WorldWideScience

Sample records for levels teacher supplements

  1. Psychology: Teacher Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Rebecca

    This supplement provides teachers with tests, quizzes, answers to questions in the text, and general teaching information for using the student text, "Psychology," by Rebecca Stark. Quizzes included are on the topics of human development; the nervous system; the brain; cognitive development; sensation and perception; conditioning; learning;…

  2. Effects of zinc supplementation on parent and teacher behaviour rating scores in low socioeconomic level Turkish primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçkardeş, Yasemin; Ozmert, Elif N; Unal, Fatih; Yurdakök, Kadriye

    2009-04-01

    To determine the effect of zinc supplementation on behaviour in low-income school aged children. Double-blind randomized, placebo controlled trial. Low-income district primary school in Turkey. Third grade students in the school. Among 252 students, 226 participated and 218 completed the study. Children in each class were randomized either to the study group to receive 15 mg/day elemental zinc syrup or to placebo group to receive the syrup without zinc for 10 weeks. The change in Conner's Rating Scales for Teachers and Parents scores after supplementation. The mean Conner's Rating Scale for Parents scores on attention deficit, hyperactivity, oppositional behaviour and conduct disorder decreased significantly in the study and placebo groups after supplementation (p children with clinically significant parent ratings on attention deficit (p = 0.01) and hyperactivity (p = 0.004) decreased in the study group while prevalence of oppositional behaviour (p = 0.007) decreased in the placebo group. In children of mothers with low education all mean Parents' scores decreased significantly (p children with clinically significant scores for attention deficit, hyperactivity and oppositional behaviour decreased only in the study group (p children with clinically significant scores for attention deficit and hyperactivity. The affect on behaviour was more evident in the children of low educated mothers.

  3. Teacher Perceptions of Music as a Supplemental Teaching Method for Reading and Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Ronald J.

    2017-01-01

    Supplemental instructional methods are needed to help students achieve grade-level proficiency in reading and literacy in inner-city elementary schools. Teachers employ music concepts and skills during literacy instruction as a motivator for students to acquire proficiency in literacy and reading. Interviews, informal observations and focus group…

  4. Teachers' Self-Assessed Level of Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan

    2013-01-01

    We asked high school physics teachers to assess their level of preparation across a number of domains. Almost all (98%) reported feeling adequately or well prepared in terms of their basic physics knowledge. The chart presents teachers' responses to their self-assessed level of preparation in six different areas. Almost all feel at least…

  5. Decreased serum homocysteine levels after micronutrient supplementation in older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pusparini Pusparini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with a gradual impairment in cognitive function. The elderly also show a high prevalence of undernutrition, whereas nutrition plays an important role in the metabolism of neuronal cells and enzymes. Homocysteine is an amino acid resulting from methionine metabolism and is dependent on intake of vitamin B12, vitamin B6 and folic acid. Homocysteine is said to play a role in cognitive function. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of micronutrient supplementation for 6 months on serum homocysteine levels and cognitive function in older people. This study was an experimental study of pre-post test design, carried out in Mampang subdistrict, South Jakarta. A total of 94 elderly people was recruited for this study, consisting of 44 females and 50 males. Serum homocysteine level was assessed by fluorescent polarization immunoassay and cognitive function by means of the mini mental state examination (MMSE before and after micronutrient supplementation. Mean serum homocysteine concentration after supplementation decreased significantly to 14.8 ± 5.8 mmol/L, compared with mean serum homocysteine level of 15.9 ± 5.9 mmol/L before supplementation (p=0.000. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the factors influencing post-supplementation MMSE scores were gender (â=-0.350; p=0.000, education (â=0.510; p=0.000 and post-supplementation homocysteine levels (â=-0.201; p=0.000, while age, pre-supplementation homocysteine levels and BMI did not affect MMSE scores. Homocysteine concentration decreased significantly after 6 months of supplementation. The factors affecting post-supplementation MMSE scores were gender, level of education, and post-supplementation homocysteine level.

  6. Decreased serum homocysteine levels after micronutrient supplementation in older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pusparini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with a gradual impairment in cognitive function. The elderly also show a high prevalence of undernutrition, whereas nutrition plays an important role in the metabolism of neuronal cells and enzymes. Homocysteine is an amino acid resulting from methionine metabolism and is dependent on intake of vitamin B12, vitamin B6 and folic acid. Homocysteine is said to play a role in cognitive function. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of micronutrient supplementation for 6 months on serum homocysteine levels and cognitive function in older people. This study was an experimental study of pre-post test design, carried out in Mampang subdistrict, South Jakarta. A total of 94 elderly people was recruited for this study, consisting of 44 females and 50 males. Serum homocysteine level was assessed by fluorescent polarization immunoassay and cognitive function by means of the mini mental state examination (MMSE before and after micronutrient supplementation. Mean serum homocysteine concentration after supplementation decreased significantly to 14.8 ± 5.8 mmol/L, compared with mean serum homocysteine level of 15.9 ± 5.9 mmol/L before supplementation (p=0.000. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the factors influencing post-supplementation MMSE scores were gender (â=-0.350; p=0.000, education (â=0.510; p=0.000 and post-supplementation homocysteine levels (â=-0.201; p=0.000, while age, pre-supplementation homocysteine levels and BMI did not affect MMSE scores. Homocysteine concentration decreased significantly after 6 months of supplementation. The factors affecting post-supplementation MMSE scores were gender, level of education, and post-supplementation homocysteine level.

  7. Effects of different levels of supplementation with cassava leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of different levels of supplementation with cassava leaves ( Manihot esculenta ) on growth, parasite load and some characteristics of blood in the dwarf goat ... Also, supplementations with fresh cassava leaves do not affect red blood cells, white blood cells, haematocrite and sedimentation speed of the blood of Dwarf ...

  8. Information training for secondary school level teachers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chateau Thierry, A. de

    1994-01-01

    The INSTN (National Institute for Nuclear Sciences and Techniques) in France, organizes each year an information training concerning the nuclear field for secondary school level teachers; created in 1957, the two-weeks session is concerned with radioactivity and nuclear reactor principles and a four-day practical teaching. Since 1968, 1150 teachers assisted to the session

  9. High-level radioactive wastes. Supplement 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, L.H.

    1984-09-01

    This bibliography contains information on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from August 1982 through December 1983. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 1452 citations

  10. Valuing Initial Teacher Education at Master's Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Clare; Brant, Jacek; Abrahams, Ian; Yandell, John

    2012-01-01

    The future of Master's-level work in initial teacher education (ITE) in England seems uncertain. Whilst the coalition government has expressed support for Master's-level work, its recent White Paper focuses on teaching skills as the dominant form of professional development. This training discourse is in tension with the view of professional…

  11. High-level radioactive wastes. Supplement 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, L.H. (ed.)

    1984-09-01

    This bibliography contains information on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from August 1982 through December 1983. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 1452 citations.

  12. Leucine supplementation protects from insulin resistance by regulating adiposity levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Binder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leucine supplementation might have therapeutic potential in preventing diet-induced obesity and improving insulin sensitivity. However, the underlying mechanisms are at present unclear. Additionally, it is unclear whether leucine supplementation might be equally efficacious once obesity has developed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed chow or a high-fat diet (HFD, supplemented or not with leucine for 17 weeks. Another group of HFD-fed mice (HFD-pairfat group was food restricted in order to reach an adiposity level comparable to that of HFD-Leu mice. Finally, a third group of mice was exposed to HFD for 12 weeks before being chronically supplemented with leucine. Leucine supplementation in HFD-fed mice decreased body weight and fat mass by increasing energy expenditure, fatty acid oxidation and locomotor activity in vivo. The decreased adiposity in HFD-Leu mice was associated with increased expression of uncoupling protein 3 (UCP-3 in the brown adipose tissue, better insulin sensitivity, increased intestinal gluconeogenesis and preservation of islets of Langerhans histomorphology and function. HFD-pairfat mice had a comparable improvement in insulin sensitivity, without changes in islets physiology or intestinal gluconeogenesis. Remarkably, both HFD-Leu and HFD-pairfat mice had decreased hepatic lipid content, which likely helped improve insulin sensitivity. In contrast, when leucine was supplemented to already obese animals, no changes in body weight, body composition or glucose metabolism were observed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that leucine improves insulin sensitivity in HFD-fed mice by primarily decreasing adiposity, rather than directly acting on peripheral target organs. However, beneficial effects of leucine on intestinal gluconeogenesis and islets of Langerhans's physiology might help prevent type 2 diabetes development. Differently, metabolic benefit of leucine supplementation

  13. Examining Media Literacy Levels of Prospective Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taskın INAN

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available As in many other countries, following the 2007-2008 education year when media literacy courses began to be included in the curricula, media literacy has become one of the discussion topics among educators and decision makers in Turkey. Discussion topics related to media literacy have included who is going to give the media literacy courses, what qualifications will be sought out in media literacy education teachers, what will be included in the media literacy curriculum in terms of its content, and at what level the media literacy course will be given. The current study which aims to examine media literacy levels of prospective teachers utilized thesurvey method. The sample of the study included prospective teachers (480 attending Elementary School Education, Social Studies Education and Turkish Language Education departments in the Education Faculty at the Dumlupinar University in the 2008-2009 education year. The results of the study showed that prospective teachers have a low level of reaction to media messages, do not educate people around enough about the effects of media, but make use of different sources of media to gain information, and are cognizant of media literacy.

  14. Examining media literacy levels of prospective teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taşkın İnan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available As in many other countries, following the 2007-2008 education year when media literacy courses began to be included in the curricula, media literacy has become one of the discussion topics among educators and decision makers in Turkey. Discussion topics related to media literacy have included who is going to give the media literacy courses, what qualifications will be sought out in media literacy education teachers, what will be included in the media literacy curriculum in terms of its content, and at what level the media literacy course will be given. The current study which aims to examine media literacy levels of prospective teachers utilized the survey method. The sample of the study included prospective teachers (480 attending Elementary School Education, Social Studies Education and Turkish Language Education departments in the Education Faculty at the Dumlupinar University in the 2008-2009 education year. The results of the study showed that prospective teachers have a low level of reaction to media messages, do not educate people around enough about the effects of media, but make use of different sources of media to gain information, and are cognizant of media literacy.

  15. Effects of folic acid supplementation on serum homocysteine and lipoprotein (a levels during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Hekmati Azar Mehrabani

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Although FA supplementation decreased serum levels of Hcy in different MTHFR genotypes, serum Lp(a was not changed by FA supplements. Our data suggests that FA supplementation effects on serum Hcy is MTHFR genotype independent in pregnant women.

  16. Digestible lysine levels in diets supplemented with ractopamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelar de Oliveira Souza

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In order evaluate digestible lysine levels in diets supplemented with 20 ppm of ractopamine on the performance and carcass traits, 64 barrows with high genetic potential at finishing phase were allotted in a completely randomized block design with four digestible lysine levels (0.80, 0.90, 1.00, and 1.10%, eight replicates and two pigs per experimental unit. Initial body weight and pigs' kinship were used as criteria in the blocks formation. Diets were mainly composed of corn and soybean meal supplemented with minerals, vitamins and amino acids to meet pigs' nutritional requirements at the finishing phase, except for digestible lysine. No effect of digestible lysine levels was observed in animal performance. The digestible lysine intake increased linearly by increasing the levels of digestible lysine in the diets. Carcass traits were not influenced by the dietary levels of digestible lysine. The level of 0.80% of digestible lysine in diets supplemented with 20 ppm ractopamine meets the nutritional requirements of castrated male pigs during the finishing phase.

  17. Preschool Teachers' Level of Attitudes toward Early Mathematics Education

    OpenAIRE

    Çelik, Meryem

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of this study isexamining the preschool teachers' level of attitudes toward early mathseducation and correlation between these levels and various variables.“Preschool Teachers' Attitudes towards Early Childhood Math AssessmentInstrument" is applied to 60 teachers who were pre-school teachers in 2013and formed the sample of this study. As a result of these analysis, it has beenprecipitated that teachers' level of attitudes toward early maths education isgood. Meanin...

  18. Secondary School Teachers' Knowledge Level of the Concepts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Secondary School Teachers' Knowledge Level of the Concepts of Environmental ... Huria: Journal of the Open University of Tanzania ... level of the certificate of secondary education geography teachers when teaching the concepts of ...

  19. Classroom-Level Teacher Professional Development and Satisfaction: Teachers Learn in the Context of Classroom-Level Curriculum Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawer, Saad

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the impact of classroom-level teacher professional development (CTPD) and curriculum transmission on teacher professional development and satisfaction. Based on work with English-as-a-foreign-language college teachers and students, data analysis showed that CTPD significantly improved student-teacher subject,…

  20. Unsaturated Fatty Acids Supplementation Reduces Blood Lead Level in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoczyńska, Anna; Wojakowska, Anna; Nowacki, Dorian; Bobak, Łukasz; Turczyn, Barbara; Smyk, Beata; Szuba, Andrzej; Trziszka, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Some dietary factors could inhibit lead toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary compounds rich in unsaturated fatty acids (FA) on blood lead level, lipid metabolism, and vascular reactivity in rats. Serum metallothionein and organs' lead level were evaluated with the aim of assessing the possible mechanism of unsaturated FA impact on blood lead level. For three months, male Wistar rats that were receiving drinking water with (100 ppm Pb) or without lead acetate were supplemented per os daily with virgin olive oil or linseed oil (0.2 mL/kg b.w.) or egg derived lecithin fraction: “super lecithin” (50 g/kg b.w.). Mesenteric artery was stimulated ex vivo by norepinephrine (NE) administered at six different doses. Lecithin supplementation slightly reduced pressor responses of artery to NE. Lead administered to rats attenuated the beneficial effect of unsaturated FA on lipid metabolism and vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation. On the other hand, the super lecithin and linseed oil that were characterized by low omega-6 to omega-3 ratio (about 1) reduced the blood lead concentration. This effect was observed in lead poisoned rats (p < 0.0001) and also in rats nonpoisoned with lead (p < 0.05). PMID:26075218

  1. Examining Teachers' Motivation Level According to School Principals' Humor Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recepoglu, Ergun; Kilinc, Ali Cagatay; Cepni, Osman

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the motivation level of teachers according to school principals' humor styles. The humor styles survey and job motivation scale were used to gather data from 305 randomly selected teachers employed in primary schools in Karabuk. Results indicated that 141 of the teachers claimed school principal had…

  2. Investigation of Job Satisfaction Levels of School Administrators and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Gönül; Boydak Özan, Mukadder

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of the research is to determine the job satisfaction levels of school administrators and teachers. The descriptive method based on screening model for revealing the existing situation was used in the study. An attempt to determine the job satisfaction levels of administrators and teachers in educational organizations was made in…

  3. Effect of ascorbic acid supplementation level to diets of indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All the birds were offered the same grower feed and fresh water ad libitum. Indigenous Venda hens supplemented with ascorbic acid produced chicks with improved (P<0.05) feed intake, feed conversion ratio, growth rate and live weight at 7 weeks of age. However, ascorbic acid supplementation to the diets of indigenous ...

  4. Level of Work Related Stress among Teachers in Elementary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agai-Demjaha, Teuta; Bislimovska, Jovanka Karadzinska; Mijakoski, Dragan

    2015-09-15

    Teaching is considered a highly stressful occupation, with work-related stress levels among teachers being among the highest compared to other professions. Unfortunately there are very few studies regarding the levels of work-related stress among teachers in the Republic of Macedonia. To identify the level of self-perceived work-related stress among teachers in elementary schools and its relationship to gender, age, position in the workplace, the level of education and working experience. We performed a descriptive-analytical model of a cross-sectional study that involved 300 teachers employed in nine elementary schools. Evaluation of examined subjects included completion of a specially designed questionnaire. We found that the majority of interviewed teachers perceive their work-related stress as moderate. The level of work-related stress was significantly high related to the gender, age, position in workplace, as well as working experience (p related to level of education (p stressful as compared to the upper-grade teachers (18.5% vs. 5.45%), while the same is true for female respondents as compared to the male ones (15.38% vs. 3.8%). In addition, our results show that teachers with university education significantly more often associate their workplace with stronger stress than their colleagues with high education (13.48% vs. 9.4%). We also found that there is no significant difference of stress levels between new and more experienced teachers. Our findings confirm that the majority of interviewed teachers perceived their work-related stress as high or very high. In terms of the relationship between the level of teachers' stress and certain demographic and job characteristics, according to our results, the level of work-related stress has shown significantly high relation to gender, age, levels of grades taught as well as working experience, and significant relation to the level of education.

  5. Levels of multiple supplements or nitrogen salt for beef heifers in pasture during the dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ériton Egidio Lisboa Valente

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed performance, microbial protein synthesis, intake and digestibility of nutrients by beef heifers receiving levels of multiple supplements or nitrogen salt, in a self-controlled intake, on pasture, during the dry season. Thirty-five beef heifers, from 6 to 9 months of age and average initial body weight of 203.4 + 4.5 kg, were used. Study factors were: control - mineral mixture; nitrogen salt - 50% of urea + mineral mixture, at proportion of 1:1, and 50% of corn (75% of crude protein; levels of multiple supplementation - multiple supplements with different percentages of intake controller mixture (urea + mineral mixture, at the proportion of 1:1, corn and soybean meal (45% of crude protein. Supplement consumptions observed were: 115, 173, 572 and 1214 g/animal/day for animals fed on nitrogen salt, low, medium and high levels of multiple supplement, respectively. Supplemented animals had greater average daily gain, evidencing the positive linear effect of the levels of multiple supplementation on average daily gain. Overall, there were no significant differences between average daily gain of animals fed on multiple supplements or nitrogen salt. Supplementation increased the intake and digestibility of nutrients, except for digestibility of neutral detergent fiber, although the intake of digested neutral detergent fiber increased. Supplementation increased the production of microbial nitrogen as well as nitrogen losses in urine, although the quantity of nitrogen assimilated by bacteria, proportionally to intake, was higher. Supplementation improves nutritional parameters and weight gain.

  6. Effects of niacin supplementation (40 weeks) and two dietary levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meyer, Ulrich

    2006-05-18

    May 18, 2006 ... on performance, blood and fatty acid profiles of dairy cattle. C. Rauls1, U. ... included 40 treatment comparisons with niacin supplementation, and, in most cases, found positive ...... Effects of feeding heat-treated soybeans and.

  7. Skill Levels of Prospective Physics Teachers on Problem Posing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cildir, Sema; Sezen, Nazan

    2011-01-01

    Problem posing is one of the topics which the educators thoroughly accentuate. Problem posing skill is defined as an introvert activity of a student's learning. In this study, skill levels of prospective physics teachers on problem posing were determined and their views on problem posing were evaluated. To this end, prospective teachers were given…

  8. Technology Integration Support Levels for In-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mable Evans

    2017-01-01

    In-service teachers across the globe are expected to integrate technology in their respective instructional content area. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the perceptions of in-service teachers concerning building-level support for technology integration. Participants in the study were asked to participate in semi-structured…

  9. Investigation of the Work Motivation Levels of Primary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Hatice Kadioglu; Yilmaz, Perihan

    2018-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the work motivation levels of primary school teachers working in primary school institutions located in Istanbul province, Kucukcekmece district. The descriptive survey model was used in this study. The population of the study consists of primary school teachers and primary school administrators working in state…

  10. A Situational Approach to Middle Level Teacher Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, George P.; Greenwood, Scott C.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the emerging concept of teacher as leader in the classroom, and offers a useful framework for practice. Finds that to exercise situational leadership in the classroom, teachers vary supportive behavior and directive behavior in response to four levels of student task development: telling, consulting, participating, and delegating. (SD)

  11. Exploring Teacher Beliefs in Teaching EAP at Low Proficiency Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Olwyn

    2012-01-01

    Teaching English for Academic Purposes (EAP) requires teachers experienced in Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) to acquire additional skills, abilities and approaches. Beliefs about CLT teaching may not be appropriate for teaching EAP, especially to low level learners. Making teachers aware of their beliefs is the first step in helping them to…

  12. Peninsula Humane Society Teacher's Packet. Secondary Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peninsula Humane Society, San Mateo, CA.

    Activities in this teacher's packet are designed to familiarize secondary school students with the responsibilities involved in pet ownership. Teaching plans are provided for a total of 12 lessons grouped under social studies, language arts, math, and health sciences. Activities focus on pet overpopulation, expressions of social responses in…

  13. The Impact of Science Integrated Curriculum Supplements on Early Childhood Teachers' Attitudes and Beliefs towards Science while In-Service: A Multiple Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Kellian L.

    Science at the early childhood level has been rarely taught as a single subject or integrated into the curriculum. One reason why early childhood educators avoid teaching science are their attitudes, beliefs, and lack of understanding scientific concepts as presented in traditional science curriculums. The intervention used by researchers for improving beliefs and attitudes in K-6 pre-service teachers towards teaching science in early childhood has been science method courses. For in service teachers, the intervention has been professional development workshops, seminars, and symposiums. Though these interventions have had a positive impact on teachers' attitudes and beliefs toward teaching science, the interventions have not necessarily guaranteed more science being taught in the preschool classroom. The specific problem investigated for this study was how to improve the interventions designed to improve preschool teachers' attitudes and beliefs so that they would feel more confident in teaching science to young children. The purpose of this study was to examine how implementing a one-week science integrated curriculum supplement could be an effective tool for improving preschool teachers' attitudes and beliefs toward teaching science. This study utilized the qualitative multiple case study research method. A logical model was created based on negative teacher attitudes and beliefs attributes that were the core components of the Preschool Teachers' Attitudes and Beliefs toward Science teaching (P-TABS) questionnaire. The negative attributes were paired with positive interventions and encapsulated in a one-week science integrated curriculum supplement based on the factors of teacher comfort, child benefit and challenges. The primary source of evidence for this study was the semi-structured interview. The researcher contacted 24 early childhood facilities, 44 emails were sent to preschool teachers, four teachers agreed to participate in the study. The results of the

  14. Tissue culture media supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum contains a castrate level of testosterone.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedelaar, J.P.M.; Isaacs, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human prostate cancer cells are routinely maintained in media supplemented with 10% Fetal Calf Serum (FCS) to provide androgen. In the present study, total and free testosterone levels in 10%FCS supplemented tissue culture media were determined and compared to levels in intact and

  15. Teacher Assessment of Practical Skills in A-Level Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, R.; Ferguson, Carolyn M.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses a two-year assessment undertaken to evaluate the Nuffield A-Level chemistry course. Secondary teachers selected chemistry experiments for assessment purposes and assessed their students in manipulative skills, observational skills, interpretation skills, creative skills, and attitudes. (MLH)

  16. Effects of exogenous vitamin E supplementation on the levels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Oxidative stress has been recognized as a central feature of smoke induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant enzymes is also an established fact in these patients. But studies in regard to stable COPD patients and effect of vitamin E supplementation are lacking.

  17. Effect of Camel Milk's Supplementation on Serum Glucose Levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cases of diabetes are on the rise in almost every population and epidemiological studies suggest that without proper prevention and control measures, prevalence of the disease will continue to increase globally. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of camel milk supplementation on serum glucose, lipid ...

  18. Factors influencing exemplary science teachers' levels of computer use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakverdi, Meral

    This study examines exemplary science teachers' use of technology in science instruction, factors influencing their level of computer use, their level of knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction, their use of computer-related applications/tools during their instruction, and their students' use of computer applications/tools in or for their science class. After a relevant review of the literature certain variables were selected for analysis. These variables included personal self-efficacy in teaching with computers, outcome expectancy, pupil-control ideology, level of computer use, age, gender, teaching experience, personal computer use, professional computer use and science teachers' level of knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction. The sample for this study includes middle and high school science teachers who received the Presidential Award for Excellence in Science Teaching Award (sponsored by the White House and the National Science Foundation) between the years 1997 and 2003 from all 50 states and U.S. territories. Award-winning science teachers were contacted about the survey via e-mail or letter with an enclosed return envelope. Of the 334 award-winning science teachers, usable responses were received from 92 science teachers, which made a response rate of 27.5%. Analysis of the survey responses indicated that exemplary science teachers have a variety of knowledge/skills in using computer related applications/tools. The most commonly used computer applications/tools are information retrieval via the Internet, presentation tools, online communication, digital cameras, and data collection probes. Results of the study revealed that students' use of technology in their science classroom is highly correlated with the frequency of their science teachers' use of computer applications/tools. The results of the multiple regression analysis revealed that personal self-efficacy related to

  19. Influence of protein level and supplemental methionine in practical rations for young endangered masked bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the protein requirement of young endangered masked Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi). Five practical starting rations containing 24 to 32% protein were fed alone and supplemented with methionine for 5 weeks. Supplemental methionine significantly improved growth of quail fed diets containing 24 and 26% protein. Increasing the protein level improved growth of quail fed unsupplemented diets but did not do so when diets contained supplemental methionine. A methionine-supplemented ration containing 24% protein appeared adequate for supporting rapid growth of masked Bobwhite quail.

  20. Effect of aerobic exercise and fish oil supplements on plasma levels of inflammatory indexes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Hamid; Bazgir, Behzad; Daryanoosh, Farhad; Koushki, Maryam; Sobhani, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Exercise has positive and negative effects on immune system. Herein, we would like to investigate the effects of incremental aerobic training and fish oil supplementation on the plasma levels of CRP, CPK and IL-17 in trained mice. One of the major roles of immune system is to produce soluble or cellular components that provide the immunity against inflammatory agent. The purpose of this study is to investigate distinct and combine effects of incremental aerobic training and fish oil supplement on plasma levels of IL-17, CPK and CRP in trained male mice. Totally, 54 healthy male mice (2 months old, weight= 34±1 grams) were selected. At first 10 mice were killed to determine base line values, the rest of them were randomly divided into four groups, control group (C, n=11), supplement group (S, n=11), training group (T, n=11) and supplement-training group (ST, n=11).The supplement and supplement-training groups were fed with 0.2cc/day fish oil for 8 weeks. Training and supplement-training groups underwent exercise for 5 sessions per week for a period of 8 weeks on animal treadmill. SPSS 16.0 software and multivariate analysis of variance were used for statistical analysis of data Exercise and fish oil supplement lead to a decrease in CRP levels and subsequently causing a reduction in plasma levels of IL-17 and CK in mice (poil can reduce regulate inflammatory response caused by incremental exercise.

  1. Dinosaurs and Power Plants. Energy from the Past for the Future. Teacher's Lesson Plan and Activity Guide; Teacher's Guide Supplement of Reproducible Graphics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Office of Fossil Energy.

    This teacher's guide and its accompanying supplement were prepared for use with the U.S. Department of Energy's Dinosaurs and Power Plants, a publication designed for students in grades 5-8 about the history, detection, extraction, transportation, use, environmental problem/solutions, and future of fossil energy. The study of energy science shows…

  2. Increasing levels of crude protein in multiple supplements for grazing beef heifers in rainy season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Vieira de Barros

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effect of multiple supplements with differents levels of crude protein (CP or mineral supplements on the nutritional parameters and performance of beef heifers grazing Uruchloa decumbens in the rainy season. A complete random design was employed. The treatments were made up of increasing levels of CP in the multiple supplements and a control treatment (MM in which animals were offered only mineral mixture. Multiple supplements contained 17; 30; 43 and 56% of CP, for treatments CP17; CP30; CP43 and CP56, respectively. Average daily gain (ADG (g was 447.7; 554.6; 638.4; 587.9; 590.4, for treatments MM, CP17; CP30; CP43 and CP56, respectively. A quadratic effect of the levels of crude protein was found (p< 0.10 on ADG. A greater intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, CP, ether extract (EE, non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC, total digestible nutrients (TDN, and digested dry matter (p< 0.10 was found in animals supplemented with multiple supplements. Multiple supplements increased the apparent digestibility coefficient of DM, CP, EE and NFC. Supply of multiple multiple supplements for heifers grazing in medium to high quality pastures in the rainy season improves the performance of the animals.

  3. Comparing levels of school performance to science teachers' reports on knowledge/skills, instructional use and student use of computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Rebecca

    The purpose of this descriptive quantitative and basic qualitative study was to examine fifth and eighth grade science teachers' responses, perceptions of the role of technology in the classroom, and how they felt that computer applications, tools, and the Internet influence student understanding. The purposeful sample included survey and interview responses from fifth grade and eighth grade general and physical science teachers. Even though they may not be generalizable to other teachers or classrooms due to a low response rate, findings from this study indicated teachers with fewer years of teaching science had a higher level of computer use but less computer access, especially for students, in the classroom. Furthermore, teachers' choice of professional development moderated the relationship between the level of school performance and teachers' knowledge/skills, with the most positive relationship being with workshops that occurred outside of the school. Eighteen interviews revealed that teachers perceived the role of technology in classroom instruction mainly as teacher-centered and supplemental, rather than student-centered activities.

  4. Factors Influencing Exemplary Science Teachers' Levels of Computer Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakverdi, Meral; Dana, Thomas M.; Swain, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine exemplary science teachers' use of technology in science instruction, factors influencing their level of computer use, their level of knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction, their use of computer-related applications/tools during their instruction, and their…

  5. Betaine supplementation lowers plasma homocysteine levels in healthy men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenge, G.R.S.; Verhoef, P.; Katan, M.B.

    2003-01-01

    Elevated levels of plasma total homocysteine are associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Betaine and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate can remethylate homocysteine into methionine via independent reactions. We determined the effect of daily betaine supplementation, compared with both folic

  6. Level of Work Related Stress among Teachers in Elementary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teuta Agai–Demjaha

    2015-07-01

    CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm that the majority of interviewed teachers perceived their work-related stress as high or very high. In terms of the relationship between the level of teachers’ stress and certain demographic and job characteristics, according to our results, the level of work-related stress has shown significantly high relation to gender, age, levels of grades taught as well as working experience, and significant relation to the level of education.

  7. Effects of nutritional supplementation on periodontal parameters, carotenoid antioxidant levels, and serum C-reactive protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpenau, Lisa A; Cheema, Abida T; Zingale, Joseph A; Chambers, David W; Lundergan, William P

    2011-05-01

    Few studies have focused on the role of nutrition in periodontal disease. The purpose of this trial was to determine the effect of a nutritional supplement on gingival inflammation, bleeding, probing depth, clinical attachment level, carotenoid antioxidant level, and C-reactive protein. The test supplement, consisting of a standard multivitamin formula, as well as several phytonutrients associated with antiinflammatory/antioxidant effects, provided modest benefits in reducing inflammation; however, further studies with larger populations and longer intervention are warranted.

  8. Maternal supplementation with natural or synthetic vitamin E and its levels in human colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Heleni A; Ramalho, Heryka M M; Lima, Mayara S R; Grilo, Evellyn C; Dimenstein, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    Newborns are considered a high-risk group for vitamin E deficiency. Breast milk is a source of alpha-tocopherol (α-TOH), a form of vitamin E that prevents deficiency. The present study aimed to assess whether supplementation with a natural or synthetic form of α-TOH, in addition to maternal sources of vitamin E, would increase the concentration of α-TOH in colostrum. A total of 109 healthy lactating women were recruited from a Brazilian public maternity clinic and randomized into 3 groups: control without supplementation (n = 36), natural α-TOH supplementation (n = 40), and synthetic α-TOH supplementation (n = 33). Blood and colostrum samples were collected before and after supplementation to check the nutritional status of these women by high-performance liquid chromatography. The Kruskal-Wallis test was applied for independent samples, and Tukey test was used for 2-way analysis of the averages of the groups. The baseline nutritional status of vitamin E of all of the lactating women enrolled in the trial was considered adequate. Women who received supplementation had higher concentrations of α-TOH in colostrum than the control group, with 57% and 39% increases in women supplemented with the natural and synthetic forms of α-TOH, respectively. Supplementation with both forms of α-TOH increased vitamin E concentrations in colostrum; however, the natural form was more efficient in increasing the levels.

  9. Levels of high energy cottonseed meal in multiple supplements for grazing cattle: performance and economic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanis Tilemahos Zervoudakis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the substitution levels of protein from soybean meal by high energy cottonseed (CS meal in multiple supplements for beef cattle grazing in the dry season on the average daily gain (ADG and economic viability. Twenty Nellore steers with initial body weight of 351.25±35.38 kg and average initial age of 24±0.8 months were used, divided into four paddocks of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu with 1.6 ha each incompletely randomized design with four animals and five supplements to assess the following supplements: 0CS, 25CS and 50CS corresponding to the level of 0,25 and 50% high energy cottonseed meal to replace the meal soybean, provided the amount of 2 kg/animal/day, which were compared to mineral mixture (MM. The supplement 25CS provided higher (P<0.0001 ADG (0.75kg/animal/day-1 compared to supplement 50CS (0.60kg/animal/day-1. The ADG of animals supplemented with 0CS (0.53kg/animal/day-1 did not differ (P<0.0001 of the ADG of the bulls receiving supplementation with 25CS (0.75k /animal/day-1 and 50CS (0,60kg / animal / day-1. The 25CS supplement showed a higher economic return on invested capital in the period. The use of cottonseed meal high energy level of 25% replacement of soybean meal in multiple supplements provided greater weight gain of cattle and improved economic viability. 

  10. An Evaluation of Teachers' Attitudes and Beliefs Levels on Classroom Control in Terms of Teachers' Sense of Efficacy (The Sample of Biology Teachers in Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate biology teachers' attitudes and belief levels on classroom control in terms of teachers' sense of efficacy. The screening model was used in the study. The study group was comprised of 135 biology teachers. In this study, Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES) and The Attitudes and Beliefs on Classroom Control…

  11. Teacher-to-Teacher Consultation: Facilitating Consistent and Effective Intervention across Grade Levels for Students with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Matthew J.; Dupaul, George J.

    2015-01-01

    Teacher-to-teacher consultation (TTC) is an extension of standard behavioral consultation that seeks to transfer an established and effective intervention across a grade-level transition by including teachers from both grade levels as conjoint consultees at the beginning of the second school year. The purpose of the current study was to determine…

  12. Teachers' Psychological Contract Perceptions and Person-Environment Fit Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirkasimoglu, Nihan

    2014-01-01

    Problem Statement: Modern management approaches attach great importance to both the informal and the economic aspects of the organizations. Identifying teachers' psychological contract types and fit levels of a work environment in terms of variables such as seniority, educational degree, and school type will lead to discovery of the motivational…

  13. Economic Literacy Levels of Social Studies Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhan, Nadire Emel

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the levels of economic literacy--an important component of being a good citizen--among seniors studying at social studies teacher program which aims at cultivating good citizens and to find out its relationships in terms of various variables. The quantitative sample of the study was comprised of 726 senior…

  14. Shortage of Mathematics Teachers in Thai Basic Education Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puncreobutr, Vichian; Rattanatumma, Tawachai

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the reasons for shortage of Mathematics teachers at Thai Basic Education level. This research is both quantitative and qualitative in nature. For the purpose of study, survey was conducted with senior high school students, in order to find out their willingness to pursue mathematics in Bachelor of…

  15. Upper Secondary and Vocational Level Teachers at Social Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtonen, Teemu; Kontkanen, Sini; Dillon, Patrick; Kukkonen, Jari; Väisänen, Pertti

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on upper secondary and vocational level teachers as users of social software i.e. what software they use during their leisure and work and for what purposes they use software in teaching. The study is theorised within a technological pedagogical content knowledge framework, the emphasis is especially on technological knowledge…

  16. Increased iron level in phytase-supplemented diets reduces performance and nutrient utilisation in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Marjina; Iji, P A; Graham, H

    2017-08-01

    1. The effect of different levels of dietary iron on phytase activity and its subsequent effect on broiler performance were investigated in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. A total of 360 day-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks were distributed to 6 experimental diets, formulated with three levels of Fe (60, 80 and 100 mg/kg) and two levels of phytase (0 and 500 FTU/kg). 2. Phytase supplemented to mid-Fe diets increased feed consumption more than the non-supplemented diet at d 24. From hatch to d 35, Fe × phytase interaction significantly influenced the feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). The high-Fe diet supplemented with phytase significantly reduced FI and BWG of broilers than those supplemented with low- or mid-Fe diets. The overall FCR was significantly better in birds fed on the mid-Fe diets with phytase supplementation. 3. A significant improvement in ileal digestibility of N, P, Mg and Fe was observed in birds feed diets containing 60 mg Fe/kg, with significant interaction between Fe and phytase. 4. Phytase improved the bone breaking strength when supplemented to low- or mid-Fe diets, compared to the non-supplemented diets. There was a significant Fe × phytase interaction effect. Tibia Fe content was higher in birds fed on phytase-free diets with high Fe but the reverse was the case when phytase was added and their interaction was significant. High dietary Fe significantly increased the accumulation of Fe in liver. 5. Phytase improved Ca-Mg-ATPase, Ca-ATPase and Mg-ATPase activities in jejunum when supplemented to the diet containing 80 mg Fe/kg. 6. This study indicates that high (100 mg/kg) dietary Fe inhibited phytase efficacy and subsequently reduced the overall performance and nutrient utilisation of broilers.

  17. Increasing zinc levels in phytase-supplemented diets improves the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marjina Akter

    2017-09-02

    Sep 2, 2017 ... This result indicate that the Zn concentrations used in this study were not ... levels of phytase, the concentrations of Zn in the experimental diets of these studies ... combustion technique, as described by Sweeney (1989) using a LECO® ... Premix A. 2.0. 2.0. 2.0. 2.0. 2.0. 2.0. Choline Cl. 0.9. 0.9. 0.9. 1.1. 0.9.

  18. Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis supplementation affects folliculogenesis, progesterone and ghrelin levels in fattening pre-pubertal gilts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abadjieva, Desislava; Nedeva, Radka; Marchev, Yordan; Jordanova, Gergana; Chervenkov, Mihail; Dineva, Julieta; Shimkus, Almantas; Shimkiene, Aldona; Teerds, Katja; Kistanova, Elena

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis supplemented diet on follicular development and related endocrine parameters, such as estradiol and progesterone levels as well as ghrelin levels in pre-pubertal gilts. Twenty-one 60-day-old Danube

  19. iTE: Student Teachers Using iPad on a Second Level Initial Teacher Education Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Mahon, Brendan; Grádaigh, Seán Ó.; Ghuidhir, Sinéad Ní

    2016-01-01

    Research on the use of iPad in initial teacher education is limited. This paper outlines a study to examine how the professional learning and pedagogical knowledge development of student teachers could be supported following 1:1 iPad deployment on a second-level initial teacher education programme in Ireland. Findings show that iPad can be…

  20. Supplementation of suckling beef calves with different levels of crude protein on tropical pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Sidnei Antonio; Paulino, Mário Fonseca; Detmann, Edenio; de Campos Valadares Filho, Sebastião; Valente, Eriton Egídio Lisboa; Barros, Lívia Vieira; Cardenas, Javier Enrique Garces; Almeida, Daniel Mageste; Martins, Leandro Soares; Silva, Aline Gomes

    2014-02-01

    The effects of supplementation with different levels of crude protein on performance, intake and nutrient digestibility and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in suckling beef calves on pasture were assessed. Fifty-five calves, with an average age of 100 days and an initial average body weight of 110 ± 7.5 kg and their respective dams, were used. The experimental design was completely randomised with five treatments and 11 replications. The experimental treatments for calves were as follows: control = calves received only mineral mixture; supplementation levels = calves received supplement containing 8, 19, 30 or 41% of crude protein (CP, at a rate of 0.5% of body weight (BW)). The cows received only mineral mixture ad libitum. Supplemented calves had higher (P calves. There was no difference in total dry matter (DM) intake (P > 0.1). However, intake of dry matter forage (DMF) presented cubic profiles (P calves on creep feeding. The intake of supplements with CP levels between 8 and 30% partially replaces of the pasture ingested by calves and increases the digestibility of the diet.

  1. Estimating safe maximum levels of vitamins and minerals in fortified foods and food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Albert; Kehoe, Laura; Hennessy, Áine; Walton, Janette

    2017-12-01

    To show how safe maximum levels (SML) of vitamins and minerals in fortified foods and supplements may be estimated in population subgroups. SML were estimated for adults and 7- to 10-year-old children for six nutrients (retinol, vitamins B6, D and E, folic acid, iron and calcium) using data on usual daily nutrient intakes from Irish national nutrition surveys. SML of nutrients in supplements were lower for children than for adults, except for calcium and iron. Daily energy intake from fortified foods in high consumers (95th percentile) varied by nutrient from 138 to 342 kcal in adults and 40-309 kcal in children. SML (/100 kcal) of nutrients in fortified food were lower for children than adults for vitamins B6 and D, higher for vitamin E, with little difference for other nutrients. Including 25 % 'overage' for nutrients in fortified foods and supplements had little effect on SML. Nutritionally significant amounts of these nutrients can be added safely to supplements and fortified foods for these population subgroups. The estimated SML of nutrients in fortified foods and supplements may be considered safe for these population subgroups over the long term given the food composition and dietary patterns prevailing in the respective dietary surveys. This risk assessment approach shows how nutrient intake data may be used to estimate, for population subgroups, the SML for vitamins and minerals in both fortified foods and supplements, separately, each taking into account the intake from other dietary sources.

  2. EPISTEMOLOGICAL PERCEPTION AND SCIENTIFIC LITERACY IN LEVEL HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Álvarez-Valenzuela

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Research in science education has helped to find some difficulties that hinder the teaching-learning process. These problems include conceptual content of school subjects, the influence of prior knowledge of the student and the teachers have not been trained in their university education epistemologically. This research presents the epistemological conceptions of a sample of 114 high school teachers university science area, which refer the ideas about the role of observation in scientific knowledge development and the work of scientists in the process of knowledge generation. It also includes the level of scientific literacy from the literature that is used as a source of information on the teaching. The result also identifies the level of scientific literacy in students and their influence on learning.

  3. Study of Pre and Post Supplementation Green Tea Extracts to MDA Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Goenawan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available High intensity exercise (HI induces oxidative stress. Running for 2400 meters is one of the simple exercise form which can be counted as HI. During HI, increase of oxygen consumption happened in muscle cell resulted in an increase of oxidant level. The aim of the study was to measure the effects of Indonesian green tea supplementation, before and after HI to the level of lipid peroxidation (TBARSMalonyldialdehyde (MDA. The subjects of study were 42 male students from Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran (FMUP and Faculty of Physical Exercise, Indonesia University of Education (FPOK-UPI. The subjects were divided into trained and untrained subject. Subjects were divided into groups using Astrand Harvard step test. The purpose of this test was measuring the level of VO2 max. Blood samples for MDA level were collected at 3 hours before and after high intensity aerobic exercise. Oxidative stress was induced by 2400 meters run. The result showed that green tea supplement-ation was effective to decrease MDA plasma level especially after exercise. Green tea could serve as natural antioxidant resources, which potentially can be used as potential sport supplemental drink.

  4. Ingestive behavior of grazing steers fed increasing levels of concentrate supplementation with different crude protein contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Fabrício Bacelar Lima; Silva, Robério Rodrigues; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; da Silva, Fabiano Ferreira; Lins, Túlio Otávio Jardim D Almeida; da Silva, Anderson Luiz Nascimento; Macedo, Venício; Abreu Filho, George; de Souza, Sinvaldo Oliveira; Guimarães, Joanderson Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the ingestive behavior of steers on Brachiaria brizantha pasture fed diets with increasing levels of concentrate supplementation. Thirty-two crossbred steers in the finishing phase with average weight of 420 ± 8 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments and eight replicates per treatment. Their behavior was assessed every 5 min for 24 h, in the middle of the experimental period. Variance and regression analyses at 0.05 % probability were adopted. The times spent grazing and ruminating reduced linearly (P <0.05), whereas the times spent at the trough (eating) and on other activities increased linearly (P <0.05) as the supplementation levels were elevated. The total feeding and chewing times decreased linearly (P <0.05) as the concentrate levels in the diet were elevated. By increasing the supplementation levels, the number of bites per day decreased linearly (P <0.05), and the feed efficiency of dry matter increased quadratically. Rumination efficiency of dry matter increased linearly (P <0.05) with increasing levels of concentrate supplementation. Grazing and rumination activities are reduced when the time devoted to other activities and at the trough are increased, as a result of the substitution effect.

  5. Effect of exhausting exercise and calcium supplementation on potassium, magnesium, copper, zinc and calcium levels in athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinar, V.; Baltaci, A.K.; Mogulkoc, R.

    2009-01-01

    Present study was performed to determine four week calcium supplementation and athleticism exercise on plasma potassium, calcium, magnesium, cupper and zinc levels in resting and exhaustion. Research was carried out on 30 healthy male people. Group 1; Exercise, Group 2; Exercise + Calcium supplementation, Group 3; Sedentary + Calcium supplemented. All elements levels increased by exhausting exercise (P<0.05). Plasma K and Ca levels increased in exercise group after supplementation (P<0.05). Ca levels increased in exercise + supplemented group (P<0.05). This increase was much more in group three (P<0.05). Plasma Cu levels increased by Ca supplementation in sedentary (P<0.05). Exhausting exercise increased Zn levels in sedentary after supplementation (P<0.05). The results of present study show that calcium supplementation for 4 week does not have clear affect on potassium and Mg. However, calcium levels were increased by supplementation and Cu after the supplementation. It was also exhausting exercise that caused increase in all parameters. (author)

  6. The Relationship between Teacher Candidates' Emotional Intelligence Level, Leadership Styles and Their Academic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildizbas, Füsun

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The personal characteristics as well as professional competencies of teachers are important in the formation of changes in student behaviors. This article examines the relation between emotional intelligence level, teacher leadership style and academic success of teacher candidates who are studying in a Pedagogical Teacher Education…

  7. Effect of B vitamin supplementation on plasma homocysteine levels in celiac disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadithi, M. al; Mulder, C.J.J.; Stam, F.; Azizi, J.; Crusius, J.B.A.; Pena, A.S.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Smulders, Y.M.

    2009-01-01

    0.001, P = 0.007, for vitamin B6, folate, and vitamin B12, respectively). Lower plasma homocysteine levels were found in patients using vitamin supplements than in patients who did not (P = 0.001) or healthy controls (P = 0.003). However, vitamin B6 and folate, not vitamin B12, were significantly

  8. Positive Association of Vitamin E Supplementation with Hemoglobin Levels in Mildly Anemic Healthy Pakistani Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilani, Tanveer; Azam, Iqbal; Moiz, Bushra; Mehboobali, Naseema; Perwaiz Iqbal, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Hemoglobin levels slightly below the lower limit of normal are common in adults in the general population in developing countries. A few human studies have suggested the use of antioxidant vitamins in the correction of mild anemia. The objective of the present study was to investigate the association of vitamin E supplementation in mildly anemic healthy adults with post-supplemental blood hemoglobin levels in the general population of Karachi, Pakistan. In a single-blinded and placebo-controlled randomized trial, 124 mildly anemic subjects from the General Practitioners' Clinics and personnel of the Aga Khan University were randomized into intervention (n = 82) and control (n = 42) group. In the intervention group, each subject was given vitamin E (400 mg) everyday for a period of three months, while control group subjects received a placebo. Eighty six subjects completed the trial. Fasting venous blood was collected at baseline and after three months of supplementation. Hemoglobin levels and serum/plasma concentrations of vitamin E, vitamin B12, folate, ferritin, serum transferrin receptor (sTfR), glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, creatinine, total-antioxidant-status and erythropoietin were measured and analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and multiple linear regression. The adjusted regression coefficients (β) and standard error [SE(β)] of the significant predictors of post-supplemental hemoglobin levels were serum concentration of vitamin E (0.983[0.095]), gender (- 0.656[0.244]), sTfR (- 0.06[0.02]) and baseline hemoglobin levels (0.768[0.077]). The study showed a positive association between vitamin E supplementation and enhanced hemoglobin levels in mildly anemic adults.

  9. Knowledge Levels of Pre-Service Science Teachers on Radioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Molu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the knowledge levels of pre-service science teachers about radioactivity. A knowledge test was administered to 56 pre-service science teachers participated in the General Chemistry I course in the fall semester of 2014-15 academic year. Papers derived from the pre-service science teachers were read and evaluated, and the responses were classified as “accurate", "misconception", "wrong" and "empty" categories for open-ended questions and the responses to the multiple-choice questions were classified as "right" and "wrong". The pre-service science teachers’ correct response rates were between 9 % (definition of “nuclear radiation” concept, question 15 and 86 % (radioactivity uses, question 14 in open-ended questions whereas in multiple choice questions the ratio of correct answers ranged from 5 % (concept definition and nuclear reactions, questions 21, 23 and 33 to 98 % (sample of concept, question 20. Students hold misconceptions on the radioactivity, warning picture, nuclear power plant (questions 1, 13, and 16; isotopes (question 4; natural and artificial nucleus reaction (question 6; age of the rocks (question 8; atomic bomb (question 10; hydrogen bomb (question 11 and core irradiation (question 15.

  10. Organizational Trust Levels of Elementary Teachers: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukadder BOYDAK ÖZAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, the main feature of a well-functioning organization is trust in the organization. In the research, it is researched which conceptions are needed to ensue organizational trust by the teachers who work in the primary schools and that the effects of the factors of organizational trust formation on the organizational atmosphere. The research is designed qualitatively. The study group of the research consists of 50 teachers working in Elazığ and the centrum of the city boundries. The interview form was prepared by studying on the subject of the research. The validity of the interview forms, content and appearance are provided thanks to be taken the expert opinions of faculty members (n=3. The interview forms are used as a unique data source. In the research , it is evaluated how organizational trust affects on the importantresults in terms of the organization such as organizational commitment, organizational burnout, organizational citizenship, organizational cynicism, identification with the organization, productivity according to the perception of the teachers. As a result, it is observed that organizational trust affects organizational commitment, the organizational burnout and organizational communication levels significantly

  11. Performance of heifers supplemented with different levels of corn on pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. L. Gonzalez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In southern Brazil, production systems are typically extensive and rely on grazing that often results in limited forage quantity and quality, decreasing efficiency and compromising reproductive tract development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the productive performance and reproductive tract development of heifers supplemented with different levels of corn on pasture. The following supplemental treatments were evaluated: T0 [40 g trace-mineralized salt per heifer per day (80 g phosphorus/kg product]; T1 [0.5% of body weight (BW cracked corn + 40 g trace-mineralized salt per heifer per day]; T2 [1% of BW cracked corn + 40 g trace-mineralized salt per heifer per day], and T3 [1.5% of BW cracked corn + 40 g trace-mineralized salt per heifer per day]. Thirty-nine phenotypically homogeneous Brangus heifers (average BW = 184±17 kg, average age = 269±27 days raised on winter pasture (Lolium multiflorum Lam. were randomized to 13 paddocks (one hectare each, with three heifers/paddock, to evaluate the effect of feeding different energy levels. Body condition score, average daily gain, frame score, dry matter availability, reproductive tract score, and stocking density were evaluated. The body condition score, average daily gain, reproductive tract score and stocking density increased (P<0.05 with increasing level of corn supplementation. Daily supplementation levels lower than 1.0% on Lolium multiflorum Lam. pasture can compromise the target breeding weight at 13 months of age. Therefore, daily supplementation at 1.0% of BW after weaning is a strategy to improve the economic and biological efficiency of livestock production systems, allowing to increase stocking density and to anticipate the age of heifers at first breeding.

