable...

  5. LFTOP: An LF-Based Approach to Domain-Specific Reasoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Min Pang; Paul Callaghan; Zhao-Hui Luo

    2005-01-01

    A new approach to domain-specific reasoning is presented that is based on a type-theoretic logical framework (LF) but does not require the user to be an expert in type theory. The concepts of the domain and its related reasoning systems are formalized in LF, but the user works with the system through a syntax and interface appropriate to his/her work. A middle layer provides translation between the user syntax and LF, and allows additional support for reasoning (e.g., model checking). Thus, the complexity of the logical framework is hidden but the benefits of using type theory and its related tools are retained, such as precision and machine-checkable proofs. This approach is investigated through a number of case studies: here, the authors consider the verification of properties of concurrency. The authors have formalized a specification language (CCS) and logic (μ-calculus) in LF, together with useful lemmas, and a user-oriented syntax has been designed. The authors demonstrate the approach with simple examples. However, applying lemmas to objects introduced by the user may result in framework-level objects which cannot be translated back to the user level. The authors discuss this problem, define a notion of adequacy, and prove that in this case study, translation can always be reversed.

  6. Comparison of Mechanical Properties Between PE80 and PE100 Pipe Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Jar, P.-Y. Ben

    2016-10-01

    Mechanical properties, including yield stress, relaxation behavior, moduli (elastic modulus at the strain of 0.5% and strain hardening modulus at strains above 70%), viscous stress, and quasi-static stress, are compared between polyethylene (PE) pipes that are made of PE80 and PE100 resins. The mechanical properties are measured using D-split tensile test on modified notched pipe ring specimens. The comparison includes the influence of strain rate (by the change of crosshead speed) on the yield strength and influence of pre-strain on the relaxation behavior and the modulus values. A two-stage approach is used to characterize the influence of pre-strain on the moduli, to ensure that viscous recovery from the first-stage of the test, to introduce the pre-strain, does not affect the modulus measurement from the second-stage test. The results show that elastic modulus, yield stress, strain hardening modulus, viscous stress, and quasi-static stress for PE100 are higher than those for PE80, but PE80 shows higher resistance to stress relaxation. The results also show that with the increase in the pre-strain level, the elastic modulus drops but the strain hardening modulus remains relatively constant.

  7. BIM LAU-PE: Seedlings in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, S.; Pennese, R.; Chapuis, D.; Dainesi, P.; Nebuloni, S.; Garcia, M.; Oriol, A.

    2015-09-01

    The effect of gravity on plant roots is an intensive subject of research. Sounding rockets represent a costeffective platform to study this effect under microgravity conditions. As part of the upcoming MASER 13 sounding rocket campaign, two experiments on Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings have been devised: GRAMAT and SPARC. These experiments are aimed at studying (1) the genes that are specifically switched on or off during microgravity, and (2) the position of auxin-transporting proteins during microgravity. To perform these experiments, RUAG Space Switzerland site of Nyon, in collaboration with the Swedish Space Corporation (SSC) and the University of Freiburg, has developed the BIM LAU-PE (Biolology In Microgravity Late Access Unit Plant Experiment). In the following an overview of the BIM LAU-PE design is presented, highlighting specific module design features and verifications performed. A particular emphasis is placed on the parabolic flight experiments, including results of the micro-g injection system validation.

  8. PE/PE-g-MAH/PA6共混物的制备及性能研究%Preparation and Performance Study of PE/PE-g-MAH/PA6 Blending

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许应娟; 李新; 侯袁婧; 叶正涛

    2015-01-01

    采用熔融接枝的方法制备聚乙烯接枝马来酸酐(PE-g-MAH),将其作为PE/PA6共混物体系的相容剂,研究PE-g-MAH对PE/PA6共混物性能的影响,并探讨增容机理.结果表明,在PE/PA6共混物中加入PE-g-MAH后,共混物的力学性能得到明显的提高,当加入量在15wt%左右时,PE/PE-g-MAH/PA6共混物的拉伸强度和冲击强度达到最大值.

  9. Current Status and Prediction on Development of PE Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Jiao

    2003-01-01

    This article comprehensively analyzes the status of market demand/supply and import/export volumes of PE in the world and in China, and predicts the future development trends in the fields of PE production and consumption.

  10. CVD Diamond Sensors In Detectors For High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00334150; Trischuk, William

    At the end of the next decade an upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) to High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) is planned which requires the development of new radiation tolerant sensor technology. Diamond is an interesting material for use as a particle detector in high radiation environments. The large band gap ($5.47\\,\\text{eV}$) and the large displacement energy suggest that diamond is a radiation tolerant detector material. In this Thesis the capability of Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond as such a sensor technology is investigated. The radiation damage constant for $800\\,\\text{MeV}$ protons is measured using single crystalline CVD (scCVD) and polycrystalline CVD (pCVD) diamonds irradiated to particle fluences up to $12 \\times 10^{15}\\,\\text{p/cm}^2$. In addition the signal response of a pCVD diamond detector after an irradiation to $12 \\times 10^{15}\\,\\text{p/cm}^2$ is investigated to determine if such a detector can be operated efficiently in the expected HL-LHC environment. By using electrodes em...

  11. Prediction Capabilities of VLF/LF Emission as the Main Precursor of Earthquake

    CERN Document Server

    Kachakhidze, Manana

    2013-01-01

    Recent satellite and ground-based observations proved that in earthquake preparation period in the seismogenic area we have VLF/LF and ULF electromagnetic emissions. According to the opinion of the authors of the present paper this phenomenon is more universal and reliable than other earthquake indicators. Hypothetically, in case of availability of adequate methodological grounds, in the nearest future, earth VLF/LF electromagnetic emission might be declared as the main precursor of earthquake. In particular, permanent monitoring of frequency spectrum of earth electromagnetic emission generated in the earthquake preparation period might turn out very useful with the view of prediction of large (M 5) inland earthquakes. The present paper offers a scheme of the methodology according to which the reality of the above given hypothesis can be checked up. To prove the prediction capabilities of earth electromagnetic emission we have used avalanche-like unstable model of fault formation and an analogous model of ele...

  12. Dimensional instability of LF21 aluminum alloy weldments at room temperature and after thermal cycles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雪松; 田锡唐; 徐文立

    2002-01-01

    The unstable dimensional distortion of LF21 aluminum alloy weldments at room temperature and after thermal cycles was studied by use of light interference and CMM. At the same time, distortion mechanism was analyzed from the viewpoint of mechanics and microstructure. Experimental results show that there exists obvious difference of unstable dimensional distortion between LF21 welded specimens under two conditions mentioned above. Under room temperature, dimensional variation of welded specimens will decrease gradually and finally tends to be stable during 130 h after welding. The relative elongation of welded specimen is 4.2×10-5. After thermal cycles, distortion of welded specimen is much larger than that at room temperature. After 11 thermal cycles, the dimension will tend to be stable. Dimensional unstable distortion of weldments mainly results from temperature condition, microstructure variation and relaxation of welding residual stress.

  13. Reception conditions of low frequency (LF) transmitter signals onboard DEMETER micro-satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudjada, Mohammed Y.; Biagi, Pier F.; Sawas, Sami; Galopeau, Patrick H. M.; Besser, Bruno; Wolbang, Daniel; Prattes, Gustav; Eichelberger, Hans; Stangl, Günter; Parrot, Michel; Schwingenschuh, Konrad

    2014-05-01

    We analyze the flux density variation associated to low frequency (LF) broadcasting transmitters observed by the ICE electric field experiment onboard DEMETER micro-satellite. We select five stations localised around the Mediterranean and the black seas: Tipaza (252 kHz, 02°28'E, 36°33'N, Algeria), Roumoules (216 kHz, 06°08'E, 43°47'N, Monte Carlo), Polatli (180 kHz, 32°25'E, 39°45'N, Turkey), Nador (171 kHz, 02°55'W, 35°02'N, Morocco) and Brasov (153 kHz, 25°36'E,45°40', Romania). The detection of the LF transmitter signals by DEMETER micro-satellite is found to depend on the radiated power, the emitted frequency, and the orbit paths with regard to the location of the stations. This leads us to characterise the reception condition of the LF signals and to define time intervals where the detection probability is high. We firstly discuss the dependence of the reception conditions on the ionospheric disturbances due to the geomagnetic and solar activities, and we secondly attempt to estimate the global electric environment above the Mediterranean and the black seas.

  14. Hybrid Modeling for Soft Sensing of Molten Steel Temperature in LF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Hui-xin; MAO Zhi-zhong; WANG An-na

    2009-01-01

    Aiming at the limitations of traditional thermal model and intelligent model, a new hybrid model is established for soft sensing of the molten steel temperature in LF. Firstly, a thermal model based on energy conservation is described; and then, an improved intelligent model based on process data is presented by ensemble ELM (extreme learning machine) for predicting the molten steel temperature in LF. Secondly, the self-adaptive data fusion is proposed as a hybrid modeling method to combine the thermal model with the intelligent model. The new hybrid model could complement mutual advantage of two models by combination. It can overcome the shortcoming of parameters obtained on-line hardly in a thermal model and the disadvantage of lacking the analysis of ladle furnace metallurgical process in an intelligent model. The new hybrid model is applied to a 300 t LF in Baoshan Iron and Steel Co Ltd for predicting the molten steel temperature. The experiments demonstrate that the hybrid model has good generalization performance and high accuracy.

  15. From PE Experiences to PE Teaching Practices? Insights from Scottish Primary Teachers' Experiences of PE, Teacher Education, School Entry and Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Dely L.; Atencio, Matthew; Campbell, Theresa; Jess, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Morgan and Hansen suggest that further research is needed to explore how non-specialist primary teachers approach and teach physical education (PE) based on their personal school PE backgrounds, teacher education experiences and ongoing professional development. This paper adopts Lawson's socialisation model, a theoretical framework…

  16. Synthesis of CVD-graphene on rapidly heated copper foils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Min; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Kwang-Seop; Hwangbo, Yun; Yoon, Jong-Hyuk; Lee, Eun-Kyu; Ryu, Jaechul; Lee, Hak-Joo; Cho, Seungmin; Lee, Seung-Mo

    2014-05-07

    Most chemical vapor deposition (CVD) systems used for graphene growth mainly employ convection and radiation heat transfer between the heating source and the metal catalyst in order to reach the activation temperature of the reaction, which in general leads to a long synthesis time and poor energy efficiency. Here, we report a highly time- and energy-efficient CVD setup, in which the metal catalyst (Cu) is designed to be physically contacted with a heating source to give quick heat transfer by conduction. The induced conduction heating enabled the usual effects of the pretreatment and annealing of Cu (i.e., annihilation of surface defects, impurities and contaminants) to be achieved in a significantly shorter time compared to conventional CVD. Notably, the rapid heating was observed to lead to larger grains of Cu with high uniformity as compared to the Cu annealed by conventional CVD, which are believed to be beneficial for the growth of high quality graphene. Through this CVD setup, bundles of high quality (∼252 Ω per square) and large area (over 16 inch) graphenes were able to be readily synthesized in 40 min in a significantly efficient way. When considering ease of scalability, high energy effectiveness and considerable productivity, our method is expected to be welcomed by industrialists.

  17. Present limitations of CVD diamond detectors for IMRT applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Angelis, C. [Dipartimento di Tecnologie e Salute, Istituto Superiore di Sanita and INFN, Viale regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy)], E-mail: cinzia.deangelis@iss.it; Casati, M. [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia dell' Universita and INFN, Florence (Italy); Bruzzi, M. [Dipartimento di Energetica dell' Universita and INFN, Florence (Italy); Onori, S. [Dipartimento di Tecnologie e Salute, Istituto Superiore di Sanita and INFN, Viale regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Bucciolini, M. [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia dell' Universita and INFN, Florence (Italy)

    2007-12-11

    The aim of the work was to test the suitability of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond detectors for dosimetry in IMRT fields. We used in-house CVD detectors prepared with state-of-the-art polycrystalline diamond films (Element Six Ltd., UK). The parameters considered were time stability, dynamic response, dose-rate dependence and energy dependence. Output factors and TPR were measured in conventional photon fields and dose measurements were performed in IMRT fields using the step-and-shoot technique. Results prove that CVD diamond detectors are suitable for dosimetry in conventional treatments, but they still do not fit the IMRT dosimetry requirements, mainly because of their slow dynamic response. In particular, the slow dynamics affects linearity at low Monitor Units and renders it impossible to follow the sharp transients of IMRT fields. Time stability and dose-rate dependence as well must be improved to reduce their influence on dose assessment.

  18. Investigation on the priming effect of a CVD diamond microdosimeter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    CVD diamond microdosimeter is an ideal substitute of common Si.GaAs detector for extremely strong radiation experimental environment due to its high band gap energy, fast charge collection, low dielectric constant and hardness. In order to improve its character, a CVD diamond microdosimeter was irradiated by a proton dose of 46 Gy, and a lateral micro-ion beam induced charge (IBIC) technique was utilized to characterize it in low beam current (~fA). It was clearly shown that charge collection efficiency and energy resolution were greatly improved after proton irradiation of that dose. Moreover, the homogeneities of both its counting performance and collection efficiency were enhanced. Proton irradiation of 46 Gy has been proved to be an effective way to prime a CVD diamond.

  19. Investigation on the priming effect of a CVD diamond microdosimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Lu Rong Rong; Jiang Da; Li Xiao Lin; Zhu Jie Qing

    2002-01-01

    CVD diamond microdosimeter is an ideal substitute of common Si, GaAs detector for extremely strong radiation experimental environmental due to its high band gap energy, fast charge collection, low dielectric constant and hardness. In order to improve its character, a CVD diamond microdosimeter was irradiated by a proton dose of 46 Gy, and a lateral micro-ion beam induced charge (IBIC) technique was utilized to characterize it in low beam current (approx fA). It was clearly shown that charge collection efficiency and energy resolution were greatly improved after proton irradiation of that dose. Moreover, the homogeneities of both its counting performance and collection efficiency were enhanced. Proton irradiation of 46 Gy has been proved to be an effective way to prime a CVD diamond

  20. Application Research of Fuzzy Theory in PE Teaching Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ying

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive evaluation of PE teaching is always one the of difficulties of teaching management for universities; This paper, on the basis of analyzing the fuzzy features of teaching evaluation, puts forward fuzzy evaluation model of PE teaching. The model first discards the defects of traditional evaluation methods which always neglect the specific characteristics of PE teaching, instead, takes teaching objectives and results as orientation, designs new comprehensive evaluation indicators for PE teaching; Second, analytic hierarchy process and multivariate fuzzy evaluation method are used to build the evaluation model for PE teaching through building membership function and comprehensive evaluation matrix of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation; Finally, the model is realized by the data from three universities to carry out comprehensive evaluation on PE course and the experimental results indicate that the presented model has satisfied application results in evaluation accuracy and time consumption compared with traditional methods.

  1. CVD polymers fabrication of organic surfaces and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Gleason, Karen K

    2015-01-01

    The method of CVD (chemical vapor deposition) is a versatile technique to fabricate high-quality thin films and structured surfaces in the nanometer regime from the vapor phase. Already widely used for the deposition of inorganic materials in the semiconductor industry, CVD has become the method of choice in many applications to process polymers as well. This highly scalable technique allows for synthesizing high-purity, defect-free films and for systematically tuning their chemical, mechanical and physical properties. In addition, vapor phase processing is critical for the deposition of insol

  2. Engineered CVD Diamond Coatings for Machining and Tribological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumpala, Ravikumar; Chandran, Maneesh; Ramachandra Rao, M. S.

    2015-07-01

    Diamond is an allotropes of carbon and is unique because of its extreme hardness (~100 GPa), low friction coefficient (fracture toughness can be tuned by controlling the grain size of the coatings from a few microns to a few nanometers. In this review, characteristics and performance of the CVD diamond coatings deposited on cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) substrates were discussed with an emphasis on WC-Co grade selection, substrate pretreatment, nanocrystallinity and microcrystallinity of the coating, mechanical and tribological characteristics, coating architecture, and interfacial adhesion integrity. Engineered coating substrate architecture is essential for CVD diamond coatings to perform well under harsh and highly abrasive machining and tribological conditions.

  3. Management performance warehousing in PE 'Post Serbia'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidović Dragana R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a general model for the strategic management of postal infrastructure and resources, focused on development of warehousing service. The model was developed according to the characteristics of the public enterprise 'Pošte Srbije'. A set of indicators is developed for the purpose of analysis of external and internal environment of PE 'Post Serbia'. For positioning the focal postal enterprise among other, selected European posts, the benchmarking method is used, whereby indicators are determined by using eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Analysis of internal environment additionally includes survey and Delphi method to obtain the values of coefficients in the model. With small modifications, the model could be applicable to all postal operators and logistics companies which consider to develop warehouse service in logistics market.

  4. Morphology and parameters of crystallization the blend PE/Epoxy/PE-co-PEG; Morfologia e parametros de cristalizacao da blenda PE/epoxi/PE-co-PEG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Daniela; Coelho, Luiz Antonio Ferreira; Nack, Fernanda; Silva, Bruna Louise, E-mail: dep2db@joinville.udesc.br [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC), Joinville, SC (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas

    2014-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the morphology and crystallization parameters of high density polyethylene (HDPE) with different concentrations of epoxy (DGEBA / OTBG), and the compatibility of this system was used and the copolymer polyethylene-block-poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG-co-PE). The blends were obtained by mechanical mixing on a torque rheometer (Haake). Determined the crystallization parameters of the test matrix differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The morphology of the system was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was observed by XRD analysis that the addition of compatibilizer and epoxy resins do not interfere with the crystal structure of HDPE, indicating that the increase in crystallinity associated with the crystallization kinetics. It was observed that the compatibilizing helped the adhesion, reducing the size of the dispersed phase becomes a more stable morphology and obtaining a distribution of the dispersed epoxy phase. (author)

  5. Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli, strain LF82 disrupts apical junctional complexes in polarized epithelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ossa Juan C

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although bacteria are implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD, mechanisms of intestinal injury and immune activation remain unclear. Identification of adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC strains in IBD patients offers an opportunity to characterize the pathogenesis of microbial-induced intestinal inflammation in IBD. Previous studies have focused on the invasive phenotype of AIEC and the ability to replicate and survive in phagocytes. However, the precise mechanisms by which these newly identified microbes penetrate the epithelial lining remain to be clarified. Therefore, the aim of this study was to delineate the effects of AIEC, strain LF82 (serotype O83:H1 on model polarized epithelial monolayers as a contributor to intestinal injury in IBD. Results Infection of T84 and Madin-Darby Canine Kidney-I polarized epithelial cell monolayers with AIEC, strain LF82 led to a reduction in transepithelial electrical resistance and increased macromolecular (10 kilodalton dextran flux. Basolateral AIEC infection resulted in more severe disruption of the epithelial barrier. Increased permeability was accompanied by a redistribution of the tight junction adaptor protein, zonula occludens-1, demonstrated by confocal microscopy and formation of gaps between cells, as shown by transmission electron microscopy. After 4 h of infection of intestine 407 cells, bacteria replicated in the cell cytoplasm and were enclosed in membrane-bound vesicles positive for the late endosomal marker, LAMP1. Conclusion These findings indicate that AIEC, strain LF82 disrupts the integrity of the polarized epithelial cell barrier. This disruption enables bacteria to penetrate into the epithelium and replicate in the host cell cytoplasm. These findings provide important links between microbes related to IBD, the intestinal epithelial cell barrier and disease pathogenesis.

  6. Micropropagación de teca (Tectona grandis L.f)

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelnour-Esquivel, Ana; Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Escuela de Ingeniería Forestal; Cartago, Costa Rica; Muñoz, Anaballe; Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Escuela de Ingeniería Forestal; Cartago, Costa Rica

    2012-01-01

    La teca (Tectona grandis L.f.) es una especie considerada valiosa por la calidad de su madera. La alta demanda a nivel mundial ha impulsado su cultivo en plantaciones comerciales. Sin embargo, la calidad de muchas de estas plantaciones justificó el inicio de programas de mejoramiento de la especie. La introducción de técnicas de micropropagación o propagación clonal in vitro (en condiciones de laboratorio) en los programas de mejoramiento genético y para el establecimiento de plantaciones con...

  7. Electron density profiles in the background of LF absorption during Forbush-decrease and PSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satori, G.

    1989-01-01

    Based on the simulation of different Forbush decrease and particle precipitation effects in the D region, electron density profiles in the mid-latitudes the ionospheric absorption of low frequency (LF) radio waves was determined. The absorption variations at different frequenceis are strongly affected by the shape of the electron density profile. A structure appears which sometimes resembles the letter S (in a sloping form). Both the height (around 70 to 72 km) and the depth of the local minimum in the electron density contribute to the computed absorption changes of various degree at different frequencies. In this way several observed special absorption events can be interpreted.

  8. Digital control of pulsed gas metal arc welding inverter using TMS320LF2407A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Kaiyuan; Huang Shisheng; Li Xinglin; Wu Shuifeng

    2008-01-01

    A digital control of pulsed gas metal arc welding inverter was proposed. A control system consisting of analogue parts was replaced with a new digital control implemented in a TMS320LF2407A DSP chip. The design and constructional features of the whole digital control were presented. The resources of the DSP chip were efficiently utilized and the circuits are very concise, which can enhance the stability and reliability of welding inverter. Experimental results demonstrate that the developed digital control has the ability to accomplish the excellent pulsed gas metal arc welding process and the merits of the developed digital control are stable welding process, little spatter and perfect weld appearance.

  9. CMFD simulation of ERCOSAM PANDA spray tests PE1 and PE2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippov, A., E-mail: phil@ibrae.ac.ru [Nuclear Safety Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IBRAE RAN) (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation); Grigoryev, S. [Nuclear Safety Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IBRAE RAN) (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation); Drobyshevsky, N.; Kiselev, A.; Shyukin, A.; Yudina, T. [Nuclear Safety Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IBRAE RAN) (Russian Federation)

    2016-04-01

    Highlights: • Successful modeling of gas mixtures and droplet flows in multicompartment system. • For pressure, modeling of gas-wall heat transfer (and heat radiation) is important. • Dependence of gas mixing time in spray vessel on the used nozzle may be essential. • Penetration of helium-enriched mixture into another vessel due to spray operation. • Effect on pressure of sump re-evaporation and gas heating (by walls) during spray. - Abstract: The ERCOSAM project (together with the SAMARA project) includes a set of multi-stage experiments carried out at different thermal-hydraulics facilities (TOSQAN, MISTRA, PANDA, SPOT) and their numerical simulation. The test sequences aim to investigate hydrogen concentration build-up and stratification during a postulated severe accident as well as the effect of activation of Severe Accident Management systems (SAMs) on stratification. At the initial Phases I–III of the tests stratification of the injected light gases (steam, helium) is established, pressure increases. The models of SAMs are activated at the final Phase IV. In the paper, two spray tests PE1 and PE2 performed at PANDA facility are numerically investigated aiming for code validation (FLUENT) and better understanding of physical processes. Phases I–IV of the tests were simulated. A satisfactory agreement with the experimental results on gas component mole fractions was obtained. The reasons of obtained some discrepancies in pressure and temperature were studied in multivariate calculations and discussed in the paper. The tests PE1 and PE2 were performed with different spray nozzles and initial conditions. In simulation that resulted in different flow patterns during spray operation. The sensitivity to nozzle angle and some other input parameters was investigated. Possible factors of depressurization rate caused by spray operation were also studied. The key features observed in the experiments and obtained numerically being of interest in terms of

  10. PE11, a PE/PPE family protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is involved in cell wall remodeling and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Parul; Rao, Rameshwaram Nagender; Reddy, Jala Ram Chandra; Prasad, R B N; Kotturu, Sandeep Kumar; Ghosh, Sudip; Mukhopadhyay, Sangita

    2016-02-23

    The role of the unique proline-glutamic acid (PE)/proline-proline-glutamic acid (PPE) family of proteins in the pathophysiology and virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is not clearly understood. One of the PE family proteins, PE11 (LipX or Rv1169c), specific to pathogenic mycobacteria is found to be over-expressed during infection of macrophages and in active TB patients. In this study, we report that M. smegmatis expressing PE11 (Msmeg-PE11) exhibited altered colony morphology and cell wall lipid composition leading to a marked increase in resistance against various environmental stressors and antibiotics. The cell envelope of Msmeg-PE11 also had greater amount of glycolipids and polar lipids. Msmeg-PE11 was found to have better survival rate in infected macrophages. Mice infected with Msmeg-PE11 had higher bacterial load, showed exacerbated organ pathology and mortality. The liver and lung of Msmeg-PE11-infected mice also had higher levels of IL-10, IL-4 and TNF-α cytokines, indicating a potential role of this protein in mycobacterial virulence.

  11. Surface analysis of CVD diamond exposed to fusion plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porro, S.; De Temmerman, G.; MacLaren, D. A.; Lisgo, S.; Rudakov, D. L.; Westerhout, J.; Wiora, M.; John, P.; Villalpando, I.; Wilson, J. I. B.

    2010-01-01

    Microcrystalline undoped and heavily boron-doped polycrystalline diamond layers have been deposited on various substrates by hot filament CVD and exposed to hydrogen plasma in a linear plasma reactor (Pilot-PSI, The Netherlands) that simulates the high flux and high density plasma conditions of toka

  12. Atmospheric pressure CVD of SNO2 and ZNO:AL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelen, J. van; Kniknie, B.J.; Steijvers, H.L.A.H.; Mannie, G.; Thune, P.; Illiberi, A.

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure CVD (APCVD) is a highly cost effective method of depositing transparent conductive oxides (TCOs). In this work, insights in alcohol addition in the widely applied SnO2 process are discussed, including high resolution TEM images. Furthermore, the APCVD process of ZnO:Al was demon

  13. Blue 405 nm laser light mediates heart rate - investigations at the acupoint Neiguan (Pe.6 in Chinese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Litscher

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : In previous studies, we showed that laser needle acupuncture with red and infrared light has specific effects on bio-signals of the brain and heart. Aims : In this publication we report the effect of blue laser light on heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV before, during and after acupuncture at the acupoint Neiguan (Pe.6 in Chinese adults. These are the first data published concerning heart rate and HRV, obtained with blue laser acupuncture equipment. Patients and Methods : The investigations were carried out in 13 healthy Chinese volunteers with a mean age of 31.2 ± 7.5 years within a randomized, controlled study. Stimulation was performed with painless blue laser light (wavelength: 405 nm; activation: 10 minutes bilaterally at Pe.6. In a second session, for control reasons the laser was not activated. Results Heart rate showed a significant (p=0.008 decrease during blue laser light stimulation. In contrast, no significant changes were found when the laser was deactivated. The evaluation parameter LF/HF ratio (low frequency/high frequency ratio from the HRV spectral analysis showed a very slight increase during stimulation, however it was not significant. Conclusions : Our main conclusion is that continuous blue laser light stimulation on Neiguan significantly reduces heart rate of Chinese adults.

  14. Blue 405 nm laser light mediates heart rate – investigations at the acupoint Neiguan (Pe.6 in Chinese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Litscher

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In previous studies, we showed that laser needle acupuncture with red and infrared light has specific effects on bio-signals of the brain and heart. Aims: In this publication we report the effect of blue laser light on heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV before, during and after acupuncture at the acupoint Neiguan (Pe.6 in Chinese adults. These are the first data published concerning heart rate and HRV, obtained with blue laser acupuncture equipment. Patients and Methods: The investigations were carried out in 13 healthy Chinese volunteers with a mean age of 31.2 ± 7.5 years within a randomized, controlled study. Stimulation was performed with painless blue laser light (wavelength: 405 nm; activation: 10 minutes bilaterally at Pe.6. In a second session, for control reasons the laser was not activated. Results Heart rate showed a significant (p=0.008 decrease during blue laser light stimulation. In contrast, no significant changes were found when the laser was deactivated. The evaluation parameter LF/HF ratio (low frequency/high frequency ratio from the HRV spectral analysis showed a very slight increase during stimulation, however it was not significant. Conclusions: Our main conclusion is that continuous blue laser light stimulation on Neiguan significantly reduces heart rate of Chinese adults.

  15. PE-3 - a high class pipeline; PE-3 - um oleoduto high-class

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashiguchi, D. Issao; Santos, J.A. Costa; Medeiros, A. Roberto [GDK Engenharia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Garcia, Amaury [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santos, F. Cesar [Superpesa Transportes Especiais e Intermodais, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Pipeline PE-3, with a length of approximately 17 Km mainly inside of Guanabara Bay, connects the refinery of Duque de Caxias to the terminal of the Ilha D'Agua. It is used to export dark products from the refinery. Product transfer, by operational necessity, is conducted at a temperature of 75 deg C. This introduces a considerable load of tension on the pipeline, in addition to creating a fatigue-inducing thermal cycle. Because of this, and unlike almost all other existing oil and gas pipelines, PE-3 posses a zig zag configuration, alternating a straight tube with a curve of 10 degrees. This stands out as an innovative concept. Their are only two other similar installations in the world, but in very different conditions, thus conferring a pioneering aspect on this pipeline. Due to its criticality, the pipeline is predicated on complete certification in its entirety, from design to operation and in adherence with the strictest requirements. The environmental conditions encountered along its right of way, and the constructive tolerances imposed by the project, obligate the adoption of constructive and technical solutions that are themselves innovative in the terrestrial and marine realms. The principal objective of this work is to present a general overview of the methodology employed in PE-3 construction, installation and assembly. (author)

  16. A novel homogenization procedure to model the skin layers in LF numerical dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Valerio; Chen, Xi Lin; Cruciani, Silvano; Campi, Tommaso; Feliziani, Mauro

    2016-06-01

    In this study we focus on the validity of the skin layer currently implemented in up-to-date human-body anatomical models employed in low frequency (LF) numerical dosimetry. Indeed, the several layers of the skin structure, i.e. the stratum corneum (SC), dermis, and epidermis are in these models embedded into a unique fairly-thick (2-3 mm) layer encompassing all of them. While a previous work from the authors showed that for normal-standing (or limb-non-touching) postures a single-layer skin model could conservatively estimate the peak electric field induced in the skin, at least a two-layer skin model comprising of the SC and the remaining skin layers should be used for limb-touching exposure scenarios. This implies notable efforts to discretize the tiny SC layer questioning the validity of current anatomical models. A novel strategy based on the homogenization of the several skin layers has been therefore proposed in order to eliminate the SC from the computational domain opening the doors to future LF magnetic applications even for limb-touching scenarios.

  17. The Lectin Frontier Database (LfDB, and Data Generation Based on Frontal Affinity Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hirabayashi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are a large group of carbohydrate-binding proteins, having been shown to comprise at least 48 protein scaffolds or protein family entries. They occur ubiquitously in living organisms—from humans to microorganisms, including viruses—and while their functions are yet to be fully elucidated, their main underlying actions are thought to mediate cell-cell and cell-glycoconjugate interactions, which play important roles in an extensive range of biological processes. The basic feature of each lectin’s function resides in its specific sugar-binding properties. In this regard, it is beneficial for researchers to have access to fundamental information about the detailed oligosaccharide specificities of diverse lectins. In this review, the authors describe a publicly available lectin database named “Lectin frontier DataBase (LfDB”, which undertakes the continuous publication and updating of comprehensive data for lectin-standard oligosaccharide interactions in terms of dissociation constants (Kd’s. For Kd determination, an advanced system of frontal affinity chromatography (FAC is used, with which quantitative datasets of interactions between immobilized lectins and >100 fluorescently labeled standard glycans have been generated. The FAC system is unique in its clear principle, simple procedure and high sensitivity, with an increasing number (>67 of associated publications that attest to its reliability. Thus, LfDB, is expected to play an essential role in lectin research, not only in basic but also in applied fields of glycoscience.

  18. Improvement of barrier properties of rotomolded PE containers with nanoclay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamshidi, Shadi; Sundararaj, Uttandaraman, E-mail: u.sundararaj@ucalgary.ca [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4 (Canada)

    2015-05-22

    Polyethylene (PE) is widely used to make bulk containers in rotational molding process. The challenge in this study is to improve permeation resistance of PE to hydrocarbon solvents and gases. Adding organomodified clay improves the thermal, barrier and mechanical properties of PE. In fact, clay layers create a tortuous path against the permeant, yielding better barrier properties. Due to the non-polar hydrophobic nature of PE and polar hydrophilic structure of clay minerals, the compatibilizer plays a crucial role to enhance the dispersion level of clay in the matrix. In this study High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and Linear Low Density Polyethylene (LLDPE) layered silicate nanocomposite were melt-compounded with two concentrations of organomodified clay (2 and 4 wt. %). The interaction between nanoclay, compatibilizer and rotomolding grade of PE were examined by using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and rheology test. Rheology was used to determine the performance of our material at low shear processing condition.

  19. Flamenco guitarist Paco Peña tours CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Pauline Gagnon

    2013-01-01

    CERN continues to attract a wide variety of visitors. On 5 June, it was the turn of renowned flamenco guitarist Paco Peña. With a broad interest in science, Peña was here to celebrate his 60th birthday, accompanied by friends David Ashton and Chrissie Twigg, and his wife Karin.     Paco Peña during his visit to ATLAS. Paco Peña’s most famous compositions include Misa Flamenca, a Flamenco Mass, and Requiem for the Earth. In 1997, he was named Oficial de la Cruz de la Orden del Mérito Civil by King Juan Carlos of Spain. "This is truly amazing!" said Peña after seeing the ATLAS detector. His wife confessed that she had never seen him take so many pictures. The group asked numerous questions during their visit. It is not always easy to impress world travellers, but the ATLAS detector did the trick.

  20. Changes in CVD risk factors in the activity counseling trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan Baruth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Meghan Baruth1, Sara Wilcox1, James F Sallis3, Abby C King4,5, Bess H Marcus6, Steven N Blair1,21Department of Exercise Science, 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Public Health Research Center, Columbia, SC, USA; 3Department of Psychology, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, USA; 4Department of Health Research and Policy, 5Stanford Prevention Research Center, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA; 6Behavioral and Social Sciences Section, Brown University Program in Public Health, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: Primary care facilities may be a natural setting for delivering interventions that focus on behaviors that improve cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors. The purpose of this study was to examine the 24-month effects of the Activity Counseling Trial (ACT on CVD risk factors, to examine whether changes in CVD risk factors differed according to baseline risk factor status, and to examine whether changes in fitness were associated with changes in CVD risk factors. ACT was a 24-month multicenter randomized controlled trial to increase physical activity. Participants were 874 inactive men and women aged 35–74 years. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three arms that varied by level of counseling, intensity, and resource requirements. Because there were no significant differences in change over time between arms on any of the CVD risk factors examined, all arms were combined, and the effects of time, independent of arm, were examined separately for men and women. Time × Baseline risk factor status interactions examined whether changes in CVD risk factors differed according to baseline risk factor status. Significant improvements in total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL-C, and triglycerides were seen in

  1. To Pe or not to Pe: a P3-like ERP component reflecting the processing of response errors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridderinkhof, K.R.; Ramautar, J.R.; Wijnen, J.G.

    2009-01-01

    ERP studies have highlighted several electrocortical components that can be observed when people make errors. We propose that the PE reflects processes functionally similar to those reflected in the P3 and that the PE and P3 should covary. We speculate that these processes refer to the motivational

  2. A comparative study of measured amplitude and phase perturbations of VLF and LF radio signals induced by solar flares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šulić D.M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Very Low Frequency (VLF and Low Frequency (LF signal perturbations were examined to study ionospheric disturbances induced by solar X-ray flares in order to understand processes involved in propagation of VLF/LF radio signals over short paths and to estimate specific characteristics of each short path. The receiver at the Belgrade station is constantly monitoring the amplitude and phase of a coherent and subionospherically propagating LF signal operated in Sicily NSC at 45.90 kHz, and a VLF signal operated in Isola di Tavolara ICV at 20.27 kHz, with the great circle distances of 953 km and 976 km, respectively. A significant number of similarities between these short paths is a direct result of both transmitters and the receiver’s geographic location. The main difference is in transmitter frequencies. From July 2008 to February 2014 there were about 200 events that were chosen for further examination. All selected examples showed that the amplitude and phase of VLF and LF signals were perturbed by solar X-ray flares occurrence. This six-year period covers both minimum and maximum of solar activity. Simultaneous measurement of amplitude and phase of the VLF/LF signals during a solar flare occurrence was applied to evaluate the electron density profile versus altitude, to carry out the function of time over the middle Europe. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176002 i br. III4402

  3. Biochemical fingerprint and pharmacological applications of Barleria noctiflora L.f. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagar Yadav, Sangilimuthu; Ramalingam, Sathishkumar; Jebamalairaj, Anitha; Subban, Ravi; Sundaram, Karpagavalli Mennakshi

    2016-12-01

    Background Antioxidant and antihistamine agents from Barleria noctiflora L.f. as natural source due to the existing modern medicine give various adverse effects to overcome these problems with natural products. MethodsB. noctiflora leaves extract was fractionated with column chromatography; the homogenized fractions were monitored with thin layer chromatography (TLC) and characterized by using UV-visible, FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectrometry spectral studies. The volatile phytoconstituents of B. noctiflora extract were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Phytoconstituents from B. noctiflora leaves extract were screened for their antioxidant and antihistamine potential in vitro (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid radical decolouration assay, nitric oxide radical scavenging activity, superoxide radical scavenging activity and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity) and in silico (molecular docking), respectively. Results Antioxidant and antihistamine barlerinoside has been isolated and characterized from the leaves of B. noctiflora L.f. Barlerinoside revealed their free-radical scavenging ability on OH-, OH•, NO-, O2- and H2O2 radicals and found high percentage inhibition against OH- radical at the IC50 value of 50.45±2.52  µg. The methanol (MeOH) extract of B. noctiflora leaves contains cyclotene; N,N-dimethylglycine; tetrahydrocyclopenta [1,3] dioxin-4-one; phenol, 2-methoxy-; benzofuran, 2-methyl-; 1,4:3,6-dianhydro-α-d-glucopyranose; 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol; 1,3;2,5-dimethylene-l-rhamnitol; levoglucosan and bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-7-ene-2,5-dione as being the major compounds. Among phytoconstituents present in the extract, the hexestrol; 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis(2-methylpropyl) ester; 1-(3,6,6-trimethyl-1,6,7,7a-tetrahydrocyclopenta[c]pyran-1-yl) ethanone; megastigmatrienone; furan interacted with histamine H1 receptor and bind at GLU-177 and ASP

  4. (PE-HD/SEBS)-g-MAH对PE-HD/木粉复合材料增容的研究%Effect of (PE-HD/SEBS)-g-MAH on the Compatibility of PE-HD/Wood Flour Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石恒冲; 李斌

    2007-01-01

    采用转矩流变仪制备出马来酸酐(MAH)接枝PE-HD/氢化(苯乙烯-丁二烯-苯乙烯)共聚物(SEBS)(PE-HD/SEBS)-g-MAH作为PE-HD/共混物木粉复合材料的界面相容剂,并研究了制备过程中转矩的变化,结果表明,体系的转矩随着MAH和引发剂过氧化二异丙苯含量的增加而增加,苯乙烯促进了MAH和PE-HD/SEBS的反应;通过傅里叶红外分析证实了MAH接枝到聚合物上.(PE-HD/SEBS)-g-MAH能明显地提高PE-HD/木粉复合材料的力学性能,当其添加量为2%(质量分数,下同)时复合材料的拉伸强度、弯曲强度和冲击强度分别增加了157%、146%和145%;扫描电镜也能观察到加入相容剂的复合材料界面粘接非常好,进一步证实了(PE-HD/SEBS)-g-MAH提高了复合材料的界面相容性.

  5. Argan oil improves surrogate markers of CVD in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sour, Souad; Belarbi, Meriem; Khaldi, Darine; Benmansour, Nassima; Sari, Nassima; Nani, Abdelhafid; Chemat, Farid; Visioli, Francesco

    2012-06-01

    Limited - though increasing - evidence suggests that argan oil might be endowed with potential healthful properties, mostly in the areas of CVD and prostate cancer. We sought to comprehensively determine the effects of argan oil supplementation on the plasma lipid profile and antioxidant status of a group of healthy Algerian subjects, compared with matched controls. A total of twenty healthy subjects consumed 15 g/d of argan oil - with toasted bread - for breakfast, during 4 weeks (intervention group), whereas twenty matched controls followed their habitual diet, but did not consume argan oil. The study lasted 30 d. At the end of the study, argan oil-supplemented subjects exhibited higher plasma vitamin E concentrations, lower total and LDL-cholesterol, lower TAG and improved plasma and cellular antioxidant profile, when compared with controls. In conclusion, we showed that Algerian argan oil is able to positively modulate some surrogate markers of CVD, through mechanisms which warrant further investigation.

  6. Crystal growth of CVD diamond and some of its peculiarities

    CERN Document Server

    Piekarczyk, W

    1999-01-01

    Experiments demonstrate that CVD diamond can form in gas environments that are carbon undersaturated with respect to diamond. This fact is, among others, the most serious violation of principles of chemical thermodynamics. In this $9 paper it is shown that none of the principles is broken when CVD diamond formation is considered not a physical process consisting in growth of crystals but a chemical process consisting in accretion of macro-molecules of polycyclic $9 saturated hydrocarbons belonging to the family of organic compounds the smallest representatives of which are adamantane, diamantane, triamantane and so forth. Since the polymantane macro-molecules are in every respect identical with $9 diamond single crystals with hydrogen-terminated surfaces, the accretion of polymantane macro- molecules is a process completely equivalent to the growth of diamond crystals. However, the accretion of macro-molecules must be $9 described in a way different from that used to describe the growth of crystals because so...

  7. Catalytic CVD of SWCNTs at Low Temperatures and SWCNT Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Robert; Liebau, Maik; Unger, Eugen; Graham, Andrew P.; Duesberg, Georg S.; Kreupl, Franz; Hoenlein, Wolfgang; Pompe, Wolfgang

    2004-09-01

    New results on the planar growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at low temperatures will be reported. Optimizing catalyst, catalyst support, and growth parameters yields SWCNTs at temperatures as low as 600 °C. Growth at such low temperatures largely affects the diameter distribution since coalescence of the catalyst is suppressed. A phenomenological growth model will be suggested for CVD growth at low temperatures. The model takes into account surface diffusion and is an alternative to the bulk diffusion based vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) model. Furthermore, carbon nanotubes field effect transistors based on substrate grown SWCNTs will be presented. In these devices good contact resistances could be achieved by electroless metal deposition or metal evaporation of the contacts.

  8. CVD Diamonds in the BaBar Radiation Monitoring System

    CERN Document Server

    Bruinsma, M; Edwards, A J; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Kirkby, D; Petersen, B A

    2006-01-01

    To prevent excessive radiation damage to its Silicon Vertex Tracker, the BaBar experiment at SLAC uses a radiation monitoring and protection system that triggers a beam abort whenever radiation levels are anomalously high. The existing system, which employs large area Si PIN diodes as radiation sensors, has become increasingly difficult to operate due to radiation damage. We have studied CVD diamond sensors as a potential alternative for these silicon sensors. Two diamond sensors have been routinely used since their installation in the Vertex Tracker in August 2002. The experience with these sensors and a variety of tests in the laboratory have shown CVD diamonds to be a viable solution for dosimetry in high radiation environments. However, our studies have also revealed surprising side-effects.

  9. X-ray sensitivity measurements on CVD diamond film detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foulon, F.; Pochet, T. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Electronique et d`Instrumentation Nucleaire; Gheeraert, E. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1993-12-31

    Microwave chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond films have been used to fabricate radiation detectors. The polycrystalline diamond films have a resistivity of 10{sup 12} ohm.cm and carrier mobility and lifetime of about 280 cm{sup 2}/V.s and 530 ps. The detector response to laser pulses (355, 532 and 1064 nm), X-ray flux (15-50 keV) and alpha particles ({sup 241}Am, 5.49 MeV) has been investigated. The response speed of the detector is in the 100 ps range. A sensitivity of about 3 x 10{sup -10} A/V.Gy.s was measured under 50 keV X-ray flux. The detector current response to X-ray flux is almost linear. It is also shown that CVD diamond detectors can be used for alpha particle counting. (authors). 9 figs., 25 refs.

  10. Development of CVD diamond detectors for clinical dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piliero, M. A.; Hugtenburg, R. P.; Ryde, S. J. S.; Oliver, K.

    2014-11-01

    The use of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) methods for the manufacture of diamonds could lead to detectors for high-resolution radiotherapy dosimetry that are cheaper and more reproducible than detectors based on natural diamonds. In this work two prototype designs (Diamond Detectors Ltd, Poole) of CVD diamond detectors were considered. The detectors were encapsulated in a water-proof housing in a form-factor that would be suitable for dosimetry measurements in water, as well as solid material phantoms. Stability of the dosimeter over time, the dose-response, dose-rate response and angular-response were examined. The study demonstrated that the detector behaviour conformed with theory in terms of the dose-rate response and had acceptable properties for use in the clinic.

  11. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) OCRWM Loop Error Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PHILIPP, B.L.

    2000-07-26

    Characterization is specifically identified by the Richland Operations Office (RL) for the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) of the US Department of Energy (DOE), as requiring application of the requirements in the Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (QARD) (RW-0333P DOE 1997a). Those analyses that provide information that is necessary for repository acceptance require application of the QARD. The cold vacuum drying (CVD) project identified the loops that measure, display, and record multi-canister overpack (MCO) vacuum pressure and Tempered Water (TW) temperature data as providing OCRWM data per Application of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Quality Assurance Requirements to the Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project HNF-SD-SNF-RPT-007. Vacuum pressure transmitters (PT 1*08, 1*10) and TW temperature transmitters (TIT-3*05, 3*12) are used to verify drying and to determine the water content within the MCO after CVD.

  12. Leakage current measurements of a pixelated polycrystalline CVD diamond detector

    OpenAIRE

    Zain, R.M.; Maneuski, D.; O'Shea, V.; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Cunnigham, L.; Stehl, C.; Berderman, E.; Rahim, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    Diamond has several desirable features when used as a material for radiation detection. With the invention of synthetic growth techniques, it has become feasible to look at developing diamond radiation detectors with reasonable surface areas. Polycrystalline diamond has been grown using a chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique by the University of Augsburg and detector structures fabricated at the James Watt Nanofabrication Centre (JWNC) in the University of Glasgow in order to produce pi...

  13. Electrochromic behavior in CVD grown tungsten oxide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogova, D.; Iossifova, A.; Ivanova, T.; Dimitrova, Zl; Gesheva, K.

    1999-03-01

    Solid state electrochemical devices (ECDs) for smart windows, large area displays and automobile rearview mirrors are of considerable technological and commercial interest. In this paper, we studied the electrochromic properties of amorphous and polycrystalline CVD carbonyl tungsten oxide films and the possibility for sol-gel thin TiO 2 film to play the role of passive electrode in an electrochromic window with solid polymer electrolyte.

  14. Electrochromic behavior in CVD grown tungsten oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogova, D.; Iossifova, A.; Ivanova, T.; Gesheva, K.; Dimitrova, Z. [Central Laboratory for Solar Energy and New Energy Sources at Bulgarian Academy of Science, 72 Tzarigradsko shossee Blvd., Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1999-03-15

    Solid state electrochemical devices (ECDs) for smart windows, large area displays and automobile rearview mirrors are of considerable technological and commercial interest. In this paper, we studied the electrochromic properties of amorphous and polycrystalline CVD carbonyl tungsten oxide films and the possibility for sol-gel thinTiO{sub 2} film to play the role of passive electrode in an electrochromic window with solid polymer electrolyte

  15. THz-conductivity of CVD graphene on different substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Cortés, Daniel; Sempere, Bernat; Colominas, Carles; Ferrer Anglada, Núria

    2015-01-01

    Optoelectronic properties of CVD graphene are charac-terized over a wide frequency range: THz, IR, visible and near-UV. We used Raman spectroscopy to characterize the synthesized graphene films. All graphene layers were deposited on various substrates, some ones transparent or flexible, such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), quartz and silicon. Transmission Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) method, in the range from 100 GHz to 3 THz, is used to an...

  16. Evidence relating sodium intake to blood pressure and CVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Martin; Mente, Andrew; Yusuf, Salim

    2014-01-01

    Sodium is an essential nutrient, mostly ingested as salt (sodium chloride). Average sodium intake ranges from 3 to 6 g per day (7.5-15 g/day of salt) in most countries, with regional variations. Increasing levels of sodium intake have a positive association with higher blood pressure. Randomized controlled trials report a reduction in blood pressure with reducing sodium intake from moderate to low levels, which is the evidence that forms the basis for international guidelines recommending all people consume less than 2.0 g of sodium per day. However, no randomized trials have demonstrated that reducing sodium leads to a reduction in cardiovascular disease (CVD). In their absence, the next option is to examine the association between sodium consumption and CVD in prospective cohort studies. Several recent prospective cohort studies have indicated that while high intake of sodium (>6 g/d) is associated with higher risk of CVD compared to those with moderate intake (3 to 5 g/d), lower intake (<3 g/day) is also associated with a higher risk (despite lower blood pressure levels). However, most of these studies were conducted in populations at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Current epidemiologic evidence supports that an optimal level of sodium intake is in the range of about 3-5 g/day, as this range is associated with lowest risk of CVD in prospective cohort studies. Randomized controlled trials, comparing the effect of low sodium intake to moderate intake on incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality, are required to truly define optimal intake range.

  17. Amelioration of Colitis in Mouse Model by Exploring Antioxidative Potentials of an Indigenous Probiotic Strain of Lactobacillus fermentum Lf1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Chauhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the preliminary screening of eight indigenous putative probiotic Lactobacilli, Lactobacillus fermentum Lf1 was selected for assessing its antioxidative efficacy in DSS colitis mouse model based on its ability to enhance the expression of “Nrf2” by 6.43-fold and malondialdehyde (MDA inhibition by 78.1  ±  0.24% in HT-29 cells under H2O2 stress. The Disease Activity Index and histological scores of Lf1-treated mice were lower than the control group. However, expression of “Nrf2” was not observed in Lf1-treated mice. A significant increase in the expression of antioxidative enzymes such as SOD2 and TrxR-1 was recorded in both of the groups. The expression of SOD2 was significantly downregulated in colitis-induced mice by −100.00-fold relative to control group, and the downregulation was considerably reduced to −37.04-fold in colitis Lf1 treatment group. Almost, a similar trend was recorded in case of “thioredoxin” expression, though “CAT” was refractile to expression. The Lf1-treated group had decreased malondialdehyde level as compared to colitis control (37.92  ±  6.31 versus 91.13  ±  5.76 μM/g. These results point towards Lf1-induced activation of the antioxidant enzyme system in the mouse model and its prospects to be explored as a new strategy for IBD management.

  18. Influence of Pressure on SiNx:H Film by LF-PECVD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-li Wen; Xiao-ning Cao; Chun-lan Zhou; Wen-jing Wang

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogenated silicon nitride films as an effective antireflection and passivation coating of silicon solar cell were prepared on p-type polished silicon substrate (1.0 Ωcm) by direct LF-PECVD (low frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition) of Centrotherm.The preferable passivation effect was obtained and the refractive index was in the range of 2.017-2.082.The refractive index of the hydrogenated silicon nitride films became larger with the increase of the pressure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to study the pressure influence on the film structural properties.The results highlighted high hydrogen bond and high Si-N bonds density in the film,which were greatly influenced by the pressure.The passivation effect of the films was influenced by the Si dangling bonds density.Finally the effective minority liftetime degradation with time was shown and discussed by considering the relationship between the structural properties and passivation.

  19. Hjólför í íslensku malbiki. Slit og deigar formbreytingar

    OpenAIRE

    Birkir Hrafn Jóakimsson 1981

    2014-01-01

    Hjólfaramyndun er umtalsvert vandamál vegum og götum hér á landi. Hjólför myndast vegna slits annars vegar og deigra formbreytinga hins vegar. Slit má rekja til umferðar bifreiða búnum negldum hjólbörðum og formbreytingar, skrið aðallega, má tengja við umferð þungra ökutækja. Þetta verkefni fjallar um hvernig hægt er að spá fyrir um hjólfaramyndun í malbiki bæði vegna slits og deigra formbreytinga. Á Íslandi hefur hingað til ekki verið hægt að spá fyrir um hjólfaramyndun vegna nagldekkja. ...

  20. Exopolysaccharide from Lactobacillus fermentum Lf2 and its functional characterization as a yogurt additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale, Elisa C; Perezlindo, Marcos J; Burns, Patricia; Tabacman, Eduardo; Reinheimer, Jorge A; Binetti, Ana G

    2016-11-01

    Lactobacillus fermentum Lf2 is a strain which is able to produce high levels (approximately 1 g/l) of crude exopolysaccharide (EPS) when it is grown in optimised conditions. The aim of this work was to characterize the functional aspects of this EPS extract, focusing on its application as a dairy food additive. Our findings are consistent with an EPS extract that acts as moderate immunomodulator, modifying s-IgA and IL-6 levels in the small intestine when added to yogurt and milk, respectively. Furthermore, this EPS extract, in a dose feasible to use as a food additive, provides protection against Salmonella infection in a murine model, thus representing a mode of action to elicit positive health benefits. Besides, it contributes to the rheological characteristics of yogurt, and could function as a food additive with both technological and functional roles, making possible the production of a new functional yogurt with improved texture.

