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Sample records for lf parameters determined

  1. An alternative for the LF model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, R.N.J.

    1996-01-01

    An alternative for the Liljencrants-Fant (LF) glottal-pulse model is presented. This alternative is derived from the Rosenberg model, so we have caned it the Rosenberg++ model. It is described by the same set of Tor R parameters as the LF model but has the advantage over the LF model that it is

  2. Steel refining possibilities in LF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru, M. G.; Ioana, A.; Constantin, N.; Ciobanu, F.; Pollifroni, M.

    2018-01-01

    This article presents the main possibilities for steel refining in Ladle Furnace (LF). These, are presented: steelmaking stages, steel refining through argon bottom stirring, online control of the bottom stirring, bottom stirring diagram during LF treatment of a heat, porous plug influence over the argon stirring, bottom stirring porous plug, analysis of porous plugs disposal on ladle bottom surface, bottom stirring simulation with ANSYS, bottom stirring simulation with Autodesk CFD.

  3. Recombinant lactoferrin (Lf) of Vechur cow, the critical breed of Bos indicus and the Lf gene variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisha, Shashidharan; Bhasker, Salini; Mohankumar, Chinnamma

    2012-03-01

    Vechur cow, categorized as a critically maintained breed by the FAO, is a unique breed of Bos indicus due to its extremely small size, less fodder intake, adaptability, easy domestication and traditional medicinal property of the milk. Lactoferrin (Lf) is an iron-binding glycoprotein that is found predominantly in the milk of mammals. The full coding region of Lf gene of Vechur cow was cloned, sequenced and expressed in a prokaryotic system. Antibacterial activity of the recombinant Lf showed suppression of bacterial growth. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that the full coding region of Lf gene of B. indicus Vechur breed is sequenced, successfully expressed in a prokaryotic system and characterized. Comparative analysis of Lf gene sequence of five Vechur cows with B. taurus revealed 15 SNPs in the exon region associated with 11 amino acid substitutions. The amino acid arginine was noticed as a pronounced substitution and the tertiary structure analysis of the BLfV protein confirmed the positions of arginine in the β sheet region, random coil and helix region 1. Based on the recent reports on the nutritional therapies of arginine supplementation for wound healing and for cardiovascular diseases, the higher level of arginine in the lactoferrin protein of Vechur cow milk provides enormous scope for further therapeutic studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Characteristics of VLF/LF Sferics from Elve-producing Lightning Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaes, P.; Zoghzoghy, F. G.; Marshall, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Lightning return strokes radiate an electromagnetic pulse (EMP) which interacts with the D-region ionosphere; the largest EMPs produce new ionization, heating, and optical emissions known as elves. Elves are at least six times more common than sprites and other transient luminous events. Though the probability that a lightning return stroke will produce an elve is correlated with the return stroke peak current, many large peak current strokes do not produce visible elves. Apart from the lightning peak current, elve production may depend on the return stroke speed, lightning altitude, and ionospheric conditions. In this work we investigate the detailed structure of lightning that gives rise to elves by analyzing the characteristics of VLF/LF lightning sferics in conjunction with optical elve observations. Lightning sferics were observed using an array of six VLF/LF receivers (1 MHz sample-rate) in Oklahoma, and elves were observed using two high-speed photometers pointed over the Oklahoma region: one located at Langmuir Laboratory, NM and the other at McDonald Observatory, TX. Hundreds of elves with coincident LF sferics were observed during the summer months of 2013. We present data comparing the characteristics of elve-producing and non-elve producing lightning as measured by LF sferics. In addition, we compare these sferic and elve observations with FDTD simulations to determine key properties of elve-producing lightning.

  5. Atomic structure of the murine norovirus protruding domain and sCD300lf receptor complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Turgay; Koromyslova, Anna; Malak, Virginie; Hansman, Grant S

    2018-03-21

    Human noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in human. Noroviruses also infect animals such as cow, mice, cat, and dog. How noroviruses bind and enter host cells is still incompletely understood. Recently, the type I transmembrane protein CD300lf was recently identified as the murine norovirus receptor, yet it is unclear how the virus capsid and receptor interact at the molecular level. In this study, we determined the X-ray crystal structure of the soluble CD300lf (sCD300lf) and murine norovirus capsid-protruding domain complex at 2.05 Å resolution. We found that the sCD300lf binding site is located on the topside of the protruding domain and involves a network of hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions. The sCD300lf locked nicely into a complementary cavity on the protruding domain that is additionally coordinated with a positive surface charge on the sCD300lf and a negative surface charge on the protruding domain. Five of six protruding domain residues interacting with sCD300lf were maintained between different murine norovirus strains, suggesting that the sCD300lf was capable of binding to a highly conserved pocket. Moreover, a sequence alignment with other CD300 paralogs showed that the sCD300lf interacting residues were partially conserved in CD300ld, but variable in other CD300 family members, consistent with previously reported infection selectivity. Overall, these data provide insights into how a norovirus engages a protein receptor and will be important for a better understanding of selective recognition and norovirus attachment and entry mechanisms. IMPORTANCE Noroviruses exhibit exquisite host-range specificity due to species-specific interactions between the norovirus capsid protein and host molecules. Given this strict host-range restriction it has been unclear how the viruses are maintained within a species between relatively sporadic epidemics. While much data demonstrates that noroviruses can interact with carbohydrates

  6. MOSFET LF noise under Large Signal Excitation: Measurement, Modelling and Application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wel, A.P.

    2005-01-01

    Regarding LF noise in MOSFETs, it is noted that the MOSFET is a surface channel device. Both n and p-channel devices exhibit similar low frequency (LF) noise behaviour that can be explained by a carrier number fluctuation model (section 3.5). LF noise in MOSFETs is predominantly caused by Random

  7. The Terminator Time in subionospheric VLF/LF diurnal variation as recorded by the Romanian VLF/LF radio monitoring system related to earthquake occurrence and volcano erruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, I. A.; Moldovan, A. S.; Biagi, P. F.; Ionescu, C.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Boudjada, M. Y.

    2012-04-01

    The Romanian VLF/LF monitoring system consisting in a radio receiver and the infrastructure that is necessary to record and transmit the collected data is part of the European international network named INFREP. Information on electromagnetic fields' intensities created by transmitters at a receiving site are indicating the quality of the propagation along the paths between the receivers and transmitters. Studying the ionosphere's influences on the electromagnetic waves' propagation along a certain path is a method to put into evidence possible modifications of its lower structure and composition as earthquakes' precursors. The VLF/LF receiver installed in Romania was put into operation in February 2009 and has already 3 years of testing, functioning and proving its utility in the forecast of some earthquakes or volcanic eruptions. Simultaneously we monitor, in the same site with the VLF/LF receiver, the vertical atmospheric electric field and different other meteorological parameters as: temperature, pressure or rainfall. The global magnetic conditions are emphasized with the help of Daily Geomagnetic Index Kp. At a basic level, the adopted analysis consists in a simple statistical evaluation of the signals by comparing the instantaneous values to the trend of the signal. In this paper we pay attention to the terminator times in subionospheric VLF/LF diurnal variation, which are defined as the times of minimum in amplitude (or phase) around sunrise and sunset. These terminator times are found to shift significantly just around the earthquake. In the case of Kobe earthquake, there were found significant shifts in both morning and evening terminator times and these authors interpreted the shift in terminator time in terms of the lowering of lower ionosphere by using the full-wave mode theory. A LabVIEW application which accesses the VLF/LF receiver through internet was developed. This program opens the receiver's web-page and automatically retrieves the list of data

  8. Effect of selenium-saturated bovine lactoferrin (Se-bLF) on antioxidant enzyme activities in human gut epithelial cells under oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrow, Hannah; Kanwar, Rupinder K; Mahidhara, Ganesh; Kanwar, Jagat R

    2011-10-01

    Cancer and many chronic inflammatory diseases are associated with increased amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The potential cellular and tissue damage created by ROS has significant impact on many disease and cancer states and natural therapeutics are becoming essential in regulating altered redox states. We have shown recently that iron content is a critical determinant in the antitumour activity of bovine milk lactoferrin (bLF). We found that 100% iron-saturated bLF (Fe-bLF) acts as a potent natural adjuvant and fortifying agent for augmenting cancer chemotherapy and thus has a broad utility in the treatment of cancer. Furthermore, we also studied the effects of iron saturated bLF's ability as an antioxidant in the human epithelial colon cancer cell line HT29, giving insights into the potential of bLF in its different states. Thus, metal saturated bLF could be implemented as anti-cancer neutraceutical. In this regard, we have recently been able to prepare a selenium (Se) saturated form of bLF, being up to 98% saturated. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine how oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) alters antioxidant enzyme activity within HT29 epithelial colon cancer cells, and observe changes in this activity by treatments with different antioxidants ascorbic acid (AA), Apo (iron free)-bLF and selenium (Se)-bLF. The states of all antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione- s-transferase (GsT), catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) demonstrated high levels within untreated HT29 cells compared to the majority of other treatments being used, even prior to H2O2 exposure. All enzymes showed significant alterations in activity when cells were treated with antioxidants AA, Apo-bLF or Se-bLF, with and/or without H2O2 exposure. Obvious indications that the Se content of the bLF potentially interacted with the glutathione (GSH)/GPx/GR/GsT associated redox system could be

  9. D-region Ionospheric Imaging Using VLF/LF Broadband Sferics, Forward Modeling, and Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, J.; Cohen, M.

    2017-12-01

    The D-region of the ionosphere (60-90 km altitude) is highly variable on timescales from fractions of a second to many hours, and on spatial scales from 10 km to many hundreds of km. VLF and LF (3-30kHz, 30-300kHz) radio waves are guided to global distances by reflecting off of the ground and the D-region, making the Earth-ionosphere waveguide (EIWG). Therefore, information about the current state of the ionosphere is encoded in received VLF/LF radio waves since they act like probes of the D-region. The return stroke of lightning is an impulsive event that radiates powerful broadband radio emissions in VLF/LF bands known as `radio atmospherics' or `sferics'. Lightning flashes occur about 40-50 times per second throughout the Earth. An average of 2000 lightning storms occur each day with a mean duration of 30 minutes creating a broad spatial and temporal distribution of lightning VLF/LF sources. With careful processing, we can recover high fidelity measurements of amplitude and phase of both the radial and azimuthal magnetic field sferic components. By comparison to a theoretical EIWG propagation model such as the Long Wave Propagation Capability (LWPC) developed by the US Navy, with a standard forward modeling approach, we can infer information about the current state of the D-region. Typically, the ionosphere is parametrized to reduce the dimensionality of the problem which usually results in an electron density vs altitude profile. For large distances (Greater than 1000 km), these results can be interpreted as path-averaged information. In contrast to studies using navy transmitters to study the D-region, the full spectral information allows for more complete information and less ambiguous inferred ionospheric parameters. With the spatial breadth of lightning sources taken together with a broadly distributed VLF/LF receiver network, a dense set of measurements are acquired in a tomographic sense. Using the wealth of linear algebra and imaging techniques it is

  10. The effect of different fibre volume fraction on mechanical properties of banana/pineapple leaf (PaLF)/glass hybrid composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafee, Z. M.; Khalina, A.; Norkhairunnisa, M.; Syams, Z. Edi; Liew, K. E.

    2017-09-01

    This paper investigates the effect of fibre volume fraction on mechanical properties of banana-pineapple leaf (PaLF)-glass reinforced epoxy resin under tensile loading. Uniaxial tensile tests were carried out on specimens with different fibre contents (30%, 40%, 50% in weight). The composite specimens consists of 13 different combinations. The effect of hybridisation between synthetic and natural fibre onto tensile properties was determined and the optimum fibre volume fraction was obtained at 50% for both banana and PaLF composites. Additional 1 layer of woven glass fibre increased the tensile strength of banana-PaLF composite up to 85%.

  11. Measurement of MOSFET LF Noise Under Large Signal RF Excitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wel, A.P.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram

    A new measurement technique is presented that allows measurement of MOSFET LF noise under large signal RF excitation. Measurements indicate that MOSFETS exhibit a reduction in LF noise when they are cycled from inversion to accummulation and that this reduction does not depend on the frequency of

  12. Technological Innovations of Carbon Dioxide Injection in EAF-LF Steelmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guangsheng; Zhu, Rong; Wu, Xuetao; Dong, Kai; Yang, Lingzhi; Liu, Runzao

    2018-06-01

    In this study, the recent innovations and improvements in carbon dioxide (CO2) injection technologies for electric arc furnace (EAF)-ladle furnace (LF) steelmaking processes have been reviewed. The utilization of CO2 in the EAF-LF steelmaking process resulted in improved efficiency, purity and environmental impact. For example, coherent jets with CO2 and O2 mixed injection can reduce the amount of iron loss and dust generation, and submerged O2 and powder injection with CO2 in an EAF can increase the production efficiency and improve the dephosphorization and denitrification characteristics. Additionally, bottom-blowing CO2 in an EAF can strengthen molten bath stirring and improve nitrogen removal, while bottom-blowing CO2 in a LF can increase the rate of desulfurization and improve the removal of inclusions. Based on these innovations, a prospective process for the cyclic utilization of CO2 in the EAF-LF steelmaking process is introduced that is effective in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from the steelmaking shop.

  13. Technological Innovations of Carbon Dioxide Injection in EAF-LF Steelmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guangsheng; Zhu, Rong; Wu, Xuetao; Dong, Kai; Yang, Lingzhi; Liu, Runzao

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the recent innovations and improvements in carbon dioxide (CO2) injection technologies for electric arc furnace (EAF)-ladle furnace (LF) steelmaking processes have been reviewed. The utilization of CO2 in the EAF-LF steelmaking process resulted in improved efficiency, purity and environmental impact. For example, coherent jets with CO2 and O2 mixed injection can reduce the amount of iron loss and dust generation, and submerged O2 and powder injection with CO2 in an EAF can increase the production efficiency and improve the dephosphorization and denitrification characteristics. Additionally, bottom-blowing CO2 in an EAF can strengthen molten bath stirring and improve nitrogen removal, while bottom-blowing CO2 in a LF can increase the rate of desulfurization and improve the removal of inclusions. Based on these innovations, a prospective process for the cyclic utilization of CO2 in the EAF-LF steelmaking process is introduced that is effective in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from the steelmaking shop.

  14. Nystatin LF (Aronex/Abbott).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, S; Rex, J H

    2001-04-01

    Nystatin LF (Nyotran) is a liposomal, intravenous nystatin formulation under development by Aronex, under license from the MD Anderson Cancer Research Center, as a systemic antifungal agent against strains including Aspergillus and Candida. Like amphotericin, nystatin is a polyene derivative that binds to ergosterol, a fungal cell membrane component, creating a pore in the membrane and thus killing the cell. Nystatin is an established antifungal agent, but is restricted to topical use as it is ineffective orally and severely toxic when administered iv [187583], [187589]. It has demonstrated good, broad in vitro antifungal activity against clinically relevant filamentous fungi [319465], including fungi resistant to fluconazole and amphotericin B products [264505], [2869821, [287790], 1289522]. The company is also conducting a phase III trial to evaluate its efficacy against cryptococcal meningitis [305531], [334156]. Aronex filed for approval of nystatin LF in Spain in December 1997 [272986] and expected to file an NDA in the US by the end of 1999 1311208], [342003]. However, in an effort to ensure that its US and European filings contained data from the phase III cryptococcal meningitis trial in its entirety, Aronex's marketing partner requested that all the 70-day data be gathered prior to unblinding this study. The filing had initially been based on interim data at the 14- and 21-day endpoint 1344887]. In September 2000, the company anticipated an NDA filing in the US in the fourth quarter of 2001 1382861], 1387947]. In December 1997, Aronex, together with Grupo Ferrer Internacional, filed an MAA in Spain seeking approval for Nyotran for the treatment of systemic fungal infections. Aronex intended to follow the filing with additional filings in other European countries 1272986]. In 1997, a commercialization agreement was signed with Ferrer for Spain and Portugal, with Aronex intending to form other such partnerships throughout Europe and Asia 1248346]. In

  15. Highly predictive support vector machine (SVM) models for anthrax toxin lethal factor (LF) inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xia; Amin, Elizabeth Ambrose

    2016-01-01

    Anthrax is a highly lethal, acute infectious disease caused by the rod-shaped, Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus anthracis. The anthrax toxin lethal factor (LF), a zinc metalloprotease secreted by the bacilli, plays a key role in anthrax pathogenesis and is chiefly responsible for anthrax-related toxemia and host death, partly via inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK) enzymes and consequent disruption of key cellular signaling pathways. Antibiotics such as fluoroquinolones are capable of clearing the bacilli but have no effect on LF-mediated toxemia; LF itself therefore remains the preferred target for toxin inactivation. However, currently no LF inhibitor is available on the market as a therapeutic, partly due to the insufficiency of existing LF inhibitor scaffolds in terms of efficacy, selectivity, and toxicity. In the current work, we present novel support vector machine (SVM) models with high prediction accuracy that are designed to rapidly identify potential novel, structurally diverse LF inhibitor chemical matter from compound libraries. These SVM models were trained and validated using 508 compounds with published LF biological activity data and 847 inactive compounds deposited in the Pub Chem BioAssay database. One model, M1, demonstrated particularly favorable selectivity toward highly active compounds by correctly predicting 39 (95.12%) out of 41 nanomolar-level LF inhibitors, 46 (93.88%) out of 49 inactives, and 844 (99.65%) out of 847 Pub Chem inactives in external, unbiased test sets. These models are expected to facilitate the prediction of LF inhibitory activity for existing molecules, as well as identification of novel potential LF inhibitors from large datasets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Design considerations for large field particle image velocimetery (LF-PIV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pol, S U; Balakumar, B J

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the challenges and limitations associated with the development of a large field of view particle image velocimetry (LF-PIV) diagnostic, capable of resolving large-scale motions (>1 m per camera) in gas phase laboratory and field experiments. While this diagnostic is developed for the measurement of wakes and local inflow conditions around research wind turbines, the design considerations provided here are also relevant for the application of LF-PIV to atmospheric boundary layer, rotorcraft dynamics and large-scale wind tunnel flows. Measurements over an area of 0.75 m × 1.0 m on a confined vortex were obtained using a standard 2MP camera, with the potential for increasing this area significantly using 11MP cameras. The cameras in this case were oriented orthogonal to the measurement plane receiving only the side-scattered component of light from the particles. Scaling laws associated with LF-PIV systems are also presented along with the performance analysis of low-density, large diameter Expancel particles, that appear to be promising candidates for LF-PIV seeding. (paper)

  17. MXLKID: a maximum likelihood parameter identifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavel, D.T.

    1980-07-01

    MXLKID (MaXimum LiKelihood IDentifier) is a computer program designed to identify unknown parameters in a nonlinear dynamic system. Using noisy measurement data from the system, the maximum likelihood identifier computes a likelihood function (LF). Identification of system parameters is accomplished by maximizing the LF with respect to the parameters. The main body of this report briefly summarizes the maximum likelihood technique and gives instructions and examples for running the MXLKID program. MXLKID is implemented LRLTRAN on the CDC7600 computer at LLNL. A detailed mathematical description of the algorithm is given in the appendices. 24 figures, 6 tables

  18. Study of water dynamics in the soaking, steaming, and solid-state fermentation of glutinous rice by LF-NMR: a novel monitoring approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Teng; Tu, Chuanhai; Rui, Xin; Gao, Yangwen; Li, Wei; Wang, Kun; Xiao, Yu; Dong, Mingsheng

    2015-04-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) of starchy grain is a traditional technique for food and alcoholic beverage production in East Asia. In the present study, low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) was introduced for the elucidation of water dynamics and microstructure alternations during the soaking, steaming, and SSF of glutinous rice as a rapid real-time monitoring method. Three different proton fractions with different mobilities were identified based on the degree of interaction between biopolymers and water. Soaking and steaming significantly changed the proton distribution of the sample. The different phases of SSF were reflected by the T2 parameters. In addition, the variations in the T2 parameters were explained by the microstructure changes of rice induced by SSF. The fermentation time and T2 parameters were sigmoidally correlated. Thus, LF-NMR may be an effective real-time monitoring method for SSF in starch systems.

  19. VLF/LF Radio Sounding of Ionospheric Perturbations Associated with Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Hayakawa

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available It is recently recognized that the ionosphere is very sensitive to seismic effects,and the detection of ionospheric perturbations associated with earthquakes, seems to bevery promising for short-term earthquake prediction. We have proposed a possible use ofVLF/LF (very low frequency (3-30 kHz /low frequency (30-300 kHz radio sounding ofthe seismo-ionospheric perturbations. A brief history of the use of subionospheric VLF/LFpropagation for the short-term earthquake prediction is given, followed by a significantfinding of ionospheric perturbation for the Kobe earthquake in 1995. After showingprevious VLF/LF results, we present the latest VLF/LF findings; One is the statisticalcorrelation of the ionospheric perturbation with earthquakes and the second is a case studyfor the Sumatra earthquake in December, 2004, indicating the spatical scale and dynamicsof ionospheric perturbation for this earthquake.

  20. Inhibition of Candida albicans Biofilm Formation by the Synthetic Lactoferricin Derived Peptide hLF1-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morici, Paola; Fais, Roberta; Rizzato, Cosmeri; Tavanti, Arianna; Lupetti, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of the synthetic peptide hLF1-11 against biofilm produced by clinical isolates of Candida albicans with different fluconazole susceptibility. The antibiofilm activity of the peptide hLF1-11 was assessed in terms of reduction of biofilm cellular density, metabolic activity and sessile cell viability. The extent of morphogenesis in hLF1-11 treated and untreated biofilms was also investigated microscopically. Transcription levels of genes related to cell adhesion, hyphal development and extracellular matrix production were analysed by qRT-PCR in hLF1-11 treated and untreated biofilms. Exogenous dibutyryl-cAMP (db-cAMP) was used to rescue morphogenesis in cells exposed to the peptide. The results revealed that hLF1-11 exhibited an inhibitory effect on biofilm formation by all C. albicans isolates tested in a dose-dependent manner, regardless of their fluconazole susceptibility. Visual inspection of treated or untreated biofilm cells with an inverted microscope revealed a significant reduction in hyphal formation by hLF1-11 treated cells, as early as 3 hours of incubation. Moreover, hLF1-11 showed a reduced activity on preadherent cells. hLF1-11 induced the down-regulation of biofilm and hyphal-associated genes, which were predominantly regulated via the Ras1-cAMP-Efg1 pathway. Indeed, exogenous db-cAMP restored morphogenesis in hLF1-11 treated cells. The hLF1-11 peptide significantly inhibited biofilm formation by C. albicans mainly at early stages, interfering with biofilm cellular density and metabolic activity, and affected morphogenesis through the Ras1-cAMP-Efg1 pathway. Our findings provide the first evidence that hLF1-11 could represent a potential candidate for the prevention of biofilm formation by C. albicans.

  1. Inhibition of Candida albicans Biofilm Formation by the Synthetic Lactoferricin Derived Peptide hLF1-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morici, Paola; Fais, Roberta; Rizzato, Cosmeri

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of the synthetic peptide hLF1-11 against biofilm produced by clinical isolates of Candida albicans with different fluconazole susceptibility. The antibiofilm activity of the peptide hLF1-11 was assessed in terms of reduction of biofilm cellular density, metabolic activity and sessile cell viability. The extent of morphogenesis in hLF1-11 treated and untreated biofilms was also investigated microscopically. Transcription levels of genes related to cell adhesion, hyphal development and extracellular matrix production were analysed by qRT-PCR in hLF1-11 treated and untreated biofilms. Exogenous dibutyryl-cAMP (db-cAMP) was used to rescue morphogenesis in cells exposed to the peptide. The results revealed that hLF1-11 exhibited an inhibitory effect on biofilm formation by all C. albicans isolates tested in a dose-dependent manner, regardless of their fluconazole susceptibility. Visual inspection of treated or untreated biofilm cells with an inverted microscope revealed a significant reduction in hyphal formation by hLF1-11 treated cells, as early as 3 hours of incubation. Moreover, hLF1-11 showed a reduced activity on preadherent cells. hLF1-11 induced the down-regulation of biofilm and hyphal-associated genes, which were predominantly regulated via the Ras1-cAMP-Efg1 pathway. Indeed, exogenous db-cAMP restored morphogenesis in hLF1-11 treated cells. The hLF1-11 peptide significantly inhibited biofilm formation by C. albicans mainly at early stages, interfering with biofilm cellular density and metabolic activity, and affected morphogenesis through the Ras1-cAMP-Efg1 pathway. Our findings provide the first evidence that hLF1-11 could represent a potential candidate for the prevention of biofilm formation by C. albicans. PMID:27902776

  2. Inhibition of Candida albicans Biofilm Formation by the Synthetic Lactoferricin Derived Peptide hLF1-11.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Morici

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of the synthetic peptide hLF1-11 against biofilm produced by clinical isolates of Candida albicans with different fluconazole susceptibility. The antibiofilm activity of the peptide hLF1-11 was assessed in terms of reduction of biofilm cellular density, metabolic activity and sessile cell viability. The extent of morphogenesis in hLF1-11 treated and untreated biofilms was also investigated microscopically. Transcription levels of genes related to cell adhesion, hyphal development and extracellular matrix production were analysed by qRT-PCR in hLF1-11 treated and untreated biofilms. Exogenous dibutyryl-cAMP (db-cAMP was used to rescue morphogenesis in cells exposed to the peptide. The results revealed that hLF1-11 exhibited an inhibitory effect on biofilm formation by all C. albicans isolates tested in a dose-dependent manner, regardless of their fluconazole susceptibility. Visual inspection of treated or untreated biofilm cells with an inverted microscope revealed a significant reduction in hyphal formation by hLF1-11 treated cells, as early as 3 hours of incubation. Moreover, hLF1-11 showed a reduced activity on preadherent cells. hLF1-11 induced the down-regulation of biofilm and hyphal-associated genes, which were predominantly regulated via the Ras1-cAMP-Efg1 pathway. Indeed, exogenous db-cAMP restored morphogenesis in hLF1-11 treated cells. The hLF1-11 peptide significantly inhibited biofilm formation by C. albicans mainly at early stages, interfering with biofilm cellular density and metabolic activity, and affected morphogenesis through the Ras1-cAMP-Efg1 pathway. Our findings provide the first evidence that hLF1-11 could represent a potential candidate for the prevention of biofilm formation by C. albicans.

  3. A novel heart rate control model provides insights linking LF-HRV behavior to the open-loop gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvir, Hila; Bobrovsky, Ben Zion; Gabbay, Uri

    2013-09-20

    Low-frequency heart rate variability (LF-HRV) at rest has already been successfully modeled as self-sustained oscillations in a nonlinear control loop, but these models fail to simulate LF-HRV decreases either during aerobic exercise or in heart failure patients. Following control engineering practices, we assume the existence of a biological excitation (dither) within the heart rate control loop that softens the nonlinearity and studied LF-HRV behavior in a dither-embedded model. We adopted the Ottesen model with some revisions and induced a dither of high-frequency stochastic perturbations. We simulated scenarios of a healthy subject at rest and during aerobic exercise (by decreasing peripheral vascular resistance) and a heart failure patient (by decreasing stroke volume). The simulations resembled physiological LF-HRV behavior, i.e., LF-HRV decreased during aerobic exercise and in the heart failure patient. The simulations exhibited LF-HRV dependency on the open-loop gain, which is related to the product of the feedback gain and the feed forward gain. We are the first to demonstrate that LF-HRV may be dependent on the open-loop gain. Accordingly, reduced open-loop gain results in decreased LF-HRV, and vice versa. Our findings explain a well-known but unexplained observed phenomenon of reduced LF-HRV both in heart failure patients and in healthy subjects performing aerobic exercise. These findings have implications on how changes in LF-HRV can be interpreted physiologically, a necessary step towards the clinical utilization of LF-HRV. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Nonlinear low frequency (LF) waves - Comets and foreshock phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurutani, Bruce T.

    1991-01-01

    A review is conducted of LF wave nonlinear properties at comets and in the earth's foreshock, engaging such compelling questions as why there are no cometary cyclotron waves, the physical mechanism responsible for 'dispersive whiskers', and the character of a general description of linear waves. Attention is given to the nonlinear properties of LF waves, whose development is illustrated by examples of waves and their features at different distances from the comet, as well as by computer simulation results. Also discussed is a curious wave mode detected from Comet Giacobini-Zinner, both at and upstream of the bow shock/wave.

  5. Occurrence of the Microcystins MC-LW and MC-LF in Dutch Surface Waters and Their Contribution to Total Microcystin Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth J. Faassen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Microcystins (MCs are the most frequently found cyanobacterial toxins in freshwater systems. Many MC variants have been identified and variants differ in their toxicity. Recent studies showed that the variants MC-LW and MC-LF might be more toxic than MC-LR, the variant that is most abundant and mostly used for risk assessments. As little is known about the presence of these two variants in The Netherlands, we determined their occurrence by analyzing 88 water samples and 10 scum samples for eight MC variants ((dm-7-MC-RR, MC-YR, (dm-7-MC-LR, MC-LY, MC-LW and MC-LF by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection. All analyzed MC variants were detected, and MC-LW and/or MC-LF were present in 32% of the MC containing water samples. When MC-LW and MC-LF were present, they contributed to nearly 10% of the total MC concentrations, but due to their suspected high toxicity, their average contribution to the total MC toxicity was estimated to be at least 45%. Given the frequent occurrence and possible high toxicity of MC-LW and MC-LF, it seems better to base health risk assessments on the toxicity contributions of different MC variants than on MC-LR concentrations alone.

  6. Wavelet analysis of the LF radio signals collected by the European VLF/LF network from July 2009 to April 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Contadakis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    In 2008, a radio receiver that works in very low frequency (VLF; 20-60 kHz and LF (150-300 kHz bands was developed by an Italian factory. The receiver can monitor 10 frequencies distributed in these bands, with the measurement for each of them of the electric field intensity. Since 2009, to date, six of these radio receivers have been installed throughout Europe to establish a ‘European VLF/LF Network’. At present, two of these are into operation in Italy, and the remaining four are located in Greece, Turkey, Portugal and Romania. For the present study, the LF radio data collected over about two years were analysed. At first, the day-time data and the night-time data were separated for each radio signal. Taking into account that the LF signals are characterized by ground-wave and sky-wave propagation modes, the day-time data are related to the ground wave and the night-time data to the sky wave. In this framework, the effects of solar activity and storm activity were defined in the different trends. Then, the earthquakes with M ≥5.0 that occurred over the same period were selected, as those located in a 300-km radius around each receiver/transmitter and within the 5th Fresnel zone related to each transmitter-receiver path. Where possible, the wavelet analysis was applied on the time series of the radio signal intensity, and some anomalies related to previous earthquakes were revealed. Except for some doubt in one case, success appears to have been obtained in all of the cases related to the 300 km circles in for the ground waves and the sky waves. For the Fresnel cases, success in two cases and one failure were seen in analysing the sky waves. The failure occurred in August/September, and might be related to the disturbed conditions of the ionosphere in summer.

     

  7. The lactoferricin B-derived peptide, LfB17-34, induces melanogenesis in B16F10 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsiu-Chin; Lin, Hsuan; Huang, Min-Chuan

    2017-03-01

    Lactoferricin B (LfcinB), a peptide of bovine lactoferrin (LfB), exhibits multiple biological functions, including antimicrobial, antiviral, antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities. However, the role of LfcinB-related peptides in melanogenesis remains unclear. In this study, a set of five LfcinB-related peptides was examined. We found that LfB17‑34, an 18-mer LfcinB-derived peptide, increased melanogenesis in B16F10 melanoma cells without significantly affecting cell viability. LfB17‑34 increased in vitro tyrosinase activity and melanin content in a dose-dependent manner. The results of RT-qPCR and western blot analyses showed that LfB17‑34 increased the mRNA and protein expression of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein 1 (Trp1). Moreover, LfB17‑34 inhibited the phosphorylation of MAPK/Erk, but not p38 and Akt, and constitutively active MEK was able to reverse the LfB17-34-enhanced pigmentation, melanin content, and tyrosinase activity, suggesting a role of Erk signaling in the process of LfB17‑34-mediated pigmentation. Taken together, these results suggest that LfB17‑34 induces melanogenesis in B16F10 cells primarily through increased tyrosinase expression and activity and that LfB17‑34 could be further developed for the treatment of hypopigmentation disorders.

  8. Hubungan Parameter Sifat Magnetik Dan Sifat Keteknikan Tanah Pada Tanah Residual Vulkanik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mela Faridlah

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian mengenai karakteristik tanah residual vulkanik menggunakan metode magnetik dan metode geoteknik telah dilakukan pada lereng stabil dan lereng longsor yang berada di Desa Langensari Kecamatan Lembang Kabupaten Bandung Barat Provinsi Jawa Barat. Penelitian ini dimaksudkan untuk mengetahui gambaran karakteristik suseptibilitas magnetik dan parameter keteknikan tanah residual vulkanik. Karakteristik geoteknik ditentukan melalui uji fisik berupa uji bobot isi, berat isi tanah basah, berat isi tanah kering, kadar air, derajat kejenuhan dan porositas, uji batas atterberg serta uji ukuran butir tanah.. Karakteristik magnetik ditentukan melalui uji suseptibilitas magnetik menggunakan Bartington MS2B (Magnetic Suseptibility System sensor B dual frekuensi yaitu 470 Hz dan 4,7 kHz. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan peningkatan nilai-nilai χLF (suseptibilitas frekuensi rendah dan χFD% (suseptibilitas bergantung frekuensi kearah horizon bagian atas profil tanah residual. Peningkatan nilai-nilai χLF dan χFD% ke arah horizon bagian atas merupakan karakteristik dari suseptibilitas magnetik.Dari hasil penelitian geoteknik dan magnetik didapatkan hasil jenis tanah residual vulkanik tersebut merupakan tanah lempung dengan mineral dominan yaitu Ilmenit. Hubungan antara parameter magnetik dan keteknikan tanah yaitu beberapa parameter keteknikan yang mempengaruhi sifat kemagnetan diantaranya berat isi tanah basah dan kadar air. Research on volcanic residual soil characteristics using magnetic methods and geotechnic methods was carried out on a stable slope and landslide slope are located in Langensari Lembang west Bandung, West Java Province. This study are intended to describe the characteristics of the magnetic susceptibility and residual volcanic soil engineering parameters. Geotechnical characteristics were determined by physical properties tests such as bulk density test, wet density, dry density, water content, degree of saturation and porosity

  9. Ex vivo intestinal adhesion of Escherichia coli LF82 in Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Stina Rikke; Fink, Lisbeth Nielsen; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2011-01-01

    Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) are reported to inhabit the gut mucosa in Crohn's disease (CD), however, little is known about the importance of host factors for the interplay between AIEC and the human gut. To examine if differences in bacterial adhesion patterns are disease associated......, the AIEC-prototype strain LF82 was evaluated for its ability to adhere to ileal and colonic biopsies from CD and healthy controls (HC). Moreover, the efficacy of the non-pathogenic E. coli Nissle 1917 (ECN) in averting LF82 adhesion to ileal mucosa was assessed. Similar numbers of LF82 adhered to biopsies...

  10. Indium zinc oxide films deposited on PET by LF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Lyoung; Jung, Sang Kooun; Sohn, Sang Ho; Park, Duck Kyu

    2007-01-01

    Indium zinc oxide (IZO) has attracted much attention recently for use in transparent oxide films compared with the ITO film. We carried out the deposition of IZO on a polyethylene terapthalate (PET) substrate at room temperature by a low-frequency (LF) magnetron sputtering system. These films have amorphous structures with excellent electrical stability, surface uniformity and high optical transmittance. The effects of LF applied voltage and O 2 flow rate were investigated. The electrical and optical properties were studied. At optimal deposition conditions, thin films of IZO with a sheet resistance of 32 Ω/sq and an optical transmittance of over 80% in the visible spectrum range were achieved. The IZO thin films fabricated by this method do not require substrate heating during the film preparation of any additional post-deposition annealing treatment. The experimental results show that films with good qualities of surface morphology, transmittance and electrical conduction can be grown by the LF magnetron sputtering method on PET which is recommendable

  11. Determination of deep-level impurities and their effects on the small-single and LF noise properties of ion-implanted GaAs MESFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriram, S.; Kim, B.; Ghosh, P.K.; Das, M.B.; Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park; Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park

    1982-01-01

    A large number of deep levels, with energies ranging from Esub(c)-0.19eV to Esub(c)-0.9eV, have been identified and characterized using ion-implanted MESFET's on undoped and Cr-doped LEC-grown semi-insulating GaAs substrates. Measurement techniques used include deep level transient (DLTS) and steady state spectroscopic (DLSS) methods. Large capture cross-section values are obtained for levels below Esub(c)-0.5eV, possibly due to high electric field. Spectral densities of LF noise with distinct bulges have been shown to be related to deep levels. In some samples, natural deep level related oscillations have been observed and their ionization energies have been determined. (author)

  12. Variations of the VLF/LF signals during seismic activity in Japan in November 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhnoi, Alexander; Solovieva, Maria; Levin, Boris; Chebrov, Danila; Hayakawa, Masashi; Fedun, Viktor

    2017-04-01

    The measurements of the very low and low frequency (VLF/LF) signals at the Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk stations were used for the analysis in connection with two underwater earthquakes which occurred near Japan in November 2016. The first earthquake with M=6.1 (depth 42 km) happened on 11 November. The second earthquake was recorded on 21 November with M=6.9 (depth 11 km) and had series of aftershocks with M up to 5.6 (USGS/NEIC). The significant negative nighttime amplitude anomalies were found for two sub-ionospheric paths: NWC-Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and JJY-Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk during about a week in case of the first earthquake. The anomalies of signal in the path JJY-Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky were observed during 4-5 days before the second earthquake and during 3 days after it. Taking into account the possible influence of other factors which can produce perturbations in VLF/LF signals (geomagnetic storm, proton burst and the relativistic electron fluxes, as well as atmospheric parameters), also using control paths, we may conclude that observed anomalies very likely were caused by impending earthquakes.

  13. Antilipolytic and hypotriglyceridemic effects of dietary Salvia triloba Lf

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    management of dyslipidemia, and diabetes and obesity. This study was aimed to evaluate the modulatory effects of Salvia triloba L.f. (Lamiaceae) leaves methanol extract (ME) on a high fat diet .... mg/mL DMSO), was prepared into six different.

  14. Quality-by-design (QbD): effects of testing parameters and formulation variables on the segregation tendency of pharmaceutical powder measured by the ASTM D 6940-04 segregation tester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lin; Wu, Huiquan; Shen, Meiyu; Augsburger, Larry L; Lyon, Robbe C; Khan, Mansoor A; Hussain, Ajaz S; Hoag, Stephen W

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of testing parameters and formulation variables on the segregation tendency of pharmaceutical powders measured by the ASTM D 6940-04 segregation tester using design of experiments (DOE) approaches. The test blends consisted of 4% aspirin (ASP) and 96% microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) with and without magnesium stearate (MgS). The segregation tendency of a blend was determined by measuring the last/first (L/F) ratio, the ratio of aspirin concentrations between the first and last samples discharged from the tester. A 2(2) factorial design was used to determine the effects of measurement parameters [amount of material loaded (W), number of segregation cycles] with number of replicates 6. ANOVA showed that W was a critical parameter for segregation testing. The L/F value deviated further from 1 (greater segregation tendency) with increasing W. A 2(3) full factorial design was used to assess the effects of formulation variables: grade of ASP (unmilled, milled), grade of MCC, and amount of lubricant, MgS. MLR and ANOVA showed that the grade of ASP was the main effect contributing to segregation tendency. Principal Component Regression Analysis established a correlation between L/F and the physical properties of the blend related to ASP and MCC, the ASP/MCC particle size ratio (PSR) and powder cohesion. The physical properties of the blend related to density and flow were not influenced by the grade of ASP and were not related to the segregation tendency of the blend. The direct relationship between L/F and PSR was determined by univariate analysis. Segregation tendency increased as the ASP to MCC particle size increased. This study highlighted critical test parameters for segregation testing and identified critical physical properties of the blends that influence segregation tendency. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  15. [BLG gene knockout and hLF gene knock-in at BLG locus in goat by TALENs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shaozheng; Zhu, Mengmin; Yuan, Yuguo; Rong, Yao; Xu, Sheng; Chen, Si; Mei, Junyan; Cheng, Yong

    2016-03-01

    To knock out β-lactoglobulin (BLG) gene and insert human lactoferrin (hLF) coding sequence at BLG locus of goat, the transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) mediated recombination was used to edit the BLG gene of goat fetal fibroblast, then as donor cells for somatic cell nuclear transfer. We designed a pair of specific plasmid TALEN-3-L/R for goat BLG exon III recognition sites, and BLC14-TK vector containing a negative selection gene HSV-TK, was used for the knock in of hLF gene. TALENs plasmids were transfected into the goat fetal fibroblast cells, and the cells were screened three days by 2 μg/mL puromycin. DNA cleavage activities of cells were verified by PCR amplification and DNA production sequencing. Then, targeting vector BLC14-TK and plasmids TALEN-3-L/R were co-transfected into goat fetal fibroblasts, both 700 μg/mL G418 and 2 μg/mL GCV were simultaneously used to screen G418-resistant cells. Detections of integration and recombination were implemented to obtain cells with hLF gene site-specific integration. We chose targeting cells as donor cells for somatic cell nuclear transfer. The mutagenicity of TALEN-3-L/R was between 25% and 30%. A total of 335 reconstructed embryos with 6 BLG-/hLF+ targeting cell lines were transferred into 16 recipient goats. There were 9 pregnancies confirmed by ultrasound on day 30 to 35 (pregnancy rate of 39.1%), and one of 50-day-old fetus with BLG-/hLF+ was achieved. These results provide the basis for hLF gene knock-in at BLG locus of goat and cultivating transgenic goat of low allergens and rich hLF in the milk.

  16. Interaction between lf electric fields and biological bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Češelkoska Vesna C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the Equivalent electrodes method is used for electric field calculation in the proximity of the various biological subjects exposed to an electric field in the LF range. Several results of the electric field intensity on the body surface and numerous graphical results for equipotential and equienergetic curves are presented.

  17. Nitrogen losses and chemical parameters during co-composting of solid wastes and liquid pig manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, M A; de la Varga, D; Plana, R; Soto, M

    2017-07-04

    The aim of this research was to study nitrogen losses during the treatment of the liquid fraction (LF) of pig manure by co-composting and to establish the best conditions for compost production with higher nitrogen and low heavy metal contents. Windrows were constituted with the solid fraction (SF) of pig manure, different organic waste (SF of pig manure, sawdust and grape bagasse) as co-substrate and Populus spp. wood chips as bulking material and watered intensely with the LF. Results show that nitrogen losses ranged from 30% to 66% of initial nitrogen and were mainly governed by substrate to bulking mass ratio and liquid fraction to substrate (LF/S) ratio, and only secondarily by operational parameters. Nitrogen losses decreased from 55-65% at low LF/S ratios (1.7-1.9 m 3 /t total solids (TS)) to 30-39% at high LF/S ratios (4.4-4.7 m 3 /t TS). Therefore, integrating the LF in the composting process at high LF/S ratios favoured nitrogen recovery and conservation. Nitrogen in the fine fraction (ranging from 27% to 48% of initial nitrogen) was governed by operational parameters, namely pH and temperature. Final compost showed low content in most heavy metals, but Zn was higher than the limits for compost use in agriculture. Zn content in the obtained compost varied from 1863 to 3269 mg/kg dm, depending on several factors. The options for obtaining better quality composts from the LF of pig manure are selecting co-substrates with low heavy metal content and using them instead of the SF of pig manure.

  18. [Effect of eicosapentaenoic acid on mRNA expression of tight junction protein ZO-1 in intestinal epithelial cells after Escherichia coli LF82 infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Li-Jun; Lin, Yan; Zhang, Wei; Tian, Jiao; Wang, Ya; Chen, Peng-De; Hu, Chong-Kang; Zeng, Ling-Chao; Yang, Jie; Wang, Bao-Xi; Jiang, Xun

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the change in the expression of tight junction protein ZO-1 in intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2 cells) and the protective effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) after adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (E.coli) LF82 infection. The Caco-2 cell line was used to establish an in vitro model of tight junction of intestinal epithelial cells. Caco-2 cells were divided into EPA treatment groups (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 μmol/L EPA) and EPA (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 μmol/L EPA)+E.coli LF82 treatment (0, 6, and 12 hours) groups. A microscope was used to observe the morphological characteristics of the cells. MTT assay was used to determine the cell growth curve. The activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) at both sides of the cell membrane was compared to evaluate the Caco-2 cell model. MTT assay and flow cytometry were used to investigate the effects of different concentrations of EPA on the survival rate and apoptosis rate of Caco-2 cells. RT-qPCR was used to measure the mRNA expression of ZO-1 in Caco-2 cells after EPA and/or E.coli LF82 treatment. ELISA was used to measure the change in the level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in culture supernatant. After EPA treatment (25 and 50 μmol/L), the proliferation of Caco-2 cells was induced in a dose-dependent manner. The survival rates of the cells were significantly higher than those in the control group (PE.coli LF82 treatment groups had decreasing mRNA expression of ZO-1 in Caco-2 cells over the time of treatment and had significantly lower mRNA expression of ZO-1 than the untreated group (PE.coli LF82 and 25 or 50 μmol/L EPA for 6 or 12 hours showed an increase in the mRNA expression of ZO-1 with the increasing concentration of EPA, as well as significantly higher mRNA expression of ZO-1 than the Caco-2 cells treated with E.coli LF82 alone (PE.coli LF82 alone for 6 or 12 hours had increasing secretion of TNF-α over the time of treatment and had significantly higher secretion than the untreated

  19. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) combined with lateral flow (LF) strip for detection of Toxoplasma gondii in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y D; Xu, M J; Wang, Q Q; Zhou, C X; Wang, M; Zhu, X Q; Zhou, D H

    2017-08-30

    Toxoplasma gondii infects all warm-blooded vertebrates, resulting in a great threat to human health and significant economic loss to the livestock industry. Ingestion of infectious oocysts of T. gondii from the environment is the major source of transmission. Detection of T. gondii oocysts by existing methods is laborious, time-consuming and expensive. The objective of the present study was to develop a recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) method combined with a lateral flow (LF) strip for detection of T. gondii oocysts in the soil and water. The DNA of T. gondii oocysts was amplified by a pair of specific primers based on the T. gondii B1 gene over 15min at a constant temperature ranging from 30°C to 45°C using RPA. The amplification product was visualized by the lateral flow (LF) strip within 5min using the specific probe added to the RPA reaction system. The sensitivity of the established assay was 10 times higher than that of nested PCR with a lower detection limit of 0.1 oocyst per reaction, and there was no cross-reactivity with other closely related protozoan species. Fifty environmental samples were further assessed for the detection validity of the LF-RPA assay (B1-LF-RPA) and compared with nested PCR based on the B1 gene sequence. The B1-LF-RPA and nested PCR both showed that 5 out of the 50 environmental samples were positive. The B1-LF-RPA method was also proven to be sufficiently tolerant of existing inhibitors in the environment. In addition, the advantages of simple operation, speediness and cost-effectiveness make B1-LF-RPA a promising molecular detection tool for T. gondii. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A R2R3-MYB Gene LfMYB113 is Responsible for Autumn Leaf Coloration in Formosan sweet gum (Liquidambar formosana Hance).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chi-Hsiang; Chu, Fang-Hua

    2017-03-01

    The regulation of autumn leaf coloration in deciduous trees has long been an enigma. Due to the fact that different coloration phenotypes may be considered when planting, more understanding of the regulation mechanism is needed. In this study, a R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene LfMYB113 was identified from a subtropical deciduous tree species Formosan sweet gum (Liquidambar formosana Hance). The expression patterns of LfMYB113 in four selected phenotypes were different and were positively correlated with leaf anthocyanin content. In a 35S::LfMYB113 transgenic Nicotiana tabacum plant, both the early and late genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway were shown to be up-regulated. It was also shown that LfMYB113 can activate the promoter sequence of LfDFR1 and LfDFR2. Transient overexpression of LfMYB113 in Nicotiana benthamiana showed strong anthocyanin accumulation and pre-senescence; the latter was confirmed by up-regulation of senescence-associated genes. In addition, the activation of proLfSGR::YFP by LfMYB113 in transient experiments indicated that LfMYB113 may have a role in regulation of Chl degradation. To our knowledge, this is the first time a R2R3-MYB transcription factor has been functionally identified as one of the key regulators of autumn leaf coloration and autumn leaf senescence. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Escherichia coli LF82 differentially regulates ROS production and mucin expression in intestinal epithelial T84 cells: implication of NOX1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elatrech, Imen; Marzaioli, Viviana; Boukemara, Hanane; Bournier, Odile; Neut, Christel; Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette; Luis, José; Dubuquoy, Laurent; El-Benna, Jamel; My-Chan Dang, Pham; Marie, Jean-Claude

    2015-05-01

    Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is associated with inflamed ileal lesions in Crohn's disease colonized by pathogenic adherent-invasive Escherichia coli LF82. We investigated whether such ileal bacteria can modulate ROS production by epithelial cells, thus impacting on inflammation and mucin expression. Ileal bacteria from patients with Crohn's disease were incubated with cultured epithelial T84 cells, and ROS production was assayed using the luminol-amplified chemiluminescence method. The gentamicin protection assay was used for bacterial invasion of T84 cell. The expression of NADPH oxidase (NOX) subunits, mucin, and IL-8 was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blots. Involvement of NOX and ROS was analyzed using diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Among different bacteria tested, only LF82 induced an increase of ROS production by T84 cells in a dose-dependent manner. This response was inhibited by DPI and NAC. Heat- or ethanol-attenuated LF82 bacteria and the mutant LF82ΔFimA, which does not express pili type 1 and poorly adheres to epithelial cells, did not induce the oxidative response. The LF82-induced oxidative response coincides with its invasion in T84 cells, and both processes were inhibited by DPI. Also, we observed an increased expression of NOX1 and NOXO1 in response to LF82 bacteria versus the mutant LF82ΔFimA. Furthermore, LF82 inhibited mucin gene expression (MUC2 and MUC5AC) in T84 cells while increasing the chemotactic IL-8 expression, both in a DPI-sensitive manner. Adherent-invasive E. coli LF82 induced ROS production by intestinal NADPH oxidase and altered mucin and IL-8 expression, leading to perpetuation of inflammatory lesions in Crohn's disease.

  2. Numerical simulation of dual frequency etching reactors: Influence of the external process parameters on the plasma characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgieva, V.; Bogaerts, A.

    2005-01-01

    A one-dimensional particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo model is used to investigate Ar/CF 4 /N 2 discharges sustained in capacitively coupled dual frequency reactors, with special emphasis on the influence of the reactor parameters such as applied voltage amplitudes and frequencies of the two voltage sources. The presented calculation results include plasma density, ion current, average sheath potential and width, electron and ion average energies and energy distributions, and ionization rates. The simulations were carried out for high frequencies (HFs) of 27, 40, 60, and 100 MHz and a low frequency (LF) of 1 or 2 MHz, varying the LF voltage and keeping the HF voltage constant and vice versa. It is observed that the decoupling of the two sources is possible by increasing the applied HF to very high values (above 60 MHz) and it is not defined by the frequency ratio. Both voltage sources have influence on the plasma characteristics at a HF of 27 MHz and to some extent at 40 MHz. At HFs of 60 and 100 MHz, the plasma density and ion flux are determined only by the HF voltage source. The ion energy increases and the ion energy distribution function (IEDF) becomes broader with HF or LF voltage amplitude, when the other voltage is kept constant. The IEDF is broader with the increase of HF or the decrease of LF

  3. Electron density profiles in the background of LF absorption during Forbush-decrease and PSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satori, G.

    1989-01-01

    Based on the simulation of different Forbush decrease and particle precipitation effects in the D region, electron density profiles in the mid-latitudes the ionospheric absorption of low frequency (LF) radio waves was determined. The absorption variations at different frequenceis are strongly affected by the shape of the electron density profile. A structure appears which sometimes resembles the letter S (in a sloping form). Both the height (around 70 to 72 km) and the depth of the local minimum in the electron density contribute to the computed absorption changes of various degree at different frequencies. In this way several observed special absorption events can be interpreted

  4. An improved asynchronous brain interface: making use of the temporal history of the LF-ASD feature vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashashati, Ali; Mason, Steve; Ward, Rabab K.; Birch, Gary E.

    2006-06-01

    The low-frequency asynchronous switch design (LF-ASD) has been introduced as a direct brain interface (BI) for asynchronous control applications. Asynchronous interfaces, as opposed to synchronous interfaces, have the advantage of being operational at all times and not only at specific system-defined periods. This paper modifies the LF-ASD design by incorporating into the system more knowledge about the attempted movements. Specifically, the history of feature values extracted from the EEG signal is used to detect a right index finger movement attempt. Using data collected from individuals with high-level spinal cord injuries and able-bodied subjects, it is shown that the error characteristics of the modified design are significantly better than the previous LF-ASD design. The true positive rate percentage increased by up to 15 which corresponds to 50% improvement when the system is operating with false positive rates in the 1-2% range.

  5. Effect of multiple freeze-thaw cycles on the quality of instant sea cucumber: Emphatically on water status of by LF-NMR and MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Mingqian; Lin, Zhuyi; Zu, Yinxue; Zhu, Beiwei; Cheng, Shasha

    2018-07-01

    Instant sea cucumber has become one popular product due to its convenience to eat, favourable taste and minimal loss of nutrients and bioactive components. However, there was rare information about the water dynamic of instant sea cucumber subjected to multiple freeze-thaw cycles. In this study, low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) and magnetic resonance image (MRI) were employed to investigate the effect of freeze-thaw cycles on water status of instant sea cucumber. Four water populations corresponding to strongly bound water, weakly bound water, immobile water and free water were observed in instant sea cucumber. With the increase of freeze-thaw cycles, the transverse relaxation time of immobile and free water increased, while the peak area of free water decreased significantly. MRI enabled the visualization of water migration of instant sea cucumber during multiple freeze-thaw cycles. Multiple freeze-thaw cycles also led to significant changes of other quality properties including thawing loss, WHC, color parameters, texture and protein content, and enlarge the interspace between fiber network in microstructure. Good correlations between T 22 , A 22 , A 23 and thaw loss, WHC, L*, hardness and collagen content (0.873 ≤ r ≤ 0.958) revealed LF-NMR may be an effective real-time monitoring method of these physicochemical parameters as a non-destructive technique. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reproducibility of heart rate variability parameters measured in healthy subjects at rest and after a postural change maneuver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Dantas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV provides important information about cardiac autonomic modulation. Since it is a noninvasive and inexpensive method, HRV has been used to evaluate several parameters of cardiovascular health. However, the internal reproducibility of this method has been challenged in some studies. Our aim was to determine the intra-individual reproducibility of HRV parameters in short-term recordings obtained in supine and orthostatic positions. Electrocardiographic (ECG recordings were obtained from 30 healthy subjects (20-49 years, 14 men using a digital apparatus (sampling ratio = 250 Hz. ECG was recorded for 10 min in the supine position and for 10 min in the orthostatic position. The procedure was repeated 2-3 h later. Time and frequency domain analyses were performed. Frequency domain included low (LF, 0.04-0.15 Hz and high frequency (HF, 0.15-0.4 Hz bands. Power spectral analysis was performed by the autoregressive method and model order was set at 16. Intra-subject agreement was assessed by linear regression analysis, test of difference in variances and limits of agreement. Most HRV measures (pNN50, RMSSD, LF, HF, and LF/HF ratio were reproducible independent of body position. Better correlation indexes (r > 0.6 were obtained in the orthostatic position. Bland-Altman plots revealed that most values were inside the agreement limits, indicating concordance between measures. Only SDNN and NNv in the supine position were not reproducible. Our results showed reproducibility of HRV parameters when recorded in the same individual with a short time between two exams. The increased sympathetic activity occurring in the orthostatic position probably facilitates reproducibility of the HRV indexes.

  7. Determining "small parameters" for quasi-steady state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeke, Alexandra; Walcher, Sebastian; Zerz, Eva

    2015-08-01

    For a parameter-dependent system of ordinary differential equations we present a systematic approach to the determination of parameter values near which singular perturbation scenarios (in the sense of Tikhonov and Fenichel) arise. We call these special values Tikhonov-Fenichel parameter values. The principal application we intend is to equations that describe chemical reactions, in the context of quasi-steady state (or partial equilibrium) settings. Such equations have rational (or even polynomial) right-hand side. We determine the structure of the set of Tikhonov-Fenichel parameter values as a semi-algebraic set, and present an algorithmic approach to their explicit determination, using Groebner bases. Examples and applications (which include the irreversible and reversible Michaelis-Menten systems) illustrate that the approach is rather easy to implement.

  8. Determination of complex microcalorimeter parameters with impedance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saab, T.; Bandler, S.R.; Chervenak, J.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Finkbeiner, F.; Iyomoto, N.; Kelley, R.L.; Kilbourne, C.A.; Lindeman, M.A.; Porter, F.S.; Sadleir, J.

    2006-01-01

    The proper understanding and modeling of a microcalorimeter's response requires accurate knowledge of a handful of parameters, such as C, G, α. While a few of these parameters are directly determined from the IV characteristics, some others, notoriously the heat capacity (C) and α, appear in degenerate combinations in most measurable quantities. The consideration of a complex microcalorimeter leads to an added ambiguity in the determination of the parameters. In general, the dependence of the microcalorimeter's complex impedance on these various parameters varies with frequency. This dependence allows us to determine individual parameters by fitting the prediction of the microcalorimeter model to impedance data. In this paper we describe efforts at characterizing the Goddard X-ray microcalorimeters. With the parameters determined by this method, we compare the pulse shape and noise spectra predictions to data taken with the same devices

  9. Quantitative estimation of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. 4. Toxoids as international reference materials defining Lf-units for diphtheria and tetanus toxoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyng, J

    1990-01-01

    The Lf-unit, which is used in the control of diphtheria and tetanus toxoid production and in some countries also to follow immunization of horses for production of antitoxins, has hitherto been defined by means of antitoxin preparations. A diphtheria toxoid and a tetanus toxoid preparation, both freeze-dried, were examined in an international collaborative study for their suitability to serve as reference reagents in the flocculation tests and for defining the Lf-units. It was shown that flocculation tests using the reference toxoids are very reproducible and reliable and the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization established: the toxoid called DIFT as the International Reference Reagent of Diphtheria Toxoid for Flocculation Test with a defined content of 900 Lf-units of diphtheria toxoid per ampoule; and the toxoid called TEFT as the International Reference Reagent of Tetanus Toxoid for Flocculation Test with a defined content of 1000 Lf-units of diphtheria toxoid per ampoule.

  10. Normal ranges and test-retest reproducibility of flow and velocity parameters in intracranial arteries measured with phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia de Verdier, Maria; Wikstroem, Johan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate normal ranges and test-retest reproducibility of phase-contrast MRI (PC-MRI)-measured flow and velocity parameters in intracranial arteries. Highest flow (HF), lowest flow (LF), peak systolic velocity (PSV), and end diastolic velocity (EDV) were measured at two dates in the anterior (ACA), middle (MCA), and posterior (PCA) cerebral arteries of 30 healthy volunteers using two-dimensional PC-MRI at 3 T. Least detectable difference (LDD) was calculated. In the left ACA, HF was (mean (range, LDD)) 126 ml/min (36-312, 59 %), LF 61 ml/min (0-156, 101 %), PSV 64 cm/s (32-141, 67 %), and EDV 35 cm/s (18-55, 42 %); in the right ACA, HF was 154 ml/min (42-246, 49 %), LF 77 ml/min (0-156, 131 %), PSV 75 cm/s (26-161, 82 %), and EDV 39 cm/s (7-59, 67 %). In the left MCA, HF was 235 ml/min (126-372, 35 %), LF 116 ml/min (42-186, 48 %), PSV 90 cm/s (55-183, 39 %), and EDV 46 cm/s (20-66, 28 %); in the right MCA, HF was 238 ml/min (162-342, 44 %), LF 120 ml/min (72-216, 48 %), PSV 88 cm/s (55-141, 35 %), and EDV 45 cm/s (26-67, 23 %). In the left PCA, HF was 108 ml/min (42-168, 54 %), LF 53 ml/min (18-108, 64 %), PSV 50 cm/s (24-77, 63 %), and EDV 28 cm/s (14-40, 45 %); in the right PCA, HF was 98 ml/min (30-162, 49 %), LF 49 ml/min (12-84, 55 %), PSV 47 cm/s (27-88, 59 %), and EDV 27 cm/s (16-41, 45 %). PC-MRI-measured flow and velocity parameters in the main intracranial arteries have large normal ranges. Reproducibility is highest in MCA. (orig.)

  11. Normal ranges and test-retest reproducibility of flow and velocity parameters in intracranial arteries measured with phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia de Verdier, Maria; Wikstroem, Johan [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2016-05-15

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate normal ranges and test-retest reproducibility of phase-contrast MRI (PC-MRI)-measured flow and velocity parameters in intracranial arteries. Highest flow (HF), lowest flow (LF), peak systolic velocity (PSV), and end diastolic velocity (EDV) were measured at two dates in the anterior (ACA), middle (MCA), and posterior (PCA) cerebral arteries of 30 healthy volunteers using two-dimensional PC-MRI at 3 T. Least detectable difference (LDD) was calculated. In the left ACA, HF was (mean (range, LDD)) 126 ml/min (36-312, 59 %), LF 61 ml/min (0-156, 101 %), PSV 64 cm/s (32-141, 67 %), and EDV 35 cm/s (18-55, 42 %); in the right ACA, HF was 154 ml/min (42-246, 49 %), LF 77 ml/min (0-156, 131 %), PSV 75 cm/s (26-161, 82 %), and EDV 39 cm/s (7-59, 67 %). In the left MCA, HF was 235 ml/min (126-372, 35 %), LF 116 ml/min (42-186, 48 %), PSV 90 cm/s (55-183, 39 %), and EDV 46 cm/s (20-66, 28 %); in the right MCA, HF was 238 ml/min (162-342, 44 %), LF 120 ml/min (72-216, 48 %), PSV 88 cm/s (55-141, 35 %), and EDV 45 cm/s (26-67, 23 %). In the left PCA, HF was 108 ml/min (42-168, 54 %), LF 53 ml/min (18-108, 64 %), PSV 50 cm/s (24-77, 63 %), and EDV 28 cm/s (14-40, 45 %); in the right PCA, HF was 98 ml/min (30-162, 49 %), LF 49 ml/min (12-84, 55 %), PSV 47 cm/s (27-88, 59 %), and EDV 27 cm/s (16-41, 45 %). PC-MRI-measured flow and velocity parameters in the main intracranial arteries have large normal ranges. Reproducibility is highest in MCA. (orig.)

  12. Lactobacillus fermentum CRL1446 Ameliorates Oxidative and Metabolic Parameters by Increasing Intestinal Feruloyl Esterase Activity and Modulating Microbiota in Caloric-Restricted Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias Russo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether the administration of the feruloyl esterase (FE-producing strain Lactobacillus fermentum CRL1446 enhances metabolic and oxidative parameters in caloric-restricted (CR mice. Balb/c male mice were divided into ad libitum fed Group (ALF Group, CR diet Group (CR Group and CR diet plus L. fermentum Group (CR-Lf Group. CR diet was administered during 45 days and CRL1446 strain was given in the dose of 108 cells/mL/day/mouse. FE activity was determined in intestinal mucosa and content at Day 1, 20 and 45. Triglyceride, total cholesterol, glucose, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS levels and glutathione reductase activity were determined in plasma. Gut microbiota was evaluated by high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. At Day 45, total intestinal FE activity in CR-Lf Group was higher (p = 0.020 than in CR and ALF groups and an improvement in both metabolic (reductions in triglyceride (p = 0.0025, total cholesterol (p = 0.005 and glucose (p < 0.0001 levels and oxidative (decrease of TBARS levels and increase of plasmatic glutathione reductase activity (p = 0.006 parameters was observed, compared to ALF Group. CR diet increased abundance of Bacteroidetes and CRL1446 administration increased abundance of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus genus. L. fermentun CRL1446 exerted a bifidogenic effect under CR conditions.

  13. Integral data analysis for resonance parameters determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, N.M.; Leal, L.C.; Derrien, H.

    1997-09-01

    Neutron time-of-flight experiments have long been used to determine resonance parameters. Those resonance parameters have then been used in calculations of integral quantities such as Maxwellian averages or resonance integrals, and results of those calculations in turn have been used as a criterion for acceptability of the resonance analysis. However, the calculations were inadequate because covariances on the parameter values were not included in the calculations. In this report an effort to correct for that deficiency is documented: (1) the R-matrix analysis code SAMMY has been modified to include integral quantities of importance, (2) directly within the resonance parameter analysis, and (3) to determine the best fit to both differential (microscopic) and integral (macroscopic) data simultaneously. This modification was implemented because it is expected to have an impact on the intermediate-energy range that is important for criticality safety applications

  14. The Proteome of Biologically Active Membrane Vesicles from Piscirickettsia salmonis LF-89 Type Strain Identifies Plasmid-Encoded Putative Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Oliver

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Piscirickettsia salmonis is the predominant bacterial pathogen affecting the Chilean salmonid industry. This bacterium is the etiological agent of piscirickettsiosis, a significant fish disease. Membrane vesicles (MVs released by P. salmonis deliver several virulence factors to host cells. To improve on existing knowledge for the pathogenicity-associated functions of P. salmonis MVs, we studied the proteome of purified MVs from the P. salmonis LF-89 type strain using multidimensional protein identification technology. Initially, the cytotoxicity of different MV concentration purified from P. salmonis LF-89 was confirmed in an in vivo adult zebrafish infection model. The cumulative mortality of zebrafish injected with MVs showed a dose-dependent pattern. Analyses identified 452 proteins of different subcellular origins; most of them were associated with the cytoplasmic compartment and were mainly related to key functions for pathogen survival. Interestingly, previously unidentified putative virulence-related proteins were identified in P. salmonis MVs, such as outer membrane porin F and hemolysin. Additionally, five amino acid sequences corresponding to the Bordetella pertussis toxin subunit 1 and two amino acid sequences corresponding to the heat-labile enterotoxin alpha chain of Escherichia coli were located in the P. salmonis MV proteome. Curiously, these putative toxins were located in a plasmid region of P. salmonis LF-89. Based on the identified proteins, we propose that the protein composition of P. salmonis LF-89 MVs could reflect total protein characteristics of this P. salmonis type strain.