  12. Spanish Oral Language Guide: Kindergarten Level. Espanol como Segundo Idioma. Teacher's Guide: Level I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbell, Gloria; And Others

    This teacher's guide to Spanish language at the kindergarten level includes a recommended subject presentation sequence for the Spanish curriculum, a sample schedule, a grouping of students using three stations, and a classroom layout. The grouping would be effective when at least one-third of the children are Spanish-speaking or bilingual. The…

  13. Vitamin E levels in buccal cells of arsenicosis patients following vitamin E supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Misbahuddin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To understand the role of vitamin E in the treatment of arsenical melanosis and keratosis, the buccal cells of 19 patients, 14 arsenic exposed controls and 13 healthy volunteers were collected for the estimation of vitamin E both before and after supplementation with vitamin E (200 IU, caplet daily orally for 20 weeks. The vitamin E levels in the buccal cells of patients were significantly low in comparison to healthy volunteers (healthy vs patients: 17.2 ± 4.4 vs 12.3 ± 6.1 mg/mg of protein; p=0.012. These low level of vitamin E in patients returned toward normal levels following supplementation with vitamin E for 20 weeks (p=0.044. The vitamin E levels in serum of patients were also low (healthy vs patients: 18.9 ± 4.4 vs 10.2 ± 2.6 mg/mL; p=0.000. Supplementation with vitamin E overcomed the low levels of vitamin E in serum. The cholesterol levels in buccal cells and serum of patients were significantly low in comparison to healthy volunteers (buccal cells of healthy vs patients: 24.5 ± 14.1 vs 10.3 ± 9.8 mg/mg of protein; p=0.005; serum of healthy vs patients: 153.5 ± 22.8 vs 125.3 ± 37.0 mg/dL; p=0.012. After supplementation of vitamin E, there was no significant change in cholesterol levels in both buccal cells and serum of patients.

  14. Relationship between Political Discrimination Level Perceived by Teachers and Teachers' Organizational Cynicism Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskinkilic Kara, Sultan Bilge; Oguz, Ebru

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: Political discrimination is directed against individuals on the basis of their political party membership and views, including their sociopolitical and moral attitudes. People subjected to discrimination have a high level of professional exhaustion, slow upward career mobility, low morale and performance, less initiative,…

  15. Performance of Pleurotus pulmonarius mushroom grown on maize stalk residues supplemented with various levels of maize flour and wheat bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senzosenkosi Surprise MKHIZE

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of supplemented agricultural waste in mushroom cultivation can be one of the environmentally friendly strategies for poverty alleviation. The study evaluated the performance of Pleurotus pulmonarius mushroom grown on maize stalk supplemented with varying levels of wheat bran (WB and maize flour (MF. A completely random design was used for the experiments. It was observed that Pleurotus pulmonarius was significantly affected by varying levels of supplementation, as 20% WB supplementation encountered higher contamination. The lower supplementation levels gave significantly shorter colonisation period with better mycelial growth rate (MGR. The 2% MF, 2% WB and 4% WB gave significantly higher MGR and faster colonisation. The shortest pinning time (TP was observed at the first flush with the minimum of 2 days. Higher supplementation levels gave maximum yield and biological efficiency (BE. With further increase of supplementation above a 12% WB and 14% MF, the BE and yield declined. Lower supplementation levels resulted in quicker colonisation period and improved growth rate, whereas high supplementation gave better production in terms of yield and BE. Therefore, for the purpose of maximum production, 12% WB and 14% MF may be recommended while for fast production time, 2% MF and 2% WB are recommended.

  16. Student Teachers' Levels of Understanding and Model of Understanding about Newton's Laws of Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglam-Arslan, Aysegul; Devecioglu, Yasemin

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the level of student teachers' understandings of Newton's laws of motion and relating these levels to identify student teachers' models of understanding. An achievement test composed of two parts comprising 12 open ended questions was constructed and given to 45 pre-service classroom teachers. The first part…

  17. The Influence of Time Management Practices on Job Stress Level among Beginning Secondary Agriculture Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Misty D.; Torres, Robert M.; Tummons, John D.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring the stress of teachers continues to be important--particularly stress levels of beginning agriculture teachers. The study sought to describe the relationship between beginning teachers' perceived ability to manage their time and their level of stress. The Time Management Practices Inventory and the Job Stress Survey were used to measure…

  18. Relationships among Principal Authentic Leadership and Teacher Trust and Engagement Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, James J.; Wang, Chuang; Watson, Jim R.; Murray, Louise

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among the authentic leadership style of school principals and the trust and engagement levels of their teachers in a county school district in a Southeastern state. The authenticity of the school principal was found to be significantly positively related to teacher trust and teacher engagement levels. The…

  19. The combination of exercise training and Zataria multiflora supplementation increase serum irisin levels in postmenopausal women

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    Abbass Ghanbari-Niaki

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: We examined the effect of antioxidant supplementation and exercise on irisin within postmenopausal women. Methods: Forty-eight participants (age: 55.7 ± 4.9 years; weight: 68.0 ± 6.3 kg; BMI 27.0 ± 2.7; mean ± SD were randomized into four groups for the eight week intervention: control group (CG; n = 12, resistance training group (RTG; n = 12, supplementation with Zataria multiflora group (ZG; n = 12, or supplementation with Z. multiflora and resistance training group (ZRTG; n = 12. RTG and ZRTG performed circuit resistance training, and both ZG and ZRTG consumed 500 mg of Z. multiflora every day during the intervention. Blood samples were taken 48 hours before and after the intervention. Results: There was a significant difference in irisin at post-training, with greater levels in ZRTG compared to CG. A significant increase was noted for irisin at post-training compared to pre-training for ZG, RTG, and ZRTG. Moreover, we identified a significant decrease in malondialdehyde in the RTG and ZRTG groups and increase in glutathione in the ZG, RTG, and ZRTG groups when compared to CG. Conclusion: These findings showed that exercise, Z. multiflora supplementation or their combination led to an increase in irisin. Keywords: Antioxidants, Circuit resistance training, Myokine, Postmenopausal women, Zataria multiflora

  20. Effect of aerobic exercise and fish oil supplements on plasma levels of inflammatory indexes in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Alizadeh, Hamid; Bazgir, Behzad; Daryanoosh, Farhad; Koushki, Maryam; Sobhani, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exercise has positive and negative effects on immune system. Herein, we would like to investigate the effects of incremental aerobic training and fish oil supplementation on the plasma levels of CRP, CPK and IL-17 in trained mice. One of the major roles of immune system is to produce soluble or cellular components that provide the immunity against inflammatory agent. The purpose of this study is to investigate distinct and combine effects of incremental aerobic training and fish o...

  1. Coping With Stress of Teacher Trainees With Different Levels of Computer Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Ceyhan, Esra

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine whether levels and styles of coping with the stress of teacher trainees having low and high levels of computer anxiety across a number of variables. This research was carried out with 800 teacher trainees. Data were collected using the Computer Anxiety Scale, Coping With Stress Scale, and an Information Form. The results of the study indicate that the computer anxiety levels of teacher trainees differentiate levels and styles of coping with stress. It was f...

  2. A-level Mathematics Options – Views of Secondary-level Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Jonathan S.

    2015-01-01

    The A-level Mathematics qualification is based on a compulsory set of pure maths modules and a selection of applied maths modules with the pure maths representing two thirds of the assessment. The applied maths section includes mechanics, statistics and (sometimes) decision maths. A combination of mechanics and statistics tends to be the most popular choice by far. The current study aims to understand how maths teachers in secondary education make decisions regarding the curriculum options an...

  3. Is multi-level marketing of nutrition supplements a legal and an ethical practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Diana; Fuchs-Tarlovsky, Vanessa

    2018-06-01

    Multi-level marketing (MLM) of nutrition products has experienced dramatic growth in recent decades. 'Wellness' is the second most popular niche in the MLM industry and represents 35% of sales among all the products in 2016. This category includes dietary supplements, weight management and sports nutrition products. The aim of this paper is to analyse whether this practice is legal and ethical. An analysis of available documentary information about the legal aspects of Multi-level marketing business was performed. Ethical reflexion was based on the "principlism" approach. We argue that, while being a controversial business model, MLM is not fraudulent from a legal point of view. However, it is an unethical strategy obviating all the principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence and autonomy. What is at stake is the possible economic scam and the potential harm those products could cause due to unproven efficacy, exceeding daily nutrient requirements and potential toxicity. The sale of dietary and nutrition supplements products by physicians and dieticians presents a conflict of interests that can undermine the primary obligation of physicians to serve the interests of their patients before their own. While considering that MLM of dietary supplements and other nutrition products are a legal business strategy, we affirm that it is an unethical practice. MLM products that have nutritional value or promoted as remedies may be unnecessary and intended for conditions that are unsuitable for self-prescription as well. Copyright © 2018 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Secondary School Mathematics Teachers' Knowledge Levels and Use of History of Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bütüner, Suphi Önder

    2018-01-01

    This study describes secondary school mathematics teachers' use of history of mathematics in their classes and their knowledge levels in this field. The study population included a total of 58 secondary school mathematics teachers working at the secondary schools located in Yozgat city center, and the sample included 32 mathematics teachers from…

  5. Going beyond the Syllabus: A Study of a Level Mathematics Teachers and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, Irenka; Elliott, Gill; Rushton, Nicky; Mehta, Sanjana

    2012-01-01

    We explored teachers' views and students' experiences of going beyond the syllabus in Advanced (A) level Mathematics. Questionnaires were sent to teachers and students in a sample of 200 schools and colleges. Teachers were asked about the necessity, importance and benefits of additional teaching. Students were asked about the extra activities they…

  6. Psychological characteristics of remedial teachers of different altruism levels

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    Dina Shulzhenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors of this paper studied psychological characteristics of remedial teachers with different altruism levels. Altruism is a motive to render assistance to anyone not consciously related to one’s own selfish interests. Subjectively it manifests itself in sympathy, being oriented towards helping others. Altruism is opposed to selfishness, which is incompatible with disinterested concern for the welfare of others and willingness to sacrifice personal interests for them. The main driving force behind altruistic behaviour is a drive to improve the situation of others rather than expecting some reward. In psychology, altruism is considered as a system of personality value priorities in which interests of another person or social community are a central motive and a moral evaluation criterion.

  7. Iron Supplementation during Three Consecutive Days of Endurance Training Augmented Hepcidin Levels

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    Aya Ishibashi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Iron supplementation contributes an effort to improving iron status among athletes, but it does not always prevent iron deficiency. In the present study, we explored the effect of three consecutive days of endurance training (twice daily on the hepcidin-25 (hepcidin level. The effect of iron supplementation during this period was also determined. Fourteen male endurance athletes were enrolled and randomly assigned to either an iron-treated condition (Fe condition, n = 7 or a placebo condition (Control condition; CON, n = 7. They engaged in two 75-min sessions of treadmill running at 75% of maximal oxygen uptake on three consecutive days (days 1–3. The Fe condition took 12 mg of iron twice daily (24 mg/day, and the CON condition did not. On day 1, both conditions exhibited significant increases in serum hepcidin and plasma interleukin-6 levels after exercise (p < 0.05. In the CON condition, the hepcidin level did not change significantly throughout the training period. However, in the Fe condition, the serum hepcidin level on day 4 was significantly higher than that of the CON condition (p < 0.05. In conclusion, the hepcidin level was significantly elevated following three consecutive days of endurance training when moderate doses of iron were taken.

  8. Iron Supplementation during Three Consecutive Days of Endurance Training Augmented Hepcidin Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Aya; Maeda, Naho; Kamei, Akiko; Goto, Kazushige

    2017-07-30

    Iron supplementation contributes an effort to improving iron status among athletes, but it does not always prevent iron deficiency. In the present study, we explored the effect of three consecutive days of endurance training (twice daily) on the hepcidin-25 (hepcidin) level. The effect of iron supplementation during this period was also determined. Fourteen male endurance athletes were enrolled and randomly assigned to either an iron-treated condition (Fe condition, n = 7) or a placebo condition (Control condition; CON, n = 7). They engaged in two 75-min sessions of treadmill running at 75% of maximal oxygen uptake on three consecutive days (days 1-3). The Fe condition took 12 mg of iron twice daily (24 mg/day), and the CON condition did not. On day 1, both conditions exhibited significant increases in serum hepcidin and plasma interleukin-6 levels after exercise ( p < 0.05). In the CON condition, the hepcidin level did not change significantly throughout the training period. However, in the Fe condition, the serum hepcidin level on day 4 was significantly higher than that of the CON condition ( p < 0.05). In conclusion, the hepcidin level was significantly elevated following three consecutive days of endurance training when moderate doses of iron were taken.

  9. Effect of zinc and/or iron supplementations on ICF-level in prepubertal anaemic girls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayad, S.K.; Noure Eldin, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the effects of iron and zinc supplementations separated or combined on levels of iron, zinc and insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-) in prepuberal girls suffering from iron deficiency anaemia. Hematological and biochemical changes of thirty two anaemic prepubertal girls (mean age 10.5 ± 2.01 year) were compared with normal fifteen girls have the same age. The anaemic girls were divided into three groups according to treatment; groupA (iron, group B(zinc) and group C (iron+zinc)and received supplementations for 8 weeks. Significant decreases in erythrocytic counts (RBCs), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit % (Hct%) and reticulocytes%(Rt%) were recorded in blood samples of the three groups before supplementations while non-significant differences were detected in the values of other blood indices. Significant decreases were detected in iron, zinc and IGF-1 levels while non-significant decrease in ferritin was detected in group (A). Erythropoietin and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) showed significant increases in the same group. Total iron binding capacity, iron, zinc and IGF-1 levels showed significant decreases while there were significant increases in erythropoetin and ferritin in group (B). The results revealed that ferritin,iron, zinc and IGF-1 levels were significantly decreased while erythropoietin and TIBC were significantly increased in group (C). After treatment, group (B) showed sligh significant increases in the concentration of Hb, Hct% and Rt%. with non-significant increase in RBCs count but in group (C) the results revealed significant increases in RBCs count, Hb, Hct% and Rt%. Non- significant differences were detected in RBCs count, Hb and Hct% in group (A) while significant increase was detected in Rt% in the same group

  10. Effects of Supplemental Levels of Fermentation Product on Lactation Performance in Dairy Cows under Heat Stress

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    W. Zhu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of different supplemental levels of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP; Original XP; Diamond V on lactation performance in Holstein dairy cows under heat stress. Eighty-one multiparous Holstein dairy cows were divided into 27 blocks of 3 cows each based on milk yield (23.6±0.20 kg/d, parity (2.88±0.91 and day in milk (204±46 d. The cows were randomly assigned within blocks to one of three treatments: 0 (control, 120, or 240 g/d of SCFP mixed with 240, 120, or 0 g of corn meal, respectively. The experiment was carried out during the summer season of 2014, starting from 14 July 2014 and lasting for 9 weeks with the first week as adaption period. During the experimental period, average daily temperature-humidity index (measured at 08:00, 14:00, and 20:00 was above 68, indicating that cows were exposed to heat stress throughout the study. Rectal temperatures tended to decrease linearly (p = 0.07 for cows supplemented with SCFP compared to the control cows at 14:30, but were not different at 06:30 (p>0.10. Dry matter intake was not affected by SCFP supplementation (p>0.10. Milk yield increased linearly (p0.10 was observed among the treatments in conversion of dietary crude protein to milk protein yield. In summary, supplementation of SCFP alleviated the negative effect of heat stress in lactating Holstein dairy cows and allowed cows to maintain higher milk production, feed efficiency and net energy balance. Effects of SCFP were dose-dependent and greater effects were observed from higher doses.

  11. The Examining of Job Satisfaction Level of Koran Teachers In Terms of Some Variables

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    Abdulkadir Cekin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the job satisfaction level of Koran teachers. The relationships between the job satisfaction level of Koran teachers and some demographic status (gender, age and educational level were examined. For this purpose, the Koran teachers on the sample of 243 questionnaires were selected. Statistical operations on the data obtained were analyzed via SPSS program. At the conclusion of the study, it was found that gender is the ineffective factor; educational level and age are the effective factors for job satisfaction of Koran teachers.

  12. Polymorphisms in FFAR4 (GPR120 Gene Modulate Insulin Levels and Sensitivity after Fish Oil Supplementation

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    Bastien Vallée Marcotte

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to test whether FFAR4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are associated with glycemic control-related traits in humans following fish oil supplementation. A total of 210 participants were given 3 g/day of omega-3 (n-3 fatty acids (FA (1.9–2.2 g of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and 1.1 g of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA during six weeks. Biochemical parameters were taken before and after the supplementation. Using the HapMap database and the tagger procedure in Haploview, 12 tagging SNPs in FFAR4 were selected and then genotyped using TaqMan technology. Transcript expression levels were measured for 30 participants in peripheral mononuclear blood cells. DNA methylation levels were measured for 35 participants in leukocytes. In silico analyses were also performed. Four gene–diet interactions on fasting insulin levels and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index values were found. rs17108973 explained a significant proportion of the variance of insulin levels (3.0% and HOMA-IR (2.03% index values. Splice site prediction was different depending on the allele for rs11187527. rs17108973 and rs17484310 had different affinity for transcription factors depending on the allele. n-3 FAs effectively improve insulin-related traits for major allele homozygotes of four FFAR4 SNPs as opposed to carriers of the minor alleles.

  13. Turmeric Supplementation Improves Serum Glucose Indices and Leptin Levels in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navekar, Roya; Rafraf, Maryam; Ghaffari, Aida; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Khoshbaten, Manouchehr

    2017-01-01

    Insulin and leptin resistance are important risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). There is limited evidence regarding the effects of turmeric on NAFLD. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of turmeric supplementation on glycemic status and serum leptin levels in patients with NAFLD. This double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 46 patients with NAFLD (21males and 25 females) aged 20-60 years old and body mass index (BMI) between 24.9 and 40 kg/m2. The turmeric group (n = 23) was given six turmeric capsules daily for 12 weeks. Each capsule contained 500 mg turmeric powder (6×500 mg). The placebo group (n = 23) was given six placebo capsules daily for the same period. Fasting blood samples, anthropometric measurements, and physical activity levels were collected at the baseline and at the end of the study. Daily dietary intakes also were obtained throughout the study. Data were analyzed by independent t test, paired t test and analysis of covariance. Turmeric consumption decreased serum levels of glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and leptin (by 1.22, 17.69, 19.48 and 21.33% respectively, p Turmeric supplementation improved glucose indexes and serum leptin levels and may be useful in the control of NAFLD complications.

  14. Phytase supplementation improved growth performance and bone characteristics in broilers fed varying levels of dietary calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, S; Bidner, T D; Southern, L L

    2011-03-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary Ca level on the efficacy of phytase. A total of 288 male Ross × Ross 708 broilers with initial and final BW of 37 and 705 g, respectively, were used in brooder batteries from 0 to 21 d posthatch. Each treatment had 8 replications with 6 broilers/replicate pen. All diets were corn-soybean meal based and formulated to contain 1.26% total Lys. The treatments were positive control with 0.45% nonphytate P and 1% Ca and a negative control with 0.20% nonphytate P with 0.67, 1.00, or 1.33% Ca fed with or without 500 phytase units of Optiphos (Escherichia coli-derived phytase; JBS United Inc., Sheridan, IN). Increasing Ca from 0.67 to 1.33% linearly decreased (P ≤ 0.003) ADG, ADFI, bone breaking strength, bone weight, tibia ash weight, and percentage tibia ash; however, quadratic effects were found for ADFI, G:F, percentage tibia ash, and mortality (P ≤ 0.09). Phytase supplementation increased (P ash weight, and percentage tibia ash and decreased (P = 0.054) mortality. The increase in ADG, ADFI, bone weight, ash weight, and percentage tibia ash (P ≤ 0.026) and decrease in mortality (phytase × Ca linear; P = 0.058) from phytase supplementation was greater in broilers fed the higher levels of Ca. Calcium utilization was linearly decreased (P < 0.002) with increasing Ca. Phosphorus digestibility and utilization were increased with increasing levels of Ca (P ≤ 0.002); however, P utilization decreased at 1% Ca and increased at 1.33% (quadratic; P < 0.070). Phytase supplementation increased Ca utilization (P < 0.024), P digestibility (P < 0.001), and P utilization (P < 0.029). However, the increase in P digestibility (phytase × Ca; P < 0.021) was greater at the lower levels of Ca whereas P utilization (phytase × Ca; P < 0.001) was greater at 1.33% Ca with phytase supplementation. The results of this research indicate that dietary Ca level, within the ranges used in this experiment, does not negatively

  15. Teacher- and School-Level Predictors of Teacher Efficacy and Burnout: Identifying Potential Areas for Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pas, Elise T.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Hershfeldt, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    Although several studies relate low teacher efficacy and high burnout to the quality of instruction and students' academic achievement, there has been limited research examining factors that predict teacher efficacy and burnout. The current study employed a longitudinal, multilevel modeling approach to examine the influence of teacher- and…

  16. Beginning Teachers as Enquirers: M-Level Work in Initial Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Beth

    2011-01-01

    In order to deliver life-long learning for teachers, practitioner-based enquiry learning is being promoted by teacher education institutions on the basis that this form of learning gives teachers the ability to understand factors affecting learning within their own classrooms by systematic investigations of issues and the construction of an…

  17. Serum creatinine level: a supplemental index to distinguish Duchenne muscular dystrophy from Becker muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huili; Zhu, Yuling; Sun, Yiming; Liang, Yingyin; Li, Yaqin; Zhang, Yu; Deng, Langhui; Wen, Xingxuan; Zhang, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    To improve assessment of dystrophinopathy, the aim of this study was to identify whether serum creatinine (Crn) level reflects disease severity. Biochemical, Vignos score, and genetic data were collected on 212 boys with dystrophinopathy. Serum Crn level had a strong inverse correlation with Vignos score by simple correlation (r = -0.793) and partial correlation analysis after adjustment for age, height, and weight (r = -0.791; both P Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) patients than Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients at ages 4, 5, 7, and 9 yr (all P < 0.0125). After adjusting for age, height, and weight, BMD patients still had a significantly higher serum Crn level than DMD patients (β = 7.140,  t = 6.277,  P < 0.01). Serum Crn level reflected disease severity and may serve as a supplemental index to distinguish DMD from BMD in clinical practice.

  18. Impact of oral vitamin D supplementation on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in oncology

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    Braun Donald P

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] is the major circulating form of vitamin D and a standard indicator of vitamin D status. Emerging evidence in the literature suggests a high prevalence of suboptimal vitamin D (as defined by serum 25(OHD levels of Methods This is a retrospective observational study of 2198 cancer patients who had a baseline test prior to initiation of cancer therapy at our hospital to evaluate serum 25(OHD levels between Jan 08 and Dec 09 as part of their initial nutritional evaluation. Patients with baseline levels of Results Of 2198 patients, 814 were males and 1384 females. 1051 were newly diagnosed and treated at our hospital while 1147 were diagnosed and treated elsewhere. The mean age at presentation was 55.4 years. The most common cancer types were breast (500, 22.7%, lung (328, 14.9%, pancreas (214, 9.7%, colorectal (204, 9.3% and prostate (185, 8.4%. The mean time duration between baseline and first follow-up assessment was 14.7 weeks (median 10.9 weeks and range 4 weeks to 97.1 weeks. The mean serum 25(OHD levels were 19.1 ng/ml (SD = 7.5 and 36.2 ng/ml (SD = 17.1 at baseline and first follow-up respectively; p 32 ng/ml compared to patients with baseline levels Conclusions The response to supplementation from suboptimal to optimal levels was greatest in patients with prostate and lung cancer as well as those with baseline levels between 20-32 ng/ml. Characteristics of non-responders as well as those who take longer to respond to supplementation need to be further studied and defined. Additionally, the impact of improved serum 25(OHD levels on patient survival and quality of life needs to be investigated.

  19. A household-level sweet potato-based infant food to complement vitamin A supplementation initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amagloh, Francis K; Hardacre, Allan; Mutukumira, Anthony N; Weber, Janet L; Brough, Louise; Coad, Jane

    2012-10-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) prevalence in Sub-Saharan Africa is high in spite of vitamin A supplementation programmes among children in most countries. Plant-based complementary foods remain the key source of nutrients in addition to breast milk for infants in lower income countries. Cereal-legume blends are superior in protein and energy densities compared with maize, millet or sorghum-only porridge. However, unfortified cereal-legume and cereal-only porridges are low in vitamin A. A household-level sweet potato-based infant food, rich in vitamin A, has been developed to complement vitamin A supplementation initiatives in Sub-Saharan Africa. A composite flour containing sweet potato, soybean, soybean oil and fishmeal was processed as complementary food by oven toasting (denoted oven-toasted ComFa). The oven-toasted ComFa and enriched Weanimix (processed from dehulled maize, dehulled soybean, groundnut and fishmeal) were assessed for suitability as complementary food based on the nutrient composition using specifications in the Codex Standard (CS) as a reference. The sweet potato-based formulation and enriched Weanimix met the energy, protein, fructose and fat specifications but barely met the amino acid score as indicated in the CS. However, only the oven-toasted ComFa met the calcium and almost half the vitamin A levels as specified in the CS. Oven-toasted ComFa was slightly lower in energy, protein and fat by a difference not greater than 4.0% but was higher by more than 100% in fructose and vitamin A levels. Therefore, the sweet potato-based complementary food is likely to support vitamin A supplementation initiatives in low-income countries better than the cereal-based formulation. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Teachers' Professional Development from the Perspective of Teaching Reflection Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mingren

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a case study based on Habermas's theory of knowledge and human interest. We analyzed the written reflections of four teachers employed at a school and found that the teachers who had experienced advanced professional development tended to engage in practical and critical reflection, whereas those who had experienced average…

  1. SEL/Project Language. Level II, Kindergarten, Teacher's Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, Ann E.; Lynch, Helen C.

    The Teacher's Handbook is part of the publication series of the Southeastern Education Laboratory/Project Language (SEL/PL), an 8-year language-centered program designed to alleviate the language deficiencies of disadvantaged children between the ages of four and eleven. For teachers utilizing SEL/PL, the Handbook provides a research summary and…

  2. Dehydroepiandrosterone Supplementation Combined with Whole-Body Vibration Training Affects Testosterone Level and Body Composition in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Chyuan; Chen, Yi-Ming; Huang, Chi-Chang; Tzeng, Yen-Dun

    2016-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), the most abundant sex steroid, is primarily secreted by the adrenal gland and a precursor hormone used by athletes for performance enhancement. Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a well-known light-resistance exercise by automatic adaptations to rapid and repeated oscillations from a vibrating platform, which is also a simple and convenient exercise for older adults. However, the potential effects of DHEA supplementation combined with WBV training on to body composition, exercise performance, and hormone regulation are currently unclear. The objective of the study is to investigate the effects of DHEA supplementation combined with WBV training on body composition, exercise performance, and physical fatigue-related biochemical responses and testosterone content in young-adult C57BL/6 mice. In this study, male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups (n = 8 per group) for 6-weeks treatment: sedentary controls with vehicle (SC), DHEA supplementation (DHEA, 10.2 mg/kg), WBV training (WBV; 5.6 Hz, 2 mm, 0.13 g), and WBV training with DHEA supplementation (WBV+DHEA; WBV: 5.6 Hz, 2 mm, 0.13 g and DHEA: 10.2 mg/kg). Exercise performance was evaluated by forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time, as well as changes in body composition and anti-fatigue levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, creatine kinase (CK), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) after a 15-min swimming exercise. In addition, the biochemical parameters and the testosterone content were measured at the end of the experiment. Six-week DHEA supplementation alone significantly increased mice body weight (BW), muscle weight, testosterone level, and glycogen contents (liver and muscle) when compared with SC group. DHEA supplementation alone had no negative impact on all tissue and biochemical profiles, but could not improve exercise performance. However, WBV+DHEA supplementation also significantly decreased BW, testosterone level and glycogen content of liver, as well as serum

  3. Performance of Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom grown on maize stalk residues supplemented with various levels of maize flour and wheat bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senzosenkosi Surprise MKHIZE

    Full Text Available Abstract Improving the performance of mushroom in terms of high production and fast growth rate is essential in mushroom cultivation. In the present study the performance of Pleurotus ostreatus was evaluated using varying levels of wheat bran (WB and maize flour (MF. The results indicated that Pleurotus ostreatus was highly influenced by different levels of supplementation, with 8% WB, 18% WB and 2% MF having higher contamination rate. The low levels of supplementation gave significantly better mycelial growth rate (MGR and shorter colonisation period as observed that the control had highest MGR whereby 20% MF had lowest MGR. The pinning time (TP was shortest at the first flush with minimum of 3 days (12% MF. The higher levels of supplementation showed maximum biological efficiency (BE such as 14% MF, 12% WB and 14% WB. The yield was also higher at high levels of supplementation such as 20% MF and 8% MF being the exception in the lower levels. Based on the results it was observed that for fast production of oyster mushroom there is no need to supplement the maize stalk substrate but for improved productivity supplements can be added up to certain limits such as 14% MF and 12 WB.

  4. Plasma oxalate levels in prevalent hemodialysis patients and potential implications for ascorbic acid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuguan; Weisberg, Lawrence S; Langman, Craig B; Logan, Amanda; Hunter, Krystal; Prasad, Deepali; Avila, Jose; Venkatchalam, Thaliga; Berns, Jeffrey S; Handelman, Garry J; Sirover, William D

    2016-10-01

    Ascorbic acid (AA) supplementation may increase hemoglobin levels and decrease erythropoiesis-stimulating agent dose requirement in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). While plasma AA levels >100μM may be supratherapeutic, levels of at least 30μM may be needed to improve wound healing and levels may need to reach 70μM to optimize erythropoiesis. Of concern, oxalate (Ox), an AA metabolite, can accumulate in ESRD. Historically, if plasma Ox levels remain ≥30μM, oxalosis was of concern. Contemporary hemodialysis (HD) efficiencies may decrease the risk of oxalosis by maintaining pre-HD Ox levels HD patients. A prospective, observational study of 197 HD patients with pre-HD AA levels and pre-HD and post-HD Ox levels. Mean plasma Ox levels decreased 71% during the intradialytic period (22.3±11.1μM to 6.4±3.2μM, PHD plasma AA levels ≤100μM were not associated with a pre-HD plasma Ox level≥30μM, even if ferritin levels were increased. Pre-HD plasma Ox levels ≥20 or ≥30μM were not associated with lower cumulative 4-year survival. Pre-HD plasma AA levels up to 100μM in HD patients do not appear to be associated with an increased risk of developing secondary oxalosis, as the corresponding pre-HD plasma Ox level appears to be maintained at tolerable levels. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. TEDS-M 2008 User Guide for the International Database. Supplement 3: Variables Derived from the Educator and Future Teacher Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brese, Falk, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This supplement contains documentation on all the derived variables contained in the TEDS-M educator and future teacher data files. These derived variables were used to report data in the TEDS-M international reports. The variables that constitute the scales and indices are made available as part of the TEDS-M International Database to be used in…

  6. Effects of 12-weeks physical activity and omega-3 supplementation on serum ghrelin and insulin levels in young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eskandar Rahimi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Normal levels of ghrelin and insulin hormones play an important role in energy-balance, weight control and preventing type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of twelve weeks physical activity with omega-3 supplementation consumption on insulin and ghrelin hormones in young women. Materials and methods: In this semi-experimental study 60 young women aged 19-25 years randomly divided into four groups including. (Exercise with supplementation, exercise alone, supplementation alone and control group. Exercise group and exercise- supplementation group followed the basketball training for 12 weeks under the supervision of skillful trainers. Supplementation group and exercise- supplementation group were asked to take 3gram omega-3 capsules per day for 12 weeks. Anthropometric indicators and blood samples were obtained in the morning after an 8-12 hr fast prior to the start of the study and again 12weeks after at the end of the study under the same conditions to measure plasma ghrelin and insulin hormones (Elisa method. Data analysis using tests of Kolmogorov-Smirnov t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA conducted through SPSS-16 software. Results: The results of ANOVA test showed that after 12 weeks of study ghrelin and insulin levels in exercise-supplement group, (P=0.000, P=0.000, exercise group (P=0.000, P=0.000, and supplement group (P=0.044, P=0.017 significantly increase and decrease respectively. But no significant changes were observed in control group for ghrelin (P=0.740 and insulin (P= 0.108 levels before and after the study. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, physical activity with omega-3 supplementation can create significant changes on the levels of ghrelin and insulin hormones in young women. These changes may help to control and prevent diabetes and its, complications.

  7. Construction of the Entrepreneurship Education Teachers Based on the Characteristics of Business Education Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yaping; Guo, Wenting

    2010-01-01

    College entrepreneurship education relatively lags behind in China at present. The main reason is that the lack of qualified teachers. For the construction of teachers' team training, firstly analysis the characteristics of the entrepreneurship education level, and then divide into two relatively independent levels which are basic entrepreneurship…

  8. An Evaluation of the Empathy Levels of Pre-Service Social Studies Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Baris

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the factors that affect the empathy levels of pre-service teachers studying in the Department of Social Studies Teaching. The research questions developed in this context aimed to determine the roles of gender, age and being a member of a school club in the empathy levels of pre-service teachers. The study…

  9. Comparison between Emotional Intelligence and Aggression among Student Teachers at Secondary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaleel, Sajna; Verghis, Alie Molly

    2017-01-01

    The study explored the relationship between emotional intelligence and aggression among teacher trainees at secondary level. The hypothesis formulated for the study was, there is no significant relationship between Emotional Intelligence and aggression of teacher trainees at secondary level. The method adopted for the study was descriptive survey,…

  10. Investigation of the Motivation Level of Teachers Working at State Schools in Relation to Some Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Süleyman

    2015-01-01

    In order to give the best and accurate orientation to teachers working in school organizations, it seems to be necessary to determine their motivation level. Thus, the purpose of the current study is to determine the motivation level of teachers working in state elementary and secondary schools. Moreover, the study also looks at the relationships…

  11. Perceived Effectiveness of Professional Development Programs of Teachers at Higher Education Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Sufiana Khatoon; Nasim, Uzma; Tabassum, Farkhanda

    2015-01-01

    The major purpose of the study was to assess the perceived effectiveness of professional development programs of teachers at higher educational level. The objectives of the study were: "to assess university level teachers'" opinion about effectiveness of professional development training with reference to quality teaching, to measure…

  12. Selenium Supplementation Significantly Reduces Thyroid Autoantibody Levels in Patients with Chronic Autoimmune Thyroiditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wichman, Johanna Eva Märta; Winther, Kristian Hillert; Bonnema, Steen Joop

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Selenium supplementation may decrease circulating thyroid autoantibodies in patients with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT), but the available trials are heterogenous. This study expands and critically reappraises the knowledge on this topic. METHODS: A literature search identified...... 3366 records. Controlled trials in adults (≥18 years of age) with AIT, comparing selenium with or without levothyroxine (LT4), versus placebo and/or LT4, were eligible. Assessed outcomes were serum thyroid peroxidase (TPOAb) and thyroglobulin (TgAb) autoantibody levels, and immunomodulatory effects...... and LT4-untreated. Heterogeneity was estimated using I(2), and quality of evidence was assessed per outcome, using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines. RESULTS: In LT4-treated populations, the selenium group had significantly lower TPOAb levels after...

  13. The Development of Professional Mobility of Teachers in Supplemental Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeeva, Roza A.; Amirova, Lyudmila A.

    2016-01-01

    Actual continuity of the problems stated in this article caused by the fact that modern education is directed at the formation of a mobile person of the teacher, who is able to transform the educational reality and himself in accordance with the requirements of a developing society, and to provide not only high-quality mastering studying the…

  14. Effect of whey guava beverage supplementation on haemoglobin level of school going children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya .

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iron deficiency is estimated to affect one-half of the school going children in developing countries and school years are opportune time to intervene. Rationale: No coherent, co-ordinate and effective health services are available in the country for below 16 years. So attempt was made to know real scenario of iron deficiency. Objectives: To assess the effect of whey guava beverage supplementation on the haemoglobin level of school going children. Methodology:  An experimental research design was taken to conduct the study in which 200 children of 6≥and7≥ years in low socio economic status of both the genders were taken. For hemoglobin testing Sahil’s hemoglobinometer was used. Each child in experimental group was given 200ml of whey guava beverage for 90 days except holidays. Results and Discussion: The initial mean Hb levels of 6≥and7≥ year’s old boys and girls of control groups and experimental groups were ranging from 9.50 to 10.24 which were 79.17% to 85.33%. The results revealed that almost all the respondents were anaemic. After 90 days of feeding supplement the final mean Hb levels of 6≥7 years old boys and girls of control group  ranged from 10.10 to 10.65 which was 84.17% to 88.75%. Whereas in experimental group it ranged from 11.06 to 11.42 which were 91.92% to 95.17%. The study clearly evidences that the respondents in experimental group had improved with more Hb levels when compared to control group. Also children who were suffering from anaemia in experimental group became normal. Conclusion: Distribution of whey guava beverage through school feeding program may prove as an outstanding strategy to combat iron deficiency in school children.

  15. Supplemental Performance Analyses for the Potential High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevougian, S. D.; McNeish, J. A.; Coppersmith, K.; Jenni, K. E.; Rickertsen, L. D.; Swift, P. N.; Wilson, M. L.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the possible recommendation of a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the potential development of a geologic repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. To facilitate public review and comment, in May 2001 the DOE released the Yucca Mountain Science and Engineering Report (S and ER) (1), which presents technical information supporting the consideration of the possible site recommendation. The report summarizes the results of more than 20 years of scientific and engineering studies. Based on internal reviews of the S and ER and its key supporting references, the Total System Performance Assessment for the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) (2) and the Analysis Model Reports and Process Model Reports cited therein, the DOE has recently identified and performed several types of analyses to supplement the treatment of uncertainty in support of the consideration of a possible site recommendation. The results of these new analyses are summarized in the two-volume report entitled FY01 Supplemental Science and Performance Analysis (SSPA) (3,4). The information in this report is intended to supplement, not supplant, the information contained in the S and ER. The DOE recognizes that important uncertainties will always remain in any assessment of the performance of a potential repository over thousands of years (1). One part of the DOE approach to recognizing and managing these uncertainties is a commitment to continued testing and analysis and to the continued evaluation of the technical basis supporting the possible recommendation of the site, such as the analysis contained in the SSPA. The goals of the work described here are to provide insights into the implications of newly quantified uncertainties, updated science, and evaluations of lower operating temperatures on the performance of a potential Yucca Mountain repository and to increase confidence in the results of the TSPA described

  16. Primary School Teachers and Outdoor Education: Varying Levels of Teacher Leadership in Informal Networks of Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovardas, Tasos

    2016-01-01

    The study concentrated on an area in Greece with a multiplicity of sites for outdoor education. Informal networks of teachers were detected through a snowball technique and data were collected by means of a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. A typology was first enriched to account for teacher interaction. This typology was then…

  17. Body weight change of Abergelle breed and Abergelle crossbred goats fed hay supplemented with different level of concentrate mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amare, Bewketu; Alemu, Tewodros; Deribe, Belay; Dagnachew, Alemu; Teshager, Natnael; Tsegaye, Alemu

    2018-03-01

    The experiment was conducted at Sekota District using 36 intact yearling males of pure Abergelle breed and Abergelle crossbred goats (50%) with a mean live weight of 18.92 ± 0.72 kg (mean ± SE). The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the effect of different levels of concentrate mixture supplementation on feed intake, live weight gain, and economic gain of the breeds. Goats were blocked based on initial body weight and were randomly assigned to the dietary treatments. The experimental design was a 2 × 3 factorial in RCBD (randomized complete block design). The treatments included ad libitum feeding of local grass hay and supplementation with three levels (184, 368, and 552 g/day) of concentrate mixture. The experiment consisted of 90 days of feeding. Daily, total dry matter and CP (crude protein) intakes were affected by diet and genotype (P < 0.01). Significant decrease (P < 0.001) in hay intake was observed as the level of the supplement increased. Besides, substitution rate increased with increasing levels of supplementation. Average daily body weight gains were significantly impacted only by diet. Animals fed on 184 significantly lower weights, while nonsignificant difference was observed in live weight gain between 368 and 552 supplemented group. Supplementation of 368 concentrate mix significantly improved (P < 0.05) feed intake, daily weight gain, and feed conversion efficiency. Supplementation of 368 g/day had showed significantly higher net return for both goat breeds. However, the Abergelle breed was significantly better in net profit and sensitivity than the crossbreed. Both genotypes performed better with the diet containing 368 g/day than that with 184 and 552 g/day of concentrate supplementation.

  18. Integrative curriculum reform, domain dependent knowing, and teachers` epistemological theories: Implications for middle-level teaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, R.R. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). College of Education

    1998-12-01

    Integrative curriculum as both a theoretical construct and a practical reality, and as a theme-based, problem-centered, democratic way of schooling, is becoming more widely considered as a feasible alternative to traditional middle-level curricula. Importantly for teaching and learning, domain dependence requires teachers to view one area of knowledge as fully interdependent with other areas of knowledge during the learning process. This requires teachers to adopt personal epistemological theories that reflect integrative, domain dependent knowing. This study explored what happened when teachers from highly traditional domain independent school settings encountered an ambitious college-level curriculum project that was designed to help the teachers understand the potential that integrative, domain dependent teaching holds for precollege settings. This study asked: What influence does an integrative, domain dependent curriculum project have on teachers` domain independent, epistemological theories for teaching and learning? Finding an answer to this question is essential if we, as an educational community, are to understand how integrative curriculum theory is transformed by teachers into systemic curriculum reform. The results suggest that the integrative curriculum project that teachers participated in did not explicitly alter their classroom practices in a wholesale manner. Personal epistemological theories of teachers collectively precluded teachers from making any wholesale changes in their individual classroom teaching. However, teachers became aware of integrative curriculum as an alternative, and they expressed interest in infusing integrative practices into their classrooms as opportunities arise.

  19. Supplementation of Farta sheep fed hay with graded levels of concentrate mix consisting of noug seed meal and rice bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmare, Bimrew; Melaku, Solomon; Peters, Kurt J

    2010-10-01

    The study was carried out at Woreta, Ethiopia, to determine feed intake, digestibility, body weight (BW) change, and profitability of Farta sheep fed pasture hay alone or supplemented with graded levels of concentrate mix (CM) consisting of noug seed meal (NSM) and rice bran in 2:1 ratio. Twenty yearling intact male Farta sheep with BW of 16.9 +/- 1.68 kg (mean +/- SD) were used in randomized complete block design arranged into five blocks of four animals. The dietary treatments consisting of sole natural pasture hay (T1, control), hay +200 g of CM dry matter (DM) (T2, low), hay +300 g of CM DM (T3, medium), and hay +400 g of CM DM (T4, high) were randomly assigned to sheep within each block. Common salt and water were available to animals all the time. The supplements were offered twice daily in equal portions at 0800 and 1600 h. Supplementation with the CM increased (P profitability. Among the supplemented treatments, the high level of supplementation resulted in better (P profitability. Thus, the high level of supplementation is recommended based on biological performance and profitability under conditions of this study.

  20. Serum Creatinine Level: A Supplemental Index to Distinguish Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy from Becker Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huili Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To improve assessment of dystrophinopathy, the aim of this study was to identify whether serum creatinine (Crn level reflects disease severity. Methods. Biochemical, Vignos score, and genetic data were collected on 212 boys with dystrophinopathy. Results. Serum Crn level had a strong inverse correlation with Vignos score by simple correlation (r=-0.793 and partial correlation analysis after adjustment for age, height, and weight (r=-0.791; both P<0.01. Serum Crn level was significantly higher in patients with in-frame than out-of-frame mutations (Z=-4.716, P<0.01 and in Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD patients than Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD patients at ages 4, 5, 7, and 9 yr (all P<0.0125. After adjusting for age, height, and weight, BMD patients still had a significantly higher serum Crn level than DMD patients (β=7.140, t=6.277, P<0.01. Conclusions. Serum Crn level reflected disease severity and may serve as a supplemental index to distinguish DMD from BMD in clinical practice.

  1. Effect of dietary NPP level and phytase supplementation on the laying performance over one year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Tischler

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Our trial was aimed to study the effect of different dietary non-phytin phosphorus (NPP levels with and without phytase enzyme supplementation on laying performance and eggshell quality of Tetra SL-LL in the last 25 weeks of the long-term (17 months egg production. A total of 69 Tetra SL-LL layers were allocated into 3 dietary treatments. Two diets with different levels of NPP (2.45 or 2.15 g/kg, HP and LP, respectively were formulated, and 0 or 300 FTU/kg phytase enzyme was added to low NPP feed (LP and LP+E, respectively. Dietary Ca was uniformly adjusted (38.2 g/kg to feed in each treatment. In the course of the trial, intensity of egg production (%, egg weight (g/egg, number of the broken eggs and feed intake (g/d/bird were recorded. Every 2 weeks 20 eggs per treatment were broken to determine the shell strength and thickness. Our results show that low NPP diet had detrimental effect on the intensity of egg production (P<0.05 and phytase added to the LP diet resulted the lowest number of broken eggs (P<0.05. In conclusion, NPP content of the layer diet can be reduced from 2.45 to 2.15 g/kg in the last 25 weeks of the elongated laying term (12-17 month of laying, if supplemented with 300 FTU/kg phytase enzyme without compromising the egg production, and in the same time it can improve eggshell quality and reduce the number of broken eggs.

  2. Asthma knowledge level of child daycare center teachers' in Istanbul, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcay, A; Tamay, Z; Duksal, F; Celtik, C; Ergin, A; Guler, N

    2014-08-01

    Teachers are primarily responsible for supervising schoolchildren with asthma during school hours. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the level of knowledge of child daycare center teachers about asthma and factors affecting their knowledge. This study was performed on 297 teachers from 20 randomly selected child daycare centers in Istanbul. The teachers' level of knowledge about asthma was assessed by a questionnaire with 32 questions about asthma. The teachers were asked thirteen additional questions about demographic data and other characteristics of the child daycare centers and about themselves. One-way ANOVA and the independent samples t-test were used to determine differences in the level of asthma knowledge. A total of 297 teachers (287 females/10 males) filled in the questionnaire. The mean age of the teachers was 26.4 ± 8.1 years (range, 20-53 year). The teachers' "response score rate for each question" ranged from 38% to 94%. The teachers' "completely true response rate for each question" was lower and ranged from 1.6% to 83.9%. "The mean of asthma knowledge score" for the 32 questions was 113.64 ± 20.26 (71% ± 12.7%) from a maximum of 160 marks. "Asthma knowledge score for all questions" was related to teachers' gender, age, location and property of child daycare center and number of children in child daycare center. Although teachers of child daycare centers have some knowledge about asthma, their "completely true response rate for each question" was insufficient. Much more efficient educational programs are needed for these teachers.

  3. Criteria, indicators and levels of formed professional functional competences of future teachers of physical culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsutina N.M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It is shown the structural components of the functional competence of professional teachers of physical education: motivational, cognitive and action-practical. We used the following methods of scientific knowledge, as the analysis of psychological, educational and methodological literature, synthesis, comparison, generalization, specification, classification, ordering Criteria and levels of occupational functional competence of future teachers of physical education. It is determined that the high level of professional formation of the functional competence of future teachers of physical culture is characterized by the motivation to perform professional functions of a teacher of physical culture, fundamental knowledge required to perform professional functions of a teacher of physical culture, a high level of general physical fitness, pronounced specific motor abilities and skills.

  4. Teachers' level of ICT integration in teaching and learning: A survey in Malaysian private preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruddin, Kamarulzaman; Abdullah, Che Anuar Che; Idris, Mohd Noor; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the level of ICT integration in teaching and learning in private preschool in Malaysia. A total 61 teachers from 10 private preschools in the district of Mualim in the state of Perak Malaysia were randomly chosen in this survey research. The findings revealed that most of the teachers were knowledgeable about the educational ICT application. However, the findings revealed that the teachers' level of ICT integration is still at the low level. This is based on the results of a study that most of the teachers are normal users and ICT application was used for their own work rather than using it in their teaching and learning in the classroom. In addition, the findings indicated that teachers' awareness towards the important of ICT in teaching and learning is not encouraging and this issue is related to the training provided, equipment and time constraints that hinder the integration of ICT.

  5. Examining Teachers' Use of iPads: Comfort Level, Perception, and Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Navarrete, Cesar C.; Scordino, Robert; Kang, Jina; Ko, Yujung; Lim, Mihyun

    2016-01-01

    While there is evidence of the growing popularity of iPads and other tablets in K-12 education, little is understood about how teachers use these devices in their instruction. This study examines 342 teachers' comfort level with and perception toward iPad use and any changes that occurred over the implementation year. Using a mixed-methods design,…

  6. Assessing Pre-Service Teachers' Computer Phobia Levels in Terms of Gender and Experience, Turkish Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursavas, Omer Faruk; Karal, Hasan

    2009-01-01

    In this study it is aimed to determine the level of pre-service teachers' computer phobia. Whether or not computer phobia meaningfully varies statistically according to gender and computer experience has been tested in the study. The study was performed on 430 pre-service teachers at the Education Faculty in Rize/Turkey. Data in the study were…

  7. Preservice Elementary Mathematics Teachers' Level of Relating Mathematical Concepts in Daily Life Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkus, Oylum

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate preservice elementary mathematics teachers' ability of relating mathematical concepts and daily life context. Two research questions were set; what is the preservice elementary mathematics teachers' level of relating mathematical concepts and daily life context regarding to their education year and…

  8. Investigating Teachers' Organizational Socialization Levels and Perceptions about Leadership Styles of Their Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadi, Aysegül

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate teachers' organizational socialization levels and perceptions about leadership styles of their principals. Research was conducted with 361 teachers. Research design is determined as survey and correlational. Multi-Factor Leadership Scale originally was developed by Bass (1999) and adapted to Turkish…

  9. Research of Emotional Burning out in Teachers with Different Levels of Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S I Kudinov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of emotional burning out in teachers is discussed in the article. The results of the empirical research characterizing the different stages of the emotional burning out depending on the level of the responsibility manifestation in teachers are given.