  1. Effect of the total solar eclipse of March 20, 2015, on VLF/LF propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovieva, M. S.; Rozhnoi, A. A.; Fedun, V.; Schwingenschuh, K.

    2016-05-01

    The analyzed amplitude and phase variations in electromagnetic VLF and LF signals at 20-45 kHz, received in Moscow, Graz (Austria), and Sheffield (UK) during the total solar eclipse of March 20, 2015, are considered. The 22 analyzed paths have lengths of 200—6100 km, are differently oriented, and cross 40-100% occultation regions. Fifteen paths crossed the region where the occultation varied from 40 to 90%. Solar eclipse effects were found only on one of these paths in the signal phase (-50°). Four long paths crossed the 90-100% occultation region, and signal amplitude and phase anomalies were detected for all four paths. Negative phase anomalies varied from-75° to-90°, and the amplitude anomalies were both positive and negative and were not larger than 5 dB. It was shown that the effective height of the ionosphere varied from 6.5 to 11 km during the eclipse.

  2. Mauritic acid: a new dammarane triterpene from the roots of Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (Arecaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolen, Hector H F; Soares, Elzalina R; da Silva, Felipe M A; de Oliveira, Aimêe A; de Souza, Antonia Q L; de Medeiros, Lívia S; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson; Cavalcanti, Bruno C; Pessoa, Cláudia O; Moraes, Manoel O; Salvador, Marcos J; de Souza, Afonso D L

    2013-01-01

    A new dammarane triterpene named mauritic acid (1) was isolated from the roots of Mauritia flexuosa L.f. The complete structural assignment of this new compound was elucidated from spectroscopic methods. Moreover, this compound was evaluated for its cytotoxicity against human cancer cell lines (OVCAR-8, PCM3, NCIH358M and different leukaemia cell strains). The mauritic acid presented significant cytotoxicity against OVCAR-8, PCM3 and NCIH358M cell lines with IC50 3.02, 2.39 and 6.19 μM, respectively. The triterpenes 1 and 2 were also tested for their antimicrobial activity against 15 strains of microorganisms, including fungi and bacteria, with the best minimal inhibitory concentration values ranging from 50.8 to 203.5 μM.

  3. Gluing together Proof Environments: Canonical extensions of LF Type Theories featuring Locks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furio Honsell

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present two extensions of the LF Constructive Type Theory featuring monadic locks. A lock is a monadic type construct that captures the effect of an external call to an oracle. Such calls are the basic tool for gluing together diverse Type Theories and proof development environments. The oracle can be invoked either to check that a constraint holds or to provide a suitable witness. The systems are presented in the canonical style developed by the CMU School. The first system, CLLFP, is the canonical version of the system LLFP, presented earlier by the authors. The second system, CLLFP?, features the possibility of invoking the oracle to obtain a witness satisfying a given constraint. We discuss encodings of Fitch-Prawitz Set theory, call-by-value lambda-calculi, and systems of Light Linear Logic. Finally, we show how to use Fitch-Prawitz Set Theory to define a type system that types precisely the strongly normalizing terms.

  4. Cognitive LF-Ant: A Novel Protocol for Healthcare Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Alencar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors present the Cognitive LF-Ant protocol for emergency reporting in healthcare wireless sensor networks. The protocol is inspired by the natural behaviour of ants and a cognitive component provides the capabilities to dynamically allocate resources, in accordance with the emergency degree of each patient. The intra-cluster emergency reporting is inspired by the different capabilities of leg-manipulated ants. The inter-cluster reporting is aided by the cooperative modulation diversity with spectrum sensing, which can detect new emergency reporting requests and forward them. Simulations results show the decrease of average delay time as the probability of opportunistic access increases, which privileges the emergency reporting related to the patients with higher priority of resources’ usage. Furthermore, the packet loss rate is decreased by the use of cooperative modulation diversity with spectrum sensing.

  5. Infrared spectroscopic study of carrier scattering in gated CVD graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kwangnam; Kim, Jiho; Kim, Joo Youn; Lee, Wonki; Hwang, Jun Yeon; Hwang, E. H.; Choi, E. J.

    2016-12-01

    We measured Drude absorption of gated CVD graphene using far-infrared transmission spectroscopy and determined the carrier scattering rate (γ ) as a function of the varied carrier density (n ). The n -dependent γ (n ) was obtained for a series of conditions systematically changed as (10 K, vacuum) → (300 K, vacuum) → (300 K, ambient pressure), which reveals that (1) at low-T, charged impurity (=A /√{n } ) and short-range defect (=B √{n } ) are the major scattering sources which constitute the total scattering γ =A /√{n }+B √{n } , (2) among various kinds of phonons populated at room-T , surface polar phonon of the SiO2 substrate is the dominantly scattering source, and (3) in air, the gas molecules adsorbed on graphene play a dual role in carrier scattering as charged impurity center and resonant scattering center. We present the absolute scattering strengths of those individual scattering sources, which provides the complete map of scattering mechanism of CVD graphene. This scattering map allows us to find out practical measures to suppress the individual scatterings, the mobility gains accompanied by them, and finally the ultimate attainable carrier mobility for CVD graphene.

  6. Investigation of the Millimeter-Wave Plasma Assisted CVD Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vikharev, A; Gorbachev, A; Kozlov, A; Litvak, A; Bykov, Y; Caplan, M

    2005-07-21

    A polycrystalline diamond grown by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique is recognized as a unique material for high power electronic devices owing to unrivaled combination of properties such as ultra-low microwave absorption, high thermal conductivity, high mechanical strength and chemical stability. Microwave vacuum windows for modern high power sources and transmission lines operating at the megawatt power level require high quality diamond disks with a diameter of several centimeters and a thickness of a few millimeters. The microwave plasma-assisted CVD technique exploited today to produce such disks has low deposition rate, which limits the availability of large size diamond disk windows. High-electron-density plasma generated by the millimeter-wave power was suggested for enhanced-growth-rate CVD. In this paper a general description of the 30 GHz gyrotron-based facility is presented. The output radiation of the gyrotron is converted into four wave-beams. Free localized plasma in the shape of a disk with diameter much larger than the wavelength of the radiation is formed in the intersection area of the wave-beams. The results of investigation of the plasma parameters, as well as the first results of diamond film deposition are presented. The prospects for commercially producing vacuum window diamond disks for high power microwave devices at much lower costs and processing times than currently available are outlined.

  7. Mass production of CNTs using CVD multi-quartz tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousef, Samy; Mohamed, Alaa [Dept. of Production Engineering and Printing Technology, Akhbar Elyom Academy, Giza (Egypt)

    2016-11-15

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have become the backbone of modern industries, including lightweight and heavy-duty industrial applications. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is considered as the most common method used to synthesize high yield CNTs. This work aims to develop the traditional CVD for the mass production of more economical CNTs, meeting the growing CNT demands among consumers by increasing the number of three particular reactors. All reactors housing is connected by small channels to provide the heat exchange possibility between the chambers, thereby decreasing synthesis time and reducing heat losses inside the ceramic body of the furnace. The novel design is simple and cheap with a lower reacting time and heat loss compared with the traditional CVD design. Methane, hydrogen, argon, and catalyzed iron nanoparticles were used as a carbon source and catalyst during the synthesis process. In addition, CNTs were produced using only a single quartz tube for comparison. The produced samples were examined using XRD, TEM, SEM, FTIR, and TGA. The results showed that the yield of CNTs increases by 287 % compared with those synthesized with a single quartz tube. Moreover, the total synthesis time of CNTs decreases by 37 % because of decreased heat leakage.

  8. Ultra-high Burst Strength of CVD Graphene Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Luda; Boutilier, Michael; Kidambi, Piran; Karnik, Rohit; Microfluidics; Nanofluidics Research Lab Team

    2015-11-01

    Porous graphene membranes have significant potential in gas separation, water desalination and nanofiltration. Understanding the mechanical strength of porous graphene is crucial because membrane separations can involve high pressures. We studied the burst strength of CVD graphene membrane placed on porous support at applied pressures up to 100 bar by monitoring the gas flow rate across the membrane as a function of pressure. Increase of gas flow rate with pressure allowed for extraction of the burst fraction of graphene as it failed under increasing pressure. We also studied the effect of sub-nanometer pores on the ability of graphene to withstand pressure. The results showed that porous graphene membranes can withstand pressures comparable to or even higher than the >50 bar pressures encountered in water desalination, with non-porous CVD graphene exhibiting even higher mechanical strength. Our study shows that porous polycrystalline CVD graphene has ultra-high burst strength under applied pressure, suggesting the possibility for its use in high-pressure membrane separations. Principal Investigator

  9. Approach to diabetes management in patients with CVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathief, Sanam; Inzucchi, Silvio E

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiologic analyses have established a clear association between diabetes and macrovascular disease. Vascular dysfunction caused by metabolic abnormalities in patients with diabetes is associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and peripheral arterial disease. Patients with diabetes are at two to four fold higher CV risk as compared to non-diabetic individuals, and CVD remains the leading cause of mortality in patients with this condition. One strategy to reduce CVD burden in patients with diabetes has been to focus on controlling the major metabolic abnormality in this condition, namely hyperglycemia. However, this has not been unequivocally demonstrated to reduced CV events, in contrast to controlling other CVD risk factors linked to hyperglycemia, such as blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and platelet dysfunction. However, In contradistinction, accrued data from a number of large, randomized clinical trials in both type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) over the past 3 decades have proven that more intensive glycemic control retards the onset and progression of microvascular disease. In this review, we will summarize the key glucose-lowering CV outcomes trials in diabetes, provide an overview of the different drugs and their impact on the CV system, and describe our approach to management of the frequently encountered patient with T2DM and coronary artery disease (CAD) and/or heart failure (HF).

  10. Cone structure and focusing of VLF and LF electromagnetic waves at high altitudes in the ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, Ya. L.; Green, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    The frequency and angle dependencies of the electric field radiated by an electric dipole E = E(sub 0) cos omega(t) are studied through numerical calculations of absolute value of E in the VLF and LF frequency bands where F is less than or equal 0.02 to 0.05 f(sub b) in a model ionosphere over an altitude region of 800-6000 km where the wave frequency and electron gyrofrequency varies between F approximately 4-500 kHz and f(sub b) is approximately equal (1.1 to 0.2) MHz respectively. It is found that the amplitudes of the electric field have large maxima in four regions: close to the direction of the Earth magnetic field line B(sub 0) (it is called the axis field E(sub 0), in the Storey E(sub St), reversed Storey E(sub RevSt), and resonance E(sub Res) cones. The maximal values of E(sub 0), E(sub Res), and E(sub RevSt) are the most pronounced close to the lower hybrid frequency, F approximately F(sub L). The flux of the electric field is concentrated in very narrow regions, with the apex angles of the cones Delta-B is approximately (0.1-1) deg. The enhancement and focusing of the electric field increases with altitude starting at Z greater than 800 km. At Z greater than or equal to 1000 up to 6000 km, the relative value of absolute value of E, in comparison with its value at Z = 800 km is about (10(exp 2) to 10(exp 4)) times larger. Thus the flux of VLF and LF electromagnetic waves generated at high altitudes in the Earth's ionosphere are trapped into very narrow conical beams similar to laser beams.

  11. Cone structure and focusing of VLF and LF electromagnetic waves at high altitudes in the ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, Ya. L.; Green, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    The frequency and angle dependencies of the electric field radiated by an electric dipole E = E(sub 0) cos omega(t) are studied through numerical calculations of absolute value of E in the VLF and LF frequency bands where F is less than or equal 0.02 to 0.05 f(sub b) in a model ionosphere over an altitude region of 800-6000 km where the wave frequency and electron gyrofrequency varies between F approximately 4-500 kHz and f(sub b) is approximately equal (1.1 to 0.2) MHz respectively. It is found that the amplitudes of the electric field have large maxima in four regions: close to the direction of the Earth magnetic field line B(sub 0) (it is called the axis field E(sub 0), in the Storey E(sub St), reversed Storey E(sub RevSt), and resonance E(sub Res) cones. The maximal values of E(sub 0), E(sub Res), and E(sub RevSt) are the most pronounced close to the lower hybrid frequency, F approximately F(sub L). The flux of the electric field is concentrated in very narrow regions, with the apex angles of the cones Delta-B is approximately (0.1-1) deg. The enhancement and focusing of the electric field increases with altitude starting at Z greater than 800 km. At Z greater than or equal to 1000 up to 6000 km, the relative value of absolute value of E, in comparison with its value at Z = 800 km is about (10(exp 2) to 10(exp 4)) times larger. Thus the flux of VLF and LF electromagnetic waves generated at high altitudes in the Earth's ionosphere are trapped into very narrow conical beams similar to laser beams.

  12. Initiated Chemical Vapor Deposition (iCVD) of Highly Cross-Linked Polymer Films for Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Separators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Youngmin; Kim, Byung Gon; Pak, Kwanyong; Han, Sung Jae; Song, Heon-Sik; Choi, Jang Wook; Im, Sung Gap

    2015-08-26

    We report an initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) process to coat polyethylene (PE) separators in Li-ion batteries with a highly cross-linked, mechanically strong polymer, namely, polyhexavinyldisiloxane (pHVDS). The highly cross-linked but ultrathin pHVDS films can only be obtained by a vapor-phase process, because the pHVDS is insoluble in most solvents and thus infeasible with conventional solution-based methods. Moreover, even after the pHVDS coating, the initial porous structure of the separator is well preserved owing to the conformal vapor-phase deposition. The coating thickness is delicately controlled by deposition time to the level that the pore size decreases to below 7% compared to the original dimension. The pHVDS-coated PE shows substantially improved thermal stability and electrolyte wettability. After incubation at 140 °C for 30 min, the pHVDS-coated PE causes only a 12% areal shrinkage (versus 90% of the pristine separator). The superior wettability results in increased electrolyte uptake and ionic conductivity, leading to significantly improved rate performance. The current approach is applicable to a wide range of porous polymeric separators that suffer from thermal shrinkage and poor electrolyte wetting.

  13. LF-interpretability and language development: a study of verbal and nominal features in Greek normally developing and SLI children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimpli, I M

    2001-06-01

    This paper includes (i) a comparison of the developmental pattern of certain morphosyntactic features in normally developing (ND) Greek children with similar data from a group of children with specific language impairment and (ii) a new analysis of the differences found. The analysis is based on a minimalist notion of LF interpretability. Depending on the feature-specification of lexical items (i.e., [+/- interpretable] at LF), a different route of development follows. In addition, phonological salience of both interpretable and noninterpretable features is argued to play an important role in an account of crosslinguistic differences in both normal and exceptional development.

  14. Characteristics of Amorphous Silicon Nitride Films Deposited by LF-PECVD from SiH4/N2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Zhi-qin; ZHANG Yi; YU Zhi-wei; DAI Li-ping; ZHANG Guo-jun; WANG Yu-mei; WANG Gang; WANG Shu-ya

    2009-01-01

    Amorphous silicon nitride films were deposited by low-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition(LF-PECVD) using silane and nitrogen as precursors. Characteristics such as deposition rate,surface morphology,and chemical composition were measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry(SE),atomic force microscope(AFM) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS).It was shown that amorphous silicon nitride film could be prepared by LF-PECVD with good uniformity and even surface.The XPS result indicated that a small quantity of oxygen was involved in the sample,which was discussed in this paper.

  15. The Role of Government in Responding to Foreign CVD Investigations:Shenzhen’s Experiences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>The paper probes into a series of meaningful and constructive work accomplished by Shenzhen government on foreign CVD investigations.Specifically, this paper analyzes the characteristics of CVD investigations for Shenzhen and the harmful impact of CVD investigation.It evaluates the major investigated subsidy programs in foreign CVDs against Chinese imports and discusses how to avoid CVD cases effectively and analyzes the principal measures taken by Shenzhen in dealing with CVD investigations concretely.The paper concludes that these works not only promoted the implementation of China’s WTO commitments,but also contributed to boost Shenzhen economic and social development and internationalization.

  16. Value of negative spiral CT angiography in patients with suspected acute PE: analysis of PE occurrence and outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krestan, C.R.; Klein, N.; Fleischmann, D.; Kaneider, A.; Kreuzer, S.; Riedl, C.; Herold, C.J. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Vienna-AKH, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090, Vienna (Austria); Novotny, C. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital of Vienna-AKH, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090, Vienna (Austria); Minar, E. [Division of Angiology, Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital of Vienna-AKH, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090, Vienna (Austria); Janata, K. [Department of Emergency Medicine, University Hospital of Vienna-AKH, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090, Vienna (Austria)

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze pulmonary embolism (PE) occurrence and retrospective clinical outcome in patients with clinically suspected acute PE and a negative spiral CT angiography (SCTA) of the pulmonary arteries. Within a 35-month period, 485 consecutive patients with clinical symptoms of acute PE underwent SCTA of the pulmonary arteries. Patients with a negative SCTA and without anticoagulation treatment were followed-up and formed the study group. Patient outcome and recurrence of PE was evaluated retrospectively during a period of 6 months after the initial SCTA, and included a review of computerized patient records, and interviews with physicians and patients. Patients were asked to fill out a questionnaire concerning all relevant questions about their medical history and clinical course during the follow-up period. Special attention was focused on symptoms indicating recurrent PE, as well as later confirmation and therapy of PE. Of the 485 patients, 325 patients (67%) had a negative scan, 134 (27.6%) had radiological signs of PE, and 26 (5.4%) had an indeterminant result. Of 325 patients with a negative scan, 269 (83%) were available for follow-up. The main reasons for loss to follow-up were change of address, name, or phone number, or non-resident patients who left abroad. Of 269 patients available for follow-up, 49 patients (18.2% of 269) received anticoagulant treatment because of prior or recent deep venous thrombosis (32.6%) or a history of PE (34.7%), cardiovascular disease (18.4%), high clinical probability (8.2%), positive ventilation-perfusion scan (4.2%), and elevated D-dimer test (2%). The remaining 220 patients, who did not receive anticoagulant medication, formed the study group. Of this study group, 1 patient died from myocardial infarction 6 weeks after the initial SCTA, and the postmortem examination also detected multiple peripheral emboli in both lungs (p=0.45%; 0.01-2.5, 95% confidence interval). The PE did not occur in any other

  17. PE-HD/BF/PE-g-MAH复合材料的力学性能和热性能%Mechanical and Thermal Properties of PE-HD/BF/PE-g-MAH Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周松; 祁永年; 陈星容; 孙文奎; 闫珂华

    2016-01-01

    采用10%(质量分数,下同)的NaOH碱溶液处理竹纤维(BF),用双螺杆挤出和注射成型的方法制备了高密度聚乙烯(PE-HD)/BF和PE-HD/BF/马来酸酐接枝聚乙烯(PE-g-MAH)复合材料,用扫描电子显微镜和热失重分析仪观察和表征了材料的形貌和热稳定性,测试了力学性能、流动性能和热变形温度.结果表明,碱处理可提高BF的热稳定性;碱处理的BF使PE-HD的刚性、弯曲强度和热变形温度提高,但导致拉伸强度、冲击韧性、熔体流动性和热稳定性下降;添加PE-g-MAH能改善BF与PE-HD基体之间的界面结合,添加5%PE-g-MAH可同时提高PE-HD/30%BF复合材料的拉伸、弯曲和冲击性能以及热稳定性和热变形温度,而且复合材料具有较好的流动性,可满足注射成型的要求.

  18. Temporospatial dissociation of Pe subcomponents for perceived and unperceived errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja eEndrass

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research on performance monitoring revealed that errors are followed by an initial fronto-central negative deflection (error-related negativity, ERN and subsequently centro-parietal positivity (error positivity, Pe. It has been shown that error awareness mainly influences the Pe, whereas the ERN seems unaffected by conscious awareness of an error. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation of ERN and Pe to error awareness in a visual size discrimination task in which errors are not elicited by impulsive responding but by perceptual difficulty. Further, we applied a temporospatial principal component analysis (PCA to examine whether the temporospatial subcomponents of the Pe would differentially relate to error awareness. ERP results were in accordance with earlier studies: a significant error awareness effect was found for the Pe, but not for the ERN. Interestingly, a modulation with error perception on correct trials was found: correct responses considered as incorrect had larger correct-related negativity (CRN and lager Pe amplitudes than correct responses considered as correct. The PCA yielded two relevant spatial factors accounting for the Pe (latency 300 ms. A temporospatial factor displaying a centro-parietal positivity varied significantly with error awareness. Of the two temporospatial factors corresponding to response-related negativities, a factor with central topography varied with response correctness and subjective error perception on correct responses. The PCA results indicate that the error awareness effect is specifically related to the centro-parietal subcomponent of the Pe. Since this component has also been shown to be related to the importance of an error, the present variation with error awareness indicates that this component is sensitive to the salience of an error and that salience secondarily triggers error awareness.

  19. Effect of PE-HD-g-MAH on Properties of PE-HD/PA6 Blend Alloy%PE-HD-g-MAH对PE-HD/PA6共混合金性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    揣成智; 车庆浩; MAHMOOD Iqbal; 田世雄

    2009-01-01

    采用熔融法制备了高密度聚乙烯(PE-HD)与马来酸酐(MAH)接枝物(PE-HD-g-MAH),并以此接枝物制备了PE-HD-g-MAH/PA6共混合金,通过调整引发剂过氧化二异丙苯(DCP)和MAH的用量来控制接枝率,并研究该共混合金的性能与接枝率之间的关系.结果表明:PE-HD-g-MAH/PA6共混合金的力学性能、耐热性等均较纯PE-HD有很大提高;而且接枝率越大,力学性能越好,但加入过多的反应物而产生的副反应会导致共混合金力学性能下降,当PE-HD/PA6/MAH/DCP为60/40/1/0.3时,共混合金表现出较佳的性能.

  20. Preparation and properties of PAn/ATTP/PE conductive composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Jian-hui; FENG Hui-xia

    2006-01-01

    Polyaniline/Attapugite/ PE(PAn-ATTP/PE)composites containing particles with core-shell structure were obtained via the two-step blending processs. The experimental condition is as follows: Organo-attapulgite and PAn was obtained by modifying attapulgite with laury benzenesulfonic acid sodium salt and,then added to PE. The electrical conductivity,structure and properties of the composites were studied. Under the function of shear stress,core-shell structure particles with ATTP as the core and PAn as the shell were formed in the composites. The structure of PAn-ATTP/PE composites were characterized by FTIR,XRD,SEM,etc,respectively. The effects of concentration of doping agent on the conductivity and mechanical property of the composites were investigated. The mechanical properties and impact fracture surface of the ternary composites were studied by means of the tensile tester,SEM,etc. The results show that polyaniline encapsulated ATTP enhances the strength of the PE. And the conductivity of PAn-ATTP/PE composites of is improved effectively when polyaniline encapsulated ATTP is added. The composite have good conductivity when 10% polyaniline encapsulated ATTP is added.

  1. Investigating the Degradability of HDPE, LDPE, PE-BIO, and PE-OXO Films under UV-B Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Martínez-Romo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes in structural properties of high density polyethylene films (HDPE, low density polyethylene films (LDPE, biodegradable polyethylene (PE-BIO, and oxodegradable polyethylene (PE-OXO films exposed to UV-B radiation were studied. The carbonyl (ICO and vinyl (IV index, the crystalline phase fraction, and the dichroic ratio were used to evaluate the photooxidation of these polymers. The results obtained show that LDPE and HDPE undergo a major degree of oxidation and an increase in the crystalline phase fraction comparing to PE-BIO and PE-OXO. If the LDPE and HDPE are pretreated by an accurate radiation UV-B dosage before its different commercial uses or in its final disposition, they can become an option for biodegradable material without the necessity of adding organic agents or photosensitizers.

  2. DNA barcoding discriminates the noxious invasive species, floating pennywort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides L.f.), from non-invasive relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Schoot, van der J.; Valkenburg, van J.L.C.H.; Duistermaat, H.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Floating pennywort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides L.f.), a member of the plant family Araliaceae originating from North America, is an example of an invasive aquatic species posing serious problems to the management of waterways outside of its original distribution area in Australia and Western Europe.

  3. Safety and tolerability of the antimicrobial peptide human lactoferrin 1-11 (hLF1-11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blijlevens Nicole MA

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The treatment of patients with haematological malignancies by means of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT is often accompanied by life threatening infections. With emerging antimicrobial resistance there is an increased need for new agents, with a beneficial safety profile. Therefore we evaluated the safety of the promising new antimicrobial peptide human lactoferrrin 1-11 (hLF1-11 in healthy volunteers and patients. Methods We undertook a sequential, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study using ascending single (0.005, 0.05, 0.5, 5 mg and multiple intravenous doses (0.5, 5 mg in healthy volunteers, and open-label, single intravenous 5 mg doses in autologous HSCT recipients. Results Single and multiple doses of hLF1-11 were tolerable up to 5 mg intravenously in healthy volunteers, while 5 mg single dose was tolerable in patients. Elevations in transaminases possibly related to treatment were reversible and not serious. Conclusion The new antimicrobial hLF1-11 is well tolerated in healthy volunteers with repeated daily doses up to 5 mg. The side-effect profile is very favourable for an antimicrobial, the only undesirable effect being a possible elevation of transaminases, which may be related to hLF1-11 although the current data do not allow conclusive interpretation of treatment relationship. A lower dose is recommended for the forthcoming multiple dosing studies in HSCT patients. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: nct00509938.

  4. The Proteome of Biologically Active Membrane Vesicles from Piscirickettsia salmonis LF-89 Type Strain Identifies Plasmid-Encoded Putative Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Oliver

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Piscirickettsia salmonis is the predominant bacterial pathogen affecting the Chilean salmonid industry. This bacterium is the etiological agent of piscirickettsiosis, a significant fish disease. Membrane vesicles (MVs released by P. salmonis deliver several virulence factors to host cells. To improve on existing knowledge for the pathogenicity-associated functions of P. salmonis MVs, we studied the proteome of purified MVs from the P. salmonis LF-89 type strain using multidimensional protein identification technology. Initially, the cytotoxicity of different MV concentration purified from P. salmonis LF-89 was confirmed in an in vivo adult zebrafish infection model. The cumulative mortality of zebrafish injected with MVs showed a dose-dependent pattern. Analyses identified 452 proteins of different subcellular origins; most of them were associated with the cytoplasmic compartment and were mainly related to key functions for pathogen survival. Interestingly, previously unidentified putative virulence-related proteins were identified in P. salmonis MVs, such as outer membrane porin F and hemolysin. Additionally, five amino acid sequences corresponding to the Bordetella pertussis toxin subunit 1 and two amino acid sequences corresponding to the heat-labile enterotoxin alpha chain of Escherichia coli were located in the P. salmonis MV proteome. Curiously, these putative toxins were located in a plasmid region of P. salmonis LF-89. Based on the identified proteins, we propose that the protein composition of P. salmonis LF-89 MVs could reflect total protein characteristics of this P. salmonis type strain.

  5. Evaluation of a bivalent (CVD 103-HgR/CVD 111) live oral cholera vaccine in adult volunteers from the United States and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, D N; Tacket, C O; Losonsky, G; Castro, O; Gutierrez, J; Meza, R; Nataro, J P; Kaper, J B; Wasserman, S S; Edelman, R; Levine, M M; Cryz, S J

    1997-09-01

    To provide optimum protection against classical and El Tor biotypes of Vibrio cholerae O1, a single-dose, oral cholera vaccine was developed by combining two live, attenuated vaccine strains, CVD 103-HgR (classical, Inaba) and CVD 111 (El Tor, Ogawa). The vaccines were formulated in a double-chamber sachet; one chamber contained lyophilized bacteria, and the other contained buffer. In the first study, 23 U.S. adult volunteers received CVD 103-HgR at 10(8) CFU plus CVD 111 at 10(8), 10(7), or 10(6) CFU, CVD 111 alone at 10(7) CFU, or placebo. In the second study, 275 Peruvian adults were randomized to receive CVD 103-HgR at 10(9) CFU plus CVD 111 at 10(9) or 10(8) CFU, CVD 111 alone at 10(9) CFU, CVD 103-HgR alone at 10(9) CFU, or placebo. Three of 15 U.S. volunteers who received CVD 111 at 10(7) or 10(8) CFU developed mild diarrhea, compared to none of 4 who received CVD 111 at 10(6) CFU and 1 of 4 who received placebo. Twelve (63%) of 19 vaccine recipients shed the El Tor vaccine strain. All but one volunteer developed significant Ogawa and Inaba vibriocidal antibody titers. Volunteers who received CVD 111 at 10(7) CFU had geometric mean Ogawa titers four to five times higher than those of volunteers who received the lower dose. In the second study, all dosage regimens were well tolerated in Peruvians. About 20% of volunteers who received CVD 111 at the high dose excreted the El Tor organism, compared to 7% in the low-dose group. CVD 111 was detected in the stools of two placebo recipients, neither of whom had symptoms or seroconverted. In all vaccine groups, 69 to 76% developed fourfold rises in Inaba vibriocidal antibodies. Among those who received the bivalent vaccine, 53 to 75% also developed significant rises in Ogawa vibriocidal antibodies. We conclude that it is feasible to produce a single-dose, oral bivalent vaccine that is safe and immunogenic against both biotypes (El Tor and classical) and both serotypes (Inaba and Ogawa) of cholera for populations in

  6. Passive PE Sampling in Support of In Situ Remediation of Contaminated Sediments: Standard Operating Procedure for PE Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    biofilms and epiphytic growth on PE surfaces does not compromise their behavior in the field during deployment, these coatings can substantially...4.5 Food -grade aluminum foil 4.6 Stainless steel forceps 4.7 Single-edge razor blades 4.8 Teflon (or similar non-contaminating material) cutting...extracted using organic solvents prior to analysis by GC/MS. 7.1.1 The PE is inspected for surface biofilms , particles, mud, or oily coatings. Biofilm

  7. Oats and CVD risk markers: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thies, Frank; Masson, Lindsey F; Boffetta, Paolo; Kris-Etherton, Penny

    2014-10-01

    High consumption of whole-grain food such as oats is associated with a reduced risk of CVD and type 2 diabetes. The present study aimed to systematically review the literature describing long-term intervention studies that investigated the effects of oats or oat bran on CVD risk factors. The literature search was conducted using Embase, Medline and the Cochrane library, which identified 654 potential articles. Seventy-six articles describing sixty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria. Most studies lacked statistical power to detect a significant effect of oats on any of the risk factors considered: 59 % of studies had less than thirty subjects in the oat intervention group. Out of sixty-four studies that assessed systemic lipid markers, thirty-seven (58 %) and thirty-four (49 %) showed a significant reduction in total cholesterol (2-19 % reduction) and LDL-cholesterol (4-23 % reduction) respectively, mostly in hypercholesterolaemic subjects. Few studies (three and five, respectively) described significant effects on HDL-cholesterol and TAG concentrations. Only three out of twenty-five studies found a reduction in blood pressure after oat consumption. None of the few studies that measured markers of insulin sensitivity and inflammation found any effect after long-term oat consumption. Long-term dietary intake of oats or oat bran has a beneficial effect on blood cholesterol. However, there is no evidence that it favourably modulates insulin sensitivity. It is still unclear whether increased oat consumption significantly affects other risk markers for CVD risk, and comprehensive, adequately powered and controlled intervention trials are required to address this question.

  8. Epigenetic modifications and human pathologies: cancer and CVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthie, Susan J

    2011-02-01

    Epigenetic changes are inherited alterations in DNA that affect gene expression and function without altering the DNA sequence. DNA methylation is one epigenetic process implicated in human disease that is influenced by diet. DNA methylation involves addition of a 1-C moiety to cytosine groups in DNA. Methylated genes are not transcribed or are transcribed at a reduced rate. Global under-methylation (hypomethylation) and site-specific over-methylation (hypermethylation) are common features of human tumours. DNA hypomethylation, leading to increased expression of specific proto-oncogenes (e.g. genes involved in proliferation or metastasis) can increase the risk of cancer as can hypermethylation and reduced expression of tumour suppressor (TS) genes (e.g. DNA repair genes). DNA methyltransferases (DNMT), together with the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), facilitate DNA methylation. Abnormal DNA methylation is implicated not only in the development of human cancer but also in CVD. Polyphenols, a group of phytochemicals consumed in significant amounts in the human diet, effect risk of cancer. Flavonoids from tea, soft fruits and soya are potent inhibitors of DNMT in vitro, capable of reversing hypermethylation and reactivating TS genes. Folates, a group of water-soluble B vitamins found in high concentration in green leafy vegetables, regulate DNA methylation through their ability to generate SAM. People who habitually consume the lowest level of folate or with the lowest blood folate concentrations have a significantly increased risk of developing several cancers and CVD. This review describes how flavonoids and folates in the human diet alter DNA methylation and may modify the risk of human colon cancer and CVD.

  9. Establishment of 9L/F344 rat intracerebral glioma model of brain tumor stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong-yu XIAO

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To establish the 9L/F344 rat intracerebral glioma model of brain tumor stem cells.  Methods Rat 9L gliosarcoma stem-like cells were cultured in serum-free suspension. The expression of CD133 and nestin were tested by immunohistochemistry. A total of 48 inbredline male F344 rats were randomly divided into 2 groups, and 9L tumor sphere cells and 9L monolayer cells were respectively implanted into the right caudate nucleus of F344 rats in 2 groups. Survival time was observed and determined using the method of Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Fourteen days after implantation or when the rats were dying, their brains were perfused and sectioned for HE staining, and CD133 and nestin were detected by immunohistochemistry.  Results Rat 9L tumor spheres were formed with suspension culture in serum-free medium. The gliomas formed in both groups were invasive without obvious capsule. More new vessels, bleeding and necrosis could be detected in 9L tumor spheres group. The tumor cells in both groups were positive for CD133 and nestin. There was no significant difference in the expression of CD133 and nestin between 2 groups (P > 0.05, for all. According to the expression of nestin, the tumors formed by 9L tumor sphere cells were more invasive. The median survival time of the rats bearing 9L tumor sphere cells was 15 d (95%CI: 15.219-15.781, and the median survival time of the rats bearing 9L monolayer cells was 21 d (95%CI: 20.395-21.605. There was significant difference between 2 groups (χ2 = 12.800, P = 0.000.  Conclusions 9L/F344 rat intracerebral glioma model of brain tumor stem cells is successfully established, which provides a glioma model for the future research. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.04.012

  10. Improved CVD Techniques for Depositing Passivation Layers of ICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-10-01

    went into compressive stress of 1.3 x 10 dynes/cm2. Results NX • thus show that room-temperature stress in CVD films can be reduced to nearly 35 -4 0...fluorescence working curves. X-ray fluorescence radiation measurements were carried out using a Siemens Crystalloflex 4 x-ray generator with a chromium target x...ray tube (2000 W) and a Siemens Vacuum X-Ray Spectrometer Model VRS. Sample area of measurement was usually 0.50 cm2 . 2= Experimental results will be

  11. CVD growth and processing of graphene for electronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Shishir; Rezvani, Ehsan; Nolan, Hugo; Duesberg, Georg S. [School of Chemistry, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Centre for Research on Adaptive Nanostructures and Nanodevices (CRANN), Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); McEvoy, Niall; Kim, Hye-Young; Lee, Kangho; Peltekis, Nikos; Weidlich, Anne; Daly, Ronan [Centre for Research on Adaptive Nanostructures and Nanodevices (CRANN), Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2011-11-15

    The remarkable properties of graphene have potential for numerous applications; however, their exploitation depends on its reliable production. The chemical vapour deposition (CVD) growth of graphene on metal surfaces has become one of the most promising strategies for the production of high quality graphene in a scaleable manner. Here, we discuss graphene growth on nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu) directly from both gaseous hydrocarbons and solid carbon precursors. Further, we discuss in detail the transfer of graphene films to insulating substrates, by direct and polymer supported transfer methods. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Radiation Hardness and Linearity Studies of CVD Diamonds

    CERN Document Server

    Behnke, T; Ghodbane, N; Imhof, A

    2003-01-01

    We report on the behavior of CVD diamonds under intense electromagnetic radiation and on the response of the detector to high density of deposited energy. Diamonds have been found to remain unaffected after doses of 10 MGy of MeV-range photons and the diamond response to energy depositions of up to 250 GeV/cm^3 has been found to be linear to better than 2 %. These observations make diamond an attractive detector material for a calorimeter in the very forward region of the detector proposed for TESLA.

  13. Ultratough CVD single crystal diamond and three dimensional growth thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemley, Russell J [Washington, DC; Mao, Ho-kwang [Washington, DC; Yan, Chih-shiue [Washington, DC

    2009-09-29

    The invention relates to a single-crystal diamond grown by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition that has a toughness of at least about 30 MPa m.sup.1/2. The invention also relates to a method of producing a single-crystal diamond with a toughness of at least about 30 MPa m.sup.1/2. The invention further relates to a process for producing a single crystal CVD diamond in three dimensions on a single crystal diamond substrate.

  14. Facility for continuous CVD coating of ceramic fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Arthur W.

    1992-01-01

    An inductively heated CVD furnace of pilot-plant scale, whose hot zone is 150 mm in diameter x 300 mm in length, has been adapted for continuous coating of ceramic yarns. Coatings at very low pressures are possible in this facility due to the fact that the entire apparatus, including yarn feeding and collecting equipment, is under vacuum. SiC yarn has been coated with 0.1-0.2 microns of BN at yarn speeds of 60 cm/min; a 500-m spool; was coated in about 14 hrs. Coating capacity was tripled by adding pulleys to allow three yarn passes through the furnace.

  15. CVD Diamond Sink Application in High Power 3D MCMs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Kuo-jun; JIANG Chang-shun; LI Cheng-yue

    2005-01-01

    As electronic packages become more compact, run at faster speeds and dissipate more heat, package designers need more effective thermal management materials. CVD diamond, because of its high thermal conductivity, low dielectric loss and its great mechanical strength, is an excellent material for three dimensional (3D) multichip modules (MCMs) in the next generation compact high speed computers and high power microwave components. In this paper, we have synthesized a large area freestanding diamond films and substrates, and polished diamond substrates, which make MCMs diamond film sink becomes a reality.

  16. CVD of pure copper films from amidinate precursor

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Copper(I) amidinate [Cu(i-Pr-Me-AMD)]2 was investigated to produce copper films in conventional low pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using hydrogen as reducing gas-reagent. Copper films were deposited on steel, silicon, and SiO2/Si substrates in the temperature range 200–350°C at a total pressure of 1333 Pa. The growth rate on steel follows the surface reaction between atomic hydrogen and the entire precursor molecule up to 240°C. A significant increase of the growth rate at tempera...

  17. CVD diamond resistor as heater and temperature sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, G.S.; Aslam, M. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Heat generation and temperature control, essential for most heater applications, require different components in a conventional system. We achieve the heat generation and temperature measurement simultaneously by using a single diamond resistor. Chemical vapor deposited (CVD) p-type diamond resistors with different dimensions were fabricated on polycrystalline diamond or oxidized Si substrates using diamond film technology compatible with integrated circuit (IC) processing. The temperature response of the resistors was characterized in the temperature range of 25 - 500{degrees}C. Power densities in access of 600 watt/in{sup 2} were achieved.

  18. Development of CVD Mullite Coatings for SiC Fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarin, V.K.; Varadarajan, S.

    2000-03-15

    A process for depositing CVD mullite coatings on SiC fibers for enhanced oxidation and corrosion, and/or act as an interfacial protective barrier has been developed. Process optimization via systematic investigation of system parameters yielded uniform crystalline mullite coatings on SiC fibers. Structural characterization has allowed for tailoring of coating structure and therefore properties. High temperature oxidation/corrosion testing of the optimized coatings has shown that the coatings remain adherent and protective for extended periods. However, preliminary tests of coated fibers showed considerable degradation in tensile strength.

  19. Chromized Layers Produced on Steel Surface by Means of CVD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KASPRZYCKA Ewa; BOGDA(N)SKI Bogdan; JEZIORSKI Leopold; JASI(N)SKI J(o)zef; TORBUS Roman

    2004-01-01

    Chemical vapour deposition of chromium on the surface of carbon steel has been investigated using a novel CVD method that combines the low cost of pack cementation method with advantages of vacuum technique. The processes have been performed in chromium chlorides atmosphere at a low pressure range from 1 to 800 hPa, the treatment temperature 800 to 950℃. Studies of the layers thickness, the phase composition, Cr, C and Fe depth profiles in diffusion zone have been conducted. The effect of the vacuum level during the process and the process parameters such as time and temperature on layer diffusion growth on the carbon steel surface has been investigated.

  20. CVD diamond sensor for UV-photon detection

    CERN Document Server

    Periale, L; Gervino, G; Lamarina, A M; Palmisano, C; Periale, R; Picchi, P

    2012-01-01

    A new generation of UV photosensors, based on single crystal Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) diamonds to work optically coupled with large volume two-phase liquid-Ar (LAr) or liquid-Xe (LXe) detectors nowadays under design for the next generation of WIMPs experiments, is under development. Preliminary tests and first calibrations show these devices can have better performance than the existing UV sensitive detectors (higher photosensitivity and better signal-to-noise ratio). I-V characteristics, dark current measurements, linearity response to X-ray irradiation, and alpha-particle energy resolution are reported and discussed. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of friction stir welding on microstructure and corrosion behavior of LF6 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghauri, Faizan Ali; Farooq, A.; Ahmad, A.; Deen, K. M.

    2017-03-01

    The LF6 aluminum alloy plates were joined by friction stir welding method. The tool rotational (1180 rpm) and transverse speed (0.56 mm s‑1) were kept constant during welding of 4 mm thick plates. The microstructural features, hardness and tensile properties of the welded samples were determined to evaluate the structural integrity in comparison with the base metal. The electrochemical behavior of base metal (BM), thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ) and weld nugget zone (WNZ) was also investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 3.5% NaCl solution. The microstructural study revealed significant grain refinement and agglomeration of β (Mg2Al3) intermetallic precipitates in the WNZ. The relatively higher hardness and a decrease in the ductility (3%) also assured the formation of precipitates β precipitates in the WNZ welded samples. The fracture surface of welded sample also revealed the existence of β precipitates within the elongated dimples which may be considered as the crack initiation sites. The relatively lower corrosion rate (23.68 mpy) and higher charge transfer resistance (403 Ω cm2) of BM compared to WNZ could be associated with the galvanic dissolution of Al-matrix through competitive charge transfer and relaxation (adsorption/desorption of intermediate species) processes specifically at the vicinity of the β precipitates.

  2. Evaluation of four bioestimulantes and three sustrates in the propagation of Vallea stipularis L.f.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Rosero

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The research consisted in evaluating four biostimulants and three substrates for the propagation of Vallea stipularis L.f. in greenhouse conditions. The biostimulants corresponded to: plant hormone rooting (B1, agrohormones 10-10-10 (B2, ESPOCH biostimulant (B3 and Gron Gibb (B4. The substrates consisted of: 50% black soil + 25% peat + 25% sand (S1; 50% black soil + 25% peat + 25% humus (S2 and 50% peat + 50% humus (S3. For the study, it was used a randomized complete design (RCD with factorial arrangement, it was determined the coefficient of variation and the Tukey test at 5% for the separation of means. The application of the biostimulants in the substrates was done at the time of planting. According to the results obtained, the best biostimulants corresponded to B1 (plant hormone rooting, applied in the seeds for 15 minutes, with which the highest emergency percentage was obtained (70.96%; with biostimulant B2 (agrohormones 10-10-10, applied for five minutes it was obtained 70.67% and with B3 (Gron Gibb 70.37%. The best substrate for emergence of plants was: 50% peat + 50% humus with 73.67% of emergence, where the highest plant height and root length were achieved, instead, the ESPOCH biostimulant (microoganisms reported a 67, 11% emergency.

  3. INITIAL GROWTH OF Tectona Grandis L.f., IN DIFFERENT SPACINGS IN PARACATU, MG, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Luiz Grisi Macedo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the initial growth of Tectona grandis L.f (Teca at different spacings in the northwesternregion of the Minas Gerais State – Brazil. A randomized block experimental design was used. The treatments consisted of fivedifferent planting spacings (3 x 2 m; 6 x 2 m; 6 x 4 m and 12 x 2,5 m with five repetitions each. The permanent experimentalconsisted of an approximate area of 300 m². The survival rate, plant height, diameter at breast height, volume/plant, volume/ha,basal area/plant and basal area/ha, were determined 24 and 36 months after planting, the current increment between the twoevaluation periods was determined for all the characteristics previously cited. The analysis of the results allows concluding thatteca presents potential for plantation in the region. Teca presented the higher growth rate at the 3 x 2 m spacing, whereno intra-specific competitive effects were observed. The main factors that limited initial growth were the long period ofrain insufficiency associated to a high soil compacting level.

  4. Modelling concentrations of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane in two UK rivers using LF2000-WQX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Oliver R., E-mail: oliver.price@unilever.co [Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre (SEAC), Unilever, Colworth Science Park, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire MK44 1LQ (United Kingdom); Williams, Richard J.; Zhang, Zhong [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Egmond, Roger van [Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre (SEAC), Unilever, Colworth Science Park, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire MK44 1LQ (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-15

    Current regulatory environmental exposure assessments for decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D{sub 5}), used in a range of personal care products, are based on a number of erroneous assumptions. Using an estimated D{sub 5} flux to waste water of 11.6 mg cap{sup -1} d{sup -1}, a 95.2% removal rate in Sewage Treatment Plants (STP) and a dilution factor of 10 results in modelled surface water concentrations that are up to an order of magnitude higher than concentrations observed downstream of STPs in two UK rivers. A GIS-based water quality model (LF2000-WQX) was used to predict concentrations of D{sub 5} in two UK rivers. Assuming the STP removal rate is reasonable, a waste water flux of 2.4 mg cap{sup -1} d{sup -1} is needed in order to obtain a reasonable match between predicted and observed in-river concentrations. This flux is consistent with measured effluent concentrations. The results highlight major uncertainties in estimating chemical emission rates for volatile chemicals used in personal care products and suggest that measured concentrations in waste water are needed to refine exposure assessments. - Surface water modelling of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane.

  5. Exploiting LF/MF signals of opportunity for lower ionospheric remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginson-Rollins, Marc A.; Cohen, Morris B.

    2017-08-01

    We introduce a method to diagnose and track the D region ionosphere (60-100 km). This region is important for long-distance terrestrial communication and is impacted by a variety of geophysical phenomena, but it is traditionally very difficult to detect. Modern remote sensing methods used to study the D region are predominately near the very low frequency (VLF, 3-30 kHz) band, with some work also done in the high-frequency and very high frequency bands (HF/VHF, 3-300 MHz). However, the frequency band between VLF and HF has been largely ignored as a diagnostic tool for the ionosphere. In this paper, we evaluate the use of 300 kHz radio reflections as a diagnostic tool for characterizing the D region of the ionosphere. We present radio receiver data, analyze diurnal trends in the signal from these transmitters, and identify ionospheric disturbances impacting LF/MF propagation. We find that 300 kHz remote sensing may allow a unique method for D region diagnostics compared to both the VLF and HF/VHF frequency bands, due to a more direct ionospheric reflection coefficient calculation method with high temporal resolution without the use of forward modeling.

  6. Management of Mauritia flexuosa L.f. for the handicraft production in Orinoco high plains, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Isabel Mesa Castellanos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present information about the spear leaves harvest, fiber processing and trade of Mauritia flexuosa L.f. for the handicrafts production by the Sikuani people in Wacoyo indigenous Village, in Puerto Gaitán, Meta, Colombia. We made  a semi-structured interviews and workshops with harvesters, artisans and traders. During these sessions we inquired about their harvesting techniques, characteristics of harvestable individuals, distribution area of the palms, market aspects  and other uses of the species. Mauritia flexuosa, locally known as moriche, is one of the economic livelihoods for the artisans who inhabit the Wacoyo reservation. The harvest of spear leaves is carried out  in juvenile and subadult palms. The fibers are extracted from the spear leaves to manufacture handicrafts like bags, baskets, hats and hammocks. Artisans sell the products to tourists visiting the reservation, and intermediary sellers who commercialize them in the municipality center of Puerto Gaitán and Puerto Lopez, Meta. The use of M. flexuosa has the potential to become a sustainable activity, since the leaf harvest does not involve the death of the individuals.

  7. Wound healing activity of the leaves of Wattakaka volubilis (L.f. Stapf (Asclepiadaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V L Ashoka Babu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The aqueous and alcohol extracts of the leaves of Wattakaka volubilis (L.f. Stapf were investigated for wound healing potential by excision, incision and dead space wound models in Wistar rats. Significant wound contraction and skin breaking strength, decrease in epithelization period, increased granulation tissue formation with high breaking strength were observed in animals treated with the extracts. Histopathological sections from the alcohol extract 400 µg/ml treated animals showed predominant collagen formation with scanty macrophages whereas samples from other extract treated groups showed moderate number of macrophages, collagen formation and fibroblast. HPTLC fingerprinting studies indicated the presence of flavonoids in alcohol and aqueous extracts of the leaves of W. volubilis. Industrial relevance: The leaves of Wattakaka volubilis is traditionally used in the treatment of various types of wounds. However there is no scientific data available to support this. Hence we conducted this study to evaluate the wound healing potential of this plant in three different wound models. The phytoconstituents responsible for the wound healing property could be isolated and developed into suitable formulations which would be an effective option as a wound healing drug, on a commercial scale. Keywords: Dead space wound; Excision wound; Incision wound; Wattakaka volubilis.

  8. Surface modification of PE film by DBD plasma in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, C.-S. [State Key Laboratory of Material Modification by Electron, Ion and Laser Beams, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)], E-mail: rchsh@dlut.edu.cn; Wang, K.; Nie, Q.-Y.; Wang, D.-Z.; Guo, S.-H. [State Key Laboratory of Material Modification by Electron, Ion and Laser Beams, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2008-12-30

    In this paper, surface modification of polyethylene (PE) films is studied by dielectric barrier discharge plasma treatment in air. The treated samples were examined by water contact angle measurement, calculation of surface free energy, Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The water contact angle changes from the original value of 93.2{sup o} to the minimum value of 53.3{sup o} and surface free energy increases from 27.3 to 51.89 J/m{sup 2} after treatment time of 50 s. Both ATR and XPS show some oxidized species are introduced into the sample surface by the plasma treatment and that the change tendencies of the water contact angle and surface free energy with the treatment time are the same as that of the oxygen concentration on the treated sample surface. Cu films were deposited on the treated and untreated PE surfaces. The peel adhesive strength between the Cu film and the treated sample is 1.5 MPa, whereas the value is only 0.8 MPa between the Cu film and the untreated PE. SEM pictures show that the Cu film deposited on the plasma treated PE surface is smooth and the crystal grain is smaller, contrarily the Cu film on the untreated PE surface is rough and the crystal grain is larger.

  9. Epitaxial nucleation of CVD bilayer graphene on copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yenan; Zhuang, Jianing; Song, Meng; Yin, Shaoqian; Cheng, Yu; Zhang, Xuewei; Wang, Miao; Xiang, Rong; Xia, Yang; Maruyama, Shigeo; Zhao, Pei; Ding, Feng; Wang, Hongtao

    2016-12-08

    Bilayer graphene (BLG) has emerged as a promising candidate for next-generation electronic applications, especially when it exists in the Bernal-stacked form, but its large-scale production remains a challenge. Here we present an experimental and first-principles calculation study of the epitaxial chemical vapor deposition (CVD) nucleation process for Bernal-stacked BLG growth on Cu using ethanol as a precursor. Results show that a carefully adjusted flow rate of ethanol can yield a uniform BLG film with a surface coverage of nearly 90% and a Bernal-stacking ratio of nearly 100% on ordinary flat Cu substrates, and its epitaxial nucleation of the second layer is mainly due to the active CH3 radicals with the presence of a monolayer-graphene-covered Cu surface. We believe that this nucleation mechanism will help clarify the formation of BLG by the epitaxial CVD process, and lead to many new strategies for scalable synthesis of graphene with more controllable structures and numbers of layers.

  10. Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Iron Aluminide by CVD Coated Powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asit Biswas Andrew J. Sherman

    2006-09-25

    This I &I Category2 program developed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of iron, aluminum and aluminum oxide coated iron powders and the availability of high temperature oxidation, corrosion and erosion resistant coating for future power generation equipment and can be used for retrofitting existing fossil-fired power plant equipment. This coating will provide enhanced life and performance of Coal-Fired Boilers components such as fire side corrosion on the outer diameter (OD) of the water wall and superheater tubing as well as on the inner diameter (ID) and OD of larger diameter headers. The program also developed a manufacturing route for readily available thermal spray powders for iron aluminide coating and fabrication of net shape component by powder metallurgy route using this CVD coated powders. This coating can also be applid on jet engine compressor blade and housing, industrial heat treating furnace fixtures, magnetic electronic parts, heating element, piping and tubing for fossil energy application and automotive application, chemical processing equipment , heat exchanger, and structural member of aircraft. The program also resulted in developing a new fabrication route of thermal spray coating and oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) iron aluminide composites enabling more precise control over material microstructures.

