Sample records for levetiracetam rufinamide topiramate

  1. Effect of lamotrigine, levetiracetam & topiramate on neurobehavioural parameters & oxidative stress in comparison with valproate in rats

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    Sudhir Chandra Sarangi


    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Though newer antiepileptic drugs are considered safer than conventional antiepileptics, the effects of lamotrigine, levetiracetam and topiramate on neurobehavioural functions are yet to be established. This study evaluated neurobehavioural parameters and oxidative stress markers in brain tissue of rats treated with lamotrigine, levetiracetam and topiramate compared to sodium valproate . Methods: Five groups of male Wistar rats were treated respectively with normal saline (control, sodium valproate (370 mg/kg, lamotrigine (50 mg/kg, levetiracetam (310 mg/kg and topiramate (100 mg/kg for 45 days. Neurobehavioural parameters were assessed using elevated plus maze (EPM, actophotometer, rotarod, passive avoidance and Morris water maze (MWM at baseline and at the end of treatment. Oxidative stress parameters [malondialdehyde (MDA, reduced glutathione (GSH and superoxide dismutase (SOD] were estimated in rat brain at the end of treatment. Results: Valproate and lamotrigine showed no significant effect on learning and memory in passive avoidance and MWM tests. However, levetiracetam and topiramate reduced retention memory significantly as compared to control (P<0.01 and lamotrigine (P<0.05 groups. Performances on EPM, rotarod and actophotometer were not significantly different between the groups. In comparison to control group, MDA was higher in the levetiracetam and topiramate (360.9 and 345.9 nmol/g of homogenized brain tissue, respectively groups. GSH and SOD activity were significantly reduced by valproate and levetiracetam treatment. Lamotrigine did not induce significant oxidative stress. Interpretation & conclusions: Long-term and therapeutic dose treatment with levetiracetam and topiramate significantly impaired learning and memory, which was not seen with valproate and lamotrigine in rats. Levetiracetam, topiramate and valproate augmented oxidative stress, whereas lamotrigine has little effect on it. These antiepileptic

  2. Perampanel with concomitant levetiracetam and topiramate: Post hoc analysis of adverse events related to hostility and aggression. (United States)

    Chung, Steve; Williams, Betsy; Dobrinsky, Cindy; Patten, Anna; Yang, Haichen; Laurenza, Antonio


    In 4 Phase III registration trials (3 in patients with partial seizures, N=1480; 1 in patients with PGTCS, N=163), perampanel administered to patients already receiving 1-3 concomitant antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) demonstrated statistically superior efficacy compared to placebo in reducing seizure frequency. However, use of perampanel in these studies was associated with a risk of psychiatric and behavioral adverse reactions, including aggression, hostility, irritability, anger, and homicidal ideation and threats. The present study is a post hoc analysis of pooled data from these 4 trials to determine if concomitant treatment with levetiracetam and/or topiramate increased the risk of hostility- and aggression-related AEs. Treatment-emergent AEs (TEAEs) were determined using a "Narrow & Broad" search based on the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) standard MedDRA query (SMQ) for hostility- and aggression-related events. The rate of hostility- and aggression-related TEAEs was observed to be similar among perampanel-treated patients: a) receiving levetiracetam (N=340) compared to those not receiving levetiracetam (N=779); b) receiving topiramate (N=223) compared to those not receiving topiramate (N=896); and c) receiving both levetiracetam and topiramate (N=47) compared to those not receiving levetiracetam and topiramate (N=1072). Severe and serious TEAEs related to hostility and aggression were rare and occurred at a similar rate regardless of concomitant levetiracetam and/or topiramate therapy. Taken together, these results suggest that concomitant treatment with levetiracetam and/or topiramate has no appreciable effect on the occurrence of hostility- or aggression-related TEAEs in patients receiving perampanel. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sensitive inexpensive spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric analysis of ezogabine, levetiracetam and topiramate in tablet formulations using Hantzsch condensation reaction (United States)

    Ibrahim, F. A.; El-Yazbi, A. F.; Wagih, M. M.; Barary, M. A.


    Two highly sensitive, simple and selective spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric assays have been investigated for the analysis of ezogabine, levetiracetam and topiramate in their pure and in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The suggested methods depend on the condensation of the primary amino-groups in the three drugs with acetylacetone and formaldehyde according to Hantzsch reaction yielding highly fluorescent yellow colored dihydropyridine derivatives. The reaction products of ezogabine, levetiracetam and topiramate were measured spectrophotometrically at 418, 390 and 380 nm or spectrofluorimetrically at λem/ex of 495/425 nm, 490/415 nm and 488/410 nm, respectively. Various experimental conditions have been carefully studied to maximize the reaction yield. At the optimum reaction conditions, the calibration curves were rectilinear over the concentration ranges of 8-25, 60-180 and 80-200 μg/mL spectrophotometrically and 0.02-0.2, 0.2-1.2 and 0.2-1.5 μg/mL spectrofluorimetrically for ezogabine, levetiracetam and topiramate, respectively with good correlation coefficients. The suggested methods were applied successfully for the analysis of ezogabine, levetiracetam and topiramate in their commercial tablets with high percentage recoveries and negligible interference from various excipients in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The results were statistically analyzed and showed the absence of any significant difference between both developed and published methods. The procedures were validated and evaluated by the ICH guidelines revealing good reproducibility and accuracy. Therefore, the two proposed methods may be considered of high interest for practical and reliable analysis of ezogabine, levetiracetam and topiramate in pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  4. Rufinamide (United States)

    ... Rufinamide is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. It works by decreasing abnormal excitement in the ... 5 years of age and older who took anticonvulsants such as rufinamide during clinical studies were found ...

  5. Three-Year Retention Rates of Levetiracetam, Topiramate, and Oxcarbazepine: A Retrospective Hospital-Based Study. (United States)

    Sunwoo, Jun-Sang; Park, Byeong-Su; Ahn, Seon Jae; Hwang, Sungeun; Park, Chan-Young; Jun, Jin-Sun; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Soon-Tae; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Park, Kyung-Il; Chu, Kon; Jung, Ki-Young; Lee, Sang Kun

    We evaluated and compared the 3-year retention rates of levetiracetam (LEV), topiramate (TPM), and oxcarbazepine (OXC) in patients with epilepsy in routine clinical practice. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients with epilepsy who were newly prescribed LEV, TPM, or OXC from 2006 to 2010. The retention rates were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier analysis, and independent risk factors for drug discontinuation were analyzed by the Cox regression method. A total of 588 patients were included: LEV (n = 345), TPM (n = 190), and OXC (n = 53). Among them, 82% had focal epilepsy, whereas 14.8% had generalized epilepsy. The 3-year retention rates for LEV, TPM, and OXC, were 81.2%, 78.3%, and 54.7%, respectively. Levetiracetam and TPM had equivalent retention rates, whereas patients remained on OXC for a significantly shorter amount of time (P effects leading to drug withdrawal of OXC (87.5%) was higher than that of LEV (34.4%, P < 0.001) and TPM (52.5%, P = 0.012). The current study suggested that LEV and TPM had comparable retention profiles in the long-term treatment for both focal and generalized epilepsy. Meanwhile, OXC therapy seemed to be relatively less useful because of its poor tolerability.

  6. Effects of Levetiracetam, Carbamazepine, Phenytoin, Valproate, Lamotrigine, Oxcarbazepine, Topiramate, Vinpocetine and Sertraline on Presynaptic Hippocampal Na(+) and Ca(2+) Channels Permeability. (United States)

    Sitges, María; Chiu, Luz María; Reed, Ronald C


    Ion channels are targets of various antiepileptic drugs. In cerebral presynaptic nerve endings Na(+) and Ca(2+) channels are particularly abundant, as they control neurotransmitter release, including the release of glutamate (Glu), the most concentrated excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter in the brain. Several pre-synaptic channels are implicated in the mechanism of action of the pro-convulsive agent, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP). In the present study the effects of levetiracetam and other established and newer (vinpocetine) anti-epileptic drugs, as well as of the anti-depressant, sertraline on the increase in Ca(2+) induced by 4-AP in hippocampal isolated nerve endings were investigated. Also the effects of some of the anti-seizure drugs on the selective increase in Ca(2+) induced by high K(+), or on the selective increase in Na(+) induced by veratridine were tested. Sertraline and vinpocetine effectively inhibited the rise in Ca(2+) induced by 4-AP, which was dependent on the out-in Na(+) gradient and tetrodotoxin sensitive. Carbamazepine, phenytoin, lamotrigine and oxcarbazepine inhibited the rise in Ca(2+) induced by 4-AP too, but at higher concentrations than sertraline and vinpocetine, whereas levetiracetam, valproic acid and topiramate did not. The three latter antiepileptic drugs also failed in modifying other responses mediated by the activation of brain presynaptic Na(+) or Ca(2+) channels, including Glu release. This indicates that levetiracetam, valproic acid and topiramate mechanisms of action are unrelated with a decrease in presynaptic Na(+) or Ca(2+) channels permeability. It is concluded that depolarized cerebral isolated nerve endings represent a useful tool to unmask potential antiepileptic drugs targeting presynaptic Na(+) and/or Ca(2+) channels in the brain; such as vinpocetine or the anti-depressant sertraline, which high effectiveness to control seizures in the animal in vivo has been demonstrated.

  7. Optimized and validated flow-injection spectrophotometric analysis of topiramate, piracetam and levetiracetam in pharmaceutical formulations. (United States)

    Hadad, Ghada M; Abdel-Salam, Randa A; Emara, Samy


    Application of a sensitive and rapid flow injection analysis (FIA) method for determination of topiramate, piracetam, and levetiracetam in pharmaceutical formulations has been investigated. The method is based on the reaction with ortho-phtalaldehyde and 2-mercaptoethanol in a basic buffer and measurement of absorbance at 295 nm under flow conditions. Variables affecting the determination such as sample injection volume, pH, ionic strength, reagent concentrations, flow rate of reagent and other FIA parameters were optimized to produce the most sensitive and reproducible results using a quarter-fraction factorial design, for five factors at two levels. Also, the method has been optimized and fully validated in terms of linearity and range, limit of detection and quantitation, precision, selectivity and accuracy. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of pharmaceutical preparations.

  8. Rufinamide in patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome

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    Clark PO


    Full Text Available Peggy O Clark,1 Patricia A Gibson2 1Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, The University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, 2Epilepsy Information Service, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA Objectives: Lennox–Gastaut syndrome (LGS is an epileptic encephalopathy with an onset at the age of ~4 years. LGS is notoriously difficult to manage, as most patients experience multiple seizures per day, despite their concomitant use of several antiepileptic drugs (AEDs. Rufinamide (BANZEL® is an AED approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the adjunctive treatment of seizures associated with LGS in pediatric patients aged ≥1 year and in adults. The expert care of nurses knowledgeable in the treatment options for LGS is valuable to patients and caregivers. This review summarizes the existing knowledge on LGS and data from clinical and real-world studies on the use of rufinamide in patients with LGS.Methods: Recent review articles and information from the Epilepsy Foundation Website were reviewed for data on LGS treatment. Primary articles on rufinamide were also selected for review.Results and conclusion: The efficacy and safety of rufinamide have been evaluated in children and adults by using double-blind, open-label, and observational studies. In general, these studies indicate that rufinamide effectively reduces the frequency and severity of multiple seizure types associated with LGS and has tolerable side effects, the most common being vomiting and somnolence. Dosing modifications based on age, weight, and concomitant AED usage are recommended for patients using rufinamide. Keywords: Lennox–Gastaut syndrome, anticonvulsants, rufinamide

  9. Stability of extemporaneously prepared rufinamide oral suspensions. (United States)

    Hutchinson, David J; Liou, Yayin; Best, Robert; Zhao, Fang


    Rufinamide is an oral antiepileptic drug indicated for adjunctive therapy in treating generalized seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Currently, rufinamide is available as 200-mg and 400-mg tablets. A liquid dosage form does not exist at the present time. Lack of a suspension formulation may present an administration problem for many children and adults who are unable to swallow tablets. The availability of a liquid dosage form will provide an easy and accurate way to measure and administer the medication. To determine the stability of both sugar-containing and sugar-free rufinamide suspensions over a 90-day period. A suspension of rufinamide 40 mg/mL was prepared by grinding twelve 400-mg tablets of rufinamide tablets in a glass mortar. Sixty milliliters of Ora-Plus and 60 mL of either Ora-Sweet or Ora-Sweet SF (sugar free) were mixed and added to the powder to make a final volume of 120 mL. Three identical samples of each formulation were prepared and placed in 60-mL amber plastic bottles and were stored at room temperature. A 1-mL sample was withdrawn from each of the 6 bottles with a micropipette immediately after preparation and at 7, 14, 28, 56, and 90 days. After further dilution to an expected concentration of 0.4 mg/mL, the samples were assayed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Stability was defined as the retention of at least 90% of the initial concentration. At least 90% of the initial rufinamide concentration remained throughout the 90-day study period in both preparations. There were no detectable changes in color, odor, taste, and pH and no visible microbial growth. Extemporaneously compounded suspensions of rufinamide 40 mg/mL in a 1:1 mixture of Ora-Plus and Ora-Sweet or Ora-Sweet SF were stable for at least 90 days when stored in 59-mL amber polypropylene plastic bottles at room temperature.

  10. Levetiracetam (Keppra: Evidence-Based Polypharmacy in Two Patients With Epilepsy

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    Full Text Available Introduction Epilepsy is a prolonged disorder characterized by repeated violent epileptic seizures. Its managements depend on proper classification of the seizure category and the epileptic pattern. Levetiracetam (Keppra® has been approved as monotherapy or for adjunctive management of partial onset seizures, juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, and idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Case reporting of levetiracetam polypharmacy shows adverse effects linked to evidence-based clinical and laboratory data in two patients with epilepsy. Case reporting of levetiracetam polypharmacy, based on evidence-based clinical and laboratory data was of interest that investigated. Case Presentation Two cases were studied, one patient was a 32-year-old male and the other was a 14-year-old female. The key words relevant to search topics were surveyed using PubMed (United States national library of medicine. Articles related to the levetiracetam prescription in epileptic patients were selected and considered separately. Pharmacotherapy based on levetiracetam, primidone, phenytoin, and topiramate in a 32-year-old epileptic male showed a decrease in white blood cell count (3400 cells/mcL, red blood cell count (4.4 mil/mm3 hemoglobin (11.8 g/dL and hematocrit (36.7%. The drug regimen for the 14-year-old epileptic female was a levetiracetam polypharmacy in combination with primidone and sodium-valproate simultaneously. In this patient, there was a decrease in hemoglobin (10.4 g/dL and hematocrit (34%. An increase in lymphocyte (84% was also observed. Conclusions Administration of AEDs in general and levetiracetam in particular should be based on attention to pharmacokinetic behavior in terms of monotherapy or polypharmacy.

  11. Treating Lennox–Gastaut syndrome in epileptic pediatric patients with third-generation rufinamide

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    Jessica Gresham


    Full Text Available Jessica Gresham1, Lea S Eiland2,3, Allison M Chung2,41Auburn University, Harrison School of Pharmacy (AUHSOP, 2Department of Pharmacy Practice, AUHSOP, 3University of Alabama, School of Medicine, Huntsville Regional Medical Campus, 4University of South Alabama School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Mobile, Alabama, USAAbstract: Lennox–Gastaut syndrome (LGS is a rare but debilitating pediatric epileptic encephalopathy characterized by multiple intractable seizure types. Treatment of LGS is challenging because of the small number of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs which are effective for this syndrome, as well as the need for polytherapy in the majority of patients. This review focuses on the treatment of LGS with rufinamide, a recently approved third-generation AED with reported efficacy as adjunctive therapy for LGS. All relevant papers identified through a PubMed search on the treatment of LGS with rufinamide were reviewed. To date, the literature suggests improvements in seizure frequency for pediatric patients with LGS on rufinamide. Rufinamide appears to be especially effective for atonic or drop attack seizures. Rufinamide also displays a favorable adverse event profile compared with the older anticonvulsants, as well as a minimal number of drug interactions, making it a promising option for the adjunctive treatment of seizures associated with LGS.Keywords: epilepsy, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, pediatrics, seizure, rufinamide

  12. Topiramate and cognitive impairment: evidence and clinical implications. (United States)

    Mula, Marco


    Topiramate is an antiepileptic drug (AED) with multiple mechanisms of action that has been shown to be effective in a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, cognitive dysfunction is frequently observed in such patients, often representing a relevant challenge in their management. Moreover, there is a long-held recognition that AEDs may profoundly affect cognitive functions. This paper reviews available data on cognitive adverse events in patients with neurological disorders treated with topiramate, discussing the role of different contributing factors such as the pharmacological properties of the drug, the specific features of the brain disorder, and other variables pertinent to the discussion. All studies agree that up to 10% of patients may complain of treatment-emergent adverse events on cognition. Such problems occur early during treatment (i.e. within 6 weeks) and emerge in a dose-dependent fashion, suggesting that such prevalence may be significantly reduced using the drug in monotherapy and adopting individualized doses and titration schedules. The magnitude of the problem is generally mild to moderate and the subjective perception of the patient needs to be taken into account. In fact, apart from language problems, data are not conclusive. Comparisons with new AEDs are limited to levetiracetam and lamotrigine, in both cases generally disfavoring topiramate, while data regarding first-generation AEDs show clear differences only for verbal fluency.

  13. 78 FR 69856 - Determination That BANZEL (Rufinamide) Tablet, 100 Milligrams, Was Not Withdrawn From Sale for... (United States)


    ...] Determination That BANZEL (Rufinamide) Tablet, 100 Milligrams, Was Not Withdrawn From Sale for Reasons of Safety... Drug Administration (FDA) has determined that BANZEL (rufinamide) tablet, 100 milligrams (mg), was not... abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) for rufinamide tablet, 100 mg, if all other legal and regulatory...

  14. Rufinamide from clinical trials to clinical practice in the United States and Europe. (United States)

    Resnick, Trevor; Arzimanoglou, Alexis; Brown, Lawrence W; Flamini, Robert; Kerr, Michael; Kluger, Gerhard; Kothare, Sanjeev; Philip, Sunny; Harrison, Miranda; Narurkar, Milind


    Rufinamide is a triazole derivative structurally unrelated to other antiepileptic drugs that is indicated for the adjunctive treatment of seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) in patients aged ≥4 years. Originally granted orphan drug status, marketing authorisation was obtained on the basis of a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted in 138 LGS patients. An open-label extension study subsequently demonstrated that rufinamide's efficacy and tolerability were maintained over the longer term (median duration of treatment, 432 days). Recently published reports from Europe and the United States have described the use of adjunctive rufinamide to treat LGS in clinical practice. These data complement the clinical trial results, by providing information on the efficacy and tolerability of rufinamide when used on an individualised basis in real-world practice, under less tightly restricted conditions in terms of patient population and dosing strategies. A comparison of the data reveals that a "lower and slower" dosing strategy tends to be adopted in clinical practice, in comparison with the clinical trial, which does not appear to compromise efficacy, but may provide improvements in tolerability. Individual case reports provide additional valuable information on how rufinamide is being used to treat different seizure types associated with LGS. Since clinical experience with rufinamide is currently at an early stage, there are still unanswered questions relating to its use, and it is likely that its place in the adjunctive treatment of LGS will evolve as further data emerge.

  15. Levetiracetam (United States)

    ... Levetiracetam is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. It works by decreasing abnormal excitement in the ... older (about 1 in 500 people) who took anticonvulsants such as levetiracetam to treat various conditions during ...

  16. Topiramate (United States)

    ... Topiramate is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. It works by decreasing abnormal excitement in the ... older (about 1 in 500 people) who took anticonvulsants such as topiramate to treat various conditions during ...

  17. Pronounced reversible hyperammonemic encephalopathy associated with combined valproate-topiramate therapy in a 7-year-old girl. (United States)

    Weise, Sebastian; Syrbe, Steffen; Preuss, Matthias; Bertsche, Astrid; Merkenschlager, Andreas; Bernhard, Matthias K


    Valproate is one of the most frequently used anticonvulsive drugs in children and adults. Valproate is a generally well tolerated medication. However, encephalopathy with or without hyperammonemia is one of its rare adverse events. We present a 7-year-old girl who suffered from epilepsy with generalized tonic-clonic seizures and absence epilepsy. She was initially treated with topiramate. Methylprednisolone pulse therapy and long-term therapy with valproate were initiated due to an increase of seizure frequency. At day 5 of therapy, a further increase of seizure frequency was observed followed by lethargy and somnolence. Liver enzymes remained within normal range, but ammonia serum levels increased to a maximum of 544 mmol/l. Discontinuing valproate and starting potassium-benzoate and sodium-phenylbutyrate improved the clinical condition and ammonia serum levels. Haemodialysis was not required. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging ruled out brain edema. The patient was further on successfully treated with a combination of both, topiramate and levetiracetam. Seizures did not recur and development was normal until now (3 years later). To the best of our knowledge, we observed the highest ammonia serum levels ever reported in valproate-induced hyperammonemia with a complete remission of the subsequent encephalopathy. Topiramate might increase the risk of valproate-induced encephalopathy by carbonic anhydrase inhibition.

  18. Topiramate induced peripheral neuropathy: A case report and review of literature. (United States)

    Hamed, Sherifa Ahmed


    Drug-induced peripheral neuropathy had been rarely reported as an adverse effect of some antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) at high cumulative doses or even within the therapeutic drug doses or levels. We describe clinical and diagnostic features of a patient with peripheral neuropathy as an adverse effect of chronic topiramate (TPM) therapy. A 37-year-old woman was presented for the control of active epilepsy (2010). She was resistant to some AEDs as mono- or combined therapies (carbamazepine, sodium valproate, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine and lamotrigine). She has the diagnosis of frontal lobe epilepsy with secondary generalization and has a brother, sister and son with active epilepsies. She became seizure free on TPM (2013-2017) but is complaining of persistent distal lower extremities paresthesia in a stocking distribution. Neurological examination revealed presence of diminished Achilles tendon reflexes, stocking hypesthesia and delayed distal latencies, reduced conduction velocities and amplitudes of action potentials of posterior tibial and sural nerves, indicating demyelinating and axonal peripheral neuropathy of the lower extremities. After exclusion of the possible causes of peripheral neuropathy, chronic TPM therapy is suggested as the most probable cause of patient's neuropathy. This is the first case report of topiramate induced peripheral neuropathy in the literature.

  19. Topiramate Induced Excessive Sialorrhea

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    Ersel Dag


    Full Text Available It is well-known that drugs such as clozapine and lithium can cause sialorrhea. On the other hand, topiramate has not been reported to induce sialorrhea. We report a case of a patient aged 26 who was given antiepileptic and antipsychotic drugs due to severe mental retardation and intractable epilepsy and developed excessive sialorrhea complaint after the addition of topiramate for the control of seizures. His complaints continued for 1,5 years and ended after giving up topiramate. We presented this case since it was a rare sialorrhea case induced by topiramate. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of sialorrhea development which causes serious hygiene and social problems when they want to give topiramate to the patients using multiple drugs.

  20. Rufinamide, an antiepileptic drug, improves cognition and increases neurogenesis in the aged gerbil hippocampal dentate gyrus via increasing expressions of IGF-1, IGF-1R and p-CREB. (United States)

    Chen, Bai Hui; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Park, Joon Ha; Song, Minah; Kim, Hyunjung; Lee, Tae-Kyeong; Lee, Jae Chul; Kim, Young-Myeong; Hwang, In Koo; Kim, Dae Won; Lee, Choong-Hyun; Yan, Bing Chun; Kang, Il Jun; Won, Moo-Ho


    Rufinamide is a novel antiepileptic drug and commonly used in the treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. In the present study, we investigated effects of rufinamide on cognitive function using passive avoidance test and neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus using Ki-67 (a marker for cell proliferation), doublecortin (DCX, a marker for neuroblast) and BrdU/NeuN (markers for newly generated mature neurons) immunohistochemistry in aged gerbils. Aged gerbils (24-month old) were treated with 1 mg/kg and 3 mg/kg rufinamide for 4 weeks. Treatment with 3 mg/kg rufinamide, not 1 mg/kg rufinamide, significantly improved cognitive function and increased neurogenesis, showing that proliferating cells (Ki-67-immunoreactive cells), differentiating neuroblasts (DCX-immunoreactive neuroblasts) and mature neurons (BrdU/NeuN-immunoreactive cells) in the aged dentate gyrus compared with those in the control group. When we examined its mechanisms, rufinamide significantly increased immunoreactivities of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), its receptor (IGF-1R), and phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (p-CREB). However, rufinamide did not show any increase in immunoreactivities of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and its receptor. Therefore, our results indicate that rufinamide can improve cognitive function and increase neurogenesis in the hippocampus of the aged gerbil via increasing expressions of IGF-1, IGF-1R and p-CREB. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Urolithiasis associated with topiramate

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    Scott Eggener


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Topiramate is a sulfamate-substituted monosaccharide anticonvulsant used as adjunctive therapy for intractable refractory seizures. It is report a case of topiramate-induced urolithiasis. CASE REPORT: A 35-year-old man presented with acute, right-sided, colicky flank pain. He denied hematuria or dysuria. He was in use of phenytoin, risperidone, phenobarbital, and topiramate. The total daily dose of topiramate was 375 mg. A CT scan showed a 7 x 1 mm curvilinear density at the right ureterovesical junction with proximal hydrouretronephrosis. He was managed with rigid ureteroscopic stone extraction and the calculus metabolic analysis revealed the stone was composed of carbonate apatite (70%, calcium oxalate dihydrate (20%, and calcium oxalate monohydrate (10%. COMMENTS: The present case typifies many features of topiramate-induced urolithiasis. Those who care for patients with urinary stone disease should be aware of this association.

  2. Onset of action and seizure control in Lennox-Gaustaut syndrome: focus on rufinamide

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    Russell P Saneto


    Full Text Available Russell P Saneto1, Gail D Anderson21Division of Pediatric Neurology, Seattle Children’s Hospital/University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA; 2Department of Pharmacy, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USAAbstract: Lennox-Gaustaut syndrome is an electroclinical epilepsy syndrome characterized by the triad of electroencephalogram showing diffuse slow spike-and-wave discharges and paroxysmal fast activity, multiple intractable seizure types, and cognitive impairment. The intractability to seizure medications and cognitive impairment gives rise to eventual institutionalized patient care. Only a small subset of seizure medications has been shown to be helpful in seizure control. Most patients take up to 3 medications at high therapeutic dosing and are susceptible to medication-induced side effects. The lack of medication efficacy in seizure control has led one meta-analysis to conclude that there is no single medication that is highly efficacious in controlling seizures in this syndrome. On this background, a new and structurally novel seizure medication, rufinamide, has been found to be beneficial in the treatment of seizures in this syndrome. In a multicenter, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study, rufinamide was found to reduce seizures by over 30%. More importantly, it reduced the frequency of the seizure type that induces most of the morbidity of this syndrome, the drop seizure, by over 40%. There were few side effects, the medication was well tolerated, and in the open labeled extension study, tolerance was not found. In this review, we describe the main electroclinical features of Lennox-Gaustaut syndrome and summarize the few controlled studies that have contributed to its rational treatment. Currently, there is no single agent or combination of agents that effectively treat the multiple seizure types and co-morbidities in this syndrome. Our focus will be on the role of the new medication rufinamide in

  3. Comparison of Plasma, Saliva, and Hair Levetiracetam Concentrations. (United States)

    Karaś-Ruszczyk, Katarzyna; Kuczyńska, Julita; Sienkiewicz-Jarosz, Halina; Kurkowska-Jastrzębska, Iwona; Bienkowski, Przemyslaw; Restel, Magdalena; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Mierzejewski, Pawel


    Previous findings revealed high correlations between serum/plasma and saliva levetiracetam concentrations, indicating saliva as an alternative matrix for monitoring levetiracetam therapy. Levetiracetam concentration in the hair, which could reflect long-term drug exposure and patients' compliance, has not been systematically tested, as yet. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between plasma, saliva, and hair levetiracetam concentrations in 47 patients with epilepsy. Plasma, saliva, and hair levetiracetam concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with positive ionization. Levetiracetam saliva and plasma concentrations were highly correlated (r = 0.93). Plasma concentrations were not influenced by sex, age, and other concomitant antiepileptic drugs. Levetiracetam hair concentrations correlated with plasma concentrations (r = 0.36) but not daily dose (mg/kg). Drug hair concentrations were not influenced by hair color or treatment (dyed). The results tend to indicate that saliva may be a reliable alternative to plasma for monitoring levetiracetam concentrations. Levetiracetam can also be detected in human hair.

  4. [Epileptic encephalopathy associated with forced normalization after administration of levetiracetam]. (United States)

    Kikuchi, Takahiro; Kato, Mitsuhiro; Takahashi, Nobuya; Nakamura, Kazuyuki; Hayasaka, Kiyoshi


    Here we report a case of a 10-year-old female with unclassified epileptic encephalopathy who showed forced normalization after administration of levetiracetam (LEV). She initially presented with intractable tonic and myoclonic seizures that were observed about 10 times a day along with frequent multifocal sharp and slow wave complexes on electroencephalography (EEG). We were forced to decrease the topiramate dose because of the appearance of nystagmus, and her myoclonic seizures became worse. We added LEV (250 mg/day) and her tonic and myoclonic seizures disappeared one day after initiation of LEV administration. However, she showed hyporesponsiveness and akinesia. The disappearance of paroxysmal discharges on EEG confirmed the diagnosis of forced normalization. Despite continuous administration of LEV, tonic and myoclonic seizures relapsed within a month but her psychotic symptoms resolved simultaneously. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of forced normalization after LEV administration. It should be noted that LEV may cause forced normalization although it can be started at an adequate dosage.

  5. Hair Loss Following The Topiramate Treatment

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    I Ghafoor


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Genetics, hormone profiles and other physiologic factors can cause hair loss. Medication induced hair loss is an occasional side effect of many psychopharmaceuticals. It can reduce medication compliance if not discovered and treated. We present a 18 year old female with migraine headache who developed hair loss after 3 months of receiving topiramate treatment. CASE REPORT: 18 year old female had been suffering from headache visited in psychiatric clinic. She agreed to a treatment with topiramate (50mg per day for Migraine headache. 3 months later, the patient complained of significant hair loss. Topiramate tapered to 25 mg/day and stopped. Hair loss stopped after topiramate withdrawal. Two weeks after reintroduction of topiramate, hair loss developed again. The medication was stopped and hair loss stopped again. CONCLUSION: Topiramate can cause hair loss. Although the condition is not life-threatening, a decrease in medication compliance can cause recurrence of the underlying disease. It is necessary to ask the patient at visits about it.

  6. Epilepsy with myoclonic absences - favourable response to add-on rufinamide treatment in 3 cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Häusler, M; Kluger, G; Nikanorova, M


    Epilepsy with myoclonic absences (EMA) is a rare epileptic syndrome with frequently poor response to antiepileptic treatment. Rufinamide (RUF) is a relatively new EMEA- and FDA-approved anticonvulsant licensed as an orphan drug for the adjunctive treatment of patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Shchederkina


    Full Text Available Among drug-resistant epilepsies, epileptic syndromes, characterized by combination of several types of seizures, are considered to be the most difficult in terms of treatment. Lennox–Gastaut syndrome is one of them. It manifests with polymorphic seizures (tonic axial, myatonic, atypical absence seizures, status epilepticus of minor motor seizures, myoclonic, generalized convulsive, and focal seizures. This is a heterogeneous disease, represented by a complex of clinical and electroencephalographic manifestations with various etiology. Current review is devoted to a novel antiepileptic drug rufinamide, which has a new mechanism of action. The drug has been registered in Russia in 2015. The authors also describe their own experience of rufinamide usage in the treatment of drug-resistant focal epilepsy as a part of multicomponent therapy for polymorphic seizures. One patient achieved clinical remission for 16 months; the second one had more than 50 % decrease in seizures frequency with a remission of drop-attacks.

  8. [Topiramate in substance-related and addictive disorders]. (United States)

    Cohen, Johan; Dervaux, Alain; Laqueille, Xavier


    Drug treatments used in substance use disorders are not effective in all patients. To assess the effectiveness of topiramate use in the treatment of substance use disorders. Medline database from January 1966 to December 2013, Cochrane database and We used keywords topiramate, addiction, substance abuse, alcohol, tobacco, nicotine, cocaine, methamphetamine, opiate, heroin, benzodiazepine, cannabis, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, gambling. All clinical trials were included. Animal trials, laboratory tests, reviews, answers to writers, case-reports, case series and publications unrelated to the topic were excluded. Twenty-eight articles investigating the efficacy of topiramate in substance use were included. In alcohol-related disorder, several trials and a meta-analysis showed a reduction of days of consumption. In a single-center trial on tobacco-related disorder, topiramate was not found effective in reducing the carbon monoxide expired. In cocaine-related disorder, one single-center trial showed a reduction of days of consumption and two single-center trials have found a trend in favour of topiramate. In alcohol and cocaine co-dependency, a single-center trial found a trend in favour of topiramate. In methamphetamine-related disorder, a multicenter trial found a trend in favour of topiramate. In bulimia nervosa, two single-center trials showed a reduction in binge eating and compensatory behaviours. In binge eating disorder, several trials showed a reduction of binge eating and weight. In gambling, one single-center trial did not show any significant results. There were no randomized controlled trials found in opioid-related disorder, benzodiazepines-related disorder, and cannabis-related disorder. Definition of abstinence and methods to assess the efficacy of topiramate differed between trials. The methodological quality of included trials was variable, especially with no double-blind procedure in eight trials. Topiramate showed

  9. Topiramate in the treatment of substance-related disorders: a critical review of the literature. (United States)

    Shinn, Ann K; Greenfield, Shelly F


    To critically review the literature on topiramate in the treatment of substance-related disorders. A PubMed search of human studies published in English through January 2009 was conducted using the following search terms: topiramate and substance abuse, topiramate and substance dependence, topiramate and withdrawal, topiramate and alcohol, topiramate and nicotine, topiramate and cocaine, topiramate and opiates, and topiramate and benzodiazepines. 26 articles were identified and reviewed; these studies examined topiramate in disorders related to alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, methamphetamine, opioids, Ecstasy, and benzodiazepines. Study design, sample size, topiramate dose and duration, and study outcomes were reviewed. There is compelling evidence for the efficacy of topiramate in the treatment of alcohol dependence. Two trials show trends for topiramate's superiority over oral naltrexone in alcohol dependence, while 1 trial suggests topiramate is inferior to disulfiram. Despite suggestive animal models, evidence for topiramate in treating alcohol withdrawal in humans is slim. Studies of topiramate in nicotine dependence show mixed results. Human laboratory studies that used acute topiramate dosing show that topiramate actually enhances the pleasurable effects of both nicotine and methamphetamine. Evidence for topiramate in the treatment of cocaine dependence is promising, but limited by small sample size. The data on opioids, benzodiazepines, and Ecstasy are sparse. Topiramate is efficacious for the treatment of alcohol dependence, but side effects may limit widespread use. While topiramate's unique pharmacodynamic profile offers a promising theoretical rationale for use across multiple substance-related disorders, heterogeneity both across and within these disorders limits topiramate's broad applicability in treating substance-related disorders. Recommendations for future research include exploration of genetic variants for more targeted pharmacotherapies.

  10. Therapeutic benefits of ACTH and levetiracetam in STXBP1 encephalopathy with a de novo mutation: A case report and literature review. (United States)

    Liu, Shunli; Wang, Liyuan; Cai, Xiao Tang; Zhou, Hui; Yu, Dan; Wang, Zhiling


    The case report aims to discuss the clinical symptoms and treatment of encephalopathy caused by a novel syntaxin- binding protein 1 (STXBP1) genetic mutation. The patient, a girl, was born at 38+4 weeks of gestation. She had frequent spasm attacks accompanied by obvious psychomotor development retardation since the neonatal period. Genetic screening identified a novel STXBP1 genetic mutation. Early-onset epileptic encephalopathy with STXBP1 mutation. We adjusted the antiepileptic strategy to oral levetiracetam and topiramate, and intravenous administration of adrenocorticotropic hormone(ACTH) for 2 weeks. Subsequently, prednisone was continued, and gradually reduced and withdrawn over 3 months. The treatment was effective with complete control of the epileptic seizures and improvements in the electroencephalogram readings. However, the effects on psychomotor ability were slow and limited. A literature review of STXBP1 mutation cases in which ACTH was administered showed that complete seizure control is observed in 60% of cases, 20% are partially affected, and the remaining 20% show no effect. ACTH and levetiracetam had good therapeutic effects in epilepsy control in this case of de novo STXBP1 mutation. ACTH is an effective drug for early-onset epileptic encephalopathy caused by STXBP1 mutation. However, controlling epilepsy using this therapy does not alter the psychomotor development retardation caused by the STXBP1 mutation.

  11. Topiramate for Abnormal Eating Behaviour in Frontotemporal Dementia (United States)

    Singam, Colin; Walterfang, Mark; Mocellin, Ramon; Evans, Andrew; Velakoulis, Dennis


    Topiramate is a sulfamate-substituted monosaccharide anticonvulsant that is associated with anorexia and weight loss and has been used to treat binge eating disorder and bulimia nervosa. This report describes a man with frontotemporal dementia, behavioural variant, associated with abnormal eating behaviour which appeared to respond to topiramate. We review the physiological basis of abnormal eating behaviour in frontotemporal dementia and explore possible mechanisms of action by which topiramate may modify eating behaviour in this condition. PMID:23548883

  12. Cardiovascular effects of phentermine and topiramate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Jens; Astrup, Arne; Engeli, Stefan


    Weight loss can reduce the increased cardiovascular risk associated with obesity. Pharmacotherapy is a recognized weight loss treatment option; however, cardiovascular safety issues with some previous weight loss drugs raise concerns for newly approved pharmacotherapies. Phentermine is approved...... for short-term obesity treatment in conjunction with lifestyle modifications, but is commonly used chronically. Topiramate, approved for treating epilepsy and preventing migraines, also induces weight loss. A single-dose combination of low-dose phentermine and topiramate extended-release was recently...... approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration as an adjunct to lifestyle intervention for the chronic treatment of overweight/obese adults. This review summarizes and evaluates the cardiovascular risk/benefit profile associated with phentermine and topiramate, individually and in combination...

  13. Genetic and environmental correlates of topiramate-induced cognitive impairment (United States)

    Cirulli, Elizabeth T.; Urban, Thomas J.; Marino, Susan E.; Linney, Kristen N.; Birnbaum, Angela K.; Depondt, Chantal; Attix, Deborah K.; Radtke, Rodney A.; Goldstein, David B.


    Topiramate is an antiepileptic drug that has marked, treatment-limiting side effects on specific aspects of cognitive performance in both patients and healthy volunteers. As these severe side-effects occur only in certain individuals, identifying genetic or environmental variables that influence cognitive response would be of great utility in determining whether to administer this drug to a patient. We gave an acute 100 mg oral dose of topiramate to 158 healthy volunteers and measured how the drug changed their performance on a diverse battery of cognitive tests. We found a wide range of responses to topiramate and demonstrated that not all tests in the battery were equally affected. There was no correlation between the effect of topiramate and either education level or baseline cognitive performance. Interestingly, there was up to 55-fold variation in the topiramate plasma levels of the participants. Our genome-wide association study (GWAS) of cognitive response did not reveal any genome-wide significant associations; the study was powered to find variants explaining at least 25% of the variation in cognitive response. Combining the results of this GWAS with a retrospective study of cognitive complaints in 290 epilepsy patients who received topiramate as part of their treatment also did not result in a significant association. Our results support the need for additional genetic studies of topiramate that utilize larger sample sizes. PMID:22091778

  14. Topiramate Responsive Exploding Head Syndrome


    Palikh, Gaurang M.; Vaughn, Bradley V.


    Exploding head syndrome is a rare phenomenon but can be a significant disruption to quality of life. We describe a 39-year-old female with symptoms of a loud bang and buzz at sleep onset for 3 years. EEG monitoring confirmed these events occurred in transition from stage 1 sleep. This patient reported improvement in intensity of events with topiramate medication. Based on these results, topiramate may be an alternative method to reduce the intensity of events in exploding head syndrome.

  15. Topiramate responsive exploding head syndrome. (United States)

    Palikh, Gaurang M; Vaughn, Bradley V


    Exploding head syndrome is a rare phenomenon but can be a significant disruption to quality of life. We describe a 39-year-old female with symptoms of a loud bang and buzz at sleep onset for 3 years. EEG monitoring confirmed these events occurred in transition from stage 1 sleep. This patient reported improvement in intensity of events with topiramate medication. Based on these results, topiramate may be an alternative method to reduce the intensity of events in exploding head syndrome.

  16. Effects of topical topiramate in wound healing in mice. (United States)

    Jara, Carlos Poblete; Bóbbo, Vanessa Cristina Dias; Carraro, Rodrigo Scarpari; de Araujo, Thiago Matos Ferreira; Lima, Maria H M; Velloso, Licio A; Araújo, Eliana P


    Recent studies have indicated that systemic topiramate can induce an improvement on the aesthetic appearance of skin scars. Here, we evaluated topical topiramate as an agent to improve wound healing in C57/BL6 mice. Mice were inflicted with a 6.0 mm punch to create two wounds in the skin of the dorsal region. Thereafter, mice were randomly assigned to either vehicle or topical topiramate (20 µl of 2% cream) once a day for 14 days, beginning on the same day as wound generation. We analyzed the wound samples over real-time PCR, Western blotting, and microscopy. There was no effect of the topiramate treatment on the time for complete reepithelization of the wound. However, on microscopic analysis, topiramate treatment resulted in increased granulation tissue, thicker epidermal repair, and improved deposition of type I collagen fibers. During wound healing, there were increased expressions of anti-inflammatory markers, such as IL-10, TGF-β1, and reduced expression of the active form of JNK. In addition, topiramate treatment increased the expression of active forms of two intermediaries in the insulin-signaling pathway, IRS-1 and Akt. Finally, at the end of the wound-healing process, topiramate treatment resulted in increased expression of SOX-2, a transcription factor that is essential to maintain cell self-renewal of undifferentiated embryonic stem cells. We conclude that topical topiramate can improve the overall quality of wound healing in the healthy skin of mice. This improvement is accompanied by reduced expression of markers involved in inflammation and increased expression of proteins of the insulin-signaling pathway.

  17. Levetiracetam Affects Differentially Presynaptic Proteins in Rat Cerebral Cortex

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    Daniele Marcotulli


    Full Text Available Presynaptic proteins are potential therapeutic targets for epilepsy and other neurological diseases. We tested the hypothesis that chronic treatment with the SV2A ligand levetiracetam affects the expression of other presynaptic proteins. Results showed that in rat neocortex no significant difference was detected in SV2A protein levels in levetiracetam treated animals compared to controls, whereas levetiracetam post-transcriptionally decreased several vesicular proteins and increased LRRK2, without any change in mRNA levels. Analysis of SV2A interactome indicates that the presynaptic proteins regulation induced by levetiracetam reported here is mediated by this interactome, and suggests that LRRK2 plays a role in forging the pattern of effects.

  18. Agranulocytosis Associated with Topiramate: A Case Report and Review of Published Cases

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    Saroj Lohani


    Full Text Available A 41-year-old female presented to the hospital with sore throat and shortness of breath. She was hypoxic with an oxygen saturation of 87% in room air. Physical examination revealed swollen uvula with exudates. She had been started on topiramate for treatment of migraine few months ago. The dose of topiramate was increased to 100 mg twice daily 2 weeks ago. Complete blood count revealed an absolute neutrophil count (ANC of 8 c/mm3. She was intubated and started on broad-spectrum antibiotics. She was transferred to our hospital on the fifth day of hospitalization. On arrival, her absolute neutrophil count was 10 c/mm3. Her agranulocytosis was attributed to topiramate after ruling out other possible causes. ANC improved after topiramate was stopped. ANC increased to 1000 after 5 days of stopping topiramate. We also reviewed published cases of topiramate-associated agranulocytosis. Agranulocytosis is a rare side effect of topiramate, and only 3 case reports have been published so far. In all cases, agranulocytosis developed after months of topiramate therapy and when dose was increased to 200 mg daily suggesting a dose-dependent effect. Next steps would be further research on the pathogenesis of agranulocytosis associated with topiramate and creation of registry for data synthesis.

  19. Nephrolithiasis and Nephrocalcinosis From Topiramate Therapy in Children With Epilepsy

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    Sarah M. Barnett


    Full Text Available Introduction: Adults treated with topiramate may develop nephrolithiasis, but its frequency in children on topiramate is unknown. Topiramate inhibits renal carbonic anhydrase, which can lead to renal tubular acidosis and hypercalciuria. We studied 40 consecutive children who initiated topiramate therapy for seizures between January 1997 and February 2003, followed for a mean of 36 months. Methods: Serum electrolytes, urinary calcium/creatinine ratios, and renal ultrasonography were performed before topiramate and every 6 months thereafter. Results: Four children developed nephrolithiasis and/or nephrocalcinosis, which resolved on discontinuation of topiramate. In 40 patients, the mean urinary calcium/creatinine ratio increased over time (P 0.21 were compared with the 14 children with baseline normal urinary calcium excretion. A greater increase in urinary calcium/creatinine ratios occurred in hypercalciuric children (P < 0.001 and a greater decrease in serum bicarbonate levels occurred in the hypercalciuric children (P < 0.05 compared with children with baseline normal calcium excretion. Greater urinary calcium excretion was associated with increasing doses of topiramate (P = 0.039. Conclusion: Our study shows that long-term therapy with topiramate in children is associated with persistent hypercalciuria and metabolic acidosis, which can lead to nephrocalcinosis and/or nephrolithiasis. All children initiating topiramate therapy should have baseline and follow-up urinary calcium/creatinine studies, serum electrolytes, and periodic renal ultrasonography, if the urinary calcium/creatinine ratio increases to a level above normal for age. Keywords: hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis, topiramate

  20. Topiramate-induced paresthesia is more frequently reported by migraine than epileptic patients. (United States)

    Sedighi, Behnaz; Shafiei, Kaveh; Azizpour, Iman


    Topiramate is an approved and effective drug in migraine prophylaxis. Paresthesia is the most commonly reported side effect. The primary objective of this study was to compare the frequency of topiramate-induced paresthesia in migraine headache to epileptic patients. Patients with migraine without aura and epilepsy were enrolled in this observational study. All cases were interviewed by telephone about their history of paresthesia. Confounding factors were controlled through logistic regression. The odds ratio of developing topiramate-induced paresthesia in migraine compared to epilepsy patients was 3.4. Three factors were independent contributors to developing topiramate-induced paresthesia: female sex (odds ratio 2.1), topiramate dosage (odds ratio 0.3) and duration of therapy. Our findings indicate an independent association between migraine and development of paresthesia. Migraineurs were more likely than epileptic patients to report paresthesia as topiramate adverse effects. Female sex, treatment duration and topiramate dosage contribute significantly to subsequent development of paresthesia.

  1. Alkali replacement raises urinary citrate excretion in patients with topiramate-induced hypocitraturia. (United States)

    Jhagroo, R Allan; Wertheim, Margaret L; Penniston, Kristina L


    The aims of this study were to assess (1) the magnitude and temporality of decreased urinary citrate excretion in patients just starting topiramate and (2) the effect of alkali replacement on topiramate-induced hypocitraturia. Study 1 was a prospective, non-intervention study in which patients starting topiramate for headache remediation provided pre- and post-topiramate 24 h urine collections for measurement of urine citrate. Study 2 was a clinical comparative effectiveness study in which patients reporting to our stone clinic for kidney stones and who were treated with topiramate were prescribed alkali therapy. Pre- and post-alkali 24 h urinary citrate excretion was compared. Data for 12 and 22 patients (studies 1 and 2 respectively) were evaluated. After starting topiramate, urinary citrate excretion dropped significantly by 30 days (P = 0.016) and 62% of patients had hypocitraturia (citrate alkali, urine citrate increased in stone-forming patients on topiramate (198 ± 120 to 408 ± 274 mg day(-1) ; P = 0.042 for difference). 85% of patients were hypocitraturic on topiramate alone vs. 40% after adding alkali. The increase in urinary citrate was greater in patients provided ≥ 90 mEq potassium citrate. Our study is the first to provide clinical evidence that alkali therapy can raise urinary citrate excretion in patients who form kidney stones while being treated with topiramate. Clinicians should consider alkali therapy for reducing the kidney stone risk of patients benefitting from topiramate treatment for migraine headaches or other conditions. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  2. Topiramate in the treatment of compulsive sexual behavior: case report

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    Zullino Daniele


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the multiple mechanisms of action of topiramate, AMPA/kainate antagonism may be particularly interesting for the treatment of disorders characterized by conditioned cognitive and behavioral cue reactivity. Case presentation We report the case of a patient consulting primarily for obesity and cue triggered snacking, who responded well on topiramate at doses up to 50 mg. Coincidentally he reported on an improvement of compulsive nonparaphilic sexual behaviors (consumption of prostitution, which was also strongly triggered by environmental cues. Both addictive behaviors (snacking and consumption of prostitution reoccurred after discontinuation of topiramate and again responded reintroduction of the drug. Conclusion The present case report of topiramate's effect on comorbid obesity and nonparaphilic addiction could be interpreted as a further indication that topiramate acts on the common pathway underlying conditioned behaviors and seems to be a treatment of behavioral disorders associated with environmental cues.

  3. Topiramate: use in binge eating disorder?

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    Mauro Gentile


    Full Text Available Introduction: Topiramate was serendipitously synthesized in 1979 during research aimed at developing a fructose-1,6-diphosphatase inhibitor that might be used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Some investigators have suggested it might be used in the treatment of binge eating disorder (BED. The aim of this review was to evaluate current knowledge and opinions on this topic. Materials and methods: We conducted a search of five electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Nice, Cochrane, Cinahl using the search strategy ‘‘topiramate’’ AND ‘‘binge’’, ‘‘binge eating disorder.’’ No time limits were applied, and only reports of randomized controlled trials were included in our analysis. Results: In clinical studies, topiramate use has been associated with significant weight loss mediated by reductions in the frequency of bingeing episodes. The most common side effects of the drug are paresthesias, but nephrolithiasis, oligohydrosis, and dizziness have also been described. Conclusions: Available data are limited, but the literature we reviewed suggests that topiramate can be useful in the medical treatment of BED, reducing both body weight and binge episodes. Side effects are not negligible. Before topiramate can be regarded as a good tool for the treatment of BED, further data must be obtained from longer, methodologically correct studies of larger populations.

  4. Topiramate-induced Neuropathy Mimicking Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Case Report

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    Jigar S. Gandhi


    Full Text Available Carpel tunnel syndrome (CTS is a condition in which median nerve compression results in paresthesias and pain in thewrist and hand. We are going to report a rare case of topiramate-induced neuropathy which clinically resembles CTS.Discontinuation of topiramate resulted in spontaneous resolution of numbness, paresthesia and pain in a few days. Highclinical suspicion is advised in patients who are on topiramate and present with signs of compressive neuropathy.

  5. Efficacy and Tolerability of Intravenous Levetiracetam in Children

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    Jose eAceves


    Full Text Available Intractable epilepsy in children poses a serious medical challenge. Acute repetitive seizures and status epilepticus leads to frequent emergency room visits and hospital admissions. Permanent neurological damage can occur if there is delay in treatment. It has been shown that these children continue to remain intractable even after acute seizure management with approved FDA agents. Intravenous levetiracetam, a second-generation anticonvulsant was approved by the FDA in 2006 in patients 16 years and older as an alternative when oral treatment is not an option. It has been shown that oral levetiracetam can be used in the treatment of status epilepticus and acute repetitive seizures. Data have been published showing that intravenous levetiracetam is safe and efficacious, and can be used in an acute inpatient setting. This current review will discuss the recent data about the safety and tolerability of intravenous levetiracetam in children and neonates, and emphasize the need for a larger prospective multicenter trial to prove the efficacy of this agent in acute seizure management.

  6. Topiramate in the treatment of substance related disorders: a critical review of the literature (United States)

    Shinn, Ann K.; Greenfield, Shelly F.


    Objective To critically review the literature on topiramate in the treatment of substance related disorders. Data Sources A PubMed search of human studies published in English through January 2009. Study Selection 26 articles were identified and reviewed; these studies examined topiramate in disorders related to alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, methamphetamine, opioids, ecstasy, and benzodiazepines. Data Extraction Study design, sample size, topiramate dose and duration, and study outcomes were reviewed. Data Synthesis There is compelling evidence for the efficacy of topiramate in the treatment of alcohol dependence. Two trials show trends for topiramate’s superiority over oral naltrexone in alcohol dependence, while one trial suggests topiramate is inferior to disulfiram. Despite suggestive animal models, evidence for topiramate in treating alcohol withdrawal in humans is slim. Studies of topiramate in nicotine dependence show mixed results. Human laboratory studies that used acute topiramate dosing show that topiramate actually enhances the pleasurable effects of both nicotine and methamphetamine. Evidence for topiramate in the treatment of cocaine dependence is promising, but limited by small sample size. The data on opioids, benzodiazepines, and ecstasy are sparse. Conclusion Topiramate is efficacious for the treatment of alcohol dependence, but side effects may limit widespread use. While topiramate’s unique pharmacodynamic profile offers a promising theoretical rationale for use across multiple substance related disorders, heterogeneity both across and within these disorders limits topiramate’s broad applicability in treating substance related disorders. Recommendations for future research include exploration of genetic variants for more targeted pharmacotherapies. PMID:20361908

  7. Topiramate sprinkle is effective in the treatment of childhood epilepsy

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    Prastiya Indra Gunawan


    Full Text Available Background Epilepsy remains one of the most frequently occurring pediatric problems. Approximately 10-15% patients do not respond to conventional therapy. Topiramate as a novel antiepileptic drug has a broad spectrum activity, presumably indicative of multiple anti-seizure mechanisms. Previous studies of topiramate as adjunctive and monotherapy in adults have shown beneficial effects. The objective of this research was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of topiramate sprinkle monotherapy in pediatric epilepsy. Methods This experimental research was conducted in the Pediatric Neurology outpatient clinic department, Soetomo hospital, Surabaya, involving 18 consecutive subjects. Subjects meeting the inclusion criteria were treated with topiramate sprinkle adjusted dose. Seizure frequency and side effects were observed in weeks 1, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24, respectively. Electro encephalogram (EEG and laboratory examinations were performed prior to and after 6 months of treatment. The t-test for related samples and McNemar test were utilized for statistical analysis. Results A total of 15 subjects completed the study. Topiramate-treated patients showed a statistically significant difference of seizure frequency reduction from 2.7 ± 1.16 to 0.13 ± 0.51 (p=0.000 with 93.7% patients being seizure free in 20 weeks. EEG recordings did not differ statistically in decrement of epileptiform activity in 20% subjects. About 7% subjects developed drowsiness and 33.3% subjects suffered from appetite suppression in the initial treatment. Laboratory results showed no abnormalities. Conclusions There was reduction of seizure frequency and no EEG recording alterations after topiramate sprinkle monotherapy. Topiramate as a monotherapy is highly effcicacious in childhood epilepsy.

  8. Topiramate Therapy and Cognitive Dysfunction

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    J Gordon Millichap


    Full Text Available The effects of topiramate (TPA adjunctive therapy on cognition in 22 consecutive patients with intractable epilepsy were studied at the Montreal Neurological Hospital, Quebec, Canada.

  9. Levetiracetam as an alternative therapy for Tourette syndrome

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    MA Martínez-Granero


    Full Text Available MA Martínez-Granero, A García-Pérez, F MontañesDepartment of Pediatrics and Psychiatry, Hospital Universitario Fundación Alcorcón, Madrid, SpainAbstract: Tourette syndrome is a common childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by chronic tics and frequent comorbid conditions such as attention deficit disorder. Most currently used tic-suppressing drugs are frequently associated with serious adverse events. Thus, alternative therapeutic agents with more favorable side-effect profiles are being evaluated. New hypotheses and recent studies involving GABAergic system in the pathophysiology of Tourette syndrome suppose a reason for the evaluation of GABAergic drugs. Levetiracetam is a drug with an atypical GABAergic mechanism of action that might be expected to improve tics. Although trials performed to evaluate the efficacy of levetiracetam in the treatment of Tourette syndrome have provided conflicting results, it may be useful in some patients. The established safe profile of levetiracetam makes this drug an alternative for treatment if intolerance to currently used drugs appears, but additional evaluation with larger and longer duration controlled studies are necessary to assess the real efficacy in patients with Tourette syndrome.Keywords: Tourette syndrome, levetiracetam, tics, children, adolescents, GABA

  10. Levetiracetam for the Treatment of Refractor Neonatal Seizures

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    Esengül KELEŞ


    Full Text Available Convulsions are observed commonly in newborns and especially in premature babies. The afety and efficiency of conventional antiepileptic drugs have been extensively investigated. But long term side effects like apoptosis are newly recognized even with the the most commonly used antiepilectic drug, phenobarbital. Much research is related to the safety and efficiency of levetiracetam, one of the recent antiepileptic drugs, used in partial onset idiopathic or generalized seizures of adults and children. However, research on newborns, especially premature newborns is limited. In this paper we present two cases involving seven day newborn premature twins treated with refractory seizures. Seizures were controlled only with levetiracetam therapy. We did not observe any long term side effects which can be related to levetiracetam or seizures in a long term follow up of both patients.

  11. Age-Dependent Effects of Topiramate on the Acquisition and the Retention of Rapid Kindling (United States)

    Mazarati, Andréy; Shin, Don; Auvin, Stéphane; Sankar, Raman


    Summary Purpose To examine antiepileptogenic, disease-modifying, and anticonvulsant effects of topiramate under conditions of rapid kindling at different stages of development. Methods Afterdischarge threshold (ADT) and duration (ADD) were examined in two-, three-, and five-week old Wistar rats before and after administration of topiramate (200 mg/kg). Animals underwent a rapid kindling protocol (sixty 10 second trains, bipolar 20 Hz square wave pulses delivered every five minutes). The progression of behavioral and electrographic seizures, and responses to test stimulations 24 hours after the protocol were compared between topiramate and vehicle treated control rats. In addition, rats that were previously given vehicle only prior to kindling, were then given topiramate to examine the effect on established kindled seizures. Results In two-week old animals, topiramate affected neither the baseline afterdischarge, nor the progression of kindled seizures. In three-week old rats, topiramate did not modify the baseline afterdischarge, but significantly delayed the occurrence of full motor seizures in response to repeated stimulations. Topiramate treatment of five-week old rats increased baseline ADT, shortened ADD, and delayed the progression of kindled seizures. Twenty four hours after the last kindling stimulation, animals of all ages exhibited a decreased ADT, an increase ADD, and developed behavioral seizures in response to threshold stimulation. Vehicle treated kindled rats that were then given topiramate displayed significantly attenuated behavioral seizures induced by the threshold stimulation. Conclusions Topiramate exhibited age-dependent disease-modifying effects under conditions of rapid kindling, but failed to block epileptogenesis. Topiramate also inhibited kindled seizures with equal efficacy across the three ages. PMID:17319916

  12. The frequency and severity of metabolic acidosis related to topiramate. (United States)

    Türe, Hatice; Keskin, Özgül; Çakır, Ülkem; Aykut Bingöl, Canan; Türe, Uğur


    Objective We planned a cross-sectional analysis to determine the frequency and severity of metabolic acidosis in patients taking topiramate while awaiting craniotomy. Methods Eighty patients (18 - 65 years) taking topiramate to control seizures while awaiting elective craniotomy were enrolled. Any signs of metabolic acidosis or topiramate-related side effects were investigated. Blood chemistry levels and arterial blood gases, including lactate, were obtained. The severity of metabolic acidosis was defined according to base excess levels as mild or moderate. Results Blood gas analysis showed that 71% ( n = 57) of patients had metabolic acidosis. The frequency of moderate metabolic acidosis was 56% ( n = 45), while that of mild metabolic acidosis was 15% ( n = 12). A high respiratory rate was reported in only 10% of moderately acidotic patients. Conclusions In patients receiving topiramate, baseline blood gas analysis should be performed preoperatively to determine the presence and severity of metabolic acidosis.

  13. Levetiracetam reverses synaptic deficits produced by overexpression of SV2A.

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    Amy Nowack

    Full Text Available Levetiracetam is an FDA-approved drug used to treat epilepsy and other disorders of the nervous system. Although it is known that levetiracetam binds the synaptic vesicle protein SV2A, how drug binding affects synaptic functioning remains unknown. Here we report that levetiracetam reverses the effects of excess SV2A in autaptic hippocampal neurons. Expression of an SV2A-EGFP fusion protein produced a ∼1.5-fold increase in synaptic levels of SV2, and resulted in reduced synaptic release probability. The overexpression phenotype parallels that seen in neurons from SV2 knockout mice, which experience severe seizures. Overexpression of SV2A also increased synaptic levels of the calcium-sensor protein synaptotagmin, an SV2-binding protein whose stability and trafficking are regulated by SV2. Treatment with levetiracetam rescued normal neurotransmission and restored normal levels of SV2 and synaptotagmin at the synapse. These results indicate that changes in SV2 expression in either direction impact neurotransmission, and suggest that levetiracetam may modulate SV2 protein interactions.

  14. Treatment of obese patients with binge eating disorder using topiramate: a review

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    Paolo Leombruni


    Full Text Available Paolo Leombruni, Luca Lavagnino, Secondo FassinoDepartment of Neurosciences, Psychiatry Section, University of Torino, Centre for Eating Disorders and Obesity, Torino, ItalyAbstract: Topiramate is an anticonvulsant drug used for the treatment of epilepsy and prophylaxis of migraine. Some authors have proposed its use as a mood stabilizer and have reported its efficacy in reducing impulsiveness and improving mood regulation, possibly via its antagonism to glutamatergic transmission in the lateral hypothalamus, although this indication is still controversial. Weight loss is a side effect consistently reported in the medical literature in patients treated with topiramate. Given its potential role in stabilizing mood and reducing impulse control problems and weight, topiramate has been proposed as a treatment for obese patients with binge eating disorder (BED. The aim of this paper is to review published data on the efficacy and safety of topiramate for the treatment of obese subjects with BED. Although the evidence is preliminary, topiramate appears to be a relatively safe and effective treatment for obese subjects with BED. Limitations of the studies and future directions for research are discussed.Keywords: topiramate, binge eating disorder, obesity

  15. Concomitant Use of Topiramate Inducing Neutropenia in a Schizophrenic Male Stabilized on Clozapine

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    Pravesh Sharma


    Full Text Available This is a case of a 23-year-old African American male with a history of paranoid schizophrenia that developed neutropenia on a clozapine-topiramate therapy. Clozapine had well addressed the patient’s psychotic symptoms, while topiramate was used as a weight-lowering agent. The patient had fairly stable leukocyte counts for eight months on clozapine 300 mg and topiramate 100 mg daily. Doubling the dosage of topiramate led to severe neutropenia after two months. Reviewing the patient’s laboratory reports showed a gradual decline of neutrophils occurring at a lower dosage, followed by a rapid decline after an increased dosage. In this case, we report that not only did topiramate act as the neutropenic agent, but also it might have done so in a dose-dependent manner.

  16. Off-label use analysis of novel antiepileptic drugs in Sichuan area: a multicenter survey in pediatric patients

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    CAI Qian-yun


    Full Text Available Objective To investigate current status and safety about off-label use of levetiracetam, topiramate, oxcarbazepine, lamotrigine among pediatric patients in Sichuan area, so as to provide baseline data for formulating guidelines of off-label drug use. Methods Medical records of pediatric epileptic patients receiving antiepileptic drugs (AEDs from July 2010 to November 2011 were collected at the following hospitals: West China Second University Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu Women's and Children's Central Hospital and Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital. The numbers of patients receiving AEDs and novel AEDs were calculated. Off-label drug use and the category of off-label drug use were judged according to the indications listed in drug instructions. The incidence of off-label drug use was calculated. The patients receiving novel AEDs were devided into on-label and off-label use groups; the clinical characteristics of these two groups were summarized and adverse reactions of two groups were compared by using χ2 test. Results During the study period, there were totally 854 patients receiving AEDs including 670 patients receiving novel AEDs. Among 670 patients 406 patients off-label use group received off-label use of novel AEDs, accounting for 47.54% (406/854 of the total patients receiving AEDs and 60.60% (406/670 of patients receiving novel AEDs. When compared with on-label use group, off-label use group had more younger patients, more patients with single-drug use and more patients with generalized epilepsy or epileptic syndrome. The rates of off-label using drug were levetiracetam 78.50% (157/200, topiramate 79.81% (253/317, oxcarbazepine 21.32% (42/197 and lamotrigine 33.33% (21/63. The off-label use of levetiracetam and topiramate occured in all three aspects: age, single-drug use and seizure type. The adverse reaction rates of off-label use were oxcarbazepine 16.67% (7/42, topiramate 14.81% (36/243, levetiracetam 10.60% (16

  17. Severe non-anion gap metabolic acidosis induced by topiramate: a case report. (United States)

    Shiber, Joseph R


    A non-anion gap acidosis can be induced by topiramate, causing symptomatic dyspnea and confusion. Discuss the pathophysiology of the hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis caused by topiramate, the typical clinical presentation, and the recommended treatment. This case presents a young woman with a clinically significant non-anion gap metabolic acidosis believed to be caused by topiramate. She had been taking the medication for several months without prior adverse effects. Once she began having dyspnea as a respiratory response to the renal tubule acidosis, she had decreased oral intake of food and fluids, which induced a pre-renal acute renal failure that worsened her acidemia. In the Emergency Department, she received intravenous fluids and sodium bicarbonate, and later was intubated for mechanical ventilation due to respiratory fatigue. With the topiramate withdrawn, the patient had a full recovery of her renal function and metabolic acid-base status over the next 72 h. This case serves to increase awareness of this possible adverse effect and the recommended treatment as topiramate becomes more widely used. Topiramate can induce a renal tubule acidosis resulting in a hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. Recognition of the underlying cause is crucial so that the drug can be withdrawn while supportive care is provided. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The insulin sensitizing effect of topiramate involves KATP channel activation in the central nervous system. (United States)

    Coomans, C P; Geerling, J J; van den Berg, S A A; van Diepen, H C; Garcia-Tardón, N; Thomas, A; Schröder-van der Elst, J P; Ouwens, D M; Pijl, H; Rensen, P C N; Havekes, L M; Guigas, B; Romijn, J A


    Topiramate improves insulin sensitivity, in addition to its antiepileptic action. However, the underlying mechanism is unknown. Therefore, the present study was aimed at investigating the mechanism of the insulin-sensitizing effect of topiramate both in vivo and in vitro. Male C57Bl/6J mice were fed a run-in high-fat diet for 6 weeks, before receiving topiramate or vehicle mixed in high-fat diet for an additional 6 weeks. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp. The extent to which the insulin sensitizing effects of topiramate were mediated through the CNS were determined by concomitant i.c.v. infusion of vehicle or tolbutamide, an inhibitor of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in neurons. The direct effects of topiramate on insulin signalling and glucose uptake were assessed in vivo and in cultured muscle cells. In hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp conditions, therapeutic plasma concentrations of topiramate (∼4 μg·mL(-1) ) improved insulin sensitivity (glucose infusion rate + 58%). Using 2-deoxy-D-[(3) H]glucose, we established that topiramate improved the insulin-mediated glucose uptake by heart (+92%), muscle (+116%) and adipose tissue (+586%). Upon i.c.v. tolbutamide, the insulin-sensitizing effect of topiramate was completely abrogated. Topiramate did not directly affect glucose uptake or insulin signalling neither in vivo nor in cultured muscle cells. In conclusion, topiramate stimulates insulin-mediated glucose uptake in vivo through the CNS. These observations illustrate the possibility of pharmacological modulation of peripheral insulin resistance through a target in the CNS. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  19. Effects of topiramate on language functions in newly diagnosed pediatric epileptic patients. (United States)

    Kim, Sun Jun; Kim, Moon Yeon; Choi, Yoon Mi; Song, Mi Kyoung


    The aim of this study was to characterize the effects of topiramate on language functions in newly diagnosed pediatric epileptic patients. Thirty-eight newly diagnosed epileptic patients were assessed using standard language tests. Data were collected before and after beginning topiramate during which time a monotherapy treatment regimen was maintained. Language tests included the Test of Language Problem Solving Abilities, a Korean version of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. We used language tests in the Korean version because all the patients were spoken Korean exclusively in their families. All the language parameters of Test of Language Problem Solving Abilities worsened after initiation of topiramate (determine cause, 13.2 ± 4.8 to 11.2 ± 4.3; problem solving, 14.8 ± 6.0 to 12.8 ± 5.0; predicting, 9.8 ± 3.6 to 8.8 ± 4.6). Patients given topiramate exhibited a shortened mean length of utterance in words during response (determine cause, 4.8 ± 0.9 to 4.3 ± 0.7; making inference, 4.5 ± 0.8 to 4.1 ± 1.1; predicting, 5.2 ± 1.0 to 4.7 ± 0.6; P language of patients after taking topiramate (95.4 ± 20.4 to 100.8 ± 19.1). Our data suggest that topiramate may have negative effects on problem-solving abilities in children. We recommend performing language tests should be considered in children being treated with topiramate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Veiligheid en farmacokinetiek van levetiracetam intraveneus add-on bij status epilepticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uges, Joris; Van Huizen, Marc; Engelsman, Jeroen; Wilms, Erik; Touw, Daan; Peeters, Els; Vecht, Charles


    Objective: To evaluate safety of intravenous levetiracetam added to the standard therapeutic regimen in adults with status epilepticus. and to assess a population pharmacokinetic model for intravenous levetiracetam in patients with status epilepticus. Design: Prospective, single-centre, single-arm,

  1. Management of obesity and cardiometabolic risk – role of phentermine/extended release topiramate

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    Sweeting AN


    Full Text Available Arianne N Sweeting,1 Eddy Tabet,1 Ian D Caterson,1,2 Tania P Markovic1,2 1Department of Endocrinology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition, Exercise & Eating Disorders, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA recently approved lorcaserin and the combination of phentermine and extended release topiramate (phentermine/topiramate ER for the treatment of obesity in conjunction with a lifestyle intervention, expanding the therapeutic options for long-term obesity pharmacotherapy, which was previously limited to orlistat. Combination phentermine/topiramate ER is associated with greater weight loss compared to its constituent monotherapy, with a more favorable adverse effect profile. Phentermine/topiramate ER also appears to have beneficial effects on cardiometabolic risk, although longer-term cardiovascular safety data are required. While there are no head-to-head studies among the currently available obesity pharmacotherapy agents, phentermine/topiramate ER appears to have a superior weight loss profile. This review will discuss the epidemiology, natural history, and cardiometabolic risk associated with obesity, provide an overview on current obesity pharmacotherapy, and summarize the recent clinical efficacy and safety data underpinning the FDA's approval of both phentermine/topiramate ER and lorcaserin as pharmacotherapy for a long-term obesity intervention. Keywords: obesity, phentermine/topiramate extended release, safety and efficacy, review

  2. Topiramate in schizophrenia: a review of effects on psychopathology and metabolic parameters. (United States)

    Hahn, Margaret K; Cohn, Tony; Teo, Celine; Remington, Gary


    Less than half of patients with schizophrenia obtain full response to antipsychotic drugs and, while clozapine represents the treatment of choice for refractory psychosis, a significant number of individuals remain only partially responsive. Despite a need for augmentation in this subpopulation, to date clear choices have not been forthcoming. Because clozapine, along with the majority of second-generation agents (SGAs), are linked to metabolic disturbances, augmentation strategies that do not further exacerbate these side effects are needed. Topiramate, unlike other anticonvulsants used for augmentation purposes, has been associated with weight loss. This article reviews the safety and efficacy of topiramate in treatment-refractory schizophrenia, including effects on metabolic disturbances, which burden this population. While current evidence specifically examining improvements in psychopathology demonstrates small to moderate benefits with topiramate augmentation, a growing body of evidence suggests that topiramate may have beneficial effects on antipsychotic-induced weight gain. We conclude that topiramate's metabolic profile, taken together with a current lack of evidence supporting a particular augmentation strategy, argues for further well-controlled studies examining its potential as an augmentation strategy in schizophrenia.

  3. Comparison of Levetiracetam and sodium Valproate in migraine prophylaxis: A randomized placebo-controlled study

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    Homa Sadeghian


    Full Text Available Background: Migraine is a chronic and disabling disorder. Treatment of migraine often comprises of symptomatic (abortive and preventive (prophylactic treatment. The current drugs used in migraine prophylaxis include antidepressant drugs (Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors, Tricyclic antidepressants, and anti-epileptic drugs (valproate, gabapentin, etc. Objective: The objective of our study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of levetiracetam in adult migraine prophylaxis, compared to valproate and placebo. Materials and Methods: We conducted a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study. A total of 85 patients were randomized to receive levetiracetam 500 mg/d (n = 27, valproate 500 mg/d (n = 32 or placebo (n = 26. The patients were evaluated for treatment efficacy after 6 months. Efficacy was assessed as a more than 50% decrease in headache frequency. Results: In levetiracetam group, 17 (63.0% patients experienced a more than 50% decrease in headache frequency, while this efficacy number was 21 (65.6% for valproate group and 4 (15.4% for placebo group. The difference was not statistically significant between levetiracetam and valproate, while it was significant when comparing either levetiracetam or valproate to placebo. Conclusion: Compared to placebo, levetiracetam offers improvement in headache frequency in patients with migraine. The efficacy of levetiracetam in migraine prophylaxis is comparable to currently used drugs such as valproate.

  4. Self-efficacy mediates the effects of topiramate and GRIK1 genotype on drinking. (United States)

    Kranzler, Henry R; Armeli, Stephen; Wetherill, Reagan; Feinn, Richard; Tennen, Howard; Gelernter, Joel; Covault, Jonathan; Pond, Timothy


    Previous studies indicate that topiramate reduces alcohol use among problem drinkers, with one study showing that the effect was moderated by a polymorphism (rs2832407) in GRIK1, the gene encoding the GluK1 kainate subunit. We examined whether the interactive effect of medication and genotype (1) altered the association between daily self-efficacy and later-day drinking; and (2) had an indirect effect on drinking via self-efficacy. In a 12-week, placebo-controlled trial of topiramate, we used daily interactive voice response technology to measure self-efficacy (i.e. confidence in avoiding heavy drinking later in the day) and drinking behavior in 122 European-American heavy drinkers. Topiramate's effects on both self-efficacy and drinking level were moderated by rs2832407. C-allele homozygotes treated with topiramate showed higher levels of self-efficacy and lower levels of nighttime drinking across the 12-week trial. Further, the interactive effect of topiramate and genotype on mean nighttime drinking levels was mediated by mean levels of self-efficacy. By modeling topiramate's effects on nighttime drinking across multiple levels of analysis, we found that self-efficacy, a key psychologic construct, mediated the effect of topiramate, which was moderated by rs2832407 genotype. Thus, it may be possible to use an individualized assessment (i.e. genotype) to select treatment to optimize the reduction in heavy drinking and thereby provide a personalized treatment approach. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacokinetics of Levetiracetam

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    Chanin Clark Wright


    Full Text Available Status epilepticus and acute repetitive seizures still pose a management challenge despite the recent advances in the field of epilepsy. Parenteral formulations of old anticonvulsants are still a cornerstone in acute seizure management and are approved by the FDA. Intravenous levetiracetam, a second generation anticonvulsant, is approved by the FDA as an adjunctive treatment in patients 16 years or older when oral administration is not available. Data have shown that it has a unique mechanism of action, linear pharmacokinetics and no known drug interactions with other anticonvulsants. In this paper, we will review the current literature about the pharmacology and pharmacokinetics of intravenous levetiracetam and the safety profile of this new anticonvulsant in acute seizure management of both adults and children.