  10. Relationship between Teacher Views on Levels of Organizational Support--Organizational Identification and Climate of Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nartgün, Senay Sezgin; Taskin, Sevgi

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to identify secondary school teachers' views on levels of organizational support, organizational identification and climate of initiative and to determine whether there were any significant differences between these views based on teachers' demographic characteristics and whether there were significant differences between…

  11. Advanced Level Biology Teachers' Attitudes towards Assessment and Their Engagement in Assessment for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramwell-Lalor, Sharon; Rainford, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a Mixed Methods study involving an investigation into the attitudes of advanced level biology teachers towards assessment and describes the teachers' experiences while being engaged in Assessment for Learning (AfL) practices such as sharing of learning objectives and peer- and self-assessment. Quantitative data were collected…

  12. An Investigation Regarding the Preservice Teachers' Emotional Literacy Levels and Self-Efficacy Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçüktepe, Seval Eminoglu; Akbag, Müge; Özmercan, Esra Eminoglu

    2017-01-01

    Self-efficacy beliefs and emotional literacy skills are considered as one of the most fundamental characteristics of teachers to create positive effects on students. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between preservice teachers' self-efficacy beliefs and their emotional literacy levels. This study is designed as a relational…

  13. The Relationship between the Burnout Levels of Music Teachers and Their Personalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çevik Kiliç, Deniz Beste

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the burnout levels of music teachers and their personalities. The research consisted of 278 music teachers who were selected from various places throughout Turkey via subjective, convenience sampling method. For data collection, the "Personal Information Form", "Adjective…

  14. The Relationship between the Entrepreneurship Characteristics and Metacognitive Awareness Levels of Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Burcu

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between the entrepreneurship characteristics and metacognitive awareness levels of pre-service teachers. Qualitative research method is used in this study and the study is designed as a relational survey. The sample of the study was 441 pre-service teachers studying at the faculty of…

  15. Responses to Error: Sentence-Level Error and the Teacher of Basic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltz-Gray, Dan

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about sentence-level error, error in grammar, mechanics, punctuation, usage, and the teacher of basic writing. He states that communities are crawling with teachers and administrators and parents and state legislators and school board members who are engaged in sometimes rancorous debate over what to do about…

  16. Examination of Occupational Anxiety Levels and Academic Self-Efficacy of Physical Education Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlevan, Zeka; Mustu,Eda; Çepikkurt, Fatma

    2017-01-01

    This study aims at determining the occupational anxiety level of pre-service physical education teachers according to variables, and revealing the correlation between occupational anxiety and academic self-efficacy. Study group consists of 586 pre-service teachers from 10 different universities in Turkey. Data is collected by "Occupational…

  17. The Levels of German Teacher Trainers Working in Turkey Regarding Reigeluth's Organizational Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batdi, Veli; Elaldi, Senel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the views of German teacher trainers working in Turkey about their level regarding Reigeluth's organizational strategies and to analyze their views in terms of gender, geographic region, seniority, and graduated high school variables. While the population of the study consisted of German teacher trainers…

  18. A Comparison of the Life Satisfaction and Hopelessness Levels of Teacher Candidates in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gencay, Selcuk; Gencay, Okkes Alpaslan

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to explore the level of hopelessness and life satisfaction of teacher candidates from the view points of gender and branch variables. With this aim, the "Beck Hopelessness Scale and Life Satisfaction Scale" has been applied to a total of 278 teacher candidates, of which 133 were females and 145 were males. According to…

  19. Relationship between Lifelong Learning Levels and Information Literacy Skills in Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solmaz, Dilek Yaliz

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine the relationship between lifelong learning levels and information literacy skills in teacher candidates. The research group consists of 127 physical education and sports teacher candidates. Data were collected by means of "Lifelong Learning Scale (LLL)" and "Information Literacy Scale". In the data…

  20. Assessing Knowledge Levels of Secondary School Physical Education and Sports Teachers about Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Mensure

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the research is to assess knowledge levels of physical education teachers in inclusive education in secondary schools. For the research, the survey method was employed. It consisted of 55 physical education teachers employed in 47 secondary schools included in inclusive education program under Kocaeli Provincial Directorate of…

  1. Relationship between Job Statisfaction Levels and Work-Family Conflicts of Physical Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulucan, Hakki

    2017-01-01

    Study aims to examine the relationship between perceived job satisfaction levels and work-family conflicts of the physical education teachers. Research group consists of 154 volunteer physical education teachers that work full time in governmental institutions in Kirsehir city and its counties. To acquire the job satisfaction datum; the Minnesota…

  2. Level of Job Creativity among Learning Disabilities Teachers from Their Perspective in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadneh, Burhan M.

    2016-01-01

    The current study aims to identify the level of job creativity among learning disabilities teachers from their perspective in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and investigate the differences according to gender, scientific qualification and years of experience. The study sample consisted of (80) male and female teachers, who were randomly selected from…

  3. Teacher cognition and the teaching of EFL reading at the Norwegian intermediate level

    OpenAIRE

    Gilje, Trine Mathiesen

    2011-01-01

    Master's thesis in Literacy studies The development of reading skills in English as a Foreign Language classrooms at the elementary level, the way in which teachers of English implement the LK06 learning objectives in reading, and the influence of teachers´attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge on their classroom practices and decisions.

  4. Social Studies Student Teachers' Levels of Understanding Sociology Concepts within Social Studies Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatekin, Kadir

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at investigating social studies student teachers' levels of understanding sociology concepts within social studies curriculum. Study group of the research consists of 266 teacher candidates attending the Department of Social Studies, Faculty of Education, Kastamonu University during 2012 to 2013 education year. A semi-structured…

  5. The Relationship between Pre-Service Teachers' Lifelong Learning Tendencies and Teaching Profession Anxiety Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özen, Rasit; Öztürk, Duygu Saniye

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to examine the relationship between pre-service teachers' lifelong learning tendencies and teaching profession anxiety levels with respect to certain variables (their gender and subject area) and is designed as a survey study. The fourth year pre-service teachers (n=455) in the spring semester of the 2015-2016 academic year…

  6. Serum PCB levels and congener profiles among teachers in PCB-containing schools: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background PCB contamination in the built environment may result from the release of PCBs from building materials. The significance of this contamination as a pathway of human exposure is not well-characterized, however. This research compared the serum PCB concentrations, and congener profiles between 18 teachers in PCB-containing schools and referent populations. Methods Blood samples from 18 teachers in PCB-containing schools were analyzed for 57 PCB congeners. Serum PCB concentrations and congener patterns were compared between the teachers, to the 2003-4 NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) data, and to data from 358 Greater Boston area men. Results Teachers at one school had higher levels of lighter (PCB 6-74) congeners compared to teachers from other schools. PCB congener 47 contributed substantially to these elevated levels. Older teachers (ages 50-64) from all schools had higher total (sum of 33 congeners) serum PCB concentrations than age-comparable NHANES reference values. Comparing the teachers to the referent population of men from the Greater Boston area (all under age 51), no difference in total serum PCB levels was observed between the referents and teachers up to 50 years age. However, the teachers had significantly elevated serum concentrations of lighter congeners (PCB 6-74). This difference was confirmed by comparing the congener-specific ratios between groups, and principal component analysis showed that the relative contribution of lighter congeners differed between the teachers and the referents. Conclusions These findings suggest that the teachers in the PCB-containing buildings had higher serum levels of lighter PCB congeners (PCB 6-74) than the referent populations. Examination of the patterns, as well as concentrations of individual PCB congeners in serum is essential to investigating the contributions from potential environmental sources of PCB exposure. PMID:21668970

  7. Rethinking Teacher Quality at the Higher Education Level: Need For ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality has been a controversial issue in education generally and Business Education in particular. Business Education is aimed at equipping the recipients with the relevant knowledge, skills, attitude and values that will enable them function effectively as citizens. The quality of Business Teachers is paramount to the ...

  8. Investigation the Technology Usage Level of Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korucu, Agah Tugrul; Yucel, Ahmet; Gundogdu, Mustafa M.; Gencturk, Tarik A.

    2016-01-01

    Necessity to train individuals who are away from the digital divide that is defined as the gap between the masses who can make use of information technology effectively and who do not have access to information technology due to lack of education (Uckan, 2009). The aim of this study is to analyse the digital competence of teacher candidates in…

  9. Exploring the Impact of Reform Mathematics on Entry-Level Pre-Service Primary Teachers Attitudes towards Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavy, Aisling; Hourigan, Mairead; Carroll, Claire

    2017-01-01

    This study reports entry-level mathematics attitudes of pre-service primary teachers entering an initial teacher education (ITE) program one decade apart. Attitudes of 360 pre-service primary teachers were compared to 419 pre-service teachers entering the same college of education almost one decade later. The latter experienced reform school…

  10. ICT Competency Level of Teacher Education Professionals in the Central Visayas Region, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave E. Marcial

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Information and communication technology (ICT plays a vital role in teaching and learning. This paper presents the landscape of ICT competency of faculty in the teacher education institutions in the central region of the Philippines. Specifically, the study investigates the ICT competency level in institutions of higher learning offering teacher education programs in the four provinces in Central Visayas, Philippines. A total of 383 survey responses was analyzed in the study. Respondents are all faculty handling any professional and/or specialization courses in the teacher education. The ICT competency level is measured empirically in terms of work aspects described in the UNESCO’s ICT Competency Standards for Teachers. The instrument used in data gathering was a survey questionnaire.This study reveals that the ICT competency level of the respondents is in the knowledge deepening level. The result implies that the teacher educators are integrative, student-centered and collaborative using the necessary tools. It is concluded that there is a slight technology infusion into the teaching instruction among teacher educators in Region 7. There is a need to improve the level of competency among the teacher educators, particularly skills in using complex and pervasive ICT tools to achieve innovative teaching and learning.

  11. Chemical composition of elephant grass silages supplemented with different levels of dehydrated cashew bagasse

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    Danillo Glaydson Farias Guerra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the chemical composition of elephant grass silages supplemented with different levels dried cashew bagasse (DCB. Our experiment used a randomized design replicated four times, each replicate consisting of the following five treatments: 100% elephant grass; 95% elephant grass + 5% DCB; 90% elephant grass + 10% DCB; 85% elephant grass + 15% DCB; and 80% elephant grass + 20% DCB. The elephant grass was cut manually to a residual height of 5 cm at 80 days of age, and cashew bagasse was obtained from the processing of cashew stalks used in fruit pulp manufacturing in Mossoró/RN. Plastic buckets were used as experimental silos, and 90 days after ensiling the experimental silos were opened and the contents analyzed. The addition of dried cashew bagasse to silage linearly increased the levels of dried matter and crude protein by 0.59% and 0.13%, respectively, for each 1% addition (P < 0.05. The neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent content of the silages was reduced by 0.22% and 0.09%, respectively, for each 1% addition of the bagasse. The total carbohydrate content was not influenced by the bagasse addition (P > 0.05, and averaged 82.29%. The levels of non-fiber carbohydrate showed linear growth (P < 0.05 as the dehydrated cashew bagasse was added, and pH and ammoniacal nitrogen levels were reduced. The addition of the dehydrated bagasse to elephant grass silage improves its chemical composition, and it can be effectively added up to the level of 20%.

  12. Plasma lactate, GH and GH-binding protein levels in exercise following BCAA supplementation in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Palo, E F; Gatti, R; Cappellin, E; Schiraldi, C; De Palo, C B; Spinella, P

    2001-01-01

    Branched chain amino acids (BCAA) stimulate protein synthesis, and growth hormone (GH) is a mediator in this process. A pre-exercise BCAA ingestion increases muscle BCAA uptake and use. Therefore after one month of chronic BCAA treatment (0.2 gkg(-1) of body weight), the effects of a pre-exercise oral supplementation of BCAA (9.64 g) on the plasma lactate (La) were examined in triathletes, before and after 60 min of physical exercise (75% of VO2 max). The plasma levels of GH (pGH) and of growth hormone binding protein (pGHBP) were also studied. The end-exercise La of each athlete was higher than basal. Furthermore, after the chronic BCAA treatment, these end-exercise levels were lower than before this treatment (8.6+/-0.8 mmol L(-1) after vs 12.8+/-1.0 mmol L(-1) before treatment; p BCAA chronic treatment, this end-exercise pGHBP was 738+/-85 pmol L(-1) before vs 1691+/-555 pmol L(-1) after. pGH/pGHBP ratio was unchanged in each athlete and between the groups, but a tendency to increase was observed at end-exercise. The lower La at the end of an intense muscular exercise may reflect an improvement of BCAA use, due to the BCAA chronic treatment. The chronic BCAA effects on pGH and pGHBP might suggest an improvement of muscle activity through protein synthesis.

  13. Investigating the Relationship among the Level of Mobbing Experience, Job Satisfaction and Burnout Levels of Primary and Secondary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okçu, Veysel; Çetin, Hakan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the level of mobbing experienced by primary and secondary school teachers and to determine how and to what extent this affects their job satisfaction and burnout levels. This research used a relational survey model. As a result of the study, it has been determined that there is a negative and medium-level…

  14. Effect of copper oxide wire particles dosage and feed supplement level on Haemonchus contortus infection in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, J M; Miller, J E; Olcott, D D; Olcott, B M; Terrill, T H

    2004-09-02

    The objective of the experiment was to determine the optimal dose of copper oxide wire particles (COWPs) to reduce infection of Haemonchus contortus in male lambs. Five to six-month-old hair breed lambs were housed on concrete and fed 450 (L; n = 25) or 675 g (H; n = 25) corn/soybean meal supplement and bermudagrass hay. In July, lambs were inoculated with 10,000 L(3) larvae (97% H. contortus; Day 0). Lambs were administered 0, 2, 4, or 6 g COWP on Day 28. Concentrations of copper in the liver were determined. There were no effects of supplement level on concentrations of copper in the liver and a linear relationship existed between COWP treatment and concentrations of copper in liver (P copper in the liver of the COWP treatment groups. PCV values were more favorable for lambs fed the higher level of supplement, especially when FEC were greater than 8000 epg.

  15. EXAMINATION OF PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS' ANXIETY LEVELS ABOUT TEACHING PROFESSION

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    Ferhat Karakaya

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research, it was aimed to determine the levels of occupational anxiety of pre-service teachers' who read science and primary school teacher programs according to various variables. In this research a questionnaire developed by Köklükaya and Yıldırım (2016 which has validity and reliability analyzes was used. Anxiety Scale for Teaching Profession (ASTP was used. The research was carried out with 266 prospective teachers who were educated at Kahramanmaras Sütcü Imam University in the academic year of 2015-2016. Independent t test, one way analysis of variance (ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal- Wallis analysis and Tukey significance test were used to determine the statistical significa nce of the obtained data in the research using relational screening model. According to research findings, it was determined that there was no significant difference (p <.05 in the level of vocational anxiety among the teacher candidates according to the degree of willingness to choose the department, grade level and academic achievement score. According to the gender variable, there was no significant difference in the pre-service teachers' who read in the department of primary school teachers', and it was found that the science teachers' professional anxiety levels had a significant difference according to the gender variable.

  16. Assessment of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnant Women by Estimation of Serum Levels of Tetrahydrofolic Acid, Dihydrofolate Reductase, and Homocysteine

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    Manisha Naithani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Status of folic acid use in pregnant women of the hilly regions in North India was little known. This study was carried out to assess the folic acid use and estimate folate metabolites in pregnant women of this region. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional study is comprised of 76 pregnant women, whose folic acid supplementation was assessed by a questionnaire and serum levels of homocysteine, tetrahydrofolic acid (THFA, and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR were estimated using Enzyme Linked Immunoassays. Results. The study data revealed awareness of folic acid use during pregnancy was present in 46.1% and 23.7% were taking folic acid supplements. The study depicted that there was no statistically significant difference between serum levels of THFA and DHFR in pregnant women with and without folic acid supplements (p=0.790. Hyperhomocysteinemia was present in 15.78% of the participants. Conclusion. Less awareness about folic acid supplementation and low use of folic acid by pregnant women were observed in this region. Sufficient dietary ingestion may suffice for the escalated requirements in pregnancy, but since this cannot be ensured, hence folic acid supplementation should be made as an integral part of education and reproductive health programs for its better metabolic use, growth, and development of fetus.

  17. Secondary Level Teachers: Supply and Demand in Swaziland. Report on the Supply of Secondary Level Teachers in English-Speaking Africa. Country Study No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, John W.; Cammaerts, F. C. A.

    One of 14 studies on the supply of secondary level teachers in English-speaking Africa, this report begins with a survey of Swaziland's geography and economic potentials, and the financial viability of its economic growth. Despite its small size, the wide market areas available and the existence of non-agricultural opportunities give promise of…

  18. Influence of fasting on circulating levels of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene. Effect of short-term supplementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, DAJ; Molin, F; van Beusekom, CM; van Doormaal, JJ; Muskiet, FAJ

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the influence of fasting on the levels of alpha-tocopherol in plasma, erythrocytes and platelets, and on plasma beta-carotene. Six apparently healthy adults were subjected to 17-h feed-fasting experiments at various days before, during and after supplementation with alpha-tocopherol

  19. Effects of supplementation level and particle size of alfalfa hay on growth characteristics and rumen development in dairy calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirzaei, M.; Khorvash, M.; Ghorbani, G.R.; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M.; Riasi, A.; Nabipour, A.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of particle size (PS) of alfalfa hay on growth characteristics and rumen development in dairy calves at two levels of alfalfa supplementation. Fifty newborn dairy calves (42.7 ± 2.2 kg BW) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with the factors

  20. Effect of vitamin E supplementation on serum C-reactive protein level: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboori, S; Shab-Bidar, S; Speakman, J R; Yousefi Rad, E; Djafarian, K

    2015-08-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of chronic inflammation, has a major role in the etiology of chronic disease. Vitamin E may have anti-inflammatory effects. However, there is no consensus on the effects of vitamin E supplementation on CRP levels in clinical trials. The aim of this study was to systematically review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that report on the effects of vitamin E supplementation (α- and γ-tocopherols) on CRP levels. A systematic search of RCTs was conducted on Medline and EMBASE through PubMed, Scopus, Ovid and Science Direct, and completed by a manual review of the literature up to May 2014. Pooled effects were estimated by using random-effects models and heterogeneity was assessed by Cochran's Q and I(2) tests. Subgroup analyses and meta-regression analyses were also performed according to intervention duration, dose of supplementation and baseline level of CRP. Of 4734 potentially relevant studies, only 12 trials met the inclusion criteria with 246 participants in the intervention arms and 249 participants in control arms. Pooled analysis showed a significant reduction in CRP levels of 0.62 mg/l (95% confidence interval = -0.92, -0.31; P vitamin E-treated individuals, with the evidence of heterogeneity across studies. This significant effect was maintained in all subgroups, although the univariate meta-regression analysis showed that the vitamin E supplementation dose, baseline level of CRP and duration of intervention were not the sources of the observed heterogeneity. The results of this meta-analysis suggest that supplementation with vitamin E in the form of either α-tocopherol or γ-tocopherol would reduce serum CRP levels.

  1. Psychological and biographical differences between secondary school teachers experiencing high and low levels of burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, C M; Molloy, G N

    1990-02-01

    A total of 750 teachers from 16 government and non-government schools from areas of contrasted socio-economic status (SES) responded to a questionnaire designed to investigate associations between selected aspects of burnout among teachers working in secondary schools in Victoria, Australia. By comparing high and low burnout groups on biographic, psychological and work pattern variables, differences between teachers experiencing high and low levels of burnout were identified. Multiple regression analyses assessed the relative importance of these variables in accounting for the variance in each of the three burnout subscales. School type was related to perceptions of stress and burnout. Higher levels of burnout were associated with poorer physical health, higher rates of absenteeism, lower self-confidence and more frequent use of regressive coping strategies. Teachers classified as experiencing high levels of burnout attributed most of the stress in their lives to teaching and reported low levels of career commitment and satisfaction. Further, teachers who recorded high levels of burnout were characterised by lower levels of the personality disposition of hardiness, lower levels of social support, higher levels of role stress and more custodial pupil control ideologies than their low-burnout counterparts. Psychological variables were found to be more significant predictors of burnout than biographical variables.

  2. Effect of supplement level on herbage intake and feeding behaviour of Italian Brown cows grazing on Alpine pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Villa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Summer grazing of dairy cows on mountain pastures often leads to a fall in production or in body condition when the pasture is not adequately supplemented with concentrate feeds (Malossini et al., 1992; Bovolenta et al., 1998. An abundant use of concentrates may result into a reduction of herbage intake according to a substitution rate mechanism (Faverdin et al., 1991. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effect of the supplementation level on herbage intake, milk yield and feeding behaviour (time spent grazing and ruminating of dairy cows at pasture, combining the use of an electronic bitemeter and a double marker method for the estimation of intake.

  3. Views of Physics Teachers on How to Address the Declining Enrolment in Physics at the University Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oon, Pey-Tee; Subramaniam, R.

    2010-01-01

    Teachers' views are worth hearing in order to get ideas on how to address the trend of declining enrolment in physics at the university level, which is regarded as a global problem. This study explores physics teachers' views on how to encourage more students to study physics at the university level. A sample of 166 physics teachers in Singapore…

  4. Effect of zinc supplementation on body mass index and serum levels of zinc and leptin in pediatric hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shazly AN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Nabih El-Shazly,1 Soha Abd El-Hady Ibrahim,1 Ghada Mohamed El-Mashad,2 Jehan H Sabry,3 Nashwa Said Sherbini11Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Banha, 2Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Shibin Al Kawm, 3Department of Clinical and Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Banha, Egypt Introduction: Zinc is an essential trace element for human nutrition, and its deficiency is associated with anorexia, poor food efficiency, growth retardation, and impaired neurological and immune systems. The zinc-deficiency rate is particularly high in many disease states, such as with end-stage renal disease patients undertaking hemodialysis. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of zinc supplementation on body mass index (BMI and serum levels of zinc and leptin in pediatric hemodialysis patients. Patients and methods: This was a prospective clinical trial study in which 60 hemodialysis patients were randomly divided into two groups: group I received 50–100 mg zinc sulfate (equivalent to 11–22 mg elemental zinc according to age, sex, and nutritional status of the child; and group II received placebo (cornstarch twice daily for 90 days. Anthropometric measurements were taken, and serum zinc and leptin levels were determined by colorimetric test with 5-Br-3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, at days 0 and 90 of the study. Results: Zinc supplementation resulted in a significant increase in mean serum zinc level and BMI. Serum leptin decreased significantly after supplementation in children under hemodialysis. A significant negative correlation was observed between serum zinc and leptin levels as a result of zinc supplementation. Conclusion: There was an increase in serum zinc level and BMI and decreased serum leptin after zinc supplementation in children under hemodialysis. Keywords: serum zinc, serum leptin

  5. Effect of zinc supplementation on E-ADA activity, seric zinc, and cytokines levels of Trypanosoma evansi infected Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottari, Nathieli B; Baldissera, Matheus D; Oliveira, Camila B; Duarte, Thiago; Duarte, Marta M M F; Leal, Marta L R; Thomé, Gustavo R; Zanini, Daniela; Schetinger, Maria Rosa C; Nunes, Matheus A G; Dressler, Valderi L; Monteiro, Silvia G; Tonin, Alexandre A; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of zinc supplementation on the ecto-adenosine deaminase activity (E-ADA), zinc seric levels and cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, and IL -10) on rats experimentally infected by Trypanosoma evansi. Four groups with 10 rats each were used as negative controls (groups A and B), while the animals from the groups C and D were infected intraperitoneally with 0.1 mL of cryopreserved blood containing 1.4 × 10(4) of trypanosomes. Animals of groups B and D received two doses of Zinc (Zn) at 5 mg kg(-1), subcutaneously, on the 2nd and 7th day post-infection (PI). Blood samples were collected on days 5 (n = 5) and 15 PI (n = 5). Zn supplementation was able to increase the rat's longevity and to reduce their parasitemia. It was observed that seric Zn levels were increased on infected animals under Zn supplementation. Animals that were infected and supplemented with Zn showed changes in E-ADA activity and in cytokine levels (P ADA activity, as well as reduced the concentration of cytokines. Infected animals from groups C and D showed increased levels of cytokines. Finally, we observed that Zn supplementation led to a modulation on cytokine's level in rats infected by T. evansi, as well as in E-ADA activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Milk production and nutrient digestibility responses to increasing levels of stearic acid supplementation of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerman, J P; de Souza, J; Lock, A L

    2017-04-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate the dose-response effects of a stearic acid (C18:0)-enriched supplement on nutrient digestibility, production responses, and the maximum amount of C18:0 that can be incorporated into the milk fat of dairy cows. Multiparous Holstein cows (n = 32; 145 ± 66 d in milk) with a wide range in milk yield (30 to 70 kg/d) were blocked by milk yield and assigned to replicated 4 × 4 Latin squares. Treatments were diets supplemented with a C18:0-enriched supplement (SA; 93% C18:0) at 0, 0.80, 1.50, or 2.30% of diet dry matter (DM). Periods were 21 d with the final 5 d used for data and sample collection. Dry matter intake increased linearly as SA supplementation increased. Supplementation of SA had no effect on the yield of milk or milk components. Due to the increase in DM intake, SA linearly reduced the ratio of energy-corrected milk to DM intake. Supplementation of SA did not affect body weight. Increasing SA reduced digestibility of 16-carbon, 18-carbon, and total fatty acids (FA), with the reduction in digestibility of 18-carbon FA being approximately 30 percentage units from the 0.0 to 2.30% SA supplemented diets. Supplementation of SA linearly increased concentrations of preformed milk fatty acids (FA) but did not affect the yield of preformed milk FA. Yields of C18:0 plus cis-9 C18:1 were increased by SA supplementation; however, the increase from 0 to 2.3% SA was only 16 g/d. The concentration and yield of de novo and 16-carbon milk FA were unaffected by SA supplementation. In conclusion, increasing doses of SA decreased FA digestibility and had little effect on production parameters. Although SA increased the yield of C18:0 and cis-9 C18:1 in milk fat, it had no overall effect on milk fat yield. The lack of production responses to a C18:0-enriched fat supplement was most likely associated with the marked decrease in FA digestibility. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  7. Effect of carnitine supplementation on fatigue level in the gastrocnemius muscle of trained and sedentary rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Anelice Gomez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n3p324 L-carnitine, considered to be of great value in metabolic processes, plays an important role in the mitochondrial β-oxidation process. It may be used to improve athletic performance and to maintain a higher workload during exercise. This study aimed to investigate the effect of L-carnitine supplementation on muscle fatigue in sciatic nerve-gastrocnemius muscle preparations in sedentary and trained rats. The animals were divided into 4 groups: non-supplemented sedentary (NSS, supplemented sedentary (SS, non-supplemented trained (NST, and supplemented trained (ST rats. The animals were trained in daily 1-h sessions (5 days/week and received chronic oral L-carnitine supplementation (1 mg/mL for 4 weeks. Muscle fatigue was determined by supramaximal tetanic stimulation of the sciatic nerve (50 Hz. Time values for strength reduction were significantly different (p<0.05 between NSS vs. SS and NST vs. ST rats. No significant differences were observed between SS vs. ST and NST vs. NSS rats. These findings demonstrate that L-carnitine lengthen the time required for induction of muscle fatigue.

  8. Determinants of DHA levels in early infancy: differential effects of breast milk and direct fish oil supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, S J; D'Vaz, N; Casadio, Y; Dunstan, J A; Niels Krogsgaard-Larsen, N; Simmer, K; Prescott, S L

    2012-06-01

    Although omega (n)-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), intakes are important during infancy, the optimal method of increasing infant status remains unclear. We hypothesized that high-dose infant fish oil supplementation would have greater relative effects upon n-3 LCPUFA status at six months of age than breast milk fatty acids. Infants (n=420) were supplemented daily from birth to six months with fish oil or placebo. In a subset of infants, LCPUFA levels were measured in cord blood, breast milk and in infant blood at 6 months. DHA levels increased in the fish oil group relative to placebo (p<05). Breast milk DHA was the strongest predictor of infant erythrocyte DHA levels (p=<001). This remained significant after adjustment for cord blood DHA, supplementation group and adherence. In this cohort, breast milk DHA was a greater determinant of infant erythrocyte n-3 LCPUFA status, than direct supplementation with fish oil. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effects of Isoflavone Supplementation Plus Combined Exercise on Lipid Levels, and Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Markers in Postmenopausal Women

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    Jéssica S. Giolo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the effect of isoflavone supplementation in addition to combined exercise training on plasma lipid levels, inflammatory markers and oxidative stress in postmenopausal women. Thirty-two healthy and non-obese postmenopausal women without hormone therapy were randomly assigned to exercise + placebo (PLA; n = 15 or exercise + isoflavone supplementation (ISO; n = 17 groups. They performed 30 sessions of combined exercises (aerobic plus resistance over ten weeks and consumed 100 mg of isoflavone supplementation or placebo. Blood samples were collected after an overnight fast to analyze the lipid profile, interleukin-6 (IL-6, interleukin-8 (IL-8, superoxide dismutase (SOD, total antioxidant capacity (FRAP, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, before and after ten weeks of the intervention. There were no differences in the changes (pre vs. post between groups for any of the inflammatory markers, oxidative stress markers or lipid profile variables. However, interleukin-8 was different between pre- and post-tests (p < 0.001 in both groups (Δ = 7.61 and 5.61 pg/mL as were cholesterol levels (p < 0.05, with no interaction between groups. The combination of isoflavone supplementation and exercise training did not alter oxidative stress markers in postmenopausal women, but exercise training alone may increase IL-8 and decrease total cholesterol levels.

  10. Acetate supplementation reduces microglia activation and brain interleukin-1β levels in a rat model of Lyme neuroborreliosis

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    Brissette Catherine A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have found that acetate supplementation significantly reduces neuroglia activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine release in a rat model of neuroinflammation induced with lipopolysaccharide. To test if the anti-inflammatory effect of acetate supplementation is specific to a TLR4-mediated injury, we measured markers of neuroglia activation in rats subjected to B. burgdorferi-induced neuroborreliosis that is mediated in large part by a TLR2-type mechanism. Methods In this study, rats were subjected to Lyme neuroborreliosis following an intravenous infusion of B. burgdorferi (B31-MI-16. Acetate supplementation was induced using glyceryl triacetate (6g/kg by oral gavage. Immunohistochemistry, qPCR, and western blot analyses were used to measure bacterial invasion into the brain, neuroglial activation, and brain and circulating levels of interleukin 1β. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by a Tukey’s post hoc tests or using a Student’s t test assuming unequal variances when appropriate. Results We found that acetate supplementation significantly reduced microglia activation by 2-fold as determined by immunohistochemical and western blot analysis. Further, acetate supplementation also reduced the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β by 2-fold as compared to controls. On the other hand, the inoculation of rats with B. burgdorferi had no effect on astroglial activation as determined by immunocytochemistry and western blot analysis despite significant increases in circulation levels of antigen toward B. burgdorferi and presence of the bacteria in the central nervous system. Conclusions These results suggest that microglial activation is an essential component to neuroborreliosis and that acetate supplementation may be an effective treatment to reduce injury phenotype and possibly injury progression in Lyme neuroborreliosis.

  11. An Investigation of Intrinsic Job Satisfaction Levels of Science and Technology Teachers Regarding Some Variables

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    Zafer ADIGÜZEL

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is aimed to identify intrinsic job satisfaction levels of science and technology teachers. This study had a correlational and comparative survey design and random sampling was employed in this study. The sample consisted of 204 science and technology teachers teaching in Istanbul. The Personal Information Form and the Minnesota Job Satisfaction Questionnaire were used to collect the data. Significant differences were found for the school type, belongings (car, house, presence of another teacher in the family, graduate education, and advice for becoming a science teacher. On the contrary, nonsignificant differences were found for gender, age, marital status, presence of children, the number of children, teaching except science, teaching experience, in-service training, the number of schools served for, administrative duty, extra job, the type of extra job, level of extra income.

  12. Job Motivation Level for Elementary School Teachers Who Made Field Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdener, Mehmet Akif; Dalkiran, Merve

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the job motivation levels of primary school teachers who have made or have had to make field changes due to the new education system (4+4+4). The sample of the research consists of 512 teachers working in primary and secondary schools in Balikesir province in 2016-2017. The data needed for the research were…

  13. Effect of type and level of dietary fibre supplements in rats

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    Moharib, Sorial A.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Both experimental and clinical studies have indicated that a novel source of dietary fibres is potentially hypolipidemic. In the present study, turnip, sugar beet, cabbage and fenugreek green leaves were used as natural new sources of dietary fibres, to examine their effects on nutritional parameters and lipid metabolism in rats fed for 8 weeks comparing with a control diet (fibre-free control. Chemical analyses of the 4 plants revealed that there are differences between the ratios of soluble and insoluble non - starch polysaccharides (NSP and their monomers constituents. Higher levels of uronic acid were present in soluble fibre (NSP in all fibre sources than that of insoluble one. Generally, highly significant decrease in the weight gain and food intake of the rats fed the 4 experimental diets after 8 weeks feeding comparing with those fed control diet. Rats fed turnip diet exhibited a highly significant decrease in all the nutritional parameters through the feeding period. Rats fed a diet supplemented with sugar beet fibre, have a highly significant decrease in the value of weight gain, food intake and Dapp over the feeding period. Sugar beet, cabbage and fenugreek green fibre-containing diets had lowering effect on serum total lipid, total cholesterol, LDL-C (except sugar beet and triglycerides levels than that of control diet fed rats. Supplemented the diet with turnip fibre had only lowering effect on serum triglycerides over the feeding period. Hepatic total lipid and total cholesterol levels were significantly lower when rats fed cabbage and fenugreek green fiber-containing diets. Highly significant decrease in the level of triglycerides was achieved in the liver of rats fed turnip fibre supplemented diet comparing with the experimental period (8 weeks.Estudios clínicos y experimentales han indicado que nuevas fuentes de fibras dietéticas son potencialmente hipolipídicas. En el presente estudio nabo, remolacha, col y fenogreco verde

  14. Current and desired competency levels of secondary agricultural teachers in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbert, Chanda Dehron

    The purpose of this study was to identify the competencies needed by secondary agricultural teachers in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Specifically, this study identified competencies needed to help make teachers more effective while working with special needs students. The objectives of the study were to: (1) determine, verify, and evaluate competencies needed by secondary teachers of agriculture to work with handicapped students enrolled in agricultural and vocational education programs; (2) determine, verify, and evaluate competencies needed by secondary teachers of agriculture to work with economically disadvantaged students enrolled in agricultural and vocational education programs; (3) determine, verify, and evaluate competencies needed by secondary teachers of agriculture to work with academically challenged students enrolled in agricultural and vocational programs; and (4) evaluate the self-perceived competency levels of secondary agricultural education teachers and their desired competency levels. A 50% simple random sample of secondary agricultural teachers from the Directory for Agricultural Education in Pennsylvania, 1999--2000 was used. The design for the study was a descriptive study. The data collection instrument used was divided into five different areas: personal characteristics, professional role and development, instructional role, knowledge statements, and student leadership and organization. Subjects were asked to rate their present and desired levels of competency in the categories using a Likert-type scale. The competency scale was as follows: 1 = not competent; 2 = slightly competent, 3 = competent; 4 = very competent; 5 = extremely competent. There were 153 questionnaires mailed to the secondary agricultural education teachers. A total of 96 teachers responded to the questionnaire. Frequencies and distributions were used to describe demographic variables. T-test and analysis of variance were used to determine relationships between

  15. THESIS-ABSTRACT Supplementation levels of exogenous alpha-amylase in broilers diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, H B; Silva, M I A; Mesquita, F R

    2017-08-17

    This study aimed to evaluate the supplementation levels of an exogenous alpha-amylase in broilers diets and compare two indicators in determining the diets energy. The experiment was divided into two parallel evaluations, being one of performance and the other of metabolism. In performance assay, 1,700 one-day-old Cobb-500 male chicks were used. The animals were distributed in 50 experimental plots and evaluated five treatments with ten replicates in a completely randomized design (CRD). The treatments were: a positive control (PC), a negative control (NC) and three alpha-amylase supplementation levels 200, 400 and 600 g/t, and the NC was formulated with 50 and 90 kcal of energy reduction in relation to the PC to the phases from 1 to 21 days and from 22 to 42 days, respectively. In the metabolism assay were used 240 animals, 150 birds for stage from 14 to 21 days and 90 birds to stage from 35 to 42 days of age and the treatments were the same as the performance assay, with six replicates per treatment in CRD. All diets of metabolism test contained the digestibility indicators Lipe ® (eucalyptus purified lignin) and chromic oxide (Cr 2 O 3 ), in concentrations of 0.05 and 1.0%, respectively. In the period from 1 to 21 days old, no significant differences were observed in weight gain (WG) (P > 0.05), however, feed intake (FI) was found higher by using 200 ppm of enzyme (P 0.05), but were observed lower FI and better FC to PC treatment (P 0.05), but there was lower FI and better FC for the PC treatment (P < 0.05). The AMEn (apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance), determined using the total collection, reaffirmed the values ​​calculated for the PC and NC with intermediate data obtained from the enzyme use (200, 400 and 600 ppm). Comparing the total collection using Lipe ® and Cr 2 O 3 , a correlation was observed only for the PC results, that were always higher, and for the NC results, that were lower for the three methodologies. For IDE

  16. Teacher's opinion about learning continuum of genetics based on student's level of competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juniati, Etika; Subali, Bambang

    2017-08-01

    This study focuses on designing learning continuum for developing a curriculum. The objective of this study is to get the opinion of junior and senior high school teachers about Learning Continuum based on Student's Level of Competence and Specific Pedagogical Learning Material on Aspect of Genetics Aspects. This research is a survey research involving 281 teachers from junior and senior high school teachers as respondents taken from five districts and city in Yogyakarta Special Region. The results of this study show that most of the junior high school teachers argue that sub aspects individual reproduction should be taught to students of grade VII and IX, virus reproduction at the grade X, and cell reproduction to mutation at the grade IX with level of competence to understand (C2) while most of the senior high school teachers argue that sub aspects individual, cell, and virus reproduction must be taught to students of grade X and division mechanism to mutation at the grade XII with level of competence to understand (C2), apply (C3), and analyze (C4). Based on the opinion of teachers, sub concepts in genetics can be taught from junior high school with different in the scope of materials but learning continuum that has been developed is not relevant with the students cognitive development and their grades.

  17. The effect of different levels of constructive teaching practices on teacher question asking behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Ibrahim

    The purposes of the study were: (1) to examine the effectiveness of the Iowa Chautauqua Professional Development Program (ICPDP) in moving elementary science teachers toward the use of more constructive teaching practices and (2) to investigate the effectiveness of different levels of teaching practices, especially in terms of a sample of teachers achieving "expert" state at the end of program compared with some attaining only with "competent" level. The variables considered were their perceptions of their own classroom practices, stated philosophy of teaching and learning, and their actual classroom practices and question asking behaviors observed via videotape recording. Structured questionnaires, focus group interviews, teacher reflections, and examination of lesson modules were used to collect data from thirty-three K-5 in-service teachers who were involved in a one-year ICPDP. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of data revealed that: (1) Teacher perceptions regarding their teaching and learning, and their actual teaching practices in classroom in terms of constructivist approaches were significantly changed after participation in the ICPDP. (2) Teacher perceptions of their classroom practices and stated philosophies of teaching and learning have a great affect on their actual practices that can be observed. (3) Teacher stated philosophies of teaching and learning significantly influence the quantity and quality of their use of questions in their classrooms. (4) The "expert" teachers accept students' alternative answers and deliberately ask high cognitive level questions that enable students to think critically and to guide them based on what the students are thinking. Alternatively, the "competent" teachers do not follow student responses and used questions which do not help students to understand their current level of understanding nor encourage students to reflect on their own thinking. (5) The role of "expert" teacher is more geared toward challenging

  18. Effects of Probiotic Supplementation on Trimethylamine-N-Oxide Plasma Levels in Hemodialysis Patients: a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Natália A; Stenvinkel, P; Bergman, P; Qureshi, A R; Lindholm, B; Moraes, C; Stockler-Pinto, M B; Mafra, D

    2018-04-12

    Components present in the diet, L-carnitine, choline, and betaine are metabolized by gut microbiota to produce metabolites such as trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) that appear to promote cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the effects of probiotic supplementation for 3 months on plasma TMAO levels in CKD patients on hemodialysis (HD). A randomized, double-blind trial was performed in 21 patients [54.8 ± 10.4 years, nine men, BMI 26.1 ± 4.8 kg/m 2 , dialysis vintage 68.5 (34.2-120.7) months]. Ten patients were randomly allocated to the placebo group and 11 to the probiotic group [three capsules, totaling 9 × 10 13 colony-forming units per day of Streptococcus thermophilus (KB19), Lactobacillus acidophilus (KB27), and Bifidobacteria longum (KB31). Plasma TMAO, choline, and betaine levels were measured by LC-MS/MS at baseline and after 3 months. While TMAO did not change after probiotic supplementation, there was a significant increase in betaine plasma levels. In contrast, the placebo group showed a significant decrease in plasma choline levels. Short-term probiotic supplementation does not appear to influence plasma TMAO levels in HD patients. Long-term studies are needed to determine whether probiotics may affect TMAO production in CKD patients.

  19. Turkish Prospective Early Childhood Teachers' Emotional Intelligence Level and Its Relationship to Their Parents' Parenting Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotaman, Hüseyin

    2016-01-01

    The current study explored Turkish prospective early childhood teachers' emotional intelligence scores in order to determine whether levels indicated differentiations according to grade level, and parenting style. Participants responded to the Turkish version of the Parenting Style Inventory and Emotional Intelligence Scale (EIS). EIS also…

  20. The Effect of Different Metacognitive Skill Levels on Preservice Chemistry Teachers' Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Senol

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the metacognitive skill levels and motivation of preservice chemistry teachers and to investigate the effect of different metacognitive skill levels on their motivation. The study was conducted during 2014-2015 spring semester. In this research, survey method was used to reveal the effect of different…

  1. The Relationship between Pre-Service Teachers' Awareness Levels of Electromagnetic Pollution and Other Environmental Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koklukaya, Ayse Nesibe; Guven Yildirim, Ezgi; Selvi, Mahmut

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to find out the relationship between the awareness level of preservice science teachers' conscious use of technological devices, which cause electromagnetic pollution, and their awareness level of related environmental problems. Research Methods: In this study, a mixed design method was used. A relational…

  2. TPACK Levels of Physics and Science Teacher Candidates: Problems and Possible Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Ersin

    2014-01-01

    This research examined whether the technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) of physics and science teachers is at a sufficient level and whether the TPACK level affected the academic achievements of the students. In the research, a mixed method was used quantitatively and qualitatively. In the quantitative part of the research, Provus'…

  3. Dietary supplementation and doping-related factors in high-level sailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodek Jelena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although dietary supplements (DSs in sports are considered a natural need resulting from athletes’ increased physical demands, and although they are often consumed by athletes, data on DS usage in Olympic sailing are scarce. The aim of this study was to study the use of and attitudes towards DSs and doping problems in high-level competitive sailing. Methods The sample consisted of 44 high-level sailing athletes (5 of whom were female; total mean age 24.13 ± 6.67 years and 34 coaches (1 of whom was female; total mean age 37.01 ± 11.70. An extensive, self-administered questionnaire of substance use was used, and the subjects were asked about sociodemographic data, sport-related factors, DS-related factors (i.e., usage of and knowledge about DSs, sources of information, and doping-related factors. The Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA was used to determine the differences in group characteristics, and Spearman’s rank order correlation and a logistic regression analysis were used to define the relationships between the studied variables. Results DS usage is relatively high. More than 77% of athletes consume DSs, and 38% do so on a regular basis (daily. The athletes place a high degree of trust in their coaches and/or physicians regarding DSs and doping. The most important reason for not consuming DSs is the opinion that DSs are useless and a lack of knowledge about DSs. The likelihood of doping is low, and one-third of the subjects believe that doping occurs in sailing (no significant differences between athletes and coaches. The logistic regression found crew number (i.e., single vs. double crew to be the single significant predictor of DS usage, with a higher probability of DS consumption among single crews. Conclusion Because of the high consumption of DSs future investigations should focus on real nutritional needs in sailing sport. Also, since athletes reported that their coaches are the primary source of information about

  4. Exposure to classroom sound pressure level among dance teachers in Porto Alegre (RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehring, Cristiane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dance teachers are exposed to high sound intensities. Aim: To verify the sound intensity of music used by dance teachers during classes. Method: This was a transversal and prospective study. Dance teachers were evaluated with a sociodemographic questionnaire, and sound intensity level measurements were taken at the beginning, middle, and end of dance classes. Results: The sample comprised 35 teachers (average age, 31.8 years. The duration of their career as dance teachers was 1-37 years; they worked daily for approximately 1-10 h. Among the classes followed, there were 15 (42.85% classical ballet classes, 4 (11.42% tap dancing lessons, 5 (14.28% jazz dance classes, 2 (5.71 Arab dance lessons, 6 (17.14% street dance classes, and 3 (8.57% ballroom dancing lessons. The average values observed at the beginning, middle, and end of the classes were 80.91 dB (A, 83.22 dB (A, and 85.19 dB (A, respectively. The music played in the street dance classes exposed teachers to the highest sound intensity. Conclusion: The average level of sound intensity of the dance classes in this study was either below or equal to the limit considered harmful for hearing health. Analysis of different class types showed that the sound densities of street, ballroom, and tap dance classes were above the recommended limits.

  5. Effects of wheat supplementation levels on growth performance, blood profiles, nutrient digestibility, and pork quality in growing-finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hee Han

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to evaluate various wheat supplementation levels on growth performance, blood profiles, nutrient digestibility, and pork quality in growing-finishing pigs. Methods A total of 120 growing pigs ([Yorkshire×Landrace]×Duroc, with an average 27.75± 1.319 kg body weight, were used in growth trial. Pigs were allotted into each treatment by body weight and sex in 4 replicates with 6 pigs per pen in a randomized complete block design. Four-phase feeding programs were used in this experiment. The treatments included the following: i corn-soybean meal (SBM – based diet (CON, ii corn-SBM – based diet+15% of wheat (W15, iii corn-SBM – based diet+30% of wheat (W30, iv corn-SBM – based diet+45% of wheat (W45, and 5 corn-SBM–based diet+60% of wheat (W60. Results There was no significant difference in growth performance among the dietary treatments. However, the gain-to-feed (G:F ratio tended to increase (quadratic, p<0.08 when the pigs were fed a higher wheat diet during the finishing period. The digestibility of crude ash and fat tended to decrease as the wheat supplementation level increased (p<0.08. The proximate analysis of the longissimus muscle was not affected by the dietary level of wheat. The crude ash content in pork was decreased linearly as the wheat supplementation level increased (p = 0.05. There was no significant difference in the pH level, shear force, water holding capacity, and cooking loss of the pork. In pork and fat, L*, a*, and b* values were not significantly different among dietary treatments. Conclusion Wheat can be supplemented up to 60% in a growing-finishing pig without detrimental effects on growth and pork quality. The G:F ratio tended to improve in the finishing period by wheat inclusion.

  6. Red palm oil supplementation does not increase blood glucose or serum lipids levels in Wistar rats with different thyroid status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauchová, H; Vokurková, M; Pavelka, S; Vaněčková, I; Tribulová, N; Soukup, T

    2018-01-05

    Red palm oil (RPO) is a rich natural source of antioxidant vitamins, namely carotenes, tocopherols and tocotrienols. However, it contains approximately 50 % saturated fatty acids the regular consumption of which could negatively modify lipid profile. The aim of our study was to test whether 7 weeks of RPO supplementation (1 g/kg body weight/day) would affect blood glucose and lipid metabolism in adult male Wistar rats with altered thyroid status. We induced hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism in rats by oral administration of either methimazole or mixture of thyroid hormones. Different thyroid status (EU - euthyroid, HY - hypothyroid and HT - hyperthyroid) was characterized by different serum thyroid hormones levels (total and free thyroxine and triiodothyronine), changes in the activity of a marker enzyme of thyroid status - liver mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and altered absolute and relative heart weights. Fasting blood glucose levels were higher in HT rats in comparison with EU and HY rats, but the changes caused by RPO supplementation were not significant. The achievement of the HY status significantly increased serum levels of total cholesterol, as well as with high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol: 2.43+/-0.15, 1.48+/-0.09, 0.89+/-0.08 mmol/l, compared to EU: 1.14+/-0.06, 0.77+/-0.06, 0.34+/-0.05 mmol/l and HT: 1.01+/-0.06, 0.69+/-0.04, 0.20+/-0.03 mmol/l, respectively. RPO supplementation did not increase significantly levels of blood lipids but tended to increase glutathione levels in the liver. In conclusion, RPO supplementation did not induce the presumed deterioration of glucose and lipid metabolism in rats with three well-characterized alterations in thyroid status.

  7. Effects of Supplementing Napier Grass With Graded Levels of Desmodium on Intake and Rumen Fermentation of Steers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kariuki, J.N.; Muia, J.M.K.; Gitau, G.K.; Gachuri, C.K.; Tamminga, S.

    1999-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of greenleaf desmodium ( Desmodium Detortum) on organic matter (OM) intake and rumen fermentation of steers fed on Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum). four Sahiwal steers (live-weight 437+/- 21 kg) were offered ad libitum four diets constituted from Napier grass and desmodium hay in a 4*4 latin square. The proportion of Desmodium in the diet on DM basis were 0% (D1), 15% (D2), 25% (D3), and 35% (D4) respectively.The OM intake increased significantly (P < 0.05) with the level of desmodium supplement (6.1, 6.4, 7.6 and 8.3). Rumen ammonia (NH3-N) also increased with increased level of supplementation (138, 162, 198, 237 mg 1-1). rumen pH increased slightly with increasing levels of legume in diet. Feeding desmodium significantly improved (P < 0.05) total volatile acids (VFA). The result indicated that supplementing a basal diet of Napier grass with desmodium increased rumen NH3-N, VFA levels which subsequently led to enhanced digestion and intake

  8. The effect of zinc and vitamin C supplementation on hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and immune response in patients with Plasmodium vivax malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zen Rahfiludin, M; Ginandjar, Praba

    2013-09-01

    Plasmodium vivax infection in humans can relapse and is associated with iron deficiency. The immune response plays an important role in preventing relapse. In this study we analyzed the effect of zinc and vitamin C supplementation on hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and immune response in patients with P. vivax malaria. We measured immune response by examining interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels. Subjects were divided into either treatment or control groups. The treatment group received daily zinc and vitamin C supplementation for 45 days. Compliance with supplement consumption was recorded weekly. After 45 days of supplementation, IFN-gamma and IL-1 levels were remeasured. All study subjects in both groups had normal hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. The hemoglobin levels increased only in the supplementation group (p=0.011), while hematocrit levels increased in both the supplementation (p=0.001) and control (p=0.023) groups. IFN-gamma decreased slightly in the supplementation group, but the change was not significant (p=0.688). IL-10 increased slightly in both the supplementation and the control groups, but the change were not significant (p=0.421 and p=0.556, respectively), suggesting the elevated hemoglobin and hematocrit levels were unrelated to immune response.

  9. The Mediating Role of Teachers' Depression Levels on the Relationship between Emotional Labor and Burn-Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasar, Hasan; Demir, Selim

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the mediation effects of teachers' depression levels on the relationship between emotional labor and burnout. The study group in this research consists of 163 teachers working at Gaziantep schools during 2013-2014 academic year. Since the research aims to analyze mediation effect of teachers' depression…

  10. Effect of dietary betaine supplementation on mRNA level of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-22

    Mar 22, 2012 ... of China. Accepted 3 January, 2012. Our aims are to determine the ... percentage of abdominal fat, ratio of liver to body weight, mRNA ... four diet groups with supplemented betaine of 0, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08%, respectively.

  11. The effect of vitamin E supplementation on serum DHEA and neopterin levels in elderly subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amsterdam, van J.; Horst-Graat, van der J.; Bischoff, E.; Steerenberg, P.; Opperhuizen, A.; Schouten, E.G.