  15. The Proteome of Biologically Active Membrane Vesicles from Piscirickettsia salmonis LF-89 Type Strain Identifies Plasmid-Encoded Putative Toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Cristian; Hernández, Mauricio A; Tandberg, Julia I; Valenzuela, Karla N; Lagos, Leidy X; Haro, Ronie E; Sánchez, Patricio; Ruiz, Pamela A; Sanhueza-Oyarzún, Constanza; Cortés, Marcos A; Villar, María T; Artigues, Antonio; Winther-Larsen, Hanne C; Avendaño-Herrera, Ruben; Yáñez, Alejandro J

    2017-01-01

    Piscirickettsia salmonis is the predominant bacterial pathogen affecting the Chilean salmonid industry. This bacterium is the etiological agent of piscirickettsiosis, a significant fish disease. Membrane vesicles (MVs) released by P. salmonis deliver several virulence factors to host cells. To improve on existing knowledge for the pathogenicity-associated functions of P. salmonis MVs, we studied the proteome of purified MVs from the P. salmonis LF-89 type strain using multidimensional protein identification technology. Initially, the cytotoxicity of different MV concentration purified from P. salmonis LF-89 was confirmed in an in vivo adult zebrafish infection model. The cumulative mortality of zebrafish injected with MVs showed a dose-dependent pattern. Analyses identified 452 proteins of different subcellular origins; most of them were associated with the cytoplasmic compartment and were mainly related to key functions for pathogen survival. Interestingly, previously unidentified putative virulence-related proteins were identified in P. salmonis MVs, such as outer membrane porin F and hemolysin. Additionally, five amino acid sequences corresponding to the Bordetella pertussis toxin subunit 1 and two amino acid sequences corresponding to the heat-labile enterotoxin alpha chain of Escherichia coli were located in the P. salmonis MV proteome. Curiously, these putative toxins were located in a plasmid region of P. salmonis LF-89. Based on the identified proteins, we propose that the protein composition of P. salmonis LF-89 MVs could reflect total protein characteristics of this P. salmonis type strain.

  16. Determining Spacecraft Reaction Wheel Friction Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarani, Siamak

    2009-01-01

    Software was developed to characterize the drag in each of the Cassini spacecraft's Reaction Wheel Assemblies (RWAs) to determine the RWA friction parameters. This tool measures the drag torque of RWAs for not only the high spin rates (greater than 250 RPM), but also the low spin rates (less than 250 RPM) where there is a lack of an elastohydrodynamic boundary layer in the bearings. RWA rate and drag torque profiles as functions of time are collected via telemetry once every 4 seconds and once every 8 seconds, respectively. Intermediate processing steps single-out the coast-down regions. A nonlinear model for the drag torque as a function of RWA spin rate is incorporated in order to characterize the low spin rate regime. The tool then uses a nonlinear parameter optimization algorithm based on the Nelder-Mead simplex method to determine the viscous coefficient, the Dahl friction, and the two parameters that account for the low spin-rate behavior.

  17. Rapid diagnosis of Theileria annulata by recombinase polymerase amplification combined with a lateral flow strip (LF-RPA) in epidemic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fangyuan; Liu, Junlong; Liu, Aihong; Li, Youquan; Luo, Jianxun; Guan, Guiquan; Yin, Hong

    2017-04-15

    Rapid and accurate diagnosis of Theileria annulata infection contributes to the formulation of strategies to eradicate this parasite. A simple and efficient diagnostic tool, recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) combined with a lateral flow (LF) strip, was used in detection of Theileria and compared to other methods that require expensive instruments and skilled personnel. Herein, we established and optimized an LF-RPA method to detect the cytochrome b gene of T. annulata mitochondrial DNA from experimentally infected and field-collected blood samples. This method has many unparalleled characteristics, including that it is rapid (clear detection in 5min at constant temperature), sensitive (the limitation of detection is at least 2pg genomic DNA), and specific (no cross-reaction with other piroplasms that infect cattle). The LF-RPA assay was evaluated via testing 17 field blood samples and comparing the results of that of a PCR, showing 100% agreement, which demonstrates the ability of the LF-RPA assay to detect T. annulata infections in small number of samples (n=17). Taken together, the results indicate that this method could be used as an ideal diagnostic tool for detecting T. annulata in endemic regions with limited to fewer and local resources and could also be a potential technique for the surveillance and control of blood protozoa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A statistical study on the effect of earthquakes on the ionosphere, based on the subionospheric LF propagation data in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Maekawa

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A superimposed epoch analysis has been undertaken, in order to find the correlation of the ionospheric perturbations with seismic activity. We take the wave path from the Japanese LF transmitter (frequency=40 kHz and an observing station of Kochi (wave path length of 770 km, and a much longer period (of five years than before, is considered. This subionospheric LF propagation can be called "an integrated measurement" in the sense that any earthquakes in the LF sensitive area just around the great-circle path can influence the observed LF signals, so that we define the "effective magnitude" (Meff by integrating the total energy from different earthquakes in the sensitive area on a current day and by converting it back into magnitude. A superimposed epoch analysis for the effective magnitude greater than 6.0 has yielded that the ionosphere is definitely disturbed in terms of both amplitude and dispersion, and that these perturbations tend to take place prior to an earthquake. The statistical z-test has also been performed, which has indicated that the amplitude is definitely depleted 2–6 days before the earthquake day and also that the dispersion is very much enhanced during the same period. This statistical study has given strong support to the existence of seismo-ionospheric perturbations for high seismic activity.

  19. Mathematical determination of setup parameters for carcinoma breast cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, P.B.L.D.; Suresh, P.; Sridhar, A.

    2008-01-01

    Determining proper patient set up parameters like IFD, Gantry angles and field width in Ca Breast are prime important to achieve precise treatment. In a center where 3D Treatment Planning Systems (TPS) and simulator are not available to determine the set up parameters, contouring of target region is essential which is time consuming. The mathematical formula described here provides instant patient set up parameters using machine parameters. (author)

  20. Detection of ionospheric perturbations associated with Japanese earthquakes on the basis of reception of LF transmitter signals on the satellite DEMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Muto

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available There have been recently reported a lot of electromagnetic phenomena associated with earthquakes (EQs. Among these, the ground-based reception of subionospheric waves from VLF/LF transmitters, is recognized as a promising tool to investigate the ionospheric perturbations associated with EQs. This paper deals with the corresponding whistler-mode signals in the upper ionosphere from those VLF/LF transmitters, which is the counterpart of subionospheric signals. The whistler-mode VLF/LF transmitter signals are detected on board the French satellite, DEMETER launched on 29 June 2004. We have chosen several large Japanese EQs including the Miyagi-oki EQ (16 August 2005; M=7.2, depth=36 km, and the target transmitter is a Japanese LF transmitter (JJY whose transmitter frequency is 40 kHz. Due to large longitudinal separation of each satellite orbit (2500 km, we have to adopt a statistical analysis over a rather long period (such as 3 weeks or one month to have reliable data set. By analyzing the spatial distribution of JJY signal intensity (in the form of signal to noise ratio SNR during a period of 4 months including the Miyagi-oki EQ, we have found significant changes in the intensity; generally the SNR is significantly depleted before the EQ, which is considered to be a precursory ionospheric signature of the EQ. This abnormal effect is reasonably explained in terms of either (1 enhanced absorption of whistler-mode LF signals in the lower ionosphere due to the lowering of the lower ionosphere, or (2 nonlinear wave-wave scattering. Finally, this analysis suggests an important role of satellite observation in the study of lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling.

  1. A 90-day safety study in Sprague-Dawley rats fed milk powder containing recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF) derived from transgenic cloned cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cui; Wang, Jian Wu; Huang, Kun Lun; He, XiaoYun; Chen, Xiu Ping; Sun, Hong; Yu, Tian; Che, Hui Lian

    2011-10-01

    Transgenic cloned animals expressing beneficial human nutritional traits offer a new strategy for large-scale production of some kinds of functional substances. In some cases, the required safety testing for genetically modified (GM) foods do not seem appropriate for human food safety, though regulations do not seem to provide alternatives. A 90-day rat feeding study is the core study for the safety assessment of GM foods. The test material in this 90-day study was prepared nonfat milk powder containing recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF), which was expressed in transgenic cloned cattle. Groups of 10 male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were given a nutritionally balanced purified diet containing 7.5, 15, or 30% transgenic or conventional milk powder for 90 days. A commercial AIN93G diet was used as an additional control group. Clinical, biological, and pathological parameters were compared between groups. The only significant effect of treatment was higher mean ferritin and Fe(+) concentrations for both male and female rats fed the transgenic milk powder diets, as compared to rats fed nontransgenic milk diets or the commercial diet. The results of the present study are consistent with previous research, which indicates that milk powder containing rhLF derived from healthy transgenic cloned cattle is as safe as conventional milk powder.

  2. The Ionospheric Precursor to the 2011 March 11 Earthquake Based upon Observations Obtained from the Japan-Pacific Subionospheric VLF/LF Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Hayakawa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available By using network observation of subionospheric VLF (very low frequency/LF (low frequency signals in Japan and in Russia, we have found a significant ionospheric perturbation prior to the recent 2011 March 11 Japan earthquake (EQ which occurred at sea proximate to the Tohoku area on the main island (Honshu of Japan was an exceptionally huge plate-type EQ. A remarkable anomaly (with a decrease in the nighttime amplitude and also with enhancement in dispersion was detected on March 5 and 6 along the propagation path from the NLK (Seattle, USA transmitter to Chofu (together with Kochi and Kasugai. We also have observed the corresponding VLF anomaly during a prolonged period of March 1 - 6, with minima in the nighttime amplitude on March 3 and 4 along the path from JJI (Miyazaki, Kyushu to Kamchatka, Russia. This ionospheric perturbation has been discussed extensively with respect to its reliability. (1 How abnormal is this VLF/LF propagation anomaly? (2 What was the temporal evolution of terminator times? (3 Were there any solar-terrestrial effects (especially the effect from geomagnetic storms on the VLF/LF propagation anomaly? (4 The effect of any other EQs and foreshock activities on the VLF/LF anomaly? (5 Were there any correlations with other related phenomena? Finally, (6 are there any other examples of a VLF/LF propagation anomaly for oceanic EQs? We then compared the temporal properties of ionospheric perturbations for this EQ with those of a huge number of inland EQs and compared the corresponding spatial scale with the former result of the same oceanic 2004 Sumatra EQ with nearly the same magnitude. Finally, the generation mechanism of those seismo-ionospheric perturbations is briefly discussed.

  3. Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli, strain LF82 disrupts apical junctional complexes in polarized epithelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ossa Juan C

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although bacteria are implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD, mechanisms of intestinal injury and immune activation remain unclear. Identification of adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC strains in IBD patients offers an opportunity to characterize the pathogenesis of microbial-induced intestinal inflammation in IBD. Previous studies have focused on the invasive phenotype of AIEC and the ability to replicate and survive in phagocytes. However, the precise mechanisms by which these newly identified microbes penetrate the epithelial lining remain to be clarified. Therefore, the aim of this study was to delineate the effects of AIEC, strain LF82 (serotype O83:H1 on model polarized epithelial monolayers as a contributor to intestinal injury in IBD. Results Infection of T84 and Madin-Darby Canine Kidney-I polarized epithelial cell monolayers with AIEC, strain LF82 led to a reduction in transepithelial electrical resistance and increased macromolecular (10 kilodalton dextran flux. Basolateral AIEC infection resulted in more severe disruption of the epithelial barrier. Increased permeability was accompanied by a redistribution of the tight junction adaptor protein, zonula occludens-1, demonstrated by confocal microscopy and formation of gaps between cells, as shown by transmission electron microscopy. After 4 h of infection of intestine 407 cells, bacteria replicated in the cell cytoplasm and were enclosed in membrane-bound vesicles positive for the late endosomal marker, LAMP1. Conclusion These findings indicate that AIEC, strain LF82 disrupts the integrity of the polarized epithelial cell barrier. This disruption enables bacteria to penetrate into the epithelium and replicate in the host cell cytoplasm. These findings provide important links between microbes related to IBD, the intestinal epithelial cell barrier and disease pathogenesis.

  4. Karakteristik Bubuk Instan Cemcem ( spondiaz pinnata lf kurz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luh Putu Wrasiati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available One of tropical plant used as a traditional beverage in Bali is Kecemcem or Cemcem (Spondias pinnata (Lf Kurz or in Indonesian called Kedondong Hutan. Empirically, the beverage is mentioned for treating coughs, increasing appetite, and body refreshment. Besides used as a beverage, Cemcem leafs are also used as a flavor enhancer of fish products. The study was carried out to determine the characteristics of Cemcem instant powder produced by encapsulation using maltodextrin and dried by the thin layer drying method. Cemcem instant powder was then analyzed its content of vitamin C, total phenols, tannins, antioxidant capacity, water cntent, ash content, and solubility. The flavor compounds in Cemcem instant powder obtained in Bukit Jimbaran area are identified by GC-MS devices. The result showed that cemcem instant powder which was produced by 24 hours of maceration time has the best characteristics and potential to be developed as a natural antioxidant products. It has the highest of total phenol, tannin, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacity. The content of vitamin C, total phenol, and tannin were 135.06 mg/100g, 38.95 mg GAE/g, and 11.01% respectively. The antioxidant activity of cemcem instant powder which analyzed by DPPH method was about 43.80%. There are 17 compounds detected by GC-MS, these compounds belonged alkenesalcoholsphenols compounds and esters of fatty acidsThe whole compounds were the building blocks of flavor cemcem leaves.Keywords : Characteristic of cemcem instant powder, antioxidant capacity, andflavor compounds of cemcem leaves

  5. Ileal adhesion of virulent E. coli LF82 is not enhanced in Crohn’s disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke S.; Fink, Lisbeth Nielsen; Pedersen, Susanne Brix

    2011-01-01

    Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) comprise a new group of E. coli species named from their distinctive ability to adhere to and invade the intestinal epithelium. The AIEC strains have been associated to the ileal mucosa in Crohn’s disease (CD), and the impact of AIEC in the pathogenesis...... of CD has been further strengthened from the evidence that the ileum in CD harbors an abnormally high number of E. coli species. S16 2010 IBD Abstracts The aim of this study was to examine the adhesion of the AIEC reference strain, LF82, to tissue samples from ileum and colon in CD and healthy controls...... and comprised: 1) incubation of tissue (inclusive of mucous) with 107 bacteria or buffer for 1 hour, 2) removal of non-adhered bacteria by extensive washing, and 3) absolute quantification of tissue-adhered LF82 and indigenous E. coli by a pre-validated assay including quantitative real-time PCR. Selective...

  6. Determination of cosmological parameters: An introduction for non ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Then I show how the age of the universe depends on them, followed by the evolution of the scale parameter of the universe for various values of the density parameters. Then I define strategies for measuring them, and show the results for the recent determination of these parameters from measurements on supernovas of ...

  7. Method for Determining the Time Parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Baslyk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a method for calculating one of the characteristics that represents the flight program of the first stage of ballistic rocket i.e. time parameter of the program of attack angle.In simulation of placing the payload for the first stage, a program of flight is used which consists of three segments, namely a vertical climb of the rocket, a segment of programmed reversal by attack angle, and a segment of gravitational reversal with zero angle of attack.The programed reversal by attack angle is simulated as a rapidly decreasing and increasing function. This function depends on the attack angle amplitude, time and time parameter.If the projected and ballistic parameters and the amplitude of attack angle were determined this coefficient is calculated based the constraint that the rocket velocity is equal to 0.8 from the sound velocity (0,264 km/sec when the angle of attack becomes equal to zero. Such constraint is transformed to the nonlinear equation, which can be solved using a Newton method.The attack angle amplitude value is unknown for the design analysis. Exceeding some maximum admissible value for this parameter may lead to excessive trajectory collapsing (foreshortening, which can be identified as an arising negative trajectory angle.Consequently, therefore it is necessary to compute the maximum value of the attack angle amplitude with the following constraints: a trajectory angle is positive during the entire first stage flight and the rocket velocity is equal to 0,264 km/sec by the end of program of angle attack. The problem can be formulated as a task of the nonlinear programming, minimization of the modified Lagrange function, which is solved using the multipliers method.If multipliers and penalty parameter are constant the optimization problem without constraints takes place. Using the determined coordinate descent method allows solving the problem of modified Lagrange function of unconstrained minimization with fixed

  8. Influence of the low-frequency source parameters on the plasma characteristics in a dual frequency capacitively coupled plasma reactor: Two dimensional simulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Xu; Hao Ge; Shuai Wang; Zhongling Dai; Younian Wang; Aimin Zhu

    2009-01-01

    A two-dimensional (2D) fluid model is presented to study the discharge of argon in a dual frequency capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) reactor. We are interested in the influence of low-frequency (LF) source parameters such as applied voltage amplitudes and low frequencies on the plasma characteristics. In this paper, the high frequency is set to 60 MHz with voltage 50 V. The simulations were carried out for low frequencies of 1, 2 and 6 MHz with LF voltage 100 V, and for LF voltages of 60, 90 and 120 V with low frequency 2 MHz. The results of 2D distributions of electric field and ion density, the ion flux impinging on the substrate and the ion energy on the powered electrode are shown. As the low frequency increases, two sources become from uncoupling to coupling, When two sources are uncoupling, the increase in LF has little impact on the plasma characteristics, but when two sources are coupling, the increase in LF decreases the uniformities of ion density and ion flux noticeably. It is also found that with the increase in LF voltage, the uniformities in the radial direction of ion density distribution and ion flux at the powered electrode decreases significantly, and the energy of ions bombarding on the powered electrode increases significantly.

  9. Identification of a 34 kDa protein altered in the LF-1 mutant as the herbicide-binding D1 protein of photosystem II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, J.; Pakrasi, H.; Seibert, M.; Arntzen, C.

    1986-01-01

    The LF-1 mutant of Scenedesmus has a complete block on the oxidizing side of its PSII reaction center. However, the reaction center as well as the reducing side of PSII is fully functional in this mutant. Compared to the wildtype (WT) the only detected protein difference in the PSII complex of LF-1 is the change in mobility of a 34 kDa protein to 36 kDa. This protein has been implicated to have a major role in Mn-binding and water-oxidation. The authors have recently shown that photoaffinity labeling of thylakoids with azido-[ 14 C]-atrazine tags the 34 kDa protein in WT and the 36 kDa protein in LF-1. It has been shown that the azido-atrazine labeled protein, called D1, functions in herbicide binding and Q/sub A/ to Q/sub B/ electron transfer on the reducing side of PSII. Polyclonal antibodies directed against the D1 protein of Amaranthus hybridus (Ohad, et al., EMBOJ 1985) were found to recognize the Scenedesmus 34 kDa (WT) and 36 kDa (LF-1) proteins. The implied dual function for the D1 protein on the reducing as well as the oxidizing side of PSII reaction center will be discussed

  10. Determination of the atrazine migration parameters in Vertisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymundo-Raymundo, E.; Hernandez-Vargas, J.; Nikol'Skii, Yu. N.; Guber, A. K.; Gavi-Reyes, F.; Prado-Pano, B. L.; Figueroa-Sandoval, B.; Mendosa-Hernandez, J. R.

    2010-05-01

    The parameters of the atrazine migration in columns with undisturbed Vertisol sampled from an irrigated plot in Guanajuato, Mexico were determined. A model of the convection-dispersion transport of the chemical compounds accounting for the decomposition and equilibrium adsorption, which is widely applied for assessing the risk of contamination of natural waters with pesticides, was used. The model parameters were obtained by solving the inverse problem of the transport equation on the basis of laboratory experiments on the transport of the 18O isotope and atrazine in soil columns with an undisturbed structure at three filtration velocities. The model adequately described the experimental data at the individual selection of the parameters for each output curve. Physically unsubstantiated parameters of the atrazine adsorption and degradation were obtained when the parameter of the hydrodynamic dispersion was determined from the data on the 18O migration. The simulation also showed that the use of parameters obtained at water content close to saturation in the calculations for an unsaturated soil resulted in the overestimation of the leaching rate and the maximum concentration of atrazine in the output curve compared to the experimental data.

  11. Real-Time Determination of Solar Cell Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan Ali, Mohamed; Rabhi, Abdelhamid; Haddad, Sofiane; El Hajjaji, Ahmed

    2017-11-01

    The extraction of solar cell parameters is a difficult task but is an important step in the assessment procedure of solar cells and panels. This work presents numerical methods for determining these parameters and compares their performances under different solar irradiances when they are implemented in an equivalent electrical circuit model with one or two diodes. To obtain a fast convergence rate in real-time applications, the fractional-order Darwinian particle swarm optimization (FODPSO) method is used through experimental data collected from a platform of photovoltaic (PV) energy installed near the modeling, information and systems laboratory at Amiens, France. The results showed that the one-diode model is less representative than the two-diode model. Furthermore, it is envisaged that the proposed FODPSO-based extraction method is more effective in modeling with two diodes. This will allow real-time determination of solar cells parameters and consequently will help to select the most suitable PV model.

  12. A neutron balance approach in critical parameter determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall'Osso, Aldo

    2008-01-01

    The determination of a critical parameter, process known also as criticality or eigenvalue search, is one of the major functionalities in neutronics codes. The determination of the critical boron concentration or the critical control rod position are two examples. Classical procedures used to solve this problem are based on the iterative Newton-Raphson method where the value of the parameter is changed until the eigenvalue matches the target. We present here a different approach where an equation, derived from the neutron balance, is set and the critical parameter is the unknown. Solving this equation is equivalent to solve an eigenvalue problem where the critical parameter is the eigenvalue. It is also shown that this approach can be seen as an application of inverse perturbation theory. This method reduces considerably the computation time in situations where changes on the critical parameter make a high distortion on the flux distribution, as it is the case of the control rods. Some numerical examples illustrate the performances and the gain in stability in cases of simultaneous control of criticality and axial offset of the power distribution. The application to the determination of the critical uranium enrichment in a transport code is also presented. The simplicity of the method makes its implementation in fuel bundle lattice and reactor codes very easy

  13. Spectroscopic determination of valence band parameters in InP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.A.; Lough, B.C.C.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The general form of the Hamiltonian for an electron or hole in a semiconductor has been given by Luttinger. The valence band is characterised by three parameters - γ 1 , γ 2 , γ 3 -now commonly known as the Luttinger parameters. Despite many investigations there is still considerable uncertainty regarding the Luttinger parameters of InP. The situation has been reviewed by Hackenberg et al. These authors themselves sought to determine the Luttinger parameters by hot-electron luminescence and discovered that many Luttinger parameter triplets were consistent with their data. We employ a spectroscopic approach to estimating valence-band parameters in InP. Calculations have been made for both the unperturbed energy levels and the energy levels in a magnetic field of acceptor impurities in semiconductors characterised by different Luttinger parameters. We compare our recent experimental data for the transitions associated with the Zn acceptor impurity in InP in magnetic fields up to 30 T to determine the most appropriate set of valence-band parameters for InP

  14. Surface area and volume determination of subgingival calculus using laser fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakibaie, Fardad; Walsh, Laurence J

    2014-03-01

    Visible red (655 nm) laser fluorescence (LF) devices are currently used for identifying deposits of subgingival calculus on the root surfaces of teeth during dental examination and treatment; however, it is not known how the fluorescence readings produced by commercially available LF systems correlate to the nature of the deposits. This laboratory study explored the correlation between LF digital readings and the surface area and volume of subgingival calculus deposits on teeth. A collection of 30 extracted human posterior teeth with various levels of subgingival deposits of calculus across 240 sites were used in a clinical simulation, with silicone impression material used to replicate periodontal soft tissues. The teeth were scored by two examiners by using three commercial LF systems (DIAGNOdent, DIAGNOdent Pen and KEY3). The silicone was removed, and the teeth were removed for photography at × 20 magnification under white or ultraviolet light. The surface area, thickness, and volume were calculated, and both linear least squares regression and nonlinear (Spearman's rank method) correlation coefficients were determined. Visible red LF digital readings showed better correlation to calculus volume than to surface area. Overall, the best performance was found for the KEY3 system (Spearman coefficient 0.59), compared to the Classic DIAGNOdent (0.56) and the DIAGNOdent Pen (0.49). These results indicate that while visible red LF systems vary somewhat in performance, their LF readings provide a useful estimation of the volume of subgingival calculus deposits present on teeth.

  15. Erratum: ``Stellar Halo Parameters from 4588 Subdwarfs'' (ApJ, 583, 765 [2003])

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Andrew

    2004-06-01

    An error has been discovered in the computer program that determined the stellar halo parameters using ~4500 halo stars drawn from the revised New Luyten Two-Tenths catalog. None of the major scientific conclusions of that paper are qualitatively altered. In particular, five of the nine velocity-ellipsoid parameters remain consistent with zero within their small errors. However, many individual parameters have changed their values by 1 or 2 σ and a few by more. I explain the nature of the error and give corrected values for the parameters. The ~4500 halo stars analyzed were selected from the revised New Luyten Two-Tenths catalog (A. Gould & S. Salim, ApJ, 583, 765 [2003]; S. Salim & A. Gould, ApJ, 583, 765 [2003]) by demanding that the reduced proper motion (RPM) discriminator,η≡V-5log(μ)-3.1(V-J)-1.47|sinb|-2.73,(1)lie within the secure halo range, 1expressed by a break at a virtually unchanged Vbreak=18.27, but with the completeness at this break point rising to 50%+/-6%. In particular, the motion of the local standard of rest (LSR) relative to the halo isV1=1.5+/-2.2kms-1,V3=0.3+/-2.4kms-1.(3)Hence, as originally claimed, all five velocity-ellipsoid parameters in equations (2) and (3) are consistent with zero. Thus, χ2=3.43 for 5 degrees of freedom, slightly less than the previous value (3.97). This implies that the limits on stellar-halo granularity derived in a subsequent paper from this statistic remain essentially unaltered, being about 2% tighter (see eq. [9] of A. Gould, ApJ, 583, 765 [2003]). Four of the 27 parameters do change by more than 2 σ. Both (c11+Δc11)1/2 and (c22+Δc22)1/2 increase by 4 σ. However, because the Δcii are poorly constrained, these parameter-combination measurements did not give any useful information about the halo, and this remains so with the new determinations. The LF bins at MV=10 and MV=11 each decline by 3 σ, which leaves a somewhat lower but still pronounced peak in the LF at these magnitudes (see Fig. 2). It

  16. Subionospheric VLF/LF radio waves propagation characteristics before, during and after the Sofia, Bulgaria Mw=5.6 earthquake occurred on 22 May 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, Iren Adelina; Emilian Toader, Victorin; Nenovski, Petko; Biagi, Pier Francesco; Maggipinto, Tommaso; Septimiu Moldovan, Adrian; Ionescu, Constantin

    2013-04-01

    In 2009, INFREP, a network of VLF (20-60 kHz) and LF (150-300 kHz) radio receivers, was put into operation in Europe having as principal goal, the study of disturbances produced by the earthquakes on the propagation properties of these signals. On May 22nd, 2012 an earthquake with Mw=567 occurred in Bulgaria, near Sofia, inside the "sensitive" area of the INFREP VLF/LF electromagnetic network. The data collected on different frequencies, during April-May 2012 were studied using different methods of analysis: daily correlation methods, spectral approaches and terminator time techniques, in order to find out possible connections between the seismic activity and the subionospheric propagation properties of radio waves. The studies were performed with the help of a specially designed LabVIEW application, which accesses the VLF/LF receiver through internet. This program opens the receiver's web-page and automatically retrieves the list of data files to synchronize the user-side data with the receiver's data. Missing zipped files are also automatically downloaded. The application performs primary, statistical correlation and spectral analysis, appends daily files into monthly and annual files and performs 3D colour-coded maps with graphic representations of VLF and LF signals' intensities versus the minute-of-the-day and the day-of-the-month, facilitating a near real-time observation of VLF and LF electromagnetic waves' propagation. Another feature of the software is the correlation of the daily recorded files for the studied frequencies by overlaying the 24 hours radio activity and taking into account the sunrise and sunset. Data are individually processed (spectral power, correlations, differentiation, filtered using bandpass, lowpass, highpass). JTFA spectrograms (Cone-Shaped Distribution CSD, Gabor, Wavelet, short-time Fourier transform STFT, Wigner-Ville Distribution WVD, Choi-Williams Distribution CWD) are used, too.

  17. Systematic and random erros in lattice parameter determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, E.M.

    1980-01-01

    A new method is proposed for evaluation of diffraction data used in precise determination of lattice parameters. The method is based on separation and systematic erros on the diffraction angles level, where the randon part of erros is independent on the 0 angle. The separation is enable by assumption that the systematic part of erros depends on the 0 angle linearly. In that situation the high precision in lattice parameters determination is related more to reducing the randon errors content that to the presence of unremoved systematic errors. (Author) [pt

  18. Effect of LF 16-0687MS, a new nonpeptide bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist, in a rat model of closed head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruneau, D; Chorny, I; Benkovitz, V; Artru, A; Roitblat, L; Shapira, Y

    1999-11-01

    Bradykinin is an endogenous nonapeptide which potently dilates the cerebral vasculature and markedly increases vascular permeability. These effects are mediated by B2 receptors located on the vascular endothelium. Previous experimental studies have shown that blockade of the kallikreinkinin system, which mediates the formation of bradykinin, afforded a reduction of the brain edema that developed following a cryogenic cortical lesion. In the present study, we investigated the effect of LF 16-0687MS, a novel nonpeptide B2 receptor antagonist, on cerebral edema and neurological severity score (NSS) after closed head injury to rats. LF 16-0687MS or its vehicle (NaCl 0.9%) was continuously infused at 10, 30, and 100 microg/kg/min over 23 h starting 1 h after a focal trauma to the left hemisphere was induced using a weight-drop device. The extent of edema formation was evaluated 24 h after trauma from left and right hemispheres samples by measurement of specific gravity and water content. In a separate study, a neurological severity score based on scoring of behavioural and motor functions was evaluated 1 h and over 1 week after trauma. LF 16-0687MS at 100 microg/kg/min markedly reduced the development of brain edema as indicated by a 68% increase in specific gravity (p<0.05) and a 64% decrease of water content (p<0.05) in the left hemisphere. In addition the recovery of neurological function was significantly improved by 100 microg/kg/min LF 16-0687MS from day 3 to day 7 after CHT. In a separate experiment, we also showed that LF 16-0687MS at 100 microg/kg/min given either 1 h before or 30 min after CHT did not affect mean arterial blood pressure. These results show that blockade of bradykinin B2 receptors is an effective approach to reduce cerebral edema and to improve neurological outcome after a focal contusion to the cranium.

  19. Measurement of LF Standard-Frequency Waves JJY along the track of Shirase, the Japanese Antarctic Research Icebreaker, during JARE53-JARE54

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitauchi, H.; Nozaki, K.; Ito, H.; Tsuchiya, S.; Imamura, K.; Nagatsuma, T.

    2013-12-01

    We first obtained a strong evidence of reception of the low frequency (LF) radio waves, 40 kHz and 60 kHz, of the call sign JJY by use of a newly developed, highly sensitive receiving system on board the Japanese Antarctic research icebreaker Shirase offshore East Ongul Island, East Antarctica--about 14,000 km away from those transmitting stations in Japan. The measured data sets of the electric field intensity and phase of those signals are to be analysed to examine and/or improve numerical prediction methods of field strength for long-distance propagation of LF radio waves, contributing to the Recommendation 'Prediction of field strength at frequencies below about 150 kHz' made by International Telecommunication Union Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R). The call sign JJY of standard frequency and time signals (SFTS) of LF 40 kHz and 60 kHz are emitted from the transmitting stations, respectively, Ohtakadoya-yama 37° 22‧ 21″ N, 140° 50‧ 56″ E in Fukushima Prefecture (eastern Japan) and Hagane-yama 33° 27‧ 56″ N, 130° 10‧ 32″ E in Saga/Fukuoka Prefecture (western Japan) by NICT. Those are widely used for calibrating frequency standard oscillators and radio-controlled clocks in Japan. Since low signal attenuation in LF radio band allows long distance communication, kilometre waves have been utilized for operations such as SFTS and military communications around the world. Therefore, there is a need to give guidance to engineers for the planning of radio services in LF band so as to avoid interference. ITU-R recommends the guidance 'Prediction of field strength at frequencies below about 150 kHz', in which a numerical prediction method is proposed to compute the electric field intensity, up to 16,000 km of long-distance propagation, away from the transmitting station. Since reliable data sets are limited for the long-distance propagation, in this study we tried to measure the field strength and phase of the LF SFTS JJY of 40 kHz and 60 kHz over 14

  20. Hypothesis: Low frequency heart rate variability (LF-HRV) is an input for undisclosed yet biological adaptive control, governing the cardiovascular regulations to assure optimal functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbay, Uri; Bobrovsky, Ben Zion

    2012-02-01

    Cardiovascular regulation is considered today as having three levels: autoregulations, neural regulations and hormonal regulations. We hypothesize that the cardiovascular regulation has an additional (fourth) control level which is outer, hierarchical (adaptive) loop where LF-HRV amplitude serves as a reference input which the neural cardiovascular center detects and responses in order to maintain LF-HRV around some prescribed level. Supporting evidences: LF-HRV absence during artificial cardiac pacing may be associated with "pacemaker syndrome" which had not been sufficiently understood regardless of apparently unimpaired cardiovascular performance. The hypothesis may provide an essential basis for understanding several cardiovascular morbidities and insight toward diagnostic measures and treatments (including but not limited to adding variability to the pulse generator of artificial pacemakers to eliminate "pace maker syndrome"). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. DNA barcoding discriminates the noxious invasive species, floating pennywort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides L.f.), from non-invasive relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Schoot, van der J.; Valkenburg, van J.L.C.H.; Duistermaat, H.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Floating pennywort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides L.f.), a member of the plant family Araliaceae originating from North America, is an example of an invasive aquatic species posing serious problems to the management of waterways outside of its original distribution area in Australia and Western Europe.

  2. Towards automated diffraction tomography. Part II-Cell parameter determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, U.; Gorelik, T.; Otten, M.T.

    2008-01-01

    Automated diffraction tomography (ADT) allows the collection of three-dimensional (3d) diffraction data sets from crystals down to a size of only few nanometres. Imaging is done in STEM mode, and diffraction data are collected with quasi-parallel beam nanoelectron diffraction (NED). Here, we present a set of developed processing steps necessary for automatic unit-cell parameter determination from the collected 3d diffraction data. Cell parameter determination is done via extraction of peak positions from a recorded data set (called the data reduction path) followed by subsequent cluster analysis of difference vectors. The procedure of lattice parameter determination is presented in detail for a beam-sensitive organic material. Independently, we demonstrate a potential (called the full integration path) based on 3d reconstruction of the reciprocal space visualising special structural features of materials such as partial disorder. Furthermore, we describe new features implemented into the acquisition part

  3. A method of acoustic wave registration and determination their generation region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozin, I.D.; Marchenko, M.V.

    1998-01-01

    Here is presented a method of acoustic wave registration with using of a synchronous LF broadcasting system. This method of detection and determination of underground nuclear explosion location is based on a registration of ionospheric disturbances induced by acoustic waves at the region of LF sign al reflection. The measuring complex created in the institute of the Ionosphere /1/ allows to register amplitude-frequency characteristics of composite signal from synchronous broadcasting net

  4. Establishment of 9L/F344 rat intracerebral glioma model of brain tumor stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong-yu XIAO

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To establish the 9L/F344 rat intracerebral glioma model of brain tumor stem cells.  Methods Rat 9L gliosarcoma stem-like cells were cultured in serum-free suspension. The expression of CD133 and nestin were tested by immunohistochemistry. A total of 48 inbredline male F344 rats were randomly divided into 2 groups, and 9L tumor sphere cells and 9L monolayer cells were respectively implanted into the right caudate nucleus of F344 rats in 2 groups. Survival time was observed and determined using the method of Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Fourteen days after implantation or when the rats were dying, their brains were perfused and sectioned for HE staining, and CD133 and nestin were detected by immunohistochemistry.  Results Rat 9L tumor spheres were formed with suspension culture in serum-free medium. The gliomas formed in both groups were invasive without obvious capsule. More new vessels, bleeding and necrosis could be detected in 9L tumor spheres group. The tumor cells in both groups were positive for CD133 and nestin. There was no significant difference in the expression of CD133 and nestin between 2 groups (P > 0.05, for all. According to the expression of nestin, the tumors formed by 9L tumor sphere cells were more invasive. The median survival time of the rats bearing 9L tumor sphere cells was 15 d (95%CI: 15.219-15.781, and the median survival time of the rats bearing 9L monolayer cells was 21 d (95%CI: 20.395-21.605. There was significant difference between 2 groups (χ2 = 12.800, P = 0.000.  Conclusions 9L/F344 rat intracerebral glioma model of brain tumor stem cells is successfully established, which provides a glioma model for the future research. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.04.012

  5. Impact parameter determination in experimental analysis using neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, F.; David, C.; Freslier, M.; Aichelin, J.; Haddad, F.; Hagel, K.; Li, J.; Mdeiwayeh, N.; Natowitz, J.B.; Wada, R.; Xiao, B.

    1997-01-01

    A neural network is used to determine the impact parameter in 40 Ca + 40 Ca reactions. The effect of the detection efficiency as well as the model dependence of the training procedure have been studied carefully. An overall improvement of the impact parameter determination of 25 % is obtained using this technique. The analysis of Amphora 40 Ca+ 40 Ca data at 35 MeV per nucleon using a neural network shows two well separated classes of events among the selected 'complete' events. (authors)

  6. Ho:YLF & Ho:LuLF slab amplifier system delivering 200 mJ, 2 µm single-frequency pulses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Strauss, HJ

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A single-frequency single-pass amplifier based on Ho:YLF and Ho:LuLF in a scalable slab architecture delivering up to 210 mJ at 2064 nm is demonstrated. The amplifier was end-pumped by a 1890 nm Tm:YLF slab laser and was seeded with a 69 mJ single...

  7. Intelligent methods for the process parameter determination of plastic injection molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Huang; Zhang, Yun; Zhou, Xundao; Li, Dequn

    2018-03-01

    Injection molding is one of the most widely used material processing methods in producing plastic products with complex geometries and high precision. The determination of process parameters is important in obtaining qualified products and maintaining product quality. This article reviews the recent studies and developments of the intelligent methods applied in the process parameter determination of injection molding. These intelligent methods are classified into three categories: Case-based reasoning methods, expert system- based methods, and data fitting and optimization methods. A framework of process parameter determination is proposed after comprehensive discussions. Finally, the conclusions and future research topics are discussed.

  8. Determination of electromagnetic absorption parameters by reflection measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vittitoe, C.N.

    1975-09-01

    The method described is for determining the electromagnetic absorption parameters of a material by measuring the optical reflection from a thick sample. With linearly polarized incident light (both perpendicular to and parallel to the plane of incidence), the ratio of the reflected intensities at three or more angles of incidence offers promise for determining the complex index of refraction of a material for a broad range of parameter values. The method may be applicable to molten materials, such as UO 2 , where high temperatures cause corrosion and containment difficulties. A method is given for extending the data to neighboring frequencies. Use of the method was successful for all portions of the complex index of refraction plane except for small values of the extinction coefficient

  9. 78 FR 66945 - Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment request: Gulf Long-Term Follow-Up Study (GuLF STUDY)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... GuLF STUDY is to investigate potential short- and long-term health effects associated with oil spill... non-Cleanup Workers Supplemental Mental Health 4,600 4 15/60 4,600 1,533 Telephone Questionnaire... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; 60-Day...

  10. Determination of reactor parameters by single rod experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raisic, N; Zdravkovic, Z; Ivkovic, M [Department of Reactor Physics and Dynamics, Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1969-07-01

    A method is developed for the experimental determination of reactor parameters by using an isolated fuel element. The method is based on the consideration of the fuel element as the source and sink of neutrons when placed in a constant neutron field. By measuring the perturbation of the original field produced by insertion of the test fuel element it was possible to determine the fuel element parameters defined by the heterogeneous reactor theory of Feinberg and Galanin as thermal neutron absorption constant {gamma}, and neutron multiplication constant {eta}. Statistical error for one series of measurement amount to 2% in the values of {eta} and {gamma}. The developed method was intended for the analysis of the nuclear characteristics of the fuel element in the stage of its construction and development for a given reactor system. (author)

  11. Fast determination of plasma parameters through function parametrization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braams, B.J.; Jilge, W.; Lackner, K.

    1985-09-01

    The method of function parametrization, developed by H. Wind for fast data evaluation in high energy physics, is demonstrated in the context of controlled fusion research. This method relies on a statistical analysis of a large data base of simulated experiments in order to obtain a functional representation for intrinsic physical parameters of a system in terms of the values of the measurements. Rapid determination of characteristic equilibrium parameters of a tokamak discharge is shown to be a particularly indicated application. The method is employed on the ASDEX experiment to determine the following parameters of the plasma: position of the magnetic axis, geometric center, and current center; minor radius, elongation, and area of the plasma column; a normalized safety factor at the plasma boundary; the Shafranov parameter βsub(p)+lsub(i)/2; the flux difference between the plasma boundary and an external reference value; the position of the lower and upper saddle points, and the intersections of the separatrix with the four divertor plates. The relevant measurements consist of three differential poloidal flux measurements, four poloidal field measurements, the current through the multipole shaping coils, and the total plasma current. Function parametrization supplies a very accurate interpretation of these data, which is now used for online data analysis, and is also sufficiently fast to be suitable for real-time control of the plasma. (orig.)

  12. Determining Mechanical Parameters for Spin in Tennis Strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Kaare; Rasmussen, Kasper; Hansen, Martin B.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to generate spin is a key element for any tennis player. However, the mechanical parameters of tennis strings which contribute to producing spin are poorly understood. This study attempted to determine some of these parameters through a spin test and a tensile test. Nine different...... string types with different gauges, geometry, price and user ratings were tested. The main finding of the study was that the three gauges of MSV Co Focus were able to generate significantly (p

  13. Parameter estimation and determinability analysis applied to Drosophila gap gene circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeger Johannes

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mathematical modeling of real-life processes often requires the estimation of unknown parameters. Once the parameters are found by means of optimization, it is important to assess the quality of the parameter estimates, especially if parameter values are used to draw biological conclusions from the model. Results In this paper we describe how the quality of parameter estimates can be analyzed. We apply our methodology to assess parameter determinability for gene circuit models of the gap gene network in early Drosophila embryos. Conclusion Our analysis shows that none of the parameters of the considered model can be determined individually with reasonable accuracy due to correlations between parameters. Therefore, the model cannot be used as a tool to infer quantitative regulatory weights. On the other hand, our results show that it is still possible to draw reliable qualitative conclusions on the regulatory topology of the gene network. Moreover, it improves previous analyses of the same model by allowing us to identify those interactions for which qualitative conclusions are reliable, and those for which they are ambiguous.

  14. Parameter determination in a groundwater field polluted by radioactive pollutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidauruk, P.; Barokah A; Syafalni; Wibagiyo

    1998-01-01

    The determination of source location and the corresponding parameters in a contaminated groundwater is very important. To be able to predict the distribution of radioactive contaminant in a contaminated field, the knowledge about the source location and the corresponding parameters is a necessity. The model developed in this paper is based on the fact that the relation between the logarithm of the concentration of the radio active contaminant with the squared coordinate is linear. The contaminant transport parameters as well as the a straight line. In other words, the parameters and the source location are determined in a such way that the linear correlation coefficient between the logarithm of the concentration of the radio active contaminant with the squared coordinate is optimized. The developed model is tested with a synthetic data with a satisfactory results. The synthetic data is generated such that can represent the real field. The synthetic data are generated because the real field data is not available. (authors)

  15. Determining Rheological Parameters of Generalized Yield-Power-Law Fluid Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stryczek Stanislaw

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The principles of determining rheological parameters of drilling muds described by a generalized yield-power-law are presented in the paper. Functions between tangent stresses and shear rate are given. The conditions of laboratory measurements of rheological parameters of generalized yield-power-law fluids are described and necessary mathematical relations for rheological model parameters given. With the block diagrams, the methodics of numerical solution of these relations has been presented. Rheological parameters of an exemplary drilling mud have been calculated with the use of this numerical program.

  16. Determination of supersymmetric parameters with neural networks at the large hadron collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornhauser, Nicki

    2013-12-01

    The LHC is running and in the near future potentially some signs of new physics are measured. In this thesis it is assumed that the underlying theory of such a signal would be identified and that it is some kind of minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model. Generally, the mapping from the measurable observables onto the parameter values of the supersymmetric theory is unknown. Instead, only the opposite direction is known, i.e. for fixed parameters the measurable observables can be computed with some uncertainties. In this thesis, the ability of artifical neural networks to determine this unknown function is demonstrated. At the end of a training process, the created networks are capable to calculate the parameter values with errors for an existing measurement. To do so, at first a set of mostly counting observables is introduced. In the following, the usefulness of these observables for the determination of supersymmetric parameters is checked. This is done by applying them on 283 pairs of parameter sets of a MSSM with 15 parameters. These pairs were found to be indistinguishable at the LHC by another study, even without the consideration of SM background. It can be shown that 260 of these pairs can be discriminated using the introduced observables. Without systematic errors even all pairs can be distinguished. Also with the consideration of SM background still most pairs can be disentangled (282 without and 237 with systematic errors). This result indicates the usefulness of the observables for the direct parameter determination. The performance of neural networks is investigated for four different parameter regions of the CMSSM. With the right set of observables, the neural network approach generally could also be used for any other (non-supersymmetric) theory. In each region, a reference point with around 1,000 events after cuts should be determined in the context of a LHC with a center of mass energy of 14 TeV and an integrated luminosity of 10 fb

  17. Cognitive LF-Ant: A Novel Protocol for Healthcare Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Alencar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors present the Cognitive LF-Ant protocol for emergency reporting in healthcare wireless sensor networks. The protocol is inspired by the natural behaviour of ants and a cognitive component provides the capabilities to dynamically allocate resources, in accordance with the emergency degree of each patient. The intra-cluster emergency reporting is inspired by the different capabilities of leg-manipulated ants. The inter-cluster reporting is aided by the cooperative modulation diversity with spectrum sensing, which can detect new emergency reporting requests and forward them. Simulations results show the decrease of average delay time as the probability of opportunistic access increases, which privileges the emergency reporting related to the patients with higher priority of resources’ usage. Furthermore, the packet loss rate is decreased by the use of cooperative modulation diversity with spectrum sensing.

  18. A proposed method for fast determination of plasma parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braams, B.J.; Lackner, K.

    1984-09-01

    The method of function parametrization, developed and applied by H. Wind for fast data evaluation in high energy physics, is presented in the context of controlled fusion research. This method relies on statistical analysis of a data base of simulated experiments in order to obtain a functional representation for the intrinsic physical parameters of a system in terms of the values of the measurements. Some variations on Wind's original procedure are suggested. A specific application for tokamak experiments would be the determination of certain global parameters of the plasma, characterizing the current profile, shape of the cross-section, plasma pressure, and the internal inductance. The relevant measurements for this application include values of the poloidal field and flux external to the plasma, and a diamagnetic measurement. These may be combined with other diagnostics, such as electron-cyclotron emission and laser interferometry, in order to obtain also density and temperature profiles. There appears to be a capability for on-line determination of basic physical parameters, in a millisecond timescale on a minicomputer instead of in seconds on a large mainframe. (orig.)

  19. Determination of appropriate models and parameters for premixing calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ik-Kyu; Kim, Jong-Hwan; Min, Beong-Tae; Hong, Seong-Wan

    2008-03-15

    The purpose of the present work is to use experiments that have been performed at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe during about the last ten years for determining the most appropriate models and parameters for premixing calculations. The results of a QUEOS experiment are used to fix the parameters concerning heat transfer. The QUEOS experiments are especially suited for this purpose as they have been performed with small hot solid spheres. Therefore the area of heat exchange is known. With the heat transfer parameters fixed in this way, a PREMIX experiment is recalculated. These experiments have been performed with molten alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) as a simulant of corium. Its initial temperature is 2600 K. With these experiments the models and parameters for jet and drop break-up are tested.

  20. Determination of appropriate models and parameters for premixing calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ik-Kyu; Kim, Jong-Hwan; Min, Beong-Tae; Hong, Seong-Wan

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of the present work is to use experiments that have been performed at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe during about the last ten years for determining the most appropriate models and parameters for premixing calculations. The results of a QUEOS experiment are used to fix the parameters concerning heat transfer. The QUEOS experiments are especially suited for this purpose as they have been performed with small hot solid spheres. Therefore the area of heat exchange is known. With the heat transfer parameters fixed in this way, a PREMIX experiment is recalculated. These experiments have been performed with molten alumina (Al 2 O 3 ) as a simulant of corium. Its initial temperature is 2600 K. With these experiments the models and parameters for jet and drop break-up are tested

  1. Determination of Intermediate Resonance Parameter with RMET21 for nTRACER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohail, Muhammad; Kim, Myung Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Ray Tracing based code nTRACER is being developed in Seoul National University that has the capability of 3-dimensional whole core neutron transport calculation. As a part of development of multi-group neutron cross section library for nTRACER, the current work is intended to accurately determine intermediate resonance parameters. Beside the systematic calculation of subgroup parameters for resonance self shielding calculation, intermediate resonance parameters itself can be as important as the multi-group neutron cross section in the library and its overall accuracy. In this paper lambda factors were computed using RMET21 from ENDF/B-VII.1 for nTRACER to investigate its dependence on temperature and background cross section and replaced with lambda factors from HELIOS multi-group library. The procedure used for determining the intermediate resonance parameter for the isotope under study is introduced in the next section. Oxygen being one of the primary nuclide in PWR fuel has been selected for intermediate resonance parameters calculation

  2. Laser fluorimetric determination of uranium in environmental samples from Nile Delta and adjacent regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shawky, S.; Ibrahiem, N.; Farouk, A.; Ghods, A.

    1994-01-01

    Total uranium content was determined in soil and plant samples obtained from various areas in the Nile Delta. Samples taken from east and west of the delta, Suez canal cities and from the Alexandria region were analysed using laser fluorimetry (LF). Uranium was extracted from digested samples with methyl-isobutyl ketone and measured using a laser fluorimeter. The radium content of the same soil samples was determined using gamma spectroscopy. The uranium content of plant samples was determined using LF, since this technique has a detection limit lower than that of GS. Uranium content in the samples varied between 0.6-4.4 μg/g for soil and 0.032-0.17 μg/g for plant tissue. (author)

  3. The effect of dielectric top lids on materials processing in a low frequency inductively coupled plasma (LF-ICP) reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, J.W.M.; Chan, C.S.; Xu, L.; Xu, S.

    2014-01-01

    The advent of the plasma revolution began in the 1970's with the exploitation of plasma sources for anisotropic etching and processing of materials. In recent years, plasma processing has gained popularity, with research institutions adopting projects in the field and industries implementing dry processing in their production lines. The advantages of utilizing plasma sources would be uniform processing over a large exposed surface area, and the reduction of toxic emissions. This leads to reduced costs borne by manufacturers which could be passed down as consumer savings, and a reduction in negative environmental impacts. Yet, one constraint that plagues the industry would be the control of contaminants in a plasma reactor which becomes evident when reactions are conducted in a clean vacuum environment. In this work, amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin films were grown on glass substrates in a low frequency inductively coupled plasma (LF-ICP) reactor with a top lid made of quartz. Even though the chamber was kept at high vacuum (~10 −4 Pa), it was evident through secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and Fourier-transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) that oxygen contaminants were present. With the aid of optical emission spectroscopy (OES) the contaminant species were identified. The design of the LF-ICP reactor was then modified to incorporate an Alumina (Al 2 O 3 ) lid. Results indicate that there were reduced amounts of contaminants present in the reactor, and that an added benefit of increased power transfer to the plasma, improving deposition rate of thin films was realized. The results of this study is conclusive in showing that Al 2 O 3 is a good alternative as a top-lid of an LF-ICP reactor, and offers industries a solution in improving quality and rate of growth of thin films. (author)

  4. Tracer techniques for determination of groundwater flow parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drost, W.; Klotz, D.

    1988-05-01

    The most common one-borehole and multiple borehole methods using tracers for the direct determination of the groundwater flow parameters (velocity of flow, flow direction) and for the indirect determination of characteristic quantities of the aquifer (effective porosity, dispersivity, transmissivity) are presented methodically and their value is documented by practical examples. Especially, the properties of and measuring technique with suitable tracers are considered (e.g. T, Na-24, Cr-51, Co-58, Co-60, Br-82, Tc-99, I-125, I-131, Au-198). (orig./HP) [de

  5. Determination of the Performance Parameters of a Spectrophotometer: An Advanced Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Virgil W.

    1978-01-01

    Describes an advanced analytical chemistry laboratory experiment developed for the determination of the performance parameters of a spectrophotometer. Among the parameters are the baseline linearity with wavelength, wavelength accuracy and respectability, stray light, noise level and pen response time. (HM)

  6. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF KESEMEK LEAVES (Diospyros kaki L.F) USING DPPH (2,2-DIPHENYL-1 PIKRYLHYDRAZINE) METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    Isnindar, Isnindar; Setyowati, Erna Prawita; Wahyuono, Subagus

    2015-01-01

    There are two groups of antioxidant resources, these are synthetic and natural antioxidants. The most important natural antioxidant is phenolic compounds that are produced naturally from plants. Phenolic Antioxidants are potent antiradical, biologically active as they are able to donate hydrogens to free radicals and break the chain of lipid oxidation reactions in the early stages. This study is aimed to search natural antioxidant compounds from the leaves persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.F) that ...

  7. A determination of electroweak parameters at HERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    H1 Collaboration; Aktas, A.; Andreev, V.; Anthonis, T.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Bähr, J.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Baumgartner, S.; Becker, J.; Beckingham, M.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J. C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brisson, V.; Brown, D. P.; Bruncko, D.; Büsser, F. W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A. J.; Caron, S.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Contreras, J. G.; Coughlan, J. A.; Cox, B. E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Dau, W. D.; Daum, K.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; de Roeck, A.; Desch, K.; de Wolf, E. A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Ellerbrock, M.; Erdmann, W.; Essenov, S.; Falkewicz, A.; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleming, Y. H.; Flucke, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Garutti, E.; Gayler, J.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, S.; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Goyon, C.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grell, B. R.; Grindhammer, G.; Gwilliam, C.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Henshaw, O.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K. H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Hussain, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Ismail, M.; Jacquet, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jönsson, L.; Johnson, D. P.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Keller, N.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Krüger, K.; Kückens, J.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laštovička, T.; Laštovička-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lueders, H.; Lüke, D.; Lux, T.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mangano, S.; Marage, P.; Marshall, R.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S. J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Milstead, D.; Mladenov, D.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J. V.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P. R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J. E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Papadopoulou, T.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Plačakytė, R.; Portheault, B.; Povh, B.; Prideaux, P.; Raicevic, N.; Reimer, P.; Rimmer, A.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sauvan, E.; Schätzel, S.; Schilling, F.-P.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sedlák, K.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R. N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Strauch, I.; Straumann, U.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P. D.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Truöl, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, M.; Usik, A.; Utkin, D.; Valkár, S.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Veelken, C.; Vest, A.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Vujicic, B.; Wacker, K.; Wagner, J.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, N.; Wessels, M.; Wessling, B.; Wigmore, C.; Wissing, Ch.; Wolf, R.; Wünsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yan, W.; Yeganov, V.; Žáček, J.; Zálešák, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zimmermann, J.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2006-01-01

    Using the deep inelastic ep and ep charged and neutral current scattering cross sections previously published, a combined electroweak and QCD analysis is performed to determine electroweak parameters accounting for their correlation with parton distributions. The data used have been collected by the H1 experiment in 1994 2000 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 117.2 pb. A measurement is obtained of the W propagator mass in charged current ep scattering. The weak mixing angle sinθ is determined in the on-mass-shell renormalisation scheme. A first measurement at HERA is made of the light quark weak couplings to the Z boson and a possible contribution of right-handed isospin components to the weak couplings is investigated.

  8. A Determination of Electroweak Parameters at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aktas, A.; Anthonis, T.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Bahr, J.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Baumgartner, S.; Becker, J.; Beckingham, M.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J.C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brisson, V.; Brown, D.P.; Bruncko, D.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Caron, S.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; De Roeck, A.; Desch, K.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Ellerbrock, M.; Erdmann, W.; Essenov, S.; Falkewicz, A.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flucke, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Garutti, E.; Gayler, J.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Goyon, C.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Gwilliam, C.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henschel, H.; Henshaw, O.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Hussain, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Ismail, M.; Jacquet, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Keller, N.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Kuckens, J.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lueders, H.; Luke, D.; Lux, T.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mangano, S.; Marage, P.; Marshall, R.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxeld, S.J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Milstead, D.; Mladenov, D.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Papadopoulou, T.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Portheault, B.; Povh, B.; Prideaux, P.; Raicevic, N.; Reimer, P.; Rimmer, A.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauvan, E.; Schatzel, S.; Schilling, F.-P.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Strauch, I.; Straumann, U.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsakov, I.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, Marcel; Usik, A.; Utkin, D.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Veelken, C.; Vest, A.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Vujicic, B.; Wacker, K.; Wagner, J.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, N.; Wessels, M.; Wessling, B.; Wigmore, C.; Wissing, Ch.; Wolf, R.; Wunsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yan, W.; Yeganov, V.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y.C.; Zimmermann, J.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2006-01-01

    Using the deep inelastic e^+p and e^-p charged and neutral current scattering cross sections previously published, a combined electroweak and QCD analysis is performed to determine electroweak parameters accounting for their correlation with parton distributions. The data used have been collected by the H1 experiment in 1994-2000 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 117.2 pb^{-1}. A measurement is obtained of the W propagator mass in charged current ep scattering. The weak mixing angle sin^2 theta_W is determined in the on-mass-shell renormalisation scheme. A first measurement at HERA is made of the light quark weak couplings to the Z^0 boson and a possible contribution of right-handed isospin components to the weak couplings is investigated.

  9. Evaluation of fatigue crack growth and fracture resistance of SA350 LF2 material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, P.K.; Dubey, J.S.; Chakrabarty, J.K.; Vaze, K.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to evaluate the tensile and fracture mechanics properties of the SA350 LF2 carbon steel material used as the Header material in the primary heat transport (PHT) system piping of the Indian pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWR). Tensile, fatigue crack growth rate and fracture toughness tests have been carried out on specimens machined from the Header of the actual PHT pipes. The effect of temperature on tensile properties has been discussed. The effect of temperature and notch orientation on fracture resistance behavior of the material and fatigue crack growth rate dependence on the notch orientation and stress ratio has also been discussed. (author)

  10. Determination of power system component parameters using nonlinear dead beat estimation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolluru, Lakshmi

    Power systems are considered the most complex man-made wonders in existence today. In order to effectively supply the ever increasing demands of the consumers, power systems are required to remain stable at all times. Stability and monitoring of these complex systems are achieved by strategically placed computerized control centers. State and parameter estimation is an integral part of these facilities, as they deal with identifying the unknown states and/or parameters of the systems. Advancements in measurement technologies and the introduction of phasor measurement units (PMU) provide detailed and dynamic information of all measurements. Accurate availability of dynamic measurements provides engineers the opportunity to expand and explore various possibilities in power system dynamic analysis/control. This thesis discusses the development of a parameter determination algorithm for nonlinear power systems, using dynamic data obtained from local measurements. The proposed algorithm was developed by observing the dead beat estimator used in state space estimation of linear systems. The dead beat estimator is considered to be very effective as it is capable of obtaining the required results in a fixed number of steps. The number of steps required is related to the order of the system and the number of parameters to be estimated. The proposed algorithm uses the idea of dead beat estimator and nonlinear finite difference methods to create an algorithm which is user friendly and can determine the parameters fairly accurately and effectively. The proposed algorithm is based on a deterministic approach, which uses dynamic data and mathematical models of power system components to determine the unknown parameters. The effectiveness of the algorithm is tested by implementing it to identify the unknown parameters of a synchronous machine. MATLAB environment is used to create three test cases for dynamic analysis of the system with assumed known parameters. Faults are

  11. Determination of charged particle beam parameters with taking into account of space charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishkhanov, B.S.; Poseryaev, A.V.; Shvedunov, V.I.

    2005-01-01

    One describes a procedure to determine the basic parameters of a paraxial axially-symmetric beam of charged particles taking account of space charge contribution. The described procedure is based on application of the general equation for beam envelope. Paper presents data on its convergence and resistance to measurement errors. The position determination error of crossover (stretching) and radius of beam in crossover is maximum 15% , while the emittance determination error depends on emittance and space charge correlation. The introduced procedure was used to determine parameters of the available electron gun 20 keV energy beam with 0.64 A current. The derived results turned to agree closely with the design parameters [ru

  12. Heart rate variability as determinism with jump stochastic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiongxuan; Skufca, Joseph D; Bollt, Erik M

    2013-08-01

    We use measured heart rate information (RR intervals) to develop a one-dimensional nonlinear map that describes short term deterministic behavior in the data. Our study suggests that there is a stochastic parameter with persistence which causes the heart rate and rhythm system to wander about a bifurcation point. We propose a modified circle map with a jump process noise term as a model which can qualitatively capture such this behavior of low dimensional transient determinism with occasional (stochastically defined) jumps from one deterministic system to another within a one parameter family of deterministic systems.

  13. Implementation of the Global Parameters Determination in Gaia's Astrometric Solution (AGIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raison, F.; Olias, A.; Hobbs, D.; Lindegren, L.

    2010-12-01

    Gaia is ESA’s space astrometry mission with a foreseen launch date in early 2012. Its main objective is to perform a stellar census of the 1000 Million brightest objects in our galaxy (completeness to V=20 mag) from which an astrometric catalog of micro-arcsec level accuracy will be constructed. A key element in this endeavor is the Astrometric Global Iterative Solution (AGIS). A core part of AGIS is to determine the accurate spacecraft attitude, geometric instrument calibration and astrometric model parameters for a well-behaved subset of all the objects (the ‘primary stars’). In addition, a small number of global parameters will be estimated, one of these being PPN γ. We present here the implementation of the algorithms dedicated to the determination of the global parameters.

  14. Determination of electrodebiles parameters of quark b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamizo Llatas, M.

    1995-01-01

    In the present work we analyze the process e e→ bb with the data collected during 1991 and 1992 by the Z,3 detector situated in the LEP e es torage-ring (CERN). From the measurements of the cross-sections and the charge asymmetry we determine the parameters of the b quark in the framework of the Standard Model. Finally, we parametrize the possible deviations from the model an obtain upper and lower. limits for the mass of the t quark. (Author) 23 refs

  15. Data report of ROSA/LSTF experiment TR-LF-07. Loss-of-feedwater transient with primary feed-and-bleed operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Takeshi

    2016-07-01

    An experiment TR-LF-07 was conducted on June 23, 1992 using the Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) in the Rig of Safety Assessment-IV (ROSA-IV) Program. The ROSA/LSTF experiment TR-LF-07 simulated a loss-of-feedwater transient in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) under assumptions of primary feed-and-bleed operation and total failure of auxiliary feedwater system. A safety injection (SI) signal was generated when steam generator (SG) secondary-side collapsed liquid level decreased to 3 m. Primary depressurization was initiated by fully opening a power-operated relief valve (PORV) of pressurizer (PZR) 30 min after the SI signal. High pressure injection (HPI) system was started in loop with PZR 12 s after the SI signal, while it was initiated in loop without PZR when the primary pressure decreased to 10.7 MPa. The primary and SG secondary pressures were kept almost constant because of cycle opening of the PZR PORV and SG relief valves. The PZR liquid level began to drop steeply following the PORV full opening, which caused liquid level formation at the hot leg. The PZR and hot leg liquid levels recovered due to the HPI actuation in both loops. The primary pressure became lower than the SG secondary pressure, which resulted in the actuation of accumulator (ACC) system in both loops. The PZR and hot legs became full of liquid again after the ACC actuation. The primary feed-and-bleed operation by use of the PORV, HPI and ACC systems was effective to core cooling because of no core uncovery. The experiment was terminated when the continuous core cooling was confirmed due to the successive coolant injection from the HPI system even after the ACC termination. The obtained data would be useful to study operator actions and procedures in the PWR multiple fault events which behaviors in the PZR affect. This report summarizes the test procedures, conditions and major observation in the ROSA/LSTF experiment TR-LF-07. (author)

  16. A new trend to determine biochemical parameters by quantitative FRET assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jia-yu; Song, Yang; Liu, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) has been widely used in biological and biomedical research because it can determine molecule or particle interactions within a range of 1-10 nm. The sensitivity and efficiency of FRET strongly depend on the distance between the FRET donor and acceptor. Historically, FRET assays have been used to quantitatively deduce molecular distances. However, another major potential application of the FRET assay has not been fully exploited, that is, the use of FRET signals to quantitatively describe molecular interactive events. In this review, we discuss the use of quantitative FRET assays for the determination of biochemical parameters, such as the protein interaction dissociation constant (K(d)), enzymatic velocity (k(cat)) and K(m). We also describe fluorescent microscopy-based quantitative FRET assays for protein interaction affinity determination in cells as well as fluorimeter-based quantitative FRET assays for protein interaction and enzymatic parameter determination in solution.

  17. Nonlinear Conte-Zbilut-Federici (CZF Method of Computing LF/HF Ratio: A More Reliable Index of Changes in Heart Rate Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Bond Jr

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Acupuncture treatments are safe and effective for a wide variety of diseases involving autonomic dysregulation. Heart rate variability (HRV is a noninvasive method for assessing sympathovagal balance. The low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF spectral power ratio is an index of sympathovagal influence on heart rate and of cardi

  18. Determination of the cell parameters of β-quartz at 1003 K by neutron multiple diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Luiz Carlos de

    2002-01-01

    In this work, neutron multiple diffraction (NMD) data was employed for the determination of the parameters a and c of the β-quartz hexagonal cell at 1003 K. An experimental 00.1 β-quartz NMD 'Umweg' pattern has been used for the determinations. During the indexing of the β-quartz pattern it was verified that most of the peaks could be classified as either 'good for the determination of the parameter a' or 'good for the determination of the parameter c'. With such a classification, it became possible to employ an iterative process for the determination of both parameters. To attain this purpose, two methods were developed. The first one, named 'absolute method', used angular azimuthal positions of the peaks, related to the origin of the experimental diagram. The second method, named 'relative method', used azimuthal angular differences between two selected peaks. The values obtained for both parameters, in the two methods employed, were found by applying the angular azimuthal positions, for the first method, and the azimuthal angular differences, for the second method, upon appropriate theoretical indexing diagrams. An iterative process was applied in order to obtain the values of the parameters. In this process, the value obtained for one of the parameters was used in the determination of the other parameter. The process continues until both parameters converge. The iterative process was used in both methods. The relative method proved to be better than the absolute method. The best values of the parameters obtained by the relative method were: a 4.99638 ± 0.00057 angstrom and c = 5.46119 ± 0.00044 angstrom. (author)

  19. Determination of parameters in elasto-plastic models of aluminium.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, M.H.H.; Oomens, C.W.J.; Baaijens, F.P.T.; Petterson, R.; Janssen, J.D.; Sol, H.; Oomens, C.W.J.