  6. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of levetiracetam in central pain in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falah, M; Madsen, C; Holbech, J V


    sclerosis. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial with levetiracetam 3000 mg/day versus placebo (6-week treatment periods). Patients with multiple sclerosis, symptoms and signs complying with central neuropathic pain and pain symptoms for more than 6 months, as well....... Twenty-seven patients were included in the data analysis. There were no differences in the ratings of pain relief (levetiracetam 2.4 vs. placebo 2.1, p = 0.169), total pain intensity (levetiracetam 5.3 vs. placebo 5.7, p = 0.147) or any of the other outcome measures (p = 0.086-0.715) in the total sample...... of patients. However, there was significant reduction of pain, increased pain relief and/or more favourable pain relief with levetiracetam than with placebo in patients with lancinating or without touch-evoked pain (p = 0.025-0.046). This study found no effect of the anticonvulsant levetiracetam in non...

  7. Marked EEG worsening following Levetiracetam overdose: How a pharmacological issue can confound coma prognosis. (United States)

    Bouchier, Baptiste; Demarquay, Geneviève; Guérin, Claude; André-Obadia, Nathalie; Gobert, Florent


    Levetiracetam is an anti-epileptic drug commonly used in intensive care when seizure is suspected as a possible cause of coma. We propose to question the cofounding effect of Levetiracetam during the prognostication process in a case of anoxic coma. We report the story of a young woman presenting a comatose state following a hypoxic cardiac arrest. After a first EEG presenting an intermediate EEG pattern, a seizure suspicion led to prescribe Levetiracetam. The EEG showed then the appearance of burst suppression, which was compatible with a very severe pattern of post-anoxic coma. This aggravation was in fact related to an overdose of Levetiracetam (the only medication introduced recently) and was reversible after Levetiracetam cessation. The increased plasmatic dosages of Levetiracetam confirming this overdose could have been favoured by a moderate reduction of renal clearance, previously underestimated because of a low body-weight. This EEG dynamic was unexpected under Levetiracetam and could sign a functional instability after anoxia. Burst suppression is classically observed with high doses of anaesthetics, but is not expected after a minor anti-epileptic drug. This report proposes that Levetiracetam tolerance might not be straightforward after brain lesions and engages us to avoid confounding factors during the awakening prognostication, which is mainly based on the severity of the EEG. Hence, prognosis should not be decided on an isolated parameter, especially if the dynamic is atypical after a new prescription, even for well-known drugs. For any suspicion, the drug's dosage and replacement should be managed before any premature care's withdrawal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Selection criteria for the clinical use of the newer antiepileptic drugs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deckers, C.L.P.; Knoester, P.D.; Haan, G.J. de; Keyser, A.J.M.; Renier, W.O.; Hekster, Y.A.


    In recent years, several new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have been licensed: felbamate, gabapentin, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, tiagabine, topiramate, vigabatrin and zonisamide. These drugs have proven efficacy as add-on therapy in patients with difficult-to-treat partial epilepsy, as

  9. Topiramate and Metabolic Acidosis in Infants

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    J Gordon Millichap


    Full Text Available The acid-base metabolism was investigated in 9 infants and toddlers, aged 5 months to 2.3 years (median, 6 months, treated with topiramate (TPM for seizures at Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany.

  10. Continuous subcutaneous use of levetiracetam: a retrospective review of tolerability and clinical effects. (United States)

    Rémi, Constanze; Lorenzl, Stefan; Vyhnalek, Birgit; Rastorfer, Karin; Feddersen, Berend


    To evaluate the tolerability and clinical effects of subcutaneous (SC) levetiracetam for the treatment of epileptic seizures in a palliative care setting, we conducted a retrospective chart review of patients treated with subcutaneous levetiracetam in the Department of Palliative Medicine at the University Munich, between September 2006 and March 2013. The following parameters were extracted from the charts: reason for antiepileptic drug treatment, daily dose, concentration, infusion rate, co-administration of other drugs, and clinical effects. Furthermore, the charts were screened for signs of adverse drug reactions, e.g., irritation or pain at the infusion site. We identified 20 patients that were treated with levetiracetam SC in the inpatient (n = 7) and outpatient (n = 13) settings. Most patients (n = 17) tolerated the subcutaneous infusion well. Nineteen patients (95%) received levetiracetam in combination with other drugs. These were mainly metamizol (80%), midazolam (75%), and morphine (45%). The median dose of levetiracetam was 95.8 mg/h (SD 37 mg/h), median osmolarity of the infusion solution 2203 mOsmol/L (SD 717 mOsmol/L), and infusion rate 2 mL/h (SD 2.4 ml/h). In 16 patients (80%), seizures were controlled and status epilepticus were interrupted, respectively. We conclude that SC levetiracetam is an effective treatment and well tolerated in the palliative care setting.

  11. Topiramate-induced weight loss in schizophrenia: a retrospective case series study. (United States)

    Lévy, Emmanuel; Agbokou, Catherine; Ferreri, Florian; Chouinard, Guy; Margolese, Howard C


    Atypical antipsychotics have been associated with weight gain. This study examines the efficacy of adjunctive topiramate in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder with antipsychotic-induced weight gain. A 2-year retrospective case analysis was performed in all 300 patients of the outpatient Special Follow-up Clinic for chronic schizophrenia and related psychoses at the Allan Memorial Institute, McGill University Health Centre (Montreal, Canada), a tertiary care University teaching hospital. 10 patients met study inclusion criteria. Mean daily topiramate dose was 197.5 mg (A+/-77) (range, 125-400 mg). Topiramate produced continued weight loss throughout the study duration without tolerance. Patients treated for 6 months and more had significantly higher Body Mass Index (BMI) differences than those treated for shorter durations (BMI-d6 months=-4.7A+/-2.4; BMI-d2 months=-3.2A+/-2.3; P=0.015). BMI changes were similar across genders. This study supports topiramate use to target weight loss in stable overweight schizophrenic patients as a potential therapy that requires further investigation.

  12. A Case of Devic’s Syndrome Presenting with Tonic Spasm: Response to Levetiracetam Treatment

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    Alev Leventoğlu


    Full Text Available Neuromyelitis optica or Devic’s syndrome is a rare autoimmune disorder which is characterized by inflammatory demyelination of the optic nerves and the spinal cord. Clinically, it causes visual loss in one or both eyes, and numbness or paralysis of the arms and legs. Although tonic spasm is the most frequent movement disorder occuring in MS, it has not been definetely described clinical entity for Devic’s syndrome. We hereby describe a case of Devic’s syndrome with tonic spasms treated with levetiracetam as a new approach and discussed the results of the treatment. A 52-year-old woman with Devic’s syndrome with the complaint of painful tonic spasms primarily affecting the abdomen was given levetiracetam therapy. Levetiracetam therapy resulted in a good response in our patient. Levetiracetam can be a new choice for the treatment of painful tonic spasm with Devic’s syndrome. However, more detailed studies are necessary to investigate efficacy of levetiracetam.

  13. Review of the use of Topiramate for treatment of psychiatric disorders

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    Arnone Danilo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Topiramate is a new antiepileptic drug, originally designed as an oral hypoglycaemic subsequently approved as anticonvulsant. It has increasingly been used in the treatment of numerous psychiatric conditions and it has also been associated with weight loss potentially relevant in reversing weight gain induced by psychotropic medications. This article reviews pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of topiramate, its biological putative role in treating psychiatric disorders and its relevance in clinical practice. Methods A comprehensive search from a range of databases was conducted and papers addressing the topic were selected. Results Thirty-two published reports met criteria for inclusion, 4 controlled and 28 uncontrolled studies. Five unpublished controlled studies were also identified in the treatment of acute mania. Conclusions Topiramate lacks efficacy in the treatment of acute mania. Increasing evidence, based on controlled studies, supports the use of topiramate in binge eating disorders, bulimia nervosa, alcohol dependence and possibly in bipolar disorders in depressive phase. In the treatment of rapid cycling bipolar disorders, as adjunctive treatment in refractory bipolar disorder in adults and children, schizophrenia, posttraumatic stress disorder, unipolar depression, emotionally unstable personality disorder and Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome the evidence is entirely based on open label studies, case reports and case series. Regarding weight loss, findings are encouraging and have potential implications in reversing increased body weight, normalisation of glycemic control and blood pressure. Topiramate was generally well tolerated and serious adverse events were rare.

  14. Self-Efficacy Mediates the Effects of Topiramate and GRIK1 Genotype on Drinking (United States)

    Kranzler, Henry R.; Armeli, Stephen; Wetherill, Reagan; Feinn, Richard; Tennen, Howard; Gelernter, Joel; Covault, Jonathan; Pond, Timothy


    Previous studies indicate that topiramate reduces alcohol use among problem drinkers, with one study showing that the effect was moderated by a polymorphism (rs2832407) in GRIK1, the gene encoding the GluK1 kainate subunit. We examined whether the interactive effect of medication and genotype (a) altered the association between daily self-efficacy and later day drinking and (b) had an indirect effect on drinking via self-efficacy. Methods In a 12-week, placebo-controlled trial of topiramate, we used daily interactive voice response technology to measure self-efficacy (i.e., confidence in avoiding heavy drinking later in the day) and drinking behavior in 122 European-American heavy drinkers. Results Topiramate’s effects on both self-efficacy and drinking level were moderated by rs2832407. C-allele homozygotes treated with topiramate showed higher levels of self-efficacy and lower levels of nighttime drinking across the 12-week trial. Further, the interactive effect of topiramate and genotype on mean nighttime drinking levels was mediated by mean levels of self-efficacy. Conclusion By modeling topiramate’s effects on nighttime drinking across multiple levels of analysis, we found that self-efficacy, a key psychological construct, mediated the effect of topiramate, which was moderated by rs2832407 genotype. Thus, it may be possible to use an individualized assessment (i.e., genotype) to select treatment (i.e., topiramate or psychotherapy aimed at enhancing self-efficacy) to optimize the reduction in heavy drinking to provide a personalized treatment approach. PMID:25496338

  15. Intravenous levetiracetam terminates refractory status epilepticus in two patients with migrating partial seizures in infancy. (United States)

    Cilio, Maria Roberta; Bianchi, Roberto; Balestri, Martina; Onofri, Alfredo; Giovannini, Simona; Di Capua, Matteo; Vigevano, Federico


    To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of intravenous (IV) levetiracetam in refractory status epilepticus of migrating partial seizures in infancy (MPSI). IV levetiracetam was infused in two infants, first as a loading dose of 60mg/kg in 30min, then at 30mg/kg twice a day. Both infants were continuously monitored with video-EEG before, during and after the drug trial. Blood count, liver enzymes, serum creatinine, ammonia and lactate blood levels were performed repeatedly before and after the IV levetiracetam administration. Follow-up was of 16 and 10 months. EEG monitoring allowed the diagnosis of MPSI, showing the typical seizures pattern in both patients. IV levetiracetam was effective in stopping status epilepticus in both infants. Levetiracetam also prevented the recurrence of status epilepticus during follow-up. No adverse reactions were observed during the infusion phase or during follow-up. MPSI is a newly recognized epileptic syndrome characterized by early onset of intractable partial seizures arisingly independently and sequentially from both hemispheres, migrating from one region of the brain to another and from one hemisphere to another. We report the efficacy of intravenous levetiracetam in resolving refractory status epilepticus in two infants with this new epilepsy syndrome.

  16. The anticonvulsant levetiracetam for the treatment of pain in polyneuropathy: A randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Jakob Vormstrup; Otto, Marit; Bach, Flemming W


    of this study was to test the analgesic effect of levetiracetam in painful polyneuropathy. METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial with levetiracetam 3000mg/day versus placebo (6-week treatment periods). Patients with diagnosed polyneuropathy and symptoms for more than......-three patients were screened for participation and 39 patients entered the study. Thirty-five patients were included in the data analysis. There were no differences in the ratings of pain relief (levetiracetam 2.29 versus placebo 2.28, p=0.979), total pain intensity (levetiracetam 5.5 versus placebo 5.3, p=0......Levetiracetam is an anticonvulsant which is assumed to act by modulating neurotransmitter release via binding to the vesicle protein SV2A. This could have an impact on signaling in the nociceptive system, and a pilot study indicated relief of neuropathic pain with levetiracetam. OBJECTIVES: The aim...

  17. Biobehavioral mechanisms of topiramate's effects on alcohol use: an investigation pairing laboratory and ecological momentary assessments. (United States)

    Miranda, Robert; MacKillop, James; Treloar, Hayley; Blanchard, Alexander; Tidey, Jennifer W; Swift, Robert M; Chun, Thomas; Rohsenow, Damaris J; Monti, Peter M


    Topiramate reduces drinking, but little is known about the mechanisms that precipitate this effect. This double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study assessed the putative mechanisms by which topiramate reduces alcohol use among 96 adult non-treatment-seeking heavy drinkers in a laboratory-based alcohol cue reactivity assessment and in the natural environment using ecological momentary assessment methods. Topiramate reduced the quantity of alcohol heavy drinkers consumed on drinking days and reduced craving while participants were drinking but did not affect craving outside of drinking episodes in either the laboratory or in the natural environment. Topiramate did not alter the stimulant or sedative effects of alcohol ingestion during the ascending limb of the blood alcohol curve. A direct test of putative mechanisms of action using multilevel structural equation mediation models showed that topiramate reduced drinking indirectly by blunting alcohol-induced craving. These findings provide the first real-time prospective evidence that topiramate reduces drinking by reducing alcohol's priming effects on craving and highlight the importance of craving as an important treatment target of pharmacotherapy for alcoholism. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Continuing weight-loss effect after topiramate discontinuation in obese persons with schizophrenia: a pilot open-label study. (United States)

    Liang, C-S; Yang, F-W; Huang, S-Y; Ho, P-S


    Few studies have investigated the likelihood of weight maintenance in obese persons with schizophrenia after their initial successful weight loss. This pilot open-label study examined the efficacy of topiramate in weight loss and the trajectory of weight changes after topiramate discontinuation. This study enrolled 10 obese persons with schizophrenia. A 4-month treatment phase was started, followed by a 12-month discontinuation phase. Body weight was measured as the primary outcome every month. Secondary outcomes included leptin levels, fasting glucose, lipid profiles, and insulin resistance index. After the 4-month addition of topiramate, participants lost 1.79 kg of their body weight (95% CI=-3.03 to -0.56, p=0.005). The maximum weight reduction was 4.32 kg, occurring when topiramate had been discontinued for 12 months (95% CI=-6.41 to -2.24, p<0.001). The continuing weight-loss effect after topiramate discontinuation might have resulted from topiramate's potential to improve leptin functioning. These findings demonstrate that topiramate's weight-loss effect could not only persist during its administration, but also continue to improve after its discontinuation. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. A case of echolalia in a topiramate induced patient with epilepsy

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    Eşref Akıl


    Full Text Available Echolalia are subsets of imitative behavior which repetition of sounds and language. Topiramate is an effective drug for treatment several types of seizures. It is generally tolerated well. We reported the case of a 44-year old man patient who presented with a history of a epilepsy disorder, He had been maintained with 1000 mg/day sodium valproate for seizure episode. But this recently did not control his seizure episode. Then he was placed on topiramate (600mg/day. Following treatment, he had no seizure episode. subsequently He became incoherence, confusion, disorientation, and significant speech impairments including echolalia Thereby, we present a case of echolalia in a rapidly titrated topiramate induced in a epilepsy disorder patient. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (4: 620-622

  20. Cognitive Effects of Topiramate and Valproate

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    J Gordon Millichap


    Full Text Available Cognitive and behavioral effects of topiramate (TPM and valproate (VPA as adjunctive therapy with carbamazepine (CBZ were compared in 62 adults (16 to 55 years old with refractory partial seizures, in a randomized, double-blind trial at the Medical College of Georgia, Augusta.

  1. Topiramate augmentation in clozapine-treated patients with schizophrenia: clinical and metabolic effects. (United States)

    Hahn, Margaret K; Remington, Gary; Bois, Daniel; Cohn, Tony


    Clozapine represents the treatment of choice for refractory psychosis, although a significant number of individuals demonstrate suboptimal response to it as well, leading to clozapine augmentation strategies. A variety of agents have been investigated in this regard, including mood stabilizers, such as anticonvulsants. Within this group of medications, topiramate is unique in that it is associated with weight loss, making it an attractive option because of clozapine's notable risk for associated metabolic disturbance. A 12-week naturalistic, open study was carried out to examine the potential benefits of topiramate in clozapine-treated individuals with schizophrenia demonstrating a suboptimal clinical response. We were specifically interested in clinical symptoms, changes in metabolic parameters, and tolerability. A total of 20 subjects were enrolled, and 16 completed the study, including 5 individuals with type 2 diabetes. Topiramate augmentation led to a 14% improvement in total Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale scores (P = 0.0003), a 2.5% decrease in body weight (P = 0.015), and was generally well tolerated, paraesthesia being the most common side effect. These findings support topiramate as a viable augmentation strategy in clozapine partial responders, with evidence of both clinical and metabolic benefits.

  2. Topiramate-associated acute, bilateral, angle-closure glaucoma: case report

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    Lucas Barasnevicius Quagliato


    Full Text Available This paper describes a topiramate induced acute bilateral angle-closure glaucoma. This rare adverse effect is an idiosyncratic reaction characterized by uveal effusion and lens forward displacement, leading to increased intraocular pressure and vision loss. We describe a 55 year-old white woman with migraine, spasmodic torticollis and essential tremor, who developed bilateral acute angle-closure glaucoma, one week after starting topiramate 25 mg/day. She was seen at the Ophthalmology Emergency Department of the Fundação João Penido Burnier (Campinas, SP, Brazil with a 4 hours history of blurry vision, ocular pain and bright flashes vision. Slit lamp examination revealed moderate conjunctival injection and corneal edema, and shallow anterior chambers. Intraocular pressure was 48 mmHg in both eyes. Fundoscopic examination findings were normal. She was treated with timolol, brimonidine, dorzolamide, pilocarpine, prednisone acetate eye drops and acetazolamide. One hour after those measures, as the intraocular pressure was 30 mmHg, she received a manitol intravenous injection and the intraocular pressure normalized. After 24 hours an iridotomy with Yag laser was performed. Topiramate was discontinued and she was totally recovered after one week.

  3. The Effect of Levetiracetam Therapy on the Autonomous Nerve System in Epilepsy Patients

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    Kazim Ekmekci


    Full Text Available Aim: It was aimed to research the effects of levetiracetam on some autonomic functions by comparing autonomous nerve system tests in epilepsy patients using levetiracetam monotherapy with the tests of the healthy volunteers who don’t use drug.   Material and Method: Fourty-one patients diagnosed with partial epilepsy using levetiracetam were included in this study. Control group was selected from 35 healthy volunteers who don’t have epilepsy. RR interval variation (RRIV, valsalva, and tilt tests were applied to patient and control groups in order to assess the autonomous nerve system functions. Results: No statistically-significant differences were found in the results of RRIV, valsalva, and tilt tests in patients in comparison with the control group (p>0.05. No statistical significances weren’t also observed when the results of upright position and the postural blood pressure changes were compared with the control group (p>0.05. Discussion: Our findings had shown that using levetiracetam therapy had no effect on the responses of heart rate and blood pressure in epilepsy patients.

  4. A case of echolalia in a topiramate induced patient with epilepsy


    Eşref Akıl; Rezan Alp; Abdullah Atli; Abdullah Acar; Hasan H Özdemir


    Echolalia are subsets of imitative behavior which repetition of sounds and language. Topiramate is an effective drug for treatment several types of seizures. It is generally tolerated well. We reported the case of a 44-year old man patient who presented with a history of a epilepsy disorder, He had been maintained with 1000 mg/day sodium valproate for seizure episode. But this recently did not control his seizure episode. Then he was placed on topiramate (600mg/day). Following treatment, he h...

  5. Safety and efficacy of topiramate in neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy treated with hypothermia (NeoNATI) (United States)


    Background Despite progresses in neonatal care, the mortality and the incidence of neuro-motor disability after perinatal asphyxia have failed to show substantial improvements. In countries with a high level of perinatal care, the incidence of asphyxia responsible for moderate or severe encephalopathy is still 2–3 per 1000 term newborns. Recent trials have demonstrated that moderate hypothermia, started within 6 hours after birth and protracted for 72 hours, can significantly improve survival and reduce neurologic impairment in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. It is not currently known whether neuroprotective drugs can further improve the beneficial effects of hypothermia. Topiramate has been proven to reduce brain injury in animal models of neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. However, the association of mild hypothermia and topiramate treatment has never been studied in human newborns. The objective of this research project is to evaluate, through a multicenter randomized controlled trial, whether the efficacy of moderate hypothermia can be increased by concomitant topiramate treatment. Methods/Design Term newborns (gestational age ≥ 36 weeks and birth weight ≥ 1800 g) with precocious metabolic, clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG) signs of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy will be randomized, according to their EEG pattern, to receive topiramate added to standard treatment with moderate hypothermia or standard treatment alone. Topiramate will be administered at 10 mg/kg once a day for the first 3 days of life. Topiramate concentrations will be measured on serial dried blood spots. 64 participants will be recruited in the study. To evaluate the safety of topiramate administration, cardiac and respiratory parameters will be continuously monitored. Blood samplings will be performed to check renal, liver and metabolic balance. To evaluate the efficacy of topiramate, the neurologic outcome of enrolled newborns will be evaluated by serial

  6. Safety and efficacy of topiramate in neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy treated with hypothermia (NeoNATI

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    Filippi Luca


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite progresses in neonatal care, the mortality and the incidence of neuro-motor disability after perinatal asphyxia have failed to show substantial improvements. In countries with a high level of perinatal care, the incidence of asphyxia responsible for moderate or severe encephalopathy is still 2–3 per 1000 term newborns. Recent trials have demonstrated that moderate hypothermia, started within 6 hours after birth and protracted for 72 hours, can significantly improve survival and reduce neurologic impairment in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. It is not currently known whether neuroprotective drugs can further improve the beneficial effects of hypothermia. Topiramate has been proven to reduce brain injury in animal models of neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. However, the association of mild hypothermia and topiramate treatment has never been studied in human newborns. The objective of this research project is to evaluate, through a multicenter randomized controlled trial, whether the efficacy of moderate hypothermia can be increased by concomitant topiramate treatment. Methods/Design Term newborns (gestational age ≥ 36 weeks and birth weight ≥ 1800 g with precocious metabolic, clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG signs of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy will be randomized, according to their EEG pattern, to receive topiramate added to standard treatment with moderate hypothermia or standard treatment alone. Topiramate will be administered at 10 mg/kg once a day for the first 3 days of life. Topiramate concentrations will be measured on serial dried blood spots. 64 participants will be recruited in the study. To evaluate the safety of topiramate administration, cardiac and respiratory parameters will be continuously monitored. Blood samplings will be performed to check renal, liver and metabolic balance. To evaluate the efficacy of topiramate, the neurologic outcome of enrolled newborns

  7. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on levetiracetam in the treatment of pediatric patients with epilepsy

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    Zhang LL


    Full Text Available Lanlan Zhang,1 Chengzhong Wang,1 Wei Li2 1Department of Pediatric Neurology, Yancheng Maternal and Child Health Hospital, 2Department of Medical Imaging, Jiangsu Vocational College of Medicine, Yancheng, China Objective: To evaluate clinical efficacy, safety, and tolerability of levetiracetam as mono- or adjunctive therapy in the treatment of children and adolescents with epilepsy.Materials and methods: We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials published from January 2007 to December 2016 in the databases Web of Science, Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, and PubMed, Bing, Baidu, Google Scholar, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, and Wanfang Data. All of the studies eligible were compared for the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of levetiracetam with other antiepileptic drugs (AEDs in epilepsy.Results: Thirteen randomized controlled trials on a total of 1,013 patients met the inclusion criteria in present study. Compared with other AEDs (oxcarbazepine, valproate, sulthiame, carbamazepine, and placebo, we found that levetiracetam had a comparable seizure-free rate (RR 1.16, 95% CI 1.03–1.31; P=0.30. Regarding seizure-frequency reduction ≥50% from baseline, levetiracetam also seemed equivalent to other AEDs (RR 1.08, 95% CI 1.01–1.16; P=0.35. In spite of patients treated with levetiracetam having a lower incidence of side effects compared with patients treated with other AEDs (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.77–1.06, the difference between them was minute and not statistically significant (P=0.22.Conclusion: Based on this meta-analysis, it seemed that levetiracetam had comparable effects concerning efficacy, tolerability, and adverse events. Nevertheless, 13 studies were insufficient to draw a conclusion that levetiracetam is effective as mono- and adjunctive therapy for all types of epilepsy syndromes and seizures. Larger-sample and more well-designed trials are needed to justify the widespread use of levetiracetam in


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    Busra S. Arica


    Full Text Available Introduction: Topiramate, a sulfamate-substituted monosaccharide, has been shown to be effective in the treatment of epilepsy and migraine prophylaxis. However, acute secondary angle closure glaucoma and myopia has been shown to develop, especially during the first two weeks of treatment, in a small subset of patients. Case presentation: In the current case report, a 23 year old female patient developed acute myopia and angle closure glaucoma after one week topiramate treatment (25 mg/day for prophylaxis of migraine without aura. The patient was found to have significant conjunctival hyperemia, shallow anterior chamber, and bulging iris in both eyes. Grade 1 acute angle was detected in both eyes during gonioscopic examination. There was no pupillary block and intraocular pressure was 40 mmHg in both eyes. Refraction values were measured at -7.00 and -8.00 in the right and left eye, respectively. The patient and #8217;s visual acuity was at 0.1 to 0.2. Topiramate treatment was promptly discontinued, topical antiglaucomatous treatment was initiated, and laser peripheral iridotomy was performed on each eye. Intraocular pressure has declined to normal limits, refractive values were zero in both eyes and patient and #8217;s visual acuity has restored at follow-up period at 10 days after treatment. Conclusion: Side effects associated with topiramate treatments are known to disappear without long-term damage when the discontinuation of therapy and effective interventions are started early. Therefore, patients and their physicians should be alert for symptoms associated with acute secondary angle closure glaucoma and myopia; especially in the first weeks of topiramate treatment also with low dosage. [J Contemp Med 2014; 4(3.000: 168-171

  9. Role of Intravenous Levetiracetam in Seizure Prophylaxis of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury Patients

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    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI can cause seizures and the development of epilepsy. The incidence of seizures varies from 21% in patients with severe brain injuries to 50% in patients with war-related penetrating TBI. In the acute and sub-acute periods following injury, seizures can lead to increased intracranial pressure and cerebral edema, further complicating TBI management. Anticonvulsants should be used for seizure prophylaxis and treatment. Phenytoin is the most widely prescribed anticonvulsant in these patients. Intravenous levetiracetam, made available in 2006, is now being considered as an alternative to phenytoin in acute care settings. When compared with phenytoin, levetiracetam has fewer side-effects and drug-drug interactions. In the following, the role of levetiracetam in TBI care and the supporting evidence is discussed.

  10. Dramatic effect of levetiracetam in early-onset epileptic encephalopathy due to STXBP1 mutation. (United States)

    Dilena, Robertino; Striano, Pasquale; Traverso, Monica; Viri, Maurizio; Cristofori, Gloria; Tadini, Laura; Barbieri, Sergio; Romeo, Antonino; Zara, Federico


    Syntaxin Binding Protein 1 (STXBP1) mutations determine a central neurotransmission dysfunction through impairment of the synaptic vesicle release, thus causing a spectrum of phenotypes varying from syndromic and non-syndromic epilepsy to intellectual disability of variable degree. Among the antiepileptic drugs, levetiracetam has a unique mechanism of action binding SV2A, a glycoprotein of the synaptic vesicle release machinery. We report a 1-month-old boy manifesting an epileptic encephalopathy with clonic seizures refractory to phenobarbital, pyridoxine and phenytoin that presented a dramatic response to levetiracetam with full epilepsy control and EEG normalization. Genetic analysis identified a novel de novo heterozygous mutation (c.[922A>T]p.[Lys308(∗)]) in the STXBP1 gene that severely affects the protein. The observation of a dramatic efficacy of levetiracetam in a case of STXBP1 epileptic encephalopathy refractory to other antiepileptic drugs and considerations regarding the specific mechanism of action of levetiracetam modulating the same system affected by STXBP1 mutations support the hypothesis that this drug may be able to reverse specifically the disease epileptogenic abnormalities. Further clinical observations and laboratory studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis and eventually lead to consider levetiracetam as the first choice treatment of patients with suspected or confirmed STXBP1-related epilepsies. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The insulin sensitizing effect of topiramate involves KATP channel activation in the central nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coomans, C.P.; Geerling, J.J.; Berg, S.A.A. van den; Diepen, H.C. van; Garcia-Tardõn, N.; Thomas, A.; Schröder-Van Der Elst, J.P.; Ouwens, D.M.; Pijl, H.; Rensen, P.C.N.; Havekes, L.M.; Guigas, B.; Romijn, J.A.


    Background and Purpose Topiramate improves insulin sensitivity, in addition to its antiepileptic action. However, the underlying mechanism is unknown. Therefore, the present study was aimed at investigating the mechanism of the insulin-sensitizing effect of topiramate both in vivo and in vitro.

  12. The antidepressant-like effects of topiramate alone or combined with 17β-estradiol in ovariectomized Wistar rats submitted to the forced swimming test. (United States)

    Molina-Hernández, Miguel; Téllez-Alcántara, N Patricia; Olivera-López, Jorge I; Jaramillo, M Teresa


    There is a significant delay in the clinical response of antidepressant drugs, and antidepressant treatments produce side effects. We examined the relationship between 17β-estradiol and topiramate in ovariectomized Wistar rats submitted to the forced swimming test (FST). Topiramate was administered alone or combined with 17β-estradiol to ovariectomized rats submitted to the FST. Topiramate (20 mg/kg, P swimming; these effects were antagonized by finasteride (50 mg/kg). In interaction experiments, topiramate (10 mg/kg) plus 17β-estradiol (5 micrograms per rat; P swimming behavior. Besides, 17β-estradiol (2.5 micrograms per rat) shortened the onset of the antidepressant-like effects of topiramate (P < 0.05). In the open field test, topiramate alone or combined with 17β-estradiol (P < 0.05) reduced locomotion. Topiramate alone or combined with 17β-estradiol produced antidepressant-like actions; and 17β-estradiol shortened the onset of the antidepressant-like effects of topiramate.

  13. Anticonvulsant Efficacy in Sturge-Weber Syndrome (United States)

    Kaplan, Emma H.; Kossoff, Eric H.; Bachur, Catherine D.; Gholston, Milton; Hahn, Jihoon; Widlus, Matthew; Comi, Anne M.


    OBJECTIVE We analyzed individuals with epilepsy due to Sturge-Weber syndrome to determine which anticonvulsants provided optimal seizure control and which resulted in the fewest side effects. METHODS One-hundred-eight records from a single center were retrospectively analyzed for Sturge-Weber syndrome brain involvement, epilepsy, Sturge-Weber syndrome neuroscores, and currently used anticonvulsants. RESULTS Of the fourteen anticonvulsants that had been employed, the most often used agents were oxcarbazepine or carbamazepine, and levetiracetam. Individuals whose seizures at the most recent visit were fully controlled (seizure-free) for 6 months or longer were more likely to have ever tried, or currently used, oxcarbazepine or carbamazepine than those with uncontrolled seizures. Thirty-nine of 69 individuals (56.5%) were seizure-free with oxcarbazepine or carbamazepine history versus 11 of 35 individuals (31.4%) who had not taken these agents (P anticonvulsants versus 12 of 42 (28.6%) not taking them (P < 0.01). Patients with seizure control for 6 months or longer were less likely to have ever tried, or to currently be taking, levetiracetam than those without control. Sixteen of 56 individuals (28.6%) were seizure-free with levetiracetam history versus 34 of 48 (70.8%) without it (P < 0.001); 14 of 43 individuals (32.6%) were seizure-free and currently taking levetiracetam versus 36 of 61 (59.0%) not taking it (P < 0.01). When topiramate was added as second-line medication, five of nine patients (55.6%) experienced decreased seizure severity, and worsening of glaucoma was not reported. CONCLUSIONS Carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine were associated with better seizure control than levetiracetam in this Sturge-Weber syndrome cohort and so may be preferred as the initial therapy. When used as adjunctive therapy, topiramate was effective in this limited analysis without a clear increased incidence of glaucoma. PMID:26997037

  14. Lack of efficacy of levetiracetam in oromandibular and cranial dystonia. (United States)

    Park, J E; Srivanitchapoom, P; Maurer, C W; Mathew, P; Sackett, J; Paine, R; Ramos, V L; Hallett, M


    To determine the efficacy of levetiracetam in oromandibular or cranial dystonia. We recruited seven subjects with oromandibular or cranial dystonia. Five completed the study, median age was 71 years (range 42-79 years), median disease duration was 12 years (range 2-30 years). Participants were randomized to receive levetiracetam or placebo and were then crossed over. They titrated up to a total daily dose of 4000 mg or the maximum tolerated dose over 3 weeks and maintained that dose for another 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was the percent change of the eyes, mouth, speech, and swallowing Burke-Fahn-Marsden (BFM) subscores from baseline to weeks 6 and 14. Additional endpoints included the BFM subscore at weeks 3 and 11, and the global dystonia severity (GDS) subscore at weeks 3, 6, 11, and 14, as well as all adverse side effects. The mean percent increase in the BFM subscore (placebo: 31.25%, levetiracetam: 12.16%) was not significantly different between the two arms according to the Friedman analysis. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed that these percent changes were not significant, indicating that there was no statistical clinical worsening in either arm. The mean percent change of the BFM subscore at weeks 3 and 11 and the mean percent change of the GDS subscore at weeks 3, 6, 11, and 14 were not significantly different between the two arms, and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test did not show statistical significance. Levetiracetam does not appear to be efficacious in patients with oromandibular or cranial dystonia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Topiramate versus fluvoxamine in the treatment of pathological gambling: a randomized, blind-rater comparison study. (United States)

    Dannon, Pinhas N; Lowengrub, Katherine; Gonopolski, Yehudit; Musin, Ernest; Kotler, Moshe


    Pathologic gambling (PG) is a highly prevalent and disabling impulse control disorder. Recent studies have demonstrated that PG patients respond well to treatment with SSRIs, mood stabilizers, and opioid antagonists. These findings support the idea that PG and other disorders of impulse control may be conceptualized as part of the obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders. Pilot studies have shown topiramate to be effective in the treatment of specific disorders of impulse control. The aim of the study is to compare the effectiveness of topiramate versus fluvoxamine in the treatment of PG. Thirty-one male PGs were assigned in a randomized fashion to receive either topiramate (15/31) or fluvoxamine (16/31) pharmacotherapy for 12 weeks. A comprehensive psychiatric diagnostic evaluation was performed on all patients, and all patients were evaluated for symptoms of gambling, depression, and anxiety using the South Oaks Gambling Screen, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms Scale, and the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale. The rating scales were administered at baseline and at the 12-week endpoint. In addition, the patients completed self-report questionnaires about their demographic status. Twelve of the 15 patients from the topiramate group completed the 12-week treatment. Nine of the 12 topiramate completers reported full remission of gambling behavior, and 3 completers had a partial remission. The CGI-improvement score was significantly better for the topiramate group at the 12-week visit as compared with baseline (F = 10.5, P < 0.01, df = 2.31). In the fluvoxamine treatment group 8/16 patients completed the study, and 6/8 fluvoxamine completers reported a full remission, and the remaining 2/8 fluvoxamine completers reported a partial remission. The fluvoxamine group showed improvement in the CGI-improvement score at week 12, although this difference was not significant (F = 3

  16. The insulin sensitizing effect of topiramate involves KATP channel activation in the central nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coomans, C. P.; Geerling, J. J.; van den Berg, S. A. A.; van Diepen, H. C.; Garcia-Tardón, N.; Thomas, A.; Schröder-van der Elst, J. P.; Ouwens, D. M.; Pijl, H.; Rensen, P. C. N.; Havekes, L. M.; Guigas, B.; Romijn, J. A.


    Topiramate improves insulin sensitivity, in addition to its antiepileptic action. However, the underlying mechanism is unknown. Therefore, the present study was aimed at investigating the mechanism of the insulin-sensitizing effect of topiramate both in vivo and in vitro. Male C57Bl/6J mice were fed

  17. Clinical utility of phentermine/topiramate (Qsymia™ combination for the treatment of obesity

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    Shin JH


    Full Text Available Jin Hee Shin,1 Kishore M Gadde2 1Department of Community and Family Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, 2Obesity Clinical Trials Program, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Abstract: Qsymia™ (Vivus Inc, Mountain View, CA, USA, a combination of phentermine and delayed-release topiramate, has been available in the US since September 2012 for the treatment of obesity. Phentermine is an anorexigenic agent, which is approved for the short-term treatment of obesity, while topiramate is approved for nonweight loss indications – seizure disorders and migraine prophylaxis. The amount of weight loss achieved with combination therapy is of a greater magnitude than what could be achieved with either agent alone. Adverse events that occur with the combination therapy are in line with the known side effect profiles of the constituent drugs; teratogenicity, a slight increase in heart rate, psychiatric and cognitive adverse effects, and metabolic acidosis are concerns. Keywords: Qsymia, combination drug, antiobesity drugs, phentermine, topiramate, obesity, weight loss

  18. Topiramate for the management of methamphetamine dependence: a pilot randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. (United States)

    Rezaei, Farzin; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Mardani, Roya; Hamidi, Seiran; Hassanzadeh, Kambiz


    To date, no medication has been approved as an effective treatment for methamphetamine dependence. Topiramate has attracted considerable attention as a treatment for the dependence on alcohol and stimulants. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of topiramate for methamphetamine dependence. This study was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. In the present investigation, 62 methamphetamine-dependent adults were enrolled and randomized into two groups, and received topiramate or a placebo for 10 weeks in escalating doses from 50 mg/day to the target maintenance dose of 200 mg/day. Addiction severity index (ASI) and craving scores were registered every week. The Beck questionnaire was also given to each participant at baseline and every 2 weeks during the treatment. Urine samples were collected at baseline and every 2 weeks during the treatment. Fifty-seven patients completed 10 weeks of the trial. There was no significant difference between both groups in the mean percentage of prescribed capsules taken by the participants. At week six, the topiramate group showed a significantly lower proportion of methamphetamine-positive urine tests in comparison with the placebo group (P = 0.01). In addition, there were significantly lower scores in the topiramate group in comparison with the placebo group in two domains of ASI: drug use severity (P methamphetamine dependence. © 2016 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  19. A single-blinded phenobarbital-controlled trial of levetiracetam as mono-therapy in dogs with newly diagnosed epilepsy. (United States)

    Fredsø, N; Sabers, A; Toft, N; Møller, A; Berendt, M


    Treatment of canine epilepsy is problematic. Few antiepileptic drugs have proven efficacy in dogs and undesirable adverse effects and pharmacoresistance are not uncommon. Consequently, the need for investigation of alternative treatment options is ongoing. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of levetiracetam as mono-therapy in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy. The study used a prospective single-blinded parallel group design. Twelve client-owned dogs were included and were randomised to treatment with levetiracetam (30 mg/kg/day or 60 mg/kg/day divided into three daily dosages) or phenobarbital (4 mg/kg/day divided twice daily). Control visits were at days 30, 60 and then every 3 months for up to 1 year. Two or more seizures within 3 months led to an increase in drug dosage (levetiracetam: 10 mg/kg/day, phenobarbital: 1 mg/kg/day). Five of six levetiracetam treated dogs and one of six phenobarbital treated dogs withdrew from the study within 2-5 months due to insufficient seizure control. In the levetiracetam treated dogs there was no significant difference in the monthly number of seizures before and after treatment, whereas in the phenobarbital treated dogs there were significantly (P = 0.013) fewer seizures after treatment. Five phenobarbital treated dogs were classified as true responders (≥50% reduction in seizures/month) whereas none of the levetiracetam treated dogs fulfilled this criterion. Adverse effects were reported in both groups but were more frequent in the phenobarbital group. In this study levetiracetam was well tolerated but was not effective at the given doses as mono-therapy in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of risperidone plus topiramate in children with autistic disorder. (United States)

    Rezaei, Vala; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Sahraian, Ali; Tabrizi, Mina; Rezazadeh, Shams-Ali; Akhondzadeh, Shahin


    Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that forms part of a spectrum of related disorders referred to as Autism Spectrum Disorders. The present study assessed the effects of topiramate plus risperidone in the treatment of autistic disorder. Forty children between the ages of 4 and 12 years with a DSM IV clinical diagnosis of autism who were outpatients from a specialty clinic for children were recruited. The children presented with a chief complaint of severely disruptive symptoms related to autistic disorder. Patients were randomly allocated to topiramate+risperidone (Group A) or placebo+risperidone (Group B) for an 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The dose of risperidone was titrated up to 2 mg/day for children between 10 and 40 kg and 3 mg/day for children weighting above 40 kg. The dose of topiramate was titrated up to 200 mg/day depending on weight (100 mg/day for 30 kg). Patients were assessed at baseline and after 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after starting medication. Measure of outcome was the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C) Rating Scale. Difference between the two protocols was significant as the group that received topiramate had a greater reduction in ABC-C subscale scores for irritability, stereotypic behavior and hyperactivity/noncompliance. The results suggest that the combination of topiramate with risperidone may be superior to risperidone monotherapy for children with autistic disorder. However the results need to be further confirmed by a larger randomized controlled trial. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Review of levetiracetam, with a focus on the extended release formulation, as adjuvant therapy in controlling partial-onset seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol M Ulloa


    Full Text Available Carol M Ulloa, Allen Towfigh, Joseph SafdiehDepartment of Neurology and Neuroscience, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Levetiracetam is a second-generation antiepileptic drug (AED with a unique chemical structure and mechanism of action. The extended release formulation of levetiracetam (Keppra XR™; UCB Pharma was recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for adjunctive therapy in the treatment of partial-onset seizures in patients 16 years of age and older with epilepsy. This approval is based on a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter, multinational trial. Levetiracetam XR allows for once-daily dosing, which may increase compliance and, given the relatively constant plasma concentrations, may minimize concentration-related adverse effects. Levetiracetam’s mode of action is not fully elucidated, but it has been found to target high-voltage, N-type calcium channels as well as the synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A. Levetiracetam has nearly ideal pharmacokinetics. It is rapidly and almost completely absorbed after oral ingestion, is ‹10% protein-bound, demonstrates linear kinetics, is minimally metabolized through a pathway independent of the cytochrome P450 system, has no significant drug–drug interactions, and has a wide therapeutic index. The most common reported adverse events with levetiracetam XR were somnolence, irritability, dizziness, nausea, influenza, and nasopharyngitis. Levetiracetam XR provides an efficacious and well-tolerated treatment option for adjunctive therapy in the treatment of partial-onset seizures.Keywords: levetiracetam, partial-onset seizures, antiepileptic drugs

  2. Levetiracetam differentially alters CD95 expression of neuronal cells and the mitochondrial membrane potential of immune and neuronal cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susannah K Rogers


    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a neurological seizure disorder that affects over 100 million people worldwide. Levetiracetam, either alone, as monotherapy, or as adjunctive treatment, is widely used to control certain types of seizures. Despite its increasing popularity as a relatively safe and effective anti-convulsive treatment option, its mechanism(s of action are poorly understood. Studies have suggested neuronal, glial, and immune mechanisms of action. Understanding the precise mechanisms of action of Levetiracetam would be extremely beneficial in helping to understand the processes involved in seizure generation and epilepsy. Moreover, a full understanding of these mechanisms would help to create more efficacious treatments while minimizing side effects. The current study examined the effects of Levetiracetam on the mitochondrial membrane potential of neuronal and non-neuronal cells, in vitro, in order to determine if Levetiracetam influences metabolic processes in these cell types. In addition, this study sought to address possible immune-mediated mechanisms by determining if Levetiracetam alters the expression of immune receptor-ligand pairs. The results show that Levetiracetam induces expression of CD95 and CD178 on NGF-treated C17.2 neuronal cells. The results also show that Levetiracetam increases mitochondrial membrane potential on C17.2 neuronal cells in the presence of nerve growth factor. In contrast, Levetiracetam decreases the mitochondrial membrane potential of splenocytes and this effect was dependent on intact invariant chain, thus implicating immune cell interactions. These results suggest that both neuronal and non-neuronal anti-epileptic activities of Levetiracetam involve control over energy metabolism, more specifically, mΔΨ. Future studies are needed to further investigate this potential mechanism of action.

  3. Psychiatric uses of topiramate: What is the current evidence?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    topiramate for obesity and binge eating disorder, but needed .... in the global severity scores, cumulative aggression, and worst behaviour rates at 6 .... Do Prado-Lima PA, Kristensen CH, Bacaltchuck J. Can childhood trauma predict response ...

  4. A Pilot Chemical and Physical Stability Study of Extemporaneously Compounded Levetiracetam Intravenous Solution. (United States)

    Raphael, Chenzira D; Zhao, Fang; Hughes, Susan E; Juba, Katherine M


    Levetiracetam is a commonly used antiepileptic medication for tumor-related epilepsy. However, the 100 mL intravenous (IV) infusion volume can be burdensome to imminently dying hospice patients. A reduced infusion volume would improve patient tolerability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability of 1000 mg/25 mL (40 mg/mL) levetiracetam IV solution in sodium chloride 0.9%. We prepared levetiracetam 40 mg/mL IV solution and added it to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags, polyolefin bags, and polypropylene syringes. Triplicate samples of each product were stored at refrigeration (2-8°C) and analyzed on days 0, 1, 4, 7, and 14. Samples were subjected to visual inspection, pH measurement, and stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Over the 2-week storage period, there was no significant change in visual appearance or pH for any of the stability samples. The HPLC results confirmed that all stability samples retained 94.2-101.3% of initial drug concentration and no degradation products or leachable material from the packaging materials were observed. We conclude that levetiracetam 1000 mg/25 mL IV solution in sodium chloride 0.9% is physically and chemically stable for up to 14 days under refrigeration in polypropylene syringes, PVC bags, and polyolefin bags.

  5. Aripiprazole plus topiramate in opioid-dependent patients with schizoaffective disorder: an 8-week, open-label, uncontrolled, preliminary study. (United States)

    Bruno, Antonio; Romeo, Vincenzo M; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Scimeca, Giuseppe; Zoccali, Rocco A; Muscatello, Maria Rosaria A


    The aims of this study were to evaluate a combination of aripiprazole and topiramate in the treatment of opioid-dependent patients with schizoaffective disorder undergoing methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) and, further, to taper off patients from methadone treatment. Twenty patients who met DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition) criteria for opioid dependence and schizoaffective disorder receiving MMT (80 mg/day) were given aripiprazole (10 mg/day) plus topiramate (up to 200 mg/day) for 8 weeks. A methadone dose reduction of 3 mg/day until suspension at week 4 was established. Aripiprazole plus topiramate was effective in reducing clinical symptoms, and a rapid tapering off of MMT was achieved. Combining aripiprazole and topiramate may be effective in patients with a dual diagnosis of opioid dependency and schizoaffective disorder.

  6. The impact of migraine prevention on daily activities: a longitudinal and responder analysis from three topiramate placebo-controlled clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papadopoulos George


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Topiramate is approved for the prophylaxis (prevention of migraine headache in adults. The most common adverse events in the three pivotal, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials were paresthesia, fatigue, cognitive impairment, anorexia, nausea, and taste alteration. In these trials, topiramate 100 mg/d significantly improved Migraine-Specific Questionnaire (MSQ scores versus placebo (p Methods Mean MSQ and Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36 (SF-36 change scores (baseline to each double-blind assessment point were calculated for pooled intent-to-treat (ITT patients. Additionally, pooled ITT patients receiving topiramate 100 mg/d or placebo were combined and divided into two responder groups according to percent reduction in monthly migraine frequency: Results Of 756 patients (mean age 39.8 years, 86% female, 384 received topiramate 100 mg/d and 372 placebo. Topiramate significantly improved all three MSQ domains throughout the double-blind phase versus placebo (p = 0.024 [week 8], p Conclusion Topiramate 100 mg/d significantly improved daily activities and patient functioning at all time points throughout the double-blind phase. Daily function and health status significantly improved for those achieving a ≥ 50% migraine frequency reduction.

  7. A Pilot Study of Randomized, Head-to-Head of Metformin Versus Topiramate in Obese People With Schizophrenia. (United States)

    Peng, Po-Jui; Ho, Pei-Shen; Tsai, Chia-Kuang; Huang, San-Yuan; Liang, Chih-Sung

    A number of research studies support the weight loss effects of metformin and topiramate for obese people with schizophrenia. However, only a few studies have addressed the sustainability of the body weight reduction after discontinuation of these drugs. Moreover, head-to-head studies are still lacking. The study aims to evaluate and compare the efficacy of metformin and topiramate in weight reduction and weight maintenance after discontinuation of these drugs in obese people with schizophrenia. Twenty-two obese inpatients with schizophrenia were recruited and randomized into the metformin group (n = 11; daily dose, 1000 mg) and the topiramate group (n = 11; daily dose, 100 mg). A head-to-head, fixed-dose, and single-blinded design was used. Ten obese patients with schizophrenia of similar sex as that of the treated group were included as the control group. After a 4-month treatment, the metformin group showed a body weight reduction of 3.8 kg, and the topiramate group showed a reduction of 2.7 kg. However, the reduction could be sustained only in the metformin group at 3 and 9 months after metformin discontinuation. Interestingly, 3 months after treatment discontinuation, leptin levels showed a reduction in both metformin (baseline, 25.3 ± 14.7, week 7: 5.7 ± 3.7 ng/mL) and topiramate (baseline: 28.4 ± 16.1, week 7: 9.2 ± 15.5 ng/mL) groups. The trend of weight changes supports the superiority of metformin at 1000 mg/d over topiramate at 100 mg/d in weight reduction and weight maintenance.

  8. A prospective study of levetiracetam efficacy in epileptic syndromes with continuous spikes-waves during slow sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atkins, Mary; Nikanorova, Marina


    To evaluate the add-on effect of levetiracetam (LEV) treatment on the EEG and clinical status of children with continuous spikes-waves during slow sleep (CSWS).......To evaluate the add-on effect of levetiracetam (LEV) treatment on the EEG and clinical status of children with continuous spikes-waves during slow sleep (CSWS)....

  9. Thirty Years of Orphan Drug Legislation and the Development of Drugs to Treat Rare Seizure Conditions: A Cross Sectional Analysis. (United States)

    Döring, Jan Henje; Lampert, Anette; Hoffmann, Georg F; Ries, Markus


    Epilepsy is a serious chronic health condition with a high morbidity impairing the life of patients and afflicted families. Many epileptic conditions, especially those affecting children, are rare disorders generating an urgent medical need for more efficacious therapy options. Therefore, we assessed the output of the US and European orphan drug legislations. Quantitative analysis of the FDA and EMA databases for orphan drug designations according to STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) criteria. Within the US Orphan Drug Act 40 designations were granted delivering nine approvals, i.e. clobazam, diazepam viscous solution for rectal administration, felbamate, fosphenytoin, lamotrigine, repository corticotropin, rufinamide, topiramate, and vigabatrin. Since 2000 the EMA granted six orphan drug designations whereof two compounds were approved, i.e. rufinamide and stiripentol. In the US, two orphan drug designations were withdrawn. Orphan drugs were approved for conditions including Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, infantile spasms, Dravet syndrome, and status epilepticus. Comparing time to approval for rufinamide, which was approved in the US and the EU to treat rare seizure conditions, the process seems faster in the EU (2.2 years) than in the US (4.3 years). Orphan drug development in the US and in the EU delivered only few molecular entities to treat rare seizure disorders. The development programs focused on already approved antiepileptic drugs or alternative pharmaceutical formulations. Most orphan drugs approved in the US are not approved in the EU to treat rare seizures although some were introduced after 2000 when the EU adopted the Orphan Drug Regulation.

  10. Levetiracetam Monotherapy in Children with Epilepsy : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijenberg, Amerins; Brouwer, Oebele F.; Callenbach, Petra M. C.

    Background Levetiracetam, a second-generation anti-epileptic drug (AED) with a good efficacy and safety profile, is licensed as monotherapy for adults and children older than 16 years with focal seizures with or without secondary generalization. However, it is increasingly being used off-label in

  11. Meal-Replacements followed by Topiramate for the Treatment of Adolescent Severe Obesity: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial (United States)

    Fox, Claudia K.; Kaizer, Alexander M.; Rudser, Kyle D.; Nathan, Brandon M.; Gross, Amy C.; Sunni, Muna; Abuzzahab, M. Jennifer; Schwartz, Betsy L.; Kumar, Seema; Petryk, Anna; Billington, Charles J.; Ryder, Justin R.; Kelly, Aaron S.


    Objective The objective of this pilot study was to assess the safety and efficacy of short-term meal replacement therapy followed by topiramate for body mass index (BMI) reduction in adolescents with severe obesity. Methods Adolescents (ages 12-18 years) with severe obesity (BMI ≥1.2 times the 95th percentile or BMI ≥35 kg/m2) were recruited for this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Participants completed 4 weeks of meal replacement therapy followed by randomization (1:1) to either 24 weeks of topiramate 75 mg/day or placebo. Mean changes were compared between groups. Results Thirty adolescents (mean age 15.2 ± 1.7 years, mean BMI 40.3 ± 4.6 kg/m2) completed the meal replacement phase and were randomized; 21 completed the study. The difference in mean percent change in BMI between the topiramate and placebo groups was not significant (−1.9% [95% CI (−5.2%, +1.5%); P=0.291]). Significant improvements in visceral fat and VLDL-c were observed in the topiramate compared to the placebo group. There were no concerning changes in neurocognitive function or bone health. Conclusion In this pilot study, 4 weeks of meal replacement therapy followed by 24 weeks of low-dose topiramate compared to meal replacement therapy alone did not result in significant BMI reduction for adolescents with severe obesity. PMID:27807925

  12. Meal replacements followed by topiramate for the treatment of adolescent severe obesity: A pilot randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Fox, Claudia K; Kaizer, Alexander M; Rudser, Kyle D; Nathan, Brandon M; Gross, Amy C; Sunni, Muna; Jennifer Abuzzahab, M; Schwartz, Betsy L; Kumar, Seema; Petryk, Anna; Billington, Charles J; Ryder, Justin R; Kelly, Aaron S


    To assess the safety and efficacy of short-term meal replacement therapy followed by topiramate for body mass index (BMI) reduction in adolescents with severe obesity. Adolescents (ages 12-18 years) with severe obesity (BMI ≥1.2 times the 95th percentile or BMI ≥35 kg/m 2 ) were recruited for this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Participants completed 4 weeks of meal replacement therapy followed by randomization (1:1) to either 24 weeks of topiramate 75 mg/day or placebo. Mean changes were compared between groups. Thirty adolescents (mean age 15.2 ± 1.7 years, mean BMI 40.3 ± 4.6 kg/m 2 ) completed the meal replacement phase and were randomized; 21 completed the study. The difference in mean percent change in BMI between the topiramate and placebo groups was not significant (-1.9%; 95% CI: -5.2% to +1.5%; P = 0.291). Significant improvements in visceral fat and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were observed in the topiramate compared with the placebo group. There were no concerning changes in neurocognitive function or bone health. In this pilot study, 4 weeks of meal replacement therapy followed by 24 weeks of low-dose topiramate compared with meal replacement therapy alone did not result in significant BMI reduction for adolescents with severe obesity. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  13. Comparative studies on the effects of clinically used anticonvulsants on the oxidative stress biomarkers in pentylenetetrazole-induced kindling model of epileptogenesis in mice. (United States)

    Mazhar, Faizan; Malhi, Saima M; Simjee, Shabana U


    Oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of epilepsy and contributes in underlying epileptogenesis process. Anticonvulsant drugs targeting the oxidative stress domain of epileptogenesis may provide better control of seizure. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of clinically used anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) on the course of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced kindling and oxidative stress markers in mice. Six mechanistically heterogeneous anticonvulsants: phenobarbital, phenytoin, levetiracetam, pregabalin, topiramate, and felbamate were selected and their redox profiles were determined. Diazepam was used as a drug control for comparison. Kindling was induced by repeated injections of a sub-convulsive dose of PTZ (50 mg/kg, s.c.) on alternate days until seizure score 5 was evoked in the control kindled group. Anticonvulsants were administered daily. Following PTZ kindling, oxidative stress biomarkers were assessed in homogenized whole brain samples and estimated for the levels of nitric oxide, peroxide, malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, reduced glutathione, and activities of nitric oxide synthase and superoxide dismutase. Biochemical analysis revealed a significant increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species with a parallel decrease in endogenous anti-oxidants in PTZ-kindled control animals. Daily treatment with levetiracetam and felbamate significantly decreased the PTZ-induced seizure score as well as the levels of nitric oxide (panticonvulsant effect by the diversified mechanism of action such as levetiracetam, felbamate, and topiramate exhibited superior anti-oxidative stress activity in addition to their anticonvulsant activity.

  14. Comparison of efficacy and safety of topiramate with gabapentin in migraine prophylaxis: randomized open label control trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zain, S.; Khan, M.; Alam, R.; Zafar, I.; Ahmed, S.


    Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of topiramate with gabapentin in the prophylaxis of migraine patients. Methods: A 12-week randomised open label control trial was conducted at the Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Basic Medical Sciences Institute, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre (JPMC), Karachi from January to March 2011 involving 80 outpatients who had a history of migraine. The sample was divided into two equal groups. Primary efficacy measure was changed into mean monthly migraine frequency. Secondary efficacy measure included reduction in severity and average duration of an attack. Chi square test and paired t-test were used to analyse the data through SPSS 15. Result: Reduction in mean monthly migraine frequency (10.67+-4.25 to 1.82+-2.02) in the topiramate group was significantly greater compared with (11.97+-4.452 to 2.73+-2.59) that in the gabapentin group (p<0.001). Reduction in severity from 6.60+-2.122 to 1.03+-0.92 in the topiramate group was also significantly greater compared with 6.93+-1.90 to 1.18+-1.01 in the gabapentin group (p<0.001). Reduction in the average duration of attacks from 25.77+-22.32 hours to 1.0 1.06 hours in the topiramate group was significantly greater compared with 22.20+-20.72 to 1.08+-1.40 hours in the gabapentin group (p<0.001). Weight loss and numbness were common adverse effects in the topiramate group. Dizziness, weight gain and somnolence were reported in the gabapentin group. Conclusion: Gabapentin appeared well tolerated in 30(75%) patients compared to topiramate in 23(57.5%) patients. Both drugs were equally effective in migraine prophylaxis. (author)

  15. Síndrome de DRESS asociado a Levetiracetam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Díaz J


    Full Text Available El síndrome de DRESS es una toxicodermia asociada a eosinofilia con síntomas sistémicos. Presentamos un caso de dicho síndrome tras inicio de Levetiracetam con buena evolución tras inicio de corticoides y retirada del fármaco. Este síndrome, poco conocido y probablemente infradiagnosticado, puede ser potencialmente letal si no se trata de forma precoz.

  16. Response of recurrent binge eating and weight gain to topiramate in patients with binge eating disorder after bariatric surgery. (United States)

    Guerdjikova, Anna I; Kotwal, Renu; McElroy, Susan L


    The effectiveness of topiramate was evaluated in the treatment of recurrent binge eating and weight gain in patients with binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity who had undergone initially successful bariatric surgery. The records of 3 consecutive patients with BED and obesity who presented to our clinic with recurrent binge eating and weight gain after undergoing initially successful bariatric surgery were reviewed. They were treated with topiramate for an average of 10 months. All three patients reported complete amelioration of their binge eating symptoms and displayed weight loss (31.7 kg in 17 months, 14.5 kg in 9 months, 2 kg in 4 months, respectively) in response to topiramate (mean dose 541 mg). Although anecdotal, these observations suggest that topiramate may be an effective treatment for patients with BED and obesity who experience recurrent binge eating and weight gain after initially successful bariatric surgery.

  17. Fatigue during treatment with antiepileptic drugs: A levetiracetam-specific adverse event? (United States)

    Mula, Marco; von Oertzen, Tim J; Cock, Hannah R; Yogarajah, Mahinda; Lozsadi, Dora A; Agrawal, Niruj


    To examine the prevalence and clinical correlates of fatigue as an adverse event (AE) of antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment in patients with epilepsy. Data from 443 adult outpatients with epilepsy assessed with the Adverse Event Profile (AEP) and the Neurological Disorder Depression Inventory for Epilepsy (NDDIE) were analysed. Fatigue is reported by 36.6% of patients as always a problem during AED treatment. Fatigue is more likely to be reported by females (64.8% vs. 35.2%; Chi-Square=16.762; df=3; p=0.001) and during treatment with levetiracetam (42.3% vs. 33.2%; Chi-Square=11.462; df=3; p=0.009). The associations with the female gender and levetiracetam treatment were not mediated by depression, as identified with the NDDIE, and could not be simply explained by the large number of subjects on levetiracetam treatment, as analogous figures resulted from the analysis of a monotherapy subsample (41.7% vs. 30.3%; Chi-Square=11.547; df=3; p=0.009). One third of patients with epilepsy reports fatigue as a significant problem during AED treatment. Fatigue is more likely to be reported by females and seems to be specifically associated with LEV treatment. However, fatigue is not mediated by a negative effect of LEV on mood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Efficacy and safety of adjunctive topiramate for schizophrenia: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. (United States)

    Zheng, W; Xiang, Y-T; Xiang, Y-Q; Li, X-B; Ungvari, G S; Chiu, H F K; Correll, C U


    To systematically examine the randomized controlled trial (RCT) evidence regarding efficacy and tolerability of topiramate cotreatment with antipsychotics in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Random-effects meta-analysis of RCTs of topiramate cotreatment with antipsychotics vs. placebo/ongoing antipsychotic treatment in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Standardized or weighted mean difference (SMD/WMD), risk ratio (RR) ±95% confidence intervals (CIs), and number needed to harm (NNH) were calculated. Across 16 RCTs (n = 934, duration = 11.8 ± 5.6 weeks), topiramate outperformed the comparator regarding change/endpoint of total (SMD: -0.58, 95% CI: -0.82, -0.35, P weight loss was greater in prevention/co-initiation vs. intervention/augmentation RCTs (-4.11 kg, 95% CI: -6.70, -1.52 vs. -1.41 kg, 95% CI: -2.23, -0.59, P schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Anticonvulsant action of topiramate against motor seizures in developing rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haugvicová, Renata; Kubová, Hana; Škutová, Markéta; Mareš, Pavel


    Roč. 41, č. 10 (2000), s. 1235-1240 ISSN 0013-9580 R&D Projects: GA MZd NL5745 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : topiramate * pentylenetetrazol * epileptic seizures Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.787, year: 2000


    Blatt, Emily R; Seeley, Kathryn E; Lovett, Mathew C; Junge, Randall E


    This report describes the diagnosis and management of idiopathic epilepsy in a 4-yr-old intact female Reeve's muntjac ( Muntiacus reevesi). The patient was initially witnessed to have isolated paroxysmal events consistent with epileptic seizures (altered consciousness, lateral recumbency, tonic/clonic movement of limbs) lasting less than 3 min with an immediate return to normal consciousness. The seizure frequency increased to >3 seizures within 24 hr and phenobarbital 3 mg/kg orally every 12 hr was started. Because of continued epileptic seizures and low serum phenobarbital levels, the dose was increased until significant elevations of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were detected. Levetiracetam 40 mg/kg orally every 12 hr was initiated and the phenobarbital was weaned and discontinued. One breakthrough seizure has been witnessed in the 10 mo since starting levetiracetam.

  1. Reversed-phase HPLC analysis of levetiracetam in tablets using monolithic and conventional C18 silica columns. (United States)

    Can, Nafiz O; Arli, Goksel


    Development and validation of an RP-HPLC method for determination of levetiracetam in pharmaceutical tablets is described. The separation and quantification of levetiracetam and caffeine (internal standard) were performed using a single analytical procedure with two different types of stationary phases, conventional Phenomenex Gemini C18 (100 x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) and Merck Chromolith Performance RP18e (100 x 4.6 mm, macropore size 2 mm, micropore size 13 nm) monolithic silica. Five-microliter aliquots of samples were injected into the system and eluted using water-acetonitrile (90 + 10, v/v) mobile phase pumped at the rate of 1 mL/min. The analyte peaks were detected at 200 nm using a diode array detector with adequate resolution. Validation studies were performed using the method recommended by the International Conference on Harmonization, the U.S. Pharmacopeia, and AOAC INTERNATIONAL, which includes accuracy, precision, range, limits, robustness, and system suitability parameters. Levetiracetam and caffeine were detected in about 7 min using the conventional column, whereas less than 5 min was required when the monolithic column was used. Calibration plots had r values close to unity in the range of 0.8-8.0 microg/mL. Assay of levetiracetam in a tablet formulation was demonstrated as an application to real samples.

  2. Topiramate for prevention of olanzapine associated weight gain and metabolic dysfunction in schizophrenia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. (United States)

    Narula, Preeta Kaur; Rehan, H S; Unni, K E S; Gupta, Neeraj


    Olanzapine associated weight gain (WG) is a major concern in patients with schizophrenia. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of topiramate to prevent olanzapine induced WG in these cases. We also studied various metabolic parameters. In this 12-week, double-blind, parallel group study, seventy-two drug-naïve, first-episode schizophrenia patients were randomized to receive olanzapine+placebo (olanzapine group) or olanzapine+topiramate (100mg/day) (topiramate group). Weight, body mass index, fasting glucose, insulin, insulin resistance (IR), leptin, lipids and blood pressure were assessed at baseline and at 12 weeks. The patients were clinically evaluated using Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and were monitored for adverse effects. Topiramate resulted in a weight loss of 1.27+/-2.28 kg (pweight gain and adverse metabolic effects. It also results in a greater clinical improvement when used with olanzapine in schizophrenia. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Continuous subcutaneous levetiracetam in the management of seizures at the end of life: a case report. (United States)

    Wells, Geoffrey Howard; Mason, Louise D; Foreman, Emma; Chambers, John


    We report the case of a man who developed seizures on a background of recurrent metastatic squamous cell carcinoma with intracranial involvement. Initial seizure control with enteral levetiracetam was achieved, and when enteral and intravenous (i.v.) access was no longer available, a continuous subcutaneous infusion (CSCI) of levetiracetam successfully controlled his seizures without the need for sedating anticonvulsants. As a result, end-of-life care was able to be given with the patient retaining the ability to communicate with his family and healthcare staff. This report adds to the sparse but growing evidence base for the use of subcutaneous levetiracetam to manage seizures in palliative and end-of-life care. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  4. The Effect of Lamotrigine and Levetiracetam on TMS-Evoked EEG Responses Depends on Stimulation Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Premoli


    Full Text Available The combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography (TMS-EEG has uncovered underlying mechanisms of two anti-epileptic medications: levetiracetam and lamotrigine. Despite their different mechanism of action, both drugs modulated TMS-evoked EEG potentials (TEPs in a similar way. Since both medications increase resting motor threshold (RMT, the current aim was to examine the similarities and differences in post-drug TEPs, depending on whether stimulation intensity was adjusted to take account of post-drug RMT increase. The experiment followed a placebo controlled, double blind, crossover design, involving a single dose of either lamotrigine or levetiracetam. When a drug-induced increase of RMT occurred, post-drug measurements involved two blocks of stimulations, using unadjusted and adjusted stimulation intensity. A cluster based permutation analysis of differences in TEP amplitude between adjusted and unadjusted stimulation intensity showed that lamotrigine induced a stronger modulation of the N45 TEP component compared to levetiracetam. Results highlight the impact of adjusting stimulation intensity.

  5. Safety and efficacy of levetiracetam for the treatment of partial onset seizures in children from one month of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cormier J


    Full Text Available Justine Cormier, Catherine J ChuMassachusetts General Hospital, Department of Neurology, Programs in Child Neurology and Neurophysiology, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder in the pediatric population, affecting up to one percent of children, and for which the mainstay of treatment is anticonvulsant medication. Despite the frequent use of anticonvulsant drugs, remarkably little is known about the safety and efficacy of most of these medications in the pediatric epilepsy population. Of 34 anticonvulsants currently approved for use by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA, only 13 have been approved for use in children. Although infants and young children are disproportionately affected by epilepsy, there are currently only three anticonvulsant medications that have been specifically evaluated and approved for use in children younger than 2 years of age. In 2012, the FDA approved levetiracetam as an adjunctive treatment for partial onset seizures in infants and children from one month of age. Here we review the available data on levetiracetam in the pediatric epilepsy population. We first discuss the pharmacological profile of levetiracetam, including its mechanism of action, formulations and dosing, and pharmacokinetics in children. We then review the available efficacy, safety, and tolerability data in children from one month of age with partial onset seizures. We conclude that the current data leading to the approval of levetiracetam for use in infants and children with partial onset seizures is encouraging, although more work needs to be done before definitive conclusions can be drawn about the efficacy of levetiracetam across different pediatric age groups.Keywords: levetiracetam, anticonvulsant drug, partial seizures, pediatric epilepsy

  6. Efficacy for Psychopathology and Body Weight and Safety of Topiramate-Antipsychotic Cotreatment in Patients With Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders: Results From a Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. (United States)

    Correll, Christoph U; Maayan, Lawrence; Kane, John; Hert, Marc De; Cohen, Dan


    To meta-analyze the efficacy and tolerability of topiramate-antipsychotic cotreatment in schizophrenia. PubMed/MEDLINE database were searched until September 5, 2015, using the keywords topiramate AND antipsych* OR neurolept* OR specific antipsychotic names. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of topiramate-antipsychotic cotreatment versus placebo and ongoing antipsychotic treatment in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders were included. Two evaluators extracted data. Standardized mean difference (SMD), weighted mean difference (WMD), and risk ratio (RR) ± 95% CIs were calculated. In 8 RCTs, lasting a mean ± SD of 13.6 ± 4.9 weeks, 439 patients were randomized to topiramate (100-400 mg/d) versus placebo (trials = 7) or ongoing antipsychotic treatment (trial = 1). Topiramate outperformed the comparator regarding total psychopathology (trials = 6, n = 269, SMD = -0.57 [95% CI, -1.01 to -0.14], P = .01), positive symptoms (trials = 4, n = 190, SMD = -0.56 [95% CI, -1.0 to -0.11], P = .01), negative symptoms (trials = 4, n = 190, SMD = -0.62 [95% CI, -1.13 to -0.10], P = .02) general psychopathology (trials = 3, n = 179, SMD = -0.69 [95% CI, -1.27 to -0.11], P = .02), body weight (trials = 7, n = 327, WMD = -3.14 kg [95% CI, -5.55 to -0.73], P = .01), and body mass index (BMI) (trials = 4, n = 198, WMD = -1.80 [95% CI, -2.77 to -0.84], P = .0003). Topiramate's efficacy for total psychopathology and weight reduction effects were not mediated/moderated by trial duration, topiramate dose, sex, age, inpatient status, baseline Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, or baseline BMI. Conversely, clozapine-topiramate cotreatment moderated greater efficacy, but less weight loss, compared to topiramate-nonclozapine antipsychotic combinations. All-cause discontinuation was similar between topiramate and control groups (trials = 7, RR = 1.24 [95% CI, 0.76 to 2.02], P = .39). Topiramate trended only toward more paresthesia than placebo (trials = 4, RR = 2.03 [95 % CI, 0

  7. The efficacy and safety of newer anticonvulsants in patients with dementia. (United States)

    Dolder, Christian R; Nealy, Kimberly L


    Anticonvulsants are a class of medications that have received considerable interest as possible treatments in patients with behavioural disturbances in dementia. The role of these medications for such a use remains controversial. The current paper reviews the published evidence surrounding the safety and efficacy (i.e. as a behavioural and cognitive treatment) of newer anticonvulsants in patients with dementia. A MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, PsycINFO and search through to December 2011 was conducted for anticonvulsants that have received regulatory approval since 1996. Studies reporting behavioural or cognitive outcomes in patients with dementia were included. Nine trials involving only four medications met selection criteria and were included: levetiracetam (n = 4), oxcarbazepine (n = 1), topiramate (n = 2) and zonisamide (n = 2). Levetiracetam may have a role in the treatment of behavioural symptoms in dementia but study limitations substantially hinder the strength of such a recommendation. Oxcarbazepine and topiramate, based on limited data, do not appear to be effective treatments of behavioural symptoms in dementia. A lack of trials do not allow for conclusions to be made regarding zonisamide. From a cognitive standpoint, levetiracetam was the anticonvulsant most examined in patients with dementia, it appears to have less deleterious effects than some anticonvulsants. Limited data are available on the safety of these medications in elderly patients; however, studies completed thus far have demonstrated some adverse events that are more common or problematic with the use of these drugs in this patient population (i.e. somnolence, dizziness, hyponatraemia, weight loss).

  8. Effects of phenobarbital and levetiracetam on PR and QTc intervals in patients with post-stroke seizure. (United States)

    Siniscalchi, Antonio; Scaglione, Francesco; Sanzaro, Enzo; Iemolo, Francesco; Albertini, Giorgio; Quirino, Gianluca; Manes, Maria Teresa; Gratteri, Santo; Mercuri, Nicola Biagio; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Gallelli, Luca


    Sudden unexplained/unexpected death (SUDEP) is related to high mortality in patients with epilepsy. The prolongation of QT interval, involved in cardiac arrhythmia-related SUDEP, may be precipitated by antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). In this study, we evaluated the effects of phenobarbital and levetiracetam on PR-QTc intervals in patients with post-stroke seizures. We performed an open-label, parallel group, prospective, multicenter study between June 2009 and December 2013 in patients older than 18 years of age with a clinical diagnosis of post-stroke seizure and treated with phenobarbital or levetiracetam. In order to exclude a role of cerebral post-stroke injury on modulation of PR and QTc intervals, patients with cerebral post-stroke injury and without seizures were also enrolled as controls. Interictal electrocardiography analysis revealed no significant difference in PR interval between patients treated with an AED (n = 49) and control patients (n = 50) (181.25 ± 12.05 vs. 182.4 ± 10.3 ms; p > 0.05). In contrast, a significantly longer QTc interval was recorded in patients treated with an AED compared with control patients (441.2 ± 56.6 vs. 396.8 ± 49.3 ms; p phenobarbital showed a significantly longer QTc interval than patients treated with levetiracetam (460.0 ± 57.2 vs. 421.5 ± 50.1 ms; p phenobarbital prolonged QTc interval more so than levetiracetam.

  9. GABA and Topiramate Inhibit the Formation of Human Macrophage-Derived Foam Cells by Modulating Cholesterol-Metabolism-Associated Molecules

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    Ying Yang


    Full Text Available Aims: γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA, the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter, acts on GABA receptors to play an important role in the modulation of macrophage functions. The present study examined the effects of GABA and a GABA receptor agonist on modulating cholesterol-metabolism-associated molecules in human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs. Methods: ORO stain, HPLC, qRT-PCR, Western blot and EMSA were carried out using HMDMs exposed to ox-LDL with or without GABAergic agents as the experimental model. Results: GABA and topiramate reduced the percentage of cholesterol ester in lipid-laden HMDMs by down-regulating SR-A, CD36 and LOX-1 expression and up-regulating ABCA1, ABCG1 and SR-BI expression in lipid-laden HMDMs. The production of TNF-a was decreased in GABA-and topiramate-treated lipid-laden HMDMs, and levels of interleukin (IL-6 did not change. The activation of two signaling pathways, p38MAPK and NF-γB, was repressed by GABA and topiramate in lipid-laden HMDMs. Conclusion: GABA and topiramate inhibit the formation of human macrophage-derived foam cells and may be a possibility for macrophage targeted therapy of atherosclerotic lesions.