    2005-01-01

    Contradictory results have been published on the immune-stimulating effects of vitamin E. Using a randomized placebo-controlled design, the effect of 15 month¿s daily supplementation with 200 mg vitamin E on two biomarkers of immunocompetence, i.e. serum DHEA sulfate ester (DHEA-S) and neopterin,

  12. Investigation of Inquiry-based Science Pedagogy among Middle Level Science Teachers: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Sunny Minelli

    This study implemented a qualitative approach to examine the phenomenon of "inquiry-based science pedagogy or inquiry instruction" as it has been experienced by individuals. Data was collected through online open-ended surveys, focus groups, and teacher reported self-reflections to answer the research questions: 1) How do middle level science teachers conceptualize "inquiry-based instruction?" 2) What are preferred instructional strategies for implementation in middle level science classrooms? And 3) How do middle level science teachers perceive the connection between science instruction and student learning? The participants within this research study represent 33 percent of teachers in grades 5 through 9 within six school districts in northeastern Pennsylvania. Of the 12 consent forms originally obtained, 10 teachers completed all three phases of the data collection, including the online survey, participation in focus groups, and teacher self-reflection. 60 percent of the participants taught only science, and 40 percent taught all content areas. Of the ten participants, 50 percent were certified teachers of science and 50 percent were certified as teachers of elementary education. 70 percent of the research participants reflected having obtained a master's, with 60 percent of these degrees being received in areas of education, and 10 percent in the area of science. The research participants have a total of 85 collective years of experience as professional educators, with the average years of experience being 8.5 years. Analysis of data revealed three themes related to research question #1) How do middle-level science teachers conceptualize inquiry-based instruction? and sub-question #1) How do middle-level science teachers characterize effective instruction? The themes that capture the essence of teachers' formulation of inquiry-based instruction that emerged in this study were student centered, problem solving, and hands-on . Analysis of data revealed one theme

  13. Effects of vitamin D supplementation on insulin sensitivity and androgen levels in vitamin-D-deficient polycystic ovary syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadağ, Cihan; Yoldemir, Tevfik; Yavuz, Dilek Gogas

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the effects of vitamin D supplementation on insulin sensitivity and androgen levels in vitamin-D-deficient polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients. Sixty-seven vitamin-D-deficient (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels below 20 ng/mL) PCOS patients and 54 vitamin-D-deficient non-PCOS volunteer subjects matched for age and body mass index were enrolled to this prospective study. All participants were given 50 000 IU/week cholecalciferol orally for 8 weeks and 1500 IU/day for 4 weeks. Insulin sensitivity was calculated with the Matsuda insulin sensitivity index (ISI) based on an oral glucose tolerance test. Matsuda ISI, gonadal hormones (estrogen, testosterone, androstenedione), and 25(OH)D levels were studied before and at the end of the 12th week of vitamin D load. After vitamin D supplementation, serum androstenedione levels had decreased significantly (P = 0.007) and Matsuda ISI values had increased significantly (P = 0.001) in the PCOS group but no significant changes were seen in those parameters in controls. We observed positive correlations between 25(OH)D levels and Matsuda ISI (r = 0.307; P < 0.01), and negative correlations between 25(OH)D levels and total testosterone (r = -0.306; P < 0.01) and androstenedione (r = -0.275; P < 0.01) levels in the PCOS group. Vitamin D supplementation increased insulin sensitivity and decreased androgen levels in vitamin-D-deficient women with PCOS but did not have any effect in vitamin-D-deficient non-PCOS women. These results may indicate the possible role of vitamin D in the complex pathogenesis of PCOS. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Psychological educational features of professional reflection levels in students of the teacher-training specialties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asya A. Bekhoeva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Shaping professional reflection of future teachers is of particular importance in the context of the modernization of the Russian education. However, despite the deep reflection of a problem in Russian pedagogical science the characteristics of development levels of pedagogical reflection among future teacher remains largely fragmented. The paper deals with professional and pedagogical reflection as a process of perceiving essential features of educational process by a teacher, summarizes the main theoretical and methodological approaches to this issue. The research is aimed to identify and describe levels of professional and pedagogical reflection among students. The research is divided in several stages: the stage of theoretical allocation of substantial components of professional pedagogical reflection, the stage of selecting proper research tools, ascertaining stage, and concluding stage. The conceptual basis of the research is to identify the main components that determine the following features of professional and pedagogical reflection: motivational, creative, emotional volitional, communicative, monitoring and evaluative. Based on the empirical results the levels of professional and pedagogical reflection of the students of the teacher-training specialties are identified. The first level is characterized by weak professional reflection and undifferentiated consciousness, self-awareness and self-esteem in the normal course of activities, the second level is associated with certain reflective activity and organization and is characterized by steady demand for professional and personal self-improvement. The indicator of the third level is high development of all components of professional reflection.

  15. THE CRITERIA, INDEXES AND LEVELS OF TEACHER'S OF NATURAL AND MATHEMATICS SUBJECTS INFORMATION COMPETENCE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petro Grabovskiy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Submitted research depends on an actual problem – how is necessary to identify means of teacher's of general education information competence evaluation. In particular, there developed on an evaluation criteria of teacher's of Natural and Mathematics subjects information competence – motivational, cognitive-operating, reflexive; and decomposition to appropriated performance criterion made in this research too. With the help of empirical research methods, in particular the method of expert evaluations, using methods of relative frequency selection, determing by an expert's performance and relevant criteria, proved significance when evaluation of teacher's of Natural and Mathematics subjects information competence development is appropriated. Based on the grounded and developed criteria and relevant indicators where four levels of studing teacher's information competence development were describing – low, middle, sufficient and high levels. According to an author opinion, the further research may be concern with the help of mathematical tools development to determine the level of teacher's of Natural and Mathematics subjects information competence development based on the selected criteria and relevant indicators

  16. Physics in Movies: Awareness Levels of Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilcik, Hasan Sahin; Damli, Volkan; Unsal, Yasin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to draw attention to the informal education aspect of the movies shown and to determine the awareness levels about physics in movies of a small group composed of university students. That is an evaluation had been made among the films dealing explicitly with the basic content of physics, except for science fiction movies,…

  17. Productive and metabolic response to two levels of corn silage supplementation in grazing dairy cows in early lactation during autumn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Morales

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Corn (Zea mays L. silage (CS is a nutritious food that can be used as a supplement in dairy cows. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of supplementation with two amounts of CS on milk production and composition, live weight and body condition, as well as on some blood indicators for energy and protein metabolism on dairy cows in early lactation and grazing low mass pasture during autumn. The study was carried out in 40 Holstein Friesian cows over 57 d. Prior to experimental treatment, milk production and days of lactation averaged 24.1 ± 2.8 kg d-1 and 62 ± 14 d, respectively. The dietary treatments consisted of two levels of supplementation with CS; 4.5 and 9 kg DM cow-1 d-1 (treatments LCS and HCS, respectively. Additionally, all the cows received a pasture allowance of 21 and 3 kg DM cow-1 d-1 of concentrate. Milk composition was determined using infrared spectrophotometry, while blood indicators were obtained using an autoanalyzer. There were not differences between treatments regarding milk production or composition, total DM or energy intake. Herbage and protein intake was higher for LCS treatment (P < 0.001. Increasing supplementation decreased (P < 0.001 daily weight gain but did not affect body condition. Plasma concentrations of βOH-butyrate were lower (P = 0.038 for the LCS treatment; while urea concentrations were higher (P = 0.003, with no differences for non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA concentrations. Supplementation with 4.5 kg d-1 of CS was sufficient to meet the production requirements of the cows.

  18. Circulating fibrinogen but not D-dimer level is associated with vital exhaustion in school teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudielka, Brigitte M; Bellingrath, Silja; von Känel, Roland

    2008-07-01

    Meta-analyses have established elevated fibrinogen and D-dimer levels in the circulation as biological risk factors for the development and progression of coronary artery disease (CAD). Here, we investigated whether vital exhaustion (VE), a known psychosocial risk factor for CAD, is associated with fibrinogen and D-dimer levels in a sample of apparently healthy school teachers. The teaching profession has been proposed as a potentially high stressful occupation due to enhanced psychosocial stress at the workplace. Plasma fibrinogen and D-dimer levels were measured in 150 middle-aged male and female teachers derived from the first year of the Trier-Teacher-Stress-Study. Log-transformed levels were analyzed using linear regression. Results yielded a significant association between VE and fibrinogen (p = 0.02) but not D-dimer controlling for relevant covariates. Further investigation of possible interaction effects resulted in a significant association between fibrinogen and the interaction term "VE x gender" (p = 0.05). In a secondary analysis, we reran linear regression models for males and females separately. Gender-specific results revealed that the association between fibrinogen and VE remained significant in males but not females. In sum, the present data support the notion that fibrinogen levels are positively related to VE. Elevated fibrinogen might be one biological pathway by which chronic work stress may impact on teachers' cardiovascular health in the long run.

  19. From inside the black box: Teacher perceptions of science instruction at the elementary level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrini, Cynthia D.

    Science education reform projects aimed at elementary school children arose in the 1960's. The most prevalent of these reforms utilized the inquiry, or hands-on, science method. Billions of dollars have been invested in these reforms. Yet, reports indicate that science is not being taught at the level one might expect in elementary schools. This research was an analysis of the problems and concerns teachers at one school district faced as they tried to implement and sustain elementary inquiry science instruction. The district chosen was a large suburban district in the Western United States. The population was ninety percent Caucasian with a slightly more ethnically diverse school population. This district was chosen because it had an elementary science program for over twenty years and had received national acclaim for that program. The district had a stable and homogeneous staff there was a low administrator and teacher turnover rate and the elementary teaching population was ninety percent Caucasian and ninety percent female. Interviews with administrators and teachers were conducted. Data were collected from focus groups of teachers and science partners. Observations of elementary science classroom instruction and professional development sessions were made. Results of this research indicated that one important key to elementary science reform rests in the hands of teachers. Once the door to the classroom is closed, the teacher can decide to teach or not to teach science. The findings of this research illustrate that teachers hold ideas about science and science instruction that are antithetical to some tenets of inquiry science. Until these ideas are addressed it will be difficult, if not impossible, to implement a systemic elementary inquiry science program. This study demonstrates that professional development for elementary teachers in science needs to change from a focus on the mechanical usage of individual units to a focus on teacher expectations for

  20. Effects of persimmon peel supplementation on pork quality, palatability, fatty acid composition, and cholesterol level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Moo Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of persimmon peel (PPM supplementation on carcass performance, pork quality, eating quality, fatty acid composition, and cholesterol concentration of the porcine longissimus dorsi muscle. Results No adverse effects of PPM supplementation were observed on carcass and meat quality characteristics among the treatment groups (P > 0.05, whereas pork loins from pigs fed a diet supplemented with 0.9 % persimmon peel (T3 showed more tender meat than did pork loins from pigs fed a control diet (P < 0.01, even though no significant difference was observed between the control and T1 group. The T3 group had higher ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids relative to saturated fatty acids (0.33 vs. 0.28, P < 0.05 and lower total cholesterol concentration (94.4 vs. 99.1 mg/g, P < 0.05 compared to the control group. Persimmon peel appeared to have beneficial effects on fatty acid composition and cholesterol concentration, probably leading to a hypocholesterolemic effect. Conclusions Animal diets fortified with persimmon peel represents an efficient and useful method for improving the nutritional quality of pork without impairing growth performance and eating quality properties.

  1. Low-level seaweed supplementation improves iodine status in iodine-insufficient women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combet, Emilie; Ma, Zheng Feei; Cousins, Frances; Thompson, Brett; Lean, Michael E J

    2014-09-14

    Iodine insufficiency is now a prominent issue in the UK and other European countries due to low intakes of dairy products and seafood (especially where iodine fortification is not in place). In the present study, we tested a commercially available encapsulated edible seaweed (Napiers Hebridean Seagreens® Ascophyllum nodosum species) for its acceptability to consumers and iodine bioavailability and investigated the impact of a 2-week daily seaweed supplementation on iodine concentrations and thyroid function. Healthy non-pregnant women of childbearing age, self-reporting low dairy product and seafood consumption, with no history of thyroid or gastrointestinal disease were recruited. Seaweed iodine (712 μg, in 1 g seaweed) was modestly bioavailable at 33 (interquartile range (IQR) 28-46) % of the ingested iodine dose compared with 59 (IQR 46-74) % of iodine from the KI supplement (n 22). After supplement ingestion (2 weeks, 0·5 g seaweed daily, n 42), urinary iodine excretion increased from 78 (IQR 39-114) to 140 (IQR 103-195) μg/l (Pseaweed was palatable and acceptable to consumers as a whole food or as a food ingredient and effective as a source of iodine in an iodine-insufficient population. In conclusion, seaweed inclusion in staple foods would serve as an alternative to fortification of salt or other foods with KI.

  2. The Effect of Special Teaching Methods Class on the Level of Teachers' Self-Efficacy Perception of Pre-Service Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökdag Baltaoglu, Meltem

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the change in the level of teachers' self-efficacy perception of primary school Social Studies pre-service teachers who take the special teaching methods class. Single group pretest-posttest model from pre-experimental patterns was applied in the research. The study group of the research consisted of 59…

  3. A Perception Study: Relationship of Teacher-Perceived Supervisor's Level of Emotional Intelligence and Special Education Teacher Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Lindsay Ryder

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to examine if and to what extent a relationship existed between teacher-perceived emotional intelligence (EI) of immediate supervisors and teachers' level of job satisfaction. It was not known how these two variables related to each other, which was identified as a small piece of a much…

  4. Psychological Peculiarities of Teachers with Different Work Capacity Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Dorogina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the issue of teacher’s work capacity optimization. The research is aimed at defining teachers’ psychological peculiarities relating to their work capacity level and creating the assistance program for its optimization. In the course of the program implementation, its effectiveness has being proved, the low work capacity being optimized by developing self-control, emotional stability and decreasing the aggressive reactions in frustrating situations. The research findings can be applied while creating programs for teachers’ further training as well as for students training courses. 

  5. Supplementation of Nucleosides During Selection can Reduce Sequence Variant Levels in CHO Cells Using GS/MSX Selection System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Danming; Lam, Cynthia; Louie, Salina; Hoi, Kam Hon; Shaw, David; Yim, Mandy; Snedecor, Brad; Misaghi, Shahram

    2018-01-01

    In the process of generating stable monoclonal antibody (mAb) producing cell lines, reagents such as methotrexate (MTX) or methionine sulfoximine (MSX) are often used. However, using such selection reagent(s) increases the possibility of having higher occurrence of sequence variants in the expressed antibody molecules due to the effects of MTX or MSX on de novo nucleotide synthesis. Since MSX inhibits glutamine synthase (GS) and results in both amino acid and nucleoside starvation, it is questioned whether supplementing nucleosides into the media could lower sequence variant levels without affecting titer. The results show that the supplementation of nucleosides to the media during MSX selection decreased genomic DNA mutagenesis rates in the selected cells, probably by reducing nucleotide mis-incorporation into the DNA. Furthermore, addition of nucleosides enhance clone recovery post selection and does not affect antibody expression. It is further observed that nucleoside supplements lowered DNA mutagenesis rates only at the initial stage of the clone selection and do not have any effect on DNA mutagenesis rates after stable cell lines are established. Therefore, the data suggests that addition of nucleosides during early stages of MSX selection can lower sequence variant levels without affecting titer or clone stability in antibody expression. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Teacher Candidates' Opinions Regarding Instructional and Safe Use of Social Networks and Internet Addiction Risk Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enis Fasli

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In conjunction with the development and advancement of internet technologies, social networking sites have created a socialization environment. Instructors point out that these tools must be used as an active and different form of communication with students. Also, participation of the students through social networking sites should be encouraged. However, the risk of internet addiction has also become widespread on the increase use of social networks. The aim of this research is to “determine the opinions of teacher candidates on the use of social networking sites in education and Internet addiction risk levels”. General survey model was used in this research in order to determine the opinions regarding social networks of teacher candidates from the education faculties in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus and figure out their internet addiction risk levels. “Use of Social Networks in Education Scale” developed by Ozturk and Akgun and “Internet Addiction Test” developed by Young were used in this research. According to the results of the study, it has been figured out that almost all of the teacher candidates think that sharing information through social networking sites is either partially safe or not safe. Besides, most of the teacher candidates feel anxious about keeping information as confidential. Another important result is that teacher candidates are internet users at an average level. It also shows that they might spend too much time on the internet however they use internet in a controlled manner.

  7. Iron supplementation is positively associated with increased serum ferritin levels in 9-month-old Danish infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondolf, Ulla Holmboe; Tetens, Inge; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer

    2013-01-01

    recommendation (>400 ml Fe-fortified formula or 8 mg Fe/d) is associated with more favourable levels of Fe status indicators compared to those not following the recommendation. A random sample of 9-month-old infants living in Copenhagen was established and 312 healthy term infants were examined at 9·1 (sd 0......Fe deficiency is still common in infancy, even in affluent societies, and has prompted Fe fortification of food products and use of Fe supplements in many populations. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that Fe status among 9-month-old infants following the Danish Fe supplementation......·3) months of age. Blood samples were available from 278 infants. Overall, twenty infants (7·8 %) had Fe deficiency (serum ferritin

  8. Probing the Natural World, Level III, Teacher's Edition: Investigating Variation. Intermediate Science Curriculum Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, John R., Ed.; Hathway, James A., Ed.

    This is the teacher's edition of one of the eight units of the Intermediate Science Curriculum Study (ISCS) for level III students (grade 9). This unit focuses on diversity in human populations, measurement, and data collection. Optional excursions are described for students who wish to study a topic in greater depth. An introduction describes…

  9. Communication Strategies Used by Pre-Service English Teachers of Different Proficiency Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Garcés, Angela Yicely; López Olivera, Silvio Fabián

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a research study carried out in the Bachelor of Arts in English program of study at a Colombian university. It aims at identifying the communication strategies used by four pre-service English teachers with A2 and B2 levels of language proficiency and, also, at examining how these communication strategies…

  10. Pre-Service Teachers' Knowledge and Teaching Comfort Levels for Agricultural Science and Technology Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingenbach, Gary J.; White, Judith McIntosh; Degenhart, Shannon; Pannkuk, Tim; Kujawski, Jenna

    2007-01-01

    Self-efficacy beliefs are defined as context-specific assessments of one's competence to perform specific tasks, influence one's efforts, persistence, and resilience to succeed in a given task. Such beliefs are important determinants when considering agricultural science teachers' subject matter knowledge, teaching comfort levels, and their…

  11. Swiss and Turkish Pre-Service Science Teachers' Anxiety Levels for Educational Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efe, Hulya Aslan; Efe, Rifat

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to culturally explain pre-service science teachers' instructional technology-related anxiety levels by analyzing the variables of their instructional technology using experiences, frequency of using instructional technologies, access to instructional technologies, instructional technology-related attitude and their instructional…

  12. Burnout Syndrome Levels of Teachers in Special Education Schools in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucuksuleymanoglu, Ruyam

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether burnout levels of special education teachers working with hearing, orthopedic and mentally impaired students in Bursa, Turkey differ according to some independent variables such as gender, family status, years of teaching experience, educational background and school type. A descriptive approach…

  13. Determining the Knowledge Level of Pre-Service Teachers' on Radioactivity and Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergul, N. Remziye

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the basic knowledge levels of teacher candidates' from different branches regarding the subjects of radiation and radioactivity. 42 variables were determined in relation to the specified titles. In the preparation stage of determining the variables, all the related programs were examined, and attention was paid to include…

  14. Agricultural In-Service Needs of Introductory Level Career and Technical Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jolene; Warnick, Brian K.; Spielmaker, Debra; Tarpley, Rudy S.; Straquadine, Gary S.

    2009-01-01

    This study identified and prioritized the agricultural in-service needs of introductory level career and technical education teachers in Utah. The Utah State Board of Education requires that all seventh grade students complete an introductory career and technical education course as their first formal career exploration experience. One component…

  15. Taking "O" Level GCE Examinations: The Strategies Employed by Candidates and Their Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the relationship of study techniques and test-taking strategies to success on the "O" level of the British General Certificate of Education (GCE) examination. Findings showed that teachers and students felt that course reviews, including study of past examinations, was the best preparation. (AM)

  16. Reviewing Personality Compliance Level of Trainee Music Teachers in Terms of Music Genres, and Some Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirgon, Yuksel

    2014-01-01

    In this study, personality compliance levels are examined according to tonality and tempo variables, which are acquired in consequence of analysis of music genres and pieces to which fine arts faculty, trainee music teachers mostly listen. A total of 31 students participated in the study. Data acquired from Hacettepe Personality Inventory (HPI)…

  17. Greek Mythology: Literature Curriculum, Levels C-D [Grades Three and Four]; Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Univ., Eugene. Oregon Elementary English Project.

    This curriculum guide is intended to introduce elementary school students to Greek mythology. The authors suggest that the selections be presented by the teacher as lively and imaginative stories; the more abstract aspects of the myths should be largely ignored until students reach the junior high school level. In addition to the myths themselves,…

  18. Prospective Physics Teachers' Level of Understanding Energy, Power and Force Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglam-Arslan, Aysegul; Kurnaz, Mehmet Altan

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine prospective physics teachers' level of understanding of the concepts of energy and the related concepts of force and power. The study was carried out with the participation of 56 physics education department students at a university in Karadeniz region. All participants had previously taken an introductory…

  19. The Relation between the Level of Job Satisfaction and Types of Personality in High School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayan, Sezer; Kocacik, Faruk

    2010-01-01

    Teachers are loaded important responsibilities in educational process. The productivity and effectiveness of them are influenced by promotion, charging, job security, technological level, course load and working schedule which all are determined mostly by their institutions and influenced by noncognitive characteristics such as age, gender, family…

  20. The Effects of Social Capital Elements on Job Satisfaction and Motivation Levels of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydak Özan, Mukadder; Yavuz Özdemir, Tuncay; Yaras, Zübeyde

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of social capital elements' on job satisfaction and motivation levels of teachers. The mixed method was used in the study. The quantitative data were analyzed through Correlation and Multiple Regression analyses. An interview form developed by the researchers was used for analyzing the…

  1. A Survey of Iranian EFL Teachers' and Learners' Perceptions toward Authentic Listening Materials at University Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhafarghandi, Amir Mahdavi; Barekat, Behzad; Homaei, Sepideh

    2014-01-01

    This study intends to deal with attitudes of teachers and learners toward authentic listening materials at pre-intermediate level. Studies have indicated the positive effect of authentic listening materials on motivation and listening comprehension ability in learners of English as a foreign language (Nuttall, 1996; Peacock, 1997; Miller, 2005;…

  2. A Gender Analysis of Job Satisfaction Levels of Agricultural Education Teachers in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Donald; Peake, Jason B.; Parr, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The over-arching premise of many concerning issues in secondary agricultural education may be directly related to levels of job satisfaction among teachers (Delnero & Weeks, 2000). The purpose of this study was to examine the factors that influenced the perceptions of job satisfaction/dissatisfaction among agricultural educators in Georgia.…

  3. Performance of Mashona doelings supplemented with different levels of velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens L. DC. var. utilis) seed meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madzimure, James; Mutema, Nyasha; Chimonyo, Michael; Bakare, Archibold Garikai; Mapiye, Cletos

    2014-06-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of feeding increasing levels of velvet bean seed meal (VBM; 0, 12, 24, and 36 %) on the performance of Mashona doelings. Dry matter intake was lower (P < 0.05) for the control diet compared to VBM diets, but linearly declined (P < 0.05) with increasing levels of VBM. Average daily weight gain was significantly different between experimental groups. Doelings' final live weights and average daily gains were slightly higher in control group than other three supplemented groups where they linearly declined (P < 0.05) with increasing levels of VBM. The cost per kilogram of feed, however, decreased with high inclusion level of VBM. Result suggested that high inclusion level of VBM negatively influenced the growth of young goats probably due to the presence of some anti-nutritional factors which needs further investigation.

  4. Supplements to Textbook Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Ken

    1994-01-01

    Describes the many kinds of materials that English teachers can draw upon to enrich and expand students' experiences with literature. Outlines ancillary materials used to supplement the study of William Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar." (HB)

  5. The level satisfaction of teachers and motivational factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Červ

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available RQ: Employee satisfaction is an area that is relevant in every organization and for this reason management has to pay special attention to this area. A satisfied worker brings better results and invests all their knowledge and abilities into their work. Otherwise they will invest only what is required of them that will not bring success to the organization in achieving their goals. Work satisfaction reflects an individual’s emotional experiences in theenvironment that they are working in. Many times management starts paying attention when it is too late. For this reason, measuring employee satisfaction should occur in each organization. This way appropriate actions and decisions can be made to improve current conditions.Purpose: To investigate employee satisfaction, determine the level of satisfaction or dissatisfaction and identify motivational factors. Furthermore, to examine how personal goals of individuals influence their work and to which degree money is a motivator for work.Methods: A descriptive approach was used to examine the the oretical content, interview. An interview was conducted with which data was obtained on employee satisfaction.Results: Employees are satisfied with their work and it gives them a personal challenge, offers satisfaction, a source of income and pleasure. They are motivated by pay, student satisfaction, and successful transference of knowledge to students. Possible dissatisfaction of employees would not influence their effectiveness and work results. They believe that fulfilling their personal goals can influence their satisfaction.Organization: The obtained data will be used by management for improvement. The obtained results will lead management in decision making to increase employee satisfaction.Society: Refresh knowledge from the area of creating employee satisfaction and motivational factors that influences people at work.Originality: The limited number of interview participants and personal acquaintance

  6. Weekly iron folic acid supplementation plays differential role in maintaining iron markers level in non-anaemic and anaemic primigravida: A randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Shankar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Anaemia during pregnancy is most commonly observed and highly prevalent in South-East Asia. Various effective programmes have been laid down for its management, mainly daily supplementation of iron folic acid (IFA tablets. Following the same, standard obstetrical practice has included the IFA supplementation without requiring the determination of iron deficiency. In this study, a total of 120 primigravida (N = 60; non-anaemic (Hb > 11 g/dl and N = 60 anaemic (Hb = 8–11 g/dl were selected among those attending the Antenatal Clinic in Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, India. They were supplemented with daily and weekly IFA tablets till 6 weeks postpartum. Corresponding changes in haemoglobin level on advance of pregnancy, side effects and compliance associated with daily and weekly IFA supplementation and its associations with iron status markers were studied. The inflammatory markers were also estimated. The statistical significance level (p < 0.05 between the groups were assessed by applying unpaired t-test using SPSS (version 16.0. The obtained results publicized the salutary role of daily IFA supplementation in improving the haemoglobin level and iron status markers in anaemic pregnant women though the levels could not reach up to the non-anaemic haemoglobin levels. However, weekly IFA supplementation seems to be a better approach in non-anaemic pregnant women where almost comparable results were obtained in terms of haematological parameters, gestation length and birth weight. Conclusion: Weekly IFA supplementation found to be as effective as daily supplementation in iron sufficient non-anaemic pregnant women whereas anaemic pregnant women should be prescribed daily IFA supplementation irrespective of iron replete/deplete state. Keywords: Anaemia, Iron folic acid supplementation, Iron status markers, Pregnancy

  7. High Level Ethanol Production by Nitrogen and Osmoprotectant Supplementation under Very High Gravity Fermentation Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pachaya Chan-u-tit

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of nutrient supplements i.e., yeast extract (1, 3 and 5 g·L−1, dried spent yeast (DSY: 4, 12 and 20 g·L−1 and osmoprotectant (glycine: 1, 3 and 5 g·L−1 to improve the efficiency of ethanol production from a synthetic medium under very high gravity (VHG fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NP 01 was performed using a statistical method, an L9 (34 orthogonal array design. The synthetic medium contained 280 g·L−1 of sucrose as a sole carbon source. When the fermentation was carried out at 30 °C, the ethanol concentration (P, yield (Yp/s and productivity (Qp without supplementation were 95.3 g·L−1, 0.49 g·g−1 and 1.70 g·L−1·h−1, respectively. According to the orthogonal results, the order of influence on the P and Qp values were yeast extract > glycine > DSY, and the optimum nutrient concentrations were yeast extract, 3; DSY, 4 and glycine, 5 g·L−1, respectively. The verification experiment using these parameters found that the P, Yp/s and Qp values were 119.9 g·L−1, 0.49 g g−1 and 2.14 g·L−1·h−1, respectively. These values were not different from those of the synthetic medium supplemented with 9 g·L−1 of yeast extract, indicating that DSY could be used to replace some amount of yeast extract. When sweet sorghum juice cv. KKU40 containing 280 g·L−1 of total sugar supplemented with the three nutrients at the optimum concentrations was used as the ethanol production medium, the P value (120.0 g·L−1 was not changed, but the Qp value was increased to 2.50 g·L−1·h−1.

  8. Perceptions of Teachers towards Assessment Techniques at Secondary Level Private School of Karachi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henna Fatemah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets out to explore the perceptions of teachers towards assessment techniques at a secondary level private school of Karachi. This was conjectured on the basis of the circumstances of parallel boards in the education system of Pakistan and its effectiveness within the context with respect to the curriculum. This was gauged in line with the forms and techniques of assessment corresponding with the curriculum. A qualitative research design based on interviews was chosen for this study. Purposive sampling was used to select the teachers from a school. The findings of the study revealed that the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE is best suited to assess students’ knowledge and skills and the teachers viewed that in order for students to be accomplished in this board, the ways of assessment must take a more meaningful measure of evaluating student’s progress

  9. Teachers' Educational Qualification, Rank Level, Working Duration, Age, Work Motivation and Work Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Wiyono, Bambang Budi

    2009-01-01

    Teachers’ Educational Qualification, Rank Level, Working Duration, Age, Working Mo­tivation, and Working Effectiveness The study investigated the effects of educational qualification, rank level, working duration and age on the elementary school teachers’ working motivation and working ef­fectiveness. The sample of the study consisted of 438 elementary school teachers in Malang which were selected through cluster sampling technique. The study was conducted using explanatory design in the form...

  10. Is Music an Active Developmental Tool or Simply a Supplement? Early Childhood Preservice Teachers' Beliefs about Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hae Kyoung; Kemple, Kristen M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines early childhood preservice teachers' beliefs about the importance of music in early childhood and explores factors influencing those beliefs. The study found that preservice teachers in this study held relatively strong beliefs about the importance of music, including aesthetic, quality-of-life, and social-emotional benefits.…

  11. Impact of Diet Supplemented by Coconut Milk on Corticosterone and Acute Phase Protein Level under High Stocking Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid SHAKERI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of coconut milk supplementation on corticosterone and acute phase protein level under high stocking density. A total 300 Cobb 500 male chicks were placed in cages and stocked as 10 birds/cage (normal stocking density and 15 birds/cage (high stocking density. The treatments were as (i control diet and stocked at 10 and 15 birds/cage (ii control diet + 3% coconut milk from 1-42 day and stocked at 10 and 15 birds/cage (iii control diet + 5% coconut milk from 1-42 day and stocked at 10 and 15 birds/cage. On day 42, 20 birds per treatment were slaughtered to collect blood samples. The results showed higher level of corticosterone and acute phase protein level in control diet compare to other supplemented diets with coconut milk. In conclusion, coconut milk decreased the level of corticosterone and acute phase protein when chicks were subjected to high stocking density.

  12. Teachers' Motivating Methods to Support Thai Ninth Grade Students' Levels of Motivation and Learning in Mathematics Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenthien, Sansanee; Loima, Jyrki

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this qualitative research were to investigate the level of motivation and learning of ninth grade students in mathematics classrooms in Thailand and to reveal how the teachers supported students' levels of motivation and learning. The participants were 333 students and 12 teachers in 12 mathematics classrooms from four regions of…

  13. The Teaching of Controversial Issues during Elementary-Level History Instruction: Greek-Cypriot Teachers' Perceptions and Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos; Kambani, Froso

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a phenomenological study of 18 Greek-Cypriot teachers' perceptions and emotions in relation to the teaching of controversial issues during elementary-level history instruction. Findings indicate that although participating teachers see the general value of this approach at the elementary school level, they become less…

  14. The Relationship between Alienation Levels of Physical Education Teacher Candidates and Their Attitudes towards the Teaching Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbas, Mustafa Kayihan

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the alienation levels and attitudes of physical education teacher candidates towards the teaching profession and identify the relationship between their alienation levels and their attitudes towards teaching. The study group consisted of 695 teacher candidates studying in physical education and sports teaching…

  15. Effect of Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) Supplementation on Inflammatory Cytokine Levels in Infants at High Genetic Risk for Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, H. Peter; Boulware, David; Rodriguez, Henry; Donaldson, David; Chritton, Sonia; Rafkin-Mervis, Lisa; Krischer, Jeffrey; Skyler, Jay S.; Clare-Salzler, Michael

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from the inflammatory destruction of pancreatic β-cells. In the present study, we investigated the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on stimulated inflammatory cytokine production in white blood cells (WBC) from infants with a high genetic risk for T1D. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a multicenter, two-arm, randomized, double blind pilot trial of DHA supplementation, beginning either in the last trimester of pregnancy (41 infants) or in the first five months after birth (57 infants). Levels of DHA in infant and maternal red blood cell (RBC) membranes and in breast milk were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Inflammatory cytokines were assayed from whole blood culture supernatants using the Luminex Multiplex assay after stimulation with high dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 1μg/mL. RESULTS The levels of RBC DHA were increased by 61–100% in treated compared to control infants at ages 6 to 36 months. There were no statistically significant reductions in production of the inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, TNFα or IL-12p40 at any of the 6 time points measured. The inflammatory marker, hsCRP, was significantly lower in breast-fed DHA-treated infants compared to all formula-fed infants at age 12 months. Three infants (two received DHA) were removed from the study as a result of developing ≥ two persistently positive biochemical islet autoantibodies. CONCLUSIONS This pilot trial showed that supplementation of infant diets with DHA is safe and fulfilled the pre-study goal of increasing infant RBC DHA levels by at least 20%. Inflammatory cytokine production was not consistently reduced. PMID:25039804

  16. Effect of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation on inflammatory cytokine levels in infants at high genetic risk for type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, H Peter; Boulware, David; Rodriguez, Henry; Donaldson, David; Chritton, Sonia; Rafkin-Mervis, Lisa; Krischer, Jeffrey; Skyler, Jay S; Clare-Salzler, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from the inflammatory destruction of pancreatic β-cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on stimulated inflammatory cytokine production in white blood cells (WBC) from infants with a high genetic risk for T1D. This was a multicenter, two-arm, randomized, double-blind pilot trial of DHA supplementation, beginning either in the last trimester of pregnancy (41 infants) or in the first 5 months after birth (57 infants). Levels of DHA in infant and maternal red blood cell (RBC) membranes and in breast milk were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Inflammatory cytokines were assayed from whole blood culture supernatants using the Luminex multiplex assay after stimulation with high dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 1 µg/mL. The levels of RBC DHA were increased by 61-100% in treated compared to control infants at ages 6-36 months. There were no statistically significant reductions in production of the inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, TNFα, or IL-12p40 at any of the six timepoints measured. The inflammatory marker, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), was significantly lower in breast-fed DHA-treated infants compared to all formula-fed infants at the age of 12 months. Three infants (two received DHA) were removed from the study as a result of developing ≥two persistently positive biochemical islet autoantibodies. This pilot trial showed that supplementation of infant diets with DHA is safe and fulfilled the pre-study goal of increasing infant RBC DHA levels by at least 20%. Inflammatory cytokine production was not consistently reduced. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. FLUCTUATION OF POST-PRANDIAL PLASMA MINERAL LEVEL OF JUVENILE JAPANESE FLOUNDER, Paralichthys olivaceus FED DIETARY PHOSPHORUS AND PHYTASE SUPPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asda Laining

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the phytic acid degradation in the gut of post juvenile Japanese flounder, indirect method was carried out by measuring the pre-prandial and postprandial plasma mineral and alkaline phosphatase (ALP level as well as liver phosphorus content. The experiment was designed into a Randomized Block in which experiment units were grouped according to sampling days at 10, 20 and 30 days of feeding time. Experimental diets contained three levels of dietary inorganic phosphorus at 0.0; 0.25 and 0.5% combined with two levels of dietary phytase at 0 and 2,000 FTU/kg diet. Juvenile Japanese flounder (IBW = 36.2 g were randomly distributed into 6 tanks of a 200 L capacity with density of 15 fish/tank. Blood sampling was carried out at 0 hour (before feeding or pre-prandial and at 1, 3, 6 and 12 hour post feeding (post-prandial time in three sampling days, respectively. Plasma was measured for mineral and ALP levels, while liver was analyzed for P content. The observation showed that fish fed without both dietary IP and phytase supplements had the lowest postprandial plasma IP, Mg and ALP levels during 12-h postprandial period. Plasma IP level at 6-h post-feeding in groups fed dietary 0.25 and 0.5% IP were significant higher when diet supplemented with phytase than those without phytase supplement. Peak level of plasma IP in fish fed 0.25% IP was similar to fish fed 0.5% with the presence of dietary phytase. At 1 and 3-h post-feeding, plasma Ca level increased in all groups, but significant difference was only observed between group fed diet without both dietary IP and phytase and other groups. Similar to plasma IP level, peak of plasma Mg and ALP concentration occurred in fish fed 0.25% IP together with phytase, and did not significantly differ from fish fed with 0.5% IP even when phytase was included in diet.

  18. An interview study of how clinical teachers develop skills to attend to different level learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H Carrie; Fogh, Shannon; Kobashi, Brent; Teherani, Arianne; Ten Cate, Olle; O'Sullivan, Patricia

    2016-06-01

    One clinical teaching challenge is the engagement of learners at different levels. Faculty development offerings mostly address general strategies applicable to all learners. This study examined how clinical faculty members develop the skills to work with different level learners. We conducted semi-structured interviews with medical school faculty members identified as excellent clinical teachers teaching multiple levels of learners. They discussed how they developed their approach to teaching different level learners and how their teaching evolved over time. We performed thematic analysis of the interview transcripts using open and axial coding. We interviewed 19 faculty members and identified three themes related to development of teaching practices: teacher agency and work-based learning of teaching strategies, developmental trajectory of clinical teachers, and interplay between clinical confidence and teaching skills. Faculty members were proactive in using on-the-job experiences to develop their teaching practices. Their teaching practices followed a developmental trajectory towards learner centeredness, and this evolution was associated with the development of clinical skills and confidence. Learning skills to teach multi-level learners requires workplace learning. Faculty development should include workplace learning opportunities and use a developmental approach that accounts for the trajectory of teaching as well as clinical skills attainment.

  19. Development of the Teacher Candidates’ Level of being Affected from Public Personnel Selection Examination Scale

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    Fatma SUSAR KIRMIZI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a scale to evaluate teacher candidates' level of being affected from the public personnel selection examination. The participants of the study consisted of the final year students at Pamukkale University Education Faculty. The participants were 207 teacher candidates, of whom 143 were female and 64 were male. The validity and reliability study of the scale was conducted on the data gathered from teacher candidates studying at Art Teaching, Music Teaching, Turkish Language Teaching, Social Studies Education, Science Teaching, Psychological Counseling and Guidance Education, Elementary Education and Preschool Education departments of Pamukkale University Education Faculty. The Lawshe technique was used in the evaluation of the scale by experts. To determine the construct validity, factor analysis was performed on the data, and two sub-scales were identified. The factor loading values of the items in the first sub-scale ranged between 0,65 and 0,35, and those in the second sub-scale between 0,75 and 0,39. As a result of the analyses, the "Teacher Candidates' Level of Being Affected From Public Personnel Selection Examination Scale" (TCLBAPPSES including 33 items, 23 negative and 10 positive, and two sub-scales was produced. The Cronbach's Alpha reliability coefficient was found as 0,86 for the first sub-dimension, 0,73 for the second sub-dimension, and 0,91 for the whole scale. As a result, it can be argued that the scale is reliable

  20. Can a District-Level Teacher Salary Incentive Policy Improve Teacher Recruitment and Retention? Policy Brief 13-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Heather J.; Loeb, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    In this policy brief, Heather Hough and Susanna Loeb examine the effect of the Quality Teacher and Education Act of 2008 (QTEA) on teacher recruitment, retention, and overall teacher quality in the San Francisco Unified School District (SFUSD). They provide evidence that a salary increase can improve a school district's attractiveness within their…

  1. Effect of vitamin E supplementation on serumic levels of lipids and lipoproteins in cholesterol-fed male rat

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    M.H Khayat Nouri

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia is one of the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. High blood cholesterol affects the general health and increases the mortality rate of cardiovascular diseases. High levels of cholesterol in the diet increases LDL levels and decreases the activity of LDL receptors in the liver. Oxidation of vascular LDL lipoproteins increases the development of atherosclerosis. Previous studies have indicated that consumption of antioxidants decreases hypercholesterolemia. This study evaluates the effect of vitamin E supplementation on blood lipid levels in high cholesterol-fed rats. In this experimental study, three groups of male rats (n=10 for each group were used. The control group received basic diet and one of the other two groups received a diet containing one percent cholesterol and while the other received the same diet plus vitamin E supplement (2500 IU/kg in dry matter of the diet for one month. After determining the values of TC, LDL, VLDL, HDL and TG the results indicated that in rats fed with 1% cholesterol apart from HDL and VLDL the other lipids had increased significantly compared with the control group (p

  2. Management of endocrine disease: value and limitations of assessing vitamin D nutritional status and advised levels of vitamin D supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnoli, Elisabetta; Pepe, Jessica; Piemonte, Sara; Cipriani, Cristiana; Minisola, Salvatore

    2013-10-01

    The growing attention to the role of vitamin D in skeletal and extra-skeletal diseases over the last decade induced an increased demand for vitamin D determination as well as a dramatic rise of sales of vitamin D supplement. However, several critical points in this field remain to be clarified. We lack a clear consensus about the definition of vitamin D deficiency, insufficiency, and sufficiency. The identification of different thresholds defining vitamin D status has relevant implications in clinical practice. In fact, the worldwide prevalence of low vitamin D status is highly varying according to the level of 25(OH)D utilized to define sufficiency. Therefore, the assessment of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels may have a critical role, but a number of different technical problems associated with its determination may interfere in interpreting the results. The hydrophobic nature of vitamin D and the tight binding to its carrier (vitamin D binding protein), the different forms circulating in blood, and the issue of standardization are among the most important factors influencing the measurement of this metabolite. Another controversial point relies on the conflicting guidance on prevention and treatment of vitamin D deficiency endorsed by different medical and scientific communities. In particular, uncertainty exists about how to replete vitamin D stores, how to maintain normal 25(OH)D levels after repletion, which form of vitamin D is preferable for supplementation, and which route of administration and dosing regimens are advisable. Finally, concerns have been raised regarding vitamin D toxicity and its adverse effects.

  3. Sequencing learning experiences to engage different level learners in the workplace: An interview study with excellent clinical teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H Carrie; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Teherani, Arianne; Fogh, Shannon; Kobashi, Brent; ten Cate, Olle

    2015-01-01

    Learning in the clinical workplace can appear to rely on opportunistic teaching. The cognitive apprenticeship model describes assigning tasks based on learner rather than just workplace needs. This study aimed to determine how excellent clinical teachers select clinical learning experiences to support the workplace participation and development of different level learners. Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, we conducted semi-structured interviews with medical school faculty identified as excellent clinical teachers teaching multiple levels of learners. We explored their approach to teach different level learners and their perceived role in promoting learner development. We performed thematic analysis of the interview transcripts using open and axial coding. We interviewed 19 clinical teachers and identified three themes related to their teaching approach: sequencing of learning experiences, selection of learning activities and teacher responsibilities. All teachers used sequencing as a teaching strategy by varying content, complexity and expectations by learner level. The teachers initially selected learning activities based on learner level and adjusted for individual competencies over time. They identified teacher responsibilities for learner education and patient safety, and used sequencing to promote both. Excellent clinical teachers described strategies for matching available learning opportunities to learners' developmental levels to safely engage learners and improve learning in the clinical workplace.

  4. Teacher's opinions about learning continuum based on the student's level of competence and specific pedagogical materials on anatomical aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, Laili Dwi; Subali, Bambang

    2017-08-01

    This research deals with designing learning continuum for developing a curriculum. The objective of this study is to gather the opinion of public junior and high school teachers about Learning Continuum based on Student's Level of Competence and Specific Pedagogical Material on Anatomical Aspects. This is a survey research. The population of the research is natural science teachers at junior high school and biology teacher at senior high school in Yogyakarta Special Region. Data were collected using a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using a descriptive analysis technique. Based on the results of the survey, the teachers opinion are in accordance with the level of the students they teach. Junior high school teachers argued that anatomical aspects were taught in grade VII,VIII, IX and X on the level of C2 (understanding), the high school teacher argued that anatomical aspects were taught in grade VIII, X and XI on the level of C2 (understanding) and C3 (apply). While according to the opinions of primary school teachers about aspects of anatomy resulted from the research of Subali (2016), anatomy is mostly not taught at the elementary school level, only some of the materials that are taught in this school level. Therefore, the results of the survey can be inferred that the opinions of teachers is still based on the existing curriculum.

  5. The Effect of Date (Phoenix dactylifera Juice on Haemoglobin Level An Experimental Study in Iron Supplemented Rats

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    Ady Try Himawan Zen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been more research on the iron supplementation. Date juice has been shown to be rich in iron. It has been reported to increase the hemoglobin level in rats. Few studies has been conducted on the effect of date juice on the hemoglobin level in male white Wistar rats fed low iron diet.This research was conducted to evaluate the effect of (Phoenix dactylifera juice on haemoglobin level in iron supplemented rats. In this experimental study using post test control group design, 24 male white Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups. G-I served as the control group (standard diet and aquadest. G II was given the low Fe diet and aquadest for 21 d. G-III,IV were given the low fe diet and aquadest plus date juice at the concentration of 50%, 100% respectively. The treatment was given for 14 days. Spectrophotometer was used to assess the haemoglobin level of rats. One way anova followed by Post Hoc LSD was applied for the data analysis. Mean of hemoglobin (g/dl level for the four groups were 12,03, 7.72, 9.25, 10.35 respectively. Test resulted in p<0.05. Post Hoc LSD test resulted in a significant different between K-I and G-II, G-III, G-IV ;G-II and G-III, G-IV ;G-III and G-IV. In conclusion, date juice increases the haemoglobin level in male white rats fed on the low fe diet.

  6. Scrutinizing EFL teachers' job satisfaction and stress at work: The intervening roles of gender, teaching experience, and educational level

    OpenAIRE

    Fahimeh Kamali Cheshmeh Jalal; Afsaneh Ghanizadeh; Omid Akbari

    2017-01-01

    The present study sought to explore the relationship between English as a foreign language (EFL) EFL teachers' stress at work and their job satisfaction. Moreover, it explored the role of EFL teachers' gender, length of teaching experience, and educational level in their job satisfaction and stress at work. For this purpose, 134 EFL teachers were chosen from different private language institutes in Mashhad, a city in northeast of Iran. They were asked to complete two questionnaires: Job Descr...

  7. Creatine supplementation reduces plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and PGE2 after a half-ironman competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassit, R A; Curi, R; Costa Rosa, L F B P

    2008-08-01

    The effect of creatine supplementation upon plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines: Interleukin (IL) 1 beta and IL-6, Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNFalpha), and Interferon alpha (INF alpha) and Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) after a half-ironman competition were investigated. Eleven triathletes, each with at least three years experience of participation in this sport were randomly divided between the control and experimental groups. During 5 days prior to competition, the control group (n = 6) was supplemented with carbohydrate (20 g x d(-1)) whereas the experimental group (n = 5) received creatine (20 g x d(-1)) in a double-blind trial. Blood samples were collected 48 h before and 24 and 48 h after competition and were used for the measurement of cytokines and PGE(2). Forty-eight hours prior to competition there was no difference between groups in the plasma concentrations (pg x ml(-1), mean +/- SEM) of IL-6 (7.08 +/- 0.63), TNFalpha (76.50 +/- 5.60), INF alpha (18.32 +/- 1.20), IL-1 beta (23.42 +/- 5.52), and PGE(2) (39.71 +/- 3.8). Twenty-four and 48 h after competition plasma levels of TNFalpha, INF alpha, IL-1 beta and PGE(2) were significantly increased (P long distance triathlon competition may reduce the inflammatory response induced by this form of strenuous of exercise.

  8. Teachers' and students' reactions to the Revised Nuffield A-Level Physics Course (RNAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sela, David

    1990-07-01

    A battery of questionnaires and interviews with teachers and students experienced in RNAP, produced statistical data on many aspects of the course that leads to some guidelines and suggestions for better use of the course design and materials. The patterns described in this article relate to the responses of almost 200 teachers and about 100 students who were teaching and studying RNAP course during school year 1987/8. Though many of them criticised some aspects of the course, generally they were very enthusiastic about it and most of the information they gave us was accurate and reliable. The A-level physics teachers can choose either a `traditional' course or RNAP. We found that most of them don't like to change from one course to another. In the few cases it was done, the reasons generally were like `changing of school', `decreasing number of A-level physics students' or similar reasons. Most of RNAP teachers were keen about the course, its objectives and the way it prepares the students toward higher education as physicists or in other areas. Though pointing out its weaknesses, when comparing it with a `traditional' course, they stress much upon its advantages. We found a tendency to favour the course for the able student than for the weak or the average one. There was more than a feeling among teachers that the less motivated student can better succeed in a `traditional' course. This feeling became even stronger along the interviews where some teachers pointed out the high proportion of the selective schools doing RNAP, which made it more difficult (according to their feeling) for the average student to get an A or B grade. In some of the teachers' opinions RNAP is less suitable for girls who prefer a more `straightforward' course. It is interesting to point out that more than 50% of the students found the course more difficult than they expected it to be. Only 5% found it to be easier than they had suggested. Another point to think about is that almost one

  9. Designation of teacher candidates self-efficacy and success level about designing multimedia

    OpenAIRE

    Vasfi Tugun; Fezile Özdamlı

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to determine the self-efficacy and success levels of teacher candidates on developing multimedia to the Docebo learning management system through integrating various online tools in developing multimedia course and using this method in project-based learning process. Second year students from the department of Computer Education and Educational Technology participated in this research. Random selection method was used in order to assign the students to the groups. Online (3...

  10. SUBJECT «NUMBER SYSTEMS» IN TWO-LEVELED FORMAT PREPARATION TEACHERS OF MATHEMATICS

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    V. I. Igoshin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyze the format of a two-leveled training – bachelor and master – future teachers of mathematics from the point of view of the content of mathematical material, which is to develop prospective teachers of mathematics at those two levels, shaping their professional competence.Methods. The study involves the theoretical methods: the analysis of pedagogical and methodical literature, normative documents; historical, comparative and logical analysis of the content of pedagogical mathematical education; forecasting, planning and designing of two-leveled methodical system of training of future teachers of mathematics.Results and scientific novelty. The level differentiation of the higher education system requires developing the appropriate curricula for undergraduate and graduate programs. The fundamental principle must be the principle of continuity – the magister must continue to deepen and broaden knowledge and skills, along with competences acquired, developed and formed on the undergraduate level. From these positions, this paper examines the course «Number Systems» – the most important in terms of methodology course for future mathematics teachers, and shows what content should be filled with this course at the undergraduate level and the graduate level. At the undergraduate level it is proposed to study classical number systems – natural, integer, rational, real and complex. Further extensions of the number systems are studied at the graduate level. The theory of numeric systems is presented as a theory of algebraic systems, arising at the intersection of algebra and mathematical logic. Here we study algebras over a field, division algebra over a field, an alternative algebra with division over the field, Jordan algebra, Lie algebra. Comprehension of bases of the theory of algebras by the master of the «mathematical education» profile will promote more conscious

  11. Effect of polyethylene glycol 4000 supplementation on the performance of yearling male Pedi goats fed dietary mixture levels of Acacia karroo leaf meal and Setaria verticillata grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David; Ng'ambi, Jones W

    2017-06-01

    Eighteen yearling male Pedi goats weighing 21.7 ± 3.1 kg were used in a 42-day trial in a 2 (Acacia karroo leaf meal levels) × 3 (levels of PEG 4000) factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design to determine PEG 4000 supplementation levels for optimal productivity of indigenous Pedi goats fed different mixture levels of A. karroo leaf meal and Setaria verticillata (L.) P.Beauv. grass hay. Each goat was supplemented with 0, 23 or 30 g of PEG 4000 per day in addition to dietary mixture of A. karroo and S. verticillata hay. Polyethylene glycol 4000 supplementation had no effect (P > 0.05) on nutrient intake of goats. However, a diet × PEG (P goat were optimized at PEG 4000 supplementation levels of 19.62, 19.62, 19.61 and 19.53 g/goat/day, respectively, for diets containing 20% A. karroo leaf meal. Polyethylene glycol 4000 supplementation had no effect (P > 0.05) on the apparent digestibility of all nutrients. The dietary inclusion level of A. karroo leaf meal at 20% improved (P goats. Crude protein digestibility was optimized at a PEG 4000 supplementation level of 15.78 g/goat/day. Dietary mixture level and PEG 4000 supplementation had no effect (P > 0.05) on final weights of Pedi goats. Similar results were observed for blood urea and glucose concentrations of yearling male Pedi goats. However, daily body weight gain was higher (P goats fed 50% A. karroo leaf meal than those on 20% inclusion level. Polyethylene glycol 4000 has potential to improve the feeding value of tanninifeorus A. karroo leaf meal.