    1997-01-01

    A mixed numerical-experimental method is used to determine parameters in elasto-plastic constitutive models. An aluminium plate of non-standard geometry is mounted in a uniaxial tensile testing machine at which some adjustments are made to carry out shear tests. The sample is loaded and the total

  20. On the determination of the mutual exclusion statistics parameter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    On the determination of the mutual exclusion statistics parameter. SAPTARSHI MANDAL. Department of Theoretical Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science,. 2A&2B Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032, India. E-mail: mandal.saptarshi1@gmail.com. MS received 7 September 2012; revised ...

  1. Determination of the kinetic parameters of BeO using isothermal decay method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto, Juan Azorin; Vega, Claudia Azorin; Montalvo, Teodoro Rivera; Cabrera, Eugenio Torijano

    2016-01-01

    Most of the existing methods for obtaining the frequency factors make use of the trap depth (activation energy) making some assumptions about the order of the kinetics. This causes inconsistencies in the reported values of trapping parameters due that the values of the activation energy obtained by different methods differ appreciably among them. Then, it is necessary to use a method independent of the trap depth making use of the isothermal luminescence decay (ILD) method. The trapping parameters associated with the prominent glow peak of BeO (280 °C) are reported using ILD method. As a check, the trap parameters are also calculated by glow curve shape (Chen's) method after isolating the prominent glow peak by thermal cleaning technique. Our results show a very good agreement between the trapping parameters calculated by the two methods. ILD method was used for determining the trapping parameters of BeO. Results obtained applying this method are in good agreement with those obtained using other methods, except in the value of the frequency factor. - Highlights: • Kinetic parameters of BeO were determined. • Isothermal decay method was used. • Frecuency factor not agree with those obtained by other methods.

  2. Standard Test Method for Determining the Linearity of a Photovoltaic Device Parameter with Respect To a Test Parameter

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method determines the degree of linearity of a photovoltaic device parameter with respect to a test parameter, for example, short-circuit current with respect to irradiance. 1.2 The linearity determined by this test method applies only at the time of testing, and implies no past or future performance level. 1.3 This test method applies only to non-concentrator terrestrial photovoltaic devices. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  3. Coffee Bean Grade Determination Based on Image Parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ferdiansjah

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Quality standard for coffee as an agriculture commodity in Indonesia uses defect system which is regulated in Standar Nasional Indonesia (SNI for coffee bean, No: 01-2907-1999. In the Defect System standard, coffee bean is classified into six grades, from grade I to grade VI depending on the number of defect found in the coffee bean. Accuracy of this method heavily depends on the experience and the expertise of the human operators. The objective of the research is to develop a system to determine the coffee bean grading based on SNI No: 01-2907-1999. A visual sensor, a webcam connected to a computer, was used for image acquisition of coffee bean image samples, which were placed under uniform illumination of 414.5+2.9 lux. The computer performs feature extraction from parameters of coffee bean image samples in the term of texture (energy, entropy, contrast, homogeneity and color (R mean, G mean, and B mean and determines the grade of coffee bean based on the image parameters by implementing neural network algorithm. The accuracy of system testing for the coffee beans of grade I, II, III, IVA, IVB, V, and VI have the value of 100, 80, 60, 40, 100, 40, and 100%, respectively.

  4. Parameters of importance to determine in geoscientific site studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan; Almen, K.E.; Ericsson, L.O.; Karlsson, Fred; Stroem, A.; Fredriksson, Anders; Stanfors, R.

    1996-12-01

    This report identifies and describes parameters, that may be determined in a site characterization study, for performing functional and safety analyses of a deep rock repository for radioactive wastes. The report discusses data needs for rock engineering and for description of other environmental aspects. It is intended that the report be used as a basis for formulating the criteria of acceptance in evaluating a candidate site. The report describes how different parameters influence the safety function, and how they are evaluated in practice. The logical order of performing measurements, due to the need of in-data and influence on other measurements is also discussed. 65 refs

  5. Determination of beam characteristic parameters for a linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, D.A. de.

    1978-01-01

    A mechanism to determine electron beam characteristic parameters of a linear accelerator was constructed. The mechanism consists in an electro-calorimeter and an accurate optical densitometer. The following parameters: mean power, mean current, mean energy/particle, pulse Width, pulse amplitude dispersion, and pulse frequency, operating the 2 MeV linear accelerator of CBPF (Brazilian Center pf Physics Researches). The optical isodensity curves of irradiated glass lamellae were obtained, providing information about focus degradation penetration direction in material and the reach of particle. The point to point dose distribution in the material from optical density curves were obtained, using a semi empirical and approached model. (M.C.K.) [pt

  6. Assessing hepatic fibrosis: comparing the intravoxel incoherent motion in MRI with acoustic radiation force impulse imaging in US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Chih-Horng; Liang, Po-Chin; Shih, Tiffany Ting-Fang [National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); Ho, Ming-Chih; Hu, Rey-Heng; Lai, Hong-Shiee [National Taiwan University Hospital and College of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Taipei (China); Jeng, Yung-Ming [National Taiwan University Hospital and College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Taipei (China)

    2015-12-15

    This study compared the diagnostic performance of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI) in ultrasound (US) for liver fibrosis (LF) evaluation. A total of 49 patients scheduled for liver surgery were recruited. LF in the non-tumorous liver parenchyma at the right lobe was estimated using a slow diffusion coefficient, fast diffusion coefficient (D{sub fast}), perfusion fraction (f) of the IVIM parameters, the total apparent diffusion coefficient of conventional diffusion-weighted imaging and the shear wave velocity (Vs) of ARFI. LF was graded using the Metavir scoring system on histological examination. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient for correlation and analysis of variance was used for determining difference. The diagnostic performance was compared using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. LF exhibited significant correlation with the three parameters D{sub fast}, f, and Vs (r = -0.528, -0.337, and 0.481, respectively, P < 0.05). The D{sub fast} values in the F4 group were significantly lower than those in the F0, F1 and F2 groups. D{sub fast} exhibited a non-inferior performance for diagnosing all fibrosis grades compared with that of Vs. Both IVIM and ARFI provide reliable estimations for the noninvasive assessment of LF. (orig.)

  7. Quantitative Determination of Spring Water Quality Parameters via Electronic Tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noèlia Carbó

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of a voltammetric electronic tongue for the quantitative analysis of quality parameters in spring water is proposed here. The electronic voltammetric tongue consisted of a set of four noble electrodes (iridium, rhodium, platinum, and gold housed inside a stainless steel cylinder. These noble metals have a high durability and are not demanding for maintenance, features required for the development of future automated equipment. A pulse voltammetry study was conducted in 83 spring water samples to determine concentrations of nitrate (range: 6.9–115 mg/L, sulfate (32–472 mg/L, fluoride (0.08–0.26 mg/L, chloride (17–190 mg/L, and sodium (11–94 mg/L as well as pH (7.3–7.8. These parameters were also determined by routine analytical methods in spring water samples. A partial least squares (PLS analysis was run to obtain a model to predict these parameter. Orthogonal signal correction (OSC was applied in the preprocessing step. Calibration (67% and validation (33% sets were selected randomly. The electronic tongue showed good predictive power to determine the concentrations of nitrate, sulfate, chloride, and sodium as well as pH and displayed a lower R2 and slope in the validation set for fluoride. Nitrate and fluoride concentrations were estimated with errors lower than 15%, whereas chloride, sulfate, and sodium concentrations as well as pH were estimated with errors below 10%.

  8. Reactivity and kinetic parameters determination in a multiplicative non-stationary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minguez, E.

    1982-01-01

    A revision of several methods used for solving kinetic equations of a neutronic system is considered. Firstly, kinetic equations in general form are analized, before to revise more important aproximations: point-kinetic method; adiabatic; cuasistatic; eigenvalue equations; nodal, modal and systhesis methods; and variational principles for obtaining kinetic equations. Perturbation theory is used to obtain these parameters, with differents eigenvalue equations representatives of the parameter to be calculated. Also, experimental methods have been included in this work, because of importance the parameters can be measured, and related with those obtained by calculations. Finally, adjoint kinetic equations are resolved to obtain the importance function used in weighted reactivity and kinetic parameters determinations. (author)

  9. Determination of fuel irradiation parameters. Required accuracies and available methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mas, P.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reports on the present point of some main methods to determine the nuclear parameters of fuel irradiation in testing reactors (nuclear power, burn up, ...) The different methods (theoretical or experimental) are reviewed: neutron measurements and calculations, gamma scanning, heat balance, ... . The required accuracies are reviewed: they are of 3-5 % on flux, fluences, nuclear power, burn-up, conversion factor. These required accuracies are compared with the real accuracies available which are the present time of order of 5-20 % on these parameters

  10. Determination of material irradiation parameters. Required accuracies and available methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerles, J.M.; Mas, P.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper, the author reports some main methods to determine the nuclear parameters of material irradiation in testing reactor (nuclear power, burn-up, fluxes, fluences, ...). The different methods (theoretical or experimental) are reviewed: neutronics measurements and calculations, gamma scanning, thermal balance, ... The required accuracies are reviewed: they are of 3-5% on flux, fluences, nuclear power, burn-up, conversion factor, ... These required accuracies are compared with the real accuracies available which are at the present time of order of 5-20% on these parameters

  11. Determination of uranium in environmental samples from the Nile delta and the adjacent regions of Egypt using laser fluorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shawky, S; Ibrahim, N; Farouk, A [National research Center for Nuclear safety and radiation Control, Atomic Energy Authority, cairo (Egypt); Ghods, A [IAEA Laboratories, Chemistry Unit., A 244 Seibersdorf, (Austria)

    1995-10-01

    Total uranium content was determined in soil and plant samples taken from various areas in the Nile delta. Samples from east and west of the delta, the suez canal` cities and from alexandria region were analyzed using laser fluorimetry (LF). Uranium was extracted from digested ashed samples with methyl-isobutyl ketone (MIBK) and measured using laser fluorimeter. The radium content of the same soil samples was determined using gamma spectrometry (GS). The uranium content of plant samples was determined using (LF), since it has a detection limit lower than of (GS). The uranium content varied between 0.6-4.4{mu}g/g and 0.032-0.17 {mu}g/g for soil and plant samples respectively. 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  12. Determination of uranium in environmental samples from the Nile delta and the adjacent regions of Egypt using laser fluorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shawky, S.; Ibrahim, N.; Farouk, A.; Ghods, A.

    1995-01-01

    Total uranium content was determined in soil and plant samples taken from various areas in the Nile delta. Samples from east and west of the delta, the suez canal' cities and from alexandria region were analyzed using laser fluorimetry (LF). Uranium was extracted from digested ashed samples with methyl-isobutyl ketone (MIBK) and measured using laser fluorimeter. The radium content of the same soil samples was determined using gamma spectrometry (GS). The uranium content of plant samples was determined using (LF), since it has a detection limit lower than of (GS). The uranium content varied between 0.6-4.4μg/g and 0.032-0.17 μg/g for soil and plant samples respectively. 1 fig., 3 tabs

  13. Determination of valence band parameters in ZnTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froehlich, D.; Noethe, A.; Reimann, K. (Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Physikalisches Inst. - Lehrstuhl 2)

    1984-10-01

    The fine structure of the 2P exciton in ZnTe is studied by two-photon-absorption. The energy splitting into four states, caused by the envelope-hole coupling, allows the determination of the Luttinger parameters ..gamma../sub 2/ and ..gamma../sub 3/, which describe the complex valence band. ..gamma../sub 2/ = 0.8 and ..gamma../sub 3/ = 1.7 are obtained. These values are compared to results of other experiments mainly on 1S excitons.

  14. Determination of resonance parameters in QCD by functional analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciulli, S.; Geniet, F.; Papadopoulos, N.A.; Schilcher, K.

    1988-01-01

    A mathematically rigorous method based on functional analysis is used to determine resonance parameters of an amplitude from its given asymptotic expression in the space-like region. This method is checked on a model amplitude where both the asymptotic expression and the exact function are known. This method is then applied to the determination of the mass and the width of the ρ-meson from the corresponding space-like asymptotic QCD expression. (orig.)

  15. Determining global parameters of the oscillations of solar-like stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathur, S.; García, R. A.; Régulo, C.

    2010-01-01

    Context. Helioseismology has enabled us to better understand the solar interior, while also allowing us to better constrain solar models. But now is a tremendous epoch for asteroseismology as space missions dedicated to studying stellar oscillations have been launched within the last years (MOST....... Aims. The goal of this research work is to estimate the global parameters of any solar-like oscillating target in an automatic manner. We want to determine the global parameters of the acoustic modes (large separation, range of excited pressure modes, maximum amplitude, and its corresponding frequency...

  16. Evaluation of four bioestimulantes and three sustrates in the propagation of Vallea stipularis L.f.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Rosero

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The research consisted in evaluating four biostimulants and three substrates for the propagation of Vallea stipularis L.f. in greenhouse conditions. The biostimulants corresponded to: plant hormone rooting (B1, agrohormones 10-10-10 (B2, ESPOCH biostimulant (B3 and Gron Gibb (B4. The substrates consisted of: 50% black soil + 25% peat + 25% sand (S1; 50% black soil + 25% peat + 25% humus (S2 and 50% peat + 50% humus (S3. For the study, it was used a randomized complete design (RCD with factorial arrangement, it was determined the coefficient of variation and the Tukey test at 5% for the separation of means. The application of the biostimulants in the substrates was done at the time of planting. According to the results obtained, the best biostimulants corresponded to B1 (plant hormone rooting, applied in the seeds for 15 minutes, with which the highest emergency percentage was obtained (70.96%; with biostimulant B2 (agrohormones 10-10-10, applied for five minutes it was obtained 70.67% and with B3 (Gron Gibb 70.37%. The best substrate for emergence of plants was: 50% peat + 50% humus with 73.67% of emergence, where the highest plant height and root length were achieved, instead, the ESPOCH biostimulant (microoganisms reported a 67, 11% emergency.

  17. Effect of friction stir welding on microstructure and corrosion behavior of LF6 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghauri, Faizan Ali; Farooq, A.; Ahmad, A.; Deen, K. M.

    2017-03-01

    The LF6 aluminum alloy plates were joined by friction stir welding method. The tool rotational (1180 rpm) and transverse speed (0.56 mm s-1) were kept constant during welding of 4 mm thick plates. The microstructural features, hardness and tensile properties of the welded samples were determined to evaluate the structural integrity in comparison with the base metal. The electrochemical behavior of base metal (BM), thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ) and weld nugget zone (WNZ) was also investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 3.5% NaCl solution. The microstructural study revealed significant grain refinement and agglomeration of β (Mg2Al3) intermetallic precipitates in the WNZ. The relatively higher hardness and a decrease in the ductility (3%) also assured the formation of precipitates β precipitates in the WNZ welded samples. The fracture surface of welded sample also revealed the existence of β precipitates within the elongated dimples which may be considered as the crack initiation sites. The relatively lower corrosion rate (23.68 mpy) and higher charge transfer resistance (403 Ω cm2) of BM compared to WNZ could be associated with the galvanic dissolution of Al-matrix through competitive charge transfer and relaxation (adsorption/desorption of intermediate species) processes specifically at the vicinity of the β precipitates.

  18. Determination of the hexagonal network parameters of the quartz β using neutron multiple diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, L.C.; Parente, C.B.R.; Mazzocchi, V.L.; Helene, O.

    2000-01-01

    In this work, neutron multiple diffraction is employed for the determination of the parameters a and c of the β-quartz hexagonal cell. This crystalline phase of silica (SiO 2 ) occurs in temperatures between ca. 846 and 1143 K. A β-quartz neutron multiple diffraction pattern has been used in the determinations. This pattern was obtained with a natural quartz single crystal heated to 1003 K. During the indexing of the pattern it was verified that most of the pairs of secondary reflections, which are responsible for the formation of peaks, could be classified as 'good for the determination of a' or 'good for the determination of c'. With this classification, it became possible to employ an iterative method for the determination of both parameters. After 8 cycles of iteration the values found for the parameters were a = 4.9964 +- 0.0018 and c = 5.46268 +- 0.00052 A. (author)

  19. [Microcalorimetric determination of thermochemical parameters of the phosphofructokinase reaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhme, H J; Schellenberger, W; Hofmann, E

    1975-01-01

    A calorimetric procedure for determining deltaH, deltaG, deltaS and Keq of a bimolecular reaction with two or more products is described. By using this method the thermodynamic parameters of the phosphofructokinase reaction are determined. At pH 7.0 and 25 degrees C a reaction enthalpy of-6.96kcal/mole was found after correction for the neutralization enthalpy of the buffer and of the enthalpy difference of the magnesium complexes of ATP and ADP, respectively. The free energy of the phosphofructokinase reaction has been found under these conditions to be -3.96kcal/mole.

  20. Normal Values for Heart Electrophysiology Parameters of Healthy Swine Determined on Electrophysiology Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noszczyk-Nowak, Agnieszka; Cepiel, Alicja; Janiszewski, Adrian; Pasławski, Robert; Gajek, Jacek; Pasławska, Urszula; Nicpoń, Józef

    2016-01-01

    Swine are a well-recognized animal model for human cardiovascular diseases. Despite the widespread use of porcine model in experimental electrophysiology, still no reference values for intracardiac electrical activity and conduction parameters determined during an invasive electrophysiology study (EPS) have been developed in this species thus far. The aim of the study was to develop a set of normal values for intracardiac electrical activity and conduction parameters determined during an invasive EPS of swine. The study included 36 healthy domestic swine (24-40 kg body weight). EPS was performed under a general anesthesia with midazolam, propofol and isoflurane. The reference values for intracardiac electrical activity and conduction parameters were calculated as arithmetic means ± 2 standard deviations. The reference values were determined for AH, HV and PA intervals, interatrial conduction time at its own and imposed rhythm, sinus node recovery time (SNRT), corrected sinus node recovery time (CSNRT), anterograde and retrograde Wenckebach points, atrial, atrioventricular node and ventricular refractory periods. No significant correlations were found between body weight and heart rate of the examined pigs and their electrophysiological parameters. The hereby presented reference values can be helpful in comparing the results of various studies, as well as in more accurately estimating the values of electrophysiological parameters that can be expected in a given experiment.

  1. Determination of electroweak parameters of the b quark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamizo Llatas, M.

    1995-01-01

    In the present work we analyze the process e+e→ bb with the data collected during 1991 and 1992 by the L 3 detector situated in the LEP e+e-storage-ring (CERN). From the measurements of the crossections and the charge asymmetry we determine the parameters of the b quark in the framework of the Standar Model. Finally, we parametrize the possible deviations from the model an obtain upper and lower limits for the mass of the t quark

  2. Investigation of Ionospheric Anomalies related to moderate Romanian earthquakes occurred during last decade using VLF/LF INFREP and GNSS Global Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, Iren-Adelina; Oikonomou, Christina; Haralambous, Haris; Nastase, Eduard; Emilian Toader, Victorin; Biagi, Pier Francesco; Colella, Roberto; Toma-Danila, Dragos

    2017-04-01

    Ionospheric TEC (Total Electron Content) variations and Low Frequency (LF) signal amplitude data prior to five moderate earthquakes (Mw≥5) occurred in Romania, in Vrancea crustal and subcrustal seismic zones, during the last decade were analyzed using observations from the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and the European INFREP (International Network for Frontier Research on Earthquake Precursors) networks respectively, aiming to detect potential ionospheric anomalies related to these events and describe their characteristics. For this, spectral analysis on TEC data and terminator time method on VLF/LF data were applied. It was found that TEC perturbations appeared few days (1-7) up to few hours before the events lasting around 2-3 hours, with periods 20 and 3-5 minutes which could be associated with the impending earthquakes. In addition, in all three events the sunrise terminator times were delayed approximately 20-40 min few days prior and during the earthquake day. Acknowledgments This work was partially supported by the Partnership in Priority Areas Program - PNII, under MEN-UEFISCDI, DARING Project no. 69/2014 and the Nucleu Program - PN 16-35, Project no. 03 01

  3. Determining the optimum process parameter for grinding operations using robust process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neseli, Suley Man; Asilturk, Ilhan; Celik, Levent

    2012-01-01

    We applied combined response surface methodology (RSM) and Taguchi methodology (TM) to determine optimum parameters for minimum surface roughness (Ra) and vibration (Vb) in external cylindrical grinding. First, an experiment was conducted in a CNC cylindrical grinding machine. The TM using L 27 orthogonal array was applied to the design of the experiment. The three input parameters were workpiece revolution, feed rate and depth of cut; the outputs were vibrations and surface roughness. Second, to minimize wheel vibration and surface roughness, two optimized models were developed using computer aided single objective optimization. The experimental and statistical results revealed that the most significant grinding parameter for surface roughness and vibration is workpiece revolution followed by the depth of cut. The predicted values and measured values were fairly close, which indicates 2 ( 94.99 R 2Ra =and 2 92.73) R 2Vb =that the developed models can be effectively used to predict surface roughness and vibration in the grinding. The established model for determination of optimal operating conditions shows that a hybrid approach can lead to success of a robust process

  4. Experimental and analytical determination of stability parameters for a balloon tethered in a wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redd, L. T.; Bennett, R. M.; Bland, S. R.

    1973-01-01

    Experimental and analytical techniques for determining stability parameters for a balloon tethered in a steady wind are described. These techniques are applied to a particular 7.64-meter-long balloon, and the results are presented. The stability parameters of interest appear as coefficients in linearized stability equations and are derived from the various forces and moments acting on the balloon. In several cases the results from the experimental and analytical techniques are compared and suggestions are given as to which techniques are the most practical means of determining values for the stability parameters.

  5. Determination of some process parameters in a tyre-cord plant using radiotracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirti; Madhavankutti, C.K.; Eapen, A.C.

    1979-01-01

    In the process industry, it is often necessary to study the process parameters such as the residence time, flow rate, etc., under different operating conditions and equipment. The tracer technique represents in this respect an outstanding and even sometimes singular means of determining some of the above parameters. A method consisting of the introduction of a radioactive tracer at the input of a flow system under study and subsequently determining the distribution of activity with time at the output end is described. The form of the activity time curve depends on the parameters of the installation and the mode of operation. A study conducted at a multi-stage viscose rayon processing plant is described in detail. (auth.)

  6. Experimental determination of chosen document elements parameters from raster graphics sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Rybička

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Visual appearance of documents and their formal quality is considered to be as important as the content quality. Formal and typographical quality of documents can be evaluated by an automated system that processes raster images of documents. A document is described by a formal model that treats a page as an object and also as a set of elements, whereas page elements include text and graphic object. All elements are described by their parameters depending on elements’ type. For future evaluation, mainly text objects are important. This paper describes the experimental determination of chosen document elements parameters from raster images. Techniques for image processing are used, where an image is represented as a matrix of dots and parameter values are extracted. Algorithms for parameter extraction from raster images were designed and were aimed mainly at typographical parameters like indentation, alignment, font size or spacing. Algorithms were tested on a set of 100 images of paragraphs or pages and provide very good results. Extracted parameters can be directly used for typographical quality evaluation.

  7. A New Method for Determining Optimal Regularization Parameter in Near-Field Acoustic Holography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Xiao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tikhonov regularization method is effective in stabilizing reconstruction process of the near-field acoustic holography (NAH based on the equivalent source method (ESM, and the selection of the optimal regularization parameter is a key problem that determines the regularization effect. In this work, a new method for determining the optimal regularization parameter is proposed. The transfer matrix relating the source strengths of the equivalent sources to the measured pressures on the hologram surface is augmented by adding a fictitious point source with zero strength. The minimization of the norm of this fictitious point source strength is as the criterion for choosing the optimal regularization parameter since the reconstructed value should tend to zero. The original inverse problem in calculating the source strengths is converted into a univariate optimization problem which is solved by a one-dimensional search technique. Two numerical simulations with a point driven simply supported plate and a pulsating sphere are investigated to validate the performance of the proposed method by comparison with the L-curve method. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can determine the regularization parameter correctly and effectively for the reconstruction in NAH.

  8. An analytical-numerical approach for parameter determination of a five-parameter single-diode model of photovoltaic cells and modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejri, Mohammad; Mokhtari, Hossein; Azizian, Mohammad Reza; Söder, Lennart

    2016-04-01

    Parameter extraction of the five-parameter single-diode model of solar cells and modules from experimental data is a challenging problem. These parameters are evaluated from a set of nonlinear equations that cannot be solved analytically. On the other hand, a numerical solution of such equations needs a suitable initial guess to converge to a solution. This paper presents a new set of approximate analytical solutions for the parameters of a five-parameter single-diode model of photovoltaic (PV) cells and modules. The proposed solutions provide a good initial point which guarantees numerical analysis convergence. The proposed technique needs only a few data from the PV current-voltage characteristics, i.e. open circuit voltage Voc, short circuit current Isc and maximum power point current and voltage Im; Vm making it a fast and low cost parameter determination technique. The accuracy of the presented theoretical I-V curves is verified by experimental data.

  9. Ammonia emission from organic pig houses determined with local parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnink, A.J.A.; Hol, J.M.G.; Ogink, N.W.M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the ammonia emissions from houses for growing-finishing pigs with an outside yard. While regular emission measurements are not possible in these open systems another approach was used. Local parameters were measured and used in an existing NH3 emission

  10. Determination of resist parameters using the extended Nijboer-Zernike theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirksen, P.; Braat, J.; Janssen, A.J.E.M.; Leeuwestein, A.; Kwinten, H.; Van Steenwinckel, D.

    2004-01-01

    This study presents an experimental method to determine the resist parameters that are at the origin of a general blurring of the projected aerial image. The resist model includes the effects of diffusion in the horizontal plane and a second cause for image blur that originates from a stochastic

  11. Study on Adaptive Parameter Determination of Cluster Analysis in Urban Management Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, J. Y.; Jing, C. F.; Du, M. Y.; Fu, Y. L.; Dai, P. P.

    2017-09-01

    The fine management for cities is the important way to realize the smart city. The data mining which uses spatial clustering analysis for urban management cases can be used in the evaluation of urban public facilities deployment, and support the policy decisions, and also provides technical support for the fine management of the city. Aiming at the problem that DBSCAN algorithm which is based on the density-clustering can not realize parameter adaptive determination, this paper proposed the optimizing method of parameter adaptive determination based on the spatial analysis. Firstly, making analysis of the function Ripley's K for the data set to realize adaptive determination of global parameter MinPts, which means setting the maximum aggregation scale as the range of data clustering. Calculating every point object's highest frequency K value in the range of Eps which uses K-D tree and setting it as the value of clustering density to realize the adaptive determination of global parameter MinPts. Then, the R language was used to optimize the above process to accomplish the precise clustering of typical urban management cases. The experimental results based on the typical case of urban management in XiCheng district of Beijing shows that: The new DBSCAN clustering algorithm this paper presents takes full account of the data's spatial and statistical characteristic which has obvious clustering feature, and has a better applicability and high quality. The results of the study are not only helpful for the formulation of urban management policies and the allocation of urban management supervisors in XiCheng District of Beijing, but also to other cities and related fields.

  12. STUDY ON ADAPTIVE PARAMETER DETERMINATION OF CLUSTER ANALYSIS IN URBAN MANAGEMENT CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Y. Fu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The fine management for cities is the important way to realize the smart city. The data mining which uses spatial clustering analysis for urban management cases can be used in the evaluation of urban public facilities deployment, and support the policy decisions, and also provides technical support for the fine management of the city. Aiming at the problem that DBSCAN algorithm which is based on the density-clustering can not realize parameter adaptive determination, this paper proposed the optimizing method of parameter adaptive determination based on the spatial analysis. Firstly, making analysis of the function Ripley's K for the data set to realize adaptive determination of global parameter MinPts, which means setting the maximum aggregation scale as the range of data clustering. Calculating every point object’s highest frequency K value in the range of Eps which uses K-D tree and setting it as the value of clustering density to realize the adaptive determination of global parameter MinPts. Then, the R language was used to optimize the above process to accomplish the precise clustering of typical urban management cases. The experimental results based on the typical case of urban management in XiCheng district of Beijing shows that: The new DBSCAN clustering algorithm this paper presents takes full account of the data’s spatial and statistical characteristic which has obvious clustering feature, and has a better applicability and high quality. The results of the study are not only helpful for the formulation of urban management policies and the allocation of urban management supervisors in XiCheng District of Beijing, but also to other cities and related fields.

  13. Determination of Microstructural Parameters of Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite Prepared by Mechanical Alloying Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joughehdoust, Sedigheh; Manafi, Sahebali

    2011-12-01

    Hydroxyapatite [HA, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] is chemically similar to the mineral component of bones and hard tissues. HA can support bone ingrowth and osseointegration when used in orthopaedic, dental and maxillofacial applications. In this research, HA nanostructure was synthesized by mechanical alloying method. Phase development, particle size and morphology of HA were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, zetasizer instrument, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. XRD pattern has been used to determination of the microstructural parameters (crystallite size, lattice parameters and crystallinity percent) by Williamson-Hall equation, Nelson-Riley method and calculating the areas under the peaks, respectively. The crystallite size and particle size of HA powders were in nanometric scales. SEM images showed that some parts of HA particles have agglomerates. The ratio of lattice parameters of synthetic hydroxyapatite (c/a = 0.73) was determined in this study is the same as natural hydroxyapatite structure.

  14. Review of Parameter Determination for Thermal Modeling of Lithium Ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed Madani, Seyed; Schaltz, Erik; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2018-01-01

    This paper reviews different methods for determination of thermal parameters of lithium ion batteries. Lithium ion batteries are extensively employed for various applications owing to their low memory effect, high specific energy, and power density. One of the problems in the expansion of hybrid...... on the lifetime of lithium ion battery cells. Thermal management is critical in electric vehicles (EVs) and good thermal battery models are necessary to design proper heating and cooling systems. Consequently, it is necessary to determine thermal parameters of a single cell, such as internal resistance, specific...... and electric vehicle technology is the management and control of operation temperatures and heat generation. Successful battery thermal management designs can lead to better reliability and performance of hybrid and electric vehicles. Thermal cycling and temperature gradients could have a considerable impact...

  15. Exploiting LF/MF signals of opportunity for lower ionospheric remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginson-Rollins, Marc A.; Cohen, Morris B.

    2017-08-01

    We introduce a method to diagnose and track the D region ionosphere (60-100 km). This region is important for long-distance terrestrial communication and is impacted by a variety of geophysical phenomena, but it is traditionally very difficult to detect. Modern remote sensing methods used to study the D region are predominately near the very low frequency (VLF, 3-30 kHz) band, with some work also done in the high-frequency and very high frequency bands (HF/VHF, 3-300 MHz). However, the frequency band between VLF and HF has been largely ignored as a diagnostic tool for the ionosphere. In this paper, we evaluate the use of 300 kHz radio reflections as a diagnostic tool for characterizing the D region of the ionosphere. We present radio receiver data, analyze diurnal trends in the signal from these transmitters, and identify ionospheric disturbances impacting LF/MF propagation. We find that 300 kHz remote sensing may allow a unique method for D region diagnostics compared to both the VLF and HF/VHF frequency bands, due to a more direct ionospheric reflection coefficient calculation method with high temporal resolution without the use of forward modeling.

  16. Determination of the kinetic parameters of BeO thermoluminescent samples using different methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Algarve, Fábio J.; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: fjalgarve@ipen.br, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the kinetic parameters of BeO thermoluminescent (TL) samples. The knowledge of the kinetic parameters is important for the general description of the physical characteristics of a thermoluminescent material. Using a linear heating rate of 5K/s{sup -1}, the BeO peak temperatures obtained were (474.7 ± 1.2) K and (620.5 ± 1.2) K, respectively, for the first and second TL peaks. The peak shape and the glow curve area measurement methods and the Urbach formula have been used for the trap parameter determination. A kinetic order of about two was determined for the first peak, whereas the second peak followed the first-order kinetics according to the geometrical factor. The energy activation values obtained using different kinds of measurements are in good agreement, including the Kitis method for deconvolution of the glow curve. Furthermore the results agree with those presented by other authors. (author)

  17. Determination of reactor parameters by single rod experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raisic, N; Zdravkovic, Z; Ivkovic, M; Sotic, O [Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1968-10-15

    The objective of this work was to determine experimentally fuel element parameters using an isolated fuel element of arbitrary construction and analyzing the accuracy of their results with the aim to apply them in analysis of reactor system. The approach is based on assumption of heterogeneous reactor theory, 'source-sink' theory. The obtained experimental results have shown the possibility of obtaining data for absorption or production properties of fuel element by analyzing the thermal and epithermal neutron density distributions around a single fuel rod placed in a sufficiently large thermal hole.

  18. Supersymmetry breaking and dynamical determination of superstring parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casas, J.A.; Munoz, C.; Ross, G.G.

    1991-01-01

    The characteristics of the effective potentials coming from phenomenologically promising compactified superstring theories are examined, paying special attention to the supersymmetry breaking issue. We briefly review the status and some of the recent work on the subject and present a mechanism for generating the large gauge hierarchy by gaugino condensation effect in the case that the hidden sector possesses more than one condensate. Explicit examples based on orbifold compactification in which this is realized are also given. Minimization of the effective potential not only determines the gauge hierarchy but also fixes other important parameters of the theory, in particular the gauge coupling constant at the unification point and the expectation values of the moduli which give the size and shape of the compactified space. These get raesonable values which may, in turn, lead to a determination of the family mass hierarchy. (orig.)

  19. Equation-free analysis of agent-based models and systematic parameter determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Spencer A.; Lloyd, David J. B.; Skeldon, Anne C.

    2016-12-01

    Agent based models (ABM)s are increasingly used in social science, economics, mathematics, biology and computer science to describe time dependent systems in circumstances where a description in terms of equations is difficult. Yet few tools are currently available for the systematic analysis of ABM behaviour. Numerical continuation and bifurcation analysis is a well-established tool for the study of deterministic systems. Recently, equation-free (EF) methods have been developed to extend numerical continuation techniques to systems where the dynamics are described at a microscopic scale and continuation of a macroscopic property of the system is considered. To date, the practical use of EF methods has been limited by; (1) the over-head of application-specific implementation; (2) the laborious configuration of problem-specific parameters; and (3) large ensemble sizes (potentially) leading to computationally restrictive run-times. In this paper we address these issues with our tool for the EF continuation of stochastic systems, which includes algorithms to systematically configuration problem specific parameters and enhance robustness to noise. Our tool is generic and can be applied to any 'black-box' simulator and determines the essential EF parameters prior to EF analysis. Robustness is significantly improved using our convergence-constraint with a corrector-repeat (C3R) method. This algorithm automatically detects outliers based on the dynamics of the underlying system enabling both an order of magnitude reduction in ensemble size and continuation of systems at much higher levels of noise than classical approaches. We demonstrate our method with application to several ABM models, revealing parameter dependence, bifurcation and stability analysis of these complex systems giving a deep understanding of the dynamical behaviour of the models in a way that is not otherwise easily obtainable. In each case we demonstrate our systematic parameter determination stage for

  20. Determination of Groundwater Velocity and Dispersion Parameters by Borehole Wall Multielectrode Geoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessels, W.; Wuttke, M. W.

    2007-05-01

    A single well technique to determine groundwater flow values and transport parameters is presented. Multielectrode arrays are placed at the filtered casing depth by an inflatable packer or are installed on the borehole wall behind the casing.Tracer water with a higher or lower specific electrical conductivity (salinity) which is injected between the electrodes. This tracer plume then moves into the natural groundwater flow field. The observation of this movement by geoelectric logging enables the determination of the groundwater velocity and salinity. The transport parameters "effective porosity" and "dispersion length" can also be derived. The geoelectric logging uses n borehole electrodes and two grounding electrodes. Thus, either n independent two point measurements or n*(n-1)/2 pole-to-pole measurements can be conducted to obtain a full set of geoelectric measurements. This set is used to derive all electrode combinations by applying the law of superposition and reciprocity. The tracer distribution around the borehole during and after injection depends on the hydraulic and transport parameters of the aquifer and the filter sand. The transport parameter "porosity" plus the total injected tracer volume determines the tracer distribution around the borehole. The transport parameter "dispersivity" determines the abruptness of the tracer front. The method was tested by undertaking measurements in a lab aquifer filled with sand. The results are discussed and the limitations of the method are shown. Multielectrode installations behind casing were tested in situ in the two scientific boreholes CAT-LUD-1 and CAT- LUD-1A drilled in the northern part of Germany. A multielectrode packer system was designed, built and tested in these boreholes. The results are compared with colloid observations in the borehole and hydraulic triangulation in surrounded observation wells. Here, the interpretation of these in situ measurements is mainly restricted to two point geoelectric

  1. Determination of the Corona model parameters with artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmet, Nayir; Bekir, Karlik; Arif, Hashimov

    2005-01-01

    Full text : The aim of this study is to calculate new model parameters taking into account the corona of electrical transmission line wires. For this purpose, a neural network modeling proposed for the corona frequent characteristics modeling. Then this model was compared with the other model developed at the Polytechnic Institute of Saint Petersburg. The results of development of the specified corona model for calculation of its influence on the wave processes in multi-wires line and determination of its parameters are submitted. Results of obtained calculation equations are brought for electrical transmission line with allowance for superficial effect in the ground and wires with reference to developed corona model

  2. Determination of thermoluminescence kinetic parameters of thulium doped lithium calcium borate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jose, M.T.; Anishia, S.R.; Annalakshmi, O.; Ramasamy, V.

    2011-01-01

    For the first time kinetic parameters of thulium doped Lithium calcium borate (LCB) Thermoluminescence (TL) material are reported here. Irradiated LCB:Tm 3+ powder has revealed two intense TL glow peaks one at 510 (peak 1) and the other at 660 K (peak 2). Activation energy (E), frequency factor (s) and order of kinetics (b) of these peaks were determined by various heating rate (VHR), initial rise (IR), and peak shape (PS) methods. The trap depth and frequency factor determined for peaks 1 and 2 of LCB:Tm phosphor using VHR and IR methods are in good agreement. The average activation energy of peaks 1 and 2 obtained by these methods is 1.62 and 1.91 eV respectively. The frequency factors of peaks 1 and 2 are in the range of 10 13-16 and 10 12-14 sec -1 respectively. The E and s values estimated using the glow peak shape dependent parameters are relatively less compared to the values obtained from other methods. The large difference in these values is due to the complex nature of the glow curves. The order of the kinetics process for complex glow curve peaks could not be assigned on the basis of shape parameters alone but T m response on absorbed dose is to be considered for final confirmation. Glow peaks 1 and 2 of LCB:Tm 3+ obey first and general order kinetics respectively. - Highlights: → Trap depth and frequency factor are determined for the peaks at 510 and 660 K of LCB:Tm. → Parameters obtained by various heating rate and initial rise methods are in good agreement. → Trap depth of peak 1 and peak 2 is 1.61 eV and 1.91 eV respectively. → T m response to absorbed dose is used to distinguish a first order or non-first order kinetics.

  3. Determining the optimum process parameter for grinding operations using robust process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neseli, Suley Man; Asilturk, Ilhan; Celik, Levent [Univ. of Selcuk, Konya (Turkmenistan)

    2012-11-15

    We applied combined response surface methodology (RSM) and Taguchi methodology (TM) to determine optimum parameters for minimum surface roughness (Ra) and vibration (Vb) in external cylindrical grinding. First, an experiment was conducted in a CNC cylindrical grinding machine. The TM using L{sup 27} orthogonal array was applied to the design of the experiment. The three input parameters were workpiece revolution, feed rate and depth of cut; the outputs were vibrations and surface roughness. Second, to minimize wheel vibration and surface roughness, two optimized models were developed using computer aided single objective optimization. The experimental and statistical results revealed that the most significant grinding parameter for surface roughness and vibration is workpiece revolution followed by the depth of cut. The predicted values and measured values were fairly close, which indicates 2 ( 94.99 R{sup 2Ra}=and 2 92.73) R{sup 2Vb}=that the developed models can be effectively used to predict surface roughness and vibration in the grinding. The established model for determination of optimal operating conditions shows that a hybrid approach can lead to success of a robust process.

  4. Impact parameter determination for 40Ca + 40Ca reactions using a neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, F.; Hagel, K.; Li, J.; Mdeiwayeh, N.; Natowitz, J.B.; Wada, R.; Xiao, B.; David, C.; Freslier, M.; Aichelin, J.

    1995-01-01

    A neural network is used for the impact parameter determination in 40 Ca + 40 Ca reactions at energies between 35 and 70 AMeV. A special attention is devoted to the effect of experimental constraints such as the detection efficiency. An overall improvement of the impact parameter determination of 25% is obtained with the neural network. The neural network technique is then used in the analysis of the Ca+Ca data at 35 AMeV and allows separation of three different class of events among the selected 'complete' events. (authors). 8 refs., 5 figs

  5. CHARACTERISTIC OF PARAMETERS OF HEART RATE VARIABILITY IN PATIENTS WITH DIFFICULT-TO-CONTROL AND CONTROLLED ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tymoshenko O. S.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Parameters of heart rate variability (HRV were studied in 112 patients with arterial hypertension (AH aged 58.5 ± 9 years (60 patients with difficult-to-control arterial hypertension (DTCAH and 52 patients with controlled arterial hypertension (CAH. The control group was consisted of 20 conditionally healthy persons of the same sex and age. It has been established that patients with AH were characterized by decrease in the level of total power of the HRV spectrum, the power of the high-frequency (HF and low-frequency (LF domains of the spectrum, and increase in the level of the very low-frequency spectrum (VLF and value LF/HF that reflect sympathovagal balance. It has been established that there were more significant disorders in neurohumoral regulation in patients with DTCAH in comparison with patients with CAH, which consist of the predominant adrenergic activation, primarily due to the sympathetic link of the autonomic nervous system. HRV can be used as an effective non-invasive method for the diagnosis and control of DTCAH.

  6. Use of multilevel modeling for determining optimal parameters of heat supply systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stennikov, V. A.; Barakhtenko, E. A.; Sokolov, D. V.

    2017-07-01

    The problem of finding optimal parameters of a heat-supply system (HSS) is in ensuring the required throughput capacity of a heat network by determining pipeline diameters and characteristics and location of pumping stations. Effective methods for solving this problem, i.e., the method of stepwise optimization based on the concept of dynamic programming and the method of multicircuit optimization, were proposed in the context of the hydraulic circuit theory developed at Melentiev Energy Systems Institute (Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences). These methods enable us to determine optimal parameters of various types of piping systems due to flexible adaptability of the calculation procedure to intricate nonlinear mathematical models describing features of used equipment items and methods of their construction and operation. The new and most significant results achieved in developing methodological support and software for finding optimal parameters of complex heat supply systems are presented: a new procedure for solving the problem based on multilevel decomposition of a heat network model that makes it possible to proceed from the initial problem to a set of interrelated, less cumbersome subproblems with reduced dimensionality; a new algorithm implementing the method of multicircuit optimization and focused on the calculation of a hierarchical model of a heat supply system; the SOSNA software system for determining optimum parameters of intricate heat-supply systems and implementing the developed methodological foundation. The proposed procedure and algorithm enable us to solve engineering problems of finding the optimal parameters of multicircuit heat supply systems having large (real) dimensionality, and are applied in solving urgent problems related to the optimal development and reconstruction of these systems. The developed methodological foundation and software can be used for designing heat supply systems in the Central and the Admiralty regions in

  7. Determination of extra trajectory parameters of projectile layout motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishchenko, A.; Burkin, V.; Faraponov, V.; Korolkov, L.; Maslov, E.; Diachkovskiy, A.; Chupashev, A.; Zykova, A.

    2017-11-01

    The paper presents a brief description of the experimental track developed and implemented on the base of the RIAMM TSU for external trajectory investigations on determining the main aeroballistic parameters of various shapes projectiles, in the wide velocity range. There is comparison between the experimentally obtained dependence of the fin-stabilized projectile mock-up aerodynamic drag coefficient on the Mach number with the 1958 aerodynamic drag law and aerodynamic tests of the same mock-up

  8. Development of nuclear methods for determining fluid-dynamic parameters in fluid catalyst cracking reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, V.A. dos; Dantas, C.C.

    1986-01-01

    Flow parameters of circulating fluidized bed in a simulated Fluid Catalyst Cracking reactor were determined by means of nuclear methods. The parameters were: residence time, density, inventory, circulation rate and radial distribution, for the catalyst; residence time for the gaseous phase. The nuclear methods where the gamma attenuation and the radiotracer. Two tracer techniques were developed, one for tagging of the catalyst by the 59 Fe as intrinsic tracer and another for tagging of the gaseous phase by the CH 3 82 Br as tracer. A detailed description of each measuring technique for all the investigated parameters is included. To carry out the determination for some of parameters a combination of the two methods was also applied. The results and the nuclear data are given in a table. (Author) [pt

  9. Development of a total hydrocarbon ordinal job-exposure matrix for workers responding to the Deepwater Horizon disaster: The GuLF STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Patricia A; Stenzel, Mark R; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Banerjee, Sudipto; Huynh, Tran B; Groth, Caroline P; Kwok, Richard K; Blair, Aaron; Engel, Lawrence S; Sandler, Dale P

    2018-05-01

    The GuLF STUDY is a cohort study investigating the health of workers who responded to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. The objective of this effort was to develop an ordinal job-exposure matrix (JEM) of airborne total hydrocarbons (THC), dispersants, and particulates to estimate study participants' exposures. Information was collected on participants' spill-related tasks. A JEM of exposure groups (EGs) was developed from tasks and THC air measurements taken during and after the spill using relevant exposure determinants. THC arithmetic means were developed for the EGs, assigned ordinal values, and linked to the participants using determinants from the questionnaire. Different approaches were taken for combining exposures across EGs. EGs for dispersants and particulates were based on questionnaire responses. Considerable differences in THC exposure levels were found among EGs. Based on the maximum THC level participants experienced across any job held, ∼14% of the subjects were identified in the highest exposure category. Approximately 10% of the cohort was exposed to dispersants or particulates. Considerable exposure differences were found across the various EGs, facilitating investigation of exposure-response relationships. The JEM is flexible to allow for different assumptions about several possibly relevant exposure metrics.

  10. Uncertainty in dual permeability model parameters for structured soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, B.; Mohanty, B. P.; McGuire, J. T.

    2012-01-01

    Successful application of dual permeability models (DPM) to predict contaminant transport is contingent upon measured or inversely estimated soil hydraulic and solute transport parameters. The difficulty in unique identification of parameters for the additional macropore- and matrix-macropore interface regions, and knowledge about requisite experimental data for DPM has not been resolved to date. Therefore, this study quantifies uncertainty in dual permeability model parameters of experimental soil columns with different macropore distributions (single macropore, and low- and high-density multiple macropores). Uncertainty evaluation is conducted using adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo (AMCMC) and conventional Metropolis-Hastings (MH) algorithms while assuming 10 out of 17 parameters to be uncertain or random. Results indicate that AMCMC resolves parameter correlations and exhibits fast convergence for all DPM parameters while MH displays large posterior correlations for various parameters. This study demonstrates that the choice of parameter sampling algorithms is paramount in obtaining unique DPM parameters when information on covariance structure is lacking, or else additional information on parameter correlations must be supplied to resolve the problem of equifinality of DPM parameters. This study also highlights the placement and significance of matrix-macropore interface in flow experiments of soil columns with different macropore densities. Histograms for certain soil hydraulic parameters display tri-modal characteristics implying that macropores are drained first followed by the interface region and then by pores of the matrix domain in drainage experiments. Results indicate that hydraulic properties and behavior of the matrix-macropore interface is not only a function of saturated hydraulic conductivity of the macroporematrix interface (Ksa) and macropore tortuosity (lf) but also of other parameters of the matrix and macropore domains.

  11. Coacervates of lactotransferrin and β- or κ-casein: structure determined using SAXS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kruif, C G Kees; Pedersen, JanSkov; Huppertz, Thom; Anema, Skelte G

    2013-08-20

    Lactotransferrin (LF) is a large globular protein in milk with immune-regulatory and bactericidal properties. At pH 6.5, LF (M = 78 kDa) carries a net (calculated) charge of +21. β-Casein (BCN) and κ-casein (KCN) are part of the casein micelle complex in milk. Both BCN and KCN are amphiphillic proteins with a molar mass of 24 and 19 kDa and carry net charges of -14 and -4, respectively. Both BCN and KCN form soap-like micelles, with 40 and 65 monomers, respectively. The net negative charges are located in the corona of the micelles. On mixing LF with the caseins, coacervates are formed. We analyzed the structure of these coarcervates using SAXS. It was found that LF binds to the corona of the micellar structures, at the charge neutrality point. BCN/LF and KCN/LF ratios at the charge neutrality point were found to be ~1.2 and ~5, respectively. We think that the findings are relevant for the protection mechanism of globular proteins in bodily fluids where unstructured proteins are abundant (saliva). The complexes will prevent docking of enzymes on specific charged groups on the globular protein.

  12. Global transcriptome analysis of the maize (Zea mays L.) inbred line 08LF during leaf senescence initiated by pollination-prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liancheng; Li, Mingna; Tian, Lei; Wang, Shunxi; Wu, Liuji; Ku, Lixia; Zhang, Jun; Song, Xiaoheng; Liu, Haiping; Chen, Yanhui

    2017-01-01

    In maize (Zea mays), leaf senescence acts as a nutrient recycling process involved in proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids degradation and transport to the developing sink. However, the molecular mechanisms of pre-maturation associated with pollination-prevention remain unclear in maize. To explore global gene expression changes during the onset and progression of senescence in maize, the inbred line 08LF, with severe early senescence caused by pollination prevention, was selected. Phenotypic observation showed that the onset of leaf senescence of 08LF plants occurred approximately 14 days after silking (DAS) by pollination prevention. Transcriptional profiling analysis of the leaf at six developmental stages during induced senescence revealed that a total of 5,432 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, including 2314 up-regulated genes and 1925 down-regulated genes. Functional annotation showed that the up-regulated genes were mainly enriched in multi-organism process and nitrogen compound transport, whereas down-regulated genes were involved in photosynthesis. Expression patterns and pathway enrichment analyses of early-senescence related genes indicated that these DEGs are involved in complex regulatory networks, especially in the jasmonic acid pathway. In addition, transcription factors from several families were detected, particularly the CO-like, NAC, ERF, GRAS, WRKY and ZF-HD families, suggesting that these transcription factors might play important roles in driving leaf senescence in maize as a result of pollination-prevention.

  13. Determination of modeling parameters for power IGBTs under pulsed power conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, Gregory E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Van Gordon, Jim A [U. OF MISSOURI; Kovaleski, Scott D [U. OF MISSOURI

    2010-01-01

    While the power insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGRT) is used in many applications, it is not well characterized under pulsed power conditions. This makes the IGBT difficult to model for solid state pulsed power applications. The Oziemkiewicz implementation of the Hefner model is utilized to simulate IGBTs in some circuit simulation software packages. However, the seventeen parameters necessary for the Oziemkiewicz implementation must be known for the conditions under which the device will be operating. Using both experimental and simulated data with a least squares curve fitting technique, the parameters necessary to model a given IGBT can be determined. This paper presents two sets of these seventeen parameters that correspond to two different models of power IGBTs. Specifically, these parameters correspond to voltages up to 3.5 kV, currents up to 750 A, and pulse widths up to 10 {micro}s. Additionally, comparisons of the experimental and simulated data will be presented.

  14. Study of the size effect by accurately determining the crystal parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seguin, Remy

    1973-01-01

    The size factor η = da/adC was measured by comparing the variations in the crystal parameter as a function of the concentration, samples of Al of various degrees of purity and Al - V and Al - Cu alloys with concentrations of less than 1 000 ppm being used. The results confirm the experimental results obtained with alloys supersaturated by ultra-rapid tempering but are not consistent with theoretical values, which appear to be too large for the case of transition elements in solution in Al. The parameter was determined from Kossel diagrams obtained using an electron probe microanalyzer. The measurement methods were developed and generalized by plotting curves representing the variation of the parameter as a function of temperature between 20 and 60 deg. C. Values were obtained for the parameter at given temperatures (± 0.1 deg. C) with an accuracy of Δa/a ≅ 8.10 -6 . (author) [fr

  15. Two and Three Parameter Waveform Retracking of Cryosat-2 LRM Waveforms for Gravity Field Determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Maulik; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Dall, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    The project deals with sea surface height and gravity field determination in open ocean using Cryosat-2 LRM data. A three parameter model is being used to find the retracking offset for sea surface height determination. The estimates from the three parameter model are further improved upon by using...... a two parameter model. The sea surface heights thus obtained are used to develop sea surface height anomalies which are further processed to give gravity fields. Retracker performance evaluation is done using sea surface height anomaly and gravity field anomaly....

  16. Theoretical and experimental determination of K - and L -shell x-ray relaxation parameters in Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, M.; Sampaio, J. M.; Parente, F.; Indelicato, P.; Hönicke, P.; Müller, M.; Beckhoff, B.; Marques, J. P.; Santos, J. P.

    2018-04-01

    Fluorescence yields (FY) for the Ni K and L shells were determined by a theoretical and an experimental group within the framework of the International Initiative on X-ray Fundamental Parameters (FPs) collaboration. Coster-Kronig (CK) parameters were also measured for the L shell of Ni. Theoretical calculations of the same parameters were performed using the Dirac-Fock method, including relativistic and QED corrections. The experimental values for the FY and CK were determined at the PTB laboratory in the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II, Berlin, Germany, and are compared to the corresponding calculated values.

  17. Changes in autonomic nervous system activity after treatment with alpha-blocker in men with lower urinary tract symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Hee Shim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine changes in autonomic nervous system activity after treatment in men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS, we evaluated changes in patients' symptoms, uroflowmetry, and heart rate variability (HRV after treatment with alpha-blockers for 12 weeks. Materials and Methods: Ninety-five men who had LUTS (International Prostate Symptom Score [IPSS] ≥8 were included in this study. We divided them into two groups on the basis of a low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF ratio of 1.6. After treatment with Xatral XL (Handok Inc., Korea 10 mg for 3 months, we rechecked their IPSS, uroflowmetry, HRV and compared these with the baseline measurements. Results: Fifty-four men were assigned to the low LF/HF group (group A: LF/HF ≤1.6 and 41 men to the high LF/HF group (group B: LF/HF >1.6. At baseline and 12 weeks, none of the parameters differed significantly between the groups except for HF, which is one of the parameters of HRV. IPSS, the IPSS-voiding subscore, and the IPSS-storage subscore decreased and maximal uroflow increased significantly after 12 weeks of treatment. Whereas the baseline LF/HF ratio increased from 0.89±0.407 to 1.80±1.804 after treatment in group A, it decreased from 3.93±5.471 to 1.79±1.153 in group B. Conclusions: The efficacies of Xatral XL were clear in both groups. We found that the LF/HF ratio in the two groups merged to a value of approximately 1.79 after treatment. We suggest that this could be a clue to the importance of balance in autonomic nervous system activity in men with LUTS.

  18. Determination of Eros Physical Parameters for Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous Orbit Phase Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. K.; Antreasian, P. J.; Georgini, J.; Owen, W. M.; Williams, B. G.; Yeomans, D. K.

    1995-01-01

    Navigation of the orbit phase of the Near Earth steroid Rendezvous (NEAR) mission will re,quire determination of certain physical parameters describing the size, shape, gravity field, attitude and inertial properties of Eros. Prior to launch, little was known about Eros except for its orbit which could be determined with high precision from ground based telescope observations. Radar bounce and light curve data provided a rough estimate of Eros shape and a fairly good estimate of the pole, prime meridian and spin rate. However, the determination of the NEAR spacecraft orbit requires a high precision model of Eros's physical parameters and the ground based data provides only marginal a priori information. Eros is the principal source of perturbations of the spacecraft's trajectory and the principal source of data for determining the orbit. The initial orbit determination strategy is therefore concerned with developing a precise model of Eros. The original plan for Eros orbital operations was to execute a series of rendezvous burns beginning on December 20,1998 and insert into a close Eros orbit in January 1999. As a result of an unplanned termination of the rendezvous burn on December 20, 1998, the NEAR spacecraft continued on its high velocity approach trajectory and passed within 3900 km of Eros on December 23, 1998. The planned rendezvous burn was delayed until January 3, 1999 which resulted in the spacecraft being placed on a trajectory that slowly returns to Eros with a subsequent delay of close Eros orbital operations until February 2001. The flyby of Eros provided a brief glimpse and allowed for a crude estimate of the pole, prime meridian and mass of Eros. More importantly for navigation, orbit determination software was executed in the landmark tracking mode to determine the spacecraft orbit and a preliminary shape and landmark data base has been obtained. The flyby also provided an opportunity to test orbit determination operational procedures that will be

  19. Development of computer code for determining prediction parameters of radionuclide migration in soil layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Hiromichi; Ohnuki, Toshihiko

    1986-07-01

    A computer code (MIGSTEM-FIT) has been developed to determine the prediction parameters, retardation factor, water flow velocity, dispersion coefficient, etc., of radionuclide migration in soil layer from the concentration distribution of radionuclide in soil layer or in effluent. In this code, the solution of the predicting equation for radionuclide migration is compared with the concentration distribution measured, and the most adequate values of parameter can be determined by the flexible tolerance method. The validity of finite differential method, which was one of the method to solve the predicting equation, was confirmed by comparison with the analytical solution, and also the validity of fitting method was confirmed by the fitting of the concentration distribution calculated from known parameters. From the examination about the error, it was found that the error of the parameter obtained by using this code was smaller than that of the concentration distribution measured. (author)

  20. Review of Parameter Determination for Thermal Modeling of Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Saeed Madani

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews different methods for determination of thermal parameters of lithium ion batteries. Lithium ion batteries are extensively employed for various applications owing to their low memory effect, high specific energy, and power density. One of the problems in the expansion of hybrid and electric vehicle technology is the management and control of operation temperatures and heat generation. Successful battery thermal management designs can lead to better reliability and performance of hybrid and electric vehicles. Thermal cycling and temperature gradients could have a considerable impact on the lifetime of lithium ion battery cells. Thermal management is critical in electric vehicles (EVs and good thermal battery models are necessary to design proper heating and cooling systems. Consequently, it is necessary to determine thermal parameters of a single cell, such as internal resistance, specific heat capacity, entropic heat coefficient, and thermal conductivity in order to design suitable thermal management system.

  1. Linear Determination of a Camera's Intrinsic Parameters Using Two Intersecting Circles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An approach using two intersecting circles is proposed as a linear approach for determining a camera's intrinsic parameters. The two intersecting coplanar circles have four intersection points in the projective plane: two real points and two circular points. In the image plane, the diagonal triangle - on which the image of the four intersection points composes a complete quadrangle - is a self-polar triangle for the projection curves of the circles. The vertex of the self-polar triangle is the null space of the degenerate conic formed by the image of the four intersection points. By solving the three vertices of the self-polar triangle using the image coordinates of the two real intersection points, the degenerate conic can be obtained. The image of the two circular points is then computed from the intersection points of the degenerate conic. Using the image of the circular points from the three images of the same planar pattern with different directions, the intrinsic parameters can be linearly determined.

  2. Determination of Geometric Parameters of Space Steel Constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Suchá

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains conclusions of the PhD thesis „Accuracy of determination of geometric parameters of space steel construction using geodetic methods“. Generally it is a difficult task with high requirements for the accuracy and reliability of results, i.e. space coordinates of assessed points on a steel construction. A solution of this task is complicated by the effects of atmospheric influences to begin with the temperature, which strongly affects steel constructions. It is desirable to eliminate the influence of the temperature for the evaluation of the geometric parameters. A choice of an efficient geodetic method, which fulfils demanding requirements, is often affected with a constrained place in an immediate neighbourhood of the measured construction. These conditions disable the choice of efficient points configuration of a geodetic micro network, e.g. the for forward intersection. In addition, points of a construction are often hardly accessible and therefore marking is difficult. The space polar method appears efficient owing to the mentioned reasons and its advantages were increased with the implementation of self-adhesive reflex targets for the distance measurement which enable the ermanent marking of measured points already in the course of placing the construction.

  3. CO 2 laser cutting of MDF . 1. Determination of process parameter settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, K. C. P.; Ng, S. L.; Black, I.

    2000-02-01

    This paper details an investigation into the laser processing of medium-density fibreboard (MDF). Part 1 reports on the determination of process parameter settings for the effective cutting of MDF by CO 2 laser, using an established experimental methodology developed to study the interrelationship between and effects of varying laser set-up parameters. Results are presented for both continuous wave (CW) and pulse mode (PM) cutting, and the associated cut quality effects have been commented on.

  4. Determining cosmological parameters with the latest observational data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Junqing; Li Hong; Zhao Gongbo; Zhang Xinmin

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we combine the latest observational data, including the WMAP five-year data (WMAP5), BOOMERanG, CBI, VSA, ACBAR, as well as the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and type Ia supernovae (SN) ''union'' compilation (307 sample), and use the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to determine the cosmological parameters, such as the equation of state (EoS) of dark energy, the curvature of the universe, the total neutrino mass, and the parameters associated with the power spectrum of primordial fluctuations. In a flat universe, we obtain the tight limit on the constant EoS of dark energy as w=-0.977±0.056(stat)±0.057(sys). For the dynamical dark energy models with the time evolving EoS parametrized as w de (a)=w 0 +w 1 (1-a), we find that the best-fit values are w 0 =-1.08 and w 1 =0.368, while the ΛCDM model remains a good fit to the current data. For the curvature of the universe Ω k , our results give -0.012 k de =-1. When considering the dynamics of dark energy, the flat universe is still a good fit to the current data, -0.015 k s ≥1 are excluded at more than 2σ confidence level. However, in the framework of dynamical dark energy models, the allowed region in the parameter space of (n s ,r) is enlarged significantly. Finally, we find no strong evidence for the large running of the spectral index.

  5. Critical parameters for isobutane determined by the image analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masui, G. [Center for Multiscale Mechanics and Mechanical Systems, Keio University, Hiyoshi 3-14-1, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Honda, Y. [Center for Multiscale Mechanics and Mechanical Systems, Keio University, Hiyoshi 3-14-1, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Uematsu, M. [Center for Multiscale Mechanics and Mechanical Systems, Keio University, Hiyoshi 3-14-1, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)]. E-mail: uematsu@mech.keio.ac.jp

    2006-12-15

    (p, {rho}, T) Measurements and visual observations of the meniscus for isobutane were carried out carefully in the critical region over the range of temperatures: -15 mK {<=} (T - T {sub c}) {<=} 35 mK, and of densities: -7.5 kg . m{sup -3} {<=} ({rho} - {rho} {sub c}) {<=} 7.5 kg . m{sup -3} by a metal-bellows volumometer with an optical cell. Vapor pressures were also measured at T = (310, 405, 406, 407, and 407.5) K. The critical point of T {sub c} and {rho} {sub c} was determined by the image analysis of the critical opalescence which is proposed in this study. The critical pressure p {sub c} was determined to be the pressure measurement at the critical point. Comparisons of the critical parameters with values given in the literature are presented.

  6. Critical parameters for isobutane determined by the image analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masui, G.; Honda, Y.; Uematsu, M.

    2006-01-01

    (p, ρ, T) Measurements and visual observations of the meniscus for isobutane were carried out carefully in the critical region over the range of temperatures: -15 mK ≤ (T - T c ) ≤ 35 mK, and of densities: -7.5 kg . m -3 ≤ (ρ - ρ c ) ≤ 7.5 kg . m -3 by a metal-bellows volumometer with an optical cell. Vapor pressures were also measured at T = (310, 405, 406, 407, and 407.5) K. The critical point of T c and ρ c was determined by the image analysis of the critical opalescence which is proposed in this study. The critical pressure p c was determined to be the pressure measurement at the critical point. Comparisons of the critical parameters with values given in the literature are presented

  7. PLS-NIR determination of five parameters in different types of Chinese rice wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haiyan; Ying, Yibin; Fu, Xiaping; Lu, Huishan

    2005-11-01

    To evaluate the applicability of near infrared spectroscopy for determination of the five enological parameters (alcoholic degree, pH value, total acid and amino acid nitrogen, °Brix) of Chinese rice wine, transmission spectra were collected in the spectral range from 12500 to 3800 cm-1 in a 1 mm path length rectangular quartz cuvette with air as reference at room temperature. Five calibration equations for the five parameters were established between the reference data and spectra by partial least squares (PLS) regression, separately. The best calibration results were achieved for the determination of alcoholic degree and °Brix. The RPD (ration of the standard deviation of the samples to the SECV) values of the calibration for both alcoholic degree and °Brix were higher than 3 (4.30 and 7.94, respectively), which demonstrated the robustness and power of the calibration models. The determination coefficients (R2) for alcoholic degree and °Brix were 0.987 and 0.991, respectively. The performance of pH, total acid and amino acid nitrogen was not as good as that of alcoholic degree and °Brix. The RPD values for the three parameters were 1.48, 1.85 and 1.82, respectively, and R2 values were 0.964, 0.970 and 0.971, respectively. In validation step, R2 value of the five parameters are all higher than 0.7, especially for alcoholic degree and °Brix (0.968 and 0.956, respectively). The results demonstrated that NIR spectroscopy could be used to predict the concentration of the five enological parameters in Chinese rice wine.

  8. Determination of the f and alpha parameters in the neutron multiplier CS-ISCTN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, O.; Ixquiac, M.; Contreras, R.; Herrera, E.; Diaz, O.; Lopez, R.; Alvarez, P.; Manso, M.V.; Padron, G.; D Alessandro, K.

    1997-01-01

    The values of the f and alpha parameters are determined in the irradiation position of the neutron multiplier CS-ISCTN, with the aim to show the possibility to applied the parametric neutron activation analysis. The more used conventions to calculate the reaction rate; Hogdhal, Modified Stoughton-Halpering and Modified Wescott, the last is presents with some new variations. This comparison is combined with R-Cd multi monitors method, Cd-Cover Multi monitor Methods and a new method introduced in the present paper to reduce the errors in the alpha parameter determination named Minimal Difference Method. This last method show better results, according to the epithermal hardeners of the CS-ISCT

  9. Nutrient concentration age dynamics of teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) plantations in Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Moya, J.; Murillo, R.; Portuguez, E.; Fallas, J. L.; Rios, V.; Kottman, F.; Verjans, J. M.; Mata, R.; Alvarado, A.

    2013-05-01

    Aim of study. Appropriate knowledge regarding teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) nutrition is required for a better management of the plantations to attain high productivity and sustainability. This study aims to answer the following questions: How can it be determined if a teak tree suffers a nutrient deficiency before it shows symptoms? Are nutrient concentration decreases in older trees associated with age-related declines in forest productivity? Area of study. Costa Rica and Panama. Material and Methods. Nutrient concentration in different tree tissues (bole, bark, branches and foliage) were measured at different ages using false-time-series in 28 teak plantations Research highlights. Foliar N concentration decreases from 2.28 in year 1 to 1.76% in year 19. Foliar Mg concentration increases from 0.23 in year 1 to 0.34% in year 19. The foliar concentrations of the other nutrients are assumed to be constant with tree age: 1.33% Ca, 0.88% K, 0.16% P, 0.12% S, 130 mg kg{sup -}1 Fe, 43 mg kg{sup -}1 Mn, 11 mg kg{sup -}1 Cu, 32 mg kg{sup -}1 Zn and 20 mg kg{sup -}1 B. The nutrient concentration values showed can be taken as a reference to evaluate the nutritional status of similar teak plantations in the region. The concentrations of K, Mg and N could be associated with declines in teak plantation productivity as the plantation becomes older. Whether age-related changes in nutrient concentrations are a cause or a consequence of age-related declines in productivity is an issue for future research with the aim of achieving higher growth rates throughout the rotation period. (Author) 35 refs.