  10. No effect of oral contraceptives on the metabolism of levetiracetam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabers, Anne; Christensen, Jacob


    The effect on clearance of levetiracetam (LEV) was estimated in women with epilepsy of childbearing potential using oral contraceptives (OCs). The estimated clearance (plasma concentration/daily dose) was 39 nmol/L/mg (range 14-88 nmol/L/mg) among women who did not use OC (n=30) and 38 nmol...

  11. Improvement of post-hypoxic action myoclonus with levetiracetam add-on therapy: A case report

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    Božić Ksenija


    Full Text Available Introduction. Chronic post-anoxic myoclonus, also known as Lance-Adams syndrome, may develop following hypoxic brain injury, and is resistant to pharmacological therapy. Case report. The patient we presented developed post-anoxic action myoclonus with severe, completely incapacitating myoclonic jerks. Myoclonus did not respond to the treatment with commonly used agents, i.e. valproate and clonazepam alone or in combination. Improvement of the action myoclonus was observed only after adding levetiracetam. Conclusion. Although Lance-Adams syndrome may not be fully curable at this point, levetiracetam appears to be a promising agent that can significantly improve functional level and overall quality of life of patients with this disorder.

  12. Topiramate for the treatment of kleptomania: a case series and review of the literature. (United States)

    Dannon, Pinhas N


    Kleptomania--the inability to resist the impulse to steal objects, not for personal use or monetary gain--is currently classified in psychiatric nomenclature as an impulse control disorder. There is no standard pharmacologic therapy for this disorder. If kleptomania was considered a form of obsessive-compulsive disorder, treatments used for this spectrum, including serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), other antidepressants, opioid receptor antagonist medications, and mood stabilizers, could be logically tested. Topiramate is currently used for the treatment of patients with affective and compulsive eating disorders. This report documents three kleptomanic patients who responded well to topiramate given either alone or in combination with SSRIs.

  13. Levetiracetam in spinal cord injury pain: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnerup, N B; Grydehøj, J; Bing, J


    . OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was primarily to evaluate the efficacy of the anticonvulsant levetiracetam in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) at- and below-level pain and secondarily to evaluate the effect on spasm severity. SETTING: Outpatients at two spinal cord units and a pain center...... severity following spinal cord injury....

  14. Effect of lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine and topiramate on cognitive functions and oxidative stress in PTZ-kindled mice. (United States)

    Agarwal, Nidhi Bharal; Agarwal, Nitin Kumar; Mediratta, Pramod Kumari; Sharma, Krishna Kishore


    Cognitive impairment is frequently observed in epileptic patients. It has been seen that not only epilepsy but antiepileptic drugs also impair cognitive functions. The present study was undertaken to assess the effect of three anticonvulsants viz. lamotrigine (5mg/kg, p.o.), oxcarbazepine (15mg/kg, p.o.) and topiramate (10mg/kg, p.o.) on cognitive function and oxidative stress during pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-kindling in mice. Kindling was induced by the administration of PTZ (25mg/kg, i.p.) on every alternate day till 5 weeks. Cognition was assessed after the development of kindling. Elevated plus maze (EPM) and passive avoidance response (PAR) tests were carried out after 24h and 48h of the last PTZ administration. After completion of behavioural tests malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione levels, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity were measured as an indicator of oxidative stress. The results of the present study indicate that topiramate (10mg/kg) administration to kindled animals increased transfer latency and decreased step-down latency in EPM and PAR tests, respectively. However, lamotrigine and oxcarbazepine did not alter the two parameters. Topiramate administration to kindled as well as non-kindled animals has shown increase in MDA and decrease in glutathione levels. Lamotrigine and oxcarbazepine did not show significant alteration in oxidative stress parameters. To conclude, long term administration of topiramate impairs cognitive functions during experimental epilepsy while lamotrigine and oxcarbazepine are safer. Copyright © 2010 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The metabolic effects of olanzapine and topiramate in rats and humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, S.S.; van Dijk, G.; van Vliet, A.; Scheurink, A.J.W.

    In humans the anti-psychotic Olanzapine (OLZ) has negative side effects on metabolism: it causes weight gain and increases the risk of developing type 2 Diabetes. The anti-convulsant Topiramate (TPM) has the opposite effects: it reduces body weight and improves insulin sensitivity. Because of this,

  16. Levetiracetam monotherapy for treatment of structural epilepsy in dogs: 19 cases (2010-2015). (United States)

    Kelly, Darren; Raimondi, Francesca; Shihab, Nadia


    To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of levetiracetam monotherapy in dogs with structural epilepsy. Retrospective case series. Nineteen client-owned dogs with structural epilepsy. Seizure frequencies after initiation of treatment were used to evaluate the efficacy of levetiracetam monotherapy. Seizure control was considered good if no seizures occurred within three months of starting treatment or poor if seizures returned within one month of starting treatment. Tolerability was evaluated by considering the occurrence and severity of any reported side effects. Ten of the 19 dogs were considered to have a good response to treatment with 7 achieving complete seizure freedom. Nine dogs were considered to have poor response to treatment. There was a statistically significant reduction in the percentage of patients experiencing cluster seizures from 68.4% to 15.8% (p=0.002). Side effects were noted in 8 of the 19 dogs but were considered mild in all cases. Follow-up times ranged from 12 days to 426 days. When used in conjunction with other appropriate therapies, levetiracetam may be an efficacious option for monotherapy in dogs with structural epilepsy. Its tolerability makes it a suitable option for use in a wide variety of patients. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Levetiracetam-induced interstitial nephritis in a patient with glioma. (United States)

    Mahta, Ali; Kim, Ryan Y; Kesari, Santosh


    A 45-year-old man with a new diagnosis of low grade glioma was started on an escalating dose of levetiracetam (Lev) for seizure management. He gradually developed intractable nausea/vomiting and a high creatinine concentration due to acute renal failure which was attributed to Lev-induced interstitial nephritis. The medication was changed and his renal function rapidly improved to his baseline. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. How Can We Investigate the Role of Topiramate in the Treatment of Cocaine Use Disorder More Thoroughly?


    Klimas, Jan; Wood, Evan; Werb, Dan


    We read with interest Drs Darke and Farrell’s commentary on our meta-analysis of Topiramate published in the eight issue of 2016. To elaborate on some of the ideas raised by the commentary, we focus our response on the question of why some studies implied a benefit and others did not. Overall, although the current evidence is not strong enough to support the routine clinical use of Topiramate for the treatment of cocaine use disorder, it may be useful for researching in certain circumstances ...

  19. Changes in body weight and body mass index among psychiatric patients receiving lithium, valproate, or topiramate: an open-label, nonrandomized chart review. (United States)

    Chengappa, K N Roy; Chalasani, L; Brar, Jaspreet S; Parepally, H; Houck, Patricia; Levine, Joseph


    Subsets of psychiatric patients gain excess body weight while receiving mood-stabilizing agents such as lithium carbonate or valproate sodium. Patients who gain excess weight may discontinue therapy, with severe consequences. Among the newer anticonvulsant agents, topiramate is a candidate agent for bipolar disorder and is associated with weight loss when used as adjunctive treatment. This open-label, nonrandomized, chart-review study assessed changes in body weight and body mass index (BMI) in patients receiving topiramate, lithium, or valproate. Data were extracted from the medical charts of patients admitted in 1999 and 2000 to a state psychiatric hospital with either schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, or other psychiatric diagnoses who were prescribed valproate, lithium, or topiramate and were reviewed for changes in body weight and BMI. The use of concomitant psychotropic medicines was recorded (eg, antipsychotic agents, antidepressant agents, other mood stabilizers such as gabapentin or carbamazepine). Continuous variables were analyzed using a factorial analysis of variance and the Student t test. Contingency statistics were used to analyze categorical variables. A total of 214 patients were included in the chart review (123 men, 91 women; mean age, 39.4 years). Significantly more women than men received topiramate (P = 0.004). Patients receiving either lithium or valproate gained a mean (SD) of 6.3 (9.0) kg and 6.4 (9.0) kg, respectively, whereas patients receiving topiramate lost a mean 1.2 (6.3) kg (F = 11.54, df = 2,198; P 8% of their baseline body weight (8.2% [11.5%] for lithium-treated patients and 8.5% [11.9%] for valproate-treated patients), whereas topiramate-treated patients lost 0.7% (7.2%) of their body weight (F = 9.93, df= 2,198; P weight loss and a reduction in BMI. This advantage of topiramate may promote long-term adherence to treatment among psychiatric patients and possibly decrease the medical risks associated

  20. Effects of topiramate and other anti-glutamatergic drugs on the acute intoxicating actions of ethanol in mice: modulation by genetic strain and stress (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chyan; Holmes, Andrew


    Compounds with anti-glutamatergic properties currently in clinical use for various indications (e.g., Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, psychosis, mood disorders) have potential utility as novel treatments for alcoholism. Enhanced sensitivity to certain acute intoxicating effects (ataxia, sedative) of alcohol may be one mechanism by which anti-glutamatergic drugs modulate alcohol use. We examined the effects of six compounds (memantine, dextromethorphan, haloperidol, lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, topiramate) on sensitivity to acute intoxicating effects of ethanol (ataxia, hypothermia, sedation/hypnosis) in C57BL/6J mice. Analysis of topiramate was extended to determine the influence of genetic background (via comparison of the 129S1, BALB/cJ, C57BL/6J, DBA/2J inbred strains) and prior stress history (via chronic exposure of C57BL/6J to swim stress) on topiramate's effects on ethanol-induced sedation/hypnosis. Results showed that one N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, memantine, but not another, dextromethorphan, potentiated the ataxic but not hypothermic or sedative/hypnotic effects of ethanol. Haloperidol increased ethanol-induced ataxia and sedation/hypnosis to a similar extent as the prototypical NMDAR antagonist MK-801. Of the anticonvulsants tested, lamotrigine accentuated ethanol-induced sedation/hypnosis, while oxcarbazepine was without effect. Topiramate was without effect per se under baseline conditions in C57BL/6J, but had a synergistic effect with MK-801 on ethanol-induced sedation/hypnosis. Comparing inbred strains, topiramate was found to significantly potentiated ethanol's sedative/hypnotic effects in BALB/cJ, but not 129S1, C57BL/6J or DBA/2J strains. Topiramate also increased ethanol-induced sedation/hypnosis in C57BL/6J after exposure to chronic stress exposure. Current data demonstrate that, with the exception of MK-801 and haloperidol, the compounds tested had either no significant or assay-selective effects on sensitivity to acute

  1. Levetiracetam attenuates hippocampal expression of synaptic plasticity-related immediate early and late response genes in amygdala-kindled rats

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    Watson William P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The amygdala-kindled rat is a model for human temporal lobe epilepsy and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Hippocampal RNA isolated from amygdala-kindled rats at different kindling stages was analyzed to identify kindling-induced genes. Furthermore, effects of the anti-epileptic drug levetiracetam on kindling-induced gene expression were examined. Results Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2, Protocadherin-8 (Pcdh8 and TGF-beta-inducible early response gene-1 (TIEG1 were identified and verified as differentially expressed transcripts in the hippocampus of kindled rats by in situ hybridization and quantitative RT-PCR. In addition, we identified a panel of 16 additional transcripts which included Arc, Egr3/Pilot, Homer1a, Ania-3, MMP9, Narp, c-fos, NGF, BDNF, NT-3, Synaptopodin, Pim1 kinase, TNF-α, RGS2, Egr2/krox-20 and β-A activin that were differentially expressed in the hippocampus of amygdala-kindled rats. The list consists of many synaptic plasticity-related immediate early genes (IEGs as well as some late response genes encoding transcription factors, neurotrophic factors and proteins that are known to regulate synaptic remodelling. In the hippocampus, induction of IEG expression was dependent on the afterdischarge (AD duration. Levetiracetam, 40 mg/kg, suppressed the development of kindling measured as severity of seizures and AD duration. In addition, single animal profiling also showed that levetiracetam attenuated the observed kindling-induced IEG expression; an effect that paralleled the anti-epileptic effect of the drug on AD duration. Conclusions The present study provides mRNA expression data that suggest that levetiracetam attenuates expression of genes known to regulate synaptic remodelling. In the kindled rat, levetiracetam does so by shortening the AD duration thereby reducing the seizure-induced changes in mRNA expression in the hippocampus.

  2. Monotherapy for partial epilepsy: focus on levetiracetam

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    Antonio Gambardella


    Full Text Available Antonio Gambardella1,2, Angelo Labate1,2, Eleonora Colosimo1, Roberta Ambrosio1, Aldo Quattrone1,21Institute of Neurology, University Magna Græcia, Catanzaro, Italy; 2Institute of Neurological Sciences, National Research Council, Piano Lago di Mangone, Cosenza, ItalyAbstract: Levetiracetam (LEV, the S-enantiomer of alpha-ethyl-2-oxo-1-pyrollidine acetamide, is a recently licensed antiepileptic drug (AED for adjunctive therapy of partial seizures. Its mechanism of action is uncertain but it exhibits a unique profile of anticonvulsant activity in models of chronic epilepsy. Five randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials enrolling adult or pediatric patients with refractory partial epilepsy have demonstrated the efficacy of LEV as adjunctive therapy, with a responder rate (≥50% reduction in seizure frequency of 28%–45%. Long-term efficacy studies suggest retention rates of 60% after one year, with 13% of patients seizure-free for 6 months of the study and 8% seizure-free for 1 year. More recent studies illustrated successful conversion to monotherapy in patients with refractory epilepsy, and its effectiveness as a single agent in partial epilepsy. LEV has also efficacy in generalized epilepsies. Adverse effects of LEV, including somnolence, lethargy, and dizziness, are generally mild and their occurrence rate seems to be not significantly different from that observed in placebo groups. LEV also has no clinically significant pharmacokinetic interactions with other AEDs, or with commonly prescribed medications. The combination of effective antiepileptic properties with a relatively mild adverse effect profile makes LEV an attractive therapy for partial seizures.Keywords: levetiracetam, partial epilepsy, antiepileptic drugs

  3. Why we prefer levetiracetam over phenytoin for treatment of status epilepticus. (United States)

    Zaccara, G; Giorgi, F S; Amantini, A; Giannasi, G; Campostrini, R; Giovannelli, F; Paganini, M; Nazerian, P


    Over last fifty years, intravenous (iv) phenytoin (PHT) loading dose has been the treatment of choice for patients with benzodiazepine-resistant convulsive status epilepticus and several guidelines recommended this treatment regimen with simultaneous iv diazepam. Clinical studies have never shown a better efficacy of PHT over other antiepileptic drugs. In addition, iv PHT loading dose is a complex and time-consuming procedure which may expose patients to several risks, such as local cutaneous reactions (purple glove syndrome), severe hypotension and cardiac arrhythmias up to ventricular fibrillation and death, and increased risk of severe allergic reactions. A further disadvantage of PHT is that it is a strong enzymatic inducer and it may make ineffective several drugs that need to be used simultaneously with antiepileptic treatment. In patients with a benzodiazepine-resistant status epilepticus, we suggest iv administration of levetiracetam as soon as possible. If levetiracetam would be ineffective, a further antiepileptic drug among those currently available for iv use (valproate, lacosamide, or phenytoin) can be added before starting third line treatment. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Safety of Levetiracetam in Paediatrics: A Systematic Review.

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    Oluwaseun Egunsola

    Full Text Available To identify adverse events (AEs associated with Levetiracetam (LEV in children.Databases EMBASE (1974-February 2015 and Medline (1946-February 2015 were searched for articles in which paediatric patients (≤18 years received LEV treatment for epilepsy. All studies with reports on safety were included. Studies involving adults, mixed age population (i.e. children and adults in which the paediatric subpopulation was not sufficiently described, were excluded. A meta-analysis of the RCTs was carried out and association between the commonly reported AEs or treatment discontinuation and the type of regimen (polytherapy or monotherapy was determined using Chi2 analysis.Sixty seven articles involving 3,174 paediatric patients were identified. A total of 1,913 AEs were reported across studies. The most common AEs were behavioural problems and somnolence, which accounted for 10.9% and 8.4% of all AEs in prospective studies. 21 prospective studies involving 1120 children stated the number of children experiencing AEs. 47% of these children experienced AEs. Significantly more children experienced AEs with polytherapy (64% than monotherapy (22% (p<0.001. Levetiracetam was discontinued in 4.5% of all children on polytherapy and 0.9% on monotherapy (p<0.001, the majority were due to behavioural problems.Behavioural problems and somnolence were the most prevalent adverse events to LEV and the most common causes of treatment discontinuation. Children on polytherapy have a greater risk of adverse events than those receiving monotherapy.

  5. Topiramate improves neurovascular function, epidermal nerve fiber morphology, and metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

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    Boyd A


    Full Text Available Amanda L Boyd, Patricia M Barlow, Gary L Pittenger, Kathryn F Simmons, Aaron I VinikDepartment of Internal Medicine, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA, USAPurpose: To assess the effects of topiramate on C-fiber function, nerve fiber morphology, and metabolism (including insulin sensitivity, obesity, and dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes.Patients and methods: We conducted an 18-week, open-label trial treating patients with topiramate. Twenty subjects with type 2 diabetes and neuropathy (61.5 ± 1.29 years; 15 male, 5 female were enrolled and completed the trial. Neuropathy was evaluated by total neuropathy scores, nerve conduction studies, quantitative sensory tests, laser Doppler skin blood flow, and intraepidermal nerve fibers in skin biopsies.Results: Topiramate treatment improved symptoms compatible with C-fiber dysfunction. Weight, blood pressure, and hemoglobin A1c also improved. Laser Doppler skin blood flow improved significantly after 12 weeks of treatment, but returned to baseline at 18 weeks. After 18 weeks of treatment there was a significant increase in intraepidermal nerve fiber length at the forearm, thigh, and proximal leg. Intraepidermal nerve fiber density was significantly increased by topiramate in the proximal leg.Conclusion: This study is the first to demonstrate that it is possible to induce skin intraepidermal nerve fiber regeneration accompanied by enhancement of neurovascular function, translating into improved symptoms as well as sensory nerve function. The simultaneous improvement of selective metabolic indices may play a role in this effect, but this remains to be determined.Keywords: diabetic neuropathy, skin blood flow, skin biopsy, diabetes

  6. Topiramate-induced maculopathy in IgG4-related disease


    DaCosta, Joanna; Younis, Saad


    Joanna DaCosta,1,2 Saad Younis1 1Ophthalmology Department, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Western Eye Hospital, 2Barts Health NHS Trust, Whipps Cross University Hospital, London, UK Abstract: This report describes a case of reversible topiramate-induced maculopathy in a 32-year-old female patient with IgG4-related disease. The patient presented with decreased vision associated with anterior uveitis and cystoid macula edema, which was unresponsive to oral and topical steroids. Followi...

  7. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of topiramate as adjunctive drug in the treatment of refractory partial seizures with Meta-analysis

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    Dai LI


    Full Text Available Background Epilepsy is a chronic neurological condition characterized by paroxysm of seizures due to abnormal electrical discharge from central nervous system neurons. Several new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs were listed over the past two decades, and they were believed to be equally effective and have better tolerability and side effect profiles. This paper aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adjunctive topiramate in refractory partial seizures.  Methods Relevant research articles about randomized controlled trials of adjunctive topiramate in refractory partial seizures, with topiramate, Topamax, add-on treatment, adjunctive treatment, add-on therapy, adjunctive therapy, refractory partial seizure, refractory partial epilepsy both in Chinese and English as retrieval words, were retrieved from PubMed (1995-2014, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, 1995-2014, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR, 1995-2014, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, 1995-2014 and Wanfang Data (1999-2014. Two reviewers independently evaluated the quality of the included articles and abstracted the data. A Meta-analysis was conducted using RevMan 5.0 software.  Results According to the enrollment criteria, 13 prospective, randomized controlled clinical trials with a total of 1622 patients were finally selected. The proportions of patients with reduction in seizure frequency ≥ 50% (OR = 3.710, 95% CI: 2.870-4.810; P = 0.000, ≥ 75% (OR = 7.220, 95% CI: 3.310-15.750; P = 0.000 and seizure free (OR = 3.380, 95%CI: 1.720-6.640; P = 0.000 in topiramate group were significantly higher than that in control group. The treatment withdrawal ratio was significantly higher compared to placebo in 600 mg/d and 800 mg/d subgroups, but not in 200 mg/d subgroup (200 mg/d: OR = 2.170, 95%CI: 0.470-9.950, P = 0.320; 600 mg/d: OR = 2.090, 95%CI: 1.020-4.270, P = 0.040; 800 mg/d: OR = 8.000, 95%CI: 1.390-46.140, P = 0.020. The common

  8. Prospective open-label study of add-on and monotherapy topiramate in civilians with chronic nonhallucinatory posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berlant Jeffrey L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to confirm therapeutic effects of topiramate on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD observed in a prior study, a new prospective, open-label study was conducted to examine acute responses in chronic, nonhallucinatory PTSD. Methods Thirty-three consecutive newly recruited civilian adult outpatients (mean age 46 years, 85% female with DSM-IV-diagnosed chronic PTSD, excluding those with concurrent auditory or visual hallucinations, received topiramate either as monotherapy (n = 5 or augmentation (n = 28. The primary measure was a change in the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C score from baseline to 4 weeks, with response defined as a ≥ 30% reduction of PTSD symptoms. Results For those taking the PCL-C at both baseline and week 4 (n = 30, total symptoms declined by 49% at week 4 (paired t-test, P Conclusions Promising open-label findings in a new sample converge with findings of a previous study. The use of topiramate for treatment of chronic PTSD, at least in civilians, warrants controlled clinical trials.

  9. Safety and pharmacokinetics of intravenous levetiracetam infusion as add-on in status epilepticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uges, Joris W F; van Huizen, Marc D; Engelsman, Jeroen; Wilms, Erik B; Touw, Daniel J; Peeters, Els; Vecht, Charles J

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of intravenous (iv) levetiracetam (LEV) added to the standard therapeutic regimen in adults with status epilepticus (SE), and as secondary objective to assess a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model for ivLEV in patients with SE. METHODS: In 12 adults

  10. Review of topiramate for the treatment of epilepsy in elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BR Sommer


    Full Text Available BR Sommer1, HH Fenn21Department of Psychiatry, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California USA; 2Palo Alto VA Healthcare System, Acute Geropsychiatry Unit, Menlo Park Division, Menlo Park, California, USAAbstract: Individuals over 65 years of age experience the new onset of seizures at a prevalence rate of roughly twice that of younger adults. Differences in physiology, need of concomitant medications, and liability for cognitive deficits in this population, make the choice of anticonvulsant drugs especially important. This paper reviews topiramate (TPM, a treatment for many types of seizures, with the above risks in mind. In particular, we discuss efficacy and pharmacokinetics with emphasis on the older patient, and adverse events in both the younger and older adult. With most studies of TPM-induced cognitive deficits having been performed in younger adults and volunteers, we discuss the implications for the older adult. Even in studies of younger individuals, up to 50% discontinue TPM because of intolerable cognitive deficits. Most studies find specific declines in working memory and verbal fluency. In conclusion, we give recommendations for use of this antiepileptic drug in this population.Keywords: topiramate, elderly, epilepsy, treatment, cognition, pharmacokinetics

  11. Nonepileptic seizures under levetiracetam therapy: a case report of forced normalization process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anzellotti F


    Full Text Available Francesca Anzellotti, Raffaella Franciotti, Holta Zhuzhuni, Aurelio D'Amico, Astrid Thomas, Marco Onofrj Department of Neuroscience and Imaging, Aging Research Centre, Gabriele d'Annunzio University Foundation, Gabriele d'Annunzio University, Chieti, Italy Abstract: Nonepileptic seizures (NES apparently look like epileptic seizures, but are not associated with ictal electrical discharges in the brain. NES constitute one of the most important differential diagnoses of epilepsy. They have been recognized as a distinctive clinical phenomenon for centuries, and video/electroencephalogram monitoring has allowed clinicians to make near-certain diagnoses. NES are supposedly unrelated to organic brain lesions, and despite the preponderance of a psychiatric/psychological context, they may have an iatrogenic origin. We report a patient with NES precipitated by levetiracetam therapy; in this case, NES was observed during the disappearance of epileptiform discharges from the routine video/electroencephalogram. We discuss the possible mechanisms underlying NES with regard to alternative psychoses associated with the phenomenon of the forced normalization process. Keywords: nonepileptic seizures, forced normalization, levetiracetam, behavioral side effects

  12. Development of new method for simultaneous analysis of piracetam and levetiracetam in pharmaceuticals and biological fluids: application in stability studies. (United States)

    Siddiqui, Farhan Ahmed; Sher, Nawab; Shafi, Nighat; Wafa Sial, Alisha; Ahmad, Mansoor; Mehjebeen; Naseem, Huma


    RP-HPLC ultraviolet detection simultaneous quantification of piracetam and levetiracetam has been developed and validated. The chromatography was obtained on a Nucleosil C18 column of 25 cm×0.46 cm, 10 μm, dimension. The mobile phase was a (70:30 v/v) mixture of 0.1 g/L of triethylamine and acetonitrile. Smooth flow of mobile phase at 1 mL/min was set and 205 nm wavelength was selected. Results were evaluated through statistical parameters which qualify the method reproducibility and selectivity for the quantification of piracetam, levetiracetam, and their impurities hence proving stability-indicating properties. The proposed method is significantly important, permitting the separation of the main constituent piracetam from levetiracetam. Linear behavior was observed between 20 ng/mL and 10,000 ng/mL for both drugs. The proposed method was checked in bulk drugs, dosage formulations, physiological condition, and clinical investigations and excellent outcome was witnessed.

  13. Development of New Method for Simultaneous Analysis of Piracetam and Levetiracetam in Pharmaceuticals and Biological Fluids: Application in Stability Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhan Ahmed Siddiqui


    Full Text Available RP-HPLC ultraviolet detection simultaneous quantification of piracetam and levetiracetam has been developed and validated. The chromatography was obtained on a Nucleosil C18 column of 25 cm×0.46 cm, 10 μm, dimension. The mobile phase was a (70 : 30 v/v mixture of 0.1 g/L of triethylamine and acetonitrile. Smooth flow of mobile phase at 1 mL/min was set and 205 nm wavelength was selected. Results were evaluated through statistical parameters which qualify the method reproducibility and selectivity for the quantification of piracetam, levetiracetam, and their impurities hence proving stability-indicating properties. The proposed method is significantly important, permitting the separation of the main constituent piracetam from levetiracetam. Linear behavior was observed between 20 ng/mL and 10000 ng/mL for both drugs. The proposed method was checked in bulk drugs, dosage formulations, physiological condition, and clinical investigations and excellent outcome was witnessed.

  14. Pharmacokinetics of topiramate during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohman, Inger; Sabers, Anne; de Flon, Pierre


    PURPOSE: To study the effects of pregnancy on plasma concentrations of topiramate (TPM). METHODS: An established routine fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) method was used to determine TPM concentrations in 15 women with epilepsy treated with TPM during altogether 17 pregnancies. RESULTS......: In 10 pregnancies, where samples were available from all three trimesters, the mean TPM dose/concentration ratio (D/C-ratio) was significantly higher than outside pregnancy baseline value 37.3 L/day (+/-15.9), during the 2nd, 67.5L/day (+/-23.4), and the 3rd trimester, 65.1L/day (+/-30.......4), but not during the 1st, 49.4 L/day (+/-29.4). Including seven additional pregnancies enrolled late with data only from the 3rd trimester, the mean D/C-ratio during the 3rd trimester was 67.4 L/day (+/-27.5) compared to baseline, 38.8L/day (+/-18.0), an average increase by 71.8%. There was a pronounced intra...

  15. Phentermine and topiramate for the management of obesity: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosentino G


    Full Text Available Gina Cosentino,1 Ariane O Conrad,2 Gabriel I Uwaifo1 1Section of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA, USA; 2Xavier University of Louisiana College of Pharmacy, New Orleans, LA, USA Abstract: Obesity is now a major public health concern worldwide with increasing prevalence and a growing list of comorbidities and complications. The morbidity, mortality and reduced productivity associated with obesity and its complications result in a major burden to health care costs. Obesity is a complex chronic medical syndrome often with multiple different etiologic factors in individual patients. The long term successful management of obesity remains particularly challenging and invariably requires a multifaceted approach including lifestyle and behavioral modification, increased physical activity, and adjunctive pharmacotherapy. Bariatric surgery remains a last resort though at present it has the best results for achieving sustained robust weight loss. Obesity pharmacotherapy has been very limited in its role for long term obesity management because of the past history of several failed agents as well as the fact that presently available agents are few, and generally utilized as monotherapy. The recent FDA approval of the fixed drug combination of phentermine and extended release topiramate (topiramate-ER (trade name Qsymia™ marks the first FDA approved combination pharmacotherapeutic agent for obesity since the Phen-Fen combination of the 1990s. This review details the history and clinical trial basis for the use of both phentermine and topiramate in obesity therapeutics as well as the results of clinical trials of their combination for obesity treatment in humans. The initial clinical approval trials offer evidence that this fixed drug combination offers synergistic potential for effective, robust and sustained weight loss with mean weight loss of at least 10

  16. Dramatic response to levetiracetam in post-ischaemic Holmes’ tremor (United States)

    Striano, P; Elefante, Andrea; Coppola, Antonietta; Tortora, Fabio; Zara, Federico; Minetti, Carlo


    Holmes’ tremor refers to an unusual combination of rest, postural and kinetic tremor of extremities. Common causes of Holmes’ tremor include stroke, trauma, vascular malformations and multiple sclerosis, with lesions involving the thalamus, brain stem or cerebellum. Although some drugs (eg, levodopa and dopaminergic drugs, clonazepam and propranolol) have been occasionally reported to give some benefit, medical treatment of Holmes’ tremor is unsatisfactory, and many patients require thalamic surgery to achieve satisfactory control. We report a patient in whom post-ischaemic Holmes’ tremor dramatically responded to levetiracetam treatment. PMID:21686707

  17. Mixed acid-base disorder secondary to topiramate use in traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Golla


    Full Text Available We report a case of a man with traumatic brain injury. He was started on to prophylactic topiramate which led to a mixed acid-base disorder. He had severe metabolic acidosis secondary to renal tubular acidification defect and respiratory alkalosis secondary to hyperventilation. Withdrawal of the offending drug led to the prompt resolution of the acid-base disturbance.

  18. Administration of palmitoylethanolamide in combination with topiramate in the preventive treatment of nummular headache

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    Chirchiglia D


    Full Text Available Domenico Chirchiglia,1 Attilio Della Torre,2 Francesco Signorelli,2 Giorgio Volpentesta,2 Giusy Guzzi,2 Carmelino Angelo Stroscio,2 Federica Deodato,2 Donatella Gabriele,2 Angelo Lavano,2 1Department of Neurosurgery, Neurophysiopathology Unit, 2Department of Neurosurgery, University of Catanzaro “Magna Graecia”, Catanzaro, Italy Abstract: Nummular headache has been recently described as a primary disorder characterized by head pain exclusively felt in a small rounded area typically 2–6 cm in diameter, not attributed to another disorder. Both size and shape of the painful area remain constant since the onset of symptoms. A 57-year-old woman presented with a history of focal episodic pain in a circumscribed area on the right parietal region. The administration of standard oral doses of palmitoylethanolamide and topiramate in combination showed an improvement in pain symptoms and on pain measuring scales. Keywords: algometry, migraine, nummular headache, palmitoylethanolamide, topiramate

  19. Lacosamide and Levetiracetam Have No Effect on Sharp-Wave Ripple Rate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kudláček, Jan; Chvojka, Jan; Pošusta, Antonín; Kováčová, Ľubica; Hong, S.B.; Weiss, S.; Volná, K.; Marusič, P.; Otáhal, Jakub; Jiruška, Přemysl


    Roč. 8, Dec 21 (2017), č. článku 687. ISSN 1664-2295 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-02634S; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08565S; GA MZd(CZ) NV15-29835A; GA MZd(CZ) NV17-28427A Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : high-frequency oscillations * sharp-wave ripples * levetiracetam * lacosamide * antiepileptic drugs Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: Neurosciences (including psychophysiology Impact factor: 3.552, year: 2016

  20. Topiramate Extended-Release Options: A Focus on Efficacy and Safety in Epilepsy and Comorbidities

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    Yuchen Wang


    Full Text Available Topiramate (TPM is effective for multiple seizure types and epilepsy syndromes in children and adults. Topiramate has adverse effects (including cognitive, depression, renal stones, but many of these are low incidence when started at a low dose and slowly titrated to 100 to 200 mg/day. Also, TPM has proven benefit for migraine, obesity, eating disorders, and alcohol use disorders, which can be comorbid in patients with epilepsy and may also be effective in subpopulations within specific psychiatric diagnoses. Recently approved extended-release formulations of TPM (Trokendi and Qudexy in the United States have reliable data supporting their safety and efficacy for patients with epilepsy. They have potential for more rapid titration within 1 month to 200 mg/day and have better patient retention than TPM immediate-release, but there are no robust double-blind randomized controlled trials comparing the different formulations. We expect the once per day extended-release formulations to improve medication adherence compared with the twice per day formulations. This has significant potential to improve outcomes in epilepsy and the other TPM-responsive disorders.

  1. Treatment of trigeminal neuralgia with low doses of topiramate Tratamento da neuralgia do trigêmeo com baixas doses de topiramato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Barros Domingues


    Full Text Available Topiramate was administered to eight patients with classical trigeminal neuralgia with or without previous symptomatic therapy with other antiepileptic drugs. The topiramate doses ranged from 50 to 100 mg a day, according to the clinical response and the reported side effects. Three patients had complete symptoms remission, three reported moderate improvement, and the treatment was not effective in two. The most frequently registered side effects were dizziness, somnolence and weight loss. Topiramate can be considered an alternative treatment for patients with trigeminal neuralgia.Oito pacientes com neuralgia do trigêmeo, com ou sem tratamentos prévios com anticonvulsivantes, foram submetidos a tratamento com topiramato. As doses de topiramato variaram de 50 a 100 mg ao dia, de acordo com a resposta clínica e com os efeitos colaterais relatados. Três pacientes obtiveram remissão completa, três relataram melhora parcial e o tratamento com topiramato foi ineficaz em dois pacientes. Os efeitos colaterais mais frequentemente citados foram tontura, sonolência e perda de peso. O topiramato pode ser considerado uma alternativa potencialmente eficaz para o tratamento de pacientes com neuralgia do trigêmeo.

  2. Preliminary observations on the effectiveness of levetiracetam in the open adjunctive treatment of refractory bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, RM; Altshuler, LL; Frye, MA; Suppes, T; McElroy, SL; Keck, PE; Leverich, GS; Kupka, R; Nolen, WA; Luckenbaugh, DA; Walden, J; Grunze, H

    Objective: Levetiracetam is a recently approved, well-tolerated anticonvulsant with a unique mechanism of action yielding efficacy in treatment-refractory seizure disorders and positive effects in an animal model of mania. Given the effectiveness of a range of other anticonvulsants in bipolar

  3. Pharmacokinetics of Levetiracetam in Healthy Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots ( Amazona ventralis ) After Oral Administration of a Single Dose. (United States)

    Schnellbacher, Rodney; Beaufrère, Hugues; Vet, Dr Med; Arnold, Robert D; Tully, Thomas N; Mayer, Joerg; Divers, Stephen J


    Long-term anticonvulsive treatments have been poorly described in birds, and few pharmacokinetic studies have been performed, with mixed results. Levetiracetam, a new anticonvulsive drug, has shown good efficacy for monotherapy or adjunctive treatment of seizures in both human and veterinary medicine. To determine pharmacokinetics of levetiracetam in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ), 20 healthy birds were randomly divided into 2 groups and administered either a 50 mg/kg (n = 10) or a 100 mg/kg (n = 10) oral dose of levetiracetam with no observable adverse effects. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 12 time intervals (6 per group) for 16 hours. The concentration-time profiles resembled characteristic absorption, with maximum plasma concentrations of 61.0 μg/mL and 95.1 μg/mL at 60 minutes; terminal half-lives at 2.38 and 2.37 hours; volumes of distribution of 0.807 and 0.773 L/kg, with an area under the curve at 14 100 and 28 820 mg × min/L; and clearance rates of 3.65 and 3.60 mL/min per kg, respectively. Plasma concentrations were greater than 5.5 mg/L for up to 9.4 and 12 hours, suggesting an 8- and 12-hour oral dosing at 50 and 100 mg/kg, respectively, would be sufficient to maintain targeted values. Clinically, doses and frequencies may need escalation based on differences in species and individuals, and drug levels should be monitored.

  4. Predisposition to metabolic acidosis induced by topiramate Predisposição a acidose metabólica induzida por topiramato

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    Full Text Available RATIONALE: Metabolic acidosis induced by topiramate is a well documented but infrequent adverse event. The objective was to demonstrate the lowering of carbon dioxide serum levels, which is usually asymptomatic but may facilitate the occurrence of metabolic acidosis in patients using topiramate. METHODS: We evaluated, prospectively, the carbon dioxide serum levels of 18 patients seen at the epilepsy clinic of our university hospital, before and 3 months after introducing topiramate. RESULTS: Five patients were female and 13 were male, age ranging from 2 to 16 years old (mean=9.3. Carbon dioxide mean serum levels were 25 and 21.2 mmol/L (normal = 22 to 30, before and 3 months after introducing topiramate, respectively. Dose ranged from 2.08 to 11.76 mg/kg/day (mean=6.7mg/kg/day. Adverse events were anorexia, nausea and somnolence. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the lowering of carbon dioxide serum levels induced by topiramate is mostly asymptomatic, but may facilitate the occurrence of metabolic acidosis. Since patients in use of topiramate have refractory epilepsy, they may need epilepsy surgery, and must be carefully monitored for the risk of metabolic acidosis during surgery.INTRODUÇÃO: Acidose metabólica induzida por topiramato é evento adverso pouco frequente, mas bem documentado. Nosso objetivo foi demonstrar a diminuição dos níveis de dióxido de carbono, muitas vezes assintomática, mas que pode predispor ao aparecimento de acidose metabólica. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Avaliamos prospectivamente os níveis de dióxido de carbono de 18 pacientes acompanhados no ambulatório de epilepsia infantil da UNICAMP, antes e 3 meses após o início do uso de topiramato. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 18 pacientes com idade entre 2 e 16 anos (média = 9,3 anos. Cinco pacientes eram do sexo feminino e 13, do sexo masculino. Os níveis médios de dióxido de carbono antes e após o uso de topiramato foram 25 e 21,2 mmol/L (normal = 22 a 30

  5. Neurobehavioral Effects of Levetiracetam in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury

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    Jared F Benge


    Full Text Available Moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI is one of the leading causes of acquired epilepsy. Prophylaxis for seizures is the standard of care for individuals with moderate to severe injuries at risk for developing seizures, though relatively limited comparative data is available to guide clinicians in their choice of agents. There have however been experimental studies which demonstrate potential neuroprotective qualities of levetiracetam after TBI, and in turn there is hope that eventually such agents may improve neurobehavioral outcomes post-TBI. This mini-review summarizes the available studies and suggests areas for future studies.

  6. Study protocol and rationale for a randomized double-blinded crossover trial of phentermine-topiramate ER versus placebo to treat binge eating disorder and bulimia nervosa. (United States)

    Dalai, Shebani Sethi; Adler, Sarah; Najarian, Thomas; Safer, Debra Lynn


    Bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) are associated with severe psychological and medical consequences. Current therapies are limited, leaving up to 50% of patients symptomatic despite treatment, underscoring the need for additional treatment options. Qsymia, an FDA-approved medication for obesity, combines phentermine and topiramate ER. Topiramate has demonstrated efficacy for both BED and BN, but limited tolerability. Phentermine is FDA-approved for weight loss. A rationale for combined phentermine/topiramate for BED and BN is improved tolerability and efficacy. While a prior case series exploring Qsymia for BED showed promise, randomized studies are needed to evaluate Qsymia's safety and efficacy when re-purposed in eating disorders. We present a study protocol for a Phase I/IIa single-center, prospective, double-blinded, randomized, crossover trial examining safety and preliminary efficacy of Qsymia for BED and BN. Adults with BED (n=15) or BN (n=15) are randomized 1:1 to receive 12weeks Qsymia (phentermine/topiramate ER, 3.75mg/23mg-15mg/92mg) or placebo, followed by 2-weeks washout and 12-weeks crossover, where those on Qsymia receive placebo and vice versa. Subsequently participants receive 8weeks follow-up off study medications. The primary outcome is the number of binge days/week measured by EDE. Secondary outcomes include average number of binge episodes, percentage abstinence from binge eating, and changes in weight/vitals, eating psychopathology, and mood. To our knowledge this is the first randomized, double-blind protocol investigating the safety and efficacy of phentermine/topiramate in BED and BN. We highlight the background and rationale for this study, including the advantages of a crossover design. identifier NCT02553824 registered on 9/17/2015. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of antiepileptic drugs on cognitive functions

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    A. S. Kotov


    Full Text Available Impaired cognitive function is a common problem in epileptic patients. The exact cause of cognitive impairment in case of epilepsy has not been explored fully, but there is no doubt that a role in this is played by three factors: the disease underlying epilepsy; epileptic seizures proper; and negative side effects of antiepileptic drugs. Their cognitive effects are one of the major problems affecting the tolerance of therapy. The review considers the effects of phenobarbital, phenytoin, carbamazepine, valproates, oxcarbazepine, topiramate, lamotrigine, and levetiracetam in terms of their action on the cognitive function of healthy volunteers and epileptic patients.

  8. Acute topiramate differentially affects human aggressive responding at low vs. moderate doses in subjects with histories of substance abuse and antisocial behavior. (United States)

    Lane, Scott D; Gowin, Joshua L; Green, Charles E; Steinberg, Joel L; Moeller, F Gerard; Cherek, Don R


    Anticonvulsant drugs have demonstrated efficacy in the management of irritability and aggression in a variety of psychiatric populations. We examined the acute effects of topiramate on aggression using a laboratory model of human aggression (PSAP) in individuals at high risk for aggressive and violent behavior.Twelve subjects, on parole/probation and with an Axis-II personality disorder and/or a substance use disorder, received 100, 200, 300, and 400 mg in an ascending sequence, with intervening placebo doses.Subjects participated 2-3 days per week over 4-6 weeks. Due to cognitive side effects at 300 mg, two subjects only completed through the 200 mg dose. Topiramate produced an inverted U-shaped dose response curve, with increases in aggression peaking at 200 mg and a modest decrease at 400 mg. Statistical analysis revealed a polynomial trend for dose (p=0.001). The observed inverted U-shaped function in aggressive responding is consistent with non-human aggression studies of GABA-A modulators. Acute topiramate doses >400 mg may have anti-aggressive effects, but dose levels in the 200-300 mg range may produce increases in aggression and side effects.

  9. Topiramate's effectiveness on weight reduction in overweight/obese persons with schizophrenia: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Chandradasa, Miyuru; Champika, Layani; de Silva, Silumini; Kuruppuarachchi, K A L A


    Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder with a higher mortality than that of the general population. Most of the deaths are due to cardiovascular causes and are related to metabolic risks. This risk is due not only to antipsychotics but also to inherent factors of the disorder. Studies in the West have shown topiramate to be effective in schizophrenia to reduce weight gain and for symptomatic control. Whether this is effective for South Asians is not known. It is important because South Asians have a higher risk of metabolic syndrome. We aim to conduct a double-blind, randomized controlled trial comparing topiramate add-on therapy with treatment as usual with antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia in an outpatient setting in Sri Lanka. Ninety patients with schizophrenia presenting to the Colombo North Teaching Hospital will be randomized to intervention and control groups equally using permuted block randomization. Patients with comorbid metabolic disorders and taking prescribed weight-controlling medications will be excluded. The intervention group will be prescribed topiramate in addition to their antipsychotics in a predefined dosing regimen targeting a dose of 100 mg per day. The control subjects are to receive a placebo. As the primary outcome, anthropometric measurements including weight, waist circumference, skinfold thickness, and body mass index will be recorded at baseline and monthly during the study period of 3 months. The secondary outcome is the change in symptoms according to the clinician-administered Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Assessment of capacity will be performed and informed consent obtained from all subjects. Ethics approval has been obtained from the ethical review committee of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Kelaniya, and the trial has been registered in the Sri Lanka Clinical Trials Registry. In this double-blind, randomized controlled trial, we will attempt to assess the effectiveness of topiramate as an add

  10. Effect of levetiracetam on the postmastectomy pain syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilholm, O J; Cold, S; Rasmussen, L


    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study was to test whether levetiracetam relieves the postmastectomy pain syndrome (PMPS). METHODS: Postmastectomy pain syndrome was defined as pain of neuropathic character located in the area...... of the surgery and/or the ipsilateral arm. The inclusion criteria were: age more than 18 years, characteristic symptoms corresponding to PMPS more than 6 months after surgery for breast cancer, pain duration more than 3 months, peripheral nerve lesions confirmed by abnormal neurological and quantitative sensory...... tests, intensity of pain more than 4 on a numeric rating scale from 0 to 10 and pain present at least 4 days a week. RESULTS: Forty-nine patients were screened for participation and 27 patients were included in the study. Twenty-five patients completed two treatment phases of 4 weeks duration...

  11. Effects of Topiramate in the Prevention of Drug Resistant Migraine Headache

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    H Khani


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction & objective: Migraine is the most common cause of headache. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of topiramate (TPM in the prevention of drug-resistant migraine headache. Materials & Methods: This is a double-blind clinical trial conducted on 70 patients between ages 15 to 45 years referred to the Bu Ali Sina Hospital in Sari with a history of migraine attacks based on International Headache Society criteria for a period of more than one years with a minimum incidence of 1 to 6 attacks per month. The drug rate performance was assessed by response rate to treatment, mean changes in the number and severity of migraine attacks compared with the placebo group for 3 months. Collected data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA, Newman-Keuls and Spearman’s Coefficient Rank Correlation as the post hoc tests. GRAPHPAD software was used for analysis of the data. Results: 66 of 70 patients completed the study. The mean age of the patients was 30.33±7.9 years. A significant reduction in the severity and frequency of migraine attacks was seen in all months (P < 0.0001 for topiramate treated group in compare to placebo group. Responder rate for patients treated with TPM was significantly higher than placebo group (63.6%, P<0.0001 in the 3rd month of the treatment Side effects of treatment were transient and well tolerated. Conclusion: Low dose of TPM showed significant efficacy in prevention of migraine attacks within the first, second, and third month of treatment. Low dose of TPM seems to be a good therapeutic option for the patients with refractory migraine.

  12. Levetiracetam is associated with decrease in subclinical epileptiform discharges and improved cognitive functions in pediatric patients with autism spectrum disorder. (United States)

    Wang, Minjian; Jiang, Li; Tang, Xiaoju


    Subclinical epileptiform discharges (SEDs) are common in pediatric patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the effect of antiepileptic drugs on SEDs in ASD remains inconclusive. This physician-blinded, prospective, randomized controlled trial investigated an association between the anticonvulsant drug levetiracetam and SEDs in children with ASD. A total of 70 children with ASD (4-6 years) and SEDs identified by electroencephalogram were randomly divided into two equal groups to receive either levetiracetam and educational training (treatment group) or educational training only (control). At baseline and after 6 months treatment, the following scales were used to assess each individual's behavioral and cognitive functions: the Chinese version of the Psychoeducational Profile - third edition (PEP-3), Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), and Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC). A 24-hour electroencephalogram was recorded on admission (baseline) and at follow-up. The degree of satisfaction of each patient was also evaluated. Relative to baseline, at the 6-month follow-up, the PEP-3, CARS, and ABC scores were significantly improved in both the treatment and control groups. At the 6-month follow-up, the PEP-3 scores of the treatment group were significantly higher than those of the control, whereas the CARS and ABC scores were significantly lower, and the rate of electroencephalographic normalization was significantly higher in the treatment group. Levetiracetam appears to be effective for controlling SEDs in pediatric patients with ASD and was also associated with improved behavioral and cognitive functions.

  13. Topiramate and severe metabolic acidosis: case report Acidose metabólica grave por topiramato: relato de caso

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    Jayme E. Burmeister


    Full Text Available Topiramate infrequently induces anion gap metabolic acidosis through carbonic anhydrase inhibition on the distal tubule of the nephron - a type 2 renal tubular acidosis. We report on a 40 years old woman previously healthy that developed significant asymptomatic metabolic acidosis during topiramate therapy at a dosage of 100mg/day for three months. Stopping medication was followed by normalization of the acid-base status within five weeks. This infrequent side effect appears unpredictable and should be given careful attention.Topiramato pode produzir raramente uma acidose metabólica através da inibição da anidrase carbônica no túbulo distal do néfron - acidose tubular renal do tipo 2. Relatamos o caso de mulher de 40 anos previamente saudável que desenvolveu quadro de acidose metabólica assintomática grave, sem outra etiologia identificável, durante uso de topiramato na dose de 100mg/dia por três meses. Este efeito colateral, embora infrequente, parece ser imprevisível e requer atenção cuidadosa.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yu. Borovikova


    Full Text Available Antiepileptic therapy is one of the most urgent problems in the treatment of Rett’s syndrome. By taking into account a common concurrence of generalized and focal seizures with diffuse epileptiform activity on the electroencephalogram (EEG in Rett’s syndrome, there are effective broad-spectrum antiepileptic drugs (AEDs: valproates, topiramate, levetiracetam, lamotrigine. Carbamazepine is effective for focal seizures and in the absence of diffuse EEG changes. For atypical absences, ethosuximide may be added to valproates, topiramate, or levetiracetam. Reflex seizures show a high resistance; their frequency is occasionally reduced by AEDs in combination with neuroleptics. Sleep hygiene, as well as medication (clonidine, zolpidem, trazodone, melatonin, risperidone are recommended to correct various sleep disorders. Dopamine agonists, as well as L-carnitine are used for the drug correction of movement disorders in Rett’s syndrome. Therapeutic exercises are one of the most optimal ways to correct movement disorders. Orthopedic correction, including surgery, is indicated for skeletal deformities. Vitamin D used for long periods of time is beneficial, by considering its deficiency and osteoporosis at a fracture risk in Rett’s syndrome patients who receive AEDs particularly long. A special high-fat diet and a fractional diet in small portions are used in the therapy of cachexia and growth retardation due to oral dysfunction and malnutrition. A cardiological follow-up is needed in abnormalities, such as prolonged Q interval, tachyarrhythmia, and cardiac structural anomalies. Systematic learning to maintain communication and motor skills are of importance. In this case a special role is played by music therapy that exerts a calming effect on patients and partially compensates for loss of contact with the environment.

  15. Comparative effectiveness of eight antiepileptic drugs in adults with focal refractory epilepsy: the influence of age, gender, and the sequence in which drugs were introduced onto the market. (United States)

    Mäkinen, Jussi; Peltola, Jukka; Raitanen, Jani; Alapirtti, Tiina; Rainesalo, Sirpa


    The first objective was to determine the long-term retention rate of eight antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) commonly used as adjunctive therapy in adults with focal refractory epilepsy. Second, we assessed the effects of age and gender on retention rates. Third, we examined if the retention rate could be influenced by the sequence in which the AEDs had entered the market. Patients with focal refractory epilepsy treated with any of the eight AEDs in Tampere University Hospital were identified retrospectively (N = 507). Retention rates were evaluated with the Kaplan-Meier method. Follow-up started at the first date of treatment and each individual was followed a maximum of 36 months. We calculated the following 3-year retention rates: lacosamide 77.1% (N = 137), lamotrigine 68.3% (N = 177), levetiracetam 66.7% (N = 319), clobazam 65.6% (N = 130), topiramate 61.6% (N = 178), zonisamide 60.4% (N = 103), pregabalin 54.6% (N = 127), and gabapentin 40.2% (N = 66). Lacosamide, levetiracetam, and clobazam were the most effective AEDs in the elderly. The retention rate for pregabalin was higher in males (65%) than females (51%) whereas females had higher retention rates for both topiramate (72 vs. 58%) and zonisamide (67 vs. 57%). The retention rate was influenced by the sequence in which these AEDs entered the market. We provide important information about practical aspects of these eight AEDs, revealing that there are differences in their effectiveness as adjunctive treatment for focal refractory epilepsy. Most importantly, the retention rate appears to be influenced by the sequence in which these AEDs were introduced onto the market.

  16. Topiramate on the quality of life in childhood epilepsy. (United States)

    Jung, Da-Eun; Kim, Heung-Dong; Hur, Yun-Jung; Eom, So-Yong


    This study evaluated the effect of topiramate (TPM) on the quality of life (QOL) in childhood epilepsy, using the Korean quality of life in childhood epilepsy (K-QOLCE) questionnaire. An open label, prospective, observational study of the families of 664 children with epilepsy from 41 centers was conducted. The parents completed the K-QOLCE at the baseline visit and again 6months after starting TPM treatment. The parents reported the seizure frequency at both assessment dates. Statistically significant improvements in all K-QOLCE domains except social functioning were found at 6months after starting TPM treatment from the baseline-scores (P<0.05). However, improved QOL scores were not dependent on the reduction in seizure frequency. TPM significantly improved QOL in children with epilepsy, suggesting its potential clinical benefits. Copyright © 2010 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A survey of antiepileptic drug responses identifies drugs with potential efficacy for seizure control in Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome. (United States)

    Ho, Karen S; Markham, Leah M; Twede, Hope; Lortz, Amanda; Olson, Lenora M; Sheng, Xiaoming; Weng, Cindy; Wassman, E Robert; Newcomb, Tara; Wassman, E Robert; Carey, John C; Battaglia, Agatino


    Seizures are present in over 90% of infants and children with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS). When present, they significantly affect quality of life. The goal of this study was to use caregiver reports to describe the comparative efficacies of commonly used antiepileptic medications in a large population of individuals with WHS. A web-based, confidential caregiver survey was developed to capture seizure semiology and a chronologic record of seizure treatments as well as responses to each treatment. Adverse events for each drug were also cataloged. We received 141 complete survey responses (47% response rate) describing the seizures of individuals ranging in age from 4months to 61years (90 females: 51 males). Using the Early Childhood Epilepsy Severity Scale (E-Chess), WHS-associated seizures are demonstrably severe regardless of deletion size. The best-performing antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) for controlling seizures in this cohort were broad spectrum drugs clobazam, levetiracetam, and lamotrigine; whereas, the three commonly used carboxamide class drugs: carbamazepine, phenytoin, and oxcarbazepine, were reported to have little effect on, or even exacerbate, seizures. The carboxamide class drugs, along with phenobarbital and topiramate, were also associated with the highest rate of intolerance due to cooccurrence of adverse events. Levetiracetam, clobazam, and clonazepam demonstrated higher tolerability and comparatively less severe adverse events (Wilcoxon rank sum comparison between performance of levetiracetam and carboxamide class drugs gives a psyndromes which may have complex seizure etiologies. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Simultaneous determination of phentermine and topiramate in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with positive/negative ion-switching electrospray ionization and its application in pharmacokinetic study. (United States)

    Ni, Yang; Zhou, Ying; Xu, Mingzhen; He, Xiaomeng; Li, Huqun; Haseeb, Satter; Chen, Hui; Li, Weiyong


    A new method for simultaneous determination of phentermine and topiramate by liquid chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) operated in positive and negative ionization switching modes was developed and validated. Protein precipitation with acetonitrile was selected for sample preparation. Analyses were performed on a liquid chromatography system employing a Kromasil 60-5CN column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 5 μm) and an isocratic elution with mixed solution of acetonitrile-20mM ammonium formate containing 0.3% formic acid (40:60, v/v), at a flow rate of 0.35 mL/min. Doxazosin mesylate and pioglitazone were used as the internal standard (IS) respectively for quantification. The determination was carried out on an API 4000 triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer operated in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using the following transitions monitored simultaneously: positive m/z 150.0/91.0 for phentermine, m/z 452.1/344.3 for doxazosin, and negative m/z 338.3/77.9 for topiramate, m/z 355.0/41.9 for pioglitazone. The method was validated to be linear over the concentration range of 1-800 ng mL(-1) for phentermine, 1-1000 ng mL(-1) for topiramate. Within- and between-day accuracy and precision of the validated method at three different concentration levels were within the acceptable limits of <15% at all concentrations. Blood samples were collected into heparinized tubes before and after administration. The simple and robust LC/MS/MS method was successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of phentermine and topiramate in a pharmacokinetic study in healthy male Chinese volunteers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Intravenous Topiramate: Pharmacokinetics in Dogs with Naturally-Occurring Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Vuu


    Full Text Available Barriers to developing treatments for human status epilepticus (SE include the inadequacy of experimental animal models. In contrast, naturally-occurring canine epilepsy is similar to the human condition and can serve as a platform to translate research from rodents to humans. The objectives of this study were to characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK of an intravenous (IV dose of topiramate (TPM in dogs with epilepsy, and evaluate its effect on intracranial electroencephalographic (iEEG features. Five dogs with naturally occurring epilepsy were used for this study. Three were getting at least one antiseizure drug as maintenance therapy including phenobarbital (PB. Four (ID 1-4 were used for the 10 mg/kg IV TPM + PO TPM study, and three (ID 3-5 were used for the 20 mg/kg IV TPM study. IV TPM was infused over 5 minutes at both doses. The animals were observed for vomiting, diarrhea, ataxia, and lethargy. Blood samples were collected at scheduled pre- and post-dose times. Plasma concentrations were measured using a validated HPLC-MS method. Non-compartmental and population compartmental modeling were performed (Phoenix WinNonLin and NLME using plasma concentrations from all dogs in the study. Intracranial EEG (iEEG was acquired in one dog. The difference between averaged iEEG energy levels at 15 minutes pre- and post-dose was assessed using a Kruskal-Wallis test. No adverse events were noted. Topiramate concentration-time profiles were best fit by a two-compartment model. PB co-administration was associated with a 5.6 fold greater clearance and a ~4 fold shorter elimination half-life. iEEG data showed that TPM produced a significant energy increase at frequencies >4 Hz across all 16 electrodes within 15 minutes of dosing. Simulations suggested that dogs on an enzyme inducer would require 25 mg/kg, while dogs on non-inducing drugs would need 20 mg/kg to attain the target concentration (20-30 µg/mL at 30-minutes post-dose.This study shows that IV

  20. Emergency treatment with levetiracetam or phenytoin in status epilepticus in children-the EcLiPSE study: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. (United States)

    Lyttle, Mark D; Gamble, Carrol; Messahel, Shrouk; Hickey, Helen; Iyer, Anand; Woolfall, Kerry; Humphreys, Amy; Bacon, Naomi E A; Roper, Louise; Babl, Franz E; Dalziel, Stuart R; Ryan, Mary; Appleton, Richard E


    Convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) is the most common life-threatening neurological emergency in childhood. These children are also at risk of significant morbidity, with acute and chronic impact on the family and the health and social care systems. The current recommended first-choice, second-line treatment in children aged 6 months and above is intravenous phenytoin (fosphenytoin in the USA), although there is a lack of evidence for its use and it is associated with significant side effects. Emerging evidence suggests that intravenous levetiracetam may be effective as a second-line agent for CSE, and fewer adverse effects have been described. This trial therefore aims to determine whether intravenous phenytoin or levetiracetam is more effective, and safer, in treating childhood CSE. This is a phase IV, multi-centre, parallel group, randomised controlled, open-label trial. Following treatment for CSE with first-line treatment, children with ongoing seizures are randomised to receive either phenytoin (20 mg/kg, maximum 2 g) or levetiracetam (40 mg/kg, maximum 2.5 g) intravenously. The primary outcome measure is the cessation of all visible signs of CSE as determined by the treating clinician. Secondary outcome measures include the need for further anti-seizure medications or rapid sequence induction for ongoing CSE, admission to critical care areas, and serious adverse reactions. Patients are recruited without prior consent, with deferred consent sought at an appropriate time for the family. The primary analysis will be by intention-to-treat. The primary outcome is a time to event outcome and a sample size of 140 participants in each group will have 80% power to detect an increase in CSE cessation rates from 60% to 75%. Our total sample size of 308 randomised and treated participants will allow for 10% loss to follow-up. This clinical trial will determine whether phenytoin or levetiracetam is more effective as an intravenous second-line agent for CSE, and

  1. Nonepileptic seizures under levetiracetam therapy: a case report of forced normalization process. (United States)

    Anzellotti, Francesca; Franciotti, Raffaella; Zhuzhuni, Holta; D'Amico, Aurelio; Thomas, Astrid; Onofrj, Marco


    Nonepileptic seizures (NES) apparently look like epileptic seizures, but are not associated with ictal electrical discharges in the brain. NES constitute one of the most important differential diagnoses of epilepsy. They have been recognized as a distinctive clinical phenomenon for centuries, and video/electroencephalogram monitoring has allowed clinicians to make near-certain diagnoses. NES are supposedly unrelated to organic brain lesions, and despite the preponderance of a psychiatric/psychological context, they may have an iatrogenic origin. We report a patient with NES precipitated by levetiracetam therapy; in this case, NES was observed during the disappearance of epileptiform discharges from the routine video/electroencephalogram. We discuss the possible mechanisms underlying NES with regard to alternative psychoses associated with the phenomenon of the forced normalization process.

  2. Efficacy of levetiracetam in primary hemifacial spasm. (United States)

    Kuroda, Takeshi; Saito, Yu; Fujita, Kazuhisa; Yano, Satoshi; Ishigaki, Seiichiro; Kato, Hirotaka; Murakami, Hidetomo; Ono, Kenjiro


    Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is a peripherally-induced movement disorder characterized by the involuntary, unilateral, intermittent, irregular, tonic or clonic contractions of muscles innervated by the ipsilateral facial nerve. Kindling-like hyperactivity of the facial nucleus induced by constant stimulation of compressing artery is considered as the predominant mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of HFS. As a treatment for HFS, microsurgical decompression and botulinum toxin injection have been shown to be highly successful. Anticonvulsant drugs relieve HFS in some patients; however, the use of such drugs is limited owing to their side effects, predominantly in elderly patients. We experienced two elderly HFS patients who exhibited a marked response to levetiracetam (LEV) without side effects. Although the exact underlying pharmacological mechanism remains unknown, we assume anti-kindling effect as one of the important pharmacological mechanism underlying the effect of LEV against HFS. Moreover, LEV is considered to be suitable for use in elderly patients because of its good tolerability. In addition, the lack of hepatic induction or inhibition makes it an easy and safe drug when used in addition to other anticonvulsants. Although the long-term benefit remains unknown, LEV may represent an alternative treatment for elderly HFS patients who are unable to undergo or decline surgical intervention and/or botulinum toxin injections or are intolerant to other anticonvulsants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of WIN 55,212-2 mesylate on the anticonvulsant action of lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, pregabalin and topiramate against maximal electroshock-induced seizures in mice. (United States)

    Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Wlaz, Aleksandra; Karwan, Slawomir; Florek-Luszczki, Magdalena; Czuczwar, Stanislaw J


    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of WIN 55,212-2 mesylate (WIN - a non-selective cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptor agonist) on the protective action of four second-generation antiepileptic drugs (lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, pregabalin and topiramate) in the mouse maximal electroshock seizure model. Tonic hind limb extension (seizure activity) was evoked in adult male albino Swiss mice by a current (sine-wave, 25 mA, 500 V, 50 Hz, 0.2s stimulus duration) delivered via auricular electrodes. Drug-related adverse effects were ascertained by use of the chimney test (evaluating motor performance), the step-through passive avoidance task (assessing long-term memory) and the grip-strength test (evaluating skeletal muscular strength). Total brain concentrations of antiepileptic drugs were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography to ascertain any pharmacokinetic contribution to the observed antiseizure effect. Results indicate that WIN (5mg/kg, i.p.) significantly enhanced the anticonvulsant action of lamotrigine (Poxcarbazepine in the maximal electroshock-induced tonic seizure test in mice. Furthermore, none of the investigated combinations of WIN with antiepileptic drugs were associated with any concurrent adverse effects with regards to motor performance, long-term memory or muscular strength. Pharmacokinetic characterization revealed that WIN had no impact on total brain concentrations of lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, pregabalin and topiramate in mice. These preclinical data would suggest that WIN in combination with lamotrigine, pregabalin and topiramate is associated with beneficial anticonvulsant pharmacodynamic interactions in the maximal electroshock-induced tonic seizure test. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. The use of phenobarbital and other anti-seizure drugs in newborns. (United States)

    El-Dib, Mohamed; Soul, Janet S


    Neonatal seizures constitute the most frequent presenting neurologic sign encountered in the neonatal intensive care unit. Despite limited efficacy and safety data, phenobarbital continues to be used near-universally as the first-line anti-seizure drug (ASD) in neonates. The choice of second-line ASDs varies by provider and institution, and is still not supported by sufficient scientific evidence. In this review, we discuss the available evidence supporting the efficacy, mechanism of action, potential adverse effects, key pharmacokinetic characteristics such as interaction with therapeutic hypothermia, logistical issues, and rationale for use of neonatal ASDs. We describe the widely used neonatal ASDs, namely phenobarbital, phenytoin, midazolam, and levetiracetam, in addition to potential ASDs, including lidocaine, topiramate, and bumetanide. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Behavioral effects and somnolence due to levetiracetam versus oxcarbazepine - a retrospective comparison study of North Indian patients with refractory epilepsy. (United States)

    Shukla, Garima; Gupta, Anupama; Agarwal, Priya; Poornima, Shivani


    Levetiracetam (LEV) is often chosen early in the treatment of refractory epilepsy; however, its adverse effects have largely been studied as part of clinical trials. Oxcarbazepine and valproate (VPA) are the other commonly used AEDs and, hence, serve as good comparators. This study was conducted to evaluate behavioral abnormalities and somnolence among patients with epilepsy being treated with LEV and/or OXC compared with those receiving VPA. Data of consecutive patients attending our intractable epilepsy clinic over a 2 1/2-year period were reviewed, and patients with at least one seizure a month, who had been initiated on either or a combination of LEV, VPA, or OXC, were included for analysis. Data regarding behavioral adverse effects, daytime somnolence (EDS), and weight changes were collected apart from those regarding any major effect necessitating dose reduction or discontinuation of the AED. Among a total of 445 patients screened, 292 (93 F, median age: 21years [range: 8-54]; 237 focal and 55 generalized epilepsy) fulfilled inclusion criteria. Median epilepsy duration was 11years. Levetiracetam had been introduced in 114 patients, VPA in 134, and OXC in 151 during the study period. Twenty-three were on LEV+OXC, 27 on LEV+VPA, and 33 on VPA+OXC. Behavioral disturbances (irritability, obsessive manifestations, aggressiveness, and frank psychosis) were observed in 43 patients; 23 on introduction of LEV (20.2%); LEV was discontinued in 10 (9%). Daytime somnolence was reported by 28 patients, 15 on OXC (10%); 8 received oral modafinil for the same, while none discontinued this AED. Only one patient on LEV and 3 on VPA reported EDS. Menstrual disturbances were reported by 9, weight gain by 3, and severe hair loss by 2 females on VPA. Behavioral disturbances with levetiracetam are common among patients with refractory epilepsy while somnolence is common with oxcarbazepine. Antiepileptic drugs should be selected with this in perspective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  6. A novel high sensitivity HPLC assay for topiramate, using 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan as pre-column fluorescence derivatizing agent. (United States)

    Bahrami, Gholamreza; Mohammadi, Bahareh


    A new, sensitive and simple high-performance liquid chromatographic method for analysis of topiramate, an antiepileptic agent, using 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan as pre-column derivatization agent is described. Following liquid-liquid extraction of topiramate and an internal standard (amlodipine) from human serum, derivatization of the drugs was performed by the labeling agent in the presence of dichloromethane, methanol, acetonitrile and borate buffer (0.05 M; pH 10.6). A mixture of sodium phosphate buffer (0.05 M; pH 2.4): methanol (35:65 v/v) was eluted as mobile phase and chromatographic separation was achieved using a Shimpack CLC-C18 (150 x 4.6 mm) column. In this method the limit of quantification of 0.01 microg/mL was obtained and the procedure was validated over the concentration range of 0.01 to 12.8 microg/mL. No interferences were found from commonly co-administrated antiepileptic drugs including phenytoin, phenobarbital carbamazepine, lamotrigine, zonisamide, primidone, gabapentin, vigabatrin, and ethosuximide. The analysis performance was carried-out in terms of specificity, sensitivity, linearity, precision, accuracy and stability and the method was shown to be accurate, with intra-day and inter-day accuracy from -3.4 to 10% and precise, with intra-day and inter-day precision from 1.1 to 18%.

  7. A 24-week, randomized, controlled trial of adjunctive sibutramine versus topiramate in the treatment of weight gain in overweight or obese patients with bipolar disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McElroy, Susan L.; Frye, Mark A.; Altshuler, Lori L.; Suppes, Trisha; Hellemann, Gerhard; Black, David; Mintz, Jim; Kupka, Ralph; Nolen, Willem; Leverich, Gabriele S.; Denicoff, Kirk D.; Post, Robert M.; Keck, Paul E.

    Objectives: Patients with bipolar disorder (BD) have an increased risk of obesity as well as psychotropic-associated weight gain. The objective of this study was to compare sibutramine and topiramate as adjunctive treatments for psychotropic-associated weight gain in overweight or obese outpatients

  8. Assessment of estrous cycle, ovarian and uterine tissue and fetal parameters of Wistar rats treated with Topiramate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Cherici Camargo


    Full Text Available Topiramate (TPM is included in the newer generation of antiepileptic drugs and is known to have multiple mechanisms of action. The drug has also been used for reducing body weight. Its effect on reproductive tissues and estrous cycle deserve greater attention. Then, this study aimed to investigate possible effects of the drug on ovarian and uterine tissues, estrous cycle and some fetal parameters of non-epileptic Wistar rats. In Experiment I, females received tap water (C - Control group; n=8 or Topiramate (TPM group; 100 mg/kg; n=8, orally for 6 weeks. The estrous cycle and food consumption were monitored. Ovarian and uterine sections were examined under light microscopy. In Experiment II, pregnant rats of C and TPM groups received treatments during the pre-implantation, implantation or organogenesis period. In females of Experiment I, TPM had no effect on the food consumption, final body weight, weekly body weight and estrous cycle. Ovarian and uterine weight was similar in both groups. The kinetics of folliculogenesis was unaffected by treatment with the drug. There was a significant (p<0.05 decrease in endometrial thickness of TPM-group. In Experiment II, fetal weight was decreased (p<0.05 in all periods of TPM exposure. There was no effect of treatment on fetal external morphology. In conclusion, the findings indicate that TPM promotes discrete alterations in the uterine tissue, and causes decrease on the fetus weight after exposure in different gestational periods.

  9. A Girl with Idiopathic Epilepsy Showing Forced Normalization after Levetiracetam Administration. (United States)

    Kawakami, Yasuhiko; Okazaki, Tetsuya; Takase, Masato; Fujino, Osamu; Itoh, Yasuhiko


    Forced normalization has been reported in association with almost all anti-epileptic drugs. We report on a 9-year-old girl with idiopathic epilepsy who showed forced normalization after administration of levetiracetam (LEV). She initially presented with generalized tonic-clonic seizures when she was 4 years old. Diffuse sharp and slow wave complexes (SWCs) were observed on electroencephalography (EEG). We prescribed sodium valproate (VPA) and benzodiazepines, but the seizures and EEG findings worsened gradually. Although subsequent administration of LEV stopped the seizures, the patient became subject to episodes of rage and violent behavior. Forced normalization was confirmed by the disappearance of SWCs on EEG. We reduced the dose of LEV and tried in various ways to resolve the situation, but finally we had to abandon LEV. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient with idiopathic epilepsy but without disabilities in everyday life showing forced normalization associated with LEV administration.

  10. Lacosamide and Levetiracetam Have No Effect on Sharp-Wave Ripple Rate. (United States)

    Kudlacek, Jan; Chvojka, Jan; Posusta, Antonin; Kovacova, Lubica; Hong, Seung Bong; Weiss, Shennan; Volna, Kamila; Marusic, Petr; Otahal, Jakub; Jiruska, Premysl


    Pathological high-frequency oscillations are a novel marker used to improve the delineation of epileptogenic tissue and, hence, the outcome of epilepsy surgery. Their practical clinical utilization is curtailed by the inability to discriminate them from physiological oscillations due to frequency overlap. Although it is well documented that pathological HFOs are suppressed by antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), the effect of AEDs on normal HFOs is not well known. In this experimental study, we have explored whether physiological HFOs (sharp-wave ripples) of hippocampal origin respond to AED treatment. The results show that application of a single dose of levetiracetam or lacosamide does not reduce the rate of sharp-wave ripples. In addition, it seems that these new generation drugs do not negatively affect the cellular and network mechanisms involved in sharp-wave ripple generation, which may provide a plausible explanation for the absence of significant negative effects on cognitive functions of these drugs, particularly on memory.

  11. Intensive care management of status epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Gupta


    Full Text Available Status epilepticus (SE is a life-threatening neurological emergency that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. SE may be classified into convulsive and non-convulsive types, based on the presence of rhythmic jerking of the extremities. Clinically, tonic-clonic convulsive SE (CSE is divided into four subsequent stages: Early, established, refractory and super-refractory. Initial elements of resuscitation include airway protection, haemodynamic resuscitation and seizure control. Further treatment should then be guided by the diagnostic workup. Rapid treatment of early SE is achieved with intravenous (IV lorazepam or intramuscular midazolam. In established SE, IV antiepileptic drugs (AEDs (phenytoin/fosphenytoin, valproate, levetiracetam, phenobarbital are most commonly used, but there is no Class I evidence for choosing one over the other. Considered overall, cumulative data from the literature are consistent with valproate and levetiracetam, being a safe and effective therapeutic alternative to phenobarbital and phenytoin for treatment of established SE. Refractory SE (RSE and super-RSE are treated with anaesthetic medications (propofol, midazolam, thiopental/pentobarbital, ketamine, non-anaesthetic drugs (lidocaine, magnesium, pyridoxine, AEDs (levetiracetam, lacosamide, topiramate, lacosamide, pregabalin, gabapentin and other cause-directed treatments with low success rates. Potential non-pharmacologic interventions to be considered in super-RSE include hypothermia, electroconvulsive therapy, ketogenic diet, immunomodulatory treatments, emergency resective epilepsy surgery, cerebrospinal fluid drainage and vagal nerve or deep brain stimulation or transcranial magnetic stimulation. Diagnosis of non-CSE requires continuous electroencephalography and involves a high index of suspicion in all patients with an altered mental status of unclear cause or with a prolonged postictal state. Treatment options include addressing underlying causes and

  12. Mechanisms of levetiracetam in the control of status epilepticus and epilepsy

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    Laxmikant S Deshpande


    Full Text Available Status epilepticus (SE is a major clinical emergency that is associated with high mortality and morbidity. SE causes significant neuronal injury and survivors are at a greater risk of developing acquired epilepsy and other neurological morbidities, including depression and cognitive deficits. Benzodiazepines and some anticonvulsant agents are drugs of choice for initial SE management. Despite their effectiveness, over 40% of SE cases are refractory to the initial treatment with two or more medications. Thus there is an unmet need of developing newer anti-SE drugs. Levetiracetam (LEV is a widely prescribed anti-epileptic drug that has been reported to be used in SE cases, especially in benzodiazepine-resistant SE or where phenytoin cannot be used due to allergic side-effects. Levetiracetam’s non-classical antiepileptic mechanisms of action, favorable pharmacokinetic profile, general lack of central depressant effects and lower incidence of drug interactions contributes to its use in SE management. This review will focus on LEV’s unique mechanism of action that makes it a viable candidate for SE treatment.