  11. Organic solar cells using CVD-grown graphene electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hobeom; Bae, Sang-Hoon; Han, Tae-Hee; Lim, Kyung-Geun; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2014-01-01

    We report on the development of flexible organic solar cells (OSCs) incorporating graphene sheets synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) as transparent conducting electrodes on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. A key barrier that must be overcome for the successful fabrication of OSCs with graphene electrodes is the poor-film properties of water-based poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiphene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) when coated onto hydrophobic graphene surfaces. To form a uniform PEDOT:PSS film on a graphene surface, we added perfluorinated ionomers (PFI) to pristine PEDOT:PSS to create ‘GraHEL’, which we then successfully spin coated onto the graphene surface. We systematically investigated the effect of number of layers in layer-by-layer stacked graphene anode of an OSC on the performance parameters including the open-circuit voltage (Voc), short-circuit current (Jsc), and fill factor (FF). As the number of graphene layers increased, the FF tended to increase owing to lower sheet resistance, while Jsc tended to decrease owing to the lower light absorption. In light of this trade-off between sheet resistance and transmittance, we determined that three-layer graphene (3LG) represents the best configuration for obtaining the optimal power conversion efficiency (PCE) in OSC anodes, even at suboptimal sheet resistances. We finally developed efficient, flexible OSCs with a PCE of 4.33%, which is the highest efficiency attained so far by an OSC with CVD-grown graphene electrodes to the best of our knowledge.

  12. CVD Rhenium Engines for Solar-Thermal Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brian E.; Fortini, Arthur J.; Tuffias, Robert H.; Duffy, Andrew J.; Tucker, Stephen P.

    1999-01-01

    Solar-thermal upper-stage propulsion systems have the potential to provide specific impulse approaching 900 seconds, with 760 seconds already demonstrated in ground testing. Such performance levels offer a 100% increase in payload capability compared to state-of-the-art chemical upper-stage systems, at lower cost. Although alternatives such as electric propulsion offer even greater performance, the 6- to 18- month orbital transfer time is a far greater deviation from the state of the art than the one to two months required for solar propulsion. Rhenium metal is the only material that is capable of withstanding the predicted thermal, mechanical, and chemical environment of a solar-thermal propulsion device. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is the most well-established and cost-effective process for the fabrication of complex rhenium structures. CVD rhenium engines have been successfully constructed for the Air Force ISUS program (bimodal thrust/electricity) and the NASA Shooting Star program (thrust only), as well as under an Air Force SBIR project (thrust only). The bimodal engine represents a more long-term and versatile approach to solar-thermal propulsion, while the thrust-only engines provide a potentially lower weight/lower cost and more near-term replacement for current upper-stage propulsion systems.

  13. CVD-graphene growth on different polycrystalline transition metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Lavin-Lopez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical vapor deposition (CVD graphene growth on two polycrystalline transition metals (Ni and Cu was investigated in detail using Raman spectroscopy and optical microscopy as a way to synthesize graphene of the highest quality (i.e. uniform growth of monolayer graphene, which is considered a key issue for electronic devices. Key CVD process parameters (reaction temperature, CH4/H2flow rate ratio, total flow of gases (CH4+H2, reaction time were optimized for both metals in order to obtain the highest graphene uniformity and quality. The conclusions previously reported in literature about the performance of low and high carbon solubility metals in the synthesis of graphene and their associated reaction mechanisms, i.e. surface depositionand precipitation on cooling, respectively, was not corroborated by the results obtained in this work. Under the optimal reaction conditions, a large percentage of monolayer graphene was obtained over the Ni foil since the carbon saturation was not complete, allowing carbon atoms to be stored in the bulk metal, which could diffuse forming high quality monolayer graphene at the surface. However, under the optimal reaction conditions, the formation of a non-uniform mixture of few layers and multilayer graphene on the Cu foil was related to the presence of an excess of active carbon atoms on the Cu surface.

  14. Analysis of Residual Thermal Stress in CVD-W Coating as Plasma Facing Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱大焕; 王坤; 王先平; 陈俊凌; 方前锋

    2012-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition-tungsten (CVD-W) coating covering the surface of the plasma facing component (PFC) is an effective method to implement the tungsten material as plasma facing material (PFM) in fusion devices. Residual thermal stress in CVD-W coating due to thermal mismatch between coating and substrate was successfully simulated by using a finite element method (ANSYS 10.0 code). The deposition parametric effects, i.e., coating thickness and deposition temperature, and interlayer were investigated to get a description of the residual thermal stress in the CVD-W coating-substrate system. And the influence of the substrate materials on the generation of residual thermal stress in the CVD-W coating was analyzed with respect to the CVD-W coating application as PFM. This analysis is beneficial for the preparation and application of CVD-W coating.

  15. Analysis of Residual Thermal Stress in CVD-W Coating as Plasma Facing Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dahuan; Wang, Kun; Wang, Xianping; Chen, Junling; Fang, Qianfeng

    2012-07-01

    Chemical vapor deposition-tungsten (CVD-W) coating covering the surface of the plasma facing component (PFC) is an effective method to implement the tungsten material as plasma facing material (PFM) in fusion devices. Residual thermal stress in CVD-W coating due to thermal mismatch between coating and substrate was successfully simulated by using a finite element method (ANSYS 10.0 code). The deposition parametric effects, i.e., coating thickness and deposition temperature, and interlayer were investigated to get a description of the residual thermal stress in the CVD-W coating-substrate system. And the influence of the substrate materials on the generation of residual thermal stress in the CVD-W coating was analyzed with respect to the CVD-W coating application as PFM. This analysis is beneficial for the preparation and application of CVD-W coating.

  16. PE/VC联合投资网络演化研究%Study on the Evolution of PE/VC Syndication Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨勇; 王齐唅

    2016-01-01

    选取1999-2011年PE/VC投资事件,构建PE/VC联合投资网络,探讨PE/VC网络演化特征.研究发现:处于网络中心位置的PE/VC机构通常也拥有丰富结构洞;PE/VC联合投资网络具有小世界网络特征,即网络中任意两个PE/VC机构间往往通过较少的PE/VC机构就可以建立联系;随着时间的演变,本土的PE/VC机构逐渐开始占据网络中心位置.

  17. Role of biomarkers in predicting CVD risk in the setting of HIV infection?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Signe W; Hsue, Priscilla

    2010-01-01

    with risk of CVD. Biomarkers associated with inflammation such as C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 have been suggested to improve risk stratification among intermediate-risk persons; however, their routine use is not recommended in the general population. Both biomarkers have recently been reported...... will be needed to help determine the utility of specific markers in predicting CVD risk as well as the mechanism underlying increased CVD risk in the setting of HIV infection....

  18. The designing and implementation of PE teaching information resource database based on broadband network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    In order to change traditional PE teaching mode and realize the interconnection, interworking and sharing of PE teaching resources, a distance PE teaching platform based on broadband network is designed and PE teaching information resource database is set up. The designing of PE teaching information resource database takes Windows NT 4/2000Server as operating system platform, Microsoft SQL Server 7.0 as RDBMS, and takes NAS technology for data storage and flow technology for video service. The analysis of system designing and implementation shows that the dynamic PE teaching information resource sharing platform based on Web Service can realize loose coupling collaboration, realize dynamic integration and active integration and has good integration, openness and encapsulation. The distance PE teaching platform based on Web Service and the design scheme of PE teaching information resource database can effectively solve and realize the interconnection, interworking and sharing of PE teaching resources and adapt to the informatization development demands of PE teaching.

  19. Pinching of PE pipes - Compilation report on standards, practices and experiences of clamping of PE gas pipes; Klaemning av PE-roer - Sammanstaellande rapport oever standarder, rutiner och erfarenheter kring klaemning av PE-gasroer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    Pinching is one method used to control or shut off the flow in a gas pipe. The pinching tool squeezes the tube with two round rods until the tube inner walls meet. The report present collected experiences and practices regarding clamping of Polyethylene (PE) tubes. The focus has been primarily to gather information regarding clamping of PE tubes with diameters greater than 160 mm and coated tubes (tube with the protective coating). The information presented in the report was mainly gathered through e-mail and phone contact with the gas company and tube manufacturers, but also organizations and consultancies have contacted. The information from each participant is reported separately as procedures and standards in clamping of PE pipes differ between countries and actors.

  20. Au-nanoparticles grafted on plasma treated PE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svorcik, V., E-mail: vaclav.svorcik@vscht.c [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Chaloupka, A. [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Rezanka, P. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czech Republic); Slepicka, P. [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Kolska, Z. [Department of Chemistry, J.E. Purkyne University, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Kasalkova, N.; Hubacek, T.; Siegel, J. [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2010-03-15

    Polyethylene (PE) surface was treated with Ar plasma. Activated surface was grafted from methanol solution of 1,2-ethanedithiol. Then the sample was immersed into freshly prepared colloid solution of Au-nanoparticles. Finally Au layer was sputtered on the samples. Properties of the modified PE were studied using various methods: AFM, EPR, RBS and nanoindentation. It was shown that the plasma treatment results in degradation of polymer chain (AFM) and creation of free radicals by EPR. After grafting with dithiol, the concentration of free radicals declines. The presence of Au and S in the surface layer after the coating with Au-nanoparticles was proved by RBS. Plasma treatment changes PE surface morphology and increases surface roughness, too. Another significant change in surface morphology and roughness was observed after deposition of Au-nanoparticles. Nanoindentation measurements show that the grafting with Au-nanoparticles increases adhesion of subsequently sputtered Au layer.

  1. Au-nanoparticles grafted on plasma treated PE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švorčík, V.; Chaloupka, A.; Řezanka, P.; Slepička, P.; Kolská, Z.; Kasálková, N.; Hubáček, T.; Siegel, J.

    2010-03-01

    Polyethylene (PE) surface was treated with Ar plasma. Activated surface was grafted from methanol solution of 1,2-ethanedithiol. Then the sample was immersed into freshly prepared colloid solution of Au-nanoparticles. Finally Au layer was sputtered on the samples. Properties of the modified PE were studied using various methods: AFM, EPR, RBS and nanoindentation. It was shown that the plasma treatment results in degradation of polymer chain (AFM) and creation of free radicals by EPR. After grafting with dithiol, the concentration of free radicals declines. The presence of Au and S in the surface layer after the coating with Au-nanoparticles was proved by RBS. Plasma treatment changes PE surface morphology and increases surface roughness, too. Another significant change in surface morphology and roughness was observed after deposition of Au-nanoparticles. Nanoindentation measurements show that the grafting with Au-nanoparticles increases adhesion of subsequently sputtered Au layer.

  2. Pe Algorithm: its past present, futue present and comments

    CERN Document Server

    Hsiao, Ching-an

    2011-01-01

    The human intelligence lies in the algorithm, the nature of algorithms lies in the classification, and the classification is equal to outlier detection. This paper is based on its past unpublished edition (2009), which discussed an application of (pe) algorithm in outlier detection for time series data. The pe algorithm, also named as RDD algorithm, is originated from the study on general AI. United with it, designed modules can be used to realize kinds of tasks. A primary framework concerned with the mind through pe algorithm has been constructed in prior works. In this concise paper, we neglect background and minor description of the early edition, and directly discuss the main contents include longest k-turn subsequence problem, curve type outliers, futural directions and related comments.

  3. Searching PeV neutrinos from photomeson interactions in magnetars

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Rajat K; Ray, Sabyasachi

    2016-01-01

    We estimate neutrino and gamma-ray fluxes at PeV energies generated in interactions between very high energy protons and ambient radiation field in the polar cap of certain type of local magnetars. As a plausible explanation of the origin of PeV neutrino events detected in IceCube recently, it is realized that the influence of photon splitting on ambient photons spectra and inclusion of appropriate polar cap geometry are important. The results indicate that in near future, possibility of any significant excess of neutrino events from a magnetar in Milky Way is extremely low. Further, we suggest that the simultaneous observation of PeV neutrinos and gamma-rays at Earth from next generation IceCube detector or future systems of Cherenkov telescopes would provide opportunities to explore the possible origin of very high energy neutrinos.

  4. 辐照交联聚乙烯(PE-Xc)管材%Irradiation crosslinked polyethylene (PE-Xc) pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪盛超; 张成武

    2013-01-01

    辐照交联聚乙烯(PE-Xc)管材是先挤出未交联的聚乙烯管材后,再经过电子加速器或钴-60放射源照射而形成的交联管材.采用电子加速器的物理交联法生产的交联管材,具有交联度均匀、纯净度高、卫生性能好、质量可靠的显著特点.本文对辐照交联聚乙烯(PE-Xc)管材的原料、生产设备及工艺、性能及应用范围作了简要论述.%The polyethylene (PE-Xc) pipe is produced from uncrosslinked polyethylene pipe extruded,and crosslinked by radiation of electron aecelerator or 60Co r-ray irradiation source.While the polyethylene (PE-Xc) pipe,crosslinked by electron-beam irradiation,is obvious characteristic in its cross-linking degree uniformity,high purity,good hygienic performance and quality reliability.This article introduces briefly the PE-Xc pipe resin,production procedure and production equipment,property and application field.

  5. 葵花籽油贮藏过程理化性质与LF-NMR弛豫特性的相关性%Relationship between Analytical Indicators of Sunflower Oil and the LF-NMR Relaxation Characteristics During Storage Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢海燕; 王欣; 赵婷婷; 刘宝林

    2014-01-01

    该文主要对葵花籽油分别在25、65℃避光贮藏过程的理化性质及其低场核磁共振(LF-NMR)弛豫特性的变化规律进行了研究,建立并验证了理化指标与LF-NMR检测结果的相关性模型.结果表明:65℃贮藏时,油样的过氧化值(PV)、共轭二烯值(K232)、共轭三烯值(K270)、p-茴香胺值(p-AV)、总极性化合物(TPC)含量及峰面积比例(S21、S22)随时间延长呈指数关系增加(r2 >0.93),而S23峰及单组分弛豫时间(T2W)则随时间延长呈指数减小趋势(r2 >0.98),通过多元回归分析可建立理化指标与弛豫特性间的相关性模型(r2> 0.94).25℃贮藏过程中理化性质及其LF-NMR弛豫特性的变化程度均相对较小,但PV、K232及TPC含量仍与贮藏时间呈良好的线性增大关系(r2 >0.95),其余理化指标及LF-NMR弛豫特性则无明显的规律性变化,相关性模型亦较差.

  6. Fatigue properties improvement of welded joints for LF21 aluminum alloy by ultrasonic peening method%超声冲击法改善LF21铝合金焊接接头的疲劳性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东坡; 霍立兴; 张玉凤; 陈俊梅; 刘允辉

    2001-01-01

    利用自行研制的超声冲击实验装置, 对提高LF21 铝合金焊接接头的疲劳强度进行了研究, 进行了TIG焊LF21铝合金非承载十字与T型接头的焊态及冲击处理态对比疲劳试验. 结果表明: 使用TIG焊获得的LF21铝合金原始焊接接头的疲劳强度与其它焊接方法得到的同样接头的疲劳强度基本相当,试图采用更高强度级别的S-N曲线对其进行设计时应持慎重态度. 在应力比R=0.5时, 超声冲击处理使LF21铝合金非承载十字焊接接头(拉伸载荷 )的疲劳强度提高了26%, 接头寿命延长了2~4倍. 在应力比R=0.1时, 超声冲击处理使T型接头(三点弯曲载荷)的疲劳强度提高了37%,接头寿命延长了4~8倍. 在应力比R=-1时, 超声冲击处理使T型接头(三点弯曲载荷)疲劳强度提高了44%, 接头寿命延长了5~10倍.

  7. Reports from the Bavarian State Agency for Environmental Protection (6). Technical reports. Information from LfU; Berichte aus dem Bayerischen Landesamt fuer Umweltschutz (6). Fachbeitraege. Informationen aus dem LfU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    In 1993 again, the Bavarian State Agency for Environmental protection had a broad range of tasks to fulfill. They form the subject of the 29 contributions. Described is not only the monitoring of radioactive and non-radioactive environmental pollutants but also the extension of the nuisance measuring grid. The cooperation with Russia in the southern Ural regarding the in-vivo determination of strontium 90 and caesium 137 in exposed persons is dealt with. The section `reports from LfU` covers also projects in the areas of nature conservation and care of the landscape. (DG) [Deutsch] Das bayerische LfU hatte auch im Jahr 1993 umfangreiche Aufgaben zu erfuellen. Die 29 Berichte geben hierueber einen Ueberblick, wobei neben der Erfahrung radioaktiver und nichtradioaktiver Umweltschadstoffe auch der Ausbau des Immissionsmessnetzes beschrieben wird. Auf die Zusammenarbeit mit Russland im Suedural in Bezug der In-vivo-Bestimmung von Strontium 90 und Caesium 137 an exponierten Personen wird eingegangen. Die Mitteilungen aus dem LfU umfassen auch Projekte auf dem Gebiet des Naturschutzes und der Landschaftspflege. (DG)

  8. An investigation of TNT equivalence of hemispherical PE4 charges

    OpenAIRE

    Rigby, S.E.; Sielicki, P.W.

    2014-01-01

    The TNT equivalence of an explosive is given as the equivalent mass of TNT required to produce a blast wave of equal magnitude to that produced by a unit weight of the explosive in question. Currently, there is a lack of agreement in the literature on the TNT equivalence (TNTeq) of PE4. This paper presents a combined numerical and experimental investigation of TNTeq for hemispherical PE4 charges in far-field blast events. Experimental results are compared to a series of numerical analyses con...

  9. Preeclampsia (PE is a complex illness of the human gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gil Urbano

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE is a complex illness of the human gestation. It is responsible for a high perinatal morbimortality.It is the illness of the multiple theories; in one environmentaland genetic factors are associated to explain it. To find genes candidates to be associated with PE, two methodology types are used: association and binding studies. In this paper we presented the foundation of both studies that explain the main genes candidates to involve in the genesis of this illness,like that ones that code for the methylenetetrahydrofolatereductase, lipoprotein lipase and endothelial nitric oxidesintase, Leiden‘s V factor, angiotensinogen, HLA-G, alphatumoral necrosis factor.

  10. Development and evaluation of teak (Tectona grandis L.f. taper equations in northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Warner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Taper refers to the general decrease in the regular outline of a solid body from its base to its tip. Taper models are used to estimate the volume and value of wood products from harvesting trees. Teak (Tectona grandis L.f. is highly valued as one of the world's most preferred timbers and a teak taper equation is required to inform optimal harvesting strategies given the limited plantation resource available in Thailand. Teak taper equations were developed and evaluated based on 331 sample trees collected in 2014 from eight plantations in northern Thailand aged from 10 to 46 yr using two taper model formulations—the Kozak variable-exponent taper model and the Goodwin cubic polynomial model comprising hyperbolic and parabolic terms. Variants based on both model types were fitted using nonlinear regression analysis with diameter at breast height, total tree height and height of girth measurement as the independent variables to estimate diameter underbark at the nominated height. Goodness-of-fit and leave-one-out cross validation with lack-of-fit statistical testing combined with extensive graphical analysis of residuals were used to select the best model. A Goodwin model variant (named FIO-teak1 as the first plantation teak taper model known to be published in Thailand provided the best estimates of volume and diameter underbark. A simple case study confirmed that FIO-teak1 in combination with the Farm Forestry Toolbox software package could assist teak plantation managers in decision making associated with optimizing log grade value based on standing tree inventory data.

  11. In vitro Free Radical Scavenging Potential of Indian Habitant Anisochilus carnosus (L.F.) Wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaykumar Bhagat; Richard Lobo; Vinit Parmar; Mamatha Ballal

    2011-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate in vitro anti-oxidant potential of methanolic and aqueous extract of Indian habitants Anisochilus carnosus (L.F.) wall.,which is an annual shrub belonging to the family Lamiaceae commonly known as mint family.METHODS:The present study describes the effects by DPPH,alkaline DMSO,scavenging of ferric ion,NO,H2O2.ABTS models.Both extracts showed good free radical scavenging property which was calculated as IC50.RESULTS:IC50 of aqueous and methanolic extracts were found to be 7.09 and 5.77 μg.mL-1 for DPPH,8.14 and 13.29 μg·mL-1 for alkaline DMSO,27.16 and 31.25 μg·mL-1 for scavenging of ferric ion,13.82 and 26.94 μg.mL-1 for NO,13.82 and 26.94 μg.mL-1 for H2O2,113.84 and 128.03 μg.mL-1 for ABTS,whic1h were compared with Ascorbic acid (DPPH,scavenging of ferric ion,NO,ABTS) and rutin (alkaline DMSO,H2O2).Total antioxidant capacity of the extract was found to be 213 and 172 μg.mL-1 ascorbic acid for methanolic and aqueous extracts respectively.CONCLUSION:A.carnosus leaf extracts exhibited potent free radical scavenging activity.The overall antioxidant activity is attributed to its polyphenolic and other phytochemical constituents.The findings suggest that A.carnosus leaves could be a potential source of natural antioxidant in preventing or slowing the progression of aging and age-associated oxidative stress-related degenerative diseases.

  12. Nutrient concentration age dynamics of teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) plantations in Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Moya, J.; Murillo, R.; Portuguez, E.; Fallas, J. L.; Rios, V.; Kottman, F.; Verjans, J. M.; Mata, R.; Alvarado, A.

    2013-05-01

    Aim of study. Appropriate knowledge regarding teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) nutrition is required for a better management of the plantations to attain high productivity and sustainability. This study aims to answer the following questions: How can it be determined if a teak tree suffers a nutrient deficiency before it shows symptoms? Are nutrient concentration decreases in older trees associated with age-related declines in forest productivity? Area of study. Costa Rica and Panama. Material and Methods. Nutrient concentration in different tree tissues (bole, bark, branches and foliage) were measured at different ages using false-time-series in 28 teak plantations Research highlights. Foliar N concentration decreases from 2.28 in year 1 to 1.76% in year 19. Foliar Mg concentration increases from 0.23 in year 1 to 0.34% in year 19. The foliar concentrations of the other nutrients are assumed to be constant with tree age: 1.33% Ca, 0.88% K, 0.16% P, 0.12% S, 130 mg kg{sup -}1 Fe, 43 mg kg{sup -}1 Mn, 11 mg kg{sup -}1 Cu, 32 mg kg{sup -}1 Zn and 20 mg kg{sup -}1 B. The nutrient concentration values showed can be taken as a reference to evaluate the nutritional status of similar teak plantations in the region. The concentrations of K, Mg and N could be associated with declines in teak plantation productivity as the plantation becomes older. Whether age-related changes in nutrient concentrations are a cause or a consequence of age-related declines in productivity is an issue for future research with the aim of achieving higher growth rates throughout the rotation period. (Author) 35 refs.

  13. Effect of low frequency (LF) electric fields on gene expression of a bone human cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Mariella; Zirpoli, Hylde; De Rosa, Maria Caterina; Rescigno, Tania; Chiadini, Francesco; Scaglione, Antonio; Stellato, Claudia; Giurato, Giorgio; Weisz, Alessandro; Tecce, Mario Felice; Bisceglia, Bruno

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated the effects, on cultured human SaOS-2 cells, of exposures to the low frequency (LF) electric signal (60 kHz sinusoidal wave, 24.5 V peak-to-peak voltage, amplitude modulated by a 12.5 Hz square wave, 50% duty cycle) from an apparatus of current clinical use in bone diseases requiring regenerating processes. Cells in flasks were exposed to a capacitively coupled electric field giving electric current density in the sample of 4 µA/cm(2). The whole expressed cellular mRNAs were systematically analyzed by "DNA microchips" technology to identify all individual species quantitatively affected by field exposure. Comparisons were made between RNA samples from exposed and control sham-exposed cells. Results indicated that immediately and 4 h after exposure there were almost no differentially modulated mRNA species. However, samples obtained at 24 h after exposure showed a small number of limitedly differential signals (7 down-regulated and 3 up-regulated with a cut-off value of ±1.5; 38 and 11, respectively, with a cut-off value of ±1.3), which included mostly mRNA encoding transcription factors and DNA binding proteins. Nevertheless, in identical experimental conditions, we previously demonstrated enzymatic changes of alkaline phosphatase occurring immediately after exposure and declining in a few hours. Therefore, since enzymatic changes occur before those observed at gene regulation level, it is conceivable that only earlier effects are directly due the treatment and then these effects are later able to affect gene expression only indirectly.

  14. CVD Lu(2)O(3):Eu coatings For Advanced Scintillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, Stephen G; Sarin, V K

    2009-03-01

    Currently Lu(2)O(3):Eu(3+) scintillators can only be fabricated via hot-pressing and pixelization, which is commercially not viable, thus restricting their use. Chemical vapor deposition is being developed as an alternative manufacturing process. Columnar coatings of Lu(2)O(3):Eu(3+) have been achieved using the halide-CO(2)-H(2) system, clearly signifying feasibility of the CVD process. Characterization of the coatings using high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis have been used as an aid to optimize process parameters and attain highly oriented and engineered coating structures. These results have clearly demonstrated that this process can be successfully used to tailor sub-micron columnar growth of Lu(2)O(3):Eu(3+), with the potential of ultra high resolution x-ray imaging.

  15. CVD synthesis of carbon-based metallic photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Zakhidov, A A; Baughman, R H; Iqbal, Z

    1999-01-01

    Three-dimensionally periodic nanostructures on the scale of hundreds of nanometers, known as photonic crystals, are attracting increasing interest because of a number of exciting predicted properties. In particular, interesting behavior should be obtainable for carbon- based structures having a dimensional scale larger than fullerenes and nanotubes, but smaller than graphitic microfibers. We show here how templating of porous opals by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) allows us to obtain novel types of graphitic nanostructures. We describe the synthesis of new cubic forms of carbon having extended covalent connectivity in three dimensions, which provide high electrical conductivity and unit cell dimensions comparable to optical wavelengths. Such materials are metallic photonic crystals that show intense Bragg diffraction. (14 refs).

  16. High-rate diamond deposition by microwave plasma CVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianglin

    In this dissertation, the growth of CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) diamond thin films is studied both theoretically and experimentally. The goal of this research is to deposit high quality HOD (Highly Oriented Diamond) films with a growth rate greater than 1 mum/hr. For the (100)-oriented HOD films, the growth rate achieved by the traditional process is only 0.3 mum/hr while the theoretical limit is ˜0.45 mum/hr. This research increases the growth rate up to 5.3 mum/hr (with a theoretical limit of ˜7 mum/hr) while preserving the crystal quality. This work builds a connection between the theoretical study of the CVD process and the experimental research. The study is extended from the growth of regular polycrystalline diamond to highly oriented diamond (HOD) films. For the increase of the growth rate of regular polycrystalline diamond thin films, a scaling growth model developed by Goodwin is introduced in details to assist in the understanding of the MPCVD (Microwave Plasma CVD) process. Within the Goodwin's scaling model, there are only four important sub-processes for the growth of diamond: surface modification, adsorption, desorption, and incorporation. The factors determining the diamond growth rate and film quality are discussed following the description of the experimental setup and process parameters. Growth rate and crystal quality models are reviewed to predict and understand the experimental results. It is shown that the growth rate of diamond can be increased with methane input concentration and the amount of atomic hydrogen (by changing the total pressure). It is crucial to provide enough atomic hydrogen to conserve crystal quality of the deposited diamond film. The experimental results demonstrate that for a fixed methane concentration, there is a minimum pressure for growth of good diamond. Similarly, for a fixed total pressure, there is a maximum methane concentration for growth of good diamond, and this maximum methane concentration increases

  17. Statistical study of seismo-ionospheric perturbations around Japan by using VLF/LF transmitters with a focal mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Tomoki; Hobara, Yasuhide; Tatsuta, Kenshin

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we perform the statistical analysis to study the response of the lower ionosphere prior to major seismic activities focusing on different earthquake types. The lower ionospheric condition is represented by daily averaged nighttime electric amplitude from various VLF/LF transmitter signals received in Japan by UEC team. Six-year record of ionospheric conditions are used for our data analysis. Over 200 earthquakes occurred around the VLF/LF transmitter - receiver paths during the time period of analysis. They are characterized into three different groups based on the Centroid-Moment-Tensor (CMT) solution such as reverse fault type, normal fault type and stress slip type. The ionospheric anomaly is identified by a large change (2 sigma criteria) in the VLF/LF daily nighttime amplitude. As a result, the highest occurrence rate of ionospheric anomaly is obtained for reverse type fault for both sea and ground earthquakes. The occurrence rate for these earthquakes are statistically significant because they are significantly large in comparison to those calculated from random test. The difference of occurrence rate of the ionospheric perturbations may indicate the coupling efficiency of seismic activity into the overlaying ionosphere originated from the pre-seismic condition of earth's crust. We also perform the trend-based earthquake prediction. Alarm threshold in nighttime VLF amplitude with -3.5 sigma is found to be most effective and significant for the earthquake prediction by using lower ionospheric perturbations.

  18. L-F001, a novel multifunctional ROCK inhibitor, suppresses neuroinflammation in vitro and in vivo: Involvement of NF-κB inhibition and Nrf2 pathway activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingkao; Yin, Wei; Tu, Yalin; Wang, Shengnan; Yang, Xiaohong; Chen, Qiuhe; Zhang, Xiao; Han, Yifan; Pi, Rongbiao

    2017-03-16

    Microglia and astrocytes are largely responsible for inflammatory injury in the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Increasing evidence has indicated that Rho kinase (ROCK) plays an important role in the regulation of neuroinflammation. Previously, we synthesized a new chemical entity L-F001 and proved its potential inhibitory effects on ROCK and oxidative stress. Here, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects and the molecular mechanisms of L-F001 in vitro and in vivo. L-F001 remarkably suppressed lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-elevated expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) as well as LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necreactive oxygen speciesis factor-α (TNF-α) in microglial BV-2 cells and in cultured astrocytes. Furthermore, L-F001 inhibited the degradation of IκB and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 subunit. Moreover, L-F001 induced the upregulation of heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and glutamate cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLM) expression, two downstream effectors of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2). It was interesting that L-F001 also activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway and induced M1 (CD16/32, M1 marker)/ M2 (CD206, M2 maker) transition in BV-2 cells which was significantly blocked by a PI3K inhibitor, wortmannin. Finally, L-F001 markedly attenuated the level of pro-inflammatory mediators in a murine model of systemic acute brain inflammation induced by LPS. Taken together, these results indicate that the novel multifunctional ROCK inhibitor L-F001 suppresses neuroinflammation in vitro and in vivo via NF-κB inhibition and Nrf2 activation, suggesting that L-F001 may be a promising drug candidate for treating neuroinflammation-associated CNS diseases, including AD.

  19. Functional analyses of Populus euphratica brassinosteroid biosynthesis enzyme genes DWF4 (PeDWF4) and CPD (PeCPD) in the regulation of growth and development of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jianping; Sun, Yan; Wang, L U; Qin, Ying; Wang, Chongying; Wang, Xinyu

    2016-12-01

    DWF4 and CPD are key brassinosteroids (BRs) biosynthesis enzyme genes. To explore the function of Populus euphratica DWF4 (PeDWF4) and CPD (PeCPD), Arabidopsis thaliana transgenic lines (TLs) expressing PeDWF4, PeCPD or PeDWF4 plus PeCPD, namely PeDWF4-TL, PeCPD-TL and PeCP/DW-TL, were characterized. Compared with wild type (WT), the changes of both PeDWF4-TL and PeCPD-TL in plant heights, silique and hypocotyls lengths and seed yields were similar, but in bolting time and stem diameters, they were opposite. PeCP/DW-TL was more in plant heights and the lengths of primary root, silique, and fruit stalk, but less in silique numbers and seed yields than either PeDWF4-TL or PeCPD-TL. PeDWF4 and PeCPD specially expressed in PeDWF4-TL or PeCPDTL, and the transcription level of PeDWF4 was higher than that of PeCPD. In PeCP/DW-TL, their expressions were all relatively reduced. Additionally, the expression of PeDWF4 and PeCPD differentially made the expression levels of AtDWF4, AtCPD, AtBR6OX2, AtFLC, AtTCP1 and AtGA5 change in the TLs. The total BRs contents were PeDWF4-TL greater than PeCP/DW-TL greater than WT greater than PeCPD-TL. These results imply that PeDWF4 is functionally not exactly the same as PeCPD and there may be a synergistic and antagonistic effects in physiology between both of them in the regulation of plant growth and development.

  20. Functional analyses of Populus euphratica brassinosteroid biosynthesis enzyme genes DWF4 (PeDWF4) and CPD (PeCPD) in the regulation of growth and development of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    JIANPING SI; YAN SUN; LU WANG; YING QIN; CHONGYING WANG; XINYU WANG

    2016-12-01

    DWF4 and CPD are key brassinosteroids (BRs) biosynthesis enzyme genes. To explore the function of Populuseuphratica DWF4 (PeDWF4) and CPD (PeCPD), Arabidopsis thaliana transgenic lines (TLs) expressing PeDWF4,PeCPD or PeDWF4 plus PeCPD, namely PeDWF4-TL, PeCPD-TL and PeCP/DW-TL, were characterized. Comparedwith wild type (WT), the changes of both PeDWF4-TL and PeCPD-TL in plant heights, silique and hypocotylslengths and seed yields were similar, but in bolting time and stem diameters, they were opposite. PeCP/DW-TL wasmore in plant heights and the lengths of primary root, silique, and fruit stalk, but less in silique numbers and seedyields than either PeDWF4-TL or PeCPD-TL. PeDWF4 and PeCPD specially expressed in PeDWF4-TL or PeCPDTL,and the transcription level of PeDWF4 was higher than that of PeCPD. In PeCP/DW-TL, their expressions wereall relatively reduced. Additionally, the expression of PeDWF4 and PeCPD differentially made the expression levelsof AtDWF4, AtCPD, AtBR6OX2, AtFLC, AtTCP1 and AtGA5 change in the TLs. The total BRs contents werePeDWF4-TL > PeCP/DW-TL > WT > PeCPD-TL. These results imply that PeDWF4 is functionally not exactly thesame as PeCPD and there may be a synergistic and antagonistic effects in physiology between both of them in theregulation of plant growth and development.

  1. CVD risk factors and ethnicity--a homogeneous relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouhi, Nita G; Sattar, Naveed

    2006-04-01

    Current understanding of cardiovascular disease risk (CVD) is derived largely from studies of Caucasians of European origin. However, people of certain ethnic groups experience a disproportionately greater burden of CVD including coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. Adoption of a Westernised lifestyle has different effects on metabolic and vascular dysfunction across populations, e.g. South Asians have a higher prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular mortality compared with Europeans. African-Americans demonstrate higher rates of CHD and stroke while African/Caribbeans in the UK have lower CHD rates and higher stroke rates than British Europeans. Other non-European groups such as the Chinese and Japanese exhibit consistently high rates of stroke but not CHD, while Mexican Americans have a higher prevalence of both stroke and CHD, and North American native Indians also have high rates of CHD. While conventional cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking, blood pressure and total cholesterol predict risk within these ethnic groups, they do not fully account for the differences in risk between ethnic groups, suggesting that alternative explanations might exist. Ethnic groups show differences in levels of visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, and novel risk markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP), adiponectin and plasma homocysteine. The marked differences across racial and ethnic groups in disease risk are likely due in part to each of genetic, host susceptibility and environmental factors, and can provide valuable aetiological clues to differences in patterns of disease presentation, therapeutic needs and response to treatment. Ongoing studies should increase understanding of ethnicity as a potential independent risk factor, thus enabling better identification of treatment targets and selection of therapy in specific populations.

  2. Q-factors of CVD monolayer graphene and graphite inductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zidong; Zhang, Qingping; Peng, Pei; Tian, Zhongzheng; Ren, Liming; Zhang, Xing; Huang, Ru; Wen, Jincai; Fu, Yunyi

    2017-08-01

    A carbon-based inductor may serve as an important passive component in a carbon-based radio-frequency (RF) integrated circuit (IC). In this work, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) synthesized monolayer graphene and graphite inductors are fabricated and their Q-factors are investigated. We find that the large series resistance of signal path (including coil resistance and contact resistance) in monolayer graphene inductors causes negative Q-factors at the whole frequency range in measurement. Comparatively, some of the graphite inductors have all of their Q-factors above zero, due to their small signal path resistance. We also note that some other graphite inductors have negative Q-factor values at low frequency regions, but positive Q-factor values at high frequency regions. With an equivalent circuit model, we confirm that the negative Q-factors of some graphite inductors at low frequency regions are related to their relatively large contact resistances, and we are able to eliminate these negative Q-factors by improving the graphite-metal contact. Furthermore, the peak Q-factor (Q p) can be enhanced by lowering down the resistance of graphite coil. For an optimized 3/4-turn graphite inductor, the measured maximum Q-factor (Q m) can reach 2.36 and the peak Q-factor is theoretically predicted by the equivalent circuit to be as high as 6.46 at a high resonant frequency, which is beyond the testing frequency range. This research indicates that CVD synthesized graphite thin film is more suitable than graphene for fabricating inductors in carbon-based RF IC in the future.

  3. Polycrystalline CVD diamond device level modeling for particle detection applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozzi, A.; Passeri, D.; Kanxheri, K.; Servoli, L.; Lagomarsino, S.; Sciortino, S.

    2016-12-01

    Diamond is a promising material whose excellent physical properties foster its use for radiation detection applications, in particular in those hostile operating environments where the silicon-based detectors behavior is limited due to the high radiation fluence. Within this framework, the application of Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) simulation tools is highly envisaged for the study, the optimization and the predictive analysis of sensing devices. Since the novelty of using diamond in electronics, this material is not included in the library of commercial, state-of-the-art TCAD software tools. In this work, we propose the development, the application and the validation of numerical models to simulate the electrical behavior of polycrystalline (pc)CVD diamond conceived for diamond sensors for particle detection. The model focuses on the characterization of a physically-based pcCVD diamond bandgap taking into account deep-level defects acting as recombination centers and/or trap states. While a definite picture of the polycrystalline diamond band-gap is still debated, the effect of the main parameters (e.g. trap densities, capture cross-sections, etc.) can be deeply investigated thanks to the simulated approach. The charge collection efficiency due to β -particle irradiation of diamond materials provided by different vendors and with different electrode configurations has been selected as figure of merit for the model validation. The good agreement between measurements and simulation findings, keeping the traps density as the only one fitting parameter, assesses the suitability of the TCAD modeling approach as a predictive tool for the design and the optimization of diamond-based radiation detectors.

  4. Effect of PE-g- MAH on HDPE/gelatin blends%PE-g-MAH对HDPE/明胶共混体系的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕谋勇; 黄雅钦; 黄明智

    2004-01-01

    研究了PE-g-MAH对HDPE/明胶共混体系的影响.红外光谱分析表明PE-g-MAH与明胶发生了化学反应,形成了PE-g-MAH接枝明胶,说明PE-g-MAH增容HDPE/明胶共混体系.力学性能表明,随PE-g-MAH用量的适度增加,共混体系的拉伸强度提高.

  5. A platform for large-scale graphene electronics--CVD growth of single-layer graphene on CVD-grown hexagonal boron nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Jang, Sung Kyu; Jang, Won-Jun; Kim, Minwoo; Park, Seong-Yong; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kahng, Se-Jong; Choi, Jae-Young; Ruoff, Rodney S; Song, Young Jae; Lee, Sungjoo

    2013-05-21

    Direct chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of single-layer graphene on CVD-grown hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) film can suggest a large-scale and high-quality graphene/h-BN film hybrid structure with a defect-free interface. This sequentially grown graphene/h-BN film shows better electronic properties than that of graphene/SiO2 or graphene transferred on h-BN film, and suggests a new promising template for graphene device fabrication.

  6. 1.60 m Telescope P-E

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, V A

    2015-01-01

    A comparative the telescope twin P-E, one is in Observat\\'orio Pico dos Dias, Brazil, other in Observatoire Mont-M\\'egantic, Qu\\'ebec, Canada. The same project, the same beginning configuration but different stories, different solutions for the problems by the years.

  7. Assessment Quality and Practices in Secondary PE in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghouts, Lars B.; Slingerland, Menno; Haerens, Leen

    2017-01-01

    Background: Assessment can have various functions, and is an important impetus for student learning. For assessment to be effective, it should be aligned with curriculum goals and of sufficient quality. Although it has been suggested that assessment quality in physical education (PE) is suboptimal, research into actual assessment practices has…

  8. Microstructure of helium-implanted Nimonic PE16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czyrska-Filemonowicz, A.; Gadalla, A.A.; Kesternich, W.; Weckermann, B.

    1987-09-01

    Transmission electron microsocpy has been used to investigate the microstructure in Nimonic PE16 after room temperature a-implementation followed by subsequent annealing. Helium bubble formation in the matrix, at dislocations, at grain boundaries and at precipitates of ..gamma..', M/sub 23/C/sub 6/, and MC type has been studied.

  9. Efficiency tests on the pyrolysis gasifier stove Peko Pe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents results from water boiling tests on the pyrolysis gasifier stove Peko Pe, which has been developed by the Norwegian Paal Wendelbo. The stove efficiency determined vary between 21 and 29% when burning dry Danish woodchips (10% moisture) with an estimated caloric value of 16 MJ...

  10. "Cool PE" and Confronting the Negative Stereotypes of Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreault, Karen Lux

    2014-01-01

    To change the public's negative perceptions, it may be necessary to change the nature of physical education programming. One way of doing so is by adopting "Cool PE," which refers to physical education that "moves" students, empowers students with choice, and is meaningful to students outside of the gym.

  11. VIS Fabry-Pérot-Interferometer with (HL)4 PE-Si3N4/PE-SiO2 reflectors on freestanding LP-Si3N4 membranes for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helke, Christian; Meinig, Marco; Seifert, Mario; Seiler, Jan; Hiller, Karla; Kurth, Steffen; Martin, Jörg; Gessner, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Profound developments of miniaturized spectrometry systems enable new breakthrough applications such as online monitoring systems for specific molecules by Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS). The spectrometry system is based on SERS active surfaces in-situ generating nanoparticles and miniaturized detectors with tunable Fabry-Pérot- Interferometers (FPI) with very sharp transmission peaks and a FWHM bandwidth below 2 nm. The key part of this online monitoring system is a tunable FPI, which is fabricated with MEMS technology. This contribution presents a 7.5 x 7.5 mm² chip size FPI, consisting of a moveable reflector on a 210 nm thin and up to 5.5 mm in diameter Si3N4 membrane on a silicon carrier, and a fixed reflector on glass. The optical resonator with an aperture of 2 mm diameter is designed for the central wavelength of 570 nm and realized by adhesive SU-8 bonding of the silicon on glass substrate. The moveable Si3N4 membrane is fabricated by combined wet and dry etching of silicon. The dielectric (HL)4 Si3N4/ SiO2 reflector stack with a reflectance of 93 % is deposited by PE-CVD on the LP-CVD-Si3N4 and structured by dry etching on the membrane and the glass. The measured peak transmittance is between 52 % and 74 % with a FWHM bandwidth between 1.3 nm and 2.0 nm. It was shown, that the FPIs are tunable over the spectral range from 555 nm to 585 nm which is relevant for this SERS application with a tuning voltage of 25 V.

  12. Development of atmospheric pressure CVD processes for highquality transparent conductive oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, A. de; Deelen, J. van; Poodt, P.W.G.; Mol, A.M.B. van; Spee, C.I.M.A.; Grob, F.; Kuypers, A.

    2010-01-01

    For the past decade TNO has been involved in the research and development of atmospheric pressure CVD (APCVD) and plasma enhanced CVD (PECVD) processes for deposition of transparent conductive oxides (TCO), such as tin oxide and zinc oxide. It is shown that by combining precursor development, fundam

  13. Simulation and experimental study of CVD process for low temperature nanocrystalline silicon carbide coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaushal, Amit; Prakash, Jyoti, E-mail: jprakash@barc.gov.in; Dasgupta, Kinshuk; Chakravartty, Jayanta K.

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Parametric simulation was carried out for specially designed CVD reactor. • Effect of fluid velocity, heat flow and concentration were studied in CVD reactor. • Coating study carried out using low temperature and environmental safe CVD process. • Dense and uniform nanocrystalline SiC film was coated on zircaloy substrate. - Abstract: There is a huge requirement for development of a coating technique in nuclear industry, which is environmentally safe, economical and applicable to large scale components. In this view, simulation of gas-phase behavior in specially designed CVD reactor was carried out using computational tool, COMSOL. There were two important zones in CVD reactor first one is precursor vaporization zone and second one is coating zone. Optimized parameters for coating were derived from the simulation of gas phase dynamics in both zone of CVD reactor. The overall effect of fluid velocity, heat flow and concentration profile showed that Re = 54 is the optimum reaction condition for uniform coating in CVD system. In CVD coating experiments a synthesized halogen free, non-toxic and non-corrosive silicon carbide precursor was used. Uniform coating of SiC was obtained on zircaloy substrate at 900 °C using as synthesized organosilicon precursor. The X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analysis show that dense nano crystalline SiC film was deposited on zircaloy substrate.

  14. Vascular calcifications as prognostic markers of CVD events in chest CT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the most common diseases affecting people throughout the world and second only to cancer as the most frequent cause of death in the Netherlands. Early detection of asymptomatic individuals at high risk of developing CVD events is an important goal since modific

  15. Origin, state of the art and some prospects of the diamond CVD

    CERN Document Server

    Spitsyn, B V; Alexenko, A E

    2000-01-01

    A short review on the diamond CVD origin, together with its state of the art and some prospects was given. New hybrid methods of the diamond CVD permit to gain 1.2 to 6 times of growth rate in comparison with ordinary diamond CVD's. Recent results on n-type diamond film synthesis through phosphorus doping in the course of the CVD process are briefly discussed. In comparison with high-pressure diamond synthesis, the CVD processes open new facets of the diamond as ultimate crystal for science and technology evolution. It was stressed that, mainly on the basis of new CVDs of diamond, the properties of natural diamond are not only reproduced, but can be surpassed. As examples, mechanical (fracture resistance), physical (thermal conductivity), and chemical (oxidation stability) properties are mentioned. Some present issues in the field are considered.

  16. IN VITRO AND IN VIVO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF BURITI FRUIT (MAURITIA FLEXUOSA L.F.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha Romero, Amanda Batista; de Carvalho e Martins, Maria do Carmo; Moreira Nunes, Paulo Humberto; Ravenna Trindade Ferreira, Nayara; da Silva Brito, Ana Karolinne; Marinho da Cunha, Polliana Farias; de Lima, Alessandro; de Assis, Regina Célia; Moreira Araújo, Eva

    2015-11-01

    Introducción: estudios previos han demostrado que la fruta Burití (Mauritia flexuosa L.f). posee una alta concentración de ácidos grasos monoinsaturados, carotenoides, polifenoles y ácido ascórbico. Este estudio evaluó la actividad antioxidante in vitro e in vivo del Burití. Métodos: fueron determinadas la composición química, el contenido de compuestos fenólicos y de carotenoides tanto de la pulpa del Burití como de las raciones de alimento. La actividad antioxidante in vitro fue analizada utilizando el ensayo del radical 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil (DPPH). Ratas Wistar (21 días de edad) fueron asignadas al azar (n = 10) en grupos controles y grupos experimentales (alimentación enriquecida con pulpa de Burití). Después de 60 días, la actividad antioxidante in vivo se evaluó mediante la actividad enzimática de la catalasa y grupos sulfhidrílo no proteico (NPSH) en el hígado, y se cuantificó el malondialdehído (MDA) en plasma y tejidos. Resultados: la pulpa del Burití presentó alto contenido de ácido graso oleico (73,3%), compuestos fenólicos (192 ± 0,3 mg/100 g) y carotenoides (23,9 ± 0,5 mg/100 g), así como una elevada actividad antioxidante in vitro. La dieta enriquecida tenía mayor contenido de fenoles y carotenoides, y una mayor actividad antioxidante en comparación con la alimentación estándar (p < 0,05). No se observaron diferencias entre los grupos con respecto a la actividad de la catalasa en el hígado y las concentraciones de MDA en plasma, hígado y riñones. Las ratas macho del grupo experimental tuvieron concentraciones hepáticas más altas de NPSH (p < 0,05). Conclusión: estos resultados pueden corroborar la hipótesis de que la fruta Burití es un alimento funcional antioxidante y su consumo es conveniente en una dieta nutricionalmente equilibrada.

  17. CVD and obesity in transitional Syria: a perspective from the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baaj MK

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Hani Barakat1, Hanniya Barakat1, Mohamad K Baaj21Kalamoon Private University Medical School, Deir Attieh, Syria; 2Aleppo University Medical School, Aleppo, SyriaPurpose: Syria is caught in the middle of a disruptive nutritional transition. Its healthcare system is distracted by challenges and successes in other areas while neglecting to address the onslaught of Syria's cardiovascular disease (CVD epidemic. Despite the official viewpoint touting improvement in health indicators, current trends jeopardize population health, and several surveys in the Syrian population signal the epidemic spreading far and wide. The goal is to counteract the indifference towards obesity as a threat to Syrian's health, as the country is slowly becoming a leader in CVD mortality globally.Methods: PubMed, World Health Organization, and official government websites were searched for primary surveys in Syria related to CVD morbidity, mortality, and risk factors. Inclusion criteria ensured that results maximized relevance while producing comparable studies. Statistical analysis was applied to detect the most common risk factor and significant differences in risk factor prevalence and CVD rates.Results: Obesity remained the prevailing CVD risk factor except in older Syrian men, where smoking and hypertension were more common. CVD mortality was more common in males due to coronary disease, while stroke dominated female mortality. The young workforce is especially impacted, with 50% of CVD mortality occurring before age 65 years and an 81% prevalence of obesity in women over 45 years.Conclusion: Syria can overcome its slow response to the CVD epidemic and curb further deterioration by reducing obesity and, thus, inheritance and clustering of risk factors. This can be achieved via multilayered awareness and intensive parental and familial involvement. Extinguishing the CVD epidemic is readily achievable as demonstrated in other countries.Keywords: Syria, CVD, obesity, risk

  18. LF拓扑空间中的r-Lindel(o)ff可数性质%The r-Lindel(o)ff Countable Property in LF Topological Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王延军

    2008-01-01

    在LF拓扑空间中借助LF-r闭集定义了r远域族与r-远域族,进一步引入r-Lindel(o)ff可数性和弱r-Lindel(o)ff可数性的概念,证明了r-Lindel可数性和弱r-Lindel可数性对于LF-r闭子集是遗传的,是r拓扑性质.

  19. Design of double CAN port syn-communication board based on TMS320LF2407A%基于TMS320LF2407A的双CAN口同步通讯板设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王峰; 周希鹏; 荣溪超; 王锋

    2009-01-01

    为将高可靠性、模块化的车栽PLC控制器应用到防空武器火力控制分系统,提高其战场条件下的可靠性和可维修性,针对某型防空武器内部TTCAN网络的时间触发特性.提出一种基于TMS320LF2407和CAN控制器MCP2515的双CAN口同步通讯板的新方案,解决了PLC与TTCAN网络的接口问题.

  20. Functional receptor molecules CD300lf and CD300ld within the CD300 family enable murine noroviruses to infect cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga, Kei; Fujimoto, Akira; Takai-Todaka, Reiko; Miki, Motohiro; Doan, Yen Hai; Murakami, Kosuke; Yokoyama, Masaru; Murata, Kazuyoshi; Nakanishi, Akira; Katayama, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Norovirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Since the discovery of human norovirus (HuNoV), an efficient and reproducible norovirus replication system has not been established in cultured cells. Although limited amounts of virus particles can be produced when the HuNoV genome is directly transfected into cells, the HuNoV cycle of infection has not been successfully reproduced in any currently available cell-culture system. Those results imply that the identification of a functional cell-surface receptor for norovirus might be the key to establishing a norovirus culture system. Using a genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 guide RNA library, we identified murine CD300lf and CD300ld as functional receptors for murine norovirus (MNV). The treatment of susceptible cells with polyclonal antibody against CD300lf significantly reduced the production of viral progeny. Additionally, ectopic CD300lf expression in nonsusceptible cell lines derived from other animal species enabled MNV infection and progeny production, suggesting that CD300lf has potential for dictating MNV host tropism. Furthermore, CD300ld, which has an amino acid sequence in the N-terminal region of its extracellular domain that is highly homologous to that of CD300lf, also functions as a receptor for MNV. Our results indicate that direct interaction of MNV with two cell-surface molecules, CD300lf and CD300ld, dictates permissive noroviral infection. PMID:27681626

  1. What Can Veterinary Educators Learn from PE Teachers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik H; McCullick, Bryan A

    2016-01-01

    Veterinary education requires the training of students in cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains. However, the veterinary education literature tends to focus more on the cognitive domain, with less emphasis on the affective and psychomotor domains. Physical education (PE) teachers have been teaching psychomotor skills to students for decades using a variety of teaching models. Teaching models provide a framework encompassing theory, student and teacher interactions, instructional themes, research support, and valid assessments. This paper reviews some of the models used by PE teachers, including the Direct Instruction Model, the Cooperative Learning Model, the Personalized System for Instruction, and the Peer Teaching Model. We posit that these models might be particularly helpful for novice teachers in veterinary education settings, providing a structure for the teaching and assessment of psychomotor skills.