  10. Modelling concentrations of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane in two UK rivers using LF2000-WQX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Oliver R.; Williams, Richard J.; Zhang, Zhong; Egmond, Roger van

    2010-01-01

    Current regulatory environmental exposure assessments for decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D 5 ), used in a range of personal care products, are based on a number of erroneous assumptions. Using an estimated D 5 flux to waste water of 11.6 mg cap -1 d -1 , a 95.2% removal rate in Sewage Treatment Plants (STP) and a dilution factor of 10 results in modelled surface water concentrations that are up to an order of magnitude higher than concentrations observed downstream of STPs in two UK rivers. A GIS-based water quality model (LF2000-WQX) was used to predict concentrations of D 5 in two UK rivers. Assuming the STP removal rate is reasonable, a waste water flux of 2.4 mg cap -1 d -1 is needed in order to obtain a reasonable match between predicted and observed in-river concentrations. This flux is consistent with measured effluent concentrations. The results highlight major uncertainties in estimating chemical emission rates for volatile chemicals used in personal care products and suggest that measured concentrations in waste water are needed to refine exposure assessments. - Surface water modelling of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane.

  11. Modelling concentrations of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane in two UK rivers using LF2000-WQX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Oliver R., E-mail: oliver.price@unilever.co [Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre (SEAC), Unilever, Colworth Science Park, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire MK44 1LQ (United Kingdom); Williams, Richard J.; Zhang, Zhong [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Egmond, Roger van [Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre (SEAC), Unilever, Colworth Science Park, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire MK44 1LQ (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-15

    Current regulatory environmental exposure assessments for decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D{sub 5}), used in a range of personal care products, are based on a number of erroneous assumptions. Using an estimated D{sub 5} flux to waste water of 11.6 mg cap{sup -1} d{sup -1}, a 95.2% removal rate in Sewage Treatment Plants (STP) and a dilution factor of 10 results in modelled surface water concentrations that are up to an order of magnitude higher than concentrations observed downstream of STPs in two UK rivers. A GIS-based water quality model (LF2000-WQX) was used to predict concentrations of D{sub 5} in two UK rivers. Assuming the STP removal rate is reasonable, a waste water flux of 2.4 mg cap{sup -1} d{sup -1} is needed in order to obtain a reasonable match between predicted and observed in-river concentrations. This flux is consistent with measured effluent concentrations. The results highlight major uncertainties in estimating chemical emission rates for volatile chemicals used in personal care products and suggest that measured concentrations in waste water are needed to refine exposure assessments. - Surface water modelling of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane.

  12. A Proof of Concept to Bridge the Gap between Mass Spectrometry Imaging, Protein Identification and Relative Quantitation: MSI~LC-MS/MS-LF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laëtitia Théron

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI is a powerful tool to visualize the spatial distribution of molecules on a tissue section. The main limitation of MALDI-MSI of proteins is the lack of direct identification. Therefore, this study focuses on a MSI~LC-MS/MS-LF workflow to link the results from MALDI-MSI with potential peak identification and label-free quantitation, using only one tissue section. At first, we studied the impact of matrix deposition and laser ablation on protein extraction from the tissue section. Then, we did a back-correlation of the m/z of the proteins detected by MALDI-MSI to those identified by label-free quantitation. This allowed us to compare the label-free quantitation of proteins obtained in LC-MS/MS with the peak intensities observed in MALDI-MSI. We managed to link identification to nine peaks observed by MALDI-MSI. The results showed that the MSI~LC-MS/MS-LF workflow (i allowed us to study a representative muscle proteome compared to a classical bottom-up workflow; and (ii was sparsely impacted by matrix deposition and laser ablation. This workflow, performed as a proof-of-concept, suggests that a single tissue section can be used to perform MALDI-MSI and protein extraction, identification, and relative quantitation.

  13. Recommendations for the determination of migration parameters by field experiments (tracer tests)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, C.

    1989-01-01

    The hydrogeologic review and assessment of candidate sites for nuclear power plants includes expertises on the potential subsurface migration of radionuclides in the event of accident conditions. To this end, knowledge of representative migration parameters is required. Detailed recommendations are given for determining such parameters by tracer field tests, for using standardized terminology in their practical conduct as well as for interpreting the data obtained. Also, mention has been made of recent work reported by other authors on this topic. 31 refs. (author)

  14. Determination of material parameters by comparison of 3D simulations and 3D experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jin

    microstructure and the measured microstructure in a global manner. The proposed method is demonstrated on a simple case to fit two material parameters: the liquid diffusion coefficient and the capillary length of a hypoeutectic Al-Cu alloy, and a complicated case to fit hundreds of material parameters......: the reduced grain boundary mobilities of pure iron. Results show that the proposed method is capable of providing reliable measurements of material parameters that are difficult to measure in traditional ways and can determine many - possibly all relevant - values of material parameters simultaneously...

  15. High concentration of human lactoferrin in milk of rhLf-transgenic cows relieves signs of bovine experimental Staphylococcus chromogenes intramammary infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simojoki, Heli; Hyvönen, Paula; Orro, Toomas; Pyörälä, Satu

    2010-08-15

    Six transgenic cows producing recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLf) in their milk and five normal cows at the same lactation stage were experimentally infected with Staphylococcus chromogenes to study the effect of a high concentration of lactoferrin in milk. Coagulase-negative staphylococci such as S. chromogenes have become very common as agents causing mild or subclinical mastitis. All transgenic cows became infected but showed no clinical signs, unlike the control cows, which developed mild clinical mastitis. Transgenic cows eliminated bacteria faster from the quarters than did the controls. Local clinical signs were milder, and the inflammatory reaction assessed by NAGase activity in the milk and by the concentration of milk amyloid A was lower in the transgenic cows. The mild response probably reflected the rapid elimination of bacteria. The milk concentration of rhLf remained constant throughout the study period, but the total concentration of bovine lactoferrin in the milk peaked in both groups at 46h post-challenge. Three cows, all in the control group, exhibited systemic acute phase response as increased concentrations of serum amyloid A in the blood circulation. Transgenic cows with a high concentration of human lactoferrin in their milk seemed to be protected from clinical disease and from prolonged inflammatory reaction, but not from experimental intramammary infection induced by S. chromogenes. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The application of virtual prototyping methods to determine the dynamic parameters of mobile robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurc, Krzysztof; Szybicki, Dariusz; Burghardt, Andrzej; Muszyńska, Magdalena

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents methods used to determine the parameters necessary to build a mathematical model of an underwater robot with a crawler drive. The parameters present in the dynamics equation will be determined by means of advanced mechatronic design tools, including: CAD/CAE software andMES modules. The virtual prototyping process is described as well as the various possible uses (design adaptability) depending on the optional accessories added to the vehicle. A mathematical model is presented to show the kinematics and dynamics of the underwater crawler robot, essential for the design stage.

  17. Exopolysaccharide from Lactobacillus fermentum Lf2 and its functional characterization as a yogurt additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale, Elisa C; Perezlindo, Marcos J; Burns, Patricia; Tabacman, Eduardo; Reinheimer, Jorge A; Binetti, Ana G

    2016-11-01

    Lactobacillus fermentum Lf2 is a strain which is able to produce high levels (approximately 1 g/l) of crude exopolysaccharide (EPS) when it is grown in optimised conditions. The aim of this work was to characterize the functional aspects of this EPS extract, focusing on its application as a dairy food additive. Our findings are consistent with an EPS extract that acts as moderate immunomodulator, modifying s-IgA and IL-6 levels in the small intestine when added to yogurt and milk, respectively. Furthermore, this EPS extract, in a dose feasible to use as a food additive, provides protection against Salmonella infection in a murine model, thus representing a mode of action to elicit positive health benefits. Besides, it contributes to the rheological characteristics of yogurt, and could function as a food additive with both technological and functional roles, making possible the production of a new functional yogurt with improved texture.

  18. A Prospective Comparison Study of Heart Rate Variability During Menses in Young Women With Dysmenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Jen; Wang, Yi-Zen; Yeh, Mei-Ling

    2016-07-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated autonomic abnormalities in various pain conditions. However, few have investigated heart rate variability (HRV) in young women with primary dysmenorrhea, and the conclusions have been inconsistent. More evidence is required to confirm the reported trend for consistent fluctuation of HRV parameters in dysmenorrhea. The study's aim was to determine whether significant differences exist between young women with and without dysmenorrhea for heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), and HRV parameters during menses. A prospective comparison design with repeated measures was used. Sixty-six women aged 18-25 with dysmenorrhea and 54 eumenorrheic women were recruited from a university in northern Taiwan. High-frequency and low-frequency HRV parameters (HF and LF), LF/HF ratio, BP, and HR were measured daily between 8 p.m. and 10 p.m. from Day 1 to Day 6 during menses. The generalized estimating equation was used to analyze the effects of group, time, and Group × Time interaction on these variables. HF values were significantly lower in the dysmenorrhea than in the eumenorrhea group, but there were no differences in BP, HR, LF, or LF/HF ratio. Reduced HF values reflect reduced parasympathetic activity and autonomic instability in young women with dysmenorrhea. Future longitudinal studies are warranted to examine autonomic regulation in menstrual pain of varying intensities associated with dysmenorrhea-related symptoms and to clarify the causal relationship between dysmenorrhea and HRV fluctuations. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Study of the equation of state and determination of molecular parameters of some fluorinated gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morizot, Pierre

    1972-01-01

    Volumetric and dielectric techniques are used to determine non-ideality and molar polarization of UF 6 , MoF 6 , WF 6 and ClF 3 . Comparisons are made between these dielectric non-ideality parameters and those obtained by MAGNUSON and volumetry method. It is demonstrated that dielectric non-ideality parameters are unsettled by an adsorption phenomena on the electrodes. The volumetric second virial coefficients are interpreted with known transport coefficients to determine molecular parameters of the three hexafluorides. Using viscosity data, the existence of a dimerization in the vapor of ClF 3 was demonstrated. Its effect on the observed second virial coefficient was evaluated. (author) [fr

  20. Lactoferrin inhibits dexamethasone-induced chondrocyte impairment from osteoarthritic cartilage through up-regulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and suppression of FASL, FAS, and Caspase 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, Yihui; Xue, Huaming; Francis, Wendy; Davies, Andrew P.; Pallister, Ian; Kanamarlapudi, Venkateswarlu; Xia, Zhidao

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Dex exerts dose-dependant inhibition of HACs viability and induction of apoptosis. •Dex-induced impairment of chondrocytes was attenuated by rhLF. •ERK and FASL/FAS signaling are involved in the effects of rhLF. •OA patients with glucocorticoid-induced cartilage damage may benefit from treatment with rhLF. -- Abstract: Dexamethasone (Dex) is commonly used for osteoarthritis (OA) with excellent anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect. However, Dex also has many side effects following repeated use over prolonged periods mainly through increasing apoptosis and inhibiting proliferation. Lactoferrin (LF) exerts significantly anabolic effect on many cells and little is known about its effect on OA chondrocytes. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate whether LF can inhibit Dex-induced OA chondrocytes apoptosis and explore its possible molecular mechanism involved in. MTT assay was used to determine the optimal concentration of Dex and recombinant human LF (rhLF) on chondrocytes at different time and dose points. Chondrocytes were then stimulated with Dex in the absence or presence of optimal concentration of rhLF. Cell proliferation and viability were evaluated using MTT and LIVE/DEAD assay, respectively. Cell apoptosis was evaluated by multi-parameter apoptosis assay kit using both confocal microscopy and flow cytometry, respectively. The expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), FAS, FASL, and Caspase-3 (CASP3) at the mRNA and protein levels were examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunocytochemistry, respectively. The optimal concentration of Dex (25 μg/ml) and rhLF (200 μg/ml) were chosen for the following experiments. rhLF significantly reversed the detrimental effect of Dex on chondrocytes proliferation, viability, and apoptosis. In addition, rhLF significantly prevented Dex-induced down-regulation of ERK and up-regulation of FAS, FASL, and CASP3. These findings demonstrated that rhLF acts as

  1. Lactoferrin inhibits dexamethasone-induced chondrocyte impairment from osteoarthritic cartilage through up-regulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and suppression of FASL, FAS, and Caspase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, Yihui [Department of Orthopaedics, Yangpu District Central Hospital Affiliated to Tongji University School of Medicine, 450 Tengyue Road, Shanghai (China); Xue, Huaming [Department of Orthopaedics, Yangpu District Central Hospital Affiliated to Tongji University School of Medicine, 450 Tengyue Road, Shanghai (China); Institute of Life Science, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park (United Kingdom); Francis, Wendy [Institute of Life Science, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park (United Kingdom); Davies, Andrew P. [Department of Orthopaedics and Trauma, Moriston Hospital, Swansea (United Kingdom); Pallister, Ian; Kanamarlapudi, Venkateswarlu [Institute of Life Science, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park (United Kingdom); Xia, Zhidao, E-mail: zhidao.xia@gmail.com [Institute of Life Science, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: •Dex exerts dose-dependant inhibition of HACs viability and induction of apoptosis. •Dex-induced impairment of chondrocytes was attenuated by rhLF. •ERK and FASL/FAS signaling are involved in the effects of rhLF. •OA patients with glucocorticoid-induced cartilage damage may benefit from treatment with rhLF. -- Abstract: Dexamethasone (Dex) is commonly used for osteoarthritis (OA) with excellent anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect. However, Dex also has many side effects following repeated use over prolonged periods mainly through increasing apoptosis and inhibiting proliferation. Lactoferrin (LF) exerts significantly anabolic effect on many cells and little is known about its effect on OA chondrocytes. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate whether LF can inhibit Dex-induced OA chondrocytes apoptosis and explore its possible molecular mechanism involved in. MTT assay was used to determine the optimal concentration of Dex and recombinant human LF (rhLF) on chondrocytes at different time and dose points. Chondrocytes were then stimulated with Dex in the absence or presence of optimal concentration of rhLF. Cell proliferation and viability were evaluated using MTT and LIVE/DEAD assay, respectively. Cell apoptosis was evaluated by multi-parameter apoptosis assay kit using both confocal microscopy and flow cytometry, respectively. The expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), FAS, FASL, and Caspase-3 (CASP3) at the mRNA and protein levels were examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunocytochemistry, respectively. The optimal concentration of Dex (25 μg/ml) and rhLF (200 μg/ml) were chosen for the following experiments. rhLF significantly reversed the detrimental effect of Dex on chondrocytes proliferation, viability, and apoptosis. In addition, rhLF significantly prevented Dex-induced down-regulation of ERK and up-regulation of FAS, FASL, and CASP3. These findings demonstrated that rhLF acts as

  2. NMR determination of the order parameter in proton and deuteron glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinc, R.; Dolinsek, J.; Zalar, B.

    1989-01-01

    The inhomogeneous broadening of the ND + deuteron, O-D--O deuteron and 87 Rb quadrapole perturbed NMR spectra in Rb 0.56 (ND 4 ) 0.44 D 2 PO 4 is used for a direct determination of the Edwards-Anderson pseudo-spin glass order parameter. The data provide strong support for a model where the basic difference between magnetic spin glasses and proton or deuteron glasses is the presence of an inherent random field resulting from substitutional disorder which linearly couples to the O-D--O pseudo spins. In these systems we do not deal with a transition from a paraelectric to a pseudo-spin glass phase but rather with a transition from an ergodic pseudo-spin glass phase with a single order parameter q to a non-ergodic pseudo-spin glass phase with an infinite number of order parameters. (author). 11 refs.; 6 figs

  3. The influence of cooling parameters on the speed of continuous steel casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirian, G. O.; Gheorghiu, C. A.; Hepuţ, T.; Chioncel, C. P.

    2018-01-01

    This paper analyzes the cooling parameters of the continuous casting speed. In the researches carried out we aimed to establish some correlation equations between the parameters characterizing the continuous casting process, the temperature of the steel at the entrance to the crystallizer, the superheating of the steel and the flow of the cooling water in the crystallizer and different zones of the secondary cooling. Parallel to these parameters were also the values for the casting speed. The research was made for the casting of round ϕ270mm semi-finished steel products. The steel was developed in an electric EBT furnace with a capacity of 100t, treated in L.F. (Ladle - Furnace) and VD (Vacuum-Degassing) and poured in a 5-wire continuous casting plant. The obtained data was processed in MATLAB using three types of correlation equations. The obtained results are presented both in the analytical and graphical form, each correlation being analyzed from the technological point of view, indicating the optimal values for the independent parameters monitored. In the analysis we present a comparison between the results obtained after the three types of equations for each correlation.

  4. Noise-spectroscopy of multiqubit systems: Determining all their parameters by applying an external classical noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savel' ev, S., E-mail: S.Saveliev@lboro.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Zagoskin, A.M. [Department of Physics, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Omelyanchouk, A.N. [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); B. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, 61103 Kharkov (Ukraine); Nori, Franco [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Physics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States)

    2010-10-05

    Imagine that you have several sets of two coupled qubits, but you do not know the parameters of their Hamitonians. How to determine these without resorting to the usual spectroscopy approach to the problem? Based on numerical modeling, we show that all the parameters of a system of two coupled qubits can be determined by applying to it an external classical noise and analyzing the Fourier spectrum of the elements of the system's density matrix. In particular, the interlevel spacings as well as the strength and sign of the qubit-qubit coupling can be determined this way.

  5. IHC-TM connect-disconnect in relation to sensitization and masking of a HF-tone burst by a LF tone. IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, H D

    1982-05-01

    Evidence continues to accumulate that although the outer hair cells (OHCs) of the cochlea are firmly bonded to the tectorial membrane (TM), the inner hair cells (IHCS) are not. This is the fourth in a series of papers that explores how the idea of a set of disconnected hair cells that "impact" the TM is consistent with psychophysical data. The paper extends the exploration to the masking of high-frequency (HF) tone bursts by low-frequency (LF) tones and shows that the model can explain the important features of these complex data.

  6. Determination of the kinetic parameters of Be O using isothermal decay method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azorin N, J.; Torijano C, E. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Azorin V, C.; Rivera M, T., E-mail: azorin@xanum.uam.mx [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Av. Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Most of the existing methods for obtaining the frequency factors make use of the trap depth (activation energy) making some assumptions about the order of the kinetics. This causes inconsistencies in the reported values of trapping parameters due that the values of the activation energy obtained by different methods differ appreciably among them. Then, it is necessary to use a method independent of the trap depth making use of the isothermal luminescence decay method. The trapping parameters associated with the prominent glow peak of Be O (280 degrees C) are reported using isothermal luminescence decay method. As a check, the trap parameters are also calculated by glow curve shape (Chen s) method after isolating the prominent glow peak by thermal cleaning technique. Our results show a very good agreement between the trapping parameters calculated by the two methods. Isothermal luminescence decay method was used for determining the trapping parameters of Be O. Results obtained applying this method are in good agreement with those obtained using other methods, except in the value of the frequency factor. (Author)

  7. An accurate method for the determination of unlike potential parameters from thermal diffusion data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Geubeily, S.

    1997-01-01

    A new method is introduced by means of which the unlike intermolecular potential parameters can be determined from the experimental measurements of the thermal diffusion factor as a function of temperature. The method proved to be easy, accurate, and applicable two-, three-, and four-parameter potential functions whose collision integrals are available. The potential parameters computed by this method are found to provide a faith full representation of the thermal diffusion data under consideration. 3 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Determination of optimum thermal debinding and sintering process parameters using Taguchi Method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Seerane, M

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available powder and a wax-based binder. The binder’s backbone component is a low density polyethylene (LDPE). Careful selection of thermal debinding parameters was guided by thermo- gravimetric analysis (TGA) results. The Taguchi method was used to determine... International Light Metals Technology Conference (LMT 2015), Port Elizabeth, South Africa, July 27-29 Determination of Optimum Process for Thermal Debinding and Sintering using Taguchi Method SEERANE Mandya,*, CHIKWANDA Hildab, MACHAKA Ronaldc CSIR...

  9. Determination of flow-rate characteristics and parameters of piezo pilot valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takosoglu Jakub

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumatic directional valves are used in most industrial pneumatic systems. Most of them are two-stage valves controlled by a pilot valve. Pilot valves are often chosen randomly. Experimental studies in order to determine the flow-rate characteristics and parameters of pilot valves were not conducted. The paper presents experimental research of two piezo pilot valves.

  10. Critical evaluation of analytical models for stochastic heating in dual-frequency capacitive discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S; Turner, M M

    2013-01-01

    Dual-frequency capacitive discharges are widespread in the semiconductor industry and are used, for example, in etching of semiconductor materials to manufacture microchips. In low-pressure dual radio-frequency capacitive discharges, stochastic heating is an important phenomenon. Recent theoretical work on this problem using several different approaches has produced results that are broadly in agreement insofar as scaling with the discharge parameters is concerned, but there remains some disagreement in detail concerning the absolute size of the effect for the case of dual-frequency capacitive discharges. In this work, we investigate the dependence of stochastic heating on various discharge parameters with the help of particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. The dual-frequency analytical models are in fair agreement with PIC results for values of the low-frequency current density amplitude J lf (or dimensionless control parameter H lf ∼ 5) typical of many modern experiments. However, for higher values of J lf (or higher H lf ), new physical phenomena (like field reversal, reflection of ions, etc) appear and the simulation results deviate from existing dual-frequency analytical models. On the other hand, for lower J lf (or lower H lf ) again the simulation results deviate from analytical models. So this research work produces a relatively extensive set of simulation data that may be used to validate theories over a wide range of parameters. (paper)

  11. Online determination of biophysical parameters of mucous membranes of a human body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisenko, S A; Kugeiko, M M [Belarusian State University, Minsk (Belarus)

    2013-07-31

    We have developed a method for online determination of biophysical parameters of mucous membranes (MMs) of a human body (transport scattering coefficient, scattering anisotropy factor, haemoglobin concentration, degrees of blood oxygenation, average diameter of capillaries with blood) from measurements of spectral and spatial characteristics of diffuse reflection. The method is based on regression relationships between linearly independent components of the measured light signals and the unknown parameters of MMs, obtained by simulation of the radiation transfer in the MM under conditions of its general variability. We have proposed and justified the calibration-free fibre-optic method for determining the concentration of haemoglobin in MMs by measuring the light signals diffusely reflected by the tissue in four spectral regions at two different distances from the illumination spot. We have selected the optimal wavelengths of optical probing for the implementation of the method. (laser applications in biology and medicine)

  12. Compatible topologies and parameters for NMR structure determination of carbohydrates by simulated annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yingang

    2017-01-01

    The use of NMR methods to determine the three-dimensional structures of carbohydrates and glycoproteins is still challenging, in part because of the lack of standard protocols. In order to increase the convenience of structure determination, the topology and parameter files for carbohydrates in the program Crystallography & NMR System (CNS) were investigated and new files were developed to be compatible with the standard simulated annealing protocols for proteins and nucleic acids. Recalculating the published structures of protein-carbohydrate complexes and glycosylated proteins demonstrates that the results are comparable to the published structures which employed more complex procedures for structure calculation. Integrating the new carbohydrate parameters into the standard structure calculation protocol will facilitate three-dimensional structural study of carbohydrates and glycosylated proteins by NMR spectroscopy.

  13. Impact of CyberKnife Radiosurgery on Overall Survival and Various Parameters of Patients with 1-3 versus ≥ 4 Brain Metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murovic, Judith; Ding, Victoria; Han, Summer S; Adler, John R; Chang, Steven D

    2017-10-24

    Introduction This study's objective is to compare the overall survivals (OSs) and various parameters of patients with 1-3 versus ≥ 4 brain metastases post-CyberKnife radiosurgery (CKRS) (Accuray, Sunnyvale, California) alone. Methods Charts of 150 patients, from 2009-2014, treated with only CKRS for brain metastases were reviewed retrospectively for overall survival (OS) and patient, tumor, and imaging characteristics. Parameters included demographics, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance scores, number and control of extracranial disease (ECD) sites, cause of death (COD), histology, tumor volume (TV), and post-CKRS whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT). The imaging characteristics assessed were time of complete response (CR), partial response (PR), stable imaging or local failure (LF), and distal brain failure (DBF). Patients and their data were divided into those with 1-3 (group 1) versus ≥ 4 brain metastases (group 2). For each CR and LF patient, absolute neutrophil count (ANC), absolute lymphocyte count (ALC)), and ANC/ALC ratio (NLR) were obtained, when available, at the time of CKRS. Results Both group 1 and group 2 had a median OS of 13 months. The patient median age for the 115 group 1 patients versus the 35 group 2 patients was 62 versus 56 years. Group 1 had slightly more males and group 2, females. The predominant ECOG score for each group was 1 and the number of ECD sites was one and two, respectively. Uncontrolled ECD occurred in the majority of both group 1 and group 2 patients. The main COD was ECD in both groups. The prevalent tumor histology for groups 1 and 2 was non-small cell lung carcinoma. Median TVs were 1.08 cc versus 1.42 cc for groups 1 and 2, respectively. The majority of patients in both groups did not undergo post-CKRS WBRT. Imaging outcomes were LC (CR, PR, or stable imaging) in 93 (80.9%) and 26 (74.3%) group 1 and 2 patients, of whom 32 (27.8%) and six (17.1%) had CR; 38 (33.0%) and 18 (51.4%), PR and 23

  14. Determination of conveyor-flow parameters by gamma-ray transmission analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanger, H.U.; Pepelnik, R.; Michaelis, W.

    1977-01-01

    Dual-beam γ-ray transmission analysis (Am 241 - Cs 137 ) is successfully applied for the rapid determination of individual space concentrations in triple-component flows. The principle of the method, transmission formulae, the attainable precision and accuracy are discussed with respect to practical application. For determining drift velocities, a dual γ-ray transmission gate has been developed. The velocity is derived from the two gate responses by cross-correlation analysis. Combination of space concentration and mean drift speed data yields the mass transport per unit time. Thus the most important flow parameters can be controlled without interference with the conveyor-flow. Such data are of considerable relevance in testing and operating hydraulic and air-lift mining systems. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Laser Welding Process Parameters Optimization Using Variable-Fidelity Metamodel and NSGA-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Chaochao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimization methodology based on variable-fidelity (VF metamodels and nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II for laser bead-on-plate welding of stainless steel 316L is presented. The relationships between input process parameters (laser power, welding speed and laser focal position and output responses (weld width and weld depth are constructed by VF metamodels. In VF metamodels, the information from two levels fidelity models are integrated, in which the low-fidelity model (LF is finite element simulation model that is used to capture the general trend of the metamodels, and high-fidelity (HF model which from physical experiments is used to ensure the accuracy of metamodels. The accuracy of the VF metamodel is verified by actual experiments. To slove the optimization problem, NSGA-II is used to search for multi-objective Pareto optimal solutions. The results of verification experiments show that the obtained optimal parameters are effective and reliable.

  16. Technical Note: Using experimentally determined proton spot scanning timing parameters to accurately model beam delivery time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jiajian; Tryggestad, Erik; Younkin, James E; Keole, Sameer R; Furutani, Keith M; Kang, Yixiu; Herman, Michael G; Bues, Martin

    2017-10-01

    To accurately model the beam delivery time (BDT) for a synchrotron-based proton spot scanning system using experimentally determined beam parameters. A model to simulate the proton spot delivery sequences was constructed, and BDT was calculated by summing times for layer switch, spot switch, and spot delivery. Test plans were designed to isolate and quantify the relevant beam parameters in the operation cycle of the proton beam therapy delivery system. These parameters included the layer switch time, magnet preparation and verification time, average beam scanning speeds in x- and y-directions, proton spill rate, and maximum charge and maximum extraction time for each spill. The experimentally determined parameters, as well as the nominal values initially provided by the vendor, served as inputs to the model to predict BDTs for 602 clinical proton beam deliveries. The calculated BDTs (T BDT ) were compared with the BDTs recorded in the treatment delivery log files (T Log ): ∆t = T Log -T BDT . The experimentally determined average layer switch time for all 97 energies was 1.91 s (ranging from 1.9 to 2.0 s for beam energies from 71.3 to 228.8 MeV), average magnet preparation and verification time was 1.93 ms, the average scanning speeds were 5.9 m/s in x-direction and 19.3 m/s in y-direction, the proton spill rate was 8.7 MU/s, and the maximum proton charge available for one acceleration is 2.0 ± 0.4 nC. Some of the measured parameters differed from the nominal values provided by the vendor. The calculated BDTs using experimentally determined parameters matched the recorded BDTs of 602 beam deliveries (∆t = -0.49 ± 1.44 s), which were significantly more accurate than BDTs calculated using nominal timing parameters (∆t = -7.48 ± 6.97 s). An accurate model for BDT prediction was achieved by using the experimentally determined proton beam therapy delivery parameters, which may be useful in modeling the interplay effect and patient throughput. The model may

  17. Determining the thermionic converter interval parameters according to volt-ampere characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajbyshev, V.Z.

    1986-01-01

    On the basis of the condition for independence of plasma parameters on the collector emission and the expression for the ratio of the current from collector into plasma to the passing current at a great collector emission, the technique for determining the electron temperature near the collector, voltage drop in collector, and collector work function according to experimental characteristics is developed

  18. Peptide drug stability: The anti-inflammatory drugs Pep19-2.5 and Pep19-4LF in cream formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Nicole; Heinbockel, Lena; Correa, Wilmar; Gutsmann, Thomas; Goldmann, Torsten; Englisch, Uwe; Brandenburg, Klaus

    2018-03-30

    In previous years, we developed anti-infective drugs based on antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which have been shown to effectively block severe infections and inflammation in vitro as well as in vivo. Besides systemic application, the occurrence of severe local infections necessitates a topical application for example in the case of severe skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI). Recent investigations show that the synthetic anti-lipopolysaccharide peptide (SALP) Pep19-2.5 (Aspidasept® I) and a variant called Pep19-4LF (Aspidasept® II) are able to supress inflammation reactions also in keratinocytes, Langerhans cells, and dendritic cells from the skin. For topical application, a possible formulation represents the drug dispersed into a pharmaceutical cream (DAC base cream). Here, we present investigations on the stability of the peptides using this formulation in dependence on time, which includes the evaluation of the extraction procedure, the quantitative analysis of the peptides after extraction, its sensitivity to protease degradation and its ability to maintain activity against LPS-induced inflammation in vitro. We have developed an extraction procedure for the peptides with an optimum yield and showed that Pep19-2.5 is present as a dimer after extraction from the cream, whereas Pep19-4LF retains its monomeric form. Both peptides show no degradation by chymotrypsin after extraction for at least 1 h, which is indicative for an attachment of constituents of the base cream, inhibiting the cutting into peptidic part structures. The extracted peptides and in particular the dimeric Pep19-2.5 are still able to inhibit the LPS-induced inflammation reaction in human mononuclear cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Helicusin E, Isochromophilone X and Isochromophilone XI: New Chloroazaphilones Produced by the Fungus Bartalinia robillardoides Strain LF550

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes F. Imhoff

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial studies of the Mediterranean sponge Tethya aurantium led to the isolation of the fungus Bartalinia robillardoides strain LF550. The strain produced a number of secondary metabolites belonging to the chloroazaphilones. This is the first report on the isolation of chloroazaphilones of a fungal strain belonging to the genus Bartalinia. Besides some known compounds (helicusin A (1 and deacetylsclerotiorin (2, three new chloroazaphilones (helicusin E (3; isochromophilone X (4 and isochromophilone XI (5 and one new pentaketide (bartanolide (6 were isolated. The structure elucidations were based on spectroscopic analyses. All isolated compounds revealed different biological activity spectra against a test panel of four bacteria: three fungi; two tumor cell lines and two enzymes.

  20. Helicusin E, isochromophilone X and isochromophilone XI: new chloroazaphilones produced by the fungus Bartalinia robillardoides strain LF550.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Nils; Ohlendorf, Birgit; Erhard, Arlette; Bruhn, Torsten; Bringmann, Gerhard; Imhoff, Johannes F

    2013-03-12

    Microbial studies of the Mediterranean sponge Tethya aurantium led to the isolation of the fungus Bartalinia robillardoides strain LF550. The strain produced a number of secondary metabolites belonging to the chloroazaphilones. This is the first report on the isolation of chloroazaphilones of a fungal strain belonging to the genus Bartalinia. Besides some known compounds (helicusin A (1) and deacetylsclerotiorin (2)), three new chloroazaphilones (helicusin E (3); isochromophilone X (4) and isochromophilone XI (5)) and one new pentaketide (bartanolide (6)) were isolated. The structure elucidations were based on spectroscopic analyses. All isolated compounds revealed different biological activity spectra against a test panel of four bacteria: three fungi; two tumor cell lines and two enzymes.

  1. Determination of the Nonlinearity Parameter in the TNM Model of Structural Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Rozana; Simon, Sindee

    Structural recovery of non-equilibrium glassy materials takes place by evolution of volume and enthalpy as the glass attempts to reach to equilibrium. Structural recovery is nonlinear, nonexponential, and depends on thermal history and the process can be described by phenomenological models of structural recovery, such as the Tool-Narayanaswamy-Moynihan (TNM) and the Kovacs-Aklonis-Hutchinson-Ramos (KAHR) models. The goal of the present work is to analyze methods to determine the nonlinearity parameter x and activation energy Δh/R. The methods to determine x includes the inflectional analysis, time-temperature superposition, and two-step temperature jump methods. The activation energy Δh/R can also be obtained by the first two methods. The TNM model is used to simulate structural recovery data, which are then used to test the accuracy of the methods to determine x and Δh/R, with a particular interest in data obtained after cooling at high rates as can be obtained in the Flash DSC. The nonlinearity parameter x by the inflectional analysis and two-step temperature methods are accurate for exponential recovery. However, for real systems with nonexponential relaxation, methods to determine x are not reliable. The activation energy is well estimated by both the time-temperature superposition and inflectional analysis methods, with the former being slightly better.

  2. Determination of adsorption parameters in numerical simulation for polymer flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Pengyu; Li, Aifen; Luo, Shuai; Dang, Xu

    2018-02-01

    A study on the determination of adsorption parameters for polymer flooding simulation was carried out. The study mainly includes polymer static adsorption and dynamic adsorption. The law of adsorption amount changing with polymer concentration and core permeability was presented, and the one-dimensional numerical model of CMG was established under the support of a large number of experimental data. The adsorption laws of adsorption experiments were applied to the one-dimensional numerical model to compare the influence of two adsorption laws on the historical matching results. The results show that the static adsorption and dynamic adsorption abide by different rules, and differ greatly in adsorption. If the static adsorption results were directly applied to the numerical model, the difficulty of the historical matching will increase. Therefore, dynamic adsorption tests in the porous medium are necessary before the process of parameter adjustment in order to achieve the ideal history matching result.

  3. Determination of kinetic parameters for borohydride oxidation on a rotating Au disk electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, H.; Scott, K.

    2006-01-01

    Borohydride oxidation has been investigated using a rotating disk electrode technique. The parameters, such as apparent rate constant, Tafel slope, Levich slope, number of electrons exchanged and reaction order, have been determined. The borohydride ion is oxidised on the gold electrode with an electrochemical rate constant of around 1 cm s -1 at intermediate potentials where side reactions had less effect. Influences of temperature, concentrations of borohydride and supporting electrolyte (NaOH) on the parameters were evaluated

  4. Determination of regional cerebral blood flow curves and parameters by computed γ camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Guohong

    1988-01-01

    Regional CBF curves and parameters were determined in 236 subjects by Sigma 438/MCS 560 computed γ camera. Each subject was given 99m TcO 4 -370 MBq intravenously. Four CBF curves and three parameters were derived by the computer.The results from 39 normal subjects, 22 patients with cerebral embolism, 53 patients with cerebrovascular sclerosis, 56 patients with diseases of cervical vertebrae, 10 patients with concussion and 5 patients with cerebral arteritis were analyzed

  5. Determination of structural and spectroscopic parameters of 4-hydroxyantipyrine, using DFT method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catikkas, B.; Aktan, E.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, structural and vibrational parameters were calculated. First of all, conformational analysis of 4-hydroxyantipyrine was carried out in gas phase. Then, the geometric parameters (bond length, bond angle and tortion angle) of the most stable conformer were calculated and the Infrared and Raman frequencies of fundamental modes were determined. Calculations were made by using DFT B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) method implemented the Gaussian 03 program. Afterwards, vibrational assignments of the title molecule were calculated by using Scaled Quantum Mechanical (SQM) analysis. In conclusion, calculated values were compared with corresponding experimental results.

  6. Determination of global heart function parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.E.; Hoffmann, H.; Sigel, H.; Bitter, F.; Nechwatal, W.; Stauch, M.; Ulm Univ.; Freiburg Univ.

    1980-01-01

    1. ECG-triggered scintigraphy of the interior of the heart (radioactive ventriculography) is a reliable non-invasive technique for the acquisition of the global and regional function of the left ventricle. 2. The most important global parameter is the output function (OF) of the left ventricle. It can be measured exactly. The decrease of the OF under load is typical for coronary insufficience under load, but is not specifically. 3. A movement disturbance on the ground of a KHK is recognized with highest sensitivity at the decrease of the maximum relaxation velocity of the global left-ventricular time-activity characteristic (fast phase of filling). 4. Regional wall movement disturbances can be measured quantitatively by means of viewing the radioactive nucleid ventriculogramm at the display. 5. The quantitative measurement of the regional function needs an extensive analysis of the local time-activity characteristics of a representative coronary cycle. For this the amplitude and phase and the contraction and relaxation velocity of all time-activity characteristics is determined by Fourier analysis and their spatial distribution is drawn (parametric scan). 6. The parametric scans (distribution of amplitude, phase, contraction and relaxation velocities) describe the regional wall movement in detail, the reliability of its quantitative acquisition has to be approved by further investigations. (orig.) [de

  7. Determination of HCME 3-D parameters using a full ice-cream cone model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hyeonock; Moon, Yong-Jae; Lee, Harim

    2016-05-01

    It is very essential to determine three dimensional parameters (e.g., radial speed, angular width, source location) of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) for space weather forecast. Several cone models (e.g., an elliptical cone model, an ice-cream cone model, an asymmetric cone model) have been examined to estimate these parameters. In this study, we investigate which cone type is close to a halo CME morphology using 26 CMEs: halo CMEs by one spacecraft (SOHO or STEREO-A or B) and as limb CMEs by the other ones. From cone shape parameters of these CMEs such as their front curvature, we find that near full ice-cream cone type CMEs are much closer to observations than shallow ice-cream cone type CMEs. Thus we develop a new cone model in which a full ice-cream cone consists of many flat cones with different heights and angular widths. This model is carried out by the following steps: (1) construct a cone for given height and angular width, (2) project the cone onto the sky plane, (3) select points comprising the outer boundary, and (4) minimize the difference between the estimated projection speeds with the observed ones. By applying this model to 12 SOHO/LASCO halo CMEs, we find that 3-D parameters from our method are similar to those from other stereoscopic methods (a geometrical triangulation method and a Graduated Cylindrical Shell model) based on multi-spacecraft data. We are developing a general ice-cream cone model whose front shape is a free parameter determined by observations.

  8. In situ monitoring of cocrystals in formulation development using low-frequency Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otaki, Takashi; Tanabe, Yuta; Kojima, Takashi; Miura, Masaru; Ikeda, Yukihiro; Koide, Tatsuo; Fukami, Toshiro

    2018-05-05

    In recent years, to guarantee a quality-by-design approach to the development of pharmaceutical products, it is important to identify properties of raw materials and excipients in order to determine critical process parameters and critical quality attributes. Feedback obtained from real-time analyses using various process analytical technology (PAT) tools has been actively investigated. In this study, in situ monitoring using low-frequency (LF) Raman spectroscopy (10-200 cm -1 ), which may have higher discriminative ability among polymorphs than near-infrared spectroscopy and conventional Raman spectroscopy (200-1800 cm -1 ), was investigated as a possible application to PAT. This is because LF-Raman spectroscopy obtains information about intermolecular and/or lattice vibrations in the solid state. The monitoring results obtained from Furosemide/Nicotinamide cocrystal indicate that LF-Raman spectroscopy is applicable to in situ monitoring of suspension and fluidized bed granulation processes, and is an effective technique as a PAT tool to detect the conversion risk of cocrystals. LF-Raman spectroscopy is also used as a PAT tool to monitor reactions, crystallizations, and manufacturing processes of drug substances and products. In addition, a sequence of conversion behaviors of Furosemide/Nicotinamide cocrystals was determined by performing in situ monitoring for the first time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. One-loop effects on MSSM parameter determination via chargino production at the LC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharucha, Aoife [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Kalinowski, Jan [Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Moortgat-Pick, Gudrid [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Rolbiecki, Krzysztof [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); IFT-UAM/CSIC, Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Teorica; Weiglein, Georg [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    At a future linear collider very precise measurements, typically with errors of <1%, are expected to be achievable. Such an accuracy gives sensitivity to the quantum corrections, which therefore must be incorporated in theoretical calculations in order to determine the underlying new physics parameters from prospective linear collider measurements. In the context of the chargino-neutralino sector of the minimal supersymmetric standard model, this involves fitting one-loop predictions to prospective measurements of the cross sections, forward-backward asymmetries and of the accessible chargino and neutralino masses. Taking recent results from LHC SUSY and Higgs searches into account we consider three benchmark scenarios, each with characteristic features. Our analysis shows how an accurate determination of the desired parameters is possible, providing in addition access to the stop masses and mixing angle.

  10. One-loop effects on MSSM parameter determination via chargino production at the LC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharucha, Aoife; Rolbiecki, Krzysztof

    2012-11-01

    At a future linear collider very precise measurements, typically with errors of <1%, are expected to be achievable. Such an accuracy gives sensitivity to the quantum corrections, which therefore must be incorporated in theoretical calculations in order to determine the underlying new physics parameters from prospective linear collider measurements. In the context of the chargino-neutralino sector of the minimal supersymmetric standard model, this involves fitting one-loop predictions to prospective measurements of the cross sections, forward-backward asymmetries and of the accessible chargino and neutralino masses. Taking recent results from LHC SUSY and Higgs searches into account we consider three benchmark scenarios, each with characteristic features. Our analysis shows how an accurate determination of the desired parameters is possible, providing in addition access to the stop masses and mixing angle.

  11. Determination of electron beam parameters by means of laser-Compton scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Chouffani

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Laser-Compton scattering (LCS experiments were carried out at the Idaho Accelerator Center using the 5 ns (FWHM and 22 MeV electron beam. The electron beam was brought to an approximate head-on collision with a 29 MW, 7 ns (FWHM, 10 Hz Nd:YAG laser. Clear and narrow x-ray peaks resulting from the interaction of relativistic electrons with the Nd:YAG laser second harmonic line at 532 nm were observed. We have developed a relatively new method of using LCS as a nonintercepting electron beam monitor. Our method focused on the variation of the shape of the LCS spectrum rather than the LCS intensity as a function of the observation angle in order to extract the electron beam parameters at the interaction region. The electron beam parameters were determined by making simultaneous fits to spectra taken across the LCS x-ray cone. This scan method allowed us also to determine the variation of LCS x-ray peak energies and spectral widths as a function of the detector angles. Experimental data show that in addition to being viewed as a potential bright, tunable, and quasimonochromatic x-ray source, LCS can provide important information on the electron beam pulse length, direction, energy, angular and energy spread. Since the quality of LCS x-ray peaks, such as degree of monochromaticity, peak energy and flux, depends strongly on the electron beam parameters, LCS can therefore be viewed as an important nondestructive tool for electron beam diagnostics.

  12. Eyeball pressure stimulation induces subtle sympathetic activation in patients with a history of moderate or severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruihao; Hösl, Katharina M; Ammon, Fabian; Markus, Jörg; Koehn, Julia; Roy, Sankanika; Liu, Mao; de Rojas Leal, Carmen; Muresanu, Dafin; Flanagan, Steven R; Hilz, Max J

    2018-06-01

    After traumatic brain injury (TBI), there may be persistent central-autonomic-network (CAN) dysfunction causing cardiovascular-autonomic dysregulation. Eyeball-pressure-stimulation (EPS) normally induces cardiovagal activation. In patients with a history of moderate or severe TBI (post-moderate-severe-TBI), we determined whether EPS unveils cardiovascular-autonomic dysregulation. In 51 post-moderate-severe-TBI patients (32.7 ± 10.5 years old, 43.1 ± 33.4 months post-injury), and 30 controls (29.1 ± 9.8 years), we recorded respiration, RR-intervals (RRI), systolic and diastolic blood-pressure (BPsys, BPdia), before and during EPS (120 sec; 30 mmHg), using an ocular-pressure-device (Okulopressor®). We calculated spectral-powers of mainly sympathetic low (LF: 0.04-0.15 Hz) and parasympathetic high (HF: 0.15-0.5 Hz) frequency RRI-fluctuations, sympathetically mediated LF-powers of BPsys, and calculated normalized (nu) LF- and HF-powers of RRI. We compared parameters between groups before and during EPS by repeated-measurement-analysis-of-variance with post-hoc analysis (significance: p < 0.05). At rest, sympathetically mediated LF-BPsys-powers were significantly lower in the patients than the controls. During EPS, only controls significantly increased RRIs and parasympathetically mediated HFnu-RRI-powers, but decreased LF-RRI-powers, LFnu-RRI-powers, and LF-BPsys-powers; in contrast, the patients slightly though significantly increased BPsys upon EPS, without changing any other parameter. In post-moderate-severe-TBI patients, autonomic BP-modulation was already compromised at rest. During EPS, our patients failed to activate cardiovagal modulation but slightly increased BPsys, indicating persistent CAN dysregulation. Our findings unveil persistence of subtle cardiovascular-autonomic dysregulation even years after TBI. Copyright © 2018 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Determination of radial profile of ICF hot spot's state by multi-objective parameters optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Jianjun; Deng Bo; Cao Zhurong; Ding Yongkun; Jiang Shaoen

    2014-01-01

    A method using multi-objective parameters optimization is presented to determine the radial profile of hot spot temperature and density. And a parameter space which contain five variables: the temperatures at center and the interface of fuel and remain ablator, the maximum model density of remain ablator, the mass ratio of remain ablator to initial ablator and the position of interface between fuel and the remain ablator, is used to described the hot spot radial temperature and density. Two objective functions are set as the variances of normalized intensity profile from experiment X-ray images and the theory calculation. Another objective function is set as the variance of experiment average temperature of hot spot and the average temperature calculated by theoretical model. The optimized parameters are obtained by multi-objective genetic algorithm searching for the five dimension parameter space, thereby the optimized radial temperature and density profiles can be determined. The radial temperature and density profiles of hot spot by experiment data measured by KB microscope cooperating with X-ray film are presented. It is observed that the temperature profile is strongly correlated to the objective functions. (authors)

  14. Determination of Geometric and Kinematical Parameters of Coronal Mass Ejections Using STEREO Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fainshtein, V. G.; Tsivileva, D. M.; Kashapova, L. K.

    2010-03-01

    We present a new, relatively simple and fast method to determine true geometric and kinematical CME parameters from simultaneous STEREO A, B observations of CMEs. These parameters are the three-dimensional direction of CME propagation, velocity and acceleration of CME front, CME angular sizes and front position depending on time. The method is based on the assumption that CME shape may be described by a modification of so-called ice-cream cone models. The method has been tested for several CMEs.

  15. Determination of Geometric and Kinematical Parameters of Coronal Mass Ejections Using STEREO Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fainshtein, V. G.; Tsivileva, D. M.; Kashapova, L. K.

    2010-01-01

    We present a new, relatively simple and fast method to determine true geometric and kinematical CME parameters from simultaneous STEREO A, B observations of CMEs. These parameters are the three-dimensional direction of CME propagation, velocity and acceleration of CME front, CME angular sizes and front position depending on time. The method is based on the assumption that CME shape may be described by a modification of so-called ice-cream cone models. The method has been tested for several CMEs.

  16. Determination of crack morphology parameters from service failures for leak-rate analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkowski, G.; Ghadiali, N.; Paul, D. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    In leak-rate analyses described in the literature, the crack morphology parameters are typically not well agreed upon by different investigators. This paper presents results on a review of crack morphology parameters determined from examination of service induced cracks. Service induced cracks were found to have a much more tortuous flow path than laboratory induced cracks due to crack branching associated with the service induced cracks. Several new parameters such as local and global surface roughnesses, as well as local and global number of turns were identified. The effect of each of these parameters are dependent on the crack-opening displacement. Additionally, the crack path is typically assumed to be straight through the pipe thickness, but the service data show that the flow path can be longer due to the crack following a fusion line, and/or the number of turns, where the number of turns in the past were included as a pressure drop term due to the turns, but not the longer flow path length. These parameters were statistically evaluated for fatigue cracks in air, corrosion-fatigue, IGSCC, and thermal fatigue cracks. A refined version of the SQUIRT leak-rate code was developed to account for these variables. Sample calculations are provided in this paper that show how the crack size can vary for a given leak rate and the statistical variation of the crack morphology parameters.

  17. Determining generator parameters of Camargos hydroelectric power plant through frequency response measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Sebastiao E.M. de; Padua Guarini, Antonio de [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Joao A. de; Valgas, Helio M; Pinto, Roberto del Giudice R. [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This work describes the results of the set frequency response tests performed in the generator number 2, 6.9 kV, 25 MVA, of Camargos hydroelectric power plant, CEMIG, and the parameters relatives to determined structures of model. This tests are unpublished in Brazil. (author) 7 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Instrumental parameters' determination in a fluorescences X-ray Philips PW 1400 equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, J.M.; Fasio, I.; Baronio, N.; Viola, M.

    1987-01-01

    The instrumental parameters of a Philips PW 1400 equipment wavelengths dispersive are determined; fundamentally, those related to the equipment's accuracy (stability at a very short, short and long term drift) as well as to those related to the detection system (dead time, detector's cleaning and detection limit). (S.M.) [es

  19. Unit cell parameters of wurtzite InP nanowires determined by x-ray diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegner, D; Wintersberger, E; Kawaguchi, K; Wallentin, J; Borgström, M T; Stangl, J

    2011-10-21

    High resolution x-ray diffraction is used to study the structural properties of the wurtzite polytype of InP nanowires. Wurtzite InP nanowires are grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy using S-doping. From the evaluation of the Bragg peak position we determine the lattice parameters of the wurtzite InP nanowires. The unit cell dimensions are found to differ from the ones expected from geometric conversion of the cubic bulk InP lattice constant. The atomic distances along the c direction are increased whereas the atomic spacing in the a direction is reduced in comparison to the corresponding distances in the zinc-blende phase. Using core/shell nanowires with a thin core and thick nominally intrinsic shells we are able to determine the lattice parameters of wurtzite InP with a negligible influence of the S-doping due to the much larger volume in the shell. The determined material properties will enable the ab initio calculation of electronic and optical properties of wurtzite InP nanowires.

  20. Determination of Critical Parameters of Carbon Dioxide+ Butyraldehyde System with Different Compositions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing-chang; GAO Xi-xin; CAO Wei-liang

    2005-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide( SC-CO2 ) is considered in green chemistry as a substitute for conventional solvents in chemical reactions due to its environmentally benign character. Recently we have reported the homogeneous hydroformylation of propylene in supercritical carbon dioxide( SC-CO2 ), which is an example of this kind of application of carbon dioxide. The determination for the critical parameters of carbon dioxide + butyraldehyde mixtures is necessary for this reaction design which is the focus of the present paper. The critical parameters of the binary systems were determined via the static visual method at a constant volume with the molar fraction of butyraldehyde ranging from 1.0%to 2. 2% and the pressure ranging from 5 to 10 MPa. The experimental results show that the critical pressure and temperature increased with increasing the molar fraction of butyraldehyde. The bubble(dew) temperatures and the bubble (dew) pressures for the binary systems were also determined experimentally. The p-T Figures at different compositions of the binary systems were described. In addition, the critical compressibility factors Zc of the binary systems at different concentrations of n-butyraldehyde were calculated. It was found that the critical compressibility factor values of the binary systems decreased with increasing the molar fraction of n-butyraldehyde in the experimental range.

  1. Fast determination of plasma parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijnands, T.J.; Parlange, F.; Joffrin, E.

    1995-01-01

    Fast analysis of diagnostic signals of a tokamak discharge is demonstrated by using 4 fundamentally different techniques. A comparison between Function Parametrization (FP), Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) and a particular Neural Network (NN) configuration known as the Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) is carried out, thereby taking a unique linear model based on a Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) as a reference. The various techniques provide all functional representations of characteristic plasma parameters in terms of the values of the measurements and are based on an analysis of a large, experimentally achieved database. A brief mathematical description of the various techniques is given, followed by two particular applications to Tore Supra diagnostic data. The first problem is concerned with the identification of the plasma boundary parameters using the poloidal field and differential poloidal flux measurements. A second application involves the interpretation of line integrated data from the multichannel interfero-polarimeter to obtain the central value of the safety factor. (author) 4 refs.; 3 figs

  2. Relativity Parameters Determined from Lunar Laser Ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. G.; Newhall, X. X.; Dickey, J. O.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of 24 years of lunar laser ranging data is used to test the principle of equivalence, geodetic precession, the PPN parameters beta and gamma, and G/G. Recent data can be fitted with a rms scatter of 3 cm. (a) Using the Nordtvedt effect to test the principle of equivalence, it is found that the Moon and Earth accelerate alike in the Sun's field. The relative accelerations match to within 5 x 10(exp -13) . This limit, combined with an independent determination of y from planetary time delay, gives beta. Including the uncertainty due to compositional differences, the parameter beta differs from unity by no more than 0.0014; and, if the weak equivalence principle is satisfied, the difference is no more than 0.0006. (b) Geodetic precession matches its expected 19.2 marc sec/yr rate within 0.7%. This corresponds to a 1% test of gamma. (c) Apart from the Nordtvedt effect, beta and gamma can be tested from their influence on the lunar orbit. It is argued theoretically that the linear combination 0.8(beta) + 1.4(gamma) can be tested at the 1% level of accuracy. For solutions using numerically derived partial derivatives, higher sensitivity is found. Both 6 and y match the values of general relativity to within 0.005, and the linear combination beta+ gamma matches to within 0,003, but caution is advised due to the lack of theoretical understanding of these sensitivities. (d) No evidence for a changing gravitational constant is found, with absolute value of G/G less than or equal to 8 x lO(exp -12)/yr. There is significant sensitivity to G/G through solar perturbations on the lunar orbit.

  3. Determination of the α parameter for the decay Ψ- →Λπ-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagi, S.F.; Britten, A.J.; Bourquin, M.

    1982-01-01

    The α parameter for Ψ - → Λπ - decay has been determined to be αsub(Ψ)-= -0.462 +- 0.015, from a sample of 1.5 x 10 5 events recorded in the CERN SPS hyperon beam. This value is 2.5 standard deviations higher than the current world average. (author)

  4. Determination of discharge parameters via OES at the Linac4 H− ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briefi, S.; Fink, D.; Mattei, S.; Lettry, J.; Fantz, U.

    2016-01-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) measurements of the atomic Balmer series and the molecular Fulcher transition have been carried out at the Linac4 ion source in order to determine plasma parameters. As the spectroscopic system was only relatively calibrated, the data evaluation only yielded rough estimates of the plasma parameters (T e ≈ 1.2 eV, n e ≈ 1 × 10 19 m −3 , and n H /n H 2 ≈ 0.5 at standard operational parameters). The analysis of the Fulcher transition revealed a non-thermal “hockey-stick” rotational population of the hydrogen molecules. At varying RF power, the measurements at the on-axis line of sight (LOS) showed a peak in the rotational temperatures between 25 and 40 kW of RF power, whereas a steady decrease with power was observed at a tilted LOS, indicating the presence of strong plasma parameter gradients

  5. Errors in determination of irregularity factor for distributed parameters in a reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, V.A.; Zajtsev, M.P.; Il'ina, L.I.; Postnikov, V.V.

    1988-01-01

    Two types errors (measurement error and error of regulation of reactor core distributed parameters), offen met during high-power density reactor operation, are analyzed. Consideration is given to errors in determination of irregularity factor for radial power distribution for a hot channel under conditions of its minimization and for the conditions when the regulation of relative power distribution is absent. The first regime is investigated by the method of statistic experiment using the program of neutron-physical calculation optimization taking as an example a large channel water cooled graphite moderated reactor. It is concluded that it is necessary, to take into account the complex interaction of measurement error with the error of parameter profiling over the core both for conditions of continuous manual or automatic parameter regulation (optimization) and for the conditions without regulation namely at a priore equalized distribution. When evaluating the error of distributed parameter control

  6. Possible earthquake precursors revealed by LF radio signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. F. Biagi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Among radio signals, low frequency (LF radio signals lie in the band between 30–300 kHz. Monitoring equipment with the ability to measure the electric strength of such signals at field sites, were designed and assembled in Italy. From 1993 onwards, the electric field strength of the MCO (216 kHz, France broadcasting station has been collecting measurements at two sites in central Italy that were chosen according to very low noise levels. At the end of 1996, radio signals from the CLT (189 kHz, Italy and CZE (270 kHz, Czech Republic broadcasting stations were included in the measurements. Meteorological data from central Italy were also collected over the same time period in order to study the influence of weather conditions on the experimental measurements. During the monitoring period, we observed some evident attenuation of the electric field strength in some of the radio signals at some of the receivers. The duration of the attenuation observed was several days, so it could possibly be related to particular meteorological conditions. On the other hand, this phenomenon might represent precursors of moderate (3.0 M 3.5 earthquakes that occurred near the receivers (within 50 km along the transmitter-receiver path. In this case, it is possible that the pre-seismic processes could have produced irregularities in the troposphere, such as ducts, reflecting layers and scattering zones, so that some local troposphere defocusing of the radio signals might have occurred. These observations were related only to moderate earthquakes and in these cases, suitable meteorological conditions were probably needed to observe the effect. Between February – March 1998, we observed at one measuring site, a significant increase in the CZE electric field strength. Unfortunately, we could not use the data of the other receiver in this case, due to frequent interruptions in the data set. The increase might have been a precursor of the strong seismic sequence (M = 5

  7. Study of Parameters that Determine Railway Line Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Kukec

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work the study focuses on:- determining the elements required to determine the locationfor the installation of the main signals,- calculated block lengths, and- calculations of optimal head ways, that have not been studiedin detail although they deserve special attention due totheir impact.Generally speaking, the signals are installed in compliancewith the local circumstances, i. e. according to the technicaland technological characteristics and conditions determinedby the traffic places of work they protect.The distribution and length of the blocks depend on: therailway line and its exploitation characteristics, structure andtype of trains that run on the railway line, traffic organisationand signalisation system, as well as technical and exploitationcharacte1istics of the traction vehicles and the rolling stock.What has to be considered is that the minimum section lengthcannot be shorter than the length of the braking distance, i. e.the length of the longest train which runs on the respective railwayline.The study of these parameters is supplemented by the calculationof the reduction in throughput capacity depending on thelack of uniformity in the operation of trains, which, in order tomaintain the design quality of the transportation se1vice, and inthe activities of establishing and implementing the business policyshouldn't be left out nor bypassed.

  8. Determination of heterogeneous medium parameters by single fuel element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veloso, M.A.F.

    1985-01-01

    The neutron pulse propagation technique was employed to study an heterogeneous system consisting of a single fuel element placed at the symmetry axis of a large cylindrical D 2 O tank. The response of system for the pulse propagation technique is related to the inverse complex relaxation length of the neutron waves also known as the system dispersion law ρ (ω). Experimental values of ρ (ω) were compared with the ones derived from Fermi age - Diffusion theory. The main purpose of the experiment was to obtain the Feinberg-Galanin thermal constant (γ), which is the logaritmic derivative of the neutron flux at the fuel-moderator interface and a such a main input data for heterogeneous reactor theory calculations. The γ thermal constant was determined as the number giving the best agreement between the theoretical and experimental values of ρ (ω). The simultaneous determination of two among four parameters η,ρ,τ and L s is possible through the intersection of dispersion laws of the pure moderator system and the fuel moderator system. The parameters τ and η were termined by this method. It was shown that the thermal constant γ and the product η ρ can be computed from the real and imaginary parts of the fuel-moderator dispersion law. The results for this evaluation scheme showns a not stable behavior of γ as a function of frequency, a result not foreseen by the theoretical model. (Author) [pt

  9. Influence of the tool construction on determination of iron-grade in parameter P-techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbucinski, J.

    1975-01-01

    The results of laboratory tests for utilization of parameter P-technique in gamma-gamma method for the purpose of determination of iron content in an ore have been presented. Measurements were performed in the 4π geometry. The various dependences of the tool response on physical-technical parameters of the tool and the borehole-stratum system have been examined. Optimum construction of the borehole tool has been recommended. (author)

  10. DNA barcoding discriminates the noxious invasive plant species, floating pennywort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides L.f.), from non-invasive relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAN DE Wiel, C C M; VAN DER Schoot, J; VAN Valkenburg, J L C H; Duistermaat, H; Smulders, M J M

    2009-07-01

    Floating pennywort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides L.f.), a member of the plant family Araliaceae originating from North America, is an example of an invasive aquatic species posing serious problems to the management of waterways outside of its original distribution area in Australia and Western Europe. As a consequence, its import was banned in the Netherlands. It can be difficult to distinguish H. ranunculoides from other species of the genus on a morphological basis. In this regard, DNA barcoding may become a good alternative once this could be performed on a routine basis. In this study, we show that it is possible to distinguish H. ranunculoides from a series of closely related congeners by using a single plastid DNA sequence, trnH-psbA. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Model reference adaptive control (MRAC)-based parameter identification applied to surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Chongquan; Lin, Yaoyao

    2017-11-01

    In this work, a model reference adaptive control-based estimated algorithm is proposed for online multi-parameter identification of surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous machines. By taking the dq-axis equations of a practical motor as the reference model and the dq-axis estimation equations as the adjustable model, a standard model-reference-adaptive-system-based estimator was established. Additionally, the Popov hyperstability principle was used in the design of the adaptive law to guarantee accurate convergence. In order to reduce the oscillation of identification result, this work introduces a first-order low-pass digital filter to improve precision regarding the parameter estimation. The proposed scheme was then applied to an SPM synchronous motor control system without any additional circuits and implemented using a DSP TMS320LF2812. For analysis, the experimental results reveal the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. Determination of parameters for successful spray coating of silicon microneedle arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Marie G; Vrdoljak, Anto; O'Mahony, Conor; Oliveira, Jorge C; Moore, Anne C; Crean, Abina M

    2011-08-30

    Coated microneedle patches have demonstrated potential for effective, minimally invasive, drug and vaccine delivery. To facilitate cost-effective, industrial-scale production of coated microneedle patches, a continuous coating method which utilises conventional pharmaceutical processes is an attractive prospect. Here, the potential of spray-coating silicon microneedle patches using a conventional film-coating process was evaluated and the key process parameters which impact on coating coalescence and weight were identified by employing a fractional factorial design to coat flat silicon patches. Processing parameters analysed included concentration of coating material, liquid input rate, duration of spraying, atomisation air pressure, gun-to-surface distance and air cap setting. Two film-coating materials were investigated; hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). HPMC readily formed a film-coat on silicon when suitable spray coating parameter settings were determined. CMC films required the inclusion of a surfactant (1%, w/w Tween 80) to facilitate coalescence of the sprayed droplets on the silicon surface. Spray coating parameters identified by experimental design, successfully coated 280μm silicon microneedle arrays, producing an intact film-coat, which follows the contours of the microneedle array without occlusion of the microneedle shape. This study demonstrates a novel method of coating microneedle arrays with biocompatible polymers using a conventional film-coating process. It is the first study to indicate the thickness and roughness of coatings applied to microneedle arrays. The study also highlights the importance of identifying suitable processing parameters when film coating substrates of micron dimensions. The ability of a fractional factorial design to identify these critical parameters is also demonstrated. The polymer coatings applied in this study can potentially be drug loaded for intradermal drug and vaccine delivery

  13. Determining extreme parameter correlation in ground water models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, Mary Cole; Østerby, Ole

    2003-01-01

    can go undetected even by experienced modelers. Extreme parameter correlation can be detected using parameter correlation coefficients, but their utility depends on the presence of sufficient, but not excessive, numerical imprecision of the sensitivities, such as round-off error. This work...... investigates the information that can be obtained from parameter correlation coefficients in the presence of different levels of numerical imprecision, and compares it to the information provided by an alternative method called the singular value decomposition (SVD). Results suggest that (1) calculated...... correlation coefficients with absolute values that round to 1.00 were good indicators of extreme parameter correlation, but smaller values were not necessarily good indicators of lack of correlation and resulting unique parameter estimates; (2) the SVD may be more difficult to interpret than parameter...

  14. A new approach to determine geomechanical parameters of Vertical Transverse Isotropic media using VSP data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Raoof; Moradzadeh, Ali; Rasouli, Vamegh; Hanachi, Javid

    2014-12-01

    Conventionally, high frequency Dipole Shear sonic Imager (DSI) logs are used for anisotropic modeling where fast and slow shear wave's velocities are required. However, the results obtained from a DSI log are restricted to a specific and possibly short interval of the wellbore. The aims of this paper are to use Vertical Seismic Profile (VSP) data and show its application in geomechanical analysis of subsurface layers under anisotropic condition. After processing and separating upgoing and downgoing P- and S-waves, a methodology based Vertical Transverse Isotropic (VTI) condition was presented to determine elastic stiffness parameters. Having stiffness parameters determined, elastic modulus, strength and in-situ stress parameters were estimated and calibrated against the field and core sample data. Although the VSP based geomechanical parameters were calibrated against the real field data, the accuracy of the method cannot be as much as that of the well logs. However, the method presented in this paper may become a very good asset for geomechanical evaluation of the intervals where well log data are not available.

  15. Compatible topologies and parameters for NMR structure determination of carbohydrates by simulated annealing

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Yingang

    2017-01-01

    The use of NMR methods to determine the three-dimensional structures of carbohydrates and glycoproteins is still challenging, in part because of the lack of standard protocols. In order to increase the convenience of structure determination, the topology and parameter files for carbohydrates in the program Crystallography & NMR System (CNS) were investigated and new files were developed to be compatible with the standard simulated annealing protocols for proteins and nucleic acids. Recalculat...

  16. Refining the Barendregt cube using parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamareddine, F.; Laan, T.D.L.; Nederpelt, R.P.; Kuchen, H.; Ueda, K.