  13. Chronic antiepileptic drug use and functional network efficiency: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study. (United States)

    van Veenendaal, Tamar M; IJff, Dominique M; Aldenkamp, Albert P; Lazeron, Richard H C; Hofman, Paul A M; de Louw, Anton J A; Backes, Walter H; Jansen, Jacobus F A


    To increase our insight in the neuronal mechanisms underlying cognitive side-effects of antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment. The relation between functional magnetic resonance-acquired brain network measures, AED use, and cognitive function was investigated. Three groups of patients with epilepsy with a different risk profile for developing cognitive side effects were included: A "low risk" category (lamotrigine or levetiracetam, n = 16), an "intermediate risk" category (carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, phenytoin, or valproate, n = 34) and a "high risk" category (topiramate, n = 5). Brain connectivity was assessed using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging and graph theoretical network analysis. The Computerized Visual Searching Task was used to measure central information processing speed, a common cognitive side effect of AED treatment. Central information processing speed was lower in patients taking AEDs from the intermediate and high risk categories, compared with patients from the low risk category. The effect of risk category on global efficiency was significant ( P effect on the clustering coefficient (ANCOVA, P > 0.2). Also no significant associations between information processing speed and global efficiency or the clustering coefficient (linear regression analysis, P > 0.15) were observed. Only the four patients taking topiramate show aberrant network measures, suggesting that alterations in functional brain network organization may be only subtle and measureable in patients with more severe cognitive side effects.

  14. Development of New Method for Simultaneous Analysis of Piracetam and Levetiracetam in Pharmaceuticals and Biological Fluids: Application in Stability Studies


    Siddiqui, Farhan Ahmed; Sher, Nawab; Shafi, Nighat; Wafa Sial, Alisha; Ahmad, Mansoor; Mehjebeen,; Naseem, Huma


    RP-HPLC ultraviolet detection simultaneous quantification of piracetam and levetiracetam has been developed and validated. The chromatography was obtained on a Nucleosil C18 column of 25 cm × 0.46 cm, 10 μm, dimension. The mobile phase was a (70 : 30 v/v) mixture of 0.1 g/L of triethylamine and acetonitrile. Smooth flow of mobile phase at 1 mL/min was set and 205 nm wavelength was selected. Results were evaluated through statistical parameters which qualify the method reproducibility and sele...

  15. Topiramate as a neuroprotective agent in a rat model of spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firat Narin


    Full Text Available Topiramate (TPM is a widely used antiepileptic and antimigraine agent which has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects in various experimental traumatic brain injury and stroke models. However, its utility in spinal cord injury has not been studied extensively. Thus, we evaluated effects of TPM on secondary cellular injury mechanisms in an experimental rat model of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI. After rat models of thoracic contusive SCI were established by free weight-drop method, TPM (40 mg/kg was given at 12-hour intervals for four times orally. Post TPM treatment, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels were significantly reduced and reduced glutathione levels were increased, while immunoreactivity for endothelial nitric oxide synthase, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and apoptotic peptidase activating factor 1 was diminished in SCI rats. In addition, TPM treatment improved the functional recovery of SCI rats. This study suggests that administration of TPM exerts neuroprotective effects on SCI.

  16. Glaucoma agudo bilateral em paciente jovem secundário ao uso de topiramato: relato de caso Bilateral acute angle closure glaucoma in a young patient receiving oral topiramate: case report

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    Fausto Stangler


    Full Text Available Topiramato é droga derivada das sulfas e utilizada sistemicamente como anticonvulsivante. Pode produzir efusão uveal e causar glaucoma agudo por fechamento angular pelo deslocamento da íris e do cristalino anteriormente, com miopização transitória. O processo cede com a suspensão da droga, se identificado precocemente. Os autores relatam, pela primeira vez na literatura científica nacional, um caso no qual a efusão uveal ocorreu após a administração de topiramato para tratamento de enxaqueca. Paciente branca de 40 anos foi examinada no setor de emergência do Hospital Banco de Olhos de Porto Alegre apresentando cefaléia intensa, dor ocular e diminuição da visão em ambos os olhos. Referia uso de topiramato desde dez dias antes do início dos sintomas. O exame biomicroscópico mostrava injeção conjuntival, quemose e câmara anterior rasa nos dois olhos. A pressão intra-ocular era de 40 mmHg no olho direito e 38 mmHg no olho esquerdo. Os achados fundoscópicos estavam normais nos dois olhos. A ultra-sonografia ocular mostrou efusão uveal e descolamento de coróide bilateral nos dois olhos. Foi realizado o diagnóstico de efusão uveal relacionada com o uso de topiramato. A medicação foi suspensa com melhora do quadro clínico e da acuidade visual três dias após a apresentação inicial. A efusão uveal induzida por drogas ocorre raramente. O topiramato pode causar edema do corpo ciliar e relaxamento da zônula, com conseqüente deslocamento anterior do diafragma irido-cristaliniano, causando miopização aguda e fechamento angular. Como o mecanismo de fechamento angular não envolve bloqueio pupilar, iridectomias periféricas e o uso de mióticos tópicos não são efetivos nesses casos. Houve regressão completa do quadro após a suspensão da medicação.This paper reports a clinical case of uveal effusion in both eyes causing bilateral acute angle closure glaucoma in a young patient after oral administration of topiramate

  17. Update on neuropathic pain treatment for trigeminal neuralgia (United States)

    Al-Quliti, Khalid W.


    Trigeminal neuralgia is a syndrome of unilateral, paroxysmal, stabbing facial pain, originating from the trigeminal nerve. Careful history of typical symptoms is crucial for diagnosis. Most cases are caused by vascular compression of the trigeminal root adjacent to the pons leading to focal demyelination and ephaptic axonal transmission. Brain imaging is required to exclude secondary causes. Many medical and surgical treatments are available. Most patients respond well to pharmacotherapy; carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine are first line therapy, while lamotrigine and baclofen are considered second line treatments. Other drugs such as topiramate, levetiracetam, gabapentin, pregabalin, and botulinum toxin-A are alternative treatments. Surgical options are available if medications are no longer effective or tolerated. Microvascular decompression, gamma knife radiosurgery, and percutaneous rhizotomies are most promising surgical alternatives. This paper reviews the medical and surgical therapeutic options for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia, based on available evidence and guidelines. PMID:25864062

  18. Urolithiasis on the ketogenic diet with concurrent topiramate or zonisamide therapy (United States)

    Paul, Elahna; Conant, Kerry D.; Dunne, Irie E.; Pfeifer, Heidi H.; Lyczkowski, David A.; Linshaw, Michael A.; Thiele, Elizabeth A.


    Summary Children with refractory epilepsy who are co-treated with the ketogenic diet (KD) and carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (CA-I) anti-epileptic medications including topiramate (TPM) and zonisamide (ZNS) are at risk for urolithiasis. Retrospective chart review of all children treated with ketogenic therapy at our institution was performed in order to estimate the minimal risk of developing signs or symptoms of stone disease. Children (N = 93) were classified into groups according to KD +/− CA-I co-therapy. Fourteen patients had occult hematuria or worse, including 6 with radiologically confirmed stones. Three of 6 calculi developed in the KD + ZNS group of 17 patients who were co-treated for a cumulative total of 97 months (3.1 stones per 100 patient months). One confirmed stone was in the KD + TPM group of 22 children who were co-treated for a cumulative total of 263 months (0.4 stones per 100 patient months). All six patients had at least three of five biochemical risk factors including metabolic acidosis, concentrated urine, acid urine, hypercalciuria and hypocitraturia. Standard of care interventions to minimize hypercalciuria, crystalluria and stone formation used routinely by pediatric nephrologists should also be prescribed by neurologists treating patients with combination anti-epileptic therapy. Non-fasting KD initiation, fluid liberalization, potassium citrate prophylaxis as well as regular laboratory surveillance are indicated in this high risk population. PMID:20466520

  19. Topiramate increases the risk of valproic acid-induced encephalopathy. (United States)

    Noh, Young; Kim, Dong Wook; Chu, Kon; Lee, Soon-Tae; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Moon, Hye-Jin; Lee, Sang Kun


    Metabolic encephalopathy is a rare but serious complication of valproic acid (VPA) therapy that usually presents with impaired consciousness or increased seizure frequency. Although it has been suggested that topiramate (TPM) increases the risk of VPA-induced encephalopathy, the additional risk in patients receiving TPM therapy has not been evaluated. We reviewed all adult patients who took VPA between January 2005 and February 2009 at the Seoul National University Hospital and identified patients with VPA-induced encephalopathy based on clinical and electroencephalography (EEG) data. Information on sex, age, serum ammonia level, serum VPA level, liver function test, and EEG was collected from patient registry and medical data. We enrolled 8,372 patients who received VPA therapy and 1,236 patients who received VPA/TPM combination therapy. We identified 11 patients with VPA-induced encephalopathy (0.13%), 7 of whom received a combination therapy of VPA and TPM. The odds ratio of VPA-induced encephalopathy with TPM over that without TPM was 10.16. There were no significant differences in sex distribution, number of antiepileptic agents, ammonia level, VPA serum level, underlying diseases, dosage of VPA, duration of VPA treatment, treatment of encephalopathy, and outcomes between the two groups. Our study showed that the prevalence of VPA-induced encephalopathy is approximately 0.1% among patients treated with VPA and that the risk of this condition, although still low, can increase by approximately 10 times in the presence of TPM therapy. Based on these results, we suggest that TPM should be carefully used in patients receiving VPA treatment. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2012 International League Against Epilepsy.

  20. Potential role of anticonvulsants in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders. (United States)

    Wang, Hee Ryung; Woo, Young Sup; Bahk, Won-Myong


    We reviewed the extant literature to evaluate the current evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of anticonvulsants in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders. Relevant literature was accessed using the Cochrane database, embase and PubMed on 29 October 2013. Prospective studies examining the efficacy of anticonvulsants in obsessive-compulsive and related disorders were included. Case reports, case series, and retrospective studies were excluded. A total of 10 studies were included in this review. The studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder, except for two negative studies, showed favorable efficacy results of anticonvulsants. In one study on body dysmorphic disorder, levetiracetam showed favorable efficacy. In two lamotrigine studies for pathologic skin-picking, the efficacy findings were inconsistent. In one trichotillomania study, topiramate had reduced hair-pulling symptoms. Despite limited evidence, our review suggests that anticonvulsants have a potential role in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  1. The effects of antiepileptic inducers in neuropsychopharmacology, a neglected issue. Part I: A summary of the current state for clinicians. (United States)

    de Leon, Jose


    The literature on inducers in epilepsy and bipolar disorder is seriously contaminated by false negative findings. This is part i of a comprehensive review on antiepileptic drug (AED) inducers using both mechanistic pharmacological and evidence-based medicine to provide practical recommendations to neurologists and psychiatrists concerning how to control for them. Carbamazepine, phenobarbital and phenytoin, are clinically relevant AED inducers; correction factors were calculated for studied induced drugs. These correction factors are rough simplifications for orienting clinicians, since there is great variability in the population regarding inductive effects. As new information is published, the correction factors may need to be modified. Some of the correction factors are so high that the drugs (e.g., bupropion, quetiapine or lurasidone) should not co-prescribed with potent inducers. Clobazam, eslicarbazepine, felbamate, lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, rufinamide, topiramate, vigabatrin and valproic acid are grouped as mild inducers which may (i)be inducers only in high doses; (ii)frequently combine with inhibitory properties; and (iii)take months to reach maximum effects or de-induction, definitively longer than the potent inducers. Potent inducers, definitively, and mild inducers, possibly, have relevant effects in the endogenous metabolism of (i)sexual hormones, (ii) vitamin D, (iii)thyroid hormones, (iv)lipid metabolism, and (v)folic acid. Copyright © 2014 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Treatment-resistant Lennox-Gastaut syndrome: therapeutic trends, challenges and future directions

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    Ostendorf AP


    Full Text Available Adam P Ostendorf,1 Yu-Tze Ng2 1Department of Pediatrics, Neurology Section, Nationwide Children’s Hospital, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 2Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, The Children’s Hospital of San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA Abstract: Lennox-Gastaut syndrome is a severe, childhood-onset electroclinical syndrome comprised of multiple seizure types, intellectual and behavioral disturbances and characteristic findings on electroencephalogram of slow spike and wave complexes and paroxysmal fast frequency activity. Profound morbidity often accompanies a common and severe seizure type, the drop attack. Seizures often remain refractory, or initial treatment efficacy fades. Few individuals are seizure free despite the development of multiple generations of antiseizure medications over decades and high-level evidence on several choices. Approved medications such as lamotrigine, topiramate, rufinamide, felbamate and clobazam have demonstrated efficacy in reducing seizure burden. Cannabidiol has emerged as a promising investigational therapy with vast social interest yet lacks a standard, approved formulation. Palliative surgical procedures, such as vagal nerve stimulation and corpus callosotomy may provide reduction in total seizures and drop attacks. Emerging evidence suggests that complete callosotomy provides greater improvement in seizures without additional side effects. Etiologies such as dysplasia or hypothalamic hamartoma may be amenable for focal resection and thus offer potential to reverse this devastating epileptic encephalopathy. Keywords: Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, epilepsy, epilepsy surgery, cannabidiol, epileptic encephalopathy

  3. Algunas consideraciones en relación con los medicamentos antiepilépticos de nueva generación en los niños Some considerations in relation to the new generation antiepileptic drugs in children

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    Desiderio Pozo Lauzán


    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es revisar las principales drogas antiepilépticas de segunda generación y su administración en los niños: vigabatrina, felbamato, lamotrigina, topiramato, tiagabina, oxcarbazepina, zonisamida, levetiracetam y stiripentol. Al inicio se recomendaron en pacientes adultos con epilepsias focales refractarias, sin embargo desde hace varios años, se ha demostrado su eficacia en diferentes tipos de crisis en los niños. La lamotrigina y el topiramato se consideran medicamentos de amplio espectro. Se enfatiza en el metabolismo, vías de eliminación, indicaciones, dosis en los niños, interacciones medicamentosas y efectos colaterales de los medicamentos antiepilépticos de segunda generación. Se mencionan algunos de los nuevos medicamentos que actualmente están en investigación como antiepilépticos y que constituyen una tercera generaciónThe objective of this paper is to review the main second generation antiepileptic drugs and their administration in children: vigatrine, felbamate, lamotrigine, topiramate, tiagabine, oxcarbazepine, zonisamide, leventiracetam and stiripentol. At the beginning, they were recommended in adult patients with focal refractory epilepsies; however, their efficacy in different types of seizures in children has been proved for some years. Lamotrigine and topiramate are considered drugs of wide spectrum. Emphasis is made on metabolism, routes of elimination, indications, doses in children, drug interactions and side effects of the second generation antiepileptic drugs. Some of the new drugs that are currently under study as antiepileptic and that constitute a third generation, are mentioned.

  4. Behavioral effects of antiepileptic drugs in rats: Are the effects on mood and behavior detectable in open-field test? (United States)

    Zimcikova, Eva; Simko, Julius; Karesova, Iva; Kremlacek, Jan; Malakova, Jana


    Behavioral side effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are common including both positive and negative effects on mood, anxiety, depression, and psychosis. We aimed to evaluate behavioral patterns in rats after administration of lamotrigine, levetiracetam, phenytoin, topiramate, carbamazepine, gabapentin, pregabalin, and zonisamide. The open-field test was performed and locomotion, rearing, grooming, central latency and defecation were recorded over a 5min interval for each rat (8 rats in each group receiving AED and 16 controls). Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test or ANOVA were used to assess differences among the groups. The experimental groups did not differ in latency to enter the center compartment, neither in the decline of locomotor activity in the 1st and the 5th minute of the observation, nor in number of rears. Significant differences among groups were observed in the total number of lines crossed, grooming, as well in the number of fecal pellets. Locomotor activity was significantly increased in lamotrigine, if compared with gabapentin and pregabalin (ANOVA; p <0.05). Rats exposed to topiramate displayed a significantly increased number of grooming (when compared to pregabalin: p<0.01). Defecation (the number of fecal pellets) significantly increased in the gabapentin and carbamazepine group. There are significant differences between AEDs in terms of their behavioral profile. It is of great importance to evaluate these effects in clinical practice to bring more clear insight into these positive or negative side effects of AEDs. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of impact on seizure frequency and epileptiform discharges of children with epilepsy from topiramate and phenobarbital. (United States)

    Wang, Y-Y; Wang, M-G; Yao, D; Huang, X-X; Zhang, T; Deng, X-Q


    To study the impact on seizure frequency and epileptiform discharges of children with epilepsy from topiramate (TPM) and phenobarbital (PB). Two hundred cases children with epilepsy from August 2010 to August 2013 in our hospital were sampled and randomly divided into two groups. The observation group was treated with TPM while the control group with PB, and then comparing seizure frequency, efficiency, and adverse reactions of two groups. The reduced number of partial seizures, generalized seizures, and total seizures in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group, and the rate of cure, markedly effective and total efficiency in observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group. However, the adverse reactions in observation group were significantly lower than those in the control group. Thus, differences were statistically significant (p<0.05). Compared with PB, TPM showed a better effect on epilepsy treatment with less adverse reactions which were worthy of clinical recommendation.

  6. Modulation of Antioxidant Enzymatic Activities by Certain Antiepileptic Drugs (Valproic Acid, Oxcarbazepine, and Topiramate): Evidence in Humans and Experimental Models (United States)

    Cárdenas-Rodríguez, Noemí; Coballase-Urrutia, Elvia; Rivera-Espinosa, Liliana; Romero-Toledo, Arantxa; Sampieri, Aristides III; Ortega-Cuellar, Daniel; Montesinos-Correa, Hortencia; Floriano-Sánchez, Esaú; Carmona-Aparicio, Liliana


    It is estimated that at least 100 million people worldwide will suffer from epilepsy at some point in their lives. This neurological disorder induces brain death due to the excessive liberation of glutamate, which activates the postsynaptic N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors, which in turn cause the reuptake of intracellular calcium (excitotoxicity). This excitotoxicity elicits a series of events leading to nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activation and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Several studies in experimental models and in humans have demonstrated that certain antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) exhibit antioxidant effects by modulating the activity of various enzymes associated with this type of stress. Considering the above-mentioned data, we aimed to compile evidence elucidating how AEDs such as valproic acid (VPA), oxcarbazepine (OXC), and topiramate (TPM) modulate oxidative stress. PMID:24454986

  7. Serum Leptin Levels in Epileptic Patients Treated with Topiramate and Valproic Acid

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    İrem Fatma Uludağ


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Leptin is considered to be a signal factor that regulates body weight and energy expenditure, and there is a strong correlation between serum leptin concentrations, body mass index, and body fat mass in humans. Our aim in this study was to evaluate the role of leptin in valproic acid (VPA and topiramate (TPM related weight changes in epileptic patients. METHODS: Body mass index is calculated and serum leptin and insulin levels are measured in 56 patients with epilepsy (40 patients taking VPA and 16 patients taking VPA and TPM and in 40 healty control subjects. RESULTS: Obesity was seen in 21 patients (52.5% in VPA treated group, in 15 patients (37.5% in the control group and in only one male (6.3% in VPA and TPM treated group. Body mass index was lower in the group treated with VPA and TPM (p<0.001. Serum leptin concentrations were correlated with the body mass index (r=0.49, p<0.001 and were significantly higher in obese subjects (p<0.001 and in women (p<0.001. Serum leptin levels were significantly lower in patients treated with VPA and TPM (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: High levels of serum leptin in patients taking VPA and significantly low levels of serum leptin in patients taking VPA and TPM in our study are in agreement with the hypotheses that weight changes induced with VPA and TPM are related with the alterations in serum leptin levels

  8. Serum Leptin Levels in Epileptic Patients Treated with Topiramate and Valproic Acid

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    İrem Fatma Uludağ


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Leptin is considered to be a signal factor that regulates body weight and energy expenditure, and there is a strong correlation between serum leptin concentrations, body mass index, and body fat mass in humans. Our aim in this study was to evaluate the role of leptin in valproic acid (VPA and topiramate (TPM related weight changes in epileptic patients. METHODS: Body mass index is calculated and serum leptin and insulin levels are measured in 56 patients with epilepsy (40 patients taking VPA and 16 patients taking VPA and TPM and in 40 healty control subjects. RESULTS: Obesity was seen in 21 patients (52.5% in VPA treated group, in 15 patients (37.5% in the control group and in only one male (6.3% in VPA and TPM treated group. Body mass index was lower in the group treated with VPA and TPM (p<0.001. Serum leptin concentrations were correlated with the body mass index (r=0.49, p<0.001 and were significantly higher in obese subjects (p<0.001 and in women (p<0.001. Serum leptin levels were significantly lower in patients treated with VPA and TPM (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: High levels of serum leptin in patients taking VPA and significantly low levels of serum leptin in patients taking VPA and TPM in our study are in agreement with the hypotheses that weight changes induced with VPA and TPM are related with the alterations in serum leptin levels.

  9. Meta-analysis of adjunctive levetiracetam in refractory partial sei

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    ZHANG Ying


    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the effects and tolerability of adjunctive levetiracetam (LEV in refractory partial seizures. Methods Relevant research articles about randomized controlled trials of adjunctive LEV in refractory partial seizures from January 1998 to December 2010 were retrieved from Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMbase, Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI, VIP, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI database, China Biology Medicine (CBM. Two reviewers independently evaluated the quality of the included articles and abstracted the data. A Meta-analysis was conducted by using RevMan 5.0 software. Results According to the enrollment criteria, eleven prospective, randomized controlled clinical trials with a total of 1192 in LEV group and 789 in placebo group were finally selected. The reduction in three endpoints (a 50% or greater reduction of partial seizure frequency per week, a 75% or greater reduction of partial seizure frequency per week and seizure free was significant in LEV group than placebo group. There was no significance between LEV group and placebo group in the withdrawl rate (1000 mg/d: OR = 1.180, 95%CI: 0.690-2.010, P = 0.540; 2000 mg/d: OR = 1.530, 95%CI: 0.770-3.030, P = 0.230; 3000 mg/d: OR = 1.000, 95% CI: 0.620-1.600, P = 1.000. The following adverse events were associated with LEV: somnolence (OR = 1.720, 95%CI: 1.280-2.310, P = 0.000, dizziness (OR = 1.490, 95%CI: 1.000-2.220, P = 0.050, asthenia (OR = 1.670, 95%CI: 1.140-2.240, P = 0.008, nasopharyngitis (OR = 1.120, 95% CI: 0.710-1.760, P = 0.630, psychiatric and behavioral abnormalities (OR = 2.120, 95% CI: 1.370-3.280, P = 0.000. Conclusion LEV is effective and well tolerated when added to existing therapy in patients with refractory partial seizures compared with control drugs. Further studies are needed to identify the effects of monotherapy of LEV in partial seizures.

  10. The effect of levetiracetam on focal nocturnal epileptiform activity during sleep--a placebo-controlled double-blind cross-over study. (United States)

    Larsson, Pål Gunnar; Bakke, Kristin A; Bjørnæs, Helge; Heminghyt, Einar; Rytter, Elisif; Brager-Larsen, Line; Eriksson, Ann-Sofie


    Electric Status Epilepticus during Sleep (ESES) occurs in children with and without epilepsy. It may be related to disturbances as autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and acquired aphasia (Landau-Kleffner syndrome). Antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment has been reported in small studies without placebo control. This study was designed to assess AED effect in a placebo-controlled double-blind cross-over study. Levetiracetam (LEV) was chosen based on clinical evidence. Eighteen patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The mean spike index at baseline was 56, falling to a mean of 37 at the end of the LEV treatment period. Assessed with a 2-way ANOVA, there is a significant treatment effect (pdouble-blind cross-over study for any AED in patients with ESES. The effect of LEV is comparable with its effect in treatment of epileptic seizures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Modulation of Antioxidant Enzymatic Activities by Certain Antiepileptic Drugs (Valproic Acid, Oxcarbazepine, and Topiramate: Evidence in Humans and Experimental Models

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    Noemí Cárdenas-Rodríguez


    Full Text Available It is estimated that at least 100 million people worldwide will suffer from epilepsy at some point in their lives. This neurological disorder induces brain death due to the excessive liberation of glutamate, which activates the postsynaptic N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA receptors, which in turn cause the reuptake of intracellular calcium (excitotoxicity. This excitotoxicity elicits a series of events leading to nitric oxide synthase (NOS activation and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Several studies in experimental models and in humans have demonstrated that certain antiepileptic drugs (AEDs exhibit antioxidant effects by modulating the activity of various enzymes associated with this type of stress. Considering the above-mentioned data, we aimed to compile evidence elucidating how AEDs such as valproic acid (VPA, oxcarbazepine (OXC, and topiramate (TPM modulate oxidative stress.

  12. Modern medicamentous treatment of epilepsy in adults

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    Vid Zgonc


    Full Text Available Background: Several »newer« antiepileptic drugs (AEDs, i.e. vigabatrin, lamotrigine, gabapentin, topiramate, tiagabine, oxcarbazepine, levetiracetam, pregabalin and zonisamide have been introduced into clinical practice within the last decade. Most of these new drugs are at least as effective as the »older« AEDs (phenobarbital, phenytoin, valproic acid, carbamazepine and in general, they seem to be better tolerated then the older drugs and have less side effects. The development of pharmaceutical industry has brought several new AEDs to clinical practice which increased a probability of therapeutic success, but also made treatment more complex. It is expected from the physician that she will know indications and contraindications for at least 15 AEDs, their optimal titration, dosage, possible side effects and wide spectrum of interactions with other drugs. At this point advertisements of drug companies try to convince us aggressively about success of their own products.Conclusions: This review article focuses on modern medicamentous treatment of adults with epilepsy, main characteristics of newer AEDs, conditions, availability and statistics of their usage in Slovenia.

  13. Newer antiepileptic drugs in the treatment of status epilepticus: impact on prognosis. (United States)

    Jaques, Léonore; Rossetti, Andrea O


    Newer antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are increasingly prescribed and seem to have a comparable efficacy as the classical AEDs; however, their impact on status epilepticus (SE) prognosis has received little attention. In our prospective SE database (2006-2010), we assessed the use of older versus newer AEDs (levetiracetam, pregabalin, topiramate, lacosamide) over time and its relationship to outcome (return to clinical baseline conditions, new handicap, or death). Newer AEDs were used more often toward the end of the study period (42% of episodes versus 30%). After adjustment for SE etiology, SE severity score, and number of compounds needed to terminate SE, newer AEDs were independently related to a reduced likelihood of return to baseline (p<0.001) but not to increased mortality. These findings seem in line with recent findings on refractory epilepsy. Also, in view of the higher price of the newer AEDs, well-designed, prospective assessments analyzing the impact of newer AEDs on efficacy and tolerability in patients with SE appear mandatory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Initial Treatment for Nonsyndromic Early-Life Epilepsy: An Unexpected Consensus. (United States)

    Shellhaas, Renée A; Berg, Anne T; Grinspan, Zachary M; Wusthoff, Courtney J; Millichap, John J; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Coryell, Jason; Saneto, Russell P; Chu, Catherine J; Joshi, Sucheta M; Sullivan, Joseph E; Knupp, Kelly G; Kossoff, Eric H; Keator, Cynthia; Wirrell, Elaine C; Mytinger, John R; Valencia, Ignacio; Massey, Shavonne; Gaillard, William D


    There are no evidence-based guidelines on the preferred approach to treating early-life epilepsy. We examined initial therapy selection in a contemporary US cohort of children with newly diagnosed, nonsyndromic, early-life epilepsy (onset before age three years). Seventeen pediatric epilepsy centers participated in a prospective cohort study of children with newly diagnosed epilepsy with onset under 36 months of age. Details regarding demographics, seizure types, and initial medication selections were obtained from medical records. About half of the 495 enrolled children with new-onset, nonsyndromic epilepsy were less than 12 months old at the time of diagnosis (n = 263, 53%) and about half (n = 260, 52%) had epilepsy with focal features. Of 464 who were treated with monotherapy, 95% received one of five drugs: levetiracetam (n = 291, 63%), oxcarbazepine (n = 67, 14%), phenobarbital (n = 57, 12%), topiramate (n = 16, 3.4%), and zonisamide (n = 13, 2.8%). Phenobarbital was prescribed first for 50 of 163 (31%) infants less than six months old versus seven of 300 (2.3%) of children six months or older (P epilepsy presentation (focal, generalized, mixed/uncertain). Between the first and second treatment choices, 367 (74%) of children received levetiracetam within the first year after diagnosis. Without any specific effort, the pediatric epilepsy community has developed an unexpectedly consistent approach to initial treatment selection for early-life epilepsy. This suggests that a standard practice is emerging and could be utilized as a widely acceptable basis of comparison in future drug studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Antiepileptic drug prescribing patterns in Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans with epilepsy. (United States)

    Rohde, Natalie N; Baca, Christine B; Van Cott, Anne C; Parko, Karen L; Amuan, Megan E; Pugh, Mary Jo


    We examined patterns of antiepileptic drug (AED) use in a cohort of Iraq/Afghanistan war veterans (IAVs) who were previously identified as having epilepsy. We hypothesized that clinicians would be more likely to prescribe newer AEDs and would select specific AEDs to treat seizures based on patient characteristics including gender and comorbidities. From the cohort of IAVs previously identified with epilepsy between fiscal years 2009 and 2010, we selected those who received AEDs from the Veterans Health Administration in FY2010. Regimens were classified as monotherapy or polytherapy, and specific AED use was examine overall and by gender. Multivariable logistic regression examined associations of age; gender; race/ethnicity; medical, psychiatric, and neurological comorbidities; and receipt of neurology specialty care associated with the six most commonly used AEDs. Among 256,284 IAVs, 2123 met inclusion criteria (mean age: 33years; 89% men). Seventy-two percent (n=1526) received monotherapy, most commonly valproate (N=425) and levetiracetam (n=347). Sixty-one percent of those on monotherapy received a newer AED (levetiracetam, topiramate, lamotrigine, zonisamide, oxcarbazepine). Although fewer women than men received valproate, nearly 90% (N=45) were of reproductive age (≤45years). Antiepileptic drug prescribing patterns were associated with posttraumatic stress disorder, bipolar disorder, cerebrovascular disease, dementia/cognitive impairment, headache, and receipt of neurological specialty care (all p<0.01). In this cohort of veterans with epilepsy, most received AED monotherapy and newer AEDs. Prescribing patterns were different for men and women. The patterns observed between AEDs and neurological/psychiatric comorbidities suggest that clinicians are practicing rational prescribing. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Papel de la monoterapia con nuevos fármacos antiepilépticos en el tratamiento de la epilepsia infantil Role of monotherapy with new antiepileptic drugs in the treatment of childhood epilepsy

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    Ignacio Valencia


    Full Text Available En este trabajo se revisa la información actual sobre el uso de los nuevos fármacos antiepilépticos (FAEs en monoterapia en niños, resaltando nuestra experiencia personal. Específicamente, se incluyen los siguientes FAEs: lamotrigina (Lamictal®, topiramato (Topamax®, zonisamida (Zonegran®, levetiracetam (Keppra®, y oxcarbacepina (Trileptal®. Todos estos FAEs tienen un amplio espectro de acción en el tratamiento de crisis epilépticas parciales y generalizadas, excepto la oxcarbacepina, que es eficaz exclusivamente en crisis parciales. No está claro si la monoterapia con estos FAEs, en comparación con los FAEs clásicos (fenobarbital, fenitoína, carbamacepina, valproato sódico, proporciona una mayor eficacia y/o causa menos efectos secundarios y, si por lo tanto, mejora significativamente la calidad de vida de los niños con epilepsia. Se necesitan más estudios para poder contestar estas preguntas.In this paper we review the current information regarding the use of new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs used as monotherapy in children. We specifically include the following AEDs: lamotrigine (Lamictal®, topiramate (Topamax®, zonisamide (Zonegran®, levetiracetam (Keppra®, and oxcarbazepine (Trileptal®. All of these AEDs have a broad spectrum of action in the treatment of partial and generalized seizures, except Oxcarbazepine, which is effective only in partial seizures. It is unclear whether or not monotherapy with the new AEDs offers higher efficacy and/or lower side effects compared to classic AEDs (phenobarbital, phenytoin, carbamazepine, or valproate thereby significantly improving the quality of life in children with epilepsy. More studies are needed to answer these questions.

  17. Effectiveness of intravenous levetiracetam as an adjunctive treatment in pediatric refractory status epilepticus. (United States)

    Kim, Jon Soo; Lee, Jeong Ho; Ryu, Hye Won; Lim, Byung Chan; Hwang, Hee; Chae, Jong-Hee; Choi, Jieun; Kim, Ki Joong; Hwang, Yong Seung; Kim, Hunmin


    Intravenous levetiracetam (LEV) has been shown to be effective and safe in treating adults with refractory status epilepticus (SE). We sought to investigate the efficacy and safety of intravenous LEV for pediatric patients with refractory SE. We performed a retrospective medical-record review of pediatric patients who were treated with intravenous LEV for refractory SE. Clinical information regarding age, sex, seizure type, and underlying neurological status was collected. We evaluated other anticonvulsants that were used prior to administration of intravenous LEV and assessed loading dose, response to treatment, and any adverse events from intravenous LEV administration. Fourteen patients (8 boys and 6 girls) received intravenous LEV for the treatment of refractory SE. The mean age of the patients was 4.4 ± 5.5 years (range, 4 days to 14.6 years). Ten of the patients were neurologically healthy prior to the refractory SE, and the other 4 had been previously diagnosed with epilepsy. The mean loading dose of intravenous LEV was 26 ± 4.6 mg/kg (range, 20-30 mg/kg). Seizure termination occurred in 6 (43%) of the 14 patients. In particular, 4 (57%) of the 7 patients younger than 2 years showed seizure termination. No immediate adverse events occurred during or after infusions. The current study demonstrated that the adjunctive use of intravenous LEV was effective and well tolerated in pediatric patients with refractory SE, even in patients younger than 2 years. Intravenous LEV should be considered as an effective and safe treatment option for refractory SE in pediatric patients.

  18. Effect of chronic administration of phenobarbital, or bromide, on pharmacokinetics of levetiracetam in dogs with epilepsy. (United States)

    Muñana, K R; Nettifee-Osborne, J A; Papich, M G


    Levetiracetam (LEV) is a common add-on antiepileptic drug (AED) in dogs with refractory seizures. Concurrent phenobarbital administration alters the disposition of LEV in healthy dogs. To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of LEV in dogs with epilepsy when administered concurrently with conventional AEDs. Eighteen client-owned dogs on maintenance treatment with LEV and phenobarbital (PB group, n = 6), LEV and bromide (BR group, n = 6) or LEV, phenobarbital and bromide (PB-BR group, n = 6). Prospective pharmacokinetic study. Blood samples were collected at 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours after LEV administration. Plasma LEV concentrations were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography. To account for dose differences among dogs, LEV concentrations were normalized to the mean study dose (26.4 mg/kg). Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed on adjusted concentrations, using a noncompartmental method, and area-under-the-curve (AUC) calculated to the last measured time point. Compared to the PB and PB-BR groups, the BR group had significantly higher peak concentration (Cmax ) (73.4 ± 24.0 versus 37.5 ± 13.7 and 26.5 ± 8.96 μg/mL, respectively, P phenobarbital in dogs. Copyright © 2015 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  19. Tics and other stereotyped movements as side effects of pharmacological treatment. (United States)

    Madruga-Garrido, Marcos; Mir, Pablo


    Tics and other stereotyped abnormal movements can be seen as adverse effects of some pharmacologic drugs. Among these drugs, antipsychotics may provoke tardive syndromes after a chronic exposure, primarily in the case of typical antipsychotics. These syndromes include tardive tics, tardive dyskinesia, or tardive akathisia, which present with tics or stereotyped movements as a clinical phenomenon. Psychostimulants (mainly methylphenidate) have traditionally been associated with the appearance of tics due to the increased dopamine activity caused by stimulants. Nevertheless, in recent years, several studies have concluded not only that methylphenidate does not exacerbate or reactivate tics but also that tics can improve with its use in patients with associated attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder and tic disorder. Antiepileptic drugs, although infrequently, can also induce tics, with carbamazepine and lamotrigine described as tic inducers. Other antiepileptics, including levetiracetam and topiramate, have been proposed as a potential treatment for tic disorders due to a positive effect on tics, especially in those with associated epileptic disorder. Clinical and therapeutic approaches to tics and stereotyped movements after exposure to antipsychotics, stimulants, and antiepileptic drugs will be reviewed in this chapter. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Efficacy of levetiracetam versus fosphenytoin for the recurrence of seizures after status epilepticus. (United States)

    Nakamura, Kensuke; Inokuchi, Ryota; Daidoji, Hiroaki; Naraba, Hiromu; Sonoo, Tomohiro; Hashimoto, Hideki; Tokunaga, Kurato; Hiruma, Takahiro; Doi, Kent; Morimura, Naoto


    Benzodiazepines are used as first-line treatments for status epilepticus. Fosphenytoin (FPHT) is recommended for second-line therapy; however, intravenous injection of levetiracetam (LEV) may also be effective against status epilepticus. Herein, we compared the efficacy and safety of LEV as a second-line treatment for status epilepticus with FPHT in Japanese patients.Patients with status epilepticus were selected from the database of the Emergency and Critical Care Center of Hitachi General Hospital. The subjects were patients whose status epilepticus was successfully stopped by diazepam, and in whom FPHT or LEV was administered after diazepam. As LEV injections recently became clinically available in Japan, the choice of drug was determined by the treatment period. Thus, 21 patients who were intravenously injected with LEV as a second-line therapy and 42 matched patients (historical controls) who were treated with FPHT (1:2) were selected.The subjects had a mean age of 64.0 ± 2.2 years, and included 48 males and 15 females. The status epilepticus control rates of the FPHT and LEV groups did not differ significantly (81.0% [34/42] vs 85.1% [18/21], respectively; P  =  .69). As for serious adverse events, a reduction in blood pressure was observed in the FPHT group, but not in the LEV group. The oral anticonvulsant switching rates of the 2 groups were similar, but the same-drug switching rates of the FPHT and LEV groups were 8.1% and 77.8%, respectively.The efficacy of intravenous LEV injections after status epilepticus was equivalent to that of FPHT, and the incidence of adverse events was lower in the LEV group. LEV is effective and safe at preventing recurrent seizures after status epilepticus following benzodiazepine treatment.

  1. Determination of Levetiracetam in Human Plasma by Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Followed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (United States)


    Levetiracetam (LEV) is an antiepileptic drug that is clinically effective in generalized and partial epilepsy syndromes. The use of this drug has been increasing in clinical practice and intra- or -interindividual variability has been exhibited for special population. For this reason, bioanalytical methods are required for drug monitoring in biological matrices. So this work presents a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (DLLME-GC-MS) for LEV quantification in human plasma. However, due to the matrix complexity a previous purification step is required. Unlike other pretreatment techniques presented in the literature, for the first time, a procedure employing ultrafiltration tubes Amicon® (10 kDa porous size) without organic solvent consumption was developed. GC-MS analyses were carried out using a linear temperature program, capillary fused silica column, and helium as the carrier gas. DLLME optimized parameters were type and volume of extraction and dispersing solvents, salt addition, and vortex agitation time. Under chosen parameters (extraction solvent: chloroform, 130 μL; dispersing solvent: isopropyl alcohol, 400 μL; no salt addition and no vortex agitation time), the method was completely validated and all parameters were in agreement with the literature recommendations. LEV was quantified in patient's plasma sample using less than 550 μL of organic solvent. PMID:27830105

  2. Determination of Levetiracetam in Human Plasma by Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Followed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

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    Greyce Kelly Steinhorst Alcantara


    Full Text Available Levetiracetam (LEV is an antiepileptic drug that is clinically effective in generalized and partial epilepsy syndromes. The use of this drug has been increasing in clinical practice and intra- or -interindividual variability has been exhibited for special population. For this reason, bioanalytical methods are required for drug monitoring in biological matrices. So this work presents a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (DLLME-GC-MS for LEV quantification in human plasma. However, due to the matrix complexity a previous purification step is required. Unlike other pretreatment techniques presented in the literature, for the first time, a procedure employing ultrafiltration tubes Amicon® (10 kDa porous size without organic solvent consumption was developed. GC-MS analyses were carried out using a linear temperature program, capillary fused silica column, and helium as the carrier gas. DLLME optimized parameters were type and volume of extraction and dispersing solvents, salt addition, and vortex agitation time. Under chosen parameters (extraction solvent: chloroform, 130 μL; dispersing solvent: isopropyl alcohol, 400 μL; no salt addition and no vortex agitation time, the method was completely validated and all parameters were in agreement with the literature recommendations. LEV was quantified in patient’s plasma sample using less than 550 μL of organic solvent.

  3. Topiramate Protects Pericytes from Glucotoxicity: Role for Mitochondrial CA VA in Cerebromicrovascular Disease in Diabetes. (United States)

    Patrick, Ping; Price, Tulin O; Diogo, Ana L; Sheibani, Nader; Banks, William A; Shah, Gul N

    Hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus causes oxidative stress and pericyte depletion from the microvasculature of the brain thus leading to the Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) disruption. The compromised BBB exposes the brain to circulating substances, resulting in neurotoxicity and neuronal cell death. The decline in pericyte numbers in diabetic mouse brain and pericyte apoptosis in high glucose cultures are caused by excess superoxide produced during enhanced respiration (mitochondrial oxidative metabolism of glucose). Superoxide is precursor to all Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) which, in turn, cause oxidative stress. The rate of respiration and thus the ROS production is regulated by mitochondrial carbonic anhydrases (mCA) VA and VB, the two isoforms expressed in the mitochondria. Inhibition of both mCA: decreases the oxidative stress and restores the pericyte numbers in diabetic brain; and reduces high glucose-induced respiration, ROS, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in cultured brain pericytes. However, the individual role of the two isoforms has not been established. To investigate the contribution of mCA VA in ROS production and apoptosis, a mCA VA overexpressing brain pericyte cell line was engineered. These cells were exposed to high glucose and analyzed for the changes in ROS and apoptosis. Overexpression of mCA VA significantly increased pericyte ROS and apoptosis. Inhibition of mCA VA with topiramate prevented increases both in glucose-induced ROS and pericyte death. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that mCA VA regulates the rate of pericyte respiration. These findings identify mCA VA as a novel and specific therapeutic target to protect the cerebromicrovascular bed in diabetes.

  4. The role of titration schedule of topiramate for the development of depression in patients with epilepsy. (United States)

    Mula, Marco; Hesdorffer, Dale C; Trimble, Michael; Sander, Josemir W


    To determine whether a fast titration schedule of topiramate (TPM) has different effects on the occurrence of depression, in relation to other risk factors for TPM-induced depression, including history of depression (HxDEP), febrile seizures (FS), and hippocampal sclerosis (HS). Using data from a large case registry of patients prescribed TPM, two models were constructed: Model 1 examined the independent effect of rapid TPM titration after separate adjustment for FS, HxDEP, and HS. Model 2 examined effect of the cooccurrence of rapid titration on the development of depression with each of these risk factors. A total of 423 patients were included (51.8% females), mean age (SD) 35.5 (11.8) years, mean duration of epilepsy of 22.2 (11.5) years. Forty-four patients (10.4%) developed depression during TPM therapy. A rapid TPM titration was associated with 5-fold increased risk of depression that increased to 12.7-fold in the presence of both FS and rapid TPM titration, 23.3-fold in the presence of both HxDEP and rapid TPM titration, and 7.6-fold in the presence of both HS and rapid TPM titration schedule. Our study suggests that a rapid titration schedule is associated with an increased risk of developing depression during TPM therapy. HxDEP and FS are major contraindications to the use of a rapid titration, with a 23.3-fold and 12.7 fold increased risk, respectively.

  5. The Teratogenic Effects of Antiepileptic Drug, Topiramate, on the Development of Chick Embryos

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    Jantima Roongruangchai


    Full Text Available Background: Anti-epileptic drugs are known to be the risk of teratogenicity. Topiramate (TPM is a new kind of such drug, for which no research has confirmed the incidence of producing congenital abnormalities. Objective: This study was conducted to study the teratogenic effects of TPM by using chick embryos as an animal model and the results can be compared to the human embryo of the same stage. Methods: Fertilized Leghorn hen eggs were injected in ovo with two concentrations of TPM, which were 10mg, and 20mg, in NSS at a volume of 0.1 ml into the yolk sac at 21 hrs of incubation and repeated injections at 72 hrs at a volume of 0.05 ml. The chick embryos on day 3, 6 and 11 of incubation were sacrificed and all living embryos were processed for total mount and serial section. Results: The mortality rate increased corresponding to the concentrations of TPM, and the embryonic stage. The total mount of day 3 showed major abnormalities of the eye and heart, such as microphthalmia and looser of heart looping. The serial section of day 3 showed opening of the anterior neuropore, ectopia viscerae and multiple malformations of the eye and heart. Day 6 chick embryos showed ectopia cordis and ectopia viscerae. Moreover, there were retardation and abnormalities of several organs such as eye, heart, liver, mesonephros and gonads. Day 11 chick embryos showed ectopia viscerae and several growth retardations, retardation of ossification of both limb bones and skull bones. Conclusion: This study showed that TPM might cause embryonic death, growth retardation and abnormalities of the eye, heart, an opening of the anterior neuropore and ectopia viscerae. This might indicate abnormalities to the baby born from mother with gestational epilepsy who was taking this drug continuously, and it might lead to spontaneous abortion or congenital anomalies of the fetus.

  6. The Use of Antiepileptic Drugs (AEDs for the Treatment of Pediatric Aggression and Mood Disorders

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    Joseph Gonzalez-Heydrich


    Full Text Available Aggressive symptomatology presents across multiple psychiatric, developmental, neurological and behavioral disorders, complicating the diagnosis and treatment of the underlying pathology. Anti-Epileptic Drugs (AEDs have become an appealing alternative in the treatment of aggression, mood lability and impulsivity in adult and pediatric populations, although few controlled trials have explored their efficacy in treating pediatric populations. This review of the literature synthesizes the available data on ten AEDs – valproate, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, phenytoin, lamotrigine, topiramate, levetiracetam, zonisamide, gabapentin and tiagabine – in an attempt to assess evidence for the efficacy of AEDs in the treatment of aggression in pediatric populations. Our review revealed modest evidence that some of the AEDs produced improvement in pediatric aggression, but controlled trials in pediatric bipolar disorder have not been promising. Valproate is the best supported AED for aggression and should be considered as a first line of treatment. When monotherapy is insufficient, combining an AED with either lithium or an atypical anti-psychotic can result in better efficacy. Additionally, our review indicates that medications with predominately GABA-ergic mechanisms of action are not effective in treating aggression, and medications which decrease glutaminergic transmission tended to have more cognitive adverse effects. Agents with multiple mechanisms of action may be more effective.

  7. The Use of Antiepileptic Drugs (AEDs) for the Treatment of Pediatric Aggression and Mood Disorders. (United States)

    Munshi, Kaizad R; Oken, Tanya; Guild, Danielle J; Trivedi, Harsh K; Wang, Betty C; Ducharme, Peter; Gonzalez-Heydrich, Joseph


    Aggressive symptomatology presents across multiple psychiatric, developmental, neurological and behavioral disorders, complicating the diagnosis and treatment of the underlying pathology. Anti-Epileptic Drugs (AEDs) have become an appealing alternative in the treatment of aggression, mood lability and impulsivity in adult and pediatric populations, although few controlled trials have explored their efficacy in treating pediatric populations. This review of the literature synthesizes the available data on ten AEDs - valproate, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, phenytoin, lamotrigine, topiramate, levetiracetam, zonisamide, gabapentin and tiagabine - in an attempt to assess evidence for the efficacy of AEDs in the treatment of aggression in pediatric populations. Our review revealed modest evidence that some of the AEDs produced improvement in pediatric aggression, but controlled trials in pediatric bipolar disorder have not been promising. Valproate is the best supported AED for aggression and should be considered as a first line of treatment. When monotherapy is insufficient, combining an AED with either lithium or an atypical anti-psychotic can result in better efficacy. Additionally, our review indicates that medications with predominately GABA-ergic mechanisms of action are not effective in treating aggression, and medications which decrease glutaminergic transmission tended to have more cognitive adverse effects. Agents with multiple mechanisms of action may be more effective.

  8. Modulation of Cytokine Production by Drugs with Antiepileptic or Mood Stabilizer Properties in Anti-CD3- and Anti-CD40-Stimulated Blood In Vitro

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    Hubertus Himmerich


    Full Text Available Increased cytokine production possibly due to oxidative stress has repeatedly been shown to play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. Recent in vitro and animal studies of valproic acid (VPA report antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties, and suppression of interleukin (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α. We tested the effect of drugs with antiepileptic or mood stabilizer properties, namely, primidone (PRM, carbamazepine (CBZ, levetiracetam (LEV, lamotrigine (LTG, VPA, oxcarbazepine (OXC, topiramate (TPM, phenobarbital (PB, and lithium on the production of the following cytokines in vitro: interleukin (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17, IL-22, and TNF-α. We performed a whole blood assay with stimulated blood of 14 healthy female subjects. Anti-human CD3 monoclonal antibody OKT3, combined with 5C3 antibody against CD40, was used as stimulant. We found a significant reduction of IL-1 and IL-2 levels with all tested drugs other than lithium in the CD3/5C3-stimulated blood; VPA led to a decrease in IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17, and TNF-α production, which substantiates and adds knowledge to current hypotheses on VPA’s anti-inflammatory properties.

  9. Effects of Oxcarbazepine and Levetiracetam on Calcium, Ionized Calcium, and 25-OH Vitamin-D3 Levels in Patients with Epilepsy. (United States)

    Aksoy, Duygu; Güveli, Betül Tekin; Ak, Pelin Doğan; Sarı, Hüseyin; Ataklı, Dilek; Arpacı, Baki


    The primary objective of the present study was to further elucidate the effects of oxcarbazepine (OXC) and levetiracetam (LEV) monotherapies on the bone health status of patients with epilepsy. This study included 48 patients who attended our epilepsy outpatient clinic, had a diagnosis of epilepsy, and were undergoing either OXC or LEV monotherapy and 42 healthy control subjects. The demographic and clinical features of the patients, including gender, age, onset of disease, daily drug dosage, and duration of disease, were noted. Additionally, the calcium, ionized calcium, and 25-OH vitamin-D3 levels of the participants were prospectively evaluated. The 25-OH vitamin-D3, calcium, and ionized calcium levels of the patients taking OXC were significantly lower than those of the control group. These levels did not significantly differ between the patients taking LEV and the control group, but there was a significant negative relationship between daily drug dose and ionized calcium levels in the LEV patients. In the present study, anti-epileptic drugs altered the calcium, ionized calcium, and 25-OH vitamin-D3 levels of epilepsy patients and resulted in bone loss, abnormal mineralization, and fractures. These findings suggest that the calcium, ionized calcium, and 25-OH vitamin-D3 levels of patients with epilepsy should be regularly assessed.

  10. Epilepsy secondary to Menkes' disease: five cases report and review of literature

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    Pei-yuan ZHANG


    Full Text Available Objective To study the clinical features of patients with Menkes' disease (MD that initiate from seizures, and to reinforce the knowledge of etiological diagnosis of secondary epilepsy.  Methods The clinical and laboratory features of 5 MD patients who were admitted from December 1992 to March 2014 were retrospectively analyzed.  Results All cases were male infants including two brothers, and the age of onset was 1-5 months after birth. Their clinical manifestations started from tonic (N = 3 and focal clonic (N = 2 seizures. The focal clonic seizures became more frequent and progressively worsened. Four cases showed abnormal background EEG rhythm; 3 cases revealed interictal focal or multifocal epileptiform discharges over occipital region predominantly; 2 cases revealed epileptic discharge in fit period EEG. All the cases manifested severe mental retardation accompanied with light complexion and curly hair. Low serum copper and ceruloplasmin levels were found in 4 cases and lead to the diagnosis of MD. The exceptional one was made clinical diagnosis of MD due to his typical manifestation and the diagnosis of his elder brother. Three cases received MRI examination, which showed extensive cerebral atrophy and symmetric encephalomalacia foci. One case revealed tortuosity of main artery and diminution of distal artery by MRA. One case was treated with phenobarbital, 2 cases with topiramate, one case with topiramate and levetiracetam and clonazepam. One case died of respiratory failure at 24 h after admission. The other 4 cases were followed up for 1-9 months after being discharged, 3 of whom died, and the left one converted to intractable infantile spasms and severe mental retardation, with interictal EEG changing to hypsarrhythmia.  Conclusions The onset of patients with epilepsy secondary to MD often occurs in early infancy, manifesting tonic and focal clonic seizures predominantly with interictal epileptiform discharges over the posterior

  11. Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome in a patient taking phenytoin and levetiracetam: a case report

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    Hall David Jeffrey


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome is a potentially life-threatening hypersensitivity reaction with rash, fever, and internal organ involvement, often hepatitis, occurring most commonly two to eight weeks after initiation of a medication. The present case is an example of severe and potentially life-threatening hepatitis as a manifestation of drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome. Case presentation We report a case of anti-epileptic-induced drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome in an 18-year-old African-American man who presented with a five-day history of rash, periorbital and upper extremity edema, hepatitis and fever. Laboratory findings revealed an atypical lymphocytosis, eosinophilia, and elevated serum transaminases. No drug allergies were reported at the time of presentation, but phenytoin and levetiracetam therapy had been initiated five weeks prior to hospital admission for new-onset seizures. Both medications were discontinued on hospital admission, and after three days of high-dose corticosteroid therapy the patient experienced resolution of both his symptoms and laboratory markers of inflammation. Conclusion Given the significant mortality attributed to drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome, medical personnel should be aware of the potential for this severe hypersensitivity reaction and should ensure close follow-up and offer anticipatory guidance when beginning any new medication, particularly anti-epileptic therapy. Early recognition of drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome and initiation of appropriate therapy are imperative in limiting morbidity.

  12. Brand-to-generic levetiracetam switch in patients with epilepsy in a routine clinical setting. (United States)

    Markoula, Sofia; Chatzistefanidis, Dimitrios; Gatzonis, Stylianos; Siatouni, Anna; Siarava, Eleftheria; Verentzioti, Anastasia; Kyritsis, Athanassios P; Patsalos, Philip N


    The therapeutic equivalence of generic and brand antiepileptic drugs, based on studies performed on healthy volunteers, has been questioned. We compare, in a routine clinical setting, brand versus generic levetiracetam (LEV) bioequivalence in patients with epilepsy and also the clinical efficacy and tolerability of the substitution. A prospective, open-label, non-randomized, steady-state, multiple-dose, bioequivalence study was conducted in 12 patients with epilepsy (5 females), with a mean age of 38.4±16.2 years. Patients treated with the brand LEV (Keppra; UCB Pharma) were closely followed for a four-week period and subsequently switched to a generic LEV (Pharmaten) and followed for another four-week period. Blood samples were collected at the end of each 4-week period, during a dose interval for each formulation, for LEV concentration measurements by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Steady-state area under the curve (AUC) and peak plasma concentration (Cmax) data were subjected to conventional average bioequivalence analysis. Secondary clinical outcomes, including seizure frequency and adverse events, were recorded. Patients had epilepsy for a mean period of 14.1±10.6years and the mean daily LEV dose was 2583.3±763.7mg. The mean AUC±SD and Cmax±SD was 288.4±86.3(mg/L)h and 37.8±10.4mg/L respectively for brand LEV and 319.2±104.7(mg/L)h and 41.6±12.3mg/L respectively for the generic LEV. Statistic analysis showed no statistical significant difference in bioequivalence. Also, no change in seizures frequency and/or adverse events was recorded. In our clinical setting, generic LEV was determined to be bioequivalent to brand LEV. Furthermore, seizures frequency or/and adverse events were not affected upon switching from brand to generic LEV. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Eslicarbazepine acetate as a replacement for levetiracetam in people with epilepsy developing behavioral adverse events. (United States)

    Jalihal, Virupakshi; Shankar, Rohit; Henley, William; Parrett, Mary; Tittensor, Phil; McLean, Brendan N; Ahmed, Ammad; Sander, Josemir W


    Psychiatric and behavioral side effects (PBSEs) are a major cause of antiepileptic drug (AED) withdrawal. Levetiracetam (LEV) is a recognized first-line AED with good seizure outcomes but recognized with PBSEs. Eslicarbazepine (ESL) is considered to function similarly to an active metabolite of the commonly used carbamazepine (CBZ). Carbamazepine is used as psychotropic medication to assist in various psychiatric illnesses such as mood disorders, aggression, and anxiety. The aim was to evaluate the psychiatric profile of ESL in people who had LEV withdrawn due to PBSEs in routine clinical practice to see if ESL can be used as a possible alternative to LEV. A retrospective observational review was conducted in two UK epilepsy centers looking at all cases exposed to ESL since its licensing in 2010. The ESL group was all patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy who developed intolerable PBSEs to LEV, subsequently trialed on ESL. The ESL group was matched to a group who tolerated LEV without intolerable PBSEs. Psychiatric disorders were identified from case notes. The Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) was used to outcome change in mood. Clinical diagnoses of a mental disorder were compared between groups using the Fisher's exact test. Group differences in HAM-D scores were assessed using the independent samples t-test (alpha=0.05). The total number of people with active epilepsy in the two centers was 2142 of whom 46 had been exposed to ESL. Twenty-six had previous exposure to LEV and had intolerable PBSEs who were matched to a person tolerating LEV. There was no statistical differences in the two groups for mental disorders including mood as measured by HAM-D (Chi-square test: p=0.28). The ESL was well tolerated and did not produce significant PBSEs in those who had PBSEs with LEV leading to withdrawal of the drug. Though numbers were small, the findings suggest that ESL could be a treatment option in those who develop PBSEs with LEV and possibly other AEDs

  14. Resting-state fMRI revealed different brain activities responding to valproic acid and levetiracetam in benign epilepsy with central-temporal spikes

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    Zhang, Qirui; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Xu, Qiang; Wu, Han; Li, Zhipeng; Lu, Guangming [Nanjing University School of Medicine, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing (China); Yang, Fang; Li, Qian [Nanjing University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing (China); Hu, Zheng [Nanjing Children' s Hospital, Department of Neurology, Nanjing (China); Dante, Mantini [Faculty of Kinesiology and Rehabilitation Sciences, KU Leuven (Belgium); Li, Kai [Suzhou University, Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Suzhou (China)


    Our aim was to investigate regional difference in brain activities in response to antiepileptic drug (AED) medications in benign epilepsy with central-temporal spikes (BECTS) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Fifty-seven patients with BECTS underwent resting-state fMRI scans after receiving either valproic acid (VPA) (n = 15), levetiracetam (LEV) (n = 21), or no medication (n = 21). fMRI regional homogeneity (ReHo) parameter among the three groups of patients were compared and were correlated with total doses of AED in the two medicated groups. Compared with patients on no-medication, patients receiving either VPA or LEV showed decreased ReHo in the central-temporal region, frontal cortex, and thalamus. In particular, the VPA group showed greater ReHo decrease in the thalamus and milder in cortices and caudate heads compared with the LEV group. In addition, the VPA group demonstrated a negative correlation between ReHo values in the central-temporal region and medication dose. Both VPA and LEV inhibit resting-state neural activity in the central-temporal region, which is the main epileptogenic focus of BECTS. VPA reduced brain activity in the cortical epileptogenic regions and thalamus evenly, whereas LEV reduced brain activity predominantly in the cortices. Interestingly, VPA showed a cumulative effect on inhibiting brain activity in the epileptogenic regions in BECTS. (orig.)

  15. Resting-state fMRI revealed different brain activities responding to valproic acid and levetiracetam in benign epilepsy with central-temporal spikes

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    Zhang, Qirui; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Xu, Qiang; Wu, Han; Li, Zhipeng; Lu, Guangming; Yang, Fang; Li, Qian; Hu, Zheng; Dante, Mantini; Li, Kai


    Our aim was to investigate regional difference in brain activities in response to antiepileptic drug (AED) medications in benign epilepsy with central-temporal spikes (BECTS) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Fifty-seven patients with BECTS underwent resting-state fMRI scans after receiving either valproic acid (VPA) (n = 15), levetiracetam (LEV) (n = 21), or no medication (n = 21). fMRI regional homogeneity (ReHo) parameter among the three groups of patients were compared and were correlated with total doses of AED in the two medicated groups. Compared with patients on no-medication, patients receiving either VPA or LEV showed decreased ReHo in the central-temporal region, frontal cortex, and thalamus. In particular, the VPA group showed greater ReHo decrease in the thalamus and milder in cortices and caudate heads compared with the LEV group. In addition, the VPA group demonstrated a negative correlation between ReHo values in the central-temporal region and medication dose. Both VPA and LEV inhibit resting-state neural activity in the central-temporal region, which is the main epileptogenic focus of BECTS. VPA reduced brain activity in the cortical epileptogenic regions and thalamus evenly, whereas LEV reduced brain activity predominantly in the cortices. Interestingly, VPA showed a cumulative effect on inhibiting brain activity in the epileptogenic regions in BECTS. (orig.)

  16. Survival benefit of levetiracetam in patients treated with concomitant chemoradiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy with temozolomide for glioblastoma multiforme. (United States)

    Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Tackeun; Joo, Jin-Deok; Han, Jung Ho; Kim, Yu Jung; Kim, In Ah; Yun, Chang-Ho; Kim, Chae-Yong


    A chemosensitizing effect of levetiracetam (LEV) has been suggested because LEV inhibits O-6 methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT). However, the survival benefit of LEV has not been clinically documented. The objective of this study was to assess the survival benefit of LEV compared with other antiepileptic drugs as a chemosensitizer to temozolomide for patients with glioblastoma. In total, 103 consecutive patients with primary glioblastoma who received concomitant chemoradiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy with temozolomide were retrospectively reviewed, and 58 patients (56%) received LEV during temozolomide chemotherapy for at least 3 months. A Cox regression survival analysis was performed to adjust for confounding factors, including age, extent of lesion, Karnofsky performance scale score, extent of removal, and MGMT promoter methylation status. The median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for patients who received LEV in combination with temozolomide (PFS: median, 9.4 months; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.5-11.3 months; OS: median, 25.7 months; 95% CI, 21.7-29.7 months) were significantly longer than those for patients who did not receive LEV (PFS: median, 6.7 months; 95% CI, 5.8-7.6 months; OS: median, 16.7 months; 95% CI, 12.1-21.3 months; P = .010 and P = .027, respectively). In multivariate analysis, the variables that were identified as significant prognostic factors for OS were preoperative Karnofsky performance scale score (hazard ratio [HR], 0.37; P = .016), MGMT promoter methylation (HR, 0.30; P = .002), and receipt of LEV (HR, 0.31; P benefit in patients with glioblastoma who receive temozolomide-based chemotherapy. A prospective randomized study may be indicated. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  17. A Comparative Effectiveness Meta-Analysis of Drugs for the Prophylaxis of Migraine Headache.

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    Jeffrey L Jackson

    Full Text Available To compare the effectiveness and side effects of migraine prophylactic medications.We performed a network meta-analysis. Data were extracted independently in duplicate and quality was assessed using both the JADAD and Cochrane Risk of Bias instruments. Data were pooled and network meta-analysis performed using random effects models.PUBMED, EMBASE, Cochrane Trial Registry, bibliography of retrieved articles through 18 May 2014.We included randomized controlled trials of adults with migraine headaches of at least 4 weeks in duration.Placebo controlled trials included alpha blockers (n = 9, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (n = 3, angiotensin receptor blockers (n = 3, anticonvulsants (n = 32, beta-blockers (n = 39, calcium channel blockers (n = 12, flunarizine (n = 7, serotonin reuptake inhibitors (n = 6, serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (n = 1 serotonin agonists (n = 9 and tricyclic antidepressants (n = 11. In addition there were 53 trials comparing different drugs. Drugs with at least 3 trials that were more effective than placebo for episodic migraines included amitriptyline (SMD: -1.2, 95% CI: -1.7 to -0.82, -flunarizine (-1.1 headaches/month (ha/month, 95% CI: -1.6 to -0.67, fluoxetine (SMD: -0.57, 95% CI: -0.97 to -0.17, metoprolol (-0.94 ha/month, 95% CI: -1.4 to -0.46, pizotifen (-0.43 ha/month, 95% CI: -0.6 to -0.21, propranolol (-1.3 ha/month, 95% CI: -2.0 to -0.62, topiramate (-1.1 ha/month, 95% CI: -1.9 to -0.73 and valproate (-1.5 ha/month, 95% CI: -2.1 to -0.8. Several effective drugs with less than 3 trials included: 3 ace inhibitors (enalapril, lisinopril, captopril, two angiotensin receptor blockers (candesartan, telmisartan, two anticonvulsants (lamotrigine, levetiracetam, and several beta-blockers (atenolol, bisoprolol, timolol. Network meta-analysis found amitriptyline to be better than several other medications including candesartan, fluoxetine, propranolol, topiramate and valproate and no different than

  18. A Comparative Effectiveness Meta-Analysis of Drugs for the Prophylaxis of Migraine Headache (United States)


    Objective To compare the effectiveness and side effects of migraine prophylactic medications. Design We performed a network meta-analysis. Data were extracted independently in duplicate and quality was assessed using both the JADAD and Cochrane Risk of Bias instruments. Data were pooled and network meta-analysis performed using random effects models. Data Sources PUBMED, EMBASE, Cochrane Trial Registry, bibliography of retrieved articles through 18 May 2014. Eligibility Criteria for Selecting Studies We included randomized controlled trials of adults with migraine headaches of at least 4 weeks in duration. Results Placebo controlled trials included alpha blockers (n = 9), angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (n = 3), angiotensin receptor blockers (n = 3), anticonvulsants (n = 32), beta-blockers (n = 39), calcium channel blockers (n = 12), flunarizine (n = 7), serotonin reuptake inhibitors (n = 6), serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (n = 1) serotonin agonists (n = 9) and tricyclic antidepressants (n = 11). In addition there were 53 trials comparing different drugs. Drugs with at least 3 trials that were more effective than placebo for episodic migraines included amitriptyline (SMD: -1.2, 95% CI: -1.7 to -0.82), -flunarizine (-1.1 headaches/month (ha/month), 95% CI: -1.6 to -0.67), fluoxetine (SMD: -0.57, 95% CI: -0.97 to -0.17), metoprolol (-0.94 ha/month, 95% CI: -1.4 to -0.46), pizotifen (-0.43 ha/month, 95% CI: -0.6 to -0.21), propranolol (-1.3 ha/month, 95% CI: -2.0 to -0.62), topiramate (-1.1 ha/month, 95% CI: -1.9 to -0.73) and valproate (-1.5 ha/month, 95% CI: -2.1 to -0.8). Several effective drugs with less than 3 trials included: 3 ace inhibitors (enalapril, lisinopril, captopril), two angiotensin receptor blockers (candesartan, telmisartan), two anticonvulsants (lamotrigine, levetiracetam), and several beta-blockers (atenolol, bisoprolol, timolol). Network meta-analysis found amitriptyline to be better than several other medications including

  19. Intravenous and oral levetiracetam in patients with a suspected primary brain tumor and symptomatic seizures undergoing neurosurgery: the HELLO trial. (United States)

    Bähr, Oliver; Hermisson, Mirjam; Rona, Sabine; Rieger, Johannes; Nussbaum, Susanne; Körtvelyessy, Peter; Franz, Kea; Tatagiba, Marcos; Seifert, Volker; Weller, Michael; Steinbach, Joachim P


    Levetiracetam (LEV) is a newer anticonvulsant with a favorable safety profile. There seem to be no relevant drug interactions, and an intravenous formulation is available. Therefore, LEV might be a suitable drug for the perioperative anticonvulsive therapy of patients with suspected brain tumors undergoing neurosurgery. In this prospective study (NCT00571155) patients with suspected primary brain tumors and tumor-related seizures were perioperatively treated with oral and intravenous LEV up to 4 weeks before and until 4 weeks after a planned neurosurgical procedure. Thirty patients with brain tumor-related seizures and intended neurosurgery were included. Three patients did not undergo the scheduled surgery after enrollment, and two patients were lost to follow-up. Therefore, 25 patients were fully evaluable. After initiation of therapy with LEV, 100% of the patients were seizure-free in the pre-surgery phase (3 days up to 4 weeks before surgery), 88% in the 48 h post-surgery phase and 84% in the early follow-up phase (48 h to 4 weeks post surgery). Treatment failure even after dose escalation to 3,000 mg/day occurred in three patients. No serious adverse events related to the treatment with LEV occurred. Our data show the feasibility and safety of oral and intravenous LEV in the perioperative treatment of tumor-related seizures. Although this was a single arm study, the efficacy of LEV appears promising. Considering the side effects and interactions of other anticonvulsants, LEV seems to be a favorable option in the perioperative treatment of brain tumor-related seizures.

  20. Reproductive toxicity after levetiracetam administration in male rats: Evidence for role of hormonal status and oxidative stress.

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    Merve Baysal

    Full Text Available Levetiracetam (LEV is an antiepileptic drug commonly used in the treatment of epilepsy because of its excellent safety profile in all age groups. It is remarkable that there are no studies evaluating the toxic effects of this drug on the male reproductive system, as it is commonly used in male patients of reproductive age. From this point of view, our aim was to evaluate the possible toxic effects of LEV on the male reproductive system. Therefore, LEV was administered to male rats orally at 50, 150, and 300 mg/kg for 70 consecutive days. At the end of this period, alterations to body and organ weights were calculated, and sperm concentration, motility, and morphology were investigated by a computer-assisted sperm analysis system. Sperm DNA damage was determined by comet assay and histopathological examination of the testes was carried out. Serum testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, and luteinizing hormone (LH levels were measured by ELISAs to determine the effects of hormonal status, while glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and malondialdehyde levels in the testes were measured by colorimetric assay kits to determine the role of oxidative status in potential toxicity. According to the results, sperm quality was decreased by LEV treatment in a dose-dependent manner. LEV induced significant DNA damage in the 150 and 300 mg/kg LEV-administered groups. Histopathology of the testes showed that LEV resulted in testicular injury in the 300 mg/kg LEV-administered group. Serum testosterone, FSH, and LH levels were significantly decreased in the 300 mg/kg LEV-administered group. Glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase levels were significantly decreased in all experimental groups while malondialdehyde levels were significantly increased in 150 and 300 mg/kg LEV-administered groups. According to these results, it was determined that LEV administration decreased sperm quality and it was alleged that hormonal alteration and

  1. Assessing clinically meaningful treatment effects in controlled trials: chronic migraine as an example. (United States)

    Dodick, David W; Turkel, Catherine C; DeGryse, Ronald E; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Lipton, Richard B; Aurora, Sheena K; Nolan, Marissa E; Silberstein, Stephen D


    In addition to headache, persons with chronic migraine (CM) experience multiple symptoms, both ictal and interictal, that may contribute to their suffering. Translating clinical trial results into practice requires assessment of the results' clinical meaningfulness. When examining treatment benefit in this disabled patient population, multiple headache-symptom measures should be considered to fully reflect clinical relevance. Currently, only onabotulinumtoxinA is approved specifically for headache prophylaxis in adults with CM. Topiramate is the only other therapeutic agent with double-blind, placebo-controlled evidence in this population. Herein we evaluate the clinical meaningfulness of onabotulinumtoxinA and topiramate as headache prophylaxis in CM by comparing primary endpoints from the placebo-controlled, double-blind phase of the Phase 3 REsearch Evaluating Migraine Prophylaxis Therapy (PREEMPT) clinical program and the topiramate clinical trial (frequency of headache days [primary endpoint in PREEMPT; secondary in topiramate trial] and migraine/migrainous days [primary in topiramate trial, or "migraine/probable-migraine days"; secondary in PREEMPT]). Additionally, outcome measures such as responder rates, health-related quality of life, discontinuation rates, safety, and tolerability profiles are important clinical considerations. The clinical data indicate that statistically significant, clinically relevant treatment benefits exist for both onabotulinumtoxinA and topiramate. These data support these treatments as meaningful headache prophylaxis in adults with CM. CM is a chronic pain condition. We sought to determine the clinical relevance of recent trials in this disabled population. Clinical data indicate that statistically significant, clinically relevant treatment benefits exist for both onabotulinumtoxinA and topiramate, and support use of these treatments as meaningful headache prophylaxis in CM. Copyright © 2015 American Pain Society. Published

  2. Impact of antiepileptic drugs on bone health: Need for monitoring, treatment, and prevention strategies

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    Ekta Arora


    Full Text Available Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder affecting approximately 50 million people worldwide. In India, overall prevalence of epilepsy is reported to be 5.59/1000 population. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs constitute the main-stay of treatment with a large number of AEDs available in the market. High incidence of adverse effects is a major limitation with AEDs. One of the major concerns is significant metabolic effects on the bone. However, little attention has been paid to this issue because most of the bone effects remain subclinical for a long time and may take years to manifest clinically. The main effects include hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, reduced serum levels of Vitamin D, increase in parathormone (PTH levels, and alterations in bone turnover markers. The CYP450 enzyme-inducing AEDs such as phenytoin, phenobarbital, carbamazepine, and primidone are the most common AEDs associated with bone disorders while the data regarding the effect of valproate and newer AEDs such as lamotrigine, gabapentin, vigabatrin, levetiracetam, and topiramate on bone metabolism and bone density are scanty and controversial. Deficiency of Vitamin D is commonly described as a cause for the bone loss in epileptic patients while others being decreased absorption of calcium, increased PTH levels, and inhibition of calcitonin secretion, etc. However, there are no formal practical guidelines for the management of bone disease among those taking AEDs. Evidence-based strategies regarding monitoring, prevention, and treatment of bone diseases in patients on AED therapy are needed.

  3. Periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges can survive anesthesia and result in asymmetric drug-induced burst suppression

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    Edward C. Mader Jr.


    Full Text Available Drug-induced burst suppression (DIBS is bihemispheric and bisymmetric in adults and older children. However, asymmetric DIBS may occur if a pathological process is affecting one hemisphere only or both hemispheres disproportionately. The usual suspect is a destructive lesion; an irritative or epileptogenic lesion is usually not invoked to explain DIBS asymmetry. We report the case of a 66-year-old woman with new-onset seizures who was found to have a hemorrhagic cavernoma and periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges (PLEDs in the right temporal region. After levetiracetam and before anesthetic antiepileptic drugs (AEDs were administered, the electroencephalogram (EEG showed continuous PLEDs over the right hemisphere with maximum voltage in the posterior temporal region. Focal electrographic seizures also occurred occasionally in the same location. Propofol resulted in bihemispheric, but not in bisymmetric, DIBS. Remnants or fragments of PLEDs that survived anesthesia increased the amplitude and complexity of the bursts in the right hemisphere leading to asymmetric DIBS. Phenytoin, lacosamide, ketamine, midazolam, and topiramate were administered at various times in the course of EEG monitoring, resulting in suppression of seizures but not of PLEDs. Ketamine and midazolam reduced the rate, amplitude, and complexity of PLEDs but only after producing substantial attenuation of all burst components. When all anesthetics were discontinued, the EEG reverted to the original preanesthesia pattern with continuous non-fragmented PLEDs. The fact that PLEDs can survive anesthesia and affect DIBS symmetry is a testament to the robustness of the neurodynamic processes underlying PLEDs.