  2. The evaluation of radiation damage parameter for CVD diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilj, V.; Skukan, N.; Jakšić, M.; Pomorski, M.; Kada, W.; Kamiya, T.; Ohshima, T.

    2016-04-01

    There are a few different phenomenological approaches that aim to track the dependence of signal height in irradiated solid state detectors on the fluence of damaging particles. However, none of them are capable to provide a unique radiation hardness parameter that would reflect solely the material capability to withstand high radiation environment. To extract such a parameter for chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond, two different diamond detectors were irradiated with proton beams in MeV energy range and subjected afterwards to ion beam induced charge (IBIC) analysis. The change in charge collection efficiency (CCE) due to defects produced was investigated in context of a theoretical model that was developed on the basis of the adjoint method for linearization of the continuity equations of electrons and holes. Detailed modeling of measured data resulted with the first known value of the kσ product for diamond, where k represents the number of charge carriers' traps created per one simulated primary lattice vacancy and σ represents the charge carriers' capture cross section. As discussed in the text, this product could be considered as a true radiation damage parameter.

  3. Electrical conduction in polycrystalline CVD diamond: Temperature dependent impedance measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, H.; Williams, O.A.; Jackman, R.B. [Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Rudkin, R.; Atkinson, A. [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2002-10-16

    In this paper, we report the first measurement of impedance on freestanding diamond films from 0.1 Hz to 10 MHz up to 300 C. A wide range of CVD materials have been investigated, but here we concentrate on 'black' diamond grown by MWPECVD. The Cole-Cole (Z' via Z{sup ''}) plots are well fitted to a RC parallel circuit model and the equivalent resistance and capacitance for the diamond films have been estimated using the Zview curve fitting. The results show only one single semicircle response at each temperature measured. It was found that the resistance decreases from 62 M{omega} at room temperature to 4 k{omega} at 300 C, with an activation energy around 0.51 eV. The equivalent capacitance is maintained at the level of 10{sup 2} pF up to 300 C, suggesting that the diamond grain boundaries are dominating the conduction. At 400 C, the impedance at low frequencies shows a linear tail, which can be explained that the ac polarization of diamond/Au interface occurs. (Abstract Copyright [2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  4. Contact resistance study of various metal electrodes with CVD graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahoi, Amit; Wagner, Stefan; Bablich, Andreas; Kataria, Satender; Passi, Vikram; Lemme, Max C.

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the contact resistance of various metals to chemical vapor deposited (CVD) monolayer graphene is investigated. Transfer length method (TLM) structures with varying channel widths and separation between contacts have been fabricated and electrically characterized in ambient air and vacuum condition. Electrical contacts are made with five metals: gold, nickel, nickel/gold, palladium and platinum/gold. The lowest value of 92 Ω μm is observed for the contact resistance between graphene and gold, extracted from back-gated devices at an applied back-gate bias of -40 V. Measurements carried out under vacuum show larger contact resistance values when compared with measurements carried out in ambient conditions. Post processing annealing at 450 °C for 1 h in argon-95%/hydrogen-5% atmosphere results in lowering the contact resistance value which is attributed to the enhancement of the adhesion between metal and graphene. The results presented in this work provide an overview for potential contact engineering for high performance graphene-based electronic devices.

  5. Purification of carbon nanotubes grown by thermal CVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porro, S.; Musso, S.; Vinante, M.; Vanzetti, L.; Anderle, M.; Trotta, F.; Tagliaferro, A.

    2007-03-01

    We show the results of a set of purifications on carbon nanotubes (CNT) by acid and basic treatments. CNTs were obtained by thermal decomposition of camphor at 850 °C in a CVD growth system, by means of a growth process catalyzed by iron clusters originating from the addition of ferrocene in the precursors mixture. The purification procedures involved HNO 3, H 2SO 4, HSO 3Cl and NaOH for different process temperatures. As-grown CNTs showed a consistent presence of metal catalyst (about 6 wt%), evidenced by TGA. The purification treatments led to a certain amount of opening of the CNT tips, with a consequent loss of metal catalyst encapsulated in tips. This is also confirmed by BET analysis, which showed an increase of the surface area density of CNT after the purification. FT-IR and XPS revealed the presence of carboxylic groups on the CNT surface chemically modified by the harsh environment of the purification process. Among the various treatments that have been tested, the 1:3 solution of nitric and sulphuric acid was the most effective in modifying the CNT surface and inducing the formation of functional groups.

  6. Thermoelectric properties of CVD grown large area graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherehiy, Andriy; Jayasinghe, Ruwantha; Stallard, Robert; Sumanasekera, Gamini; Sidorov, Anton; Benjamin, Daniel; Jiang, Zhigang; Yu, Qingkai; Wu, Wei; Bao, Jiming; Liu, Zhihong; Pei, Steven; Chen, Yong

    2010-03-01

    The thermoelectric power (TEP) of CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) grown large area graphene transferred onto a Si/SiO2 substrate was measured by simply attaching two miniature thermocouples and a resistive heater. Availability of such large area graphene facilitates straight forward TEP measurement without the use of any microfabrication processes. All investigated graphene samples showed a positive TEP ˜ + 30 μV/K in ambient conditions and saturated at a negative value as low as ˜ -75 μV/K after vacuum-annealing at 500 K in a vacuum of ˜10-7 Torr. The observed p-type behavior under ambient conditions is attributed to the oxygen doping, while the n-type behavior under degassed conditions is due to electron doping from SiO2 surface states. It was observed that the sign of the TEP switched from negative to positive for the degassed graphene when exposed to acceptor gases. Conversely, the TEP of vacuum-annealed graphene exposed to the donor gases became even more negative than the TEP of vacuum-annealed sample.

  7. Experimental studies of N~+ implantation into CVD diamond thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛火平; 林成鲁; 王建新; 邹世昌; 石晓红; 林梓鑫; 周祖尧; 刘祖刚

    1997-01-01

    The effects of N+ implantation under various conditions on CVD diamond films were analyzed with Raman spectroscopy, four-point probe method, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Rutherford backseattering spectroscopy (RBS), ultraviolet photoluminescence spectroscopy (UV-PL), Fourier transformation infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results show that the N+ implantation doping without any graphitization has been successfully realized when 100 keV N+ ions at a dosage of 2 × 1016 cm-2 were implanted into diamond films at 550℃ . UV-PL spectra indicate that the implanted N+ ions formed an electrically inactive deep-level impurity in diamond films. So the sheet resistance of the sample after N+ implantation changed little. Carbon nitride containing C≡N covalent bond has been successfully synthesized by 100 keV, 1.2×1018 N/cm2 N+ implantation into diamond films. Most of the implanted N+ ions formed C≡N covalent bonds with C atoms. The others were free state nitroge

  8. The evaluation of radiation damage parameter for CVD diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grilj, V., E-mail: vgrilj@irb.hr [Division for Experimental Physics, Ruđer Bošković Institute, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Skukan, N.; Jakšić, M. [Division for Experimental Physics, Ruđer Bošković Institute, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Pomorski, M. [CEA-LIST, Diamond Sensors Laboratory, Gif-sur-Yvette F-91191 (France); Kada, W. [Division of Electronics and Informatics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Gunma University, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Kamiya, T.; Ohshima, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2016-04-01

    There are a few different phenomenological approaches that aim to track the dependence of signal height in irradiated solid state detectors on the fluence of damaging particles. However, none of them are capable to provide a unique radiation hardness parameter that would reflect solely the material capability to withstand high radiation environment. To extract such a parameter for chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond, two different diamond detectors were irradiated with proton beams in MeV energy range and subjected afterwards to ion beam induced charge (IBIC) analysis. The change in charge collection efficiency (CCE) due to defects produced was investigated in context of a theoretical model that was developed on the basis of the adjoint method for linearization of the continuity equations of electrons and holes. Detailed modeling of measured data resulted with the first known value of the kσ product for diamond, where k represents the number of charge carriers’ traps created per one simulated primary lattice vacancy and σ represents the charge carriers’ capture cross section. As discussed in the text, this product could be considered as a true radiation damage parameter.

  9. Excimer Laser Beam Analyzer Based on CVD Diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolami, Marco; Salvatori, Stefano; Conte, Gennaro

    2010-11-01

    1-D and 2-D detector arrays have been realized on CVD-diamond. The relatively high resistivity of diamond in the dark allowed the fabrication of photoconductive "sandwich" strip (1D) or pixel (2D) detectors: a semitransparent light-receiving back-side contact was used for detector biasing. Cross-talk between pixels was limited by using intermediate guard contacts connected at the same ground potential of the pixels. Each pixel photocurrent was conditioned by a read-out electronics composed by a high sensitive integrator and a Σ-Δ ADC converter. The overall 500 μs conversion time allowed a data acquisition rate up to 2 kSPS. The measured fast photoresponse of the samples in the ns time regime suggests to use the proposed devices for fine tuning feedback of high-power pulsed-laser cavities, whereas solar-blindness guarantees high performance in UV beam diagnostics also under high intensity background illumination. Offering unique properties in terms of thermal conductivity and visible-light transparency, diamond represents one of the most suitable candidate for the detection of high-power UV laser emission. The technology of laser beam profiling is evolving with the increase of excimer lasers applications that span from laser-cutting to VLSI and MEMS technologies. Indeed, to improve emission performances, fine tuning of the laser cavity is required. In such a view, the development of a beam-profiler, able to work in real-time between each laser pulse, is mandatory.

  10. A Fast CVD Diamond Beam Loss Monitor for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Griesmayer, E; Dobos, D; Effinger, E; Pernegger, H

    2011-01-01

    Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) diamond detectors were installed in the collimation area of the CERN LHC to study their feasibility as Fast Beam Loss Monitors in a high-radiation environment. The detectors were configured with a fast, radiation-hard pre-amplifier with a bandwidth of 2 GHz. The readout was via an oscilloscope with a bandwidth of 1 GHz and a sampling rate of 5 GSPS. Despite the 250 m cable run from the detectors to the oscilloscope, single MIPs were resolved with a 2 ns rise time, a pulse width of 10 ns and a time resolution of less than 1 ns. Two modes of operation were applied. For the analysis of unexpected beam aborts, the loss profile was recorded in a 1 ms buffer and, for nominal operation, the histogram of the time structure of the losses was recorded in synchronism with the LHC period of 89.2 μs. Measurements during the LHC start-up (February to December 2010) are presented. The Diamond Monitors gave an unprecedented insight into the time structure of the beam losses resolving the 400...

  11. CYCLIC CODES OVER THE RING Zp2 OF LENGTH pe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Minjia; Zhu Shixin

    2008-01-01

    The study of cyclic codes over rings has generated a lot of public interest. In this paper,we study cyclic codes and their dual codes over the ring Zp2 of length pe,and find a set of generators for these codes. The ranks and minimal generator sets of these codes are studied as well,which play an important role in decoding and determining the distance distribution of codes.

  12. A blueprint for radioanalytical metrology CRMs, intercomparisons, and PE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inn, Kenneth G.W. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Dr., MS 8462, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8462 (United States)], E-mail: kenneth.inn@nist.gov; Kurosaki, Hiromu [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Dr., MS 8462, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8462 (United States); Frechou, Carole [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, CE Saclay-Bat 459, Gif sur Yvette Cedex 91191 (France); Gilligan, Chris [National Physical Laboratory, F6-A4 Hampton Road, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Jones, Robert [Center for Disease Control, 4770 Buford Highway, MS F-18, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); LaMont, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, MS J514, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Leggitt, Jeff [Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2501 Investigation Pkwy, Quantico, VA 22135 (United States); Li Chunsheng [Health Canada, 775 Brookfield Rd, Ottawa, K1A 1C1 (Canada); McCroan, Keith [US Environmental Protection Agency, 540 S Morris Avenue, Montgomery, AL 36115 (United States); Swatski, Ronald [Department of Army USACHPPM, 5158 Blackhawk Rd., APG-EA, MD 21010-5422 (United States)

    2008-06-15

    A workshop was held from 28 February to 2 March 2006 at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to evaluate the needs for new directions for complex matrix reference materials certified for radionuclide content, interlaboratory comparisons and performance evaluation (PE) programs. The workshop identified new radioanalytical metrology thrust areas needed for environmental, radiobioassay, emergency consequence management, and nuclear forensics, attribution, nonproliferation, and safeguards.

  13. Failure analysis of retrieved PE-UHMW acetabular liners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laska, Anna; Archodoulaki, Vasiliki-Maria; Duscher, Bernadette

    2016-08-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (PE-UHMW) acetabular liners have a limited lifespan in a patient's body. There are many factors affecting the performance of the implant and furthermore the properties of the polymeric material are changing after implantation. In this work material changes according to structure and morphology and their implication on mechanical properties are in focus. The physical and mechanical properties of ten crosslinked (xL) PE-UHMW and nine conventional (conv) gamma-sterilized PE-UHMW hip components, used as sliding surface in total hip joint replacement, with different in-vivo times are compared. The evaluation of the retrieved acetabular liners is performed in view of crosslinking and conventional gamma-sterilization but also in terms of the influence of gender concerning alteration in properties. The oxidative degradation in the PE-UHMW is investigated by means of Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The characterization of the morphology is carried out via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A depth profile of the micro-hardness and elastic modulus is taken over the cross-section of the components in order to find the influence of chemical constitution and morphology on the micro-mechanical properties. It could be shown that crosslinking and oxidative degradation influence the degree of crystallinity of the polymer. Oxidation occurs for both types of the material due to in-vivo time. Higher degree of crystallinity can be correlated to higher hardness and indentation modulus. No unequivocal superiority of crosslinked over conventional liners can be observed. The influence of sex concerning alteration of the evaluated properties matters but need to be further investigated.

  14. The new geographic information system in ETVA VI.PE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xagoraris, Zafiris; Soulis, George

    2016-08-01

    ETVA VI.PE. S.A. is a member of the Piraeus Bank Group of Companies and its activities include designing, developing, exploiting and managing Industrial Areas throughout Greece. Inside ETVA VI.PE.'s thirty-one Industrial Parks there are currently 2,500 manufacturing companies established, with 40,000 employees and € 2.5 billion of invested funds. In each one of the industrial areas ETVA VI.PE guarantees the companies industrial lots of land (sites) with propitious building codes and complete infrastructure networks of water supply, sewerage, paved roads, power supply, communications, cleansing services, etc. The development of Geographical Information System for ETVA VI.PE.'s Industrial Parks started at the beginning of 1992 and consists of three subsystems: Cadastre, that manages the information for the land acquisition of Industrial Areas; Street Layout - Sites, that manages the sites sold to manufacturing companies; Networks, that manages the infrastructure networks (roads, water supply, sewerage etc). The mapping of each Industrial Park is made incorporating state-of-the-art photogrammetric, cartographic and surveying methods and techniques. Passing through the phases of initial design (hybrid GIS) and system upgrade (integrated Gis solution with spatial database), the system is currently operating on a new upgrade (integrated gIS solution with spatial database) that includes redesigning and merging the system's database schemas, along with the creation of central security policies, and the development of a new web GIS application for advanced data entry, highly customisable and standard reports, and dynamic interactive maps. The new GIS bring the company to advanced levels of productivity and introduce the new era for decision making and business management.

  15. The effect of dielectric top lids on materials processing in a low frequency inductively coupled plasma (LF-ICP) reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, J. W. M.; Chan, C. S.; Xu, L.; Xu, S.

    2014-08-01

    The advent of the plasma revolution began in the 1970's with the exploitation of plasma sources for anisotropic etching and processing of materials. In recent years, plasma processing has gained popularity, with research institutions adopting projects in the field and industries implementing dry processing in their production lines. The advantages of utilizing plasma sources would be uniform processing over a large exposed surface area, and the reduction of toxic emissions. This leads to reduced costs borne by manufacturers which could be passed down as consumer savings, and a reduction in negative environmental impacts. Yet, one constraint that plagues the industry would be the control of contaminants in a plasma reactor which becomes evident when reactions are conducted in a clean vacuum environment. In this work, amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin films were grown on glass substrates in a low frequency inductively coupled plasma (LF-ICP) reactor with a top lid made of quartz. Even though the chamber was kept at high vacuum ( 10-4 Pa), it was evident through secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and Fourier-transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) that oxygen contaminants were present. With the aid of optical emission spectroscopy (OES) the contaminant species were identified. The design of the LF-ICP reactor was then modified to incorporate an Alumina (Al2O3) lid. Results indicate that there were reduced amounts of contaminants present in the reactor, and that an added benefit of increased power transfer to the plasma, improving deposition rate of thin films was realized. The results of this study is conclusive in showing that Al2O3 is a good alternative as a top-lid of an LF-ICP reactor, and offers industries a solution in improving quality and rate of growth of thin films.

  16. LC2 and OsVIL2 Promote Rice Flowering by Photoperoid-Induced Epigenetic Silencing of OsLF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Wang; Jiang Hu; Qian Qian; Hong-Wei Xue

    2013-01-01

    Proper flowering time is essential for plant reproduction.Winter annual Arabidopsis thaliana needs vernalization before flowering,during which AtVlLs (VlN3 and VRN5,components of PRC2 complex) mediate the H3K27 trimethylation at the FLC locus (a floral repressor) to repress the FLC expression and hence to induce flowering.However,how VlLs (VlL,VERNALIZATION INSENSITIVE 3-LIKE) function in rice is unknown.Here we demonstrated that rice LC2 (OsVlL3) and OsVll.2 (two OsVlLs,possible components of PRC2 complex) promote rice flowering.Our results showed that expressions of LC2 and OsVlL2 are induced by SD (short-day) conditions and both Ic2 mutant and OsVlL2-RNAi lines display delayed heading date,consistent with the reduced expression levels of Hdl and Hd3a.Interestingly,LC2 binds to the promoter region of a floral repressor OsLF and represses the OsLF expression via H3K27 tri-methylation modification.In addition,OsLF directly regulates the Hdl expression through binding to Hdl promoter.These results first demonstrated that the putative PRC2 in rice is involved in photoperiod flowering regulation,which is different from that of Arabidopsis,and revealed that LC2 binds the promoter region of target gene,presenting a possible mechanism of the recruitment process of PRC2 complex to its target genes.The studies provide informative clues on the epigenetic control of rice flowering.

  17. Characterization and applications of VLF/LF source locations from lightning using the Huntsville Alabama Marx Meter Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitzer, Phillip M.; Christian, Hugh J.; Stewart, Mike; Burchfield, Jeff; Podgorny, Scott; Corredor, David; Hall, John; Kuznetsov, Evgeny; Franklin, Veronica

    2013-04-01

    Arrays that detect and locate the four-dimensional spacetime positions of radiation sources from lightning have largely utilized sensors sensitive to the very high frequency (VHF) regime with ˜ 15 km baselines or very low frequency/low frequency (VLF/LF) regime with ˜ 100 km baselines. This paper details initial results from the newly developed Huntsville Alabama Marx Meter Array (HAMMA), consisting of Marx meters (electric field change meters) sensitive to a frequency band ˜ 1 Hz to 400 kHz. The arrival time of HAMMA waveforms due to radiation sources from lightning are used to determine the spacetime position of these sources. The locations are compared with two well-documented and operational arrays, the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) and the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (NALMA). The standard deviation of the difference between HAMMA and NLDN locations of return strokes is 305 and 266 m in x and y, respectively, while the standard deviation of the difference between HAMMA and NALMA sources is 237, 226, and 688 m in x, y and z, respectively. We further show that NLDN intracloud locations differ in horizontal distance from the corresponding HAMMA locations by a median value of 479 m. In addition, we use HAMMA source locations to map several lightning flashes in the VLF/LF and show HAMMA sources largely map out the same electrical extent as VHF sources and provide unique insights to the properties of the discharges occurring. Finally, we show that VLF/LF sources can determine the leader polarity in several example flashes but not necessarily whether a flash comes to ground. Copyright 2013 American Geophysical Union. All rights reserved.

  18. February 2015 Tucson pulmonary journal club: fibrinolysis for PE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh A

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The role of fibrinolytic therapy among patients with intermediate-risk pulmonary embo-lism (PE is controversial (1. When right ventricular dysfunction and myocardial injury are associated with PE, there is an increased risk of adverse events (2. However, the risk of bleeding with fibrinolytic therapy has previously been thought to outweigh the benefits among patients without overt hemodynamic collapse. The Pulmonary Embolism Thrombolysis (PEITHO trial was a multi-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial designed to investigate the efficacy and safety of single-bolus injection with tenecteplase plus heparin anticoagulation versus heparin anticoagulation alone among normotensive patients with intermediate risk PE (3. The study included 1005 adult patients who were randomized within fifteen days of symptom onset; randomization occurred when both right ventricular dysfunction (echocardiography or spiral computed tomography and myocardial injury (troponin I or T were present. All patients were followed for 30 days. The primary outcome was death or hemo-dynamic collapse within 7 ...

  19. Polyelectrolyte (PE) induced interactions between Charged and zwitterionic Colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryamitsyn, Victor; Ganesan, Venkat

    2014-03-01

    A numerical self-consistent field (SCF) theory approach was developed for studying mixture of polyelectrolytes with charged and uncharged nanoparticles. Such an approach was used to analyze within the mean-field limit the polyelectrolyte-mediated effective interactions between the particles. The system considered allows for the local PE and particle charges to be defined by the local concentration of ionizable on groups on the particles and polyelectrolytes, ambient conditions like pH and the local electrostatic potential. Calculation of the free energy of a system of one, two and three particles in the polyelectrolyte solution allowdd us to calculate the particle insertion free energy, two and three body particle-particle interactions as a function of the properties of solution, polymer-particle interactions and the particle size. For the situation involving acidic PE and a base type positively charged particles, the PE mediated particle-particle interaction is purely repulsive for the larger particle-particle distances at low polymer concentrations. At short-particle particle distances and/or higher polyelectrolyte concentrations the particle-particle interaction becomes a depletion-type attraction. For Zwitterionic positively chaged paticles particles we have found a a range

  20. When to perform CTA in patients suspected of PE?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghaye, Benoit; Dondelinger, Robert F. [University Hospital of Liege, B 35, Department of Medical Imaging, Liege (Belgium)

    2008-03-15

    Venous thromboembolic disease (VTE) is a common disorder which may be associated with high morbidity or mortality when left untreated. Specific VTE diagnosis is mandatory, as treatment is associated with significant side effects. Therefore, timely diagnostic tests are necessary to establish the presence or absence of VTE. Computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) has reached a high accuracy in the evaluation of pulmonary embolism (PE). Unfortunately, the continuous decrease of the prevalence of PE in the most recent studies can lead to cost-efficacy imbalance and overuse of ionizing radiation when CTPA is used as a single test. Therefore, no single non-invasive test is suitable for all patients and diagnostic strategies based on sequential non-invasive tests are likely to identify patients in whom anticoagulation can be withheld safely and limit the number of patients requiring more invasive or more expensive tests. The cost effectiveness of clinical stratification and D-dimer test has been demonstrated as it reduces the requirement for invasive tests. In this paper, the current role of CTPA in the diagnosis of PE will be reviewed. (orig.)

  1. PC/PET/PE-g-MAM三元共混体系流动性的研究%Studies on Flowability of PC/PET/PE-g-MAM Blends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振兴; 刘翅; 李谷; 席世平

    1999-01-01

    PE-g-MAH和PE-g-MANa、PE-g-MAZn马来酸盐离聚物为相容剂组成PC/PET/PE-g-MAM三元共混体系.用毛细管流变仪研究了不同PE-g-MAM的接枝率及用量对共混物流动性的影响,结果表明:马来酸盐离聚物增强了PC和PET间的相容性,当其含量或接枝率较大时,可以显著降低PC/PET共混物的表观粘度,提高体系的流动性,相同接枝率的PE-g-MANa对共混体系表观粘度的影响更为显著.

  2. Dosimetric characterization of CVD diamonds irradiated with 62 MeV proton beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirrone, G.A.P. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, Catania (Italy)]. E-mail: cirrone@lns.infn.it; Cuttone, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, Catania (Italy); Lo Nigro, S. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia, Universita di Catania (Italy); CSFNSM Centro Siciliano di Fisica Nucleare e Struttura della MAteria, Catania (Italy); Mongelli, V. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, Catania (Italy); Scuola di Specializzazione in Fisica Sanitaria, Universita di Catania (Italy); CSFNSM Centro Siciliano di Fisica Nucleare e Struttura della MAteria, Catania (Italy); Raffaele, L. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, Catania (Italy); Sabini, M.G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, Catania (Italy); Azienda Ospedaliera Cannizzaro, Catania (Italy); Valastro, L. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, Catania (Italy); Scuola di Specializzazione in Fisica Sanitaria, Universita di Catania (Italy); Bucciolini, M. [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Universita di Florence (Italy); Onori, S. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy)

    2005-10-21

    Diamond is potentially a very suitable material for use as on-line radiation dosimeter. Recent advances in the synthesis of polycrystalline diamond by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques have produced material with electronic properties suitable for dosimetry applications. In this work the possibility to use a segmented commercial CVD detector in the dosimetry of proton beams has been investigated. The response as function of dose, dose rate, the priming and the rise time have been investigated thoroughly. This study shows the suitability of CVD diamond for dosimetry of clinical 62 MeV proton beams.

  3. Rare earth-doped alumina thin films deposited by liquid source CVD processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deschanvres, J.L.; Meffre, W.; Joubert, J.C.; Senateur, J.P. [Ecole Nat. Superieure de Phys. de Grenoble, St. Martin d`Heres (France). Lab. des Materiaux et du Genie Phys.; Robaut, F. [Consortium des Moyens Technologiques Communs, Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble, BP 75, 38402 St Martin d`Heres (France); Broquin, J.E.; Rimet, R. [Laboratoire d`Electromagnetisme, Microondes et Optoelectronique, CNRS-Ecole Nationale Superieure d`Electronique et Radioelectricite de Grenoble, BP 257, 38016 Grenoble, Cedex (France)

    1998-07-24

    Two types of liquid-source CVD processes are proposed for the growth of rare earth-doped alumina thin films suitable as amplifying media for integrated optic applications. Amorphous, transparent, pure and erbium- or neodymium-doped alumina films were deposited between 573 and 833 K by atmospheric pressure aerosol CVD. The rare earth doping concentration increases by decreasing the deposition temperature. The refractive index of the alumina films increases as a function of the deposition temperature from 1.53 at 573 K to 1.61 at 813 K. Neodymium-doped films were also obtained at low pressure by liquid source injection CVD. (orig.) 7 refs.

  4. Attitudes toward and Motivation for PE. Who Collects the Benefits of the Subject?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säfvenbom, Reidar; Haugen, Tommy; Bulie, Marte

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose: Due to attitudinal and motivational aims in the national curriculum, and to lack of research on adolescents' experiences with physical education (PE) in Norway, the purposes of this study were to (1) attain data on attitudes toward PE and self-determined motivation for PE among a representative sample of adolescents (N =…

  5. Targeting the Body and the Mind: Evaluation of a P.E. Curriculum Intervention for Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukaitou-Sideris, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    P.E. classes are often the only opportunity for inner-city youth to engage in physical activity, but budget cuts and pressure to perform well on standardized tests has made P.E. an afterthought for many school administrators. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a new P.E. curriculum in five Los Angeles inner-city schools. Interviews were…

  6. Software design of serial communication between TMS320LF2407A and PC based on modbus%基于MODBUS协议的TMS320LF2407A与PC机串口通信软件设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欣; 文小玲; 刘义亭; 孙谋

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the software design method of slave serial communications between the master PC and slave TMS320LF2407A DSP based on Modbus.The interrupt mode is used for the data receiving and between the master and the slave in order to guarantee the reliability of the communication.The DSP communication software is programmed using C language and can be easily transplanted to other microprocessors.The experimental results show that phase A input current of nonlinear load diode rectifier circuit can be displayed by the Labview, realizing the simple, reliable and stable data transmission between DSP and PC.%主要阐述了基于MODBUS协议的DSP从机通信软件的设计方法.以PC机作为上位机,TMS320LF2407A DSP作为下位机,采用中断方式实现数据的接收和发送,保证了数据传输的可靠性.利用C语言编写DSP从站通信程序,以便于程序的移植.经实验验证,非线性负载二极管整流电路的A相输入电流波形能通过Labview显示,实现了DSP与PC机之间简单、可靠、稳定的数据传输.

  7. PE shut-off valve on totally new design principles; PE-Absperrarmatur mit voellig neuem Konstruktionsprinzip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert, Robert [FRIATEC Aktiengesellschaft, Mannheim (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    The FRIALOC polyethylene shut-off valve examined in this article supplies the ''missing link'' for single-material PE piping systems. It eliminates the need for both mechanical joints and flanges, and also for complex and costly corrosion-proofing. Low weight, combined with a low number of turns and low valve-actuation force under all operating conditions, facilitate handling and operation. The innovative shut-off mechanism, based on the principle of the ''respiring'' butterfly valve, is optimally tailored to the specific needs of a PE housing. The actuation system is also of extremely low-wear design and exceptionally robust. The valve can withstand 2500 load cycles without loss of function, even in an extremely demanding continuous-operation test under exposure to maximum differential pressure and maximum flow-rate. (orig.)

  8. TumorHoPe: a database of tumor homing peptides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Kapoor

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cancer is responsible for millions of immature deaths every year and is an economical burden on developing countries. One of the major challenges in the present era is to design drugs that can specifically target tumor cells not normal cells. In this context, tumor homing peptides have drawn much attention. These peptides are playing a vital role in delivering drugs in tumor tissues with high specificity. In order to provide service to scientific community, we have developed a database of tumor homing peptides called TumorHoPe. DESCRIPTION: TumorHoPe is a manually curated database of experimentally validated tumor homing peptides that specifically recognize tumor cells and tumor associated microenvironment, i.e., angiogenesis. These peptides were collected and compiled from published papers, patents and databases. Current release of TumorHoPe contains 744 peptides. Each entry provides comprehensive information of a peptide that includes its sequence, target tumor, target cell, techniques of identification, peptide receptor, etc. In addition, we have derived various types of information from these peptide sequences that include secondary/tertiary structure, amino acid composition, and physicochemical properties of peptides. Peptides in this database have been found to target different types of tumors that include breast, lung, prostate, melanoma, colon, etc. These peptides have some common motifs including RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp and NGR (Asn-Gly-Arg motifs, which specifically recognize tumor angiogenic markers. TumorHoPe has been integrated with many web-based tools like simple/complex search, database browsing and peptide mapping. These tools allow a user to search tumor homing peptides based on their amino acid composition, charge, polarity, hydrophobicity, etc. CONCLUSION: TumorHoPe is a unique database of its kind, which provides comprehensive information about experimentally validated tumor homing peptides and their target cells. This

  9. Automatska metoda kontrole jodnog adsorpcijskog broja u industrijskim pećima za proizvodnju uljno-pećne čađe

    OpenAIRE

    Zečević, N.

    2008-01-01

    Uvjeti rada industrijske peći za proizvodnju uljno-pećne čađe pod utjecajem su raznih ulaznih procesnih varijabli, koje je potrebno kontinuirano i automatski podešavati radi osiguravanja stabilnosti kvalitete krajnjeg proizvoda. Maseni protok ugljikovodične sirovine jedan je od bitnijih ulaznih procesnih veličina kojima se prilagođava adsorpcijska aktivnost uljno-pećne čađe. Adsorpcijska moć uljno-pećnih čađa u industrijskom postupku proizvodnje određuje se laboratorijskom analizom jodnog ads...

  10. Cutting characteristics of dental diamond burs made with CVD technology Características de corte de pontas odontológicas diamantadas obtidas pela tecnologia CVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Monti Lima

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the cutting ability of chemical vapor deposition (CVD diamond burs coupled to an ultrasonic dental unit handpiece for minimally invasive cavity preparation. One standard cavity was prepared on the mesial and distal surfaces of 40 extracted human third molars either with cylindrical or with spherical CVD burs. The cutting ability was compared regarding type of substrate (enamel and dentin and direction of handpiece motion. The morphological characteristics, width and depth of the cavities were analyzed and measured using scanning electron micrographs. Statistical analysis using the Kruskal-Wallis test (p O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a habilidade de corte das pontas de diamante obtidas pelo processo de deposição química a vapor (CVD associadas ao aparelho de ultra-som no preparo cavitário minimamente invasivo. Uma cavidade padronizada foi preparada nas faces mesial e distal de 40 terceiros molares, utilizando-se pontas de diamante CVD cilíndrica e esférica. A habilidade de corte foi comparada quanto ao tipo de substrato (esmalte e dentina e quanto à direção do movimento realizado com a ponta. As características morfológicas, a largura e profundidade das cavidades foram analisadas e medidas em microscopia eletrônica de varredura. A análise estatística pelo teste de Kruskal-Wallis (p < 0,05 revelou que a largura e profundidade das cavidades foram significativamente maiores em dentina. Cavidades mais largas foram obtidas quando se utilizou a ponta de diamante CVD cilíndrica, e mais profundas quando a ponta esférica foi empregada. A direção do movimento da ponta não influenciou o tamanho das cavidades, sendo os cortes produzidos pelas pontas de diamante CVD precisos e conservadores.

  11. Leptospermum flavescens Constituent-LF1 Causes Cell Death through the Induction of Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Human Lung Carcinoma Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suerialoasan Navanesan

    Full Text Available Leptospermum flavescens Sm. (Myrtaceae, locally known as 'Senna makki' is a smallish tree that is widespread and recorded to naturally occur in the montane regions above 900 m a.s.l from Burma to Australia. Although the species is recorded to be used traditionally to treat various ailments, there is limited data on biological and chemical investigations of L. flavescens. The aim of the present study was to investigate and understand the ability of L. flavescens in inducing cell death in lung cancer cells. The cytotoxic potentials of the extraction yields (methanol, hexane, ethyl acetate and water extracts as wells as a semi pure fraction, LF1 were evaluated against two human non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines (A549 and NCI-H1299 using the MTT assay. LF1 showed the greatest cytotoxic effect against both cell lines with IC50 values of 7.12 ± 0.07 and 9.62 ± 0.50 μg/ml respectively. LF1 treated cells showed a sub-G1 region in the cell cycle analysis and also caused the presence of apoptotic morphologies in cells stained with acridine orange and ethidium bromide. Treatment with LF1 manifested an apoptotic population in cells that were evaluated using the Annexin V/ propidium iodide assay. Increasing dosage of LF1 caused a rise in the presence of activated caspase-3 enzymes in treated cells. Blockage of cell cycle progression was also observed in LF1-treated cells. These findings suggest that LF1 induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in treated lung cancer cells. Further studies are being conducted to isolate and identify the active compound as well to better understand the mechanism involved in inducing cell death.

  12. Fish consumption and its motives in households with versus without self-reported medical history of CVD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim; Perez-Cueto, Federico;

    2008-01-01

    Background - The purpose of this study was to explore the cross-cultural differences in the frequency of fish intake and in motivations for fish consumption between people from households with (CVD+) or without (CVD-) medical history of cardiovascular disease, using data obtained in five European...... a number of differences between CVD- and CVD+ subjects with respect to their frequency of fish intake are uncovered, the findings suggest that fish consumption traditions and habits - rather than a medical history of CVD - account for large differences between the countries, particularly in fatty fish...

  13. Laser-Directed CVD 3D Printing of Refractory Metal Rocket Propulsion Hardware Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this project, Ultramet will develop a three-dimensional (3D) laser-directed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) additive manufacturing system to build free-form...

  14. Síntesis de materiales cerámicos mediante técnicas químicas en fase vapor (CVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez-Aleixandre, C.

    2003-02-01

    los reactivos se efectúa con plasma o con fotones. La técnica permite además sintetizar nuevos productos que no es posible sintetizar por otras vías. Esta característica abre la puerta hacia la síntesis de productos, con propiedades muy específicas de dureza, estabilidad, etc. La presentación se centrará en las diversas aplicaciones de la técnica de CVD, de las que interesa destacar la preparación de capas de carbono cristalino o amorfo (películas de diamante o cuasi-diamante partiendo de una mezcla de metano e hidrógeno activada mediante un plasma. Así mismo, se revisará la obtención de recubrimientos de nitruro de boro con diferente estequiometría dependiendo de las condiciones del proceso. Finalmente, se discuten los condiciones experimentales requeridas para la deposición de nuevos compuestos ternarios dentro del sistema Si-B-C-N (p.e. CBN, SiBN. Estos materiales ternarios pueden presentar propiedades muy diferentes dependiendo de su composición. Por tanto, mediante la elección adecuada de los parámetros experimentales, que determinan la composición y estructura del depósito, es posible conseguir la formación de un material con unas características prefijadas.

  15. Dietary Choline and Betaine and Risk of CVD: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie A. Meyer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies implicate choline and betaine metabolite trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO in cardiovascular disease (CVD. We conducted a systematic review and random-effects meta-analysis to quantify a summary estimated effect of dietary choline and betaine on hard CVD outcomes (incidence and mortality. Eligible studies were prospective studies in adults with comprehensive diet assessment and follow-up for hard CVD endpoints. We identified six studies that met our criteria, comprising 18,076 incident CVD events, 5343 CVD deaths, and 184,010 total participants. In random effects meta-analysis, incident CVD was not associated with choline (relative risk (RR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.02 or betaine (RR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.01 intake. Results did not vary by study outcome (incident coronary heart disease, stroke, total CVD and there was no evidence for heterogeneity among studies. Only two studies provided data on phosphatidylcholine and CVD mortality. Random effects meta-analysis did not support an association between choline and CVD mortality (RR: 1.09, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.35, but one study supported a positive association and there was significant heterogeneity (I2 = 84%, p-value < 0.001. Our findings do not support an association between dietary choline/betaine with incident CVD, but call for further research into choline and CVD mortality.

  16. Comparison study of PE epitaxy on carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide and PE/graphene oxide as amphiphilic molecular structure for solvent separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Linghao; Zheng, Xiaoli; Xu, Qun; Chen, Zhimin; Fu, Jianwei

    2012-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene nanosheets, as one-dimensional and two-dimensional carbon-based nanomaterials respectively, have different abilities to induce the polymer crystallization. In this study, hybrid materials, polyethylene (PE) decorating on CNTs and graphene oxide (GO), were prepared by a facile and efficient method using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC CO2) as anti-solvent. And the morphology and crystallization behavior of PE on CNTs and GO were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectra, wide angle X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry. Although both CNTs and GO could act as nucleating agents to induce PE epitaxial growth, CNTs were decorated by PE lamellar crystals forming nanohybrid "shish-kebab" (NHSK) structure, whereas GO sheets were only decorated with petal-like PE crystals. The varying morphologies of the nanohybrids depend on the PE epitaxy and the interactions between polymer chains and substrates. High surface curvature and the perfect ordered crystal structure of CNTs make PE crystals periodically grow on CNTs. While PE crystals grow and form multiple orientation-lamellae on GO due to the lattice matching and complex interactions between PE chains and GO. In addition, our experimental results show an interesting and evident stratification phenomenon for the PE/GO hybrid material, implying that GO decorated by PE have a screening function for the solvents. We anticipate that this work can widen the area of functionalization of carbon-based nanomaterials with a controlled means by an environmentally benign method, which are important for the functional design in nanodevice applications.

  17. Comparison study of PE epitaxy on carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide and PE/graphene oxide as amphiphilic molecular structure for solvent separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Linghao [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Surface and Interface Science, Zhengzhou University of Light of Industry, Zhengzhou 450002 (China); Zheng Xiaoli [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Xu Qun, E-mail: qunxu@zzu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Chen Zhimin; Fu Jianwei [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China)

    2012-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene nanosheets, as one-dimensional and two-dimensional carbon-based nanomaterials respectively, have different abilities to induce the polymer crystallization. In this study, hybrid materials, polyethylene (PE) decorating on CNTs and graphene oxide (GO), were prepared by a facile and efficient method using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC CO{sub 2}) as anti-solvent. And the morphology and crystallization behavior of PE on CNTs and GO were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectra, wide angle X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry. Although both CNTs and GO could act as nucleating agents to induce PE epitaxial growth, CNTs were decorated by PE lamellar crystals forming nanohybrid 'shish-kebab' (NHSK) structure, whereas GO sheets were only decorated with petal-like PE crystals. The varying morphologies of the nanohybrids depend on the PE epitaxy and the interactions between polymer chains and substrates. High surface curvature and the perfect ordered crystal structure of CNTs make PE crystals periodically grow on CNTs. While PE crystals grow and form multiple orientation-lamellae on GO due to the lattice matching and complex interactions between PE chains and GO. In addition, our experimental results show an interesting and evident stratification phenomenon for the PE/GO hybrid material, implying that GO decorated by PE have a screening function for the solvents. We anticipate that this work can widen the area of functionalization of carbon-based nanomaterials with a controlled means by an environmentally benign method, which are important for the functional design in nanodevice applications.

  18. Simulation of a perfect CVD diamond Schottky diode steep forward current–voltage characteristic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukushkin, V.A., E-mail: vakuk@appl.sci-nnov.ru [Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Science, 46 Ulyanov St., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Nizhny Novgorod State University named after N.I. Lobachevsky, 23 Gagarin pr., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-01

    The kinetic equation approach to the simulation of the perfect CVD diamond Schottky diode current–voltage characteristic is considered. In result it is shown that the latter has a significantly steeper forward branch than that of perfect devices of such a type on usual semiconductors. It means that CVD diamond-based Schottky diodes have an important potential advantage over analogous devices on conventional materials.

  19. Influence of process pressure on β-SiC growth by CVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, A. A.; Sultanov, A. O.; Gusev, A. S.; Kargin, N. I.; Pavlova, E. P.

    2014-10-01

    3C-SiC films grown on Si (100) substrates by CVD method using silane-propane- hydrogen system were analyzed for crystallinity at various process pressures. The deposition experiments were carried out in a shower-head type cold-wall CVD reactor. The influence of growth conditions on a structural modification of experimental samples was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE).

  20. Untersuchungen zum Fräsen mit CVD-diamantbeschichteten Werkzeugen

    OpenAIRE

    Grams, Jörg

    2004-01-01

    CVD-diamond coatings on cemented carbide substrates have undergone significant developments in recent years. Former CVD-diamond coated tools failed in metal cutting applications due to severe flaking of the diamond layer. Thus, first industrial applications had been restricted to machining of graphite, fibre reinforced plastics and green compacts made of cemented carbide respectively of ceramics. The field of application is widened nowadays towards machining of non ferrous metallic materials ...

  1. Purification of Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes Grown by a Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A procedure for purification of single-walled carbon nanotubes(SWNTs) grown by the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of carbon monooxide has been developed. Based on the result from TGA/DTA of as-prepared sample, the oxidation temperature was determined. The process included sonication, oxidation and acid washing steps. The purity and yield after purification were determined and estimated by TEM. Moreover, for the first time, a loop structure for CVD SWNTs has been observed.

  2. EFFECTS OF OPERATING CONDITIONS ON THE DEPOSITION OF GaAs IN A VERTICAL CVD REACTOR

    OpenAIRE

    JAE-SANG BAEK; JIN-HYO BOO; YOUN-JEA KIM

    2008-01-01

    A numerical study is needed to gain insight into the growth mechanism and improve the reactor design or optimize the deposition condition in chemical vapor deposition (CVD). In this study, we have performed a numerical analysis of the deposition of gallium arsenide (GaAs) from trimethyl gallium (TMG) and arsine in a vertical CVD reactor. The effects of operating parameters, such as the rotation velocity of susceptor, inlet velocity, and inlet TMG fraction, are investigated and presented. The ...

  3. Simulation of a perfect CVD diamond Schottky diode steep forward current-voltage characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukushkin, V. A.

    2016-10-01

    The kinetic equation approach to the simulation of the perfect CVD diamond Schottky diode current-voltage characteristic is considered. In result it is shown that the latter has a significantly steeper forward branch than that of perfect devices of such a type on usual semiconductors. It means that CVD diamond-based Schottky diodes have an important potential advantage over analogous devices on conventional materials.

  4. Anticoagulant treatment of pulmonary embolism: impact and implications of the EINSTEIN PE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandoni, Paolo

    2012-10-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE), which can develop as a consequence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), is a serious and potentially fatal venous thromboembolic event. Patients with PE are at increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) recurrence and serious complications such as chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Anticoagulants, namely heparins and vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), have been the main treatments for PE in patients who are haemodynamically stable. However, use of these agents can be complex and is associated with an increased risk of bleeding (a characteristic that is common to all anticoagulants). Simplified, effective treatment regimens for PE would be very beneficial for patients, physicians and payers. Compared with DVT, PE is a different clinical manifestation of VTE; phase III trials have now started to focus specifically on patients with PE. Trials in patients with PE can provide further information on the optimal management of these patients. Results of the phase III EINSTEIN PE study demonstrated non-inferiority in the efficacy and safety of oral rivaroxaban compared with standard of care (enoxaparin/VKA) for the treatment of patients with acute symptomatic PE (with or without symptomatic DVT). Rates of major bleeding were significantly lower in patients receiving rivaroxaban. This review will discuss the findings of recent trials, particularly the potential impact of single, oral agents for both the initial and long-term treatment of a range of patients with PE, and how these results may influence the clinical management of PE. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Inclusions in GCr15 bearing steel produced by 120 t LD-LF-VD-CC process%120t转炉-LF-VD-CC流程生产GCr15轴承钢的夹杂物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范植金; 罗国华; 冯文圣; 朱玉秀

    2011-01-01

    Inclusions in GCr15 bearing steel produced by 120 t LD-LF-VD-CC process were investigated using metallogaphic microscope analysis,electron probe microanalysis and inclusion electroanalysis.The results indicate that the A inclusion grade is 0.5-1.5,B inclusion grade is 0.5-1.5,C inclusion grade is 0,D inclusion grade is not more than 0.5.The results of inclusion grading satisfy requirements of the GB/T 18254—2002 standard.Average total amount of oxide inclusions in GCr15 bearing steel produced by LD-LF-VD-CC process is 0.0037% in mass percent,which is reduced in evidence compared with Al-killed GCr15 steel produced by electric furnace.The inclusions mainly are strip manganese sulfide,chain alumina,fusiform manganese sulfide enwrapping granular alumina,granular calcium aluminate,granular calcium sulfide enwrapping calcium aluminate,granular magnesium aluminum spinel,granular calcium sulfide enwrapping magnesium aluminum spinel,quadrate titanium(carbide)nitride,etc.%对120 t转炉-LF-VD-CC流程生产的GCr15轴承钢夹杂物进行了金相显微镜观察评级、电子探针观察分析和电解夹杂分析。结果显示:A类夹杂0.5~1.5级,B类夹杂0.5~1.5级,C类夹杂0级,D类夹杂不大于0.5级,可充分满足GB/T 18254—2002标准的规定;其氧化夹杂物总质量分数平均值为0.00370%,相比采用Al脱氧电炉冶炼的GCr15轴承钢明显降低;夹杂物类型主要有条状硫化锰、链状氧化铝、纺锤状硫化锰包覆粒状氧化铝、粒状铝酸钙、粒状硫化钙包覆铝酸钙、粒状镁铝尖晶石、粒状硫化钙包覆镁铝尖晶石、方块状氮(碳)化钛等。

  6. Cleanliness study of SWRH82 B hard wire steel produced by BOF--LF--CC processes%BOF--LF--CC生产SWRH82 B硬线钢的洁净度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张游游; 刘建华; 苏晓峰; 崔衡; 张杰; 季益龙

    2016-01-01

    The cleanliness evolution of SWRH82B steel produced by the BOF-LF-CC process was studied by systematic sampling and lab comprehensive analysis. The results show that the content of oxygen and the number of micro-inclusions significantly decrease after calcium treatment, while the content of nitrogen in molten steel slightly increases. Both the contents of oxygen and nitrogen sharp-ly increase during the casting process. 97% of the micro-inclusions in casting billets are smaller than 5μm. They mainly include trenchant angularity single Al2 O3 inclusions, spherical complex inclusions of oxides with CaS and MnS, and complex inclusions of sim-ple oxides or nitrides with MnS. Calcium treatment after LF refining removes oxygen from molten steel efficiently, but increase the amount of Al2 O3 inclusions in casting billets, which is harmful to the quality of SWRH82B steel. Due to serious lag entrapment, re-fractory erosion and reoxidation caused by unreasonable tundish structure, the cleanliness of liquid steel decreases.%采用系统取样与实验室综合分析,对BOF-LF-CC工艺生产的SWRH82B钢洁净度衍变规律进行研究。结果表明,钙处理后钢中T[ O]和显微夹杂物数量显著下降,轻微增氮;浇铸过程增氧增氮严重;铸坯中<5μm显微夹杂占97%,主要是棱角分明的纯Al2 O3夹杂,球状复合氧化物与CaS和MnS的复合夹杂,简单氧化物或氮化物与MnS的复合夹杂;LF精炼后钙处理,脱氧显著,但使得铸坯中出现很多Al2 O3硬性夹杂,对SWRH82B盘条质量造成严重的危害;中间包结构不合理,卷渣、内衬侵蚀和二次氧化严重,连铸过程钢液洁净度下降。

  7. Recent Results from Beam Tests of 3D and Pad pCVD Diamond Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Wallny, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    Results from prototypes of a detector using chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond with embedded resistive electrodes in the bulk forming a 3D diamond device are presented. A detector system consisting of 3D devices based on poly-crystalline CVD (pCVD) diamond was connected to a multi-channel readout and successfully tested in a 120 GeV/c proton beam at CERN proving for the first time the feasibility of the 3D detector concept in pCVD for particle tracking applications. We also present beam test results on the dependence of signal size on incident particle rate in charged particle detectors based on poly-crystalline CVD diamond. The detectors were tested in a 260 MeV/c pion beam over a range of particle fluxes from 2 kHz/cm2 to 10 MHz/cm2 . The pulse height of the sensors was measured with pad readout electronics at a peaking time of 7 ns. Our data from the 2015 beam tests at PSI indicate that the pulse height of poly-crystalline CVD diamond sensor irradiated to 5×1014 neq/cm2 is independent of particle flux...

  8. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of uranium for alpha spectrometry; Deposicion quimica de vapor (CVD) de uranio para espectrometria alfa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez V, M. L.; Rios M, C.; Ramirez O, J.; Davila R, J. I.; Mireles G, F., E-mail: luisalawliet@gmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    The uranium determination through radiometric techniques as alpha spectrometry requires for its proper analysis, preparation methods of the source to analyze and procedures for the deposit of this on a surface or substrate. Given the characteristics of alpha particles (small penetration distance and great loss of energy during their journey or its interaction with the matter), is important to ensure that the prepared sources are thin, to avoid problems of self-absorption. The routine methods used for this are the cathodic electro deposition and the direct evaporation, among others. In this paper the use of technique of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) for the preparation of uranium sources is investigated; because by this, is possible to obtain thin films (much thinner than those resulting from electro deposition or evaporation) on a substrate and comprises reacting a precursor with a gas, which in turn serves as a carrier of the reaction products to achieve deposition. Preliminary results of the chemical vapor deposition of uranium are presented, synthesizing and using as precursor molecule the uranyl acetylacetonate, using oxygen as carrier gas for the deposition reaction on a glass substrate. The uranium films obtained were found suitable for alpha spectrometry. The variables taken into account were the precursor sublimation temperatures and deposition temperature, the reaction time and the type and flow of carrier gas. Of the investigated conditions, two depositions with encouraging results that can serve as reference for further work to improve the technique presented here were selected. Alpha spectra obtained for these depositions and the characterization of the representative samples by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction are also presented. (Author)

  9. Occurrence of the Microcystins MC-LW and MC-LF in Dutch Surface Waters and Their Contribution to Total Microcystin Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth J. Faassen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Microcystins (MCs are the most frequently found cyanobacterial toxins in freshwater systems. Many MC variants have been identified and variants differ in their toxicity. Recent studies showed that the variants MC-LW and MC-LF might be more toxic than MC-LR, the variant that is most abundant and mostly used for risk assessments. As little is known about the presence of these two variants in The Netherlands, we determined their occurrence by analyzing 88 water samples and 10 scum samples for eight MC variants ((dm-7-MC-RR, MC-YR, (dm-7-MC-LR, MC-LY, MC-LW and MC-LF by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection. All analyzed MC variants were detected, and MC-LW and/or MC-LF were present in 32% of the MC containing water samples. When MC-LW and MC-LF were present, they contributed to nearly 10% of the total MC concentrations, but due to their suspected high toxicity, their average contribution to the total MC toxicity was estimated to be at least 45%. Given the frequent occurrence and possible high toxicity of MC-LW and MC-LF, it seems better to base health risk assessments on the toxicity contributions of different MC variants than on MC-LR concentrations alone.