    2001-01-01

    The Barendregt Cube (introduced in [3]) is a framework in which eight important typed ¿-calculi are described in a uniform way. Moreover, many type systems (like Automath [18], LF [11], ML [17], and system F [10]) can be related to one of these eight systems. Further- more, via the

  17. Critical parameters for propane determined by the image analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, Y.; Sato, T. [Center for Multiscale Mechanics and Mechanical Systems, Keio University, Hiyoshi 3-14-1, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Uematsu, M. [Center for Multiscale Mechanics and Mechanical Systems, Keio University, Hiyoshi 3-14-1, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)], E-mail: uematsu@mech.keio.ac.jp

    2008-02-15

    The (p, {rho}, T) measurements and visual observations of the meniscus for propane were carried out carefully in the critical region over the range of temperatures: -60 mK {<=} (T - T{sub c}) {<=} 40 mK and of densities: -4 kg . m{sup -3} {<=} ({rho} - {rho}{sub c}) {<=} 6 kg . m{sup -3} by a metal-bellows volumometer with an optical cell. Vapour pressures were also measured at T = (320.000, 343.132, 369.000, and 369.625) K. The critical point of T{sub c}, {rho}{sub c}, and p{sub c} was determined by the image analysis of the critical opalescence. Comparisons of the critical parameters with values given in the literature are presented.

  18. Critical parameters for propane determined by the image analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Y.; Sato, T.; Uematsu, M.

    2008-01-01

    The (p, ρ, T) measurements and visual observations of the meniscus for propane were carried out carefully in the critical region over the range of temperatures: -60 mK ≤ (T - T c ) ≤ 40 mK and of densities: -4 kg . m -3 ≤ (ρ - ρ c ) ≤ 6 kg . m -3 by a metal-bellows volumometer with an optical cell. Vapour pressures were also measured at T = (320.000, 343.132, 369.000, and 369.625) K. The critical point of T c , ρ c , and p c was determined by the image analysis of the critical opalescence. Comparisons of the critical parameters with values given in the literature are presented

  19. Ripening of PAH and TPH polluted sediments : determination and quantification of bioremediation parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, J.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, bioremediation parameters were determined and quantified for different clayey dredged sediments. The research described in this thesis increased the insight into the individual processes of physical ripening, biochemical ripening – including PAH and TPH degradation – that result from

  20. A universal laboratory method for determining physical parameters of radon migration in dry granulated porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yong-Jun; Zhang, Yun-Feng; Dai, Xin-Tao; Ding, De-Xin

    2017-10-01

    The particle size and heaped methods of exhalation media have important effects on physical parameters, such as the free radon production rate, porosity, permeability, and radon diffusion coefficient. However, existing methods for determining those parameters are too complex, and time-consuming. In this study, a novel, systematic determining method was proposed based on nuclide decay, radon diffusion migration theory, and the mass conservation law, and an associated experimental device was designed and manufactured. The parameters of uranium ore heap and sandy soil of radon diffusion coefficient (D), free radon production rate (α), media permeability (k), and porosity (ε) were obtained. At the same time, the practicality of the novel determining method was improved over other methods, with the results showing that accuracy was within the acceptable range of experimental error. This novel method will be of significance for the study of radon migration and exhalation in granulated porous media. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The method for determination of parameters of the phenomenological continual model of soil organic matter transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Bartsev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A possible method for experimental determination of parameters of the previously proposed continual mathematical model of soil organic matter transformation is theoretically considered in this paper. The previously proposed by the authors continual model of soil organic matter transformation, based on using the rate of matter transformation as a continual scale of its recalcitrance, describes the transformation process phenomenologically without going into detail of microbiological mechanisms of transformation. Thereby simplicity of the model is achieved. The model is represented in form of one differential equation in first­order partial derivatives, which has an analytical solution in elementary functions. The model equation contains a small number of empirical parameters which generally characterize environmental conditions where the matter transformation process occurs and initial properties of the plant litter. Given the values of these parameters, it is possible to calculate dynamics of soil organic matter stocks and its distribution over transformation rate. In the present study, possible approaches for determination of the model parameters are considered and a simple method of their experimental measurement is proposed. An experiment of an incubation of chemically homogeneous samples in soil and multiple sequential measurement of the sample mass loss with time is proposed. An equation of time dynamics of mass loss of incubated homogeneous sample is derived from the basic assumption of the presented soil organic matter transformation model. Thus, fitting by the least squares method the parameters of sample mass loss curve calculated according the proposed mass loss dynamics equation allows to determine the parameters of the general equation of soil organic transformation model.

  2. Distributions asymptotically homogeneous along the trajectories determined by one-parameter groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozhzhinov, Yurii N; Zav'yalov, Boris I

    2012-01-01

    We give a complete description of distributions that are asymptotically homogeneous (including the case of critical index of the asymptotic scale) along the trajectories determined by continuous multiplicative one-parameter transformation groups such that the real parts of all eigenvalues of the infinitesimal matrix are positive. To do this, we introduce and study special spaces of distributions. As an application of our results, we describe distributions that are homogeneous along such groups.

  3. Analysis of competing risk parameters in irradiated prostate cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, R.; Mayer, E.; Langsenlehner, U.; Hackl, A.; Pummer, K.; Quehenberger, F.; Feigl, G.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Retrospective competing risk analysis of prognostic factors in definitive-irradiated prostate cancer patients. Patients and Methods: Data of 652 patients were analyzed according to three age subgroups ( 75 years; Table 1). Pre-RT PSA values (median 13.4 ng/ml) were available for 340 patients. Adjuvant hormone therapy (n = 261) consisted either of orchiectomy (n = 151) or LHRH agonist with/without antiandrogen therapy or, in the early years, diethystilbestrol. Neoadjuvant hormone therapy (n = 31) using LHRH agonists was given 6 months before and during radiotherapy. Results: Biochemical failure was observed in 69/.340 patients, 5 years after biochemical failure, 64.9% of them also had failed clinically. The cumulative incidence of local failure (LF) and distant metastases (DM) was 9.4% and 37.2%, respectively; LF and DM at the same time were seen in 18.2%. On multivariate analysis (Tables 2 and 3), advanced stage (relative risk [RR] 4.54), pre-RT PSA > 20 ng/ml (RR 2.79) and poorly differentiated tumors (RR 2.96) were significant predictors of biochemical failure. Advanced stage increased the risk of LF (RR 2.18), DM (RR 3.66), and prostate cancer death (PCD; RR 4.30). Hormone therapy decreased the risk of biochemical failure (RR 0.67), DM (RR 0.59), and PCD (RR 0.60) without reaching statistical significance. Median follow-up was 7.6 years. Conclusion: Risk of biochemical failure was predicted by pre-RT PSA, stage, and grade; in patients with biochemical failure, the cumulative incidence of death from intercurrent diseases and PCD was 25.0% and 29.2% after 5 years, respectively. The risk of DM and PCD was predicted by stage and grade. Higher age (> 75 years) decreased the relative risk of LF, DM, and PCD significantly. (orig.)

  4. Analytical method for determining breakdown slip of an induction motor based on of five parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Nenad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes an explicite formula for determining the critical slip value of an induction squirel cage motor based upon five parameters. Three of these parameters - rated slip, rated and breakdown torque are known by catalogue data. Two missing parameters are the arbitrary slip between the rated and critical slip value and the corresponding torque value. These two parameters are to be experimentaly obtained. The breakdown torque value given by catalogue data is usually less accurate than the rated torque value. The proposed formula gives the possibility of analysing the error distribution of the critical slip value obtained from catalogue and measured data in comparison with the values obtained from the mechanical characteristic based on the physical parameters of an induction motor.

  5. EclipseMob: Results from a nation-wide citizen science experiment on the effects of the 2017 Solar Eclipse on Low-frequency (LF) Radio Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liles, W. C.; Lukes, L.; Nelson, J.; Henry, J.; Oputa, J.; Kerby-Patel, K. C.

    2017-12-01

    Early experiments to study the effects of a solar eclipse on radio wave propagation were done with either a limited number of sites before any theory of the ionosphere had been confirmed or involved collecting data that proved to be unusable because submissions were missing critical information such as date, time or location. This study used the 2017 solar eclipse over the continental U.S. to conduct the first wide-area (across the U.S.) low-frequency (LF) propagation study. The data collection process was crowdsourced through the engagement of students/educators, citizens, ham radio enthusiasts, and the scientific community. In order to accomplish data collection by geographically dispersed citizen scientists, the EclipseMob team designed and shared a low cost, low tool/skill DIY receiver system to collect LF data that leveraged existing cell phone technology and made the experiment more accessible to students and people with no prior experience constructing electronic systems. To support engagement, in addition to web guides (eclipsemob..org), EclipseMob supplied 150 DIY kits and provided build/Q&A webinars and events. For the experiment, participants constructed a simple receiver system consisting of a homemade antenna, a simple homemade receiver to convert the radio frequency (RF) signals to audio frequencies, and a smart phone app. Before, during, and after the eclipse, participants used their receiver systems to record transmitter signal data from WWVB located near Fort Collins, Colorado on 60.000 kHz (a U.S. frequency standard that is operated by NIST and transmits time codes). A second frequency, 55.500 kHz transmitted by a LF station in Dixon, CA was also used. By using the time, date and location features of the smart phone, the problems experienced in earlier experiments could be minimized. By crowdsourcing the observation sites across the U.S., data from a number of different short, medium and long- paths could be obtained as the total eclipse crossed

  6. Artificial Neural Network model for the determination of GSM Rxlevel from atmospheric parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Ofure Eichie

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate received signal level (Rxlevel values are useful for mobile telecommunication network planning. Rxlevel is affected by the dynamics of the atmosphere through which it propagates. Adequate knowledge of the prevailing atmospheric conditions in an environment is essential for proper network planning. However most of the existing GSM received signal determination model are function of distance between point of signal reception and transmitting site thus necessitating the development of a model that involve the use of atmospheric parameters in the determination of received GSM signal level. In this paper, a three stage approach was used in the development of the model using some atmospheric parameters such as atmospheric temperature, relative humidity and dew point. The selected and easily measurable atmospheric parameters were used as input parameters in developing two new models for computing the Rxlevel of GSM signal using a three-step approach. Data acquisition and pre-processing serves as the first stage and formulation of ANN design and the development of parametric model for the Rxlevel using ANN synaptic weights form the second stage of the proposed approach. The third stage involves the use of ANN weight and bias values, and network architecture in the development of the model equation. In evaluating the performance of the proposed models, network parameters were varied and the results obtained using mean squared error (MSE as performance measure showed the developed model with 33 neurons in the hidden layer and tansig activation, function in both the hidden and output layers as the optimal model with least MSE value of 0.056. Thus showing that the developed model has an acceptable accuracy value as demonstrated from comparison of results with actual measured values.

  7. Determination of Process Parameters for High-Density, Ti-6Al-4V Parts Using Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-08-10

    In our earlier work, we described an approach for determining the process parameters that re- sult in high-density parts manufactured using the additive-manufacturing process of selective laser melting (SLM). Our approach, which combines simple simulations and experiments, was demon- strated using 316L stainless steel. We have also used the approach successfully for several other materials. This short note summarizes the results of our work in determining process parameters for Ti-6Al-4V using a Concept Laser M2 system.

  8. Determination of Neutron Flux Parameter f and α and k0 Factor in Irradiation Facility of RSG GA Siwabessy reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amir Hamzah

    2004-01-01

    Determination of neutron flux thermal to epithermal ratio f and parameter α and k 0 factor has been done in irradiation facility of RSG G.A. Siwabessy reactor. Those parameters are needed to determine the concentration of an element in a sample using k 0 NAA method. Parameters f was measured using foil activation method and α parameter was obtained from power function fitting at epithermal neutron spectrum. Based on the fitting method the a parameter was determined of 0.0267,0.0255 and -0.0346 at system rabbit, IP2 and CIP irradiation position. The k 0 factor is depended on absolute gamma fraction. The neutron flux thermal to epithermal ratio f at all rabbit system is closed to 40. (author)

  9. Lateral Flow Urine Lipoarabinomannan Assay (LF-LAM) for Diagnosis of Active Tuberculosis in HIV-Infected Adults: a Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na Songkhla, Munjit; Tantipong, Hutsaya; Tongsai, Sasima; Angkasekwinai, Nasikarn

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Early diagnosis and treatment of active tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-positive patients is challenging. Tests based on the detection of mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan (LAM) antigen in urine have emerged as potential point-of-care tests for TB. However, limited data exists on their performance among HIV-TB co-infected patients from Southeast Asian countries. Methods We prospectively recruited HIV-positive adult patients with CD4 count less than or equal to 200/mm3 and symptoms suspected of active TB from two tertiary hospitals between December 2015 and March 2017. Freshly collected urine was applied to the Determine®-TB LAM Ag test strip (4 bands of graded intensity), using grade 1 cutoff. Diagnostic accuracy of urine LAM strip test were assessed against microbiological reference standard, defined as positive Mycobacterium tuberculosis cultured from one or more clinical specimens (definite TB) or composite reference standard including definite TB and probable TB, defined as those have symptoms consistent with TB and response to anti-TB treatment. Results A total of 280 patients were enrolled. Of whom, 72 (25.7%) and 65 (23.2%) had definite and probable TB. Amongst those with definite TB, LF-LAM test gave a sensitivity of 75.0% (95% CI 63.9–83.6), specificity of 86.0% (95% CI 79.4–90.8) and accuracy of 82.3% (95% CI 76.7–86.8). When compared with the composite reference standard, the test yielded a lower sensitivity (61.3%, 95% CI 53.0–69.1) and accuracy (73.9%, 95% CI 68.5–78.7), with equal specificity. The test showed the highest sensitivity (90.5%, 95% CI 77.9–96.2) and accuracy (85.9%, 95% CI 79.2–90.7) but lower specificity (84.0%, 95% CI 75.6–89.9) in HIV-infected patients with CD4 count less than 50/mm3. The sensitivity of the combined LF-LAM or sputum microscopy was higher than that of either test alone (86.1% vs. 75.0%, 61.1%, respectively). Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) was cultured in 7 out of 20 with false positive

  10. First determination of CP violation parameters from K0-anti K0 decay asymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, R.; Backenstoss, G.; Eckart, B.; Felder, C.; Pagels, B.; Polivka, G.; Rickenbach, R.; Santoni, C.; Tauscher, L.; Troester, D.A.; Alhalel, T.; Ealet, A.; Fassnacht, P.; Geralis, T.; Montanet, F.; Pelucchi, F.; Angelopoulos, A.; Apostolakis, A.; Rozaki, E.; Sakeliou, L.; Sarigiannis, K.; Aslanides, E.; Bee, C.P.; Gamet, R.; Bennet, J.; Cawley, E.; Dodgson, M.; Fry, J.R.; Gabathuler, E.; Harrison, P.F.; Hayman, P.J.; Maley, P.; Sacks, L.; Sanders, P.; Vlachos, S.; Bienlein, J.K.; Fetscher, W.; Gerber, H.J.; Gumplinger, P.; Ruf, T.; Schaefer, M.; Weber, P.; Witzig, C.; Bloch, P.; Fidecaro, M.; Heyes, W.G.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Schopper, A.; Bula, C.; Kettle, P.R.; Nakada, T.; Burgun, G.; Chardin, G.; Dejardin, M.; Derre, J.; Duclos, J.; Faure, J.L.; Francis, D.; Garreta, D.; Guyot, C.; Kochowski, C.; Schune, P.; Yeche, C.; Carlson, P.; Fuglesang, C.; Jansson, K.; Jon-And, K.; Kerek, A.; Szilagyi, S.; Carvalho, J.; Cobbaert, H.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Onofre, A.; Pinto da Cunha, J.; Policarpo, A.; Beveren, E. van; Charalambous, S.; Chardalas, M.; Dedoussis, S.; Touramanis, C.; Dousse, J.C.; Faravel, L.; Johner, H.U.; Kern, J.; Schaller, L.; Filipcic, A.; Mikuz, M.; Seljak, U.; Zavrtanik, D.; Go, A.; Lawry, T.; Miller, J.P.; Roberts, B.L.; Varner, G.; Zimmerman, D.; Hollander, R.W.; Kreuger, R.; Postma, H.; Putte, M. van den; Eijk, C.W.E. van; Kokkas, P.; Manthos, N.; Triantis, F.; Le Gac, R.; Thibault, C.; Touchard, F.; Machado, E.; Marel, G.

    1992-01-01

    We report the first determination of CP violation parameters from particle-antiparticle asymmetry in the decay of neutral kaons into two charged pions. Observation of such an asymmetry is direct proof of CP violation. A fit to the asymmetry enabled a determination of the parameter η +- to be made, yielding the result vertical strokeη +- vertical stroke=[2.32±0.14(stat.)±0.03(syst.)]x10 -3 and φ +- =42.3deg±4.4deg(stat.)±0.4deg(syst.), with an additional uncertainty of ±1.0deg due to the error on the present published value of Δm, the K L 0 -K S 0 mass difference. The magnitudes of both statistical and systematic errors will be significantly reduced in the future. (orig.)

  11. Reactor parameters and constants determination by using measurements in subcritical and exponential assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voi, Dante Luiz; Santos Bastos, Wilma dos

    1995-01-01

    Subcritical and exponential experiments are important for Reactor Physics integral parameter determinations both to validate and confirm theoretical models for reactor calculations. An exponential and subcritical facility has been constructed to be used on the internal thermal column of the Argonauta reactor at IEN-CNEN- Rio de Janeiro. An experimental research program has been developed for the determination of fundamental reactor constants as buckling, migration areas, resonance escape probabilities, thermal utilization, fast fission and fuel eta factors. (author) 23 refs

  12. TRICE - A program for reconstructing 3D reciprocal space and determining unit-cell parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Xiaodong; Hovmoeller, Anders; Hovmoeller, Sven

    2004-01-01

    A program system-Trice-for reconstructing the 3D reciprocal lattice from an electron diffraction tilt series is described. The unit-cell parameters can be determined from electron diffraction patterns directly by Trice. The unit cell can be checked and the lattice type and crystal system can be determined from the 3D reciprocal lattice. Trice can be applied to all crystal systems and lattice types

  13. Heart Rate Variability and Autonomic Modulations in Preeclampsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaza M Musa

    Full Text Available Although the exact pathophysiology of preeclampsia is not well understood, autonomic nervous system imbalance is suggested as one of the main factors.To investigate heart rate variability (HRV and autonomic modulations in Sudanese pregnant women with preeclampsia.A case-control study (60 women in each arm was conducted at Omdurman Maternity Hospital-Sudan, during the period from June to August, 2014. Cases were women presented with preeclampsia and healthy pregnant women were the controls. Studied groups were matched for important determinants of HRV. Natural logarithm (Ln of total power (TP, high frequency (HF, low frequency (LF and very low frequency (VLF were used to determine HRV. Normalized low and high frequencies (LF Norm and HF Norm were used to evaluate sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic modulations respectively.Patients with preeclampsia achieved significantly higher LF Norm [49.80 (16.25 vs. 44.55 (19.15, P = 0.044] and LnLF/HF [0.04 (0.68 vs. -0.28 (0.91, P = 0.023] readings, but lower HF Norm [49.08 (15.29 vs. 55.87 (19.56, P = 0.012], compared with healthy pregnant women. Although all other HRV measurements were higher in the patients with preeclampsia compared with the controls, only LnVLF [4.50 (1.19 vs. 4.01 (1.06, P = 0.017] and LnLF [4.01 (1.58 vs. 3.49 (1.23, P = 0.040] reached statistical significance.The study adds further evidence for the dominant cardiac sympathetic modulations on patients with preeclampsia, probably secondary to parasympathetic withdrawal in this group. However, the higher LnVLF and LnLF readings achieved by preeclamptic women compared with the controls are unexpected in the view that augmented sympathetic modulations usually depresses all HRV parameters including these two measures.

  14. Measurement of dose-determining physical parameters (F-factor, fp factor,...) for comparative analysis of outdoor/indoor radon exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to measure the airborne natural radon activity concentrations outdoor and the dose-determining parameters [non-deposited fraction (f p ), radon daughter products (F, PAEC), as well as the radioactive aerosol size distribution]. The impacts of meteorological parameters (pressure, rainfalls, wind velocities and temperature) on the those parameters and the exhalation of radon from the soil were to be determined. The acquired information was to be applied for an evaluation of the radiological outdoor situation and subsequent comparative analysis with the indoor radon exposure. (orig./CB) [de

  15. Metabolic syndrome parameters in adolescents may be determinants for the future periodontal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyeong-Soo; Lee, Sang Gyu; Kim, Eun-Kyong; Jin, Hye-Jung; Im, Sang-Uk; Lee, Hee-Kyung; Merchant, Anwar T; Song, Keun-Bae; Choi, Youn-Hee

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) increases even in adolescents. The evidence that MetS is associated with the periodontal diseases in adolescents has been understudied. Therefore, our aim was to assess the association between MetS parameters and gingivitis in adolescents. A total of 941 participants (590 boys, 351 girls), aged 12-18 years was selected from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional and nationally representative survey, which had had information on waist circumference, blood pressure, serum triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and the fasting blood sugar and community periodontal Index (CPI). The number of positive parameters of MetS showed significant positive correlation with gingivitis; adjusted and crude ORs with one positive parameters of MetS were 1.92 (95% CI: 1.21-3.04) and 1.88(95% CI: 1.28-2.76), respectively. And adjusted OR with three or more positive parameters of MetS was 3.29 (95% CI: 1.24-8.71). Among five parameters of MetS, Low HDL-cholesterol showed significant association with gingivitis (crude OR 2.12, 95% CI 1.20-3.73; adjusted OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.24-3.12). Having more positive parameters of MetS and low HDL-cholesterol parameter had an independent relationship with the prevalence of gingivitis, which may be determinants for the future periodontal diseases even in adolescents. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Determination of the QCD Λ-parameter and the accuracy of perturbation theory at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalla Brida, Mattia; Fritzsch, Patrick; Korzec, Tomasz; Ramos, Alberto; Sint, Stefan; Sommer, Rainer; Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin

    2016-04-01

    We discuss the determination of the strong coupling α_M_S(m_Z) or equivalently the QCD Λ-parameter. Its determination requires the use of perturbation theory in α_s(μ) in some scheme, s, and at some energy scale μ. The higher the scale μ the more accurate perturbation theory becomes, owing to asymptotic freedom. As one step in our computation of the Λ-parameter in three-flavor QCD, we perform lattice computations in a scheme which allows us to non-perturbatively reach very high energies, corresponding to α_s=0.1 and below. We find that (continuum) perturbation theory is very accurate there, yielding a three percent error in the Λ-parameter, while data around α_s∼0.2 is clearly insufficient to quote such a precision. It is important to realize that these findings are expected to be generic, as our scheme has advantageous properties regarding the applicability of perturbation theory.

  17. Determination of the QCD Λ-parameter and the accuracy of perturbation theory at high energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalla Brida, Mattia [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Fritzsch, Patrick [Univ. Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC; Korzec, Tomasz [Wuppertal Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Physics; Ramos, Alberto [CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.; Sint, Stefan [Trinity College Dublin (Ireland). School of Mathematics; Sommer, Rainer [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Collaboration: ALPHA Collaboration

    2016-04-15

    We discuss the determination of the strong coupling α{sub MS}(m{sub Z}) or equivalently the QCD Λ-parameter. Its determination requires the use of perturbation theory in α{sub s}(μ) in some scheme, s, and at some energy scale μ. The higher the scale μ the more accurate perturbation theory becomes, owing to asymptotic freedom. As one step in our computation of the Λ-parameter in three-flavor QCD, we perform lattice computations in a scheme which allows us to non-perturbatively reach very high energies, corresponding to α{sub s}=0.1 and below. We find that (continuum) perturbation theory is very accurate there, yielding a three percent error in the Λ-parameter, while data around α{sub s}∼0.2 is clearly insufficient to quote such a precision. It is important to realize that these findings are expected to be generic, as our scheme has advantageous properties regarding the applicability of perturbation theory.

  18. Crowdsourcing a Spatial Temporal Study of Low Frequency (LF) Propagation Effects Due to a Total Solar Eclipse: Engaging Students and Citizens in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumsden, N. A.; Lukes, L.; Nelson, J.; Liles, W. C.; Kerby, K. C.; Crowov, F.; Rockway, J.

    2015-12-01

    The first experiments to study the effects of a solar eclipse on radio wave propagation were done in 1912 utilizing Low Frequency (LF; 30 - 300 kHz) radio waves at a handful of sites across Europe before any theory of the ionosphere had been confirmed and even before the word "ionosphere" existed. In the 1920s, a large cooperative experiment was promoted in the U.S. by Scientific American magazine. They collected over 2000 reports of AM broadcast stations from throughout the U.S. Unfortunately, many of the submissions were unusable because they lacked critical information such as date, time or location. We propose to use the 2017 solar eclipse over the continental U.S. to conduct the first wide-area LF propagation study. To perform this study, we plan to crowdsource the collection of the data by engaging student groups, citizens, and the scientific community. The tools for the different collection stations will consist of a simple homemade antenna, a simple receiver to convert the radio frequency (RF) signals to audio frequencies and a smart phone app. By using the time, date and location features of the smart phone, the problems experienced in the Scientific American experiment will be minimized. By crowdsourcing the observation sites, a number of different short, medium and long-paths studies can be obtained as the total eclipse crosses the continental U.S. The transmitter for this experiment will be WWVB located near Fort Collins, Colorado on 60.000 kHz. This is a U.S. frequency standard that is operated by NIST and transmits time codes. A second frequency, 55.500 kHz transmitted by a LF station in Dixon, CA is also being considered for this experiment. We will present an overall strategy for recruiting participants/crowdsourcing the RF collections during the 2017 total solar eclipse. Preliminary coverage calculations will be presented for WWVB and Dixon, as well as path loss calculations that can be expected during the solar eclipse condition. We will also

  19. Real-time determination of confinement parameters in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barana, Oliviero; Joffrin, E.; Murari, A.; Sartori, F.

    2003-01-01

    The main confinement parameters, like the internal inductance l i and the diamagnetic poloidal beta β DIA , are of particular relevance for a reliable real-time control system of next step tokamaks. These quantities have been obtained at Joint European Torus (JET), with a precision more than satisfactory for real-time applications, through a method, known as BETALI, that uses the Shafranov integrals S 1 , S 2 and S 3 . Since S 1 , S 2 and S 3 are defined on the plasma boundary, a technique, that exploits the real-time boundary code XLOC, has been expressively developed to determine the last closed flux surface (LCFS). BETALI has been verified on several experimental plasma configurations, giving very encouraging results both in the limiter and x-point phase of the discharges. The compatibility with the time restrictions has also been tested successfully. This application has, therefore, been implemented and it has already been used during last JET campaigns

  20. METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINING OPTIMAL EXPOSURE PARAMETERS OF A HYPERSPECTRAL SCANNING SENSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Walczykowski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the presented research was to establish a methodology that would allow the registration of hyperspectral images with a defined spatial resolution on a horizontal plane. The results obtained within this research could then be used to establish the optimum sensor and flight parameters for collecting aerial imagery data using an UAV or other aerial system. The methodology is based on an user-selected optimal camera exposure parameters (i.e. time, gain value and flight parameters (i.e. altitude, velocity. A push-broom hyperspectral imager- the Headwall MicroHyperspec A-series VNIR was used to conduct this research. The measurement station consisted of the following equipment: a hyperspectral camera MicroHyperspec A-series VNIR, a personal computer with HyperSpec III software, a slider system which guaranteed the stable motion of the sensor system, a white reference panel and a Siemens star, which was used to evaluate the spatial resolution. Hyperspectral images were recorded at different distances between the sensor and the target- from 5m to 100m. During the registration process of each acquired image, many exposure parameters were changed, such as: the aperture value, exposure time and speed of the camera’s movement on the slider. Based on all of the registered hyperspectral images, some dependencies between chosen parameters had been developed: - the Ground Sampling Distance – GSD and the distance between the sensor and the target, - the speed of the camera and the distance between the sensor and the target, - the exposure time and the gain value, - the Density Number and the gain value. The developed methodology allowed us to determine the speed and the altitude of an unmanned aerial vehicle on which the sensor would be mounted, ensuring that the registered hyperspectral images have the required spatial resolution.

  1. Frequency analysis of heart rate variability: a useful assessment tool of linearly polarized near-infrared irradiation to stellate ganglion area for burning mouth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momota, Yukihiro; Takano, Hideyuki; Kani, Koichi; Matsumoto, Fumihiro; Motegi, Katsumi; Aota, Keiko; Yamamura, Yoshiko; Omori, Mayuko; Tomioka, Shigemasa; Azuma, Masayuki

    2013-03-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is characterized by the following subjective complaints without distinct organic changes: burning sensation in mouth or chronic pain of tongue. BMS is also known as glossodynia; both terms are used equivalently in Japan. Although the real cause of BMS is still unknown, it has been pointed out that BMS is related to some autonomic abnormality, and that stellate ganglion near-infrared irradiation (SGR) corrects the autonomic abnormality. Frequency analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) is expected to be useful for assessing autonomic abnormality. This study investigated whether frequency analysis of HRV could reveal autonomic abnormality associated with BMS, and whether autonomic changes were corrected after SGR. Eight subjects received SGR; the response to SGR was assessed by frequency analysis of HRV. No significant difference of autonomic activity concerning low-frequency (LF) norm, high-frequency (HF) norm, and low-frequency/high-frequency (LF/HF) was found between SGR effective and ineffective groups. Therefore, we proposed new parameters: differential normalized low frequency (D LF norm), differential normalized high frequency (D HF norm), and differential low-frequency/high-frequency (D LF/HF), which were defined as differentials between original parameters just before and after SGR. These parameters as indexes of responsiveness of autonomic nervous system (ANS) revealed autonomic changes in BMS, and BMS seems to be related to autonomic instability rather than autonomic imbalance. Frequency analysis of HRV revealed the autonomic instability associated with BMS and enabled tracing of autonomic changes corrected with SGR. It is suggested that frequency analysis of HRV is very useful in follow up of BMS and for determination of the therapeutic efficacy of SGR. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Modelling of slaughterhouse solid waste anaerobic digestion: determination of parameters and continuous reactor simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Iván; Borzacconi, Liliana

    2010-10-01

    A model based on the work of Angelidaki et al. (1993) was applied to simulate the anaerobic biodegradation of ruminal contents. In this study, two fractions of solids with different biodegradation rates were considered. A first-order kinetic was used for the easily biodegradable fraction and a kinetic expression that is function of the extracellular enzyme concentration was used for the slowly biodegradable fraction. Batch experiments were performed to obtain an accumulated methane curve that was then used to obtain the model parameters. For this determination, a methodology derived from the "multiple-shooting" method was successfully used. Monte Carlo simulations allowed a confidence range to be obtained for each parameter. Simulations of a continuous reactor were performed using the optimal set of model parameters. The final steady-states were determined as functions of the operational conditions (solids load and residence time). The simulations showed that methane flow peaked at a flow rate of 0.5-0.8 Nm(3)/d/m(reactor)(3) at a residence time of 10-20 days. Simulations allow the adequate selection of operating conditions of a continuous reactor. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of Stark parameters by cross-calibration in a multi-element laser-induced plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Truscott, Benjamin S.; Ashfold, Michael N. R.

    2016-05-01

    We illustrate a Stark broadening analysis of the electron density Ne and temperature Te in a laser-induced plasma (LIP), using a model free of assumptions regarding local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The method relies on Stark parameters determined also without assuming LTE, which are often unknown and unavailable in the literature. Here, we demonstrate that the necessary values can be obtained in situ by cross-calibration between the spectral lines of different charge states, and even different elements, given determinations of Ne and Te based on appropriate parameters for at least one observed transition. This approach enables essentially free choice between species on which to base the analysis, extending the range over which these properties can be measured and giving improved access to low-density plasmas out of LTE. Because of the availability of suitable tabulated values for several charge states of both Si and C, the example of a SiC LIP is taken to illustrate the consistency and accuracy of the procedure. The cross-calibrated Stark parameters are at least as reliable as values obtained by other means, offering a straightforward route to extending the literature in this area.

  4. Experimental determination of lattice parameters for 2% enriched uranium heavy water reactor cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raisic, N; Takac, S; Markovic, H; Bosevski, T [Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1963-04-15

    Systematic measurements of the buckling, infinite multiplication factor and the thermal utilization factor were made on a series of lattices for 2% enriched uranium tubular fuel elements in heavy water. This work represents the first phase of experimental verification of standard theoretical methods used for the determination of reactor parameters.

  5. Design of a suspension system and determining suspension parameters of a medium downforce small Formula type car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswal Sadjyot

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the paper is on designing a suspension system for a medium downforce small Formula type race car. The paper not only focusses on step by step design for a double wishbone type suspension but will also show the use and role of kinematics software in determining the optimized suspension of the car. The paper will also focus on the use of tire data in determining suspension parameters and the design of the double wishbone suspension. Various parameters, their design importance and the process to optimize them according to suspension design goals will be covered. The easiest and best ways to change the suspension parameters to get the best results will also be covered.

  6. Determination of thermodynamical coefficients for Mo-W alloys according to short-range order parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erokhin, L.N.; Mokrov, A.P.; Shivrin, O.N.; Khanina, N.I.

    1986-01-01

    A method is proposed for determining thermodynamical coefficients according to short-range order parameters. The method approbation for Mo-W alloys has shown a good agreement between the thermodynamical and diffusion data. The Mo-W system in the concentration range under study is close to the ideal one. The calculated relative error of determination of interdiffusion coefficients in alloys of the Mo-W system does not exceed 16%

  7. Determination of new electroweak parameters at the ILC. Sensitivity to new physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, M.; Schmidt, E.; Schroeder, H. [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Kilian, W. [Siegen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Fach Physik]|[Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Krstonosic, P.; Reuter, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Moenig, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2006-04-15

    We present a study of the sensitivity of an International Linear Collider (ILC) to electroweak parameters in the absence of a light Higgs boson. In particular, we consider those parameters that have been inaccessible at previous colliders, quartic gauge couplings. Within a generic effective-field theory context we analyze all processes that contain quasi-elastic weak-boson scattering, using complete six-fermion matrix elements in unweighted event samples, fast simulation of the ILC detector, and a multidimensional parameter fit of the set of anomalous couplings. The analysis does not rely on simplifying assumptions such as custodial symmetry or approximations such as the equivalence theorem. We supplement this by a similar new study of triple weak-boson production, which is sensitive to the same set of anomalous couplings. Including the known results on triple gauge couplings and oblique corrections, we thus quantitatively determine the indirect sensitivity of the ILC to new physics in the electroweak symmetry-breaking sector, conveniently parameterized by real or fictitious resonances in each accessible spin/isospin channel. (Orig.)

  8. Determination of new electroweak parameters at the ILC. Sensitivity to new physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, M.; Schmidt, E.; Schroeder, H.; Krstonosic, P.; Reuter, J.; Moenig, K.

    2006-04-01

    We present a study of the sensitivity of an International Linear Collider (ILC) to electroweak parameters in the absence of a light Higgs boson. In particular, we consider those parameters that have been inaccessible at previous colliders, quartic gauge couplings. Within a generic effective-field theory context we analyze all processes that contain quasi-elastic weak-boson scattering, using complete six-fermion matrix elements in unweighted event samples, fast simulation of the ILC detector, and a multidimensional parameter fit of the set of anomalous couplings. The analysis does not rely on simplifying assumptions such as custodial symmetry or approximations such as the equivalence theorem. We supplement this by a similar new study of triple weak-boson production, which is sensitive to the same set of anomalous couplings. Including the known results on triple gauge couplings and oblique corrections, we thus quantitatively determine the indirect sensitivity of the ILC to new physics in the electroweak symmetry-breaking sector, conveniently parameterized by real or fictitious resonances in each accessible spin/isospin channel. (Orig.)

  9. Sequential modelling of the effects of mass drug treatments on anopheline-mediated lymphatic filariasis infection in Papua New Guinea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brajendra K Singh

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis (LF has been targeted by the WHO for global eradication leading to the implementation of large scale intervention programs based on annual mass drug administrations (MDA worldwide. Recent work has indicated that locality-specific bio-ecological complexities affecting parasite transmission may complicate the prediction of LF extinction endpoints, casting uncertainty on the achievement of this initiative. One source of difficulty is the limited quantity and quality of data used to parameterize models of parasite transmission, implying the important need to update initially-derived parameter values. Sequential analysis of longitudinal data following annual MDAs will also be important to gaining new understanding of the persistence dynamics of LF. Here, we apply a Bayesian statistical-dynamical modelling framework that enables assimilation of information in human infection data recorded from communities in Papua New Guinea that underwent annual MDAs, into our previously developed model of parasite transmission, in order to examine these questions in LF ecology and control.Biological parameters underlying transmission obtained by fitting the model to longitudinal data remained stable throughout the study period. This enabled us to reliably reconstruct the observed baseline data in each community. Endpoint estimates also showed little variation. However, the updating procedure showed a shift towards higher and less variable values for worm kill but not for any other drug-related parameters. An intriguing finding is that the stability in key biological parameters could be disrupted by a significant reduction in the vector biting rate prevailing in a locality.Temporal invariance of biological parameters in the face of intervention perturbations indicates a robust adaptation of LF transmission to local ecological conditions. The results imply that understanding the mechanisms that underlie locally adapted transmission dynamics will

  10. Experimental determination and verification of the parameters used in a proton pencil beam algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanowski, H.; Mazal, A.; Nauraye, C.; Biensan, S.; Ferrand, R.; Murillo, M.C.; Caneva, S.; Gaboriaud, G.; Rosenwald, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    We present an experimental procedure for the determination and the verification under practical conditions of physical and computational parameters used in our proton pencil beam algorithm. The calculation of the dose delivered by a single pencil beam relies on a measured spread-out Bragg peak, and the description of its radial spread at depth features simple specific parameters accounting individually for the influence of the beam line as a whole, the beam energy modulation, the compensator, and the patient medium. For determining the experimental values of the physical parameters related to proton scattering, we utilized a simple relation between Gaussian radial spreads and the width of lateral penumbras. The contribution from the beam line has been extracted from lateral penumbra measurements in air: a linear variation with the distance collimator-point has been observed. Analytically predicted radial spreads within the patient were in good agreement with experimental values in water under various reference conditions. Results indicated no significant influence of the beam energy modulation. Using measurements in presence of Plexiglas slabs, a simple assumption on the effective source of scattering due to the compensator has been stated, leading to accurate radial spread calculations. Dose measurements in presence of complexly shaped compensators have been used to assess the performances of the algorithm supplied with the adequate physical parameters. One of these compensators has also been used, together with a reference configuration, for investigating a set of computational parameters decreasing the calculation time while maintaining a high level of accuracy. Faster dose computations have been performed for algorithm evaluation in the presence of geometrical and patient compensators, and have shown good agreement with the measured dose distributions

  11. Using global variables for impact parameter determination in nucleus-nucleus collisions below 100 MeV/u

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, J.; Cussol, D.; Bizard, G.; Brou, R.; Louvel, M.; Patry, J.P.; Regimbart, R.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Sullivan, J.P.; Tamain, B.; Motobayashi, T.; Cassagnou, Y.; Legrain, R.; Hagel, K.; Jin, G.M.; Crema, E.

    1990-04-01

    Several global variables are tested for determining the impact parameter in 4π measurements of charged products. For the system Ar+Al from 25 to 85 MeV/u, simulated reactions are used to study the correlation between the real impact parameter value and the experimentally determined one. Even with an imaginary perfect detector, the total multiplicity and the mid-rapidity charge give a poor correlation. Filtering through the acceptance of an actual detector (Mur+Tonneau at GANIL) provides a poor correlation with the total charge, and an acceptable one with the total perpendicular momentum. The average (mass weighted) parallel velocity V av gives the best correlation and is less sensitive to the incident energy and to the mechanisms used in the simulation. Measurements extending to very forward angles are needed to obtain a good impact parameter sorting. 5 figs

  12. Automated scheme to determine design parameters for a recoverable reentry vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, W.E.

    1976-01-01

    The NRV (Nosetip Recovery Vehicle) program at Sandia Laboratories is designed to recover the nose section from a sphere cone reentry vehicle after it has flown a near ICBM reentry trajectory. Both mass jettison and parachutes are used to reduce the velocity of the RV near the end of the trajectory to a sufficiently low level that the vehicle may land intact. The design problem of determining mass jettison time and parachute deployment time in order to ensure that the vehicle does land intact is considered. The problem is formulated as a min-max optimization problem where the design parameters are to be selected to minimize the maximum possible deviation in the design criteria due to uncertainties in the system. The results of the study indicate that the optimal choice of the design parameters ensures that the maximum deviation in the design criteria is within acceptable bounds. This analytically ensures the feasibility of recovery for NRV

  13. An Aggregated Method for Determining Railway Defects and Obstacle Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loktev, Daniil; Loktev, Alexey; Stepanov, Roman; Pevzner, Viktor; Alenov, Kanat

    2018-03-01

    The method of combining algorithms of image blur analysis and stereo vision to determine the distance to objects (including external defects of railway tracks) and the speed of moving objects-obstacles is proposed. To estimate the deviation of the distance depending on the blur a statistical approach, logarithmic, exponential and linear standard functions are used. The statistical approach includes a method of estimating least squares and the method of least modules. The accuracy of determining the distance to the object, its speed and direction of movement is obtained. The paper develops a method of determining distances to objects by analyzing a series of images and assessment of depth using defocusing using its aggregation with stereoscopic vision. This method is based on a physical effect of dependence on the determined distance to the object on the obtained image from the focal length or aperture of the lens. In the calculation of the blur spot diameter it is assumed that blur occurs at the point equally in all directions. According to the proposed approach, it is possible to determine the distance to the studied object and its blur by analyzing a series of images obtained using the video detector with different settings. The article proposes and scientifically substantiates new and improved existing methods for detecting the parameters of static and moving objects of control, and also compares the results of the use of various methods and the results of experiments. It is shown that the aggregate method gives the best approximation to the real distances.

  14. Roentgencraniometric and roent- gencenphalometric determination of linear parameters on dogs of German Shepard breed

    OpenAIRE

    Krstić Nikola; Milosavljević Željko; Tepavčević Zvezdana

    2002-01-01

    After rentgencraniornetric and roentgencephalometric analysis of the most significant reference points for dogs of the German Shepherd breed aged 12 months, we considered it would be of importance, both from the scientific and cynologic point of view, to determine all linear parameters which might be used in the exact type classification of the neuroviscerocranium of these animals. Correct proportions of certain regions of the face and head were exactly determined by defining and numerical sp...

  15. A novel and practical approach for determination of the acoustic nonlinearity parameter using a pulse-echo method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyunjo; Zhang, Shuzeng; Barnard, Dan; Li, Xiongbing

    2016-02-01

    Measurements of the acoustic nonlinearity parameter β are frequently made for early detection of damage in various materials. The practical implementation of the measurement technique has been limited to the through-transmission setup for determining the nonlinearity parameter of the second harmonic wave. In this work, a feasibility study is performed to assess the possibility of using pulse-echo methods in determining the nonlinearity parameter β of solids with a stress-free boundary. The multi-Gaussian beam model is developed based on the quasilinear theory of the KZK equation. Simulation results and discussion are presented for the reflected beam fields of the fundamental and second harmonic waves, the uncorrected β behavior and the properties of total correction that incorporate reflection, attenuation and diffraction effects.

  16. Determination of Nuclear Track Parameters for LR-115 Detector by Using of MATLAB Software Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AL-Jomaily, F.M.; AL-joburi, H.A.; Mheemeed, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear track detector parameters, such as nuclear track diameter D(μm), number of track N T and area of track A T were determined by using MATLAB software technique for IR-115 detector irradiated by alpha particle from 241 Am source under 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 MeV at etching time T B of 90, 120, 150 and 180 min.By using the image analysis of MATLAB software for nuclear track, the full width at half maximum FWHM and relative resolution R% were calculated for each energy of alpha particles.In this study, it was shown that increasing the alpha energy on the IR-115 detector leads to increased etching time T B and the dropping of R% to minimum value, and then reach a stable value before dropping at values 1.5, 2.5 MeV and unstable at 3.5 MeV. Imaging analysis by MATLAB technique which used in this study reflect good and accurate results for nuclear track detector parameters and we recommend using this technique for determination of these parameters

  17. SDSS-II: Determination of shape and color parameter coefficients for SALT-II fit model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dojcsak, L.; Marriner, J.; /Fermilab

    2010-08-01

    In this study we look at the SALT-II model of Type IA supernova analysis, which determines the distance moduli based on the known absolute standard candle magnitude of the Type IA supernovae. We take a look at the determination of the shape and color parameter coefficients, {alpha} and {beta} respectively, in the SALT-II model with the intrinsic error that is determined from the data. Using the SNANA software package provided for the analysis of Type IA supernovae, we use a standard Monte Carlo simulation to generate data with known parameters to use as a tool for analyzing the trends in the model based on certain assumptions about the intrinsic error. In order to find the best standard candle model, we try to minimize the residuals on the Hubble diagram by calculating the correct shape and color parameter coefficients. We can estimate the magnitude of the intrinsic errors required to obtain results with {chi}{sup 2}/degree of freedom = 1. We can use the simulation to estimate the amount of color smearing as indicated by the data for our model. We find that the color smearing model works as a general estimate of the color smearing, and that we are able to use the RMS distribution in the variables as one method of estimating the correct intrinsic errors needed by the data to obtain the correct results for {alpha} and {beta}. We then apply the resultant intrinsic error matrix to the real data and show our results.

  18. Determination of the temperature coefficients and the kinetic parameters for the HTTR safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuhara, K.; Nakata, T.; Murata, I.; Yamashita, K.; Shindo, R.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the calculational methods which were employed to determine the temperature coefficients and the kinetic parameters for the safety analysis in the HTTR (High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor). The temperature coefficients (doppler, moderator temperature) and the kinetic parameters (prompt neutron life time; l, effective delayed neutron fraction; β eff) are important for the point model core dynamic analysis and should be evaluated properly. The temperature coefficients were calculated by the whole core model. Doppler coefficient was evaluated under the conditions of all control rods withdrawn and the uniform change of fuel temperature. The minimum and the maximum value of the evaluated doppler coefficients in a burnup cycle are -4.6x10 -5 and -1.5x10 -5 ΔK/K/deg. C respectively. The moderator temperature coefficient was evaluated under the conditions of all control rods withdrawn and the uniform change of moderator temperature. The minimum and the maximum value of the evaluated moderator temperature coefficients in a burnup cycle are -17.1x10 -5 and 0.99x10 -5 ΔK/K/deg. C respectively. In spite of positive moderator temperature coefficient, the power coefficient is always negative. Therefore the HTTR possesses inherent power-suppressing feed back characteristic in all operating condition. We surveyed the effects of the Xe existence, the control rods existence, the fuel temperature and the region in which the temperature was changed on the moderator temperature coefficients. The kinetic parameters were calculated by the perturbation method with the whole core model. The minimum and the maximum value of the evaluated effective delayed neutron fraction (β eff) are 0.0047 and 0.0065 respectively. These of the evaluated prompt neutron life time (l) are 0.67 and 0.78 ms respectively. We have surveyed the effects of the fuel depletion and the core power level on these parameters, and considered these effects on the kinetic parameters. From

  19. In situ anisotropic parameter determination using refraction seismic and VSP methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie, J.M.; Lawton, D.C. (Calgary Univ., AB (Canada))

    1999-01-01

    A prime concern in the time-to-depth conversion of reflection seismic data is seismic anisotropy, because it can produce velocity anomalies in seismic data that mimic the structural plays of interest to the petroleum prospector in both size and shape. Ongoing techniques of time-to-depth conversion of P-wave seismic data do not handle the travel time and velocity distortions caused by seismic anisotropy, particularly in areas of complex geologic structures. To address this problem, the first step is to know which rock units are anisotropic and measure their anisotropic parameters. Laboratory means are available, but there are problems with these mainly with shales because of their fissile nature. In situ measurements are preferable because they yield a more robust value, and at the University of Calgary such measurements were undertaken using refraction seismic and vertical seismic profiling (VSP) methods. Results indicate that the two Thomsen anisotropic parameters of interest can be determined from the VSP experiment, but these values are slightly less than those obtained using the refraction technique. This may be because of the sensitivity of the shot statics which arises from the direct travel time measurement of the technique. The experiment yields another method to measure velocity anisotropy, in situ, where steeply dipping strata outcrop, which allows for the accurate measurement of the anisotropic parameters for use in depth migration routines. 4 refs.

  20. In situ anisotropic parameter determination using refraction seismic and VSP methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie, J.M.; Lawton, D.C. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    1999-11-01

    A prime concern in the time-to-depth conversion of reflection seismic data is seismic anisotropy, because it can produce velocity anomalies in seismic data that mimic the structural plays of interest to the petroleum prospector in both size and shape. Ongoing techniques of time-to-depth conversion of P-wave seismic data do not handle the travel time and velocity distortions caused by seismic anisotropy, particularly in areas of complex geologic structures. To address this problem, the first step is to know which rock units are anisotropic and measure their anisotropic parameters. Laboratory means are available, but there are problems with these mainly with shales because of their fissile nature. In situ measurements are preferable because they yield a more robust value, and at the University of Calgary such measurements were undertaken using refraction seismic and vertical seismic profiling (VSP) methods. Results indicate that the two Thomsen anisotropic parameters of interest can be determined from the VSP experiment, but these values are slightly less than those obtained using the refraction technique. This may be because of the sensitivity of the shot statics which arises from the direct travel time measurement of the technique. The experiment yields another method to measure velocity anisotropy, in situ, where steeply dipping strata outcrop, which allows for the accurate measurement of the anisotropic parameters for use in depth migration routines. 4 refs.

  1. VR versus LF: towards the limitation-free 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Tibor; Kara, Peter A.

    2017-06-01

    The evolution of 3D technologies shows a cyclical learning curve with a series of hypes and dead ends, with mistakes and consequences. 3D images contain significantly more information than the corresponding 2D ones. 3D display systems should be built on more pixels, or higher speed components. For true 3D, this factor is in the order of 100x, which is a real technological challenge. If not fulfilled, the capabilities of 3D systems will be compromised: headgears will be needed, or the viewers should be positioned or tracked, single-user devices, lack of parallax, missing cues, etc. The temptation is always there: why to provide all the information, just what the person absorbs that moment (subjective or objective visualization). Virtual Reality (VR) glasses have been around for more than two decades. With the latest technical improvements, VR became the next hype. 3D immersion was added as a new phenomenon; however, VR represents an isolated experience, and still requires headgears and a controlled environment. Augmented Reality (AR) in this sense is different. Will the VR/AR hype with the headgears be a dead end? While VR headsets may sell better than smart glasses or 3D TV glasses, also consider that using the technology may require a set of behavioral changes that the majority of people do not want to make. Displays and technologies that restrict viewers, or cause any discomfort will not be accepted on the long term. The newer wave of 3D is forecasted to 2018-2020, answering the need for unaided, limitation-free 3D experience. Light Field (LF) systems represent the next-generation in 3D. The HoloVizio system, having a capacity in the order of 100x, offers natural, restrictions-free 3D experience on a full field of view, enabling collaborative use for an unlimited number of viewers, even in a wider, immersive space. As a scalable technology, the display range goes from monitor-style units, through automotive 3D HUDs, screen-less solutions, up to cinema systems

  2. The influence of optical parameters on impurity determinations by IR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, O.J.

    1985-01-01

    The important role of impurities in semiconductor materials is the subject of continuous research. The concentration of interstitial oxygen impurities in silicon are determined with the aid of infrared spectroscopy. The maximum absorption coefficient of the oxygen absorption peak, centered at 9,06 μm, is determined and the impurity concentration is then calculated using a calibration factor. This procedure was evaluated, paying particular attention to those optical parameters which may influence these impurity determinations. A thorough discussion of the theoretical and experimental aspects of infrared spectroscopy in general is followed by an overview of previous experimental work. This lead to some theoretical analysis regarding the influence of the index of refraction, the index of absorption and multiple reflections in the silicon wafer on impurity determinations. This lead to specific experimental investigations. The influence of the surface morphology of samples on impurity determinations was studied by determining the reflectance of silicon surfaces. It was established that the surface reflectance plays a role and that it must be taken into consideration for accurate impurity concentration determinations. The most accurate values for the absorption coefficient due to oxygen in silicon are calculated. This requires that the surface of the silicon wafers must be highly polished for the formula to be valid. Acceptable values for the absorption coefficient of damaged surfaces are obtained if the uncorrected formula is used. Experimental results may deviate as much as 32% from the real impurity concentration if the wrong formula is used to calculate the absorption coefficient of oxygen in silicon at 9,06 μm

  3. Modeling solar flare induced lower ionosphere changes using VLF/LF transmitter amplitude and phase observations at a midlatitude site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitter, E. D.

    2013-04-01

    Remote sensing of the ionosphere bottom using long wave radio signal propagation is a still going strong and inexpensive method for continuous monitoring purposes. We present a propagation model describing the time development of solar flare effects. Based on monitored amplitude and phase data from VLF/LF transmitters gained at a mid-latitude site during the currently increasing solar cycle no. 24 a parameterized electron density profile is calculated as a function of time and fed into propagation calculations using the LWPC (Long Wave Propagation Capability). The model allows to include lower ionosphere recombination and attachment coefficients, as well as to identify the relevant forcing X-ray wavelength band, and is intended to be a small step forward to a better understanding of the solar-lower ionosphere interaction mechanisms within a consistent framework.

  4. Determination of transfer parameters in corrugated plates exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Lima Filho, S. da.

    1984-01-01

    In this work is presented a experimental study about the forced convenction problem in vee-corrugated exchangers, with flow in the transversal sense, and parallel plates exchangers in which the isotermal plate is equivalent to the absobing one and the other plate is adiabatic. Global values of the transfer coefficients were experimentally obtained by application of the Naphthalene Sublimation Technique in accordance with the analogy between heat and mass transfer. The results were expressed in terms of Sh sup(-) /Sc sup(0,4) that according to the analogy is equal the Nu sup(-) / Pr sup(0,4) in function of the Reynolds number. The ratio between the lenght of the channel and the average spacing between plates L/2a was ranged in all the exchangers. Parameters of transfer to angles of 45 0 and 31 0 were determined in the corrugated plates exchangers. The experimental results obtained were analyzed and compared among them. Finally practical applications of these results are presented to heat exchangers with similars geometric characteristics. (Author) [pt

  5. EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF DOUBLE VIBE FUNCTION PARAMETERS IN DIESEL ENGINES WITH BIODIESEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivoje B Pešić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A zero-dimensional, one zone model of engine cycle for steady-state regimes of engines and a simplified procedure for indicator diagrams analysis have been developed at the Laboratory for internal combustion engines, fuels and lubricants of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering in Kragujevac. In addition to experimental research, thermodynamic modeling of working process of diesel engine with direct injection has been presented in this paper. The simplified procedure for indicator diagrams analysis has been applied, also. The basic problem, a selection of shape parameters of double Vibe function used for modeling the engine operation process, has been solved. The influence of biodiesel fuel and engine working regimes on the start of combustion, combustion duration and shape parameter of double Vibe was determined by a least square fit of experimental heat release curve.

  6. Determination of chemical solute transport parameters effecting radiostrontium interbed sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemming, C.; Bunde, R.L.; Rosentreter, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    The extent to which radionuclides migrate in an aquifer system is a function of various physical, chemical, and biological processes. A measure of this migration rate is of primary concern when locating suitable storage sites for such species. Parameters including water-rock interactions, infiltration rates, chemical phase modification, and biochemical reactions all affect solute transport. While these different types of chemical reactions can influence solute transport in subsurface waters, distribution coefficients (Kd) can be send to effectively summarize the net chemical factors which dictate transport efficiency. This coefficient describes the partitioning of the solute between the solution and solid phase. Methodology used in determining and interpreting the distribution coefficient for radiostrontium in well characterized sediments will be presented

  7. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Drimys granadensis L.f. leaves from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaviria, Mauricio; Quijano, Clara; Pino, Jorge; Madriñán, Santiago

    2011-03-01

    Drimys granadensis L.f., a native plant from Colombia, has been included in the Vademecum de Plantas Medicinales de Colombia by the Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt, due to its widespread use in the folk medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal ailments. The chemical composition of the essential oil of Drimys granadensis obtained by hydrodistillation of the leaves was analyzed by GC and GC/MS analyses. A total of 85 components were identified, with the major compounds germacrene D (1, 14.7%), sclarene (9.5%), a-cadinol (7.3%), longiborneol acetate (2, 6.3%), drimenol (4.2%), (Z)-β-ocimene (3, 4.2%), a-pinene (4, 3.2%), and β-elemene (5, 2.7%). The essential oil was also tested against eight bacteria using the Kirby-Bauer disk-diffusion method. Most of the Gram-positive bacteria tested were susceptible to the D. granadensis essential oil, while the Gram-negative bacteria tested were not.

  8. Status of Isoetes coromandeliana L.f. and Equisetum debile Roxb. ex Voucher in Gujarat State, Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh K. PATEL

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of Isoetes coromandeliana L.f. in natural ponds of Harni, Savali and Tuwa (India is known since 1956 by earlier workers. Equisetum debile Roxb. ex Voucher was also reported in 1962 growing as wild at Savali. Available literature indicates that I. coromandeliana falls under the category of ‘near threatened’ in Asian continents and as an ‘endangered species’ at national (India level. In the current field work study, the authors could not locate the investigated species from the locations earlier documented by researchers. Few saplings of I. coromandeliana were observed at Talod and Vaktapur near Gandhinagar, a new location for the species. In contrast, E. debile appeared to be lost in wild from Gujarat. Their extinction from earlier reported locations is associated with anthropogenic pressure and thus legal action for their protection is needed. The present paper suggests further survey and habitat based studies and recommends conservation and management action plans based upon the ecology of the habitat.

  9. Effectiveness of the two microorganisms Lactobacillus fermentum LF15 and Lactobacillus plantarum LP01, formulated in slow-release vaginal tablets, in women affected by bacterial vaginosis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicariotto, Franco; Mogna, Luca; Del Piano, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common reason for abnormal vaginal discharge in reproductive-age women and one of its most important causative agents is the gram-variable bacterium Gardnerella vaginalis. BV is not accompanied by significant local inflammation, whereas the "fishy odor" test is always positive. In contrast, aerobic vaginitis (AV) is predominantly associated with Escherichia coli, but Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus are also involved. Standard treatment of BV consists of oral or intravaginal antibiotics, although these are unable to spontaneously restore normal flora characterized by a high concentration of lactobacilli. The main limitation is the inability to offer a long-term defensive barrier, thus facilitating relapses and recurrences. This study was undertaken firstly to assess the ability of selected lactobacilli to in vitro antagonize G. vaginalis to determine an association with a strain able to inhibit E. coli, thus identifying a possible use in AV. The second step of the study was to conduct a human pilot trial in women affected by BV using an association of the most promising and active bacteria. For this purpose, neutralized supernatants of individual lactobacilli were tested at percentages ranging from 0.5% to 4% to determine their ability to hinder the growth of G. vaginalis American Type Culture Collection 10231. The bacterium that was able to exert the strongest inhibition was subsequently tested with Lactobacillus plantarum LP01 in a human intervention, placebo-controlled, pilot trial involving 34 female subjects (aged between 18 and 50, mean 34.7±8.9, no menopausal women) diagnosed with BV. The 2 microorganisms Lactobacillus fermentum LF15 (DSM 26955) and L. plantarum LP01 (LMG P-21021) were delivered to the vagina by means of slow-release vaginal tablets, also containing 50 mg of tara gum. The amount of each strain was 400 million live cells per dose. The women were instructed to apply a vaginal tablet once

  10. Technological, rheological and sensory characterizations of a yogurt containing an exopolysaccharide extract from Lactobacillus fermentum Lf2, a new food additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale, Elisa C; Perezlindo, Marcos J; Pavón, Yanina; Peralta, Guillermo H; Costa, Silvia; Sabbag, Nora; Bergamini, Carina; Reinheimer, Jorge A; Binetti, Ana G

    2016-12-01

    Lactobacillus fermentum Lf2, an autochthonous strain isolated as a non starter culture in Cremoso cheese, produces high EPS levels (~1g/L) in optimized conditions (SDM broth, pH6.0, 30°C, 72h). Technological (texture profile and rheological analysis) and sensory properties of non-fat yogurts with 300 and 600mg EPS/L were studied at 3 and 25days after manufacture. Yogurts with different EPS concentrations showed higher hardness values than the control group at both periods of time, being the only significant difference that remained stable during time. The consistency index was also higher for the treated samples at both times evaluated, being significantly different for samples with 300mg/L of EPS extract, while the flow behavior index was lower for EPS-added yogurts. The thixotropic index was lower (Psensory analysis, those yogurts with 600mg/L of EPS extract presented the highest values of consistency at 3days of storage. No considerable differences for defects (milk powder, acid, bitter and cooked milk flavors) were perceived between treated and control samples at both times evaluated. Syneresis was also studied and samples with 600mg/L of EPS extract presented the lowest syneresis values at 25days of storage, which considerably decreased with the time of storage. In conclusion, the EPS from L. fermentum Lf2, used as an additive, provided yogurt with creamy consistency and increased hardness, without the presence of unwanted defects and improving the water holding capacity of the product. All the analysis done showed the potential of this extract to be used as a technofunctional natural ingredient, and it should be considered its positive impact on health, according to previous studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. High-Frequency Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Increases Anabolic Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, Joni A; Magee, Dillon M; Doucet, Barbara M

    2018-03-16

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is commonly used in rehabilitation settings to increase muscle mass and strength. However, the effects of NMES on muscle growth are not clear and no human studies have compared anabolic signaling between low-frequency (LF-) and high-frequency (HF-) NMES. The purpose of this study was to determine the skeletal muscle anabolic signaling response to an acute bout of LF- and HF-NMES. Eleven young healthy volunteers (6 men; 5 women) received an acute bout of LF- (20 Hz) and HF- (60 Hz) NMES. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle prior to the first NMES treatment and 30-mins following each NMES treatment. Phosphorylation of the following key anabolic signaling proteins was measured by Western blot and proteins are expressed as a ratio of phosphorylated to total: mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p70-S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1). Compared to Pre-NMES, phosphorylation of mTOR was upregulated 40.2% for LF-NMES (P = 0.018) and 68.4% for HF-NMES (P 0.05). There were no differences between treatment conditions for 4E-BP1 phosphorylation (P > 0.05). An acute bout of LF- and HF-NMES upregulated anabolic signaling with HF-NMES producing a greater anabolic response compared to LF-NMES, suggesting that HF-stimulation may provide a stronger stimulus for processes that initiate muscle hypertrophy. Additionally, the stimulation frequency parameter should be considered by clinicians in the design of optimal NMES treatment protocols.

  12. Cross-cultural adaptation of the international consultation incontinence questionnaire male lower urinary tract symptoms-long form (ICIQ-MLUTS-LF) in Persian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmomeny, Abbas Ali; Mazdak, Hamid

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to translate male lower urinary tract symptoms long form (MLUTS-LF) questionnaire and determine its psychometric properties in Persian speaking subjects. Assessment instrument is essential for research, making diagnosis, and for evaluating the treatment outcomes in subjects with lower urinary tract disorders of either gender. Long form of MLUTS questionnaire is a robust self-report questionnaire that investigates the major aspects of lower urinary tract symptoms and their impact on quality of life. After getting permission from the International Consultation International Questionnaire website, the forward and backward translation MLUTS carried out by researcher team and assess content/face/construct validity, reliability in sample of MLUTS Iranian patients and, quality rating and pilot testing. The irritating and obstructing lower urinary disorders were categorized as mild, moderate, and severe in the study sample. Twenty two subjects were suffering from urinary incontinence and most of the participants had benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.819. Correlations between the MLUTS and International prostate symptom score (IPSS) was 0.753. The MLUTS Questionnaire showed good internal consistency, content validity, and construct validity, as measured by correlation with scores on the IPSS. The Iranian version of the MLUTS questionnaire is a valid and robust instrument that can be used in clinical settings and in research. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Semi-automatic determination of the optimum irradiation parameters in stereotactic radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutry, C.; Manens, J.P.; Croci, S.; Scarabin, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    For stereotactic radiosurgery of large lesions or of lesions with irregular shape, the only technique that generates favourable dose distribution is multi-isocentric. The problem is to determine the position of the isocenters that minimize dose heterogeneity within the target volume and maximize the dose gradient outside the target volume. This study was made for two photons energies: γ-rays of Cobalt-60 and 25 MV X-rays. A lead collimator generates circular irradiation beams of diameters 7 to 30 mm at the machine isocenter. By hypothesis, we considered for each isocenter a spherical dose distribution based on an irradiation space defined by sagittal and coronal angular openings of 140 deg. each for 8 equally spaced arcs. The irradiation parameters to be determined are then: the collimator diameter, the number and position of the planes on which the isocenters are placed, and the number and position of the isocenters. We also supposed equidistant isocenters in a linear, triangular, square or complex geometry. The minimum dose point, corresponding to the intersection of the bissectors of the segments joining two consecutive isocenters is inside the geometry. A methodology and rules to determine the irradiation parameters leading to a dose distribution with a reference isodose perfectly adapted to the outlines of the target volume were defined. The collimator diameter is simply correlated to the thickness and the height of the volume to be treated. To determine the number and position of the isocenters we have established simple graphs. These graphs are function of the collimator diameter and the geometric criteria of the volume to be treated (length, thickness, and height). To obtain a dose gradient outside the target volume superior or equal to 5% dose/mm, the collimator diameters must be smaller than or equal to 19 mm for the Cobalt-60 γ-rays and 17 mm for the 25 MV X-rays. For a collimator diameter smaller than or equal to these values, and whatever the photon

  14. Evaluation of a point-of-care blood analyzer and determination of reference ranges for blood parameters in rockfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrenstien, Lisa A; Tornquist, Susan J; Miller-Morgan, Timothy J; Fodness, Brian G; Clifford, Kevin E

    2005-01-15

    To compare values of blood parameters in rockfish obtained by use of a point-of-care portable blood analyzer with values determined by a veterinary diagnostic laboratory, calculate reference ranges for various blood parameters in black rockfish, and compare values of blood parameters in clinically normal fish with those of fish with clinical abnormalities. Prospective study. 41 captive adult black rockfish (Sebastes melanops) and 4 captive adult blue rockfish (Sebastes mystinus). Rockfish were anesthetized with tricaine methanesulfonate for collection of blood samples. Heparinized blood samples were immediately analyzed with a point-of-care analyzer. Blood sodium, potassium, chloride, urea nitrogen, and glucose concentrations; Hct; pH; partial pressure of carbon dioxide; total carbon dioxide concentration; bicarbonate concentration; base excess; and hemoglobin concentration were determined. A microhematocrit technique was used to determine PCV, and a refractometer was used to estimate total plasma protein concentration. Paired heparinized blood samples were transported to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory for analyses. Data obtained with the point-of-care analyzer were reproducible; however, values for most blood parameters were significantly different from those obtained by the veterinary diagnostic laboratory. Fish with poor body condition had several blood parameter values that were lower than corresponding values in clinically normal fish. Point-of-care blood analyses may prove useful in rockfish. Point-of-care data for a large number of clinically normal fish must be obtained for reference ranges to be calculated, and further assessments of clinically abnormal fish are necessary to determine the relevance of the data.