  4. Clinical analysis of three children patients with MELAS

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    Xiao-jun LIU


    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the clinical manifestations, laboratory and imaging features, pathological and genetic testing, diagnosis and treatment in 3 children patients with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS. Focal refractory epileptic seizures were the main clinical manifestations of 3 children, at the same time with stroke-like episodes, exercise intolerance, short stature, paroxysmal headache, vomiting, cognitive impairment, visual impairment, increased blood lactic acid (LA level and metabolic acidosis. Head MRI showed the lesions were located in temporo-parieto-occipital lobes, and EEG showed slow-wave background, bilateral asymmetry and interictal epileptiform discharges of occiput. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA A3243G mutation was found in the peripheral blood samples of 2 cases. The mutation was not detected in the other case, however, the muscle biopsy revealed pathological changes of mitochondrial myopathy. All 3 cases were treated by antiepileptic drugs (AEDs including topiramate, levetiracetam and oxcarbazepine, and cocktail therapy. One case died of status epilepticus (SE after 46 months of follow-up, one case had stroke-like episodes for 2-3 times per year during the follow-up of 40 months, and one case was lost. The clinical manifestations, laboratory and imaging characteristics, pathological and genetic testing in children of MELAS have certain features, which will be helpful for early identification and definite diagnosis, and thus may reduce misdiagnosis and mistreatment. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.05.009


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    K. Yu. Mukhin


    Full Text Available Mutation in the PCDH19 gene was first described by L.M. Dibbens et al. in 2008. Mutations in this gene are associated with epilepsy and mental retardation limited to females. The clinical manifestations that are observed in some patients with PCDH19 mutation and Dravet syndrome that is caused by mutation in the SCN1A gene include the onset of febrile and afebrile seizures in infancy, serial seizures during fever, and regression in development after the onset of seizures. Due to the fact that the two diseases have common clinical signs, it is best to test for PCDH19 mutation in patients with the clinical picture of Dravet syndrome and a negative test for SCN1A. In general, the number of scientific papers devoted to analysis and recommendations for the choice of therapy in patients with rare genetic pathology is small now. We analyzed the specific features of clinical signs and therapy in our two observed female patients aged 4 and 11 years with verified PCDH19 mutation. Both patients were noted to have severe epilepsy with febrile convulsions with the development of status epilepticus and to be unresponsive to antiepileptic therapy. The use of different antiepileptic drugs (valproate, oxcarbazepine, phenobarbital, topiramate, levetiracetam at different combinations failed to control the course of epilepsy in the 4-year-old patient whereas the 11-year-old patient who took a combination of valproic acid and benzodiazepines achieved a positive effect.

  6. High spirituality may be associated with right hemispheric lateralization in Korean adults living with epilepsy. (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Ahm; Ko, Myung-Ah; Choi, Eun-Ju; Jeon, Ji-Ye; Ryu, Han Uk


    Although it is known that epilepsy and spirituality are related, spirituality in epilepsy has received relatively little clinical and scientific attention. Therefore, we investigated which epilepsy-related factors are associated with high spirituality in Korean adults living with epilepsy. This cross-sectional study was conducted in two university hospitals in Korea. Spirituality was assessed using the 6-item Spirituality Self-Rating Scale (SSRS). The participants were categorized into high and low spirituality groups according to the median SSRS score. The presumptive seizure onset zone was determined based on the clinical semiology, electroencephalography, and magnetic resonance imaging findings. Of the 180 participants, 61.7% declared that they had a religious affiliation. The median SSRS score was 15 (interquartile range: 7, 22). The high spirituality subgroup consisted of 92 (51.1%) participants. In the univariate analyses, the high spirituality group was significantly associated with female sex (p<0.05), older age (p<0.01), longer epilepsy duration (p<0.05), polytherapy (p<0.05), complex partial seizure (p<0.05), levetiracetam or topiramate usage (p<0.05), and a right-lateralized seizure onset zone. The multiple logistic regression analysis identified right hemispheric lateralization as the only independent factor associated with high spirituality (odds ratio: 2.410, 95% confidence interval: 1.051-5.528, p<0.05). High spirituality may be associated with right hemispheric lateralization but not with the temporal localization of the seizure onset zone in Korean adults with epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of caffeine on the protective activity of gabapentin and topiramate in a mouse model of generalized tonic-clonic seizures. (United States)

    Jargiełło-Baszak, Małgorzata; Chrościńska-Krawczyk, Magdalena; Andres-Mach, Marta; Łuszczki, Jarogniew J; Czuczwar, Stanisław J


    Caffeine may interact with classical antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), reducing their anticonvulsant effects in basic seizure models. The aim of the present study was to ascertain whether intraperitoneal caffeine (acute or chronic for 15 days) could attenuate the anticonvulsant effect of some newer AEDs: gabapentin (GBP) and topiramate (TPM) against electroconvulsions in mice. Maximal electroshock (MES)-induced mouse seizure model was used for the estimation of the anticonvulsant activity of TPM whilst the protective activity of GBP was evaluated in the threshold test for maximal (tonic) convulsions. Adverse effects were evaluated by measurement of long-term memory (the step-through passive avoidance task) and motor coordination (chimney test). Plasma AED concentrations were also measured to determinate any pharmacokinetic contribution to the observed effects. Caffeine (both acute and chronic at 23.1 and 46.2mg/kg) significantly reduced the protective effects of TPM against MES. As regards GBP, caffeine (acutely at 46.2mg/kg and chronically at 23.1 or 46.2mg/kg) significantly diminished the GBP-induced increases in the electroconvulsive threshold. In addition, caffeine did not affect the free plasma concentrations of TPM or GBP. Acute and chronic caffeine (23.1 and 46.2mg/kg) enhanced the impairment of motor coordination in mice pretreated with GBP whilst an opposite effect was observed in TPM injected mice and pretreated with chronic caffeine at 46.2mg/kg. The results indicate that newer AEDs, GBP or TPM behave in the exactly same way as classical antiepileptics in mice challenged with caffeine. This hazardous effect of caffeine is not subject to tolerance. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  8. Antiepileptic drug monotherapy for epilepsy: a network meta-analysis of individual participant data. (United States)

    Nevitt, Sarah J; Sudell, Maria; Weston, Jennifer; Tudur Smith, Catrin; Marson, Anthony G


    Epilepsy is a common neurological condition with a worldwide prevalence of around 1%. Approximately 60% to 70% of people with epilepsy will achieve a longer-term remission from seizures, and most achieve that remission shortly after starting antiepileptic drug treatment. Most people with epilepsy are treated with a single antiepileptic drug (monotherapy) and current guidelines from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in the United Kingdom for adults and children recommend carbamazepine or lamotrigine as first-line treatment for partial onset seizures and sodium valproate for generalised onset seizures; however a range of other antiepileptic drug (AED) treatments are available, and evidence is needed regarding their comparative effectiveness in order to inform treatment choices. To compare the time to withdrawal of allocated treatment, remission and first seizure of 10 AEDs (carbamazepine, phenytoin, sodium valproate, phenobarbitone, oxcarbazepine, lamotrigine, gabapentin, topiramate, levetiracetam, zonisamide) currently used as monotherapy in children and adults with partial onset seizures (simple partial, complex partial or secondary generalised) or generalised tonic-clonic seizures with or without other generalised seizure types (absence, myoclonus). We searched the following databases: Cochrane Epilepsy's Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE and SCOPUS, and two clinical trials registers. We handsearched relevant journals and contacted pharmaceutical companies, original trial investigators, and experts in the field. The date of the most recent search was 27 July 2016. We included randomised controlled trials of a monotherapy design in adults or children with partial onset seizures or generalised onset tonic-clonic seizures (with or without other generalised seizure types). This was an individual participant data (IPD) review and network meta-analysis. Our primary outcome was 'time to withdrawal of allocated treatment', and our secondary

  9. Pressure-accelerated azide-alkyne cycloaddition: micro capillary versus autoclave reactor performance. (United States)

    Borukhova, Svetlana; Seeger, Andreas D; Noël, Timothy; Wang, Qi; Busch, Markus; Hessel, Volker


    Pressure effects on regioselectivity and yield of cycloaddition reactions have been shown to exist. Nevertheless, high pressure synthetic applications with subsequent benefits in the production of natural products are limited by the general availability of the equipment. In addition, the virtues and limitations of microflow equipment under standard conditions are well established. Herein, we apply novel-process-window (NPWs) principles, such as intensification of intrinsic kinetics of a reaction using high temperature, pressure, and concentration, on azide-alkyne cycloaddition towards synthesis of Rufinamide precursor. We applied three main activation methods (i.e., uncatalyzed batch, uncatalyzed flow, and catalyzed flow) on uncatalyzed and catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition. We compare the performance of two reactors, a specialized autoclave batch reactor for high-pressure operation up to 1800 bar and a capillary flow reactor (up to 400 bar). A differentiated and comprehensive picture is given for the two reactors and the three methods of activation. Reaction speedup and consequent increases in space-time yields is achieved, while the process window for favorable operation to selectively produce Rufinamide precursor in good yields is widened. The best conditions thus determined are applied to several azide-alkyne cycloadditions to widen the scope of the presented methodology. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Cross-National comparison of antiepileptic drug use: Catalonia, Denmark and Norway, 2007-2011

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    Pili Ferrer-Argeles


    Full Text Available Background: Antiepileptic drug  (AEDconsumption has increased in recent years mainly from those AEDs marketed since 1990. The purpose is to describe and compare AED consumption in Catalonia, Denmark and Norway.Methods: Population-based descriptive study set in the outpatient healthcare sector. Data were retrieved from the Norwegian Prescription Register, Danish Register of Medicinal Product Statistics and DATAMART® in Catalonia, for 2007-2011.We calculated defined daily doses/1000 inhabitants/day (DID, by age and gender. AEDs were defined according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification (N03A. We reviewed the population covered by the databases, the drug data source and the definition of outpatient healthcare sector to compare the results across the three settings.Results: Total AED use steadily increased over the study period in the three settings. In 2011, consumption was highest in Catalonia (15.20 DID, followed by Denmark (15.06 DID and Norway (14.24 DID. The “other AEDs” (N03AX subgroup represented 60% of all AED use. The N03A pattern by gender did not differ across the three settings. Marked differences by age and gender appeared when studying lamotrigine, topiramate, gabapentin, pregabalin and levetiracetam.  Differences among the databases were mainly in the definition of outpatient healthcare setting.Conclusions: There was a rapid increase in “other AEDs” in all three settings. Although we did not have information on the indication for the use of AEDs, the drug data source, population coverage of the database and definition of the healthcare setting helped us interpret the results.

  11. An update in the initial management of paediatric status epilepticus. (United States)

    Lawton, Ben; Davis, Tessa; Goldstein, Henry; Tagg, Andrew


    Over the last 2 years, algorithms for the optimal management of status epilepticus have changed, as the medical community has recognized the need to terminate seizures in status in a timely manner. Recent research has evaluated the different choices of benzodiazepine and has given consideration to second-line treatment options. There has been a move to examine alternatives to phenytoin (such as levetiracetam and lacosamide) as second-line agents. Valproate should be used cautiously in view of the potential side effects. Three ongoing trials [Established Staus Epilepticus Treatment Trial (ESETT), Convulsive Status Epilepticus Paediatric Trial (ConSEPT), and emergency treatment with levetiracetam or phenytoin in status epilepticus in children (EcLiPSE)] are comparing the efficacy of levetiracetam and phenytoin. Benzodiazepines remain the first-line agent of choice, although there is ongoing discussion about the mode of administration and the best drug to choose. The results of ESETT, ConSEPT, and EcLiPSE will affect our future management of status, as we give consideration to levetiracetam as an alternative to phenytoin. Other medications such as lacosamide may emerge in future algorithms too.

  12. Acute psychotic disorders induced by topiramate: report of two cases Episódio psicótico agudo induzido por topiramato: relato de dois casos

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    Florindo Stella


    Full Text Available We report on two epileptic patients who developed acute psychosis after the use of topiramate (TPM. One patient exhibited severe psychomotor agitation, heteroaggressiveness, auditory and visual hallucinations as well as severe paranoid and mystic delusions. The other patient had psychomotor agitation, depersonalization, derealization, severe anxiety and deluded that he was losing his memory. Both patients had to be taken to the casualty room. After interruption of TPM in one patient and reduction of dose in the other, a full remission of the psychotic symptoms was obtained without the need of antipsychotic drugs. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of development of acute psychotic symptoms in patients undergoing TPM treatment.Relatamos dois pacientes epilépticos que manifestaram quadro psicótico agudo induzido por topiramato (TPM. Um paciente apresentou agitação psicomotora grave, heteroagressividade, alucinações auditivas e visuais, e delírios de conteúdo paranóide e místico. O outro paciente apresentou agitação psicomotora, despersonalização, desrealização, ansiedade intensa e delírio de que estava perdendo a memória. Ambos os pacientes foram conduzidos ao serviço de emergência e, após a interrupção do TPM em um deles e redução da droga em outro, houve remissão total dos sintomas psicóticos sem necessidade de medicação antipsicótica. Alertamos os clínicos para o risco de surgimento de sintomas psicóticos em pacientes em uso do TPM.

  13. Simultaneous HPLC-F analysis of three recent antiepileptic drugs in human plasma. (United States)

    Mercolini, Laura; Mandrioli, Roberto; Amore, Mario; Raggi, Maria Augusta


    An original high-performance liquid chromatographic method with fluorescence detection is presented for the simultaneous determination of the three antiepileptic drugs gabapentin, vigabatrin and topiramate in human plasma. After pre-column derivatisation with dansyl chloride, the analytes were separated on a Hydro-RP column with a mobile phase composed of phosphate buffer (55%) and acetonitrile (45%) and detected at lambda(em)=500 nm, exciting at 300 nm. An original pre-treatment procedure on biological samples, based on solid-phase extraction with MCX cartridges for gabapentin and vigabatrin, and with Plexa cartridges for topiramate, gave high extraction yields (>91%), satisfactory precision (RSDvigabatrin and in the 1.0-50.0 microg mL(-1) range for topiramate, with limits of detection (LODs) between 0.1 and 0.3 microg mL(-1). After validation, the method was successfully applied to some plasma samples from patients undergoing therapy with one or more of these drugs. Accuracy results were satisfactory (recovery >91%). Therefore, the method seems to be suitable for the therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of patients treated with gabapentin, vigabatrin and topiramate. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Adjunctive levetiracetam in children, adolescents, and adults with primary generalized seizures: Open-label, noncomparative, multicenter, long-term follow-up study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Delanty, Norman


    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term efficacy and tolerability of adjunctive levetiracetam (LEV) in patients with uncontrolled idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE). Methods: This phase III, open-label, long-term, follow-up study (N167; NCT00150748) enrolled patients (4 to <65 years) with primary generalized seizures (tonic-clonic, myoclonic, absence). Patients received adjunctive LEV at individualized doses (1,000-4,000 mg\\/day; 20-80 mg\\/kg\\/day for children\\/adolescents weighing <50 kg). Efficacy results are reported for all seizure types [intention-to-treat (ITT) population, N = 217] and subpopulations with tonic-clonic (n = 152), myoclonic (n = 121), and\\/or absence (n = 70) seizures at baseline. Key Findings: One hundred twenty-five (57.6%) of 217 patients were still receiving treatment at the end of the study. Mean (standard deviation, SD) LEV dose was 2,917.5 (562.9) mg\\/day. Median (Q1-Q3) exposure to LEV was 2.1 (1.5-2.8) years, and the maximum duration was 4.6 years. Most patients were taking one (124\\/217, 57.1%) or >\\/=2 (92\\/217, 42.4%) concomitant antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Seizure freedom of >\\/=6 months (all seizure types; primary efficacy end point) was achieved by 122 (56.2%) of 217 patients, and 49 (22.6%) of 217 patients had complete seizure freedom. Seizure freedom of >\\/=6 months from tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and absence seizures was achieved by 95 (62.5%) of 152, 75 (62.0%) of 121, and 44 (62.9%) of 70 patients, respectively. Mean (SD) maximum seizure freedom duration was 371.7 (352.4) days. At least one treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE) was reported by 165 (76%) of 217 patients; most TEAEs were mild\\/moderate in severity, with no indication of an increased incidence over time. Seventeen (7.8%) of 217 patients discontinued medication because of TEAEs. The most common psychiatric TEAEs were depression (16\\/217, 7.4%), insomnia (9\\/217, 4.1%), nervousness (8\\/217, 3.7%), and anxiety (7\\/217, 3.2%). Significance: Adjunctive

  15. Simultaneous determination of ten antiepileptic drugs in human plasma by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry with positive/negative ion-switching electrospray ionization and its application in therapeutic drug monitoring. (United States)

    Yin, Lei; Wang, Tingting; Shi, Meiyun; Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Xiaojun; Yang, Yan; Gu, Jingkai


    A simple, rapid, and high-throughput liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantitation of ten antiepileptic drugs in human plasma has been developed and validated. The method required only 10 μL of plasma. After simple protein precipitation using acetonitrile, the analytes and internal standard diphenhydramine were separated on a Zorbax SB-C18 column (50 × 4.6 mm, 2.7 μm) using acetonitrile/water as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.9 mL/min. The total run time was 6 min for each sample. The validation results of specificity, matrix effects, recovery, linearity, precision, and accuracy were satisfactory. The lower limit of quantification was 0.04 μg/mL for carbamazepine, 0.02 μg/mL for lamotrigine, 0.01 μg/mL for oxcarbazepine, 0.4 μg/mL for 10-hydroxycarbazepine, 0.1 μg/mL for carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide, 0.15 μg/mL for levetiracetam, 0.06 μg/mL for phenytoin, 0.3 μg/mL for valproic acid, 0.03 μg/mL for topiramate, and 0.15 μg/mL for phenobarbital. The intraday precision and interday precision were less than 7.6%, with the accuracy ranging between -8.1 and 7.9%. The method was successfully applied to therapeutic drug monitoring of 1237 patients with epilepsy after administration of standard antiepileptic drugs. The method has been proved to meet the high-throughput requirements in therapeutic drug monitoring. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Characterizing older adult patients suffering from epilepsy in two hospitals in Bogotá (Colombia

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    Gutiérrez-Álvarez AM


    Full Text Available Epilepsy’s overall prevalence in Colombia is 1.13%. Its prevalence in patients aged over 65 could be around 1.5%. Objective: describe demographic and clinical characteristics of patients older than 65 years of age with epilepsy. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in two high complexity hospitals in Bogotá, Colombia during 2005-2008. Demographic data were compiled and patients characterized regarding the type, frequency and diagnosis of seizures (based on ILAE classification, probable etiology, having a family background of epilepsy, and current pharmacological management. Results: 211 clinical histories were reviewed and 179 of them selected. Mean patient age was 75 (65-98 and average age at onset of epilepsy was 67.5 (7-93. 84% of the seizures were classified as being focal. The most frequently occurring diagnosis was symptomatic focal epilepsy (94.4%. 74 cases (41.3% had an etiological diagnosis. The most important cause was cerebrovascular disease (61 patients. First generation anti-epileptic drugs were the most used ones (99%. 81/104 patients were found not to be free from epileptic episodes. Conclusions: Most seizures have a partial beginning, resulting from symptomatic partial epilepsy as a consequence of a vascular lesion. Pharmacological treatment must be considered following the first seizure. Treatment with second generation anti-epileptic drugs such as Lamotrigine, Gabapentin, Levetiracetam and Topiramate must be begun for minimizing secondary effects and low doses must be maintained from the start of treatment. Costs may limit the use of the above antiepileptic drugs, in such cases Phenytoin and Carbamazepine may be used with extreme caution.


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    Phatak Abhishek M, Hotwani Jitendra H, Deshmukhkiran R, Panchal Sagar S, Naik Madhura S


    Full Text Available Background: Large number of pharmaceutical companies manufactures antiepileptic drugs in India. The price variations among the marketed drugs are wide. Aims: The present study was aimed to find the cost of different oral antiepileptic drugs available in Indian market as monotherapy, combination therapy and number of manufacturing companies for each, to evaluate difference in cost of different brands of same dosage of same active drug by calculating percentage variation of cost. Methods and Materials: Cost of a drug being manufactured by different companies, in the same strength and dosage forms was obtained from “Indian Drug Review” Vol. XXI, Issue No.4, 2014 and “Current Index of Medical Specialties” July-October 2014. The difference in the maximum and minimum price of the same drug manufactured by different pharmaceutical companies and percentage variation in price was calculated. Results: The percentage price variation noted of long-established drugs was – Phenytoin (50mg: 140%, Carbamazepine (100mg: 1033%, Phenobarbital (30mg : 730%, Valproic acid (300mg : 420%. Newer drugs –Levetiracetam (250mg: 75%, Lamotrigine (25mg: 66%, Topiramate (50mg: 108%, Zonisamide (100mg: 19%. Combination drugs – Phenobarbital + Phenytoin (30+100 mg: 354.55%. Conclusion: The percentage price variation of different brands of the same commonly used long-established oral antiepileptic drug manufactured in India is very wide. The formulation or brand of Antiepileptic drugs (AED’s should preferably not be changed since variations in bioavailability or different pharmacokinetic profiles may increase the potential for reduced effect or excessive side effects. Hence, manufacturing companies should aim to decrease the price variation while maintaining the therapeutic efficacy.

  18. Determination of a selection of anti-epileptic drugs and two active metabolites in whole blood by reversed phase UPLC-MS/MS and some examples of application of the method in forensic toxicology cases. (United States)

    Karinen, Ritva; Vindenes, Vigdis; Hasvold, Inger; Olsen, Kirsten Midtbøen; Christophersen, Asbjørg S; Øiestad, Elisabeth


    Quantitative determination of anti-epileptic drug concentrations is of great importance in forensic toxicology cases. Although the drugs are not usually abused, they are important post-mortem cases where the question of both lack of compliance and accidental or deliberate poisoning might be raised. In addition these drugs can be relevant for driving under the influence cases. A reversed phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed for the quantitative analysis of the anti-epileptic compounds carbamazepine, carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide, gabapentin, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, 10-OH-carbazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, pregabalin, and topiramate in whole blood, using 0.1 mL sample volume with methaqualone as internal standard. Sample preparation was a simple protein precipitation with acetonitrile and methanol. The diluted supernatant was directly injected into the chromatographic system. Separation was performed on an Acquity UPLC® BEH Phenyl column with gradient elution and a mildly alkaline mobile phase. The mass spectrometric detection was performed in positive ion mode, except for phenobarbital, and multiple reaction monitoring was used for drug quantification. The limits of quantification for the different anti-epileptic drugs varied from 0.064 to 1.26 mg/L in blood, within-day and day-to-day relative standard deviations from 2.2 to 14.7% except for phenobarbital. Between-day variation for phenobarbital was 20.4% at the concentration level of 3.5 mg/L. The biases for all compounds were within ±17.5%. The recoveries ranged between 85 and 120%. The corrected matrix effects were 88-106% and 84-110% in ante-mortem and post-mortem whole blood samples, respectively. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study of the effects of levetiracetam on cognition, mood, and balance in healthy older adults. (United States)

    Schoenberg, Mike R; Rum, Ruba S; Osborn, Katie E; Werz, Mary Ann


    The cognitive and mood effects of levetiracetam (LEV) in older adults are not known. This study compared the cognitive and mood effects of LEV to placebo in healthy older adults. Cognitive, mood, and balance variables were compared between LEV and placebo using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study with two 5-week treatment periods. Healthy volunteers (n = 20) aged 65-80 (mean age 72.4) received either LEV or placebo in which the LEV target dose was 1,000 mg/day. Volunteers, aged 65-80, were without epilepsy to limit potentially confounding the impact of seizures and/or underlying neuropathology on outcomes. LEV was initiated at 250 mg twice a day for 2 weeks, then increased to 500 mg twice a day for 2 weeks, and then tapered to 250 mg twice a day for 1 week. This was randomized with placebo for the two treatment arms. Measures included standardized neuropsychological, mood, and balance tests yielding 32 variables. Balance was assessed using subjective report (e.g., A-B neurotoxicity scale) and objective data (e.g., Berg Balance Scale). Average LEV serum concentration was 16.9 (standard deviation [SD} 7.7). Repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) found no differences between LEV and placebo phases for 29 (90.6%) of 32 variables including no change in balance. Performance on LEV was better than placebo on a visual memory (MCG Complex Figure Recall; p = 0.007) and two attention tests (Trail Making Test, Part A, p = 0.009; Stroop Interference, p = 0.004). There was a trend for greater irritability and fatigue (POMS Anger and Fatigue) during the LEV phase (p = 0.029, p = 0.035). Effect-size changes were generally small (Cohen d < 0.5). LEV was well tolerated in this elderly population in terms of cognition, mood, and balance. When anticonvulsant medication is indicated for older adults, LEV has pharmacokinetic advantages, and these data indicate no adverse impact on cognition or balance. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International

  20. Treatment of traumatic infra orbital nerve paresthesia


    Lone, Parveen Akhter; Singh, R. K.; Pal, U. S.


    This study was done to find out the role of topiramate therapy in infraorbital nerve paresthesia after miniplate fixation in zygomatic complxex fractures. A total 2 cases of unilateral zygomatic complex fracture, 2-3 weeks old with infra orbital nerve paresthesia were slected. Open reduction and plating was done in frontozygomaticregion. Antiepileptic drug tab topiramate was given in therapeutic doses and dose was increased slowly until functional recovery was noticed.

  1. Involvement of NMDA receptors and L-arginine/nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway in the antidepressant-like effects of topiramate in mice forced swimming test. (United States)

    Ostadhadi, Sattar; Khan, Muhammad Imran; Norouzi-Javidan, Abbas; Chamanara, Mohsen; Jazaeri, Farahnaz; Zolfaghari, Samira; Dehpour, Ahmad-Reza


    Topiramate (TPM) is an agent primarily used in the treatment of epilepsy. Using mice model of forced swimming test (FST) the current study was basically aimed to investigate the influence of TPM on depression by inhibiting NMDA receptor and nitric oxide-cGMP production. When TPM was administered in a dose of 20 and 30 mg/kg by i.p. route it reduced the immobility time during FST. However this effect of TPM (30 mg/kg, i.p.) in the FST was abolished when the mice were pretreated either with NMDA (75 mg/kg, i.p.), or l-arginine (750 mg/kg, i.p. NO precursor), or sildenafil (5mg/kg, i.p. Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor). The immobility time in the FST was reduced after administration of L-NAME (10mg/kg, i.p, a non-specific NOS inhibitor), 7-nitoinidazol (30 mg/kg, i.p. a nNOS inhibitor) or MK-801 (0.05 mg/kg, i.p, a NMDA receptor antagonist) in combination with a subeffective dose of TPM (10mg/kg, i.p.) as compared with single use of either drug. Co-administrated of lower doses of MK-801 (0.01 mg/kg) or L-NAME (1mg/kg) failed to effect immobility time. However, simultaneous administration of these two agents in the same doses with subeffective dose of TPM (10mg/kg, i.p.), reduced the immobility time during FST. None of these drugs were found to have a profound effect on the locomotor activity per se during the open field test. Taken together, our data demonstrates that TPM exhibit antidepressant-like effect which is accomplished either due to inhibition of NMDA receptors or NO-cGMP production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Treatment of traumatic infra orbital nerve paresthesia (United States)

    Lone, Parveen Akhter; Singh, R. K.; Pal, U. S.


    This study was done to find out the role of topiramate therapy in infraorbital nerve paresthesia after miniplate fixation in zygomatic complxex fractures. A total 2 cases of unilateral zygomatic complex fracture, 2-3 weeks old with infra orbital nerve paresthesia were slected. Open reduction and plating was done in frontozygomaticregion. Antiepileptic drug tab topiramate was given in therapeutic doses and dose was increased slowly until functional recovery was noticed. PMID:23833503

  3. Phentermine and Topiramate (United States)

    ... one else can take it accidentally or on purpose. Keep track of how many capsules are left ... to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in ...

  4. Identification of Novel Signal Transduction, Immune Function, and Oxidative Stress Genes and Pathways by Topiramate for Treatment of Methamphetamine Dependence Based on Secondary Outcomes

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    Tianhua Niu


    Full Text Available BackgroundTopiramate (TPM is suggested to be a promising medication for treatment of methamphetamine (METH dependence, but the molecular basis remains to be elucidated.MethodsAmong 140 METH-dependent participants randomly assigned to receive either TPM (N = 69 or placebo (N = 71 in a previously conducted randomized controlled trial, 50 TPM- and 49 placebo-treated participants had a total 212 RNA samples available at baseline, week 8, and week 12 time points. Following our primary analysis of gene expression data, we reanalyzed the microarray expression data based on a latent class analysis of binary secondary outcomes during weeks 1–12 that provided a classification of 21 responders and 31 non-responders with consistent responses at both time points.ResultsBased on secondary outcomes, 1,381, 576, 905, and 711 differentially expressed genes at nominal P values < 0.05 were identified in responders versus non-responders for week 8 TPM, week 8 placebo, week 12 TPM, and week 12 placebo groups, respectively. Among 1,381 genes identified in week 8 TPM responders, 359 genes were identified in both week 8 and week 12 TPM groups, of which 300 genes were exclusively detected in TPM responders. Of them, 32 genes had nominal P values < 5 × 10−3 at either week 8 or week 12 and false discovery rates < 0.15 at both time points with consistent directions of gene expression changes, which include GABARAPL1, GPR155, and IL15RA in GABA receptor signaling that represent direct targets for TPM. Analyses of these 300 genes revealed 7 enriched pathways belonging to neuronal function/synaptic plasticity, signal transduction, inflammation/immune function, and oxidative stress response categories. No pathways were enriched for 72 genes exclusively detected in both week 8 and week 12 placebo groups.ConclusionThis secondary analysis study of gene expression data from a TPM clinical trial not only yielded consistent results with those of primary

  5. Late onset myoclonic epilepsy in Down syndrome and dementia

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    Annapia Verri


    Full Text Available Specific forms of epilepsy may be found at various ages in Down Syndrome (DS and a sharp increase in the incidence of epilepsy with age has been documented. A specific type of myoclonic epilepsy associated with cognitive decline has been reported as “senile myoclonic epilepsy” or “late onset myoclonic epilepsy in DS” (LOMEDS. We report a new case of LOMEDS, documented by clinical and neurophysiological evaluation and psychometric assessment (DSDS and DMR. MF, male, affected by DS, was referred in 2004 at 40 years of age; he had no personal or familial history of epilepsy. Since one year, the patient presented cognitive deterioration, characterized by regression of language abilities, loss of memory, and loss of sphincters control. A brain TC showed mild brainstem and sub-cortical atrophy. In 2006, myoclonic jerks involving upper limbs occurred mainly after awakening. EEG showed a low voltage 8 Hz background activity with diffuse slow activity, intermingled with spikes or polyspikes, persisting during NREM sleep. MF was initially treated with clonazepam and after with topiramate, resulting in partial seizures control. MRI (2008 demonstrated diffuse brain atrophy, associated with marked ventricular enlargement. At the psychometric evaluation, onset of dementia was evident late in 2004, with transition to the middle stage in 2006. Last assessment (2009 showed the clinical signs of a late stage of deterioration, with loss of verbal abilities and autonomous ambulation. Using levetiracetam till 2,000 mg/die, myoclonic jerks decreased but are still present every day after awakening. On the EEG slow and poorly organized background activity with bilateral polyspike-wave discharges was recorded. Therefore, we documented a parallel progression of dementia and myoclonic epilepsy in a DS subject.

  6. How do we diagnose and treat epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures (Doose syndrome)? Results of the Pediatric Epilepsy Research Consortium survey. (United States)

    Nickels, Katherine; Thibert, Ronald; Rau, Stephanie; Demarest, Scott; Wirrell, Elaine; Kossoff, Eric H; Joshi, Charuta; Nangia, Srishti; Shellhaas, Renee


    To obtain and assess opinions on EMAS diagnostic criteria, recommended investigations, and therapeutic options, from a large group of physicians who care for children with EMAS. The EMAS focus group of PERC created a survey to assess the opinions of pediatric neurologists who care for children with EMAS regarding diagnosis and treatment of this condition, which was sent to members of PERC, AES, and CNS. A Likert scale was used to assess the respondents' opinions on the importance of diagnostic and exclusion criteria (five point scale), investigations (four point scale), and treatment (six point scale) of EMAS. Inclusion/exclusion criteria were then classified as critical, strong, or modest. Investigations were classified as essential, recommended, or possible. Therapies were classified as first line, beneficial, indeterminate benefit, or contraindicated. Survey results from the 76 participants determined the following: EMAS inclusion criteria: history suggestive of MAS (critical), recorded or home video suggestive of MAS, generalized discharges on inter-ictal EEG, normal neuroimaging, normal development prior to seizure onset (strong). EMAS exclusionary criteria: epileptic spasms, abnormal neuroimaging, focal abnormal exam, seizure onset six years (strong). EEG and MRI (essential), amino acids, organic acids, fatty acid/acylcarnitine profile, microarray, genetic panel, lactate/pyruvate, CSF and serum glucose/lactate (strong). Valproic acid (first line), topiramate, zonisamide, levetiracetam, benzodiazepines, and dietary therapies (beneficial). To date, no similar surveys have been published, even though early syndrome identification and initiation of effective treatment have been associated with improved outcome in EMAS. Medications that exacerbate seizures in EMAS have also been identified. This survey identified critical and preferred diagnostic electro clinical features, investigations, and treatments for EMAS. It will guide future research and is a crucial

  7. Memory disorders associated with consumption of drugs: updating through a case/noncase study in the French PharmacoVigilance Database. (United States)

    Chavant, Francois; Favrelière, Sylvie; Lafay-Chebassier, Claire; Plazanet, Caroline; Pérault-Pochat, Marie-Christine


    To investigate putative associations of reports of memory disorders and suspected drugs. We used the case/noncase method in the French PharmacoVigilance Database (FPVD). Cases were reports of memory loss in the FPVD between January 2000 and December 2009. Noncases were all other reports during the same period. To assess the association between memory impairment and drug intake, we calculated an odds ratio with its 95% confidence interval. Among the 188,284 adverse drug reactions recorded, we identified 519 cases of memory loss. The sex ratio was 0.6 and the median age was 54 years (range 4-93). The maximal number of cases occurred between 40-49 and 50-59 years. Evolution was favourable in 63% of the cases. We found significant odds ratios for benzodiazepines (alprazolam, bromazepam, prazepam, clonazepam etc.), benzodiazepine-like hypnotics (zolpidem and zopiclone), antidepressants (fluoxetine, paroxetine and venlafaxine), analgesics (morphine, nefopam and tramadol), anticonvulsants (topiramate, pregabalin, levetiracetam etc.), antipsychotics (aripiprazole and lithium) and other drugs, such as trihexyphenidyl, ciclosporin and isotretinoin. Our study confirmed an association between memory disorders and some drugs, such as benzodiazepines and anticonvulsants. However, other drugs, such as benzodiazepine-like hypnotics, newer anticonvulsants, serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants, isotretinoin and ciclosporin were significantly associated with memory disorders, although this was not described or poorly described in the literature. Taking account of the limits of this study in the FPVD (under-reporting, notoriety bias etc.), the case/noncase method allows assessment and detection of associations between exposure to drugs and a specific adverse drug reaction, such as memory disorders, and could thus generate signals and orientate us to further prospective studies to confirm such associations. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2011

  8. Dextromethorphan Addiction Mediated Through the NMDA System: Common Pathways With Alcohol? (United States)

    Roy, A Kenison; Hsieh, Chenen; Crapanzano, Kathleen


    Dextromethorphan, an antitussive (cough suppressant) drug of the morphinan class with sedative and dissociative properties found in cough syrup and other over-the-counter products, is also a substance of abuse, seen primarily in young adults all over the world. A case of dextromethorphan use disorder is presented in a 45-year-old women. Her repeated attempts at abstinence were unsuccessful secondary to continued intense cravings. Treatment with topiramate resulted in complete resolution of her cravings. Topiramate was chosen empirically because of a common action with dextromethorphan in the NMDA system. Genetic testing was obtained and the patient was found to be a carrier of the GRIK1 rs2832407(C:C) allele. The (C:C) allele has been associated with an increased risk of alcohol use disorder and a treatment response of patients with heavy drinking to topiramate. This case provides an opportunity to discuss personalized medicine (treatment options aided by the use of genetic testing) and the possible shared genetic susceptibility for dependence in 2 substances of abuse.

  9. Predictive validity of endpoints used in electrophysiological modelling of migraine in the trigeminovascular system. (United States)

    Farkas, Bence; Kardos, Péter; Orosz, Szabolcs; Tarnawa, István; Csekő, Csongor; Lévay, György; Farkas, Sándor; Lendvai, Balázs; Kovács, Péter


    The trigeminovascular system has a pivotal role in the pathomechanism of migraine. The aim of the present study was to further develop existing models of migraine making them more suitable for testing the effects of compounds with presumed antimigraine activity in anaesthetised rats. Simultaneous recording of ongoing activity of spontaneously active neurons in the trigeminocervical complex as well as their discharges evoked by electrical stimulation of the dura mater via activation of A- and C-sensory fibres were carried out. Effects of sumatriptan, propranolol and topiramate were evaluated prior to and after application of a mixture containing inflammatory mediators on the dura. Propranolol (10 mg/kg s.c) and topiramate (30 mg/kg s.c.) resulted in a tendency to decrease the level of both spontaneous and evoked activity, while sumatriptan (1 mg/kg s.c.) did not exhibit any effect on recorded parameters. Application of an inflammatory soup to the dura mater boosted up spontaneous activity, which could be significantly attenuated by propranolol and topiramate but not by sumatriptan. In addition, all compounds prevented the delayed increase of spontaneous firing. In contrast to the ongoing activity, evoked responses were not augmented by inflammatory mediators. Nevertheless, inhibitory effect of propranolol and topiramate was evident when considering A- or C-fibre responses. Findings do not support the view that electrically evoked responses are useful for the measurement of trigeminal sensitization. It is proposed however, that inhibition of enhanced firing (immediate and/or delayed) evoked by inflammatory mediators as an endpoint have higher predictive validity regarding the clinical effectiveness of compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of efficacy of phenytoin and levetiractetam for prevention of early post traumatic seizures

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    Khan, S.A.; Bhatti, S.N.; Afridi, E.A.K.; Zadran, K.K.; Shah, S.S.A.; Khan, A.A.


    The incidence of early post-traumatic seizures after civilian traumatic brain injury ranges 4-25%. The control of early post-traumatic seizure is mandatory because these acute insults may add secondary damage to the already damaged brain with poor outcome. Prophylactic use of anti-epileptic drugs have been found to be have variable efficacy against early post-traumatic seizures. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of Phenytion and Levetiracetam in prevention of early post-traumatic seizures in moderate to severe traumatic brain injury. Methods: This Randomized Controlled Trial was conducted in department of Neurosurgery, Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad from March, 2012 to March 2014. The patients with moderate to severe head injury were randomly allocated in two groups. Patients in group A were given phenytoin and patients in group B were given Levetiracetam. Patients were followed for one week to detect efficacy of drug in terms of early post traumatic seizures. Results: The 154 patients included in the study were equally divided into two groups. Out of 154 patients 115 (74.7%) were male while 29 (25.3%) were females. Age of patients ranges from 7-48 (24.15 ± 9.56) years. Ninety one (59.1%) patients had moderate head injury while 63 (40.9%) patients had severe head injury. Phenytoin was effective in preventing early post traumatic seizures in 73 (94.8%) patients whereas Levetiracetam effectively controlled seizures in 70 (90.95%) cases (p-value of .348). Conclusion: There is no statistically significant difference in the efficacy of Phenytoin and Levetiracetam in prophylaxis of early post-traumatic seizures in cases of moderate to severe traumatic brain injury. (author)

  11. Efficacy of Adjunctive Treatments Added to Olanzapine or Clozapine for Weight Control in Patients with Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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    Yun-Jung Choi


    Full Text Available Objectives. This study was conducted to review systematically adjunctive treatments for weight reduction in patients with schizophrenia and compare efficacies of clinical trials through meta-analysis, so as to provide effective clinical guideline regarding weight control for patients taking atypical antipsychotics. Methods. Candidate clinical trials were identified through searching the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, and PsycINFO. Fourteen randomized clinical trials were included for systematic review and meta-analysis from 132 potential trials. The Comprehensive Meta-Analysis version 2 was used for meta-analysis. Results. Difference in means and significances from meta-analyses regarding weight control by adjunctive treatments showed that topiramate, aripiprazole, or sibutramine was more effective than metformin or reboxetine. Psychiatric evaluations did not show statistically significant changes between treatment groups and placebo groups except topiramate adjunctive treatments. Adverse effects regarding adjunctive therapies were tolerable and showed statistically no significances compared to control groups. Conclusion. Though having several reports related to exacerbation of psychiatric symptoms, topiramate and aripiprazole are more efficacious than other medications in regard to weight reduction and less burden of critical adverse effects as well as being beneficial for clinical improvement.

  12. Comparative effects of traditional Chinese and Western migraine medicines in an animal model of nociceptive trigeminovascular activation. (United States)

    Zhao, Yonglie; Martins-Oliveira, Margarida; Akerman, Simon; Goadsby, Peter J


    Background Migraine is a highly prevalent and disabling disorder of the brain with limited therapeutic options, particularly for preventive treatment. There is a need to identify novel targets and test their potential efficacy in relevant preclinical migraine models. Traditional Chinese medicines have been used for millennia and may offer avenues for exploration. Methods We evaluated two traditional Chinese medicines, gastrodin and ligustrazine, and compared them to two Western approaches with propranolol and levetiracetam, one effective and one ineffective, in an established in vivo rodent model of nociceptive durovascular trigeminal activation. Results Intravenous gastrodin (30 and 100 mg/kg) significantly inhibited nociceptive dural-evoked neuronal firing in the trigeminocervical complex. Ligustrazine (10 mg/kg) and propranolol (3 mg/kg) also significantly inhibited dural-evoked trigeminocervical complex responses, although the timing of responses of ligustrazine does not match its pharmacokinetic profile. Levetiracetam had no effects on trigeminovascular responses. Conclusion Our data suggest gastrodin has potential as an anti-migraine treatment, whereas ligustrazine seems less promising. Interestingly, in line with clinical trial data, propranolol was effective and levetiracetam not. Exploration of the mechanisms and modelling effects of Chinese traditional therapies offers novel route for drug discovery in migraine.

  13. Topiramate via NMDA, AMPA/kainate, GABAA and Alpha2 receptors and by modulation of CREB/BDNF and Akt/GSK3 signaling pathway exerts neuroprotective effects against methylphenidate-induced neurotoxicity in rats. (United States)

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Motevalian, Manijeh; Fatima, Sulail; Beiranvand, Tabassom; Mozaffari, Shiva


    Chronic abuse of methylphenidate (MPH) often causes neuronal cell death. Topiramate (TPM) carries neuroprotective effects, but its exact mechanism of action remains unclear. In the present study, the role of various doses of TPM and its possible mechanisms, receptors and signaling pathways involved against MPH-induced hippocampal neurodegeneration were evaluated in vivo. Thus, domoic acid (DOM) was used as AMPA/kainate receptor agonist, bicuculline (BIC) as GABA A receptor antagonist, ketamine (KET) as NMDA receptor antagonist, yohimbine (YOH) as α 2 adrenergic receptor antagonist and haloperidol (HAL) was used as dopamine D 2 receptor antagonist. Open field test (OFT) was used to investigate the disturbances in motor activity. Hippocampal neurodegenerative parameters were evaluated. Protein expressions of CREB/BDNF and Akt/GSK3 signaling pathways were also evaluated. Cresyl violet staining was performed to show and confirm the changes in the shape of the cells. TPM (70 and 100 mg/kg) reduced MPH-induced rise in lipid peroxidation, oxidized form of glutathione (GSSG), IL-1β and TNF-α levels, Bax expression and motor activity disturbances. In addition, TPM treatment increased Bcl-2 expression, the level of reduced form of glutathione (GSH) and the levels and activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase enzymes. TPM also inhibited MPH-induced hippocampal degeneration. Pretreatment of animals with DOM, BIC, KET and YOH inhibited TPM-induced neuroprotection and increased oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, neuroapoptosis and neurodegeneration while reducing CREB, BDNF and Akt protein expressions. Also pretreatment with DOM, BIC, KET and YOH inhibited TPM-induced decreases in GSK3. It can be concluded that the mentioned receptors by modulation of CREB/BDNF and Akt/GSK3 pathways, are involved in neuroprotection of TPM against MPH-induced neurodegeneration.

  14. Comparative study of antiepileptic drug use during pregnancy over a period of 12 years in Spain. Efficacy of the newer antiepileptic drugs lamotrigine, levetiracetam, and oxcarbazepine. (United States)

    Martinez Ferri, M; Peña Mayor, P; Perez López-Fraile, I; Escartin Siquier, A; Martin Moro, M; Forcadas Berdusan, M


    The prescription pattern of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) during pregnancy is changing but to what extent this is occurring in Spain remains unknown. The efficacy of newer drugs for controlling seizures is a key issue and may have changed over the years as doctors gained familiarity with these drugs during pregnancy. To assess these 2 topics, we report the results from the Spanish EURAP register gathered over a 12-year period. After signing informed consent forms, patients were included in the register and evaluated at onset of pregnancy, at the end of the second and third trimesters, after delivery, and one year after delivery. For the purposes of this study, we analysed AEDs, type of epilepsy, seizure frequency per trimester and throughout pregnancy, percentage of seizure-free pregnancies, and frequency of congenital malformations. We then compared data from 2 periods (June 2001-October 2007) and (January 2008-May 2015) RESULTS: We compared 304 monotherapies from the older period to 127 from the more recent one. There was a clear increase in the use of levetiracetam (LEV) with declining use of carbamazepine (CBZ), phenytoin, and phenobarbital; a slight decline in use of valproate (VPA), and a slight increase in the use of lamotrigine (LTG) and oxcarbazepine (OXC). Epilepsy types treated with CBZ and VPA remained unchanged, whereas fewer cases of generalised epilepsy were treated with LTG in the new period. This trend was not associated with significant changes in seizure frequency, but rather linked to better control over de novo seizures in the third trimester. LEV was similar to CBZ and VPA with regard to levels of seizure control, and more effective than LTG. Generalised epilepsy accounted for 64% of the cases treated with LEV. The prescription pattern of AEDs during pregnancy has changed in Spain, with diminishing use of CBZ, phenytoin, and phenobarbital. Changes also reflect the type of epilepsy, since there is less use of LTG for generalised epilepsy. LEV

  15. A pilot study of topiramate in children with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome Estudo piloto com topiramato em crianças com síndrome de Lennox-Gastaut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available We conducted an open, add-on study with topiramate (TPM as adjunctive therapy in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS, to assess the long-term efficacy and safety and to evaluate quality of life (QL measurements in the chronic use of TPM. We studied 19 patients (11 male; age ranging from 4 to 14 years with uncontrolled seizures receiving 2-3 anti-epileptic drugs. Patients were followed up to 36 months of treatment. A questionnaire was used to query parents about QL. Seven patients completed the study at 36 months and seizure frequency was reduced > 75% in 4, and Realizamos estudo aberto, de adição do topiramato (TPM como medicação adjuvante no tratamento da síndrome de Lennox-Gastaut (SLG, com a finalidade de verificar a eficácia e a segurança de avaliar a qualidade de vida (QV no uso crônico do TPM. Estudamos 19 pacientes (11 do sexo masculino; idade entre 4 e 14 anos com epilepsia de difícil controle e em uso de 2 a 3 drogas anti-epilépticas. Os pacientes foram seguidos por 36 meses. Um questionário foi aplicado aos pais para se avaliar QV. Sete crianças completaram o estudo. A frequência de crises foi reduzida em mais de 75% em 4 e em menos de 50% em 3 delas. Dois pacientes ficaram sem crises. A maioria dos efeitos colaterais relacionou-se ao sistema nervoso central, sendo sonolência e anorexia os mais frequentes e transitórios. Um paciente foi excluído do estudo por apresentar pó na urina. Nenhuma criança necessitou de hospitalização. Aos 36 meses, os pacientes encontravam-se mais alertas (2/7, e houve melhora na interação com o meio ambiente (5/7, na habilidade em realizar tarefas diárias (5/7 e na performance verbal (6/7. Concluímos que o TPM pode ser útil como terapia adjuvante na SLG. A eficácia manteve-se no tratamento a longo prazo em mais de 40% dos pacientes, a segurança foi confirmada e a QV melhorou com o uso do TPM.

  16. Four-year follow-up study of pharmacological treatment in pathological gamblers. (United States)

    Rosenberg, Oded; Dinur, Limor Klein; Dannon, Pinhas N


    In the past decade, we have witnessed the emergence of pharmacological treatments for pathological gambling with some success but many question marks. We aimed to explore pharmacological treatments that have been previously explored with some success, with the intent of comparing their efficacy and pave the way to larger placebo-controlled trials. In this study, we allocated 78 patients to 4 different types of psychotropic medications: naltrexone, topiramate, bupropion, and escitalopram. We treated patients for more than 2 years, with additional 2-year follow-ups without medication. The sample was evaluated using the 21-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, the Global Assessment of Functioning, and the Visual Analog Scale to measure general well-being before enrollment as well as at 1 month, 6 months, 24 months, and 48 months after beginning medication treatment. During the first 2 years of treatment, 34 patients dropped out, with one more dropping out during the additional 2 years of follow-up. Significant improvement on all rating scales was seen in all groups after 2 years, except HAMD in the group that received topiramate. We found the naltrexone-treated group of patients to have a statistically significant lower dropout rate compared with other groups, statistically significant lower HAMD scores in comparison to the group treated with bupropion, statistically significant lower Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale score compared to the groups treated with escitalopram and topiramate, and significantly higher Visual Analog Scale scores compared to the groups treated with bupropion and topiramate. Pathological gambling is essentially a biopsychological disorder that may be attenuated provided that patients adhere to medication. In our study, among 4 medications with different mechanisms of action, naltrexone was found to be the most effective. Placebo-controlled studies involving large numbers of subjects are required before

  17. Subthreshold pharmacological and genetic approaches to analyzing CaV2.1-mediated NMDA receptor signaling in short-term memory. (United States)

    Takahashi, Eiki; Niimi, Kimie; Itakura, Chitoshi


    Ca(V)2.1 is highly expressed in the nervous system and plays an essential role in the presynaptic modulation of neurotransmitter release machinery. Recently, the antiepileptic drug levetiracetam was reported to inhibit presynaptic Ca(V)2.1 functions, reducing glutamate release in the hippocampus, although the precise physiological role of Ca(V)2.1-regulated synaptic functions in cognitive performance at the system level remains unknown. This study examined whether Ca(V)2.1 mediates hippocampus-dependent spatial short-term memory using the object location and Y-maze tests, and perirhinal cortex-dependent nonspatial short-term memory using the object recognition test, via a combined pharmacological and genetic approach. Heterozygous rolling Nagoya (rol/+) mice carrying the Ca(V)2.1alpha(1) mutation had normal spatial and nonspatial short-term memory. A 100mg/kg dose of levetiracetam, which is ineffective in wild-type controls, blocked spatial short-term memory in rol/+ mice. At 5mg/kg, the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blocker (+/-)-3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP), which is ineffective in wild-type controls, also blocked the spatial short-term memory in rol/+ mice. Furthermore, a combination of subthreshold doses of levetiracetam (25 mg/kg) and CPP (2.5mg/kg) triggered a spatial short-term memory deficit in rol/+ mice, but not in wild-type controls. Similar patterns of nonspatial short-term memory were observed in wild-type and rol/+ mice when injected with levetiracetam (0-300 mg/kg). These results indicate that Ca(V)2.1-mediated NMDA receptor signaling is critical in hippocampus-dependent spatial short-term memory and differs in various regions. The combination subthreshold pharmacological and genetic approach presented here is easily performed and can be used to study functional signaling pathways in neuronal circuits. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Headache Treatment]. (United States)

    Diener, Hans Christoph; Holle-Lee, Dagny; Nägel, Steffen; Gaul, Charly


    A precondition for the successful treatment of headaches is the correct headache diagnosis. Triptans are effective for attack treatment of migraine and cluster headache. However, there are not effective for the treatment of tension-type headache. For the prevention of frequent episodic migraine betablockers, flunarizine, topiramate and amitriptyline are recommended. For the prevention of chronic migraine evidence is only available for onabotulinumtoxinA and topiramate. For prophylactic treatment of tension-type headaches tricyclic antidepressants are used. In cluster headache verapamil (in combination with steroids) is the most frequently used prophylactic agent. This article focusses on the current acute and prophylactic treatment of common headache syndromes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Long-term Effectiveness of Antiepileptic Drug Monotherapy in Partial Epileptic Patients: A 7-year Study in an Epilepsy Center in China (United States)

    Zhu, Fei; Lang, Sen-Yang; Wang, Xiang-Qing; Shi, Xiao-Bing; Ma, Yun-Feng; Zhang, Xu; Chen, Ya-Nan; Zhang, Jia-Tang


    Background: It is important to choose an appropriate antiepileptic drug (AED) to manage partial epilepsy. Traditional AEDs, such as carbamazepine (CBZ) and valproate (VPA), have been proven to have good therapeutic effects. However, in recent years, a variety of new AEDs have increasingly been used as first-line treatments for partial epilepsy. As the studies regarding the effectiveness of new drugs and comparisons between new AEDs and traditional AEDs are few, it is determined that these are areas in need of further research. Accordingly, this study investigated the long-term effectiveness of six AEDs used as monotherapy in patients with partial epilepsy. Methods: This is a retrospective, long-term observational study. Patients with partial epilepsy who received monotherapy with one of six AEDs, namely, CBZ, VPA, topiramate (TPM), oxcarbazepine (OXC), lamotrigine (LTG), or levetiracetam (LEV), were identified and followed up from May 2007 to October 2014, and time to first seizure after treatment, 12-month remission rate, retention rate, reasons for treatment discontinuation, and adverse effects were evaluated. Results: A total of 789 patients were enrolled. The median time of follow-up was 56.95 months. CBZ exhibited the best time to first seizure, with a median time to first seizure of 36.06 months (95% confidential interval: 30.64–44.07). CBZ exhibited the highest 12-month remission rate (85.55%), which was significantly higher than those of TPM (69.38%, P = 0.006), LTG (70.79%, P = 0.001), LEV (72.54%, P = 0.005), and VPA (73.33%, P = 0.002). CBZ, OXC, and LEV had the best retention rate, followed by LTG, TPM, and VPA. Overall, adverse effects occurred in 45.87% of patients, and the most common adverse effects were memory problems (8.09%), rashes (7.76%), abnormal hepatic function (6.24%), and drowsiness (6.24%). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that CBZ, OXC, and LEV are relatively effective in managing focal epilepsy as measured by time to first seizure

  20. Acute cognitive impact of antiseizure drugs in naive rodents and corneal-kindled mice. (United States)

    Barker-Haliski, Melissa L; Vanegas, Fabiola; Mau, Matthew J; Underwood, Tristan K; White, H Steve


    Some antiseizure drugs (ASDs) are associated with cognitive liability in patients with epilepsy, thus ASDs without this risk would be preferred. Little comparative pharmacology exists with ASDs in preclinical models of cognition. Few pharmacologic studies exist on the acute effects in rodents with chronic seizures. Predicting risk for cognitive impact with preclinical models may supply valuable ASD differentiation data. ASDs (phenytoin [PHT]; carbamazepine [CBZ]; valproic acid [VPA]; lamotrigine [LTG]; phenobarbital [PB]; tiagabine [TGB]; retigabine [RTG]; topiramate [TPM]; and levetiracetam [LEV]) were administered equivalent to maximal electroshock median effective dose ([ED50]; mice, rats), or median dose necessary to elicit minimal motor impairment (median toxic dose [TD50]; rats). Cognition models with naive adult rodents were novel object/place recognition (NOPR) task with CF-1 mice, and Morris water maze (MWM) with Sprague-Dawley rats. Selected ASDs were also administered to rats prior to testing in an open field. The effect of chronic seizures and ASD administration on cognitive performance in NOPR was also determined with corneal-kindled mice. Mice that did not achieve kindling criterion (partially kindled) were included to examine the effect of electrical stimulation on cognitive performance. Sham-kindled and age-matched mice were also tested. No ASD (ED50) affected latency to locate the MWM platform; TD50 of PB, RTG, TPM, and VPA reduced this latency. In naive mice, CBZ and VPA (ED50) reduced time with the novel object. Of interest, no ASD (ED50) affected performance of fully kindled mice in NOPR, whereas CBZ and LEV improved cognitive performance of partially kindled mice. Standardized approaches to the preclinical evaluation of an ASD's potential cognitive impact are needed to inform drug development. This study demonstrated acute, dose- and model-dependent effects of therapeutically relevant doses of ASDs on cognitive performance of naive mice and

  1. Long-term Effectiveness of Antiepileptic Drug Monotherapy in Partial Epileptic Patients: A 7-year Study in an Epilepsy Center in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Zhu


    Full Text Available Background: It is important to choose an appropriate antiepileptic drug (AED to manage partial epilepsy. Traditional AEDs, such as carbamazepine (CBZ and valproate (VPA, have been proven to have good therapeutic effects. However, in recent years, a variety of new AEDs have increasingly been used as first-line treatments for partial epilepsy. As the studies regarding the effectiveness of new drugs and comparisons between new AEDs and traditional AEDs are few, it is determined that these are areas in need of further research. Accordingly, this study investigated the long-term effectiveness of six AEDs used as monotherapy in patients with partial epilepsy. Methods: This is a retrospective, long-term observational study. Patients with partial epilepsy who received monotherapy with one of six AEDs, namely, CBZ, VPA, topiramate (TPM, oxcarbazepine (OXC, lamotrigine (LTG, or levetiracetam (LEV, were identified and followed up from May 2007 to October 2014, and time to first seizure after treatment, 12-month remission rate, retention rate, reasons for treatment discontinuation, and adverse effects were evaluated. Results: A total of 789 patients were enrolled. The median time of follow-up was 56.95 months. CBZ exhibited the best time to first seizure, with a median time to first seizure of 36.06 months (95% confidential interval: 30.64-44.07. CBZ exhibited the highest 12-month remission rate (85.55%, which was significantly higher than those of TPM (69.38%, P = 0.006, LTG (70.79%, P = 0.001, LEV (72.54%, P = 0.005, and VPA (73.33%, P = 0.002. CBZ, OXC, and LEV had the best retention rate, followed by LTG, TPM, and VPA. Overall, adverse effects occurred in 45.87% of patients, and the most common adverse effects were memory problems (8.09%, rashes (7.76%, abnormal hepatic function (6.24%, and drowsiness (6.24%. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that CBZ, OXC, and LEV are relatively effective in managing focal epilepsy as measured by time to first

  2. Antiepileptic drugs in pregnancy and hemorrhagic disease of the newborn: An update


    Kazmin, Aleksey; Wong, Renee C.; Sermer, Mathew; Koren, Gideon


    QUESTION What is the current evidence regarding the association between hemorrhagic disease of the newborn and maternal use of hepatic enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs (eg, carbamazepine, phenobarbitone, topiramate)?

  3. Epileptic seizures in patients with glioma: A single centre- based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    were used for analysis of seizure incidence differences as per WHO Grades, histology, location ... Keywords: Brain tumour, Epilepsy, Glioma, Seizures, Levetiracetam, .... glioma patients. Characteristics. N (%). Gender. Male. Female. Histology.

  4. 78 FR 20925 - Draft and Revised Draft Guidances for Industry Describing Product-Specific Bioequivalence... (United States)


    ... hydrochloride Desvenlafaxine Dutasteride; tamsulosin hydrochloride E Estramustine phosphate sodium Ethinyl... tromethamine L Loratadine M Miconazole Minocycline hydrochloride Mitotane N Nevirapine P Phentermine hydrochloride; topiramate R Rimexolone Rizatriptan benzoate [[Page 20926

  5. Pseudotumor cerebri syndrome (United States)

    ... problems. Repeat lumbar punctures are helpful for pregnant women in order to delay surgery until after delivery. Other treatments may include: Fluid or salt restriction Medicines such as corticosteroids, acetazolamide, furosemide, and topiramate ...

  6. Binge-Eating Disorder in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. (United States)

    Brownley, Kimberly A; Berkman, Nancy D; Peat, Christine M; Lohr, Kathleen N; Cullen, Katherine E; Bann, Carla M; Bulik, Cynthia M


    The best treatment options for binge-eating disorder are unclear. To summarize evidence about the benefits and harms of psychological and pharmacologic therapies for adults with binge-eating disorder. English-language publications in EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Academic OneFile, CINAHL, and through 18 November 2015, and in MEDLINE through 12 May 2016. 9 waitlist-controlled psychological trials and 25 placebo-controlled trials that evaluated pharmacologic (n = 19) or combination (n = 6) treatment. All were randomized trials with low or medium risk of bias. 2 reviewers independently extracted trial data, assessed risk of bias, and graded strength of evidence. Therapist-led cognitive behavioral therapy, lisdexamfetamine, and second-generation antidepressants (SGAs) decreased binge-eating frequency and increased binge-eating abstinence (relative risk, 4.95 [95% CI, 3.06 to 8.00], 2.61 [CI, 2.04 to 3.33], and 1.67 [CI, 1.24 to 2.26], respectively). Lisdexamfetamine (mean difference [MD], -6.50 [CI, -8.82 to -4.18]) and SGAs (MD, -3.84 [CI, -6.55 to -1.13]) reduced binge-eating-related obsessions and compulsions, and SGAs reduced symptoms of depression (MD, -1.97 [CI, -3.67 to -0.28]). Headache, gastrointestinal upset, sleep disturbance, and sympathetic nervous system arousal occurred more frequently with lisdexamfetamine than placebo (relative risk range, 1.63 to 4.28). Other forms of cognitive behavioral therapy and topiramate also increased abstinence and reduced binge-eating frequency and related psychopathology. Topiramate reduced weight and increased sympathetic nervous system arousal, and lisdexamfetamine reduced weight and appetite. Most study participants were overweight or obese white women aged 20 to 40 years. Many treatments were examined only in single studies. Outcomes were measured inconsistently across trials and rarely assessed beyond end of treatment. Cognitive behavioral therapy, lisdexamfetamine, SGAs, and topiramate reduced

  7. Response of the medial temporal lobe network in amnestic mild cognitive impairment to therapeutic intervention assessed by fMRI and memory task performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Bakker


    Full Text Available Studies of individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI have detected hyperactivity in the hippocampus during task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Such elevated activation has been localized to the hippocampal dentate gyrus/CA3 (DG/CA3 during performance of a task designed to detect the computational contributions of those hippocampal circuits to episodic memory. The current investigation was conducted to test the hypothesis that greater hippocampal activation in aMCI represents a dysfunctional shift in the normal computational balance of the DG/CA3 regions, augmenting CA3-driven pattern completion at the expense of pattern separation mediated by the dentate gyrus. We tested this hypothesis using an intervention based on animal research demonstrating a beneficial effect on cognition by reducing excess hippocampal neural activity with low doses of the atypical anti-epileptic levetiracetam. In a within-subject design we assessed the effects of levetiracetam in three cohorts of aMCI participants, each receiving a different dose of levetiracetam. Elevated activation in the DG/CA3 region, together with impaired task performance, was detected in each aMCI cohort relative to an aged control group. We observed significant improvement in memory task performance under drug treatment relative to placebo in the aMCI cohorts at the 62.5 and 125 mg BID doses of levetiracetam. Drug treatment in those cohorts increased accuracy dependent on pattern separation processes and reduced errors attributable to an over-riding effect of pattern completion while normalizing fMRI activation in the DG/CA3 and entorhinal cortex. Similar to findings in animal studies, higher dosing at 250 mg BID had no significant benefit on either task performance or fMRI activation. Consistent with predictions based on the computational functions of the DG/CA3 elucidated in basic animal research, these data support a dysfunctional encoding mechanism

  8. Piracetam and TRH analogues antagonise inhibition by barbiturates, diazepam, melatonin and galanin of human erythrocyte D-glucose transport (United States)

    Naftalin, Richard J; Cunningham, Philip; Afzal-Ahmed, Iram


    Nootropic drugs increase glucose uptake into anaesthetised brain and into Alzheimer's diseased brain. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone, TRH, which has a chemical structure similar to nootropics increases cerebellar uptake of glucose in murine rolling ataxia. This paper shows that nootropic drugs like piracetam (2-oxo 1 pyrrolidine acetamide) and levetiracetam and neuropeptides like TRH antagonise the inhibition of glucose transport by barbiturates, diazepam, melatonin and endogenous neuropeptide galanin in human erythrocytes in vitro. The potencies of nootropic drugs in opposing scopolamine-induced memory loss correlate with their potencies in antagonising pentobarbital inhibition of erythrocyte glucose transport in vitro (Pnootropics, D-levetiracetam and D-pyroglutamate, have higher antagonist Ki's against pentobarbital inhibition of glucose transport than more potent L-stereoisomers (Pnootropics, like aniracetam and levetiracetam, while antagonising pentobarbital action, also inhibit glucose transport. Analeptics like bemigride and methamphetamine are more potent inhibitors of glucose transport than antagonists of hypnotic action on glucose transport. There are similarities between amino-acid sequences in human glucose transport protein isoform 1 (GLUT1) and the benzodiazepine-binding domains of GABAA (gamma amino butyric acid) receptor subunits. Mapped on a 3D template of GLUT1, these homologies suggest that the site of diazepam and piracetam interaction is a pocket outside the central hydrophilic pore region. Nootropic pyrrolidone antagonism of hypnotic drug inhibition of glucose transport in vitro may be an analogue of TRH antagonism of galanin-induced narcosis. PMID:15148255

  9. Neuroprotective effects of anticonvulsants in rat hippocampal slice cultures exposed to oxygen/glucose deprivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rekling, Jens C


    cell death induced by OGD. The newer anticonvulsants carbamazepine, felbamate, lamotrigine, tiagabine, and oxcarbazepine also had significant neuroprotective effects, but gabapentin, valproic acid (10 mM), levetiracetam and retigabine were not neuroprotective at a concentration up to 300 micro...

  10. Synthesis of substituted gamma-lactams through petasis-type addition of boronic acids to N-acyliminium lons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Peng; Clausen, Mads Hartvig; Nielsen, Thomas Eiland


    Substituted g -lactams are important heterocyclic motifs found in various biologically active compounds and marketed drugs, such as glimepiride, doxapram, and levetiracetam. Among available m ethods for the synthesis of substituted g -lactams, the addition of nucleophiles to N -acyliminium ions...

  11. Neuropathy Tests (United States)

    ... LD) Lactoferrin Lactose Tolerance Tests LDL Cholesterol LDL Particle Testing (LDL-P) Lead Legionella Testing Leptin Levetiracetam Lipase ... tests, such as computed tomography (CT) scans or magnetic resonance imaging ... suspected, additional testing may be performed to evaluate heart rate, blood ...

  12. Binge-Eating Disorder in Adults (United States)

    Brownley, Kimberly A.; Berkman, Nancy D.; Peat, Christine M.; Lohr, Kathleen N.; Cullen, Katherine E.; Bann, Carla M.; Bulik, Cynthia M.


    Background The best treatment options for binge-eating disorder are unclear. Purpose To summarize evidence about the benefits and harms of psychological and pharmacologic therapies for adults with binge-eating disorder. Data Sources English-language publications in EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Academic OneFile, CINAHL, and through 18 November 2015, and in MEDLINE through 12 May 2016. Study Selection 9 waitlist-controlled psychological trials and 25 placebo-controlled trials that evaluated pharmacologic (n = 19) or combination (n = 6) treatment. All were randomized trials with low or medium risk of bias. Data Extraction 2 reviewers independently extracted trial data, assessed risk of bias, and graded strength of evidence. Data Synthesis Therapist-led cognitive behavioral therapy, lisdexamfetamine, and second-generation antidepressants (SGAs) decreased binge-eating frequency and increased binge-eating abstinence (relative risk, 4.95 [95% CI, 3.06 to 8.00], 2.61 [CI, 2.04 to 3.33], and 1.67 [CI, 1.24 to 2.26], respectively). Lisdexamfetamine (mean difference [MD], −6.50 [CI, −8.82 to −4.18]) and SGAs (MD, −3.84 [CI, −6.55 to −1.13]) reduced binge-eating–related obsessions and compulsions, and SGAs reduced symptoms of depression (MD, −1.97 [CI, −3.67 to −0.28]). Headache, gastrointestinal upset, sleep disturbance, and sympathetic nervous system arousal occurred more frequently with lisdexamfetamine than placebo (relative risk range, 1.63 to 4.28). Other forms of cognitive behavioral therapy and topiramate also increased abstinence and reduced binge-eating frequency and related psychopathology. Topiramate reduced weight and increased sympathetic nervous system arousal, and lisdexamfetamine reduced weight and appetite. Limitations Most study participants were overweight or obese white women aged 20 to 40 years. Many treatments were examined only in single studies. Outcomes were measured inconsistently across trials and rarely

  13. Zonisamide and renal calculi in patients with epilepsy: how big an issue? (United States)

    Wroe, Stephen


    To determine the prevalence of renal calculi in patients treated with zonisamide during randomized, controlled and open-label clinical trials, and from post-marketing surveillance data. Reports of renal calculi from four placebo-controlled double-blind trials of zonisamide, their long-term open-label treatment extension phases, and the US/European zonisamide clinical trial programme were reviewed. One double-blind study and its extension included routine ultrasound screening to identify asymptomatic calculi. Post-marketing surveillance data were also investigated, as was concomitant treatment with topiramate. No symptomatic renal calculi were reported during four randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trials involving 848 subjects (including 498 zonisamide recipients) treated for up to 3 months. In long-term extension studies with treatment for up to 24 months, symptomatic renal calculi were reported in 9/626 (1.4%) patients. Pooled safety data from all US/European clinical trials identified 15/1296 (1.2%) patients with symptomatic renal calculi during treatment for up to 8.7 years. Post-marketing surveillance revealed nine cases from 59 667 patient-years of exposure in the USA, and 14 from 709 294 patient-years of exposure in Japan; only one case occurred during concomitant topiramate and zonisamide treatment. No imbalance in electrolyte levels was found from 35 patients receiving such co-treatment in clinical trials. The available data suggest that the risk of developing renal calculi during zonisamide treatment is low. Data are insufficient to determine whether concomitant treatment with topiramate increases the risk of renal stones.

  14. Antinociceptive activity of novel amide derivatives of imidazolidine-2,4-dione in a mouse model of acute pain. (United States)

    Czopek, Anna; Sałat, Kinga; Byrtus, Hanna; Rychtyk, Joanna; Pawłowski, Maciej; Siwek, Agata; Soluch, Joanna; Mureddu, Valentina; Filipek, Barbara


    Antiepileptic drugs are commonly used in non-epileptic disorders. For example, phenytoin and levetiracetam demonstrate analgesic properties in rodent models of pain. In order to enhance their antinociceptive activity, structural features of phenytoin and levetiracetam, such as imidazolidine-2,4-dione and amide bond in alkyl chain, were combined in one molecule. Furthermore, in preliminary studies, methoxyphenylpiperazinpropyl derivatives of imidazolidine-2,4-dione acted as antinociceptive agents in several rodent models of acute pain. The final compounds and the reference drugs - levetiracetam and phenytoin were evaluated in the hot plate test to assess their antinociceptive activity in this acute pain model. Furthermore, for the analgesic active compounds the impact on animals' locomotor activity and motor performance were estimated and the affinity to serotonergic (5-HT1A, 5-HT7) and adrenergic (α1) receptors was determined. Three of the tested compounds: 7, 15 and 18 showed statistically significant antinociceptive properties at the dose of 30mg/kg. Among them, compound 18, 1-methyl-3-[1-(morpholin-4-yl)-1-oxobutan-2-yl]imidazolidine-2,4-dione, exhibited the most significant and long-lasting antinociceptive activity. Noteworthy, this activity was not associated with a negative effect on animals' motor functions. Serotonergic or adrenergic neurotransmission is not involved in this antinociceptive effect. Some amide derivatives of imidazolidine-2,4-diones possess antinociceptive properties in mice but further studies are needed to explain their mechanism of action and assess their toxicity. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative safety of antiepileptic drugs for neurological development in children exposed during pregnancy and breast feeding: a systematic review and network meta-analysis (United States)

    Veroniki, Areti Angeliki; Rios, Patricia; Cogo, Elise; Straus, Sharon E; Finkelstein, Yaron; Kealey, Ryan; Reynen, Emily; Soobiah, Charlene; Thavorn, Kednapa; Hutton, Brian; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Yazdi, Fatemeh; D'Souza, Jennifer; MacDonald, Heather; Tricco, Andrea C


    Objectives Compare the safety of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on neurodevelopment of infants/children exposed in utero or during breast feeding. Design and setting Systematic review and Bayesian random-effects network meta-analysis (NMA). MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched until 27 April 2017. Screening, data abstraction and quality appraisal were completed in duplicate by independent reviewers. Participants 29 cohort studies including 5100 infants/children. Interventions Monotherapy and polytherapy AEDs including first-generation (carbamazepine, clobazam, clonazepam, ethosuximide, phenobarbital, phenytoin, primidone, valproate) and newer-generation (gabapentin, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, topiramate, vigabatrin) AEDs. Epileptic women who did not receive AEDs during pregnancy or breast feeding served as the control group. Primary and secondary outcome measures Cognitive developmental delay and autism/dyspraxia were primary outcomes. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, language delay, neonatal seizures, psychomotor developmental delay and social impairment were secondary outcomes. Results The NMA on cognitive developmental delay (11 cohort studies, 933 children, 18 treatments) suggested that among all AEDs only valproate was statistically significantly associated with more children experiencing cognitive developmental delay compared with control (OR=7.40, 95% credible interval (CrI) 3.00 to 18.46). The NMA on autism (5 cohort studies, 2551 children, 12 treatments) suggested that oxcarbazepine (OR 13.51, CrI 1.28 to 221.40), valproate (OR 17.29, 95% CrI 2.40 to 217.60), lamotrigine (OR 8.88, CrI 1.28 to 112.00) and lamotrigine+valproate (OR 132.70, CrI 7.41 to 3851.00) were associated with significantly greater odds of developing autism compared with control. The NMA on psychomotor developmental delay (11 cohort studies, 1145 children, 18 treatments) found that valproate (OR 4.16, CrI 2.04 to 8


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yu. Мukhin


    , who had been included in our research. The second most frequent type of the teratogenic effect and reproductive diseases are AED of carbamazepine group. Most favorable results are shown, when new AED are applied (topiramate, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine.