  10. Efficiency tests on the pyrolysis gasifier stove Peko Pe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents results from water boiling tests on the pyrolysis gasifier stove Peko Pe, which has been developed by the Norwegian Paal Wendelbo. The stove efficiency determined vary between 21 and 29% when burning dry Danish woodchips (10% moisture) with an estimated caloric value of 16 MJ...... the water content in the grass. In Adjumani refugee camp it was furthermore found that the stove was able to provide sufficient energy from solid combustion, after the pyrolysis was stopped, to boil water for additional 25-30 minutes with lid. This effect was not seen in the tests on woodchips in Denmark...

  11. Gamma radiation induced degradation in PE-PP block copolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravi, H. R.; Sreepad, H. R.; Ahmed, Khaleel; Govindaiah, T. N. [P.G. Department of Physics, Government College (Autonomous), Mandya - 571401, Karnataka State (India)

    2012-06-05

    In the present investigation, effect of gamma irradiation on the PP-PE block copolymer has been studied. The polymer has been subjected to gamma irradiation from 100 to 500 Mrad dosages. Characterization of the polymer using XRD and FTIR was done both before irradiation and after irradiation in each step. Effect of irradiation on the electrical properties of the material has also been studied. FTIR study shows that the sample loses C - C stretching mode of vibration but gains C=C stretching mode of vibration after irradiation. Present investigation clearly indicates that though the electrical conductivity increases in the material, it undergoes degradation and shows brittleness due to irradiation.

  12. Mineralogical analyses in Peştera Polovragi (Olteţului Gorges and Peştera Muierii (Galbenului Gorges, Gorj County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan Marincea

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Following a series of cave mineralogy researches in Peştera Polovragi and Peştera Muierii, Gorj county, we evidence an association made up of hydroxylapatite, taranakite, calcite and secondarily of quartz and illite and respectively, of hydroxylapatite, brushite, calcite and aragonite, and secondarily of α-quartz and illite.

  13. Mineralogical researches in Peştera cu Lilieci din Satul Peştera. Bran - Rucăr Passage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Dumitraş

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available By means of X-rays diphractometric analyses on powders, we evidence an association of minerals in “Peştera cu Lilieci din satul Peştera”, made up of hydroxylapatite (carbonate-hydroxylapatite, brushite, taranakite, calcite, quartz, illite and birnessite.

  14. "We Should Assess the Students in More Authentic Situations": Swedish PE Teacher Educators' Views of the Meaning of Movement Skills for Future PE Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, Erik; Pearson, Phil

    2016-01-01

    The question of what knowledge a student of Physical Education (PE) needs to develop during PE teacher education (PETE) was recently discussed. One form of knowledge is the movement practices that students must meet during their education. Given the limited time, a delicate matter is whether to prioritize movement knowledge and consider it as…

  15. Development of X60 Pipeline Steel by 150 t EAF-LF-CSP Process at Zhujiang Steel%珠钢150 t EAF-LF-CSP工艺X60管线钢的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛新平; 庄汉洲; 李春艳; 刘清友; 李烈军; 陈学文; 高吉祥; 陈麒琳

    2006-01-01

    珠钢用150 t EAF-LF-50~60 mm板坯连铸机-热连轧工艺和Nb-Ti复合微合金化技术开发了9.50 mm带X60管线钢(%:0.03~0.07C,1.2~1.6Mn,Nb+V+Ti≤0.15).检验结果表明,钢带组织为铁素体+少量珠光体,晶粒度11.5~12.0级,带状组织≤1.5级,屈服强度440~505 MPa,0 ℃夏比冲击功为140~270 J,其综合性能满足API-5L技术标准和工程使用要求.

  16. Copper nanoparticles functionalized PE: Preparation, characterization and magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznickova, A.; Orendac, M.; Kolska, Z.; Cizmar, E.; Dendisova, M.; Svorcik, V.

    2016-12-01

    We report grafting of copper nanoparticles (CuNP) on plasma activated high density polyethylene (HDPE) via dithiol interlayer pointing out to the structural and magnetic properties of those composites. The as-synthesized Cu nanoparticles have been characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM/TEM) and UV-vis spectroscopy. Properties of pristine PE and their plasma treated counterparts were studied by different experimental techniques: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), zeta potential, electron spin resonance (ESR) and SQUID magnetometry. From TEM and HRTEM analyses, it is found that the size of high purity Cu nanoparticles is (12.2 ± 5.2) nm. It was determined that in the CuNPs, the copper atoms are arranged mostly in the (111) and (200) planes. Absorption in UV-vis region by these nanoparticles is ranging from 570 to 670 nm. EDS revealed that after 1 h of grafting are Cu nanoparticles homogeneously distributed over the whole surface and after 24 h of grafting Cu nanoparticles tend to aggregate slightly. The combined investigation of magnetic properties using ESR spectrometry and SQUID magnetometry confirmed the presence of copper nanoparticles anchored on PE substrate and indicated ferromagnetic interactions.

  17. Entrevista a Guillermo de la Peña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Rodríguez Cuevas

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Guilllermo de la Peña es uno de los más prestigiosos antropólogos mexicanos. Doctor en antropología por la Universidad de Manchester (Gran Bretaña, es miembro de la Academia Mexicana de Ciencias y ha recibido premios y becas del Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología, la Fundación Ford, la Fundación Edward Larocque Tinker, la Asociación Mexicana de Estudios de Población y la Fundación Conmemorativa de John Simon Guggenheim. En 1991 recibió el Premio Nacional de Investigación Urbana y Regional, y en 1994 recibió el Premio Jalisco en el Area de Ciencia. Actualmente es profesor-investigador de la Unidad Occidente del Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropología Social (CIESAS, institución donde ha recibido en tres ocasiones (1993, 1995 y 1998 el premio al mejor artículo de investigación. Ha realizado más de 140 publicaciones científicas. La presente entrevista tuvo lugar en la ciudad de Washington, tras la participación del Doctor de la Peña en el panel sobre Performing Sovereignties: Strategies for Representing Indigenous Land and Political Claims in Latin American, durante el 104 encuentro de la American Anthropological Association.

  18. PE-ELISA Test of Pseudomonas Solanacearum%马铃薯青枯病菌的PE-ELISA检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    PE-ELISA(Post-Enrichment Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay)是一种快速、经济、有效的马铃薯青枯菌检测方法,较普通NCM-ELISA方法灵敏度提高100万倍,与DAS-ELISA、NASH等方法一样灵敏、可靠,特别是对处于潜伏期感染而没有表现出症状的马铃薯块茎的检测更为有效.

  19. Development of Tencel-LF Raised Floral Fabric%Tencel—LF起花织物的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万惠群

    2012-01-01

    介绍了Tencel—LF起花织物的风格、外观及组织设计特点,详述了其织造生产中的浆料配方、浆纱工艺及织造工艺等关键技术条件;该织物织造生产效率达到93%以上,入库一等品率96%以上,取得了良好的经济效益。%The style of Tencel-LF raised floral fabric, appearance and characteristics of organizational design were introduced. The key technology of size formula, sizing and weaving process in weaving production were detailed. The production practice indicated that the weaving efficiency reached above 93%, the first grade percentage put in storage reached above 96% and achieved good economic benefit.

  20. A Review of Nonlinear Low Frequency (LF) Wave Observations in Space Plasmas: On the Development of Plasma Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurutani, Bruce T.

    1995-01-01

    As the lead-off presentation for the topic of nonlinear waves and their evolution, we will illustrate some prominent examples of waves in space plasmas. We will describe recent observations detected within planetary foreshocks, near comets and in interplanetary space. It is believed that the nonlinear LF plasma wave features discussed here are part of and may be basic to the development of plasma turbulence. In this sense, this is one area of space plasma physics that is fundamental, with applications to fusion physics and astrophysics as well. It is hoped that the reader(s) will be stimulated to study nonlinear wave development themselves, if he/she is not already involved.

  1. Helicusin E, Isochromophilone X and Isochromophilone XI: New Chloroazaphilones Produced by the Fungus Bartalinia robillardoides Strain LF550

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes F. Imhoff

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial studies of the Mediterranean sponge Tethya aurantium led to the isolation of the fungus Bartalinia robillardoides strain LF550. The strain produced a number of secondary metabolites belonging to the chloroazaphilones. This is the first report on the isolation of chloroazaphilones of a fungal strain belonging to the genus Bartalinia. Besides some known compounds (helicusin A (1 and deacetylsclerotiorin (2, three new chloroazaphilones (helicusin E (3; isochromophilone X (4 and isochromophilone XI (5 and one new pentaketide (bartanolide (6 were isolated. The structure elucidations were based on spectroscopic analyses. All isolated compounds revealed different biological activity spectra against a test panel of four bacteria: three fungi; two tumor cell lines and two enzymes.

  2. Friction Properties of Polished Cvd Diamond Films Sliding against Different Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zichao; Sun, Fanghong; Shen, Bin

    2016-11-01

    Owing to their excellent mechanical and tribological properties, like the well-known extreme hardness, low coefficient of friction and high chemical inertness, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond films have found applications as a hard coating for drawing dies. The surface roughness of the diamond films is one of the most important attributes to the drawing dies. In this paper, the effects of different surface roughnesses on the friction properties of diamond films have been experimentally studied. Diamond films were fabricated using hot filament CVD. The WC-Co (Co 6wt.%) drawing dies were used as substrates. A gas mixture of acetone and hydrogen gas was used as the feedstock gas. The CVD diamond films were polished using mechanical polishing. Polished diamond films with three different surface roughnesses, as well as the unpolished diamond film, were fabricated in order to study the tribological performance between the CVD diamond films and different metals with oil lubrication. The unpolished and polished CVD diamond films are characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), surface profilometer, Raman spectrum and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The friction examinations were carried out by using a ball-on-plate type reciprocating friction tester. Low carbide steel, stainless steel, copper and aluminum materials were used as counterpart balls. Based on this study, the results presented the friction coefficients between the polished CVD films and different metals. The friction tests demonstrate that the smooth surface finish of CVD diamond films is beneficial for reducing their friction coefficients. The diamond films exhibit low friction coefficients when slid against the stainless steel balls and low carbide steel ball, lower than that slid against copper ball and aluminum ball, attributed to the higher ductility of copper and aluminum causing larger amount of wear debris adhering to the sliding interface and higher adhesive

  3. Ionospheric perturbations related to the earthquake in Vrancea area on November 22, 2014, as detected by electromagnetic VLF/LF frequency signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Solovieva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Data from the European network of very low/ low frequency (VLF/LF receivers has been used to study the response of the lower ionosphere to the earthquake of magnitude 5.5 in Vrancea area on November 22, 2014. Negative amplitude anomalies have been observed during 3 days before the earthquake and two days after, on the LF (45.9 kHz signal passed above the seismic area. No perturbations have been found for the same signal in control paths during this period. Other possible influences both from above and below which can produce perturbations in the ionosphere have been taken into consideration.

  4. TOUGHENING OF NYLON6 WITH PE/POE BLEND GRAFTED MALEIC ANHYDRIED%(PE/POE)-g-MAH增韧尼龙6的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵永红; 邓清田; 张发饶; 黄万抚

    2003-01-01

    马来酸酐接枝PE/POE(POE为乙烯-辛烯共聚物)对尼龙6(PA6)有显著的增韧效果.对马来酸酐接枝PE/POE的产物进行了红外光谱表征,证实了马来酸酐在PE/POE主链上的接枝.同时研究了(PE/POE)-g-MAH增韧PA6的形态、机械性能及简要的增韧机理.结果表明,PA6与(PE/POE)-g-MAH有很好的相容性,共混体系的缺口冲击强度比纯尼龙6有明显提高,当(PE/POE)-g-MAH用量达到30%时,可获得超韧尼龙.但同时,随着(PE/POE)-g-MAH用量的增加,共混体系的拉伸和扭曲强度有一定程度的下降,其中扭曲强度下降较为明显.

  5. Metal oxide growth, spin precession measurements and Raman spectroscopy of CVD graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubayashi, Akitomo

    The focus of this dissertation is to explore the possibility of wafer scale graphene-based spintronics. Graphene is a single atomic layer of sp 2 bonded carbon atoms that has attracted much attention as a new type of electronic material due to its high carrier mobilities, superior mechanical properties and extremely high thermal conductivity. In addition, it has become an attractive material for use in spintronic devices owing to its long electron spin relaxation time at room temperature. This arises in part from its low spin-orbit coupling and negligible nuclear hyperfine interaction. In order to realize wafer scale graphene spintronics, utilization of CVD grown graphene is crytical due to its scalability. In this thesis, a unique fabrication method of the metal oxide layers on CVD graphene is presented. This is motivated by theoretical work showing that an ultra thin metal oxide film used as a tunnel barrier improves the spin injection efficiency. Introducing a titanium seed layer prior to the aluminum oxide growth showed improved surface and film uniformity and resulted in a completely oxidized film. Utilizing this unique metal oxide film growth process, lateral spin valve devices using CVD graphene as a channel are successfully fabricated. Hanle spin precession measurements are demonstrated on these CVD graphene spin devices. A non-local Hanle voltage model based upon the diffusive spin transport in a solid is utilized to find the spin diffusion length and spin relaxation time of CVD graphene. The measured spin relaxation times in CVD graphene were compatible with the values found in the literature. However, they are an order of magnitude shorter than the theoretical values expected in graphene. To investigate possible origins of this order of magnitude shorter spin relaxation time in graphene, crystal and electrical modifications in CVD graphene are studied throughout the entire device fabrication process. Raman spectroscopy is utilized to track CVD graphene

  6. PE-Swab Direct STR Amplification of Forensic Touch DNA Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jason Y

    2015-05-01

    The PE-Swab direct STR amplification workflow was developed to process low-level "touch DNA" samples. In this workflow, a forensic sample is first collected on a 4-mm PE-Swab (a novel sample collection device); two 2-mm punches containing collected samples are then generated from the PE-Swab and directly amplified for STR typing. Compared to the conventional STR workflow, which involves DNA extraction, purification, and elution volume reduction, the PE-Swab direct STR amplification workflow does not require sample preparation and takes DNA loss due to sample preparation, the PE-Swab workflow is more sensitive than the conventional STR workflow. The average peak height per sample obtained by the PE-swab workflow is 3 times higher than that from the conventional workflow with both low-level single source and two-contributor mixture samples tested in this study. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. TG/FTIR analysis on co-pyrolysis behavior of PE, PVC and PS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingli; Chen, Tianju; Luo, Xitao; Han, Dezhi; Wang, Zhiqi; Wu, Jinhu

    2014-03-01

    The pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis behaviors of polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) under N2 atmosphere were analyzed by Thermal gravimetric/Fourier transform infrared (TG/FTIR). The volatile products were analyzed to investigate the interaction of the plastic blends during the thermal decomposition process. The TGA results showed that the thermal stability increased followed by PVC, PS and PE. The pyrolysis process of PE was enhanced when mixed with PS. However, PS was postponed when mixed with PVC. As for PE and PVC, mutual block was happened when mixed together. The FTIR results showed that the free radical of the decomposition could combine into a stable compound. When PE mixed with PVC or PS, large amount of unsaturated hydrocarbon groups existed in products while the content of alkynes was decreased. The methyl (-CH3) and methylene (-CH2-) bonds were disappeared while PVC mixed with PE.

  8. Enhanced cold wall CVD reactor growth of horizontally aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Wei; Kwak, Eun-Hye; Chen, Bingan; Huang, Shirong; Edwards, Michael; Fu, Yifeng; Jeppson, Kjell; Teo, Kenneth; Jeong, Goo-Hwan; Liu, Johan

    2016-05-01

    HASynthesis of horizontally-aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (HA-SWCNTs) by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) directly on quartz seems very promising for the fabrication of future nanoelectronic devices. In comparison to hot-wall CVD, synthesis of HA-SWCNTs in a cold-wall CVD chamber not only means shorter heating, cooling and growth periods, but also prevents contamination of the chamber. However, since most synthesis of HA-SWCNTs is performed in hot-wall reactors, adapting this well-established process to a cold-wall chamber becomes extremely crucial. Here, in order to transfer the CVD growth technology from a hot-wall to a cold-wall chamber, a systematic investigation has been conducted to determine the influence of process parameters on the HA-SWCNT's growth. For two reasons, the cold-wall CVD chamber was upgraded with a top heater to complement the bottom substrate heater; the first reason to maintain a more uniform temperature profile during HA-SWCNTs growth, and the second reason to preheat the precursor gas flow before projecting it onto the catalyst. Our results show that the addition of a top heater had a significant effect on the synthesis. Characterization of the CNTs shows that the average density of HA-SWCNTs is around 1 - 2 tubes/ μm with high growth quality as shown by Raman analysis. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  9. Can surface preparation with CVD diamond tip influence on bonding to dental tissues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparecido Kawaguchi, Fernando; Brossi Botta, Sergio; Nilo Vieira, Samuel; Steagall Júnior, Washington; Bona Matos, Adriana

    2008-04-01

    This study evaluated the influence of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) tips surface treatments of enamel and dentin on bonding resistance of two adhesive systems. Thirty embedded samples were divided in 12 groups ( n = 10), according to factors: substrate (enamel and dentin), adhesive system [etch-and-rinse (SB) and self-etch]; and the surface treatments (paper discs, impact CVD tips and tangential CVD tip). When CVD tip was used in the impact mode the tip was applied perpendicular to dental surface, while at tangential mode, the tip worked parallel to dental surface. Specimens were tested in tension after 24 h at 0.5 mm/min of cross-head speed. ANOVA results, in MPa showed that in enamel, only adhesive system factor was statistically significant ( p = 0.015) under tested conditions, with higher bond strength observed for SB groups. However, in dentin the best bonding performance was obtained in SE groups ( p = 0.00). In both tested substrates, results did not show statistically significant difference for factors treatment and its interactions. ConclusionsIt may be concluded that CVD-tip surface treatment, in both tested modes, did not influence on adhesion to enamel and dentin. But, it is important to choose adhesive system according to the tissue available to bonding.

  10. Investigation of multilayer domains in large-scale CVD monolayer graphene by optical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuanfang; Li, Zhenzhen; Wang, Wenhui; Guo, Xitao; Jiang, Jie; Nan, Haiyan; Ni, Zhenhua

    2017-03-01

    CVD graphene is a promising candidate for optoelectronic applications due to its high quality and high yield. However, multi-layer domains could inevitably form at the nucleation centers during the growth. Here, we propose an optical imaging technique to precisely identify the multilayer domains and also the ratio of their coverage in large-scale CVD monolayer graphene. We have also shown that the stacking disorder in twisted bilayer graphene as well as the impurities on the graphene surface could be distinguished by optical imaging. Finally, we investigated the effects of bilayer domains on the optical and electrical properties of CVD graphene, and found that the carrier mobility of CVD graphene is seriously limited by scattering from bilayer domains. Our results could be useful for guiding future optoelectronic applications of large-scale CVD graphene. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61422503, 61376104), the Open Research Funds of Key Laboratory of MEMS of Ministry of Education (SEU, China), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities.

  11. Passive PE Sampling in Support of In Situ Remediation of Contaminated Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    expendable items: including materials such as the ponar dredge, PE frames and hardware, sink rope, vehicle rental, and handheld GPS rental. • Field labor...of a boat, personal protection equipment (PPE), permitting, baseline characterization (i.e., hydraulic or bathymetry assessment), and reporting. 38...sample bottles, ice for samples, and paper towels, while PE sampling equipment would include a roll of sink rope, the assembled PE samplers, and the

  12. PE-induced apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells: Involvement of Erk and Stat signalling pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    XUE, LI; LI, MING; CHEN, TENG; SUN, HAIFENG; ZHU, JIE; LI, XIA; WU, FENG; WANG, BIAO; LI, JUPING; CHEN, YANJIONG

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that the redistribution of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) across the bilayer of the plasma membrane is an important molecular marker for apoptosis. However, the effect of PE on apoptosis and the underlying mechanism of PE remain unclear. In the current study, MTT and flow cytometric assays were used to examine the effects of PE on apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells. The level of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and the expression of Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, phospho-Erk and phospho-Stat1/2 in SMMC-7721 cells that were exposed to PE were also investigated. The results showed that PE inhibited proliferation, caused G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Rhodamine 123 staining showed that the treatment of SMMC-7721 cells with different concentrations of PE for 24 h significantly decreased the level of ΔΨm and exerted dose-dependent effects. Using immunofluorescence and western blotting, we found that the expression of Bax was upregulated, whereas that of Bcl-2 was downregulated in PE-induced apoptotic cells. In addition, these events were accompanied by an increase in caspase-3 expression in a dose-dependent manner following PE treatment. PE-induced apoptosis was accompanied by a decrease in Erk phosphorylation and by the activation of Stat1/2 phosphorylation in SMMC-7721 cells. In conclusion, the results suggested that PE-induced apoptosis is involved in upregulating the Bax/Bcl-2 protein ratio and decreasing the ΔΨm. Moreover, the results showed that the Erk and Stat1/2 signalling pathways may be involved in the process of PE-induced apoptosis. PMID:24821075

  13. New synthesis of amphiphilic copolymers PE-g-PEO via esterfication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A new series of high molecular weight amphiphilic graft copolymers PE-g-PEO has been prepared. The esterifications between PE-p-MS-g-MA and PEO with OH group at the chain end are carried out under different conditions. The compositions of these graft copolymers are studied by NMR and FTIR. It is found to be a convenient and efficient way to prepare high molecular weight PE-g-PEO graft copolymers.

  14. As peças para piano de Altino Pimenta

    OpenAIRE

    Queiroz, Rômulo Mota de

    2005-01-01

    113f. Essa dissertação tem por fim criar referenciais sobre a produção para piano do compositor paraense Altino Rosauro Salazar Pimenta (Belém, 1921-2003), catalogando sua obra pianística, mostrando sua importância artística, traçando comentários sobre seu estilo e descrevendo cada uma das peças. O corpo da dissertação é estruturado em três capítulos. O primeiro é uma biografia que mostra o compositor como um vulto ilustre e importante artisticamente. O segundo capítulo, a princípio, consi...

  15. El Santuario de la Peña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatríz Caballero

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available El 10 de agosto de 1685, Bernardino Rodríguez de León "vio un resplandor muy grande y extraordinario que no era de la luz natural del día", en los cerros orientales de Bogotá, y al acercarse descubrió que se trataba de una imagen de la Virgen con el Niño en brazos, San José y dos ángeles, todos sobre una roca. Inmediatamente a esas imágenes se les atribuyeron características sobrenaturales, con el argumento de que ningún ser humano hubiera podido treparse a pintar esas peñas sin caerse, y menos aún sin que se supiera de ello en Santafé, donde no se tenía cono cimiento, en la época, de la existencia de ningún artista capaz de crear semejante obra.

  16. ToF-SIMS imaging of PE/PP polymer using multivariate analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyasaka, Toyomitsu; Ikemoto, Takashi; Kohno, Teiichiro

    2008-12-01

    The distribution of polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) in PE/PP blended-polymer film was determined by applying principal components analysis (PCA) and multivariate curve resolution (MCR) to time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) imaging, together with preprocessing by pixel binning, normalization, and autoscaling to increase image contrast by reducing topographic and charge-distribution effects. The PE/PP distribution was confirmed by MVA conducted on the image data over static limit. The MCR score with normalized-autoscaling was found to give the PE/PP distribution distinctly.

  17. PE_PGRS33 Contributes to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Entry in Macrophages through Interaction with TLR2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Palucci

    Full Text Available PE_PGRS represent a large family of proteins typical of pathogenic mycobacteria whose members are characterized by an N-terminal PE domain followed by a large Gly-Ala repeat-rich C-terminal domain. Despite the abundance of PE_PGRS-coding genes in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb genome their role and function in the biology and pathogenesis still remains elusive. In this study, we generated and characterized an Mtb H37Rv mutant (MtbΔ33 in which the structural gene of PE_PGRS33, a prototypical member of the protein family, was inactivated. We showed that this mutant entered macrophages with an efficiency up to ten times lower than parental or complemented strains, while its efficiency in infecting pneumocytes remained unaffected. Interestingly, the lack of PE_PGRS33 did not affect the intracellular growth of this mutant in macrophages. Using a series of functional deletion mutants of the PE_PGRS33 gene to complement the MtbΔ33 strain, we demonstrated that the PGRS domain is required to mediate cell entry into macrophages, with the key domain encompassing position 140-260 amino acids of PE_PGRS33. PE_PGRS33-mediated entry into macrophages was abolished in TLR2-deficient mice, as well as following treatment with wortmannin or an antibody against the complement receptor 3 (CR3, indicating that PE_PGRS33-mediated entry of Mtb in macrophages occurs through interaction with TLR2.

  18. PE_PGRS33 Contributes to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Entry in Macrophages through Interaction with TLR2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palucci, Ivana; Camassa, Serena; Cascioferro, Alessandro; Sali, Michela; Anoosheh, Saber; Zumbo, Antonella; Minerva, Mariachiara; Iantomasi, Raffaella; De Maio, Flavio; Di Sante, Gabriele; Ria, Francesco; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Palù, Giorgio; Brennan, Michael J; Manganelli, Riccardo; Delogu, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    PE_PGRS represent a large family of proteins typical of pathogenic mycobacteria whose members are characterized by an N-terminal PE domain followed by a large Gly-Ala repeat-rich C-terminal domain. Despite the abundance of PE_PGRS-coding genes in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) genome their role and function in the biology and pathogenesis still remains elusive. In this study, we generated and characterized an Mtb H37Rv mutant (MtbΔ33) in which the structural gene of PE_PGRS33, a prototypical member of the protein family, was inactivated. We showed that this mutant entered macrophages with an efficiency up to ten times lower than parental or complemented strains, while its efficiency in infecting pneumocytes remained unaffected. Interestingly, the lack of PE_PGRS33 did not affect the intracellular growth of this mutant in macrophages. Using a series of functional deletion mutants of the PE_PGRS33 gene to complement the MtbΔ33 strain, we demonstrated that the PGRS domain is required to mediate cell entry into macrophages, with the key domain encompassing position 140-260 amino acids of PE_PGRS33. PE_PGRS33-mediated entry into macrophages was abolished in TLR2-deficient mice, as well as following treatment with wortmannin or an antibody against the complement receptor 3 (CR3), indicating that PE_PGRS33-mediated entry of Mtb in macrophages occurs through interaction with TLR2.

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of PE-g-MA/MgAI-LDH Exfoliation Nanocomposite via Solution Intercalation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟; 瞿保钧

    2003-01-01

    An organo-modified MgAl-layered double hydroxide (OMgAl-LDH) was mecessfully exfoliated in the xyleue solution of polyethylene-grafted-malelc anhydride (PE-g-MA) under refluxing condition. A PE-g-MA/MgAI-LDH exfoliaUon nanocomposite was formed after the precipitaUon of PE-g-MA from the dispersion system. The structure and thermal property of the PE-g-MA/MgAI-LDH exfoliaUon nanocomposite were characterizd by X-ray diffraction(XRD),transmission electron microscopy(TEM),and thermogravimetry analysis(TGA).The disappearance of d001 XRD peak of OMgAl-LDH at 2θ=3.2° suggests that the MgAl hydroxide sheets are exfoliated in the nanocomposite.The TEM image shows that the MgAl hydroxide sheets of less than 70nm in length or width are exfoliated and dispersed disorderly in PE-g-MA matrix.TGA profiles indicate that the PE-g-MA/MgAl-LDH nanocomposite with 5wt% OMgAl-LDH loading shows a faster charring process in temperature range from 210 to 390℃ and a greater thermal stability beyond 390℃ than PE-g-MA does.The decompostion temperature of the nanocomposite is 25℃ higher than that of PE-g-MA as measured at 50% weight loss.The PE-g-MA/MgAl-LDH nanocomposite is promising for application of flame-retardant polymeric materials.

  20. Frequency Measurement of FDR Based on Soil Dielectric Spectrum in LF-UHF%基于土壤LF-UHF频段介电特性的FDR测量频率研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许景辉; 马孝义; Sally D Logsdon; Robert Horton

    2013-01-01

    土壤介电特性是影响FDR传感器测量土壤含水量精度和适应性的重要物理参数.为了确定28 mm长、10 mm间距的7探针FDR传感器理想频率,通过矢量网络分析仪对4种不同土壤的LF-UHF频段(1 MHz ~3 GHz)散射参数进行了测量,通过Logsdon和Laird模型变换,使用Matlab进行了4种土壤表观介电常数的计算和绘制.通过土壤介电频谱分析,研究了土壤极化机理,分析了土壤介电特性与频率的关系,确定了FDR传感器的工作频段为44 ~ 398 MHz,考虑到温度对极化的影响,其最佳工作频段为62 ~ 110 MHz,其中75 MHz是其工作的最佳频率.此频率下土壤介电值仅对土壤含水量敏感,是消除温度等因素对FDR传感器影响的理想频率.%Soil dielectric property is an important physical parameter affecting the measuring accuracy and adaptation of moisture content by using FDR sensor.In order to obtain the best frequency of 7-probes FDR with length of 28 mm and needle-to-needle spacing of 10 mm,scattering parameters of LF-UHF wave bands (1 MHz ~ 3 GHz) in four kinds of soil were measured by using VNA.Though transformation based on Logsdon model and Laird model,four soil apparent dielectric permittivities were calculated and figured in Matlab.The mechanism of soil polarization was analyzed by soil dielectric spectrun analysis.The relationship between soil dielectric property and frequency was discussed.The working frequency of 44 ~ 398 MHz for FDR sensor was confirmed.Taking temperature into consideration,the ideal working frequency band was 62 ~ 110 MHz in which 75 MHz was the best.The soil dielectric value was only sensitive to soil moisture content under the best frequency.It was the ideal frequency for eliminating the effect of temperature and other factors on FDR sensor.

  1. A Study on Medium Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition (MT-CVD) Technology and Super Coating Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jian; LI Jian-ping; ZENG Xiang-cai; MA Wen-cun

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the dense and columnar crystalline TiCN coating layers with very good bonding strength between a layer and another layer was deposited using Medium Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition (MT-CVD) where CH3CN organic composite with C/N atomic clusters etc. was utilized at 700 ~ 900 ℃. Effect of coating processing parameters, such as coating temperature, pressure and different gas flow quantity on structures and properties of TiCN coating layers were investigated. The super coating mechanis mand structures were analyzed. The new coating processing parameters and properties of carbide inserts with super coating layers were gained by using the improved high temperature chemical vapor deposition (HTCVD) equipment and HT-CVD, in combination with MT-CVD technology.

  2. Strain Release Induced Novel Fluorescence Variation in CVD-Grown Monolayer WS2 Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shanghuai; Yang, Ruilong; Jia, Zhiyan; Xiang, Jianyong; Wen, Fusheng; Mu, Congpu; Nie, Anmin; Zhao, Zhisheng; Xu, Bo; Tao, Chenggang; Tian, Yongjun; Liu, Zhongyuan

    2017-10-04

    Tensile strain is intrinsic to monolayer crystals of transition metal disulfides such as Mo(W)S2 grown on oxidized silicon substrates by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) owing to the much larger thermal expansion coefficient of Mo(W)S2 than that of silica. Here we report fascinating fluorescent variation in intensity with aging time in CVD-grown triangular monolayer WS2 crystals on SiO2 (300 nm)/Si substrates and formation of interesting concentric triangular fluorescence patterns in monolayer crystals of large size. The novel fluorescence aging behavior is recognized to be induced by the partial release of intrinsic tensile strain after CVD growth and the induced localized variations or gradients of strain in the monolayer crystals. The results demonstrate that strain has a dramatic impact on the fluorescence and photoluminescence of monolayer WS2 crystals and thus could potentially be utilized to tune electronic and optoelectronic properties of monolayer transition metal disulfides.

  3. Non-classical crystallization of thin films and nanostructures in CVD and PVD processes

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Nong Moon

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to a recently-developed approach to the growth mechanism of thin films and nanostructures via chemical vapour deposition (CVD). Starting from the underlying principles of the low pressure synthesis of diamond films, it is shown that diamond growth occurs not by individual atoms but by charged nanoparticles. This newly-discovered growth mechanism turns out to be general to many CVD and some physical vapor deposition (PVD) processes. This non-classical crystallization is a new paradigm of crystal growth, with active research taking place on growth in solution, especially in biomineralization processes. Established understanding of the growth of thin films and nanostructures is based around processes involving individual atoms or molecules. According to the author’s research over the last two decades, however, the generation of charged gas phase nuclei is shown to be the rule rather than the exception in the CVD process, and charged gas phase nuclei are actively ...

  4. Cold Vacuum Dryer (CVD) Facility Fire Protection System Design Description (SYS 24)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SINGH, G.

    2000-10-17

    This system design description (SDD) addresses the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility fire protection system (FPS). The primary features of the FPS for the CVD are a fire alarm and detection system, automatic sprinklers, and fire hydrants. The FPS also includes fire extinguishers located throughout the facility and fire hydrants to assist in manual firefighting efforts. In addition, a fire barrier separates the operations support (administrative) area from the process bays and process bay support areas. Administrative controls to limit combustible materials have been established and are a part of the overall fire protection program. The FPS is augmented by assistance from the Hanford Fire Department (HED) and by interface systems including service water, electrical power, drains, instrumentation and controls. This SDD, when used in conjunction with the other elements of the definitive design package, provides a complete picture of the FPS for the CVD Facility.

  5. Effect of current stress during thermal CVD of multilayer graphene on cobalt catalytic layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Kazuyoshi; Ichikawa, Hiroyasu; Uchida, Takaki

    2016-04-01

    To improve the crystallinity of multilayer graphene (MLG) by CVD at a low temperature, the effect of current stress during thermal CVD on a cobalt (Co) catalytic layer was investigated. The crystallinity of MLG obtained by CVD with current was higher than that without current at the same temperature. This indicates that current has effects besides the Joule heating effect. The current effects on the Co catalytic layer and the MLG growth reaction were investigated, and it was found that current had small effects on the grain size and crystal structure of the Co catalyst and large effects on the MLG growth reaction such as large grain growth and a low activation energy of 0.49 eV, which is close to the value reported for carbon surface diffusion on Co. It is considered that the enhancement of MLG growth reaction by current leads to the improved crystallinity of MLG at a relatively low temperature.

  6. iCVD Cyclic Polysiloxane and Polysilazane as Nanoscale Thin-Film Electrolyte: Synthesis and Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nan; Reeja-Jayan, B; Liu, Andong; Lau, Jonathan; Dunn, Bruce; Gleason, Karen K

    2016-03-01

    A group of crosslinked cyclic siloxane (Si-O) and silazane (Si-N) polymers are synthesized via solvent-free initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD). Notably, this is the first report of cyclic polysilazanes synthesized via the gas-phase iCVD method. The deposited nanoscale thin films are thermally stable and chemically inert. By iCVD, they can uniformly and conformally cover nonplanar surfaces having complex geometry. Although polysiloxanes are traditionally utilized as dielectric materials and insulators, our research shows these cyclic organosilicon polymers can conduct lithium ions (Li(+) ) at room temperature. The conformal coating and the room temperature ionic conductivity make these cyclic organosilicon polymers attractive for use as thin-film electrolytes in solid-state batteries. Also, their synthesis process and properties have been systemically studied and discussed.

  7. Epitaxial thin film GaAs solar cells using OM-CVD techniques. [Organometallics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirn, R. J.; Wang, K. L.; Yeh, Y. C. M.

    1981-01-01

    A new approach has been initiated at JPL to fabricate thin-film, high efficiency GaAs solar cells on low-cost, single-crystal Si substrates having a thin CVD interlayer of Ge to minimize the lattice and thermal expansion mismatch. For initial experiments, n(+)/p GaAs cells were grown by OM-CVD on single-crystal GaAs and Ge wafers. Details of the growths and performance results will be presented. Subsequently, a combined epitaxial structure of OM-CVD GaAs on a strongly adherent Ge interlayer on (100) Si was grown. This is the first report of the successful growth of this composite structure. Low module costs projected by JPL SAMICS methodology calculations and the potential for 400-600W/kg space solar arrays will be discussed.

  8. Response of CVD Diamond Detectors to 14 MeV Neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, C; Gagnon-Moisan, F; Kasper, A; Lucke, A; Schuhmacher, H; Weierganz, M; Zimba, A

    2012-01-01

    A series of measurements was taken at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) Braunschweig [1] using the 14 MeV neutron beam at the Van der Graaf accelerator with chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond detectors, in preparation of an upcoming (n, ) cross-section measurement [2] at the CERN-n TOF experiment [3, 4]. A single-crystal (sCVD) as well as a poly-crystalline (pCVD) diamond detector were used for the measurements. The response of both materials to the mono-energetic neutron beam was studied, also with the prospect for future applications in plasma diagnostics for fusion research. The results of the measurements are presented in this report.

  9. Relationship between texture and residual macro-strain in CVD diamond films based on phenomenological analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weimin Mao; Hongxi Zhu; Leng Chen; Huiping Feng

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between texture and elastic properties of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond films was analyzed based on the phenomenological theory, which reveals the influence of crystalline orientation and texture on the residual macro-strain and macro-stress. The phenomenological calculations indicated that the difference in Young's modulus could be 15% in single dia- mond crystals and 5% in diamond films with homogeneously distributed strong fiber texture. The experimentally measured residual strains of free-standing CVD diamond films were in good agreement with the correspondingly calculated Young's modulus in con- nection with the multi-fiber textures in the fills, though the difference in Young's modulus induced by texture was only around 1%. It is believed that texture should be one of the important factors influencing the residual stress and strain of CVD diamond films.

  10. Phospho-MEK1/2 and uPAR Expression Determine Sensitivity of AML Blasts to a Urokinase-Activated Anthrax Lethal Toxin (PrAgU2/LF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Bekdash

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we attempt to target both the urokinase plasminogen activator and the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in acute myeloid leukemia (AML cell lines and primary AML blasts using PrAgU2/LF, a urokinase-activated anthrax lethal toxin. PrAgU2/LF was cytotoxic to five out of nine AML cell lines. Cytotoxicity of PrAgU2/LF appeared to be nonapoptotic and was associated with MAPK activation and urokinase activity because all the PrAgU2/LF-sensitive cell lines showed both uPAR expression and high levels of MEK1/2 phosphorylation. Inhibition of uPAR or desensitization of cells to MEK1/2 inhibition blocked toxicity of PrAgU2/LF, indicating requirement for both uPAR expression and MAPK activation for activity. PrAgU2/LF was also cytotoxic to primary blasts from AML patients, with blasts from four out of five patients showing a cytotoxic response to PrAgU2/LF. Cytotoxicity of primary AML blasts was also dependent on uPAR expression and phos-MEK1/2 levels. CD34+ bone marrow blasts and peripheral blood mononuclear cells lacked uPAR expression and were resistant to PrAgU2/LF, demonstrating the lack of toxicity to normal hematological cells and, therefore, the tumor selectivity of this approach. Dose escalation in mice revealed that the maximal tolerated dose of PrAgU2/LF is at least 5.7-fold higher than that of the wild-type anthrax lethal toxin, PrAg/LF, further demonstrating the increased safety of this molecule. We have shown, in this study, that PrAgU2/LF is a novel, dual-specific molecule for the selective targeting of AML.

  11. Analysis on the Nitrogen Control of Pipeline Steel X70 in LF Process%X70管线钢LF控氮工艺分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡国旭

    2012-01-01

    The production process for X70 pipeline steel and the control nitrogen factors in LF process were comprehensively analyzed. The results show that the nitrogen pick-up in liquid steel is mainly attributed to the liquid steel exposed to atmosphere at the desulfurization stage under the white slag conditions in LF processs. Accordingly, six key technologies of nitrogen control for pipeline steel X70 from BOF tap to LF end-point were proposed. According to LF practice, constant perfecting and optimizing its technical parameters can lay a theoretical and technological foundation for producing high grade steel containing lower nitrogen.%对X70管线钢生产工艺及LF过程控氮因素进行了综合分析.结果表明,LF工况条件下造白渣脱硫阶段的“钢液裸露”是造成钢液增氮最为主要的原因.在此基础上提出了从BOF出钢到LF处理结束等6项X70管线钢LF控氮工艺要点.根据LF生产实践不断完善与优化其各环节的技术参数,为生产更低含氮量要求的高级别钢种奠定理论与工艺基础.

  12. 75 FR 77880 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; GuLF Worker Study: Gulf Long-Term Follow-Up Study for Oil...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... excessive heat, and possibly to stress due to widespread economic and lifestyle disruption. Exposures range... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; Comment Request; GuLF Worker Study: Gulf Long-Term Follow-Up Study for Oil Spill Clean-Up Workers and Volunteers SUMMARY: Under...

  13. Nonlinear Conte-Zbilut-Federici (CZF Method of Computing LF/HF Ratio: A More Reliable Index of Changes in Heart Rate Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Bond Jr

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Acupuncture treatments are safe and effective for a wide variety of diseases involving autonomic dysregulation. Heart rate variability (HRV is a noninvasive method for assessing sympathovagal balance. The low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF spectral power ratio is an index of sympathovagal influence on heart rate and of cardi

  14. Ho:YLF & Ho:LuLF slab amplifier system delivering 200 mJ, 2 µm single-frequency pulses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Strauss, HJ

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A single-frequency single-pass amplifier based on Ho:YLF and Ho:LuLF in a scalable slab architecture delivering up to 210 mJ at 2064 nm is demonstrated. The amplifier was end-pumped by a 1890 nm Tm:YLF slab laser and was seeded with a 69 mJ single...

  15. 75 FR 62132 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; GuLF Worker Study: Gulf Long-Term Follow-Up Study for Oil...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; Comment Request; GuLF Worker Study... proposed projects to be submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval... to create a resource for additional collaborative research on focused hypotheses or subgroups. Over...

  16. LF-15 & T7, synthetic peptides derived from tumstatin, attenuate aspects of airway remodelling in a murine model of chronic OVA-induced allergic airway disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karryn T Grafton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tumstatin is a segment of the collagen-IV protein that is markedly reduced in the airways of asthmatics. Tumstatin can play an important role in the development of airway remodelling associated with asthma due to its anti-angiogenic properties. This study assessed the anti-angiogenic properties of smaller peptides derived from tumstatin, which contain the interface tumstatin uses to interact with the αVβ3 integrin. METHODS: Primary human lung endothelial cells were exposed to the LF-15, T3 and T7 tumstatin-derived peptides and assessed for cell viability and tube formation in vitro. The impact of the anti-angiogenic properties on airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR was then examined using a murine model of chronic OVA-induced allergic airways disease. RESULTS: The LF-15 and T7 peptides significantly reduced endothelial cell viability and attenuated tube formation in vitro. Mice exposed to OVA+ LF-15 or OVA+T7 also had reduced total lung vascularity and AHR was attenuated compared to mice exposed to OVA alone. T3 peptides reduced cell viability but had no effect on any other parameters. CONCLUSION: The LF-15 and T7 peptides may be appropriate candidates for use as novel pharmacotherapies due to their small size and anti-angiogenic properties observed in vitro and in vivo.

  17. Dietary flavonoid intakes and CVD incidence in the Framingham Offspring Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Paul F; Cassidy, Aedin; Rogers, Gail; Peterson, Julia J; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2015-11-14

    This study examines the relationship between long-term intake of six flavonoid classes and incidence of CVD and CHD, using a comprehensive flavonoid database and repeated measures of intake, while accounting for possible confounding by components of a healthy dietary pattern. Flavonoid intakes were assessed using a FFQ among the Framingham Offspring Cohort at baseline and three times during follow-up. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to characterise prospective associations between the natural logarithms of flavonoid intakes and CVD incidence using a time-dependent approach, in which intake data were updated at each examination to represent average intakes from previous examinations. Mean baseline age was 54 years, and 45 % of the population was male. Over an average 14·9 years of follow-up among 2880 participants, there were 518 CVD events and 261 CHD events. After multivariable adjustment, only flavonol intake was significantly associated with lower risk of CVD incidence (hazard ratios (HR) per 2·5-fold flavonol increase=0·86, P trend=0·05). Additional adjustment for total fruit and vegetable intake and overall diet quality attenuated this observation (HR=0·89, P trend=0·20 and HR=0·92, P trend=0·33, respectively). There were no significant associations between flavonoids and CHD incidence after multivariable adjustment. Our findings suggest that the observed association between flavonol intake and CVD risk may be a consequence of better overall diet. However, the strength of this non-significant association was also consistent with relative risks observed in previous meta-analyses, and therefore a modest benefit of flavonol intake on CVD risk cannot be ruled out.

  18. Thermoluminescent properties of CVD diamond: applications to ionising radiation dosimetry; Proprietes thermoluminescentes du diamant CVD: applications a la dosimetrie des rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petitfils, A

    2007-09-15

    Remarkable properties of synthetic diamond (human soft tissue equivalence, chemical stability, non-toxicity) make this material suitable for medical application as thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD). This work highlights the interest of this material as radiotherapy TLD. In the first stage of this work, we looked after thermoluminescent (TL) and dosimetric properties of polycrystalline diamond made by Chemically Vapor Deposited (CVD) synthesis. Dosimetric characteristics are satisfactory as TLD for medical application. Luminescence thermal quenching on diamond has been investigated. This phenomenon leads to a decrease of dosimetric TL peak sensitivity when the heating rate increases. The second part of this work analyses the use of synthetic diamond as TLD in radiotherapy. Dose profiles, depth dose distributions and the cartography of an electron beam obtained with our samples are in very good agreement with results from an ionisation chamber. It is clearly shown that CVD) diamond is of interest to check beams of treatment accelerators. The use of these samples in a control of treatment with Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy underlines good response of synthetic diamond in high dose gradient areas. These results indicate that CVD diamond is a promising material for radiotherapy dosimetry. (author)

  19. Morphology and properties of PA 66/POE blend compatibilized by PE-g-MAH%PE-g-MAH增容PA 66/POE的形态与性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽姝; 王益龙; 陈振宇; 张旭; 段海军

    2007-01-01

    使用马来酸酐接枝聚乙烯(PE-g-MAH)作为乙烯-辛烯共聚物(POE)增韧聚酰胺(PA)66的增容剂,研究了PE-g-MAH用量对PA 66/POE共混物的力学性能和形态影响.随着PE-g-MAH用量的增加,PA 66和POE的相容性显著改善,共混物中各组分的熔融峰温下降;共混物的缺口冲击强度显著提高,断裂伸长率成倍增大.韧性也有提高.当w(PE-g-MAH)为8%时,增容效果较好.

  20. The Effects of Exercise Therapy on CVD Risk Factors in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Hur, Sun; Kim, Seon-Rye

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to search for the association of Type D personality and CVD risk factors through comparison of the association of exercise participation with CVD risk factors in women. [Subjects] The research subjects were randomly assigned to four groups: Type D+Exercise (n=12), Type D+non-exercise (n=12), non-Type D+Exercise (n=12), and non-Type D+non-exercise (n=10). The study consisted of 46 participants. [Methods] An aerobic exercise program and meditation were co...

  1. High-temperature CVD for crystalline-silicon thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faller, F.R.; Hurrle, A.

    1999-10-01

    The fundamentals of thermal CVD for the deposition of silicon at high temperatures are briefly discussed and applied to the conditions in the CVD system that the authors have constructed and characterized. The system fulfills basic requirements to be met for solar cell application; solar cells made from epitaxial layers on various substrates were fabricated. The high-quality cells achieved 17.6% efficiency proving the excellent performance of the system, the cells on economically relevant substrates achieved 8% efficiency which still needs improvement.

  2. Electrical phase change of CVD-grown Ge-Sb-Te thin film device

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, C.C.; B. Gholipour; Ou, J.Y.; Knight, K.J.; Hewak, D. W.

    2011-01-01

    A prototype Ge-Sb-Te thin film phase-change memory device has been fabricated and reversible threshold and phase change switching demonstrated electrically, with a threshold voltage of 1.5 – 1.7 V. The Ge-Sb-Te thin film was fabricated by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) at atmospheric pressure using GeCl4, SbCl5, and Te precursors with reactive gas H2 at reaction temperature 780 °C and substrate temperature 250 °C. The surface morphology and composition of the CVD-grown Ge-Sb-Te thin film ha...

  3. Aligned carbon nanotubes catalytically grown on iron-based nanoparticles obtained by laser-induced CVD

    OpenAIRE

    Le Normand, Francois; Cojocaru, Costel Sorin; Ersen, Ovidiu; Legagneux, Pierre; Gangloff, Laurent; Fleaca, C.; Alexandrescu, Rodica; Dumitrache, Florin; Morjan, Ion

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Iron-based nanoparticles are prepared by a laser-induced chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. They are characterized as body-centered Fe and Fe2O3 (maghemite/magnetite) particles with sizes ::;5 and 10 nm, respectively. The Fe particles are embedded in a protective carbon matrix. Both kind of particles are dispersed by spin-coating on SiO2/Si(1 0 0) flat substrates. They are used as catalyst to grow carbon nanotubes by a plasma- and filaments-assisted catalytic CVD...

  4. PC/PET/PE-g-MAH三元共混物的研究%STUDY ON PC/PET/PE-g-MAH BLEND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席世平; 冯意韧; 刘翅; 刘振兴

    1999-01-01

    用DSC、PLM和SEM研究了PE-g-MAH对PC/PET共混体系的相容性、结晶性、结晶形态及相形态的影响.结果表明,PE-g-MAH可以改善体系的相容性,提高PET的结晶能力和速率,改善PC、PET间的相互分布,且随含量的增加而程度加深.

  5. Replacement of a defective ductile iron gas pipeline with d 500 PE 100 pipes; Austausch einer defekten GGG-Gasleitung durch PE 100-Rohre d 500

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert, Robert [FRIATEC Aktiengesellschaft, Mannheim (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    A 600 m long ductile cast-iron pipeline has been renewed safely, reliably and in record time in the center of the spa town of Bad Pyrmont. Following decades of positive experience, the local municipal utility placed its faith in PE 100 pipe material and resistance welding - a time-saving method of joining PE pipes which is also cost-efficient for large dimensions. (orig.)

  6. Fractographic and rheological characterizations of CF/PP-PE-copolymer composites tested in tensile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Helena da Silva Cirilo

    Full Text Available Abstract This work shows the fractographic study of fractured surfaces resulted from tensile tests of thermoplastic composites based on poly(propylene-co-ethylene (PP-PE and modified PP-PE copolymers reinforced with continuous carbon fibers (CF. The PP-PE matrix was modified with two agents called AM1 (based on maleic anhydride and AM2 (containing an elastomeric agent, respectively. Three different laminates - CF/PP-PE, CF/PP-PE(AM1 and CF/PP-PE(AM2 - were manufactured. The best tensile strength and elastic modulus results were determined for the CF/PP-PE(AM1 laminate (507.6 ± 11.8 MPa and 54.7 ± 2.4 GPa, respectively. These results show that the AM1 agent contributed to increase the physicochemical interaction between the CF and the PP-PE matrix. This condition provided a better loading transfer from matrix to the reinforcement. Scanning electron microscopy analyses of the fracture surfaces show the fractographic aspects of the samples and allow evaluating the fiber/matrix-interfacial adhesion. Poor adhesion is observed for the CF/PP-PE and CF/PP-PE(AM2 laminates with the presence of fiber impressions on the polymer rich regions and fiber surfaces totally unprotected of polymer matrix. On the other side, a more consistent adhesion is observed for the CF/PP-PE(AM1 laminate. This result is in agreement with the tensile test data and show the presence of a good interaction between the laminate constituents. The correlation of the mechanical and fractographic results with the curves of complex viscosity versus temperature of the studied polymer matrices shows that the matrix viscosity did not affect the wettability of the reinforcement.