  12. Pre-Altitude Serum Ferritin Levels and Daily Oral Iron Supplement Dose Mediate Iron Parameter and Hemoglobin Mass Responses to Altitude Exposure.

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    Andrew D Govus

    Full Text Available To investigate the influence of daily oral iron supplementation on changes in hemoglobin mass (Hbmass and iron parameters after 2-4 weeks of moderate altitude exposure.Hematological data collected from 178 athletes (98 males, 80 females exposed to moderate altitude (1,350-3,000 m were analysed using linear regression to determine how altitude exposure combined with oral iron supplementation influenced Hbmass, total iron incorporation (TII and blood iron parameters [ferritin and transferrin saturation (TSAT].Altitude exposure (mean ± s: 21 ± 3 days increased Hbmass by 1.1% [-0.4, 2.6], 3.3% [1.7, 4.8], and 4.0% [2.0, 6.1] from pre-altitude levels in athletes who ingested nil, 105 mg and 210 mg respectively, of oral iron supplement daily. Serum ferritin levels decreased by -33.2% [-46.9, -15.9] and 13.8% [-32.2, 9.7] from pre-altitude levels in athletes who supplemented with nil and 105 mg of oral iron supplement daily, but increased by 36.8% [1.3, 84.8] in athletes supplemented with 210 mg of oral iron daily. Finally, athletes who ingested either 105 mg or 210 mg of oral iron supplement daily had a greater TII compared with non-supplemented athletes (0 versus 105 mg: effect size (d = -1.88 [-2.56, -1.17]; 0 versus 210 mg: effect size (d = -2.87 [-3.88, -1.66].Oral iron supplementation during 2-4 weeks of moderate altitude exposure may enhance Hbmass production and assist the maintenance of iron balance in some athletes with low pre-altitude iron stores.

  13. Urinary Hepcidin Levels in Iron-Deficient and Iron-Supplemented Piglets Correlate with Hepcidin Hepatic mRNA and Serum Levels and with Body Iron Status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Staroń

    Full Text Available Among livestock, domestic pig (Sus scrofa is a species, in which iron metabolism has been most intensively examined during last decade. The obvious reason for studying the regulation of iron homeostasis especially in young pigs is neonatal iron deficiency anemia commonly occurring in these animals. Moreover, supplementation of essentially all commercially reared piglets with iron entails a need for monitoring the efficacy of this routine practice followed in the swine industry for several decades. Since the discovery of hepcidin many studies confirmed its role as key regulator of iron metabolism and pointed out the assessment of its concentrations in biological fluids as diagnostic tool for iron-related disorder. Here we demonstrate that urine hepcidin-25 levels measured by a combination of weak cation exchange chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (WCX-TOF MS are highly correlated with mRNA hepcidin expression in the liver and plasma hepcidin-25 concentrations in anemic and iron-supplemented 28-day old piglets. We also found a high correlation between urine hepcidin level and hepatic non-heme iron content. Our results show that similarly to previously described transgenic mouse models of iron disorders, young pigs constitute a convenient animal model to explore accuracy and relationship between indicators for assessing systemic iron status.

  14. Urea levels in multiple supplement for lambs grazing on buffelgrass - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i4.7829 Urea levels in multiple supplement for lambs grazing on buffelgrass - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i4.7829

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Leal Teixeira de Oliveira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present trial was to evaluate the intake of supplement dry matter, productive performance, carcass traits, and weight and yields of commercial meat cuts of lambs grazing on dormant buffelgrass pastures and receiving multiple supplementation containing different urea levels. Urea levels used were: 5, 8, 11 and 14% on dry matter. Thirty-six male lambs were used, nine animals per treatment, with 18.0 ± 2.0 kg initial body weight, distributed into four groups. The experimental design was completely randomized with nine replications. Urea levels in supplement did not influence productive performance, cold and hot carcass weight and yield and commercial meat cuts weight and yield (leg, shoulder, rib and brisket. Use of multiple supplements containing 11 and 14% of urea levels for lambs in dormant grazing pastures during the dry season may increase bioeconomic performance of this activity, as they promoted lower supplement intake and similar productive performance.The objective of present trial was to evaluate the intake of supplement dry matter, productive performance, carcass traits, and weight and yields of commercial meat cuts of lambs grazing on dormant buffelgrass pastures and receiving multiple supplementation containing different urea levels. Urea levels used were: 5, 8, 11 and 14% on dry matter. Thirty-six male lambs were used, nine animals per treatment, with 18.0 ± 2.0 kg initial body weight, distributed into four groups. The experimental design was completely randomized with nine replications. Urea levels in supplement did not influence productive performance, cold and hot carcass weight and yield and commercial meat cuts weight and yield (leg, shoulder, rib and brisket. Use of multiple supplements containing 11 and 14% of urea levels for lambs in dormant grazing pastures during the dry season may increase bioeconomic performance of this activity, as they promoted lower supplement intake and similar productive performance.

  15. Classroom management at the university level: lessons from a former high school earth science teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, C.

    2009-12-01

    Just a few days before my career as a fledgling science teacher began in a large public high school in New York City, a mentor suggested I might get some ideas about how to run a classroom from a book called The First Days Of School by Harry Wong. Although the book seemed to concentrate more on elementary students, I found that many of the principles in the book worked well for high school students. Even as I have begun to teach at the university level, many of Wong’s themes have persisted in my teaching style. Wong’s central thesis is that for learning to occur, a teacher must create the proper environment. In education jargon, a good climate for learning is generated via classroom management, an array of methods used by elementary and secondary school teachers to provide structure and routine to a class period via a seamless flow of complementary activities. Many college professors would likely consider classroom management to be chiefly a set of rules to maintain discipline and order among an otherwise unruly herd of schoolchildren, and therefore not a useful concept for mature university students. However, classroom management is much deeper than mere rules for behavior; it is an approach to instructional design that considers the classroom experience holistically. A typical professorial management style is to lecture for an hour or so and ask students to demonstrate learning via examinations several times in a semester. In contrast, a good high school teacher will manage a class from bell-to-bell to create a natural order and flow to a given lesson. In this presentation, I will argue for an approach to college lesson design similar to the classroom management style commonly employed by high school and elementary school teachers. I will suggest some simple, practical techniques learned during my high school experience that work just as well in college: warm-up and practice problems, time management, group activities, bulletin boards, learning environment

  16. High School Mathematics Teachers' Levels of Achieving Technology Integration and In-Class Reflections: The Case of Mathematica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardiç, Mehmet Alper; Isleyen, Tevfik

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the levels of high school mathematics teachers in achieving mathematics instruction via computer algebra systems and the reflections of these practices in the classroom. Three high school mathematics teachers employed at different types of school participated in the study. In the beginning of this…

  17. Determination of Pre-Service Science Teachers' Level of Awareness of Environmental Ethics in Relation to Different Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keles, Özgül; Özer, Nilgün

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to determine the pre-service science teachers' awareness levels of environmental ethics in relation to different variables. The sampling of the present study is comprised of 1,023 third and fourth year pre-service science teachers selected from 12 different universities in the spring term of 2013-2014 academic…

  18. A Balancing Act in the Third Space: Graduate-Level Earth Science in an Urban Teacher-Residency Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirakparvar, N. Alex

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a museum-based urban teacher-residency (UTR) program's approach to building subject-specific content knowledge and research experience in Earth Science teacher candidates. In the museum-based program, graduate-level science courses and research experiences are designed and implemented specifically for the UTR by active Earth…

  19. Prospective Turkish Elementary Science Teachers' Knowledge Level about the Greenhouse Effect and Their Views on Environmental Education in University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisoglu, Mustafa; Gürbüz, Hasan; Erkol, Mehmet; Akar, Muhammed Said; Akilli, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    The fundamental factor of environmental education is teachers who are well-informed about environmental issues. This research aimed to determine prospective Turkish elementary science teachers' knowledge level about causes, consequences and reducing of the greenhouse effect and to investigate the effect of gender, information source and membership…

  20. The Relationship between the Styles of Coping with Stress and the Levels of Hopelessness of Preschool Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekici, Fatma Yasar

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of this research is to examine the relationship between the styles of coping with stress and the levels of hopelessness of preschool teachers. Relational survey method was used in this research. The research sample consists of 108 preschool teachers working in preschool education institutions in Küçükçekmece district of Istanbul in…

  1. Assessing the Desired and Actual Levels of Teachers' Participation in Decision-Making in Secondary Schools of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bademo, Yismaw; Tefera, Bekalu Ferede

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the desired and actual levels of teachers' participation in decision-making process in Ethiopian secondary schools. For this, the study employed a cross-sectional survey design collecting data from sampled secondary school teachers (n = 258) found in Assosa Zone, Benishangual Gumuz Regional state, Ethiopia.…

  2. A Comparison of Burnout Levels of Preschool Teachers in Terms of Having Integration Students in Their Classes or Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahbaz, Ümit; Koyutürk Koçer, Nazife

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to compare burnout levels of preschool teachers who have integration students in their classes and those who do not. The sample of the study consists of 185 preschool teachers working in Isparta city and town centers. The data of the study were collected using the Burnout Inventory developed by Maslach and Jackson…

  3. An Investigation of the Relationship between Digital Citizenship Levels of Pre-Service Primary School Teachers and Their Democratic Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladag, Soner; Çiftci, Serdar

    2017-01-01

    This study seeks to investigate the relationship between digital citizenship levels of pre-service primary school teachers and their democratic values. The research was designed in descriptive survey model. The research was conducted with the participation of 346 pre-service primary school teachers (juniors and seniors) from Adnan Menderes…

  4. Teacher Candidates' Learning Strategies and Academic Self-Efficacy Levels: Is There a Relation between the Two?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akçaoglu, Mustafa Öztürk

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to identify teacher candidates' learning strategies and academic self-efficacy levels. Furthermore, the correlations between these variables and gender and departments were looked into. The study was mainly descriptive and correlational. The sample of the study consisted of 256 teacher candidates enrolled at a faculty of…

  5. Vitamin A Supplementation Programs and Country-Level Evidence of Vitamin A Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P. Wirth

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A supplementation (VAS programs targeted at children aged 6–59 months are implemented in many countries. By improving immune function, vitamin A (VA reduces mortality associated with measles, diarrhea, and other illnesses. There is currently a debate regarding the relevance of VAS, but amidst the debate, researchers acknowledge that the majority of nationally-representative data on VA status is outdated. To address this data gap and contribute to the debate, we examined data from 82 countries implementing VAS programs, identified other VA programs, and assessed the recentness of national VA deficiency (VAD data. We found that two-thirds of the countries explored either have no VAD data or data that were >10 years old (i.e., measured before 2006, which included twenty countries with VAS coverage ≥70%. Fifty-one VAS programs were implemented in parallel with at least one other VA intervention, and of these, 27 countries either had no VAD data or data collected in 2005 or earlier. To fill these gaps in VAD data, countries implementing VAS and other VA interventions should measure VA status in children at least every 10 years. At the same time, the coverage of VA interventions can also be measured. We identified three countries that have scaled down VAS, but given the lack of VA deficiency data, this would be a premature undertaking in most countries without appropriate status assessment. While the global debate about VAS is important, more attention should be directed towards individual countries where programmatic decisions are made.

  6. Supplementation of glycerol or fructose via drinking water to grazing lambs on tissue glycogen level and lipogenesis.

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    Volpi-Lagreca, G; Duckett, S K

    2017-06-01

    Lambs ( = 18; 40.1 ± 7.4 kg BW) were used to assess supplementation of glycerol or fructose via drinking water on growth, tissue glycogen levels, postmortem glycolysis, and lipogenesis. Lambs were blocked by BW and allocated to alfalfa paddocks (2 lambs/paddock and 3 paddocks/treatment). Each paddock within a block was assigned randomly to drinking water treatments for 30 d: 1) control (CON), 2) 120 g fructose/L of drinking water (FRU), or 3) 120 g glycerol/L of drinking water (GLY). Lambs grazed alfalfa with free access to water treatments for 28 d and then were fasted in indoor pens for a final 2 d with access to only water treatments. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS with water treatment and time (when appropriate) in the model. During the 28-d grazing period, ADG was greater ( glycogen content × postmortem time was significant ( = 0.003) in LM and semitendinosus (ST) muscles. Glycogen content in the LM was greater ( Glycogen content in ST did not differ between treatments ( > 0.05). Liver glycogen content was over 14-fold greater ( glycogen branching enzyme in the liver. Overall, glycerol supplementation improved growth, reduced BW shrink during fasting, increased glycogen content in muscle and the liver, and stimulated de novo lipogenesis.

  7. Semen quality characteristics of Koekoek breeder cocks influenced by supplemental inclusion levels of onion and garlic mixture at 35-41 weeks of age

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    Victor Mela Obinna Okoro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of varying dietary supplemental inclusion levels of onion and garlic mixture on semen quality characteristics of Koekoek breeder cocks aged 35-41 weeks. The experimental diets were isocaloric and isonitrogenous but with different supplemental inclusion levels of onion and garlic. A complete randomized design was used for the experiment. The three dietary supplemental levels based on garlic and onion supplemental inclusion levels were Q0 (0 g onion and 0 g garlic per 600 g DM feed, Q1 (2.5 g onion and 2.5 g garlic per 600 g DM feed, and Q2 (5 g onion and 5 g garlic per 600 g DM feed with each treatment having three replicates. A quadratic type equation was used to determine the onion and garlic levels for optimum semen quality characteristics. Daily supplementation with 5 g onion and 5 g garlic per 600 g DM feed increased progressive motile cells (%, actual life sperm count (×106/nl, and live sperm (% by 221.20%, 301.51%, and 352.43%, while 2.5 g onion and 2.5 g garlic per 600 g DM feed reduced them by 28.67%, 12.69%, and 19.00%, respectively. However, daily supplementation with 2.5 g onion and 2.5 g garlic per 600 g DM feed increased sperm count (×106/nl by 12.82%, whereas daily supplementation with 5 g onion and 5 g garlic per 600 g DM feed reduced it by 10.26% in Koekoek breeder cocks. Dietary onion and garlic supplemental inclusion levels of 3.009, 3.191, 4.621, 6.601, 6.719, 2.327, 2.385, and 2.247 g per 600 g DM feed supported optimum progressive motile cells (%, immotile sperm cells (%, actual dead sperm count (×106/nl, actual live sperm count (×106/nl, live sperm (%, acrosome morphology defects (%, acrosome detachment (%, and acrosome swelling (%, with probability values ranging from 0.003 to 0.783, whereas minimum progressive motile cells (% increase was achieved at an optimum onion and garlic supplementation levels of 3.009 g per 600 g DM feed. These findings have a lot of

  8. Effect of corn dry distiller grains plus solubles supplementation level on performance and digestion characteristics of steers grazing native range during forage growing season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pérez, M F; Calderón-Mendoza, D; Islas, A; Encinias, A M; Loya-Olguín, F; Soto-Navarro, S A

    2013-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of corn dry distiller grains plus condensed solubles (DDGS) supplementation level on performance digestion characteristics of steers grazing native range during the forage growing season. In the performance study, 72 (206 ± 23.6 kg; 2008) and 60 (230 ± 11.3 kg; 2009) English crossbred steer calves were used in a randomized complete block design replicated over 2 yr. The grazing periods lasted 56 and 58 d and started on August 11 and 18 for 2008 and 2009, respectively. Each year, steers were blocked by BW (light, medium, and heavy), stratified by BW within blocks, and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 grazing groups. Each grazing group (6 steers in 2008 and 5 in 2009) was assigned to a DDGS supplementation levels (0, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6% BW). Grazing group served as the experimental unit with 12 groups per year receiving 1 of 4 treatments for 2 yr (n = 6). In the metabolism study, 16 English crossbred steers (360 ± 28.9 kg) fitted with ruminal cannulas grazing native range during the summer growing season were used in a completely randomized design to evaluate treatment effects on forage intake and digestion. The experiment was conducted during the first and second weeks of October 2008. Steers were randomly assigned to supplement level (0, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6% BW; n = 4) and grazed a single native range pasture with supplements offered individually once daily at 0700 h. In the performance study, ADG (0.64, 0.75, 0.80, and 0.86 ± 0.03 kg/d for 0, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6% BW, respectively) increased linearly (P = 0.01) with increasing DDGS supplementation level. In the metabolism study, forage OM, NDF, CP, and ether extract (EE) intake decreased (P ≤ 0.05) linearly with increasing DDGS supplementation level. Total CP and EE intake increased (P ≤ 0.002) with increasing DDGS supplementation level. Digestibility of OM, NDF, and EE increased (linear; P ≤ 0.008) whereas the soluble CP fraction of forage masticate sample

  9. The Level of Psychological Burnout at the Teachers of Students with Autism Disorders in Light of a Number of Variables in Al-Riyadh Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiyat, Omar Khalil

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at measuring the level of the psychological burnout in the teachers of students that have autism symptoms in Al-Riyadh area--kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In light of variables. These variables are the gender, the teaching place, the academic qualification of the teachers, the experience of the teachers, the age of the teachers, and…

  10. Dairy cow responses to graded levels of rapeseed and soya bean expeller supplementation on a red clover/grass silage-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinne, M; Kuoppala, K; Ahvenjärvi, S; Vanhatalo, A

    2015-12-01

    The effects of rapeseed and soya bean expeller (SBE) supplementation on digestion and milk production responses in dairy cows were investigated in an incomplete Latin square design using five cows and four 3-week periods. The experimental diets consisted of five concentrate treatments fed at a rate of 9 kg/day: a mixture of barley and oats, which was replaced with rapeseed or SBE at two levels (CP concentration (g/kg dry matter (DM)) of 130 for the control concentrate and 180 and 230 for the two protein supplemented levels). A mixture of grass and red clover silage (1:1) was fed ad libitum and it had a CP concentration of 157 g/kg DM. Supply of nutrients to the lower tract was measured using the omasal canal sampling technique, and total digestion from total faecal collection. Protein supplementation increased omasal canal amino acid (AA) flows and plasma concentrations of AA, and was also reflected as increased milk production. However, N use efficiency (NUE) decreased with increased protein supplementation. Rapeseed expeller (RSE) tended to increase silage DM intake and elicited higher milk production responses compared with SBE and also resulted in a higher NUE. The differences between the protein supplements in nitrogen metabolism were relatively small, for example, there were no differences in the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis or omasal canal flows of nitrogenous components between them, but plasma methionine concentration was lower for soya bean-fed cows at the high CP level in particular. The lower milk protein production responses to SBE than to RSE supplementation were at least partly caused by increased silage DM and by the lower methionine supply, which may further have been amplified by the use of red clover in the basal diet. Although feed intake, diet digestion, AA supply and milk production were all consistently improved by protein supplementation, there was a simultaneous decrease in NUE. In the current study, the milk protein production

  11. Leveling the Playing Field: Teacher Perception of Integrated STEM, Engineering, and Engineering Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincher, Bridgette Ann

    The purpose of this study was to describe the perceptions and approaches of 14 third-through-fifth grade Arkansan elementary teachers towards integrative engineering and engineering practices during 80 hours of integrated STEM professional development training in the summer and fall of 2014. This training was known as Project Flight. The purpose of the professional development was to learn integrated STEM content related to aviation and to write grade level curriculum units using Wiggins and McTighe's Understanding by Design curriculum framework. The current study builds upon on the original research. Using a mixed method exploratory, embedded QUAL[quan] case study design and a non-experimental convenience sample derived from original 20 participants of Project Flight, this research sought to answer the following question: Does professional development influence elementary teachers' perceptions of the curriculum and instruction of integrated STEM engineering and engineering practices in a 3-to-5 grade level setting? A series of six qualitative and one quantitative sub-questions informed the research of the mixed method question. Hermeneutic content analysis was applied to archival and current qualitative data sets while descriptive statistics, independent t-tests, and repeated measures ANOVA tests were performed on the quantitative data. Broad themes in the teachers' perceptions and understanding of the nature of integrated engineering and engineering practices emerged through triangulation. After the professional development and the teaching of the integrated STEM units, all 14 teachers sustained higher perceptions of personal self-efficacy in their understanding of Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). The teachers gained understanding of engineering and engineering practices, excluding engineering habits of mind, throughout the professional development training and unit teaching. The research resulted in four major findings specific to elementary engineering

  12. Learning Strategies of Physics Teacher Candidates: Relationships with Physics Achievement and Class Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selçuk, Gamze S.; Çalişkan, Serap; Erol, Mustafa

    2007-04-01

    Learning strategy concept was introduced in the education field from the development of cognitive psychology. Learning strategies are behaviors and thoughts that a learner engages in during learning which are intended to influence the learner's encoding process. Literature on learning strategies in physics field is very scarce. Participants of the research consist of teacher candidates (n=137) from 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th grade attending Department of Physics Education, Education Faculty of Buca, Dokuz Eylül University in Turkey. Data of this research was collected by ``Scale of Learning Strategies Usage in Physics'' (Cronbach's Alpha=0.93). Mean, Standard Deviation, Analysis of Variance were used to analyze the research data. This paper reports on teacher candidates' learning strategies used in physics education The paper investigates the relationships between learning strategies and physics achievement, class level. Some important outcomes of the research are presented, discussed and certain suggestions are made.

  13. Utilisation of 2nd generation web technologies in master level vocational teacher training

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    Péter Tóth

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Masters level Opportunities and Technological Innovation in Vocational Teacher Education project (project site: http://motivate.tmpk.bmf.hu/ aims to develop the use and management of virtual learning environments in the area of vocational teacher training, drawing on a well established international partnership of institutions providing both technical and educational expertise. This paper gives an overall picture of the first results and products of the collaboration. We touch upon the goals, the assessments and the learning process of using “Multimedia and e-Learning: e-learning methods and tools” module in details. The main cooperative and collaborative devices are presented in virtual learning environment. The communication during collaborative learning, the structured debate on forum and the benefits of collaborative learning in VLE are interpreted at the end of this paper.

  14. EXAMINING OCCUPATIONAL ANXIETY LEVELS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORTS TEACHER DEPARTMENT STUDENTS

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    Ayşe Feray Özbal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the occupational anxiety levels of physical education and sports teacher department students in terms of age, gender, university, grade level, mother’s and father’s educational levels and family income. A total of 511 students (208 female, 303 male from 6 different universities participated in the study. Independent samples t-test for gender and age variables; One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA was used for grade level, university, mother’s and father’s education levels and family income. Significant differences were found in Interaction With Students, Occupational Exam subscales in terms of gender; Interaction With Students and Individual Self-Development subscales in terms of age (p.05. As a result, It can be concluded that the significant difference between gender groups is derived from social values, and the difference in age groups is due to lack of occupational qualification.

  15. Effects of different levels of protein supplements in the diet of early-weaned yaks on growth performance, intestinal development, and immune response to tuberculosis

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    Haibo Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of crude protein (CP supplements to the diet of early-weaned yaks on their growth performance, intestinal development, and immune response. Forty 3-month-old weaned yaks were selected and assigned to four dietary groups (Control, 17, 19 and 21% CP. Dietary CP supplements had a significant effect on average daily gain (ADG, crypt depth (CD (duodenum, jejunum and ileum, villous height (VH (duodenum, jejunum and ileum and CD/VH (jejunum and ileum. Average daily gain, CD (duodenum, jejunum and ileum and VH (ileum showed quadratic increases as the dietary CP increased, whereas CD/VH (jejunum and ileum ratios showed quadratic decreases. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN, glucose (GLU, immunoglobulin G (IgG, IgM, interleukin-1 (IL-1, IL-2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, and interferon (IFN-γ concentrations increased significantly, whereas albumin (ALB, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST decreased significantly with dietary CP supplements. Dietary CP supplements significantly increased the concentrations of IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ and the nuclear factor of activated T cell transcription factor (NFAT for gene expression. As the dietary CP supplements increased, IL-6, IFN-γ and NF-AT gene expression showed quadratic increases. These results showed that the appropriate dietary CP supplementation improved the growth performance and intestinal development of earlyweaned yaks and thus that the CP supplements were beneficial and enhanced the humoral immunity response of yaks.

  16. Influence of Motivation Theory and Supplemental Workshops on First-Time Passing Rates of HBCU Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffett, Noran L.; Frizzell, Melanie M.; Brownlee-Williams, Yolanda; Thompson, Jill M.

    2014-01-01

    The action research methodology for this study reports descriptive statistical findings from the performance of 19 Early Childhood Education African American teacher candidates matriculating through a state-approved program at an HBCU. Researcher-moderators provided a treatment plan of focused summer workshops, conceptualized based upon the…

  17. The Arithmetic Project Course for Teachers - 8. Topic: Lower Brackets and Upper Brackets. Supplement: Arithmetic With Frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.

    This is one of a series of 20 booklets designed for participants in an in-service course for teachers of elementary mathematics. The course, developed by the University of Illinois Arithmetic Project, is designed to be conducted by local school personnel. In addition to these booklets, a course package includes films showing mathematics being…

  18. Effects of omega-3 supplementation on interleukin and neurotrophin levels in an animal model of schizophrenia

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    ALEXANDRA I. ZUGNO

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTNew studies suggest that polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as omega-3, may reduce the symptoms of schizophrenia. The present study evaluated the preventive effect of omega-3 on interleukines (IL and neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF levels in the brains of young rats subjected to a model of schizophrenia. Treatment was performed over 21 days, starting on the 30th day of rat's life. After 14 days of treatment with omega-3 or vehicle, a concomitant treatment with saline or ketamine (25 mg/kg was started and maintained until the last day of the experiment. BDNF levels in the rat's prefrontal cortex were decreased at 1 h and 24 h after the last administration of ketamine, whereas the group administered with ketamine and omega-3 showed a decrease in BDNF levels only after 24 h. In contrast, both interventions induced similar responses in levels of IL-1β and IL6. These findings suggest that the similarity of IL-1β and IL6 levels in our experimental groups is due to the mechanism of action of ketamine on the immune system. More studies have to be carried out to explain this pathology. In conclusion, according to previous studies and considering the current study, we could suggest a prophylactic role of omega-3 against the outcome of symptoms associated with schizophrenia.

  19. Taking iron supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007478.htm Taking iron supplements To use the sharing features on this page, ... levels. You may also need to take iron supplements as well to rebuild iron stores in your ...

  20. The Effect of Three Levels of Inquiry on the Improvement of Science Concept Understanding of Elementary School Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artayasa, I. Putu; Susilo, Herawati; Lestari, Umie; Indriwati, Sri Endah

    2018-01-01

    This research aims to compare the effect of the implementation of three levels of inquiry: level 2 (structured inquiry), level 3 (guided inquiry), and level 4 (open inquiry) toward science concept understanding of elementary school teacher candidates. This is a quasi experiment research with pre-test post-test nonequivalent control group design.…

  1. Chem I Supplement. Chemistry Related to Isolation of High-Level Nuclear Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Darleane C.; Choppin, Gregory R.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses some of the problems associated with the safe disposal of high-level nuclear wastes. Describes several waste disposal plans developed by various nations. Outlines the multiple-barrier concept of isolation in deep geological questions associated with the implementation of such a method. (TW)

  2. EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTING DIFFERENT LEVELS OF CORN STEEP LIQUOR ON THE POST-WEANING GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF PAK-KARAKUL LAMBS

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    M. A. MIRZA AND T. MUSHTAQ

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Corn steep liquor (CSL is a liquid by-product of wet milling process of maize-starch industry. A trial was conducted to examine the effect of supplementing various levels of CSL in the diet of 30 Pak-Karakul lambs. These lambs were randomly divided into five experimental groups. The control group (A was fed on basal diet having no CSL. The experimental groups B, C, D and E were fed on diets supplemented with CSL at the rate of 5, 10, 15 and 20% of the diet, respectively. The experimental diets were fed ad libitum to the experimental animals for 90 days. Results showed that supplementation of CSL at 5% of the diet improved both body weight gain and feed:gain. Corn steep liquor at higher supplemental rates i.e., 10 or 15% of the basal diet had non-significant effect on the growth or feed:gain of lambs. However, supplementation of CSL at 20% of the diet significantly depressed growth (P <0.01 and feed:gain (P<0.01. Growth rate in male lambs was significantly (P <0.01 higher than those of female lambs. Female lambs consumed more ration for each unit body weight gain than males. The results of the trial demonstrate that supplementation of CSL at 5% of the diet is useful for growth and feed:gain but higher levels of CSL considerably depress growth and increase feed:gain, leading to increased cost of production.

  3. Knowledge levels of pre-school teachers related with basic first-aid practices, Isparta sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sönmez, Yonca; Uskun, Ersin; Pehlivan, Azize

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of knowledge of pre-school teachers working in the province center of Isparta related with basic first-aid practices and some factors which affected these levels of knowledge. In this cross-sectional, analytic study, 110 pre-school teachers working in the province center of Isparta constituted the population. A questionnaire questioning sociodemographic properties and the level of knowledge related with first-aid practices was applied under supervision. The level of knowledge was evaluated on a 20-point scale. In the analyses, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests and Spearman's rank correlation were used. The study was approved by the Ethical Committee for Clinical Studies of Süleyman Demirel University School of Medicine (registration number: 105). The mean score of first-aid knowledge of the pre-school teachers was found to be 11.9±2.9. The least known issues included washing the wound by soap and water after a dog bite, information related with the necessity of immobilization of a child who has fallen from a high level and the phone number of National Poison Information Center (16.4%, 20.9% and 22.7%, respectively). The scores of the subjects whose knowledge of first-aid was evaluated to be well were higher compared to the subjects whose knowledge of first-aid was evaluated to be moderate (p=0.009) and poor (p=0.001). It was found that first-aid scores did not show significant difference in terms of age, working period, having received first-aid training and having faced with a condition requiring first-aid previously (p>0.05, for all comparisons). It was found that pre-school teachers had insufficient first-aid knowledge. Since the first-aid knowledge scores of the subjects who reported that they received first-aid training before did not show significant difference, it was thought that the quality of training was as important as receiving training.

  4. Relationship of serum magnesium level and supplemental magnesium dosage with post coronary artery bypass graft surgery arrhythmias

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    Najafi M

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atrial and ventricular arrhythmias are among the most common complications after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgery. Previous studies demonstrated that cardiopulmonary bypass itself results in reduced serum magnesium levels. In this study, we evaluated the effect of total blood magnesium level (TMG on the prevention of perioperative arrhythmias with routine regimens of 2-4 grams supplemental magnesium (SMG. Methods: TMG was measured in patients who were scheduled for CABG on three occasions: just before anesthesia, just after entering the intensive care unit (ICU after completion of the sugery, and on the first morning after the operation. Patients were evaluated for primary cardiac rhythm and other variables that could have an influence on the magnesium level, including serum creatinine, urine output in the operating room and diuretic therapy. The SMG dosage was also recorded in the operating room and ICU. Patients were then evaluated for the rate and type of arrhythmia for the next three days. Results: The mean TMG levels in 174 cases were 2.2 (0.5, 2.6 (0.6 and 2.4 (0.6 mg/dl for the three occasions, respectively. The mean SMG was 2.5 (1.2 grams. Of 164 patients, 51 (31% developed the following post-operative arrhythmias: AF (7.3%, non-AF SVA (15.2% and ventricular (16.5%. The mean serum creatinine level and urine output were 1.2 mg/dl and 1800 ml, respectively. Although there was a significant difference between the TMG levels on the three different occasions (P<0.001, all values were within normal range. When we stratified the TMG levels of the patients based on administered SMG, the Mentel-Haenszel test revealed no significant difference between the first and third TMG (P=0.6. Although the TMG levels were higher in arrhythmic patients compared to those without arrhythmia (2.25 vs. 2.14 mg/dl, both values were within the normal range and there was no significant difference between the two groups. Serum creatinine levels

  5. Supplementation with Ca salts of soybean oil interacts with concentrate level in grazing dairy cows: intake, ingestive behavior, and ruminal parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Fernanda Lopes; Batistel, Fernanda; de Souza, Jonas; Chagas, Lucas Jado; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the associative effects of concentrate levels and Ca salts of soybean oil (CSSO) supplementation on performance and ruminal parameters of mid-lactation dairy cows grazing on tropical pasture. Twenty-four Jersey × Holstein cows were used in a randomized block design and assigned to four treatments arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Factors evaluated were concentrate levels (low, 3 kg/day vs. high, 7 kg/day of concentrate) and CSSO supplementation (without CSSO vs. with 250 g CSSO cow/day). All cows grazed on elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum cv. Cameroon) and received the supplemental treatments for a 90-day period. The high concentrate level decreased forage intake and grazing time. In addition, the high concentrate level increased rumen propionate concentration and microbial synthesis and tended to decrease ammonia-N compared with low concentrate level. The addition of CSSO tended to decrease valerate, isobutyrate, isovalerate, and microbial synthesis. In conclusion, feeding CSSO for mid lactating cows grazing on tropical pasture had negative effects on rumen function. In contrast, CSSO supplementation tended to interact with concentrate level and increased energy intake when fed at low concentrate level. Feeding the high level of concentrate was an effective strategy to increase energy intake and microbial synthesis and improve N utilization.

  6. The effects of aerobic exercises and 25(OH D supplementation on GLP1 and DPP4 level in Type II diabetic patients

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    Naser Rahimi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week aerobic exercise and supplementation of 25(OHD3 on GLP1 and DDP4 levels in men with type II diabetes. Methods: In this semiexperimental research, among 40–60-year-old men with type II diabetes who were referred to the diabetic center of Isabn-E Maryam hospital in Isfahan; of whom, 48 patients were voluntarily accepted and then were randomly divided into 4 groups: aerobic exercise group, aerobic exercise with 25(OH D supplement group, 25(OH D supplement group, and the control group. An aerobic exercise program was conducted for 8 weeks (3 sessions/week, each session 60 to75 min with 60–80% HRmax. The supplement user group received 50,000 units of oral Vitamin D once weekly for 8 weeks. The GLP1, DPP4, and 25(OH D levels were measured before and after the intervention. At last, the data were statistically analyzed using the ANCOVA and post hoc test of least significant difference. Results: The results of ANCOVA showed a significant difference between the GLP1 and DPP4 levels in aerobic exercise with control group while these changes were not statistically significant between the 25(OH D supplement group with control group (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Aerobic exercises have resulted an increase in GLP1 level and a decrease in DPP4 level. However, consumption of Vitamin D supplement alone did not cause any changes in GLP1and DPP4 levels but led to an increase in 25-hydroxy Vitamin D level.

  7. Intake, digestibility, and rumen and metabolic characteristics of cattle fed low-quality tropical forage and supplemented with nitrogen and different levels of starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Franco, Marcia; Detmann, Edenio; de Campos Valadares Filho, Sebastião; Batista, Erick Darlisson; de Almeida Rufino, Luana Marta; Barbosa, Marcília Medrado; Lopes, Alexandre Ribeiro

    2017-06-01

    Effects of nitrogen supplementation associated with different levels of starch on voluntary intake, digestibility, and rumen and metabolic characteristics of cattle fed low-quality tropical forage ( Brachiaria decumbens hay, 7.4% crude protein, CP) were evaluated using ruminal and abomasal cannulated steers. Five European×Zebu young bulls (186 kg body weight, BW) were distributed according to a 5×5 Latin square. The following treatments were evaluated: control, supplementation with 300 g CP/d (0:1), supplementation with 300 g starch/d and 300 g CP/d (1:1), supplementation with 600 g starch/d and 300 g CP/d (2:1), and supplementation with 900 g starch/d and 300 g CP/d (3:1). A mixture of nitrogenous compounds provided 1/3 from true protein (casein) and 2/3 from non-protein nitrogen (mixture of urea and ammonium sulphate, 9:1) was used as the nitrogen supplement. In order to supply energy a unique source of corn starch was used. Supplements increased (p0.05) forage intake. There was a cubic effect (pdigestibility, but did not affect (p>0.05) neutral detergent fibre corrected for ash and protein (NDFap) digestibility. There was a positive linear effect (pdigestibility. Total NDFap digestibility was not affected (p>0.05) by the amount of supplemental starch. Ruminal ammonia nitrogen concentrations were higher (p<0.05) in supplemented animals, however, a negative linear effect (p<0.05) of amount of starch was observed. Supplements increased (p<0.05) the nitrogen balance (NB) and efficiency of nitrogen utilization. These effects were attributed to increased body anabolism, supported by higher (p<0.05) serum concentration of insulin-like growth factor 1. Increasing the amount of starch tended (p<0.06) to linearly increase the NB. In spite of this, there was a highest NB value for the 2:1 starch:CP ratio amongst the treatments with supplementation. Nitrogen supplementation in cattle fed low-quality tropical forage increases nitrogen retention in the animal's body. An

  8. Effects of Dietary Crude Protein Levels and Cysteamine Supplementation on Protein Synthetic and Degradative Signaling in Skeletal Muscle of Finishing Pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhou

    Full Text Available Dietary protein levels and cysteamine (CS supplementation can affect growth performance and protein metabolism of pigs. However, the influence of dietary protein intake on the growth response of CS-treated pigs is unclear, and the mechanisms involved in protein metabolism remain unknown. Hence, we investigated the interactions between dietary protein levels and CS supplementation and the effects of dietary crude protein levels and CS supplementation on protein synthetic and degradative signaling in skeletal muscle of finishing pigs. One hundred twenty barrows (65.84 ± 0.61 kg were allocated to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with five replicates of six pigs each. The primary variations were dietary crude protein (CP levels (14% or 10% and CS supplemental levels (0 or 700 mg/kg. The low-protein (LP diets (10% CP were supplemented with enough essential amino acids (EAA to meet the NRC AA requirements of pigs and maintain the balanced supply of eight EAA including lysine, methionine, threonine, tryptophan, valine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, and leucine. After 41 days, 10 pigs per treatment were slaughtered. We found that LP diets supplemented with EAA resulted in decreased concentrations of plasma somatostatin (SS (P<0.01 and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN (P<0.001, while dietary protein levels did not affect other traits. However, CS supplementation increased the average daily gain (P<0.001 and lean percentage (P<0.05, and decreased the feed conversion ratio (P<0.05 and back fat (P<0.05. CS supplementation also increased the concentrations of plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 (P<0.001, and reduced the concentrations of leptin, SS, and PUN (P<0.001. Increased mRNA abundance of Akt1 and IGF-1 signaling (P<0.001 and decreased mRNA abundance of Forkhead Box O (FOXO 4 (P<0.01 and muscle atrophy F-box (P<0.001 were observed in pigs receiving CS. Additionally, CS supplementation increased the protein levels for the phosphorylated mammalian target of

  9. Teachers Sharing Artifacts from Students’ High-level Use of ICT in Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund

    Research looking into the spreading of practices supporting students’ high-level use of ICT for multimedia productions etc. is discussed together with research emphasizing core features of effective professional development for teachers (TPD), as high quality TPD is claimed to be a crucial factor......, are discussed. A case of a teacher’s first experiences from facilitating her students’ productions with the tablet application Explain Everything are used to discuss both the students’ and the teachers’ meaning making, and spreading to more cautious colleagues....

  10. The learning continuum of ecology based on teachers' opinion about student's level of competence and specific pedagogical learning material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramesti, Indah Cahaya; Subali, Bambang

    2017-08-01

    This study aims at designing learning continuum for developing a curriculum based on teachers' opinion about student's level of competence and specific pedagogical learning material on ecological aspect targeted for students of Primary and Secondary Education. This research is a descriptive research using survey methods. The researchers conducted a census by distributing questionnaires that had been validated from the aspects of construct validity and experts judgements to 147 natural science teachers at junior high school and 134 Biology teachers at senior high school as a population throughout 4 regencies and 1 city in Yogyakarta Special Region.. Data analysis techniques used descriptive analysis. In conclusion, teacher's opinion is influenced by curriculum that exist today. According to the opinions of Natural Science teachers at Junior High School, most of the ecological aspects such as characteristics of biomes, characteristics of ecosystems, characteristics of communities, characteristics of populations, etc. should be taught in grade VII with the level of competence: to understand (C2), while Biology teachers at Senior High School state that the ecological aspect should be taught in class X with the level of competence: to understand (C2), apply (C3) and analyze (C4). Teachers should be a privy in the formulation of the curriculum, so they're not only accept and apply the existing curriculum but also give opinions to improve the curriculum, especially in terms of ecology.

  11. Moderation of the Relation of County-Level Cost of Living to Nutrition by the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sanjay; Wimer, Christopher; Seligman, Hilary

    2016-11-01

    To examine the association of county-level cost of living with nutrition among low-income Americans. We used the National Household Food Acquisition and Purchase Survey (2012-2013; n = 14 313; including 5414 persons in households participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program [SNAP]) to examine associations between county-level cost-of-living metrics and both food acquisitions and the Healthy Eating Index, with control for individual-, household-, and county-level covariates and accounting for unmeasured confounders influencing both area of living and food acquisition. Living in a higher-cost county-particularly one with high rent costs-was associated with significantly lower volume of acquired vegetables, fruits, and whole grains; greater volume of acquired refined grains, fats and oils, and added sugars; and an 11% lower Healthy Eating Index score. Participation in SNAP was associated with nutritional improvements among persons living in higher-cost counties. Living in a higher-cost county (particularly with high rent costs) is associated with poorer nutrition among low-income Americans, and SNAP may mitigate the negative nutritional impact of high cost of living.

  12. Fish Oil Supplementation Reduces Heart Levels of Interleukin-6 in Rats with Chronic Inflammation due to Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Bocca Nejm

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP is a major cause of premature death related to epilepsy. The causes of SUDEP remain unknown, but cardiac arrhythmias and asphyxia have been suggested as a major mechanism of this event. Inflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of both epilepsy and ventricular arrhythmia, with interleukin-6 (IL-6 being recognized as a crucial orchestrator of inflammatory states. Our group previously reported that levels of IL-6 were increased in the hearts of epileptic rats. In this scenario, anti-inflammatory actions are among the beneficial effects of fish oil dietary supplementation. This investigation revealed that elevated levels of IL-6 in the heart were markedly reduced in epileptic rats that were treated in the long-term with fish oil, suggesting protective anti-inflammatory actions against dangerously high levels of IL-6. Based on these findings, our results suggest beneficial effects of long-term intake of fish oil in reducing the inflammation associated with chronic epilepsy.

  13. Effects of Supplemental Levels of Bazhen on Growth Performances, Serum Traits, Immunity, Meat Quality and Antioxidant Activity of Taiwan Country Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu-Fa Lien

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and sixty Taiwan country chickens (d-old chicks were randomly assigned into four groups with four replicates and equal sex. Basal diets were supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1 and 2% of Bazhen powder, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine complex. The study was conducted for 14 wks. Experimental results indicated that Bazhen supplement did not influence feed intake, body weight gain and feed:gain ratio. Compared with control group, the percentage of serum HDL (high-density lipoprotein linearly increased (p<0.03 and that of VLDL+LDL (very low-density+low-density lipoprotein linearly decreased (p<0.03 in Bazhen supplemented groups, that 2% Bazhen was significantly different with control group (p<0.05. Chickens fed diets containing 2% Bazhen displayed reduced (p<0.05 serum GOT (glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase levels. The IgG, γ-globulin levels and PHA (phytohemagglutinin skin challenge results in 1% Bazhan supplemented group were higher (p<0.05 than in the control group, the SRBC (sheep red blood cell and ND (newcastle disease titers in Bazhen supplemented groups were linear higher (p<0.05 than in the control group. The liver catalase activity and the capacity of scavenging DPPH (α-α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl radical were linearly increased (p<0.03 in Bazhen supplemented groups, and the 1 and 2% groups were different from the control group (p<0.05. Liver TBARS (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels in all Bazhen supplemented groups and total glutathione level in the 2% group were reduced (p<0.05 compared to the control group and displayed a linear response (p<0.05. The TBA (thiobarbituric acid and pH value of the breast muscle after 24 h post-mortem in the Bazhen supplemented groups was linear lower (p<0.05 than in the control group. Results from this study demonstrated that Bazhen supplement in chicken had several beneficial effects, including increased SRBC and ND titers, HDL and IgG, γ-globulin levels, PHA skin challenge

  14. Impact of Vitamin D Supplementation on the Level of Thyroid Peroxidase Antibodies in Patients with Autoimmune Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Pan’kiv

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In spite of studying the relationship between the deficiency and the lack of vitamin D in autoimmune thyroid disorders, the effect of additional administration of the preparations of this vitamin has not been clear in such pathology. The aim of study was to investigate the effect of vitamin D on the content of thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO in patients with newly diagnosed hypothyroidism on the background of autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT. Materials and methods. The study included 52 patients with newly diagnosed hypothyroidism on the background of AIT, who were randomized into two groups. Patients of the first group additionally received cholecalciferol 2000 IU/day (14 000 IU/week and calcium preparations in a dose of 1000 mg/day for 12 weeks. Patients of the second group were administered only calcium preparations at a dose of 1000 mg/day for 12 weeks in addition to levothyroxine. A positive result of treatment was considered a reduction of antibodies to TPO of at least 25 %. Results. 94.2 % of patients with hypothyroidism had the deficiency and the lack of vitamin D. In patients with hypothyroidism, there was a significant negative correlation between the levels of 25(OHD and the titer of antibodies to TPO (r = –0.172; p = 0.046. Vitamin D supplementation resulted in a significant decrease of the level of antibodies to TPO (–48.1 % in patients with hypothyroidism. In general, lowering the level of antibodies to TPO by 25 % or more has been achieved in 73.1 % of patients. Administration of vitamin D contributed to a significant increase of the content of 25(OHD in the blood serum with a corresponding reduction in the concentration of intact parathyroid hormone in patients with hypothyroidism resulted from AIT. Conclusions. The positive effect of supplemental vitamin D has been established in terms of the level of antibodies to TPO in patients with autoimmune hypothyroidism.

  15. Habits and beliefs related to food supplements: Results of a survey among Italian students of different education fields and levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirico, Felice; Miressi, Salvatore; Castaldo, Clotilde; Spera, Rocco; Montagnani, Stefania; Di Meglio, Franca; Nurzynska, Daria

    2018-01-01

    The increasing availability of food supplements, aggressive media advertising, and common beliefs that these substances have only positive effects on health and sport performance indicate a need for continuous monitoring of this phenomenon. The aim of this study was to investigate the habits and beliefs related to diet supplementation among medical, health professional, and other university/high school students by means of a cross-sectional anonymous survey online. Among the respondents aware of supplements, 37.4% were taking or had taken them in the past. Food supplement use was more common among university students (in particular, those in health professional graduate courses) than high school students. Individual sport practice, rather than team sport, was associated with higher likelihood of food supplement use. Multivitamins were most commonly used, while weight-loss formulations were the least popular. Strikingly, filling nutrient gaps was statistically not considered the main reason for taking food supplements. Instead, they were used to enhance mental performance or enhance well-being. There was statistical evidence that students not enrolled in health or medical professional studies strongly agreed more often than medical students that taking food supplements prevents illness. These results indicate a striking difference between the evidence-based and personal reasons for food supplement use. Arguably, it calls for an improvement in education about diet supplementation and a change in attitude of health care providers to its implementation.

  16. Habits and beliefs related to food supplements: Results of a survey among Italian students of different education fields and levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miressi, Salvatore; Castaldo, Clotilde; Spera, Rocco; Montagnani, Stefania; Di Meglio, Franca; Nurzynska, Daria

    2018-01-01

    The increasing availability of food supplements, aggressive media advertising, and common beliefs that these substances have only positive effects on health and sport performance indicate a need for continuous monitoring of this phenomenon. The aim of this study was to investigate the habits and beliefs related to diet supplementation among medical, health professional, and other university/high school students by means of a cross-sectional anonymous survey online. Among the respondents aware of supplements, 37.4% were taking or had taken them in the past. Food supplement use was more common among university students (in particular, those in health professional graduate courses) than high school students. Individual sport practice, rather than team sport, was associated with higher likelihood of food supplement use. Multivitamins were most commonly used, while weight-loss formulations were the least popular. Strikingly, filling nutrient gaps was statistically not considered the main reason for taking food supplements. Instead, they were used to enhance mental performance or enhance well-being. There was statistical evidence that students not enrolled in health or medical professional studies strongly agreed more often than medical students that taking food supplements prevents illness. These results indicate a striking difference between the evidence-based and personal reasons for food supplement use. Arguably, it calls for an improvement in education about diet supplementation and a change in attitude of health care providers to its implementation. PMID:29351568

  17. Habits and beliefs related to food supplements: Results of a survey among Italian students of different education fields and levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felice Sirico

    Full Text Available The increasing availability of food supplements, aggressive media advertising, and common beliefs that these substances have only positive effects on health and sport performance indicate a need for continuous monitoring of this phenomenon. The aim of this study was to investigate the habits and beliefs related to diet supplementation among medical, health professional, and other university/high school students by means of a cross-sectional anonymous survey online. Among the respondents aware of supplements, 37.4% were taking or had taken them in the past. Food supplement use was more common among university students (in particular, those in health professional graduate courses than high school students. Individual sport practice, rather than team sport, was associated with higher likelihood of food supplement use. Multivitamins were most commonly used, while weight-loss formulations were the least popular. Strikingly, filling nutrient gaps was statistically not considered the main reason for taking food supplements. Instead, they were used to enhance mental performance or enhance well-being. There was statistical evidence that students not enrolled in health or medical professional studies strongly agreed more often than medical students that taking food supplements prevents illness. These results indicate a striking difference between the evidence-based and personal reasons for food supplement use. Arguably, it calls for an improvement in education about diet supplementation and a change in attitude of health care providers to its implementation.

  18. Enzyme Supplementation of Broiler Feeds with Reduced Mineral and Energy Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JO Nunes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT An experiment was conducted with the purpose of evaluating enzyme blends on the performance, carcass traits, and bone mineralization of broilers. In total, 928 one-day-old Cobb 500 male chicks of were used. A completely randomized design with four treatments with eight replicates of 29 birds each was adopted. The evaluated treatments were: 1- Positive Control (PC, feed containing the nutritional recommendations of the genetic company's manual; 2- Negative Control (NC, feed with reductions of 75 kcal/kg AME and 0.10 and 0.12 percent points of phosphorus and calcium, respectively; 3 - NC + enzyme blend (amylase + b-glucanase, xylanase, and phytase; 250 g/t of feed and 4 - NC + enzyme complex (phytase, amylase, xylanase, glucanase, pectinase, cellulase, and protease; 200 g/t of feed. Birds fed the diet with reduced nutrient levels (NC presented the worst performance (p0.05 carcass or parts yields. The broilers fed the reduced-nutrient and energy diet presented lower (p<0.05 tibial ash, calcium, and phosphorus contents that the other treatments. The use of enzyme combinations improved the performance of broilers fed diets with reduced nutrient and energy levels.