  17. A descriptive analysis of drug treatment patterns and burden of illness for pediatric patients diagnosed with partial-onset seizures in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angalakuditi M


    Full Text Available Mallik Angalakuditi1, Nupur Angalakuditi21Georgia State University, Robinson School of Business, Atlanta, GA, 2New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USAPurpose: The objective of this retrospective claims study was to describe antiepileptic drug (AED treatment patterns and burden of illness in children with epilepsy.Methods: Data were administrative claims from a US commercial health plan. Patients were between 2 and 17 years of age and had one or more pharmacy claims for an oral AED from July 1, 2005, to November 30, 2009. The index date was defined as the first AED claim. Patients had one or more medical claims for epilepsy (ICD-9-CM 345.xx during the 6-month pre-index period and were continuously enrolled for 12 months post index. Of the 17 AED medications used to identify patients, eleven medication cohorts had more than 100 patients: (1 carbamazepine (CAR; (2 clonazepam; (3 gabapentin (GAB; (4 lamotrigine (LAM; (5 levetiracetam (LEV; (6 oxcarbazepine (OXC; (7 phenobarbital; (8 phenytoin (PHY; (9 topiramate (TOP; (10 valproate (VAL; and (11 zonisamide (ZON.Results: There were 3889 children who met the inclusion criteria. There were some differences in patients across the eleven AED treatment cohorts based on index therapy in age, gender, geographic location, Charlson comorbidity score, AHRQ comorbid conditions, as well as epilepsy-related risk factors and comorbidities. Of the 17 AEDs examined, the most frequently prescribed were OXC (21% and LEV (19%; the least prescribed AED was GAB (1%. Their respective mean post-index pharmacy and total costs were as follows: OXC, US$2095 and US$5556; LEV, US$3025 and US$9121; and GAB, US$917 and US$1597. The overall post-index mean pharmacy costs were US$2637, and mean total costs were US$6813.Conclusion: Study results demonstrate differences in patient demographic and clinical characteristics across AED medication cohorts. Some cohorts have greater odds of a switch, or augmentation than the reference

  18. Advanced Continuous Flow Platform for On-Demand Pharmaceutical Manufacturing. (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Weeranoppanant, Nopphon; Thomas, Dale A; Tahara, Kohei; Stelzer, Torsten; Russell, Mary Grace; O'Mahony, Marcus; Myerson, Allan S; Lin, Hongkun; Kelly, Liam P; Jensen, Klavs F; Jamison, Timothy F; Dai, Chunhui; Cui, Yuqing; Briggs, Naomi; Beingessner, Rachel L; Adamo, Andrea


    As a demonstration of an alternative to the challenges faced with batch pharmaceutical manufacturing including the large production footprint and lengthy time-scale, we previously reported a refrigerator-sized continuous flow system for the on-demand production of essential medicines. Building on this technology, herein we report a second-generation, reconfigurable and 25 % smaller (by volume) continuous flow pharmaceutical manufacturing platform featuring advances in reaction and purification equipment. Consisting of two compact [0.7 (L)×0.5 (D)×1.3 m (H)] stand-alone units for synthesis and purification/formulation processes, the capabilities of this automated system are demonstrated with the synthesis of nicardipine hydrochloride and the production of concentrated liquid doses of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, neostigmine methylsulfate and rufinamide that meet US Pharmacopeia standards. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Seizure deterioration in women treated with oxcarbazepine during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrenaite, Vaiva; Sabers, Anne; Hansen-Schwartz, Jacob


    Thirteen pregnancies in ten women on oxcarbazepine (OXC) monotherapy and one pregnancy in a woman on OXC and topiramate therapy were retrospectively analyzed. A significant decrease of ratio plasma concentration of 10-monohydroxy derivate (MHD) of oxcarbazepine to dosage was found by 26.2% during...

  20. Bone mineral density in adult patients treated with various antiepileptic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beniczky, Simona Alexandra; Viken, Janina; Jensen, Lars Thorbjørn


    adult consecutive outpatients treated with AEDs for more than 2 years, and who underwent measurement of the BMD. We compared the incidence of decreased BMD among the patients treated with 6 different AEDs: carbamazepine (CBZ), oxcarbazepine (OXC), valproic acid (VPA), lamotrigine (LTG), topiramate (TPM...

  1. Onset of action and seizure control in Lennox-Gaustaut syndrome: focus on rufinamide


    Saneto, Russell P; Anderson, Gail D


    Russell P Saneto1, Gail D Anderson21Division of Pediatric Neurology, Seattle Children’s Hospital/University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA; 2Department of Pharmacy, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USAAbstract: Lennox-Gaustaut syndrome is an electroclinical epilepsy syndrome characterized by the triad of electroencephalogram showing diffuse slow spike-and-wave discharges and paroxysmal fast activity, multiple intractable seizure types, and cognitive impairment...

  2. Preventive Migraine Treatment (United States)

    Silberstein, Stephen D.


    Purpose of Review: This article reviews the evidence base for the preventive treatment of migraine. Recent Findings: Evidence-based guidelines for the preventive treatment of migraine have recently been published by the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) and the Canadian Headache Society (CHS), providing valuable guidance for clinicians. Strong evidence exists to support the use of metoprolol, timolol, propranolol, divalproex sodium, sodium valproate, and topiramate for migraine prevention, according to the AAN. Based on best available evidence, adverse event profile, and expert consensus, topiramate, propranolol, nadolol, metoprolol, amitriptyline, gabapentin, candesartan, Petasites (butterbur), riboflavin, coenzyme Q10, and magnesium citrate received a strong recommendation for use from the CHS. Summary: Migraine preventive drug treatments are underutilized in clinical practice. Principles of preventive treatment are important to improve compliance, minimize side effects, and improve patient outcomes. Choice of preventive treatment of migraine should be based on the presence of comorbid and coexistent illness, patient preference, reproductive potential and planning, and best available evidence. PMID:26252585

  3. Brivaracetam: a rational drug discovery success story (United States)

    Rogawski, M A


    Levetiracetam, the α-ethyl analogue of the nootropic piracetam, is a widely used antiepileptic drug (AED) that provides protection against partial seizures and is also effective in the treatment of primary generalized seizure syndromes including juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. Levetiracetam was discovered in 1992 through screening in audiogenic seizure susceptible mice and, 3 years later, was reported to exhibit saturable, stereospecific binding in brain to a ∼90 kDa protein, later identified as the ubiquitous synaptic vesicle glycoprotein SV2A. A large-scale screening effort to optimize binding affinity identified the 4-n-propyl analogue, brivaracetam, as having greater potency and a broadened spectrum of activity in animal seizure models. Recent phase II clinical trials demonstrating that brivaracetam is efficacious and well tolerated in the treatment of partial onset seizures have validated the strategy of the discovery programme. Brivaracetam is among the first clinically effective AEDs to be discovered by optimization of pharmacodynamic activity at a molecular target. PMID:18552880

  4. Chronic migraine--classification, characteristics and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diener, Hans-Christoph; Dodick, David W; Goadsby, Peter J


    excluded patients who had headaches for =15 days per month. Despite this lack of reliable data, a wealth of expert opinion and a few evidence-based treatment options are available for managing chronic migraine. Trial data are available for topiramate and botulinum toxin type A, and expert opinion suggests...

  5. Study of interaction between antiobesity and hypolipidemic drugs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PURPOSE: To explore the interaction between antiobesity drug, topiramate, and hypolipidemic drug, atorvastatin, in rats. METHODS: Obesity was induced in Wistar albino rats by administering cafeteria diet (CD) for 40 days and divided into 5 groups. While one group served as control, each other group received either ...

  6. Pharmacological management of obesity in pediatric patients. (United States)

    Boland, Cassie L; Harris, John Brock; Harris, Kira B


    To review current evidence of pharmacological options for managing pediatric obesity and provide potential areas for future research. A MEDLINE search (1966 to October 2014) was conducted using the following keywords: exenatide, liraglutide, lorcaserin, metformin, obesity, orlistat, pediatric, phentermine, pramlintide, topiramate, weight loss, and zonisamide. Identified articles were evaluated for inclusion, with priority given to randomized controlled trials with orlistat, metformin, glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists, topiramate, and zonisamide in human subjects and articles written in English. References were also reviewed for additional trials. Whereas lifestyle modification is considered first-line therapy for obese pediatric patients, severe obesity may benefit from pharmacotherapy. Orlistat is the only Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medication for pediatric obesity and reduced body mass index (BMI) by 0.5 to 4 kg/m(2), but gastrointestinal (GI) adverse effects may limit use. Metformin has demonstrated BMI reductions of 0.17 to 1.8 kg/m(2), with mild GI adverse effects usually managed with dose titration. Exenatide reduced BMI by 1.1 to 1.7 kg/m(2) and was well-tolerated with mostly transient or mild GI adverse effects. Topiramate and zonisamide reduced weight when used in the treatment of epilepsy. Future studies should examine efficacy and safety of pharmacological agents in addition to lifestyle modifications for pediatric obesity. Lifestyle interventions remain the treatment of choice in pediatric obesity, but concomitant pharmacotherapy may be beneficial in some patients. Orlistat should be considered as second-line therapy for pediatric obesity. Evidence suggests that other diabetes and antiepileptic medications may also provide weight-loss benefits, but safety should be further evaluated. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Identifying clinical correlates for suicide among epilepsy patients in South Korea: A case-control study. (United States)

    Park, Sung-Jin; Lee, Hochang Benjamin; Ahn, Myung Hee; Park, Subin; Choi, Eun Ju; Lee, Hoon-Jin; Ryu, Han Uk; Kang, Joong-Koo; Hong, Jin Pyo


    Suicide is a major cause of premature mortality in patients with epilepsy. We aimed to identify the clinical correlates of suicide in these patients. We conducted a matched, case-control study based on a clinical case registry of epilepsy patients (n = 35,638) treated between January 1994 and December 2011 at an academic tertiary medical center in Seoul, Korea. Each epilepsy patient in the suicide group (n = 74) was matched with three epilepsy patients in the nonsuicide group (n = 222) by age, gender, and approximate time at first treatment. The clinical characteristics of the patients in both groups were then compared. In a univariate analysis, seizure frequency during the year before suicide, use of antiepileptic drug polytherapy, lack of aura before seizure, diagnosis of temporal lobe epilepsy, use of levetiracetam, psychiatric comorbidity, and use of antidepressants were all significantly higher in the suicide group than in the nonsuicide group. Multivariate analysis revealed that a high seizure frequency (odds ratio [OR] 3.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-10.2), a lack of aura before seizure (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.7-9.3), temporal lobe epilepsy (OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.6-8.6), and use of levetiracetam (OR 7.6, 95% CI 1.1-53.7) and antidepressants (OR 7.2, 95% CI 1.5-34.1) were all associated with a higher probability of suicide. Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy who experience seizures weekly or more frequently, experience a lack of aura, use levetiracetam, or take antidepressants are all at a higher risk of suicide and should be monitored closely. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

  8. Pain phenotype as a predictor for drug response in painful polyneuropathy A retrospective analysis of data from controlled clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Jakob V; Bach, Flemming W; Finnerup, Nanna B


    a better effect in patients with preserved large fiber function with a mean difference in total pain reduction 1.31 (CI: 0.15 to 2.47). No phenotype-specific effects were found for venlafaxine, escitalopram, oxcarbazepine, valproic acid, levetiracetam or St. john's wort. Thus, this post-hoc analysis of 8...

  9. Comparative persistence of antiepileptic drugs in patients with epilepsy: A STROBE-compliant retrospective cohort study (United States)

    Lai, Edward Chia-Cheng; Hsieh, Cheng-Yang; Su, Chien-Chou; Yang, Yea-Huei Kao; Huang, Chin-Wei; Lin, Swu-Jane; Setoguchi, Soko


    Abstract We compared persistence of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) including carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, gabapentin, lamotrigine, topiramate, valproic acid, and phenytoin in an Asian population with epilepsy. A retrospective cohort study was conducted by analyzing Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). Adult epilepsy patients newly prescribed with AEDs between 2005 and 2009 were included. The primary outcome was persistence, defined as the treatment duration from the date of AED initiation to the date of AED discontinuation, switching, hospitalization due to seizure or disenrollment from databases, whichever came first. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the risk of non-persistence with AEDs. Among the 13,061 new users of AED monotherapy (mean age: 58 years; 60% men), the persistence ranged from 218.8 (gabapentin) to 275.9 (oxcarbazepine) days in the first treatment year. The risks of non-persistence in patients receiving oxcarbazepine (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.78; 95% CI, 0.74–0.83), valproic acid (0.88; 0.85–0.92), lamotrigine (0.72; 0.65–0.81), and topiramate (0.90; 0.82–0.98) were significantly lower than in the carbamazepine group. Compared with carbamazepine users, the non-persistence risk was higher in phenytoin users (1.10; 1.06–1.13), while gabapentin users (1.03; 0.98–1.09) had similar risk. For risk of hospitalization due to seizure and in comparison with carbamazepine users, oxcarbazepine (0.66; 0.58–0.74) and lamotrigine (0.46; 0.35–0.62) users had lower risk, while phenytoin (1.35; 1.26–1.44) users had higher risk. The results remained consistent throughout series of sensitivity and stratification analyses. The persistence varied among AEDs and was better for oxcarbazepine, valproic acid, lamotrigine, and topiramate, but worse for phenytoin when compared with carbamazepine. PMID:27583857

  10. The new generation of antiepileptic drugs: advantages and disadvantages. (United States)

    Perucca, E


    1. After a hiatus of over 20 years, several new antiepileptic drugs (vigabatrin, lamotrigine, gabapentin, oxcarbazepine, topiramate, felbamate, zonisamide and tiagabine) have reached or approached the registration phase. 2. Compared with older agents, many new drugs exhibit simpler pharmacokinetics. This is especially true for vigabatrin and gabapentin, which are renally eliminated and have a low interaction potential. 3. Unlike most of the older agents, vigabatrin, lamotrigine, gabapentin and tiagabine are devoid of significant enzyme inducing or inhibiting properties. Topiramate, oxcarbazepine and felbamate may induce the metabolism of steroid oral contraceptives. In addition, felbamate also acts as a metabolic inhibitor. 4. To date, the efficacy of new drugs has been evaluated extensively only under add-on conditions in patients with partial seizures (with or without secondary generalization) refractory to conventional treatment. However, there is evidence that lamotrigine, zonisamide, felbamate and, possibly, topiramate may also be effective in generalized epilepsies. 5. In placebo-controlled studies, typically between 15 and 40% of patients with difficult-to-treat partial epilepsy have shown an improvement (defined as a 50% or greater decrease in seizure frequency) after addition of a new drug. Only a small minority of these patients achieved complete seizure control. 6. Compared with older agents, some of the new drugs may have a better tolerability profile. Felbamate, however, has been associated with a high risk of aplastic anaemia and hepatotoxicity. 7. At present, the main use of the new agents is in patients refractory to first-line drugs such as carbamazepine or valproate, and further studies are required to characterize their activity spectrum as well as their potential value in monotherapy. In most patients, new drugs cannot be recommended for first-line use until evidence is obtained that potential advantages in tolerability or ease of use outweigh

  11. Psychotropic treatments in Prader-Willi syndrome: a critical review of published literature. (United States)

    Bonnot, O; Cohen, D; Thuilleaux, D; Consoli, A; Cabal, S; Tauber, M


    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare genetic syndrome. The phenotype includes moderate to intellectual disability, dysmorphia, obesity, and behavioral disturbances (e.g., hetero and self-injurious behaviors, hyperphagia, psychosis). Psychotropic medications are widely prescribed in PWS for symptomatic control. We conducted a systematic review of published literature to examine psychotropic medications used in PWS. MEDLINE was searched to identify articles published between January 1967 and December 2014 using key words related to pharmacological treatments and PWS. Articles with original data were included based on a standardized four-step selection process. The identification of studies led to 241 records. All selected articles were evaluated for case descriptions (PWS and behavioral signs) and treatment (type, titration, efficiency, and side effects). Overall, 102 patients were included in these studies. Treatment involved risperidone (three reports, n = 11 patients), fluoxetine (five/n = 6), naltrexone (two/n = 2), topiramate (two/n = 16), fluvoxamine (one/n = 1), mazindol (one/n = 2), N-acetyl cysteine (one/n = 35), rimonabant (one/n = 15), and fenfluramine (one/n = 15). We identified promising treatment effects with topiramate for self-injury and impulsive/aggressive behaviors, risperidone for psychotic symptoms associated with uniparental disomy (UPD), and N-acetyl cysteine for skin picking. The pharmacological approach of behavioral impairment in PWS has been poorly investigated to date. Further randomized controlled studies are warranted. Behavioral disturbances in Prader-Willi syndrome including aggressive reactions, skin picking, and hyperphagia might be very difficult to manage. Antipsychotic drugs are widely prescribed, but weight gain and increased appetite are their major side effects. Topiramate might be efficient for self-injury and impulsive/aggressive behaviors, N-acetyl cysteine is apromising treatment for

  12. Changes in the sensitivity of GABAA current rundown to drug treatments in a model of temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierangelo eCifelli


    Full Text Available The pharmacological treatment of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE, the most common epileptic syndrome in adults, is still unsatisfactory, as one third of the patients are or become refractory to antiepileptic agents. Refractoriness may depend upon drug-induced alterations, but the disease per se may also undergo a progressive evolution that affects the sensitivity to drugs. mTLE has been shown to be associated with a dysfunction of the inhibitory signaling mediated by GABAA receptors. In particular, the repetitive activation of GABAA receptors produces a use-dependent decrease (rundown of the evoked currents (IGABA, which is markedly enhanced in the hippocampus and cortex of drug-resistant mTLE patients. This phenomenon has been also observed in the pilocarpine model, where the increased IGABA rundown is observed in the hippocampus at the time of the first spontaneous seizure, then extends to the cortex and remains constant in the chronic phase of the disease. Here, we examined the sensitivity of IGABA to pharmacological modulation. We focused on the antiepileptic agent levetiracetam and on the neurotrophin BDNF, which were previously reported to attenuate mTLE-induced increased rundown in the chronic human tissue. In the pilocarpine model, BDNF displayed a paramount effect, decreasing rundown in the hippocampus at the time of the first seizure, as well as in the hippocampus and cortex in the chronic period. In contrast, levetiracetam did not affect rundown in the hippocampus, but attenuated it in the cortex. Interestingly, this effect of levetiracetam was also observed on the still unaltered rundown observed in the cortex at the time of the first spontaneous seizure. These data suggest that the sensitivity of GABAA receptors to pharmacological interventions undergoes changes during the natural history of mTLE, implicating that the site of seizure initiation and the timing of treatment may highly affect the therapeutic outcome.

  13. Changing phenotypic expression in a patient with a mitochondrial encephalopathy due to 13042G>A de novo mutation--a 5 year follow up. (United States)

    Schinwelski, M; Kierdaszuk, B; Dulski, J; Tońska, K; Kodroń, A; Sitek, E J; Bartnik, E; Kamińska, A; Kwieciński, H; Sławek, J


    Mutations in NADH dehydrogenase (ND) subunits of complex I lead to mitochondrial encephalomyopathies associated with various phenotypes. This report aims to present the patient's clinical symptomatology in the context of a very rare 13042G>A de novo mutation and with an emphasis on changing phenotypic expression and pronounced, long-standing response to levetiracetam.

  14. Short-term use of antiepileptic drugs is neurotoxic to the immature brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liu


    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the long-term use of antiepileptic drugs can cause nervous system damage. However, short-term antiepileptic drug treatment is frequently given to infants, especially neonates, to control seizure. Whether the short-term use of antiepileptic drugs is neurotoxic remains unclear. In the present study, immature rats, 3-21 days of age, were intraperitoneally injected with phenobarbital and/or topiramate for 3 consecutive days. Hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemical staining revealed that phenobarbital and topiramate, individually or in combination, were cytotoxic to hippocampal CA1 neurons and inhibited the expression of GluR1 and NR2B, excitatory glutamate receptor subunits. Furthermore, the combination of the two drugs caused greater damage than either drug alone. The results demonstrate that the short-term use of antiepileptic drugs damages neurons in the immature brain and that the combined use of antiepileptic drugs exacerbates damage. Our findings suggest that clinicians should consider the potential neurotoxic risk associated with the combined use of antiepileptic drugs in the treatment of seizure.

  15. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus due to ifosfamide. (United States)

    Kilickap, Saadettin; Cakar, Mustafa; Onal, Ibrahim K; Tufan, Abdurrahman; Akoglu, Hadim; Aksoy, Sercan; Erman, Mustafa; Tekuzman, Gulten


    To report 2 cases of nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) following infusion of ifosfamide. Two patients who received ifosfamide-containing chemotherapy developed NCSE. One woman received ifosfamide 1000 mg/m2 (1 h infusion on days 1-5); confusion, lethargy, and speech deterioration developed on day 3. The second patient developed similar symptoms on day 3 of treatment with 2500 mg/m2. Both patients responded to intravenous administration of diazepam 10 mg and were given levetiracetam as maintenance therapy. The severity and presentation of central nervous system toxicity due to ifosfamide varies greatly and involves a spectrum ranging from subclinical electroencephalogram changes to coma. NCSE, an epileptic disorder in which typical convulsive activity is absent, has previously been reported in only 4 patients receiving ifosfamide. Levetiracetam may be used for maintenance antiepileptic therapy after diazepam administration. Among the many presentations of ifosfamide neurotoxicity, clinicians should consider NCSE as a possible explanation for changes in consciousness in a patient receiving this agent. An objective causality assessment by use of the Naranjo probability scale revealed that NCSE due to ifosfamide was probable.

  16. Reversible postoperative blindness caused by bilateral status epilepticus amauroticus following thoracolumbar deformity correction: case report. (United States)

    Ibrahim, Tarik F; Sweis, Rochelle T; Nockels, Russ P


    Postoperative vision loss (POVL) is a devastating complication and has been reported after complex spine procedures. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and posterior optic neuropathy are the 2 most common causes of POVL. Bilateral occipital lobe seizures causing complete blindness are rare and have not been reported as a cause of POVL after spine surgery with the patient prone. The authors report the case of a 67-year-old man without a history of seizures who underwent a staged thoracolumbar deformity correction and developed POVL 6 hours after surgery. Imaging, laboratory, and ophthalmological examination results were nonrevealing. Routine electroencephalography study results were negative, but continuous electroencephalography captured bilateral occipital lobe seizures. The patient developed nonconvulsive status epilepticus despite initial treatment with benzodiazepines and loading doses of levetiracetam and lacosamide. He was therefore intubated for status epilepticus amauroticus and received a midazolam infusion. After electrographic seizure cessation for 48 hours, the patient was weaned off midazolam. The patient was maintained on levetiracetam and lacosamide without seizure recurrence and returned to his preoperative visual baseline status.

  17. Tratamento farmacológico da gagueira: evidências e controvérsias Pharmacologic treatment of stuttering: evidences and controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Vila-Nova


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este artigo tem por objetivo analisar a situação do tratamento farmacológico da gagueira, mostrando a eficácia de diferentes abordagens baseadas em drogas psiquiátricas, além de evidenciar a utilização de outros fármacos no tratamento dessa enfermidade. MÉTODOS: Revisão de literatura em base de dados Medline, utilizando os termos stuttering treatment, disfluency, disfluency treatments, botulinum toxin and stuttering treatment, botulinum toxin and disfluency treatment. RESULTADOS: Foram encontrados estudos envolvendo as seguintes drogas: citalopram + clomipramina, paroxetina, olanzapina, citalopram + alprazolam, pimozida, risperidona, tiaprida, clomipramina e desipramina, levetiracetam, divalproato de sódio, clonidina e betanecol, além de ensaios clínicos com a utilização de toxina botulínica tipo A e anestésicos. Os estudos envolvendo citalopram + clomipramina, paroxetina, olanzapina, citalopram + alprazolam, risperidona, clomipramina e desipramina, levetiracetam, divalproato de sódio, lidocaína e toxina botulínica tipo A demonstraram resultados positivos. A maioria das pesquisas relativas ao tratamento farmacológico da gagueira se restringe a estudos de caso e ensaios clínicos com pequenas amostras. CONCLUSÃO: Não existem evidências suficientes que justifiquem a utilização de um tratamento específico para a gagueira. Os estudos apresentados indicam a necessidade da realização de mais ensaios clínicos duplo-cegos e controlados com placebo envolvendo amostras maiores.OBJECTIVE: This article analyzes the pharmacologic treatment of stuttering, assessing the effectiveness of different treatments using psychiatric drugs and further evidences of other drugs in the treatment of this disorder. METHODS: Search in Medline database, using the terms stuttering treatment, disfluency, disfluency treatments, botulinum toxin and stuttering treatment, botulinum toxin and disfluency treatment. RESULTS: Studies involving


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yu. Mukhin


    seizures was observed in 15.7 % of the patients. No one case – without effect. The greatest success in relieving seizures was seen in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy; childhood absence epilepsy was intermediate; the lowest percentage of remission was noted in juvenile absence epilepsy. The most effective drugs were valproic acid and ethosuximide used both alone and in combination. Lamotrigine, topiramate, and levetiracetam were used as part of combination therapy. 

  19. Antiepileptic Drug Titration and Related Health Care Resource Use and Costs. (United States)

    Fishman, Jesse; Kalilani, Linda; Song, Yan; Swallow, Elyse; Wild, Imane


    Unexpected breakthrough seizures resulting from suboptimal antiepileptic drug (AED) dosing during the titration period, as well as adverse events resulting from rapid AED titration, may influence the titration schedule and significantly increase health care resource use (HRU) and health care costs. To assess the relationship between AEDs, HRU, and costs during AED titration and maintenance. Practicing neurologists were recruited from a nationwide panel to provide up to 3 patient records each for this retrospective medical chart review. Patients with epilepsy who were aged ≥ 18 years and had initiated an AED between January 1, 2014, and January 1, 2016, were followed for 6 months from AED initiation. Titration duration was the time from AED initiation to the beginning of treatment maintenance as determined by the physician. Outcomes were epilepsy-specific HRU (hospitalizations, emergency department visits, outpatient visits, physician referral, laboratory testing/diagnostic imaging, and phone calls) and related costs that occurred during the titration or maintenance treatment periods. Of 811 patients, 156, 128, 125, 120, 114, 107, and 61 initiated the following AEDs: levetiracetam, lamotrigine, lacosamide, valproate, topiramate, carbamazepine, and phenytoin, respectively. Most patients (619/803 [77.1%] with complete AED data) received monotherapy. Baseline characteristics were similar across AEDs (mean [SD] age, 36.6 [14.4] years; 59.0% male). Kaplan-Meier estimates of titration duration ranged from 3.3 weeks (phenytoin) to 8.1 weeks (lamotrigine). From titration to maintenance, the overall incidence of HRU per person-month decreased 54.5%-89.3% for each HRU measure except outpatient visits (24.6% decrease). Total epilepsy-related costs decreased from $80.48 to $42.77 per person-month, or 46.9% from titration to maintenance. AED titration periods had higher HRU rates and costs than AED maintenance, suggesting that use of AEDs with shorter titration requirements

  20. Pharmacotherapy of alcoholism - an update on approved and off-label medications. (United States)

    Soyka, Michael; Müller, Christian A


    Only a few medications are available for the treatment of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Areas covered: This paper discusses approved AUD medications, including the opioid antagonists naltrexone and nalmefene (the latter is licensed for reduction of alcohol consumption only), the putative glutamate receptor antagonist acamprosate and the aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor disulfiram. It also covers off-label medications of interest, including topiramate, gabapentin, ondansetron, varenicline, baclofen, sodium oxybate and antidepressants. Clinical implications, benefits and risks of treatment are discussed. Expert opinion: Acamprosate, naltrexone, nalmefene and disulfiram are the only approved 'alcohol-specific' drugs. Acamprosate and naltrexone have been evaluated in numerous clinical trials and represent evidence-based treatments in AUDs. Nalmefene use, however, is controversial. Supervised disulfiram is a second-line treatment approach. Compounds developed and licensed for different neuropsychiatric disorders are potential alternatives. Encouraging results have been reported for topiramate, gabapentin and also varenicline, which might be useful in patients with comorbid nicotine dependence. The GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid)-B receptor agonist baclofen has shown mixed results; it is currently licensed for the treatment of AUDs in France only. Gabapentin may be close to approval in the USA. Further studies of these novel treatment approaches in AUDs are needed.

  1. Teratogenic risk and contraceptive counselling in psychiatric practice: analysis of anticonvulsant therapy (United States)


    Background Anticonvulsants have been used to manage psychiatric conditions for over 50 years. It is recognised that some, particularly valproate, carbamazepine and lamotrigine, are human teratogens, while others including topiramate require further investigation. We aimed to appraise the documentation of this risk by psychiatrists and review discussion around contraceptive issues. Methods A retrospective review of prescribing patterns of four anticonvulsants (valproate, carbamazepine, lamotrigine and topiramate) in women of child bearing age was undertaken. Documented evidence of discussion surrounding teratogenicity and contraceptive issues was sought. Results Valproate was most commonly prescribed (n=67). Evidence of teratogenic risk counselling at medication initiation was sub-optimal – 40% of individuals prescribed carbamazepine and 22% of valproate. Documentation surrounding contraceptive issues was also low- 17% of individuals prescribed carbamazepine and 13% of valproate. Conclusion We found both low rates of teratogenic risk counselling and low rates of contraception advice in our cohort. Given the high rates of unplanned pregnancies combined with the relatively high risk of major congenital malformations, it is essential that a detailed appraisal of the risks and benefits associated with anticonvulsant medication occurs and is documented within patients’ psychiatric notes. PMID:24066860

  2. Thermoanalytical Investigation of Some Sulfone-Containing Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahla N. Salama


    Full Text Available The thermal behavior of some sulfone-containing drugs, namely, dapsone (DDS, dimethylsulfone (MSM, and topiramate (TOP in drug substances, and products were investigated using different thermal techniques. These include thermogravimetry (TGA, derivative thermogravimetry (DTG, differential thermal analysis (DTA, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The thermogravimetric data allowed the determination of the kinetic parameters: activation energy (Ea, frequency factor (A, and reaction order (n. The thermal degradation of dapsone and topiramate was followed a first-order kinetic behavior. The calculated data evidenced a zero-order kinetic for dimethylsulfone. The relative thermal stabilities of the studied drugs have been evaluated and follow the order DDS > TOP > MSM. The purity was determined using DSC for the studied compounds, in drug substances and products. The results were in agreement with the recommended pharmacopoeia and manufacturer methods. DSC curves obtained from the tablets suggest compatibility between the drugs, excipients and/or coformulated drugs. The fragmentation pathway of dapsone with mass spectrometry was taken as example, to correlate the thermal decomposition with the resulted MS-EI. The decomposition modes were investigated, and the possible fragmentation pathways were suggested by mass spectrometry.

  3. Lacosamide as add-on treatment of focal symptomatic epilepsy in a patient with alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Romigi


    Full Text Available The occurrence of epileptic seizures in the presence of hepatic disease is not uncommon in clinical practice. Selecting an appropriate AED for patients affected by liver failure who have new-onset epileptic seizures can be challenging. We describe a 64-year-old man affected by liver cirrhosis. The patient developed partial epilepsy with secondary generalization because of an intracerebral hemorrhage in the left parieto-occipital regions. After the neurosurgery procedure, seizures reappeared and were initially managed with levetiracetam. After one month, the patient experienced clusters of seizures while on stable treatment with levetiracetam. Pregabalin as add-on was not tolerated; therefore, he received a low dose of phenobarbital as add-on treatment. The patient developed hepatic encephalopathy. Phenobarbital was immediately stopped, and oral lacosamide was added. A rapid recovery of encephalopathy with a 6-month seizure freedom was obtained. The patient died 6 months later because of progressive impairment of liver function. Lacosamide may represent an alternative to other AEDs in patients with liver failure; however, further prospective evaluation of its efficacy and safety in this clinical setting is needed.

  4. Management of Agitation Following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Is There a Role for Beta-Blockers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayaz Ibrahim


    Full Text Available Introduction. Stroke is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the United States. About 20% of the stroke is hemorrhagic and about 50% of these is due to aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. A troublesome neuropsychiatric complication of subarachnoid hemorrhage is agitation/aggression. Case Presentation. A 45-year-old man with no prior psychiatric history, sustained subarachnoid hemorrhage. After initial stabilization for 2 days, he underwent craniotomy and clipping of anterior cerebral communicating artery aneurysm. Treatment was continued with labetalol, nimodipine, and levetiracetam. Beginning postoperative day 4, patient developed episodes of confusion and agitation/aggression. Switching of Levetiracetam to valproate did not show any improvement. Psychiatry team tried to manage him with intense nursing intervention and different medications like olanzapine, valproate, lorazepam, and haloperidol. However, patient continued to be agitated and aggressive. Switching from labetalol to metoprolol resulted in dramatic improvement within 3 days. Discussion. Antipsychotics and benzodiazepines are often not sufficiently effective in the control of agitation/aggression in patients with traumatic brain injury and similar conditions. Our case report and the literature review including a cochrane review suggests that beta-blockers may be helpful in this situation.

  5. Piracetam and TRH analogues antagonise inhibition by barbiturates, diazepam, melatonin and galanin of human erythrocyte D-glucose transport


    Naftalin, Richard J; Cunningham, Philip; Afzal-Ahmed, Iram


    Nootropic drugs increase glucose uptake into anaesthetised brain and into Alzheimer's diseased brain. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone, TRH, which has a chemical structure similar to nootropics increases cerebellar uptake of glucose in murine rolling ataxia. This paper shows that nootropic drugs like piracetam (2-oxo 1 pyrrolidine acetamide) and levetiracetam and neuropeptides like TRH antagonise the inhibition of glucose transport by barbiturates, diazepam, melatonin and endogenous neuropeptide...

  6. Intravenous Antiepileptic Drugs in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Vlasov


    Full Text Available Launching four intravenous antiepileptic drugs: valproate (Depakene and Convulex, lacosamide (Vimpat, and levetiracetam (Keppra – into the Russian market has significantly broadened the possibilities of rendering care to patients in seizure emergency situations. The chemi- cal structure, mechanisms of action, indications/contraindications, clinical effectiveness and tolerability, advantages/disadvantages, and adverse events of using these drugs in urgent and elective neurology are discussed. 

  7. Using Ecological Momentary Assessment to Identify Mechanisms of Change: An Application From a Pharmacotherapy Trial With Adolescent Cannabis Users. (United States)

    Treloar Padovano, Hayley; Miranda, Robert


    The present study used youth's in vivo reports of subjective responses to cannabis while smoking in their natural environments to identify real-world mechanisms of topiramate treatment for cannabis misuse. Participants were 40 cannabis users (≥ twice weekly in past 30 days), ages 15-24 years (47.5% female), with at least one cannabis use episode during the final 3 weeks of a 6-week, randomized clinical trial. Youth reported subjective "high" while smoking, stimulation, sedation, stress, craving, and grams of marijuana used in the natural environment via wireless electronic devices. Bayesian multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM) evaluated mediation via indirect effect tests. Significant within (daily) and between (person) variability and distinctive within and between effects supported the MSEM approach. Subjective high while smoking was significantly reduced for youth in the topiramate condition, relative to placebo, and the indirect effect of reduced subjective high on total grams of cannabis smoked that day was significant. Indirect effects through other subjective responses were not significant. The results of this initial study suggest that altering subjective responses to smoking, specifically subjective high, may be a key target for developing adjunctive pharmacotherapies for cannabis misuse. More generally, this work provides an example for applying ecological momentary assessment and analytic techniques to evaluate mechanisms of behavior change in longitudinal data.

  8. Effectiveness, tolerability and practical application of the newer generation anti-obesity medications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S MacDaniels


    Full Text Available Objective: Comparison of the efficacy and tolerability of five newer anti-obesity medications to guide clinical decision making, examining bupropion–naltrexone combination, liraglutide, lorcaserin, orlistat, and phentermine–topiramate combination. Methods: A brief literature review and internet search for high-powered, randomized and placebo-controlled drug trials was conducted. Drug trial information was established for five currently approved anti-obesity medications. Secondarily, a statistical comparison of medications through Number Needed to Treat (NNT and Number Needed to Harm (NNH analyses were attempted as a way to provide a clinical analysis across these varied medications. Finally, a commentary about clinical application is issued for each agent accounting for typical side-effects, serious side-effects, mechanism of action and ease of use. Results: All five agents are currently approved oral medications to lower weight. The NNT range was 3–12, and NNH range was 4–17. The agent with the best NNT is phentermine–topiramate combination (NNT=3 and the agent with the best NNH is bupropion–naltrexone combination (NNH=17. Conclusion: When considering each patient’s clinical presentation, knowledge of each drug’s mechanism of action, side-effect profile, efficacy, and NNT and NNH values can help in selecting an anti-obesity medication to augment his or her weight loss efforts.

  9. Effect of anticonvulsive treatment on neuropsychological performance in children with BECTS. (United States)

    Tacke, Moritz; Gerstl, Lucia; Heinen, Florian; Heukaeufer, Isabel; Bonfert, Michaela; Bast, Thomas; Cornell, Sonia; Neubauer, Bernd Axel; Borggraefe, Ingo


    Benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) is a common epilepsy syndrome in childhood. Besides the occurrence of seizures, mild cognitive impairments and behavioral problems affecting language skills, spatial perception, memory, executive function, and academic achievement might be present. There is no international consensus about the decision whether or not to treat affected children. The influence of treatment on cognitive functions is debated. Patients diagnosed with BECTS were assessed in short term auditory memory, long-term verbal memory, intelligence and behavior using the "number recall" test from the Kaufman assessment battery for children, the "verbal learning memory test", the "culture free intelligence test" and the "child behavior checklist" prior to a randomized controlled antiepileptic therapy and after a treatment period of 6 months with either sulthiame or levetiracetam. 43 of 44 randomized patients were analyzed. One patient had to be excluded due to protocol violation. Patients who completed the study showed a non-significant improvement in parent-reported behavioral problems under therapy. Cognitive skills were not affected. The present data suggest that antiepileptic drug treatment of children with BECTS with either sulthiame or levetiracetam does not affect cognitive performance. Behavior improved in a subset of patients though not reaching statistical significance. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Screening and quantitative determination of twelve acidic and neutral pharmaceuticals in whole blood by liquid-liquid extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Steentoft, Anni; Buck, Maike


    . The method was fully validated for salicylic acid, paracetamol, phenobarbital, carisoprodol, meprobamate, topiramate, etodolac, chlorzoxazone, furosemide, ibuprofen, warfarin, and salicylamide. The method also tentatively includes thiopental, theophylline, piroxicam, naproxen, diclophenac, and modafinil......We describe a multi-method for simultaneous identification and quantification of 12 acidic and neutral compounds in whole blood. The method involves a simple liquid-liquid extraction, and the identification and quantification are performed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry...



    Kalepu Swathi*and Dr. P. Narayana Raju


    For many years the treatment of acute or chronic sicknesses were carried out normally via the transport of medication to sufferers through diverse pharmaceutical forms encompass pills, pills, creams, suppositories, drinks, ointments, aerosols and injectables. The kinds conventional oral drug delivery systems are regarded to provide delivery of the drug. Therefore to reap as well as to hold the drug awareness within the range of healing effectiveness required for the treatment. Levetiracetam m...

  12. The Evidence Behind the Treatment of Canine Idiopathic Epilepsy

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    Marios Charalambous


    Full Text Available Oral phenobarbital and imepitoin in particular, followed by potassium bromide and levetiracetam are likely to be effective for the treatment of canine idiopathic epilepsy. There is strong evidence supporting the use of oral phenobarbital and imepitoin as ‘first line’ medications. However, there remains a lack of evidence for targeted treatment for the various individual epileptic phenotypes and quite limited evidence on direct comparisons of the efficacy between various anti-epileptic drugs.

  13. Levetiracetam improves verbal memory in high-grade glioma patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Marjolein; Douw, Linda; Sizoo, Eefje M; Bosma, Ingeborg; Froklage, Femke E; Heimans, Jan J; Postma, Tjeerd J; Klein, Martin; Reijneveld, Jaap C

    BACKGROUND: Treatment of high-grade glioma (HGG) patients with anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) has met with various side effects, such as cognitive deterioration. The cognitive effects of both older and newer AEDs in HGG patients are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of

  14. The usual treatment of trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias. (United States)

    Pareja, Juan A; Álvarez, Mónica


    Trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias include cluster headache, paroxysmal hemicrania, and short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection, tearing, and rhinorrhea (SUNCT). Conventional pharmacological therapy can be successful in the majority of trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias patients. Most cluster headache attacks respond to 100% oxygen inhalation, or 6 mg subcutaneous sumatriptan. Nasal spray of sumatriptan (20 mg) or zolmitriptan (5 mg) are recommended as second choice. The bouts can be brought under control by a short course of corticosteroids (oral prednisone: 60-100 mg/day, or intravenous methylprednisolone: 250-500 mg/day, for 5 days, followed by tapering off the dosage), or by long-term prophylaxis with verapamil (at least 240 mg/day). Alternative long-term preventive medications include lithium carbonate (800-1600 mg/day), methylergonovine (0.4-1.2 mg/day), and topiramate (100-200 mg/day). As a rule, paroxysmal hemicrania responds to preventive treatment with indomethacin (75-150 mg/day). A short course of intravenous lidocaine (1-4 mg/kg/hour) can reduce the flow of attacks during exacerbations of SUNCT. Lamotrigine (100-300 mg/day) is the preventive drug of choice for SUNCT. Gabapentin (800-2700 mg/day), topiramate (50-300 mg/day), and carbamazepine (200-1600 mg/day) may be of help. © 2013 American Headache Society.

  15. Spatial recognition test: A novel cognition task for assessing topographical memory in mice. (United States)

    Havolli, Enes; Hill, Mark Dw; Godley, Annie; Goetghebeur, Pascal Jd


    Dysfunction in topographical memory is a core feature of several neurological disorders. There is a large unmet medical need to address learning and memory deficits as a whole in central nervous system disease. There are considerable efforts to identify pro-cognitive compounds but current methods are either lengthy or labour intensive. Our test used a two chamber apparatus and is based on the preference of rodents to explore novel environments. It was used firstly to assess topographical memory in mice at different retention intervals (RI) and secondly to investigate the effect of three drugs reported to be beneficial for cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer's disease, namely: donepezil, memantine and levetiracetam. Animals show good memory performance at all RIs tested under four hours. At the four-hour RI, animals show a significantly poorer memory performance which can be rescued using donepezil, memantine and levetiracetam. Using this test we established and validated a spatial recognition paradigm to address topographical memory in mice by showing a decremental time-induced forgetting response and reversing this decrease in performance using pharmacological tools. The spatial recognition test differs from more commonly used visuospatial laboratory tests in both throughput capability and potentially neuroanatomical substrate. This test has the potential to be used to assess cognitive performance in transgenic animals, disease models and to screen putative cognitive enhancers or depressors.

  16. Inhibition of human aromatase complex (CYP19) by antiepileptic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Naja Wessel; Halling-Sørensen, Bent; Birkved, Franziska Maria A Kramer


    of 1.4-49.7 mM. Carbamazepine, gabapentin, primidone, topiramate and vigabatrin showed no inhibition. Additionally, binary drug combinations were tested to investigate if combination therapy could potentiate the aromatase inhibition. Additive inhibition was seen in combination experiments...... with valproate and phenobarbital. When adding carbamazepine to a range of valproate concentrations no additional inhibition was seen. The data for some of the AEDs show that side effects on steroid synthesis in humans due to inhibition of aromatase should be considered....

  17. Brivaracetam: review of its pharmacology and potential use as adjunctive therapy in patients with partial onset seizures


    Russo, Emilio; Mumoli,Laura; Palleria,Caterina; Gasparini,Sara; Citraro,Rita; Labate,Angelo; Ferlazzo,Edoardo; Gambardella,Antonio; De Sarro,Giovambattista


    Laura Mumoli,1 Caterina Palleria,2 Sara Gasparini,1 Rita Citraro,2 Angelo Labate,1 Edoardo Ferlazzo,1 Antonio Gambardella,1 Giovambattista De Sarro,2 Emilio Russo2 1Institute of Neurology, 2Institute of Pharmacology, University Magna Græcia, Catanzaro, Italy Abstract: Brivaracetam (BRV), a high-affinity synaptic vesicle protein 2A ligand, reported to be 10–30-fold more potent than levetiracetam (LEV), is highly effective in a wide range of experimental models of focal an...

  18. Cardiovascular effects of current and future anti-obesity drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comerma Steffensen, Simon Gabriel; Grann, Martin; Andersen, Charlotte U


    cardiovascular risk, while an inverse agonist at cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptors, rimonobant was withdrawn due to serious psychiatric problems. At present there are only few treatments available including orlistat and, phentermine alone or in combination with topiramate and lorcaserin, although cardiovascular...... side effects need to be clarified regarding phentermine and lorcaserin. Drugs approved for type 2 diabetes including glucagon like peptide (GLP-1) analogues and metformin also cause moderate weight losses and have a favourable cardiovascular profile, while the anti-obesity potential of nebivolol...

  19. Update on pharmacology of obesity: benefits and risks. (United States)

    Cabrerizo García, Lucio; Ramos-Leví, Ana; Moreno Lopera, Carmen; Rubio Herrera, Miguel A


    The prevalence of obesity in Western countries has increased at a much greater pace than the development of new efficient and safe drugs, beyond mere lifestyle changes, for the treatment of overweight. Numerous different types of drugs which had been used in the past for the treatment of obesity have currently been withdrawn due to undesirable long-term side effects. The only available drug in Europe is orlistat, which serves only as an aid for the treatment of obesity. In the USA, however, a few central adrenergic-mediators, for instance, diethylpropion and phentermine, have been available for decades to treat obesity during a short-term period (less than 12 weeks). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recently approved lorcaserin and the combination phentermine/ topiramate for the treatment of obesity. The first one is a selective serotonin 2C receptor agonist that works by decreasing food intake with few side effects. Its outcomes on weight are modest, but may be helpful in certain selected patients. The phentermine/topiramate combination has proved to be highly effective, achieving a 10% reduction in weight in the majority of patients, although attention must be drawn to the possible development of side effects in both the short and the long-term follow-up. Further investigation regarding the mechanisms involved in weight balance will anticipate the development of new expectations for the treatment of obesity in the near future. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  20. Vinpocetine inhibits glutamate release induced by the convulsive agent 4-aminopyridine more potently than several antiepileptic drugs. (United States)

    Sitges, M; Sanchez-Tafolla, B M; Chiu, L M; Aldana, B I; Guarneros, A


    4-Aminopyridine (4-AP) is a convulsing agent that in vivo preferentially releases Glu, the most important excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter in the brain. Here the ionic dependence of 4-AP-induced Glu release and the effects of several of the most common antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and of the new potential AED, vinpocetine on 4-AP-induced Glu release were characterized in hippocampus isolated nerve endings pre-loaded with labelled Glu ([3H]Glu). 4-AP-induced [3H]Glu release was composed by a tetrodotoxin (TTX) sensitive and external Ca2+ dependent fraction and a TTX insensitive fraction that was sensitive to the excitatory amino acid transporter inhibitor, TBOA. The AEDs: carbamazepine, phenytoin, lamotrigine and oxcarbazepine at the highest dose tested only reduced [3H]Glu release to 4-AP between 50-60%, and topiramate was ineffective. Vinpocetine at a much lower concentration than the above AEDs, abolished [3H]Glu release to 4-AP. We conclude that the decrease in [3H]Glu release linked to the direct blockade of presynaptic Na+ channels, may importantly contribute to the anticonvulsant actions of all the drugs tested here (except topiramate); and that the significantly greater vinpocetine effect in magnitude and potency on [3H]Glu release when excitability is exacerbated like during seizures, may involve the increase additionally exerted by vinpocetine in some K+ channels permeability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Pharmacotherapies for Obesity: Past, Current, and Future Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa L. Ioannides-Demos


    Full Text Available Past therapies for the treatment of obesity have typically involved pharmacological agents usually in combination with a calorie-controlled diet. This paper reviews the efficacy and safety of pharmacotherapies for obesity focusing on drugs approved for long-term therapy (orlistat, drugs approved for short-term use (amfepramone [diethylpropion], phentermine, recently withdrawn therapies (rimonabant, sibutamine and drugs evaluated in Phase III studies (taranabant, pramlintide, lorcaserin and tesofensine and combination therapies of topiramate plus phentermine, bupropion plus naltrexone, and bupropion plus zonisamide. No current pharmacotherapy possesses the efficacy needed to produce substantial weight loss in morbidly obese patients. Meta-analyses support a significant though modest loss in bodyweight with a mean weight difference of 4.7 kg (95% CI 4.1 to 5.3 kg for rimonabant, 4.2 kg (95% CI 3.6 to 4.8 kg for sibutramine and 2.9 kg (95% CI 2.5 to 3.2 kg for orlistat compared to placebo at ≥12 months. Of the Phase III pharmacotherapies, lorcaserin, taranabant, topiramate and bupropion with naltrexone have demonstrated significant weight loss compared to placebo at ≥12 months. Some pharmacotherapies have also demonstrated clinical benefits. Further studies are required in some populations such as younger and older people whilst the long term safety continues to be a major consideration and has led to the withdrawal of several drugs.

  2. Sulfonamide inhibition studies of two β-carbonic anhydrases from the ascomycete fungus Sordaria macrospora, CAS1 and CAS2. (United States)

    Vullo, Daniela; Lehneck, Ronny; Pöggeler, Stefanie; Supuran, Claudiu T


    The two β-carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC recently cloned and purified from the ascomycete fungus Sordaria macrospora, CAS1 and CAS2, were investigated for their inhibition with a panel of 39 aromatic, heterocyclic, and aliphatic sulfonamides and one sulfamate, many of which are clinically used agents. CAS1 was efficiently inhibited by tosylamide, 3-fluorosulfanilamide, and 3-chlorosulfanilamide (K I s in the range of 43.2-79.6 nM), whereas acetazolamide, methazolamide, topiramate, ethoxzolamide, dorzolamide, and brinzolamide were medium potency inhibitors (K I s in the range of 360-445 nM). CAS2 was less sensitive to sulfonamide inhibitors. The best CAS2 inhibitors were 5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-sulfonamide (the deacetylated acetazolamide precursor) and 4-hydroxymethyl-benzenesulfonamide, with K I s in the range of 48.1-92.5 nM. Acetazolamide, dorzolamide, ethoxzolamide, topiramate, sulpiride, indisulam, celecoxib, and sulthiame were medium potency CAS2 inhibitors (K I s of 143-857 nM). Many other sulfonamides showed affinities in the high micromolar range or were ineffective as CAS1/2 inhibitors. Small changes in the structure of the inhibitor led to important differences of the activity. As these enzymes may show applications for the removal of anthropically generated polluting gases, finding modulators of their activity may be crucial for designing environmental-friendly CO 2 capture processes.

  3. The special features of cardiovascular pathology diagnostics in patients with epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Татьяна Анатольевна Литовченко


    Full Text Available Aim. The researchers noticed the changes of parameters of cardiovascular system functioning in patients with epilepsy during epileptic attacks and in interictal period. The aim of research was the study of informativity of the different methods of study of cardiovascular system functioning for detection and evaluation of risk of cardiac pathology development in patients with epilepsy.Materials and methods. We examined 50 patients with epilepsy and CVP and 50 patients with epilepsy without CVP. All patients underwent clinical and neurological examination, electrocardiography, echocardioscopy, examination of heart rhythm variability, dopplerography of carotid arteries, analysis of lipid blood spectrum, brain evaluation on indications on SCORE, МРТ.Results. There was revealed that the use of valproates and carbamazepine is associated with dyslipidemia development; valproates – with increase of intima-media complex thickness, cambamazepine – with increased risk of development of heart rhythm and conduction disorder; lamotrigine and levetiracetam – with increase of heart rate. The combined use of levetiracetam and carbamazepine is associated with extension of QT interval. The most significant increase of risk of CVP development during the next 10 years on SCORE was noticed in patients who take carbamazepine.Conclusions. The definition of intima-media complex thickness at dopplerography of carotid arteries, patients evaluation on SCORE, lipidograms, heart rhythm variability, definition of myocardial work index at echocardioscopy along with the standard ECG are effective for determination of risk factors and early detection of CVP in patients with epilepsy

  4. Comparison of results from different imputation techniques for missing data from an anti-obesity drug trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders W.; Lundstrøm, Lars H; Wetterslev, Jørn


    BACKGROUND: In randomised trials of medical interventions, the most reliable analysis follows the intention-to-treat (ITT) principle. However, the ITT analysis requires that missing outcome data have to be imputed. Different imputation techniques may give different results and some may lead to bias...... of handling missing data in a 60-week placebo controlled anti-obesity drug trial on topiramate. METHODS: We compared an analysis of complete cases with datasets where missing body weight measurements had been replaced using three different imputation methods: LOCF, baseline carried forward (BOCF) and MI...

  5. Alternative psychosis (forced normalisation in epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vongani Titi Raymond Ntsanwisi


    Full Text Available Abstract Forced normalization is a paradoxical relationship between seizure activity and behavioural problems. A 20 year old male with recurrent refractory tonic clonic epilepsy experienced forced normalization, whilst on medication with multiple anti- epileptic drugs (AEDs.(Valproate Sodium, Carbamazepine, and Topiramate. A reduction in the seizure burden correlated with sudden behavioural changes manifesting with aggressive outbursts and violence.. The present case may help clarify the mechanism of forced normalization whilst providing some helpful hints regarding the diagnosis and treatment of symptoms observed in recurrent refractory seizures.

  6. Fetal Valproate Syndrome with Limb Defects: An Indian Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Goyal


    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a common disorder and exposure to antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy increases the risk of teratogenicity. Older AEDs such as valproate and phenobarbital are associated with a higher risk of major malformations in the fetus than newer AEDs like lamotrigine and levetiracetam. Exposure to valproic acid during first trimester can result in fetal valproate syndrome (FVS, comprising typical facial features, developmental delay, and a variety of malformations such as neural tube defects, cardiac and genitourinary malformations, and limb defects. We are presenting an Indian case of FVS with major limb defects.

  7. Pharmacodynamics and common drug-drug interactions of the third-generation antiepileptic drugs. (United States)

    Stefanović, Srđan; Janković, Slobodan M; Novaković, Milan; Milosavljević, Marko; Folić, Marko


    Anticonvulsants that belong to the third generation are considered as 'newer' antiepileptic drugs, including: eslicarbazepine acetate, lacosamide, perampanel, brivaracetam, rufinamide and stiripentol. Areas covered: This article reviews pharmacodynamics (i.e. mechanisms of action) and clinically relevant drug-drug interactions of the third-generation antiepileptic drugs. Expert opinion: Newer antiepileptic drugs have mechanisms of action which are not shared with the first and the second generation anticonvulsants, like inhibition of neurotransmitters release, blocking receptors for excitatory amino acids and new ways of sodium channel inactivation. New mechanisms of action increase chances of controlling forms of epilepsy resistant to older anticonvulsants. Important advantage of the third-generation anticonvulsants could be their little propensity for interactions with both antiepileptic and other drugs observed until now, making prescribing much easier and safer. However, this may change with new studies specifically designed to discover drug-drug interactions. Although the third-generation antiepileptic drugs enlarged therapeutic palette against epilepsy, 20-30% of patients with epilepsy is still treatment-resistant and need new pharmacological approach. There is great need to explore all molecular targets that may directly or indirectly be involved in generation of seizures, so a number of candidate compounds for even newer anticonvulsants could be generated.

  8. Alteration of the threshold stimulus for intraoperative brain mapping via use of antiepileptic medications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Amburgy, MD


    Full Text Available Intraoperative seizures during awake craniotomy with cortical and subcortical mapping are a common occurrence. Patients are routinely treated preoperatively with anti-convulsive medications to reduce seizure occurrence. Historically these drugs have not been believed to significantly affect awake craniotomy procedures. We report a patient undergoing intraoperative mapping with differential response and seizure occurrence based upon antiepileptic drug usage. A 43 year old female presented with history of seizures, right sided hemiparesis, electrical sensations, and difficulty with language function. She was determined to have a mass lesion involving the left frontal and temporal lobes and subsequently elected to undergo resection by awake craniotomy with intraoperative mapping. A first attempt at lesion resection was performed after a missed dose of anti-convulsant medication (levetiracetam and was subsequently aborted because of repeated seizure activity. The threshold for seizure generation (1.75 mA was observed to be significantly lower than expected. Therapy was begun with both levetiracetam and phenytoin prior to a second attempted resection one week later. Thresholds for cortical motor response in the second operation were significantly higher than expected (> 9.0 mA, and no intraoperative seizure activity was observed. To our knowledge this is the first quantitative example of antiepileptic drugs affecting the current required for intraoperative mapping. This case highlights the potential for higher current requirements in patients preoperatively treated with high doses of antiepileptic drugs, as well as the importance of confirming adequate dosage of antiepileptic drugs in patients at an increased risk of seizure generation.

  9. Possible involvements of glutamate and adrenergic receptors on acute toxicity of methylphenidate in isolated hippocampus and cerebral cortex of adult rats. (United States)

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Motevalian, Manijeh; Shabab, Behnaz


    Neurodegeneration induced by methylphenidate (MPH), as a central stimulant with unknown long-term consequences, in adult rats' brain and the possible mechanisms involved were studied. Rats were acutely treated with MPH in the presence and absence of some receptor antagonists such as ketamine, topiramate, yohimbine, and haloperidol. Motor activity and anxiety level in rats were monitored. Antioxidant and inflammatory parameters were also measured in isolated hippocampus and cerebral cortex. MPH-treated groups (10 and 20 mg/kg) demonstrated anxiety-like behavior and increased motor activity. MPH significantly increased lipid peroxidation, GSSG content, IL-1β and TNF-α levels in isolated tissues, and also significantly reduced GSH content, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) activities in hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Pretreatment of animals by receptor antagonists caused inhibition of MPH-induced motor activity disturbances and anxiety-like behavior. Pretreatment of animals by ketamine, topiramate, and yohimbine inhibited the MPH-induced oxidative stress and inflammation; it significantly decreased lipid peroxidation, GSSG level, IL-1β and TNF-α levels and increased GSH content, SOD, GPx, and GR activities in hippocampus and cerebral cortex of acutely MPH-treated rats. Pretreatment with haloperidol did not cause any change in MPH-induced oxidative stress and inflammation. In conclusion, acute administration of high doses of MPH can cause oxidative and inflammatory changes in brain cells and induce neurodegeneration in hippocampus and cerebral cortex of adult rats and these changes might probably be mediated by glutamate (NMDA or AMPA) and/or α 2 -adrenergic receptors. © 2016 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  10. Determinação simultânea de topiramato, carbamazepina, fenitoína e fenobarbital em plasma empregando cromatografia a gás com detector de nitrogênio e fósforo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Zilles Hahn


    Full Text Available Topiramate and the other frequently co-administered antiepileptic drugs carbamazepine, phenytoin and phenobarbital were determined in 100 µL plasma samples by gas chromatography with nitrogen phosphorus detection (GC-NPD, after a one-step liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate, followed by flash methylation with trimethylphenylammonium hydroxide. Total chromatographic run time was 12.5 min. Intra-assay and inter-assay precision was 2.5-7.3% and 1.6-5.2%, respectively. Accuracy was 100.1-104.2%. The limit of quantitation was 1 µg mL-1 for all analytes, proving suitable for routine application in therapeutic drug monitoring of antiepileptic drugs.

  11. Intracranial hemorrhage associated with medulla oblongata dysplasia in a premature infant: A case report. (United States)

    Jiang, Li-Na; Wei, Mei-Chen; Cui, Hong


    Medulla oblongata dysplasia is an extremely rare form of neurodevelopmental immaturity in premature infants. Intracranial hemorrhage in premature infants may be closely related to neurodevelopmental immaturity. We report a female premature infant who succumbed to intracranial hemorrhage caused by medulla oblongata dysplasia. The infant was born at 31 weeks gestation. The onset manifestation was symptomatic epilepsy associated with subependymal hemorrhage. Levetiracetam and sodium valproate were administered. During the hospitalization, hydrocephalus developed and the intracranial hemorrhage aggravated. The infant died on day 171 after birth. Early identification and prompt treatment should be emphasized. Clinicians should be aware of this condition, as it can potentially cause neonatal intracranial hemorrhage.

  12. Obsessive-compulsive disorder, impulse control disorders and drug addiction: common features and potential treatments. (United States)

    Fontenelle, Leonardo F; Oostermeijer, Sanne; Harrison, Ben J; Pantelis, Christos; Yücel, Murat


    ), glutamate (e.g. topiramate), serotonin (e.g. ondansetron) or γ-aminobutyric acid (e.g. baclofen and topiramate) systems, may prove to show some benefit in certain forms of OCD. Based on the available evidence, we suggest that the treatment of patients with these disorders must account for alterations in the underlying motivations and neurobiology of the condition. We provide an initial guide to the specific treatments that future clinical trials might consider in patients with OCD. For example, it might be wise to test naltrexone in patients with co-morbid SUD and ICD, topiramate in patients with co-morbid ICD and eating disorders, and baclofen in patients with co-morbid Tourette's syndrome. These trials could also include scales aimed at assessing underlying impulsivity (e.g. Barratt Impulsiveness Scale) to check whether this construct might predict response to drugs acting on the reward system. © 2011 Adis Data Information BV. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Bobylova


    Full Text Available The introduction of the latest genetic techniques into practice could discover a basis for the comorbidity of genetic epilepsies and behavioral disturbances with cognitive impairments. Some chromosomal syndromes are characterized by a specific electroencephalogram (EEG pattern, the type of seizures, and the variant of the course of epilepsy. This paper describes a case of synaptic RAS GTP-ase-activating protein 1 (SYNGAP1 gene mutation in a 9-year-old female patient with eyelid myoclonic epilepsy, atypical absences, and atypical autism with mental retardation. The patient’s parents visited a physician for epilepsy (myoclonic absences, markedly delayed psycho-speech development, and specific communication problems in the child. The characteristics of autistic behavior were manifested from birth; routine EEG recorded epileptiform activity at the age of 2 years; epileptic seizures appeared at 5 years. Valproic acid and levetiracetam in this patient exerted a good effect on seizures; however, a clinical and encephalographic remission was achieved by a combination of levetiracetam and ethosuximide. The clinical case including the neurological and psychic statuses, logopedic characteristics, the result of psychological testing, and video-EEG monitoring findings are analyzed in detail.The SYNGAP1 gene is located on chromosome 6p21.3. About 50 cases of SYNGAP1 syndrome are now known worldwide. After normal maternal pregnancy and delivery, the patients show delayed psychomotor development with pronounced regression at 1 to 3 years of age. At this age, there are diffuse polyspike discharges on the EEG or an onset of generalized epileptic seizures (atonic, myoclonic, eyelid myoclonic, and absence seizures, commonly photosensitivity and autoinduction, mental development stops, speech regresses, behavioral disorders that are typical of autism develop. Drug-resistant epilepsy is noted in approximately half of the described cases. There is a correlation

  14. Epilepsy caused by an abnormal alternative splicing with dosage effect of the SV2A gene in a chicken model.

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    Marine Douaud

    Full Text Available Photosensitive reflex epilepsy is caused by the combination of an individual's enhanced sensitivity with relevant light stimuli, such as stroboscopic lights or video games. This is the most common reflex epilepsy in humans; it is characterized by the photoparoxysmal response, which is an abnormal electroencephalographic reaction, and seizures triggered by intermittent light stimulation. Here, by using genetic mapping, sequencing and functional analyses, we report that a mutation in the acceptor site of the second intron of SV2A (the gene encoding synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A is causing photosensitive reflex epilepsy in a unique vertebrate model, the Fepi chicken strain, a spontaneous model where the neurological disorder is inherited as an autosomal recessive mutation. This mutation causes an aberrant splicing event and significantly reduces the level of SV2A mRNA in homozygous carriers. Levetiracetam, a second generation antiepileptic drug, is known to bind SV2A, and SV2A knock-out mice develop seizures soon after birth and usually die within three weeks. The Fepi chicken survives to adulthood and responds to levetiracetam, suggesting that the low-level expression of SV2A in these animals is sufficient to allow survival, but does not protect against seizures. Thus, the Fepi chicken model shows that the role of the SV2A pathway in the brain is conserved between birds and mammals, in spite of a large phylogenetic distance. The Fepi model appears particularly useful for further studies of physiopathology of reflex epilepsy, in comparison with induced models of epilepsy in rodents. Consequently, SV2A is a very attractive candidate gene for analysis in the context of both mono- and polygenic generalized epilepsies in humans.

  15. Phenytoin versus Leviteracetam for Seizure Prophylaxis after brain injury – a meta analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Syed


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current standard therapy for seizure prophylaxis in Neuro-surgical patients involves the use of Phenytoin (PHY. However, a new drug Levetiracetam (LEV is emerging as an alternate treatment choice. We aimed to conduct a meta-analysis to compare these two drugs in patients with brain injury. Methods An electronic search was performed in using Pubmed, Embase, and CENTRAL. We included studies that compared the use of LEV vs. PHY for seizure prophylaxis for brain injured patients (Traumatic brain injury, intracranial hemorrhage, intracranial neoplasms, and craniotomy. Data of all eligible studies was extracted on to a standardized abstraction sheet. Data about baseline population characteristics, type of intervention, study design and outcome was extracted. Our primary outcome was seizures. Results The literature search identified 2489 unduplicated papers. Of these 2456 papers were excluded by reading the abstracts and titles. Another 25 papers were excluded after reading their complete text. We selected 8 papers which comprised of 2 RCTs and 6 observational studies. The pooled estimate’s Odds Ratio 1.12 (95% CI = 0.34, 3.64 demonstrated no superiority of either drug at preventing the occurrence of early seizures. In a subset analysis of studies in which follow up for seizures lasted either 3 or 7 days, the effect estimate remained insignificant with an odds ratio of 0.96 (95% CI = 0.34, 2.76. Similarly, 2 trials reporting seizure incidence at 6 months also had insignificant pooled results while comparing drug efficacy. The pooled odds ratio was 0.96 (95% CI = 0.24, 3.79. Conclusions Levetiracetam and Phenytoin demonstrate equal efficacy in seizure prevention after brain injury. However, very few randomized controlled trials (RCTs on the subject were found. Further evidence through a high quality RCT is highly recommended.

  16. Epileptic peri-ictal psychosis, a reversible cause of psychosis. (United States)

    González Mingot, C; Gil Villar, M P; Calvo Medel, D; Corbalán Sevilla, T; Martínez Martínez, L; Iñiguez Martínez, C; Santos Lasaosa, S; Mauri Llerda, J A


    Epileptic psychoses are categorised as peri-ictal and interictal according to their relationship with the occurrence of seizures. There is a close temporal relationship between peri-ictal psychosis and seizures, and psychosis may present before (preictal), during (ictal) or after seizures (postictal). Epileptic psychoses usually have acute initial and final phases, with a short symptom duration and complete remission with a risk of recurrence. There is no temporal relationship between interictal or chronic psychosis and epileptic seizures. Another type of epileptic psychosis is related to the response to epilepsy treatment: epileptic psychosis caused by the phenomenon of forced normalisation (alternative psychosis), which includes epileptic psychosis secondary to epilepsy surgery. Although combination treatment with antiepileptic and neuroleptic drugs is now widely used to manage this condition, there are no standard treatment guidelines for epileptic psychosis. We present 5 cases of peri-ictal epileptic psychosis in which we observed an excellent response to treatment with levetiracetam. Good control was achieved over both seizures and psychotic episodes. Levetiracetam was used in association with neuroleptic drugs with no adverse effects, and our patients did not require high doses of the latter. Categorising psychotic states associated with epilepsy according to their temporal relationship with seizures is clinically and prognostically useful because it provides important information regarding disease treatment and progression. The treatment of peri-ictal or acute mental disorders is based on epileptic seizure control, while the treatment of interictal or chronic disorders has more in common with managing disorders which are purely psychiatric in origin. In addition to improving the patient's quality of life and reducing disability, achieving strict control over seizures may also prevent the development of interictal psychosis. For this reason, we believe that

  17. Nomenclature and traceability debate for biosimilars: small-molecule surrogates lend support for distinguishable nonproprietary names. (United States)

    Chao, Jingdong; Skup, Martha; Alexander, Emily; Tundia, Namita; Macaulay, Dendy; Wu, Eric; Mulani, Parvez


    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the traceability of adverse events (AEs) for branded and generic drugs with identical nonproprietary names and to consider potential implications for the traceability of AEs for branded and biosimilar biologics. Adverse event reports in the Food and Drug Administration AE Reporting System (FAERS) were compared with those in a commercial insurance claims database (Truven Health MarketScan(®)) for 2 drugs (levetiracetam and enoxaparin sodium) with manufacturing or prescribing considerations potentially analogous to those of some biosimilars. Monthly rates of branded- and generic-attributed AEs were estimated pre- and post-generic entry. Post-entry branded-to-generic AE relative rate ratios were calculated. In FAERS, monthly AE rate ratios during the post-generic period showed a pattern in which AE rates for the branded products were greater than for the generic products. Differences in rates of brand- and generic-attributed AEs were statistically significant for both study drugs; the AE rate for the branded products peaked at approximately 10 times that of the generic levetiracetam products and approximately 4 times that of the generic enoxaparin sodium products. In contrast, monthly ratios for the MarketScan data were relatively constant over time. Use of the same nonproprietary name for generic and branded products may contribute to poor traceability of AEs reported in the FAERS database due to the significant misattribution of AEs to branded products (when those AEs were in fact associated with patient use of generic products). To ensure accurate and robust safety surveillance and traceability for biosimilar products in the United States, improved product identification mechanisms, such as related but distinguishable nonproprietary names for biosimilars and reference biologics, should be considered.

  18. An unusual cause of headache in a medical tourist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soaham Dilip Desai


    Full Text Available With booming medical tourism, Indian doctors are seeing a lot of patients from other countries for varied medical conditions. A citizen of Nairobi presented for treatment of his complaints consisting of severe episodic headache, with abdominal pain, spermatorrhea, decreased libido, constipation, and impotence. On detailed evaluation, he was found to have developed dependence to khat chewing; a social habit in his native country and his symptoms were attributed to effects of khat withdrawal. He improved after treatment with topiramate and escitalopram and lifestyle modification. Physicians need to be aware about various cultural habits of addiction in different parts of the world and their common presentations in view of globalization of health care.

  19. Psychopharmacological treatment with lithium and antiepileptic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, R W; Vestergaard, P; Kessing, L V


    A subcommittee under the Danish Psychiatric Association and the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Association in Denmark have recently developed national guidelines for the psychopharmacological treatment with lithium and antiepileptic drugs, and the present translation aims at contributing...... to the international discussion on the development of proper guidelines for the treatment of bipolar disorder. Among the antiepileptic drugs, the report deals with valproate, carbamazepine and lamotrigine and to a lesser extent with oxcarbazepine, gabapentin and topiramate. The various drugs will be reviewed......, outlining the scientific evidence for mood-stabilizing properties and discussing major side effects, the most important interactions with other drugs and practical use. Special considerations during pregnancy and lactation, during treatment of children and adolescents and during treatment of the elderly...

  20. [Modern treatment approaches to gambling]. (United States)

    Egorov, A Iu


    Compulsive gambling has received widespread attention in the last decade. Gambling has become the first non-chemical addiction, which went down to the section "Addiction and related disorders" of the modern DSM-V. The review considers non-pharmacological and pharmacological approaches to the treatment of gambling. Among non-drug approaches, cognitive-behavioral therapy and 12-step programs have gained the most popularity in the "Gamblers Anonymous" community. Among pharmacological approaches, three classes of drugs: antidepressants (mainly SSRIs), opiate antagonists (naltrexone and nalmefene) and mood stabilizers (valproate, lithium, topiramate) proved to be effective in treatment of gambling. No differences in the efficacy of the three classes of psychotropic drugs have been identified. Preliminary results for N-acetylcysteine and memantine cause optimism in terms of perspective.

  1. Analysis of antiepileptic drugs in biological fluids by means of electrokinetic chromatography. (United States)

    Pucci, Vincenzo; Raggi, Maria Augusta


    An overview of the electrokinetic chromatographic methods for the analysis of antiepileptic drug levels in biological samples is presented. In particular, micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography is a very suitable method for the determination of these drugs, because it allows a rapid, selective, and accurate analysis. In addition to the electrokinetic chromatographic studies on the determination of antiepileptic drugs, some information regarding sample pretreatment will also be reported: this is a critical step when the analysis of biological fluids is concerned. The electrokinetic chromatographic methods for the determination of recent antiepileptic drugs (e.g., lamotrigine, levetiracetam) and classical anticonvulsants (e.g., carbamazepine, phenytoin, ethosuximide, valproic acid) will be discussed in depth, and their pharmacological profiles will be briefly described as well.

  2. 'Dancing eyes, dancing feet syndrome' in small cell lung carcinoma. (United States)

    Sharma, Chandramohan; Acharya, Mihir; Kumawat, Bansi Lal; Kochar, Abhishek


    A 60-year-old man presented with a 25-day history of acute onset instability of gait, tremulousness of limbs and involuntary eye movements. Examination revealed presence of opsoclonus, myoclonus and ataxia, without any loss of motor power in the limbs. Prompt investigations were directed towards identifying an underlying malignancy which is often associated with this type of clinical scenario. CT of the brain was normal and cerebrospinal fluid examination showed lymphocytic pleocytosis. A cavitatory lesion was found in the right lung base on the high-resolution CT of the chest and histopathological examination of this lung mass showed small cell lung carcinoma. The patient was managed symptomatically with levetiracetam and baclofen and referred to oncology department for resection of the lung mass.

  3. Efficacy and cognitive side effects of tiagabine and topiramate in patients with epilepsy. (United States)

    Fritz, N; Glogau, S; Hoffmann, J; Rademacher, M; Elger, C E; Helmstaedter, C


    Whereas the efficacy of the newer antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is well established, there remain questions regarding their cognitive side effects. Therefore, we performed a comparative open randomized trial with TPM and TGB as add-on therapy, with particular consideration of cognition, mood, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Forty-one patients with refractory epilepsy were randomly assigned to one of the two treatment groups (TPM vs TGB) and received neuropsychological testing at baseline (T1), after titration (3 months, T2), and during the maintenance phase (another 3 months, T3). Tests included measures of intelligence, attention, working memory, episodic memory, language, and self-report questionnaires regarding mood and HRQOL. Twenty patients (8 TPM, 12 TGB) discontinued the trial for different reasons (no group difference). Seizure outcome (intention-to-treat analysis) was comparably good in both groups (8.1% seizure free, 29.7% seizure reduction>50%). From baseline to after the titration paired sample t tests revealed significant deterioration in verbal fluency, language comprehension, working memory, and visual block tapping under TPM and a deterioration in verbal memory (delayed free recall) in the TGB group. These functions remained stable in the maintenance phase. Self-report measures initially indicated concerns about AED side effects in both groups and concerns about worse cognitive functioning and depression under TPM. In the maintenance phase the TGB group reported feeling a lack of energy, whereas patients on TPM demonstrated improvement on all QOLIE scales on a descriptive level. This study demonstrates the comparable efficacy of TPM and TGB. Consistent with previous reports, TPM but not TGB appears to be associated with persistent negative cognitive side effects on frontal lobe-associated functions, the degree of which may be estimated by the fact that this effect was observed with a very small sample size. In contrast, in patients taking TPM, initially negatively affected HRQOL returns to baseline in the long run on a descriptive level. The latter finding may be interpreted in accordance with the observation that objective performance and subjective self-report under TPM can be dissociated.