  15. Management of Mauritia flexuosa L.f. for the handicraft production in Orinoco high plains, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Isabel Mesa Castellanos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present information about the spear leaves harvest, fiber processing and trade of Mauritia flexuosa L.f. for the handicrafts production by the Sikuani people in Wacoyo indigenous Village, in Puerto Gaitán, Meta, Colombia. We made  a semi-structured interviews and workshops with harvesters, artisans and traders. During these sessions we inquired about their harvesting techniques, characteristics of harvestable individuals, distribution area of the palms, market aspects  and other uses of the species. Mauritia flexuosa, locally known as moriche, is one of the economic livelihoods for the artisans who inhabit the Wacoyo reservation. The harvest of spear leaves is carried out  in juvenile and subadult palms. The fibers are extracted from the spear leaves to manufacture handicrafts like bags, baskets, hats and hammocks. Artisans sell the products to tourists visiting the reservation, and intermediary sellers who commercialize them in the municipality center of Puerto Gaitán and Puerto Lopez, Meta. The use of M. flexuosa has the potential to become a sustainable activity, since the leaf harvest does not involve the death of the individuals.

  16. Determination of the solubility parameter of ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate by inverse gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaohong; Wang, Qiang; Li, Xiaoping; Tang, Jun; Zhang, Zhengfang

    2015-11-01

    Thermodynamic properties of ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM] BF4) were determined via inverse gas chromatography (IGC). Two groups of solvents with different chemical natures and polarities were used to obtain information about [BMIM] BF4-solvent interactions. The specific retention volume, molar heat of sorption, weight fraction activity coefficient, Flory-Huggins interaction parameter as well as solubility parameter were also determined in a temperature range of 333 - 373 K. The results showed that the selected solvents n-C10 to n-C12, carbon tetrachloride, cyclohexane and toluene were poor solvents for [BMIM] BF4, while dichloromethane, acetone, chloroform, methyl acetate, ethanol and methanol were favorite solvents for [BMIM] BF4. In addition, the solubility parameter of [ BMIM] BF4 was determined as 23.39 (J/cm3)0.5 by the extrapolation at 298 K. The experiment proved that IGC was a simple and accurate method to obtain the thermodynamic properties of ionic liquids. This study could be used as a reference to the application and research of the ionic liquids.

  17. Determination of Kinetic Parameters for the Thermal Decomposition of Parthenium hysterophorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaundiyal Alok

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A kinetic study of pyrolysis process of Parthenium hysterophorous is carried out by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA equipment. The present study investigates the thermal degradation and determination of the kinetic parameters such as activation E and the frequency factor A using model-free methods given by Flynn Wall and Ozawa (FWO, Kissinger-Akahira-Sonuse (KAS and Kissinger, and model-fitting (Coats Redfern. The results derived from thermal decomposition process demarcate decomposition of Parthenium hysterophorous among the three main stages, such as dehydration, active and passive pyrolysis. It is shown through DTG thermograms that the increase in the heating rate caused temperature peaks at maximum weight loss rate to shift towards higher temperature regime. The results are compared with Coats Redfern (Integral method and experimental results have shown that values of kinetic parameters obtained from model-free methods are in good agreement. Whereas the results obtained through Coats Redfern model at different heating rates are not promising, however, the diffusion models provided the good fitting with the experimental data.

  18. Utilizing the ultrasensitive Schistosoma up-converting phosphor lateral flow circulating anodic antigen (UCP-LF CAA) assay for sample pooling-strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corstjens, Paul L A M; Hoekstra, Pytsje T; de Dood, Claudia J; van Dam, Govert J

    2017-11-01

    Methodological applications of the high sensitivity genus-specific Schistosoma CAA strip test, allowing detection of single worm active infections (ultimate sensitivity), are discussed for efficient utilization in sample pooling strategies. Besides relevant cost reduction, pooling of samples rather than individual testing can provide valuable data for large scale mapping, surveillance, and monitoring. The laboratory-based CAA strip test utilizes luminescent quantitative up-converting phosphor (UCP) reporter particles and a rapid user-friendly lateral flow (LF) assay format. The test includes a sample preparation step that permits virtually unlimited sample concentration with urine, reaching ultimate sensitivity (single worm detection) at 100% specificity. This facilitates testing large urine pools from many individuals with minimal loss of sensitivity and specificity. The test determines the average CAA level of the individuals in the pool thus indicating overall worm burden and prevalence. When requiring test results at the individual level, smaller pools need to be analysed with the pool-size based on expected prevalence or when unknown, on the average CAA level of a larger group; CAA negative pools do not require individual test results and thus reduce the number of tests. Straightforward pooling strategies indicate that at sub-population level the CAA strip test is an efficient assay for general mapping, identification of hotspots, determination of stratified infection levels, and accurate monitoring of mass drug administrations (MDA). At the individual level, the number of tests can be reduced i.e. in low endemic settings as the pool size can be increased as opposed to prevalence decrease. At the sub-population level, average CAA concentrations determined in urine pools can be an appropriate measure indicating worm burden. Pooling strategies allowing this type of large scale testing are feasible with the various CAA strip test formats and do not affect

  19. On detection of black hole quasinormal ringdowns: Detection efficiency and waveform parameter determination in matched filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunesada, Yoshiki; Tatsumi, Daisuke; Kanda, Nobuyuki; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Ando, Masaki; Sasaki, Misao; Tagoshi, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Hirotaka

    2005-01-01

    Gravitational radiation from a slightly distorted black hole with ringdown waveform is well understood in general relativity. It provides a probe for direct observation of black holes and determination of their physical parameters, masses and angular momenta (Kerr parameters). For ringdown searches using data of gravitational wave detectors, matched filtering technique is useful. In this paper, we describe studies on problems in matched filtering analysis in realistic gravitational wave searches using observational data. Above all, we focus on template constructions, matches or signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), detection probabilities for Galactic events, and accuracies in evaluation of waveform parameters or black hole hairs. In template design for matched filtering, search parameter ranges and template separations are determined by requirements from acceptable maximum loss of SNRs, detection efficiencies, and computational costs. In realistic searches using observational data, however, effects of nonstationary noises cause decreases of SNRs, and increases of errors in waveform parameter determinations. These problems will potentially arise in any matched filtering searches for any kind of waveforms. To investigate them, we have performed matched filtering analysis for artificial ringdown signals which are generated with Monte-Carlo technique and injected into the TAMA300 observational data. We employed an efficient method to construct a bank of ringdown filters recently proposed by Nakano et al., and use a template bank generated from a criterion such that losses of SNRs of any signals do not exceed 2%. We found that this criterion is fulfilled in ringdown searches using TAMA300 data, by examining distribution of SNRs of simulated signals. It is also shown that with TAMA300 sensitivity, the detection probability for Galactic ringdown events is about 50% for black holes of masses greater than 20M · with SNR>10. The accuracies in waveform parameter estimations are

  20. Determination of optimal tool parameters for hot mandrel bending of pipe elbows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabakajew, Dmitri; Homberg, Werner

    2018-05-01

    Seamless pipe elbows are important components in mechanical, plant and apparatus engineering. Typically, they are produced by the so-called `Hamburg process'. In this hot forming process, the initial pipes are subsequently pushed over an ox-horn-shaped bending mandrel. The geometric shape of the mandrel influences the diameter, bending radius and wall thickness distribution of the pipe elbow. This paper presents the numerical simulation model of the hot mandrel bending process created to ensure that the optimum mandrel geometry can be determined at an early stage. A fundamental analysis was conducted to determine the influence of significant parameters on the pipe elbow quality. The chosen methods and approach as well as the corresponding results are described in this paper.

  1. THE DETERMINATION OF THE SHARPNESS DEPTH BORDERS AND CORRESPONDING PHOTOGRAPHY AND VIDEO RECORDING PARAMETERS FOR CONTEMPORARY VIDEO TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Zaytseva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of determination of the sharpness depth borders was improved for contemporary video technology. The computer programme for determination of corresponding video recording parameters was created.

  2. Parameters Determination of Yoshida Uemori Model Through Optimization Process of Cyclic Tension-Compression Test and V-Bending Springback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Toros

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years, the studies on the enhancement of the prediction capability of the sheet metal forming simulations have increased remarkably. Among the used models in the finite element simulations, the yield criteria and hardening models have a great importance for the prediction of the formability and springback. The required model parameters are determined by using the several test results, i.e. tensile, compression, biaxial stretching tests (bulge test and cyclic tests (tension-compression. In this study, the Yoshida-Uemori (combined isotropic and kinematic hardening model is used to determine the performance of the springback prediction. The model parameters are determined by the optimization processes of the cyclic test by finite element simulations. However, in the study besides the cyclic tests, the model parameters are also evaluated by the optimization process of both cyclic and V-die bending simulations. The springback angle predictions with the model parameters obtained by the optimization of both cyclic and V-die bending simulations are found to mimic the experimental results in a better way than those obtained from only cyclic tests. However, the cyclic simulation results are found to be close enough to the experimental results.

  3. Experimental determination of solubility parameters of oils as a function of pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdier, Sylvain Charles Roland; Duong, Diep; Andersen, Simon Ivar

    2005-01-01

    In this work, the solubility parameter of dead and live crude oils was measured at 303.15 K and up to 300 bar, using the internal pressure approach. An indirect technique was chosen, using thermal expansivities (determined from microcalorimetric measurements) and isothermal compressibilities (cal...... are measured and given as input. Therefore, a more appropriate characterization method should give better results....... (calculated from density measurements). This method was tested on seven pure compounds, and the deviation with literature data is method based on the refractive index was used to examine the validity of the results for the oils, and a deviation of ... parameter was also calculated from two cubic equations of state and compared to experimental results. In this case, the deviations are larger (up to 6.5 MPa1/2), whereas this approach gives accurate results for pure compounds. This might be due to the characterization procedure, because the volumes...

  4. Simultaneous determination of six quality parameters of biodiesel through 1H NMR spectroscopy and partial least squares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamoto, Gustavo G; Tubino, Matthieu

    2018-03-01

    Biodiesel quality is checked by determining several parameters. Considering the large number of analyses in this verification, as well as the disadvantages of the use of toxic solvents and waste generation, multivariate calibration is suggested to reduce the number of tests. In this work, hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR) spectra were used to build multivariate models, from partial least squares (PLS), in order to perform simultaneous determination of six important quality parameters of biodiesel: density at 20°C, kinematic viscosity at 40°C, iodine value, acid number, oxidative stability, and water content. 1 H NMR spectrum reflects the structures of the compounds present in biodiesel and showed suitable correlations with the six parameters. In addition, the models were appropriate to predict all parameters for external samples. Thus, the alliance between 1 H NMR spectra and PLS was shown to be applicable to extract a lot of information about biodiesel quality, significantly reducing analysis time, reagent and solvent consumption, and waste generation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Oral lactoferrin protects against experimental candidiasis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velliyagounder, K; Alsaedi, W; Alabdulmohsen, W; Markowitz, K; Fine, D H

    2015-01-01

    To determine the role of human lactoferrin (hLF) in protecting the oral cavities of mice against Candida albicans infection in lactoferrin knockout (LFKO(-/-)) mice was compared to wild-type (WT) mice. We also aim to determine the protective role of hLF in LFKO(-/-) mice. Antibiotic-treated immunosuppressed mice were inoculated with C. albicans (or sham infection) by oral swab and evaluated for the severity of infection after 7 days of infection. To determine the protective role of hLF, we added 0·3% solution of hLF to the drinking water given to some of the mice. CFU count, scoring of lesions and microscopic observations were carried out to determine the severity of infection. LFKO(-/-) I mice showed a 2 log (P = 0·001) higher CFUs of C. albicans in the oral cavity compared to the WT mice infected with C. albicans (WTI). LFKO(-/-) I mice given hLF had a 3 log (P = 0·001) reduction in CFUs in the oral cavity compared to untreated LFKO(-/-) I mice. The severity of infection, observed by light microscopy, revealed that the tongue of the LFKO(-/-) I mice showed more white patches compared to WTI and LFKO(-/-) I + hLF mice. Scanning electron microscopic observations revealed that more filiform papillae were destroyed in LFKO(-/-) I mice when compared to WTI or LFKO(-/-) I + hLF mice. Human LF is important in protecting mice from oral C. albicans infection. Administered hLF may be used to prevent C. albicans infection. Human LF, a multifunctional iron-binding glycoprotein can be used as a therapeutic active ingredient in oral healthcare products against C. albicans. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. A New Method for Optimal Regularization Parameter Determination in the Inverse Problem of Load Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the regularization method in the inverse problem of load identification, a new method for determining the optimal regularization parameter is proposed. Firstly, quotient function (QF is defined by utilizing the regularization parameter as a variable based on the least squares solution of the minimization problem. Secondly, the quotient function method (QFM is proposed to select the optimal regularization parameter based on the quadratic programming theory. For employing the QFM, the characteristics of the values of QF with respect to the different regularization parameters are taken into consideration. Finally, numerical and experimental examples are utilized to validate the performance of the QFM. Furthermore, the Generalized Cross-Validation (GCV method and the L-curve method are taken as the comparison methods. The results indicate that the proposed QFM is adaptive to different measuring points, noise levels, and types of dynamic load.

  7. Determination of performance parameters of vertical axis wind turbines in wind tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Van Bang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the determination of the performance parameters of a small vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT, which operate by the utilization of drag forces acting on the blades of the turbine. The performance was evaluated by investigating the electrical power output and torque moment of the wind machine. Measurements were performed on the full-scale model and the experimental data are assessed and compared to other types of wind turbines, with respect to its purpose.

  8. Steady And Unsteady Lumped-Parameter Models For Determination of Groundwater Residence Time Distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezyurt, N.N.

    2002-01-01

    Groundwater's residence time distribution is an important information to identify the transport mechanism in aquifer systems. In the absence or scarcity of geometric, hydraulic and geohydrologic data needed to describe a flow system, lumped parameter models, that handle the flow system as a whole, exist as an alternative to determine the residence time distribution. Lumped parametre models comprise of idealized models of piston and well-mixed flow and their combinations. Aquifer properties such as, dead volume and by-pass flow can also be included in these models. With the aid of these models, conceptual aquifer models can be tested and residence time distribution of groundwater can be determined

  9. Determination of spatially dependent diffusion parameters in bovine bone using Kalman filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokry, Abdallah; Ståhle, Per; Svensson, Ingrid

    2015-11-07

    Although many studies have been made for homogenous constant diffusion, bone is an inhomogeneous material. It has been suggested that bone porosity decreases from the inner boundaries to the outer boundaries of the long bones. The diffusivity of substances in the bone matrix is believed to increase as the bone porosity increases. In this study, an experimental set up is used where bovine bone samples, saturated with potassium chloride (KCl), were put into distilled water and the conductivity of the water was followed. Chloride ions in the bone samples escaped out in the water through diffusion and the increase of the conductivity was measured. A one-dimensional, spatially dependent mathematical model describing the diffusion process is used. The diffusion parameters in the model are determined using a Kalman filter technique. The parameters for spatially dependent at endosteal and periosteal surfaces are found to be (12.8 ± 4.7) × 10(-11) and (5 ± 3.5) × 10(-11)m(2)/s respectively. The mathematical model function using the obtained diffusion parameters fits very well with the experimental data with mean square error varies from 0.06 × 10(-6) to 0.183 × 10(-6) (μS/m)(2). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ionospheric turbulence from ground-based and satellite VLF/LF transmitter signal observations for the Simushir earthquake (November 15, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Francesco Biagi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Signals from very low frequency (VLF/ low frequency (LF transmitters recorded on the ground station at Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and on board the French DEMETER satellite were analyzed for the Simushir earthquake (M 8.3; November 15, 2006. The period of analysis was from October 1, 2006, to January 31, 2007. The ground and satellite data were processed by a method based on the difference between the real signal at night-time and the model signal. The model for the ground observations was the monthly averaged signal amplitudes and phases, as calculated for the quiet days of every month. For the satellite data, a two-dimensional model of the signal distribution over the selected area was constructed. Preseismic effects were found several days before the earthquake, in both the ground and satellite observations.

     

  11. Determination of Water Quality Parameters in Sivas - Kurugöl Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem Mutlu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Kurugöl Lake; Sivas province Hafik county Kurugöl village located within the boundaries of Sivas province, 54 km, Hafik the town 24 miles away, an area of 8.9 ha altitude of 1362 m, an average depth of 3.4 - 4 m with gypsum plateau on the bottom of the boiling water along with rainfall and snowmelt with the lake is fed naturally. Kurugöl (Hafik - Sivas waters of Lake of the physical and chemical properties during the year changes occurring determining water quality characteristics to reveal the pollution levels are determined, living life in terms of the availability of the detection, water pollution and control regulations by the lake water classification and fishing activities, compliance with were identified. The inland lake in Kurugöl (SKKY according to the classification of water resources in accordance with the parameters measured I-III water quality varies from class.

  12. Global variables and impact parameter determination in nucleus-nucleus collisions below 100 MeV/u

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, J.; Cussol, D.; Bizard, G.; Brou, R.; Louvel, M.; Patry, J.P.; Regimbart, R.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Sullivan, J.P.; Tamain, B.; Cassagnou, Y.; Legrain, R.; Rosato, E.; Hagel, K.; Jin, G.M.; Crema, E.

    1990-03-01

    Several global variables are tested for determining the impact parameter in 4π measurements of charged products. For the system Ar+Al from 25 to 85 MeV/u, simulated reactions are used to study the correlation between the real impact parameter value and the experimentally determined one. Even with a perfect detector, the total multiplicity and the mid-rapidity charge give a poor correlation. Filtering through the acceptance of an actual detector (Mur+Tonneau at GANIL) provides a poor correlation with the total charge, and an acceptable one with the total perpendicular momentum. The average (mass weighted) parallel velocity V gives the best correlation and is less sensitive to the incident energy and to the mechanisms used in the simulation. Measurements extending to very forward angles are needed to accurately sort events by impact parameter. Real data are used to study the variation of other global variables versus V: they exhibit the expected average trend, with broad fluctuations. The excentricity and flow angle allow the evolution of central reactions with the incident energy to be followed. The proportion of relative motion transformed into energy perpendicular to the beam direction decreases when the incident energy increases; its absolute value, however, doubles from 25 to 65 MeV/u. In experimental studies where good separation between participant (pre-equilibrium) and spectator (equilibrium) particles is wanted in addition to good impact parameter sorting, the projectile mass should be in the range 1.2 - 2.5 times the target mass

  13. Application of the exact distribution pjk in the determination of kinetic parameters in a reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcala Ruiz, F.

    1982-01-01

    In this report one distribution of neutron counts obtained by a detector placed in a reactor is studied in order to be used in the determination of reactor kinetic parameters such as β/Λ and reactivities. The parameters accuracy from this new method is compared with the Feynman and Mogilner method, based too in Reactor Neutron Noise Analysis. These three methods have been applied to JEN-2 reactor and the better accuracy and faster collection of experimental data give some interest to the new method which only requires a good footing code. (Author) 68 refs

  14. Determination of kinetic parameters for 123-I thyroid uptake in healthy Japanese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuhara, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Kazuya

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the kinetic parameters for iodide thyroid accumulation in Japanese today with previously reported values. We determined the thyroid uptake of 123-I at 24 hours after the oral administration in healthy male Japanese without any diet restriction. The mean value was 16.1±5.4%, which was similar or rather lower than those previously reported in Japan (1958-1972). Kinetic model analysis was conducted to obtain the clearance for thyroid uptake from the blood circulation. The thyroid uptake clearance of 123-I was 0.540±0.073 ml/min, which was almost similar to those reported previously. There is no obvious difference in the thyroid uptake for 24 hours, and kinetic parameters in healthy Japanese for these 50 years. The fraction of distributed to the thyroid gland is lower than the ICRP reference man, and such difference must be taken into consideration to estimate the radiation exposure upon Fukushima accident in Japan.

  15. VARIAÇÃO BIOMÉTRICA DE DIÁSPOROS DE BURITI (Mauritia flexuosa L.f. – ARECACEAE EM VEREDAS EM DIFERENTES ESTÁGIOS DE CONSERVAÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano dos Santos Matos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ‘Veredas’ (palm swamps are phytophysiognomies of the ‘Cerrado’ biome, where the palm tree Mauritia flexuosa Lf. - buriti predominates on the tree layer; this species is considered the key resource for many animals, that use it as shelter and source of food, and also by the man who uses their leaves and fruits as raw material and food. Although, they occur in environments protected by the environmental legislation, human actions have affected the populations of ‘buritis’, by means of the decrease of individuals caused by deforestation, siltation and drainage of these areas. The objective of this study was to evaluate the morphometric parameters of fruits and seeds of Mauritia flexuosa from six different ‘veredas’ at different conservation stages, located in the Environmental Protection Area of ‘Pandeiros’ River (north of Minas Gerais state. In total, 1,800 fruits and seeds were sampled, they were measured in length, width and thickness and, after that, they were weighed. To detect differences in morphometric measurements of fruits and seeds among the sampling areas, the analysis of variance was done. There were differences in morphometric measurements between the studied areas, in which 87.5% of the highest averages occurred in areas with the slightest anthropic interventions. This fact is possibly related to the impacts occurred, besides the genetic variations that may fall upon the individuals.

  16. In vitro and in vivo cytotoxic activity of human lactoferricin derived antitumor peptide R-DIM-P-LF11-334 on human malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Sabrina; Rinner, Beate; Schaider, Helmut; Liegl-Atzwanger, Bernadette; Meditz, Katharina; Preishuber-Pflügl, Julia; Grissenberger, Sarah; Lohner, Karl; Zweytick, Dagmar

    2017-09-22

    Di-peptides derived from the human host defense peptide lactoferricin were previously described to specifically interact with the negatively charged lipid phosphatidylserine exposed by cancer cells. In this study one further derivative, namely R-DIM-P-LF11-334 is shown to exhibit even increased cancer toxicity in vitro and in vivo while non-neoplastic cells are not harmed. In liposomal model systems composed of phosphatidylserine mimicking cancerous and phosphatidylcholine mimicking non-cancerous membranes the specific interaction with the cancer marker PS was confirmed by specific induction of membrane perturbation and permeabilization in presence of the peptide. In vitro studies with cell lines of human malignant melanoma, such as A375, or primary cells of human melanoma metastases to the brain, as MUG Mel1, and non-neoplastic human dermal fibroblasts NHDF revealed high cytotoxic effect of R-DIM-P-LF11-334 on melanoma cells of A375 and MUG Mel1, whereas only minor effect on the dermal fibroblasts NHDF was observed, yielding an about 20-fold killing-specificity for A375 and MUG-Mel1. The LC 50 values for melanoma A375 and MUG Mel1 were about 10 μM. Analysis of secondary structure of the peptide revealed an increase in the proportion of β-sheets exclusively in presence of the cancer mimic. Stability studies further indicated a potential adequate stability in blood or under stringent conditions. Importantly the cytotoxic effect on cancer cells was also proven in vivo in mouse xenografts of human melanoma, where peptide treatment induced strong tumor regression and in average a tumor area reduction of 85% compared to tumors of control mice without peptide treatment.

  17. Determination of discharge parameters via OES at the Linac4 H{sup −} ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briefi, S., E-mail: stefan.briefi@physik.uni-augsburg.de [AG Experimentelle Plasmaphysik, Institut für Physik, Universität Augsburg, 86135 Augsburg (Germany); Fink, D.; Mattei, S.; Lettry, J. [Linac4 Ion Source Team, CERN-ABP, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Fantz, U. [AG Experimentelle Plasmaphysik, Institut für Physik, Universität Augsburg, 86135 Augsburg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) measurements of the atomic Balmer series and the molecular Fulcher transition have been carried out at the Linac4 ion source in order to determine plasma parameters. As the spectroscopic system was only relatively calibrated, the data evaluation only yielded rough estimates of the plasma parameters (T{sub e} ≈ 1.2 eV, n{sub e} ≈ 1 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}, and n{sub H}/n{sub H{sub 2}} ≈ 0.5 at standard operational parameters). The analysis of the Fulcher transition revealed a non-thermal “hockey-stick” rotational population of the hydrogen molecules. At varying RF power, the measurements at the on-axis line of sight (LOS) showed a peak in the rotational temperatures between 25 and 40 kW of RF power, whereas a steady decrease with power was observed at a tilted LOS, indicating the presence of strong plasma parameter gradients.

  18. Determination of gravity wave parameters in the airglow combining photometer and imager data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyassor, Prosper K.; Arlen Buriti, Ricardo; Paulino, Igo; Medeiros, Amauri F.; Takahashi, Hisao; Wrasse, Cristiano M.; Gobbi, Delano

    2018-05-01

    Mesospheric airglow measurements of two or three layers were used to characterize both vertical and horizontal parameters of gravity waves. The data set was acquired coincidentally from a multi-channel filter (Multi-3) photometer and an all-sky imager located at São João do Cariri (7.4° S, 36.5° W) in the equatorial region from 2001 to 2007. Using a least-square fitting and wavelet analysis technique, the phase and amplitude of each observed wave were determined, as well as the amplitude growth. Using the dispersion relation of gravity waves, the vertical and horizontal wavelengths were estimated and compared to the horizontal wavelength obtained from the keogram analysis of the images observed by an all-sky imager. The results show that both horizontal and vertical wavelengths, obtained from the dispersion relation and keogram analysis, agree very well for the waves observed on the nights of 14 October and 18 December 2006. The determined parameters showed that the observed wave on the night of 18 December 2006 had a period of ˜ 43.8 ± 2.19 min, with the horizontal wavelength of 235.66 ± 11.78 km having a downward phase propagation, whereas that of 14 October 2006 propagated with a period of ˜ 36.00 ± 1.80 min with a horizontal wavelength of ˜ 195 ± 9.80 km, and with an upward phase propagation. The observation of a wave taken by a photometer and an all-sky imager allowed us to conclude that the same wave could be observed by both instruments, permitting the investigation of the two-dimensional wave parameter.

  19. Nuclear and Cytoplasmic Delivery of Lactoferrin in Glioma using Chitosan Nanoparticles: Cellular Location Dependent-Action of Lactoferrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammam, Salma N; Azzazy, Hassan M E; Lamprecht, Alf

    2018-05-23

    Lactoferrin (Lf) exerts anti-cancer effects on glioma, however, the exact mechanism remains unclear. Despite possessing a nuclear localization sequence (NLS), Lf was found to allocate only in the cytoplasm of glioma 261. Lf was therefore loaded into nuclear and cytoplasmic targeted nanoparticles (NPs) to determine whether nuclear delivery of Lf would enhance its anti-cancer effect. Upon treatment with 300 and 800 µg/mL Lf loaded chitosan NPs, nuclear targeted Lf-NPs showed 1.3 and 2.7 folds increase in cell viability, whereas cytoplasmic targeted Lf-NPs at 300 µg/mL decreased cell viability by 0.8 folds in comparison to free Lf and controls. Results suggest that the cytotoxicity of Lf on glioma is attributable to its cytoplasmic allocation. Nuclear delivery of Lf induced cell proliferation rather than cytotoxicity, indicating that the mode of action of Lf in glioma is cell location dependent. This calls for caution about the general use of Lf as an anti-cancer protein. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. An Approach to Determine the Weibull Parameters and Wind Power Analysis of Saint Martin’s Island, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Khandaker Dahirul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores wind speed distribution using Weibull probability distribution and Rayleigh distribution methods that are proven to provide accurate and efficient estimation of energy output in terms of wind energy conversion systems. Two parameters of Weibull (shape and scale parameters k and c respectively and scale parameter of Rayleigh distribution have been determined based on hourly time-series wind speed data recorded from October 2014 to October 2015 at Saint Martin’s island, Bangladesh. This research has been carried out to examine three numerical methods namely Graphical Method (GM, Empirical Method (EM, Energy Pattern Factor method (EPF to estimate Weibull parameters. Also, Rayleigh distribution method has been analyzed throughout the study. The results in the research revealed that the Graphical method followed by Empirical method and Energy Pattern Factor method were the most accurate and efficient way for determining the value of k and c to approximate wind speed distribution in terms of estimating power error. Rayleigh distribution gives the most power error in the research. Potential for wind energy development in Saint Martin’s island, Bangladesh as found from the data analysis has been explained in this paper.

  1. Modal parameter determination of a lightweight aerospace panel using laser Doppler vibrometer measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Kleverson C.; Domingues, Allan C.; Pereira, Pedro P. de S.; Carneiro, Sergio H.; de Morais, Marcus V. G.; Fabro, Adriano T.

    2016-06-01

    The experimental determination of modal parameters, i.e. natural frequencies, mode shapes and damping ratio, are key in characterizing the dynamic behaviour of structures. Typically, such parameters are obtained from dynamic measurements using one or a set of accelerometers, for response measurements, along with force transducers from an impact hammer or an electrodynamic actuator, i.e. a shaker. However, lightweight structures, commonly applied in the aerospace industry, can be significantly affected by the added mass from accelerometers. Therefore, non-contact measurement techniques, like Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV), are a more suitable approach in determining the dynamic characteristics of such structures. In this article, the procedures and results of a modal test for a honeycomb sandwich panel for aerospace applications are presented and discussed. The main objectives of the test are the identification of natural frequencies and mode shapes in order to validate a numerical model, as well as the identification of the damping characteristics of the panel. A validated numerical model will be necessary for future detailed response analysis of the satellite, including vibroacoustic investigations to account for acoustic excitations encountered during launching. The numerical model using homogenised material properties is updated to fit the experimental results and very good agreement between experimental and numerically obtained natural frequencies and mode shapes.

  2. Determining an Efficient Solvent Extraction Parameters for Re-Refining of Waste Lubricating Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ali Durrani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Re-refining of vehicle waste lubricating oil by solvent extraction is one of the efficient and cheapest methods. Three extracting solvents MEK (Methyl-Ethyl-Ketone, 1-butanol, 2-propanol were determined experimentally for their performance based on the parameters i.e. solvent type, solvent oil ratio and extraction temperature. From the experimental results it was observed the MEK performance was highest based on the lowest oil percent losses and highest sludge removal. Further, when temperature of extraction increased the oil losses percent also decreased. This is due to the solvent ability that dissolves the base oil in waste lubricating oil and determines the best SOR (Solvent Oil Ratio and extraction temperatures.

  3. Genetic algorithm approach to thin film optical parameters determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurecka, S.; Jureckova, M.; Muellerova, J.

    2003-01-01

    Optical parameters of thin film are important for several optical and optoelectronic applications. In this work the genetic algorithm proposed to solve optical parameters of thin film values. The experimental reflectance is modelled by the Forouhi - Bloomer dispersion relations. The refractive index, the extinction coefficient and the film thickness are the unknown parameters in this model. Genetic algorithm use probabilistic examination of promissing areas of the parameter space. It creates a population of solutions based on the reflectance model and then operates on the population to evolve the best solution by using selection, crossover and mutation operators on the population individuals. The implementation of genetic algorithm method and the experimental results are described too (Authors)

  4. Hartmann-Shack wave front measurements for real time determination of laser beam propagation parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, B.; Luebbecke, M.; Mann, K.

    2006-01-01

    The suitability of the Hartmann-Shack technique for the determination of the propagation parameters of a laser beam is faced against the well known caustic approach according to the ISO 11146 standard. A He-Ne laser (543 nm) was chosen as test beam, both in its fundamental mode as well as after intentional distortion, introducing a moderate amount of spherical aberration. Results are given for the most important beam parameters M 2 , divergence, and beam widths, indicating an agreement of better than 10% and for adapted beam diameter <5%. Furthermore, the theoretical background, pros and cons, as well as some features of the software implementation for the Hartmann-Shack sensor are briefly reviewed

  5. Standard test method for determining the effective elastic parameter for X-ray diffraction measurements of residual stress

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1998-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for experimentally determining the effective elastic parameter, Eeff, for the evaluation of residual and applied stresses by X-ray diffraction techniques. The effective elastic parameter relates macroscopic stress to the strain measured in a particular crystallographic direction in polycrystalline samples. Eeff should not be confused with E, the modulus of elasticity. Rather, it is nominally equivalent to E/(1 + ν) for the particular crystallographic direction, where ν is Poisson's ratio. The effective elastic parameter is influenced by elastic anisotropy and preferred orientation of the sample material. 1.2 This test method is applicable to all X-ray diffraction instruments intended for measurements of macroscopic residual stress that use measurements of the positions of the diffraction peaks in the high back-reflection region to determine changes in lattice spacing. 1.3 This test method is applicable to all X-ray diffraction techniques for residual stress measurem...

  6. Determining Representative Elementary Volume For Multiple Petrophysical Parameters using a Convex Hull Analysis of Digital Rock Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, S.; Gray, F.; Yang, J.; Crawshaw, J.; Boek, E.

    2016-12-01

    Advances in 3D pore-scale imaging and computational methods have allowed an exceptionally detailed quantitative and qualitative analysis of the fluid flow in complex porous media. A fundamental problem in pore-scale imaging and modelling is how to represent and model the range of scales encountered in porous media, starting from the smallest pore spaces. In this study, a novel method is presented for determining the representative elementary volume (REV) of a rock for several parameters simultaneously. We calculate the two main macroscopic petrophysical parameters, porosity and single-phase permeability, using micro CT imaging and Lattice Boltzmann (LB) simulations for 14 different porous media, including sandpacks, sandstones and carbonates. The concept of the `Convex Hull' is then applied to calculate the REV for both parameters simultaneously using a plot of the area of the convex hull as a function of the sub-volume, capturing the different scales of heterogeneity from the pore-scale imaging. The results also show that the area of the convex hull (for well-chosen parameters such as the log of the permeability and the porosity) decays exponentially with sub-sample size suggesting a computationally efficient way to determine the system size needed to calculate the parameters to high accuracy (small convex hull area). Finally we propose using a characteristic length such as the pore size to choose an efficient absolute voxel size for the numerical rock.

  7. Results of subionospheric radio LF monitoring prior to the Tokachi (M=8, Hokkaido, 25 September 2003 earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Shvets

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of simultaneous LF subionospheric monitoring over two different propagation paths prior to the very strong Tokachi earthquake (near the east coast of Hokkaido Island, 25 September 2003 of magnitude 8.3 are presented firstly. Nighttime amplitude fluctuations of the Japanese Time Standard Transmitter (JG2AS, 40kHz signal received at Moshiri (Japan, 142°E, 44°N and at Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski (Russia, 158°E, 53°N were analyzed. As a possible precursory signature we observed synchronous intensification of quasi periodical 16-day variations of the dispersion in the signals received at both observation stations before the earthquake. The strongest deviations observed as a rule were depletions of signal amplitude probably connected with increase of loss in the ionosphere by the enhancement of turbulence. This is due to dissipation of internal gravity waves (IGW at the lower ionosphere heights. A scheme for seismo-IGW-planetary waves (PW interconnection has been justified to explain the observed connection with strong earthquakes. It considers the seasonal variability in the signal.

  8. Applying data mining techniques to determine important parameters in chronic kidney disease and the relations of these parameters to each other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasebian, Shahram; Ghazisaeedi, Marjan; Langarizadeh, Mostafa; Mokhtaran, Mehrshad; Mahdavi-Mazdeh, Mitra; Javadian, Parisa

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) includes a wide range of pathophysiological processes which will be observed along with abnormal function of kidneys and progressive decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). According to the definition decreasing GFR must have been present for at least three months. CKD will eventually result in end-stage kidney disease. In this process different factors play role and finding the relations between effective parameters in this regard can help to prevent or slow progression of this disease. There are always a lot of data being collected from the patients' medical records. This huge array of data can be considered a valuable source for analyzing, exploring and discovering information. Objectives: Using the data mining techniques, the present study tries to specify the effective parameters and also aims to determine their relations with each other in Iranian patients with CKD. Material and Methods: The study population includes 31996 patients with CKD. First, all of the data is registered in the database. Then data mining tools were used to find the hidden rules and relationships between parameters in collected data. Results: After data cleaning based on CRISP-DM (Cross Industry Standard Process for Data Mining) methodology and running mining algorithms on the data in the database the relationships between the effective parameters was specified. Conclusion: This study was done using the data mining method pertaining to the effective factors on patients with CKD.

  9. Biological variation of platelet parameters determined by the Sysmex XN hematology analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buoro, Sabrina; Seghezzi, Michela; Manenti, Barbara; Pacioni, Aurelio; Carobene, Anna; Ceriotti, Ferruccio; Ottomano, Cosimo; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2017-07-01

    This study was aimed to define the short- and medium-term biological variation (BV) estimates, the index of individuality and the reference change value (RCV) of platelet count, platelet distribution width, mean platelet volume, platelet larger cell ratio, plateletcrit and immature platelet fraction. The study population consisted of 43 health subjects, who participated to the assessment of medium-term (21 subjects; blood sampling once a week for 5 consecutive weeks) and short-term (22 subjects; blood sampling once a day for 5 consecutive days) BV study, using Sysmex XN-module. Eight subjects were also scheduled to participate to both phases. The data were subject to outlier analysis prior to CV-ANOVA, to determine the BV estimates with the relative confidence intervals. The medium-term and short-term within-subject BV (CV I ) was comprised between 2.3 and 7.0% and 1.1-8.6%, whereas the medium-term and short-term between-subjects BV (CV G ) was comprised between 7.1 and 20.7% and 6.8-48.6%. The index of individuality and index of heterogeneity were always respectively 0.63 for all the parameters, in both arms of the study. The RCVs were similar for all parameters, in both arms of the study. This study allowed to define the BV estimates of many platelet parameters, some of them unavailable in literature. The kinetics of platelet turnover suggests the use of short-term BV data for calculating analytical goals and RCV. The correct clinical interpretation of platelet parameters also necessitates that each laboratory estimates local RCV values. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Determination of trapping parameters and the chemical diffusion coefficient from hydrogen permeation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, J.; Mori, G.; Prethaler, A.; Fischer, F.D.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A modeling study for diffusion of hydrogen with traps is presented. • Introduction of a new chemical diffusion coefficient. • Density of traps and average depth of traps can be determined. • Lattice diffusion and sub-surface concentration of atomic hydrogen can be determined. - Abstract: An improved diffusion theory accounting for trapping effects is applied to evaluation of hydrogen permeation experiments performed for pure iron and pearlitic and martensitic steels. The trapping parameters as molar volume and depth of traps are determined by fitting experiments by simulations based on the theory. The concentration-dependent chemical diffusion coefficient of hydrogen is extracted indicating that the trapping effect on diffusion in pure iron and pearlitic steel is negligible. However, it is significant for martensitic steel, for which the chemical diffusion coefficient cannot be considered as concentration-independent as it is established in current standards

  11. A simple conductometric method for trace level determination of brilliant green in water based on β-cyclodextrin and silver nitrate and determination of their thermodynamic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Mohammad Zadeh Kakhki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A gravimetric and complexometric titration method based on conductometric technique is presented for the quantitative determination of brilliant green (BG in water. The equilibrium constants and the thermodynamic parameters for the complex formation of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD with brilliant green (BG and precipitation of silver nitrate with BG have been determined by conductivity measurements in water. The results suggest that stable 1:1 complex is formed between BG and β-cyclodextrin and the thermodynamic parameters (ΔHc°,ΔSc° for this complexation reaction have been determined from temperature dependence of the stability constant using the van’t Hoff plots. Based on the obtained results, the conductometric method for the determination of BG in the presence of β-CD at 25 °C was developed in the range of 10−8–10−3 molL−1 and with AgNO3 is 10−3–10−5 molL−1.

  12. Effect of spontaneous saliva swallowing on short-term heart rate variability (HRV) and reliability of HRV analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Metin; Doma, Serian

    2017-09-26

    The effects of effortful swallowing and solid meal ingestions on heart rate variability (HRV) have been examined previously. The effects of spontaneous saliva swallowing on short-term HRV and reliability of HRV analysis have not been studied before. The effect of saliva swallowing on HRV analyses parameters [meanRRI, SDNN (standard deviation of normal-to-normal), LF (low frequency), HF (high frequency) powers, LH/HF] and the reliability of LF and HF powers were investigated by frequency, time-frequency and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) analyses. Electrocardiogram and swallowing signal that obtained from an electronic stethoscope placed on the necks of subjects were recorded simultaneously from 30 healthy and young volunteers in sitting position during 15 min. Spontaneous swallowing has been shown to significantly alter some HRV parameters (SDNN, LF power and LF/HF ratio). Time-frequency analysis results showed that the contribution of saliva swallowing to LF (1-58%) and HF (2-42%) powers could change significantly depending on the number of swallowing. The ICC of the LF and HF powers for the successive 5-min signal segments were found 0·89, 0·92, respectively. These values decreased to 0·73 and 0·90 in the subjects with more swallowing rate. When the analyses were made for 2-min signal periods, these values decreased to 0·63 and 0·67. We concluded that spontaneous saliva swallowing can change HRV parameters. We have also seen that changes in swallowing rate and use of short signal segments may reduce the reliability of HRV analyses. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Experimental determination of mechanical parameters in sensorless ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V S S PAVAN KUMAR HARI

    pulse width modulation (PWM) selected. The three-phase .... and the simulation and experimental results are presented. ... between 0 and Ts due to the process of PWM. Hence, the .... MATLAB SIMULINK with the machine parameters in.

  14. Application of extreme value distribution function in the determination of standard meteorological parameters for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Haimei; Liu Xinjian; Qiu Lin; Li Fengju

    2014-01-01

    Based on the meteorological data from weather stations around several domestic nuclear power plants, the statistical results of extreme minimum temperatures, minimum. central pressures of tropical cyclones and some other parameters are calculated using extreme value I distribution function (EV- I), generalized extreme value distribution function (GEV) and generalized Pareto distribution function (GP), respectively. The influence of different distribution functions and parameter solution methods on the statistical results of extreme values is investigated. Results indicate that generalized extreme value function has better applicability than the other two distribution functions in the determination of standard meteorological parameters for nuclear power plants. (authors)

  15. Novel cell parameter determination of a twisted-nematic liquid crystal display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xia; Jing Hai; Fu Guozhu

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a novel method is proposed to determine the cell parameters including the twist angle, optic retardation and rubbing direction of twisted-nematic liquid crystal displays (TNLCD) by rotating the TNLCD. It is a single-wavelength method. Because using subtraction equation of transmittance as curve fitting equation, the influence of the light from environment and the absorption by polarizer, the sample of TNLCD and analyser on the transmittance is eliminated. Accurate results can also be obtained in imperfect darkness. By large numbers of experiments, we found that not only the experimental setup is quite simple and can be easily adopted to be carried out, but also the results are accurate

  16. Determination of thermodynamic parameters of Cr(VI) adsorption from aqueous solution onto Agave lechuguilla biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero-Gonzalez, J. [Environmental Science and Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Peralta-Videa, J.R. [Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Rodriguez, E. [Environmental Science and Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Ramirez, S.L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Gardea-Torresdey, J.L. [Environmental Science and Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States) and Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States)]. E-mail: jgardea@utep.edu

    2005-04-15

    The temperature dependence of the Cr(VI) bioadsorption and its possible reduction to Cr(III) by Agave lechuguilla biomass were studied. The experimental data obtained in batch experiments at different temperatures were fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms to obtain the characteristic parameters of each model. The adsorption equilibrium data fitted well with the Freundlich model. The average model parameters calculated from Freundlich's isotherms (adsorption capacity K{sub F} = 4 . 10{sup -2} mol . g{sup -1} and an average adsorption intensity value n = 13.07) showed that A. lechuguilla can be considered as an effective biomaterial for Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solution. Thermodynamic parameters ({delta}G{sup .}, {delta}H{sup .}, and {delta}S{sup .}) for Cr(VI) adsorption determined in the temperature range from (283 to 313) K suggest that a portion of Cr(VI) may be bound to functional groups on the surface of the adsorbent and then reduced to Cr(III). Additionally, the parameters of the Dubinin-Radushkevick equation indicated that the sorption of chromium species onto lechuguilla biomass mainly proceeds through binding surface functional groups.

  17. Three-dimensional FEM model of FBGs in PANDA fibers with experimentally determined model parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Markus; Hopf, Barbara; Koch, Alexander W.; Roths, Johannes

    2017-04-01

    A 3D-FEM model has been developed to improve the understanding of multi-parameter sensing with Bragg gratings in attached or embedded polarization maintaining fibers. The material properties of the fiber, especially Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of the fiber's stress applying parts, are crucial for accurate simulations, but are usually not provided by the manufacturers. A methodology is presented to determine the unknown parameters by using experimental characterizations of the fiber and iterative FEM simulations. The resulting 3D-Model is capable of describing the change in birefringence of the free fiber when exposed to longitudinal strain. In future studies the 3D-FEM model will be employed to study the interaction of PANDA fibers with the surrounding materials in which they are embedded.

  18. Assessing the accuracy of subject-specific, muscle-model parameters determined by optimizing to match isometric strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSmitt, Holly J; Domire, Zachary J

    2016-12-01

    Biomechanical models are sensitive to the choice of model parameters. Therefore, determination of accurate subject specific model parameters is important. One approach to generate these parameters is to optimize the values such that the model output will match experimentally measured strength curves. This approach is attractive as it is inexpensive and should provide an excellent match to experimentally measured strength. However, given the problem of muscle redundancy, it is not clear that this approach generates accurate individual muscle forces. The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate this approach using simulated data to enable a direct comparison. It is hypothesized that the optimization approach will be able to recreate accurate muscle model parameters when information from measurable parameters is given. A model of isometric knee extension was developed to simulate a strength curve across a range of knee angles. In order to realistically recreate experimentally measured strength, random noise was added to the modeled strength. Parameters were solved for using a genetic search algorithm. When noise was added to the measurements the strength curve was reasonably recreated. However, the individual muscle model parameters and force curves were far less accurate. Based upon this examination, it is clear that very different sets of model parameters can recreate similar strength curves. Therefore, experimental variation in strength measurements has a significant influence on the results. Given the difficulty in accurately recreating individual muscle parameters, it may be more appropriate to perform simulations with lumped actuators representing similar muscles.

  19. A simple method for determining the lattice parameter and chemical composition in ternary bcc-Fe rich nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moya, Javier A.; Gamarra Caramella, Soledad; Marta, Leonardo J.; Berejnoi, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A method for determining composition in ternary nanocrystals is presented. • X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy data were employed. • We perform theoretical charts for lattice parameter of Fe-rich ternary alloys. • A linear relationship in lattice parameter for binary alloys is evaluated. • A parabolic relationship is proposed for the Fe–Co–Si alloy. - Abstract: Charts containing lattice parameters of Fe 1−x (M,N) x ternary systems with M and N = Si, Al, Ge or Co, and 0 ⩽ x ⩽ ∼0.3, were developed by implementing a linear relationship between the respective binary alloys with the same solute content of the ternary one. Charts were validated with experimental data obtained from literature. For the Fe–Co–Si system, the linear relationship does not fit the experimental data. For the other systems (except the Fe–Co–Ge one where no experimental data was found), the lineal relationship constitute a very good approximation. Using these charts and the lattice parameter data obtained from X-ray diffraction technique combining with the solute content data obtained from Mössbauer spectroscopy technique it is possible to determine the chemical composition of nanograins in soft magnetic nanocomposite materials and some examples are provided

  20. A simple method for determining the lattice parameter and chemical composition in ternary bcc-Fe rich nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moya, Javier A., E-mail: jmoya.fi.uba@gmail.com [Grupo Interdisciplinario en Materiales-IESIING, Universidad Católica de Salta, INTECIN UBA-CONICET, Salta (Argentina); Gamarra Caramella, Soledad; Marta, Leonardo J. [Grupo Interdisciplinario en Materiales-IESIING, Universidad Católica de Salta, INTECIN UBA-CONICET, Salta (Argentina); Berejnoi, Carlos [Universidad Nacional de Salta, Facultad de Ingeniería, Salta (Argentina)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • A method for determining composition in ternary nanocrystals is presented. • X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy data were employed. • We perform theoretical charts for lattice parameter of Fe-rich ternary alloys. • A linear relationship in lattice parameter for binary alloys is evaluated. • A parabolic relationship is proposed for the Fe–Co–Si alloy. - Abstract: Charts containing lattice parameters of Fe{sub 1−x}(M,N){sub x} ternary systems with M and N = Si, Al, Ge or Co, and 0 ⩽ x ⩽ ∼0.3, were developed by implementing a linear relationship between the respective binary alloys with the same solute content of the ternary one. Charts were validated with experimental data obtained from literature. For the Fe–Co–Si system, the linear relationship does not fit the experimental data. For the other systems (except the Fe–Co–Ge one where no experimental data was found), the lineal relationship constitute a very good approximation. Using these charts and the lattice parameter data obtained from X-ray diffraction technique combining with the solute content data obtained from Mössbauer spectroscopy technique it is possible to determine the chemical composition of nanograins in soft magnetic nanocomposite materials and some examples are provided.

  1. Rapid integrated clinical survey to determine prevalence and co-distribution patterns of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis in a Loa loa co-endemic area: The Angolan experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Brito

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Angola is a priority country for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF elimination, however, the co-distribution of the filarial parasite Loa loa (loiasis is a significant impediment, due to the risk of severe adverse events (SAEs associated with ivermectin used in mass drug administration (MDA campaigns. Angola has a high risk loiasis zone identified in Bengo Province where alternative interventions may need to be implemented; however, the presence and geographical overlap of the three filarial infections/diseases are not well defined. Therefore, this study conducted a rapid integrated filarial mapping survey based on readily identifiable clinical conditions of each disease in this risk zone to help determine prevalence and co-distribution patterns in a timely manner with limited resources. In total, 2007 individuals from 29 communities in five provincial municipalities were surveyed. Community prevalence estimates were determined by the rapid assessment procedure for loiasis (RAPLOA and rapid epidemiological mapping of onchocerciasis (REMO together with two questions on LF clinical manifestations (presence of lymphoedema, hydrocoele. Overall low levels of endemicity, with different overlapping distributions were found. Loiasis was found in 18 communities with a prevalence of 2.0% (31/1571, which contrasted to previous results defining the area as a high risk zone. Onchocerciasis prevalence was 5.3% (49/922 in eight communities, and LF prevalence was 0.4% for lymphoedema (8/2007 and 2.6% for hydrocoeles (20/761 males in seven and 12 communities respectively. The clinical mapping survey method helped to highlight that all three filarial infections are present in this zone of Bengo Province. However, the significant difference in loiasis prevalence found between the past and this current survey suggests that further studies including serological and parasitological confirmation are required. This will help determine levels

  2. Determination of the T- and CPT-violation parameters in the neutral-kaon system using the Bell-Steinberger relation and data from CPLEAR

    CERN Document Server

    Apostolakis, Alcibiades J; Backenstoss, Gerhard; Bargassa, P; Behnke, O; Benelli, A; Bertin, V; Blanc, F; Bloch, P; Carlson, P J; Carroll, M; Cawley, E; Chertok, M B; Danielsson, M; Dejardin, M; Derré, J; Ealet, A; Eleftheriadis, C; Fetscher, W; Fidecaro, Maria; Filipcic, A; Francis, D; Fry, J; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; Gerber, H J; Go, A; Haselden, A; Hayman, P J; Henry-Coüannier, F; Hollander, R W; Jon-And, K; Kettle, P R; Kokkas, P; Kreuger, R; Le Gac, R; Leimgruber, F; Mandic, I; Manthos, N; Marel, Gérard; Mikuz, M; Miller, J; Montanet, François; Müller, A; Nakada, Tatsuya; Pagels, B; Papadopoulos, I M; Pavlopoulos, P; Polivka, G; Rickenbach, R; Roberts, B L; Sakelliou, L; Ruf, T; Schäfer, M; Schaller, L A; Schietinger, T; Schopper, A; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thibault, C; Touchard, F; Touramanis, C; van Eijk, C W E; Vlachos, S; Weber, P; Wigger, O; Wolter, M; Zavrtanik, D; Zimmerman, D

    1999-01-01

    Data from the CPLEAR experiment, together with the most recent world averages for some of the neutral-kaon parameters, were constrained with the Bell--Steinberger (or unitarity) relation, allowing the T-violation parameter $\\ree$ and the CPT-violation parameter $\\imd$ of the neutral-kaon mixing matrix to be determined with an increased accuracy: $\\ree = (164.9 \\pm 2.5)\\times 10^{-5}$, $\\imd = ( 2.4 \\pm 5.0)\\times 10^{-5}$. Moreover, the constraint allows the CPT-violation parameter for the neutral-kaon semileptonic decays, $\\rey$, to be determined for the first time. The $\\Delta S \

  3. Electrodialytic desalination of brackish water: determination of optimal experimental parameters using full factorial design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmar, Soumaya; Helali, Nawel; Boubakri, Ali; Sayadi, Ilhem Ben Salah; Tlili, Mohamed; Amor, Mohamed Ben

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this work is to study the desalination of brackish water by electrodialysis (ED). A two level-three factor (23) full factorial design methodology was used to investigate the influence of different physicochemical parameters on the demineralization rate (DR) and the specific power consumption (SPC). Statistical design determines factors which have the important effects on ED performance and studies all interactions between the considered parameters. Three significant factors were used including applied potential, salt concentration and flow rate. The experimental results and statistical analysis show that applied potential and salt concentration are the main effect for DR as well as for SPC. The effect of interaction between applied potential and salt concentration was observed for SPC. A maximum value of 82.24% was obtained for DR under optimum conditions and the best value of SPC obtained was 5.64 Wh L-1. Empirical regression models were also obtained and used to predict the DR and the SPC profiles with satisfactory results. The process was applied for the treatment of real brackish water using the optimal parameters.

  4. Determination of Optimal Parameters for Diffusion Bonding of Semi-Solid Casting Aluminium Alloy by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaewploy Somsak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid state welding techniques available are prone to gas porosity problems. To avoid this solid state bonding is usually an alternative of preference. Among solid state bonding techniques, diffusion bonding is often employed in aluminium alloy automotive parts welding in order to enhance their mechanical properties. However, there has been no standard procedure nor has there been any definitive criterion for judicious welding parameters setting. It is thus a matter of importance to find the set of optimal parameters for effective diffusion bonding. This work proposes the use of response surface methodology in determining such a set of optimal parameters. Response surface methodology is more efficient in dealing with complex process compared with other techniques available. There are two variations of response surface methodology. The one adopted in this work is the central composite design approach. This is because when the initial upper and lower bounds of the desired parameters are exceeded the central composite design approach is still capable of yielding the optimal values of the parameters that appear to be out of the initially preset range. Results from the experiments show that the pressing pressure and the holding time affect the tensile strength of jointing. The data obtained from the experiment fits well to a quadratic equation with high coefficient of determination (R2 = 94.21%. It is found that the optimal parameters in the process of jointing semi-solid casting aluminium alloy by using diffusion bonding are the pressing pressure of 2.06 MPa and 214 minutes of the holding time in order to achieve the highest tensile strength of 142.65 MPa

  5. Determination of Critical Parameters Based on the Intensity of Transmitted Light Around Gas-Liquid Interface: Critical Parameters of CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Masaki; Katano, Hiroaki; Sato, Haruki

    2014-05-01

    A precise determination of the critical temperature and density for technically important fluids would be possible on the basis of the digital image for the visual observation of the phase boundary in the vicinity of the critical point since the sensitivity and resolution are higher than those of naked eyes. In addition, the digital image can avoid the personal uncertainty of an observer. A strong density gradient occurs in a sample cell at the critical point due to gravity. It was carefully assessed to determine the critical density, where the density profile in the sample cell can be observed from the luminance profile of a digital image. The density-gradient profile becomes symmetric at the critical point. One of the best fluids, whose thermodynamic properties have been measured with the highest reliability among technically important fluids, would be carbon dioxide. In order to confirm the reliability of the proposed method, the critical temperature and density of carbon dioxide were determined using the digital image. The critical temperature and density values of carbon dioxide are ( and ( kg m, respectively. The critical temperature and density values agree with the existing best values within estimated uncertainties. The reliability of the method was confirmed. The critical pressure, 7.3795 MPa, corresponding to the determined critical temperature of 304.143 K is also proposed. A new set of parameters for the vapor-pressure equation is also provided.

  6. Determination of technical and economic parameters of an ionic transport membrane air separation unit working in a supercritical power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotowicz Janusz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an air separation unit was analyzed. The unit consisted of: an ionic transport membrane contained in a four-end type module, an air compressor, an expander fed by gas that remains after oxygen separation and heat exchangers which heat the air and recirculated flue gas to the membrane operating temperature (850 °C. The air separation unit works in a power plant with electrical power equal to 600 MW. This power plant additionally consists of: an oxy-type pulverized-fuel boiler, a steam turbine unit and a carbon dioxide capture unit. Life steam parameters are 30 MPa/650 °C and reheated steam parameters are 6 MPa/670 °C. The listed units were analyzed. For constant electrical power of the power plant technical parameters of the air separation unit for two oxygen recovery rate (65% and 95% were determined. One of such parameters is ionic membrane surface area. In this paper the formulated equation is presented. The remaining technical parameters of the air separation unit are, among others: heat exchange surface area, power of the air compressor, power of the expander and auxiliary power. Using the listed quantities, the economic parameters, such as costs of air separation unit and of individual components were determined. These quantities allowed to determine investment costs of construction of the air separation unit. In addition, they were compared with investment costs for the entire oxy-type power plant.

  7. Influence of Norton's law parameters in the determination of stresses and deformation in materials undergo creep phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, L.; Freire, J.L.; Monteiro, E.; Miranda, P.E.V. de

    1980-01-01

    Experimental results obtained from creep essays for AISI 316 stainless-steel in different temperatures are presented. These results are rounded off by Norton's law for which parameters A e n are determined. It is studied how variations of Norton's law parameters affect the state of stresses and deformation in thin and thick pipes subjected, to internal pressure and constant temperature. It is concluded that for the cases studied the stresses are little affected by the variations of the parameter n and it is difficult too anticipate degrees of the accumulated deformation since the uncertainties or variations in A and n introduce serious errors in the calculation of the deformation velocity [pt

  8. Determination of nutritional parameters of yoghurts by FT Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Tomasz; Baranowska, Maria; Mazurek, Sylwester; Szostak, Roman

    2018-05-01

    FT-Raman quantitative analysis of nutritional parameters of yoghurts was performed with the help of partial least squares models. The relative standard errors of prediction for fat, lactose and protein determination in the quantified commercial samples equalled to 3.9, 3.2 and 3.6%, respectively. Models based on attenuated total reflectance spectra of the liquid yoghurt samples and of dried yoghurt films collected with the single reflection diamond accessory showed relative standard errors of prediction values of 1.6-5.0% and 2.7-5.2%, respectively, for the analysed components. Despite a relatively low signal-to-noise ratio in the obtained spectra, Raman spectroscopy, combined with chemometrics, constitutes a fast and powerful tool for macronutrients quantification in yoghurts. Errors received for attenuated total reflectance method were found to be relatively higher than those for Raman spectroscopy due to inhomogeneity of the analysed samples.

  9. Determination of lattice parameters, strain state and composition in semipolar III-nitrides using high resolution X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frentrup, Martin, E-mail: frentrup@physik.tu-berlin.de; Wernicke, Tim; Stellmach, Joachim; Kneissl, Michael [Institute of Solid State Physics, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Hatui, Nirupam; Bhattacharya, Arnab [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India)

    2013-12-07

    In group-III-nitride heterostructures with semipolar or nonpolar crystal orientation, anisotropic lattice and thermal mismatch with the buffer or substrate lead to a complex distortion of the unit cells, e.g., by shearing of the lattice. This makes an accurate determination of lattice parameters, composition, and strain state under assumption of the hexagonal symmetry impossible. In this work, we present a procedure to accurately determine the lattice constants, strain state, and composition of semipolar heterostructures using high resolution X-ray diffraction. An analysis of the unit cell distortion shows that four independent lattice parameters are sufficient to describe this distortion. Assuming only small deviations from an ideal hexagonal structure, a linear expression for the interplanar distances d{sub hkl} is derived. It is used to determine the lattice parameters from high resolution X-ray diffraction 2ϑ-ω-scans of multiple on- and off-axis reflections via a weighted least-square fit. The strain and composition of ternary alloys are then evaluated by transforming the elastic parameters (using Hooke's law) from the natural crystal-fixed coordinate system to a layer-based system, given by the in-plane directions and the growth direction. We illustrate our procedure taking an example of (112{sup ¯}2) Al{sub κ}Ga{sub 1−κ}N epilayers with Al-contents over the entire composition range. We separately identify the in-plane and out-of-plane strains and discuss origins for the observed anisotropy.

  10. Black hole algorithm for determining model parameter in self-potential data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungkono; Warnana, Dwa Desa

    2018-01-01

    Analysis of self-potential (SP) data is increasingly popular in geophysical method due to its relevance in many cases. However, the inversion of SP data is often highly nonlinear. Consequently, local search algorithms commonly based on gradient approaches have often failed to find the global optimum solution in nonlinear problems. Black hole algorithm (BHA) was proposed as a solution to such problems. As the name suggests, the algorithm was constructed based on the black hole phenomena. This paper investigates the application of BHA to solve inversions of field and synthetic self-potential (SP) data. The inversion results show that BHA accurately determines model parameters and model uncertainty. This indicates that BHA is highly potential as an innovative approach for SP data inversion.

  11. Determination of criticality parameters in heterogeneous planar slabs by LTSN method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Volnei

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this work consists in the used the LTS N method in criticality problems. This method consists basically in the application of the Laplace Transform in the system of ordinary differential equations generated by the S N approach, resulting in a system of symbolic algebraic equations dependents on the complex parameters. This system is solved and, then the solution is reconstructed by the inverse of the transformed of Laplace using the Schurr and diagonalization methods and the technique of expansion of Heaviside. This methodology is used in determination of K eff , critical thickness and the atomic density for a heterogeneous planar slab. This procedure leads to the solution of eigenvalue problem to the solution of a transcendental equation. Numerical results are reported. (author)

  12. Hierarchical supersymmetry breaking and dynamical determination of compactification parameters by non-perturbative effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casas, J.A.; Lalak, Z.; Munoz, C.; Ross, G.G.

    1990-01-01

    The characteristics of the effective potentials coming from phenomenologically promising compactified superstring theories are examined, playing special attention to the supersymmetry breaking issue. We find a mechanism for generating the large gauge hierarchy by gaugino condensation effect in the case that the hidden sector possesses more than one condensate. We construct an explicit example based on orbifold compactification in which this is realized. Minimization of the effective potential not only determines the gauge hierarchy but also fixes other important parameters of the theory, in particular the gauge coupling constant at the unification point and the expectation values of the moduli which give the size and shape of the compactified space. These get reasonable values which may, in turn, lead to a determination of the family mass hierarchy. (orig.)

  13. An Illustration of Determining Quantitatively the Rock Mass Quality Parameters of the Hoek-Brown Failure Criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li; Adoko, Amoussou Coffi; Li, Bo

    2018-04-01

    In tunneling, determining quantitatively the rock mass strength parameters of the Hoek-Brown (HB) failure criterion is useful since it can improve the reliability of the design of tunnel support systems. In this study, a quantitative method is proposed to determine the rock mass quality parameters of the HB failure criterion, namely the Geological Strength Index (GSI) and the disturbance factor ( D) based on the structure of drilling core and weathering condition of rock mass combined with acoustic wave test to calculate the strength of rock mass. The Rock Mass Structure Index and the Rock Mass Weathering Index are used to quantify the GSI while the longitudinal wave velocity ( V p) is employed to derive the value of D. The DK383+338 tunnel face of Yaojia tunnel of Shanghai-Kunming passenger dedicated line served as illustration of how the methodology is implemented. The values of the GSI and D are obtained using the HB criterion and then using the proposed method. The measured in situ stress is used to evaluate their accuracy. To this end, the major and minor principal stresses are calculated based on the GSI and D given by HB criterion and the proposed method. The results indicated that both methods were close to the field observation which suggests that the proposed method can be used for determining quantitatively the rock quality parameters, as well. However, these results remain valid only for rock mass quality and rock type similar to those of the DK383+338 tunnel face of Yaojia tunnel.

  14. Can establishment success be determined through demographic parameters? A case study on five introduced bird species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sanz-Aguilar

    Full Text Available The dominant criterion to determine when an introduced species is established relies on the maintenance of a self-sustaining population in the area of introduction, i.e. on the viability of the population from a demographic perspective. There is however a paucity of demographic studies on introduced species, and establishment success is thus generally determined by expert opinion without undertaking population viability analyses (PVAs. By means of an intensive five year capture-recapture monitoring program (involving >12,000 marked individuals we studied the demography of five introduced passerine bird species in southern Spain which are established and have undergone a fast expansion over the last decades. We obtained useful estimates of demographic parameters (survival and reproduction for one colonial species (Ploceus melanocephalus, confirming the long-term viability of its local population through PVAs. However, extremely low recapture rates prevented the estimation of survival parameters and population growth rates for widely distributed species with low local densities (Estrilda troglodytes and Amandava amandava but also for highly abundant yet non-colonial species (Estrilda astrild and Euplectes afer. Therefore, determining the establishment success of introduced passerine species by demographic criteria alone may often be troublesome even when devoting much effort to field-work. Alternative quantitative methodologies such as the analysis of spatio-temporal species distributions complemented with expert opinion deserve thus their role in the assessment of establishment success of introduced species when estimates of demographic parameters are difficult to obtain, as is generally the case for non-colonial, highly mobile passerines.

  15. Modeling of Highly Instrumented Honeywell Turbofan Engine Tested with Ice Crystal Ingestion in the NASA Propulsion System Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Joseph P.; Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Jones, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL), an altitude test facility at NASA Glenn Research Center, has been used to test a highly instrumented turbine engine at simulated altitude operating conditions. This is a continuation of the PSL testing that successfully duplicated the icing events that were experienced in a previous engine (serial LF01) during flight through ice crystal clouds, which was the first turbofan engine tested in PSL. This second model of the ALF502R-5A serial number LF11 is a highly instrumented version of the previous engine. The PSL facility provides a continuous cloud of ice crystals with controlled characteristics of size and concentration, which are ingested by the engine during operation at simulated altitudes. Several of the previous operating points tested in the LF01 engine were duplicated to confirm repeatability in LF11. The instrumentation included video cameras to visually illustrate the accretion of ice in the low pressure compressor (LPC) exit guide vane region in order to confirm the ice accretion, which was suspected during the testing of the LF01. Traditional instrumentation included static pressure taps in the low pressure compressor inner and outer flow path walls, as well as total pressure and temperature rakes in the low pressure compressor region. The test data was utilized to determine the losses and blockages due to accretion in the exit guide vane region of the LPC. Multiple data points were analyzed with the Honeywell Customer Deck. A full engine roll back point was modeled with the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) code. The mean line compressor flow analysis code with ice crystal modeling was utilized to estimate the parameters that indicate the risk of accretion, as well as to estimate the degree of blockage and losses caused by accretion during a full engine roll back point. The analysis provided additional validation of the icing risk parameters within the LPC, as well as the creation of models for

  16. Determination of spatial parameters for different star groups in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharadze, E.K.; Bartaya, R.A.; Vereshchagin, S.V.; Dluzhnevskaya, O.B.; Pavlovskaya, E.D.; Piskunov, A.Eh.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Astronomicheskij Sovet; Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ.