  19. Differences in eighth grade science student and teacher perceptions of students' level of input into academic planning and decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Jarrett Michael

    Teachers are expected to improve their planning, instruction, and assessment as they progress through their career. An important component to teachers knowing what to modify in their teaching style is being able to solicit meaningful feedback from students. This mixed-methods study was conducted to provide teachers with a quantitative method to collect data about their teaching using the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES). Phase 1 allowed students to provide anonymous feedback to their teachers that the teachers could later reflect upon in conjunction with the students' other feedback. Using measures of central tendencies, it was determined that of the five categories of the CLES the area of student negotiation was statistically different from the other categories. While eight teachers had sufficient (n>10) student data to be invited to participate in Phase 2, only five of the teachers choose to participate in a semi-structured interview to further examine the potential differences between teacher and student perception of student negotiation with the curriculum, instruction and assessment that occurs in the classroom. Coding the interview transcripts led to three categories: 1) teaching style (with themes including curriculum, instruction, and assessment, and sub themes of teacher centered and student centered); 2) external pressures (with themes of standards , standardized tests, and socioeconomic conditions); 3) effectiveness of student negotiation (with themes of positive effect or no effect on motivation). The five teachers who participated in Phase 2 had varying levels of awareness and willingness to adjust their classroom curriculum, instruction, and assessment to include student negotiation. All but one teacher, however, saw the value in increasing student negotiation in the classroom and desired to continue to change their teaching to include more student negotiation.

  20. Influence of classroom acoustics on the voice levels of teachers with and without voice problems: a field study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelegrin Garcia, David; Lyberg-Åhlander, Viveka; Rydell, Roland

    2010-01-01

    of the classroom. The results thus suggest that teachers with voice problems are more aware of classroom acoustic conditions than their healthy colleagues and make use of the more supportive rooms to lower their voice levels. This behavior may result from an adaptation process of the teachers with voice problems...... of the voice problems was made with a questionnaire and a laryngological examination. During teaching, the sound pressure level at the teacher’s position was monitored. The teacher’s voice level and the activity noise level were separated using mixed Gaussians. In addition, objective acoustic parameters...... of Reverberation Time and Voice Support were measured in the 30 empty classrooms of the study. An empirical model shows that the measured voice levels depended on the activity noise levels and the voice support. Teachers with and without voice problems were differently affected by the voice support...

  1. Urea levels in multiple supplement for lambs grazing on buffelgrass - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i4.7829 Urea levels in multiple supplement for lambs grazing on buffelgrass - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i4.7829

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Leal Teixeira de Oliveira; Gherman Garcia Leal de Araújo; Salete Alves de Moraes; Tadeu Vinhas Voltolini; Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro Pereira

    2010-01-01

    The objective of present trial was to evaluate the intake of supplement dry matter, productive performance, carcass traits, and weight and yields of commercial meat cuts of lambs grazing on dormant buffelgrass pastures and receiving multiple supplementation containing different urea levels. Urea levels used were: 5, 8, 11 and 14% on dry matter. Thirty-six male lambs were used, nine animals per treatment, with 18.0 ± 2.0 kg initial body weight, distributed into four groups. The experime...

  2. Study on iodine levels in thyroids of iodine-supplemented rats by epithermal neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xuefei; Zhang Fang; Xu Qing; Liu Nianqing; Chai Zhifang; Zhao Xueqin; Zuo Aijun

    2003-01-01

    The second generation female Wistar rats that have been treated with iodine-deficient food, after their delivery, are divided into three groups i.e. excessive-iodine (EI), adequate-iodine (AI) and iodine-deficient (ID) according to the KIO 3 concentration in the drinking water (3.0, 0.4, 0 mg/L). In addition, the normal rats with low iodine food and 0.4 mg/L KIO 3 water are used as the control group (C). The iodine content in thyroid and the serum thyroid hormone levels of the third generation rats are measured by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA), and the method of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The results indicate that the total thyroxine (TT 4 ) and the free thyroxine (FT 4 ) of the EI, compared with those of the controls, are significantly decreased (p 3 ) evidently increased (p 4 , FT 4 and goiter

  3. Effect of supplementation of Simada sheep with graded levels of concentrate meal on feed intake, digestibility and body-weight parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessie, Jemberu; Melaku, Solomon; Tegegne, Firew; Peters, Kurt J

    2010-06-01

    The experiment consisting of 7 days of digestibility and 90 days of feeding trial was conducted at Wogda (Ethiopia) to determine the effect of supplementation of graded levels of concentrate mix (CM) on feed intake, digestibility, and body weight (BW) change in hay-based feeding of Simada sheep. Twenty-yearling Simada sheep with a mean initial BW of 17.9 +/- 0.81 kg (mean +/- SD) were used in randomized complete block design arranged into five blocks of four animals. The four dietary treatments that consisted of hay alone (T1), hay +150 g dry matter (DM; T2, low), hay +250 g DM (T3, medium), and hay +350 g DM (T4, high) CM were randomly assigned to each sheep within a block. The CM consisted of wheat bran (WB), noug seed (Guizotia abyssinica) meal and safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) seed meal at the ratio of (2:1:1), respectively. Supplementation with T2 and T3 increased (P profitability compared to the control, whereas sheep on the high than the low and medium level of supplementation performed better in these parameters among the supplemented treatments. From the results of this study, T4 is recommended as the best level of supplementation since it resulted in better nutrient utilization, animal performance, and profitability.

  4. Effect of polyethylene glycol 4000 supplementation on the performance of indigenous Pedi goats fed different levels of Acacia nilotica leaf meal and ad libitum Buffalo grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motubatse, M R; Ng'ambi, J W; Norris, D; Malatje, M M

    2008-04-01

    In a first of two experiments, twenty yearling male Pedi goats weighing 21.3 +/- 0.5 kg live weight were used in a 37-day study in a 2 (levels of PEG 4000) x 2 (levels ofAcacia) Factorial arrangement in a Completely Randomised Design to determine the effect of the level of Acacia nilotica leaf meal supplementation plus 23 g polyethylene glycol 4000 on diet intake and digestibility, and growth rate of Pedi goats fed ad libitum Buffalo grass hay. Acacia nilotica leaf meal contained high amounts of total phenolics (2.04% DM) and low amounts of condensed tannins; both extracted (0.37% DM) and unextracted (1.83% DM). Supplementation with PEG 4000 increased (P < 0.05) crude protein intake as the level of Acacia nilotica leaf meal increased from 80 to 120 g. Similarly, treatment with PEG 4000 improved (P < 0.05) DM, OM and CP digestibilities when compared to 80 g Acacia nilotica leaf meal. Supplementation with PEG 4000 resulted in an increase (P < 0.05) in blood urea concentrations. Polyethylene glycol 4000 has the potential to improve the feeding value of A. nilotica leaf meal and can, therefore, be used in the feeding systems for ruminant animals. The second experiment determined the effect of A. nilotica leaf meal supplementation on in vitro digestibility of the diets similar to the actual ratios of the first experiment. Level of A. nilotica leaf meal supplementation plus 23 g PEG 4000 supplementation improved (P < 0.05) in vitro DM, OM and CP digestibilities where 120 g A. nilotica leaf meal was supplemented. Similarly, 23 g PEG 4000 supplementation also improved (P < 0.05) in vitro CP digestibility where 80 g A. nilotica leaf meal was supplemented. In vivo DM and OM digestibilities were best predicted from in vitro DM and OM digestibilities while in vivo CP was explained by in vitro OM and CP digestibilities. It is, therefore, concluded that in vitro DM and OM digestibilities have good capacity to predict in vivo DM and OM digestibilities while OM and CP

  5. Effect of different levels of feed restriction and fish oil fatty acid supplementation on fat deposition by using different techniques, plasma levels and mRNA expression of several adipokines in broiler breeder hens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namya Mellouk

    Full Text Available Reproductive hens are subjected to a restricted diet to limit the decline in fertility associated with change in body mass. However, endocrine and tissue responses to diet restriction need to be documented.We evaluated the effect of different levels of feed restriction, with or without fish oil supplementation, on metabolic parameters and adipokine levels in plasma and metabolic tissues of reproductive hens.We designed an in vivo protocol involving 4 groups of hens; RNS: restricted (Rt unsupplemented, ANS: ad libitum (Ad, receiving an amount of feed 1.7 times greater than animals on the restricted diet unsupplemented, RS: Rt supplemented, and AS: Ad supplemented. The fish oil supplement was used at 1% of the total diet composition.Hens fed with the Rt diet had a significantly (P < 0.0001 lower growth than Ad hens, while the fish oil supplementation had no effect on these parameters. Furthermore, the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA and the fat ultrasonographic examinations produced similar results to the other methods that required animals to be killed (carcass analysis and weight of adipose tissue. In addition, the Rt diet significantly (P < 0.05 decreased plasma levels of triglycerides, phospholipids, glucose and ADIPOQ, and fish oil supplementation decreased plasma levels of RARRES2. We also showed a positive correlation between insulin values and ADIPOQ or NAMPT or RARRES2 values, and a negative correlation of fat percentage to RARRES2 values. Moreover, the effects of the Rt diet and fish oil supplementation on the mRNA expression depended on the factors tested and the hen age.Rt diet and fish oil supplementation are able to modulate metabolic parameters and the expression of adipokines and their receptors in metabolic tissue.

  6. Sports Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports Supplements KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports Supplements What's in ... really work? And are they safe? What Are Sports Supplements? Sports supplements (also called ergogenic aids ) are ...

  7. Effects of Alpha-Lipoic Acid Supplementation on Plasma Adiponectin Levels and Some Metabolic Risk Factors in Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidović, Bojana; Milovanović, Srđan; Stefanović, Aleksandra; Kotur-Stevuljević, Jelena; Takić, Marija; Debeljak-Martačić, Jasmina; Pantović, Maja; Đorđević, Brižita

    2017-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived plasma protein with insulin-sensitizing and anti-inflammatory properties and is suggested to be a biomarker of metabolic disturbances. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) on plasma adiponectin and some metabolic risk factors in patients with schizophrenia. The plasma adipokine levels (adiponectin and leptin), routine biochemical and anthropometric parameters, markers of oxidative stress, and the serum phospholipid fatty acid profile in eighteen schizophrenic patients at baseline, in the middle, and at the end of a 3-month long supplementation period with ALA (500 mg daily) were determined. A significant increase in the plasma adiponectin concentrations, as well as a decrease in fasting glucose and aspartate aminotransferase activity (AST), was found. Baseline AST activity was independently correlated with the adiponectin concentrations. Our data show that ALA can improve plasma adiponectin levels and may play a potential role in the treatment of metabolic risk factor in patients with schizophrenia. Future randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm these preliminary investigations.

  8. Teachers' opinion about learning continuum based on student's level of competence and specific pedagogical material in classification topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriani, Aldina Eka; Subali, Bambang

    2017-08-01

    This research discusses learning continuum development for designing a curriculum. The objective of this study is to gather the opinion of public junior and senior high school teachers about learning continuum based on student's level of competence and specific pedagogical material in classification topics. This research was conducted in Yogyakarta province from October 2016 to January 2017. This research utilizes a descriptive survey method. Respondents in this study consist of 281 science teachers at junior and senior high school in Yogyakarta city and 4 regencies namely Sleman, Bantul, Kulonprogo, and Gunung Kidul. The sample were taken using a census. The collection of data used questionnaire that had been validated from the aspects of construct validity and experts judgements. Data were analyzed using a descriptive analysis technique. The results of the analysis show that the opinions of teachers regarding specific pedagogical material in classification topics of living things at the junior high school taught in grade VII to the ability level of C2 (Understanding). At senior high school level, it is taught in grade X with the ability level C2 (Understanding). Based on these results, it can be concluded that the opinions of teachers still refer to the current syllabus and curriculum so that the teachers do not have pure opinions about the student's competence level in classification topics that should be taught at the level of the grade in accordance with the level of corresponding competency.

  9. The Level of Diagnostic Tests' Preparation Skills among the Teachers of the First Three Elementary Grades' Teachers at the Directorate of Education of Bani Kinana District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghmour, Kholoud Subhi; Obaidat, Luai Taleb; Hamadneh, Qaseem Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at exploring the level of Diagnostic Tests' Preparation Skills among the teachers of the first Three Elementary Grades at the Directorate of Education of Bani Kinana District, and its relationship to the variables of gender, academic qualification, and years of experience. The sample of the study consisted of (264) male and female…

  10. Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on the Level of Circulating High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neng Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D might elicit protective effects against cardiovascular disease by decreasing the level of circulating high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, an inflammatory marker. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to evaluate the association of vitamin D supplementation with circulating hs-CRP level. A systematic literature search was conducted in September 2013 (updated in February 2014 via PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane library to identify eligible studies. Either a fixed-effects or a random-effects model was used to calculate pooled effects. The results of the meta-analysis of 10 trials involving a total of 924 participants showed that vitamin D supplementation significantly decreased the circulating hs-CRP level by 1.08 mg/L (95% CI, −2.13, −0.03, with the evidence of heterogeneity. Subgroup analysis suggested a higher reduction of 2.21 mg/L (95% CI, −3.50, −0.92 among participants with baseline hs-CRP level ≥5 mg/L. Meta-regression analysis further revealed that baseline hs-CRP level, supplemental dose of vitamin D and intervention duration together may be attributed to the heterogeneity across studies. In summary, vitamin D supplementation is beneficial for the reduction of circulating hs-CRP. However, the result should be interpreted with caution because of the evidence of heterogeneity.

  11. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on the level of circulating high-sensitivity C-reactive protein: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Neng; Wan, Zhongxiao; Han, Shu-Fen; Li, Bing-Yan; Zhang, Zeng-Li; Qin, Li-Qiang

    2014-06-10

    Vitamin D might elicit protective effects against cardiovascular disease by decreasing the level of circulating high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), an inflammatory marker. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to evaluate the association of vitamin D supplementation with circulating hs-CRP level. A systematic literature search was conducted in September 2013 (updated in February 2014) via PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane library to identify eligible studies. Either a fixed-effects or a random-effects model was used to calculate pooled effects. The results of the meta-analysis of 10 trials involving a total of 924 participants showed that vitamin D supplementation significantly decreased the circulating hs-CRP level by 1.08 mg/L (95% CI, -2.13, -0.03), with the evidence of heterogeneity. Subgroup analysis suggested a higher reduction of 2.21 mg/L (95% CI, -3.50, -0.92) among participants with baseline hs-CRP level ≥5 mg/L. Meta-regression analysis further revealed that baseline hs-CRP level, supplemental dose of vitamin D and intervention duration together may be attributed to the heterogeneity across studies. In summary, vitamin D supplementation is beneficial for the reduction of circulating hs-CRP. However, the result should be interpreted with caution because of the evidence of heterogeneity.

  12. Prophylactic oral calcium supplementation therapy to prevent early post thyroidectomy hypocalcemia and evaluation of postoperative parathyroid hormone levels to detect hypocalcemia: A prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arer, Ilker Murat; Kus, Murat; Akkapulu, Nezih; Aytac, Huseyin Ozgur; Yabanoglu, Hakan; Caliskan, Kenan; Tarim, Mehmet Akin

    2017-02-01

    Postoperative hypocalcemia is the most common complication after total thyroidectomy. Postoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) measurement is one of the methods to detect or prevent postoperative hypocalcemia. Prophylactic oral calcium supplementation is another method to prevent early postoperative hypocalcemia. The aim of this study is to detect the accurate timing of PTH and evaluate efficacy of routine oral calcium supplementation for postoperative hypocalcemia. A total of 106 patients were performed total thyroidectomy. Rotuine oral calcium supplementation was given to group 1 and no treatment to group 2 according to randomization. Serum calcium and PTH level of patients in group 2 at postoperative 6, 12 and 24 h and patients in both groups at postoperative day 7 were evaluated. Patients were compared according to age, sex, operation findings, serum calcium and PTH levels and symptomatic hypocalcemia. Half of the patients (50%) were in group 1. Most of the patients were female (83%). The most common etiology of thyroid disease was multinodular goiter (64.1%). Oral calcium supplementation was given to 18 (33.9%) patients in group 2. Symptomatic hypocalcemia for group 1 and 2 was found to be 1.9 and 33.9% respectively (p hypocalcemia. Prophylactic oral calcium supplementation therapy can prevent early post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia with advantages of being cost effective and safe. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Perception of the health risks resulting from health, lifestyle and professional strain of teachers of various school levels

    OpenAIRE

    Papršteinová, Markéta

    2014-01-01

    Perception of health risks from lifestyle and work psychic load of teachers from different school levels Introduction: It is well known that the teaching profession is associated with numerous health risks. Teachers are exposed to excessive mental work and sensory stress, long working in a forced position at increased risk of noise, infections and voice disorders. Compared with the general population, there are more frequently found diseases related to occupational stress. Aim: To determine t...

  14. The Effect of Folate Supplementation on Ghrelin of Stomach and Insulin Level of Serum in Male Wistar Rats during 10 Weeks of High Intensity Interval Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Gorzi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: High intensity training can lead to lower the appetite. So, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of folate supplementation on ghrelin level of stomach and insulin level of serum in male wistar rats during 10 weeks of high intensity interval training (HIIT. Materials and Methods: Twenty seven male Wistar rats (weight= 203.94±27.34 gr, Age: 9 weeks after one week familiarization, were randomly divided into four groups: control (n=6, folate supplementation (n=6, (HIIT (n=7 and HIIT+ folate supplement (n=8. HIIT training protocol started with 30 m/min running on treadmill for 1 min with 10 reps and 2 min active rest at the first week and reached to 75-80 m/min for 1 min with 7 reps and 3 min active rest at last 3 weeks. Acylated ghrelin level of stomach tissue and serum level of insulin were assayed by ELISA kit. Results: The results of Kruskal-vallis analysis showed that the ghrelin level of stomach was increased significantly (p=0.001 in folate+HIIT in compare with HIIT group. Also, insulin level of serum was decreased significantly (p=0.001 in folate +HIIT in compare with control and HIIT groups. Conclusion: Based on our results, folate supplementation during high intensity interval training, increased the ghrelin of stomach and decreased the insulin level of serum. So, it seems that folate supplementation can prevent from losing appetite in athletes who train with high intensity training with interval type.

  15. Effect of different levels of feed restriction and fish oil fatty acid supplementation on fat deposition by using different techniques, plasma levels and mRNA expression of several adipokines in broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellouk, Namya; Ramé, Christelle; Marchand, Maxime; Staub, Christophe; Touzé, Jean-Luc; Venturi, Éric; Mercerand, Frédéric; Travel, Angélique; Chartrin, Pascal; Lecompte, François; Ma, Linlin; Froment, Pascal; Dupont, Joëlle

    2018-01-01

    Reproductive hens are subjected to a restricted diet to limit the decline in fertility associated with change in body mass. However, endocrine and tissue responses to diet restriction need to be documented. We evaluated the effect of different levels of feed restriction, with or without fish oil supplementation, on metabolic parameters and adipokine levels in plasma and metabolic tissues of reproductive hens. We designed an in vivo protocol involving 4 groups of hens; RNS: restricted (Rt) unsupplemented, ANS: ad libitum (Ad, receiving an amount of feed 1.7 times greater than animals on the restricted diet) unsupplemented, RS: Rt supplemented, and AS: Ad supplemented. The fish oil supplement was used at 1% of the total diet composition. Hens fed with the Rt diet had a significantly (P hens, while the fish oil supplementation had no effect on these parameters. Furthermore, the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and the fat ultrasonographic examinations produced similar results to the other methods that required animals to be killed (carcass analysis and weight of adipose tissue). In addition, the Rt diet significantly (P hen age. Rt diet and fish oil supplementation are able to modulate metabolic parameters and the expression of adipokines and their receptors in metabolic tissue.

  16. Effects of UV-B radiation levels on concentrations of phytosterol, ergothioneine, and polyphenolic compounds in mushroom powder used as dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compositional changes of powder dietary supplement made from mushrooms previously exposed to different levels of UV-B irradiation were evaluated for the bioactive naturally occurring mushroom anti-oxidant, ergothioneine, other natural polyphenolic anti-oxidants: e.g. flavonoids, lignans, and others,...

  17. Supplementation of broiler diets with high levels of microbial protease and phytase enables partial replacement of commercial soybean meal with raw, full-fat soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdaw, M M; Perez-Maldonado, R A; Iji, P A

    2018-02-22

    A 3 × 3 + 1 factorial, involving three levels of protease (0, 15,000 or 30,000 PROT/kg) and three levels of phytase (1,000, 2,000 or 3,000 FYT/kg), was used to evaluate the effect of replacing commercial soybean meal (SBM) with raw, full-fat soybean (RFSB) at 75 g/kg of diet for broilers. A control diet was used for comparison. Each treatment was replicated six times, with nine birds per replicate. The concentration of trypsin inhibitors (TIs) in the test diets was approximately 10,193.4 TIU/kg. Regardless of enzyme supplementation, feed intake (FI) and body weight gain (BWG) of birds in the control group were superior to those on the test diets. Birds that received the protease-free test diets had reduced FI and BWG, but when supplemented with protease, were similar to the control diet in BWG, FI (except 0-35 days) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). When the test diet was supplemented with elevated levels (extradose) of protease and phytase, the BWG was improved during 0-10 days (p = .05) and 0-24 days (p replace SBM in broiler diets, provided the diets are supplemented with elevated levels of protease and phytase. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Effects of source and level of dietary energy supplementation on in vitro digestibility and methane production from tall fescue-based diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a lack of information about the effect of different sources, levels, and the mixtures of energy supplements commonly fed to cattle grazing tall fescue. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate different common energy sources for beef cattle grazing tall fescue using an in vitr...

  19. Post-prandial changes in plasma mineral levels in rainbow trout fed a complete plant ingredient based diet and the effect of supplemental di-calcium phosphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antony Jesu Prabhu, P.; Schrama, J.W.; Mariojouls, C.; Godin, S.; Fontagné-Dicharry, S.; Geurden, I.; Surget, A.; Bouyssiere, B.; Kaushik, S.J.

    2014-01-01

    Post-prandial changes in plasma mineral levels and utilisation of minerals in rainbow trout fed complete plant ingredient based diets with or without supplemental di-calcium phosphate (DCP) were studied over an 8 week period. Three diets were used: diet M was FM and fish oil (FO) based diet

  20. The effect of boron supplementation on lean body mass, plasma testosterone levels, and strength in male bodybuilders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, A. A.; Green, N. R.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of boron supplementation was investigated in 19 male bodybuilders ages 20-27 years. Ten were given a 2.5-mg boron supplement while 9 were given a placebo every day for 7 weeks. Plasma total and free testosterone, plasma boron, lean body mass, and strength measurements were determined on Days 1 and 49 of the study. Plasma boron values were significantly (p bodybuilding can increase total testosterone, lean body mass, and strength in lesser trained bodybuilders, and that boron supplementation had no effect on these measures.

  1. Changes in Levels of Math Anxiety in Pre-Service Primary School Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Ruiz Hidalgo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Various investigations study high levels of math anxiety of preservice teachers and possible strategies to reduce them. Assuming that the training methodology influences these levels, we analyzed the evolution of mathematics anxiety of undergraduates in Primary Education of the University of Granada, due to the use of manipulatives in the classroom math practices. We perform an exploratory and descriptive, by using a questionnaire that measures the level of anxiety of 227 students. Eight of them were selected and monitored by audio recordings and interviews. The mean level of anxiety puts undergraduates at an average level of math anxiety. The subjects expressed the perception that practical sessions allow a reduction of mathematics anxiety, suggesting that this reduction is due to the use of a different traditional methodology.Since we detect a favorable evolution in math anxiety manifested as subjects become more involved in cooperative working and with manipulatives, we conjecture that working with this type of active methodology has strengthened its security to their performance in mathematics.

  2. CRITICAL THINKING TENDENCY LEVELS OF CANDITATE TEACHER OF VISUAL ARTS IN TERMS OF GENDER FACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuman Aypek Arslan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Critical thinking is an organized process aiming at obtaining knowledge in an original way, comparing, using and evaluating it. Critical thinking is a power triggering the knowledge production process and is the energy of knowledge. Science cannot be improved with the verification and repetition of what is known. It is only improved through questioning, emerging new information and new views. One of the high level needs of man in Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy is the realization of oneself. Individuals being able to realize themselves can decide what is true, what is wrong with their free wills. The most important task of education and the education of visual arts is to train creative and productive individuals being able to think all-round, learn how to learn, solve problems, respectful to humans, tolerant, having improved communication skills. It is of great importance to improve critical thinking skills at students in making them attain it. In making them attain these behaviours, it is of vital importance to improve critical thinking skills at students. In the current study, it was aimed to determine critical thinking levels of the candidates of visual arts and to determine whether the tendency of critical thinking differed in terms of gender. The data of the study was gathered through California Critical Thinking Tendency Scale. At the end of the study, it was found that candidate teachers of visual arts had tendency at medium level in general critical thinking. It was also found that the critical thinking tendencies of the candidate teachers of visual arts did not differ in terms of gender.

  3. Beneficial effect of phosphatidylcholine supplementation in alleviation of hypomania and insomnia in a Chinese bipolar hypomanic boy and a possible explanation to the effect at the genetic level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shitao; Lam, Marco H B; Wing, Yun Kwok; Yim, Larina C L; Chu, Winnie C W; Yeung, Venus S Y; Waye, Mary M Y

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies indicated that supplementation of phosphatidylcholine has been found to be beneficial for psychiatric diseases and Diacylglycerol Kinase, Eta (DGKH) protein was involved in regulating the metabolism of phosphatidic acid and diacylglycerol. This study reported a case of a 16-year-old Chinese boy with bipolar hypomania symptoms receiving supplementation of phosphatidylcholine, and a genetic study of a risk variant of DGKH gene was performed in an attempt to provide an explanation for the potential beneficial effect of phosphatidylcholine supplementation. We described a case of a 16-year-old boy with bipolar disorder, who suffered from monthly episodes of insomnia accompanied by hypomania for 5 months despite adherence to medication. After supplementation of phosphatidylcholine, he returned to a normal sleeping pattern and recovered from hypomania symptoms for approximately 14 months. Furthermore, genotyping results showed that this boy carries the risk genotype (G/C) in DGKH variant rs77072822 (adjusted p-value = 0.025 after 2000 permutation tests). The 16-year-old boy appears to have benefited from the supplementation with phosphatidylcholine and recovered from hypomania symptoms. He carries a risk genotype in rs77072822 which lies in the first intron of DGKH gene that was mostly reported to be associated with bipolar disorder. Thus, this finding is consistent with the hypothesis that alleviating the phosphatidylcholine deficiencies might accompany with the risk variants of DGKH gene, which might improve the efficacies of such supplementation and design new treatment strategies for bipolar disorder. This study illustrated that a 16-year-old boy with hypomania symptoms responded well to supplementation of phosphatidylcholine and the boy carries a risk genotype in DGKH gene for bipolar disorder, which provides a possible explanation for the boy's beneficial effect at the genetic level.

  4. Identifying the Relationship of Teacher Candidates' Humor Styles with Anxiety and Self-Compassion Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Aydan

    2015-01-01

    Problem Statement: Teacher candidates who will soon be responsible for educating the future generations should possess certain characteristics. Specific teacher candidates should have specific characteristics taken into consideration: pre-school and primary teacher candidates should be seen as role models by younger students; psychological…

  5. Extending Theorisations of the Global Teacher: Care Work, Gender, and Street-Level Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Sarah A.

    2016-01-01

    This article is concerned with teachers' negotiation of global transitions premised on improving educational opportunity with implications for professionalism. The study blends sociology of gender, work, and organisations and gender policy analysis to theorise teachers' policy negotiations. I explore how 20 Argentine teachers mediate 3 programmes'…

  6. Satisfaction Level of Special Education Teachers Training Program toward Southeast Asia Organized by SEAMEO SEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Anis Bin Abdul Razak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the research is to study the level of satisfaction among the Special Education Teachers of Southeast Asia countries who attended the 4 weeks training on Co-curricular Activities for SEN Children that was conducted by SEAMEO Regional Center for Special Education (SEAMEO SEN. The aspects studied included the teachers’ satisfaction on the facilities and services provided by SEAMEO SEN, training content, training methods and the evaluation on the facilitators. The study involved 25 participants who are Special Education Teachers whom attended the 4 weeks training course. This is a survey to gain quantitative data using survey as the method of research. The data was analysed descriptively. Silver (1981 Model of Training and Maslow (1954 were used as the foundation to see the relations in the studied constructs. The findings of the research showed that the level of satisfaction of the participants towards services and facilities provided is at min = 4.48, satisfaction towards training content is min= 4.44, training method is min=4.31, quality of facilitator is min= 4.34. Overall, the findings indicated the level of satisfactory is high with overall min is = 4.40 and thus can be summarized that the Special Education Teachers are very satisfied with the training organized by SEAMEO SEN. Kajian ini dijalankan untuk mengkaji tahap kepuasan Guru Pendidikan Khas Asia Tenggara (GPKAT terhadap program latihan Regular Course: Co-Curricular Activities for SEN Children yang dianjurkan oleh SEAMEO Regional Center for Special Education (SEAMEO SEN. Aspek yang diberi perhatian dalam kajian ini merangkumi tahap kepuasan GPKAT terhadap kemudahan dan perkhidmatan yang disediakan oleh SEAMEO SEN, isi kandungan latihan, kaedah latihan dan penilaian GPKAT terhadap kualiti fasilitator. Kajian ini melibatkan seramai 25 orang GPKAT yang menghadiri kursus 4 minggu di SEAMEO SEN. Ini adalah kajian tinjauan untuk mendapatkan data kuantitatif dengan menggunakan

  7. Iron and Vitamin C Co-Supplementation Increased Serum Vitamin C Without Adverse Effect on Zinc Level in Iron Deficient Female Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Khoshfetrat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iron supplementation can decrease the absorption of zinc and influence other antioxidants levels such as vitamin C. This study aimed to investigate the effect of iron supplements alone and in combination with vitamin C on zinc and vitamin C status in iron deficient female students. Methods: In a double-blind randomized clinical trail, 60 iron deficient students were selected from 289 volunteers residing in dormitory. After matching, subjects were randomly assigned into two groups: Group I (50 mg elemental iron supplements and Group II (50 mg elemental iron + 500 mg ascorbic acid. Serum ferritin, iron, serum zinc, and plasma vitamin C concentrations were measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, spectrophotometer, atomic absorption spectrometer, and colorimeter, respectively after 6 and 12 weeks supplementation. Student′s t-test and repeated measures analysis of variance were applied to analyze the data using SPSS software. Results: Serum zinc levels had no significant differences between 2 groups at the baseline; however, its concentration decreased from 80.9 ± 4.2-68.9 ± 2.7 μg/dl to 81.2 ± 4.5-66.1 ± 2.9 μg/dl (P < 0.001 in Groups I and II, respectively after 6 weeks of supplementation. Continuous supplementation increased serum zinc concentration to baseline levels (79.0 ± 2.9 μg/dl; P < 0.01 in Group I and 70.5 ± 3.1 μg/dl in Group II following 12 weeks of supplementation. Plasma vitamin C increased from 3 ± 0/1-3.3 ± 0.2 mg/dl to 2.7 ± 0. 1-4.2 ± 0.2 mg/dl (P < 0.01 in Groups I and II, respectively. At the end of study, plasma vitamin C significantly increased from 3.3 ± 0.3-4.7 ± 0.3 (P < 0.01 to 4.2 ± 0.2-7.1 ± 0.2 (P < 0.001 in Groups I and II, respectively. Conclusions: Iron supplementation with and without vitamin C led to reduction in serum Zn in iron-deficient female students after 6 weeks. However, the decreasing trend stops after repletion of iron stores and Zn levels returned to the

  8. Effects of Biotin Supplementation in the Diet on Adipose Tissue cGMP Concentrations, AMPK Activation, Lipolysis, and Serum-Free Fatty Acid Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone-Villa, Daniel; Aguilera-Méndez, Asdrubal; Miranda-Cervantes, Adriana; Fernandez-Mejia, Cristina

    2015-10-01

    Several studies have shown that pharmacological concentrations of biotin decrease hyperlipidemia. The molecular mechanisms by which pharmacological concentrations of biotin modify lipid metabolism are largely unknown. Adipose tissue plays a central role in lipid homeostasis. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of biotin supplementation in adipose tissue on signaling pathways and critical proteins that regulate lipid metabolism, as well as on lipolysis. In addition, we assessed serum fatty acid concentrations. Male BALB/cAnN Hsd mice were fed a control or a biotin-supplemented diet (control: 1.76 mg biotin/kg; supplemented: 97.7 mg biotin/kg diet) over 8 weeks postweaning. Compared with the control group, biotin-supplemented mice showed an increase in the levels of adipose guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) (control: 30.3±3.27 pmol/g wet tissue; supplemented: 49.5±3.44 pmol/g wet tissue) and of phosphorylated forms of adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK; 65.2%±1.06%), acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA), carboxylase-1 (196%±68%), and acetyl-CoA carboxylase-2 (78.1%±18%). Serum fatty acid concentrations were decreased (control: 1.12±0.04 mM; supplemented: 0.91±0.03 mM), and no change in lipolysis was found (control: 0.29±0.05 μmol/mL; supplemented: 0.33±0.08 μmol/mL). In conclusion, 8 weeks of dietary biotin supplementation increased adipose tissue cGMP content and protein expression of the active form of AMPK and of the inactive forms of acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 and acetyl-CoA carboxylase-2. Serum fatty acid levels fell, and no change in lipolysis was observed. These findings provide insight into the effects of biotin supplementation on adipose tissue and support its use in the treatment of dyslipidemia.

  9. Levels of Use and Extent of Implementation of New Programs in Teacher Education Institutions: What Do You Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Gene E.

    An eight-level table of Levels of Use (LoU) is employed to measure the adoption and eventual success of program innovations in teacher education institutions. Speculations on the success or failure of attempted innovations, backed with statistical analysis, are presented. (SAS)

  10. The Relationship between Teachers' Perception about School Managers' Talent Management Leadership and the Level of Organizational Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytaç, Tufan

    2015-01-01

    Problem statement: Talent Management (TM) has been recently seen as a critical success factor in the development of educational organizations. The problem this study addresses is whether there is a relationship between teacher perceptions about school managers' TM leadership and their level of organizational commitment (OC). The level of school…

  11. Influence of dietary non-phytate phosphorous levels and phytase supplementation on the performance and bone characteristics of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Karimi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Precise phosphorus nutrition is important for significant reductions in both P pollution and ration costs. The influence of different levels (% of dietary nPP fed from 0 to 20 d (0.45, 0.40, 0.35, 0.30, 0.25, compared with feeding 0.20 nPP with and without 500 F.T.U. of phytase per kg of diet and from 21 to 36 d of age (0.414, 0.364, 0.314, 0.264, 0.214, compared with 0.164 nPP with and without 500 F.T.U. of phytase per kg of diet were evaluate using a total of 588 day-old commercial broiler chicks. Each treatment was replicated four times in a completely randomized design. Body weight (BW, daily gain (DG, feed intake (DFI, feed conversion ratio, plasma P level and bone characteristics were determined, and from these data the P equivalency of the phytase was estimated. Feeding diets containing less than 0.40% of nPP to birds between 0 and 20d resulted in inferior BW, DFI, plasma P level and bone characteristics compared with the control. However, optimum FCR and mortality was supported at lower levels of nPP (0.25%. Between 21 and 36 d, 0.364% was enough to optimise BW, DFI, and femur ash (%; whilst only 0.314% or greater was needed to support optimum DG, toe and tibia ash and only 0.214 to 0.264% was required to optimise shank, femur and tibia lengths; FCR and survivability. A broken line analysis also showed that the nPP (% requirement ranged from 0.267 to 0.410 and 0.272 to 0.380% during 0 to 20 and 21 to 36 d, respectively. Phytase supplementation improved performance and bone criterion and its P equivalency, depending upon the response of interest and birds age, ranged from 0.00 to 0.110%. In conclusion, the results showed that the combination of a lower level of nPP and phytase may be used to increase dietary P utilization, without severe changes in performance and bone quality.

  12. She's supporting them; who's supporting her? Preschool center-level social-emotional supports and teacher well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinsser, Katherine M; Christensen, Claire G; Torres, Luz

    2016-12-01

    Preschool teachers across the country have been charged to prepare children socially and emotionally for kindergarten. Teachers working in preschool centers are supporting children's social and emotional learning (SEL) within a rich ecology of emotion and social relationships and the present study considers how the supports implemented for children's SEL at the center-level are associated with teachers' psychological health and workplace experiences. Hierarchical linear models were constructed using data from the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey 2009 cohort. Results indicate that although teachers work in individual classrooms, they share common perceptions at the center-level of their workplace climate, access to support, and, although to a lesser extent, experience commonalities in psychological health and job satisfaction. Furthermore, in centers that had implemented more supports for children's SEL (including access to mental health consultants, classroom curriculum, and training and resources for teachers) teachers were less depressed, more satisfied with their jobs, felt more supported in managing challenging behavior, and viewed the workplace climate of their center as more positive. Findings are discussed in light of the national efforts to increase and retain a high-quality early childhood workforce. Copyright © 2016 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Extent of Principals' Application of the Transformational Leadership and Its Relationship to the Level of Job Satisfaction among Teachers of Galilee Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj, Sohil Jameel; Jubran, Ali Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to identify the degree of applying the transformational leadership in school administration (among principals), the level of job satisfaction among teachers, and investigate the relationship to each other. The sample consisted of (182) teachers, who were randomly selected from teachers of Galilee region inside the Green…

  14. Growth Response and Feed Utilization of Giant Gourami (Osphronemus goramy Juvenile Feeding Different Protein Levels of the Diets Supplemented with Recombinant Growth Hormone

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    DARMAWAN SETIA BUDI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of dietary supplementation with recombinant growth hormone (rGH on the growth and dietary utility of juvenile giant gourami. The rGH was mixed with chicken egg yolk and sprayed on to artificial feed with different protein levels (34, 28, and 21%; isoenergy. Each treatment group of gourami was paired with a control group that received feed of the same protein level, but without rGH supplementation. Juvenile of giant gourami (weight 15.83 ± 0.13 g were fed diets containing rGH, to apparent satiation, 2 times a week. Fish were reared from less than 2 months old for 42 days in 100 L glass aquaria at an initial density of 10 fish per aquarium. At the end of this period, the biomass and daily growth rate (SGR of the fish were measured and the feed conversion ratio calculated and compared. Our data showed that fish fed rGH-supplemented diets experienced higher growth than fish in the control groups and showed that fish with higher protein diets experienced higher growth than the groups with less protein diets. The group with the highest biomass gain, SGR, and lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR was the group fed a 34% protein diet supplemented with rGH. Furthermore, biomass gain, SGR, and FCR in the rGH treatment group with a 28% protein diet matched the measurements of the non-rGH control group receiving a 34% protein diet (P > 0.05. We conclude that giant juvenile gourami given feed supplemented with recombinant growth hormone will experience increased growth and dietary utility compared with gourami given the same feed without supplementation.

  15. The Readiness Level of Using e-Learning Among Teacher Graduate Programme (TGP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Samad Noorazman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Using e-Learning among Teacher Graduate Programme (TGP to students who are newly exposed in Teaching and Learning (T&L proses. The major problem among student’s TGP is the readiness level in knowledge, attitude and skills using e-Learning during Teaching and Learning (T&L . This study is to identify any significant differences of the knowledge level between male and female TGP students. The design of this study is to survey research using instruments of questionnaire which are distributed to respondents among TGP students at the Faculty of Technical and Vocational, UTHM. The sample is given to 248 respondents and analysis using version SPSS 21.0. Data presented using descriptive method such as, Mean, Standard Deviation(SD, inferens statistic using Mann-Whitney U to identify the knowledge difference between male and female TGP students. The result showed that the level of application of e-Learning among TGP students in terms of knowledge, attitude and skill at moderate level. The study also showed that there are no significant knowledge difference among male and female TGP students because the result of p= 0.044 value is less <0.05 can be stated that Ha failed rejected. The results of this study is important to provide awareness especially to the TGP students, lecturers and also UTHM in providing new T&L using e-Learning.

  16. Teacher Education that Works: Preparing Secondary-Level Math and Science Teachers for Success with English Language Learners Through Content-Based Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margo Elisabeth DelliCarpini

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Little research exists on effective ways to prepare secondary mathematics and science teachers to work with English language learners (ELLs in mainstream mathematics and science (subsequently referred to as STEM classrooms. Given the achievement gap that exists between ELLs and their native-speaking counterparts in STEM subjects, as well as the growing numbers of ELLs in US schools, this becomes a critical issue, as academic success for these students depends on the effectiveness of instruction they receive not only in English as a second language classes (ESL, but in mainstream classrooms as well. This article reports on the effects of a program restructuring that implemented coursework specifically designed to prepare pre-service and in-service mathematics, science, and ESL teachers to work with ELLs in their content and ESL classrooms through collaboration between mainstream STEM and ESL teachers, as well as effective content and language integration. We present findings on teachers’ attitudes and current practices related to the inclusion of ELLs in the secondary-level content classroom and their current level of knowledge and skills in collaborative practice. We further describe the rationale behind the development of the course, provide a description of the course and its requirements as they changed throughout its implementation during two semesters, and present findings from the participants enrolled. Additionally, we discuss the lessons learned; researchers’ innovative approaches to implementation of content-based instruction (CBI and teacher collaboration, which we term two-way CBI (DelliCarpini & Alonso, 2013; and implications for teacher education programs.

  17. The learning continuum based on student's level of competence and specific pedagogical learning material on physiological aspects from teachers's opinions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Ria Fitriyani; Subali, Bambang

    2017-08-01

    The scope of learning continuum at the conceptual knowledge is formulated based on the student's level of competence and specific pedagogical learning material. The purpose of this study is to develop a learning continuum of specific pedagogical material aspects of physiology targeted for students in primary and secondary education. This research was conducted in Province of Yogyakarta Special Region from October 2016 to January 2017. The method used in this study was survey method. The data were collected using questionnaire that had been validated from the aspects of construct validity and experts judgements. Respondents in this study consist of 281 Science/Biology teachers at Public Junior and Senior High Schools in the Province of Yogyakarta Special Region which spread in Yogyakarta city and 4 regencies namely Sleman, Bantul, Kulonprogo, and Gunungkidul. The data were taken using a census. Data were analyzed using a descriptive analysis technique. The results show the learning continuum of physiology based on teachers's opinion from grade VII, VIII, and IX are taught in grade VII, VIII, IX and X on level of C2 (understanding) and the learning continuum of physiology based on teachers's opinion from grade X, XI and XII are taught in grade X and XI on level of C2 (understanding), C3 (applying), and C4 (analyzing) based on teachers's opinions. The conclusion is that many teachers refer to the existing curriculum rather than their own original idea for developing learning continuum.

  18. Levels of 25(OHD3, IL-2, and C-peptide in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM Receiving Vitamin D3 Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjahyo Suryanto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM has become a health problem in many countries. T1DM is the consequence of autoimmune destruction process of β cells. There was relationship between vitamin D deficiency with T1DM. The destruction process was caused by an imbalance of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. One of the pro-inflammatory cytokines is IL-2. C-peptide examination to see the function of beta cells due to destruction of pancreatic beta cell. Administration of vitamin D3 supplementation still cause controversy and give varying results. This randomized clinical trial was conducted to determine the levels of 25(OHD3, IL-2, and C-peptide in people with T1DM who received vitamin D3 supplementation. The subjects were 26 children with T1DM, divided into K1 group (received vitamin D3 supplementation and K2 group (received placebo. The results showed higher levels of 25(OHD3 in the K1 group and statistically found a significant difference (p = 0.00. Higher levels of IL-2 and lower C-peptide were obtained in the K1 group and no statistically significant differences were found (p = 0.76 and p= 0.26. The insignificant relationship and the negative correlation were found between 25(OHD3 and IL-2 (p = 0.71; r = - 0.12, 25(OHD3 and C-peptide (p = 0.59; r = -0.16, also levels of IL-2 and C-peptide (p = 0.13; r = -0.44 in children with type 1 diabetes who received vitamin D3 supplementation. From this study can be concluded that administration vitamin D3 supplementation in patients with T1DM can increase levels 25(OHD3 significantly. This increase has not significantly lowered levels of IL-2 and increased levels of C-peptide. However, there was an absolute decrease in the rate of slower C-peptide in the supplemented group than in the placebo group.

  19. Differences in academic performance and self-regulated learning based on level of student participation in supplemental instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Ana C.

    This study examined differences in academic performance and self-regulated learning based on levels of student participation in Supplemental Instruction (SI) sessions in two introductory undergraduate biology and chemistry courses offered at University of Central Florida in the Spring 2006 semester. The sample consisted of 282 students enrolled in the biology class and 451 students enrolled in chemistry. Academic performance was measured using students' final course grades and rates of withdrawal from the courses. The self-regulated learning constructs of motivation, cognition, metacognition, and resource management were measured using the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). Relationships between students' gender and ethnic background and levels of SI participation were also analyzed in this research. Findings in both biology and chemistry courses revealed a statistically significant decrease in student motivation from beginning to end of semester. In chemistry, frequent SI participants also showed statistically significantly higher levels of motivation at the end of the semester than occasional and non-SI participants. There were no statistically significant gains in cognitive, metacognitive, and resource management strategies from beginning to end of semester. However, statistically significant differences in resource management were observed at the end of the semester among SI attendance groups in both courses. Students in the high SI attendance group were more likely to use learning resources than those who did not participate regularly or did not participate at all. Statistically significant differences in academic performance based on students' SI participation were found in both biology and chemistry courses. Frequent SI participants had significantly higher final percentage grades and were more likely to receive grades of A, B, or C, than those who either did not attend SI regularly of did not participate at all. They were also less

  20. Effect of different levels of mangosteen peel powder supplement on the performance of dairy cows fed concentrate containing yeast fermented cassava chip protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyorach, Sineenart; Wanapat, Metha; Phesatcha, Kampanat; Kang, Sungchhang

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) peel powder (MSP) supplementation on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and milk production in lactating dairy cows fed a concentrate containing yeast fermented cassava chip protein (YEFECAP). Four crossbred dairy cows (50 % Holstein-Friesian and 50 % Thai native breed) in mid-lactation, 404 ± 50.0 kg of body weight and 90 ± 5 day in milk with daily milk production of 9 ± 2.0 kg/day, were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to receive 4 dietary treatments. The treatments were different levels of MSP supplementation at 0, 100, 200, and 300 g/head/day. Rice straw was used as a roughage source and fed ad libitum to all cows, and concentrate containing YEFECAP at 200 g/kg concentrate was offered corresponding to concentrate to milk yield ratio at 1:2. Results revealed that feed intake, apparent nutrient digestibility, ruminal pH and temperature, and total volatile fatty acid were not significantly affected by MSP supplementation (P > 0.05). However, increasing levels of MSP supplementation increased molar proportion of propionate while ammonia-nitrogen, acetate, and acetate to propionate ratio were decreased (P fermentation efficiency, milk production and protein content, and economical return of lactating dairy cows fed on rice straw.

  1. Comportamento ingestivo diurno de novilhas de corte recebendo níveis de suplemento Diurnal ingestive behavior of beef heifers receiving levels of supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefani Macari

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a composição botânica da pastagem e o comportamento ingestivo diurno de bezerras de corte recebendo diferentes níveis de suplemento. Os animais foram mantidos em pastagem de aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb. e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam., recebendo ração comercial nos níveis de 0; 0,3; 0,6 e 0,9% do peso vivo (PV. Em quatro datas, foram registradas as atividades diurnas de pastejo, ruminação, ócio, número de visitas e tempo de permanência no cocho e taxa de bocadas. Com aumento dos níveis de suplemento, houve redução no tempo de pastejo e aumento no tempo de ócio (P0,05. A composição botânica e estrutural da pastagem é influenciada pelos níveis de suplemento utilizados e o ciclo de produção das forrageiras.The trial was conducted aiming to evaluate pasture botanical composition and diurnal ingestive behavior of beef heifers receiving different supplement levels. The animals were kept in black oats (Avena strigosa Schreb. and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. pasture, receiving 0; 0.3; 0.6 and 0.9% of live weight (LW of supplement. The supplement utilized was a commercial ration. In four dates were registrated diurnal activities of grazing, ruminating, idle, number of visits and trough permanence time and bite rate. Increasing supplement levels reduced grazing time and increased idle time (P0.05. Botanical and structural composition of pasture were influenced by supplement levels and related with herbage production cycle (P>0.05.

  2. Illustrating the multiple facets and levels of fidelity of implementation to a teacher classroom management intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, Wendy M; Herman, Keith C; Stormont, Melissa; Newcomer, Lori; David, Kimberly

    2013-11-01

    Many school-based interventions to promote student mental health rely on teachers as implementers. Thus, understanding the interplay between the multiple domains of fidelity to the intervention and intervention support systems such as coaching and teacher implementation of new skills is an important aspect of implementation science. This study describes a systematic process for assessing multiple domains of fidelity. Data from a larger efficacy trial of the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management (IY TCM) program are utilized. Data on fidelity to the IY TCM workshop training sessions and onsite weekly coaching indicate that workshop leaders and the IY TCM coach implemented the training and coaching model with adequate adherence. Further, workshop leaders' ratings of engagement were associated with teacher implementation of specific praise, following training on this content. Lastly, the IY TCM coach differentiation of teacher exposure to coaching was evaluated and found to be associated with teacher implementation of classroom management practices and student disruptive behavior.

  3. A-Level Psychology Teachers: Who Are They and What Do They Think about Psychology as a Subject and a Discipline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Martin; Dalgarno, Elizabeth L.

    2010-01-01

    A-level psychology teachers (N=109) responded to a questionnaire asking about their academic background, their experience of and views about A-level psychology. Teachers were also asked about the scientific status of psychology as a discipline and about the nature of science in general. Most respondents thought that the A-level course provides…

  4. The Delaware Bay Estuary as a Classroom: A Research Experience for Future Elementary Grade-Level Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, J.; Fifield, S.; Allen, D.; Shipman, H.; Ford, D.; Dagher, Z.; Brickhouse, N.