  4. A Controlled Trial of Topiramate Treatment for Alcohol Dependence in Veterans with PTSD (United States)


    during surgery or after a heart attack or cardiac arrest.  Dopamine (Intropin): used to increase cardiac output, blood pressure, and urine flow in...threatened death, serious injury, or sexual violence, in one or more of the following ways: 1. Learning that the traumatic event(s) occurred to a

  5. A Controlled Trial of Topiramate Treatment for Alcohol Dependence in Veterans with PTSD (United States)


    07; 50% vs . 28%). In assessing specific diagnosis commonly associated with cigarette and alcohol use, smokers compared to non - smokers had...univariate analysis of covariance. Correlations were examined among these baseline characteristics. RESULTS: Smokers compared to non - smokers ...12% vs . 0%). Smokers also reported significantly more drinks per week (p<.01; 45 vs . 27) and more heavy drinking days per week (p<.01; 4.6 vs 3.2

  6. A Controlled Trial of Topiramate Treatment for Alcohol Dependence in Veterans with PTSD (United States)


    regional brain metabolite levels related to the neuropathology of a disease. 1H MRS has been used to investigate the deregulation of the gluta- mate and γ...system with a Siemens Trio console (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany ) using an eight-channel transmit-receive head coil. Three-dimensional sagittal T1

  7. A Controlled Trial of Topiramate Treatment for Alcohol Dependence in Veterans with PTSD (United States)


    research on combined relapse prevention and exposure-based interventions in the treatment of AUD and PTSD. Presentation 4: Pharmacologic Therapies...psychological interviews to determine diagnostic eligibility [Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) and the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale ...Psychology of Addictive Behaviors. PRESENTATION AT MOMRP SUSBSTANCE ABUSE IPR IN FT. DETRICK, MD: Presented overview & progress of study and pilot

  8. Cav2.3 (R-Type Calcium Channels are Critical for Mediating Anticonvulsive and Neuroprotective Properties of Lamotrigine In Vivo

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    Maxine Dibué-Adjei


    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Lamotrigine (LTG is a popular modern antiepileptic drug (AED, however, its mechanism of action has yet to be fully understood, as it is known to modulate many members of several ion channel families. In heterologous systems, LTG inhibits Cav2.3 (R-type calcium currents, which contribute to kainic-acid- (KA induced epilepsy in vivo. To gain insight into the role of R-type currents in LTG drug action in vivo, we compared the effects of LTG to topiramate and lacosamide in Cav2.3-deficient mice and controls on KA-induced seizures. Methods: Behavioral seizure rating and quantitative electrocorticography were performed after injection of 20 mg/kg [and 30 mg/kg] KA. One hour before KA injection, mice were pretreated with either 30 mg/kg LTG, 50 mg/kg topiramate (TPM or 30 mg/kg lacosamide (LSM. Results: Ablation of Cav2.3 reduced total seizure scores by 28.6% (p=0.0012 and pretreatment with LTG reduced seizure activity of control mice by 23.2% (p=0.02. In Cav2.3-deficient mice LTG pretreatment increased seizure activity by 22.1% (p=0.018 and increased the percentage of degenerated CA1 pyramidal neurons (p=0.02. All three tested AEDs reduced seizure activity in control mice, however only the non-calcium channel modulating AED, LSM had an anticonvulsive effect in Cav2.3-deficient mice. Furthermore LTG altered electrocorticographic parameters differently in the two genotypes, decreasing relative power of ictal spikes in control mice compared to Cav2.3-defcient mice. Conclusion: These findings give first in vivo evidence for an essential role for Cav2.3 in LTG pharmacology and shed light on a paradoxical effect of LTG in their absence. Furthermore, LTG appears to promote ictal activity in Cav2.3-deficient mice resulting in increased neurotoxicity in the CA1 region. This paradoxical mechanism, possibly reflecting rebound hyperexcitation of pyramidal CA1 neurons after increased inhibition, may be key in understanding LTG-induced seizure

  9. Trends in Antiepileptic Drug Use in Children and Adolescents With Epilepsy. (United States)

    Liu, Xinyue; Carney, Paul R; Bussing, Regina; Segal, Richard; Cottler, Linda B; Winterstein, Almut G


    We describe the trends in antiepileptic drug (AED) use in children and adolescents with epilepsy in the United States. We undertook a cross-sectional study based on Medicaid Analytic eXtract data set from 26 US states. Children and adolescents aged three to 18 years with at least one year continuous Medicaid fee-for-service coverage after the second outpatient or the first inpatient diagnosis of epilepsy in each calendar year during 1999 to 2009 were included in the study; therefore, 11 cohorts were established. A patient was defined as being exposed to a specific AED if he or she had at least one-day supply of the AED during the 1-year follow-up period. The annual prevalence of AEDs was reported, stratified by gender and age. The trends in AED use were evaluated through linear regression. The sample sizes of the 11 cohorts ranged between 17,304 and 22,672. The annual prevalence of valproic acid use declined from 42.4% in 1999 to 26.5% in 2009, and the prevalence of carbamazepine use declined from 37.1% to 10.2%. Meanwhile, the prevalence of levetiracetam use increased from 5.1% to about 32.0% in 2009, and the prevalence of oxcarbazepine use increased from 1.3% to 19.1%. Since 2008, levetiracetam (29.6%) has replaced valproic acid (27.8%) as the most commonly used AED in children and adolescents with epilepsy. The prevalence of diazepam use increased from 11.6% to 28.1%. Compared with first- and second-generation antiepileptic drugs, third-generation AEDs have fewer adverse side effects, resulting in increased patient treatment adherence. Equally important is the economic impact of these newer AEDs. This first-of-its-kind study underscores the need for large database studies that objectively assess the cost-effectiveness of third-generation AEDs versus first- and second-generation AEDs in the treatment of childhood epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Anticonvulsants to treat post-traumatic stress disorder. (United States)

    Wang, Hee Ryung; Woo, Young Sup; Bahk, Won-Myong


    We reviewed the existing literature on the efficacy of anticonvulsants in treating post-traumatic stress disorder. We performed a literature search using PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane database on 30 September 2013. Randomized,controlled studies that investigated the efficacy of anticonvulsants for post-traumatic stress disorder were included in this review. Studies with retrospective designs, case reports and case series were excluded. A total of seven studies met the inclusion criteria for this review. Three studies used topiramate with negative findings regarding its efficacy. Two studies used divalproex, both of which failed to show superiority over placebo. One study used lamotrigine, with favourable results, and one study used tiagabine, with negative results. Future long-term studies with larger sample sizes are needed to investigate the clinical utility of anticonvulsants for posttraumatic stress disorder treatment.

  11. A rational approach to the management of chronic migraine. (United States)

    Evans, Randolph W


    About 2% of the adult population has chronic migraine with only 20% diagnosed with this disorder. Those with medication overuse may improve with withdrawal of overuse medications. The intravenous dihydroergotamine regimen usually produces short-term benefit for those with medically refractory chronic migraine. OnabotulinumtoxinA and topiramate have shown efficacy in large placebo-controlled randomized trials. Sodium valproate, gabapentin, tizanidine, amitriptyline, fluoxetine, zonisamide, and possibly memantine may be alternative or possibly combined treatment options but with lesser levels of evidence supporting their use. Preliminary evidence suggests that nerve blocks might be beneficial. Acupuncture, biofeedback, relaxation therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy might be of benefit. Surgical treatments including bariatric and deactivation of trigger points are of growing interest but not appropriate for most sufferers. Occipital nerve stimulation is a promising treatment with ongoing studies defining its use. © 2013 American Headache Society.

  12. A Case of Valproate Induced Hyperammonemic Encephalopathy

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    Surjit Tarafdar


    Full Text Available A 36-years-old man on phenytoin, levetiracetam, and sodium valproate presented with acute confusion. Routine investigations including serum valproate and phenytoin concentration were normal. His serum ammonia concentration was raised. His valproate was held and 2 days later he recovered with concordant normalisation of serum ammonia concentration. Urea acid cycle disorder was ruled out, and a diagnosis of valproate induced hyperammonemic encephalopathy (VHE was made. Asymptomatic hyperammonemia occurs in 15–50% of valproate-treated patients, and while the true incidence of VHE is not known, it is a recognized complication of sodium valproate treatment. VHE typically presents acutely with impaired consciousness, lethargy, and vomiting. Valproate concentrations may be in the therapeutic range, and liver function tests are typically “normal.” Treatment for VHE consists of ceasing valproate and providing supportive care. Some have advocated carnitine replacement.

  13. Neurodevelopmental Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs. (United States)

    Kellogg, Marissa; Meador, Kimford J


    Increasing evidence suggests that exposure to certain antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) during critical periods of development may induce transient or long-lasting neurodevelopmental deficits across cognitive, motor and behavioral domains. The developing nervous system may endure prolonged chronic exposure to AEDs during pregnancy (in utero) or during childhood, which can lead to neurodevelopmental defects such as congenital neural tube defects, lower IQ, language deficits, autism and ADHD. To date, valproate is the most widely recognized AED to significantly negatively affect neurodevelopment, and demonstrates greater adverse effects than any other AEDs that have been assessed. Although some AEDs appear to have low risk (i.e., lamotrigine, levetiracetam), other AEDs have been implicated in a variety of studies detailed below, and many AEDs have not been adequately assessed. The purpose of this review article is to summarize our current understanding of the neurodevelopmental effects of AEDs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yu. Mukhin


    the Saint Luka’s Institute of Pediatric Neurology and Epilepsy for 3 to 28 years (mean 8.6 years. The authors detailed the clinical characteristics of the disease and the results of the investigation in the observed patients. The investigation showed that JME was the second common type (next to rolandic epilepsy among all idiopathic epilepsies. Clinical remission lasting 3 years or longer was achieved in the vast majority of cases (89.6 %; however, clinical and electroencephalographic remission was in only 22 % of the patients. Treatment was not absolutely ineffective in any of the cases. Monotherapy for JME was used in most patients (79 %, duotherapy in 17 % and polytherapy (3 AEDs in 4 %. Valproate was most commonly used as monotherapy for JME (56 %; levetiracetam and topiramate were more rarely in 13 and 8 %, respectively.Unfortunately, despite the high effect of treatment, the recurrence rate during or after discontinuation of AED therapy (which was gradually done under guidance of video-assisted electroencephalographic monitoring at least 3–4 years after remission was very high (92 %. The recurrence risk was highest when the dose was reduced by more than 50 % and within the first year after therapy discontinuation. Multiple attempts to discontinue the treatment were made at an interval of an average of 4.3-years of remission in a number of patients. The authors identified a number of factors increasing the recurrence risk after withdrawal of an AED.

  15. AVN-211, Novel and Highly Selective 5-HT6 Receptor Small Molecule Antagonist, for the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease. (United States)

    Ivachtchenko, Alexandre V; Lavrovsky, Yan; Ivanenkov, Yan A


    Within the past decade several novel targets have been indicated as key players in Alzheimer-type dementia and associated conditions, including a "frightening" memory loss as well as severe cognitive impairments. These proteins are deeply implicated in crucial cell processes, e.g., autophagy, growth and progression, apoptosis, and metabolic equilibrium. Since recently, 5-HT6R has been considered as one of the most prominent biological targets in AD drug therapy. Therefore, we investigated the potential procognitive and neuroprotective effects of our novel selective 5-HT6R antagonist, AVN-211. During an extensive preclinical evaluation the lead compound demonstrated a relatively high therapeutic potential and improved selectivity toward 5-HT6R as compared to reference drug candidates. It was thoroughly examined in different in vivo behavioral models directly related to AD and showed evident improvements in cognition and learning. In many cases, the observed effect was considerably greater than that determined for the reported drugs and drug candidates, including memantine, SB-742457, and Lu AE58054, evaluated under the same conditions. In addition, AVN-211 showed a similar or better anxiolytic efficacy than fenobam, rufinamide, lorazepam, and buspirone in an elevated plus-maze model, elevated platform, and open field tests. The compound demonstrated low toxicity and no side effects in vivo, an appropriate pharmacokinetic profile, and stability. In conclusion, AVN-211 significantly delayed or partially halted the progressive decline in memory function associated with AD, which makes it an interesting drug candidate for the treatment of neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Advanced clinical trials are currently under active discussion and in high priority.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Zykov


    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficacy of topiramate at a dose of 1–2 mg/kg in 34 patients aged 7–17 with tic hyperkinesis and Tourette syndrome (TS.Materials and methods. We performed clinical evaluation of hyperkinesis severity along with the assessment of somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP and the analysis of surface electromyography (EMG data prior to treatment initiation and after 6 weeks of therapy. SSEP investigation was carried out in accordance with a standard protocol. Interpeak latencies on the tracks Cp–Fpz (D, S, Cerv6–Fpz (D, S, Erb’i–Erb’c (D, S were evaluated in order to determine the afferentation between relevant brain structures: N9–N13, N13–N20, N9–N20. N20–P23 potentials reflected primary activity of somatosensory cortex. The investigation of tic hyperkinesis was conducted using surface EMG of facial muscles (m. orbicularis oculi, the muscles of the shoulder girdle (m. supraspinatus, and the muscles of the upper extremities (m. flexor digitorum superficialis according to the standard protocol. Interference curve was recorded at rest and after hyperkinesis stimulation with the use of provocative tests. High-amplitude (more than 500 mkV oscillations were considered as burst activity. The severity of clinical manifestations was evaluated using the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (1989 and the method of tics counting during 20 minutes (V.P. Zykov, 2009. The control group comprised 15 healthy children matched for sex and age.Results. The use of topiramate in patients with chronic motor/vocal tics and TS has significantly decreased the severity of hyperkinesis manifestations, evaluated both by the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (p < 0,05 and by the method of tics counting during 20 minutes (p < 0,05. It also helped to decrease the prevalence of burst activity in EMG while registering hyperkinesis in different muscle groups. SSEP data showed the normalization of interpeak latency values and the decrease of N20

  17. Pharmacologic Approaches to Weight Management: Recent Gains and Shortfalls in Combating Obesity. (United States)

    Saunders, Katherine H; Kumar, Rekha B; Igel, Leon I; Aronne, Louis J


    Obesity is a growing epidemic in the USA with over one third of adults presently classified as obese. Obesity-related comorbidities include many leading causes of preventable death such as heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and certain types of cancer. Modest weight loss of 5-10 % of body weight is sufficient to produce clinically relevant improvements in cardiovascular disease risk factors among patients with overweight and obesity. Until recently, there were limited pharmacologic options approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat obesity. Phentermine/topiramate ER and lorcaserin were approved in 2012, and naltrexone SR/bupropion SR and liraglutide 3.0 mg were approved in 2014. This article reviews recent literature in the field of Obesity Medicine and highlights important findings from clinical trials. Future directions in the pharmacologic management of obesity are presented along with new diabetes medications that promote weight loss and reduce cardiovascular mortality.

  18. Antiepileptic drugs and intrauterine death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomson, Torbjörn; Battino, Dina; Bonizzoni, Erminio


    ) after prenatal AED exposure. Using EURAP data, we prospectively monitored pregnancies exposed to the 6 most common AED monotherapies and to polytherapy. Intrauterine death (spontaneous abortion and stillbirth combined) was the primary endpoint. RESULTS: Of 7,055 pregnancies exposed to monotherapy...... with lamotrigine (n = 1,910), carbamazepine (n = 1,713), valproic acid (n = 1,171), levetiracetam (n = 324), oxcarbazepine (n = 262), or phenobarbital (n = 260), and to polytherapy (n = 1,415), 632 ended in intrauterine deaths (592 spontaneous abortions and 40 stillbirths). Rates of intrauterine death were similar...... that the risk was greater with polytherapy vs monotherapy (risk ratio [RR] 1.38; 95% CI 1.14-1.66), parental history of MCMs (RR 1.92; 1.20-3.07), maternal age (RR 1.06; 1.04-1.07), and number of previous intrauterine deaths (RR 1.09; 1.00-1.19). The risk was greater with early enrollment and decreased...

  19. Practice parameters in management of status epileptics

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    Usha Kant Misra


    Full Text Available Status epilepticus (SE is an emergency neurological problem, more common in the developing countries due to high incidence of infection, stroke and head injury. The protocol for management of SE is intravenous benzodiazepine, followed by phenytoin, valproate (VPA and phenobarbitone and if uncontrolled general anesthesia (GA. World Federation of Neurology recommends special guidelines for resource poor countries. Use of GA results in hypotension and respiratory depression needing intensive care management. There is a paucity of intensive care facilities hence the recommended antiepileptic drugs (AEDs which have inherent toxicity of hypotension and respiratory failure cannot be given safely. Under these situations AEDs such as VPA, levetiracetam and lacosamide may be evaluated in SE because of cardiovascular and respiratory safety profile. In this review, the limitations of existing guidelines in the developing countries have been discussed and a way forward has been suggested.

  20. Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewey, Stephen L. (Manorville, NY); Brodie, Jonathan D. (Cos Cob, CT); Ashby, Jr., Charles R. (Miller Place, NY)


    The present invention provides a highly efficient method for treating substance addiction and for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from substance addiction. The method includes administering to a mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. The present invention also provides a method of treatment of cocaine, morphine, heroin, nicotine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, or ethanol addiction by treating a mammal with an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. In one embodiment, the method of the present invention includes administering to the mammal an effective amount of a composition which increases central nervous system GABA levels wherein the effective amount is sufficient to diminish, inhibit or eliminate behavior associated with craving or use of drugs of abuse. The composition includes GVG, gabapentin, valproic acid, progabide, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, fengabine, cetylGABA, topiramate or tiagabine or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or an enantiomer or a racemic mixture thereof.

  1. Bipolar Affective Disorder and Migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birk Engmann


    Full Text Available This paper consists of a case history and an overview of the relationship, aetiology, and treatment of comorbid bipolar disorder migraine patients. A MEDLINE literature search was used. Terms for the search were bipolar disorder bipolar depression, mania, migraine, mood stabilizer. Bipolar disorder and migraine cooccur at a relatively high rate. Bipolar II patients seem to have a higher risk of comorbid migraine than bipolar I patients have. The literature on the common roots of migraine and bipolar disorder, including both genetic and neuropathological approaches, is broadly discussed. Moreover, bipolar disorder and migraine are often combined with a variety of other affective disorders, and, furthermore, behavioural factors also play a role in the origin and course of the diseases. Approach to treatment options is also difficult. Several papers point out possible remedies, for example, valproate, topiramate, which acts on both diseases, but no first-choice treatments have been agreed upon yet.

  2. Therapeutic Symptomatic Strategies in the Parasomnias. (United States)

    Manni, Raffaele; Toscano, Gianpaolo; Terzaghi, Michele


    The purpose of this review was to discuss the currently available pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatment options for parasomnias. Recent pathophysiological findings about sleep structure in parasomnias helped understanding several drug mechanisms of action. Serotoninergic theory accounts for the effect of serotoninergic drugs. Study about spectral analysis of sleep showed the effect of clonazepam on spectral bands. Cannabinoids proved to be effective in some of parasomnias, as in many other neurological disorders. A series of therapeutic strategies were analyzed and compared. Benzodiazepines, antidepressant drugs, and L-5-hydroxytryptophan may be beneficial in DOA. SSRI and topiramate are effective in SRED. RBD responds to clonazepam, melatonin, and to a lesser extent to dopaminergic and anticholinergic agents. Prazosin and cannabinoids are effective in nightmare disorder. Sleep paralysis may respond to antidepressant agents. Tricyclic antidepressant may be effective in sleep-related hallucinations and exploding head syndrome. Sleep enuresis may be successfully treated with desmopressin, anticholinergic drugs, and imipramine.

  3. A case of Hashimoto`s encephalopathy presenting with seizures and psychosis

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    Min-Joo Lee


    Full Text Available Hashimoto’s encephalopathy (HE is a rare, poorly understood, autoimmune disease characterized by symptoms of acute or subacute encephalopathy associated with increased anti-thyroid antibody levels. Here, we report a case of a 14-year-old girl with HE and briefly review the literature. The patient presented with acute mental changes and seizures, but no evidence of infectious encephalitis. In the acute stage, the seizures did not respond to conventional antiepileptic drugs, including valproic acid, phenytoin, and topiramate. The clinical course was complicated by the development of acute psychosis, including bipolar mood, insomnia, agitation, and hallucinations. The diagnosis of HE was supported by positive results for antithyroperoxidase and antithyroglobulin antibodies. Treatment with methylprednisolone was effective; her psychosis improved and the number of seizures decreased. HE is a serious but curable, condition, which might be underdiagnosed if not suspected. Anti-thyroid antibodies must be measured for the diagnosis. HE should be considered in patients with diverse neuropsychiatric manifestations.

  4. Anti-Obesity Agents and the US Food and Drug Administration. (United States)

    Casey, Martin F; Mechanick, Jeffrey I


    Despite the growing market for obesity care, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved only two new pharmaceutical agents-lorcaserin and combination phentermine/topiramate-for weight reduction since 2000, while removing three agents from the market in the same time period. This article explores the FDA's history and role in the approval of anti-obesity medications within the context of a public health model of obesity. Through the review of obesity literature and FDA approval documents, we identified two major barriers preventing fair evaluation of anti-obesity agents including: (1) methodological pitfalls in clinical trials and (2) misaligned values in the assessment of anti-obesity agents. Specific recommendations include the use of adaptive (Bayesian) design protocols, value-based analyses of risks and benefits, and regulatory guidance based on a comprehensive, multi-platform obesity disease model. Positively addressing barriers in the FDA approval process of anti-obesity agents may have many beneficial effects within an obesity disease model.

  5. Contemporary pharmacological obesity treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaszubska Katarzyna


    Full Text Available In the last few years, obesity has become a global epidemic. Consequently, worldwide costs associated with managing obesity and obesity-related comorbidities are huge. Numerous studies have focused on discerning the appropriate proper treatment of weight related problems such as overweight and obesity. Moreover, many clinical trials have been conducted for many years in order to introduce effective anti-obesity drugs. The aim of the present review is to provide an overview of current and future pharmacotherapy for obesity, and to provide the reader with a determination of the concentration and composition of long and short term anti-obesity drugs, doing so by placing emphasis on pharmacotherapy and up-to-day solutions. It should be noted that, currently, the worldwide pharmacotherapy is represented by phendimetrazine, benzphetamine and diethylpropion, as well as by orlistat, lorcaserin, phentermine/topiramate, naltrexone/bupropion and liraglutide. In our paper, individual cases of patients’ needs are thoroughly illustrated by way of examples. Medical prescriptions and contraindications are also described.

  6. Antiobesity Pharmacotherapy for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Focus on Long-Term Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Seon Jeon


    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes and obesity have a complex relationship; obesity is linked to insulin resistance, the precursor to type 2 diabetes. The management of obesity is an important method to delay onset of diabetes and improve the glycemic durability of antidiabetic agents. However, insulin and some of the oral hypoglycemic agents used to treat diabetes cause significant weight gain, and it is difficult for patients with diabetes to reduce and maintain their weight by life-style changes alone. Thus, antiobesity medications or bariatric surgery may be a necessary adjunct for certain obese patients with diabetes. In 2012, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA approved lorcaserin and phentermine/topiramate extended-release for the management of chronic weight, and approval for naltrexone/bupropion sustained-release as an adjunct to exercise and reduced caloric intake followed in 2014. Liraglutide is pending FDA approval for antiobesity drug. Here we review the efficacy of approved and new promising drugs for the management of obesity.

  7. Pharmacogenomics of alcohol addiction: Personalizing pharmacologic treatment of alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragia Georgia


    Full Text Available Alcohol dependence is a serious psychiatric disorder with harmful physical, mental and social consequences, and a high probability of a chronic relapsing course. The field of pharmacologic treatment of alcohol dependence and craving is expanding rapidly; the drugs that have been found to reduce relapse rates or drinking in alcohol-dependent patients and are approved for treatment of alcohol dependence are naltrexone, acamprosate and disulfiram, whereas also topiramate appears as a promising therapy. For many patients, however, these treatments are not effective. Evidence from a number of different studies suggests that genetic variation is a significant contributor to interindividual variation of clinical presentation of alcohol problems and response to a given treatment. The aim of the present review is to summarize and discuss the findings on the association between gene polymorphisms and the response to alcohol dependence treatment medications. It is anticipated that future implementation of pharmacogenomics in clinical practice will help personalize alcohol dependence drug treatment, and development personalized hospital pharmacology.

  8. Visualization of SV2A conformations in situ by the use of Protein Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, Berkley A.; Matagne, Alain; Braennstroem, Annika; Euler, Anne von; Jansson, Magnus; Hauzenberger, Elenor; Soederhaell, J. Arvid


    The synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A), the brain-binding site of the anti-epileptic drug levetiracetam (LEV), has been characterized by Protein Tomography TM . We identified two major conformations of SV2A in mouse brain tissue: first, a compact, funnel-structure with a pore-like opening towards the cytoplasm; second, a more open, V-shaped structure with a cleft-like opening towards the intravesicular space. The large differences between these conformations suggest a high degree of flexibility and support a valve-like mechanism consistent with the postulated transporter role of SV2A. These two conformations are represented both in samples treated with LEV, and in saline-treated samples, which indicates that LEV binding does not cause a large-scale conformational change of SV2A, or lock a specific conformational state of the protein. This study provides the first direct structural data on SV2A, and supports a transporter function suggested by sequence homology to MFS class of transporter proteins

  9. April 2017 critical care case of the month

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raschke RA


    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. History of Present Illness: A 20-year-old woman was transferred from another medical center for care. She was pregnant and initially presented with a one day history of crampy abdominal pain with nausea and vomiting after eating old, bad tasting chicken two days previously. She had pain of her right arm and a non-displaced humeral fracture was seen on x-ray. The etiology of the fracture was unclear. Her illness rapidly progressed to respiratory distress requiring intubation. The fetus had deceleration of heart tones leading to a cesarean section and delivery of a non-viable infant. Subsequently, she had rapid progression of shock and anuria. Past Medical History: She had a previous history of a seizure disorder which was managed with levetiracetam, clonazepam, and folic acid. There was a previous intentional opiate overdose 2 years earlier. One month prior to admission she had visited her husband in Iraq. After returning to the US …

  10. Severe Preeclampsia in the Setting of Myasthenia Gravis

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    Adam J. Lake


    Full Text Available Myasthenia gravis (MG is a rare autoimmune disease that leads to progressive muscle weakness and is common during female reproductive years. The myasthenic mother and her newborn must be observed carefully, as complications during all stages of pregnancy and the puerperium may arise suddenly. Preeclampsia is a common obstetrical condition for which magnesium sulfate is used for seizure prophylaxis. However, magnesium sulfate is strongly contraindicated in MG as it impairs already slowed nerve-muscle connections. Similarly, many first-line antihypertensive medications, including calcium channels blockers and β-blockers, may lead to MG exacerbation. This case describes the effective obstetrical management of a patient with MG who developed severe preeclampsia. The effective use of levetiracetam and various antihypertensive medications including intravenous labetalol is described. A review of the ten reported cases of MG complicated by preeclampsia is examined to aggregate observations of clinical care, with focus on delivery methods, anticonvulsants, and antihypertensive medications.

  11. Paradoxical Seizure Response to Phenytoin in an Epileptic Heroin Addict. (United States)

    Vasagar, Brintha; Verma, Beni R; Dewberry, Robert G; Pula, Thaddeus


    Phenytoin has a narrow therapeutic window and seizures can occur at both ends of the spectrum. A 41-year-old man with a history of a seizure disorder and heroin addiction presented with dizziness following 2 generalized tonic-clonic seizures that occurred earlier that day. The patient had received a loading dose of phenytoin for seizures associated with a subtherapeutic level 5 days previously. Initial evaluation revealed an elevated phenytoin level of 32.6 mcg/mL and an opiate-positive toxicology screen. Levetiracetam was started on the day of presentation and phenytoin was held until the level returned to the therapeutic range. The patient's dizziness resolved and he had no additional seizures. Evaluation for reversible causes of seizure activity along with anticonvulsant administration is generally the standard of care for breakthrough seizures. Phenytoin blood levels, if supratherapeutic, may be at least partially responsible for breakthrough seizure activity; in this circumstance, holding phenytoin and temporarily adding another anticonvulsant may be indicated.

  12. Carbamazepine overdose after exposure to simethicone: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guneysel Ozlem


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Carbamazepine is an anticonvulsant drug and is also used as a treatment for patients with manic-depressive illness, post-herpetic neuralgia or phantom limb pain. The drug itself has many drug interactions. Simethicone is an antifoaming agent and is reported to be an inert material with no known drug interaction with carbamazepine. Case presentation We present a case of a patient who was routinely using carbamazepine 400 mg three times per day and levetiracetam 500 mg twice daily, and experienced carbamazepine overdose after exposure to simethicone. After cessation of simethicone therapy normal drug levels of carbamazepine were obtained again with the standard dose of the drug. The mechanism of interaction is unknown but the risk of overdose should be considered when prescribing simethicone to a patient who is using carbamazepine. Conclusion Simethicone and carbamazepine, when taken together, may be a cause of carbamazepine toxicity. The risk of carbamazepine overdose should be considered when prescribing simethicone to a patient who is using carbamazepine.

  13. Effect of hydrophobic inclusions on polymer swelling kinetics studied by magnetic resonance imaging. (United States)

    Gajdošová, Michaela; Pěček, Daniel; Sarvašová, Nina; Grof, Zdeněk; Štěpánek, František


    The rate of drug release from polymer matrix-based sustained release formulations is often controlled by the thickness of a gel layer that forms upon contact with dissolution medium. The effect of formulation parameters on the kinetics of elementary rate processes that contribute to gel layer formation, such as water ingress, polymer swelling and erosion, is therefore of interest. In the present work, gel layer formation has been investigated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is a non-destructive method allowing direct visualization of effective water concentration inside the tablet and its surrounding. Using formulations with Levetiracetam as the active ingredient, HPMC as a hydrophilic matrix former and carnauba wax (CW) as a hydrophobic component in the matrix system, the effect of different ratios of these two ingredients on the kinetics of gel formation (MRI) and drug release (USP 4 like dissolution test) has been investigated and interpreted using a mathematical model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Estado epiléptico, consideraciones sobre manejo y tratamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solari B. Francesca, Dra.


    Full Text Available El estado epiléptico es una emergencia médica. Existen diversas definiciones de estado epiléptico y clasificaciones según etiología, tipo de crisis y respuesta a terapia. En esta revisión, se adopta la variable tiempo como fundamental en el manejo del paciente. Otro concepto que se resalta, es la sospecha frente a pacientes graves o con ciertas patologías, la posibilidad de presentar estado epiléptico no convulsivo, ya que la identificación de este, podría mejorar el manejo del paciente grave. Las benzodiacepinas siguen siendo la terapia de primera línea, con una muy buena tasa de respuesta, cuanto más precoz se adopte la terapia. Se discuten diferentes terapias de segunda línea (fenitoína, fenobarbital, valproato, levetiracetam y midazolam y se mencionan aquellas de tercera línea, tanto farmacológicas como otras (dieta cetogénica, inmunosupresores, corticoides y cirugía.

  15. Epileptic Negative Myoclonus as the First and Only Symptom in a Challenging Diagnosis of Benign Epilepsy With Centrotemporal Spikes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chen MD


    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the clinical and neurophysiological characteristics of epileptic negative myoclonus as the first and only ictal symptom of benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes. Methods: Electrophysiological evaluations included polygraphic recordings with simultaneous video electroencephalogram monitoring and tests performed with patient’s upper limb outstretched in standing posture. Epileptic negative myoclonus manifestations, electrophysiological features, and responses to antiepileptic drugs were analyzed. Results: The authors report 2 patients with benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes, who had epileptic negative myoclonus as the first and only seizure type. Video electroencephalogram monitoring results showed that their negative myoclonus seizures were emanating from the contralateral central and the parietal regions. Epileptic negative myoclonus was controlled by administration of valproate and levetiracetam. Conclusion: Epileptic negative myoclonus can be the first and only seizure type of benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes, and long-term follow-up monitoring should be the care for the recurrence and/or presence of other types of seizures.

  16. Update on the prophylaxis of migraine. (United States)

    Schürks, Markus; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Goadsby, Peter


    Migraine prophylaxis is a stepwise procedure with lifestyle advice followed by consideration of medications. Patients should be advised to try to maintain a regular lifestyle, with regular sleep, meals, exercise, and management of stress, perhaps through relaxation techniques or other ways that are sensible for them. If this regimen does not adequately control their migraines, preventatives are indicated. Patients can choose between evidence-based nutraceuticals such as riboflavin, feverfew, butterbur, or coenzyme Q10, or more traditional pharmacotherapeutics. Medicine choices are somewhat limited by what is available in each country, but from the full range, the medicines of first choice are beta-adrenoceptor blockers, flunarizine, topiramate, and valproic acid. Beta-adrenoceptor blockers are particularly useful in patients also suffering from hypertension or tachycardia. Following recent studies, topiramate has become a first choice for episodic as well as chronic migraine. It is the only prophylactic drug that may lead to weight loss, but it is sometimes associated with adverse cognitive effects. Valproic acid and flunarizine also have very good prophylactic properties. However, valproic acid is often associated with adverse effects, and flunarizine is unavailable in many countries, including the United States. If sequential monotherapies are ineffective, combinations of first-line drugs should be tried before advancing to drugs of second choice, which are associated with more adverse effects or have less well-established prophylactic properties. Amitriptyline should be used carefully because of its anticholinergic effects, although it is useful in comorbid tension-type headache, depression, and sleep disorders. Methysergide is very effective, but it has been supplanted or even made unavailable in many countries because of its well-described association with retroperitoneal fibrosis. Pizotifen has a slightly better safety profile but is unavailable in the United

  17. 12-month follow-up study of drug treatment in pathological gamblers: a primary outcome study. (United States)

    Dannon, Pinhas N; Lowengrub, Katherine; Musin, Ernest; Gonopolsky, Yehudit; Kotler, Moshe


    Pathological gambling (PG) is a relatively common and highly disabling impulse control disorder. A range of psychotherapeutic agents including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, antiepileptic drugs, and opioid antagonists are shown to be effective in the short-term treatment of PG. The use of a wide range of pharmacological treatments for PG is consistent with the observation that PG shares features of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders, impulse control disorders, and addictive disorders. The aim of the study is to assess the rate of relapse in treatment-responder pathological gamblers after discontinuation of the active treatment. Our study sample was composed of 43 male pathological gamblers who had been full responders to 1 of 4 drug treatment regimens (fluvoxamine, topiramate, bupropion SR, or naltrexone) from several previous acute open-label (12-week) comparison studies. Full response was defined as the absence of gambling for a 1-month duration together with improvement on the Clinical Global Improvement scale. The 43 full responders were then followed prospectively for an additional 9 months, which included a 3-month open-label continuation phase and a 6-month medication-free follow-up phase. Follow-up visits were performed on a monthly basis throughout the duration of study. At every follow-up visit, a comprehensive psychiatric diagnostic evaluation was performed on all patients, and patients were assessed for symptoms of gambling using a self-report instrument and collateral family reports. The Clinical Global Impression Improvement scale was also administered at every follow-up visit. Raters were blind to the previous drug treatment. Most patients did not relapse during the 6-month medication-free follow-up phase. Three of 6 patients with fluvoxamine, 3 of 9 with topiramate, 7 of 18 with bupropion SR, and 4 of 10 with naltrexone relapsed. Relapse was strictly defined as gambling behavior at any time during the 6-month medication-free follow

  18. Systematic review and comparison of pharmacologic therapies for neuropathic pain associated with spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snedecor SJ


    Full Text Available Sonya J Snedecor,1 Lavanya Sudharshan,1 Joseph C Cappelleri,2 Alesia Sadosky,3 Pooja Desai,4 Yash J Jalundhwala,5 Marc Botteman1 1Pharmerit International, Bethesda, MD, USA; 2Global Research and Development, Pfizer, Groton, CT, USA; 3Biostatistics, Pfizer, New York, NY, USA; 4College of Pharmacy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA; 5Pharmacy Administration, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Background: Management of neuropathic pain (NeP associated with spinal cord injury (SCI is difficult. This report presents a systematic literature review and comparison of the efficacy and safety of pharmacologic therapies for treating SCI-associated NeP. Methods: Medline, Embase, Cochrane, and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects were searched through December 2011 for randomized, blinded, and controlled clinical trials of SCI-associated NeP meeting predefined inclusion criteria. Efficacy outcomes of interest were pain reduction on the 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS or 100 mm visual analog scale and proportion of patients achieving ≥30% or ≥50% pain reduction. Discontinuations and adverse events (AEs were also assessed, for which Bayesian meta-analytic indirect comparisons were performed. Results: Of the nine studies included in the analysis, samples were <100 patients, except for one pregabalin study (n = 136. Standard errors for the NRS outcome were often not reported, precluding quantitative comparisons across treatments. Estimated 11-point NRS pain reduction relative to placebo was –1.72 for pregabalin, –1.65 for amitriptyline, –1.0 for duloxetine, –1 (median for levetiracetam, –0.27 for gabapentin, 1 (median for lamotrigine, and 2 for dronabinol. Risk ratios relative to placebo for 30% improvement were 0.71 for levetiracetam and 2.56 for pregabalin, and 0.94 and 2.91, respectively, for 50% improvement. Meta-analytic comparisons showed significantly more AEs with pregabalin and tramadol compared with

  19. Anticonvulsants for fibromyalgia. (United States)

    Üçeyler, Nurcan; Sommer, Claudia; Walitt, Brian; Häuser, Winfried


    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a clinically well-defined chronic condition of unknown aetiology characterised by chronic widespread pain that often co-exists with sleep problems and fatigue. People often report high disability levels and poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Drug therapy focuses on reducing key symptoms and disability, and improving HRQoL. Anticonvulsants (antiepileptic drugs) are drugs frequently used for the treatment of chronic pain syndromes. To assess the benefits and harms of anticonvulsants for treating FM symptoms. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Issue 8, 2013), MEDLINE (1966 to August 2013), PsycINFO (1966 to August 2013), SCOPUS (1980 to August 2013) and the reference lists of reviewed articles for published studies and (to August 2013) for unpublished trials. We selected randomised controlled trials of any formulation of anticonvulsants used for the treatment of people with FM of any age. Two review authors independently extracted the data of all included studies and assessed the risks of bias of the studies. We resolved discrepancies by discussion. We included eight studies: five with pregabalin and one study each with gabapentin, lacosamide and levetiracetam. A total of 2480 people were included into anticonvulsants groups and 1099 people in placebo groups. The median therapy phase of the studies was 13 weeks. The amount and quality of evidence were insufficient to draw definite conclusions on the efficacy and safety of gabapentin, lacosamide and levetiracetam in FM. The amount and quality of evidence was sufficient to draw definite conclusions on the efficacy and safety of pregabalin in FM. Therefore, we focused on our interpretation of the evidence for pregabalin due to our greater certainty about its effects and its greater relevance to clinical practice. All pregabalin studies had a low risk of bias. Reporting a 50% or greater reduction in pain was more frequent with

  20. A single-blinded phenobarbital-controlled trial of levetiracetam as mono-therapy in dogs with newly diagnosed epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredsø, N.; Sabers, A.; Toft, Nils


    Treatment of canine epilepsy is problematic. Few antiepileptic drugs have proven efficacy in dogs and undesirable adverse effects and pharmacoresistance are not uncommon. Consequently, the need for investigation of alternative treatment options is ongoing. The objective of this study was to inves...

  1. Comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders. (United States)

    Álvarez Ruiz, Eva M; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Luis


    The comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders has not been studied in depth. In addition, clinical implications involved in the appearance of both disorders are very important. A systematic literature review of MEDLINE published up to September 2013 was performed, analyzing all the articles that studied the comorbidity of both conditions (bipolar disorder and eating disorders) and others research that studied the efficacy of pharmacological treatment and psychotherapy to improve these illnesses. In this review we found a high comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders, especially of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Studies show that lithium and topiramate are 2 of the more effective pharmacological agents in the treatment of both disorders. There are a lot of studies that show evidence of comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders. However, further research is needed on assessment and treatment when these conditions co-exist, as well as study into the biopsychological aspects to determine the comorbid aetiology. Copyright © 2014 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. iPSC-Based Compound Screening and In Vitro Trials Identify a Synergistic Anti-amyloid β Combination for Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Kondo


    Full Text Available In the process of drug development, in vitro studies do not always adequately predict human-specific drug responsiveness in clinical trials. Here, we applied the advantage of human iPSC-derived neurons, which offer human-specific drug responsiveness, to screen and evaluate therapeutic candidates for Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Using AD patient neurons with nearly 100% purity from iPSCs, we established a robust and reproducible assay for amyloid β peptide (Aβ, a pathogenic molecule in AD, and screened a pharmaceutical compound library. We acquired 27 Aβ-lowering screen hits, prioritized hits by chemical structure-based clustering, and selected 6 leading compounds. Next, to maximize the anti-Aβ effect, we selected a synergistic combination of bromocriptine, cromolyn, and topiramate as an anti-Aβ cocktail. Finally, using neurons from familial and sporadic AD patients, we found that the cocktail showed a significant and potent anti-Aβ effect on patient cells. This human iPSC-based platform promises to be useful for AD drug development.

  3. [Antiepileptic drugs in the control of the impulses disorders]. (United States)

    Roncero, C; Rodríguez-Urrutia, A; Grau-López, L; Casas, M


    The disorders classified as control of the impulses; explosive intermittent disorder, pathological gambling, kleptomania, pyromania, pathological gambling, hair pullers, compulsive purchases, skin picking and onychophagia are a heterogeneous set of clinical entities, most of them with little prevalence. Nevertheless, they cause important personal and social dysfunctions and present great comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders. Antipsychotics, antidepressive agents, serotoninergic agonists, naltrexone, beta blockers antiandrogen, lithium and anticonvulsants have been used in their pharmacological treatment. Currently, interest is growing on the use of the antiepileptics because their possible usefulness has been described in these disorders. However, the neurobiological effects are only partially known in some cases. We have reviewed the literature regarding the treatment of these disorders with mood stabilizers, (lithium, carbamazepine, valproate, phenitoin, oxcarbacepin, topiramate, lamotrigin, leviteracetam) and have described those studies on which the current knowledge and evidence are based. The results must be considered as provisional and must be updated in the future, since they are mostly based on case reports, case series or opened clinical trials, their being little knowledge based on double blind clinical trials.

  4. Combining Pharmacological and Psychological Treatments for Binge Eating Disorder: Current Status, Limitations, and Future Directions. (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M; Reas, Deborah L; Mitchell, James E


    Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by recurrent binge eating and marked distress about binge eating without the extreme compensatory behaviors for weight control that characterize other eating disorders. BED is prevalent, associated strongly with obesity, and is associated with heightened levels of psychological, psychiatric, and medical concerns. This article provides an overview of randomized controlled treatments for combined psychological and pharmacological treatment of BED to inform current clinical practice and future treatment research. In contrast to the prevalence and significance of BED, to date, limited research has been performed on combining psychological and pharmacological treatments for BED to enhance outcomes. Our review here found that combining certain medications with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) or behavioral weight loss (BWL) interventions produces superior outcomes to pharmacotherapy only but does not substantially improve outcomes achieved with CBT/BWL only. One medication (orlistat) has improved weight losses with CBT/BWL albeit minimally, and only one medication (topiramate) has enhanced reductions achieved with CBT in both binge eating and weight. Implications for future research are discussed.

  5. Sulfonamide inhibition studies of the β-carbonic anhydrase from the newly discovered bacterium Enterobacter sp. B13. (United States)

    Eminoğlu, Ayşenur; Vullo, Daniela; Aşık, Aycan; Çolak, Dilşat Nigar; Çanakçı, Sabriye; Beldüz, Ali Osman; Supuran, Claudiu T


    The genome of the newly identified bacterium Enterobacter sp. B13 encodes for a β-class carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC, EspCA. This enzyme was recently cloned, and characterized kinetically by this group (J. Enzyme Inhib. Med. Chem. 2016, 31). Here we report an inhibition study with sulfonamides and sulfamates of this enzyme. The best EspCA inhibitors were some sulfanylated sulfonamides with elongated molecules, metanilamide, 4-aminoalkyl-benzenesulfonamides, acetazolamide, and deacetylated methazolamide (KIs in the range of 58.7-96.5nM). Clinically used agents such as methazolamide, ethoxzolamide, dorzolamide, brinzolamide, benzolamide, zonisamide, sulthiame, sulpiride, topiramate and valdecoxib were slightly less effective inhibitors (KIs in the range of 103-138nM). Saccharin, celecoxib, dichlorophenamide and many simple benzenesulfonamides were even less effective as EspCA inhibitors, with KIs in the range of 384-938nM. Identification of effective inhibitors of this bacterial enzyme may lead to pharmacological tools useful for understanding the physiological role(s) of the β-class CAs in bacterial pathogenicity/virulence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Metabolic and functional MR biomarkers of antiepileptic drug effectiveness: A review. (United States)

    van Veenendaal, Tamar M; IJff, Dominique M; Aldenkamp, Albert P; Hofman, Paul A M; Vlooswijk, Marielle C G; Rouhl, Rob P W; de Louw, Anton J; Backes, Walter H; Jansen, Jacobus F A


    As a large number of patients with epilepsy do not respond favorably to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), a better understanding of treatment failure and the cause of adverse side effects is required. The working mechanisms of AEDs also alter neurotransmitter concentrations and brain activity, which can be measured using MR spectroscopy and functional MR imaging, respectively. This review presents an overview of clinical research of MR spectroscopy and functional MR imaging studies to the effects of AEDs on the brain. Despite the scarcity of studies associating MR findings to the effectiveness of AEDs, the current research shows clear potential regarding this matter. Several GABAergic AEDs have been shown to increase the GABA concentration, which was related to seizure reductions, while language problems due to topiramate have been associated with altered activation patterns measured with functional MR imaging. MR spectroscopy and functional MR imaging provide biomarkers that may predict individual treatment outcomes, and enable the assessment of mechanisms of treatment failure and cognitive side effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Diabesity: are weight loss medications effective? (United States)

    Halpern, Alfredo; Mancini, Marcio C


    Weight reduction has been shown to improve glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors associated with insulin resistance in obese individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Therapeutic options for these patients include promoting weight loss (non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment) and improving glycemic control, as well as treating common associated risk factors such as arterial hypertension and dyslipidemias. This article provides an overview of anti-obesity drugs used in the treatment of obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. The most widely investigated drugs, sibutramine and orlistat, result in modest, clinically worthwhile weight loss, with demonstrable improvements in many co-morbidities, among them, type 2 diabetes. Clinical trials with these anti-obesity medications in cohorts of obese diabetic patients have been reviewed as well as cathecolaminergic agents (diethylpropion [amfepramone], fenproporex, mazindol, ephedrine-caffeine combination), serotoninergic drugs (fenfluramine, dexfenfluramine, fluoxetine), and other drugs that have some action on weight loss (the antidiabetic agent metformin, anti-epileptic agents topiramate and zonisamide, and the antidepressive bupropion [amfebutamone]). These trials show variable benefits in terms of effects on glucose profiles.

  8. Assessment and treatment of binge eating in obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walmir Ferreira Coutinho


    Full Text Available Binge eating is a frequent disorder among obese patient, specialythose undergoing weight loss treatment. Binge eating disorder(BED is a newly defined diagnostic category, usually associatedwith psychopathology and overweight. Several clinical trialsinvolving psychoterapeutical interventions have shown thatcognitive beahavior therapy and interpersonal therapy can beeffective for the treatment of obese patients with BED.Pharmacotherapy can be also an useful tool for the control ofbinge eating, as part of a multidimensional therapeutic approach,associated to psychotherapy and eating behavior modification.Although the investigation of pharmacological agents for thetreatment of BED is still in its preliminary stages, somemedications have shown promising results in randomized clinicaltrials. Currently, three main classes of drugs have been evaluatedin randomized controlled trials: antidepressants, anti-obesityagents and anticonvulsants. The most studied drugs were theserotonina selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs. Fluoxetine,fluvoxamine, sertralina and citalopram have been shown to causemodest, but significant reduction in the frequency of bingeepisodes and body weight over the short term of the trials. Morerecently, sibutramina and topiramate have been shown tosignificantly reduce the binge eating behavior and the body weightin patients with obesity and binge eating.

  9. Neurobehavioral aspects, pathophysiology, and management of Tourette syndrome. (United States)

    Shprecher, David R; Schrock, Lauren; Himle, Michael


    This update summarizes progress in understanding Tourette syndrome clinical characteristics, etiology, and treatment over the past year. Premonitory sensory phenomena were found to have important impacts on Tourette syndrome quality of life. A rare genetic form of Tourette syndrome due to L-histidine-decarboxylase mutation, with similar features in human and rodent, has inspired new research on functional anatomy of Tourette syndrome. In response to new data, treatment guidelines have been revised to include behavioral therapy as first-line treatment. Novel dopamine receptor antagonists aripiprazole and ecopipam have shown potential efficacy - as well as tolerability concerns. Recent work has suggested efficacy and tolerability of topiramate and fluphenazine, but more rigorous studies are needed to further understand their role in Tourette syndrome management. Recent consensus guidelines explain when deep brain stimulation can be considered for severe refractory cases under a multidisciplinary team. More research is needed to identify better tolerated treatments for, to understand pathophysiology or functional anatomy of, and to predict or influence longitudinal outcome of Tourette syndrome.

  10. Neurofibromatosis 1-associated panhypopituitarism presenting as hypoglycaemic seizures and stroke-like symptoms. (United States)

    Waheed, Waqar; Nathan, Muriel H; Allen, Gilman B; Borden, Neil M; Babi, M Ali; Tandan, Rup


    A 37-year-old man with a known history of neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) presented within 2 days of diarrhoeal illness followed by encephalopathy, facial twitching, hypoglycaemia, hypotension, tachycardia and low-grade fever. Examination showed multiple café-au-lait spots and neurofibromas over the trunk, arms and legs and receptive aphasia with right homonymous hemianopia, which resolved. Workup for cardiac, inflammatory and infectious aetiologies was unrevealing. A brain MRI showed gyral swelling with increased T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery signal and diffusion restriction in the left cerebral cortex. Neuroendocrine findings suggested panhypopituitarism with centrally derived adrenal insufficiency. Supportive treatment, hormone supplementation, antibiotics, antivirals and levetiracetam yielded clinical improvement. A follow-up brain MRI showed focal left parieto-occipital atrophy with findings of cortical laminar necrosis. In conclusion, we describe a case of NF1-associated panhypopituitarism presenting as hypoglycaemic seizures and stroke-like findings, hitherto unreported manifestations of NF1. Prompt recognition and treatment of these associated conditions can prevent devastating complications. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  11. Epilepsy phenotypes in siblings with Norrie disease. (United States)

    Okumura, Akihisa; Arai, Eisuke; Kitamura, Yuri; Abe, Shinpei; Ikeno, Mitsuru; Fujimaki, Takuro; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Shimizu, Toshiaki


    Norrie disease is an X-linked recessive disorder that is characterized by congenital blindness. Although epileptic seizures are observed in some patients with Norrie disease, little is known about this phenomenon. Here, we report the manifestation of epilepsy in siblings with Norrie disease to increase our knowledge of epilepsy in this condition. Three brothers with congenital blindness were diagnosed with Norrie disease after genetic analyses indicated the deletion of exon 2 of the NDP gene. The eldest brother had suffered from epileptic seizures since the age of 11years, and his seizures were resistant to antiepileptic drugs. Although the second brother had no epileptic seizures, the youngest sibling had experiences epileptic seizures since the age of 8years. His seizures were controlled using lamotrigine and levetiracetam. An electroencephalography (EEG) revealed epileptiform discharges in the occipital areas in all three brothers. A study of these patients will increase our knowledge of epilepsy in patients with Norrie disease. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Myasthenia gravis and preeclampsia: Dot all the I's and cross all the T's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hassan, FCPS


    Full Text Available Although rare, the co-occurrence of myasthenia gravis and preeclampsia during pregnancy is responsible for considerable maternal and foetal morbidity and mortality. Both careful selection of medications and a multidisciplinary approach are required for treating such cases. This study presents a case report of a patient with a known history of generalized myasthenia gravis who presented with preeclampsia at 33 weeks' gestation. Subsequently, the patient developed recurrent seizures that necessitated the use of multiple medications, including phenytoin, valproic acid, levetiracetam, and propofol. Magnesium sulphate was not administered due to its blocking effect on calcium channels at the neuromuscular junction. The patient underwent a caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia and gave birth to a baby with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR. Blood pressure control was achieved with the administration of methyldopa and parenteral hydralazine, an increased dose of pyridostigmine, and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. The status of the patient's myasthenia gravis remained stable. This case serves to highlight the conflicts in the management of these two disorders and suggests strategies to resolve these conflicts in clinical management.

  13. A low TSH profile predicts olanzapine-induced weight gain and relief by adjunctive topiramate in healthy male volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Simon S; van Vliet, André; van Vugt, Barbara; Scheurink, Antonius; van Dijk, Gertjan


    Second generation antipsychotics, like olanzapine (OLZ), have become the first line drug treatment for patients with schizophrenia. However, OLZ treatment is often associated with body weight (BW) gain and metabolic derangements. Therefore, the search for prospective markers for OLZ's negative side

  14. The impact of the use of antiepileptic drugs on the growth of children (United States)


    Background This study investigated whether long-term treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) had negative effects on statural growth and serum calcium levels in children with epilepsy in Taiwan. Methods Children with epilepsy treated with one prescription of AEDs (monotherapy) for at least 1 year were selected. The AEDs included valproic acid (VPA; Deparkin) in 27 children (11 boys and 16 girls) aged 4-18 years, oxcarbazepine (Trileptal) in 30 children (15 boys and 15 girls) aged 5-18 years, topiramate (Topamax) in 19 children (10 boys and 9 girls) aged 6-18 years, and lamotrigine (Lamicta) in eight children (5 boys and 3 girls) aged 5-13 years. Patients with a history of febrile convulsions were selected as the controls. Results One year of VPA treatment significantly impaired the statural growth of pediatric patients with epilepsy (p effect of VPA on the proliferation of growth plate chondrocytes rather than alterations of serum calcium. Conclusions These results raise serious concerns about the growth of pediatric epilepsy patients who use AEDs, and potentially the need to closely monitor growth in children with epilepsy and adolescents under AED treatment, especially VPA. PMID:24354857

  15. Second-generation antipsychotic use in schizophrenia and associated weight gain: a critical review and meta-analysis of behavioral and pharmacologic treatments. (United States)

    Das, Chandan; Mendez, Guillermo; Jagasia, Sonal; Labbate, Lawrence A


    Weight gain in schizophrenia, particularly secondary to second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) use, is a common adverse effect and often is associated with significant physical and psychological morbidity. We performed a critical literature review of all controlled clinical trials for pharmacologic and/or behavioral management of SGA-induced weight gain in schizophrenia patients by searching PubMed and Google Scholar. A meta-analysis was performed to estimate and compare weight changes for various medications and behavioral interventions. Sample sizes generally were small. Clinical trials were 6 weeks to 1 year, and weight loss was modest with any treatment. Although several adjunctive pharmacologic treatments showed no weight loss, sibutramine, metformin, and topiramate showed some benefit. Amantadine and orlistat were somewhat less effective and had lower rates of tolerability. Among the behavioral therapies, nutritional counseling combined with exercise showed the most benefit. Behavioral therapies, although modest, showed the most consistent benefits compared with controls. Scheduled pharmacologic treatment to prevent weight gain or promote weight loss in schizophrenia patients on SGA therapy is limited based on current studies. Switching antipsychotic agents has not been established as a long-term solution. Additional long-term studies are required to influence clinical practice.

  16. Tailoring pharmacotherapy to specific eating behaviours in obesity: Can recommendations for personalised therapy be made from the current data? (United States)

    Roberts, Carl A; Christiansen, Paul; Halford, Jason C G


    Pharmacotherapy provides an adjunct to behaviour modification in the management of obesity. There are a number of new drug therapies purportedly targeting appetite; liraglutide, and bupropion/naltrexone, which are European Medicines Agency and US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved, and lorcaserin and phentermine/topiramate, which have FDA approval only. Each of the six drugs, used singly or in combination, has distinct pharmacological, and presumably distinct behavioural, mechanisms of action, thus the potential to provide defined therapeutic options to personalise the management of obesity. Yet, with regard to pharmacotherapy for obesity, we are far from true personalised medicine. We review the limited mechanistic data with four mono and combination pharmacotherapies, to assess the potential for tailoring their use to target specific obesogenic behaviours. Potential treatment options are considered, but in the absence of adequate research in respect to effects of these drugs on eating behaviour, neural activity and psychological substrates that underlie poorly controlled eating, we are far from definitive therapeutic recommendations. Specific mechanistic studies and broader behavioural phenotyping, possibly in conjunction with pharmacogenetic research, are required to characterise responders for distinct pharmacotherapeutic options.

  17. Pharmacotherapy for obesity in individuals with type 2 diabetes. (United States)

    Chukir, Tariq; Shukla, Alpana P; Saunders, Katherine H; Aronne, Louis J


    Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Obesity is one of the main risk factors for T2DM and its management requires a multidisciplinary approach, which may include pharmacotherapy. Areas covered: In this paper, data on efficacy, tolerability and safety of FDA-approved pharmacotherapies for obesity (orlistat, phentermine/topiramate extended-release, lorcaserin, bupropion sustained release/naltrexone sustained release and liraglutide) are reviewed, focusing on individuals with type 2 diabetes. Expert opinion: Obesity is the major pathophysiologic driver of T2DM; conversely 5-10% weight loss leads to significant improvement in glycemic control, lipids and blood pressure. Weight loss maintenance is difficult with lifestyle interventions alone and may require adjunctive therapies. There is good evidence for the efficacy and tolerability of approved anti-obesity pharmacotherapies in individuals with T2DM, with current cardiovascular safety data being most favorable for liraglutide, orlistat and lorcaserin. Given the link between obesity and T2DM, a weight-centric therapeutic approach including use of weight reducing anti-diabetic therapies, and anti-obesity pharmacotherapies is both intuitive and rational to improve glycemic and other metabolic outcomes in patients with T2DM.

  18. Current and Emerging Drug Treatments for Binge Eating Disorder (United States)

    Reas, Deborah L.; Grilo, Carlos M.


    Introduction This study evaluated controlled treatment studies of pharmacotherapy for binge eating disorder (BED). Areas Covered The primary focus of the review was on phase II and III controlled trials testing medications for BED. A total of 46 studies were considered and 26 were reviewed in detail. BED outcomes included binge-eating remission, binge-eating frequency, associated eating-disorder psychopathology, associated depression, and weight loss. Expert Opinion Data from controlled trials suggests that certain medications are superior to placebo for stopping binge-eating and for producing faster reductions in binge eating, and - to varying degrees - for reducing associated eating-disorder psychopathology, depression, and weight loss over the short-term. Almost no data exist regarding longer-term effects of medication for BED. Except for topiramate, which reduces both binge eating and weight, weight loss is minimal with medications tested for BED. Psychological interventions and the combination of medication with psychological interventions produce binge-eating outcomes that are superior to medication-only approaches. Combining medications with psychological interventions does not significantly enhance binge-eating outcomes, although the addition of certain medications enhances weight losses achieved with cognitive-behavioral therapy and behavioral weight loss, albeit modestly. PMID:24460483

  19. The psychopharmacology of aggressive behavior: a translational approach: part 2: clinical studies using atypical antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, and lithium. (United States)

    Comai, Stefano; Tau, Michael; Pavlovic, Zoran; Gobbi, Gabriella


    Patients experiencing mental disorders are at an elevated risk for developing aggressive behavior. In the past 10 years, the psychopharmacological treatment of aggression has changed dramatically owing to the introduction of atypical antipsychotics on the market and the increased use of anticonvulsants and lithium in the treatment of aggressive patients.This review (second of 2 parts) uses a translational medicine approach to examine the neurobiology of aggression, discussing the major neurotransmitter systems implicated in its pathogenesis (serotonin, glutamate, norepinephrine, dopamine, and γ-aminobutyric acid) and the neuropharmacological rationale for using atypical antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, and lithium in the therapeutics of aggressive behavior. A critical review of all clinical trials using atypical antipsychotics (aripiprazole, clozapine, loxapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, ziprasidone, and amisulpride), anticonvulsants (topiramate, valproate, lamotrigine, and gabapentin), and lithium are presented. Given the complex, multifaceted nature of aggression, a multifunctional combined therapy, targeting different receptors, seems to be the best strategy for treating aggressive behavior. This therapeutic strategy is supported by translational studies and a few human studies, even if additional randomized, double-blind, clinical trials are needed to confirm the clinical efficacy of this framework.

  20. A case of schizophrenia comorbid for tetralogy of Fallot treated with clozapine: further considerations on a role for 22q.11.2 in the proneness for seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashiwagi H


    Full Text Available Hiroko Kashiwagi,1 Satoru Ikezawa,2 Tomiki Sumiyoshi,3 Atsuko Kadono,4 Kazuhiko Segawa,5 Kazuyoshi Takeda,1 Mayu Omori,1 Hisako Taguchi,1 Naotsugu Hirabayashi1 1Department of Forensic Psychiatry, 2Department of Psychiatry, 3Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Translational Medical Center, National Center Hospital of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, 4Saitama Psychiatric Medical Center, Kitaadatigun, Saitama, 5Department of General Medicine, National Center Hospital of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: We present a case of schizophrenia comorbid for tetralogy of Fallot, without chromosome 22q.11.2 deletion or duplication, treated successfully with a combination of clozapine and antiepileptic drugs. Although clozapine by itself initially triggered convulsive seizures, we continued it with co-administration of valproate and topiramate. This combined treatment did not affect cardiac function of the patient, who experienced a favorable clinical course in terms of symptomatology and functional outcomes. To our knowledge, we provide the first report on a patient with tetralogy of Fallot, in whom 22q.11.2 was not deleted and clozapine-induced seizures were observed. Keywords: schizophrenia, clozapine, tetralogy of Fallot, seizure, copy number variants

  1. Current trends in the pharmacotherapy for obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Klobučar Majanović


    Full Text Available Obesity represents a major global challenge from both healthcare and economic perspectives. Although lifestyle modifications aimed at reducing calorie intake and increasing energy expenditure remain the cornerstone of obesity management, pharmacotherapy can serve as a useful adjunct. Until recently, orlistat was the only medication registered for the treatment of obesity in the European Union (EU. A deeper understanding of the complexity of energy homeostasis has resulted in new pharmacological options for weight reduction. In 2015, two new antiobesity drugs were approved in the EU. These are a fixed combination of naltrexone/bupropion (Mysimba® and liraglutide at a dose of 3.0 mg (Saxenda®. In addition, lorcaserin (Belviq® and a fixed combination of phentermine/topiramate (Qsymia® were introduced into the US market in 2012. However, the European Medicines Agency did not approve their use in the EU. The burden of previous weight loss agents that have been withdrawn due to safety concerns underlines the need for caution and close follow-up of patients undergoing pharmacological interventions for obesity treatment. This article provides an overview of the efficacy and safety of currently available weight loss pharmacotherapies.

  2. Targeting the Glutamatergic System to Treat Pathological Gambling: Current Evidence and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Pettorruso


    Full Text Available Pathological gambling or gambling disorder has been defined by the DSM-5 as a behavioral addiction. To date, its pathophysiology is not completely understood and there is no FDA-approved treatment for gambling disorders. Glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the nervous system and it has been recently involved in the pathophysiology of addictive behaviors. In this paper, we review the current literature on a class of drugs that act as modulating glutamate system in PG. A total of 19 studies have been included, according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Clinical trial and case series using glutamatergic drugs (N-acetylcysteine, memantine, amantadine, topiramate, acamprosate, baclofen, gabapentin, pregabalin, and modafinil will be presented to elucidate the effectiveness on gambling behaviors and on the related clinical dimensions (craving, withdrawal, and cognitive symptoms in PG patients. The results have been discussed to gain more insight in the pathophysiology and treatment of PG. In conclusion, manipulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission appears to be promising in developing improved therapeutic agents for the treatment of gambling disorders. Further studies are required. Finally, we propose future directions and challenges in this research area.

  3. Ammonia encephalopathy and awake craniotomy for brain language mapping: cause of failed awake craniotomy. (United States)

    Villalba Martínez, G; Fernández-Candil, J L; Vivanco-Hidalgo, R M; Pacreu Terradas, S; León Jorba, A; Arroyo Pérez, R


    We report the case of an aborted awake craniotomy for a left frontotemporoinsular glioma due to ammonia encephalopathy on a patient taking Levetiracetam, valproic acid and clobazam. This awake mapping surgery was scheduled as a second-stage procedure following partial resection eight days earlier under general anesthesia. We planned to perform the surgery with local anesthesia and sedation with remifentanil and propofol. After removal of the bone flap all sedation was stopped and we noticed slow mentation and excessive drowsiness prompting us to stop and control the airway and proceed with general anesthesia. There were no post-operative complications but the patient continued to exhibit bradypsychia and hand tremor. His ammonia level was found to be elevated and was treated with an infusion of l-carnitine after discontinuation of the valproic acid with vast improvement. Ammonia encephalopathy should be considered in patients treated with valproic acid and mental status changes who require an awake craniotomy with patient collaboration. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Challenges in the pharmacological management of epilepsy and its causes in the elderly. (United States)

    Ferlazzo, Edoardo; Sueri, Chiara; Gasparini, Sara; Aguglia, Umberto


    Epilepsy represents the third most common neurological disorders in the elderly after cerebrovascular disorders and dementias. The incidence of new-onset epilepsy peaks in this age group. The most peculiar aetiologies of late-onset epilepsy are stroke, dementia, and brain tumours. However, aetiology remains unknown in about half of the patients. Diagnosis of epilepsy may be challenging due to the frequent absence of ocular witnesses and the high prevalence of seizure-mimics (i.e. transient ischemic attacks, syncope, transient global amnesia or vertigo) in the elderly. The diagnostic difficulties are even greater when patients have cognitive impairment or cardiac diseases. The management of late-onset epilepsy deserves special considerations. The elderly can reach seizure control with low antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) doses, and seizure-freedom is possible in the vast majority of patients. Pharmacological management should take into account pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of AEDs and the frequent occurrence of comorbidities and polytherapy in this age group. Evidences from double-blind and open-label studies indicate lamotrigine, levetiracetam and controlled-release carbamazepine as first line treatment in late-onset epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Review and update of the Hong Kong Epilepsy Guideline on status epilepticus. (United States)

    Fung, E Lw; Fung, B Bh


    Convulsive status epilepticus is the most extreme form of seizure. It is a medical and neurological emergency that requires prompt and appropriate treatment. Treatment of convulsive status epilepticus is usually divided into stages/steps. The International League Against Epilepsy has released a new definition of status epilepticus that may help to unify the definition in future studies. Over the last few years new information has become available regarding its management. The Rapid Anticonvulsant Medication Prior to Arrival Trial demonstrated non-inferiority of intramuscular midazolam in early status epilepticus compared with intravenous lorazepam. Valproate and levetiracetam have also emerged as possible alternatives to phenytoin in established status epilepticus. The potential role of lacosamide in this stage of status epilepticus remains to be defined. The ongoing Established Status Epilepticus Treatment Trial may help to determine the most effective treatment for benzodiazepine-resistant status epilepticus. Management of refractory status epilepticus and super-refractory status epilepticus remains mostly non-evidence-based. Increasing recognition of a possible autoimmune aetiology has led to the use of immune-modulation in super-refractory status epilepticus. Ketamine is also increasingly used in this challenging condition. There are also reports of potential use of a ketogenic diet and magnesium.

  6. Treatment of Established Status Epilepticus. (United States)

    Falco-Walter, Jessica J; Bleck, Thomas


    Status epilepticus is the most severe form of epilepsy, with a high mortality rate and high health care costs. Status epilepticus is divided into four stages: early, established, refractory, and super-refractory. While initial treatment with benzodiazepines has become standard of care for early status epilepticus, treatment after benzodiazepine failure (established status epilepticus (ESE)) is incompletely studied. Effective treatment of ESE is critical as morbidity and mortality increases dramatically the longer convulsive status epilepticus persists. Phenytoin/fosphenytoin, valproic acid, levetiracetam, phenobarbital, and lacosamide are the most frequently prescribed antiseizure medications for treatment of ESE. To date there are no class 1 data to support pharmacologic recommendations of one agent over another. We review each of these medications, their pharmacology, the scientific evidence in support and against each in the available literature, adverse effects and safety profiles, dosing recommendations, and limitations of the available evidence. We also discuss future directions including the established status epilepticus treatment trial (ESETT). Substantial further research is urgently needed to identify these patients (particularly those with non-convulsive status epilepticus), elucidate the most efficacious antiseizure treatment with head-to-head randomized prospective trials, and determine whether this differs for convulsive vs. non-convulsive ESE.

  7. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and narcolepsy: A series of three cases. (United States)

    Joshi, Puja Aggarwal; Poduri, Annapurna; Kothare, Sanjeev V


    This paper sets out to demonstrate the coexistence of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) and narcolepsy that raises the possibility of a shared genetic predisposition to both conditions. The electronic medical records (EMRs) were searched for narcolepsy and JME over 10years. We identified three young adult women diagnosed with JME in their teenage years, with myoclonic, generalized tonic-clonic, and absence seizure semiologies, along with psychiatric comorbidity, well managed on lamotrigine and/or levetiracetam. Our patients were also found to have disturbed sleep preceding the diagnosis of JME by many years, including excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), fragmented nocturnal sleep, hypnagogic vivid hallucinations, and REM behavior disorder along with daytime cataplexy. They were ultimately diagnosed with coexisting narcolepsy, confirmed by sleep studies and multiple sleep latency testing, along with positive genetic testing for HLA-DQB1*0602 in all three patients. Stimulants, selective serotonin receptor inhibitors, and/or sodium oxybate were used to successfully treat their narcolepsy. The coexistence of JME and narcolepsy has not been well recognized and may be clinically relevant. In addition, it raises the possibility of a shared genetic predisposition to both conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Psychiatric and behavioral side effects of antiepileptic drugs in adults with epilepsy. (United States)

    Chen, Baibing; Choi, Hyunmi; Hirsch, Lawrence J; Katz, Austen; Legge, Alexander; Buchsbaum, Richard; Detyniecki, Kamil


    Psychiatric and behavioral side effects (PBSEs) are common, undesirable effects associated with antiepileptic drug (AED) use. The objective of the study was to compare the PBSE profiles of older and newer AEDs in a large specialty practice-based sample of patients diagnosed with epilepsy. As part of the Columbia and Yale AED Database Project, we reviewed patient records including demographics, medical history, AED use, and side effects for 4085 adult patients (age: 18 years) newly started on an AED regimen. Psychiatric and behavioral side effects were determined by patient or physician report in the medical record, which included depressive mood, psychosis, anxiety, suicidal thoughts, irritability, aggression, and tantrum. Significant non-AED predictors of PBSE rate were first determined from 83 variables using logistic regression. Predictors were then controlled for in the comparison analysis of the rate of PBSEs and intolerable PBSEs (PBSEs that led to dosage reduction or discontinuation) between 18 AEDs. Psychiatric and behavioral side effects occurred in 17.2% of patients and led to intolerability in 13.8% of patients. History of psychiatric condition(s), secondary generalized seizures, absence seizures, and intractable epilepsy were associated with increased incidence of PBSE. Levetiracetam (LEV) had the greatest PBSE rate (22.1%). This was statistically significant when compared with the aggregate of the other AEDs (P<0.001, OR=6.87). Levetiracetam was also significantly (P<0.001) associated with higher intolerability rate (17.7%), dose decreased rate (9.4%), and complete cessation rate (8.3%), when compared with the aggregate of the other AEDs. Zonisamide (ZNS) was also significantly associated with a higher rate of PBSE (9.7%) and IPBSE (7.9%, all P<0.001). On the other hand, carbamazepine (CBZ), clobazam (CLB), gabapentin (GBP), lamotrigine (LTG), oxcarbazepine (OXC), phenytoin (PHT), and valproate (VPA) were significantly associated with a decreased PBSE

  9. Historic, clinical, and prognostic features of epileptic encephalopathies caused by CDKL5 mutations. (United States)

    Moseley, Brian D; Dhamija, Radhika; Wirrell, Elaine C; Nickels, Katherine C


    Mutations within the X-linked cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene are important causes of early-onset epileptic encephalopathies. We sought to determine the historic, clinical, and prognostic features of epilepsy secondary to CDKL5 mutations. We performed retrospective chart reviews of children at our institution with epilepsy and CDKL5 mutations. Six children were identified. One manifested a deletion in exons 10-15 of the CDKL5 gene, another manifested a single base-pair duplication in exon 3, and the rest manifested base-pair exchanges. The mean age of seizure onset was 1.8 months (range, 1-3 months). Although the majority (4/6, 67%) presented with partial-onset seizures, all children developed infantile spasms. All children demonstrated developmental delay and visual impairment. Although such mutations are X-linked, two children were boys. They did not present with more severe phenotypes than their female counterparts. Despite trials of antiepileptic drugs (mean, 5; range, 3-7), steroids/adrenocorticotropic hormone (4/6; 67%), and the ketogenic diet (6/6; 100%), all children manifested refractory seizures at last follow-up. Although no treatment eliminated seizures, topiramate, vigabatrin, and the ketogenic diet were most helpful at reducing seizure frequency. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Interventions for tic disorders: An overview of systematic reviews and meta analyses. (United States)

    Yang, Chunsong; Hao, Zilong; Zhu, Cairong; Guo, Qin; Mu, Dezhi; Zhang, Lingli


    We conducted a comprehensive search and the overview included 22 systematic reviews (SRs) for treating tic disorders (TDs). Three SRs indicated typical antipsychotics (i.e., haloperidol, pimozide) were efficacious in the reduction of tic severity compared with placebo but with poor tolerability. Six SRs assessed the efficacy of atypical antipsychotics and indicated that atypical antipsychotics (i.e., risperidone, aripiprazole) could significantly improved tic symptoms compared with placebo or typical antipsychotics with less AEs. Four SRs indicated alpha adrenergic agonists (i.e., clonidine, guanfacine) could improve tic symptoms. Two SRs assessed the efficacy of antiepileptic drugs and indicated topiramate was a promising therapy. Six SRs evaluated the efficacy of behavior therapy and showed habit reversal therapy (HRT) and exposure and response prevention (ERP) were effective. One SR evaluated the efficacy deep brain stimulation (DBS) and indicated DBS is a promising treatment option for severe cases of TS. In conclusion, RCTs directly comparing different pharmacological treatment options are scarce. In practice, typical and atypical antipsychotics are often considered firstly while other pharmacological medications are suggested as alternatives in the case of treatment failure or contradictory outcomes. Behavioral therapies can be used either alone or in combination with medication. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Current pharmacotherapies for obesity: A practical perspective. (United States)

    Golden, Angela


    To review the currently available pharmacotherapies for obesity management with a particular focus on the United States. Narrative review based on literature searches and the latest prescribing information (up to July 2017). Obesity pharmacotherapies may assist those individuals who have obesity, or overweight with comorbidities, who have failed to maintain weight loss with lifestyle modifications alone (caloric restriction and increased physical activity). Currently approved options in the United States include phentermine for short-term use and five obesity pharmacotherapies that can be used long-term (orlistat, lorcaserin, phentermine-topiramate, naltrexone-bupropion, and liraglutide 3.0 mg). If the use of an obesity pharmacotherapy is indicated, treatment should be selected to provide the most appropriate option for each individual and their circumstances. Variables such as contraindications, individual comorbidities, patient choice, patient readiness to incorporate additional behavioral changes (e.g., alcohol prohibition), and cost should guide choices. Each of the obesity pharmacotherapies has advantages and disadvantages that can help guide treatment choice. Those receiving treatment may also have individual preferences based on factors such as administration route, frequency of dosing, and/or safety profile. In addition, some options may be particularly appropriate for patients with common obesity-related complications such as depression or diabetes. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  12. Perspectives of drug treatment of obesity

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    Alfredo Halpern


    Full Text Available The perspectives in the pharmacological treatment of obesitycan be classified in two classes: drugs already in the market,in advanced clinical trial or in final approval, or drugs in earlydevelopment. Among the first class are antiepileptic drugslike topiramate (although it was studied for obesity treatmentit was descontinued for this indication because of the highdrop-out rate in clinical trials and zonisamide (with someshort term studies in obese adults; antidepressives likebupropion (that leads to weight reduction and also diminishesthe weight gain associated to smoking cessation andradafaxine (a bupropion metabolite, without reported trials inobese subjects; glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues like exenatide(exendin-4, pramlintide and liraglutide (with studiesin type 2 diabetic obese subjects and the selective blockerof the cannabinoid-1 receptor, rimonabant, with a large bodyof studies (Rimonabant in Obesity, RIO-Europe, RIO-NorthAmerica, RIO-Lipids and RIO-Diabetes, involving more than6.600 patients with obesity, with and without diabetes, beingan important perspective of treatment for obesity andmetabolic syndrome. In early phase of development, we canreport some energy balance modulators like neuropeptide Yantagonists, melanocortin agonists, leptine and its analoguesand ciliary neurotrophic factor (axokine; termogenic agentslike agonists of the beta-3 adrenergic receptor, uncouplingagents of the mithocondrial membrane and peripheralmodulators of the energy balance (cholecystokinine.