  7. The Adherent/Invasive Escherichia coli Strain LF82 Invades and Persists in Human Prostate Cell Line RWPE-1, Activating a Strong Inflammatory Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleandri, Marta; Marazzato, Massimiliano; Conte, Antonietta L.; Ambrosi, Cecilia; Nicoletti, Mauro; Zagaglia, Carlo; Gambara, Guido; Palombi, Fioretta; De Cesaris, Paola; Ziparo, Elio; Palamara, Anna T.; Riccioli, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Adherent/invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) strains have recently been receiving increased attention because they are more prevalent and persistent in the intestine of Crohn's disease (CD) patients than in healthy subjects. Since AIEC strains show a high percentage of similarity to extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC), neonatal meningitis-associated E. coli (NMEC), and uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strains, here we compared AIEC strain LF82 with a UPEC isolate (strain EC73) to assess whether LF82 would be able to infect prostate cells as an extraintestinal target. The virulence phenotypes of both strains were determined by using the RWPE-1 prostate cell line. The results obtained indicated that LF82 and EC73 are able to adhere to, invade, and survive within prostate epithelial cells. Invasion was confirmed by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Moreover, cytochalasin D and colchicine strongly inhibited bacterial uptake of both strains, indicating the involvement of actin microfilaments and microtubules in host cell invasion. Moreover, both strains belong to phylogenetic group B2 and are strong biofilm producers. In silico analysis reveals that LF82 shares with UPEC strains several virulence factors: namely, type 1 pili, the group II capsule, the vacuolating autotransporter toxin, four iron uptake systems, and the pathogenic island (PAI). Furthermore, compared to EC73, LF82 induces in RWPE-1 cells a marked increase of phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and of NF-κB already by 5 min postinfection, thus inducing a strong inflammatory response. Our in vitro data support the hypothesis that AIEC strains might play a role in prostatitis, and, by exploiting host-cell signaling pathways controlling the innate immune response, likely facilitate bacterial multiplication and dissemination within the male genitourinary tract. PMID:27600504

  8. Detection of ionospheric perturbations associated with Japanese earthquakes on the basis of reception of LF transmitter signals on the satellite DEMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Muto

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available There have been recently reported a lot of electromagnetic phenomena associated with earthquakes (EQs. Among these, the ground-based reception of subionospheric waves from VLF/LF transmitters, is recognized as a promising tool to investigate the ionospheric perturbations associated with EQs. This paper deals with the corresponding whistler-mode signals in the upper ionosphere from those VLF/LF transmitters, which is the counterpart of subionospheric signals. The whistler-mode VLF/LF transmitter signals are detected on board the French satellite, DEMETER launched on 29 June 2004. We have chosen several large Japanese EQs including the Miyagi-oki EQ (16 August 2005; M=7.2, depth=36 km, and the target transmitter is a Japanese LF transmitter (JJY whose transmitter frequency is 40 kHz. Due to large longitudinal separation of each satellite orbit (2500 km, we have to adopt a statistical analysis over a rather long period (such as 3 weeks or one month to have reliable data set. By analyzing the spatial distribution of JJY signal intensity (in the form of signal to noise ratio SNR during a period of 4 months including the Miyagi-oki EQ, we have found significant changes in the intensity; generally the SNR is significantly depleted before the EQ, which is considered to be a precursory ionospheric signature of the EQ. This abnormal effect is reasonably explained in terms of either (1 enhanced absorption of whistler-mode LF signals in the lower ionosphere due to the lowering of the lower ionosphere, or (2 nonlinear wave-wave scattering. Finally, this analysis suggests an important role of satellite observation in the study of lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling.

  9. EAF-LF/VD-HCC工艺生产管线钢洁净度的分析%Analysis of Cleanliness of Pipeline Steel Produced by EAF-LF/VD-HCC Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭其春; 李源源; 左著; 汤敬华; 吕士忠

    2006-01-01

    针对衡阳钢管集团公司"EAF-LF/VD-HCC"管线钢生产工艺,采用示踪剂示踪、系统取样、综合分析的方法,对LF处理前后、VD处理后、中间包、铸坯和轧管中wT[O],w[N],显微夹杂物和大型夹杂物的变化及分布进行了系统研究.研究结果表明,精炼过程脱氧幅度为28.0×10-6,精炼处理后到轧管过程钢中wT[O]大幅度增加;VD后到中间包过程钢水吸氮最严重,为12.3×10-6.精炼过程去除夹杂的效果比较明显,处理前后显微夹杂物分别为10.85个/mm2和8.93个/mm2,大型夹杂物分别为65.74 mg/10 kg和24.50 mg/10kg,精炼过程夹杂物改性效果不明显.

  10. To P(E) or not to P(E): a P3-like ERP component reflecting the processing of response errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridderinkhof, K Richard; Ramautar, Jennifer R; Wijnen, Jasper G

    2009-05-01

    ERP studies have highlighted several electrocortical components that can be observed when people make errors. We propose that the P(E) reflects processes functionally similar to those reflected in the P3 and that the P(E) and P3 should covary. We speculate that these processes refer to the motivational significance of rare target stimuli in case of the P3 and of salient performance errors in case of the P(E). Here we investigated whether P(E) amplitude after errors in a Simon task is correlated specifically to varying target-target intervals in a visual oddball task, a factor known to parametrically affect P3 amplitude. The amplitude of the P(E), but not the N(E), was observed to covary with the effect of target-target interval on P3 amplitude. The specificity of this novel finding supports the notion that the P(E) and P3 reflect similar neurocognitive processes as possibly involved in the conscious processing of motivationally significant events.

  11. PE_PGRS30 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis mediates suppression of proinflammatory immune response in macrophages through its PGRS and PE domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatrath, Shweta; Gupta, Vineet Kumar; Dixit, Aparna; Garg, Lalit C

    2016-09-01

    The success of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as a pathogen relies on its ability to survive inside macrophages and evade host immune mechanisms. M. tuberculosis employs multiple strategies to confer resistance against immune system including inhibition of phago-lysosomal fusion, modulation of cytokine responses and granuloma formation. PE_PGRS proteins, uniquely present in pathogenic mycobacteria, are cell surface molecules that are suggested to interact with host cells. PE_PGRS proteins have also been implicated in its pathogenesis. In the present study, immuno-regulatory property of Rv1651c-encoded PE_PGRS30 protein was explored. Infection of PMA-differentiated human THP-1 macrophages with Mycobacterium smegmatis harbouring pVV(1651c) resulted in reduced production of IL-12, TNF-α and IL-6, as compared to infection with M. smegmatis harbouring the control plasmid pVV16. No differential effect was observed on bacterial persistence inside macrophages or on macrophage mortality upon infection with the two recombinant strains. Infection of THP-1 macrophages with recombinant M. smegmatis expressing deletion variants of PE_PGRS30 indicated that anti-inflammatory function of the protein is possessed by its PGRS and PE domains while the C-terminal domain, when expressed alone, displayed antagonistic effect in terms of TNF-α secretion. These results suggest that PE_PGRS30 interferes with macrophage immune functions important for activation of adaptive T-cell responses.

  12. FILLED POLYOLEFIN COMPOSITES PREPARED FROM IN-SITU POLYMERIZATION VIA A CATALYST-SUPPORTED APPROACH I. MORPHOLOGY OF PE IN CARBON BLACK(CB)/PE IN-SITU COMPOSITES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-wu Luo; Xin-pei Cao; Lin-xian Feng

    2003-01-01

    The morphology of PE in the in-situ CB/PE composites prepared from in-situ polymerization via a catalystsupported approach was studied by DSC. It is found that both the melting peak temperature and crystallinity of the PE shell decrease as filler level increases. The unexpected phenomena are ascribed to the strong interaction between PE and CB and the very high specific area of CB. It is suggested that the lamellar thickness should be well correlated to the PE shell thickness. A two-layer PE model is successfully used to explain the experiment results.

  13. Perfil lipídico em escolares de Recife - PE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Brazil Pereira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A ocorrência de dislipidemias é crescente na população infanto-juvenil. Níveis alterados do perfil lipídico estão relacionados com maior incidência de hipertensão e doença aterosclerótica. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a magnitude das dislipidemias e investigar a relação do perfil lipídico com o excesso de peso e a obesidade abdominal em adolescentes escolares da cidade do Recife - PE. MÉTODOS: Foram coletados dados pessoais, situação socioeconômica, medidas antropométricas e perfil lipídico de 470 adolescentes de 10 a 14 anos, de ambos os sexos, da rede pública de ensino de Recife - PE. A análise estatística foi realizada com os programas Epi-info 6.04 e SPSS 13.0. Adotou-se o nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: A maior parte da população era dislipidêmica (63,8%, IC95% 59,3 - 68,2, sendo a hipoalfalipoproteinemia a dislipidemia mais prevalente (56%, IC95% 51,3 - 60,5. Adolescentes com excesso de peso ou com obesidade abdominal apresentaram valores mais elevados de triglicerídeos e mais baixos de HDL-colesterol (p < 0,05. As concentrações do colesterol total e frações não diferiram em relação ao sexo. CONCLUSÃO: Ficou demonstrada a elevada ocorrência do perfil lipídico desfavorável, o que faz alertar para a necessidade da dosagem do perfil lipídico já nessa faixa etária. Medidas de estilo de vida saudável devem ser incentivadas nessa população.

  14. Development and antilisterial activity of PE-based biological preservative films incorporating plantaricin BM-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Gao, Xiuzhi; Zhang, Hongxing; Liu, Hui; Jin, Junhua; Yang, Wenge; Xie, Yuanhong

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, bacteriocin, as a natural antimicrobial compound, provides enormous promise to be used in food safety preservation. In this work, the polyethylene(PE)-based biological preservative films incorporating plantaricin BM-1, a typical IIa bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum BM-1, were developed and characterized. The results showed that PE, low-density PE (LDPE) and high-density PE (HDPE) films soaked in plantaricin BM-1 solution had obvious antimicrobial activities against Listeria monocytogenes. And the volume of plantaricin BM-1 solution absorbed by PE, LDPE and HDPE films continued to increase and reached the maximum during exposure for up to 10, 6 and 16 h, respectively. And the maximum absorption volumes of plantaricin BM-1 solution had no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the PE, LDPE and HDPE films. When soaking in water, the release amount of plantaricin BM-1 from active PE, LDPE and HDPE films reached the maximum potency at 16, 12 and 20 h, respectively. And the maximum release amount of plantaricin BM-1 from PE and LDPE active films was dramatically more than the HDPE active film (P preservative films on the control of foodborne pathogen L. monocytogenes. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Use of Mobile Testing System PeLe for Developing Language Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titova, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    One of the objectives of this paper is to investigate the pedagogical impact of both the mobile testing system PeLe (Norway, HiST) and the enquiry-based learning approach on language skills development in the context of mobile-assisted learning. The research aims to work out a methodological framework of PeLe implementation into the language…

  16. Reproducibility of [123I]PE2I binding to dopamine transporters with SPECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziebell, Morten; Thomsen, Gerda; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2007-01-01

    The iodinated cocaine derivative [(123)I]PE2I is a new selective ligand for in vivo studies of the dopamine transporter (DAT) with SPECT. Recently, a bolus/infusion (B/I) protocol for [(123)I]PE2I measurements of DAT density was established [Pinborg LH et al. J Nucl Med 2005;46:1119-271]. The aims...

  17. Whole-School Management Issues Concerning the PE Department: "A Natural Division of Labour?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gareth Mark; Williams, Dean

    2013-01-01

    Utilising the labour ideas of Adam Smith and Emile Durkheim as a theoretical basis, the main objective of this study was to investigate the perception that Heads of Physical Education (HoPE) face unique management and leadership challenges. Results showed that HoPE believe that they are overburdened with tasks primarily involving the delegation of…

  18. Pedagogies for Inclusion of Junior Primary Students with Disabilities in PE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Hannah; Wrench, Alison; Garrett, Robyne

    2017-01-01

    Background: Laws and legislation have prompted movement from special education towards inclusive education, whereby students with disabilities are included in mainstream physical education (PE) classes. It is widely acknowledged that including students with disabilities in PE presents significant challenges in relation to meeting the diverse needs…

  19. Periodically poled silicon (PePSi) for efficient and electronically-tuned nonlinear optics in silicon

    OpenAIRE

    Jalali, B.; Hon, NK; Tsia, KK

    2013-01-01

    Periodically poled silicon (PePSi) induces substantial 2nd order optical nonlinearity and at the same time achieves quasi-phase matching. PePSi is made by alternating strain gradients along the waveguide using periodic arrangement of stressed cladding layers. © 2013 OSA.

  20. Reproducibility of [123I]PE2I binding to dopamine transporters with SPECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziebell, Morten; Thomsen, Gerda; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2007-01-01

    The iodinated cocaine derivative [(123)I]PE2I is a new selective ligand for in vivo studies of the dopamine transporter (DAT) with SPECT. Recently, a bolus/infusion (B/I) protocol for [(123)I]PE2I measurements of DAT density was established [Pinborg LH et al. J Nucl Med 2005;46:1119-271]. The aims...

  1. synthesis of novel four armed PE-PCL grafted superparamagnetic and biocompatible nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panja, Sudipta; Saha, Biswajit; Ghosh, S K; Chattopadhyay, Santanu

    2013-10-08

    Novel biocompatible polymer immobilized superparamagnetic nanoparticles (MNP) are prepared by grafting four armed pentaerythritol poly(ε-polycaprolactone) (PE-PCL) onto silane modified MNP. The MNPs are synthesized by hydrothermal process and its modification using (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (TMAS) coating is done by the sol-gel technique. The pentaerythritol (PE) initiated ring-opening polymerization (ROP) is carried out to prepare four armed PE-PCL. The reaction is shown to follow first order kinetics. The structure of PE-PCL is confirmed by NMR spectrum and MALDI-TOF analysis. The in situ grafting of PE-PCL onto modified MNP has been carried out by using 4,4'-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) as an intermediate linker. The grafting density as determined by TGA analysis has been found to be significantly higher than previously reported linear PCL grafted MNPs in the literature. This leads to uniform dispersion of grafted MNPs which still is a challenging task in contemporary research. The effective dispersion of MNP into PE-PCL matrix is analyzed by HRTEM. The saturation magnetization of the PE-PCL grafted MNPs is significantly high and this can be tailored further by varying the grafting density. The biocompatibility of polymer grafted nanoparticles is confirmed by MTT assay using HeLa cell line. The superparamagnetic and biocompatible novel PE-PCL grafted MNP so prepared would have manifold potential applications including in therapy and targeted drug delivery.

  2. Whole-School Management Issues Concerning the PE Department: "A Natural Division of Labour?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gareth Mark; Williams, Dean

    2013-01-01

    Utilising the labour ideas of Adam Smith and Emile Durkheim as a theoretical basis, the main objective of this study was to investigate the perception that Heads of Physical Education (HoPE) face unique management and leadership challenges. Results showed that HoPE believe that they are overburdened with tasks primarily involving the delegation of…

  3. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Drimys granadensis L.f. leaves from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaviria, Mauricio; Quijano, Clara; Pino, Jorge; Madriñán, Santiago

    2011-03-01

    Drimys granadensis L.f., a native plant from Colombia, has been included in the Vademecum de Plantas Medicinales de Colombia by the Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt, due to its widespread use in the folk medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal ailments. The chemical composition of the essential oil of Drimys granadensis obtained by hydrodistillation of the leaves was analyzed by GC and GC/MS analyses. A total of 85 components were identified, with the major compounds germacrene D (1, 14.7%), sclarene (9.5%), a-cadinol (7.3%), longiborneol acetate (2, 6.3%), drimenol (4.2%), (Z)-β-ocimene (3, 4.2%), a-pinene (4, 3.2%), and β-elemene (5, 2.7%). The essential oil was also tested against eight bacteria using the Kirby-Bauer disk-diffusion method. Most of the Gram-positive bacteria tested were susceptible to the D. granadensis essential oil, while the Gram-negative bacteria tested were not.

  4. Earnings quality and P/E ratio: Evidence from Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ghodrati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the impacts of earnings quality criteria on the ratio of price to earnings per share (P/E on 88 accepted companies in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE over the period 2007- 2012. The results indicate that there was a positive and significant relationship between the P/E ratio and cash dividend. There is also a positive and significant relationship between P/E ratio as dependent variable and the gross profit ratio to sales. On the other hand, there is a significant reverse relationship between P/E ratio and the profit variability. However, no significant relationship exists between P/E as dependent variable and deferrals (accruals variable.

  5. Scintigraphic evidence for overdiagnosis of small PE on CT pulmonary angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yang [Dept. of Radiology, University of Illinois Hospital and Health Sciences System, Chicago (United States)

    2017-03-15

    A 68-year-old man with recent history of a fall presented with dyspnea on exertion, and underwent computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) for possible pulmonary embolism (PE). The CTPA was first read by the radiology resident as nondiagnostic for segmental PE. Subsequent planar perfusion (Q) images were normal; meanwhile, the attending radiologist revised the CTPA results as subsegmental PE in the left upper lobe. Further Q-SPECT images were obtained and fused with CTPA for clarification, which showed normal perfusion in the region of PE. The patient was monitored without anticoagulation treatment and remained uneventful for 12 months. This case illustrates that CTPA can lead to overdiagnosis and overtreatment of nonocclusive subsegmental PE.

  6. Synthesis of well-defined functional PE graft copolymers via ATRP process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Chengang; DONG Jinyong; HU Youliang

    2005-01-01

    @@ Polyethylene (PE) is one of the most important polymeric materials. It has excellent physical mechanical properties and thus a widespread range of applications. However, due to the lack of polar functional groups on its polymer chain, PE usually suffers from poor adhesion to and incompatibility with other polymers or materials, which has significantly limited many of its end uses. To resolve this problem, one of the established approaches is to introduce a second functional polymeric component as side chains to synthesize PE graft copolymers that not only provide a large quantity of functional groups to impart polarity to PE but also preserve the original desired PE properties, such as crystallinity, melting point, and hydrophobicity[1].

  7. Cold-walled UHV/CVD batch reactor for the growth of Si1_x/Gex layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Erik Vilain; Christensen, Carsten; Andersen, C.R.;

    1997-01-01

    A novel cold-walled, lamp-heated, ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition (UHV/CVD) batch system for the growth of SiGe layers is presented. This system combines the batch capability of the standard UHV/CVD furnace with the temperature processing available in rapid thermal processing (Rm) equi...

  8. Tantalum Coating of Steel, Copper, Aluminum, and Titanium by Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik; Bjerrum, Niels

    1998-01-01

    Tantalum coatings ranging from 0.5 to 120 mm has been deposited by CVD at 625-1000 C using tantalum pentachloride as precursor. Deposition rates range from 1 to 80mm/h and an activation energy of 103 kJ/mole is calculated. Well adhering deposits has been obtained on stainless steel, carbon steels...

  9. CVD Diamond Detector Stability Issues for Operation at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, G J; Koch, J A; Moran, M J; Lerche, R A; Izumi, N; Phillips, T W; Glebov, V Y; Sangster, T C; Stoeckl, C

    2003-08-22

    Synthetic diamond crystals produced by the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) technique can serve as fast, radiation hard, neutron sensors for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Here we explore the stability issues, such as charge trapping and high-flux saturation, that will be relevant to operation at the NIF.

  10. Field electron emission of diamond films on nanocrystalline diamond coating by CVD method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Rangqi; CHEN Guanghua; SONG Xuemei; XING Guangjian; FENG Zhenjian; HE Deyan

    2003-01-01

    The preparation process, structure feature and field electron emission characteristic of diamond films on nanocyrstalline diamond coating by the CVD method were studied. The field electron emission measurements on the samples showed that the diamond films have lower turn-on voltage and higher field emission current density. A further detailed theory explanation to the results was given.

  11. Modelling and analysis of CVD processes in porous media for ceramic composite preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Y.S.; Burggraaf, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    A continuum phenomenological model is presented to describe chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of solid product inside porous substrate media for the preparation of reinforced ceramic-matrix composites [by the chemical vapour infiltration (CVI) process] and ceramic membrane composites (by a modified C

  12. PaxVax CVD 103-HgR single-dose live oral cholera vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Myron M; Chen, Wilbur H; Kaper, James B; Lock, Michael; Danzig, Lisa; Gurwith, Marc

    2017-03-01

    Cholera remains a problem in developing countries and a risk for travelers. Hypochlorhydria, blood group O, cardiac and renal disease increase the risk of developing cholera gravis. Oral vaccines containing inactivated Vibrio cholerae and requiring two doses are available in some countries. No cholera vaccine had been available for U.S. travelers for decades until 2016 when CVD 103-HgR (VAXCHORA™), an oral live attenuated vaccine, was licensed by the U.S. FDA. Areas covered: Enduring protection following wild-type cholera provided the rationale to develop a single-dose live oral vaccine. CVD 103-HgR is well-tolerated and protects against cholera caused by V. cholerae O1 of either serotype (Inaba, Ogawa) and biotype (El Tor, Classical). Since 90% vaccine efficacy is evident 10 days post-ingestion of a single dose, CVD 103-HgR can rapidly protect travelers. Vibriocidal antibody seroconversion correlates with protection; >90% of U.S. adult (including elderly) vaccinees seroconvert. The U.S. Public Health Service's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends CVD 103-HgR for U.S. travelers to areas of ongoing cholera transmission. Expert commentary: Next steps include evaluations in children, post-licensure safety and effectiveness monitoring, diminishing cold chain constraints, optimizing a 'high-dose' formulation for developing countries, and diminishing/eliminating the need for water to administer a dose.

  13. The effect of alkaline doped catalysts on the CVD synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nemeth, Krisztian; Nemeth, Zoltan; Fejes, Dora;

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop new doped catalysts for chemical vapour deposition (CVD) synthesis in order to increase the quantity and quality of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Doping compounds such as CsBr, CsCl, KBr and KCl were used to reach higher carbon deposit and carbon yield. The amount o...

  14. The conductivity of high-fluence noble gas ion irradiated CVD polycrystalline diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, A. M.; Kazakov, V. A.; Mashkova, E. S.; Ovchinnikov, M. A.; Shemukhin, A. A.; Sigalaev, S. K.

    2017-09-01

    The conductivity of surface layer of polycrystalline CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) diamond has been studied experimentally after high-fluence 30 keV Ne+, 20 and 30 keV Ar+ ion irradiation at target temperature range from 30 to 400 °C. The hot ion irradiation of CVD diamond may be described as ion-stimulated heat graphitization in which an exponential resistance decrease with increasing of the irradiation temperature is much faster than at the heat treatment. Under ion irradiation of CVD diamond the graphite-like materials resistivity is achieved at temperatures not exceeding 200 °C. The graphite phase in a heterogeneous structure of diamond irradiated layer is in dynamic equilibrium. In the temperature range from RT to 400 °C, the proportion of graphite phase increases so that at temperatures 200 < Tir < 400 °C it is dominant. The Raman spectra of ion-induced conductive layer created on CVD diamond reflect the processes of nanostructural ordering - disordering of sp2-bonded carbon.

  15. Terahertz and M4PP conductivity mapping of large area CVD grown graphene films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jonas Christian Due; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Bøggild, Peter;

    We demonstrate mapping of magnitude and variation of the electrical conductance of large area CVD graphene films by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) and micro four-point-probe (M4PP). Non-trivial correlations between results obtained with the two techniques are discussed in relation...

  16. The integration of epigenetics and genetics in nutrition research for CVD risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is increasing evidence documenting gene-by-environment (G x E) interactions for CVD related traits. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. DNA methylation may represent one of such potential mechanisms. The objective of this review paper is to summarise the current evidence supp...

  17. Towards a general growth model for graphene CVD on transition metal catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrero-Vilatela, Andrea; Weatherup, Robert S.; Braeuninger-Weimer, Philipp; Caneva, Sabina; Hofmann, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of graphene on three polycrystalline transition metal catalysts, Co, Ni and Cu, is systematically compared and a first-order growth model is proposed which can serve as a reference to optimize graphene growth on any elemental or alloy catalyst system. Simple thermodynamic considerations of carbon solubility are insufficient to capture even basic growth behaviour on these most commonly used catalyst materials, and it is shown that kinetic aspects such as carbon permeation have to be taken into account. Key CVD process parameters are discussed in this context and the results are anticipated to be highly useful for the design of future strategies for integrated graphene manufacture.The chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of graphene on three polycrystalline transition metal catalysts, Co, Ni and Cu, is systematically compared and a first-order growth model is proposed which can serve as a reference to optimize graphene growth on any elemental or alloy catalyst system. Simple thermodynamic considerations of carbon solubility are insufficient to capture even basic growth behaviour on these most commonly used catalyst materials, and it is shown that kinetic aspects such as carbon permeation have to be taken into account. Key CVD process parameters are discussed in this context and the results are anticipated to be highly useful for the design of future strategies for integrated graphene manufacture. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06873h

  18. Prevalence of red-green color vision deficiency (cvd among science students: a 10 years' survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun V. Panat , M.Sc. M.Phil.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Red-green Color vision deficiency (CVD has a high prevalence and is often a handicap in everyday life. The fact that most of the students do not know they have CVD due to non testing of color vision. All Science faculty students of the ASC Rahuri College in the age range of 17-19 were screened for Red-green CVD by using Ishihara test plates from 2001 to 2010. Thus total 654 males and 292 female students were screened during 10 years. The collected data were analyzed for frequency estimation among males and females and then estimating mating types by using the Hardy-Weinberg Principle. Frequency of color blindness in males was 0.303 and that in females 0.288. Predicted mating types show a higher contribution of carrier females, and homozygous color blinds than expected. Estimated normal mating type is only 35.35%. Prevalence of Red-green CVD was found considerably high among science students and specifically among females which is unusual. Mating types involving carrier females, colorblind females, and colorblind males together show a very high contribution than normal ones.

  19. Polymer Layers by Initiated CVD for Thin Film Gas Barrier Encapsulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spee, D.A.; Rath, J.K.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter a thorough description of the initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) process will be given, concentrating on molecular weight and deposition rate of the deposited polymer, which are essential for largescale application in hybrid gas barriers. Practical applications of coatings by

  20. Control of Reaction Surface in Low Temperature CVD to Enhance Nucleation and Conformal Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Navneet

    2009-01-01

    The Holy Grail in CVD community is to find precursors that can afford the following: good nucleation on a desired substrate and conformal deposition in high AR features. Good nucleation is not only necessary for getting ultra-thin films at low thicknesses; it also offers films that are smooth at higher thickness values. On the other hand,…

  1. Fibrinogen concentration and its role in CVD risk in black South Africans - effect of urbanisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Marlien; De Maat, Moniek P. M.; Jerling, Johann C.; Hoekstra, Tiny; Kruger, Annamarie

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate correlates of fibrinogen concentration in black South Africans, as well as its association with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and whether urbanisation influences this association. A total of 1,006 rural and 1,004 urban black South Africans from the PURE s

  2. Hydrogen termination of CVD diamond films by high-temperature annealing at atmospheric pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seshan, V.; Ullien, D.; Castellanos-Gomez, A.; Sachdeva, S.; Murthy, D.H.K.; Savenije, T.J.; Ahmad, H.A.; Nunney, T.S.; Janssens, S.D.; Haenen, K.; Nesládek, M.; Van der Zant, H.S.J.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.; De Smet, L.C.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    A high-temperature procedure to hydrogenate diamond films using molecular hydrogen at atmospheric pressure was explored. Undoped and doped chemical vapour deposited (CVD) polycrystalline diamond films were treated according to our annealing method using a H2 gas flow down to ∼50 ml/min (STP) at ∼850

  3. Increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) with age in HIV-positive men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petoumenos, K; Reiss, P; Ryom, L;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to statistically model the relative increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) per year older in Data collection on Adverse events of anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) and to compare this with the relative increased risk of CVD per year older in general population risk...... effect was determined using the Akaike information criterion. We compared the ageing effect from D:A:D with that from the general population risk equations: the Framingham Heart Study, CUORE and ASSIGN risk scores. RESULTS: A total of 24 323 men were included in analyses. Crude MI, CHD and CVD event...... rates per 1000 person-years increased from 2.29, 3.11 and 3.65 in those aged 40-45 years to 6.53, 11.91 and 15.89 in those aged 60-65 years, respectively. The best-fitting models included inverse age for MI and age + age(2) for CHD and CVD. In D:A:D there was a slowly accelerating increased risk of CHD...

  4. CVD of solid oxides in porous substrates for ceramic membrane modification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Y.S.; Burggraaf, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    The deposition of yttria-doped zirconia has been experimented systematically in various types of porous ceramic substrates by a modified chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process operating in an opposing reactant geometry using water vapor and corresponding metal chloride vapors as reactants. The effe

  5. Low energy probes of PeV scale sfermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Harnik, Roni; Zupan, Jure

    2013-11-27

    We derive bounds on squark and slepton masses in mini-split supersymmetry scenario using low energy experiments. In this setup gauginos are at the TeV scale, while sfermions are heavier by a loop factor. We cover the most sensitive low energy probes including electric dipole moments (EDMs), meson oscillations and charged lepton flavor violation (LFV) transitions. A leading log resummation of the large logs of gluino to sfermion mass ratio is performed. A sensitivity to PeV squark masses is obtained at present from kaon mixing measurements. A number of observables, including neutron EDMs, mu->e transitions and charmed meson mixing, will start probing sfermion masses in the 100 TeV-1000 TeV range with the projected improvements in the experimental sensitivities. We also discuss the implications of our results for a variety of models that address the flavor hierarchy of quarks and leptons. We find that EDM searches will be a robust probe of models in which fermion masses are generated radiatively, while LFV searches remain sensitive to simple-texture based flavor models.

  6. Casos autoctones de esquistossomose mansonica em criancas de Recife, PE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanca Simoes Barbosa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO : Investigar criadouros com moluscos hospedeiros e casos humanos autóctones para esquistossomose. MÉTODOS : Entre julho de 2010 e setembro de 2012 foram realizados: (1 levantamento malacológico para busca ativa de criadouros, coleta e identificação de caramujos Biomphalaria positivos para Schistosoma mansoni em Recife, PE; (2 inquérito de prevalência com 2.718 escolares, de sete a 14 anos, para diagnóstico de casos de esquistossomose; (3 exame clínico e ultrassonografia nos casos positivos para S. mansoni. Os casos foram investigados quanto à sua autoctonia e avaliados clinicamente. Os casos e criadouros foram georreferenciados e espacializados. RESULTADOS : Foram identificados 30 criadouros de B. straminea , quatro deles potenciais focos de transmissão, uma vez que os testes moleculares identificaram DNA de S. mansoni nos caramujos coletados. Foram diagnosticadas 14 crianças com esquistossomose; entre elas, cinco foram consideradas casos autóctones da doença. CONCLUSÕES : Ações emergenciais pela vigilância em saúde são necessárias para evitar que a esquistossomose se endemize em Recife, como acontece em localidades litorâneas do estado de Pernambuco.

  7. SHAPING EXERCISES IN A PE CLASS STRUCTURE (An empirical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enver Međedović

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Application of shaping exercises is related to good education of teachers that is especially related to form and function of entire organs, and also onto the use of energy and regular breathing. Through a co-author research, it has been observed important segments of presence of shaping exercises, the time of effective exercises observed through students’ exercises of a younger school age, with an aim of determination of rational frequency in a preparation part of a class. By observing importance and a role of shaping exercises in PE classes from several aspects of values, in this work on a sample of 60 teachers of teaching education, a survey has been composed of 10 questions that are particularly related to opinions of teachers towards shaping exercises in the class structure. Through chosen methods of work (a descriptive and comparative method,that are in accordance with the very nature of this issue, the subject, the aim and tasks of the research, it has been established hypotheses.Received results have been processed and textually presented in tables and graph icons.

  8. Increased tubing lifetime with PE-X liners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haager, Markus [AGRU Kunststofftechnik GmbH, Bad Hall (Austria)

    2011-12-15

    Tubing failures are still one of the most common and expensive ones in sucker rod pump and progressive cavity pump installations. In many cases the actual cause of tubing failure is a synergistic effect of the rods wearing on the tubing wall (abrasion) coupled with an electrochemical attack (corrosion). To increase the lifetime of tubings as well as the average time betweenworkovers and thus reduce production costs the R and D project ''Lined Tubing'' was initiated by the Austrian oil and gas company OMV and the polymer producer Borealis. The conducted research facilitated a better understanding of the abrasion caused by the contact of couplings with the thermoplastic tubing liners. Altogether 19 different thermoplastic materials were evaluated. Combining all available results it was concluded that tubing liners made from cross-linked polyethylene (PE-X) provide the most efficient solution. Thus, this new technology was patented under WO 2009/080556 [1]. Up to today more than 250 oil wells operating with sucker rod pumps and progressive cavity pumps were equipped with tubing liners by OMV (Austria), PETROM (Romania) and RAG (Austria). Statistical evaluations clearly showed the benefits of significantly increased running times which result in reduced maintenance and production costs. (orig.)

  9. Low energy probes of PeV scale sfermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Harnik, Roni; Zupan, Jure

    2013-11-01

    We derive bounds on squark and slepton masses in mini-split supersymmetry scenario using low energy experiments. In this setup gauginos are at the TeV scale, while sfermions are heavier by a loop factor. We cover the most sensitive low energy probes including electric dipole moments (EDMs), meson oscillations and charged lepton flavor violation (LFV) transitions. A leading log resummation of the large logs of gluino to sfermion mass ratio is performed. A sensitivity to PeV squark masses is obtained at present from kaon mixing measurements. A number of observables, including neutron EDMs, μ to e transitions and charmed meson mixing, will start probing sfermion masses in the 100 TeV-1000 TeV range with the projected improvements in the experimental sensitivities. We also discuss the implications of our results for a variety of models that address the flavor hierarchy of quarks and leptons. We find that EDM searches will be a robust probe of models in which fermion masses are generated radiatively, while LFV searches remain sensitive to simple-texture based flavor models.

  10. 浸渍法制备VRB用ZrP/PE01复合膜%Impregnation preparing of ZrP/PE01 composite membrane for VRB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍秋美; 桑商斌; 颜攀敦

    2012-01-01

    Zirconium phosphate(ZrP)/PE01 composite membrane was prepared by impregnating method.SEM,electron micro-probe analysis( EMPA) tests showed that a-ZrP deposited both on the surface and inner of composite membrane. The membrane/solution interface had great effect to proton transfer verified by the static proton conductivity test in 0.05 mol/L H2SO4.Diffusion permeability of vanadium ions decreased in the order of PE01 > ZrP6/PE01 > ZrP12/PE01 > ZrP24/PE01 .Compared with PE01 membrane,coulombic efficiency of vanadium flow battery using ZrP24/PE01 composite membrane as membrane increased from 90.19%,93.09% and 94.06% to 92.42% ,94.35% and 95.12%, energy efficiency increased from 66.68%,66.09% and 61.85% to 68.01% ,67.77% and 64.01%,corresponding to the current density of 30 mA/cm2,40 mA/cm2 and 50 mA/cm2 ,respectively.%用浸渍法制备了磷酸锆(ZrP)/PE01复合膜.SEM、电子显微探针分析(EMPA)测试表明:复合膜的表面和内部都有α-ZrP沉积.在0.05 mol/L H2SO4中静态的质子导电性测试证实,复合膜/溶液界面双电层对质子传导具有重要影响.几种价态钒离子渗透率P的大小为:PE01> ZrP6/PE01> ZrP12/PE01> ZrP24/PE01.以PE01膜和ZrP24/PE01膜作为隔膜的全钒液流电池,在电流密度为30 mA/cm2、40 mA/cm2和50 mA/cm2时,库仑效率分别由90.19%、93.09%和94.06%提高到92.42%、94.35%和95.12%,能量效率分别由66.68%、66.09%和61.85%提高到68.01%、67.77%和64.01%.

  11. [Cloning and functional analysis of Phyllostachys edulis MYB transcription factor PeMYB2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dong-Chang; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Xu, Ying-Wu; Yang, Li; Zhang, Feng-Xue; Wang, Chao-Li

    2013-10-01

    MYB-type transcription factor is one of the largest families in plants, which plays important roles in accepting stress signals from environment and regulating the expression of stress-tolerant genes. In this paper, using homologous cloning and RACE technology, a MYB-type transcription factor, designated PeMYB2, was cloned from Phyllostachys edulis. The results of bioinformatics showed that PeMYB2 is a typical R2R3-MYB. It contained two tandem repeats in its N-terminus, and a membrane protein DUF3651 in its C-terminus. In addition, phylogenetic analysis indicated that PeMYB2 shared the highest homology with 85.98% to OsMYB18 protein from Oryza sativa spp. Japonica. In addition, a yeast one-hybrid assay showed that PeMYB2 could activate the expression of downstream genes. After PeMYB2 was transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana, seven PeMYB2 transgenic Arabidopsis lines were obtained. Phenotypic analysis of the transgenic and wild-type Arabidopsis showed that over-expression of PeMYB2 caused delayed flower or dwarfism in transgenic Arabidopsis. Under the abiotic stress conditions, such as salt and cold stresses, the over-expression of PeMYB2 in Arabidopsis had higher survival rate than the wild-type Arabidopsis. Expression analysis of saline stress response marker genes in the transgenic and wild-type plants under the salt stress condition showed that PeMYB2 regulated the expression of NXH1, SOS1, RD29A, and COR15A. As the result, PeMYB2 might play an important role in various responses to abiotic stresses in P. edulis.

  12. PE-g-MAH对木粉高填充量PE木塑性能的影响%Effect of PE-g-MAH on Properties of High-content Wood-flour Filled PE Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 吕群; 羊海棠; 何田; 来国桥

    2008-01-01

    以回收高密度聚乙烯(PE-HD)和马来酸酐接枝聚乙烯(PE-g-MAH)的总含量为27%(质最分数,下同)、木粉含量为70%、润滑剂为3%为基本配方,用挤出成犁法制备了木粉高填充量的木塑复合材料.研究了配方中PFrg-MAH的含量对木颦复合材料性能的影响,结果表明,在保持配方中PE-g-MAH和PE-HD的总含量为27%不变的条件下,随着PE-g-MAH的含量从0增加到27%,制得的木塑复合材料的拉伸强度从12.5 MPa增大到34.7 MPa,弯曲强度从30.0 MPa增大到64.0 MPa,冲击强度从3.9 kJ/m2增大到14.1 kJ/m2,吸水率从2.51%减少到0.04%.红外光谱表明,木塑复合材料中木粉与PE-g-MAH之间形成了酯键.

  13. Study of relationship between pulse pressure and mortality from all the causes, CVD and CVA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relationship between pulse pressure and mortality from all the causes: CVD and CVA. Methods: The cohort consisted of the beneficiaries from Korea Medical Insurance Corporation (KMIC) aged 40 and older who had taken health examination and completed the questionnaire inquiring of health habits and past medical history in 1992 or 1993. The number of cohort members was 698,796, and they were followed up from 1st January, 1994 until 31st December, 2000. The primary sources of the data used in this study were the death benefit record and health examination file of KMIC. In the case that the information about the cause of death was unknown in the death benefit record, it was checked from the death registry of National statistical Office and the inpatient data of KMIC. There were 37439 deaths during the follow-up period. Results: A linear relationship between pulse pressure and mortality from all the causes, cardiovascular disease and cerebrovascular disease, was determined in both genders, the whole population and age groups, in the hypertensive and normotensive ( P< 0. 01). Pulse pressure and mortality from all the causes, CVD and CVA increased ( P <0.01). Pulse pressure was significantly associated with a relatively high risk of mortality from all the causes, CVD and CVA in the whole population, both genders, all age groups, the hypertensive and normotensive after adjusted to age, gender, body mass index, blood sugar, serum total cholesterol, AST, ALT, urine protein, urine glucose, alcohol drinking and cigarette smoking ( P< 0.01). Conclusion: Pulse pressure shows linear relationship with the mortality from all the causes,CVD and CVA. Pulse pressure appears to be a single measure of blood pressure in predicting mortality from all the causes,CVD and CVA, even in the hypertensive and normotensive.

  14. Superhydrophobic Copper Surfaces with Anticorrosion Properties Fabricated by Solventless CVD Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaró, Ignasi; Yagüe, Jose L; Borrós, Salvador

    2017-01-11

    Due to continuous miniaturization and increasing number of electrical components in electronics, copper interconnections have become critical for the design of 3D integrated circuits. However, corrosion attack on the copper metal can affect the electronic performance of the material. Superhydrophobic coatings are a commonly used strategy to prevent this undesired effect. In this work, a solventless two-steps process was developed to fabricate superhydrophobic copper surfaces using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods. The superhydrophobic state was achieved through the design of a hierarchical structure, combining micro-/nanoscale domains. In the first step, O2- and Ar-plasma etchings were performed on the copper substrate to generate microroughness. Afterward, a conformal copolymer, 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl acrylate-ethylene glycol diacrylate [p(PFDA-co-EGDA)], was deposited on top of the metal via initiated CVD (iCVD) to lower the surface energy of the surface. The copolymer topography exhibited a very characteristic and unique nanoworm-like structure. The combination of the nanofeatures of the polymer with the microroughness of the copper led to achievement of the superhydrophobic state. AFM, SEM, and XPS were used to characterize the evolution in topography and chemical composition during the CVD processes. The modified copper showed water contact angles as high as 163° and hysteresis as low as 1°. The coating withstood exposure to aggressive media for extended periods of time. Tafel analysis was used to compare the corrosion rates between bare and modified copper. Results indicated that iCVD-coated copper corrodes 3 orders of magnitude slower than untreated copper. The surface modification process yielded repeatable and robust superhydrophobic coatings with remarkable anticorrosion properties.

  15. Superhydrophobic aluminium-based surfaces: Wetting and wear properties of different CVD-generated coating types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, M.; Streller, F.; Simon, F.; Frenzel, R.; White, A. J.

    2013-10-01

    In view of generating superhydrophobic aluminium-based surfaces, this work presents further results for the combination of anodic oxidation as the primary pretreatment method and chemical vapour deposition (CVD) variants for chemical modification producing coatings of 250-1000 nm thickness. In detail, CVD involved the utilisation of i - hexafluoropropylene oxide as precursor within the hot filament CVD process for the deposition of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) coatings at alternative conditions (PTFE-AC) and ii - 1,3,5-trivinyltrimethylcyclotrisiloxane for the deposition of polysiloxane coatings (PSi) by initiated CVD. The substrate material was Al Mg1 subjected to usual or intensified sulphuric acid anodisation pretreatments (SAAu, SAAi, respectively) affording various degrees of surface micro-roughness (SAAu weathering and/or mild wear testing. Superhydrophobicity (SH) was observed with the system SAAi + PTFE-AC similarly to former findings with the standard hot filament CVD PTFE coating variant (SAAi + PTFE-SC). The results indicated that the specific coating morphology made an important contribution to the water-repellency, because even some of the SAAu-based samples tended to reveal SH. Subjecting samples to weathering treatment resulted in a general worsening of the wetting behaviour, primarily limited to the receding contact angles. These tendencies were correlated with the chemical composition of the sample surfaces as analysed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The wear tests showed, as evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and contact angle measurement, that the PTFE coatings were relatively sensitive to friction. This was connected with a dramatic deterioration of the water-repelling properties. PSi-coated surfaces generally showed rather poor water-repellency, but this coating type was surprisingly resistant towards the applied friction test. From these findings it may be concluded that the combination of hydrophobic fluorine containing structure

  16. Design studies for a multi-TeV gamma-ray telescope array : PeX (PeV eXplorer)

    CERN Document Server

    Denman, Jarrad

    2014-01-01

    (Abridged) This thesis presents work towards the design of a new array of Image Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) to detect multi-TeV gamma-ray sources. The array consists of 5 telescopes in a square layout with one central telescope, known as the Pevatron eXplorer or PeX. PeX is a PeV (10^{15} eV) cosmic ray explorer that aims to study and discover gamma-ray sources in the 1 to 500 TeV range. The initial PeX design has been influenced by the HEGRA CT-System and H.E.S.S. configurations. One important feature of multi-TeV air showers is their ability to trigger telescopes at large core distance (>400m). PeX will utilise large core distance events to improve the performance and illustrate the viability of a sparse array for multi-TeV gamma-ray astronomy. One important aspect of the thesis (Chapter 6) was the investigation of a new time-based image cleaning method. The arrival time between photons in two adjacent pixels in the camera is used to apply an extra cut which helps mitigate night sky background....

  17. Teatro Depressinha. 5 Pequenas Peças de Teatro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Martins Coelho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Artefacto plural e educativo, o último livro de recepção infantil de José Viale Moutinho vem porfiar a ideia de como o teatro pode e deve ser entendido como uma arte expressiva, descomplexada e eficaz, enquanto experiência formativa intensa. Com essa arte performativa, é, então, possível instruir, divertindo, o jovem receptor. Dirigido, sensivelmente, a um leitor de 5 aos 10 anos, o livro que veio a lume em 2012, reúne três linguagens distintas mas convergentes. Em primeiro lugar, o texto colocado no começo do livro, em jeito de prefácio, intitulado “De Élvio Camacho, encenador e ator”, apresenta-se como um “modo de instrução” para explorar os meios dramatúrgicos que as cinco pequenas peças de Viale Moutinho reclamam. Quanto aos textos para teatro propriamente ditos, estes recuperam ora o tema do menino traquinas (“O menino lá do fundo da sala” e “aquele menino que se porta tão mal”, ora o tópico do teatro-circo (“Dom Adivinhão”, ora o universo da literatura oral e tradicional, de que o autor é um acérrimo defensor (“O tesouro do cego” e “Um favorzinho”. Na verdade, o engenho do autor consiste em fazer cruzar nas suas “pequenas comédias” todas essas fantasias e discursos.

  18. Phylogeny to function: PE/PPE protein evolution and impact on Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, S; van Wyk, N; Warren, R M; Sampson, S L

    2015-06-01

    The pe/ppe genes represent one of the most intriguing aspects of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome. These genes are especially abundant in pathogenic mycobacteria, with more than 160 members in M. tuberculosis. Despite being discovered over 15 years ago, their function remains unclear, although various lines of evidence implicate selected family members in mycobacterial virulence. In this review, we use PE/PPE phylogeny as a framework within which we examine the diversity and putative functions of these proteins. We report on the evolution and diversity of the respective gene families, as well as the implications thereof for function and host immune recognition. We summarize recent findings on pe/ppe gene regulation, also placing this in the context of PE/PPE phylogeny. We collate data from several large proteomics datasets, providing an overview of PE/PPE localization, and discuss the implications this may have for host responses. Assessment of the current knowledge of PE/PPE diversity suggests that these proteins are not variable antigens as has been so widely speculated; however, they do clearly play important roles in virulence. Viewing the growing body of pe/ppe literature through the lens of phylogeny reveals trends in features and function that may be associated with the evolution of mycobacterial pathogenicity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Recombination in pe/ppe genes contributes to genetic variation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineages

    KAUST Repository

    Phelan, Jody E.

    2016-02-29

    Background Approximately 10 % of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome is made up of two families of genes that are poorly characterized due to their high GC content and highly repetitive nature. The PE and PPE families are typified by their highly conserved N-terminal domains that incorporate proline-glutamate (PE) and proline-proline-glutamate (PPE) signature motifs. They are hypothesised to be important virulence factors involved with host-pathogen interactions, but their high genetic variability and complexity of analysis means they are typically disregarded in genome studies. Results To elucidate the structure of these genes, 518 genomes from a diverse international collection of clinical isolates were de novo assembled. A further 21 reference M. tuberculosis complex genomes and long read sequence data were used to validate the approach. SNP analysis revealed that variation in the majority of the 168 pe/ppe genes studied was consistent with lineage. Several recombination hotspots were identified, notably pe_pgrs3 and pe_pgrs17. Evidence of positive selection was revealed in 65 pe/ppe genes, including epitopes potentially binding to major histocompatibility complex molecules. Conclusions This, the first comprehensive study of the pe and ppe genes, provides important insight into M. tuberculosis diversity and has significant implications for vaccine development.

  20. Cytocompatibility of Ar{sup +} plasma treated and Au nanoparticle-grafted PE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svorcik, V. [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic)], E-mail: vaclav.svorcik@vscht.cz; Kasalkova, N.; Slepicka, P. [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Zaruba, K.; Kral, V. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Bacakova, L.; Parizek, M.; Lisa, V. [Institute of Physiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic 142 20 Prague (Czech Republic); Ruml, T.; Gbelcova, H.; Rimpelova, S. [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Mackova, A. [Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Department of Physics, J.E. Purkinje University, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic)

    2009-06-01

    Polyethylene (PE) was irradiated with inert Ar plasma, and the chemically active PE surface was grafted with Au nanoparticles. The composition and the structure of the modified PE surface were studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS). Changes in the surface wettability were determined from the contact angle measured in a reflection goniometer. The changes in the surface roughness and morphology were followed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The modified PE samples were seeded with rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) or mouse NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, and their adhesion and proliferation were studied. We found that plasma discharge and Au grafting lead to dramatic changes in the surface morphology and roughness of PE. The Au nanoparticles were found not only on the sample surface, but also in the sample interior up to the depth of about 100 nm. In addition, plasma modification of the PE surface, followed with grafting Au-nanoparticles, significantly increased the attractiveness of the PE surface for the adhesion and growth of VSMC, and particularly for mouse embryonic 3T3 fibroblasts.

  1. Cytocompatibility of Ar + plasma treated and Au nanoparticle-grafted PE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švorčík, V.; Kasálková, N.; Slepička, P.; Záruba, K.; Král, V.; Bačáková, L.; Pařízek, M.; Lisá, V.; Ruml, T.; Gbelcová, H.; Rimpelová, S.; Macková, A.

    2009-06-01

    Polyethylene (PE) was irradiated with inert Ar plasma, and the chemically active PE surface was grafted with Au nanoparticles. The composition and the structure of the modified PE surface were studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS). Changes in the surface wettability were determined from the contact angle measured in a reflection goniometer. The changes in the surface roughness and morphology were followed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The modified PE samples were seeded with rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) or mouse NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, and their adhesion and proliferation were studied. We found that plasma discharge and Au grafting lead to dramatic changes in the surface morphology and roughness of PE. The Au nanoparticles were found not only on the sample surface, but also in the sample interior up to the depth of about 100 nm. In addition, plasma modification of the PE surface, followed with grafting Au-nanoparticles, significantly increased the attractiveness of the PE surface for the adhesion and growth of VSMC, and particularly for mouse embryonic 3T3 fibroblasts.

  2. FY1995 development of a clean CVD process by evaluation and control of gas phase nucleation phenomena; 1995 nendo kisokaku seisei gensho no hyoka to seigyo ni yoru clean CVD process no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a high-rate and clean chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process as a breakthrough technique to overcome the problems that particles generated in the gas phase during CVD process for preparation of functional thin films cause reduced product yield and deterioration of the films. In the CVD process proposed here, reactant gas and generated particles are electrically charged to control the motion of them with an electric field. In this study, gas-phase nucleation phenomena are evaluated both theoretically and experimentally. A high-rate, ionized CVD method is first developed, in which reactant gas and generated particles are charged with negative ions generated from a radioisotope source and the UV/photoelectron method, and the motion of the charged gas and particles is controlled with an electric field. Charging and transport processes of fine particles are then investigated experimentally and theoretically to develop a clean CVD method in which generated particles are removed with the electric forces. As a result, quantitative evaluation of the charging and transport process was made possible. We also developed devices for measuring the size distribution and concentration of fine particles in low pressure gas such as those found in plasma CVD processes. In addition, numerical simulation and experiments in this study for a TEOS/O{sub 3} CVD process to prepare thin films could determine reaction rates which have not been known so far and give information on selecting good operation conditions for the process. (NEDO)

  3. ISSR markers for analysis of molecular diversity and genetic structure of Indian teak (Tectona grandis L.f. populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Ansari

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR constitute a powerful dominantDNA molecular marker system used for diversity analysis, which isindispensable for making estimates of genetic base and demarcation of populations for undertaking conservation and improvement program of forest tree species. Twenty nine populations of teak (Tectona grandis L.f. were collected from central and peninsular India for analysis of genetic diversity and structure. Genomic DNA from ten randomly selected individuals of each population was extracted and amplified using five ISSR primers(UBC-801, 834, 880, 899 and 900. The primers showed 100% polymorphism. UBC-900 recorded the highest Nei’s genetic diversity (0.32 to 0.40and UBC-899 had the highest Shannon’s Information Index (0.49 to 0.59. AMOVA revealed a very high intra-population genetic diversity (91%, in comparison to inter-population genetic diversity among states (6.17% and within states (2.77% which were also indirectly confirmed by large standard deviations associated with genetic diversity estimates for individual population, as well as poor bootstrapping values for most of the cluster nodes. However, UPGMA dendrogram revealed several clusters, with populationsfrom central India being present almost in each cluster, makinggroups with populations of adjoining states and distant states. Nevertheless,the cluster analysis distinguished the drier teak populations of central India from the moist teak populations of south India, which was also confirmed by Principle Coordinate Analysis. The findings advocates the need not only for enhancing selection intensity for large number of plus trees, but also for laying out more number of in situ conservation plots within natural populations of each cluster for germplasm conservation of teak aimed at improving the teak productivity and quality in future.