    2004-05-01

    With supplemental funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF), students from the University of Delaware's Science Semester course took part in a two-day research cruise in the Delaware Bay Estuary. The Science Semester, an NSF-funded project, is an integrated 15-credit sequence that encompasses the entire course work for the spring semester for approximately 60 sophomore-level elementary education majors. The semester includes the earth, life, and physical science content courses and the education science methods course integrated into one curriculum. In this curriculum, problem-based learning and other inquiry-based approaches are applied to foster integrated understandings of science and pedagogy that future elementary teachers need to effectively use inquiry-based approaches in their classrooms. The research cruise was conducted as part of one of the four major investigations during the course. The investigation focused on Delaware's state marine animal, Limulus polyphemus. It is one of the four remaining species of horseshoe crabs; the largest spawning population of Limulus is found in Delaware Bay. Within the problem- and inquiry-based learning approaches of the Science Semester course, the students became aware that very little data exists on the benthic habitat of Limulus polyphemus. In order to learn more about this habitat, a cohort of seven students from the course was recruited as part of the scientific party to take part in the research cruise to collect data on the floor of Delaware Bay. The data included: multibeam bathymetry/backscatter data, grab samples of bay bottom sediments, and CTD profiles. Prior to the cruise, all students in the course took part in laboratory exercises to learn about topographic maps and navigation charts using the Delaware Bay area as the region of study. While "at-sea", the cruise participants sent the ship's latitude and longitude positions as a function of time. The positions were used by the on-land students to

  5. Effects of condensed tannins supplementation level on weight gain and in vitro and in vivo bloat precursors in steers grazing winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, B R; Pinchak, W E; Anderson, R C; Fulford, J D; Puchala, R

    2006-09-01

    Research was conducted to determine the effects of level of supplementation with quebracho condensed tannins (CT) on in vitro ruminal fluid gas production, in vivo ruminal fluid protein fractions, bloat dynamics, and ADG of steers grazing winter wheat. Two experiments were conducted to 1) enumerate the effect of ruminal fluid from steers fed quebracho CT (0, 1, and 2% CT/kg of DMI) on in vitro gas and methane production from minced fresh wheat forage; and 2) quantify the influence of CT supplementation on ruminal protein characteristics, biofilm complexes, bloat potential, and ADG of steers grazing wheat pasture. Eighteen ruminally cannulated steers (386 +/- 36 kg of BW) were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 treatments that included a control (water infusion) and 2 CT treatment levels (1 or 2% CT/kg of DMI). Treatments were administered daily (63 d) through the rumen cannula as pre-mixes with warm water (approximately 30 degrees C). Rumen contents were collected 2 h postinfusion (at 1030 to 1130) on d 0, 20, 40, 50, and 60. Bloat was visually scored daily for 5 d each wk. In Exp. 1, supplementation of CT decreased the rate of in vitro gas production in a dose-dependent response. In Exp. 2, ADG increased (P bloat score across stage of growth and replicates decreased linearly with increasing CT supplementation; bloat scores were greater (P rumen fluid protein fractions varied among CT treatments and stage of growth. Addition of CT reduced the severity of bloat, principally through reducing microbial activities, biofilm production, and ruminal gas production. Quebracho CT is potentially a value-added supplement that can decrease the impacts of frothy bloat and increase BW gains in stocker cattle-wheat systems.

  6. Plant sterol ester diet supplementation increases serum plant sterols and markers of cholesterol synthesis, but has no effect on total cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingärtner, Oliver; Bogeski, Ivan; Kummerow, Carsten; Schirmer, Stephan H; Husche, Constanze; Vanmierlo, Tim; Wagenpfeil, Gudrun; Hoth, Markus; Böhm, Michael; Lütjohann, Dieter; Laufs, Ulrich

    2017-05-01

    This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over intervention-study was conducted in healthy volunteers to evaluate the effects of plant sterol ester supplemented margarine on cholesterol, non-cholesterol sterols and oxidative stress in serum and monocytes. Sixteen volunteers, average age 34 years, with no or mild hypercholesterolemia were subjected to a 4 week period of daily intake of 3g plant sterols per day supplied via a supplemented margarine on top of regular eating habits. After a wash-out period of one week, volunteers switched groups. Compared to placebo, a diet supplementation with plant sterols increased serum levels of plant sterols such as campesterol (+0.16±0.19mg/dL, p=0.005) and sitosterol (+0.27±0.18mg/dL, psynthesis such as desmosterol (+0.05±0.07mg/dL, p=0.006) as well as lathosterol (+0.11±0.16mg/dL, p=0.012). Cholesterol serum levels, however, were not changed significantly (+18.68±32.6mg/dL, p=0.052). These findings could not be verified in isolated circulating monocytes. Moreover, there was no effect on monocyte activation and no differences with regard to redox state after plant sterol supplemented diet. Therefore, in a population of healthy volunteers with no or mild hypercholesterolemia, consumption of plant sterol ester supplemented margarine results in increased concentrations of plant sterols and cholesterol synthesis markers without affecting total cholesterol in the serum, activation of circulating monocytes or redox state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Some reproductive performances of Thai native (TN and 50% TN x Anglo-Nubian crossbred does with different levels of concentrate supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choldumrongkul, S.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A 2 x 2 x 2 factorial in completely randomized design was conducted to determine the effect of genotype of does (Thai native (TN or 50% Anglo-Nubian (AN crossbred, levels of concentrate supplementation(1 % body weight or ad libitum and body condition of does (poor or good on oestrus incidence, kidding rate and multiple birth rate of does. Does rotationally grazed on Paspalum plicatulum pasture for 4 weeks andwere supplemented with concentrate. The experiment was divided into 4 periods: 1 does run with a teaser for 105 days before mating to determine an oestrus incidence 2 does joined with bucks of the same genotypefor 45 days 3 does run with a teaser for 150 days during pregnancy and 4 does run with a teaser 90 days post-partum. Genotype, levels of concentrate supplementation and body condition of does did not significantlyaffect (P>0.05 kidding rate or multiple birth rate and average kidding rate and multiple birth rate of the does was 83.8 and 82.3%, respectively. Birth weight of kids from TN does was significantly lower (P<0.01 than that from 50% TN x AN crossbred does (1.9 and 2.5 kg, respectively. Number of days of the first oestrus incidence in post-partum period for TN does was significantly (P<0.01 less than that of 50% ANcrossbred does (59.1 days and 75.0 days, respectively. Number of days of the first oestrus incidence in postpartum for does supplemented with concentrate ad libitum was significantly (P<0.01 lower than that ofdoes supplemented with 1% BW of concentrate (60.5 and 73.6 days, respectively.

  8. Pre-Service and Mentor Teachers' Perceptions Regarding the Level of Technology Integration in the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moye, Gatsy A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological qualitative study was to explore perceptions of pre-service and mentor teachers regarding the level of integrating technology in the curriculum of 21 selected classrooms in eight rural school districts in Southeast Texas. The following research questions guided this phenomenological study: 1. What are…

  9. Perceptions and Practice: The Relationship between Teacher Perceptions of Technology Use and Level of Classroom Technology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Laura M.

    2017-01-01

    This correlational-predictive study investigated the relationship between teacher perceptions of technology use and observed classroom technology integration level using the "Technology Uses and Perceptions Survey" (TUPS) and the "Technology Integration Matrix-Observation" (TIM-O) instruments, developed by the Florida Center…

  10. A Study of Pre-Service Information and Communication Teachers' Efficacy Levels for Analyzing and Responding to Cyberbullying Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavuk, Melike; Bulu, Sanser; Keser, Hafize

    2016-01-01

    This case study was conducted to investigate efficacy levels of preservice Information and Communication Teachers' to identify, prevent and intervene to cyberbullying cases. Fifty participants were interviewed and 56 cyberbullying cases, which the participants experienced or witnessed, were collected to evaluate their cyberbullying readiness.…

  11. Relationship between Critical Thinking Levels and Attitudes towards Reading Habits among Pre-Service Physical Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgurcuoglu, Ahmet Nusret

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present research is to define the critical thinking levels and reading habits of students studying at the department of physical education and sports teaching and analysing the relationship between these. The participants of the present research are 136 pre-service physical education teachers studying at Mugla Sitki Kocman…

  12. Experiences of Middle-Level Students, Teachers, and Parents in the Do the Write Thing Violence Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sarah E.; Williams, R. Craig; Myer, Rick A.; Tinajero, Josefina V.

    2016-01-01

    We examined experiences of participants in "Do the Write Thing" national violence prevention program for middle-level students. Using mixed methods, we conducted surveys and focus groups with students, parents, and teachers who attended the program's National Recognition Week in Washington, DC. Results revealed important affective,…

  13. Intercultural Sensitivity Levels of Turkish Pre-Service Foreign Language Teachers: Examples from Education Faculties of Two Universities in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetis, Veda Aslim; Kurt, Çigdem

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether intercultural sensitivity levels vary among foreign language teacher candidates in terms of variables such as target language, year of study (grade), and gender in both intra and inters programs. Research sample consists of 1,049 Turkish freshmen, sophomore, junior, and senior foreign language teacher…

  14. Prospective Teachers' Comprehension Levels of Special Relativity Theory and the Effect of Writing for Learning on Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Ali

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the comprehension levels of special relativity theory in prospective teachers who take the Introduction to Modern Physics lesson in the faculty of education science teaching department and the effect of writing for learning on their achievement is researched. In the research, a control group pre-test post-test…

  15. An Analysis of the Relation between the Organizational Creativity Perceptions and Life Satisfaction Levels of the Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akan, Durdagi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the relations between the organizational creativity perceptions and life satisfaction levels of the teachers. This study is conducted in descriptive survey method. Satisfaction with Life Scale and Organizational Creativity Scale were used to collect data from 233 primary and secondary school teachers…

  16. A Study of Curriculum Literacy and Information Literacy Levels of Teacher Candidates in Department of Social Sciences Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sural, Serhat; Dedebali, Nurhak Cem

    2018-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate information literacy and curriculum literacy levels of teacher candidates and to identify the relationship between them through their course of study at Faculty of Education. The research model was designed as quantitative one and general screening model was employed. The study group is 895 students, who were…

  17. Investigating the Relationship between Job Satisfaction Levels of the Teachers in Educational Institutions and Their Attitudes towards Teaching Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üredi, Lütfi

    2017-01-01

    The basic purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between job satisfaction levels of the teachers in educational institutions and their attitudes towards teaching profession. Obtained results provided significant contributions for improving the quality of educational activities. Relational screening model as one of the…

  18. The Relationship between Job Satisfaction of Teachers and the Level of Servant Leadership of Their Campus Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, Annette

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between teachers' job satisfaction and their campus administrator's level of servant leadership. Although Greenleaf's (1977) seminal work on servant leadership has led to the connection between servant leadership and education, minimal research has been done to investigate the effect…

  19. Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) Display Levels of the Teachers at Secondary Schools According to the Perceptions of the School Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Soner

    2009-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to determine in what level the teachers at secondary schools display organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) according to the perceptions of the school administrators. The data of this study, which is descriptive, were collected via the "the scale of OCB" which was developed by Podsakoff, MacKenzie,…

  20. Suplementação a pasto: disponibilidade e qualidade x níveis de suplementação x desempenho Grazing supplementation: availability and quality x supplementation levels x performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Ferreira da Silva

    2009-07-01

    interference of the forage availability and quality and level of supplementation on performance. The total DM and green dry matter pasture availability deferred for use in the dry season has an average of all experiments of 6,431 kg ha-1 and 2,173 kg ha-1. The Brachiaria under grazing in the dry season have high levels of NDF, with an average of 74.50%, high levels of ADF, with an average of 44.19%, low levels of CP, with average of 5.59% and low levels of IVDM/O, with an average of 51.36%. In this sense, the diet taken by the animal usually presents higher crude protein and lower levels of NDF. On consumption in grazing, note that the intake reduction is limited by until the level of supplementation of 0.3% of body weight (BW per day and when the consumption of supplement increases to levels above 0.3% of BW, the consumption of grass is low and that this decrease may be even greater when the supply of supplement is 0.8% of the BW. Supplementation of cattle provided larger gains than those receiving only mineral in the dry season. Must be guaranteed at least 4,500 kg DM total.ha-1, 1,200 kg.ha-1 of green dry matter, offering 10 to 12% of the BW offorage DM and 6% of DM potentially digestible to ensure selectivity and earnings satisfactory individual without compromising the gain per area. A supplementation in the dry season in Brachiaria is biologically feasible for positive effect on weight gain, but the economic viability of the system is location dependent. Supplementation levels above 0.8% of the BW should be investigated as alternatives that may avoid possible negative effects on the rumen environment to reduce the expectations of gain, as the fractionation of supplementation.

  1. Fatty acid composition of minced meat, longissimus muscle and omental fat from Small East African goats finished on different levels of concentrate supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushi, D E; Thomassen, M S; Kifaro, G C; Eik, L O

    2010-10-01

    Effects of supplementing Small East African (SEA) goats with concentrate diets on fatty acids composition of minced meat, M. longissimus dorsi (LD) and omental fat were assessed using 23 animals (14.5 months old and 20.1 kg body weight). Goats were subjected to four levels of concentrate supplementation: ad libitum concentrate allowance (T100), 66% (T66), 33% (T33) and 0% (T0) of ad libitum concentrate allowance. All goats were slaughtered after 90 days of experimental period. Minced meat from concentrate-supplemented goats had higher (Pmeat from T00 and T66 goats had similar proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and n-6 PUFA that were higher (Pgoats whereas margaric and arachidonic acids were in higher (Pgoats. Overall, LD was associated with PUFA, omental fat with saturated fatty acids (SFA), minced meat with MUFA. It is concluded that finishing SEA goats on concentrate diets will increase the proportion of DFA in meat from them. In addition, the proportion of PUFA in meat from such goats will peak at concentrate supplementation equivalent to 66% of their ad libitum intake. Consumers should avoid high intake of internal fat due to their richness in SFA. Copyright (c) 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Levels of the Antioxidant Nutrients Vitamin C, Vitamin E, and Selenium in the Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database: NHANES Data Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory evidence indicates that antioxidants may slow or possibly prevent the development of certain cancers by protecting cells from damage caused by free radicals or other mechanisms. Many dietary supplements containing antioxidant constituents (e.g., vitamin C) are available to consumers. Th...

  3. Awareness and Cognitive Load Levels of Teacher Candidates towards Student Products Made by Digital Storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Figen

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to assess the student products created by digital storytelling, and to determine the awareness towards learning the topic and the cognitive loads of students during the process. Research was performed with a total of 52 teacher candidates attending 2nd class at "Classroom Teacher" department of Mersin…

  4. Investigation of Pre-Service Teachers' Levels of Readiness to Technology Integration in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuhadar, Cem

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to expose the training and experience that pre-service teachers acquire in the course of their study at schools of education in regard to the use of information and communication technology (ICT). The study adopts the survey model and its sampling is comprised of 832 pre-service teachers who attend four different faculty of…

  5. Teachers' Perceptions of Teaching Mathematics at the Senior Secondary Level in Fiji

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayal, Hem Chand

    2013-01-01

    In recent times, there has been considerable interest shown in the affective domain of mathematics education with research findings pointing out that affective variables have profound impact on classroom practices of mathematics teachers. In other words, teachers' conceptions of mathematics and mathematics teaching are greatly influenced by…

  6. Science Teachers' Proficiency Levels and Patterns of TPACK in a Practical Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Yi-Fen; Lin, Tzu-Chiang; Hsu, Ying-Shao; Wu, Hisn-Kai; Hwang, Fu-Kwun

    2015-01-01

    Technological pedagogical content knowledge-practical (TPACK-P) refers to a unified body of knowledge that teachers develop from and for actual teaching practices with information communication technologies (ICT). This study attempted to unveil the longitudinal and multidimensional development of knowledge that teachers possess by interviewing 40…

  7. Grade Level Effects of the Incredible Years Teacher Training Program on Emotion Regulation and Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Desiree W.; Rabiner, David L.; Carrig, Madeline M.

    2014-01-01

    Professional development for teachers has historically been fairly didactic in nature (Garet et al., 2001; Rose & Church, 1998), which is believed to limit effectiveness and translation to teacher practice change (Fixsen, Naoom, Blase, Friedman, & Wallace, 2005). One well-established program with a more active, collaborative training…

  8. Department-Level Representations: A New Approach to the Study of Science Teacher Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutner, Todd L.; Markman, Arthur B.

    2016-01-01

    Research on science teacher cognition is important as findings from this research can be used to improve teacher training, leading to improved classroom practice. Previous research has often relied on two underlying assumptions: Cognition is an individual process, and these processes are detailed and introspective. In this paper, we put forth a…

  9. Determining Science Teachers' Levels of Motivation and Self-Regulation Regarding Use of Education Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efe, Hülya Aslan; Baysal, Yunus Emre

    2017-01-01

    In line with the growing importance of use of education technologies in the field of education, teachers are increasingly expected to use education technologies in class environment and to provide students with appropriate environments and opportunities to use these technologies. This situation makes it necessary to investigate teachers'…

  10. Preservice Agriculture Teachers' Perceived Level of Readiness in an Agricultural Mechanics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, J. Joey; Robinson, J. Shane; Field, Harry

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal trend study sought to compare the perceptions of preservice agricultural education teachers, enrolled in a Metals and Welding course at a land grant university, on their welding related skills at the beginning of the semester to their final course grade at the end of the semester. Preservice agriculture teachers (N = 240) who…

  11. Investigation of Techno-Stress Levels of Teachers Who Were Included in Technology Integration Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çoklar, Ahmet Naci; Efilti, Erkan; Sahin, Yusef Levent; Akçay, Arif

    2016-01-01

    Techno-stress is defined as a modern adaptation disorder resulting from the failure in coping with new technologies in a healthy way. Techno-stress affects many occupational groups, including teachers. FATIH project and many other previous studies conducted in Turkey in recent years have necessitated the use of technology for teachers. The present…

  12. Exploring Levels of Job Satisfaction among Teachers in Public Secondary Schools in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msuya, Ombeni William

    2016-01-01

    A case study on the role of extrinsic factors (hygiene factors) and socio-demographic factors in determining job satisfaction among teachers in public secondary schools in Tanzania was undertaken. Biographical variables pertaining to teachers' age, sex, marital status and work experience were investigated to determine whether they had any…

  13. The Relation of Physics Teachers' Leadership with Burnout Levels and Attitudes towards Change. Turkey Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortop, Hasan Said

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, leadership concept has changed into ability to work with team behaviour from doing something alone It is inevitable that school managements include their teachers to the leadership concept. Leadership of physics teachers who educate necessary individuals for developing society in views of technologically and scientifically is important.…

  14. Stressors and Stressor Response Levels of Hong Kong Primary School Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Marina Wai-yee; Chik, Maria Pik-yuk; Chan, Edmund Sze Shing

    2018-01-01

    Responses from 309 randomly sampled Hong Kong primary school music teachers to the shortened version of the Chinese Teacher Stress Questionnaire were subjected to a descriptive percentage analysis, one-way ANOVA and independent t test. Obtained results identify five key stressors: "changing education policy of the government";…

  15. Relationships among Teacher Absenteeism, Evaluation Scores, and Satisfaction with Teaching at the Elementary School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Marilyn D.

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to determine what factors were believed to influence teacher absenteeism in a small southwestern rural district in Tennessee, a study was conducted using information from Survey Monkey (https://www.surveymonkey.com/r/satisfaction_absences) to obtain responses from 89 teachers in grades third through fifth at seven elementary schools…

  16. Teacher competencies

    OpenAIRE

    Svatošová, Kateřina

    2012-01-01

    This diploma thesis deals with adult teacher competencies. It describes current situation in adult education and it focuses on measuring quality level of teacher competencies. There is given the main overview of adult education specifics. These are the prerequisites for defining adult teacher competencies. There is given specific adult teacher competencies and related roles which are generally based on teacher's activities during educational courses. Next part describes present conception of ...

  17. Oral folic acid supplementation decreases palate and/or lip cleft occurrence in Pug and Chihuahua puppies and elevates folic acid blood levels in pregnant bitches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domosławska, A; Jurczak, A; Janowski, T

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of the occurrence of lip and/or palate cleft (CL/CP) in new-borns of two breeds, Pugs and Chihuahuas, and to measure the folic acid blood levels in bitches during gestations both with and without folic acid oral supplementation. Bitches of 13 Pugs and 17 Chihuahuas with CL/CP cases were used in the study. In trial 1, the animals of the experimental group (n=25) were given additional folic acid from the onset of heat till the 40th day of gestation. The females of the control group (n=12) were fed a traditional diet. From all the animals blood was collected at the onset of heat, 14 days later and on the 30th day of the gestation to estimate folic acid concentration. In trial 2, the prevalence of CP/CL cases in litters from pregnancies before and after supplementation was compared. The percentage of puppies with CL/CP after supplementation decreased in both Pugs and Chihuahua puppies (10.86% and 15.78% vs. 4.76% and 4.8% respectively). On Day 0, the concentrations of folic acid were at a low physiological level (around 8 ng/ml) in all the animals. In bitches of the experimental group the blood level of folic acid on day 14th and 30th of the treatment showed an increase in both breeds (13.65 +/- 4.27 ng/ml in Pugs, 10.79 +/- 2.84 ng/ml in Chihuahuas, and 14.94 +/- 3.22 ng/ml in Pugs, 12.95 +/- 3.58 in Chihuahuas, respectively) while in the control group, this level decreased with time of gestation both in Pugs and in Chihuahuas (around 6 ng/ml). Folic acid supplementation seems to be a simple, effective preventive method to reduce the risk of CL/CP, especially in the predisposed breeds.

  18. Effect of crude protein levels and organic selenium supplementation in the diets fed during the breeding season on reproductive parameters of red-winged tinamous (Rhynchotus rufescens)

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe, L. [UNESP; Santos, E. C.; Tavian, A. F.; Góes, P. A. A.; Moraes, V. M. B. [UNESP; Tonhati, Humberto [UNESP; Boleli, I. C. [UNESP; Malheiros, E. B. [UNESP; Barnabé, V. H.; Queiroz, S. A. [UNESP

    2010-01-01

    There is little information on the nutrition of red-winged tinamous (Rhynchotus rufescens) reared in captivity, and their nutritional requirements still need to be determined. This study aimed at determining dietary crude protein requirements and testing four organic selenium supplementation levels in the diet of red-winged tinamous during the breeding season. Birds were housed in a conventional broiler house divided in 16 boxes with one male and three females each. Iso-energy (2800kcal ME/kg...

  19. The teacher's role in college level classes for non-science majors: A constructivist approach for teaching prospective science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Abdullah Othman

    1997-12-01

    This interpretive research set out to investigate the characteristics of an exemplary college science instructor who endeavors to improve teaching and learning in a physical science course for prospective teachers. The course was innovative in the sense that it was designed to meet the specific needs of prospective elementary teachers who needed to have models of how to teach science in a way that employed materials and small group activities. The central purpose for this study is to understand the metaphors that Mark (a pseudonym), the chemistry instructor in the course, used as referents to conceptualize his roles and frame actions and interactions in the classroom. Within the theoretical frame of constructivism, human cognitive interests, and co-participation theories, an ethnographic research design, described by Erickson (1986), Guba and Lincoln (1989), and Gallagher (1991), was employed in the study. The main sources of data for this study were field notes, transcript analysis of interviews with the instructor and students, and analyses of videotaped excerpts. Additional data sources, such as student journals and the results of students' responses to the University/Community College Student Questionnaire which was developed by a group science education researchers at Florida State University, were employed to maximize that the assertions I constructed were consistent with the variety of data. Data analyses and interpretation in the study focused on identifying the aspects which the instructor and the researcher might find useful in reflecting to understand what was happening and why that was happening in the classroom. The analysis reveals how the instructor used constructivism as a referent for his teaching and the learning of his students. To be consistent with his beliefs and goals that prospective teachers should enjoy their journey of learning chemistry, Mark, the driver in the journey, used the roles of controller, facilitator, learner, and entertainer

  20. A study on the relationship between the protein supplements intake satisfaction level and repurchase intention: Verification of mediation effects of word-of-mouth intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ill-Gwang

    2016-05-18

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the protein supplements intake satisfaction level and repurchase intention of university students majoring in physical education and verify the mediation effects of word-of-mouth intention. To achieve the purpose of this study, 700 university students majoring in physical education from 10 universities in Korea were selected from October 2013 to December 2013 as the target of this study through the cluster random sampling and data of 228 university students who had experience in the intake of protein supplements among them was analyzed. The composite reliability of each factor was in between 0.869 and 0.958, and the convergent validity and discriminant validity were verified. SPSS 18.0 and Amos 22.0 were utilized as data processing methods and the verification of significance on the medication effects and indirect effects of word-of-mouth intention was carried out using the frequency analysis, correlation analysis, CFA, SEM, and Amos bootstrapping. The result is as follows. The protein supplements intake satisfaction level had a positive effect on the word-of-mouth intention and the word-of-mouth intention had a positive effect on the repurchase intention. Also, it was shown that the word-of-mouth intention played a full mediation role between the intake satisfaction level and the repurchase intention.

  1. Differences in homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) values and insulin levels after vitamin D supplementation in healthy men: a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepper, S; Shahar, D R; Geva, D; Ish-Shalom, S

    2016-06-01

    Vitamin D is thought to play a role in glucose metabolism. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of vitamin D supplementation on markers of insulin sensitivity and inflammation in men without diabetes with vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency. In this 1-year double-blind randomized controlled trial, 130 men aged 20-65 years (mean age 47.52 ± 11.84 years) with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels HOMA-IR) values between groups. Levels of insulin and HOMA-IR values remained steady during the study period in the treatment group but increased by 16% in the control group (p = 0.038 and p = 0.048, respectively). Vitamin D supplementation administered for 12 months in healthy men maintained insulin levels and HOMA-IR values relative to the increase in the control group. Further studies are needed to establish the long-term effect of vitamin D supplementation on the risk of diabetes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Combining a joint health supplement with tibial plateau leveling osteotomy in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture. An exploratory controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo M. Martini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Canine cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CrCLR is a very common pathology. Surgical stabilization is the first choice treatment, although it does not fully eliminate the increased risk of osteoarthritis. This preliminary study was carried out to explore whether a newly formulated joint health supplement would benefit metabolic, clinical and radiographic changes in dogs with CrCLR surgically treated with tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO. Besides chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine hydrochloride, the studied supplement contained anti-inflammatory and antioxidant ingredients, the main ones being N-palmitoyl-D-glucosamine (Glupamid® and quercetin. It was thus intended to target not only chondrodegenerative components of osteoarthritis, but also post-injury inflammatory response and oxidative stress of joint tissues. Thirteen dogs underwent TPLO and were randomly allocated to treatment (n = 6 and control groups (n = 7, the former receiving the joint supplement for 90 days. Lameness and radiographic osteoarthritis changes were scored before (i.e., baseline and at 30 and 90 days post-surgery. Synovial fluid samples were collected from injured stifles at the same time points. Levels of representative metabolites were measured by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in a blinded fashion. In the metabolomic analysis, special attention was paid to lactate, due to its emerging recognition as a key marker of inflammation. In the last time period (from the 30th to the 90th day, lameness improved by a factor of 2.3 compared to control dogs. No significant difference was observed in the radiographic osteoarthritis score between groups. In the first postoperative month, lactate and creatine levels significantly dropped in treated compared to control dogs. Compared to surgery alone, combining the joint supplement with TPLO resulted in a trend to a better clinical outcome in the later time interval but did not influence

  3. Effects of chromium-enriched bacillus subtilis KT260179 supplementation on chicken growth performance, plasma lipid parameters, tissue chromium levels, cecal bacterial composition and breast meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiajun; Qian, Kun; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Yayuan; Wu, Yijing

    2016-11-08

    Both chromium (Cr) and probiotic bacillus own the virtues of regulating animal metabolism and meat quality. Purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of supplemental Cr and bacillus in the form of chromium-enriched Bacillus subtilis KT260179 (CEBS) on chicken growth performance, plasma lipid parameters, tissue chromium levels, cecal bacterial composition and breast meat quality. Six hundred of 1-day-old Chinese Huainan Partridge chickens were divided into four groups randomly: Control, inorganic Cr, Bacillus subtilis, and CEBS. The feed duration was 56 days. After 28 days of treatment, broiler feed CEBS or normal B. subtilis had higher body weights than control broiler, and after 56 days, chickens given either CEBS or B. subtilis had greater body weights than control broiler or those given inorganic Cr. Plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels declined significantly in the CEBS group compared with the control, whereas plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased significantly. The concentration of Cr in blood and breast muscle increased after CEBS and inorganic Cr supplementation. B. subtilis and CEBS supplementation caused a significant increase in the numbers of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium in the caecum, while the numbers of Escherichia coli and Salmonella decreased significantly compared to the control. Feed adding CEBS increased the lightness, redness, and yellowness of breast meat, improved the water-holding capacity, decreased the shear force and cooking loss. In all, CEBS supplementation promoted body growth, improved plasma lipid parameters, increased tissue Cr concentrations, altered cecal bacterial composition and improved breast meat quality.

  4. Effects of wheat cultivar, metabolizable energy level, and xylanase supplementation to laying hens diet on performance, egg quality traits, and selected blood parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Mirzaee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was conducted to evaluate the effects of two dietary apparent metabolizable energy (AME levels (2,720 and 2,580 kcal kg-1 diet and enzyme (0 and 0.3 g kg-1 diet, Grindazym® GP 15,000 with mostly xylanase activity supplementation on the performance of laying hens fed diets based on two wheat cultivars (Marvdasht and Sardari. Experimental diets were formulated to have a constant energy to protein ratio and were fed to 65-wk-old Lohmann LSL-Lite laying hens for 7 wk. The lower level of AME reduced egg production and egg mass (p<0.05 and increased feed conversion ratio (p<0.05. Enzyme addition increased feed intake of the birds fed a diet with Sardari cultivar (p<0.05 but had no effect on feed intake of the birds fed a diet with Marvdasht cultivar (p>0.05. Nevertheless, birds receiving diets based on Marvdasht cultivar had higher feed intake and egg mass than that of those receiving diets based on Sardari cultivar (p<0.05. The birds fed diets based on Marvdasht cultivar produced less undesired eggs and had better yolk color as compared with the birds fed diets based on Sardari cultivar (p<0.05. The serum concentration of glucose increased by enzyme supplementation when birds receiving lower AME level (p<0.05. These results indicate that enzyme supplementation may have a positive effect on the feed intake of laying hens when fed on wheat-based diets; however, this effect is cultivar dependent and does not necessarily mean that enzyme supplementation always benefit production.

  5. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Plasma Levels Before and After Supplementation: Correlations with Mood and Clinical Outcomes in the Omega-3 and Therapy Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, L Eugene; Young, Andrea S; Belury, Martha A; Cole, Rachel M; Gracious, Barbara; Seidenfeld, Adina M; Wolfson, Hannah; Fristad, Mary A

    2017-04-01

    To examine fatty acid profiles, their response to omega-3 fatty acid (Ω3) supplementation, and associations with clinical status and treatment response in youth with mood disorders. In a placebo-controlled 2X2 design, 7-14 year-olds (N = 95) in parallel pilot trials (depression N = 72; bipolar N = 23) were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of Ω3 supplementation (1.4 g eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA], 0.2 g docosahexaenoic acid [DHA], and 0.27 g other Ω3 per day); psychoeducational psychotherapy (PEP); their combination; or placebo (mainly oleic and linoleic acid) alone. Blood was drawn at baseline (N = 90) and endpoint (n = 65). Fatty acid levels were expressed as percent of total plasma fatty acids. Correlational and moderator/mediator analyses were done with SPSS Statistics 23. At baseline: (1) DHA correlated negatively with alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (r = -0.23, p = 0.029); (2) Arachidonic acid (AA, Ω6) correlated negatively with global functioning (r = -0.24, p = 0.022); (3) Total Ω3 correlated negatively with age (r = -0.22, p = 0.036) and diastolic blood pressure (r = -0.31, p = 0.006). Moderation: Baseline ALA moderated response to Ω3 supplementation: ALA levels above the sample mean (lower DHA) predicted significantly better placebo-controlled response (p = 0.04). Supplementation effects: Compared to placebo, 2 g Ω3 per day increased EPA blood levels sevenfold and DHA levels by half (both p Mediation: EPA increase baseline-to-endpoint mediated placebo-controlled global function and depression improvement: the greater the EPA increase, the less the placebo-controlled Ω3 improvement. Ω3 supplementation at 2 g/day increases blood levels substantially, more so in smaller children. A possible U-shaped response curve should be explored.

  6. Effect of Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation on Carcass Characteristics of Lambs Fed Concentrate Diets at Different Ambient Temperature Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demba B. Jallow

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of ambient temperatures on carcass characteristics of lambs fed concentrate diets with or without NaHCO3 supplementation. A slaughter study was carried on 12 male Black Belly Barbados lambs randomly drawn from a growth trial (35 weeks. The lambs were divided into four equal groups and allotted in a 2×2 factorial design. The lambs were allotted at random to two dietary treatments of a basal diet (35:65 roughage:concentrate or basal diet supplemented with 4% NaHCO3 at different ambient temperatures (20°C and 30°C in an environment controlled chamber for 10 days. Lambs were slaughtered for carcass evaluation at about 262 days of age (245 days of growth trial, 7 days adaptation and 10 days of experimental period. Ambient temperature had significant (p0.05 effects on pH, and water holding capacity on both muscles. These results indicated that NaHCO3 supplementation at low ambient temperatures had caused an increase in carcass characteristics leading to significant effect on meat quality.

  7. Effect of iron deficiency anemia and iron supplementation on HbA1c levels - Implications for diagnosis of prediabetes and diabetes mellitus in Asian Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhu, S V; Raj, Abhishek; Gupta, Stuti; Giri, S; Rusia, Usha

    2017-05-01

    We investigated the effect of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) on levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and to compare its levels before and after iron supplementations. Age and sex matched subjects were enrolled and clustered in 2 groups: IDA (n=62) and healthy controls (HC; n=60). HbA1c levels were estimated by HPLC. Hemogram were estimated by hematology analyser. Serum ferritin (ELISA) and other parameters of iron profile were measured by standard guidelines of ICSH. HbA1c values and iron studies were repeated after 3months of iron supplementation to determine the effect of iron therapy on HbA1c levels. Significantly higher HbA1c levels were observed in IDA subjects compared to HC (5.51±0.696 v/s 4.85±0.461%, pHbA1c and hemoglobin, hematocrit, RBC count, MCH, MCHC and serum ferritin in IDA subjects (r=-0.632, -0.652, -0.384, -0.236, -0.192 and -0.441). Significant decline was noticed in HbA1c levels in IDA subjects after iron supplementation (5.51±0.696 before treatment v/s 5.044±0.603 post-treatment; pHbA1c in pre-diabetes range normalised to normal glucose tolerance (NGT) range and out of 6 patients with pre-treatment HbA1c in diabetes range, 5 reverted to pre-diabetes range while 1 of them reverted to the NGT range. Caution must be exercised in interpreting the results of HbA1c in patients of IDA and iron deficiency must be corrected before diagnosing diabetes and pre-diabetes solely on the basis of HbA1c criteria. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Timing growth and development of Campanula by daily light integral and supplemental light level in a cost-efficient light control system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Ottosen, Carl-Otto; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2012-01-01

    light control system (DynaLight desktop) automatically defines the most cost-efficient use of supplemental light based on predefined setpoints for daily photosynthesis integral (DPI), forecasted solar irradiance and the market price on electricity. It saves energy in high-cost periods of electricity......Two campanula species Campanula portenschlagiana (‘Blue Get Mee’) and Campanula cochlearifolia (‘Blue Wonder’) were grown in a cost-efficient light control system and the effect of supplemental light level and daily light integral (DLI) on growth and development was quantified. The alternative...... the number of flowers and buds and CLI in ‘Blue Get Mee’. The results demonstrate that DLI was the main limiting factor for prediction of growth and development when two campanula species were grown in a cost-efficient light control system where the number of daily light hours was often below the critical...

  9. [Effects of a lipid-based nutrient supplement on hemoglobin levels and anthropometric indicators in children from five districts in Huánuco Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Vásquez, Alejandro; Bado, Ricardo; Alcázar, Lorena; Aquino, Oscar; Rodríguez, Amelia; Novalbos, José Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Objectives . To determine the effect of consumption of a lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) on hemoglobin levels, anemia and anthropometric indicators in children aged six to eleven months old in five districts in the province of Ambo in the region of Huanuco, Peru. A pre-experimental, pre-post study was performed. The study population included children aged six to eleven months old in 19 health facilities in five districts with very high vulnerability to chronic malnutrition in the province of Ambo, Huanuco. Data from 147 children who received the lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) from six to eleven months old were obtained. The mean hemoglobin significantly increased by 0.67 g/dL (panemia dropped by 27 percentage points (panemia in children under twelve months, which might constitute an effective alternative to prevent and control childhood anemia.

  10. The effect of formula versus breast feeding and exogenous vitamin K1 supplementation on circulating levels of vitamin K1 and vitamin K-dependent clotting factors in newborns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogenbirk, K.; Peters, M.; Bouman, P.; Sturk, A.; Büller, H. A.

    1993-01-01

    The influence of breast or formula feeding together with that of a single supplementation of vitamin K1 at birth, on the vitamin K1 level and vitamin K-dependent clotting factors were studied in 65 breast and 15 formula fed infants. All breast fed newborns without supplementation (n = 25) had very

  11. Effect of different level of concentrate supplementation on the periparturient growth performance of Ganjam goat in extensive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhasish Sahu

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was carried out to evaluate the impact of concentrate supplementation to the pregnant Ganjam goats on their growth performance in periparturient period. Materials and Methods: A total of 45 pregnant Ganjam does of similar body weight, age and parity were divided into three treatment groups with 15 does in each. T1 : normal browsing at range system, T2 : normal browsing with concentrate supplementation @ 200g/day, T3 : normal browsing with concentrate supplementation @ 300g/day for 60 days before expected date of kidding. Observations regarding various growth performances were made following standard procedures. Results: Average daily concentrate feed intake for T2 was 160 g and 225 g for T3 . For the does in T1 , the body weights ranged from 34.59 ± 0.75 kg (at the beginning to 38.29 ± 0.75 kg (after 60 days of supplementation while for those in T2 it increased from 33.91 ± 0.70 kg to 38.71 ± 0.64 kg and for T3 itranged from 34.05 ± 0.64 to 39.55 ± 0.62 kg. The cumulative live weight gain during the period 0-60 days varied significantly among the different treatments with the lowest value in T1 (3.71 ± 0.27 kg to highest value in T3 (5.49 ± 0.22 kg although the initial body weights were same. The cumulative body weight gain during 0- 90 days postpartum was significantly higher in T1 (3.13 ± 0.46 kg compared to T3 (2.10 ± 0.19 kg. Significant difference in average daily gain during prepartum period was found in all groups as 61.78 ± 4.47, 79.89 ± 2.20, 91.56 ± 3.71 for T1, T2 and T3 respectively. The average daily gain of the does during post partum period was 23.33 g (T3 , 24.30 g (T2 and 34.81 g (T1 perdoe indicating a statistically significant difference among the treatments. Conclusion: It is concluded that on supplementation of concentrate between 160 to 225 g improved both prepartum and postpartum body condition of Ganjam goats. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 428-432

  12. Development of the Teacher Candidates’ Level of being Affected from Public Personnel Selection Examination Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma SUSAR KIRMIZI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a scale to evaluate teacher candidates' level of being affected from the public personnel selection examination. The participants of the study consisted of the final year students at Pamukkale University Education Faculty. The participants were 207 teacher candidates, of whom 143 were female and 64 were male. The validity and reliability study of the scale was conducted on the data gathered from teacher candidates studying at Art Teaching, Music Teaching, Turkish Language Teaching, Social Studies Education, Science Teaching, Psychological Counseling and Guidance Education, Elementary Education and Preschool Education departments of Pamukkale University Education Faculty. The Lawshe technique was used in the evaluation of the scale by experts. To determine the construct validity, factor analysis was performed on the data, and two sub-scales were identified. The factor loading values of the items in the first sub-scale ranged between 0,65 and 0,35, and those in the second sub-scale between 0,75 and 0,39. As a result of the analyses, the "Teacher Candidates' Level of Being Affected From Public Personnel Selection Examination Scale" (TCLBAPPSES including 33 items, 23 negative and 10 positive, and two sub-scales was produced. The Cronbach's Alpha reliability coefficient was found as 0,86 for the first sub-dimension, 0,73 for the second sub-dimension, and 0,91 for the whole scale. As a result, it can be argued that the scale is reliable.-------------Öğretmen Adaylarının Kamu Personeli Seçme Sınavından Etkilenme Düzeyi Ölçeğinin GeliştirilmesiÖzet:Bu çalışmada, öğretmen adaylarının kamu personeli seçme sınavından etkilenme düzeylerini değerlendirmek için bir ölçek geliştirilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu Pamukkale Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi son sınıf öğrencileri oluşturmuştur. Araştırmada 143 kız, 64 erkek olmak üzere toplam 207 öğretmen adayına ula

  13. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation and feeding level on dairy performance, milk fatty acid composition, and body fat changes in mid-lactation goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazal, S; Berthelot, V; Friggens, N C; Schmidely, P

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this trial was to study the interaction between the supplementation of lipid-encapsulated conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 4.5 g of cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 and 4.5 g of trans-10,cis-12 C18:2) and feeding level to test if milk performance or milk fatty acid (FA) profile are affected by the interaction between CLA and feeding level. Twenty-four dairy goats were used in an 8-wk trial with a 3-wk adaptation to the experimental ration that contained corn silage, beet pulp, barley, and a commercial concentrate. During the third week, goats were assigned into blocks of 2 goats according to their dry matter intake (DMI), raw milk yield, and fat yield. Each block was randomly allocated to control (45 g of Ca salt of palm oil/d) or CLA treatment. Within each block, one goat was fed to cover 100% (FL100) of the calculated energy requirements and the other was fed 85% of the DMI of the first goat (FL85). Individual milk production and composition were recorded weekly, and milk FA composition was analyzed in wk 3, 5, and 7. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation reduced milk fat content and fat yield by 17 and 19%, respectively, independent of the feeding level. It reduced both the secretion of milk FA synthesized de novo, and those taken up from the blood. No interaction between CLA and feeding level was observed on milk secretion of any group of FA. The CLA supplementation had no effect on DMI, milk yield, protein, and lactose yields but it improved calculated net energy for lactation balance. Goats fed the FL100 × CLA diet tended to have the highest DMI and protein yield. The interaction between CLA and feeding level was not significant for any other variables. Compared with the goats fed FL100, those fed FL85 had lower DMI, lower net energy for lactation balance, and lower digestible protein in the intestine balance. The body weight; milk yield; milk fat, protein, and lactose yields; and fat, protein, lactose, and urea contents in milk were not affected by

  14. Digestibility of Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris)-based diets supplemented with four levels of Gliricidia sepium hay in hair sheep lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avilés-Nieto, Jonathan N.; Valle-Cerdán, José L.; Castrejón-Pineda, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of supplementing increasing levels of Gliricidia sepium hay (GS) with different levels of inclusion of Buffel grass (BG) hay on digestibility by hair sheep lambs (2.5 to 3.5 months of age). Eight male lambs were used in a replicated 4 × 4...... were not affected by treatments. The intake of crude protein (CP), organic matter (OM), and gross energy was higher (P lambs fed with T4 diet than control. NDF and ADF digestibilities were higher (P

  15. The mathematics textbook at tertiary level as curriculum material - exploring the teacher's decision-making process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randahl, Mira

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports on a study about how the mathematics textbook was perceived and used by the teacher in the context of a calculus part of a basic mathematics course for first-year engineering students. The focus was on the teacher's choices and the use of definitions, examples and exercises in a sequence of lectures introducing the derivative concept. Data were collected during observations of lectures and an interview, and informal talks with the teacher. The introduction and the treatment of the derivative as proposed by the teacher during the lectures were analysed in relation to the results of the content text analysis of the textbook. The teacher's decisions were explored through the lens of intended learning goals for engineering students taking the mathematics course. The results showed that the sequence of concepts and the formal introduction of the derivative as proposed by the textbook were closely followed during the lectures. The examples and tasks offered to the students focused strongly on procedural knowledge. Although the textbook proposes both examples and exercises that promote conceptual knowledge, these opportunities were not fully utilized during the observed lectures. Possible reasons for the teacher's choices and decisions are discussed.

  16. Effects of different levels of urea supplementation on nutrient intake and growth performance in growing camels fed roughage based complete pellet diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntiranyibagira Emmanuel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of urea in camels has beneficial and negative effects. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of different levels of urea supplementation on nutrients intake, digestibility, growth performance, feed efficiency and economics in growing camels fed roughage based complete pellet diets. In the present study, eighteen growing camels with an average live body weight of 306.17 ± 2.05 kg were randomly assigned in three treatments: T1 = roughage complete pellet diet without urea, T2 = T1 plus 1% urea, and T3 = T1 plus 2% urea. The results showed that the urea supplementation significantly affected average daily feed and nutrient intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, and acid detergent fiber (ADF (P  0.05. Similarly, digestion coefficient of DM, CP, ether extract (EE, crude fiber (CF and ADF was influenced by increasing urea level (P  0.05. The intake of digestive nutrients was similar among all treatment groups. Total body live weight gain and average daily gain were significantly higher in urea supplemented groups (P < 0.05 than in the control group. The supplementation of urea at 1% in low quality roughage complete pellet diets significantly improved (P < 0.05 the feed efficiency. In conclusion, these results indicated that the incorporation of urea at 1% in roughage based complete pellet diets could positively improve nutrients intake, digestibility, growth performance and feed conversion efficiency of growing camels.

  17. Effects of Enzyme Supplementation on Productive Performance and Egg Quality of Laying Hens fed Diets Containing Graded Levels of Whole Date Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torki M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present study was to determine the effects of β-mannanase-based enzyme (Hemicell® on productive performance and egg quality in diets containing graded levels of Whole date waste (WDW fed to laying hens. A total of 336 Hy-line leghorn hens after production peak were randomly divided into 56 cages. Eight iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous experimental diets in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement including four levels of WDW (0, 10, 20 and 30% and 2 concentrations of supplemental β-mannanase (0 or 0.06 % were prepared. Each dietary treatment was fed to 7 cages (6 birds/cage from 32 to 38 wk of age. During the experiment, daily egg production, egg weight and feed intake were measured. At the 6th wk, egg quality traits were also recorded. The results showed that there was no interaction between WDW inclusion and enzyme supplementation on performance and egg traits. Dietary supplementation of WDW more than 10% significantly decreased egg production and egg mass compared to no WDW recipient hens (control diet during the entire experiment (P. Inclusion of 30% WDW to the diet, significantly increased overall feed conversion ratio compared to the control group (P. The treatment with 20 and 30% WDW also resulted in lower eggshell thickness as compared to 10% WDW (P. The dietary inclusion of 10% WDW also increased yolk index as compared to the control and 30% WDW groups (P. Enzyme supplementation had no significant effect on productive performance as well as egg quality characteristics. Based on the results of this experiment, it can be concluded that WDW could be included to laying hens diets up to 10% with no deleterious effects on performance and egg quality characteristics.

  18. Implementation and impact of experiential learning in a graduate level teacher education program: An example from a Canadian universit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cher M. Hill

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Teacher inquiry, in which teachers study their own professional practice, is currently a popular form of experiential learning that is considered a powerful tool to bring about effective change in teaching and learning. Little empirical evidence, however, exists to explain precisely if and how this pedagogical methodology moves teachers toward transformation of practice. Using grounded theory methodology, we examined twelve end of term graduate level learning portfolios and administered a survey to 336 in-service teachers enrolled in a two-year graduate diploma program in the Faculty of Education at Simon Fraser University, Canada. We found powerful evidence that our programs were highly impactful, with 94% of teachers reporting transformative learning within the second year of the program. Using portfolio data we examined the process of the teacher transformations. Our findings revealed that teachers’ abilities to interrogate their subjective-objective stance deepened their experiential learning. Using three case studies we exemplify how transformative pathways were formulated and conclude with a discussion of the implications of learning through experience, including the value of student-generated learning goals, continuous interfacing of theory and practice, seeing your ‘teaching’ through the eyes of your students/colleagues or parents, and the power of living your research question in the context of your own classroom and school setting. We end the paper on a cautionary note pointing out the vulnerability of programs of this nature in an era of accountability, standardization, quality control, and risk management all of which eclipse approaches that focus on authentic practical problems and student generated solutions.

  19. Effects of aerobic and anaerobic training programs together with omega-3 supplement on interleukin-17 and CRP plasma levels in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Hamid; Daryanoosh, Farhad; Moatari, Maryam; Hoseinzadeh, Khadijeh

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we studied the effects of two different exercise protocols on IL-17 and CRP plasma levels along with the anti-inflammatory effects of fish oil. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) consumption along with two different types of physical activities on IL-17 and CRP plasma levels in trained male mice. A total of 130 adult male mice of Syrian race with the age of 2 months and the weight of 35±1 grams were selected. At the beginning, 10 mice were killed in order to determine the amounts of pre-test variables. The rest of the mice were randomly divided into 6 groups including control group (n=20), supplement (n=20), aerobic exercise (n=20), anaerobic exercise (n=20), supplementaerobic exercise (n=20), and supplement-anaerobic exercise (n=20). Blood samples were withdrawn from the tail under intraperitoneal ketamine and xylasine anaesthesia. The anaerobic training program included 8 weeks of running on treadmill, 3 sessions per week; the aerobic training program included 8 weeks of running on treadmill, 5 sessions per week. At the end of the training program, the blood sample from each group was taken in order to measure the CRP and IL-17 levels. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the differences among the groups. The results showed that there was a significant difference in IL-17 and CRP plasma levels between the groups after 8 weeks (Ptraining programs, both IL-17 and CRP plasma levels increased, although these observed increases were not same for two measured variables. The results might also show that the effect of the supplement depends on the type of training.