  13. Pharmacological treatment of diabetic neuropathic pain. (United States)

    Smith, Howard S; Argoff, Charles E


    Neuropathic pain continues to be a difficult and challenging clinical issue to deal with effectively. Painful diabetic polyneuropathy is a complex pain condition that occurs with reasonable frequency in the population and it may be extremely difficult for clinicians to provide patients with effective analgesia. Chronic neuropathic pain may occur in approximately one of every four diabetic patients. The pain may be described as burning or a deep-seated ache with sporadic paroxysms of lancinating painful exacerbations. The pain is often constant, moderate to severe in intensity, usually primarily involves the feet and generally tends to worsen at night. Treatment may be multimodal but largely involves pharmacological approaches. Pharmacological therapeutic options include antidepressants (tricyclic antidepressants, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors), α2δ ligands and topical (5%) lidocaine patch. Other agents may be different antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, topiramate), topical capsaicin, tramadol and other opioids. Progress continues with respect to understanding various mechanisms that may contribute to painful diabetic neuropathy. Agents that may hold some promise include neurotrophic factors, growth factors, immunomodulators, gene therapy and poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase inhibitors. It is hoped that in the future clinicians will be able to assess patient pathophysiology, which may help them to match optimal therapeutic agents to target individual patient aberrant mechanisms.

  14. Drugs Involved in Dyslipidemia and Obesity Treatment: Focus on Adipose Tissue

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    Sofia Dias


    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome can be defined as a state of disturbed metabolic homeostasis characterized by visceral obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension, and insulin resistance. The growing prevalence of metabolic syndrome will certainly contribute to the burden of cardiovascular disease. Obesity and dyslipidemia are main features of metabolic syndrome, and both can present with adipose tissue dysfunction, involved in the pathogenic mechanisms underlying this syndrome. We revised the effects, and underlying mechanisms, of the current approved drugs for dyslipidemia and obesity (fibrates, statins, niacin, resins, ezetimibe, and orlistat; sibutramine; and diethylpropion, phentermine/topiramate, bupropion and naltrexone, and liraglutide on adipose tissue. Specifically, we explored how these drugs can modulate the complex pathways involved in metabolism, inflammation, atherogenesis, insulin sensitivity, and adipogenesis. The clinical outcomes of adipose tissue modulation by these drugs, as well as differences of major importance for clinical practice between drugs of the same class, were identified. Whether solutions to these issues will be found in further adjustments and combinations between drugs already in use or necessarily in new advances in pharmacology is not known. To better understand the effect of drugs used in dyslipidemia and obesity on adipose tissue not only is challenging for physicians but could also be the next step to tackle cardiovascular disease.

  15. Combining modelling and mutagenesis studies of synaptic vesicle protein 2A to identify a series of residues involved in racetam binding. (United States)

    Shi, Jiye; Anderson, Dina; Lynch, Berkley A; Castaigne, Jean-Gabriel; Foerch, Patrik; Lebon, Florence


    LEV (levetiracetam), an antiepileptic drug which possesses a unique profile in animal models of seizure and epilepsy, has as its unique binding site in brain, SV2A (synaptic vesicle protein 2A). Previous studies have used a chimaeric and site-specific mutagenesis approach to identify three residues in the putative tenth transmembrane helix of SV2A that, when mutated, alter binding of LEV and related racetam derivatives to SV2A. In the present paper, we report a combined modelling and mutagenesis study that successfully identifies another 11 residues in SV2A that appear to be involved in ligand binding. Sequence analysis and modelling of SV2A suggested residues equivalent to critical functional residues of other MFS (major facilitator superfamily) transporters. Alanine scanning of these and other SV2A residues resulted in the identification of residues affecting racetam binding, including Ile273 which differentiated between racetam analogues, when mutated to alanine. Integrating mutagenesis results with docking analysis led to the construction of a mutant in which six SV2A residues were replaced with corresponding SV2B residues. This mutant showed racetam ligand-binding affinity intermediate to the affinities observed for SV2A and SV2B.

  16. Efficacy and safety of oxcarbazepine in the treatment of children with epilepsy: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. (United States)

    Geng, Hua; Wang, Chengzhong


    To assess the efficacy and safety of oxcarbazepine (OXC) in the treatment of children with epilepsy. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Scopus, SinoMed (Chinese BioMedical Literature Service System, China), and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (China) database were systematically reviewed. Eligible studies were those that compared the efficacy and safety of OXC with other antiepileptic drugs in epilepsy. Risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) was calculated using fixed-effects or random-effects model. Eleven RCTs with a total of 1,241 patients met the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. Compared with other antiepileptic drugs (sodium valproate, levetiracetam, phenytoin, and placebo), OXC was associated with similar seizure-free rate (RR =1.06, 95% CI: 0.94, 1.20; P =0.366) and percentage reduction from baseline in seizure frequency (for ≥75% reduction: RR =1.15, 95% CI: 0.88, 1.49; P =0.310; for 50%-75% reduction: RR =1.12, 95% CI: 0.90, 1.39; P =0.301; for effects and safety as other antiepileptic drugs in the treatment of children with epilepsy. Further well-conducted, large-scale RCTs are needed to validate these findings.

  17. Ursodeoxycholic Acid Can Improve Liver Transaminase Quantities in Children with Anticonvulsant Drugs Hepatotoxicity: a Pilot Study.

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    Masoumeh Asgarshirazi


    Full Text Available The present study has been directed to investigate Ursodeoxycholic Acid (UDCA effect in children, to reduce the high Liver transaminases induced by Anticonvulsant drugs (drug induced hepatitis. This idea has been driven from Cytoprotective and antioxidant properties of UDCA to be used in drug induced inflammation in Liver. Twenty two epileptic patients aged between 4 mo - 3 yr whom were under anticonvulsant therapy with drugs such as valperoic acid, primidone, levetiracetam, Phenobarbital or any combination of them and had shown Liver transaminases rise , after rule out of Viral-Autoimmune, Metabolic and Anatomic causes, have been prescribed UDCA in dose of 10-15 mg/kg/day, at least for 6 months. Any patient who have shown confusing factors such as genetic disorders with liver involvement or spontaneous decline in enzymes or had not treatment compliance has been excluded from the study. Transaminases range changes as well as Probable side effects of the drug have been monitored. The results indicated that UDCA is effective and well tolerable in the children with drug induced hyper transaminasemia. No side effect has been seen and recorded in this study. Based on this study and its results, we recommend UDCA as a safe and effective choice in drug induced hepatotoxicities.

  18. Management of epilepsy in the elderly

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    Juan José Poza


    Full Text Available Juan José PozaDepartment of Neurology, Hospital Donostia, San Sebastián, SpainAbstract: Epilepsy among the elderly is a frequently occurring pathology, differing in etiology, clinical presentation and prognosis from those of young people. In addition, beyond a certain age, physiological modifications are produced in the metabolism which alter the pharmacokinetics of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs, increasing the risk of pharmacological interactions, already greater in these patients due to the frequency of poly-pharmacy. Furthermore, elderly patients are particularly sensitive to certain secondary effects of AEDs, as for example, cognitive disturbances, osteoporosis or weight increase. Given that the efficacy of the major AEDs is a priori quite similar, and that the epilepsies occurring in this age-group generally have a good prognosis, the selection of an AED will depend more upon its pharmacokinetics and ability to induce certain secondary effects than on its efficacy. In this respect, levetiracetam and pregabalin, followed by oxcarbazepine and lamotrigine have the most favorable pharmocokinetical profile. Moreover, on the whole these drugs have very few cognitive effects, do not induce osteoporosis and, with the exception of pregabalin, do not affect weight, making them the first selection for use in the treatment of epilepsy in the elderly.Keywords: epilepsy, the elderly, antiepileptic drugs

  19. Neurocognitive and neurobehavioral disabilities in Epilepsy with Electrical Status Epilepticus in slow sleep (ESES) and related syndromes. (United States)

    Raha, Sarbani; Shah, Urvashi; Udani, Vrajesh


    The aims of this study were to assess the cognitive and behavioral problems of patients with Epilepsy with Electrical Status Epilepticus in slow sleep (ESES) and related syndromes and to review their EEG (electroencephalography) findings and treatment options. Fourteen patients with ESES were evaluated and treated in 2010. Nine children had continuous spike and wave during slow-wave sleep (CSWS)/ESES syndrome, 3 had Atypical BECTS (benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes), 1 had Opercular syndrome, and 1 had Landau-Kleffner syndrome. The duration of ESES ranged from 6 to 52 months. Eleven (91%) children had behavioral issues, most prominent being hyperactivity. Seven of the 13 children (53%) showed evidence of borderline to moderate cognitive impairment. A total of 28 EEG findings of ESES were analyzed for SWI (spike-wave index). Antiepileptic drugs received by the patients included valproate, clobazam, levetiracetam, and others. Eleven patients had been treated with oral steroids and it was found to be efficacious in seven (63%). Disabilities caused by ESES affect multiple domains. Patients with an SWI>50% should be followed up frequently with neuropsychological assessments. Steroids appear to be effective, although there is a need to standardize the dose and duration of treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Non-hyperammonaemic valproate encephalopathy after 20 years of treatment

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    Elizabeth Caruana Galizia


    Full Text Available Sodium valproate is a commonly used antiseizure drug with broad indications for different seizuretypes and epilepsy syndromes. Well-recognised side effects include weight gain, tremor, dizziness, and unsteadiness. Non-hyperammonaemic parkinsonism, with or without cognitive impairment, is a rare adverse effect of sodium valproate. We present the case of a sixty year-old lady with a generalized seizure disorder, treated with phenytoin, valproate, lamotrigine and clonazepam. Following withdrawal of phenytoin she developed an akinetic-rigid syndrome, with ataxia and marked cognitive impairment. Extensive investigation failed to identify a cause. Serum ammonia and valproate levels were normal. Hypothesizing this might be valproate encephalopathy, valproate was rapidly substituted with levetiracetam. Her severe motor symptoms resolved within two weeks and cognitive impairment markedly improved. Valproate-induced encephalopathy, with or without hyperammonaemia and liver toxicity are typically recognizable for their temporal relation between the start of therapy with valproate and emergence of the clinical syndrome. Reversible disorders of motor function and cognition attributable to valproate are well described, but few cases have been reported presenting years after starting treatment. Given the insidious progression, delayed onset, lack of association with drug levels or presence of hyperammonaemia, a high index of suspicion is needed to make the diagnosis.

  1. Treatment of Established Status Epilepticus (United States)

    Falco-Walter, Jessica J.; Bleck, Thomas


    Status epilepticus is the most severe form of epilepsy, with a high mortality rate and high health care costs. Status epilepticus is divided into four stages: early, established, refractory, and super-refractory. While initial treatment with benzodiazepines has become standard of care for early status epilepticus, treatment after benzodiazepine failure (established status epilepticus (ESE)) is incompletely studied. Effective treatment of ESE is critical as morbidity and mortality increases dramatically the longer convulsive status epilepticus persists. Phenytoin/fosphenytoin, valproic acid, levetiracetam, phenobarbital, and lacosamide are the most frequently prescribed antiseizure medications for treatment of ESE. To date there are no class 1 data to support pharmacologic recommendations of one agent over another. We review each of these medications, their pharmacology, the scientific evidence in support and against each in the available literature, adverse effects and safety profiles, dosing recommendations, and limitations of the available evidence. We also discuss future directions including the established status epilepticus treatment trial (ESETT). Substantial further research is urgently needed to identify these patients (particularly those with non-convulsive status epilepticus), elucidate the most efficacious antiseizure treatment with head-to-head randomized prospective trials, and determine whether this differs for convulsive vs. non-convulsive ESE. PMID:27120626

  2. Risk of oral clefts in children born to mothers taking Topamax (topiramate)Risk of Oral Clefts (Cleft Lip and/or ... (United States)

    ... Drug Safety and Availability FDA Drug Safety Communication: Risk of oral clefts in children born to mothers ... data that show that there is an increased risk for the development of cleft lip and/or ...

  3. Effects of Various Antiepileptics Used to Alleviate Neuropathic Pain on Compound Action Potential in Frog Sciatic Nerves: Comparison with Those of Local Anesthetics

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    Yuhei Uemura


    Full Text Available Antiepileptics used for treating neuropathic pain have various actions including voltage-gated Na+ and Ca2+ channels, glutamate-receptor inhibition, and GABAA-receptor activation, while local anesthetics are also used to alleviate the pain. It has not been fully examined yet how nerve conduction inhibitions by local anesthetics differ in extent from those by antiepileptics. Fast-conducting compound action potentials (CAPs were recorded from frog sciatic nerve fibers by using the air-gap method. Antiepileptics (lamotrigine and carbamazepine concentration dependently reduced the peak amplitude of the CAP (IC50=0.44 and 0.50 mM, resp.. Carbamazepine analog oxcarbazepine exhibited an inhibition smaller than that of carbamazepine. Antiepileptic phenytoin (0.1 mM reduced CAP amplitude by 15%. On the other hand, other antiepileptics (gabapentin, sodium valproate, and topiramate at 10 mM had no effect on CAPs. The CAPs were inhibited by local anesthetic levobupivacaine (IC50=0.23 mM. These results indicate that there is a difference in the extent of nerve conduction inhibition among antiepileptics and that some antiepileptics inhibit nerve conduction with an efficacy similar to that of levobupivacaine or to those of other local anesthetics (lidocaine, ropivacaine, and cocaine as reported previously. This may serve to know a contribution of nerve conduction inhibition in the antinociception by antiepileptics.

  4. Effect of caffeine on the anticonvulsant effects of oxcarbazepine, lamotrigine and tiagabine in a mouse model of generalized tonic-clonic seizures. (United States)

    Chrościńska-Krawczyk, Magdalena; Ratnaraj, Neville; Patsalos, Philip N; Czuczwar, Stanisław J


    Caffeine has been reported to be proconvulsant and to reduce the anticonvulsant efficacy of a variety of antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, valproate and topiramate) in animal models of epilepsy and to increase seizure frequency in patients with epilepsy. Using the mouse maximal electroshock model, the present study was undertaken so as to ascertain whether caffeine affects the anticonvulsant efficacy of the new antiepileptic drugs lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine and tiagabine. The results indicate that neither acute nor chronic caffeine administration (up to 46.2 mg/kg) affected the ED(50) values of oxcarbazepine or lamotrigine against maximal electroshock. Similarly, caffeine did not modify the tiagabine electroconvulsive threshold. Furthermore, caffeine had no effect on oxcarbazepine, lamotrigine and tiagabine associated adverse effects such as impairment of motor coordination (measured by the chimney test) or long-term memory (measured by the passive avoidance task). Concurrent plasma concentration measurements revealed no significant effect on lamotrigine and oxcarbazepine concentrations. For tiagabine, however, chronic caffeine (4 mg/kg) administration was associated with an increase in tiagabine concentrations. In conclusion, caffeine did not impair the anticonvulsant effects of lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, or tiagabine as assessed by electroconvulsions in mice. Also, caffeine was without effect upon the adverse potential of the studied antiepileptic drugs. Thus caffeine may not necessarily adversely affect the efficacy of all antiepileptic drugs and this is an important observation.

  5. Pharmacological Treatment of Binge Eating Disorder: Update Review and Synthesis (United States)

    Reas, Deborah L.; Grilo, Carlos M.


    Introduction Binge-eating disorder (BED), a formal eating-disorder diagnosis in the DSM-5, is characterized by recurrent binge-eating, marked distress about binge-eating, and the absence of extreme weight compensatory behaviors. BED is more prevalent than other eating-disorders, with broader distribution across age, sex, and ethnic/racial groups, and is associated strongly with obesity and heightened risk for psychiatric/medical comorbidities. Areas Covered This article provides an overview of pharmacotherapy for BED with a focus on III randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The search with minimal methodological inclusion requirements yielded 22 RCTs investigating several different medication classes; most were pharmacotherapy-only trials with eight trials testing combination approaches with psychological-behavioral methods. Expert Opinion The evidence base regarding pharmacotherapy for BED remains limited, although this year the FDA approved the first medication (i.e., lisdexamfetamine dimesylate; LDX) specifically for moderate-to-severe BED. Data from RCTs suggests certain medications are superior to placebo for reducing binge-eating over the short-term; almost no data exist regarding longer-term effects of pharmacotherapy for BED. Except for topiramate, which significantly reduces both binge-eating and weight, tested medications yield minimal weight loss and LDX is not indicated for weight loss. Psychological-behavioral and combination approaches with certain medications yield superior outcomes to pharmacotherapy-only acutely and over longer-term follow-up. PMID:26044518

  6. Interictal epileptiform discharges have an independent association with cognitive impairment in children with lesional epilepsy. (United States)

    Glennon, Jennifer M; Weiss-Croft, Louise; Harrison, Sue; Cross, J Helen; Boyd, Stewart G; Baldeweg, Torsten


    The relative contribution of interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) to cognitive dysfunction in comparison with the underlying brain pathology is not yet understood in children with lesional focal epilepsy. The current study investigated the association of IEDs with intellectual functioning in 103 children with medication-resistant focal epilepsy. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to determine the independent contribution of IED features on intellectual functioning, after controlling for effects of lesional pathology, epilepsy duration, and medication. Exploratory analyses were conducted for language and memory scores as well as academic skills available in a subset of participants. The results reveal that IEDs have a negative association with IQ with independent, additive effects documented for frequent and bilaterally distributed IEDs as well as discharge enhancement in sleep. Left-lateralized IEDs had a prominent effect on verbal intelligence, in excess of the influence of left-sided brain pathology. These effects extended to other cognitive functions, most prominently for sleep-enhanced IEDs to be associated with deficits in expressive and receptive language, reading, spelling and numerical skills. Overall, IED effects on cognition were of a magnitude similar to lesional influences or drug effects (topiramate use). This study demonstrates an association between IEDs and cognitive dysfunction, independent of the underlying focal brain pathology. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  7. A Review of Pharmacologic Treatment for Compulsive Buying Disorder. (United States)

    Soares, Célia; Fernandes, Natália; Morgado, Pedro


    At present, no treatment recommendations can be made for compulsive buying disorder. Recent studies have found evidence for the efficacy of psychotherapeutic options, but less is known regarding the best pharmacologic treatment. The purpose of this review is to present and analyze the available published evidence on the pharmacological treatment of compulsive buying disorder. To achieve this, we conducted a review of studies focusing on the pharmacological treatment of compulsive buying by searching the PubMed/MEDLINE database. Selection criteria were applied, and 21 studies were identified. Pharmacological classes reported included antidepressants, mood stabilizers, opioid antagonists, second-generation antipsychotics, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists. We found only placebo-controlled trials for fluvoxamine; none showed effectiveness against placebo. Three open-label trials reported clinical improvement with citalopram; one was followed by a double-blind discontinuation. Escitalopram was effective in an open-label trial but did not show efficacy in the double-blind phase. Memantine was identified as effective in a pilot open-label study. Fluoxetine, bupropion, nortriptyline, clomipramine, topiramate and naltrexone were only reported to be effective in clinical cases. According to the available literature, there is no evidence to propose a specific pharmacologic agent for compulsive buying disorder. Future research is required for a better understanding of both pathogenesis and treatment of this disorder.

  8. Effect of Antiepileptic Drugs for Acute and Chronic Seizures in Children with Encephalitis.

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    Kuang-Lin Lin

    Full Text Available Encephalitis presents with seizures in the acute phase and increases the risk of late unprovoked seizures and epilepsy. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of antiepileptic drugs in pediatric patients with acute seizures due to encephalitis and epilepsy.Cases of acute pediatric encephalitis between January 2000 and December 2010 were reviewed. Clinical data, including onset at age, seizure type, seizure frequency, effects of antiepileptic drugs, and prognosis were analyzed.During the study period, 1038 patients (450 girls, 588 boys were enrolled. Among them, 44.6% (463 had seizures in the acute phase, 33% had status epilepticus, and 26% (251 developed postencephalitic epilepsy. At one year of follow-up, 205 of the 251 patients with postencephalitic epilepsy were receiving antiepileptic drugs while 18% were seizure free even after discontinuing the antiepileptic drugs. Among those with postencephalitic epilepsy, 67% had favorable outcomes and were using <2 anti-epileptic drugs while 15% had intractable seizures and were using ≥ 2 antiepileptic drugs. After benzodiazepines, intravenous phenobarbital was preferred over phenytoin as treatment of postencephalitic seizures in the acute phase. For refractory status epilepticus, high-dose topiramate combined with intravenous high-dose phenobarbital or high-dose lidocaine had less side effects.Children with encephalitis have a high rate of postencephalitic epilepsy. Phenobarbital and clonazepam are the most common drugs used, alone or in combination, for postencephalitic epilepsy.

  9. The acute and preventative treatment of episodic migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Miller


    Full Text Available Episodic migraine is a common debilitating condition with significant worldwide impact. An effective management plan must include acute treatment to relieve the pain and potential disability associated with the attacks and may also include preventative treatments with an aim of decreasing attack frequency and severity in the longer term. Acute treatments must be limited to a maximum of 2-3 days a week to prevent medication overuse headache and focus on simple analgesia, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and triptans. Preventative treatments are numerous and should be considered when migraine attacks are frequent and or disabling, acute medication is failing, in special circumstances such as hemiplegic migraines or if the patient requests them. All preventative medications must be given at therapeutic doses for at least 6-8 weeks before an adequate trial can be judged ineffective. The most important factor in choosing drugs is the patient and the clinical features of their attack and treatment should be tailored to these. Relative co-morbidities will influence drug choice, as will the side effect profile and the efficacy of the drug. First line preventative drugs include ß-blockers, amitriptyline and anti-epileptic drugs such as topiramate and valproate. Drugs with lower efficacy or poorer side effect profiles include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, calcium channel antagonists, gabapentin and herbal medicines.

  10. Optimal management of night eating syndrome: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kucukgoncu S


    Full Text Available Suat Kucukgoncu, Margaretta Midura, Cenk Tek Department of Psychiatry, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA Abstract: Night Eating Syndrome (NES is a unique disorder characterized by a delayed pattern of food intake in which recurrent episodes of nocturnal eating and/or excessive food consumption occur after the evening meal. NES is a clinically important disorder due to its relationship to obesity, its association with other psychiatric disorders, and problems concerning sleep. However, NES often goes unrecognized by both health professionals and patients. The lack of knowledge regarding NES in clinical settings may lead to inadequate diagnoses and inappropriate treatment approaches. Therefore, the proper diagnosis of NES is the most important issue when identifying NES and providing treatment for this disorder. Clinical assessment tools such as the Night Eating Questionnaire may help health professionals working with populations vulnerable to NES. Although NES treatment studies are still in their infancy, antidepressant treatments and psychological therapies can be used for optimal management of patients with NES. Other treatment options such as melatonergic medications, light therapy, and the anticonvulsant topiramate also hold promise as future treatment options. The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of NES, including its diagnosis, comorbidities, and treatment approaches. Possible challenges addressing patients with NES and management options are also discussed. Keywords: night eating, obesity, psychiatric disorders, weight, depression

  11. Optimizing therapy of seizures in neurosurgery. (United States)

    Michelucci, Roberto


    The use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in the neurosurgical setting has a number of implications, including their possible role in the prevention of seizures after acute cerebral insults or brain tumors and the potential for toxicity and interactions when these agents are administered in association with radiotherapy or chemotherapy. This review discusses these controversial issues and draws the following conclusions. 1) AEDs should be prescribed on a short-term basis to prevent seizures occurring within the first week after a cerebral insult (trauma, neurosurgical procedure) but are ineffective to avoid true post-traumatic epilepsy or first seizures in patients with primary or secondary cerebral neoplasms. 2) The use of phenytoin and, to a lesser extent, phenobarbital and carbamazepine during cranial irradiation is associated with an increased risk for severe, potentially fatal, mucocutaneous reactions. In this context, new AEDs with a very low potential for allergic cutaneous reactions should be preferred. 3) Enzyme-inducing AEDs, such as phenytoin, phenobarbital, and carbamazepine, may increase the clearance and reduce the clinical efficacy of corticosteroids and anticancer agents that are also metabolized by the cytochrome P450 system. The newly developed AEDs that are devoid of hepatic metabolism, such as levetiracetam and gabapentin, are now recommended because of good results in preliminary studies and because they do not show interactions with anticancer agents.

  12. Novel Hybrid Anticonvulsants Derived from Pyrrolidine-2,5-dione Scaffold with Broad Spectrum of Activity in the Preclinical Studies. (United States)

    Kaminski, Krzysztof


    The multifunctional ligands application is an emerging approach in drug delivery, mainly in the treatment of diseases with complex pathology, such as Alzheimer's, cancer, and epilepsy. Using this method many biomolecules with different properties are combined to form a single unit that can provide a complex broad spectrum activity. Thus, a new type of hybrid anticonvulsants based on the pyrrolidine-2,5-dione frame are detailed with the aim of acquiring more effective antiepileptic drugs (AED) that could suppress various human convulsions. These hybrid molecules attach to the chemical particles of clinically relevant AEDs such as ethosuximide, levetiracetam, and lacosamide. As a result of this hybridization process the compounds obtained were effective in three most important animal epilepsy models, namely the maximal electroshock seizure (MES) test, the subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ) test, and the six-Hertz (6 Hz) model in mice. These substances displayed wider spectrum of protection, more potent efficacy, and better safety profile than the aforementioned AEDs. Several compounds were also active in the formalin model of persistent pain in mice. The in vitro ligand binding studies have proved that the most conceivable molecular mechanism of anticonvulsant and antinociceptive action was the influence on the neuronal voltage-sensitive sodium and L-type calcium channels. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  13. Glioma-related seizures in relation to histopathological subtypes: a report from the glioma international case-control study. (United States)

    Berntsson, Shala G; Merrell, Ryan T; Amirian, E Susan; Armstrong, Georgina N; Lachance, Daniel; Smits, Anja; Zhou, Renke; Jacobs, Daniel I; Wrensch, Margaret R; Olson, Sara H; Il'yasova, Dora; Claus, Elizabeth B; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Schildkraut, Joellen; Sadetzki, Siegal; Johansen, Christoffer; Houlston, Richard S; Jenkins, Robert B; Bernstein, Jonine L; Lai, Rose; Shete, Sanjay; Amos, Christopher I; Bondy, Melissa L; Melin, Beatrice S


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the distribution of glioma-related seizures and seizure control at the time of tumor diagnosis with respect to tumor histologic subtypes, tumor treatment and patient characteristics, and to compare seizure history preceding tumor diagnosis (or study enrollment) between glioma patients and healthy controls. The Glioma International Case Control study (GICC) risk factor questionnaire collected information on demographics, past medical/medication history, and occupational history. Cases from eight centers were also asked detailed questions on seizures in relation to glioma diagnosis; cases (n = 4533) and controls (n = 4171) were also asked about seizures less than 2 years from diagnosis and previous seizure history more than 2 years prior to tumor diagnosis, including childhood seizures. Low-grade gliomas (LGGs), particularly oligodendrogliomas/oligoastrocytomas, had the highest proportion of glioma-related seizures. Patients with low-grade astrocytoma demonstrated the most medically refractory seizures. A total of 83% of patients were using only one antiepileptic drug (AED), which was levetiracetam in 71% of cases. Gross total resection was strongly associated with reduced seizure frequency (p related seizures were most common in low-grade gliomas. Gross total resection was associated with lower seizure frequency. Additionally, having a history of childhood seizures is not a risk factor ***for developing glioma-related seizures or glioma.

  14. Gateways to clinical trials. (United States)

    Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R


    -globulin, ivabradine hydrochloride, ixabepilone; LA-419, lacosamide, landiolol, lanthanum carbonate, lidocaine/prilocaine, liposomal cisplatin, lutropin alfa; Matuzumab, MBP(82-98), mecasermin, MGCD-0103, MMR-V, morphine hydrochloride, mycophenolic acid sodium salt; Natalizumab, NCX-4016, neridronic acid, nesiritide, nilotinib, NSC-330507; O6-benzylguanine, olanzapine/fluoxetine hydrochloride, omalizumab; Panitumumab, parathyroid hormone (human recombinant), parecoxib sodium, PEG-filgrastim, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, pegvisomant, pemetrexed disodium, perospirone hydrochloride, pexelizumab, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate vaccine, posaconazole, pramiconazole, prasugrel, pregabalin, prilocaine; rAAV-GAD65, raclopride, rasagiline mesilate, retapamulin, rosuvastatin calcium, rotigotine, rufinamide; SarCNU, SB-743921, SHL-749, sirolimus-eluting stent, sitaxsentan sodium, sorafenib; TachoSil, tadalafil, talampanel, Taxus, tegaserod maleate, telithromycin, telmisartan/hydrochlorothiazide, temsirolimus, tenatoprazole, teriflunomide, tetrathiomolybdate, ticilimumab, timcodar dimesilate, tipifarnib, tirapazamine, TPI, tramiprosate, trifluridine/TPI, trimethoprim; Ularitide, Urocortin 2; Valdecoxib, valganciclovir hydrochloride, valproate magnesium, valspodar, vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate, vitespen, vofopitant hydrochloride, volociximab, vorinostat; Yttrium 90 (90Y) ibritumomab tiuxetan; Ziprasidone hydrochloride, zotarolimus, zotarolimus-eluting stent.

  15. Expert Opinion on the Management of Lennox–Gastaut Syndrome: Treatment Algorithms and Practical Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Helen Cross


    Full Text Available Lennox–Gastaut syndrome (LGS is a severe epileptic and developmental encephalopathy that is associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. It is characterized by multiple seizure types, abnormal electroencephalographic features, and intellectual disability. Although intellectual disability and associated behavioral problems are characteristic of LGS, they are not necessarily present at its outset and are therefore not part of its diagnostic criteria. LGS is typically treated with a variety of pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies, often in combination. Management and treatment decisions can be challenging, due to the multiple seizure types and comorbidities associated with the condition. A panel of five epileptologists met to discuss consensus recommendations for LGS management, based on the latest available evidence from literature review and clinical experience. Treatment algorithms were formulated. Current evidence favors the continued use of sodium valproate (VPA as the first-line treatment for patients with newly diagnosed de novo LGS. If VPA is ineffective alone, evidence supports lamotrigine, or subsequently rufinamide, as adjunctive therapy. If seizure control remains inadequate, the choice of next adjunctive antiepileptic drug (AED should be discussed with the patient/parent/caregiver/clinical team, as current evidence is limited. Non-pharmacological therapies, including resective surgery, the ketogenic diet, vagus nerve stimulation, and callosotomy, should be considered for use alongside AED therapy from the outset of treatment. For patients with LGS that has evolved from another type of epilepsy who are already being treated with an AED other than VPA, VPA therapy should be considered if not trialed previously. Thereafter, the approach for a de novo patient should be followed. Where possible, no more than two AEDs should be used concomitantly. Patients with established LGS should undergo review by a neurologist

  16. A new potential AED, carisbamate, substantially reduces spontaneous motor seizures in rats with kainate-induced epilepsy (United States)

    Grabenstatter, Heidi L.; Dudek, F. Edward


    Purpose Animal models with spontaneous epileptic seizures may be useful in the discovery of new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of carisbamate on spontaneous motor seizures in rats with kainate-induced epilepsy. Methods Repeated, low-dose (5 mg/kg), intraperitoneal injections of kainate were administered every hour until each male Sprague-Dawley rat had experienced convulsive status epilepticus for at least 3 h. Five 1-month trials (n= 8–10 rats) assessed the effects of 0.3, 1, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg carisbamate on spontaneous seizures. Each trial involved six AED-versus-vehicle tests comprised of carisbamate or 10% solutol-HS-15 treatments administered as intraperitoneal injections on alternate days with a recovery day between each treatment day. Results Carisbamate significantly reduced motor seizure frequency at doses of 10 and 30 mg/kg, and caused complete seizure cessation during the 6-h post-drug epoch in 7 of 8 animals at 30 mg/kg. The effects of carisbamate (0.3–30 mg/kg) on spontaneous motor seizures appeared dose dependent. Conclusions These data support the hypothesis that a repeated-measures, cross-over protocol in animal models with spontaneous seizures is an effective method for testing AEDs. Carisbamate reduced the frequency of spontaneous motor seizures in a dose-dependent manner, and was more effective than topiramate at reducing seizures in rats with kainate-induced epilepsy. PMID:18494790

  17. Stimulants for the control of hedonic appetite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Sally Poulton


    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is treatment of obesity in relation to the management of hedonic appetite. Obesity is a complex condition which may be potentiated by excessive reward seeking in combination with executive functioning deficits that impair cognitive control of behaviour. Stimulant medications address both reward deficiency and enhance motivation, as well as suppressing appetite. They have long been recognised to be effective for treating obesity. However, stimulants can be abused for their euphoric effect. They induce euphoria via the same neural pathway that underlies their therapeutic effect in obesity. For this reason they have generally not been endorsed for use in obesity. Among the stimulants, only phentermine (either alone or in combination with topiramate and bupropion (which has stimulant-like properties and is used in combination with naltrexone, are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA for obesity, although dexamphetamine and methylpenidate are approved and widely used for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in adults and children. Experience gained over many years in the treatment of ADHD demonstrates that with careful dose titration, stimulants can be used safely. In obesity, improvement in mood and executive functioning could assist with the lifestyle changes necessary for weight control, acting synergistically with appetite suppression. The obesity crisis has reached the stage that strong consideration should be given to adequate utilisation of this effective and inexpensive class of drug.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yu. Mukhin


    Full Text Available Pseudo-Lennox syndrome (PLS, or atypical benign partial epilepsy of childhood, is a disease from a group of age-related epileptic encephalopathies with a phenomenon of continuous spike-wave activity during slow sleep, which manifests itself as frequent polymorphic focal motor and pseudogeneralized seizures, cognitive impairments, as well as regional and diffuse epileptiform activity on electroencephalogram (EEG by the morphology identical to that of benign epileptiform patterns of childhood. The disease was first described by J. Aicardi and J. J. Chevrie in 1982, based on a study of 7 cases. Its diagnostic complexity is the polymorphism of both epileptic seizures and EEG data, as well as low awareness of the syndrome among physicians and its absence in the international classification of epilepsies. The typical triad of seizures, which occurs in nearly 100 % of patients, encompasses focal motor paroxysms (identical to those as observed in Rolandic epilepsy, atypical absences, and atonic seizures. Seizures in PLS in its active period (generally up to 7–8 years are highly resistant to antiepileptic drugs. Only a few agents have been proven to be effective in PLS; these include valproates, succinimides, benzodiazepines, topiramate, and sulthiame. The frequency of seizures are noted to increase in patients with PLS treated with drugs, such as vigabatrin, gabapentin, lamotrigine, phenobarbital, or phenytoin. The author considers in detail the history of studies of the disease, clinical manifestations, diagnostic criteria, therapeutic approaches, and prognosis.

  19. Suspected zonisamide-related anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome in a cat. (United States)

    Collinet, Audrey; Sammut, Veronique


    CASE DESCRIPTION A 2-year-old neutered male domestic shorthair cat was evaluated for sudden onset of cluster seizures. CLINICAL FINDINGS At an emergency clinic, the cat had hyperimmunoglobulinemia and thrombocytopenia. On referral, treatment with levetiracetam, zonisamide, and phenobarbital initially provided good control of cluster seizure activity (attributable to epilepsy of unknow origin). Two weeks later, assessments revealed that serum phenobarbital concentration was within the ideal range but serum zonisamide concentration exceeded the recommended therapeutic range. The dosage of zonisamide was therefore decreased. Four days after dosage reduction, the cat developed generalized lymphadenopathy. Cytologic analysis of lymph node aspirate samples revealed a heterogeneous population of well-differentiated lymphocytes, interpreted as marked reactivity. Although neoplasia could not be ruled out, hypersensitivity to phenobarbital was suspected, and this treatment was discontinued. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Despite cessation of phenobarbital administration, generalized peripheral lymphadenopathy progressed and hyperglobulinemia and cytopenias developed. These abnormalities resolved after discontinuation of zonisamide administration. The cat remained seizure free with no recurrence of the aforementioned concerns after reinstitution of phenobarbital treatment. CLINICAL RELEVANCE To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of zonisamide-related lymphadenopathy, hyperglobulinemia, and cytopenias in a cat. Anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome is well documented in human medicine, but little information has been published in the veterinary medical literature. Although the effects of anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome in this cat were serious, these effects were reversible with treatment discontinuation.

  20. Epilepsy in Qatar: Causes, treatment, and outcome. (United States)

    Haddad, Naim; Melikyan, Gayane; Al Hail, Hassan; Al Jurdi, Ayman; Aqeel, Faten; Elzafarany, Abdullah; Abuhadra, Nour; Laswi, Mujahed; Alsamman, Yasser; Uthman, Basim; Deleu, Dirk; Mesraoua, Boulenouar; Alarcon, Gonzalo; Azar, Nabil; Streletz, Leopold; Mahfoud, Ziyad


    Qatar is a small country on the Eastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula. Its population is a unique mixture of native citizens and immigrants. We aimed to describe the features of epilepsy in Qatar as such information is virtually lacking from the current literature. We summarized information retrospectively collected from 468 patients with epilepsy seen through the national health system adult neurology clinic. Epilepsy was classified as focal in 65.5% of the cases and generalized in 23%. Common causes of epilepsy were as follows: stroke (9%), hippocampal sclerosis (7%), infections (6%), and trauma (6%). Sixty-six percent of patients were receiving a single antiepileptic drug, with levetiracetam being the most frequently prescribed drug (41% of subjects). When the patients were divided by geographical background, remote infections caused the epilepsy in 15% of Asian patients (with neurocysticercosis accounting for 10%) but only in 1% of Qatari and 3% of Middle East/North African subjects (with no reported neurocysticercosis) (pepilepsy in Qatar. The geographical origin of patients adds to the heterogeneity of this disorder. Neurocysticercosis should be in the etiological differential diagnosis of epilepsy in patients coming from Southeast Asian countries, despite the fact that it is not endemic to Qatar. The choice of antiepileptic drugs is influenced by the availability of individual agents in the patients' native countries but had no bearing on the final seizure outcome. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Usefulness of ketogenic diet in a girl with migrating partial seizures in infancy. (United States)

    Mori, Tatsuo; Imai, Katsumi; Oboshi, Taikan; Fujiwara, Yuh; Takeshita, Saoko; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Takahashi, Yukitoshi; Inoue, Yushi


    Migrating partial seizures in infancy (MPSI) are an age-specific epilepsy syndrome characterized by migrating focal seizures, which are intractable to various antiepileptic drugs and cause severe developmental delay. We report a case of MPSI with heterozygous missense mutation in KCNT1, which was successfully managed by ketogenic diet. At age 2months, the patient developed epilepsy initially manifesting focal seizures with eye deviation and apnea, then evolving to secondarily generalized clonic convulsion. Various antiepileptic drugs including phenytoin, valproic acid, zonisamide, clobazam, levetiracetam, vitamin B6, and carbamazepine were not effective, but high-dose phenobarbital allowed discontinuation of midazolam infusion. Ictal scalp electroencephalogram showed migrating focal seizures. MPSI was suspected and she was transferred to our hospital for further treatment. Potassium bromide (KBr) was partially effective, but the effect was transient. High-dose KBr caused severe adverse effects such as over-sedation and hypercapnia, with no further effects on the seizures. At age 9months, we started a ketogenic diet, which improved seizure frequency and severity without obvious adverse effects, allowing her to be discharged from hospital. Ketogenic diet should be tried in patients with MPSI unresponsive to antiepileptic drugs. In MPSI, the difference in treatment response in patients with and those without KCNT1 mutation remains unknown. Accumulation of case reports would contribute to establish effective treatment options for MPSI. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Women with epilepsy in childbearing age: Pregnancy-related knowledge, information sources, and antiepileptic drugs. (United States)

    Friedrich, Latica; Sruk, Ana; Bielen, Ivan


    Pregnancy-related issues in epilepsy (PRIE) are essential for management of epilepsy in women. We conducted a study among women with epilepsy (WWE) aged 15-45years about their knowledge, sources, and needs for information regarding PRIE, which included their current antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) usage. Women with epilepsy, visitors of Croatian Association for Epilepsy webpage, were offered an online questionnaire, and 200 responses were analyzed. The mean number of correct answers about PRIE was 3.5 out of 5. Main predictors of knowledge on PRIE were a prior consultation with a neurologist and higher usage of books/brochures. A prior neurologist consultation on PRIE was stated by 45% of subjects. As the preferred future mode of being informed on PRIE, majority of women (61%) chooses their neurologist, 22% written materials distributed by a neurologist, and only 13% Internet. Levetiracetam was the most commonly used AED (34.5%). Valproate was used by 26%, and of those 59% stated no previous consultation on PRIE with their neurologist. In summary, we believe our study shows that knowledge of PRIE among WWE in their childbearing age is unsatisfactory, as are the neurologist consultation rates about PRIE. Our results demonstrate that, despite modern technologies, educational activities should be based on neurologist consultations and providing the patients with appropriate written materials. This is especially true for the relatively large proportion of women still taking valproate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Early Lance-Adams syndrome after cardiac arrest: Prevalence, time to return to awareness, and outcome in a large cohort. (United States)

    Aicua Rapun, Irene; Novy, Jan; Solari, Daria; Oddo, Mauro; Rossetti, Andrea O


    Early myoclonus after cardiac arrest (CA) is traditionally viewed as a poor prognostic sign (status myoclonus). However, some patients may present early Lance-Adams syndrome (LAS): under appropriate treatment, they can reach a satisfactory functional outcome. Our aim was to describe their profile, focusing on pharmacologic management in the ICU, time to return of awareness, and long-term prognosis. Adults with early LAS (defined as generalized myoclonus within 96h, with epileptiform EEG within 48h after CA) were retrospectively identified in our CA registry between 2006 and 2016. Functional outcome was assessed through cerebral performance categories (CPC) at 3 months, CPC 1-2 defined good outcome. Among 458 consecutive patients, 7 (1.5%) developed early LAS (4 women, median age 59 years). Within 72h after CA, in normothemia and off sedation, all showed preserved brainstem reflexes and localized pain. All patients were initially treated with valproate, levetiracetam and clonazepam; additional agents, including propofol and midazolam, were prescribed in the majority. First signs of awareness occurred after 3-23 days (median 11.8); 3/7 reached a good outcome at 3 months. Early after CA, myoclonus together with a reactive, epileptiform EEG, preserved evoked potentials and brainstem reflexes suggests LAS. This condition was managed with a combination of highly dosed, large spectrum antiepileptic agents including propofol and midazolam. Even if awakening was at times delayed, good outcome occurred in a substantial proportion of patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Efficacy of sodium channel blockers in SCN2A early infantile epileptic encephalopathy. (United States)

    Dilena, Robertino; Striano, Pasquale; Gennaro, Elena; Bassi, Laura; Olivotto, Sara; Tadini, Laura; Mosca, Fabio; Barbieri, Sergio; Zara, Federico; Fumagalli, Monica


    Recent clinical evidence supports a targeted therapeutic approach for genetic epileptic encephalopathies based on the molecular dysfunction. A 2-day-old male infant presented with epileptic encephalopathy characterized by burst-suppression EEG background and tonic-clonic migrating partial seizures. The condition was refractory to phenobarbital, pyridoxine, pyridoxal phosphate and levetiracetam, but a dramatic response to an intravenous loading dose of phenytoin was documented by video-EEG monitoring. Over weeks phenytoin was successfully switched to carbamazepine to prevent seizure relapses associated with difficulty in maintaining proper blood levels of phenytoin. Genetic analysis identified a novel de novo heterozygous mutation (c.[4633A>G]p.[Met1545Val]) in SCN2A. At two years and three months of age the patient is still seizure-free on carbamazepine, although a developmental delay is evident. Sodium channel blockers represent the first-line treatment for confirmed or suspected SCN2A-related epileptic encephalopathies. In severe cases with compatible electro-clinical features we propose a treatment algorithm based on a test trial with high dose intravenous phenytoin followed in case of a positive response by carbamazepine, more suitable for long-term maintenance treatment. Because of their rarity, collaborative studies are needed to delineate shared therapeutic protocols for EIEE based on the electro-clinical features and the presumed underlying genetic substrate. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. New and emerging treatments for symptomatic tardive dyskinesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana AQ


    Full Text Available Abdul Qayyum Rana,1–4 Zishan M Chaudry,5 Pierre J Blanchet6 1Parkinson's Clinic of Eastern Toronto and Movement Disorders Centre, Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Scarborough Memory Program, Toronto, ON, Canada; 3Journal of Parkinsonism and RLS, Toronto, ON, Canada; 4Bulletin of World Parkinson's Program, Toronto, ON, Canada; 5Saba University School of Medicine, The Bottom, Saba, Dutch Caribbean; 6Department of Stomatology, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada Abstract: The aim of this review is to assess new, emerging, and experimental treatment options for tardive dyskinesia (TD. The methods to obtain relevant studies for review included a MEDLINE search and a review of studies in English, along with checking reference lists of articles. The leading explanatory models of TD development include dopamine receptor supersensitivity, GABA depletion, cholinergic deficiency, neurotoxicity, oxidative stress, changes in synaptic plasticity, and defective neuroadaptive signaling. As such, a wide range of treatment options are available. To provide a complete summary of choices we review atypical antipsychotics along with resveratrol, botulinum toxin, Ginkgo biloba, tetrabenazine, clonazepam, melatonin, essential fatty acids, zonisamide, levetiracetam, branched-chain amino acids, drug combinations, and invasive surgical treatments. There is currently no US Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment for TD; however, prudent use of atypical antipsychotics with routine monitoring remain the cornerstone of therapy, with experimental treatment options available for further management. Keywords: tardive dyskinesia, first-generation antipsychotics, motor symptoms, schizophrenia, Parkinson's, atypical antipsychotics

  6. Myoclonic epilepsy in Down syndrome and Alzheimer disease. (United States)

    Aller-Alvarez, J S; Menéndez-González, M; Ribacoba-Montero, R; Salvado, M; Vega, V; Suárez-Moro, R; Sueiras, M; Toledo, M; Salas-Puig, J; Álvarez-Sabin, J


    Patients with Down syndrome (DS) who exhibit Alzheimer disease (AD) are associated with age. Both diseases with a common neuropathological basis have been associated with late-onset myoclonic epilepsy (LOMEDS). This entity presents electroencephalogram features as generalized polyspike-wave discharges. We present a series of 11 patients with the diagnosis of DS or AD who developed myoclonic seizures or generalized tonic-clonic seizures. In all cases, clinical and neuroimaging studies and polygraph EEG monitoring was performed. In all cases, cognitive impairment progressed quickly after the onset of epilepsy causing an increase in the degree of dependence. The most common finding in the EEG was a slowing of brain activity with theta and delta rhythms, plus intercritical generalized polyspike-waves were objectified in eight patients. In neuroimaging studies was found cerebral cortical atrophy. The most effective drug in this series was the levetiracetam. The association of generalized epilepsy with elderly DS represents an epiphenomenon in evolution which is associated with a progressive deterioration of cognitive and motor functions. This epilepsy has some electroclinical characteristics and behaves as progressive myoclonic epilepsy, which is probably related to the structural changes that characterize the evolutionary similarity of DS with AD. Recognition of this syndrome is important, since it has prognostic implications and requires proper treatment. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Perspectives on treatment options for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis. (United States)

    Palleria, Caterina; Coppola, Antonietta; Citraro, Rita; Del Gaudio, Luigi; Striano, Salvatore; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Russo, Emilio


    Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy associated with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) is a syndrome that is often refractory to drug treatment. The effects on specific syndromes are not currently available from the pre-marketing clinical development of new AEDs; this does not allow the prediction of whether new drugs will be more effective in the treatment of some patients. We have reviewed all the existing literature relevant to the understanding of a potential effectiveness in MTLE-HS patients for the latest AEDs, namely brivaracetam, eslicarbazepine, lacosamide, perampanel and retigabine also including the most relevant clinical data and a brief description of their pharmacological profile. Records were identified using predefined search criteria using electronic databases (e.g., PubMed, Cochrane Library Database of Systematic Reviews). Primary peer-reviewed articles published up to the 15 June 2015 were included. All the drugs considered have the potential to be effective in the treatment of MTLE-HS; in fact, they possess proven efficacy in animal models; currently considered valuable tools for predicting drug efficacy in TLE. Furthermore, for some of these (e.g., lacosamide and eslicarbazepine) data are already available from post-marketing studies while brivaracetam acting on SV2A like levetiracetam might have the same potential effectiveness with the possibility to be more efficacious considering its ability to inhibit voltage gated sodium channels; finally, perampanel and retigabine are very effective drugs in animal models of TLE.

  8. Glutamatergic substrates of drug addiction and alcoholism1 (United States)

    Gass, Justin T.; Foster Olive, M.


    The past two decades have witnessed a dramatic accumulation of evidence indicating that the excitatory amino acid glutamate plays an important role in drug addiction and alcoholism. The purpose of this review is to summarize findings on glutamatergic substrates of addiction, surveying data from both human and animal studies. The effects of various drugs of abuse on glutamatergic neurotransmission are discussed, as are the effects of pharmacological or genetic manipulation of various components of glutamate transmission on drug reinforcement, conditioned reward, extinction, and relapse-like behavior. In addition, glutamatergic agents that are currently in use or are undergoing testing in clinical trials for the treatment of addiction are discussed, including acamprosate, N-acetylcysteine, modafinil, topiramate, lamotrigine, gabapentin and mematine. All drugs of abuse appear to modulate glutamatergic transmission, albeit by different mechanisms, and this modulation of glutamate transmission is believed to result in long-lasting neuroplastic changes in the brain that may contribute to the perseveration of drug-seeking behavior and drug-associated memories. In general, attenuation of glutamatergic transmission reduces drug reward, reinforcement, and relapse-like behavior. On the other hand, potentiation of glutamatergic transmission appears to facilitate the extinction of drug-seeking behavior. However, attempts at identifying genetic polymorphisms in components of glutamate transmission in humans have yielded only a limited number of candidate genes that may serve as risk factors for the development of addiction. Nonetheless, manipulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission appears to be a promising avenue of research in developing improved therapeutic agents for the treatment of drug addiction and alcoholism. PMID:17706608

  9. Anticonvulsants for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and alcohol use disorders. (United States)

    Hammond, Christopher J; Niciu, Mark J; Drew, Shannon; Arias, Albert J


    Alcoholic patients suffer from harmful allostatic neuroplastic changes in the brain causing an acute withdrawal syndrome upon cessation of drinking followed by a protracted abstinence syndrome and an increased risk of relapse to heavy drinking. Benzodiazepines have long been the treatment of choice for detoxifying patients and managing alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS). Non-benzodiazepine anticonvulsants (NBACs) are increasingly being used both for alcohol withdrawal management and for ongoing outpatient treatment of alcohol dependence, with the goal of either abstinence or harm reduction. This expert narrative review summarizes the scientific basis and clinical evidence supporting the use of NBACs in treating AWS and for reducing harmful drinking patterns. There is less evidence in support of NBAC therapy for AWS, with few placebo-controlled trials. Carbamazepine and gabapentin appear to be the most promising adjunctive treatments for AWS, and they may be useful as monotherapy in select cases, especially in outpatient settings and for the treatment of mild-to-moderate low-risk patients with the AWS. The body of evidence supporting the use of the NBACs for reducing harmful drinking in the outpatient setting is stronger. Topiramate appears to have a robust effect on reducing harmful drinking in alcoholics. Gabapentin is a potentially efficacious treatment for reducing the risk of relapse to harmful drinking patterns in outpatient management of alcoholism. Gabapentin's ease of use, rapid titration, good tolerability, and efficacy in both the withdrawal and chronic phases of treatment make it particularly appealing. In summary, several NBACs appear to be beneficial in treating AWS and alcohol use disorders.

  10. Pharmacological Management of Chronic Neuropathic Pain – Consensus Statement and Guidelines from the Canadian Pain Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DE Moulin


    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain (NeP, generated by disorders of the peripheral and central nervous system, can be particularly severe and disabling. Prevalence estimates indicate that 2% to 3% of the population in the developed world suffer from NeP, which suggests that up to one million Canadians have this disabling condition. Evidence-based guidelines for the pharmacological management of NeP are therefore urgently needed. Randomized, controlled trials, systematic reviews and existing guidelines focusing on the pharmacological management of NeP were evaluated at a consensus meeting. Medications are recommended in the guidelines if their analgesic efficacy was supported by at least one methodologically sound, randomized, controlled trial showing significant benefit relative to placebo or another relevant control group. Recommendations for treatment are based on degree of evidence of analgesic efficacy, safety, ease of use and cost-effectiveness. Analgesic agents recommended for first-line treatments are certain antidepressants (tricyclics and anticonvulsants (gabapentin and pregabalin. Second-line treatments recommended are serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors and topical lidocaine. Tramadol and controlled-release opioid analgesics are recommended as third-line treatments for moderate to severe pain. Recommended fourth-line treatments include cannabinoids, methadone and anticonvulsants with lesser evidence of efficacy, such as lamotrigine, topiramate and valproic acid. Treatment must be individualized for each patient based on efficacy, side-effect profile and drug accessibility, including cost. Further studies are required to examine head-to-head comparisons among analgesics, combinations of analgesics, long-term outcomes, and treatment of pediatric and central NeP.

  11. Contraceptive Provision to Adolescent Females Prescribed Teratogenic Medications. (United States)

    Stancil, Stephani L; Miller, Melissa; Briggs, Holley; Lynch, Daryl; Goggin, Kathy; Kearns, Gregory


    Rates of adult women receiving contraceptive provision when simultaneously prescribed a known teratogen are alarmingly low. The prevalence of this behavior among pediatric providers and their adolescent patients is unknown. The objective of this study was to describe pediatric provider behaviors for prescribing teratogens concurrently with counseling, referral, and/or prescribing of contraception (collectively called contraceptive provision) in the adolescent population. A retrospective review was conducted examining visits in 2008-2012 by adolescents aged 14 to 25 years in which a known teratogen (US Food and Drug Administration pregnancy risk category D or X) was prescribed. The electronic medical records were queried for demographic information, evidence of contraceptive provision, and menstrual and sexual histories. The data were analyzed using standard statistical methods. Within 4172 clinic visits, 1694 females received 4506 prescriptions for teratogenic medications. The most commonly prescribed teratogens were topiramate, methotrexate, diazepam, isotretinoin, and enalapril. The subspecialties prescribing teratogens most frequently were neurology, hematology-oncology, and dermatology. Overall, contraceptive provision was documented in 28.6% of the visits. Whites versus nonwhites and older versus younger girls were more likely to receive contraceptive provision. The presence of a federal risk mitigation system for the teratogen also increased the likelihood of contraceptive provision. Our data demonstrate female adolescents prescribed teratogens receive inadequate contraception provision, which could increase their risk for negative pregnancy outcomes. Although the presence of a federal risk mitigation system appears to improve contraceptive provision, these systems are costly and, in some instances, difficult to implement. Efforts to improve provider practices are needed. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. SUNCT and SUNA: Recognition and Treatment. (United States)

    Pareja, Juan A; Alvarez, Mónica; Montojo, Teresa


    The problem of short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing (SUNCT) and short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with cranial autonomic symptoms (SUNA) management remains unsolved. Despite a myriad of therapeutic trials, no convincingly effective remedy for SUNCT and SUNA is available at present. Based on open-label communications, some patients seemed to benefit from some pharmacologic, interventional, or invasive procedures. Possible effective preventive drugs are carbamazepine, lamotrigine, gabapentin, and topiramate. At present, the drug of choice for SUNCT seems to be lamotrigine whereas SUNA may better respond to gabapentin. There is no available abortive treatment for the individual attacks. During the worst periods, intravenous lidocaine may decrease the flow of SUNCT/SUNA attacks. In SUNCT, bilateral blockade of the greater occipital nerve, and superior cervical ganglion opioid blockade have been reported as temporary/partially effective in one patient each. Botulinum toxin injected around the symptomatic orbit provided sustained relief to one patient. Owing to the scarcity of reports the results of these interventions should be taken as preliminary. Invasive therapy with interventions directed to the first division of the trigeminal nerve or Gasserian ganglion, with local anesthetics or alcohol, radiofrequency thermocoagulation, microvascular decompression, and gamma-knife neurosurgery, have been tried in the treatment of refractory SUNCT. Some patients seemed to benefit from such interventions, but one should still have a critical attitude to these claims since no convincing results have been obtained as yet. The few SUNCT patients who underwent deep brain hypothalamic stimulation obtained a substantial and persistent relief.

  13. Comparative effectiveness of antiepileptic drugs in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis. (United States)

    Androsova, Ganna; Krause, Roland; Borghei, Mojgansadat; Wassenaar, Merel; Auce, Pauls; Avbersek, Andreja; Becker, Felicitas; Berghuis, Bianca; Campbell, Ellen; Coppola, Antonietta; Francis, Ben; Wolking, Stefan; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L; Craig, John; Delanty, Norman; Koeleman, Bobby P C; Kunz, Wolfram S; Lerche, Holger; Marson, Anthony G; Sander, Josemir W; Sills, Graeme J; Striano, Pasquale; Zara, Federico; Sisodiya, Sanjay M; Depondt, Chantal


    Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) is a common epilepsy syndrome that is often poorly controlled by antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment. Comparative AED effectiveness studies in this condition are lacking. We report retention, efficacy, and tolerability in a cohort of patients with MTLE-HS. Clinical data were collected from a European database of patients with epilepsy. We estimated retention, 12-month seizure freedom, and adverse drug reaction (ADR) rates for the 10 most commonly used AEDs in patients with MTLE-HS. Seven hundred sixty-seven patients with a total of 3,249 AED trials were included. The highest 12-month retention rates were observed with carbamazepine (85.9%), valproate (85%), and clobazam (79%). Twelve-month seizure freedom rates varied from 1.2% for gabapentin and vigabatrin to 11% for carbamazepine. Response rates were highest for AEDs that were prescribed as initial treatment and lowest for AEDs that were used in a third or higher instance. ADRs were reported in 47.6% of patients, with the highest rates observed with oxcarbazepine (35.7%), topiramate (30.9%), and pregabalin (27.4%), and the lowest rates with clobazam (6.5%), gabapentin (8.9%), and lamotrigine (16.6%). The most commonly reported ADRs were lethargy and drowsiness, dizziness, vertigo and ataxia, and blurred vision and diplopia. Our results did not demonstrate any clear advantage of newer versus older AEDs. Our results provide useful insights into AED retention, efficacy, and ADR rates in patients with MTLE-HS. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  14. Treatment of hypopituitarism in patients receiving antiepileptic drugs. (United States)

    Paragliola, Rosa Maria; Prete, Alessandro; Kaplan, Peter W; Corsello, Salvatore Maria; Salvatori, Roberto


    Evidence suggests that there may be drug interactions between antiepileptic drugs and hormonal therapies, which can present a challenge to endocrinologists dealing with patients who have both hypopituitarism and neurological diseases. Data are scarce for this subgroup of patients; however, data for the interaction of antiepileptic drugs with the pituitary axis have shown that chronic use of many antiepileptic drugs, such as carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, and topiramate, enhances hepatic cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) activity, and can decrease serum concentrations of sex hormones. Other antiepileptic drugs increase sex hormone-binding globulin, which reduces the bioactivity of testosterone and estradiol. Additionally, the combined oestrogen-progestagen contraceptive pill might decrease lamotrigine concentrations, which could worsen seizure control. Moreover, sex hormones and their metabolites can directly act on neuronal excitability, acting as neurosteroids. Because carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine can enhance the sensitivity of renal tubules, a reduction in desmopressin dose might be necessary in patients with central diabetes insipidus. Although the effects of antiepileptic drugs in central hypothyroidism have not yet been studied, substantial evidence indicates that several antiepileptic drugs can increase thyroid hormone metabolism. However, although it is reasonable to expect a need for a thyroxine dose increase with some antiepileptic drugs, the effect of excessive thyroxine in lowering seizure threshold should also be considered. There are no reports of significant interactions between antiepileptic drugs and the efficacy of human growth hormone therapy, and few data are available for the effects of second-generation antiepileptic drugs on hypopituitarism treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Current Approaches and New Developments in the Pharmacological Management of Tourette Syndrome. (United States)

    Quezada, Julio; Coffman, Keith A


    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder of unknown etiology characterized by spontaneous, involuntary movements and vocalizations called tics. Once thought to be rare, TS affects 0.3-1% of the population. Tics can cause physical discomfort, emotional distress, social difficulties, and can interfere with education and desired activities. The pharmacologic treatment of TS is particularly challenging, as currently the genetics, neurophysiology, and neuropathology of this disorder are still largely unknown. However, clinical experience gained from treating TS has helped us better understand its pathogenesis and, as a result, derive treatment options. The strongest data exist for the antipsychotic agents, both typical and atypical, although their use is often limited in children and adolescents due to their side-effect profiles. There are agents in a variety of other pharmacologic categories that have evidence for the treatment of TS and whose side-effect profiles are more tolerable than the antipsychotics; these include clonidine, guanfacine, baclofen, topiramate, botulinum toxin A, tetrabenazine, and deutetrabenazine. A number of new agents are being developed and tested as potential treatments for TS. These include valbenazine, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabidiol, and ecopipam. Additionally, there are agents with insufficient data for efficacy, as well as agents that have been shown to be ineffective. Those without sufficient data for efficacy include clonazepam, ningdong granule, 5-ling granule, omega-3 fatty acids, and n-acetylcysteine. The agents that have been shown to be ineffective include pramipexole and metoclopramide. We will review all of the established pharmacologic treatments, and discuss those presently in development.

  16. Assessment of topiramate′s efficacy and safety in epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem P Gupta


    Full Text Available Objective: To study the significance of topiramate (TPM addition on seizure control in treatment of epilepsy. Design: A prospective open label add-on trial of TPM addition in patients with epilepsy was done. The events of baseline phase of 12 weeks followed by titration and maintenance phases were recorded. Assessment of the number of seizure and emergent adverse effects was done by a monthly visit for each case. Main Outcome Measures: Reduction of more than 50% mean seizure frequency or response ratio of 0.33 was taken as the criteria for responders. Statistical Analysis: Normal Z-test for significance of differences between two proportions and Chi-square test for presence of association was applied and mean age, median duration, sex ratio, percentage prevalence were depicted. Results: Significant responses to TPM in both partial as well as generalized seizures were observed (Z = 6.66, P < 0.001 and Z = 4.185, P < 0.01. The effect was more pronounced in patients with partial seizures. However, the overall response was highly significant (Z = 7.839, P < 0.001. The best response was noted at the dose of 200-300 mg/day (Z = 6.708, P < 0.001. More than 35% cases of partial and generalized seizures reported more than 75% reduction levels. The drug was well tolerated in more than 65% cases for side effects on psychosis, giddiness, and anorexia. Mild side effects were seen only in about less than 35% cases. Conclusions: TPM was found as a significantly effective add-on anticonvulsant with some limitation or mild side effects.

  17. Evidence-based guideline: treatment of tardive syndromes: report of the Guideline Development Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. (United States)

    Bhidayasiri, Roongroj; Fahn, Stanley; Weiner, William J; Gronseth, Gary S; Sullivan, Kelly L; Zesiewicz, Theresa A


    To make evidence-based recommendations regarding management of tardive syndromes (TDS), including tardive dyskinesias (TDD), by addressing 5 questions: 1) Is withdrawal of dopamine receptor blocking agents (DRBAs) an effective TDS treatment? 2) Does switching from typical to atypical DRBAs reduce TDS symptoms? 3) What is the efficacy of pharmacologic agents in treating TDS? 4) Do patients with TDS benefit from chemodenervation with botulinum toxin? 5) Do patients with TDS benefit from surgical therapy? PsycINFO, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane were searched (1966-2011). Articles were classified according to a 4-tiered evidence-rating scheme; recommendations were tied to the evidence. Clonazepam probably improves TDD and ginkgo biloba probably improves TDS (both Level B); both should be considered as treatment. Risperidone may improve TDS but cannot be recommended as treatment because neuroleptics may cause TDS despite masking symptoms. Amantadine and tetrabenazine might be considered as TDS treatment (Level C). Diltiazem should not be considered as TDD treatment (Level B); galantamine and eicosapentaenoic acid may not be considered as treatment (Level C). Data are insufficient to support or refute use of acetazolamide, bromocriptine, thiamine, baclofen, vitamin E, vitamin B6, selegiline, clozapine, olanzapine, melatonin, nifedipine, fluperlapine, sulpiride, flupenthixol, thiopropazate, haloperidol, levetiracetam, quetiapine, ziprasidone, sertindole, aripiprazole, buspirone, yi-gan san, biperiden discontinuation, botulinum toxin type A, electroconvulsive therapy, α-methyldopa, reserpine, and pallidal deep brain stimulation as TDS treatments (Level U). Data are insufficient to support or refute TDS treatment by withdrawing causative agents or switching from typical to atypical DRBA (Level U).

  18. Drugs in development for Parkinson's disease: an update. (United States)

    Johnston, Tom H; Brotchie, Jonathan M


    The current development of emerging pharmacological treatments for Parkinson's disease (PD), front preclinical to launch, is summarized. Advances over the past year are highlighted, including the significant progress of several drugs through various stages of development. Several agents have been discontinued from development, either because of adverse effects or lack of clinical efficacy. The methyl-esterified form of L-DOPA (melevodopa) and the monoamine oxidase type B inhibitor rasagiline have both been launched. With regard to the monoamine re-uptake inhibitors, many changes have been witnessed, with new agents reaching preclinical development and pre-existing ones being discontinued or having no development reported. Of the dopamine agonists, many continue to progress successfully through clinical trials. Others have struggled to demonstrate a significant advantage over currently available treatments and have been discontinued. The field of non-dopaminergic treatments remains dynamic. The alpha2 adrenergic receptor antagonists and the adenosine A2A receptor antagonists remain in clinical trials. Trials of the neuronal' synchronization modulator levetiracetam are at an advanced stage, and there has also been a new addition to the class (ie, seletracetam). There has been a change in the landscape of neuroprotective agents that modulate disease progression. Candidates from the classes of growth factors and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase inhibitors have been discontinued, or no development has been reported, and the mixed lineage kinase inhibitor CEP-1347 has been discontinued for PD treatment. Other drugs in this field, such as neuroimmunophilins, estrogens and alpha-synuclein oligomerization inhibitors, remain in development.

  19. Management protocols for status epilepticus in the pediatric emergency room: systematic review article. (United States)

    Au, Cheuk C; Branco, Ricardo G; Tasker, Robert C

    This systematic review of national or regional guidelines published in English aimed to better understand variance in pre-hospital and emergency department treatment of status epilepticus. Systematic search of national or regional guidelines (January 2000 to February 2017) contained within PubMed and Google Scholar databases, and article reference lists. The search keywords were status epilepticus, prolonged seizure, treatment, and guideline. 356 articles were retrieved and 13 were selected according to the inclusion criteria. In all six pre-hospital guidelines, the preferred route of medication administration was to use alternatives to the intravenous route: all recommended buccal and intranasal midazolam; three also recommended intramuscular midazolam, and five recommended using rectal diazepam. All 11 emergency department guidelines described three phases in therapy. Intravenous medication, by phase, was indicated as such: initial phase - ten/11 guidelines recommended lorazepam, and eight/11 recommended diazepam; second phase - most (ten/11) guidelines recommended phenytoin, but other options were phenobarbital (nine/11), valproic acid (six/11), and either fosphenytoin or levetiracetam (each four/11); third phase - four/11 guidelines included the choice of repeating second phase therapy, whereas the other guidelines recommended using a variety of intravenous anesthetic agents (thiopental, midazolam, propofol, and pentobarbital). All of the guidelines share a similar framework for management of status epilepticus. The choice in route of administration and drug type varied across guidelines. Hence, the adoption of a particular guideline should take account of local practice options in health service delivery. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Hilar Interneuron Vulnerability Distinguishes Aged Rats With Memory Impairment (United States)

    Spiegel, Amy M.; Koh, Ming Teng; Vogt, Nicholas M.; Rapp, Peter R.; Gallagher, Michela


    Hippocampal interneuron populations are reportedly vulnerable to normal aging. The relationship between interneuron network integrity and age-related memory impairment, however, has not been tested directly. That question was addressed in the present study using a well-characterized model in which outbred, aged, male Long-Evans rats exhibit a spectrum of individual differences in hippocampal-dependent memory. Selected interneuron populations in the hippocampus were visualized for stereological quantification with a panel of immunocytochemical markers, including glutamic acid decarboxylase-67 (GAD67), somatostatin, and neuropeptide Y. The overall pattern of results was that, although the numbers of GAD67- and somatostatin-positive interneurons declined with age across multiple fields of the hippocampus, alterations specifically related to the cognitive outcome of aging were observed exclusively in the hilus of the dentate gyrus. Because the total number of NeuN-immunoreactive hilar neurons was unaffected, the decline observed with other markers likely reflects a loss of target protein rather than neuron death. In support of that interpretation, treatment with the atypical antiepileptic levetiracetam at a low dose shown previously to improve behavioral performance fully restored hilar SOM expression in aged, memory-impaired rats. Age-related decreases in GAD67- and somatostatin-immunoreactive neuron number beyond the hilus were regionally selective and spared the CA1 field of the hippocampus entirely. Together these findings confirm the vulnerability of hippocampal interneurons to normal aging and highlight that the integrity of a specific subpopulation in the hilus is coupled with age-related memory impairment. PMID:23749483

  1. Click chemistry, 3D-printing, and omics: the future of drug development. (United States)

    Kurzrock, Razelle; Stewart, David J


    Genomics is a disruptive technology, having revealed that cancers are tremendously complex and differ from patient to patient. Therefore, conventional treatment approaches fit poorly with genomic reality. Furthermore, it is likely that this type of complexity will also be observed in other illnesses. Precision medicine has been posited as a way to better target disease-related aberrations, but developing drugs and tailoring therapy to each patient's complicated problem is a major challenge. One solution would be to match patients to existing compounds based on in silico modeling. However, optimization of complex therapy will eventually require designing compounds for patients using computer modeling and just-in-time production, perhaps achievable in the future by three-dimensional (3D) printing. Indeed, 3D printing is potentially transformative by virtue of its ability to rapidly generate almost limitless numbers of objects that previously required manufacturing facilities. Companies are already endeavoring to develop affordable 3D printers for home use. An attractive, but as yet scantily explored, application is to place chemical design and production under digital control. This could be accomplished by utilizing a 3D printer to initiate chemical reactions, and print the reagents and/or the final compounds directly. Of interest, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recently approved a 3D printed drug-levetiracetam-indicated for seizures. Further, it is now increasingly clear that biologic materials-tissues, and eventually organs-can also be "printed." In the near future, it is plausible that high-throughput computing may be deployed to design customized drugs, which will reshape medicine.

  2. A systematic review on the role of anticonvulsants in the treatment of acute bipolar depression. (United States)

    Reinares, María; Rosa, Adriane R; Franco, Carolina; Goikolea, José Manuel; Fountoulakis, Kostas; Siamouli, Melina; Gonda, Xenia; Frangou, Sophia; Vieta, Eduard


    Despite the high morbidity and mortality associated with bipolar depression, the optimal treatment for this phase is still a matter of debate. The aim of the current review was to provide updated evidence about the efficacy and tolerability of anticonvulsants in the treatment of acute bipolar depression. A comprehensive review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the use of anticonvulsants for the treatment of acute bipolar depression up to June 2011 was conducted by means of the PubMed-Medline database. Eligibility criteria included active comparator-controlled or placebo-controlled randomized studies involving monotherapy or combination therapy. A total of 18 RCTs fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Studies supported the efficacy of divalproex as monotherapy in acute bipolar depression but small sample size was a common methodological limitation. Findings were inconclusive for lamotrigine and carbamazepine although overall lamotrigine may have a beneficial but modest effect. Negative results were found for levetiracetam and gabapentin but the evidence base on these agents is scant. All anticonvulsants were generally well tolerated. No double-blind RCTs were found for the use of other anticonvulsants such as oxcarbazepine, licarbazepine, zonisamide, retigabine, pregabalin, tiagabine, felbamate and vigabatrine in the acute treatment of bipolar depression. To sum up, taking into consideration the efficacy and tolerability profiles of anticonvulsants, current evidence supports the use of divalproex and lamotrigine in the treatment of acute bipolar depression. However, available data for most other anticonvulsants are inconclusive and further RCTs with larger sample sizes are needed before drawing firm conclusions.

  3. Study of the protective effects of nootropic agents against neuronal damage induced by amyloid-beta (fragment 25-35) in cultured hippocampal neurons. (United States)

    Sendrowski, Krzysztof; Sobaniec, Wojciech; Stasiak-Barmuta, Anna; Sobaniec, Piotr; Popko, Janusz


    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder, in which progressive neuron loss, mainly in the hippocampus, is observed. The critical events in the pathogenesis of AD are associated with accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides in the brain. Deposits of Aβ initiate a neurotoxic "cascade" leading to apoptotic death of neurons. Aim of this study was to assess a putative neuroprotective effects of two nootropic drugs: piracetam (PIR) and levetiracetam (LEV) on Aβ-injured hippocampal neurons in culture. Primary cultures of rat's hippocampal neurons at 7 day in vitro were exposed to Aβ(25-35) in the presence or absence of nootropics in varied concentrations. Flow cytometry with Annexin V/PI staining was used for counting and establishing neurons as viable, necrotic or apoptotic. Additionally, release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) to the culture medium, as a marker of cell death, was evaluated. Aβ(25-35) caused concentration-dependent death of about one third number of hippocampal neurons, mainly through an apoptotic pathway. In drugs-containing cultures, number of neurons injured with 20 μM Aβ(25-35) was about one-third lesser for PIR and almost two-fold lesser for LEV. When 40 μM Aβ(25-35) was used, only LEV exerted beneficial neuroprotective action, while PIR was ineffective. Our results suggest the protective potential of both studied nootropics against Aβ-induced death of cultured hippocampal neurons with more powerful neuroprotective effects of LEV. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  4. Newer anti-epileptic drugs, vitamin status and neuropathy: A cross-sectional analysis. (United States)

    Cahill, V; McCorry, D; Soryal, I; Rajabally, Y A

    Whether new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) may result in neuropathy is unknown but possible given their effects on vitamin metabolism. This analysis aimed to determine frequency and correlates of neuropathy in subjects treated with new AEDs in relation to drug used, length of exposure and serum vitamin B12 and folate levels. We performed a cross-sectional study of 52 consecutive epileptic subjects. Presence of neuropathy was determined using the Utah Early Neuropathy Score (UENS). Exposure to anti-epileptic drugs was quantified. Serum vitamin B12 and folate levels were measured. Commonly