    1987-01-01

    Space densities and parameters of z-distribution for ten star groups in the Hertzsprung - Russell diagram (A - K3, A - G4, A - G5) were determined. Data from the Abastumani two-dimensional spectral classification catalogue, and a statistical procedure of data processing, allowing to take into account uncertainties of observational data as well as the catalogue selection effect, were used. The study of the space distributions allowed to carry out an independent estimation of a luminosity dispersion for different sequences in the Hertsprung - Russell diagram

  17. Determination of trapping parameters of the high temperature thermoluminescence peak in equilibrated ordinary chondrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akridge, Jannette M.C.; Benoit, Paul H.; Sears, Derek W.G.

    2001-01-01

    Most meteorites exhibit thermoluminescence (TL) that can be used to constrain their recent thermal and irradiation history, but quantitative conclusions require a knowledge of the detailed TL peak structure of the TL glow curve. We have determined TL peak parameters for the high temperature portion of the glow curve for six ordinary chondrites: Chicora (LL6); Innisfree (L5); Lost City (H5); Paragould (LL6); Pribram (H5); and Tilden (L6). The saturation dose for all these meteorites is approximately 3600 Gy. Published procedures were used to determine the number and temperatures of peaks in the high temperature (>570 K) portion of the glow curve and peak fitting was used to estimate TL trap parameters for each peak. These data were then tested and adjusted, if necessary, by comparing calculated decay results with TL glow curves for samples heated at ∼420 K for various times. We find evidence for four TL peaks in the high temperature portion of the glow curve, where trapping parameters vary slightly from meteorite to meteorite. For the Lost City meteorite, the TL peak temperatures (K), activation energies (E, eV), and Arrhenius factors (s, x 10 -9 s -1 ) are: 325, 1.26, 4.8; 360, 1.33, 3.88; 401, 1.44, 5.8; and 455, 1.5, 2.25, respectively. These data could be used to estimate dose rates for meteorites; however, the albedo values required for the calculation are not yet sufficiently known. However, terrestrial ages, or surface exposure ages, for meteorite finds from hot deserts like those in Australia or North Africa, can be estimated from these data

  18. Determination of trapping parameters of the high temperature thermoluminescence peak in equilibrated ordinary chondrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akridge, Jannette M.C.; Benoit, Paul H. E-mail: pbenoit@comp.uark.edu; Sears, Derek W.G

    2001-02-01

    Most meteorites exhibit thermoluminescence (TL) that can be used to constrain their recent thermal and irradiation history, but quantitative conclusions require a knowledge of the detailed TL peak structure of the TL glow curve. We have determined TL peak parameters for the high temperature portion of the glow curve for six ordinary chondrites: Chicora (LL6); Innisfree (L5); Lost City (H5); Paragould (LL6); Pribram (H5); and Tilden (L6). The saturation dose for all these meteorites is approximately 3600 Gy. Published procedures were used to determine the number and temperatures of peaks in the high temperature (>570 K) portion of the glow curve and peak fitting was used to estimate TL trap parameters for each peak. These data were then tested and adjusted, if necessary, by comparing calculated decay results with TL glow curves for samples heated at {approx}420 K for various times. We find evidence for four TL peaks in the high temperature portion of the glow curve, where trapping parameters vary slightly from meteorite to meteorite. For the Lost City meteorite, the TL peak temperatures (K), activation energies (E, eV), and Arrhenius factors (s, x 10{sup -9} s{sup -1}) are: 325, 1.26, 4.8; 360, 1.33, 3.88; 401, 1.44, 5.8; and 455, 1.5, 2.25, respectively. These data could be used to estimate dose rates for meteorites; however, the albedo values required for the calculation are not yet sufficiently known. However, terrestrial ages, or surface exposure ages, for meteorite finds from hot deserts like those in Australia or North Africa, can be estimated from these data.

  19. Full-profile fitting of emission spectrum to determine transition intensity parameters of Yb3+:GdTaO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qingli; Sun Guihua; Ning Kaijie; Liu Wenpeng; Sun Dunlu; Yin Shaotang; Shi Chaoshu

    2016-01-01

    The Judd–Ofelt theoretic transition intensity parameters of luminescence of rare-earth ions in solids are important for the quantitative analysis of luminescence. It is very difficult to determine them with emission or absorption spectra for a long time. A “full profile fitting” method to obtain in solids with its emission spectrum is proposed, in which the contribution of a radiative transition to the emission spectrum is expressed as the product of transition probability, line profile function, instrument measurement constant and transition center frequency or wavelength, and the whole experimental emission spectrum is the sum of all transitions. In this way, the emission spectrum is expressed as a function with the independent variables intensity parameters , full width at half maximum (FWHM) of profile functions, instrument measurement constant, wavelength, and the Huang–Rhys factor S if the lattice vibronic peaks in the emission spectrum should be considered. The ratios of the experimental to the calculated energy lifetimes are incorporated into the fitting function to remove the arbitrariness during fitting and other parameters. Employing this method obviates measurement of the absolute emission spectrum intensity. It also eliminates dependence upon the number of emission transition peaks. Every experiment point in emission spectra, which usually have at least hundreds of data points, is the function with variables and other parameters, so it is usually viable to determine and other parameters using a large number of experimental values. We applied this method to determine twenty-five of Yb 3+ in GdTaO 4 . The calculated and experiment energy lifetimes, experimental and calculated emission spectrum are very consistent, indicating that it is viable to obtain the transition intensity parameters of rare-earth ions in solids by a full profile fitting to the ions’ emission spectrum. The calculated emission cross sections of Yb 3+ :GdTaO 4 also indicate

  20. Determining the mechanism and parameters of hydrate formation and loss in glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Sarah K; Schmidt, Shelly J

    2014-11-01

    Water-solid interactions are known to play a major role in the chemical and physical stability of food materials. Despite its extensive use throughout the food industry, the mechanism and parameters of hydrate formation and loss in glucose are not well characterized. Hydrate formation in alpha-anhydrous glucose (α-AG) and hydrate loss in glucose monohydrate (GM) were studied under equilibrium conditions at various relative humidity (RH) values using saturated salt slurries for 1 y. The mechanism of hydrate formation and hydrate loss were determined through mathematical modeling of Dynamic Vapor Sorption data and Raman spectroscopy was used to confirm the mechanisms. The critical temperature for hydrate loss in GM was determined using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The moisture sorption profiles of α-AG and GM were also studied under dynamic conditions using an AquaSorp Isotherm Generator. Hydrate formation was observed at and above 68% RH at 25 °C and the conversion of α-AG to GM can best be described as following a nucleation mechanism, however, diffusion and/or geometric contraction mechanisms were also observed by Raman spectroscopy subsequent to the coalescence of initial nucleation sites. Hydrate loss was observed to occur at and below 11% RH at 25 °C during RH storage and at 70 °C during TGA. The conversion of GM to α-AG follows nucleation and diffusion mechanisms. Hydrate formation was evident under dynamic conditions in α-AG and GM prior to deliquescence. This research is the first to report hydrate formation and loss parameters for crystalline α-AG and GM during extended storage at 25 ˚C. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Recent oceanic long-distance dispersal and divergence in the amphi-Atlantic rain forest genus Renealmia L.f. (Zingiberaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Särkinen, Tiina E; Newman, Mark F; Maas, Paul J M; Maas, Hiltje; Poulsen, Axel D; Harris, David J; Richardson, James E; Clark, Alexandra; Hollingsworth, Michelle; Pennington, R Toby

    2007-09-01

    Renealmia L.f. (Zingiberaceae) is one of the few tropical plant genera with numerous species in both Africa and South America but not in Asia. Based on phylogenetic analysis of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and chloroplast trnL-F DNA, Renealmia is shown to be monophyletic with high branch support. Low sequence divergence found in the two genome regions (ITS: 0-2.4%; trnL-F: 0-1.9%) suggests recent diversification within the genus. Molecular divergence age estimates give further support to the recent origin of the genus and show that Renealmia has attained its amphi-Atlantic distribution by an oceanic long-distance dispersal event from Africa to South America during the Miocene or Pliocene (15.8-2.7 My ago). Some support is found for the hypothesis that speciation in neotropical Renealmia was influenced by the Andean orogeny. Speciation has been approximately simultaneous on both sides of the Atlantic, but increased taxon sampling is required to compare the speciation rates between the New World and Old World tropics.

  2. Evaluation of autonomic functions of patients with multiple system atrophy and Parkinson's disease by head-up tilt test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watano, Chikako; Shiota, Yuri; Onoda, Keiichi; Sheikh, Abdullah Md; Mishima, Seiji; Nitta, Eri; Yano, Shozo; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Nagai, Atsushi

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the autonomic neural function in Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) with head-up tilt test and spectral analysis of cardiovascular parameters. This study included 15 patients with MSA, 15 patients with PD, and 29 healthy control (HC) subjects. High frequency power of the RR interval (RR-HF), the ratio of low frequency power of RR interval to RR-HF (RR-LF/HF) and LF power of systolic BP were used to evaluate parasympathetic, cardiac sympathetic and vasomotor sympathetic functions, respectively. Both patients with PD and MSA showed orthostatic hypotension and lower parasympathetic function (RR-HF) at tilt position as compared to HC subjects. Cardiac sympathetic function (RR-LF/HF) was significantly high in patients with PD than MSA at supine position. RR-LF/HF tended to increase in MSA and HC, but decreased in PD by tilting. Consequently, the change of the ratio due to tilting (ΔRR-LF/HF) was significantly lower in patients with PD than in HC subjects. Further analysis showed that compared to mild stage of PD, RR-LF/HF at the supine position was significantly higher in advanced stage. By tilting, it was increased in mild stage and decreased in the advanced stage of PD, causing ΔRR-LF/HF to decrease significantly in the advanced stage. Thus, we demonstrated that spectral analysis of cardiovascular parameters is useful to identify sympathetic and parasympathetic disorders in MSA and PD. High cardiac sympathetic function at the supine position, and its reduction by tilting might be a characteristic feature of PD, especially in the advanced stage.

  3. Maternal singing during kangaroo care led to autonomic stability in preterm infants and reduced maternal anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnon, Shmuel; Diamant, Chagit; Bauer, Sofia; Regev, Rivka; Sirota, Gisela; Litmanovitz, Ita

    2014-10-01

    Kangaroo care (KC) and maternal singing benefit preterm infants, and we investigated whether combining these benefitted infants and mothers. A prospective randomised, within-subject, crossover, repeated-measures study design was used, with participants acting as their own controls. We evaluated the heart rate variability (HRV) of stable preterm infants receiving KC, with and without maternal singing. This included low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF) and the LF/HF ratio during baseline (10 min), singing or quiet phases (20 min) and recovery (10 min). Physiological parameters, maternal anxiety and the infants' behavioural state were measured. We included 86 stable preterm infants, with a postmenstrual age of 32-36 weeks. A significant change in LF and HF, and lower LF/HF ratio, was observed during KC with maternal singing during the intervention and recovery phases, compared with just KC and baseline (all p-values singing than just KC (p = 0.04). No differences in the infants' behavioural states or physiological parameters were found, with or without singing. Maternal singing during KC reduces maternal anxiety and leads to autonomic stability in stable preterm infants. This effect is not detected in behavioural state or physiological parameters commonly used to monitor preterm infants. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Determination of proton-nucleon analyzing powers and spin-rotation-depolarization parameters at 500 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, J.A.; Barlett, M.L.; Fergerson, R.W.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Milner, E.C.; Ray, L.; Amann, J.F.; Bonner, B.E.; McClelland, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    500 MeV p-arrow-right+p elastic and quasielastic, and p-arrow-right+n quasielastic, analyzing powers (A/sub y/) and spin-rotation-depolarization parameters (D/sub S//sub S/, D/sub S//sub L/, D/sub L//sub S/, D/sub L//sub L/, D/sub N//sub N/) were determined for center-of-momentum angular ranges 6.8 0 -55.4 0 (elastic) and 22.4 0 -55.4 0 (quasielastic); liquid hydrogen and deuterium targets were used. The p-arrow-right+p elastic and quasielastic results are in good agreement; both the p-arrow-right+p and p-arrow-right+n parameters are well described by current phase shift solutions

  5. Determination оf Optimum Constructive Parameters for Circulating-Reagent Regeneration Sector Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Sheiko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of equation analysis for velocity distribution in near filter mudded zone optimal constructional parameters of sector apparatus for circulating-reagent well filter regeneration have been evaluated via angle ratio of forcing and section sectors and number of sectors. The method for determination of sector apparatus length of а selected pump that provides dissolution of mud formation in filter and near filter zone is proposed in the paper. The obtained data would promote upgrading of circulating-reagent water well regeneration technology and it permits to carry out high quality and even rehabilitation of pore space penetration along the full well filter length.

  6. Evaluation Parameter to Determine the Sharing of Electricity Production Mix in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syirrazie Che Soh; Mohd Ashhar Khalid

    2011-01-01

    As Malaysia have various possible energy sources based on the fossil fuels and renewable energies, the optimization for the usage of the energy sources to produce electricity should be managed as good as possible. It should be managed based on the desired demand for electricity on distributed location and its activities. In Malaysia, the location is divided with the two categories of Off-grid System and On-Grid System. Thus, this paper discuss on the parameters that could be used to determine the sharing of electricity production mix to meet the electricity demand for a location in Malaysia with for both two types the grid system categories. (author)

  7. A novel non-destructive manner for quantitative determination of plumpness of live Eriocheir sinensis using low-field nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lingling; Zhang, Hongcai; Chen, Shunsheng

    2018-03-01

    The present study investigated the quantitative and non-destructive determination of Eriocheir sinensis' plumpness during four mature stages using low field-nuclear magnetic resonance (LF- 1 H NMR). Normalized lipid volume of live E. sinensis was calculated from Sept to Dec using 3D LF- 1 H nuclear magnetic imaging (MRI) and the validity of proposed technique was compared and verified with traditional Soxhlet extraction and live dissection method, respectively. The results showed the plumpness of female E. sinensis was higher than that of male ones from Sept to Dec and the highest plumpness of male and female E. sinensis reached 99,436.44 and 109,207.15mm 3 in Oct. The normalized lipid volume of live male and female E. sinensis had a positive correlation with lipid content. This proposed method with short assay time, favorable selectivity, and accuracy demonstrated its application potential in grading regulation and quality evaluation of live E. sinensis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Determination of mixing characteristics of the river Kabul and the river Indus using physico-chemical and stable isotope parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, R.M.; Hussain, Q.M.; Sajjad, M.I.; Hussain, S.D.; Latif, Z.

    1990-11-01

    This report presents a comparative study on the usefulness of stable isotope parameters (hydrogen and oxygen) versus the physico-chemical parameters (electrical conductivity, temperature, pH value) of water to determine the extent of mixing of the river Kabul with the river Indus near Attock. In view of the sampling techniques employed in the present investigations, electrical conductivity and temperature are found to be the best field parameters for a quick estimate of mixing path length. However, the stable isotopes of the water molecule, due to their greater sensitivity and measuring accuracy, provide a better scenario of mixing characteristics as compared to the physico-chemical parameters. It appears that under normal flow condition, it takes about 5 km channel distance for complete mixing of the Kabul river water in the Indus river channel. A computer code MIXABC is developed to determine the percentage contribution of one river water along a mixing channel in the other river. Details of the source programs are presented. The code can be used on any IBM-compatible microsystem. (author)

  9. Effects of the low-intensity red laser radiation on the fluoride uptake in enamel. A clinical trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakasone, Regina Keiko

    2004-01-01

    Fluoride has been the most important preventive method on development of the caries. This in vivo study evaluated the effects of low-intensity red laser radiation on the fluoride uptake in enamel. Ten healthy participants were recruited for this study. The two maxillary central incisors of each volunteer to be biopsied were used and divided into 4 groups: group G C (control, which was untreated; group G F (fluoride), which received topical acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) 1,23% treatment for 4 minutes; group G LF (laser + fluoride), which was irradiated with a low-intensity diode laser (λ= 660 nm and dose= 6 J/cm 2 ) with APF application after irradiation and group G FL (fluoride + laser), which received APF before irradiation using the same parameters as G LF . The determination of fluoride was performed using a fluoride ion electrode after an acid-etch enamel biopsy. The results show a significant increase of the fluoride uptake in enamel for groups G F , G LF and G FL when compared to control group. Although a percentage increase of 57% was observed for G LF with respect to G F , there were no statistical differences among treated groups. These findings suggest that low-intensity laser radiation used before APF could be employed in the clinical practice to prevent dental caries. (author)

  10. Effects of the low-intensity red laser radiation on the fluoride uptake in enamel. A clinical trial; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao laser de emissao vermelha em baixa intensidade na incorporacao de fluor no esmalte. Estudo clinico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakasone, Regina Keiko

    2004-07-01

    Fluoride has been the most important preventive method on development of the caries. This in vivo study evaluated the effects of low-intensity red laser radiation on the fluoride uptake in enamel. Ten healthy participants were recruited for this study. The two maxillary central incisors of each volunteer to be biopsied were used and divided into 4 groups: group G{sub C} (control, which was untreated; group G{sub F} (fluoride), which received topical acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) 1,23% treatment for 4 minutes; group G{sub LF} (laser + fluoride), which was irradiated with a low-intensity diode laser ({lambda}= 660 nm and dose= 6 J/cm{sup 2}) with APF application after irradiation and group G{sub FL} (fluoride + laser), which received APF before irradiation using the same parameters as G{sub LF}. The determination of fluoride was performed using a fluoride ion electrode after an acid-etch enamel biopsy. The results show a significant increase of the fluoride uptake in enamel for groups G{sub F}, G{sub LF} and G{sub FL} when compared to control group. Although a percentage increase of 57% was observed for G{sub LF} with respect to G{sub F}, there were no statistical differences among treated groups. These findings suggest that low-intensity laser radiation used before APF could be employed in the clinical practice to prevent dental caries. (author)

  11. A Study on the Pyrolysis of Peanut Shells at Different Isothermal Conditions and Determination of the Kinetic Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şeyda Taşar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The pyrolysis process, which is applied for the aim of producing energy and raw materials which are implemented for the chemical industry from biomass sources, is a thermal conversion process. Determination of the pyrolysis kinetic parameters are important In order to suitable equipment and process design. In this target, in the study the pyrolysis of peanut shells was conducted in a muffle furnace at static atmosphere with temperatures ranging from 300-700 °C. The effects of various parameters on the rate of thermal decomposition rate and the solid yield were determined. The parameters of interest were temperature 300-700 °C, particle size 4-50 mesh, pelletizing, and pelletizing pressure 1.103-5.103 kgf/cm2. Regression coefficients for the total decomposition step were obtained using the thermographs were obtained as a result of the pyrolysis of the peanut shells, and 20 different theoretical model equations that represented the degradation by the Coast-Redfern method. According to regression coefficients of the theoretical model equations, we determined the kinetic model that best represented the degradation. Using this model to represent the degradation, the activation energy (Ea and Arhenius frequency factor ln(A for the total reaction were calculated to be 38.245 kJ/mol and 8.124, respectively.

  12. Determination of remodeling parameters for a strain-adaptive finite element model of the distal ulna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuert, Mark A C; Dunning, Cynthia E

    2013-09-01

    Strain energy-based adaptive material models are used to predict bone resorption resulting from stress shielding induced by prosthetic joint implants. Generally, such models are governed by two key parameters: a homeostatic strain-energy state (K) and a threshold deviation from this state required to initiate bone reformation (s). A refinement procedure has been performed to estimate these parameters in the femur and glenoid; this study investigates the specific influences of these parameters on resulting density distributions in the distal ulna. A finite element model of a human ulna was created using micro-computed tomography (µCT) data, initialized to a homogeneous density distribution, and subjected to approximate in vivo loading. Values for K and s were tested, and the resulting steady-state density distribution compared with values derived from µCT images. The sensitivity of these parameters to initial conditions was examined by altering the initial homogeneous density value. The refined model parameters selected were then applied to six additional human ulnae to determine their performance across individuals. Model accuracy using the refined parameters was found to be comparable with that found in previous studies of the glenoid and femur, and gross bone structures, such as the cortical shell and medullary canal, were reproduced. The model was found to be insensitive to initial conditions; however, a fair degree of variation was observed between the six specimens. This work represents an important contribution to the study of changes in load transfer in the distal ulna following the implementation of commercial orthopedic implants.

  13. Determination of reliable force platform parameters and number of trial to evaluate sit-to-stand movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorin, Frédéric; Rahmani, Abderrahmane; Beaune, Bruno; Cornu, Christophe

    2015-08-01

    Sit-to-stand (STS) movement is useful for evaluating lower limb muscle function, especially from force platforms. Nevertheless, due to a lack of standardization of the STS movement (e.g., position, subject's instructions, etc.), it is difficult to compare results obtained in previous studies. The aim of the present study was to determine the most relevant condition, parameters, and number of trial to perform STS movements. In this study, STS mechanical (maximal and mean force, impulse) and temporal parameters were measured in the vertical, medio-lateral and antero-posterior axes using a force platform. Five STS conditions (i.e., with or without armrests, variation of the height of the chair and the movement speed) were analyzed to evaluate repeatability of different standardized procedures. Most of the mechanical and temporal parameters were influenced by the STS condition (p movement.

  14. Development of a time-trend model for analyzing and predicting case-pattern of Lassa fever epidemics in Liberia, 2013-2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olugasa, Babasola O; Odigie, Eugene A; Lawani, Mike; Ojo, Johnson F

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to develop a case-pattern model for Lassa fever (LF) among humans and derive predictors of time-trend point distribution of LF cases in Liberia in view of the prevailing under-reporting and public health challenge posed by the disease in the country. A retrospective 5 years data of LF distribution countrywide among humans were used to train a time-trend model of the disease in Liberia. A time-trend quadratic model was selected due to its goodness-of-fit (R2 = 0.89, and P Liberia, on which a predictive model was developed. We proposed a computationally feasible two-stage space-time permutation approach to estimate the time-trend parameters and conduct predictive inference on LF in Liberia.

  15. Determination of the parameters of a microscopic object from a complex response of a differential microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranov, D V; Egorov, Alexander A; Zolotov, Evgenii M; Svidzinsky, K K

    1998-01-01

    An analysis of the amplitude and phase of a complex response of a heterodyne differential microscope was used to demonstrate experimentally the feasibility of determination of the parameters of a composite microscopic object representing a combination of a step with a groove. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  16. Guided ultrasonic waves for determining effective orthotropic material parameters of continuous-fiber reinforced thermoplastic plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webersen, Manuel; Johannesmann, Sarah; Düchting, Julia; Claes, Leander; Henning, Bernd

    2018-03-01

    Ultrasonic methods are widely established in the NDE/NDT community, where they are mostly used for the detection of flaws and structural damage in various components. A different goal, despite the similar technological approach, is non-destructive material characterization, i.e. the determination of parameters like Young's modulus. Only few works on this topic have considered materials with high damping and strong anisotropy, such as continuous-fiber reinforced plastics, but due to the increasing demand in the industry, appropriate methods are needed. In this contribution, we demonstrate the application of laser-induced ultrasonic Lamb waves for the characterization of fiber-reinforced plastic plates, providing effective parameters for a homogeneous, orthotropic material model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Improving fault image by determination of optimum seismic survey parameters using ray-based modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffarzadeh, Sadegh; Javaherian, Abdolrahim; Hasani, Hossein; Talebi, Mohammad Ali

    2018-06-01

    In complex structures such as faults, salt domes and reefs, specifying the survey parameters is more challenging and critical owing to the complicated wave field behavior involved in such structures. In the petroleum industry, detecting faults has become crucial for reservoir potential where faults can act as traps for hydrocarbon. In this regard, seismic survey modeling is employed to construct a model close to the real structure, and obtain very realistic synthetic seismic data. Seismic modeling software, the velocity model and parameters pre-determined by conventional methods enable a seismic survey designer to run a shot-by-shot virtual survey operation. A reliable velocity model of structures can be constructed by integrating the 2D seismic data, geological reports and the well information. The effects of various survey designs can be investigated by the analysis of illumination maps and flower plots. Also, seismic processing of the synthetic data output can describe the target image using different survey parameters. Therefore, seismic modeling is one of the most economical ways to establish and test the optimum acquisition parameters to obtain the best image when dealing with complex geological structures. The primary objective of this study is to design a proper 3D seismic survey orientation to achieve fault zone structures through ray-tracing seismic modeling. The results prove that a seismic survey designer can enhance the image of fault planes in a seismic section by utilizing the proposed modeling and processing approach.

  18. Development and evaluation of teak (Tectona grandis L.f. taper equations in northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Warner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Taper refers to the general decrease in the regular outline of a solid body from its base to its tip. Taper models are used to estimate the volume and value of wood products from harvesting trees. Teak (Tectona grandis L.f. is highly valued as one of the world's most preferred timbers and a teak taper equation is required to inform optimal harvesting strategies given the limited plantation resource available in Thailand. Teak taper equations were developed and evaluated based on 331 sample trees collected in 2014 from eight plantations in northern Thailand aged from 10 to 46 yr using two taper model formulations—the Kozak variable-exponent taper model and the Goodwin cubic polynomial model comprising hyperbolic and parabolic terms. Variants based on both model types were fitted using nonlinear regression analysis with diameter at breast height, total tree height and height of girth measurement as the independent variables to estimate diameter underbark at the nominated height. Goodness-of-fit and leave-one-out cross validation with lack-of-fit statistical testing combined with extensive graphical analysis of residuals were used to select the best model. A Goodwin model variant (named FIO-teak1 as the first plantation teak taper model known to be published in Thailand provided the best estimates of volume and diameter underbark. A simple case study confirmed that FIO-teak1 in combination with the Farm Forestry Toolbox software package could assist teak plantation managers in decision making associated with optimizing log grade value based on standing tree inventory data.

  19. Determination of neutron resonance parameters of Neptunium 237 between 0 and 500 eV. The covariance matrices of statistical and of systematic origin, relating the resonance parameters, are also given

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepretre, A.; Herault, N.; Brusegan, A.; Noguere, G.; Siegler, P.

    2002-12-01

    This report is a follow up of the report CEA DAPNIA/SPHN-99-04T of Vincent Gressier. In the frame of a collaboration between the 'Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA)' and the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurement (IRMM, Geel, Belgique), the resonance parameters of neptunium 237 have been determined in the energy interval between 0 and 500 eV. These parameters have been obtained by using the Refit code in analysing simultaneously three transmission experiments. The covariance matrix of statistical origin is provided. A new method, based on various sensitivity studies is proposed for determining also the covariance matrix of systematic origin, relating the resonance parameters. From an experimental viewpoint, the study indicated that, with a large probability, the background spectrum has structure. A two dimensional profiler for the neutron density has been proved feasible. Such a profiler could, among others, demonstrate the existence of the structured background. (authors)

  20. Determination of parameters influencing methylation and demethylation in tropical lakes in Brazil and Nicaragua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hylander, Lars D.; Ahlgren, Ingemar; Broberg, Anders; Lantz, Peter; Tornblom, Erik; Forsberg, Bruce R.; Guimaraes, Jean R.D.; Mauro, Jane; Markus, Meili; Guillen Montenegro, Salvador; Vammen, Katherine; Sacasa, Sarria Karla; Regnell, Olof

    2002-01-01

    Increased awareness about the toxicity of mercury (Hg) has during the latest decades resulted in reduced use of Hg in industrialised countries. Developing countries, on the contrary, have largely increased their anthropogenic Hg emissions caused by its use in gold mining, transfer of Hg emitting factories from developed countries, and increased burning of coal without appropriate flue gas cleaning. The contribution of global Hg sources and the importance of other parameters to increased Hg levels encountered in hydroelectric reservoirs and other areas after flooding is not well understood, especially not in the tropics. The aim of the present study is to increase the knowledge about Hg transformations in tropical areas. Total Hg content in water, biota, and sediment will be determined by atomic absorption and fluorescence spectrophotometry and methyl Hg content in biota by gaschromatography after extraction with acids, hydroxides, and organic solvents. Mercury methylation capacity in sediments, water, and selected biota will be determined with 203 Hg and subsequent radiological measurements of insitu incubations. Factors affecting the methylation and demethylation rates will be identified with laboratory incubations with 203 Hg at varying environmental conditions such as organic matter, pH, redox potential, conductivity, light, temperature, geochemical factors and populations of bacteria. The populations of bacteria will be determined to quantity by isotope techniques. The first experiments indicate markedly larger methylation capacity as well as bacterial production of incubated samples of Eichhornia crassipes, originating from Brazil, compared to Myriophyllum spicatum from Sweden. The results are the first step to better understand the importance of environmental parameters and bacterial production for methylation of Hg. (author)

  1. Reactive decontamination of absorbing thin film polymer coatings: model development and parameter determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varady, Mark; Mantooth, Brent; Pearl, Thomas; Willis, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    A continuum model of reactive decontamination in absorbing polymeric thin film substrates exposed to the chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (known as VX) was developed to assess the performance of various decontaminants. Experiments were performed in conjunction with an inverse analysis method to obtain the necessary model parameters. The experiments involved contaminating a substrate with a fixed VX exposure, applying a decontaminant, followed by a time-resolved, liquid phase extraction of the absorbing substrate to measure the residual contaminant by chromatography. Decontamination model parameters were uniquely determined using the Levenberg-Marquardt nonlinear least squares fitting technique to best fit the experimental time evolution of extracted mass. The model was implemented numerically in both a 2D axisymmetric finite element program and a 1D finite difference code, and it was found that the more computationally efficient 1D implementation was sufficiently accurate. The resulting decontamination model provides an accurate quantification of contaminant concentration profile in the material, which is necessary to assess exposure hazards.

  2. Determination of Destress Blasting Effectiveness Using Seismic Source Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtecki, Łukasz; Mendecki, Maciej J.; Zuberek, Wacaław M.

    2017-12-01

    Underground mining of coal seams in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin is currently performed under difficult geological and mining conditions. The mining depth, dislocations (faults and folds) and mining remnants are responsible for rockburst hazard in the highest degree. This hazard can be minimized by using active rockburst prevention, where destress blastings play an important role. Destress blastings in coal seams aim to destress the local stress concentrations. These blastings are usually performed from the longwall face to decrease the stress level ahead of the longwall. An accurate estimation of active rockburst prevention effectiveness is important during mining under disadvantageous geological and mining conditions, which affect the risk of rockburst. Seismic source parameters characterize the focus of tremor, which may be useful in estimating the destress blasting effects. Investigated destress blastings were performed in coal seam no. 507 during its longwall mining in one of the coal mines in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin under difficult geological and mining conditions. The seismic source parameters of the provoked tremors were calculated. The presented preliminary investigations enable a rapid estimation of the destress blasting effectiveness using seismic source parameters, but further analysis in other geological and mining conditions with other blasting parameters is required.

  3. [Experimental rationale for the parameters of a rapid method for oxidase activity determination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butorina, N N

    2010-01-01

    Experimental rationale is provided for the parameters of a rapid (1-2-min) test to concurrently determine the oxidase activity of all bacteria grown on the membrane filter after water filtration. Oxidase reagents that are the aqueous solutions of tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride and demethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride have been first ascertained to exert no effect on the viability and enzymatic activity of bacteria after one-hour contact. An algorithm has been improved for the rapid oxidase activity test: the allowable time for bacteria to contact oxidase reagents and procedures for minimizing the effect on bacterial biochemical activity following the contact. An accelerated method based on lactose medium with tergitol 7 and Endo agar has been devised to determine coliform bacteria, by applying the rapid oxidase test: the time of a final response is 18-24 hours. The method has been included into GOST 52426-2005.

  4. Determination of kinetic parameters during the thermal decomposition of epoxy/carbon fiber composite material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Hun; Kim, Kwang Seok; Kim, Hyo

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth study to determine the thermal decomposition kinetics parameters such as the activation energy E_a, the reaction order n, and the pre-exponential factor A of epoxy/carbon fiber composite material has been conducted. We employ not only the modified peak property method that is proposed here, but also the conventional method in analyzing the experimental data, and compare the results to show the performance of the proposed model. The pyrolysis tests for the epoxy/carbon fiber composite materials are conducted by using thermogravimetric analyser at various heating rates. As a result, the best prediction to the experimental data can be obtained by the modified peak property method. Besides, among the methods applied here, the modified peak property method provides most convenient way to recover the parameters: it does not require a curve fitting of the data nor a long iterative computation

  5. Study on determination of durability analysis process and fatigue damage parameter for rubber component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Seong In; Cho, Il Je; Woo, Chang Su; Kim, Wan Doo

    2011-01-01

    Rubber components, which have been widely used in the automotive industry as anti-vibration components for many years, are subjected to fluctuating loads, often failing due to the nucleation and growth of defects or cracks. To prevent such failures, it is necessary to understand the fatigue failure mechanism for rubber materials and to evaluate the fatigue life for rubber components. The objective of this study is to develop a durability analysis process for vulcanized rubber components, that can predict fatigue life at the initial product design step. The determination method of nonlinear material constants for FE analysis was proposed. Also, to investigate the applicability of the commonly used damage parameters, fatigue tests and corresponding finite element analyses were carried out and normal and shear strain was proposed as the fatigue damage parameter for rubber components. Fatigue analysis for automotive rubber components was performed and the durability analysis process was reviewed

  6. Key radionuclides and parameters that determine performance of geologic repositories for high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joonhong Ahn; Atsuyuki Suzuki

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents results of a mathematical analysis for performance of the engineered barriers of high-level radioactive waste repositories. The main body of the mathematical model developed in this study is mass transport of actinides in a bentonite region. In an analysis of actinide transport, radioactive decay chain and effects of low solubilities must be taken into account. In many previous models for mass transport in engineered barriers including radioactive decay chain, however, boundary conditions at the interface between the waste form and the bentonite region cannot be determined flexibly. In some models, solubility-limited boundary condition is assumed for all the members in a chain. In order to investigate what are key radionuclides and parameters that control performance of engineered barriers of a geologic repository, we must evaluate mass transport with the source boundary condition determined by a detailed analysis on mass transfer at the boundary. In this study, we developed a mathematical model, which can determine whether the inner boundary condition is solubility-limited or congruent release, based on a mathematical analysis for mass transfer at the glass dissolution location, and how long the solubility-limited boundary condition applies. Based on the mathematical model, we point out radionuclides and parameters that have primary influences on the performance of a repository, and investigate a reasonable strategy for coupling geologic disposal and partitioning of those key radionuclides from the standpoint of reducing hazard of geologic disposal. (authors). 4 tabs., 2 figs., 8 refs

  7. Determination of mammography images constancy parameters for C R system using Phantom Mama and mammographic accreditation phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Andre U. dos; Souza, Wedla P. de; Hoff, Gabriela

    2009-01-01

    In the diagnostic imaging services is common to find the analogical image acquiring method in transition to the digital acquiring method. However it is necessary to define the appropriate techniques for acquisition of images. For that achievement the reference parameter of image must be determinate and based on that, determine the constancy and diagnostic image quality tests. Annually, for each imaging system, it is recommended the technical parameters review for different types of breast, reducing the dose on the mammary gland and preserving the image quality. It should be done based on national regulations and in accordance to the requirements of the medical team. The methodological proposes of this work has the objective of realize the constancy analysis for the image quality, using the PhantonMama and Mamographic Accreditation Phantom model 18-220 (recommended by ACR) and the software. Both protocols suggested were adequate for the analysis proposed. (author)

  8. Magnetoresistance based determination of basic parameters of minority charge carriers in solid matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.O. Uhryn

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnetoresistance as a tool of basic parameters determination of minority charge carriers and the ratio of minority charge carriers conductivity to majority ones in solid matter has been considered within the framework of the phenomenological two-band model. The criterion of the application of this model has been found. As examples of these equations usage the conductor, semiconductor and superconductor have been introduced. From the obtained temperature dependences of the aforementioned values in superconductor, a supposition of a deciding role of minority charge carriers in the emergence of superconductivity state has been made.

  9. Improved treatment of global positioning system force parameters in precise orbit determination applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigue, Y.; Lichten, S. M.; Muellerschoen, R. J.; Blewitt, G.; Heflin, M. B.

    1993-01-01

    Data collected from a worldwide 1992 experiment were processed at JPL to determine precise orbits for the satellites of the Global Positioning System (GPS). A filtering technique was tested to improve modeling of solar-radiation pressure force parameters for GPS satellites. The new approach improves orbit quality for eclipsing satellites by a factor of two, with typical results in the 25- to 50-cm range. The resultant GPS-based estimates for geocentric coordinates of the tracking sites, which include the three DSN sites, are accurate to 2 to 8 cm, roughly equivalent to 3 to 10 nrad of angular measure.

  10. Determination of combustion parameters using engine crankshaft speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taglialatela, F.; Lavorgna, M.; Mancaruso, E.; Vaglieco, B. M.

    2013-07-01

    Electronic engine controls based on real time diagnosis of combustion process can significantly help in complying with the stricter and stricter regulations on pollutants emissions and fuel consumption. The most important parameter for the evaluation of combustion quality in internal combustion engines is the in-cylinder pressure, but its direct measurement is very expensive and involves an intrusive approach to the cylinder. Previous researches demonstrated the direct relationship existing between in-cylinder pressure and engine crankshaft speed and several authors tried to reconstruct the pressure cycle on the basis of the engine speed signal. In this paper we propose the use of a Multi-Layer Perceptron neural network to model the relationship between the engine crankshaft speed and some parameters derived from the in-cylinder pressure cycle. This allows to have a non-intrusive estimation of cylinder pressure and a real time evaluation of combustion quality. The structure of the model and the training procedure is outlined in the paper. A possible combustion controller using the information extracted from the crankshaft speed information is also proposed. The application of the neural network model is demonstrated on a single-cylinder spark ignition engine tested in a wide range of speeds and loads. Results confirm that a good estimation of some combustion pressure parameters can be obtained by means of a suitable processing of crankshaft speed signal.

  11. Determining the parameters of Weibull function to estimate the wind power potential in conditions of limited source meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetisova, Yu. A.; Ermolenko, B. V.; Ermolenko, G. V.; Kiseleva, S. V.

    2017-04-01

    We studied the information basis for the assessment of wind power potential on the territory of Russia. We described the methodology to determine the parameters of the Weibull function, which reflects the density of distribution of probabilities of wind flow speeds at a defined basic height above the surface of the earth using the available data on the average speed at this height and its repetition by gradations. The application of the least square method for determining these parameters, unlike the use of graphical methods, allows performing a statistical assessment of the results of approximation of empirical histograms by the Weibull formula. On the basis of the computer-aided analysis of the statistical data, it was shown that, at a fixed point where the wind speed changes at different heights, the range of parameter variation of the Weibull distribution curve is relatively small, the sensitivity of the function to parameter changes is quite low, and the influence of changes on the shape of speed distribution curves is negligible. Taking this into consideration, we proposed and mathematically verified the methodology of determining the speed parameters of the Weibull function at other heights using the parameter computations for this function at a basic height, which is known or defined by the average speed of wind flow, or the roughness coefficient of the geological substrate. We gave examples of practical application of the suggested methodology in the development of the Atlas of Renewable Energy Resources in Russia in conditions of deficiency of source meteorological data. The proposed methodology, to some extent, may solve the problem related to the lack of information on the vertical profile of repeatability of the wind flow speeds in the presence of a wide assortment of wind turbines with different ranges of wind-wheel axis heights and various performance characteristics in the global market; as a result, this methodology can become a powerful tool for

  12. Levantamento fitogeográfico de Dalbergia L.f. (Leguminosae-papilionoideae com potencial produtivo para própolis vermelha no Estado do Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Leão Santos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Dalbergia L.f. (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae, de distribuição pantropical, compreende cerca de 250 espécies.  Dalbergia spp tem sido amplamente explorada para produção de própolis vermelha, que consiste em uma mistura complexa feita pelas abelhas a partir do material resinoso encontrado no tecido meristemático em várias plantas deste gênero. Este trabalho tem por objetivo realizar levantamento da ocorrência da flora apícola produtora de exsudato vermelho que pode ser utilizada pelas abelhas africanizadas para produção da própolis vermelha no estado do Pará. Realizou-se o levantamento em diversos herbários que possuíam espécies de Dalbergia L.f. produtoras de exsudato vermelho no estado do Pará, juntamente com a sua distribuição. Para tanto, foram averiguadas literaturas específicas de morfologia e taxonomia que envolviam espécies de Dalbergia produtoras de exsudato vermelho localizadas no Pará. A coleta de dados foi obtida a partir da plataforma online SpeciesLink; e do acervo do Herbário IAN (Instituto Agronômico do Norte da EMBRAPA Amazônia Oriental. O mapa de distribuição foi elaborado utilizando o software QGis juntamente com os dados de coleta das espécies. Foram encontrados 204 registros depositados em 21 herbários, sendo que, 175 são pertencentes à espécie Dalbergia monetaria e 29 à Dalbergia ecastaphyllum. Analisando os dados de coleta, notou-se que as espécies foram coletadas em 44 municípios do Estado do Pará, dos quais Belém e Bragança apresentaram maior quantidade de registros. A partir do levantamento realizado notou-se a predominância de Dalbergia monetaria nos registros, mostrando que esta é uma espécie que possui potencial para ser explorada. 

  13. The determination of parameters of the upper atmosphere by the radio-meteor measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamukov, Damir; Fahrutdinova, Antonina; Nugmanov, Ildus

    Study of the parameters of the upper atmosphere on the basis of amplitude-time characteristics of meteor ionization. Together with various methods meteor observations (optical, photographic, visual, spectral, television), the most effective modern method of studying meteors means is radar. The development of modern radar technology allows us to apply this tool to monitor meteors. This method allows to determine the parameters of temperature and atmospheric pressure. Actual issue is the development of methods of determining the coefficient of ambipolar diffusion, pressure, density and temperature of the atmosphere in the meteor zone. Graph of amplitude-time characteristic has the exponential form. This fact allows to determine the coefficient of ambipolar diffusion. New algorithm for estimation of the ambipolar diffusion coefficient based on a set of statistical methods and techniques of digital signal processing. There are decomposition of data on singular values and Prony's method. This method of modeling the sample data as a linear combination of exponential. Prony’s method approximates the amplitude-time characteristics of using a deterministic exponential model. Input data is amplitude-time characteristics of the meteor trail x[1]…x[N]. The method allows to estimate x[n] p-membered exponential model: begin{center} x[n]=Sigma2A_{k}exp[a _{k}(n-1)]Cos[2Pif_{k}(n-1)T+Fi_{k}] (1) end{center} 1<=n<=N, T - time range in seconds, A_{k} and a_{k} - amplitude and damping coefficient, f_{k} and Fi_{k} - frequency and initial phase. The equation describing the decay of radio signal: begin{center} A=A_{0}exp(-16Pi^{2}$D_{a}t/λ (2) ). (2) lambdaλ - radar wavelength. The output of the algorithm - the ambipolar diffusion coefficient values D_{a}. begin{center} T=0.5lnD-T_{0}+mg/2kT_{0} (3) Last equation allows to obtain temperature values using the coefficient of ambipolar diffusion depends on the height.

  14. Determining of the track parameters in solid state nuclear track detectors Cr 39 due to alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostic, D.; Nikezic, D.

    1997-01-01

    An equation of the etch pit wall is proposed to be used for simulation of the track growth and calculating the major and the minor axis of etch pit opening. Dependence on the following parameters is set up: distance along a track from the point where the particle entered the detector, ratio of the track etch wall to the bulk etch rate, integration constant determined from particle penetration depth and normal distance from the particle trajectory to the etch pit wall. The corresponding computer program was written. The input parameters of this program are: alpha particles energy, incidence angle and removed layer; the output gives track parameters. The results obtained by this method are compared to another approach given by Somogy and Szalay (1973) and a reasonably good agreement is found. (author)

  15. Study of the effect of the deposition parameters on the structural, electric and optical characteristics of polymorphous silicon films prepared by low frequency PECVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, M., E-mail: mmoreno@inaoep.mx [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, INAOE, Puebla (Mexico); Torres, A. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, INAOE, Puebla (Mexico); Ambrosio, R. [Universidad Autonoma de Ciudad Juarez, Electrical Deparment, Chihuahua (Mexico); Zuniga, C.; Torres-Rios, A.; Monfil, K.; Rosales, P.; Itzmoyotl, A. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, INAOE, Puebla (Mexico)

    2011-10-25

    In this work we present our results on the deposition and characterization of polymorphous silicon (pm-Si:H) films prepared by low frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (LF-PECVD). We have studied the effect of the plasma deposition parameters (as the chamber pressure and gas flow rates of SiH{sub 4} and H{sub 2}) on the structural, electric, and optical characteristics of the films. The temperature dependence of conductivity ({sigma}(T)), activation energy (E{sub a}), optical band gap (E{sub g}) and deposition rate (V{sub d}) were extracted for pm-Si:H films deposited at different pressure values and different gas flow rates. We observed that the chamber pressure is an important parameter that has a significant effect on the electric characteristics, and as well on the morphology of the pm-Si:H films (deduced from atomic force microscopy). It was found an optimal pressure range, in order to produce pm-Si:H films with high E{sub a} and room temperature conductivity, {sigma}{sub RT}, which are key parameters for thermal detection applications.

  16. Study of the effect of the deposition parameters on the structural, electric and optical characteristics of polymorphous silicon films prepared by low frequency PECVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, M.; Torres, A.; Ambrosio, R.; Zuniga, C.; Torres-Rios, A.; Monfil, K.; Rosales, P.; Itzmoyotl, A.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present our results on the deposition and characterization of polymorphous silicon (pm-Si:H) films prepared by low frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (LF-PECVD). We have studied the effect of the plasma deposition parameters (as the chamber pressure and gas flow rates of SiH 4 and H 2 ) on the structural, electric, and optical characteristics of the films. The temperature dependence of conductivity (σ(T)), activation energy (E a ), optical band gap (E g ) and deposition rate (V d ) were extracted for pm-Si:H films deposited at different pressure values and different gas flow rates. We observed that the chamber pressure is an important parameter that has a significant effect on the electric characteristics, and as well on the morphology of the pm-Si:H films (deduced from atomic force microscopy). It was found an optimal pressure range, in order to produce pm-Si:H films with high E a and room temperature conductivity, σ RT , which are key parameters for thermal detection applications.

  17. The Use of Asymptotic Functions for Determining Empirical Values of CN Parameter in Selected Catchments of Variable Land Cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wałęga Andrzej

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the applicability of asymptotic functions for determining the value of CN parameter as a function of precipitation depth in mountain and upland catchments. The analyses were carried out in two catchments: the Rudawa, left tributary of the Vistula, and the Kamienica, right tributary of the Dunajec. The input material included data on precipitation and flows for a multi-year period 1980–2012, obtained from IMGW PIB in Warsaw. Two models were used to determine empirical values of CNobs parameter as a function of precipitation depth: standard Hawkins model and 2-CN model allowing for a heterogeneous nature of a catchment area.

  18. Automated processing of first-pass radioisotope ventriculography data to determine essential central circulation parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotov, Aleksei; Pankin, Victor

    2017-09-01

    The assessment of central circulation (including heart function) parameters is vital in the preventive diagnostics of inherent and acquired heart failures and during polychemotherapy. The protocols currently applied in Russia do not fully utilize the first-pass assessment (FPRNA) and that results in poor data formalization, while the FPRNA is the one of the fastest, affordable and compact methods among other radioisotope diagnostics protocols. A non-imaging algorithm basing on existing protocols has been designed to use the readings of an additional detector above vena subclavia to determine the total blood volume (TBV), not requiring blood sampling in contrast to current protocols. An automated processing of precordial detector readings is presented, in order to determine the heart strike volume (SV). Two techniques to estimate the ejection fraction (EF) of the heart are discussed.

  19. Determination of left ventricular function parameters and myocardial mass: comparison of MRI and EBT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kivelitz, D.E.; Enzweiler, C.N.H.; Wiese, T.H.; Lembcke, A.; Taupitz, M.; Hamm, B.; Borges, A.; Zytowski, M.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Comparative volumetric assessment of the left ventricle by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electron beam tomography (EBT) in patients with ischemic and dilated cardiac disease. Methods: Thirty-two patients underwent cine MRI and EBT in the multislice mode. All studies were triggered to the ECG. Left ventricular ejection fraction (EF), enddiastolic (EDV) and endsystolic volume (ESV), and myocardial mass (MM) were determined by 3D-volumetry by MRI and EBT and results were compared. Results: The correlation between MRI and EBT for EF, EDV, ESV, and MM were r=0.86, r=0.95, r=0.95, and r=0.93, respectively. Conclusions: There is an excellent correlation between MRI and EBT in determining left-ventricular parameters. Both methods are suitable for volumetric assessment of the left ventricie. (orig.) [de

  20. Optimization of the n-type HPGe detector parameters to theoretical determination of efficiency curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, A.; Correa-Alfonso, C.M.; Lopez-Pino, N.; Padilla-Cabal, F.; D'Alessandro, K.; Corrales, Y.; Garcia-Alvarez, J. A.; Perez-Mellor, A.; Baly-Gil, L.; Machado, A.

    2011-01-01

    A highly detailed characterization of a 130 cm 3 n-type HPGe detector, employed in low - background gamma spectrometry measurements, was done. Precise measured data and several Monte Carlo (MC) calculations have been combined to optimize the detector parameters. HPGe crystal location inside the Aluminum end-cap as well as its dimensions, including the borehole radius and height, were determined from frontal and lateral scans. Additionally, X-ray radiography and Computed Axial Tomography (CT) studies were carried out to complement the information about detector features. Using seven calibrated point sources ( 241 Am, 133 Ba, 57,60 Co, 137 Cs, 22 Na and 152 Eu), photo-peak efficiency curves at three different source - detector distances (SDD) were obtained. Taking into account the experimental values, an optimization procedure by means of MC simulations (MCNPX 2.6 code) were performed. MC efficiency curves were calculated specifying the optimized detector parameters in the MCNPX input files. Efficiency calculation results agree with empirical data, showing relative deviations lesser 10%. (Author)

  1. Determination of sustainable values for the parameters of the construction of residential buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoreva, Larisa; Grigoryev, Vladimir

    2018-03-01

    For the formation of programs for housing construction and planning of capital investments, when developing the strategic planning companies by construction companies, the norms or calculated indicators of the duration of the construction of high-rise residential buildings and multifunctional complexes are mandatory. Determination of stable values of the parameters for the high-rise construction residential buildings provides an opportunity to establish a reasonable duration of construction at the planning and design stages of residential complexes, taking into account the influence of market conditions factors. The concept of the formation of enlarged models for the high-rise construction residential buildings is based on a real mapping in time and space of the most significant redistribution with their organizational and technological interconnection - the preparatory period, the underground part, the above-ground part, external engineering networks, landscaping. The total duration of the construction of a residential building, depending on the duration of each redistribution and the degree of their overlapping, can be determined by one of the proposed four options. At the same time, a unified approach to determining the overall duration of construction on the basis of the provisions of a streamlined construction organization with the testing of results on the example of high-rise residential buildings of the typical I-155B series was developed, and the coefficients for combining the work and the main redevelopment of the building were determined.

  2. Determination of fracture parameters for interface cracks in transverse isotropic magnetoelectroelastic composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Jun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine fracture parameters of interfacial cracks in transverse isotropic magnetoelectroelastic composites, a displacement extrapolation formula was derived. The matrix-form formula can be applicable for both material components with arbitrary poling directions. The corresponding explicit expression of this formula was obtained for each poling direction normal to the crack plane. This displacement extrapolation formula is only related to the boundary quantities of the extended crack opening displacements across crack faces, which is convenient for numerical applications, especially for BEM. Meantime, an alternative extrapolation formula based on the path-independent J-integral and displacement ratios was presented which may be more adaptable for any domain-based numerical techniques like FEM. A numerical example was presented to show the correctness of these formulae.

  3. Determination of the criticality parameters in heterogeneous Slab by the LTSN method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Volnei

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this work consists in the use of the LTS N method in criticality problems. This method consists basically in the application of the Laplace Transform to a system of ordinary differential equations generated by the SN approach, resulting in a system of symbolic algebraic equations dependent on the complex parameters. After solving the algebraic system by means of the Schurr and diagonalization methods, the angular fluxes are obtained performing the inverse Laplace transform, which is carried out using the Heaviside formula. This methodology is used in determination of K eff , critical thickness and the atomic density for a heterogeneous planar slab. This procedure leads the solution of eigenvalue problem to the solution of a transcendental equation. Numerical results are reported. (author)

  4. Effect of low frequency magnetic fields on melanoma: tumor inhibition and immune modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, Yunzhong; Du, Leilei; Mou, Yongbin; Xu, Zhenjun; Weng, Leihua; Du, Youwei; Zhu, Yanan; Hou, Yayi; Wang, Tingting

    2013-01-01

    We previously found that the low frequency magnetic fields (LF-MF) inhibited gastric and lung cancer cell growth. We suppose that exposure to LF-MF may modulate immune function so as to inhibit tumor. We here investigated whether LF-MF can inhibit the proliferation and metastasis of melanoma and influence immune function. The effect of MF on the proliferation, cell cycle and ultrastracture of B16-F10 in vitro was detected by cell counting Kit-8 assay, flow cytometry, and transmission electron microscopy. Lung metastasis mice were prepared by injection of 2 × 10 5 B16-F10 melanoma cells into the tail vein in C57BL/6 mice. The mice were then exposed to an LF-MF (0.4 T, 7.5 Hz) for 43 days. Survival rate, tumor markers and the innate and adaptive immune parameters were measured. The growth of B16-F10 cells was inhibited after exposure to the LF-MF. The inhibition was related to induction of cell cycle arrest and decomposition of chromatins. Moreover, the LF-MF prolonged the mouse survival rate and inhibited the proliferation of B16-F10 in melanoma metastasis mice model. Furthermore, the LF-MF modulated the immune response via regulation of immune cells and cytokine production. In addition, the number of Treg cells was decreased in mice with the LF-MF exposure, while the numbers of T cells as well as dendritic cells were significantly increased. LF-MF inhibited the growth and metastasis of melanoma cancer cells and improved immune function of tumor-bearing mice. This suggests that the inhibition may be attributed to modulation of LF-MF on immune function and LF-MF may be a potential therapy for treatment of melanoma

  5. Optimal Parameters to Determine the Apparent Diffusion Coefficient in Diffusion Weighted Imaging via Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Dimuthu

    Diffusion weighted (DW) Imaging is a non-invasive MR technique that provides information about the tissue microstructure using the diffusion of water molecules. The diffusion is generally characterized by the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) parametric map. The purpose of this study is to investigate in silico how the calculation of ADC is affected by image SNR, b-values, and the true tissue ADC. Also, to provide optimal parameter combination depending on the percentage accuracy and precision for prostate peripheral region cancer application. Moreover, to suggest parameter choices for any type of tissue, while providing the expected accuracy and precision. In this research DW images were generated assuming a mono-exponential signal model at two different b-values and for known true ADC values. Rician noise of different levels was added to the DWI images to adjust the image SNR. Using the two DWI images, ADC was calculated using a mono-exponential model for each set of b-values, SNR, and true ADC. 40,000 ADC data were collected for each parameter setting to determine the mean and the standard-deviation of the calculated ADC, as well as the percentage accuracy and precision with respect to the true ADC. The accuracy was calculated using the difference between known and calculated ADC. The precision was calculated using the standard-deviation of calculated ADC. The optimal parameters for a specific study was determined when both the percentage accuracy and precision were minimized. In our study, we simulated two true ADCs (ADC 0.00102 for tumor and 0.00180 mm2/s for normal prostate peripheral region tissue). Image SNR was varied from 2 to 100 and b-values were varied from 0 to 2000s/mm2. The results show that the percentage accuracy and percentage precision were minimized with image SNR. To increase SNR, 10 signal-averagings (NEX) were used considering the limitation in total scan time. The optimal NEX combination for tumor and normal tissue for prostate

  6. Experimental determination of the x-ray atomic fundamental parameters of nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménesguen, Y.; Lépy, M.-C.; Hönicke, P.; Müller, M.; Unterumsberger, R.; Beckhoff, B.; Hoszowska, J.; Dousse, J.-Cl; Błachucki, W.; Ito, Y.; Yamashita, M.; Fukushima, S.

    2018-02-01

    The x-ray atomic properties of nickel (Ni) were investigated in a unique approach combining different experimental techniques to obtain new, useful and reliable values of atomic fundamental parameters for x-ray spectrometric purposes and for comparison with theoretical predictions. We determined the mass attenuation coefficients in an energy range covering the L- and K-absorption edges, the K-shell fluorescence yield and the Kβ/Kα and Kβ1, 3/Kα1, 2 transition probability ratios. The obtained line profiles and linewidths of the Kα and Kβ transitions in Ni can be considered as the contribution of the satellite lines arising from the [KM] shake processes suggested by Deutsch et al (1995 Phys. Rev. A 51 283) and Ito et al (2016 Phys. Rev. A 94 042506). Comparison of the new data with several databases showed good agreement, but also discrepancies were found with existing tabulated values.

  7. Geometrical influences on multi-pass laser forming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwardson, S P; Abed, E; Bartkowiak, K; Dearden, G; Watkins, K G

    2006-01-01

    Laser forming (LF) offers the industrial promise of controlled shaping of metallic and non-metallic components for prototyping, the correction of design shape or distortion and precision adjustment applications. The potential process advantages include precise incremental adjustment, flexibility of application and no mechanical 'spring-back' effect. To date there has been a considerable amount of work carried out on two-dimensional LF, using multi-pass straight line scan strategies to produce a reasonably controlled bend angle in a number of materials, including aerospace alloys. A key area, however, where there is a limited understanding, is the variation in bend angle per pass during multi-pass LF along a single irradiation track; in particular, the decrease in bend angle per pass after many irradiations for a given set of process parameters. Understanding this is essential if the process is to be fully controlled in a manufacturing environment. The research presented in this paper highlights the current theories as to why this occurs and proposes a further reason based on the geometrical effects of the component deformation, which in turn influences the process parameters per pass. This theory is confirmed through empirical analysis of the 2D LF process

  8. Determination of N metabolism parameters following 15N-amino acid infusion based on a mathematical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahle, T.; Koehler, R.; Souffrant, W.B.; Gebhardt, G.; Matkowitz, R.; Hartig, W.

    1983-01-01

    Two female pigs (25 kg live weight) received a continuous infusion of 15 N-glycine and 15 N-lysine solutions, resp., for 45 h and for further 72 h unlabelled amino acid solutions. The main protein and energy sources, however, were administered orally. The time course of the 15 N level and the differential urinary N excretion were determined from blood urea and urine. For the demonstration of synthesis and decay rates of the total body protein a mathematical model has been developed. The suitability of 15 N-lysine and 15 N-glycine for the determination of N metabolism parameters is discussed

  9. DETERMINATION ALGORITHM OF OPTIMAL GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS FOR COMPONENTS OF FREIGHT CARS ON THE BASIS OF GENERALIZED MATHEMATICAL MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Fomin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Presentation of features and example of the use of the offered determination algorithm of optimum geometrical parameters for the components of freight cars on the basis of the generalized mathematical models, which is realized using computer. Methodology. The developed approach to search for optimal geometrical parameters can be described as the determination of optimal decision of the selected set of possible variants. Findings. The presented application example of the offered algorithm proved its operation capacity and efficiency of use. Originality. The determination procedure of optimal geometrical parameters for freight car components on the basis of the generalized mathematical models was formalized in the paper. Practical value. Practical introduction of the research results for universal open cars allows one to reduce container of their design and accordingly to increase the carrying capacity almost by100 kg with the improvement of strength characteristics. Taking into account the mass of their park this will provide a considerable economic effect when producing and operating. The offered approach is oriented to the distribution of the software packages (for example Microsoft Excel, which are used by technical services of the most enterprises, and does not require additional capital investments (acquisitions of the specialized programs and proper technical staff training. This proves the correctness of the research direction. The offered algorithm can be used for the solution of other optimization tasks on the basis of the generalized mathematical models.

  10. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and cardiac autonomic responses to transrectal examination differ with behavioral reactivity in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, L; Kézér, F L; Kulcsár-Huszenicza, M; Ruff, F; Szenci, O; Jurkovich, V

    2016-09-01

    Behavior, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity were evaluated in response to transrectal examination in nonlactating Holstein-Friesian cows with different behavioral reactivity. According to behavioral reactions shown to the procedure of fixing the heart rate (HR) monitors, the 20 cows with the highest and the 20 cows with the lowest behavioral reactivity were involved in the study (high responder, n=20; and low responder, n=20, respectively). Activity of the ANS was assessed by HR and HR variability parameters. Blood and saliva were collected at 5 min before (baseline) and 0, 5 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 60, and 120 min after the examination to determine cortisol concentrations. The examination lasted for 5 min. Cardiac parameters included HR, the root mean square of successive differences between the consecutive interbeat intervals, the high frequency (HF) component of heart rate variability, and the ratio between the low frequency (LF) and HF parameter (LF/HF). Following the examination, peak plasma and saliva cortisol levels and the amplitude of the plasma and saliva cortisol response were higher in high responder cows than in low responders. Areas under the plasma and saliva cortisol response curves were greater in high responder cows. Plasma and salivary cortisol levels correlated significantly at baseline (r=0.91), right after examination (r=0.98), and at peak levels (r=0.96). Area under the HR response curve was higher in low responder cows; however, maximum HR and the amplitude of the HR response showed no differences between groups. Minimum values of both parameters calculated for the examination were higher in high responders. Following the examination, response parameters of root mean square of successive differences and HF did not differ between groups. The maximum and the amplitude of LF/HF response and area under the LF/HF response curve were lower in low responder cows, suggesting a lower sympathetic

  11. Spectroscopic determination of fundamental parameters of small angular diameter galactic open clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, A. V.; Claria, J. J.; Bica, E.; Parisi, M. C.; Torres, M. C.; Pavani, D. B.

    We present integrated spectra obtained at CASLEO (Argentina) for 9 galactic open clusters of small angular diameter. Two of them (BH 55 and Rup 159) have not been the target of previous research. The flux-calibrated spectra cover the spectral range approx. 3600-6900 A. Using the equivalent widths (EWs) of the Balmer lines and comparing the cluster spectra with template spectra, we determined E(B-V) colour excesses and ages for the present cluster sample. The parameters obtained for 6 of the clusters show good agreement with previous determinations based mainly on photometric methods. This is not the case, however, for BH 90, a scarcely reddened cluster, for which Moffat and Vogt (1975, Astron. and Astroph. SS, 20, 125) derived E(B-V) = 0.51. We explain and justify the strong discrepancy found for this object. According to the present analysis, 3 clusters are very young (Bo 14, Tr 15 and Tr 27), 2 are moderately young (NGC 6268 and BH 205), 3 are Hyades-like clusters (Rup 164, BH 90 and BH 55) and only one is an intermediate-age cluster (Rup 159).

  12. Status of Isoetes coromandeliana L.f. and Equisetum debile Roxb. ex Voucher in Gujarat State, Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh K. PATEL

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of Isoetes coromandeliana L.f. in natural ponds of Harni, Savali and Tuwa (India is known since 1956 by earlier workers. Equisetum debile Roxb. ex Voucher was also reported in 1962 growing as wild at Savali. Available literature indicates that I. coromandeliana falls under the category of ‘near threatened’ in Asian continents and as an ‘endangered species’ at national (India level. In the current field work study, the authors could not locate the investigated species from the locations earlier documented by researchers. Few saplings of I. coromandeliana were observed at Talod and Vaktapur near Gandhinagar, a new location for the species. In contrast, E. debile appeared to be lost in wild from Gujarat. Their extinction from earlier reported locations is associated with anthropogenic pressure and thus legal action for their protection is needed. The present paper suggests further survey and habitat based studies and recommends conservation and management action plans based upon the ecology of the habitat.

  13. Determination of bubble parameters in two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Lira, C.A.B. de.

    1980-01-01

    A development of a probe-detector system for measurement of bubble parameters like size, rise velocity and void fraction in two-phase flow is presented. The method uses an electro resistivity probe and a compact electronic circuit has been developed for obtain this purpose. (author)

  14. Determination of welding parameters for execution of weld overlayer on PWR nuclear reactor nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Gabriela M.; Lima, Luciana I.; Quinan, Marco A.; Schvartzman, Monica M.

    2009-01-01

    In the PWR reactors, nickel based dissimilar welds have been presented susceptibilities the stress corrosion (S C). For the mitigation the problem a deposition of weld layers on the external surface of the nozzle is an alternative, viewing to provoke the compression of the region subjected to S C. This paper presents a preliminary study on the determination of welding parameters to obtain these welding overlayers. Welding depositions were performed on a test piece welded with nickel 182 alloy, simulating the conditions of a nozzle used in a PWR nuclear power plant. The welding process was the GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding), and a nickel 52 alloy as addition material. The overlayers were performed on the base metals, carbon steel an stainless steel, changing the welding parameters and verifying the the time of each weld filet. After that, the samples were micro structurally characterized. The macro structures and the microstructures obtained through optical microscopy and Vickers microhardness are presented. The preliminary results make evident the good weld quality. However, a small weld parameters influence used in the base material microstructure (carbon steel and stainless steel). The obtained results in this study will be used as reference in the construction of a mock up which will simulate all the conditions of a pressurizer nozzle of PWR reactor

  15. Determination of Cosmological Parameters from GRB Correlation between E_iso (gamma) and Afterglow Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannachi, Zitouni; Guessoum, Nidhal; Azzam, Walid

    2016-07-01

    Context: We use the correlation relations between the energy emitted by the GRBs in their prompt phases and the X-ray afterglow fluxes, in an effort to constrain cosmological parameters and construct a Hubble diagram at high redshifts, i.e. beyond those found in Type Ia supernovae. Methods: We use a sample of 128 Swift GRBs, which we have selected among more than 800 ones observed until July 2015. The selection is based on a few observational constraints: GRB flux higher than 0.4 photons/cm^2/s in the band 15-150 keV; spectrum fitted with simple power law; redshift accurately known and given; and X-ray afterglow observed and flux measured. The statistical method of maximum likelihood is then used to determine the best cosmological parameters (Ω_M, Ω_L) that give the best correlation between the isotropic gamma energies E_{iso} and the afterglow fluxes at the break time t_{b}. The χ^2 statistical test is also used as a way to compare results from two methods. Results & Conclusions: Although the number of GRBs with high redshifts is rather small, and despite the notable dispersion found in the data, the results we have obtained are quite encouraging and promising. The values of the cosmological parameters obtained here are close to those currently used.