  4. VLF/LF EM emissions as main precursor of earthquakes and their searching possibilities for Georgian s/a region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachakhidze, Manana; Kachakhidze, Nino

    2016-04-01

    Authors of abstract have created work which offers model of earth electromagnetic emissions generation detected in the process of earthquake preparation on the basis of electrodynamics. The model gives qualitative explanation of a mechanism of generation of electromagnetic waves emitted in the earthquake preparation period. Besides, scheme of the methodology of earthquake forecasting is created based on avalanche-like unstable model of fault formation and an analogous model of electromagnetic contour, synthesis of which, is rather harmonious. According to the authors of the work electromagnetic emissions in radiodiapason is more universal and reliable than other anomalous variations of various geophysical phenomena in earthquake preparation period; Besides, VLF/LF electromagnetic emissions might be declared as the main precursor of earthquake because it might turn out very useful with the view of prediction of large (M ≥5) inland earthquakes and to govern processes going on in lithosphere-atmosphere - ionosphere coupling (LAIC) system. Since the other geophysical phenomena, which may accompany earthquake preparation process and expose themselves several months, weeks or days prior to earthquakes are less informative with the view of earthquake forecasting, it is admissible to consider them as earthquake indicators. Physical mechanisms of mentioned phenomena are explained on the basis of the model of generation of electromagnetic emissions detected before earthquake, where a process of earthquake preparation and its realization are considered taking into account distributed and conservative systems properties. Up to these days electromagnetic emissions detection network did not exist in Georgia. European colleagues helped us (Prof. Dr. PF Biagi, Prof. Dr. Aydın BÜYÜKSARAÇ) and made possible the installation of a receiver. We are going to develop network and put our share in searching of earthquakes problem. Participation in conference is supported by financial

  5. Copper-induced oxidative stress and responses of antioxidants and phytochelatins in Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sudhakar; Mishra, Seema; Tripathi, Rudra D; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Gupta, Dharmendra K

    2006-12-30

    Copper, though essential, is potentially toxic heavy metal at supraoptimal level and has widespread contamination. The present investigation was carried out to study the responses induced by lower as well as higher doses of copper (0.1-25 microM) in an aquatic macrophyte, Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle for a period of 1-7 days. The plants accumulated copper in high amount with a maximum of 770 microg g(-1) dw on day 7 at 25 microM. Biomass and photosynthetic pigments showed less alteration up to 1 microM while at higher concentrations, significant decline occurred. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content and electrical conductivity (EC) also showed sharp increase at higher concentrations indicating oxidative stress. In response to copper exposure, plants showed significant induction of proteins and enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR), however, only up to moderate exposures. Total non-protein thiols (NP-SH) and cysteine levels increased significantly up to 5 microM copper exposure while at 25 microM, their level declined drastically. Reduced glutathione (GSH) showed decrease at all concentrations while oxidized glutathione (GSSG) simultaneously increased. Phytochelatins (PCs) were also induced significantly at studied concentrations of 1 and 5 microM on day 4 in comparison to control. However, copper chelation depicted by PC-SH to copper ratio was found to be low (6.5% at 1 microM and 2.4% at 5 microM) suggesting that PCs play only a part in integrated mechanisms of copper homeostasis and detoxification. Tolerant response of plants to moderate copper exposures and high accumulation potential warrants their suitability for remediation of moderately copper polluted water bodies.

  6. Phytochelatins and antioxidant systems respond differentially during arsenite and arsenate stress in Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, S; Mishra, S; Tripathi, R D; Dwivedi, S; Trivedi, P K; Tandon, P K

    2007-04-15

    Serious contamination of aquatic systems by arsenic (As) in different parts of the world calls for the development of an in situ cost-effective phytoremediation technology. In the present investigation, plants of Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle were exposed to various concentrations of arsenate (As(V)) (0-250 microM) and arsenite (AsIII) (0-25 microM) and analyzed for accumulation responses vis-à-vis biochemical changes. Total As accumulation was found to be higher in plants exposed to AsIII (315 microg g(-1) dw at 25 microM) compared to As(V) (205 microg g(-1) dw at 250 microM) after 7 d of treatment. Plants tolerated low concentrations of As(III) and As(V) by detoxifying the metalloid through augmented synthesis of thiols such as phytochelatins and through increased activity of antioxidant enzymes. While As(V) predominantly stimulated antioxidant enzyme activity, As(III) primarily caused enhanced levels of thiols. The maximum amount of As chelated by PCs was found to be about 39% in plants exposed to As(III) (at 10 microM) and 35% in As(V) exposed plants (at 50 microM) after 4 d. Only the respective highest concentrations of As(III) (25 microM) and As(V) (250 microM) proved toxic for normal plant growth after prolonged treatment. Thus, H. verticillata forms a promising candidate for the phytoremediation of As contaminated water.

  7. Further study on the role of atmospheric gravity waves on the seismo-ionospheric perturbations as detected by subionospheric VLF/LF propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Muto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available As the target earthquake we have taken a huge earthquake (EQ named Miyagi-oki earthquake on 16 August 2005 (with magnitude of 7.2 and we have analyzed the 4 month period including the date of this EQ. In addition to our previous analysis on the nighttime average amplitude (trend and nighttime fluctuation, we have proposed the use of fluctuation power spectra in the frequency rage of atmospheric gravity waves (period=10 min to 100 min as a third parameter of subionospheric VLF/LF propagation characteristics. Then it is found that this third parameter would be of additional importance in confirming the presence of seismo-ionospheric perturbations. Finally, we have discovered an important role of lunar tidal effect in the VLF/LF data, which appears one and two months before this large EQ.

  8. 酒钢SPCC钢的LF精炼脱硫%Desulfurization of LF Refining Process for SPCC in JISCO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程子建; 郭靖; 程树森; 成东全

    2012-01-01

    通过热力学分析,建立了硫分配比与硫容量的关系,用热力学软件FactSage计算渣中Al2O3活度,用KTH模型计算渣的硫容量,对SPCC(一般用冷轧碳素钢薄板坯钢带)两个浇次10炉钢水在LF进站和出站时取钢、渣样以及测氧和温度,通过分析钢样和渣样成分以及生产检测数据,分析了温度、炉渣成分和钢水成分对LF精炼脱硫的影响规律.定义了硫分配比对钢液中溶解氧活度的急剧变化区(a[O]<4×10 6),在该区内硫分配比对钢液中溶解氧活度十分敏感,钢液中氧活度的增大导致硫分配比的迅速减小,温度升高,a[O]升高,不仅抵消了升温对脱硫反应轻微的促进作用,反而使硫分配比随温度升高而减小.LF精炼过程Al-O反应未达渣-钢平衡,实际[O]活度介于平衡计算值与Al2O3活度为1的计算值之间,故渣钢硫分配比也介于二者之间.精炼渣二元碱度升高则硫分配比增加,wCaO/wAl2O3在1.6~2.0时脱硫效果较好,硫分配比并不随[Al]s含量的增加而增大,所以用增加W[Al]s来脱硫效果并不明显.钢中夹杂铝(W[Al]1-W[Al]s)降低到10×10-6以下,硫分配比明显升高.%The relationship between sulfide partition ratio and sulfur capacity was established based on thermody-namic analysis, and the activity of Al2O3 in refining slag was calculated by applying thermodynamic software Fact-Sage and sulfide capacity was estimated by KTH model. Furthermore, ten steel and slag samples were taken at the start and end of ladle furnace (LF) refining for Steel Plate Cold Commercial (SPCC) in Jiuquan Iron and Steel Corporation (JISCO) , and at the same time the oxygen activity and temperature were measured using a oxygen probe. The influences of temperature and composition of refining slag and liquid steel on desulfurization at LF for SPCC were analyzed by both experimental data and thermodynamic calculated results. A rapid change region for sulfur partition ratio to dissolved

  9. Thromboembolic Complications Following Spine Surgery Assessed with Spiral CT Scans: DVT/PE Following Spine Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han Jo; Walcott-Sapp, Sarah; Adler, Ronald S; Pavlov, Helene; Boachie-Adjei, Oheneba; Westrich, Geoffrey H

    2011-02-01

    Spine surgery is associated with a significant risk of postoperative pulmonary embolism (PE) and/or deep vein thrombosis (DVT). The goal of this study was to determine which symptoms and risk factors were associated with spiral CT scans positive for PE and/or DVT in the postoperative spine surgery patient. We conducted a retrospective review of all spine patients who underwent a postoperative CT to rule out PE during the period of March 2004-February 2006. The type of surgical procedure, risk factors, symptoms prompting scan ordering, anticoagulation, and treatment were recorded. Logistic regression models were used to determine significant predictors of a positive CT in this patient population. Of the 3,331 patients that had spine surgery during the study period, 130 (3.9%) had a spiral CT scan to rule out PE and/or proximal DVT. Thirty-three of the 130 (25.4%) CT scans were positive for PE only, five (3.8%) for PE and DVT, and three (2.3%) for DVT only. Only 24.5% (32) patients had risk factors for thromboembolic disease, and of these, a history of PE and/or DVT was the only significant risk factor for a positive scan (p = 0.03). No presenting symptoms or demographic variables were noted to have a significant association with PE and/or DVT. The type of surgical procedure (i.e., anterior, posterior, and percutaneous) was not associated with an increased risk for PE and/or DVT. Patients who are undergoing spine surgery with a history of thromboembolic disease should be carefully monitored postoperatively and may benefit from more aggressive prophylaxis.

  10. Assessment of TD-DFT and LF-DFT for study of d - d transitions in first row transition metal hexaaqua complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahović, Filip; Perić, Marko; Gruden-Pavlović, Maja; Zlatar, Matija

    2015-06-07

    Herein, we present the systematic, comparative computational study of the d - d transitions in a series of first row transition metal hexaaqua complexes, [M(H2O)6](n+) (M(2+/3+) = V (2+/3+), Cr(2+/3+), Mn(2+/3+), Fe(2+/3+), Co(2+/3+), Ni(2+)) by the means of Time-dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT) and Ligand Field Density Functional Theory (LF-DFT). Influence of various exchange-correlation (XC) approximations have been studied, and results have been compared to the experimental transition energies, as well as, to the previous high-level ab initio calculations. TD-DFT gives satisfactory results in the cases of d(2), d(4), and low-spin d(6) complexes, but fails in the cases when transitions depend only on the ligand field splitting, and for states with strong character of double excitation. LF-DFT, as a non-empirical approach to the ligand field theory, takes into account in a balanced way both dynamic and non-dynamic correlation effects and hence accurately describes the multiplets of transition metal complexes, even in difficult cases such as sextet-quartet splitting in d(5) complexes. Use of the XC functionals designed for the accurate description of the spin-state splitting, e.g., OPBE, OPBE0, or SSB-D, is found to be crucial for proper prediction of the spin-forbidden excitations by LF-DFT. It is shown that LF-DFT is a valuable alternative to both TD-DFT and ab initio methods.

  11. Inequalities of Furuta and Mond–Pečarić on the Hadamard product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahasi Sin-El

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available As a continuation of (J. Mičić, Y. Seo, S.-E. Takahasi and M. Tominaga, Inequalities of Furuta and Mond–Pečarić, Math. Ineq. Appl., 2 (1999, 83–111, we shall discuss complementary results to Jensen's type inequalities on the Hadamard product of positive operators, which is based on the idea due to Furuta and Mond–Pečarić. We shall show Hadamard product versions of operator inequalities associated with extensions of Hölder–McCarthy and Kantorovich inequalities established by Furuta, Ky Fan and Mond–Pečarić.

  12. Spaljivanje otpadnih procesnih plinova u proizvodnji uljno-pećne čađe

    OpenAIRE

    Zečević, N.; Barta, D.; Bosak, Z.; Avirović, G.; S. Šiklušić

    2009-01-01

    U radu je prikazana tehnologija proizvodnje uljno-pećne čađe i odabrano tehnološko rješenje u funkciji zaštite zraka. Prilikom industrijskog procesa proizvodnje uljno-pećne čađe osim glavnog proizvoda, kao sporedni proizvodi nastaju i otpadni procesni plinovi. Otpadni procesni plinovi nastali prilikom industrijskog procesa proizvodnje uljno-pećne čađe po kvalitativnom sastavu sastoje se od: ugljikovog (IV) oksida, ugljikovog(II) oksida, vodika, metana, sumporovodika, dušika, kisika i voden...

  13. Mycobacterial PE_PGRS Proteins Contain Calcium-Binding Motifs with Parallel β-roll Folds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nandita; Bachhawat; Balvinder; Singh

    2007-01-01

    The PE_PGRS family of proteins unique to mycobacteria is demonstrated to con- rain multiple calcium-binding and glycine-rich sequence motifs GGXGXD/NXUX. This sequence repeat constitutes a calcium-binding parallel/3-roll or parallel β-helix structure and is found in RTX toxins secreted by many Gram-negative bacteria. It is predicted that the highly homologous PE_PGRS proteins containing multiple copies of the nona-peptide motif could fold into similar calcium-binding structures. The implication of the predicted calcium-binding property of PE_PGRS proteins in the Ught of macrophage-pathogen interaction and pathogenesis is presented.

  14. Determination of the residual strength of PE medium voltage cables. FGH testing of aged PE cables; Bestimmung von Restspannungsfestigkeiten an Polyethylen-Mittelspannungskabeln. FGH-Stufentest an gealterten PE-Kabeln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Uwe; Barsch, Dietrich [Technische Univ., Chemnitz (Germany). Professur fuer Energie- und Hochspannungstechnik

    2010-11-15

    Many power transmission grids in East Germany still have PE cables of the NA2YHCaY type (TGL cables) that are more than 30 years old. As the cables are ageing, tests of their residual electric strength become necessary. (orig.)

  15. 一种可粘接 PPC/PE 的复合胶粘剂的制备%Preparation of Composite Adhesive Bonding of PPC/PE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江翀; 陈立功; 张建威

    2016-01-01

    Methyl Ethylene Carbonate(PPC)can be completely biodegraded,and due to the need of production,the polar PPC needs to be bonded with non-polar PE together,but because both frontal polarity is large,general adhesive is hard to make them bond. Aiming at this problem,a composite adhesive was prepared with using maleic anhydride grafted modified PPC and PPC-G-MAH,PE-G-MAH as main base material,and adding EVA to strengthen the bonding strength of the system. The results show that when the quality ratio of PPC-G-MAH,PE-G-MAH and EVA is 3 ∶ 3 ∶ 2,their adhesive effect is the best.%聚甲基乙撑碳酸酯(PPC)能完全被生物降解,由于生产上的需要,极性的 PPC 需要与非极性的 PE 粘结在一起,由于两者额极性相差较大,一般胶粘剂很难使两者相粘结。针对该问题,制备了一种复合胶粘剂,通过马来酸酐接枝改性 PPC,以 PPC-G-MAH,PE-G-MAH 为主要基体材料,并加入 EVA 以增强体系的粘接强度。结果表明:当 PPC-G-MAH,PE-G-MAH 和 EVA三者的质量配比为3∶3∶2时粘接效果最好。

  16. Perfil lipídico em escolares de Recife - PE Lipid profile of schoolchildren from Recife, PE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Brazil Pereira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A ocorrência de dislipidemias é crescente na população infanto-juvenil. Níveis alterados do perfil lipídico estão relacionados com maior incidência de hipertensão e doença aterosclerótica. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a magnitude das dislipidemias e investigar a relação do perfil lipídico com o excesso de peso e a obesidade abdominal em adolescentes escolares da cidade do Recife - PE. MÉTODOS: Foram coletados dados pessoais, situação socioeconômica, medidas antropométricas e perfil lipídico de 470 adolescentes de 10 a 14 anos, de ambos os sexos, da rede pública de ensino de Recife - PE. A análise estatística foi realizada com os programas Epi-info 6.04 e SPSS 13.0. Adotou-se o nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: A maior parte da população era dislipidêmica (63,8%, IC95% 59,3 - 68,2, sendo a hipoalfalipoproteinemia a dislipidemia mais prevalente (56%, IC95% 51,3 - 60,5. Adolescentes com excesso de peso ou com obesidade abdominal apresentaram valores mais elevados de triglicerídeos e mais baixos de HDL-colesterol (p BACKGROUND: The occurrence of dyslipidemia is increasing in pediatric populations. Altered lipid profiles are related to a higher incidence of hypertension and atherosclerotic disease. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the extent of dyslipidemia and investigate its association with overweight and abdominal obesity in adolescent students from Recife, Brazil. METHODS: Personal data, socioeconomic level, anthropometric measurements and lipid profile of 470 adolescents, aged 10 to 14 years, of both sexes, students at the Public School system in the city of Recife, state of Pernambuco, Brazil, were obtained. The statistical analysis was carried out using the Epi-info 6.04 and SPSS 13.0 software. The level of significance was set at 5%. RESULTS: The majority of the population was dyslipidemic (63.8%; 95%CI: 59.3 - 68.2, with hypoalphalipoproteinemia being the most prevalent dyslipidemia (56%; 95%CI: 51.3 - 60

  17. Recubrimientos depositados por CVD-FBR para protección a alta temperatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luddey Marulanda-Arevalo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La deposición química de vapor por lecho fluidizado (CVD-FBR es una variante de la técnica de deposición química de vapor; que combina las ventajas de la activación térmica por calentamiento y el lecho fluidizado. Los recubrimientos mediante CVD-FBR son ampliamente investigados y usados debido a la necesidad de proteger superficialmente los componentes que operan a altas temperaturas, el cual ha aumentado perceptiblemente. Además, tiene la ventaja de ser una técnica de bajo costo, puede controlar con relativa facilidad la composición del material depositado, permitiendo realizar recubrimientos con una orientación preferente que permite la obtención de intercaras con propiedades anisotrópicas; estos son depositados a bajas temperaturas y a la presión atmosférica.

  18. Thermodynamic study of CVD-ZrO{sub 2} phase diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres-Huerta, A.M., E-mail: atorresh@ipn.m [Research Center for Applied Science and Advanced Technology, Altamira-IPN, Altamira C.P.89600 Tamaulipas (Mexico); Vargas-Garcia, J.R. [Dept of Metallurgical Eng., ESIQIE-IPN, Mexico 07300 D.F. (Mexico); Dominguez-Crespo, M.A. [Research Center for Applied Science and Advanced Technology, Altamira-IPN, Altamira C.P.89600 Tamaulipas (Mexico); Romero-Serrano, J.A. [Dept of Metallurgical Eng., ESIQIE-IPN, Mexico 07300 D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-08-26

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) from zirconium acetylacetonate Zr(acac){sub 4} has been thermodynamically investigated using the Gibbs' free energy minimization method and the FACTSAGE program. Thermodynamic data Cp{sup o}, DELTAH{sup o} and S{sup o} for Zr(acac){sub 4} have been estimated using the Meghreblian-Crawford-Parr and Benson methods because they are not available in the literature. The effect of deposition parameters, such as temperature and pressure, on the extension of the region where pure ZrO{sub 2} can be deposited was analyzed. The results are presented as calculated CVD stability diagrams. The phase diagrams showed two zones, one of them corresponds to pure monoclinic phase of ZrO{sub 2} and the other one corresponds to a mix of monoclinic phase of ZrO{sub 2} and graphite carbon.

  19. Fabrication of Titanium Dioxide Thin Films by DBD-CVD Under Atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xi-wen; GUO Yu; HAN Gao-rong

    2007-01-01

    Titanium dioxide films were firstly deposited on glass substrate by DBD-CVD (dielectric barrier discharge enhanced chemical vapor deposition) technique.The structure of the films was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD),scanning electron microscopy (SEM).TiO2 films deposited under atmosphere pressure show preferred orientation,and exhibit columnar-like structure,while TiO2 films deposited under low gas pressure show no preferred orientation.The columnar-like structure with preferred orientation exhibits higher photocatalytic efficiency,since the columnar structure has larger surface area.However,it contributes little to the improvement of hydrophilicity. DBD-CVD is an alternative method to prepare photocatalytic TiO2 for its well-controllable property.

  20. Pulse-shape analysis for gamma background rejection in thermal neutron radiation using CVD diamond detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavrigin, P., E-mail: pavel.kavrigin@cividec.at [Vienna University of Technology (Austria); Finocchiaro, P., E-mail: finocchiaro@lns.infn.it [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S.Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Griesmayer, E., E-mail: erich.griesmayer@cividec.at [Vienna University of Technology (Austria); Jericha, E., E-mail: jericha@ati.ac.at [Vienna University of Technology (Austria); Pappalardo, A., E-mail: apappalardo@lns.infn.it [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S.Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Weiss, C., E-mail: Christina.Weiss@cern.ch [Vienna University of Technology (Austria); European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)

    2015-09-21

    A novel technique for the rejection of gamma background from charged-particle spectra was demonstrated using a CVD diamond detector with a {sup 6}Li neutron converter installed at a thermal neutron beamline of the TRIGA research reactor at the Atominstitut (Vienna University of Technology). Spectra of the alpha particles and tritons of {sup 6}Li(n,T){sup 4}He thermal neutron capture reaction were separated from the gamma background by a new algorithm based on pulse-shape analysis. The thermal neutron capture in {sup 6}Li is already used for neutron flux monitoring, but the ability to remove gamma background allows using a CVD diamond detector for thermal neutron counting. The pulse-shape analysis can equally be applied to all cases where the charged products of an interaction are absorbed in the diamond and to other background particles that fully traverse the detector.

  1. Enhancement of the Electrical Properties of CVD-Grown Graphene with Ascorbic Acid Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chunmiao; Chen, Zhiying; Zhang, Haoran; Zhang, Yaqian; Zhang, Yanhui; Sui, Yanping; Yu, Guanghui; Cao, Yijiang

    2016-02-01

    Ascorbic acid was used to modify to chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown graphene films transferred onto SiO2 substrate. Residual polymer (polymethyl methacrylate), Fe3+, Cl-, H2O, and O2 affected the electrical and thermal properties on graphene during the transfer or device fabrication processes. Exposure of transferred graphene to ascorbic acid resulted in significantly enhanced electrical properties with increased charge carrier mobility. All devices exhibited more than 30% improvement in room temperature carrier mobility in air. The carrier mobility of the treated graphene did not significantly decrease in 21 days. This result can be attributed to electron donation to graphene through the -OH functional group in ascorbic acid that is absorbed in graphene. This work provides a method to enhance the electrical properties of CVD-grown graphene.

  2. A Review of the Properties and CVD Synthesis of Coiled Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dóra Fejes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The CVD route for carbon nanotube production has become a popular method to make large amounts of multiwall carbon nanotubes. The structure, morphology and size of carbon materials depend critically on the catalyst preparation and deposition conditions. According to current knowledge, CVD method is the only process which can produce carbon nanocoils. These nanocoils are perfect candidates for nanotechnology applications. One might indeed hope that these coils would have the extraordinary stiffness displayed by straight nanotubes. Based on theoretical studies, regular coiled nanotubes exhibit exceptional mechanical, electrical, and magnetic properties due to the combination of their peculiar helical morphology and the fascinating properties of nanotubes. In spite of its technological interest, relatively low attention has been paid to this special field. In this paper we attempt to summarize results obtained until now.

  3. A Study on Fretting Wear Property of CVD SiC and Sintered SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Hyun-Jin; Jang, Ki-Nam; An, Ji-Hyeong; Kim, Kyu-Tae [Dongguk University, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Silicon Carbide is broadly used as high temperature structure material because of its high temperature tolerance and superior mechanical properties. After the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, SiC proposed as one of the alternative materials for LWR fuel cladding to provide enhanced safety margin. Grid-to-rod fretting wear-induced fuel failure is known to occur due to flow-induced vibration of the reactor core and grid to- rod gap. In this paper, wear tests for CVD SiC plate and sintered SiC tube were performed with two types of spacer grids. Wear test of corroded and non-corroded CVD SiC plates indicate that wear resistance of corroded specimen is lower than one of non-corroded specimen in contrast with zirconium alloy cladding tube. It may be affected by rough surface of corroded specimen caused by grain boundary attack.

  4. Scalable ZnO nanotube arrays grown on CVD-graphene films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Park

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We report the growth of wafer-scale arrays of individually position-controlled and vertically aligned ZnO nanotube arrays on graphene deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD-graphene. Introducing two-dimensional layered materials such as graphene as a growth buffer has recently been suggested for growing nanomaterials on traditionally incompatible substrates. However, their growth has been restricted to small areas or had limited controllability. Here, we study the distinct growth behavior of ZnO on CVD-graphene that makes the selective area growth of individual nanostructures on its surface difficult, and propose a set of methods to overcome this. The resulting nanotube arrays, as examined by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, exhibited uniform morphologies and high structural quality over a large area and could be prepared on a broad variety of substrates, including amorphous, metallic, or flexible substrates.

  5. Systematic study of pre-irradiation effects in high efficiency CVD diamond nuclear particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Marinelli, M; Milani, E; Paoletti, A; Pillon, M; Tucciarone, A; Verona-Rinati, G

    2002-01-01

    Many outstanding properties of diamond can, in principle, lead to the development of radiation detectors with interesting capabilities. In particular, diamond-based nuclear particle detectors are good candidates to replace silicon-based detectors in several fields, e.g. in high-flux applications such as next generation particle-accelerator experiments or beam monitoring. However, the high concentration of defects (grain boundaries, impurities) in synthetic diamond films can strongly limit the detector's performance. A significant increase in the efficiency of CVD diamond detectors is achieved by means of pre-irradiation (pumping) with beta particles. We report here on a systematic study of the effects of pumping in high-quality microwave CVD diamond films. The efficiency (eta) and charge collection distance (CCD) of nuclear particle detectors based on these films depend on the methane content in the growth gas mixture and on the film thickness. Both efficiency and CCD behave in a markedly different way in the...

  6. Mindfulness-Based Interventions for Weight Loss and CVD Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulwiler, Carl; Brewer, Judson A.; Sinnott, Sinead; Loucks, Eric B.

    2017-01-01

    Obesity affects more than one-third of U.S. adults and is a major cause of preventable morbidity and mortality, primarily from cardiovascular disease. Traditional behavioral interventions for weight loss typically focus on diet and exercise habits and often give little attention to the role of stress and emotions in the initiation and maintenance of unhealthy behaviors, which may account for their modest results and considerable variability in outcomes. Stress eating and emotional eating are increasingly recognized as important targets of weight loss interventions. Mindfulness-based interventions were specifically developed to promote greater self-efficacy in coping with stress and negative emotions, and appear to be effective for a variety of conditions. In recent years researchers have begun to study mindfulness interventions for weight loss and CVD risk management. This review describes the rationale for the use of mindfulness in interventions for weight loss and CVD risk management, summarizes the research to date, and suggests priorities for future research.

  7. Gas electron multiplier based on laser-perforated CVD diamond film: First tests

    CERN Document Server

    Franchino, S; Bolshakov, A; Ashkinazi, E; Kalkan, Y; Popovich, A; Komlenok, M; Sosnovtsev, V; Ralchenko, V

    2016-01-01

    Gas electron multiplier (GEM) is widely used in modern gas detectors of ionizing radiation in experiments on high-energy physics at accelerators and in other fields of science. Typically the GEM devices are based on a dielectric foil with holes and electrodes on both sides. GEMs made by radiation-hard dielectrics or wide band-gap semiconductors are desirable for some applications. The results of the first tests of the gas electron multiplier made of radiation-hard materials, such as polycrystalline CVD diamond with a thickness of 100 microns is described. Here we report on fabrication of GEM based on free-standing polycrystalline CVD diamond film and its first test.

  8. Chemical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes Prepared Using Camphoric Carbon by Thermal-CVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azira, A. A.; Rusop, M.

    2010-03-01

    Chemical properties and surface study on the influence of starting carbon materials by using thermal chemical vapor deposition (Thermal-CVD) to produced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is investigated. The CNTs derived from camphor were synthesized as the precursor material due to low sublimation temperature. The major parameters are also evaluated in order to obtain high-yield and high-quality CNTs. The prepared CNTs are examined using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) to determine the microstructure of nanocarbons. The FESEM investigation of the CNTs formed on the support catalysts provides evidence that camphor is suitable as a precursor material for nanotubes formation. The chemical properties of the CNTs were conducted using FTIR spectroscopy and PXRD analysis. The high-temperature graphitization process induced by the Thermal-CVD enables the hydrocarbons to act as carbon sources and changes the aromatic species into the layered graphite structure of CNTs.

  9. Electronic properties and strain sensitivity of CVD-grown graphene with acetylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Meng; Sasaki, Shinichirou; Ohnishi, Masato; Suzuki, Ken; Miura, Hideo

    2016-04-01

    Although many studies have shown that large-area monolayer graphene can be formed by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using methane gas, the growth of monolayer graphene using highly reactive acetylene gas remains a big challenge. In this study, we synthesized a uniform monolayer graphene film by low-pressure CVD (LPCVD) with acetylene gas. On the base of Raman spectroscopy measurements, it was found that up to 95% of the as-grown graphene is monolayer. The electronic properties and strain sensitivity of the LPCVD-grown graphene with acetylene were also evaluated by testing the fabricated field-effect transistors (FETs) and strain sensors. The derived carrier mobility and gauge factor are 862-1150 cm2/(V·s) and 3.4, respectively, revealing the potential for high-speed FETs and strain sensor applications. We also investigated the relationship between the electronic properties and the graphene domain size.

  10. CVD diamond wafers as large-area thermoluminescence detectors for measuring the spatial distribution of dose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczewska, B.; Bilski, P.; Olko, P.; Olko, P.; Nesládek, M.; Bergonzo, P.; Rbisz, M.; Waligórski, M. P. R.

    2003-09-01

    The applicability of large-area CVD diamond wafers (diameter about 5 cm, thickness about 0.1 mm), read out as thermoluminescence (TL) detectors, for assessing two-dimensional (2-D) dose distribution over their area, was investigated. To obtain 2-D TL images, a special TL reader equipped with large-area planchet and a CCD camera instead of the usual PM tube was developed. Several 2-D TL images: of an alpha source (Am-241), a Ra-226 needle source and a Ru-106 ophthalmic applicator, were measured and high-resolution digital images obtained. Our preliminary results demonstrate the potential capability of large-area CVD diamond wafers, read out as TL detectors, in 2-D dosimetry for medical applications. (

  11. Pulse-height defect in single-crystal CVD diamond detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beliuskina, O.; Imai, N. [The University of Tokyo, Center for Nuclear Study, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Strekalovsky, A.O.; Aleksandrov, A.A.; Aleksandrova, I.A.; Ilich, S.; Kamanin, D.V.; Knyazheva, G.N.; Kuznetsova, E.A.; Mishinsky, G.V.; Pyatkov, Yu.V.; Strekalovsky, O.V.; Zhuchko, V.E. [JINR, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Devaraja, H.M. [Manipal University, Manipal Centre for Natural Sciences, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Heinz, C. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, Giessen (Germany); Heinz, S. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, Giessen (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Hofmann, S.; Kis, M.; Kozhuharov, C.; Maurer, J.; Traeger, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Pomorski, M. [CEA, LIST, Diamond Sensor Laboratory, CEA/Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2017-02-15

    The pulse-height versus deposited energy response of a single-crystal chemical vapor deposition (scCVD) diamond detector was measured for ions of Ti, Cu, Nb, Ag, Xe, Au, and of fission fragments of {sup 252} Cf at different energies. For the fission fragments, data were also measured at different electric field strengths of the detector. Heavy ions have a significant pulse-height defect in CVD diamond material, which increases with increasing energy of the ions. It also depends on the electrical field strength applied at the detector. The measured pulse-height defects were explained in the framework of recombination models. Calibration methods known from silicon detectors were modified and applied. A comparison with data for the pulse-height defect in silicon detectors was performed. (orig.)

  12. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THE GROWTH OF NANOPARTICLES IN A FLAME CVD PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lixi Wang; Si Chen; Hongyong Xie

    2004-01-01

    The growth of titania nanoparticles in a flame CVD process has been simulated by computational fluid dynamics, based on the change rate of particle number density due to their collisions calculated from an integral collision kernel. The assumptions made on constant particle volume density nv (nd3), constant density of particle surface area ns (nd2), and constant entity nd2.5 in coagulation process have been examined. Comparisons have been made on particle size distribution between measurement results and predictions from present model of particle growth and Kruis model of particle dynamics for titania nanoparticles synthesized by the flame CVD process. Effects of operational parameters such as O2 mole fraction and particle number density on mean particle size and size distribution have been discussed.

  13. Abnormal Crystallization of Silicon Thin Films Deposited by ICP-CVD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun-Shuai; YIN Min; WANG Jin-Xiao; HE De-Yan

    2005-01-01

    @@ Silicon thin films are deposited by inductively coupled plasma chemical vapour deposition (ICP-CVD) at a low temperature of 350℃ using a mixture of SiH4 and H2. The structures of the films are characterized by x-ray diffraction and Raman spectra. Under the optimum experimental conditions, we observe that the crystallinity of Si films becomes more excellent and the preferred orientation changes from (111) to (220) with the decreasing dilution of SiH4 in H2. Such an abnormal crystallization is tentatively interpreted in term of the high density,low electron temperature and spatial confinement of the plasma in the process of ICP-CVD.

  14. The Research on Improvement of Low Temperature Stability for Diatomite Modified Asphalt Mixture with PE Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HU Qiusheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In light of the lake of low temperature stability for diatomaceous which used as asphalt modifier.Stat the research with the diatomite produced at Jilin Changbai, using the way of low temperature bending test to evaluate the PE and diatomite composite modified asphalt mixture’s low temperature crack resistance performance. The results showed that after the diatomite and PE composite modified asphalt mixture has the best advantage of anti-cracking performance under low-temperature environment,which is better than PE modified asphalt mixture and the matrix asphalt mixture. As a result,asphalt mixture being composite modified by diatomite and PE could significantly improve asphalt mixture’s low temperature stable performance.

  15. Practica de bibliotecă şi informare bazată pe dovezi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavia-Luciana Madge

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mişcarea bazată pe dovezi a apărut iniţial în zona medicală, dar a fost preluată în ultimii ani şi de alte domenii, inclusiv de biblioteconomie şi ştiinţa informării. În România această nouă abordare nu este prea cunoscută şi având în vedere acest lucru, articolul prezintă câteva aspecte generale privind practica bazată pe dovezi, modul cum a fost aceasta definită, cadrul conceptual al biblioteconomiei bazate pe dovezi, numele importante care s-au aflat în fruntea mişcării din domeniul nostru, etapele practicii bazate pe dovezi şi importanţa lor.

  16. PE管管材性能探讨%Pipe Performance of PE Pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李子臣

    2011-01-01

    目前中国的塑料管道正在稳步发展,其中PE管强劲的发展势头最为令人瞩目.PE管的使用领域广泛,其中给水管和燃气管是其两个最大的应用市场.本文简单阐述了PE管的组成成分,对比分析了PE管的性能,最后论述了PE管的用途.%At present, China's plastic pipe is steadily developing, and strong momentum of development of the PE pipe is the most remarkable. PE pipe has a wide use, in which water pipe and gas pipe are two largest markets for application. This paper briefly describes the composition of PE pipe, makes comparative analysis of its performance, and finally discusses the use of PE pipe.

  17. Can supernova remnants accelerate protons up to PeV energies?

    CERN Document Server

    Gabici, S; Zandanel, F

    2016-01-01

    Supernova remnants are believed to be the sources of galactic cosmic rays. Within this framework, diffusive shock acceleration must operate in these objects and accelerate protons all the way up to PeV energies. To do so, significant amplification of the magnetic field at the shock is required. The goal of this paper is to investigate the capability of supernova remnants to accelerate PeV protons. We present analytic estimates of the maximum energy of accelerated protons under various assumptions about the field amplification at supernova remnant shocks. We show that acceleration up to PeV energies is problematic in all the scenarios considered. This implies that either a different (more efficient) mechanism of field amplification operates at supernova remnant shocks, or that the sources of galactic cosmic rays in the PeV energy range should be searched somewhere else.

  18. Molecular cloning and characterization of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene from Penicillium expansum PE-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T; Qi, Z; Yu, Q S; Tang, K X

    2013-07-15

    Penicillium expansum produces large amounts of lipase, which is widely used in laundry detergent and leather industry. We isolated the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (PeGPD) from P. expansum PE-12 through reverse transcriptase PCR and 5'-3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE-PCR). The gene is 1266 bp long, including an ORF of 1014 bp, encoding a polypeptide chain of 337 amino acids. A phylogenetic tree based on GPD proteins showed that P. expansum is close to Aspergillus species, but comparatively distant from P. marneffei. Southern blot results revealed a single copy of PeGPD, and expression analysis gave evidence of high expression levels. PeGPD genes have potential for genetic engineering of P. expansum for industrial lipase production.

  19. Valor preditivo dos escores de SNAP e SNAP-PE na mortalidade neonatal Predictive value of SNAP and SNAP-PE for neonatal mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita C. Silveira

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar os escores SNAP e SNAP-PE como preditores de mortalidade neonatal na nossa UTI neonatal, comparando seus resultados. MÉTODOS: todos os recém-nascidos admitidos na UTI neonatal no período de março de 1997 a dezembro de 1998 foram avaliados prospectivamente quanto ao SNAP e SNAP-PE com 24 horas de vida. Foram critérios de exclusão o óbito ou alta da UTI nas primeiras 24 horas de vida, as malformações congênitas incompatíveis com a vida, e recém-nascidos transferidos de outros hospitais. RESULTADOS: 553 recém-nascidos foram incluídos, 54 faleceram. Os valores das medianas do SNAP e SNAP-PE foram mais elevados naqueles que não sobreviveram. Os recém-nascidos foram divididos em cinco faixas de gravidade crescente de SNAP e SNAP-PE. SNAP: até 6, 7-11, 12-15, 16-24, acima de 24 (mortalidade: 3%, 11%, 29%, 48%, 75%, respectivamente. SNAP-PE: até 11, 12-23, 24-32, 33-50, acima de 50 (mortalidade: 3%, 10%, 53%, 78%, 83%, respectivamente. A partir da Curva ROC, os pontos de corte foram 12 para SNAP e 24 para SNAP-PE, obtendo-se sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo (VPP e valor preditivo negativo (VPN para mortalidade. SNAP 12: sensibilidade 79,6%, especificidade 71,7%, VPP 23,4%, VPN 97%. SNAP-PE 24: sensibilidade 79,6%, especificidade 80%, VPP 30%, VPN 97,3%. A área abaixo da Curva ROC (Az para SNAP foi 81,4% e para SNAP-PE 85,1%, ambas estatisticamente significativas. A comparação entre as áreas das duas curvas não evidenciou diferença estatisticamente significativa. CONCLUSÕES: os escores SNAP e SNAP-PE são excelentes preditores de sobrevida neonatal, recomendamos sua utilização rotineiramente na admissão de recém-nascidos nas Unidades de Tratamento Intensivo Neonatal.OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology and the Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology Perinatal Extension as neonatal mortality predictors in our neonatal intensive care unit, and to compare their

  20. Nanocrystalline sp 2 and sp 3 carbons: CVD synthesis and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terranova, M. L.; Rossi, M.; Tamburri, E.

    2016-11-01

    The design and production of innovative materials based on nanocrystalline sp 2- and sp 3-coordinated carbons is presently a focus of the scientific community. We present a review of the nanostructures obtained in our labs using a series of synthetic routes, which make use of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques for the selective production of non-planar graphitic nanostructures, nanocrystalline diamonds, and hybrid two-phase nanostructures.

  1. Fabricating Large-Area Sheets of Single-Layer Graphene by CVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronikowski, Michael; Manohara, Harish

    2008-01-01

    This innovation consists of a set of methodologies for preparing large area (greater than 1 cm(exp 2)) domains of single-atomic-layer graphite, also called graphene, in single (two-dimensional) crystal form. To fabricate a single graphene layer using chemical vapor deposition (CVD), the process begins with an atomically flat surface of an appropriate substrate and an appropriate precursor molecule containing carbon atoms attached to substituent atoms or groups. These molecules will be brought into contact with the substrate surface by being flowed over, or sprayed onto, the substrate, under CVD conditions of low pressure and elevated temperature. Upon contact with the surface, the precursor molecules will decompose. The substituent groups detach from the carbon atoms and form gas-phase species, leaving the unfunctionalized carbon atoms attached to the substrate surface. These carbon atoms will diffuse upon this surface and encounter and bond to other carbon atoms. If conditions are chosen carefully, the surface carbon atoms will arrange to form the lowest energy single-layer structure available, which is the graphene lattice that is sought. Another method for creating the graphene lattice includes metal-catalyzed CVD, in which the decomposition of the precursor molecules is initiated by the catalytic action of a catalytic metal upon the substrate surface. Another type of metal-catalyzed CVD has the entire substrate composed of catalytic metal, or other material, either as a bulk crystal or as a think layer of catalyst deposited upon another surface. In this case, the precursor molecules decompose directly upon contact with the substrate, releasing their atoms and forming the graphene sheet. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) can also be used. In this method, a substrate surface at low temperature is covered with exactly one monolayer of precursor molecules (which may be of more than one type). This is heated up so that the precursor molecules decompose and form one

  2. Microfabrication of Tungsten, Molybdenum and Tungsten Carbide Rods by Laser-Assisted CVD

    OpenAIRE

    Björklund, Kajsa

    2001-01-01

    Thin films of refractory metals and carbides have been studied extensively over many years because of their wide range of application. The two major techniques used are Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) and Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD). These can result in the deposition of two-dimensional blanket or patterned thin films. Laser-assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition (LCVD) can provide a maskless alternative for localised deposition in two and three dimensions. This thesis describes LCVD of mi...

  3. Tribological Testing of Some Potential PVD and CVD Coatings for Steel Wire Drawing Dies

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Maria; Olsson, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    Cemented carbide is today the most frequently used drawing die material in steel wire drawing applications. This is mainly due to the possibility to obtain a broad combination of hardness and toughness thus meeting the requirements concerning strength, crack resistance and wear resistance set by the wire drawing process. However, the increasing cost of cemented carbide in combination with the possibility to increase the wear resistance of steel through the deposition of wear resistant CVD and...

  4. A 3D tomographic EBSD analysis of a CVD diamond thin film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu, Dierk Raabe and Stefan Zaefferer

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the nucleation and growth processes in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD diamond film using a tomographic electron backscattering diffraction method (3D EBSD. The approach is based on the combination of a focused ion beam (FIB unit for serial sectioning in conjunction with high-resolution EBSD. Individual diamond grains were investigated in 3-dimensions particularly with regard to the role of twinning.

  5. Analysis of thermal shock resistance of CVD ZnS dome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Daijun; Luo, Haibo; Zhou, Peipei; Hou, Xinglin

    2016-10-01

    Since the dome experiences the convective heat loading, thermal stress will be generated in the thickness direction. Thus, estimation of the thermal shock and analysis of the thermal shock resistance of the dome are the key to the design of the dome. In this paper, thermal shock resistance of CVD ZnS dome is analysed based on the flight condition of 6000m altitude and 3.0 Mach. We obtained the critical Reynolds number through a rockets pry experiment, which deduced that there exists a transition from laminar flow to turbulent flow at somewhere over the dome. We calculated the heat transfer coefficient over dome through heat transfer coefficient engineering formula of high-speed sphere with turbulent boundary layer near the stagnation point. The largest heat transfer coefficient is 2590W/(m2.K). Then, we calculated the transient thermal stress of dome by using the finite element method. Then we obtained the temperature and thermal stress distribution of different time through the direction of thickness. In order to obtain the mechanical properties of CVD ZnS at high temperatures, the 3-point bending method was used to test the flexure strength of CVD ZnS at different temperature. When compared the maximum thermal stress with flexure strength at different temperature, we find that the safety factors were not less than 1.75. The result implied that the dome has good safety margin under the proposed application condition. Through the above test and analysis, we can get the conclusion that the thermal shock resistance of the CVD ZnS dome satisfied the requirements of flight conditions.

  6. Untersuchungen zur Hot-wire CVD auf kristallinem Silizium und deren Anwendung in Solarzellen

    OpenAIRE

    Seitz, Holger

    2000-01-01

    In den letzten Jahren konnte ein beachtlicher Fortschritt bei der Entwicklung kostengünstiger, hoch effektiver Si-Solarzellen mit kristalliner Basis und einem Emitter aus amorphem Silizium (a-Si:H) beobachtet werden. Für die Herstellung dieser Emitter wird zur Zeit ausschliesslich die plasmaunterstützte chemische Gasphasenabscheidung (PECVD)verwendet, die jedoch aufgrund ihrer Hochfrequenztechnik sehr aufwendig ist. Die Hot-wire CVD, das heisst die Abscheidung durch Zersetzung eines Gases an ...

  7. Photochemical CVD of Ru on functionalized self-assembled monolayers from organometallic precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kelsea R.; Arevalo Rodriguez, Paul; Brewer, Christopher R.; Brannaka, Joseph A.; Shi, Zhiwei; Yang, Jing; Salazar, Bryan; McElwee-White, Lisa; Walker, Amy V.

    2017-02-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is an attractive technique for the metallization of organic thin films because it is selective and the thickness of the deposited film can easily be controlled. However, thermal CVD processes often require high temperatures which are generally incompatible with organic films. In this paper, we perform proof-of-concept studies of photochemical CVD to metallize organic thin films. In this method, a precursor undergoes photolytic decomposition to generate thermally labile intermediates prior to adsorption on the sample. Three readily available Ru precursors, CpRu(CO)2Me, (η3-allyl)Ru(CO)3Br, and (COT)Ru(CO)3, were employed to investigate the role of precursor quantum yield, ligand chemistry, and the Ru oxidation state on the deposition. To investigate the role of the substrate chemistry on deposition, carboxylic acid-, hydroxyl-, and methyl-terminated self-assembled monolayers were used. The data indicate that moderate quantum yields for ligand loss (φ ≥ 0.4) are required for ruthenium deposition, and the deposition is wavelength dependent. Second, anionic polyhapto ligands such as cyclopentadienyl and allyl are more difficult to remove than carbonyls, halides, and alkyls. Third, in contrast to the atomic layer deposition, acid-base reactions between the precursor and the substrate are more effective for deposition than nucleophilic reactions. Finally, the data suggest that selective deposition can be achieved on organic thin films by judicious choice of precursor and functional groups present on the substrate. These studies thus provide guidelines for the rational design of new precursors specifically for selective photochemical CVD on organic substrates.

  8. Comparison of Straight and Helical Nanotube Production in a Swirled Fluid CVD Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Bathgate, Graham; Iyuke, Sunny; Kavishe, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Research into Carbon Nanotubes and their applications is fast becoming an extremely popular topic, and any means to greatly improve the synthesis process has a huge marketability. While investigating the feasibility of continuous production of single-walled carbon nanotubes in a vertical Swirled Fluid Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) reactor, it was discovered that helical nanotubes were lifted from the reactor by the gas current while straight tubes remained behind. Investigation into the me...

  9. Correlation of experimental performance data for a CVD tungsten-niobium, planar thermionic converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockol, P. M.

    1973-01-01

    Approximate expressions are presented which correlate experimental performance data from a CVD tungsten-niobium, planar thermionic converter. The current voltage characteristics are given as functions of emitter and collector temperatures and cesium pressure for currents below the knee in the ignited mode. The correlation covers the temperature ranges of 1700 to 1950 K for the emitter, 900 to 1050 K for the collector, and 580 to 645 K for the cesium reservoir.

  10. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes by plasma-enhanced CVD process: gas phase study of synthesis conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Guláš, Michal; Cojocaru, Costel Sorin; Fleaca, Claudiu; Farhat, Samir; Veis, Pavel; Le Normand, Francois

    2008-01-01

    International audience; To support experimental investigations, a model based on ChemkinTM software was used to simulate gas phase and surface chemistry during plasma-enhanced catalytic CVD of carbon nanotubes. According to these calculations, gas phase composition, etching process and growth rates are calculated. The role of several carbon species, hydrocarbon molecules and ions in the growth mechanism of carbon nanotubes is presented in this study. Study of different conditions of gas phase ...

  11. Synthesis of carbon nanbotubes by plasma-enhanced CVD process: gas phase study of synthesis conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guláš, M.; Cojocaru, C. S.; Fleaca, C. T.; Farhat, S.; Veis, P.; Le Normand, F.

    2008-09-01

    To support experimental investigations, a model based on Chemkin^TM software was used to simulate gas phase and surface chemistry during plasma-enhanced catalytic CVD of carbon nanotubes. According to these calculations, gas phase composition, etching process and growth rates are calculated. The role of several carbon species, hydrocarbon molecules and ions in the growth mechanism of carbon nanotubes is presented in this study. Study of different conditions of gas phase activation sources and pressure is performed.

  12. Coexistence of RS3PE Syndrome and Ankylosing Spondylitis in a Young Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem İlgün

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The RS3PE syndrome is the inflammatory rheumatisms of old age, being related to rheumatoid arthritis. Etiology and pathogenesis of this disease is not fully understood and usually seen over 50 years of age and characterized by recurrent symmetrical pitting type edema. We present a case whose clinical symptoms and laboratory findings are compatible with the RS3PE in young male with ankylosing spondylitis. J Clin Exp Invest 2016; 7(4: 290-293

  13. Pengaruh Imbangan Hijauan Daun Singkong (Manihot Utilisima) Dengan Konsentrat Terhadap Kualitas Susu Kambing Peranakan Etawah (PE)

    OpenAIRE

    Fitriansyah, Aidi

    2015-01-01

    Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui kualitas susu kambing PE dengan pemberian pakan hijauan daun singkong dan konsentrat pada imbangan yang berbeda. Pendekatan ini diharapkan akan memberikan pengaruh positif terhadap kualitas susu kambing Peranakan Etawah (PE). Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di peternakan kambing perah Peranakan Etawah milik Bapak Yusuf yang berlokasi di Jalan Kapas Kec.Hamparan Perak Desa Klambir V, Medan. Analisis komposisi kimia susu dilaksanakan di Laboratorium T...

  14. Pre-eclampsia (PE) and Chorionicity in Women with Twin Gestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anupama; Singh, Arati; Surapaneni, Tarakeswari; Nirmalan, Praveen Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pre-Eclampsia (PE) affects 6-31% of pregnant women with multiple gestations. There are conflicting reports on the association of PE with Chorionicity and zygosity; however, there is a lack of information on this potential association in a population of pregnant Asian Indian women. Aim: To determine as to whether chorionicity and zygosity were associated with PE in a population of Asian Indian women with twin gestations. Settings and Design: A retrospective observational study was done at a single tertiary care centre in Southern India. Material and Methods: The study included pregnant women with twin gestations, who was delivered at the study institute in 2012. Hypertension in pregnancy was categorized, based on the criteria of the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Chorionicity was determined by using ultrasonography and zygosity was determined, based on clinical criteria. Point estimates and the 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) around point estimates of PE and associations of chorionicity and zygosity with PE were determined by using bivariate analysis, logistic regression models and area under Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves. Results: This study included 208 women with twin gestations. The incidence of PE in dichorionic twin gestations was 13.17% (n=22, 95% CI: 8.66, 18.96), it was 4.87% (n=2, 95% CI: 0.83, 15.19) in monochorionic twin gestations, it was 16.36% (n=9, 95% CI: 8.29, 27.91) in dizygous twin gestations and it was 4.88% (n=2, 95% CI: 0.83, 15.19) in monozygous twin gestations. Neither chorionicity (adjusted OR: 2.59, 95% CI: 0.55, 12.19) nor zygosity (adjusted OR 2.72, 95% CI: 0.49, 15.13) were associated with PE In a multivariate logistic regression model. Conclusion: Although it was not statistically significant, the clinical incidence of PE was higher in dichorionic and dizygous twin gestations. PMID:24596736

  15. Study of CVD diamond layers with amorphous carbon admixture by Raman scattering spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dychalska Anna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Raman spectroscopy is a most often used standard technique for characterization of different carbon materials. In this work we present the Raman spectra of polycrystalline diamond layers of different quality, synthesized by Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition method (HF CVD. We show how to use Raman spectroscopy for the analysis of the Raman bands to determine the structure of diamond films as well as the structure of amorphous carbon admixture. Raman spectroscopy has become an important technique for the analysis of CVD diamond films. The first-order diamond Raman peak at ca. 1332 cm−1 is an unambiguous evidence for the presence of diamond phase in the deposited layer. However, the existence of non-diamond carbon components in a CVD diamond layer produces several overlapping peaks in the same wavenumber region as the first order diamond peak. The intensities, wavenumber, full width at half maximum (FWHM of these bands are dependent on quality of diamond layer which is dependent on the deposition conditions. The aim of the present work is to relate the features of diamond Raman spectra to the features of Raman spectra of non-diamond phase admixture and occurrence of other carbon structures in the obtained diamond thin films.

  16. Electronic properties of embedded graphene: doped amorphous silicon/CVD graphene heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arezki, Hakim; Boutchich, Mohamed; Alamarguy, David; Madouri, Ali; Alvarez, José; Cabarrocas, Pere Roca i.; Kleider, Jean-Paul; Yao, Fei; Lee, Young Hee

    2016-10-01

    Large-area graphene film is of great interest for a wide spectrum of electronic applications, such as field effect devices, displays, and solar cells, among many others. Here, we fabricated heterostructures composed of graphene (Gr) grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on copper substrate and transferred to SiO2/Si substrates, capped by n- or p-type doped amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Using Raman scattering we show that despite the mechanical strain induced by the a-Si:H deposition, the structural integrity of the graphene is preserved. Moreover, Hall effect measurements directly on the embedded graphene show that the electronic properties of CVD graphene can be modulated according to the doping type of the a-Si:H as well as its phase i.e. amorphous or nanocrystalline. The sheet resistance varies from 360 Ω sq-1 to 1260 Ω sq-1 for the (p)-a-Si:H/Gr (n)-a-Si:H/Gr, respectively. We observed a temperature independent hole mobility of up to 1400 cm2 V-1 s-1 indicating that charge impurity is the principal mechanism limiting the transport in this heterostructure. We have demonstrated that embedding CVD graphene under a-Si:H is a viable route for large scale graphene based solar cells or display applications.

  17. Which population groups are most unaware of CVD risks associated with sitting time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Mitch J; Gilson, Nicholas; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2014-08-01

    Prolonged sitting is an emerging risk factor for poor health yet few studies have examined awareness of the risks associated with sitting behaviours. This study identifies the population subgroups with the highest levels of unawareness regarding the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks associated with sitting behaviours. Adults (n=1256) living in Queensland, Australia completed a telephone-based survey in 2011, analysis conducted in 2013. The survey assessed participant's socio-demographic characteristics, physical activity, sitting behaviours and awareness of CVD risks associated with three sitting behaviours: 1) sitting for prolonged periods, 2), sitting for prolonged periods whilst also engaging in regular physical activity, and 3) breaking up periods of prolonged sitting with short activity breaks. Population sub-groups with the highest levels of unawareness were identified based on socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics using signal detection analysis. Unawareness ranged from 23.3% to 67.0%. Age was the most important variable in differentiating awareness levels; younger adults had higher levels of unawareness. Body mass index, physical activity, TV viewing, employment status and time spent at work also identified population sub-groups. Unawareness of CVD risk for prolonged sitting was moderately high overall. Younger adults had high levels of unawareness on all of the outcomes examined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Mechanics-driven patterning of CVD graphene for roll-based manufacturing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Min; Jang, Bongkyun; Jo, Kyungmin; Kim, Donghyuk; Lee, Jihye; Kim, Kyung-Shik; Lee, Seung-Mo; Lee, Hak-Joo; Han, Seung Min; Kim, Jae-Hyun

    2017-06-01

    Graphene is considered as a promising material for flexible and transparent electrodes due to its outstanding electrical, optical, and mechanical properties. Efforts to mass-produce graphene electrodes led to the development of roll-to-roll chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene growth and transfer, and the only remaining obstacle to the mass-production of CVD graphene electrodes is a cost-effective patterning technique that is compatible with the roll-to-roll manufacturing. Herein, we propose a mechanics-driven technique for patterning graphene synthesized on copper foil (commonly used in roll-to-roll manufacturing). The copper foil is exposed to high temperature for a prolonged period during the CVD growth of graphene, and thus can result in recrystallization and grain growth of the copper foil and thereby reducing to the yield strength. This softening behavior of the copper was carefully controlled to allow simple stamp patterning of the graphene. The strength of the underlying substrate was controlled for the accuracy of the residual patterns. The proposed stamp patterning technique is mask-less and photoresist-free, and can be performed at room temperature without high-energy sources such as lasers or plasma. To demonstrate the capability of this process to produce a continuous electrode, a transparent in-plane supercapacitor was fabricated using the proposed patterning technique.

  19. A CVD Diamond Detector for (n,a) Cross-Section Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Christina; Griesmayer, Erich; Guerrero, Carlos

    A novel detector based on the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond technology has been developed in the framework of this PhD, for the experimental determination of (n,a) cross-sections at the neutron time-of-flight facility n_TOF at CERN. The 59Ni(n,a)56Fe cross-section, which is relevant for astrophysical questions as well as for risk-assessment studies in nuclear technology, has been measured in order to validate the applicability of the detector for such experiments. The thesis is divided in four parts. In the introductory part the motivation for measuring (n,a) cross-sections, the experimental challenges for such measurements and the reasons for choosing the CVD diamond technology for the detector are given. This is followed by the presentation of the n_TOF facility, an introduction to neutron-induced nuclear reactions and a brief summary of the interaction of particles with matter. The CVD diamond technology and the relevant matters related to electronics are given as well in this first part of the t...

  20. Radio Frequency Transistors and Circuits Based on CVD MoS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanne, Atresh; Ghosh, Rudresh; Rai, Amritesh; Yogeesh, Maruthi Nagavalli; Shin, Seung Heon; Sharma, Ankit; Jarvis, Karalee; Mathew, Leo; Rao, Rajesh; Akinwande, Deji; Banerjee, Sanjay

    2015-08-12

    We report on the gigahertz radio frequency (RF) performance of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) monolayer MoS2 field-effect transistors (FETs). Initial DC characterizations of fabricated MoS2 FETs yielded current densities exceeding 200 μA/μm and maximum transconductance of 38 μS/μm. A contact resistance corrected low-field mobility of 55 cm(2)/(V s) was achieved. Radio frequency FETs were fabricated in the ground-signal-ground (GSG) layout, and standard de-embedding techniques were applied. Operating at the peak transconductance, we obtain short-circuit current-gain intrinsic cutoff frequency, fT, of 6.7 GHz and maximum intrinsic oscillation frequency, fmax, of 5.3 GHz for a device with a gate length of 250 nm. The MoS2 device afforded an extrinsic voltage gain Av of 6 dB at 100 MHz with voltage amplification until 3 GHz. With the as-measured frequency performance of CVD MoS2, we provide the first demonstration of a common-source (CS) amplifier with voltage gain of 14 dB and an active frequency mixer with conversion gain of -15 dB. Our results of gigahertz frequency performance as well as analog circuit operation show that large area CVD MoS2 may be suitable for industrial-scale electronic applications.

  1. Synthesis of Different Layers of Graphene on Stainless Steel Using the CVD Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaemi, Ferial; Abdullah, Luqman Chuah; Tahir, Paridah Md; Yunus, Robiah

    2016-12-01

    In this study, different types of graphene, including single-, few-, and multi-layer graphene, were grown on a stainless steel (SS) mesh coated with Cu catalyst by using the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Even though the SS mesh consisted of different types of metals, such as Fe, Ni, and Cr, which can also be used as catalysts, the reason for coating Cu catalyst on the SS surface had been related to the nature of the Cu, which promotes the growth of graphene with high quality and quantity at low temperature and time. The reaction temperature and run time, as the most important parameters of the CVD method, were varied, and thus led to the synthesis of different layers of graphene. Moreover, the presence of single-, few-, and multi-layer graphene was confirmed by employing two techniques, namely transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. On top of that, electron dispersive X-ray (EDX) was further applied to establish the influence of the CVD parameters on the growth of graphene.

  2. Spectral and photocatalytic characteristics of TiO2 CVD films on quartz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Andrew; Lee, Soo-Keun; Lepre, Anne; Parkin, Ivan P; O'Neill, Shane A

    2002-11-01

    A series of novel CVD films of titanium(IV) oxide of different thicknesses, spanning the range 10-91 nm, are prepared on quartz, via the reaction of titanium(IV) chloride and ethyl acetate, using a CVD technique. The films are clear, mechanically robust and comprise thin layer of nanocrystalline anatase titania of different thicknesses that absorb UV light. The UV-Visible spectral profiles of all the CVD TiO2 films of different thickness are the same and obey Lambert's law (absorbance is porportional to film thickness). A plot of the reciprocal length for the TiO2 coating versus wavelength is reported. The photocatalytic activity of each film to mediate the destruction of a thin layer of stearic acid is investigated. The rate depends directly upon the fraction of light absorbed and the apparent quantum yield for the overall process is 0.00035, which appears low compared with that for sol-gel TiO2 films.

  3. Giant enhancement in vertical conductivity of stacked CVD graphene sheets by self-assembled molecular layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanpeng; Yuan, Li; Yang, Ming; Zheng, Yi; Li, Linjun; Gao, Libo; Nerngchamnong, Nisachol; Nai, Chang Tai; Sangeeth, C. S. Suchand; Feng, Yuan Ping; Nijhuis, Christian A.; Loh, Kian Ping

    2014-11-01

    Layer-by-layer-stacked chemical vapour deposition (CVD) graphene films find applications as transparent and conductive electrodes in solar cells, organic light-emitting diodes and touch panels. Common to lamellar-type systems with anisotropic electron delocalization, the plane-to-plane (vertical) conductivity in such systems is several orders lower than its in-plane conductivity. The poor electronic coupling between the planes is due to the presence of transfer process organic residues and trapped air pocket in wrinkles. Here we show the plane-to-plane tunnelling conductivity of stacked CVD graphene layers can be improved significantly by inserting 1-pyrenebutyric acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester between the graphene layers. The six orders of magnitude increase in plane-to-plane conductivity is due to hole doping, orbital hybridization, planarization and the exclusion of polymer residues. Our results highlight the importance of interfacial modification for enhancing the performance of LBL-stacked CVD graphene films, which should be applicable to other types of stacked two-dimensional films.

  4. Synthesis of Different Layers of Graphene on Stainless Steel Using the CVD Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaemi, Ferial; Abdullah, Luqman Chuah; Tahir, Paridah Md; Yunus, Robiah

    2016-11-01

    In this study, different types of graphene, including single-, few-, and multi-layer graphene, were grown on a stainless steel (SS) mesh coated with Cu catalyst by using the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Even though the SS mesh consisted of different types of metals, such as Fe, Ni, and Cr, which can also be used as catalysts, the reason for coating Cu catalyst on the SS surface had been related to the nature of the Cu, which promotes the growth of graphene with high quality and quantity at low temperature and time. The reaction temperature and run time, as the most important parameters of the CVD method, were varied, and thus led to the synthesis of different layers of graphene. Moreover, the presence of single-, few-, and multi-layer graphene was confirmed by employing two techniques, namely transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. On top of that, electron dispersive X-ray (EDX) was further applied to establish the influence of the CVD parameters on the growth of graphene.

  5. Proton Irradiation of CVD Diamond Detectors for High Luminosity Experiments at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Meier, D; Bauer, C; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Grigoriev, E A; Hallewell, G D; Hall-Wilton, R; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Jany, C; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Kass, R; Knöpfle, K T; Krammer, Manfred; Manfredi, P F; Marshall, R D; Mishina, M; Le Normand, F; Pan, L S; Palmieri, V G; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Pirollo, S; Pretzl, Klaus P; Re, V; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Roff, D G; Rudge, A; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Speziali, V; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Thomson, G B; Trawick, M L; Trischuk, W; Turchetta, R; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Ziock, H J; Zöller, M

    1999-01-01

    CVD diamond shows promising properties for use as a position sensitive detector for experiments in the highest radiation areas at the Large Hadron Collider. In order to study the radiation hardn ess of diamond we exposed CVD diamond detector samples to 24~GeV/$c$ and 500~MeV protons up to a fluence of $5\\times 10^{15}~p/{\\rm cm^2}$. We measured the charge collection distance, the ave rage distance electron hole pairs move apart in an external electric field, and leakage currents before, during, and after irradiation. The charge collection distance remains unchanged up to $1\\ times 10^{15}~p/{\\rm cm^2}$ and decreases by $\\approx$40~\\% at $5\\times 10^{15}~p/{\\rm cm^2}$. Leakage currents of diamond samples were below 1~pA before and after irradiation. The particle indu ced currents during irradiation correlate well with the proton flux. In contrast to diamond, a silicon diode, which was irradiated for comparison, shows the known large increase in leakage curren t. We conclude that CVD diamond detectors are radia...

  6. Corrosion protection of SiC-based ceramics with CVD mullite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarin, V.; Mulpuri, R.; Auger, M. [Boston University, Boston, MA (United States) Manufacturing Engineering

    1996-04-20

    SiC based ceramics have been identified as the leading candidate materials for elevated temperature applications in harsh oxidation/corrosion environments. It has been established that a protective coating can be effectively used to avoid problems with excessive oxidation and hot corrosion. However, to date, no coating configuration has been developed that can withstand the rigorous requirements imposed by such applications. Chemical vapor deposited (CVD) mullite coatings due to their desirable properties of toughness, corrosion resistance, and good coefficient of thermal expansion match with SiC are being developed as a potential solution. Formation of mullite on ceramic substrates via chemical vapor deposition was investigated. Thermodynamic calculations performed on the AlCl{sub 3}- SiCl{sub 4}-CO{sub 2}-H{sub 2} system were used to construct equilibrium CVD phase diagrams. Through process optimization, crystalline CVD mullite coatings have been successfully grown on SiC and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} substrates. Results from the thermodynamic analysis, process optimization, and effect of various process parameters on deposition rate and coating morphology are discussed.

  7. Direct CVD Graphene Growth on Semiconductors and Dielectrics for Transfer-Free Device Fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huaping; Yu, Gui

    2016-07-01

    Graphene is the most broadly discussed and studied two-dimensional material because of its preeminent physical, mechanical, optical, and thermal properties. Until now, metal-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been widely employed for the scalable production of high-quality graphene. However, in order to incorporate the graphene into electronic devices, a transfer process from metal substrates to targeted substrates is inevitable. This process usually results in contamination, wrinkling, and breakage of graphene samples - undesirable in graphene-based technology and not compatible with industrial production. Therefore, direct graphene growth on desired semiconductor and dielectric substrates is considered as an effective alternative. Over the past years, there have been intensive investigations to realize direct graphene growth using CVD methods without the catalytic role of metals. Owing to the low catalytic activity of non-metal substrates for carbon precursor decomposition and graphene growth, several strategies have been designed to facilitate and engineer graphene fabrication on semiconductors and insulators. Here, those developed strategies for direct CVD graphene growth on semiconductors and dielectrics for transfer-free fabrication of electronic devices are reviewed. By employing these methods, various graphene-related structures can be directly prepared on desired substrates and exhibit excellent performance, providing versatile routes for varied graphene-based materials fabrication.

  8. Poliakrilonitril Nanolifler İçerisinde Altıgen Kobalt Sülfür Nanoplaka Sentezi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup AYKUT

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Son yıllardaki yeni nano üretim ve karakterizasyon tekniklerindeki gelişmeler mevcut birçok malzemenin nano boyutta üretilmesine imkân sağlamış ve üretilen nanomalzemelerin cihazlarda kullanımıyla cihazların verimliliklerinde artışlara imkân sağlamıştır. İstenen birden fazla özelliğin eldesi ise nano hetero yapıların üretilmesiyle mümkündür. Yapılan bu çalışmamızda elektro çekim yöntemiyle kobalt klorür/poliakrilonitril (CoCl2/PAN kompozit nanolifler üretilmiş ve üretilen liflerin hidrojen sülfüre (H2S karşı olan tepkisi araştırılmıştır. CoCl2/PAN nanoliflerin H2S ile muamelesinde kobalt tuzunun yapısındaki kobalt iyonları çökelerek nanolifler içerisinde altıgen şekilde kobalt bileşenli nanoplakaların oluştuğu gözlemlenmiştir. Üretilen kompozit nanoliflerin morfolojik özellikleri taramalı elektron mikroskobuyla (SEM ile elementel analizleri ise X-ray fotoelektron spektra (XPS tekniğiyle incelenmiştir. Elde edilen bulgularla CoCl2/PAN nanoliflerle toksik bir kimyasal olan H2S in tespiti ve uzaklaştırılmasının mümkün olmasının yanı sıra nanolif içerisinde fonksiyonel başka bir nano yapının üretilebileceği sonucuna varılmıştır.

  9. Investigation of Diospyros Kaki L.f husk extracts as corrosion inhibitors and bactericide in oil field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Song, Yingpan; Su, Huijun; Zhang, Li; Chen, Gang; Zhao, Jingrui

    2013-07-01

    Hydrochloric acid is used in oil-well acidizing commonly for improving the crude oil production of the low-permeable reservoirs, while it is a great challenge for the metal instruments involved in the acidification. Developing natural products as oilfield chemicals is a straight way to find less expensive, green and eco-friendly materials. The great plant resources in Qin-ling and Ba-shan Mountain Area of Shannxi Province enable the investigating of new green oil field chemicals. Diospyros Kaki L.f (persimmon), a famous fruit tree is widely planted in Qin-ling and Ba-shan Mountain Area of Shaanxi Province. It has been found that the crude persimmon extracts are complex mixtures containing vitamins, p-coumaric acid, gallic acid, catechin, flavonoids, carotenoids and condensed tannin and so on, which indicates the extracts of persimmon husk suitable to be used as green and eco-friendly corrosion inhibitors. Extracts of persimmon husk were investigated, by using weight loss and potentiodynamic polarisation techniques, as green and eco-friendly corrosion inhibitors of Q235A steel in 1M HCl. The inhibition efficiency of the extracts varied with extract concentration from 10 to 1,000 mg/L. There are some synergistic effects between the extracts and KI, KSCN and HMTA. Potentiodynamic polarization studies indicate that extracts are mixed-type inhibitors. Besides, the extracts were screened for antibacterial activity against oil field microorganisms, and they showed good to moderate activity against SRB, IB and TGB. The inhibition efficiency of the extracts varied with extract concentration from 10 to 1,000 mg/L, and the highest reaches to 65.1% with the con concentration of 1,000 mg/L WE. KI, KSCN and HMTA they can enhance the IE of WE effectively to 97.3% at most, but not effective for KI and KSCN to AE. Tafel polarisation measurements indicate the extracts behave as mixed type inhibitor. Investigation of the antibacterial activity against oil field microorganism showed

  10. PE-HD-g-MAH对PA66/PE-UHMW共混物力学与摩擦学行为的影响%Effect of PE-HD-g-MAH on the Friction and Wear Behavior of PA 66/PE-UHMW Blends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲜艳; 王宏刚; 任俊芳

    2013-01-01

    用马来酸酐接枝高密度聚乙烯(PE-HD-g-MAH)与聚酰胺66(PA66)/超高相对分子质量聚乙烯(PE-UH-MW)共混制备了共混物,并利用扫描电子显微镜、动态机械分析仪、毛细管流变仪和傅里叶红外光谱分析对共混物的力学性能及摩擦学性能进行了研究.结果表明,加入PE-HD-g-MAH可以促进PA66和PE-UHMW的界面相容性,提高了共混物的拉伸、弯曲与冲击性能;随着PE-HD-g-MAH含量的增加,共混物的摩擦因数逐渐降低;加入PE-HD-g-MAH抑制了疲劳裂纹的增长,使得摩擦转移膜逐渐均匀.

  11. Optimization of esterification of oleic acid and trimethylolpropane (TMP) and pentaerythritol (PE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmud, Hamizah Ammarah; Salimon, Jumat [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Vegetable oil (VO) is the most potential alternative to replace mineral oil for lubricant due to better lubricating properties and great physicochemical properties. Chemical modification has to be done to overcome low temperature performance and low oxidation instability due to the presence of β-hydrogen atoms of glycerol molecule. The optimization of esterification of oleic acid and polyhydric alcohol with sulfuric acid catalyst was carried out to find the optimum conditions with the highest yield. Reeaction variables such as; molar ratio, temperature, duration and catalyst concentration. Two types of polyhydric alcohol have been used; TMP and PE. The optimum results showed oleic acid successfully converted 91.2% ester TMP and 92.7% ester PE at duration: 5 hours (Ester TMP), 6 hours (Ester PE); temperature: 150°C (ester TMP), 180°C (Ester PE); catalyst concentration: 1.5% (w/w); and mol ratio: 3.9:1 (ester TMP), 4.9:1 (ester PE). From the data obtained, mole ratio showed most influenced factors to the increasing yields of ester conversions.. The TMP/PE ester was confirmed using gas chromatography (GC-FID), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)

  12. Optimization of esterification of oleic acid and trimethylolpropane (TMP) and pentaerythritol (PE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Hamizah Ammarah; Salimon, Jumat

    2014-09-01

    Vegetable oil (VO) is the most potential alternative to replace mineral oil for lubricant due to better lubricating properties and great physicochemical properties. Chemical modification has to be done to overcome low temperature performance and low oxidation instability due to the presence of β-hydrogen atoms of glycerol molecule. The optimization of esterification of oleic acid and polyhydric alcohol with sulfuric acid catalyst was carried out to find the optimum conditions with the highest yield. Reeaction variables such as; molar ratio, temperature, duration and catalyst concentration. Two types of polyhydric alcohol have been used; TMP and PE. The optimum results showed oleic acid successfully converted 91.2% ester TMP and 92.7% ester PE at duration: 5 hours (Ester TMP), 6 hours (Ester PE); temperature: 150°C (ester TMP), 180°C (Ester PE); catalyst concentration: 1.5% (w/w); and mol ratio: 3.9:1 (ester TMP), 4.9:1 (ester PE). From the data obtained, mole ratio showed most influenced factors to the increasing yields of ester conversions.. The TMP/PE ester was confirmed using gas chromatography (GC-FID), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR).

  13. Active Bilayer PE/PCL Films for Food Packaging Modified with Zinc Oxide and Casein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rešček

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the properties of active polymer food packaging bilayer polyethylene/polycaprolactone (PE/PCL films. Such packaging material consists of primary PE layer coated with thin film of PCL coating modified with active component (zinc oxide or zinc oxide/casein complex with intention to extend the shelf life of food and to maintain the quality and health safety. The influence of additives as active components on barrier, mechanical, thermal and antimicrobial properties of such materials was studied. The results show that, in comparison to the neat PE and PE/PCL films, some of PE/PCL bilayer films with additives exhibit improved barrier properties i.e. decreased water vapour permeability. Higher thermal stability of modified PE/PCL material is obtained due to a modified mechanism of thermal degradation. The samples with the additive nanoparticles homogeneously dispersed in the polymer matrix showed good mechanical properties. Addition of higher ZnO content contributes to the enhanced antibacterial activity of a material.

  14. TeV-PeV neutrinos over the atmospheric background: originating from two groups of sources?

    CERN Document Server

    He, Hao-Ning; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Wei, Da-Ming

    2013-01-01

    In addition to the two ~1 PeV neutrinos, the IceCube Collaboration recently reported a detection of 26 neutrino candidates at energies from 30 TeV to 250 TeV, implying a confidence level of 4.3\\sigma over the atmospheric background. We suggest that these TeV-PeV non-atmospheric neutrinos may originate from two groups of sources, motivated by the non-detection of neutrinos in the energy range 250 TeV- 1 PeV in current data. If intrinsic, the non-detection of 250 TeV-1 PeV neutrinos disfavors the single power-law spectrum model for the TeV-PeV non-atmospheric neutrinos at a confidence level of ~ 2\\sigma. We then interpret the current neutrino data with a two-component spectrum model. One has a flat spectrum with a cutoff at the energy ~ 250 TeV and the other has a sharp peak at ~1 PeV. The former is likely via pp collision while the latter may be generated by the photomeson interaction.

  15. Swelling, ion uptake and biodegradation studies of PE film modified through radiation induced graft copolymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Inderjeet; Gupta, Nitika; Kumari, Vandna

    2011-09-01

    An attempt to develop biodegradable polyethylene film grafting of mixture of hydrophilic monomers methacrylic acid (MAAc) and acrylamide (AAm) onto PE film has been carried out by preirradiation method using benzoyl peroxide as the radical initiator. Since ether linkages are susceptible to easy cleavage during degradation process, PE film was irradiated before the grafting reactions by γ-rays to introduce peroxidic linkages (PE-OO-PE) that offer sites for grafting. The effect of irradiation dose, monomer concentration, initiator concentration, temperature, time and amount of water on the grafting percent was determined. Maximum percentage of grafting of binary mixture (MAAc+AAm), (1792%) was obtained at a total concentration of binary monomer mixture=204.6×10 -2 mol/L ([MAAc]=176.5×10 -2 mol/L, [AAm]=28.1×10 -2 mol/L), [BPO]=8.3×10 -2 mol/L at 100 °C in 70 min. The grafted PE film was characterized by the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) methods. Some selective properties of grafted films such as swelling studies, ion uptake and biodegradation studies have been investigated. The grafted films show good swelling in water, ion uptake studies shows promising results for desalination of brackish water and the soil burial test shows that PE film grafted with binary monomer mixture degrades up to 47% within 50 days.

  16. An analytic approach to 2D electronic PE spectra of molecular systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szoecs, V., E-mail: szocs@fns.uniba.sk [Institute of Chemistry, Comenius University, Mlynska dolina CH2, 842 15 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2011-05-26

    Graphical abstract: The three-pulse photon echo (3P-PE) spectra of finite molecular systems using direct calculation from electronic Hamiltonians allows peak classification from 3P-PE spectra dynamics. Display Omitted Highlights: {yields} RWA approach to electronic photon echo. {yields} A straightforward calculation of 2D electronic spectrograms in finite molecular systems. {yields} Importance of population time dynamics in relation to inter-site coherent coupling. - Abstract: The three-pulse photon echo (3P-PE) spectra of finite molecular systems and simplified line broadening models is presented. The Fourier picture of a heterodyne detected three-pulse rephasing PE signal in the {delta}-pulse limit of the external field is derived in analytic form. The method includes contributions of one and two-excitonic states and allows direct calculation of Fourier PE spectrogram from corresponding Hamiltonian. As an illustration, the proposed treatment is applied to simple systems, e.g. 2-site two-level system (TLS) and n-site TLS model of photosynthetic unit. The importance of relation between Fourier picture of 3P-PE dynamics (corresponding to nonzero population time, T) and coherent inter-state coupling is emphasized.

  17. Brief review on PE method application to propagation channel modeling in sea environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirkova, Irina

    2012-03-01

    This work provides an introduction to one of the most widely used advanced methods for wave propagation modeling, the Parabolic Equation (PE) method, with emphasis on its application to tropospheric radio propagation in coastal and maritime regions. The assumptions of the derivation, the advantages and drawbacks of the PE, the numerical methods for solving it, and the boundary and initial conditions for its application to the tropospheric propagation problem are briefly discussed. More details are given for the split-step Fourier-transform (SSF) solution of the PE. The environmental input to the PE, the methods for tropospheric refractivity profiling, their accuracy, limitations, and the average refractivity modeling are also summarized. The reported results illustrate the application of finite element (FE) based and SSF-based solutions of the PE for one of the most difficult to treat propagation mechanisms, yet of great significance for the performance of radars and communications links working in coastal and maritime zones — the tropospheric ducting mechanism. Recent achievements, some unresolved issues and ongoing developments related to further improvements of the PE method application to the propagation channel modeling in sea environment are highlighted.

  18. Rater reliability and concurrent validity of the Keyboard Personal Computer Style instrument (K-PeCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Nancy A; Cook, James R; Redfern, Mark S

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the inter-rater and intra-rater reliability, and the concurrent validity of an observational instrument, the Keyboard Personal Computer Style instrument (K-PeCS), which assesses stereotypical postures and movements associated with computer keyboard use. Three trained raters independently rated the video clips of 45 computer keyboard users to ascertain inter-rater reliability, and then re-rated a sub-sample of 15 video clips to ascertain intra-rater reliability. Concurrent validity was assessed by comparing the ratings obtained using the K-PeCS to scores developed from a 3D motion analysis system. The overall K-PeCS had excellent reliability [inter-rater: intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC)=.90; intra-rater: ICC=.92]. Most individual items on the K-PeCS had from good to excellent reliability, although six items fell below ICC=.75. Those K-PeCS items that were assessed for concurrent validity compared favorably to the motion analysis data for all but two items. These results suggest that most items on the K-PeCS can be used to reliably document computer keyboarding style.

  19. The impact of individualised cardiovascular disease (CVD risk estimates and lifestyle advice on physical activity in individuals at high risk of CVD: a pilot 2 × 2 factorial understanding risk trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffin Simon J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is currently much interest in encouraging individuals to increase physical activity in order to reduce CVD risk. This study has been designed to determine if personalised CVD risk appreciation can increase physical activity in adults at high risk of CVD. Methods/Design In a 2 × 2 factorial design participants are allocated at random to a personalised 10-year CVD risk estimate or numerical CVD risk factor values (systolic blood pressure, LDL cholesterol and fasting glucose and, simultaneously, to receive a brief lifestyle advice intervention targeting physical activity, diet and smoking cessation or not. We aim to recruit 200 participants from Oxfordshire primary care practices. Eligibility criteria include adults age 40–70 years, estimated 10-year CVD risk ≥20%, ability to read and write English, no known CVD and no physical disability or other condition reducing the ability to walk. Primary outcome is physical activity measured by ActiGraph accelerometer with biochemical, anthropometrical and psychological measures as additional outcomes. Primary analysis is between group physical activity differences at one month powered to detect a difference of 30,000 total counts per day of physical activity between the groups. Additional analyses will seek to further elucidate the relationship between the provision of risk information, and intention to change behaviour and to determine the impact of both interventions on clinical and anthropometrical measures including fasting and 2 hour plasma glucose, fructosamine, serum cotinine, plasma vitamin C, body fat percentage and blood pressure. Discussion This is a pilot trial seeking to demonstrate in a real world setting, proof of principal that provision of personalised risk information can contribute to behaviour changes aimed at reducing CVD risk. This study will increase our understanding of the links between the provision of risk information and behaviour change and if

  20. Quantitative profiling of PE, MMPE, DMPE, and PC lipid species by multiple precursor ion scanning: A tool for monitoring PE metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilgin, Mesut; Markgraf, Daniel F; Duchoslav, Eva

    2011-01-01

    We report a method for the simultaneous identification and quantification of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), monomethyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (MMPE), dimethyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (DMPE), and phosphatidylcholine (PC) species in lipid extracts. The method employs a specific "mass-tag" strategy...... metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Finally, we benchmarked the mass-tag strategy by specific and sensitive profiling of intermediate MMPE and DMPE species in liver....

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF SBS/PS AND SBS/PE WATER DRAINING AND DRAWING PIPE%(PS/SBS)/(SBS/PE)吸水管的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甄健

    2001-01-01

    介绍了PS与SBS、SBS与PE的共混改性,及其复合挤出吸水管的性能及生产工艺。%The blending modificaion of SBS/PS and SBS/PE is introduced as well as the property and productive technology of combined extruding water draining and drawing pipes.

  2. Enhanced Radiation Crosslinking of SBS/PE-LD Blends with Multifunctional Monomers%SBS/PE-LD共混物的强化辐射交联研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白克铭; 朱光明; 王燕; 沈学霖; 高余良

    2016-01-01

    研究了多官能团单体的用量、官能团数目以及辐射剂量对苯乙烯-丁二烯共聚物(SBS)与低密度聚乙烯(PE-LD)共混物的强化辐射交联效应,测试了共混物的辐射交联程度、力学性能与形状记忆性能.结果表明,随辐射剂量的增加,SBS/PE-LD共混物的交联程度增加;多官能团单体的加入能够提高共混物的交联程度;相同辐射剂量时,官能团数目越多,交联程度越高;辐射剂量高于150 kGy时,多官能团单体的加入可以提高SBS/PE-LD共混物的拉伸强度;强化辐射交联SBS/PE-LD共混物具有优异的形状记忆性能.

  3. Foamed plastics in buried pipes. PE tubes - unsuitable for heat pumps?; Wenn's im Erdreich schaeumt.... PE-Sonden fuer Waermepumpen ungeeignet?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ameling, Werner [Fachhochschule Trier (Germany). Technische Gebaeudeausruestung; Omnium Technic (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    The gas permeability of plastic tubes has become a matter of discussion. The focus is currently on PE tubes of soil-to-water heat pumps. If a heat pump system with vertical probes is switched on again after a longer period of standstill, start-up problems may ensue especially in regions with underground CO2 sources or CO2 stores. (orig.)

  4. Monte-Carlo Analysis of the Composition Dependence of the Flory-Huggins Interaction Parameter in PE-dPE Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Travis; Edwards, Brian; Khomami, Bamin

    2012-02-01

    Experimental SANS research displays a significant concentration dependence of the Flory-Huggins (χ) interaction parameter in isotopic polymer blends. At the extremes of the deuterated polymer concentration (φD 0.8), χ is shown to exhibit a greater than fourfold increase over its value at φD = 0.5. However, despite numerous attempts to theoretically describe the nature of this phenomenon, consensus is still lacking regarding the mechanisms at work in this system. This study uses free-space, spatially discretized Monte Carlo simulations to investigate the χ composition dependence of PE-dPE blends. Initial simulations are run on simple Lennard-Jones fluids to display the capability of the simulation method to track local concentration and energy across the discretized space as well as to investigate the concentration dependence of the radial distribution function, g(r), and structure factor, S(k). After which, MC simulations are performed on the PE-dPE system with varying φD. Both local and average system energies are tracked in addition to g(r) and S(k). The Flory-Huggins interaction parameter is then calculated using the Random Phase Approximation.

  5. Superhydrophobic aluminium-based surfaces: Wetting and wear properties of different CVD-generated coating types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thieme, M., E-mail: michael.thieme@tu-dresden.de [Technische Universität Dresden, Institute of Materials Science, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Streller, F., E-mail: streller@seas.upenn.edu [Technische Universität Dresden, Institute of Materials Science, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Simon, F., E-mail: frsimon@ipfdd.de [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden, Postfach 120 411, 01005 Dresden (Germany); Frenzel, R., E-mail: frenzelr@ipfdd.de [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden, Postfach 120 411, 01005 Dresden (Germany); White, A.J. [GVD Corporation, 45 Spinelli Place, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    In view of generating superhydrophobic aluminium-based surfaces, this work presents further results for the combination of anodic oxidation as the primary pretreatment method and chemical vapour deposition (CVD) variants for chemical modification producing coatings of 250–1000 nm thickness. In detail, CVD involved the utilisation of i – hexafluoropropylene oxide as precursor within the hot filament CVD process for the deposition of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) coatings at alternative conditions (PTFE-AC) and ii – 1,3,5-trivinyltrimethylcyclotrisiloxane for the deposition of polysiloxane coatings (PSi) by initiated CVD. The substrate material was Al Mg1 subjected to usual or intensified sulphuric acid anodisation pretreatments (SAAu, SAAi, respectively) affording various degrees of surface micro-roughness (SAAu < SAAi) to the oxidic layers. Performance characteristics were evaluated in the original as-coated states and after standardised artificial weathering and/or mild wear testing. Superhydrophobicity (SH) was observed with the system SAAi + PTFE-AC similarly to former findings with the standard hot filament CVD PTFE coating variant (SAAi + PTFE-SC). The results indicated that the specific coating morphology made an important contribution to the water-repellency, because even some of the SAAu-based samples tended to reveal SH. Subjecting samples to weathering treatment resulted in a general worsening of the wetting behaviour, primarily limited to the receding contact angles. These tendencies were correlated with the chemical composition of the sample surfaces as analysed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The wear tests showed, as evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and contact angle measurement, that the PTFE coatings were relatively sensitive to friction. This was connected with a dramatic deterioration of the water-repelling properties. PSi-coated surfaces generally showed rather poor water-repellency, but this coating type was surprisingly

  6. The Effect of Excess Carbon on the Crystallographic, Microstructural, and Mechanical Properties of CVD Silicon Carbide Fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzik, J V; Croft, W J; Staples, R J; MoberlyChan, W J

    2006-12-05

    Silicon carbide (SiC) fibers made by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) are of interest for organic, ceramic, and metal matrix composite materials due their high strength, high elastic modulus, and retention of mechanical properties at elevated processing and operating temperatures. The properties of SCS-6{trademark} silicon carbide fibers, which are made by a commercial process and consist largely of stoichiometric SiC, were compared with an experimental carbon-rich CVD SiC fiber, to which excess carbon was added during the CVD process. The concentration, homogeneity, and distribution of carbon were measured using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). The effect of excess carbon on the tensile strength, elastic modulus, and the crystallographic and microstructural properties of CVD silicon carbide fibers was investigated using tensile testing, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  7. Development and Validation of a Fast and Optimized Screening Method for Enhanced Production of Secondary Metabolites Using the Marine Scopulariopsis brevicaulis Strain LF580 Producing Anti-Cancer Active Scopularide A and B

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Annemarie; Paun, Linda; Imhoff, Johannes F.; Kempken, Frank; Labes, Antje

    2014-01-01

    Natural compounds from marine fungi are an excellent source for the discovery and development of new drug leads. The distinct activity profiles of the two cyclodepsipeptides scopularide A and B against cancer cell lines set their marine producer strain Scopulariopsis brevicaulis LF580 into the focus of the EU project MARINE FUNGI. One of the main goals was the development of a sustainable biotechnological production process for these compounds. The secondary metabolite production of strain LF...

  8. Stable dropwise condensation for enhancing heat transfer via the initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) of grafted polymer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxson, Adam T; Yagüe, Jose L; Gleason, Karen K; Varanasi, Kripa K

    2014-01-22

    Ultra-thin copolymer films are deposited by initiated chemical deposition (iCVD) to investigate their performance under the condensation of water vapor. By forming a grafted interface between the coating and the substrate, the films exhibit stable dropwise condensation even when subjected to 100 °C steam. The applicability of the iCVD to complex substrate geometries is demonstrated on a copper condenser coil.

  9. Constitutive Expression of the Vi Polysaccharide Capsular Antigen in Attenuated Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Oral Vaccine Strain CVD 909

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin Yuan; Noriega, Fernando R.; Galen, James E.; Barry, Eileen; Levine, Myron M.

    2000-01-01

    Live oral Ty21a and parenteral Vi polysaccharide vaccines provide significant protection against typhoid fever, albeit by distinct immune mechanisms. Vi stimulates serum immunoglobulin G Vi antibodies, whereas Ty21a, which does not express Vi, elicits humoral and cell-mediated immune responses other than Vi antibodies. Protection may be enhanced if serum Vi antibody as well as cell-mediated and humoral responses can be stimulated. Disappointingly, several new attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi oral vaccines (e.g., CVD 908-htrA and Ty800) that elicit serum O and H antibody and cell-mediated responses following a single dose do not stimulate serum Vi antibody. Vi expression is regulated in response to environmental signals such as osmolarity by controlling the transcription of tviA in the viaB locus. To investigate if Vi antibodies can be stimulated if Vi expression is rendered constitutive, we replaced PtviA in serovar Typhi vaccine CVD 908-htrA with the constitutive promoter Ptac, resulting in CVD 909. CVD 909 expresses Vi even under high-osmolarity conditions and is less invasive for Henle 407 cells. In mice immunized with a single intranasal dose, CVD 909 was more immunogenic than CVD 908-htrA in eliciting serum Vi antibodies (geometric mean titer of 160 versus 49, P = 0.0007), whereas O antibody responses were virtually identical (geometric mean titer of 87 versus 80). In mice challenged intraperitoneally with wild-type serovar Typhi 4 weeks after a single intranasal immunization, the mortality of those immunized with CVD 909 (3 of 8) was significantly lower than that of control mice (10 of 10, P = 0.043) or mice given CVD 908-htrA (9 of 10, P = 0.0065). PMID:10899868

  10. Swelling, ion uptake and biodegradation studies of PE film modified through radiation induced graft copolymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Inderjeet, E-mail: ij_kaur@hotmail.com [Department Chemistry, HPU Shimla 171005 (India); Gupta, Nitika; Kumari, Vandna [Department Chemistry, HPU Shimla 171005 (India)

    2011-09-15

    An attempt to develop biodegradable polyethylene film grafting of mixture of hydrophilic monomers methacrylic acid (MAAc) and acrylamide (AAm) onto PE film has been carried out by preirradiation method using benzoyl peroxide as the radical initiator. Since ether linkages are susceptible to easy cleavage during degradation process, PE film was irradiated before the grafting reactions by {gamma}-rays to introduce peroxidic linkages (PE-OO-PE) that offer sites for grafting. The effect of irradiation dose, monomer concentration, initiator concentration, temperature, time and amount of water on the grafting percent was determined. Maximum percentage of grafting of binary mixture (MAAc+AAm), (1792%) was obtained at a total concentration of binary monomer mixture=204.6x10{sup -2} mol/L ([MAAc]=176.5x10{sup -2} mol/L, [AAm]=28.1x10{sup -2} mol/L), [BPO]=8.3x10{sup -2} mol/L at 100 deg. C in 70 min. The grafted PE film was characterized by the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) methods. Some selective properties of grafted films such as swelling studies, ion uptake and biodegradation studies have been investigated. The grafted films show good swelling in water, ion uptake studies shows promising results for desalination of brackish water and the soil burial test shows that PE film grafted with binary monomer mixture degrades up to 47% within 50 days. - Highlights: > Binary mixture of methacrylic acid (MAAc) and acrylamide (AAm) onto PE film by preirradiation method was carried out. > Graft copolymers of MAAc+AAm and PE film were characterized by FTIR, TGA and SEM studies and was found to be thermally stable. > Grafting of MAAc+AAm improved swelling behavior giving maximum swelling (485.71%) in water as against PE with 0% swelling. > The grafted PE-g-poly (MAAc-co-AAm) behaves as an excellent material for ion separation. > Biodegradation studies by soil burial test showed 47.19% of

  11. Modification of UHMWPE membrane with a PE/clay/PE-G-MA nano composite film to treat oily effluents; Modificacao de membrana de PEUAPM com filme nanocomposito de PEAD/argila/PE-G-MA para o tratamento de efluentes oleosos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Suelem S.L.; Silva, Caio M.B.; Leal, Tania L.; Carvalho, Laura H.; Costa, Anna R.M. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)], e-mail: tanlucleal@yahoo.com.br

    2011-07-01

    Interest in techniques of surface modification is evinced by the large number of studies in recent decades. In this work the internal surfaces of polymeric membranes of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) were modified by impregnation of HDPE/organoclay/PE-g-MA nanocomposite film. The addition of PE-g-MA aims to increase polymer/clay interaction and to control and/or modify surface characteristics of UHMWPE membranes, such as permeability and pore size, so as to make the membranes more efficient and/or appropriate for effluent treatment, more specifically in the treatment of oil contaminated water. The films were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), the modified membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and their performance (permeate flux and selectivity) were measured using distilled water and an oil in water dispersion. (author)

  12. Conserved immune recognition hierarchy of mycobacterial PE/PPE proteins during infection in natural hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Martin Vordermeier

    Full Text Available The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome contains two large gene families encoding proteins of unknown function, characterized by conserved N-terminal proline and glutamate (PE and PPE motifs. The presence of a large number of PE/PPE proteins with repetitive domains and evidence of strain variation has given rise to the suggestion that these proteins may play a role in immune evasion via antigenic variation, while emerging data suggests that some family members may play important roles in mycobacterial pathogenesis. In this study, we examined cellular immune responses to a panel of 36 PE/PPE proteins during human and bovine infection. We observed a distinct hierarchy of immune recognition, reflected both in the repertoire of PE/PPE peptide recognition in individual cows and humans and in the magnitude of IFN-γ responses elicited by stimulation of sensitized host cells. The pattern of immunodominance was strikingly similar between cattle that had been experimentally infected with Mycobacterium bovis and humans naturally infected with clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis. The same pattern was maintained as disease progressed throughout a four-month course of infection in cattle, and between humans with latent as well as active tuberculosis. Detailed analysis of PE/PPE responses at the peptide level suggests that antigenic cross-reactivity amongst related family members is a major determinant in the observed differences in immune hierarchy. Taken together, these results demonstrate that a subset of PE/PPE proteins are major targets of the cellular immune response to tuberculosis, and are recognized at multiple stages of infection and in different disease states. Thus this work identifies a number of novel antigens that could find application in vaccine development, and provides new insights into PE/PPE biology.

  13. Improving Coverage and Compliance in Mass Drug Administration for the Elimination of LF in Two 'Endgame' Districts in Indonesia Using Micronarrative Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krentel, Alison; Damayanti, Rita; Titaley, Christiana Rialine; Suharno, Nugroho; Bradley, Mark; Lynam, Timothy

    2016-11-01

    As the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) approaches its 2020 goal, an increasing number of districts will enter the endgame phase where drug coverage rates from mass drug administration (MDA) are used to assess whether MDA can be stopped. As reported, the gap between reported and actual drug coverage in some contexts has overestimated the true rates, thus causing premature administration of transmission assessment surveys (TAS) that detect ongoing LF transmission. In these cases, districts must continue with additional rounds of MDA. Two districts in Indonesia (Agam District, Depok City) fit this criteria-one had not met the pre-TAS criteria and the other, had not passed the TAS criteria. In both cases, the district health teams needed insight into their drug delivery programs in order to improve drug coverage in the subsequent MDA rounds. To inform the subsequent MDA round, a micronarrative survey tool was developed to capture community members' experience with MDA and the social realm where drug delivery and compliance occur. A baseline survey was implemented after the 2013 MDA in endemic communities in both districts using the EPI sampling criteria (n = 806). Compliance in the last MDA was associated with perceived importance of the LF drugs for health (psurvey was performed after the 2014 MDA using the same sampling criteria (n = 811). Reported compliance in the last MDA improved in both districts from 57% to 77% (psurveys were shown to be a valid and effective tool to detect operational issues within MDA programs. District health staff felt ownership of the results, implementing feasible changes to their programs that resulted in significant improvements to coverage and compliance in the subsequent MDA. This kind of implementation research using a micronarrative survey tool could benefit underperforming MDA programs as well as other disease control programs where a deeper understanding is needed to improve healthcare delivery.

  14. PHENOTYPIC CHARACTERIZATION OF FRUIT FROM MAURITIA FLEXUOSA L.F. (ARECACEAE “AGUAJE” OF NINE COMMUNITIES OF DATEM DEL MARAÑON - LORETO REGION, PERUVIAN AMAZON.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sissy Alvarez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize phenotypically, through morphological and physicochemical variables, fruits of nine natural populations of Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (Arecaceae of DATEM del Marañón located in the Loreto region of Peru. To achieve the goal twelve variables were analyzed. Three principal components explained 91.22 % of the total variability. In the dendrogram with an Euclidean distance of 0.95, three population groups were visualized. Group I expressed the highest concentration of â-carotene (p0.10. This research will be useful for the selection of aguaje germplasm in Peru.

  15. The combined study of the middle atmosphere meteorological parameters and lower ionosphere dynamics over Europe by means of remote VLF-LF measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetzer, J. I.; Lyakhov, A.; Yakymenko, K.

    2012-12-01

    The results of comprehensive analysis of long-term records of VLF-LF European transmitters by means of Mikhnevo geophysical observatory (Institute of Geospheres Dynamics), SID station A118 (France) and a number of AWESOM receivers are presented. In the previous study (A.A.Egoshin et al., Izvestiya, Physics of the Solid Earth, 2012, Vol. 48, No. 3, pp. 275-286) the results obtained under the minimum solar activity were presented that have shown the link between the lower ionosphere parameters and meteorological fields of the middle atmosphere. The current study expands the evidence to the increased solar activity level as well as the number of receivers, thus allowing more dense coverage of the Europe by the radio paths. Middle atmosphere data under study were provided by the EOS Aura Microwave Limb Sounder. These asynoptic data, in turn, were processed by the space-time spectral analysis on various pressure levels for various window lengths. The results are presented for the spatial structure of wave-like perturbations in the VLF-LF signal strength, which result from the lower ionosphere disturbances on various radio paths. Special short-windowed space-time study was evaluated for the periods of anomalous temporal behavior of the VLF-LF signals and the results of the altitude-latitude mode structures of the geopotential height, neutral temperature, water and ozone constituents are presented. It is shown that the spatial properties of the lower ionosphere can vary significantly at relatively small scale. Moreover, the altitude-latitude mode structures do not coincide in space as well as in time, thus, complicating the lower ionosphere response to the meteorological variations of the middle atmosphere. The analysis of all assembled data proves two main points. At first, it is possible to evaluate synoptic long-term monitoring of the middle atmosphere via the lower ionosphere perturbations as seen by VLF-LF receivers. At second, the theoretical models of the lower

  16. IL-1023-57-PE40 Secretion of Periplasm%IL-1023-57-PE40分泌表达的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭其胜; 李月红; 雷连成; 华芳; 杨德光

    2006-01-01

    将IL-1023-57-PE40基因与pelB信号肽融合置于pET-20b构建分泌表达质粒pET-20bIL-1023-57-PE40,然后将pET-20b-IL-1023-57-PE40分别转化至B121(DE3),BL21(DE3)pLysS,Rosetta(DE3),E.coli K12 TB1,ER2566中.无论是在37℃或是在26℃,亦或在培养基中添加葡萄糖的情况下,IPTG诱导后,IL-1023-57-PE40蛋白只在BL21(DE3)pLysS菌中以可溶分泌形式表达,其中以37℃时培养基中不添加葡萄糖表达量为最高,占菌体蛋白总量的15%,说明蛋白的分泌表达与菌种的选择有关.表达产物经免疫印记检测可被抗PE40的特异抗体识别.通过质粒稳定性实验证明,pET-20b-IL-1023-57-PE40在BL21(DE3)中不稳定,导致蛋白的不表达,在Rosetta(DE3)BL21,E.coli K12 TB1,ER2566中稳定但不表达,因此,以Rosetta(DE3)BL21为例,通过SDS-PAGE、DNAStar和ANThewin蛋白分析软件对本室构建的几种PE重组毒素进行比较分析,我们发现:并不是所有PE重组毒素融合信号肽序列后,就能分泌表达,PE重组毒素分泌表达还可能与导向部分的性质有关.

  17. Suppression of autophagy and antigen presentation by Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE_PGRS47.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Neeraj K; Baena, Andres; Ng, Tony W; Venkataswamy, Manjunatha M; Kennedy, Steven C; Kunnath-Velayudhan, Shajo; Carreño, Leandro J; Xu, Jiayong; Chan, John; Larsen, Michelle H; Jacobs, William R; Porcelli, Steven A

    2016-08-15

    Suppression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigen presentation is believed to be among the major mechanisms used by Mycobacterium tuberculosis to escape protective host immune responses. Through a genome-wide screen for the genetic loci of M. tuberculosis that inhibit MHC class II-restricted antigen presentation by mycobacteria-infected dendritic cells, we identified the PE_PGRS47 protein as one of the responsible factors. Targeted disruption of the PE_PGRS47 (Rv2741) gene led to attenuated growth of M. tuberculosis in vitro and in vivo, and a PE_PGRS47 mutant showed enhanced MHC class II-restricted antigen presentation during in vivo infection of mice. Analysis of the effects of deletion or over-expression of PE_PGRS47 implicated this protein in the inhibition of autophagy in infected host phagocytes. Our findings identify PE_PGRS47 as a functionally relevant, non-redundant bacterial factor in the modulation of innate and adaptive immunity by M. tuberculosis, suggesting strategies for improving antigen presentation and the generation of protective immunity during vaccination or infection.

  18. Expression analysis of a Na~+/H~+ antiporter gene PeNHX1 from Populus euphratica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Na+/H+ antiporters play an important role in the salt tolerance of a wide variety of plants.Using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends method,a Na+/H+ antiporter gene (PeNHX1) was isolated from Populus euphratica.The deduced amino acid sequence contained 528 amino acid residues with a conserved amiloride-binding domain (77LFFIYLLPPI86) and shared more than 68% identity with that of AtNHX1 from Arabidopsis thaliana.PeNHX1 can confer resistance to Na+,as well as Li+,to (EP432) an Escherichia coli strain deficient in both nhaA and nhaB,thus proving that it is a functional Na+/H+ antiporter.PeNHX1 expression profile in EP432 reflected pH independent manner.PeNHX1 expression was regulated by salt at the transcriptional level.Meanwhile,results demonstrated that transcripts of PeNHX1 in P.euphratica calli showed a salt dependent response,and thus provide a valuable tool for studying signaling and biochemical pathways involved in salt recognition and response in P.euphratica.

  19. Implication of the non-detection of neutrinos above 2PeV

    CERN Document Server

    Yacobi, Lee; Behar, Ehud

    2015-01-01

    The IceCube telescope has detected diffuse neutrino emission, 20 events of which were reported to be above 60~TeV. In this paper, we fit the diffuse neutrino spectrum using Poisson statistics, which are the most appropriate for the low counts per energy bin. We extend the fitted energy range and exploit the fact that no neutrinos were detected above 2~PeV, despite the high detector sensitivity around the Glashow resonance at 6.3\\,PeV and beyond. A best-fit power-law slope of $\\alpha=2.9\\pm 0.3$ is found with no evidence for a high-energy cutoff. This slope is steeper than $\\alpha=2.3\\pm 0.3$ found by the IceCube team using a different fitting method. Such a steep spectrum facilitates the identification of high energy ($\\gg$ PeV) neutrinos, if detected, to be due to the GZK effect of cosmic-ray protons interacting with the Extragalactic Background Light. We use the ratio of EeV to PeV neutrinos in GZK models to show that the currently detected PeV neutrinos could not be due to the GZK effect, because this woul...

  20. Relations among basic psychological needs, PE-motivation and fundamental movement skills in 9–12-year-old boys and girls in Physical Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Remo Mombarg; I. van Aart; M. Elferink-Gemser; E. Hartman

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many children aged 9–12 appear to have low levels of fundamental movement skills (FMS). Physical education (PE) is important because PE-teachers can teach children a variety of FMS and can influence PE-motivation. However, declined levels of PE-motivation are reported in the final grades