  16. Evaluación del efecto tóxico de extractos de Eupatorium microphyllum L.F. (Asteraceae) sobre larvas de Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) en condiciones de laboratorio

    OpenAIRE

    Bello, Felio J.; Rozo, Álvaro; Zapata, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se evaluó la actividad tóxica de extractos de Eupatorium microphyllum L.F. sobre larvas de IV estadio del mosquito Aedes aegypti (Linneaus), bajo condiciones de laboratorio. Se utilizaron extractos acuosos en concentraciones del 500 mg L-1, 1.500 mg L-1 y 2.500 mg L-1 y acetónicos en concentraciones de 10 mg L-1, 20 mg L-1, 30 mg L-1, 40 mg L-1 y 50 mg L-1. Los bioensayos se realizaron por triplicado, cada uno con 20 larvas, expuestas durante 24 horas a 150 mL de soluci...

  17. Fourier Transform Ultrasound Spectroscopy for the determination of wave propagation parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Barnana

    2017-01-01

    The reported results for ultrasonic wave attenuation constant (α) in pure water show noticeable inconsistency in magnitude. A "Propagating-Wave" model analysis of the most popular pulse-echo technique indicates that this is a consequence of the inherent wave propagation characteristics in a bounded medium. In the present work Fourier Transform Ultrasound Spectroscopy (FTUS) is adopted to determine ultrasonic wave propagation parameters, the wave number (k) and attenuation constant (α) at 1MHz frequency in tri-distilled water at room temperature (25°C). Pulse-echo signals obtained under same experimental conditions regarding the exciting input signal and reflecting boundary wall of the water container for various lengths of water columns are captured. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) components of the echo signals are taken to compute k, α and r, the reflection constant at the boundary, using Oak Ridge and Oxford method. The results are compared with existing literature values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The determination of parameters for thermal unit pricing and economic interchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, D.W.; Pickles, R.; McPhail, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    When an interchange of energy occurs between adjoining utilities which is not the subject of a predetermined fixed price agreement but is related to the immediate cost of generating and transmitting the power, the purchaser and seller need to know the cost of the power before agreeing to the interchange. A working party from three Maritime utilities was set up to reveiw areas of interchange energy pricing between them and in particular standardize the following aspects: test procedure for a unit heat rate over its load range; maintenance and operating costs; provision for contingency costs; start up costs of units; and a pricing formula considering the above items. The three utilities are Nova Scotia Power Corporation, Maritime Electric, and New Brunswick Power Commission. Details are presented of the three utility's methods of determining heat rate, operating factor, total fuel cost, transmission loss, operations and maintenance costs, gas turbine parameters, pricing formulae, and start up costs. 2 figs., 7 tabs

  19. Determination of sustainable values for the parameters of the construction of residential buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoreva Larisa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For the formation of programs for housing construction and planning of capital investments, when developing the strategic planning companies by construction companies, the norms or calculated indicators of the duration of the construction of high-rise residential buildings and multifunctional complexes are mandatory. Determination of stable values of the parameters for the high-rise construction residential buildings provides an opportunity to establish a reasonable duration of construction at the planning and design stages of residential complexes, taking into account the influence of market conditions factors. The concept of the formation of enlarged models for the high-rise construction residential buildings is based on a real mapping in time and space of the most significant redistribution with their organizational and technological interconnection - the preparatory period, the underground part, the above-ground part, external engineering networks, landscaping. The total duration of the construction of a residential building, depending on the duration of each redistribution and the degree of their overlapping, can be determined by one of the proposed four options. At the same time, a unified approach to determining the overall duration of construction on the basis of the provisions of a streamlined construction organization with the testing of results on the example of high-rise residential buildings of the typical I-155B series was developed, and the coefficients for combining the work and the main redevelopment of the building were determined.

  20. APPRECIATION OF QUALITY FOR SOME TOMATOES VARIETIES BY USING THE DETERMINATION OF PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Giosanu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies were done on three varieties of tomatoes from Spain (red cherry, yellow cherry and kumato cherry. The following parameters: pH, soluble solids, content of water (moisture, content of minerals (ash, titratable acidity and content of some bioactive compounds (vitamin C, polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins and carotenoids were determinate in order to appreciate the quality of these products. The results showed the influence of the varieties on the values of bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity.

  1. Sensitivity Analysis of the USLE Soil Erodibility Factor to Its Determining Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitova, Milena; Rousseva, Svetla

    2014-05-01

    Soil erosion is recognized as one of the most serious soil threats worldwide. Soil erosion prediction is the first step in soil conservation planning. The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) is one of the most widely used models for soil erosion predictions. One of the five USLE predictors is the soil erodibility factor (K-factor), which evaluates the impact of soil characteristics on soil erosion rates. Soil erodibility nomograph defines K-factor depending on soil characteristics, such as: particle size distribution (fractions finer that 0.002 mm and from 0.1 to 0.002 mm), organic matter content, soil structure and soil profile water permeability. Identifying the soil characteristics, which mostly influence the K-factor would give an opportunity to control the soil loss through erosion by controlling the parameters, which reduce the K-factor value. The aim of the report is to present the results of analysis of the relative weight of these soil characteristics in the K-factor values. The relative impact of the soil characteristics on K-factor was studied through a series of statistical analyses of data from the geographic database for soil erosion risk assessments in Bulgaria. Degree of correlation between K-factor values and the parameters that determine it was studied by correlation analysis. The sensitivity of the K-factor was determined by studying the variance of each parameter within the range between minimum and maximum possible values considering average value of the other factors. Normalizing transformation of data sets was applied because of the different dimensions and the orders of variation of the values of the various parameters. The results show that the content of particles finer than 0.002 mm has the most significant relative impact on the soil erodibility, followed by the content of particles with size from 0.1 mm to 0.002 mm, the class of the water permeability of the soil profile, the content of organic matter and the aggregation class. The

  2. Simultaneous determination of aquifer parameters and zone structures with fuzzy c-means clustering and meta-heuristic harmony search algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayvaz, M. Tamer

    2007-11-01

    This study proposes an inverse solution algorithm through which both the aquifer parameters and the zone structure of these parameters can be determined based on a given set of observations on piezometric heads. In the zone structure identification problem fuzzy c-means ( FCM) clustering method is used. The association of the zone structure with the transmissivity distribution is accomplished through an optimization model. The meta-heuristic harmony search ( HS) algorithm, which is conceptualized using the musical process of searching for a perfect state of harmony, is used as an optimization technique. The optimum parameter zone structure is identified based on three criteria which are the residual error, parameter uncertainty, and structure discrimination. A numerical example given in the literature is solved to demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm. Also, a sensitivity analysis is performed to test the performance of the HS algorithm for different sets of solution parameters. Results indicate that the proposed solution algorithm is an effective way in the simultaneous identification of aquifer parameters and their corresponding zone structures.

  3. Density profiles of supernova matter and determination of neutrino parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Shao-Hsuan

    2007-08-01

    The flavor conversion of supernova neutrinos can lead to observable signatures related to the unknown neutrino parameters. As one of the determinants in dictating the efficiency of resonant flavor conversion, the local density profile near the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) resonance in a supernova environment is, however, not so well understood. In this analysis, variable power-law functions are adopted to represent the independent local density profiles near the locations of resonance. It is shown that the uncertain matter density profile in a supernova, the possible neutrino mass hierarchies, and the undetermined 1-3 mixing angle would result in six distinct scenarios in terms of the survival probabilities of νe and ν¯e. The feasibility of probing the undetermined neutrino mass hierarchy and the 1-3 mixing angle with the supernova neutrinos is then examined using several proposed experimental observables. Given the incomplete knowledge of the supernova matter profile, the analysis is further expanded to incorporate the Earth matter effect. The possible impact due to the choice of models, which differ in the average energy and in the luminosity of neutrinos, is also addressed in the analysis.

  4. Determination of minimum impact parameter by modified touching spheres schemes for intermediate energy Coulomb excitation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rajiv; Sharma, Shagun; Singh, Pradeep; Kharab, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    The energy-independent touching spheres schemes commonly used for the determination of the safe minimum value of the impact parameter for Coulomb excitation experiments are modified through the inclusion of an energy-dependent term. The touching spheres+3fm scheme after modification emerges out to be the best one while touching spheres+4fm scheme is found to be better in its unmodified form. (orig.)

  5. Efeito do volume de tubetes e tipo de substratos na qualidade de mudas de Cryptomeria japonica (L.F. D. Don.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constâncio Bernardo dos Santos

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 A Cryptomeria japonica (L.F. D. Don. é uma espécie de grande potencial para plantios nas regiões altas e frias do Brasil. Destaca-se pelo seu rápido crescimento, boa adaptação ao clima e solo do sul do País, e boa resposta às tecnologias silviculturais, associada à qualidade e diversidade de utilização de sua matéria-prima para fábricas de celulose e papel, chapas, construções de casas, móveis, barcos e navios, entre outras. Neste trabalho, buscou-se avaliar o desenvolvimento das mudas produzidas em diferentes tipos de tubetes e de substratos. Usou-se um experimento bifatorial no delineamento inteiramente casualizado com oito tratamentos em cinco repetições com quarenta mudas por tratamento. Os resultados indicaram que, para a produção de mudas desta espécie, o substrato de solo + vermiculita foi o que apresentou melhor crescimento das plantas, em recipiente de 120 cm3.

  6. Determination of parameters dissolution of yellow-cake. Production of uranyl nitrate - Gas precipitation of AUC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellah, A.

    1987-07-01

    The different stages of the purification cycle of yellow-cakes have been studied thoroughly in order to obtain an ammonium uranyl carbonate (AUC) as an intermediate product of uranium dioxide (UO 2 ). The optimal parameters of yellow-cake dissolution, filtration, extraction by solvent, scrubbing and stripping were determined. An original program of thermodynamic calculation was developed for the determination of the free energies of yellow-cake dissolution reactions. Different numerical methods were used to determine the kinetic constant, the reaction order and correlation equations of uranyl nitrate density as a function of U and H + concentrations, before and after the extraction cycle. For the first time, Algerian filteraids were used for the filtration of uranyl nitrate solutions with satisfactory results. A laboratory designed installation enabled the precipitation of AUC by injection of ammonia and carbon dioxide gases. Interesting results have been obtained and further investigations should be carried out in order to optimize all the paremeters of the gas precipitation of AUC

  7. Determination of parameters of the arc plasma of electrodynamic macro-particle accelerator by the method of simulation of surface energy losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djuric, Z.; Mihajlov, A.A. (Inst. of Physics, Belgrade (Yugoslavia))

    1989-01-01

    In the paper we have presented the model method of calculating electrical arc parameters in the macroparticles' electrodynamic accelerator at the given rail width and the given width between them. The method is based on energy losses simulation at the arc's boundary surfaces and is a modification of the one-dimensional version of Powell and Batteh's method. It has been shown that the proposed method is adequate for operative use and that it enables the determination of both macroscopic arc parameters - acceleration, length, electroconductivity, mean temperature and density of particles etc., as well as local arc plasma parameters. The values of these parameters are determined by numerical solutions of the self-consistent system of magnetic-hydrodynamic, material and thermodynamic equations, at the arc's given mass and muzzle voltage between rails. It has also been shown that the proposed method allows the comparison of one-, two- and three-dimensional arc approximations. In the present paper we have used the method assuming that arc plasma is at most doubly ionized and produced exclusively by copper atoms. (orig.).

  8. Determining frequentist confidence limits using a directed parameter space search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, Scott F.; Connolly, Andrew J.; Schneider, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    We consider the problem of inferring constraints on a high-dimensional parameter space with a computationally expensive likelihood function. We propose a machine learning algorithm that maps out the Frequentist confidence limit on parameter space by intelligently targeting likelihood evaluations so as to quickly and accurately characterize the likelihood surface in both low- and high-likelihood regions. We compare our algorithm to Bayesian credible limits derived by the well-tested Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm using both multi-modal toy likelihood functions and the seven yr Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe cosmic microwave background likelihood function. We find that our algorithm correctly identifies the location, general size, and general shape of high-likelihood regions in parameter space while being more robust against multi-modality than MCMC.

  9. Parameter determination for quantitative PIXE analysis using genetic algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspiazu, J.; Belmont-Moreno, E.

    1996-01-01

    For biological and environmental samples, PIXE technique is in particular advantage for elemental analysis, but the quantitative analysis implies accomplishing complex calculations that require the knowledge of more than a dozen parameters. Using a genetic algorithm, the authors give here an account of the procedure to obtain the best values for the parameters necessary to fit the efficiency for a X-ray detector. The values for some variables involved in quantitative PIXE analysis, were manipulated in a similar way as the genetic information is treated in a biological process. The authors carried out the algorithm until they reproduce, within the confidence interval, the elemental concentrations corresponding to a reference material

  10. A proposal of parameter determination method in the residual strength degradation model for the prediction of fatigue life (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Tae; Jang, Seong Soo

    2001-01-01

    The static and fatigue tests have been carried out to verify the validity of a generalized residual strength degradation model. And a new method of parameter determination in the model is verified experimentally to account for the effect of tension-compression fatigue loading of spheroidal graphite cast iron. It is shown that the correlation between the experimental results and the theoretical prediction on the statistical distribution of fatigue life by using the proposed method is very reasonable. Furthermore, it is found that the correlation between the theoretical prediction and the experimental results of fatigue life in case of tension-tension fatigue data in composite material appears to be reasonable. Therefore, the proposed method is more adjustable in the determination of the parameter than maximum likelihood method and minimization technique

  11. A first look into the influence of triathlon wetsuit on resting blood pressure and heart rate variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Prado

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of wearing a wetsuit on resting cardiovascular measures (blood pressure (BP, heart rate variability (HRV. The influence of position (upright, prone and wetsuit size were also explored. Participants (n=12 males, 33.3±12.1 years had BP and HRV measured during six resting conditions: standing or prone while not wearing a wetsuit (NWS, wearing the smallest (SWS, or largest (LWS wetsuit (based upon manufacturer guidelines. Heart rate was recorded continuously over 5-mins; BP was measured three times per condition. HRV was represented by the ratio of low (LF and high (HF frequency (LF/HF ratio; mean arterial pressure (MAP was calculated. Each dependent variable was analyzed using a 2 (position x 3 (wetsuit repeated measures ANOVA (α=0.05. Neither HRV parameter was influenced by position x wetsuit condition interaction (p>0.05 and MAP was not influenced by position (p=0.717. MAP and LF/HF ratio were both influenced by wetsuit condition (p<0.05 with higher during SWS than NWS (p=0.026 while LF/HF ratio was lower during SWS compared to NWS (p=0.032. LF/HF ratio was influenced by position being greater during standing vs. prone (p=0.001. It was concluded that during resting while on land (i.e., not submerged in water, wearing a small, tight-fitting wetsuit subtlety altered cardiovascular parameters for healthy, normotensive subjects.

  12. The effect of external beam radiotherapy volume on locoregional control in patients with locoregionally advanced or recurrent nonanaplastic thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Kim, Sang Soo; Cho, Kwan Ho; Shin, Kyung Hwan; Chung, Ki-Wook; Lee, You Jin; Park, Chan Sung; Lee, Eun Kyung; Kim, Tae Sung; Kim, Seok Ki; Jung, Yoo Seok; Ryu, Jun Sun

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated outcomes of patients treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for locoregionally advanced or recurrent nonanaplastic thyroid cancer and analyzed the effect of EBRT volume on locoregional control. This study included 23 patients with locoregionally advanced or recurrent nonanaplastic thyroid cancer who were treated with EBRT. Two different EBRT target volumes were executed as follows: 1) limited field (LF, n = 11) included the primary (involved lobe) or recurrent tumor bed and the positive nodal area; 2) elective field (EF, n = 12) included the primary (involved lobe) or recurrent tumor bed and the regional nodal areas in the cervical neck and upper mediastinum. Clinical parameters, such as gender, age, histologic type, recurrence, stage, thyroglobulin level, postoperative residuum, radioiodine treatment, and EBRT volume were analyzed to identify prognostic factors associated with locoregional control. There were no significant differences in the clinical parameter distributions between the LF and EF groups. In the LF group, six (55%) patients developed locoregional recurrence and three (27%) developed distant metastasis. In the EF group, one (8%) patient developed locoregional recurrence and one (8%) developed a distant metastasis. There was a significant difference in locoregional control rate at 5 years in the LF and EF groups (40% vs. 89%, p = 0.041). There were no significant differences in incidences of acute and late toxicities between two groups (p >0.05). EBRT with EF provided significantly better locoregional control than that of LF; however, further larger scaled studies are warranted

  13. Validation parameters of instrumental method for determination of total bacterial count in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Mikulec

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The method of flow citometry as rapid, instrumental and routine microbiological method is used for determination of total bacterial count in milk. The results of flow citometry are expressed as individual bacterial cells count. Problems regarding the interpretation of the results of total bacterial count can be avoided by transformation of the results of flow citometry method onto the scale of reference method (HRN ISO 6610:2001.. The method of flow citometry, like any analitycal method, according to the HRN EN ISO/IEC 17025:2000 standard, requires validation and verification. This paper describes parameters of validation: accuracy, precision, specificity, range, robustness and measuring uncertainty for the method of flow citometry.

  14. Contaminant transport in aquifers: improving the determination of model parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabino, C.V.S.; Moreira, R.M.; Lula, Z.L.; Chausson, Y.; Magalhaes, W.F.; Vianna, M.N.

    1998-01-01

    Parameters conditioning the migration behavior of cesium and mercury are measured with their tracers 137 Cs and 203 Hg in the laboratory, using both batch and column experiments. Batch tests were used to define the sorption isotherm characteristics. Also investigated were the influences of some test parameters, in particular those due to the volume of water to mass of soil ratio (V/m). A provisional relationship between V/m and the distribution coefficient, K d , has been advanced, and a procedure to estimate K d 's valid for environmental values of the ratio V/m has been suggested. Column tests provided the parameters for a transport model. A major problem to be dealt with in such tests is the collimation of the radioactivity probe. Besides mechanically optimizing the collimator, a deconvolution procedure has been suggested and tested, with statistical criteria, to filter off both noise and spurious tracer signals. Correction procedures for the integrating effect introduced by sampling at the exit of columns have also been developed. These techniques may be helpful in increasing the accuracy required in the measurement of parameters conditioning contaminant migration in soils, thus allowing more reliable predictions based on mathematical model applications. (author)

  15. Determination of a test section parameters for Iris nuclear reactor pressurizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Mario A.B. da; Lira, Carlos A.B. de O.

    2009-01-01

    An integral, modular and medium size nuclear reactor, known as IRIS, is being developed by Westinghouse and by research centers. IRIS is characterized by having most of its components inside the pressure vessel, eliminating the probability of accidents. Due to its integral configuration, there is no spray system for boron homogenization, which may cause power transients. Thus, boron mixing must be investigated. The aim of this paper is to establish the conditions under which a test section has to be built for boron dispersion analysis inside IRIS reactor pressurizer. Through Fractional Scaling Analysis, which is a new methodology of similarity, the main parameters for a test section are obtained. By combining Fractional Scaling Analysis with local scaling for the densimetric Froude number and a previously established volumetric scale factor, the values of recirculation orifices, inlet water temperature, time scale factor and recirculation flow for the test section (model) are determined so that boron distribution is well represented in IRIS reactor pressurizer (prototype). Analytical solutions were used to validate the adopted methodology and when the results simulated in the model are compared to those that characterize the prototype, the agreement for both systems is absolute. The thermal power also influences boron distribution inside the test section. This power is determined by condensation laws in the vapor region and by suitable correlations for free convection. The fractions for rising inlet recirculation water enthalpy and vapor formation are also considered. (author)

  16. Parameters of quality of the woodworkability for determination of different usage of Eucalyptus wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Reinaldo Moreira da Silva

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Wood products used in the furniture industry need to have wood work machine surfaces quality optimized andpatronized. There are some classification methods to determine the wood quality, including visual inspection, determination of theadvance per tooth (fz, rugosimeter and laser or just touching. After the wood classification it is determined the usage of the differentwood qualities. The empiricism of the quality parameters in the indication of uses is not always ideal. This study determined the qualityof surfaces of Eucalyptus flat wood and defined appropriate uses for the different quality classes obtained. It had been worked machinedifferent Eucalyptus samples by planer with speed of advance of 3,6,15 and 30 m*min-1. To classify the wood, the determination of theadvance per tooth (calculated fz and measured fz and the visual qualification (ASTMD 1666-87, 1995 were used. Later the woodusage according to quality was determined. The percentage of good samples decreased as the speed advance increased: reaching92%, 69%, 0% and 0% for advance speed of 3,6,15 and 30 m*min-1 respectively. Samples prepared at the speed of 3 and 6 m*min-1 were used to fabricate furniture, cabinet frame and thresholds. About 54%of samples prepared at the speed of 15 m*min-1 were usedfor railing, lambris, structural panels and flooring. About 46% and 100% of samples prepared at the speed of 15 and 30 m*min-1,respectively, were used to fabricate dividers, trusses, fences and, or, exterior gates.

  17. Bovine lactoferrin decreases cholera-toxin-induced intestinal fluid accumulation in mice by ganglioside interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulton P Rivera

    Full Text Available Secretory diarrhea caused by cholera toxin (CT is initiated by binding of CT's B subunit (CTB to GM1-ganglioside on the surface of intestinal cells. Lactoferrin, a breast milk glycoprotein, has shown protective effect against several enteropathogens. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of bovine-lactoferrin (bLF on CT-induced intestinal fluid accumulation in mice, and the interaction between bLF and CT/CTB with the GM1-ganglioside receptor. Fluid accumulation induced by CT was evaluated in the mouse ileal loop model using 56 BALB/c mice, with and without bLF added before, after or at the same time of CT administration. The effect of bLF in the interaction of CT and CTB with GM1-ganglioside was evaluated by a GM1-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. bLF decreased CT-induced fluid accumulation in the ileal loop of mice. The greatest effect was when bLF was added before CT (median, 0.066 vs. 0.166 g/cm, with and without bLF respectively, p<0.01. We conclude that bLF decreases binding of CT and CTB to GM1-ganglioside, suggesting that bLF suppresses CT-induced fluid accumulation by blocking the binding of CTB to GM1-ganglioside. bLF may be effective as adjunctive therapy for treatment of cholera diarrhea.

  18. Flow parameter determination in pneumatic dilute phase flow applications; Foerderparameterbestimmung in pneumatischen Duennstrom-Transportanwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, A.; Zangl, H.; Brasseur, G. [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Elektrische Messtechnik und Messsignalverarbeitung

    2007-07-01

    This paper investigates possible approaches towards the development of a flowmeter that allows the determination of the material velocity and the material concentration in pneumatically conveyed bulk solids. These two flow parameters yield the mass flow of material through the conveyor pipe. Measurement methods and sensor principles that satisfy requirements for the flowmeter have been realized as prototype-sensors and were tested in practical dilute phase conveying applications. In particular, the development and the application of optical principles, of a sensor based on spatial filtering, and a capacitive cross-correlation sensor are addressed in the present work. (orig.)

  19. Determination of the hydrodynamic and morphological parameters of the Luyano River using radiotracer techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valcarcel, Lino; Alberro, Nancy; Rodriguez, Maydel; Herrero, Zahily; Borroto, Jorge; Hernandez, Anel; Dominguez, Judith; Derivet, Milagros; Flores, Pedro; Cuesta, Jaime; Griffith, Jose

    2011-01-01

    The hydrodynamic and morphological parameters (the times of travel, velocities and flowrates of the waters, and the average widths, cross sections and depths) in the middle segment of the river Luyano were determined combining the employment of sodium pertechnectate (Na 99m TcO 4 ) as radiotracer with other conventional techniques. The results were used for the calibration of the expanded Streeter and Phelps model of the river. In the work, the methodology and the main results obtained during the journey realized between the second fortnight of March and the first of April 2009 are presented. (Author)

  20. [Levels of bone mineral matrix organization and the mechanisms determining parameters of its formation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avrunin, A S; Tikhilov, R M; Abolin, A B; Shcherbak, I G

    2005-01-01

    Authors suggest to regard bone mineral matrix as the four-level structure. The first level is represented by an internal structure of a mineral, the second--by mineral morphological structure, the third--by coplanar association of minerals, and the fourth--by macroassociation of minerals in a single complex inside each bone. The most probable mechanisms determining stability of reproduction of mineral matrix parameters on each of these levels are shown. As a result of their functioning, the variants of bone mineral matrix structures are formed that are the programmed reflection of specificity of the given site of organic structures.

  1. Determination of activation parameters for the core transformation of the screw dislocation in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guénolé, J; Godet, J; Pizzagalli, L

    2010-01-01

    The non-dissociated screw dislocation in a model covalent material like silicon is known to exist in three possible stable core configurations. We performed calculations combining the nudged elastic band technique and a semi-empirical description in order to determine mechanisms and activation parameters for transforming one core into another. Our results showed that a glide core is necessarily reconstructed, since the energy barrier for reconstruction is easily overcome by thermal activation. Conversely, a transformation between a shuffle and a glide core appears unlikely at low temperature, which raises questions about the existence of the double-period glide configuration

  2. Immunolocalization of lactoferrin in surgically resected pigmented skin lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Tuccari

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Lactoferrin (Lf expression was determined immunohistochemically in 57 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded bioptic samples obtained from an equal number of patients treated by surgery to remove pigmented skin lesions (nevi = 23; melanoma = 12; vulgaris and seborrhoeic warts = 12; basal cell carcinoma = 10; in addition, 10 specimens of normal skin were studied as control. On 3 ?m thick sections, depigmentation and antigen retrieval procedures were performed. The Lf immunoreactivity was revealed by a rabbit anti-human Lf. Quantification of Lf immunoreactivity was performed using an intensity-distribution (ID score. Melanocytic cells, regardless of their benign or malignant nature, were consistently stained, with no significant differences in the Lf IDscore between melanomas or nevi. A different intensity of Lf immunoreactivity was encountered in superficial portions of warts, exclusively inside squamous epithelial cells arranged in sheets or whorls of keratin. On the contrary, basal cell carcinomas were always unstained, while a slight Lf positivity was found in focal keratinized areas present in two tumours showing baso-squamous differentiation. The Lf immunoreactivity was localized in the cytoplasm and only occasionally in the nucleus. The biological meaning of Lf in these cases of human skin specimens remains unexplained, although it cannot be ruled out that Lf might be involved in the defense system against tumours, or alternatively, may be used by cells requiring iron availability for their turnover. Moreover, the immunohistochemical expression of Lf in melanocytic lesions might be also related to a Lf-melanin interaction. Finally, the involvement of Lf in skin squamous non-neoplastic elements could be related to its role as one of the molecules modulating an unspecific inflammatory or anti-oxidant response.

  3. Experimental Methodology for Determining Optimum Process Parameters for Production of Hydrous Metal Oxides by Internal Gelation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, J.L.

    2005-10-28

    The objective of this report is to describe a simple but very useful experimental methodology that was used to determine optimum process parameters for preparing several hydrous metal-oxide gel spheres by the internal gelation process. The method is inexpensive and very effective in collection of key gel-forming data that are needed to prepare the hydrous metal-oxide microspheres of the best quality for a number of elements.

  4. Application of Box-Behnken designs in parameters optimization of differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry for lead(II) determination in two electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Lan; He, Yong

    2017-06-05

    Box-Behnken design was advantageous to parameters optimization of differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) for the analysis of lead(II) with its high efficiency and accuracy. Five Box-Behnken designs were designed and conducted in the electrolyte of 0.1 mol/L acetate buffer and 0.1 mol/L HCl without the removal of oxygen. Significant parameters and interactions in each electrolyte were found (P-value Box-Behnken designs in parameters optimization of DPASV for lead(II) determination regardless of the electrolyte kinds.

  5. Determination of key parameters of vector multifractal vector fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertzer, D. J. M.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.

    2017-12-01

    For too long time, multifractal analyses and simulations have been restricted to scalar-valued fields (Schertzer and Tchiguirinskaia, 2017a,b). For instance, the wind velocity multifractality has been mostly analysed in terms of scalar structure functions and with the scalar energy flux. This restriction has had the unfortunate consequences that multifractals were applicable to their full extent in geophysics, whereas it has inspired them. Indeed a key question in geophysics is the complexity of the interactions between various fields or they components. Nevertheless, sophisticated methods have been developed to determine the key parameters of scalar valued fields. In this communication, we first present the vector extensions of the universal multifractal analysis techniques to multifractals whose generator belong to a Levy-Clifford algebra (Schertzer and Tchiguirinskaia, 2015). We point out further extensions noting the increased complexity. For instance, the (scalar) index of multifractality becomes a matrice. Schertzer, D. and Tchiguirinskaia, I. (2015) `Multifractal vector fields and stochastic Clifford algebra', Chaos: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science, 25(12), p. 123127. doi: 10.1063/1.4937364. Schertzer, D. and Tchiguirinskaia, I. (2017) `An Introduction to Multifractals and Scale Symmetry Groups', in Ghanbarian, B. and Hunt, A. (eds) Fractals: Concepts and Applications in Geosciences. CRC Press, p. (in press). Schertzer, D. and Tchiguirinskaia, I. (2017b) `Pandora Box of Multifractals: Barely Open ?', in Tsonis, A. A. (ed.) 30 Years of Nonlinear Dynamics in Geophysics. Berlin: Springer, p. (in press).

  6. Can Lactobacillus fermentum LF10 and Lactobacillus acidophilus LA02 in a slow-release vaginal product be useful for prevention of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis?: A clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murina, Filippo; Graziottin, Alessandra; Vicariotto, Franco; De Seta, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of the association of 2 specific strains, Lactobacillus fermentum LF10 (DSM 19187) and Lactobacillus acidophilus LA02 (DSM 21717), specifically formulated in slow-release effervescent tablets, in patients with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. The study was a clinical trial of 58 women diagnosed with recurrent VVC (≥4 culture-confirmed episodes in a 12-mo period). All patients were given 200 mg of fluconazole orally as an induction dose for 3 alternate days during the first treatment week. Afterward, the patients were given a new product formulated in slow-release vaginal tablets containing at least 0.4 billion live cells of each of lactobacillus L. fermentum LF10 and L. acidophilus LA02 (first phase of the prophylactic period), on alternate days for 10 consecutive nights. Patients who were still free of symptoms were given 1 vaginal tablet every week for the next 10 weeks (second phase of the prophylactic period). Patients asymptomatic after the total duration of the observation phase (7 mo) were considered as responders. During the second 10-week prophylactic phase, 49 of 57 (86.0%) patients remained free of clinical recurrence, whereas symptomatic VVC occurred in 8 patients (14.0%). During the 7-month follow-up, 42 patients of 49 (85.7%) were symptom free at the end of the protocol, whereas clinical recurrences occurred in 7 women (14.3%). Overall, 42 of 58 women enrolled in the study (72.4%) experienced no clinical recurrence throughout the 7-month observation phase (responders). This study strengthens the evidence supporting the use of specific lactobacilli with well-demonstrated activities associated with the creation and maintenance of a vaginal biofilm that hinders the persistence of an infection caused by Candida.

  7. Surface trapping phenomena in thermionic emission generating l/f noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanescu, A.

    1975-01-01

    A general expression of the power spectrum of''flicker noise'', involving stochastic trapping phenomena and calculated on the basis of a two parameter model, is applied in the case of thermoionic emission from cathode surface. The fluctuation of the work function over the cathode surface is interpreted as being due to a trapping process of foreign atoms by the cathode. Taking into account the very physical nature of the trapping mechanism, under self-consistent assumptions, a 1/f power spectrum is obtained in a certain range of frequency. The two parameter model removes some discrepancies involved in the preceding theories. (author)

  8. Determination of electrodebiles parameters of quark b; Determinacion de los parametros electrodebiles del quark b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamizo Llatas, M.

    1995-07-01

    In the present work we analyze the process e{sup e{yields}}bb with the data collected during 1991 and 1992 by the Z,3 detector situated in the LEP e{sup es}torage-ring (CERN). From the measurements of the cross-sections and the charge asymmetry we determine the parameters of the b quark in the framework of the Standard Model. Finally, we parametrize the possible deviations from the model an obtain upper and lower. limits for the mass of the t quark. (Author) 23 refs.

  9. Like/dislike analysis using EEG: determination of most discriminative channels and frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Bülent; Korkmaz, Sümeyye; Arslan, Dilek Betül; Güngör, Evrim; Asyalı, Musa H

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we have analyzed electroencephalography (EEG) signals to investigate the following issues, (i) which frequencies and EEG channels could be relatively better indicators of preference (like or dislike decisions) of consumer products, (ii) timing characteristic of "like" decisions during such mental processes. For this purpose, we have obtained multichannel EEG recordings from 15 subjects, during total of 16 epochs of 10 s long, while they were presented with some shoe photographs. When they liked a specific shoe, they pressed on a button and marked the time of this activity and the particular epoch was labeled as a LIKE case. No button press meant that the subject did not like the particular shoe that was displayed and corresponding epoch designated as a DISLIKE case. After preprocessing, power spectral density (PSD) of EEG data was estimated at different frequencies (4, 5, …, 40 Hz) using the Burg method, for each epoch corresponding to one shoe presentation. Each subject's data consisted of normalized PSD values (NPVs) from all LIKE and DISLIKE cases/epochs coming from all 19 EEG channels. In order to determine the most discriminative frequencies and channels, we have utilized logistic regression, where LIKE/DISLIKE status was used as a categorical (binary) response variable and corresponding NPVs were the continuously valued input variables or predictors. We observed that when all the NPVs (total of 37) are used as predictors, the regression problem was becoming ill-posed due to large number of predictors (compared to the number of samples) and high correlation among predictors. To circumvent this issue, we have divided the frequency band into low frequency (LF) 4-19 Hz and high frequency (HF) 20-40 Hz bands and analyzed the influence of the NPV in these bands separately. Then, using the p-values that indicate how significantly estimated predictor weights are different than zero, we have determined the NPVs and channels that are more influential

  10. Diagnostic performance of quantitative shear wave elastography in the evaluation of solid breast masses: determination of the most discriminatory parameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Frederick Wing-Fai; Ghai, Sandeep; Moshonov, Hadas; Kahn, Harriette; Brennan, Cressida; Dua, Hemi; Crystal, Pavel

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to assess the diagnostic performance of quantitative shear wave elastography in the evaluation of solid breast masses and to determine the most discriminatory parameter. B-mode ultrasound and shear wave elastography were performed before core biopsy of 123 masses in 112 women. The diagnostic performance of ultrasound and quantitative shear wave elastography parameters (mean elasticity, maximum elasticity, and elasticity ratio) were compared. The added effect of shear wave elastography on the performance of ultrasound was determined. The mean elasticity, maximum elasticity, and elasticity ratio were 24.8 kPa, 30.3 kPa, and 1.90, respectively, for 79 benign masses and 130.7 kPa, 154.9 kPa, and 11.52, respectively, for 44 malignant masses (p shear wave elastography parameter was higher than that of ultrasound (p shear wave elastography parameters to the evaluation of BI-RADS category 4a masses, about 90% of masses could be downgraded to BI-RADS category 3. The numbers of downgraded masses were 40 of 44 (91%) for mean elasticity, 39 of 44 (89%) for maximum elasticity, and 42 of 44 (95%) for elasticity ratio. The numbers of correctly downgraded masses were 39 of 40 (98%) for mean elasticity, 38 of 39 (97%) for maximum elasticity, and 41 of 42 (98%) for elasticity ratio. There was improvement in the diagnostic performance of ultrasound of mass assessment with shear wave elastography parameters added to BI-RADS category 4a masses compared with ultrasound alone. Combined ultrasound and elasticity ratio had the highest improvement, from 35.44% to 87.34% for specificity, from 45.74% to 80.77% for positive predictive value, and from 57.72% to 90.24% for accuracy (p shear wave elastography parameters of benign and malignant solid breast masses. By adding shear wave elastography parameters to BI-RADS category 4a masses, we found that about 90% of them could be correctly downgraded to BI-RADS category 3, thereby avoiding biopsy. Elasticity ratio

  11. Process development and economic evaluation of recombinant human lactoferrin expressed in rice grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Somen; Yalda, Dorice; Lu, Stephen; Nikolov, Zivko; Misaki, Ryo; Fujiyama, Kazuhito; Huang, Ning

    2005-06-01

    In this paper, we show that recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF) has been stably expressed at 0.5% brown rice flour weight for nine generations. Process development indicates that rhLF can be efficiently extracted from rice flour in 20 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) containing up to 0.5 M NaCl and at a ratio of 1 kg flour to 10 L buffer. After solid/liquid separation, the extract can then be loaded directly onto an ion-exchange column and rhLF can be eluted using 0.8 M NaCl. The resulting rhLF is about 95% pure. A range of biochemical and biophysical analyses were carried out and results indicated that the purified rhLF was identical to its native human counterpart other than its glycosylation. Economic analysis shows that at 600 kg/year scale, the cash cost to produce 1 g of rhLF of pharmaceutical grade is US$ 5.90. Analysis also indicates that the expression level has profound impact on costs related to planting, milling, extraction and purification, thus high level expression of recombinant protein in plants is one of the key parameters for the success of plant made pharmaceuticals.

  12. Low Energy Gamma Radiation Induced Effects on Ultrasonic Velocity and Acoustic Parameters in Polyvinylidene Fluoride Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Kulkarni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The modification of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF polymer properties with irradiation is of interest as it possesses unique piezo-, pyro-, and ferroelectric properties. In this paper, we report the results of acoustic parameters of irradiated PVDF mixed with dimethylacetamide (DMAC solution with low energy γ-source (Cs-137. The polymer solution covered with mica film assures only γ-ray passage and the duration was increased from 18 to 50 hours to achieve the higher dose rate. The dose rate was estimated using the strength of the radioactive source and the duration of the exposure. The ultrasonic velocity (v, density (ρ, and viscosity (η of 0.2 wt% and 0.5 wt% PVDF dissolved in pure DMAC solution, irradiated with different dose rate were measured using ultrasonic interferometer (Mittal make, Pyknometer, and Oswald’s viscometer, respectively. It is observed that the values of v, ρ, and η change with dose rate. The acoustic parameters such as adiabatic compressibility (β, intermolecular free path length (Lf, acoustic impedance (Z, relative association (RA, ultrasonic attenuation (α/f2, and relaxation time (τ are calculated using the experimental data. These results are interpreted in terms of the solute-solvent interaction in a polymer solution and scissoring chain damage.

  13. METHODOLOGY FOR HYDRAULIC CALCULATION OF RIVER REGULATION AND DETERMINATION OF DIKE PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Mikhnevich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Territory protection against flood water inundation and creation of polder systems are carried out with the help of protection dikes. One of the main requirements to the composition of polder systems in flood plains is a location of border dikes beyond meander belt in order to avoid their erosion when meander development occurs. Meander belt width can be determined on the basis of the analysis of multi-year land surveying pertaining top river-bed building and in the case when such data is not available this parameter is calculated in accordance with the Snishchenko formula. While banking-up a river bed a flooded area is decreasing and, consequently, water level in inter-dike space and rate of flood water are significantly increasing. For this reason it is necessary to locate dikes at a such distance from a river bed which will not cause rather high increase in water level and flow velocity in the inter-dike space. Methodology for hydraulic calculation of river regulation has been developed in order to substantiate design parameters for levee systems, creation of favourable hydraulic regime in these systems and provision of sustainability for dikes. Its main elements are calculations of pass-through capacity of the leveed channel and rise of water level in inter-dike space, and distance between dikes and their crest level. Peculiar feature of the proposed calculated formulae is an interaction consideration of channel and inundated flows. Their mass-exchanging process results in slowing-down of the channel flow and acceleration of the inundated flow. This occurrence is taken into account and coefficients of kinematic efficiency are introduced to the elements of water flow rate in the river channel and flood plain, respectively. The adduced dependencies for determination of a dike crest level (consequently their height take into consideration a rise of water level in inter-dike space for two types of polder systems: non-inundable (winter dikes with

  14. Demodulation Radio Frequency Interference Effects in Operational Amplifier Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutu, Yue-Hong

    A series of investigations have been carried out to determine RFI effects in analog circuits using monolithic integrated operational amplifiers (op amps) as active devices. The specific RFI effect investigated is how amplitude-modulated (AM) RF signals are demodulated in op amp circuits to produce undesired low frequency responses at AM-modulation frequency. The undesired demodulation responses were shown to be characterized by a second-order nonlinear transfer function. Four representative op amp types investigated were the 741 bipolar op amp, the LM10 bipolar op amp, the LF355 JFET-Bipolar op amp, and the CA081 MOS-Bipolar op amp. Two op amp circuits were investigated. The first circuit was a noninverting unity voltage gain buffer circuit. The second circuit was an inverting op amp configuration. In the second circuit, the investigation includes the effects of an RFI suppression capacitor in the feedback path. Approximately 30 units of each op amp type were tested to determine the statistical variations of RFI demodulation effects in the two op amp circuits. The Nonlinear Circuit Analysis Program, NCAP, was used to simulate the demodulation RFI response. In the simulation, the op amp was replaced with its incremental macromodel. Values of macromodel parameters were obtained from previous investigations and manufacturer's data sheets. Some key results of this work are: (1) The RFI demodulation effects are 10 to 20 dB lower in CA081 and LF355 FET-bipolar op amp than in 741 and LM10 bipolar op amp except above 40 MHz where the LM10 RFI response begins to approach that of CA081. (2) The experimental mean values for 30 741 op amps show that RFI demodulation responses in the inverting amplifier with a 27 pF feedback capacitor were suppressed from 10 to 35 dB over the RF frequency range 0.1 to 150 MHz except at 0.15 MHz where only 3.5 dB suppression was observed. (3) The NCAP program can predict RFI demodulation responses in 741 and LF355 unity gain buffer circuits

  15. Determination of kinetic parameters of 1,3-propanediol fermentation by Clostridium diolis using statistically optimized medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Guneet; Srivastava, Ashok K; Chand, Subhash

    2012-09-01

    1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) is a chemical compound of immense importance primarily used as a raw material for fiber and textile industry. It can be produced by the fermentation of glycerol available abundantly as a by-product from the biodiesel plant. The present study was aimed at determination of key kinetic parameters of 1,3-PD fermentation by Clostridium diolis. Initial experiments on microbial growth inhibition were followed by optimization of nutrient medium recipe by statistical means. Batch kinetic data from studies in bioreactor using optimum concentration of variables obtained from statistical medium design was used for estimation of kinetic parameters of 1,3-PD production. Direct use of raw glycerol from biodiesel plant without any pre-treatment for 1,3-PD production using this strain investigated for the first time in this work gave results comparable to commercial glycerol. The parameter values obtained in this study would be used to develop a mathematical model for 1,3-PD to be used as a guide for designing various reactor operating strategies for further improving 1,3-PD production. An outline of protocol for model development has been discussed in the present work.

  16. Determination of Several Clinical Parameters of the Blood for the HealthyEvaluation of the Radiation Worker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazid, M; Triyono; Aris-Bastianudin

    2000-01-01

    Determination of the several clinical parameters of the blood for healthyevaluation of the radiation worker has been done. This research was done forarrangement of the medical general check up of the radiation worker toobserve pathological indicator of several body organs. The blood sample wastaken from vena mediana cubiti and analyzed by reagent using standardprocedure from Boehringer Mainheim. That procedure is specific for eachclinical parameters. That clinical parameters concentration was measured byClinicon Photometer 4010. The clinical data of the radiation worker wascompared to the non radiation worker. The measurement results of 501patients, shown that total protein concentrations for all worker are > 8.00g%, the cholesterol concentration of 25 patient are > 260 mg%. The glucoseconcentration for fasting condition of 7 patients are > 200 mg/dl, the ureumconcentration of all patients are 7mg% and the creatinine of 112 patients are > 1.4 mg%. From those results canbe concluded that the most pathological indicator can be identified fromliver, heart and kidney function respectively. From the clinical aspects canbe seen that there is no significant difference between the health ofradiation worker and non radiation worker. (author)

  17. Quality of low-fat meatballs containing Legume flours as extenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdaroğlu, Meltem; Yıldız-Turp, Gülen; Abrodímov, Kiyalbek

    2005-05-01

    Meatballs were extended with blackeye bean flour (BBF), chickpea flour (CF), lentil flour (LF) and rusk (R) at level of 10%. Raw and cooked meatballs were analyzed for moisture, fat, protein and ash content. Cooking properties and colour parameters were evaluated. BBF and LF resulted in greater cooking yield, fat retention and moisture retention values. Meatballs extended with LF were lighter than other samples. Meatballs formulated with BBF had the lowest reduction in diameter. Meatballs with BBF and CF had higher water holding capacity (WHC) than other treatment groups. All meatballs incorporating legume flours were tougher (lower penetration values) than the R treatment. According to sensory evaluation results all meatball treatments had high acceptability and received high scores (6.8 and above). Meatballs with BBF and CF had lower TBA values than meatballs with LF and R at 3rd month of frozen storage at -18°C.

  18. Theoretical methods for determination of core parameters in uranium-plutonium lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pop-Jordanov, J.; Bosevski, T.; Matausek, M.; Stefanovic, D.; Strugar, P. [Institut za Nuklearne Nauke Boris Kidric, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1972-07-01

    The prediction of plutonium production in power reactors depends essentially on how the change of neutron energy spectra in a reactor cell during burn-up is determined. In the epithermal region, where the build-up of plutonium occurs, the slowing down effects are particularly important, whereas, on the other hand, the thermal neutron spectrum is strongly influenced by the low-lying plutonium resonances. For accurate analysis, multi-group numerical methods are required, which, applied to burn-up prediction, are extremely laborious and time consuming even for large computers. This paper contains a comprehensive review of the methods of core parameter determination in the uranium-plutonium lattices developed in Yugoslavia during the last few years. Faced with the problem of using small computers, the authors had to find new approaches combining physical evidence and mathematical elegance. The main feature of these approaches is the tendency to proceed with analytical treatment as far as possible and then to include suitable numerical improvements. With this philosophy, which is generally overlooked when using large computers, fast and reasonably accurate methods were developed. The methods include original means for adequate treatment of neutron spectra and cell geometry effects,especially suitable for U-Pu systems. In particular, procedures based on the energy dependent boundary conditions, the discrete energy representation, the improved collision probabilities and the Green function slowing down solutions were developed and applied. Results obtained with these methods are presented and compared with those of the experiments and those obtained with other methods. (author)

  19. Theoretical methods for determination of core parameters in uranium-plutonium lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop-Jordanov, J.; Bosevski, T.; Matausek, M.; Stefanovic, D.; Strugar, P.

    1972-01-01

    The prediction of plutonium production in power reactors depends essentially on how the change of neutron energy spectra in a reactor cell during burn-up is determined. In the epithermal region, where the build-up of plutonium occurs, the slowing down effects are particularly important, whereas, on the other hand, the thermal neutron spectrum is strongly influenced by the low-lying plutonium resonances. For accurate analysis, multi-group numerical methods are required, which, applied to burn-up prediction, are extremely laborious and time consuming even for large computers. This paper contains a comprehensive review of the methods of core parameter determination in the uranium-plutonium lattices developed in Yugoslavia during the last few years. Faced with the problem of using small computers, the authors had to find new approaches combining physical evidence and mathematical elegance. The main feature of these approaches is the tendency to proceed with analytical treatment as far as possible and then to include suitable numerical improvements. With this philosophy, which is generally overlooked when using large computers, fast and reasonably accurate methods were developed. The methods include original means for adequate treatment of neutron spectra and cell geometry effects,especially suitable for U-Pu systems. In particular, procedures based on the energy dependent boundary conditions, the discrete energy representation, the improved collision probabilities and the Green function slowing down solutions were developed and applied. Results obtained with these methods are presented and compared with those of the experiments and those obtained with other methods. (author)

  20. Disorder parameter of confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, N.; Ejiri, S.; Matsubara, Y.; Suzuki, T.

    1996-01-01

    The disorder parameter of confinement-deconfinement phase transition based on the monopole action determined previously in SU(2) QCD are investigated. We construct an operator which corresponds to the order parameter defined in the abelian Higgs model. The operator shows proper behaviors as the disorder parameter in the numerical simulations of finite temperature QCD. (orig.)

  1. Determining experimentally the parameters of the unsteady thermal behaviour of homogeneously layered walls by the reference plates method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beron, Rodolphe

    1988-01-01

    In this work, we introduce an experimental determination method of parameters which are characteristics of the transfer functions of walls in buildings by the use of an easy equipment which use needs no significant constraint. This method called 'reference plates method' is based on the working out of the thermo-grams which result from any thermal perturbation. The first part of our work deals with the theoretical development of the methods of working out the measures used for both single-Iayered and multi-layered walls. The second part discusses the applying of the method on single-Iayered sample. The values of thermophysical characteristics of the wall is based on the working out of the heat equation written in terms an integral transformation which we take as Laplace's transformation. The case of multi-Iayered wall which we discuss in the third part, lead to the determination of 'z transforms coefficients' of the transfer functions of the studied wall. In addition to the theoretical study, we analyse the results of prospective experiments in the fourth part of our work and show the usefulness of such a measurement method. The last part is devoted to the presentation of the application of our work to the determination of thermal parameters of more general wall's configurations. (author) [fr

  2. An algorithm for the determination of emergency process parameters at water-into-sodium leaks in the BN-800 NPP steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poplavsky, V.M.; Baklushin, R.P.

    1990-01-01

    The paper presents calculation relationships for the determination of parameters characterizing a sodium circuit state under water-into-sodium leak emergency conditions (mass of water penetrating into sodium, the leak size, amount of impurities in coolant, the size of expected heat-exchange surface damage). An approximation of some parameters as applied to the BN-800 NPP steam generator is presented. (author). 1 ref., 2 figs

  3. Determination of the neutron resonance parameters for 206Pb and of the thermal neutron capture cross section for 206Pb and 209Bi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borella, A.

    2005-01-01

    Chapter 1 describes the motivation of the measurements (accelerator driven systems, stellar nucleosynthesis, neutron induced reactions on 206 Pb), the present status of the neutron capture data for 206 Pb and 209 Bi and the structure of this work. In Chapter 2 the basic reaction theory underlying this work is described. The neutron induced reaction mechanism and formalism are explained. The parameterisation of the cross section in terms of R-matrix theory is discussed and we put particular emphasis on the statistical behaviour of the resonance parameters and the impact of the angular distribution of gamma rays following neutron capture. The relation between experimental observables and the resonance parameters is discussed together with general comments related to resonance shape analysis. Chapter 3 is focused on the determination of resonance parameters for 206 Pb. We performed high-resolution transmission and capture measurements at the Time-Of-Flight (TOF) facility GELINA of the IRMM at Geel (B) and determined the resonance parameters. For nuclei like 206 Pb, where the total width is dominated by Γ n , the capture area allows to determine G . Transmission measurements were carried out to determine Γ n , and the statistical factor g of resonances. Before performing a Resonance Shape Analysis (RSA) on the transmission and capture data, we verified the neutron flux and resolution at GELINA. We also compared the characteristics of GELINA with those of the n-TOF facility at CERN. A special emphasis is placed on the total energy detection technique using C 6 D 6 detectors. This technique was applied for the determination of the capture cross section. To reduce systematic bias effects on the capture cross section, the response of the detectors was determined by Monte Carlo simulations, which has been validated by experiments. Using these response functions the partial capture cross sections for individual resonances of 206 Pb have been deduced, by unfolding the

  4. Statistical determination of significant curved I-girder bridge seismic response parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Junwon

    2013-06-01

    Curved steel bridges are commonly used at interchanges in transportation networks and more of these structures continue to be designed and built in the United States. Though the use of these bridges continues to increase in locations that experience high seismicity, the effects of curvature and other parameters on their seismic behaviors have been neglected in current risk assessment tools. These tools can evaluate the seismic vulnerability of a transportation network using fragility curves. One critical component of fragility curve development for curved steel bridges is the completion of sensitivity analyses that help identify influential parameters related to their seismic response. In this study, an accessible inventory of existing curved steel girder bridges located primarily in the Mid-Atlantic United States (MAUS) was used to establish statistical characteristics used as inputs for a seismic sensitivity study. Critical seismic response quantities were captured using 3D nonlinear finite element models. Influential parameters from these quantities were identified using statistical tools that incorporate experimental Plackett-Burman Design (PBD), which included Pareto optimal plots and prediction profiler techniques. The findings revealed that the potential variation in the influential parameters included number of spans, radius of curvature, maximum span length, girder spacing, and cross-frame spacing. These parameters showed varying levels of influence on the critical bridge response.

  5. Simulation and Experimental Determination of Technological Liquid Molding Parameters of Tubing Basalt Insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Badanina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to one of the most important and urgent tasks in mechanical engineering development - the creation of low-density and environmentally-friendly thermoinsulation from available cheap basalt fibers for products to operate at temperatures up to 700°C.One of the most effective applications of such thermo-insulation is to develop and provide highly porous coatings from short basalt fibers by liquid filtration for tubing (T to supply superheated up to 420° C steam under pressure of 35 MPa in the deep layers with severe highviscosity oil. Tubing with the short low-density basalt insulation can be used for a greater depth than the vacuum-insulated tubing, which are also called "thermo-cases", and do not fully meet business needs for long-term reliability of oil vacuum tubes, too large mass per unit length of their design and, as a consequence, the impossibility to use such pipes for deep wells.The aim of the work is to simulate a liquid filtration process of short fibers and determine technological parameters of producing thermal insulation coatings of tubing pipes from basalt fibers and mineral binder shaped as cylinders and cylindrical shells. The paper proposes a mathematical model of free filtration deposition of short fibers from liquid slurry, which describes dynamics of creating thermal insulation products and allows us to determine the rational parameters of their manufacturing process. It shows methods to improve the products quality while forming the thermal insulation by filtration through additional vacuum deposition of a filtrate chamber and the final prepressing of sediment layer, giving dimensions and shape to the final product.The paper defines a prescription hydro mass composition. It shows that to increase the compressive strength of highly fibrous rings and cylindrical shells it is necessary to use based on oxide А12O3 5-7% by weight mineral binder, which fixes basalt fibers in places of their contacts. It

  6. Certain methods for improving the accuracy of lattice parameter determination in sloping scanning with the use of single-crystal spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinegin, V.I.; Koz'ma, A.A.; Fuks, M.Ya.

    1985-01-01

    Errors are accounted for the sloping scanning that is a base of X-ray tenzometry and requires high accuracy of lattice parameter determination including a limp state parameter. A technique is suggested for elimination of systematic alignment errors due to deviation of the primary beam and eccentricity of an irradiated sample surface relative to the main axis of a goniometer. The technique allows to decrease a relative error in interplanar distance determination from 10 -4 to 10 -5 using the DRON-20 diffractometer. Analytical expressions are obtained for correction calculations. The technique can be used in sloping scanning of imperfect single- and polycrystals. Experimental test of the technique has been carried out with epitaxy single-crystal nickel films 500 to 2000 A thick with the use of copper radiation

  7. Determination of photophysical parameters of cyanines using different techniques. Application to DODCI (3-3' dietiloxacarbocyanine iodide)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchowicz, R.; Scaffardi, L.; Di Paolo, R.E.; Tocho, J.O.

    1990-01-01

    A number of fluorescence and absorption techniques were developed for the determination of photo-physical parameters of photo-isomerizable cyanines. The application of these techniques, such as saturated fluorescence, double excitation fluorescence and temperature dependent absorption, to the specific case of 3-3' dietiloxadicarbocyanine iodide (DODCI), allowed the particular study of photo-isomer's exited state along with its decay processes. Fluorescence efficiency and the mean life of the photo-isomer as a function of temperature were obtained. The activation energy and the pre-exponential factor for the non-radioactive decay processes were determined. For the first time, the fluorescence spectrum of the transient isomer form was registered free of the emission of the normal species. (Author). 6 refs., 9 figs

  8. Effect of heart rate correction on pre- and post-exercise heart rate variability to predict risk of mortality – an experimental study on the FINCAVAS cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paruthi ePradhapan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The non-linear inverse relationship between RR-intervals and heart rate (HR contributes significantly to the heart rate variability (HRV parameters and their performance in mortality prediction. To determine the level of influence HR exerts over HRV parameters’ prognostic power, we studied the predictive performance for different HR levels by applying eight correction procedures, multiplying or dividing HRV parameters by the mean RR-interval (RRavg to the power 0.5-16. Data collected from 1288 patients in The Finnish Cardiovascular Study (FINCAVAS, who satisfied the inclusion criteria, was used for the analyses. HRV parameters (RMSSD, VLF Power and LF Power were calculated from 2-minute segment in the rest phase before exercise and 2-minute recovery period immediately after peak exercise. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC was used to determine the predictive performance for each parameter with and without HR corrections in rest and recovery phases. The division of HRV parameters by segment’s RRavg to the power 2 (HRVDIV-2 showed the highest predictive performance under the rest phase (RMSSD: 0.67/0.66; VLF Power: 0.70/0.62; LF Power: 0.79/0.65; cardiac mortality/non-cardiac mortality with minimum correlation to HR (r = -0.15 to 0.15. In the recovery phase, Kaplan-Meier (KM survival analysis revealed good risk stratification capacity at HRVDIV-2 in both groups (cardiac and non-cardiac mortality. Although higher powers of correction (HRVDIV-4 and HRVDIV-8 improved predictive performance during recovery, they induced an increased positive correlation to HR. Thus, we inferred that predictive capacity of HRV during rest and recovery is augmented when its dependence on HR is weakened by applying appropriate correction procedures.

  9. Determination of N metabolism parameters following /sup 15/N-amino acid infusion based on a mathematical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahle, T; Koehler, R; Souffrant, W B; Gebhardt, G [Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Tierproduktion und Veterinaermedizin; Matkowitz, R; Hartig, W [Bezirkskrankenhaus Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Chirurgische Klinik

    1983-01-01

    Two female pigs (25 kg live weight) received a continuous infusion of /sup 15/N-glycine and /sup 15/N-lysine solutions, resp., for 45 h and for further 72 h unlabelled amino acid solutions. The main protein and energy sources, however, were administered orally. The time course of the /sup 15/N level and the differential urinary N excretion were determined from blood urea and urine. For the demonstration of synthesis and decay rates of the total body protein a mathematical model has been developed. The suitability of /sup 15/N-lysine and /sup 15/N-glycine for the determination of N metabolism parameters is discussed.

  10. Emerging trends in Lassa fever: redefining the role of immunoglobulin M and inflammation in diagnosing acute infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branco Luis M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lassa fever (LF is a devastating hemorrhagic viral disease that is endemic to West Africa and responsible for thousands of human deaths each year. Analysis of humoral immune responses (IgM and IgG by antibody-capture ELISA (Ab-capture ELISA and Lassa virus (LASV viremia by antigen-capture ELISA (Ag-capture ELISA in suspected patients admitted to the Kenema Government Hospital (KGH Lassa Fever Ward (LFW in Sierra Leone over the past five years is reshaping our understanding of acute LF. Results Analyses in LF survivors indicated that LASV-specific IgM persists for months to years after initial infection. Furthermore, exposure to LASV appeared to be more prevalent in historically non-endemic areas of West Africa with significant percentages of reportedly healthy donors IgM and IgG positive in LASV-specific Ab-capture ELISA. We found that LF patients who were Ag positive were more likely to die than suspected cases who were only IgM positive. Analysis of metabolic and immunological parameters in Ag positive LF patients revealed a strong correlation between survival and low levels of IL-6, -8, -10, CD40L, BUN, ALP, ALT, and AST. Despite presenting to the hospital with fever and in some instances other symptoms consistent with LF, the profiles of Ag negative IgM positive individuals were similar to those of normal donors and nonfatal (NF LF cases, suggesting that IgM status cannot necessarily be considered a diagnostic marker of acute LF in suspected cases living in endemic areas of West Africa. Conclusion Only LASV viremia assessed by Ag-capture immunoassay, nucleic acid detection or virus isolation should be used to diagnose acute LASV infection in West Africans. LASV-specific IgM serostatus cannot be considered a diagnostic marker of acute LF in suspected cases living in endemic areas of West Africa. By applying these criteria, we identified a dysregulated metabolic and pro-inflammatory response profile conferring a poor

  11. Emerging trends in Lassa fever: redefining the role of immunoglobulin M and inflammation in diagnosing acute infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Luis M; Grove, Jessica N; Boisen, Matt L; Shaffer, Jeffrey G; Goba, Augustine; Fullah, Mohammed; Momoh, Mambu; Grant, Donald S; Garry, Robert F

    2011-10-24

    Lassa fever (LF) is a devastating hemorrhagic viral disease that is endemic to West Africa and responsible for thousands of human deaths each year. Analysis of humoral immune responses (IgM and IgG) by antibody-capture ELISA (Ab-capture ELISA) and Lassa virus (LASV) viremia by antigen-capture ELISA (Ag-capture ELISA) in suspected patients admitted to the Kenema Government Hospital (KGH) Lassa Fever Ward (LFW) in Sierra Leone over the past five years is reshaping our understanding of acute LF. Analyses in LF survivors indicated that LASV-specific IgM persists for months to years after initial infection. Furthermore, exposure to LASV appeared to be more prevalent in historically non-endemic areas of West Africa with significant percentages of reportedly healthy donors IgM and IgG positive in LASV-specific Ab-capture ELISA. We found that LF patients who were Ag positive were more likely to die than suspected cases who were only IgM positive. Analysis of metabolic and immunological parameters in Ag positive LF patients revealed a strong correlation between survival and low levels of IL-6, -8, -10, CD40L, BUN, ALP, ALT, and AST. Despite presenting to the hospital with fever and in some instances other symptoms consistent with LF, the profiles of Ag negative IgM positive individuals were similar to those of normal donors and nonfatal (NF) LF cases, suggesting that IgM status cannot necessarily be considered a diagnostic marker of acute LF in suspected cases living in endemic areas of West Africa. Only LASV viremia assessed by Ag-capture immunoassay, nucleic acid detection or virus isolation should be used to diagnose acute LASV infection in West Africans. LASV-specific IgM serostatus cannot be considered a diagnostic marker of acute LF in suspected cases living in endemic areas of West Africa. By applying these criteria, we identified a dysregulated metabolic and pro-inflammatory response profile conferring a poor prognosis in acute LF. In addition to suggesting that the

  12. Determination of the cell parameters of {beta}-quartz at 1003 K by neutron multiple diffraction; Parametros de rede do quartzo-{beta} a 1003 K determinados por difracao multipla de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Luiz Carlos de

    2002-07-01

    In this work, neutron multiple diffraction (NMD) data was employed for the determination of the parameters a and c of the {beta}-quartz hexagonal cell at 1003 K. An experimental 00.1 {beta}-quartz NMD 'Umweg' pattern has been used for the determinations. During the indexing of the {beta}-quartz pattern it was verified that most of the peaks could be classified as either 'good for the determination of the parameter a' or 'good for the determination of the parameter c'. With such a classification, it became possible to employ an iterative process for the determination of both parameters. To attain this purpose, two methods were developed. The first one, named 'absolute method', used angular azimuthal positions of the peaks, related to the origin of the experimental diagram. The second method, named 'relative method', used azimuthal angular differences between two selected peaks. The values obtained for both parameters, in the two methods employed, were found by applying the angular azimuthal positions, for the first method, and the azimuthal angular differences, for the second method, upon appropriate theoretical indexing diagrams. An iterative process was applied in order to obtain the values of the parameters. In this process, the value obtained for one of the parameters was used in the determination of the other parameter. The process continues until both parameters converge. The iterative process was used in both methods. The relative method proved to be better than the absolute method. The best values of the parameters obtained by the relative method were: a 4.99638 {+-} 0.00057 angstrom and c = 5.46119 {+-} 0.00044 angstrom. (author)

  13. Influence of the Determination Methods of K and C Parameters on the Ability of Weibull Distribution to Suitably Estimate Wind Potential and Electric Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben M. Mouangue

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of the wind speed distribution is of great importance for the assessment of wind energy potential and the performance of wind energy conversion system. In this paper, the choice of two determination methods of Weibull parameters shows theirs influences on the Weibull distribution performances. Because of important calm winds on the site of Ngaoundere airport, we characterize the wind potential using the approach of Weibull distribution with parameters which are determined by the modified maximum likelihood method. This approach is compared to the Weibull distribution with parameters which are determined by the maximum likelihood method and the hybrid distribution which is recommended for wind potential assessment of sites having nonzero probability of calm. Using data provided by the ASECNA Weather Service (Agency for the Safety of Air Navigation in Africa and Madagascar, we evaluate the goodness of fit of the various fitted distributions to the wind speed data using the Q – Q plots, the Pearson’s coefficient of correlation, the mean wind speed, the mean square error, the energy density and its relative error. It appears from the results that the accuracy of the Weibull distribution with parameters which are determined by the modified maximum likelihood method is higher than others. Then, this approach is used to estimate the monthly and annual energy productions of the site of the Ngaoundere airport. The most energy contribution is made in March with 255.7 MWh. It also appears from the results that a wind turbine generator installed on this particular site could not work for at least a half of the time because of higher frequency of calm. For this kind of sites, the modified maximum likelihood method proposed by Seguro and Lambert in 2000 is one of the best methods which can be used to determinate the Weibull parameters.

  14. The determination of engineering parameters for the sanitary landfill, Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMullin, S.R.; Smalley, R.C.; Flood, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Savannah River Site is a 315 square mile, Department of Energy production facility located in western South Carolina. This facility has multiple operational areas which generate a variety of waste materials. Over the nearly 40 years of operation, sanitary wastes were deposited in a 60-acre, permitted solid waste disposal facility located on the site. Refuse and other clean wastes were deposited in shallow, slit trenches, ranging in size from 20 to 50 feet-wide and approximately 400 feet long. The historical depth of deposition appears to range between 12 and 15 feet below the ground surface. Recent changes in regulations has classified some wastes contained within the landfill as hazardous wastes, necessitating the closure of this facility as a RCRA hazardous waste management facility. The focus of this paper is to present the innovative techniques used to fully determine the engineering parameters necessary to reasonably predict future settlements, for input into the closure system design

  15. Fabrication of p-Si/n-ZnO:Al heterojunction diode and determination of electrical parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilican, Saliha; Gorgun, Kamuran; Aksoy, Seval; Caglar, Yasemin; Caglar, Mujdat

    2018-03-01

    We present a fundamental experimental study of a microwave assisted chemical bath deposition (MW-CBD) method for Al doped ZnO films. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy were used to analyze the microstructures and crystalline structures of these films, respectively. The p-Si/n-ZnO:Al heterojunction diodes were fabricated. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of these diodes were measured at room temperature. The important electrical parameters such as series resistance, the ideality factor and the barrier height were determined by performing plots from the forward bias I-V characteristics using different methods. The obtained results indicate that Al doping improve the electrical properties of the p-Si/n-ZnO diode. The best rectification properties were observed in the p-Si/n-ZnO:5%Al heterojunction diode, so only capacitance-voltage (C-V) measureme