  20. Effect of Oral Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) Supplementation on DHA Levels and Omega-3 Index in Red Blood Cell Membranes of Breast Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfino, Alessio; Amabile, Maria I; Mazzucco, Sara; Biolo, Gianni; Farcomeni, Alessio; Ramaccini, Cesarina; Antonaroli, Simonetta; Monti, Massimo; Muscaritoli, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in cell membrane may influence breast cancer (BC) patients' prognosis, affecting tumor cells sensitivity to chemo- and radio-therapy and likely modulating inflammation. The possibility of identifying BC patients presenting with low DHA levels and/or low ability of DHA incorporation into cell membrane might help to treat this condition. Methods: We enrolled BC patients and healthy controls, recording their seafood dietary intake. DHA in form of algal oil was administered for 10 consecutive days (2 g/day). Blood samples were collected at baseline (T0) and after 10 days of supplementation (T1) to assess DHA, omega-3 index, as the sum of DHA + eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), in red blood cells (RBC) membranes and plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 levels. Pre- and post-treatment fatty acid profiles were obtained by gas-chromatography. Parametric and non-parametric tests were performed, as appropriate, and P -value DHA and omega-3 index increased from T0 to T1 in the 3 groups of BC patients and in controls ( P DHA incorporation between each group of BC patients and between patients and controls, except for M group, which incorporated higher DHA levels with respect to controls (β = 0.42; P = 0.03). No association was documented between cytokines levels and DHA and omega-3 index at baseline and after DHA supplementation. Independent of the presence of BC, women considered as "good seafood consumers" showed at baseline DHA and omega-3 index higher with respect to "low seafood consumers" ( P = 0.04; P = 0.007, respectively). After supplementation, the increase in DHA levels was greater in "low seafood consumers" with respect to "good seafood consumers" ( P DHA supplementation was associated with increased DHA levels and omega-3 index in RBC membranes of BC cancer patients, independent of the type of BC presentation, and in controls. BRCA1/2 mutation, as well as low seafood consuming habits in both BC patients and healthy

  1. Effect of Oral Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA Supplementation on DHA Levels and Omega-3 Index in Red Blood Cell Membranes of Breast Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Molfino

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in cell membrane may influence breast cancer (BC patients' prognosis, affecting tumor cells sensitivity to chemo- and radio-therapy and likely modulating inflammation. The possibility of identifying BC patients presenting with low DHA levels and/or low ability of DHA incorporation into cell membrane might help to treat this condition.Methods: We enrolled BC patients and healthy controls, recording their seafood dietary intake. DHA in form of algal oil was administered for 10 consecutive days (2 g/day. Blood samples were collected at baseline (T0 and after 10 days of supplementation (T1 to assess DHA, omega-3 index, as the sum of DHA + eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, in red blood cells (RBC membranes and plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 levels. Pre- and post-treatment fatty acid profiles were obtained by gas-chromatography. Parametric and non-parametric tests were performed, as appropriate, and P-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: Forty-three women were studied, divided into 4 groups: 11 patients with BRCA1/2 gene mutation (M group, 12 patients with familiar positive history for BC (F group, 10 patients with sporadic BC (S group, and 10 healthy controls (C group. DHA and omega-3 index increased from T0 to T1 in the 3 groups of BC patients and in controls (P < 0.001. No difference was found in DHA incorporation between each group of BC patients and between patients and controls, except for M group, which incorporated higher DHA levels with respect to controls (β = 0.42; P = 0.03. No association was documented between cytokines levels and DHA and omega-3 index at baseline and after DHA supplementation. Independent of the presence of BC, women considered as “good seafood consumers” showed at baseline DHA and omega-3 index higher with respect to “low seafood consumers” (P = 0.04; P = 0.007, respectively. After supplementation, the increase in DHA levels was

  2. Effects of nitrate supplementation in trained and untrained muscle are modest with initial high plasma nitrite levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Møller; Petersen, Nanna K; Friis, Signe N

    2017-01-01

    Nitrate (NO3(-) ) supplementation resulting in higher plasma nitrite (NO2(-) ) is reported to lower resting mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and oxygen uptake (VO2 ) during submaximal exercise in non-athletic populations, whereas effects in general are absent in endurance trained individuals...... consumed nitrate-rich beetroot-juice ([NO3(-) ] ~9 mmol) (NIT) or placebo (PLA) with assessment of resting MAP and energy expenditure during moderate intensity (~50% VO2 -max) and incremental leg cycling (LEG-ex) and arm cranking exercise (ARM-ex). NIT increased (P

  3. Effectiveness and feasibility of weekly iron and folic acid supplementation to adolescent girls and boys through peer educators at community level in the tribal area of Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobha P Shah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anemia during adolescence affects growth and development of girls and boys increasing their vulnerability to dropping out-of-school. Hence investing in preventing anemia during adolescence is critical for their survival, growth and development. Objective: To find out the burden of anemia on adolescent age group in the tribal area of Jhagadia block and to assess the change in the hemoglobin level through the weekly Iron and Folic Acid IFA (DOTS directly observed treatment supplementation under Supervision by Peer Educators at Community level among adolescents. Methods: Community based intervention study conducted with adolescents (117 girls and 127 boys aged 10-19 years, through supplementation of IFA (DOTS by trained Peer Educators for 52 weeks in 5 tribal villages of Jhagadia. Hemoglobin level was determined by HemoCue method before and after intervention and sickle cell anemia by Electrophoresis method. Primary data on hemoglobin and number of tablets consumed was collected and statistically analyzed in SPSS 16.0 software by applying paired t-test. Results: The overall findings suggest that the prevalence of anemia reduced from 79.5% to 58% among adolescent girls and from 64% to 39% among boys. Mean rise of hemoglobin seen was 1.5 g/dl among adolescent boys and 1.3 g/dl among girls. A significant association was found in change in hemoglobin before and after intervention (P = 0.000 Conclusion: Prevalence of anemia among girls and boys can be reduced in their adolescent phase of life, through weekly supplementation of iron folic acid tablets under direct supervision and Nutrition Education by Peer Educator at community level.

  4. High Levels of Dietary Supplement Vitamins A, C and E are Absorbed in the Small Intestine and Protect Nutrient Transport Against Chronic Gamma Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, Edouard I.; Ferraris, Ronaldo P.; Howell, Roger W.

    2015-01-01

    We examined nutrient transport in the intestines of mice exposed to chronic low-LET 137Cs gamma rays. The mice were whole-body irradiated for 3 days at dose rates of 0, 0.13 and 0.20 Gy/h, for total dose delivery of 0, 9.6 or 14.4 Gy, respectively. The mice were fed either a control diet or a diet supplemented with high levels of vitamins A, C and E. Our results showed that nutrient transport was perturbed by the chronic irradiation conditions. However, no apparent alteration of the macroscopic intestinal structures of the small intestine were observed up to day 10 after initiating irradiation. Jejunal fructose uptake measured in vitro was strongly affected by the chronic irradiation, whereas uptake of proline, carnosine and the bile acid taurocholate in the ileum was less affected. D-glucose transport did not appear to be inhibited significantly by either 9.6 or 14.4 Gy exposure. In the 14.4 Gy irradiated groups, the diet supplemented with high levels of vitamins A, C and E increased intestinal transport of fructose compared to the control diet (day 10; t test, P = 0.032), which correlated with elevated levels of vitamins A, C and E in the plasma and jejunal enterocytes. Our earlier studies with mice exposed acutely to 137Cs gamma rays demonstrated significant protection for transport of fructose, glucose, proline and carnosine. Taken together, these results suggest that high levels of vitamins A, C and E dietary supplements help preserve intestinal nutrient transport when intestines are irradiated chronically or acutely with low-LET gamma rays. PMID:26484399

  5. Vitamin K supplementation increases vitamin K tissue levels but fails to counteract ectopic calcification in a mouse model for pseudoxanthoma elasticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgels, Theo G M F; Waarsing, Jan H; Herfs, Marjolein; Versteeg, Daniëlle; Schoensiegel, Frank; Sato, Toshiro; Schlingemann, Reinier O; Ivandic, Boris; Vermeer, Cees; Schurgers, Leon J; Bergen, Arthur A B

    2011-11-01

    Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is an autosomal recessive disorder in which calcification of connective tissue leads to pathology in skin, eye and blood vessels. PXE is caused by mutations in ABCC6. High expression of this transporter in the basolateral hepatocyte membrane suggests that it secretes an as-yet elusive factor into the circulation which prevents ectopic calcification. Utilizing our Abcc6 (-/-) mouse model for PXE, we tested the hypothesis that this factor is vitamin K (precursor) (Borst et al. 2008, Cell Cycle). For 3 months, Abcc6 (-/-) and wild-type mice were put on diets containing either the minimum dose of vitamin K required for normal blood coagulation or a dose that was 100 times higher. Vitamin K was supplied as menaquinone-7 (MK-7). Ectopic calcification was monitored in vivo by monthly micro-CT scans of the snout, as the PXE mouse model develops a characteristic connective tissue mineralization at the base of the whiskers. In addition, calcification of kidney arteries was measured by histology. Results show that supplemental MK-7 had no effect on ectopic calcification in Abcc6 ( -/- ) mice. MK-7 supplementation increased vitamin K levels (in skin, heart and brain) in wild-type and in Abcc6 (-/-) mice. Vitamin K tissue levels did not depend on Abcc6 genotype. In conclusion, dietary MK-7 supplementation increased vitamin K tissue levels in the PXE mouse model but failed to counteract ectopic calcification. Hence, we obtained no support for the hypothesis that Abcc6 transports vitamin K and that PXE can be cured by increasing tissue levels of vitamin K.

  6. Level conceptual change pre-service elementary teachers on electric current conceptions through visual multimedia supported conceptual change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermita, N.; Suhandi, A.; Syaodih, E.; Samsudin, A.; Marhadi, H.; Sapriadil, S.; Zaenudin, Z.; Rochman, C.; Mansur, M.; Wibowo, F. C.

    2018-05-01

    Now a day, conceptual change is the most valuable issues in the science education perspective, especially in the elementary education. Researchers have already dialed with the aim of the research to increase level conceptual change process on the electric conceptions through Visual Multimedia Supported Conceptual Change Text (VMMSCCText). We have ever utilized research and development method namely 3D-1I stands for Define, Design, Development, and Implementation. The 27 pre-service elementary teachers were involved in the research. The battery function in circuit electric conception is the futuristic concept which should have been learned by the students. Moreover, the data which was collected reports that static about 0%, disorientation about 0%, reconstruction about 55.6%, and construction about 25.9%. It can be concluded that the implementation of VMMSCCText to pre-service elementary teachers are increased to level conceptual change categories.

  7. Feed intake and utilization in sheep fed graded levels of dried moringa (Moringa stenopetala) leaf as a supplement to Rhodes grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebregiorgis, Feleke; Negesse, Tegene; Nurfeta, Ajebu

    2012-03-01

    The effects of feeding graded levels of dried moringa (Moringa stenopetala) leaf on intake, body weight gain (BWG), digestibility and nitrogen utilization were studied using male sheep (BW of 13.8 ± 0.12 kg). Six sheep were randomly allocated to each of the four treatment diets: Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay offered ad libitum (T1), hay + 150 g moringa leaf (T2), hay + 300 g moringa leaf (T3), hay + 450 g moringa leaf (T4) were offered daily. A 7-day digestibility trial and an 84-day growth experiments were conducted. Dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and crude protein (CP) intakes increased (P moringa leaf in the diets. Sheep fed T2, T3 and T4 diets gained (P  0.05) among treatments. The digestibility of dietary CP increased (P moringa leaf, but there was no significant difference between T2 and T3 diets. The nitrogen (N) intake and urinary N excretion increased (P moringa leaf. The N retention was highest (P moringa leaf supplementation. The control group was in a negative N balance. Supplementing a basal diet of Rhodes grass hay with dried moringa leaves improved DM intake, BWG and N retention. It is concluded that M. stenopetala can serve as a protein supplement to low-quality grass during the dry season under smallholder sheep production system.

  8. Haematological, biochemical and organ changes in broiler chickens fed varying levels of Morinda lucida (brimstone) leaf meal supplementation in the diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lala, A O; Ajayi, O L; Okwelum, N; Oso, A O; Fakorede, T V; Adebayo, T A; Jagbojo, J E

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of Morinda lucida leaf meal (MLLM) on the haematology, biochemical and organ changes of broiler chickens. One hundred and ninety-eight day-old Marshall broiler chicks were completely randomised into 6 treatments in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of three levels of M. lucida leaf meal supplementation (0, 0.1 and 0.2 g/kg) with or without medication. The treatment consisted of both negative (without MLLM and routine medication) and positive (containing no MLLM but with routine medication) control groups while each treatment was replicated thrice. MLLM-supplemented diets and routine medication decreased (p  0.05) on the liver, kidney, heart and gizzard. M. lucida leaf meal can be compared to routine medication for improved health status of broiler chickens. Dietary inclusion with 0.1 g/kg MLML combined with routine medication could be used in producing healthy and safe chickens.

  9. Vitamin D supplementation during short-term caloric restriction in healthy overweight/obese older women: Effect on glycemic indices and serum osteocalcin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumar, D; Shapses, S A; Schneider, S H

    2015-07-15

    The effect of vitamin D supplementation and caloric restriction (CR) on glycemic indices and osteocalcin (OC) is not clear. In this randomized controlled double blind trial, we examined whether vitamin D3 supplementation at 2500 IU/d (D) or placebo has differential effects on markers of insulin sensitivity and bone turnover in overweight/obese postmenopausal women during 6 weeks of caloric restriction (weight loss; WL, n = 39) compared to weight maintenance (WM, n = 37). Seventy-six women (57 ± 6 years) completed this study and the WL groups lost 4 ± 1% of body weight. Baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) was 24.8 ± 5.6 ng/mL at baseline; the rise was greatest in WL-D group (p < 0.05). There was an interaction between vitamin D intake and weight on serum OC, insulin, glucose and markers of insulin sensitivity (p < 0.05). The change in OC was explained by changes in serum 25OHD and insulin (model R(2) = 25.6%). Overall, vitamin D supplementation and CR influence serum osteocalcin levels and modestly favor improvements in insulin sensitivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Soy-based infant formula supplemented with DHA and ARA supports growth and increases circulating levels of these fatty acids in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Dennis; Ziegler, Ekhard; Mitmesser, Susan H; Harris, Cheryl L; Diersen-Schade, Deborah A

    2008-01-01

    Healthy term infants (n = 244) were randomized to receive: (1) control, soy-based formula without supplementation or (2) docosahexaenoic acid-arachidonic acid (DHA + ARA), soy-based formula supplemented with at least 17 mg DHA/100 kcal (from algal oil) and 34 mg ARA/100 kcal (from fungal oil) in a double-blind, parallel group trial to evaluate safety, benefits, and growth from 14 to 120 days of age. Anthropometric measurements were taken at 14, 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of age and 24-h dietary and tolerance recall were recorded at 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of age. Adverse events were recorded throughout the study. Blood samples were drawn from subsets of 25 infants in each group. Capillary column gas chromatography was used to analyze the percentages of fatty acids in red blood cell (RBC) lipids and plasma phospholipids. Compared with the control group, percentages of fatty acids such as DHA and ARA in total RBC and plasma phospholipids were significantly higher in infants in the DHA + ARA group at 120 days of age (P soy-based formula supplemented with DHA and ARA from single cell oil sources at concentrations similar to human milk significantly increased circulating levels of DHA and ARA when compared with the control group. Both formulas supported normal growth and were well tolerated.

  11. Effects of combined dietary supplementation with fenofibrate and Schisandrae Fructus pulp on lipid and glucose levels and liver function in normal and hypercholesterolemic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu PL

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pei-Li Zhu,1 Si-Yuan Pan,1 Shu-Feng Zhou,2 Yi Zhang,1 Xiao-Yan Wang,1 Nan Sun,1 Zhu-Sheng Chu,1 Zhi-Ling Yu,3 Kam-Ming Ko41Department of Pharmacology, School of Chinese Materia Medica, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 3School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China; 4Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: Currently, combined therapy using herbs and synthetic drugs has become a feasible therapeutic intervention against some diseases. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of supplementation with fenofibrate (FF, a chemical drug used for the treatment of hyperlipidemia, and the aqueous extract of Schisandrae Fructus (SF, a Chinese herb pulp (AqSF-P or an SF-related synthetic analog, bicyclol (BY, on serum/hepatic lipid levels and liver status in normal and hypercholesterolemic (HCL mice.Methods: Male mice obtained from the Institute of Cancer Research (ICR were fed on a normal diet (ND or high cholesterol/bile salt (0.5%/0.15%, w/w diet (HCBD containing FF (0.03% or 0.1%, w/w with or without AqSF-P (0.3%-9.0%, based on crude herbal material, w/w or BY (0.025%, w/w for 10 days. Then serum lipid levels and alanine aminotransferase (ALT activity, as well as hepatic triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, and glucose levels, were measured.Results: Oral supplementation with FF significantly reduced serum and hepatic TG, TC, and hepatic glucose levels (approximately 79% in mice fed with ND or HCBD. FF supplementation combined with AqSF-P or BY increased FF-induced reduction in hepatic TC and TG contents in ND-fed mice (up to 67% and in HCBD-fed mice (up to 54%, when compared with FF supplementation alone. Hepatic glucose-lowering effect of FF was

  12. Exploring teachers' perspectives on the impact of out-of-school science-based programs for secondary level physics classrooms in Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquerizo-Birth, Marisol

    This exploratory phenomenological study investigates the lived experiences of six high school physics teachers in Nebraska regarding their perceptions on the impact of participating in a science-based out-of-school program. By exploring the research question, we discover how this experience relates to these teachers' self-concept and professional growth. Open-ended, semi-structured, one-on-one interviews are used as the data collection method to explore teachers' perceptions. Responses reveal that teachers participating in the Cosmic Ray Observatory Project (CROP) as a means of exploring advanced, extracurricular physics projects perceive their participation as an opportunity for enrichment, collaboration, helping their students, and empowerment. Intertwined in the presented narratives, teachers refer to their schools' limited administrative support as a source of struggle tied to the challenge of balancing school and teaching responsibilities with CROP participants' responsibilities. This study proposes teachers must feel confident with their specific subject area to achieve a progressive view of self, and that supplemental professional development opportunities are crucial to physics teaching.

  13. Teacher Stress Inventory: validation of the Greek version and perceived stress levels among 3,447 educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourmousi, Ntina; Darviri, Christina; Varvogli, Liza; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C

    2015-01-01

    The Teacher Stress Inventory (TSI) is an instrument for measuring occupational stress in teachers. This study aimed to translate and adapt it for use in Greece, and then assess its reliability and validity. The Greek versions of the TSI and the 14-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14) were posted on all Greek educators' official sites during May 2012. A nationwide sample of 3,447 teachers of all levels and specialties completed the questionnaires via the Internet. Reliability was determined by the calculation of Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted and validity was further examined by investigating the correlation of the TSI with the PSS-14 and their association with demographics and work-related factors. Satisfactory Cronbach's alpha values (above 0.70) were found for all TSI dimensions. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the two-factor construct of TSI (root mean square error of approximation, comparative fit index, and goodness-of-fit index values were 0.079, 0.956, and 0.951, respectively), confirming the pre-established theory for the two latent variables, Stress Sources and Stress Manifestations. Significant correlations were found between TSI subscales, PSS-14 sex, age, lack of support, and students' difficulties. The Greek version of the TSI was found to have satisfactory psychometric properties, and its use for assessing stress in Greek teachers is warranted.

  14. Deep Ocean Mineral Supplementation Enhances the Cerebral Hemodynamic Response during Exercise and Decreases Inflammation Postexercise in Men at Two Age Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Yin Wei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have consistently shown that oral supplementation of deep ocean minerals (DOM improves vascular function in animals and enhances muscle power output in exercising humans.Purpose: To examine the effects of DOM supplementation on the cerebral hemodynamic response during physical exertion in young and middle-aged men.Design: Double-blind placebo-controlled crossover studies were conducted in young (N = 12, aged 21.2 ± 0.4 years and middle-aged men (N = 9, aged 46.8 ± 1.4 years. The counter-balanced trials of DOM and Placebo were separated by a 2-week washout period. DOM and Placebo were orally supplemented in drinks before, during, and after cycling exercise. DOM comprises desalinated minerals and trace elements from seawater collected ~618 m below the earth's surface.Methods: Cerebral hemodynamic response (tissue hemoglobin was measured during cycling at 75% VO2max using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS.Results: Cycling time to exhaustion at 75% VO2max and the associated plasma lactate response were similar between the Placebo and DOM trials for both age groups. In contrast, DOM significantly elevated cerebral hemoglobin levels in young men and, to a greater extent, in middle-aged men compared with Placebo. An increased neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR was observed in middle-aged men, 2 h after exhaustive cycling, but was attenuated by DOM.Conclusion: Our data suggest that minerals and trace elements from deep oceans possess great promise in developing supplements to increase the cerebral hemodynamic response against a physical challenge and during post-exercise recovery for middle-aged men.

  15. Teachers' experiences of workplace bullying and its effects on health :|bdeveloping a multi-level intervention programme / Jaqueline de Vos

    OpenAIRE

    De Vos, Jaqueline

    2012-01-01

    Workplace bullying is recognised as a major psychosocial stressor in various professions and can have severe effects on health. Teachers are distinguished as an occupational group that is severely affected by this phenomenon. The general objectives of this research study were to firstly investigate teachers’ experiences of workplace bullying and its effects on health, and secondly, to develop a multi-level intervention programme that can be implemented to address workplace bullying and its ef...

  16. Teacher Inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Wayne

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available When discussing the teacher quality gap, policy makers have tended to focus on teacher certification, degrees, and experience. These indicators have become key benchmarks for progress toward equality of educational opportunity, in part for lack of additional teacher quality indicators. This article turns attention to teachers' academic skills. National data on teachers' entrance examination scores and college selectivity reveal substantial disparities by school poverty level. The findings commend attention to the gap in academic skills in the formulation of future policy and research on the teacher quality gap.

  17. Histological Investigations on an Intestinal Level in Common Carp, One Summer Old, Fed with Organic Selenium (Selplex Supplemented Fodder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Şara

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to analyze the effect of organic Selenium (SelPlex on the intestinal mucosa and theimpact on the growth and consumption performances in one summer old common carp (Cyprinus carpio, Lausitzand Galitian varieties. The research were conducted on a number of 392 fish, Lausitz variety divided in 2 groups andon 192 fish, Galitian variety, divided into 2 groups. The fish were raised in 2 ponds (one pond for the control groupand one pond for the experimental group, in a semi-intensive polyculture system. The rearing conditions wereidentical for the 2 groups. The fodder for the experimental group was supplemented with Selenium (0.03mg/kgfodder. At the end of the experiment, the Selenium supplementation had a positive influence on the height of theintestinal villi. The experimental group (both varieties showed significant differences compared with the controlgroup. The mean height of the intestinal microvilli from the experimental group, Lausitz variety, was 2.328μm,0.95% bigger compared to the same variety of the control group. The Galitian variety showed a mean height of themicrovilli of 2.227μm, 0.72% biger than the same variety of the control group. This development of the villistructures in the experimental groups led to an increase in the absorption surface of the intestine which explains theaccelerated growth and the improvement of the feed conversion ratio.

  18. Calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007477.htm Calcium supplements To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. WHO SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the ...

  19. SPORT SUPPLEMENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandаr Marinkov

    2016-01-01

    Sport supplementation is essential for athletes performance and achievements. The well balanced and structured supplementation is a challenge for sport medicine because must be done a balance between potential benefits and potential risks (anti-doping rule violations and others). In this review are structured the most used categories sport supplementations. Nutritional supplements used in sport could be divided in some main categories like: amino acids, vitamins, proteins and antioxidants. Fo...

  20. Efficacy of Omega Fatty Acid Supplementation on mRNA Expression Level of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha in Patients with Gastric Adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Asghar; Ardebili, Seyed Mojtaba Mohaddes

    2016-09-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), a multifunctional cytokine, is involved in apoptosis, cell proliferation, cell survival, and inflammation. It plays a dual role in cancer development and progression. It has been revealed that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) modulate the production and activity of TNF family cytokines. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of PUFAs on messenger RNA expression levels of TNF-α in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. Thirty-four chemotherapy-naive patients diagnosed with gastric adenocarcinoma were randomly divided into two groups. The first group (17 individuals) received cisplatin without supplements and the second group (17 individuals) received cisplatin plus orally administered PUFA supplements for 3 weeks, based on treatment strategies. The gastric biopsy samples were obtained from all participants before and after treatment, and TNF-α mRNA expression levels were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR procedure. Our findings revealed that TNF-α mRNA expression is downregulated in group II, after receiving cisplatin and omega fatty acid supplement for 3 weeks. However, this difference is not statistically significant (p > 0.05). TNF-α mRNA expression did not show significant alteration in group I, after receiving cisplatin alone. Taken together, we concluded that omega fatty acids reduce TNF-α expression at the mRNA level in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. These data suggest that TNF-α may act as a potential target for the therapy of human gastric adenocarcinoma.

  1. The Level of Utilizing Blended Learning in Teaching Science from the Point of View of Science Teachers in Private Schools of Ajman Educational Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Derbashi, Khaled Y.; Abed, Osama H.

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to define the level of utilizing blended learning in teaching science from the point of view of science teachers (85 male and female teachers) who are working in private schools of Ajman Educational Zone. The study also aims to find if there are significant differences according to gender, years of experience, or the fact that…

  2. The Investigation of the Level of Self-Directed Learning Readiness According to the Locus of Control and Personality Traits of Preschool Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban Dagal, Asude; Bayindir, Dilan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the level of self-directed learning readiness, locus of control and the personality traits of preschool teacher candidates. The survey method was used for this study. The study group consisted of 151 teacher candidates who volunteered to participate in the study from Preschool…

  3. The Investigation of the Relationship between the Level of Metacognitive Awareness, Self-Directed Learning Readiness and Academic Achievement of Preschool Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagal, Asude Balaban; Bayindir, Dilan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine the relationship between the level of metacognitive awareness, self-directed learning readiness and academic achievement of preschool teacher candidates. The study group of the research, which was designed in survey method, included 151 teacher candidates from Atatürk Education Faculty, Preschool Teaching…

  4. Level of Psychological Burnout of a Sample of Secondary Phase Teachers in Ma'an Governorate and Its Relationship with Some Other Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhateeb, Omar; Kraishan, Osama M.; Salah, Raid Omar

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the level of psychological burnout of a random sample of secondary phase teacher in Ma'an Governorate and its relationship with some other variables. The study sample consisted of 80 male and female Islamic education teachers in the schools of Ma'an Governorate in the southern part of Jordan. To this end, the…

  5. Effects of dietary CLA supplementation, parity and different concentrate levels before calving on immunoglobulin G1, G2 and M concentrations in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eger, Melanie; Horn, Jana; Hussen, Jamal; Schuberth, Hans-Joachim; Scharf, Maria; Meyer, Ulrich; Dänicke, Sven; Bostedt, Hartwig; Breves, Gerhard

    2017-10-01

    Peripartal dairy cows exhibit a higher susceptibility for infectious diseases, which might be linked to the negative energy balance occurring at the onset of lactation. A dietary supplementation of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) may reduce milk fat yield and subsequently lower the energy deficit. The utilization of immunoglobulins (Ig) for colostrogenesis might impair humoral immunity in peripartal dairy cows; therefore this study investigated the effects of a CLA supplement, parity and different dietary energy levels on plasma and colostrum IgG1, IgG2 and IgM levels in dairy cows and their calves. Blood samples were collected from 64 cows from 21days before until 56days after parturition and colostrum samples for the first 3days of lactation. Plasma immunoglobulin concentrations of 19 calves were determined before colostrum uptake. Neither plasma IgG1, nor IgG2 levels were affected by CLA or dietary energy level. However, immunoglobulin levels were affected by parity. Heifers possessed the lowest IgG1 concentrations. IgG2 concentrations were highest in cows with 2 lactations prior to parturition and in heifers after parturition. Plasma IgM levels were characterized by a sharp decrease 3days prior to parturition and were scarcely affected by the feeding regimen or parity. Generally, immunoglobulin levels appear to be mostly independent from the peripartal energy balance of the cows and are not influenced by dietary CLA. However, pronounced differences among parities for IgG1 and IgG2 were revealed which should be further evaluated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Preservice Teachers' Views about E-Book and Their Levels of Use of E-Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalman, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Currently, using technological tools in education has made it compulsory to learn about these tools. For preservice teachers, who are students at education faculties at universities, it seems very important that they make use of these tools in their professional lives and teach them to their pupils. The teaching materials designed and prepared in…

  7. Level of Inhibition in Trained Secondary School Teachers: Evidence from Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Fauzia; Sharjeel, Yousuf

    2014-01-01

    The study found that the inhibition amongst trained secondary school teachers in using learned teaching methodologies is caused due to the lack of content knowledge, insufficient support from the administration, scarce continuous professional development opportunities, unsupportive environment, large class size, inefficiency to integrate…

  8. Gender Studies Course at UG/PG Levels and Gender Awareness Training to Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruvilla, Moly

    2014-01-01

    While the UGC is committed to the cause of promoting gender equity through higher education and is in the process of reviewing the existing arrangements in the campuses of higher learning to ensure the freedom, safety and security of girls and women, the proactive role of teachers in solving the problems of gender based violence and other…

  9. Student, Teacher and Class-Level Correlates of Flemish Late Elementary School Children's Writing Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smedt, Fien; Van Keer, Hilde; Merchie, Emmelien

    2016-01-01

    In Flanders, there are neither Flemish assessments nor teacher surveys to provide insights into the current practice and outcomes of writing instruction. In the present study, we provide a-state-of-the-art study of the practice of writing instruction in Flemish late elementary education by investigating: (a) how writing is taught, (b) how teachers…

  10. Iranian Language Teachers' and Students' Perspectives on Top Notch Series (2nd Edition) at Intermediate Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadsarv, Mehdi; Tahriri, Abdorreza

    2014-01-01

    As the means of transferring knowledge between teachers and students, coursebooks play a significant role in educational practices all over the world. Evaluation of coursebooks is also of great significance as it manages to a better understanding of the nature of a specific teaching/learning situation. The present study is an attempt to evaluate…

  11. Measuring Technology Acceptance Level of Turkish Pre-Service English Teachers by Using Technology Acceptance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmizi, Özkan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate technology acceptance of prospective English teachers by using Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in Turkish context. The study is based on Structural Equation Model (SEM). The participants of the study from English Language Teaching Departments of Hacettepe, Gazi and Baskent Universities. The participants…

  12. Movement to Create 'Academic Alliances' of Teachers of Same Subjects at All Education Levels Is Growing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Beverly T.

    1988-01-01

    The movement to create "academic alliances" of high-school and college teachers is discussed. The alliances owe much of their strength to the increased sense of self-esteem and the pleasure that members find in the company of disciplinary colleagues. A directory of some alliances is included. (MLW)

  13. Teachers, School Boards, and the Power of Money: How the Right Wins at the Local Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, Eleni B.; Apple, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines national conservative political advocacy groups' growing interest in local politics, and analyzes how they form alliances and gain political power. Following efforts to restrict collective bargaining for Wisconsin public employees, Kenosha school board members' attempts to legally protect teachers' rights provoked concern…

  14. An Analysis of the Critical Reading Levels of Pre-Service Turkish and Literature Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltepe, Sadet

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: Critical reading refers to individuals' thinking about what they read, assessing what they have read, and using their own judgment about what they have read. In order to teach critical reading skills to students, a teacher is expected to have knowledge about text selection, use of appropriate methods, preparation of functional…

  15. Levels of use of an elementary school inquiry-based instructional innovation among a selected group of teacher participants in the Delaware Elementary Science Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchelle, Henry Ellsworth Wirt, III

    Science education in Delaware's public elementary and middle schools has experienced much change in recent years as a result of the adoption of state standards and, in particular, the adoption by school districts of the Smithsonian/National Science Resources Council-sponsored inquiry-based instruction modules as part of the "Elementary Science Initiative." As part of this adoption process, each participating elementary teacher and middle school science teacher receives extensive training in the use of several discrete science kits. The trainings include reinforcement and development of content knowledge, in addition to the modeling of and practice with complementary pedagogy. One measure of the effectiveness of the science kit training process (and perhaps the Initiative itself) is the teachers' levels of use of the Initiative. The purpose of this study was to determine the participating teachers' use of the science kit innovation through the use of the Concerns-based Adoption Model Levels of Use Questionnaire. Eight K--5 elementary classroom teachers who had completed at least three science kit trainings participated. The results of this study indicate that on the Overall Level of Use Rating Scale, teachers who had completed training in at least three science kits generally scored at the Routine (IVA) level. All of the teachers, regardless of the wide range in the number of years of experience, had achieved the Mechanical Use level in Overall (III) LoU, and 6 of the 8 participants (75%) were operating at no less than the Refinement (IVA) Overall LoU level.

  16. Supplement to a Teacher's Notebook: Alternatives for Children with Learning Problems. Learning Alternatives in the Summer: One Program. Reading Games and Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migdail, Sherry R.; Vail, Priscilla L.

    The first section of this booklet describes a six-week summer workshop designed for children, ages five to thirteen, who have moderate to serious learning problems. In the morning session, teachers worked with the children individually or in small groups. In the afternoon, teachers assessed student abilities and devised individualized instruction…

  17. An investigation of factors affecting elementary female student teachers' choice of science as a major at college level in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlenga, Francis Howard

    The purpose of the study was to determine factors affecting elementary female student teachers' choice of science as a major at college level in Zimbabwe. The study was conducted at one of the Primary School Teachers' Colleges in Zimbabwe. A sample of two hundred and thirty-eight female student teachers was used in the study. Of these one hundred and forty-two were non-science majors who had been randomly selected, forty-one were science majors and forty-five were math majors. Both science and math majors were a convenient sample because the total enrollment of the two groups was small. All the subjects completed a survey questionnaire that had sixty-eight items. Ten students from the non-science majors were selected for individual interviews and the same was done for the science majors. A further eighteen were selected from the non-science majors and divided into three groups of six each for focus group interviews. The same was done for the science majors. The interviews were audio taped and transcribed. Data from the survey questionnaires were analyzed using Binary Logistic Regression which predicted factors that affected students' choice of science as a major. The transcribed interview data were analyzed used using domain, taxonomic and componential analyses. Results of the study indicated that elementary female students' choice of science as a major at college level is affected by students' attitudes toward science, teacher behavior, out-of-school experiences, role models, gender stereotyping, parental influence, peer influence, in-school experiences, and societal expectations, namely cultural and social expectations.

  18. Effect of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol supplementations on serum leptin, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and serum amyloid A levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Jamalan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Diabetes mellitus Type 2 is one of the most widespread chronic metabolic diseases. In most cases, this type of diabetes is associated with alterations in levels of some inflammatory cytokines and hormones. Considering anti-inflammatory properties of plant extracts rich in ascorbic acid (vitamin C and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E, anti-diabetic properties of these two well-known antioxidant vitamins were investigated through measurement of serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, insulin, leptin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, and serum amyloid A (SAA in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. Methods: Male patients (n=80 were randomly divided into two groups each consisted of 40 subjects. Test groups were supplemented with ascorbic acid (1000 mg/day or alpha-tocopherol (300 mg/day orally during four weeks. Before and after treatment, serum biochemical factors of subjects were measured and compared. Results: Our results showed that both ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol could induce significant anti-inflammatory effects by decreasing the level of inflammatory factors such as TNF-α, SAA, and hs-CRP in diabetes mellitus type 2 patients. Effects of alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid in decreasing serum leptin level were similar. Ascorbic acid in contrast to alpha-tocopherol diminished fasting insulin and HOMA index but had no effect on LDL serum level. Conclusion: Concerning the obtained results, it is concluded that consumption of supplementary vitamins C and E could decrease induced inflammatory response in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2.  It is also possible that vitamin C and vitamin E supplementation can attenuate incidence of some proposed pathological effects of diabetes mellitus.

  19. Manufacturing of High Quality Teachers for Chemistry Education at Higher Secondary Level in Current Era

    OpenAIRE

    R. Azmat

    2013-01-01

    Education is the most influential tool whose efficient use requires the power of determination, devoted work and sacrifice. As teachers are major handler of this tool therefore, they must possess qualities of high education and competency for deliver. Education extends attractive way of life, talent and manners which make an individual a fine civilian. Primary and secondary education is one of the foundation stone of development of children and country. It acts as a vital part in placing the ...

  20. Teacher's Role In Enhancing Self-esteem Of Students With Dyslexia In The Lower Secondary Level

    OpenAIRE

    Palany, Poongkody

    2008-01-01

    Self-esteem has been one ofthe most researched issues in educational psychology. In recent times, there has been a growing interest regarding the affective aspect of dyslexia. Empirical evidence suggests that students with dyslexia manifest lower self-esteem. Therefore, it was deemed vital to further explore what has been and can be done to address the issue, especially by teachers who play an important role in the lives ofchildren with dyslexia. The aim of the present study was to investigat...

  1. Relationships between Actualizing Concrete and Formal Science Teaching Intentions and the Levels of Cognitive Development among Some Prospective Teachers in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehindero, Olusola J.

    1980-01-01

    Determines relationships between prospective secondary school science teachers' (N=60) level of cognitive development (i.e., Piaget's concrete operational or formal operational stage) and success in stating and actualizing teaching intentions. (CS)

  2. The Application Levels of Practices of Values Education in Social Studies Course by Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tekin ÇELİKKAYA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available While globalisation provides many opportunities in political, social, economic, and cultural fields nowadays, it has caused the problems which threaten the social life to rise. National, moral, social, ethical, and cultural values which form the foundation of our social life are the most important sources of reference for the solution of risks and problems which threaten the individual, family, society we live in and the world. Since values education is of particular concern to the whole society, it must be dealt with multi dimensionally. So, all the elements that compose education system require to gain sensibility and awareness. The teachers are not only practitioners of education programs but also they have the leading roles and missions to have the students acquire the values.(MEB TTKB,2010. Because of this, the teachers are required to be equipped with enough skills and knowledge about values education. The teacher who does not have enough knowledge and skills about the approaches of values education will try to realize this mission either unconsciously or implicitly.

  3. Effect of Different Level of Psyllium Supplementation to Horse Diet on in vitro Fermentation Parameters and Methane Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanber KARA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of psyllium addition to horse diets on methane emissions and digestion parameters by in vitro digestion technique using horse feces as inoculum. The effect of 0 (control group, 5, 10, 20 and 40 g/kg DM (Dry matter (treatment groups psyllium (Psyllium Husk, Solgar, UK supplementations to horse diet were determined on in vitro total gas and methane production, metabolisable energy (ME, organic matter digestion (OMD, ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N, short chain fatty acids (SCFA and pH value. In vitro digestibility technique was performed with using glass syringes of 100 ml volumes (Model Fortuna, Germany at 39.0±0.2°C for 24 hour incubation. In the study, in vitro total gas production was linearly decreased in treatment groups (up to 130 ml/g DM compared to control group (181 ml/g DM (P0.05. Consequently, it was demonstrated that psyllium, which use commonly in constipated horses because of laxative efficacy, reduced methane emission as another positive effect in horses. Although psyllium reduced methane emission, it had adverse effects on in vitro digestibility of horse ration. However, it was considered that further investigations are necessary to understand the effects deeply by doing the in vitro or in vivo digestion trials with lower doses or psyllium is not suitable to use in healthy horses for a long time.

  4. Level of health literacy and factors associated with it among school teachers in an education zone in Colombo, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. B. H. Denuwara

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health literacy refers to people's competencies to access, understand, judge and apply health information in healthcare, disease prevention and health promotion. This study aimed to describe the level of health literacy and the factors associated with it among school teachers in an Education Zone in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Methods A cross-sectional study among 520 teachers measured health literacy using the selfadministered, culturally adapted Sinhalese translation of Health Literacy Survey-European Union (HLS-EU. Health literacy assessment was based on self-reported competencies to access, understand, judge and apply health information in the domains of disease prevention, healthcare and health promotion. Based on a score, respondents were divided into four levels of health literacy as 'inadequate', 'problematic', 'sufficient' and 'excellent' as well as into two levels as 'limited' and 'adequate'. Factors associated with 'limited' health literacy was determined by using univariate analysis and assessing their associations using chi square test. Multivariate analysis was also done using multiple logistic regression to determine factors associated with limited health literacy controlled for confounding effects. A p value of 0.05 determined the significance. Results The response rate was 96.5%. Mean age was 43years (SD = +9.75, 81.7% (n = 410 were females and 66.1% (n = 332 were graduates. Only 3.6% (n = 18 taught the subject health while 18.3% (n = 92 taught science. 'Limited' health literacy was found in 32.5% (95% CI 28.4%–36.6% while 67.5% (95% CI 63.4%–71.6%, 61.2% (95% CI 56.9%-65.5% and 6.4% (95% CI 4.3%–8.5% showed 'adequate', 'sufficient' and 'excellent' levels, respectively. 'Problematic' and 'inadequate' health literacy were 31.5% (95% CI 27.4%-35.6% and 1% (95% CI 0.1%–1.9%. Univariate analysis showed not being a member of health club/welfare group (p = 0.002, having not done any special course on health (p = 0

  5. Level of health literacy and factors associated with it among school teachers in an education zone in Colombo, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denuwara, H M B H; Gunawardena, Nalika Sepali

    2017-07-06

    Health literacy refers to people's competencies to access, understand, judge and apply health information in healthcare, disease prevention and health promotion. This study aimed to describe the level of health literacy and the factors associated with it among school teachers in an Education Zone in Colombo, Sri Lanka. A cross-sectional study among 520 teachers measured health literacy using the selfadministered, culturally adapted Sinhalese translation of Health Literacy Survey-European Union (HLS-EU). Health literacy assessment was based on self-reported competencies to access, understand, judge and apply health information in the domains of disease prevention, healthcare and health promotion. Based on a score, respondents were divided into four levels of health literacy as 'inadequate', 'problematic', 'sufficient' and 'excellent' as well as into two levels as 'limited' and 'adequate'. Factors associated with 'limited' health literacy was determined by using univariate analysis and assessing their associations using chi square test. Multivariate analysis was also done using multiple logistic regression to determine factors associated with limited health literacy controlled for confounding effects. A p value of 0.05 determined the significance. The response rate was 96.5%. Mean age was 43years (SD = +9.75), 81.7% (n = 410) were females and 66.1% (n = 332) were graduates. Only 3.6% (n = 18) taught the subject health while 18.3% (n = 92) taught science. 'Limited' health literacy was found in 32.5% (95% CI 28.4%-36.6%) while 67.5% (95% CI 63.4%-71.6%), 61.2% (95% CI 56.9%-65.5%) and 6.4% (95% CI 4.3%-8.5%) showed 'adequate', 'sufficient' and 'excellent' levels, respectively. 'Problematic' and 'inadequate' health literacy were 31.5% (95% CI 27.4%-35.6%) and 1% (95% CI 0.1%-1.9%). Univariate analysis showed not being a member of health club/welfare group (p = 0.002), having not done any special course on health (p = 0.009), not getting an opportunity to participate

  6. Effects of Different Level and Source of Sulfur Supplement in Close-up diets of Dairy Cows on Blood Metabolites, Colostrums Composition and Liver Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Manidari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The 24 maltiparous Holstein dairy cows were allocated in a completely randomized design to study the effects of different level and source of sulfur supplement in close-up diets on blood metabolites, colostrums composition and liver performance. The mean body weight of the cows was 687.9 kg and the mean days until expected calving date was 21.8 d. The first treatment (T1 has contained 0.21% sulfur (DM basis, the second treatment (T2 has contained 0.41% sulfur which supplied entirely through magnesium sulfate and the third treatment (T3 has contained 0.41% sulfur which supplied through a combination of magnesium sulfate and an organic source of sulfur (Mepran. The DMI for pre-calving (P < 0.001 was affected by treatments and T2 showed the lowest DMI among treatments. Colostrums yield, protein, DM and ash significantly decreased in inorganic sulfur supplemented treatment (P < 0.05. Among the blood metabolites, calcium, copper and glucose were decreased in T2 compared with two other treatments (P < 0.05. However, BHBA, NEFA and urea were increased in T2 (P < 0.05. Urine pH was affected with different treatments (P < 0.0001. The both liver enzymes (i.e. AST and CPK were increased supplementing inorganic sulfur showing that inorganic sulfur has potential to decrease liver performance in dairy cows. The results of the present study indicate that although magnesium sulfate (inorganic source has negative effect on dairy cow health and performance, a combination of magnesium sulfate and organic source of sulfur could have positive effects on dry matter intake, blood metabolites and liver health in dairy cows.

  7. Protective Effect of Curcumin Supplementation and Light Resistance Exercises on Superoxide Dismutase Enzyme Activity and Malondialdehyde Levels in a Severe Endurance Training Period in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Gorzi

    2017-07-01

    Background and aim: Extreme endurance exercises lead to oxidative stress in athletes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of curcumin supplement supplementation and light resistance training on the activity of SOD and MDA levels of male Wistar rats during a 8-week endurance training. Methods: In the present experimental study, 36 male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into one of six control groups, curcumin, endurance training, exercise, after one week of information (age 9 weeks and weight 255.62 ± 19.69 grams. Endurance + resistance, endurance training + curcumin and endurance training + curcumin + resistance. Incremental endurance training (8 weeks, 5 sessions per week was performed on a special treadmill. Speed ​​and running time in the last week reached 35 m / min and 70 minutes. Resistance training (8 weeks, 2 sessions per week was performed on vertical ladder by closing the rat's weight to the tail. Rats received supplemental curcumin by intraperitoneal injection (8 weeks, 3 sessions per week, 30 mg / kg body weight. SOD activity of the muscle was measured using ELISA kits and serum MDA levels using Tobartic acid (TBARS method. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA (ANOVA.   Results: The antioxidant enzyme activity of SOD in the endometrial muscle of endurance group (1.08 ± 0.222 μg / ml was significantly lower than control group (22.2 ± 0.481 kg (P = 0.043, and SOD activity in the endurance + resistance group (1.87 ± 0.172, p = 0.44, endurance + curcumin (2.24 ± 0.222; P = 0.039, and endurance + curcumin + resistance (0.202 ± 0.15, p = 0.029 was significantly higher than endurance group. The levels of malondialdehyde in the endurance group (4.27 ± 0.438 nmol / ml protein were significantly higher in comparison with the control group (3.42 ± 0.350 (0.331 and Also, serum MDA levels in endurance + resistance groups (± 3.03 ± 0.342, p = 0.003, endurance + curcumin (p = 0.001, p <0.001, and endurance + curcumin

  8. Teacher Stress Inventory: validation of the Greek version and perceived stress levels among 3,447 educators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourmousi N

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ntina Kourmousi, Christina Darviri, Liza Varvogli, Evangelos C Alexopoulos School of Medicine, University of Athens, Athens, Greece Background: The Teacher Stress Inventory (TSI is an instrument for measuring occupational stress in teachers. This study aimed to translate and adapt it for use in Greece, and then assess its reliability and validity. Methods: The Greek versions of the TSI and the 14-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14 were posted on all Greek educators' official sites during May 2012. A nationwide sample of 3,447 teachers of all levels and specialties completed the questionnaires via the Internet. Reliability was determined by the calculation of Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted and validity was further examined by investigating the correlation of the TSI with the PSS-14 and their association with demographics and work-related factors. Results: Satisfactory Cronbach's alpha values (above 0.70 were found for all TSI dimensions. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the two-factor construct of TSI (root mean square error of approximation, comparative fit index, and goodness-of-fit index values were 0.079, 0.956, and 0.951, respectively, confirming the pre-established theory for the two latent variables, Stress Sources and Stress Manifestations. Significant correlations were found between TSI subscales, PSS-14 sex, age, lack of support, and students' difficulties. Conclusion: The Greek version of the TSI was found to have satisfactory psychometric properties, and its use for assessing stress in Greek teachers is warranted. Keywords: TSI, reliability, validity, Greek educators, occupational stress, psychosocial factors

  9. Supplemental Colleges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Supplemental Colleges layer attempts to capture additional Post Secondary Education campuses of colleges and universities associated with a single campus listed...

  10. INFLUENCE OF TYPE OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION ON LEVEL OF PROFESSIONAL DEFORMATION OF TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsiaryna I. Sapeha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of presented article – identification of interrelation of certain type of organizational culture in institute of education (closed, accidental, open or synchronous and level of development of professional deformation of personality of teachers (authoritativeness, rigidity and noncriticality of self-perception.The basis for methodology of research is sociocultural-interdeterministic dialogical approach of V. A. Yanchuk. In the course of research psychodiagnostic techniques were applied: technique of diagnostics of professional deformation of personality of teacher (V. E. Orel, S. P. Andreyev and questionnaire of «Scale of organizational paradigms» of L. L. Konstantin.Results of research of six institutes of education (schools and gymnasiums showed that elements of deformation have higher level of manifestation in institutes with closed type of organizational culture, revealed in three institutes, and insignificant level in two institutes with open type of culture. In institutes with prevalence of synchronous and accidental types of organizational culture significantexceeding on the level of deformation didn’t find. The greatest development of deformation of teachers is observed on elements of authoritativeness and rigidity, the smallest – on noncriticality of self-perception.Scientific novelty of material is presented for the first time applied sociocultural-interdeterministic dialogical approach to research of professional deformation of personality, that psychological interdeterminant of deformation are allocated, one of structural components of model of ecocultural educational environment – open type of organizational culture in institute of education are described.Practical significance of results consists in detection of opportunities and criteria of formation in institute of formation of ecocultural dialogical environment and its structural component for purpose of timely prevention and overcoming of

  11. Supplemental Performance Analyses for Igneous Activity and Human Intrusion at the Potential High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, P.; Gaither, K.; Freeze, G.; McCord, J.; Kalinich, D.; Saulnier, G.; Statham, W.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the possible recommendation of a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the potential development of a geologic repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. Consequences of hypothetical disruption of the Yucca Mountain site by igneous activity or human intrusion have been evaluated in the Yucca Mountain Science and Engineering Report (S and ER) (1), which presents technical information supporting the consideration of the possible site recommendation. Since completion of the S and ER, supplemental analyses have examined possible impacts of new information and alternative assumptions on the estimates of the consequences of these events. Specifically, analyses of the consequences of igneous disruption address uncertainty regarding: (1) the impacts of changes in the repository footprint and waste package spacing on the probability of disruption; (2) impacts of alternative assumptions about the appropriate distribution of future wind speeds to use in the analysis; (3) effects of alternative assumptions about waste particle sizes; and (4) alternative assumptions about the number of waste packages damaged by igneous intrusion; and (5) alternative assumptions about the exposure pathways and the biosphere dose conversion factors used in the analysis. Additional supplemental analyses, supporting the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS), have examined the results for both igneous disruption and human intrusion, recalculated for a receptor group located 18 kilometers (km) from the repository (the location specified in 40 CFR 197), rather than at the 20 km distance used in the S and ER analyses

  12. EFFECT OF ROSELLE (HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA ON CHANGES IN HEMOGLOBIN LEVELS IN PREGNANT WOMEN WITH ANEMIA TAKING IRON SUPPLEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rif’atun Nisa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anemia during pregnancy is one of the most common disorders in pregnant women in Indonesia. The Government has made efforts to overcome this problem, however, the rate of anemic mothers remains high. Rosella (Hibiscus Sabdariffa is considered able to increase the hemoglobin levels in pregnant mothers. Objective: To analyze the effect of Rosella flower extract (Hibiscus Sabdariffa on the increase of Hemoglobin level in pregnant women with anemia receiving Fe tablet. Methods: This study was a quasy experiment with pretest-posttest control group design conducted in November - December 2016 in the working area of Tlogosari Wetan Community Health Center. Forty-two participants were selected using accidental sampling, which 21 assigned in the experiment and control group. All samples were pregnant women in the second trimester suffering from anemia and receiving iron tablets. Hemoglobin levels were measured using hematology analyzer in laboratory. Independent t-test and paired t-test were used for data analysis. Results: Paired t-test obtained p-value 0.00 (<0.05, indicated that there was an increase of hemoglobin levels in both experiment and control group. The mean increase of hemoglobin levels in the control group was 0.61 gr and in the experiment group was 1.08. The hemoglobin levels in the experiment group were higher than the levels in the control group. Independent t-test obtained p-value 0.000 (<0.05 indicating that there was a significant difference of mean of hemoglobin levels between the control group and the treatment group. Conclusion: The consumption of rosella extract combined with Fe tablet showed a significant increase of hemoglobin levels compared with the consumption of Fe tablet alone. Therefore, it is suggested for midwife to use the result of this research as a evidence practice through counseling for pregnant mother about utilization of rosella extract that can increase hemoglobin level in pregnant woman with anemia.

  13. Focus on Pivotal Role of Dietary Intake (Diet and Supplement) and Blood Levels of Tocopherols and Tocotrienols in Obtaining Successful Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Faliva, Milena Anna; Peroni, Gabriella; Moncaglieri, Francesca; Infantino, Vittoria; Naso, Maurizio; Perna, Simone

    2015-09-25

    Numerous specific age-related morbidities have been correlated with low intake and serum levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols. We performed a review in order to evaluate the extant evidence regarding: (1) the association between intake and serum levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols and age-related pathologies (osteoporosis, sarcopenia and cognitive impairment); and (2) the optimum diet therapy or supplementation with tocopherols and tocotrienols for the treatment of these abnormalities. This review included 51 eligible studies. The recent literature underlines that, given the detrimental effect of low intake and serum levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols on bone, muscle mass, and cognitive function, a change in the lifestyle must be the cornerstone in the prevention of these specific age-related pathologies related to vitamin E-deficient status. The optimum diet therapy in the elderly for avoiding vitamin E deficiency and its negative correlates, such as high inflammation and oxidation, must aim at achieving specific nutritional goals. These goals must be reached through: accession of the elderly subjects to specific personalized dietary programs aimed at achieving and/or maintaining body weight (avoid malnutrition); increase their intake of food rich in vitamin E, such as derivatives of oily seeds (in particular wheat germ oil), olive oil, hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, and cereals rich in vitamin E (such as specific rice cultivar rich in tocotrienols) or take vitamin E supplements. In this case, vitamin E can be correctly used in a personalized way either for the outcome from the pathology or to achieve healthy aging and longevity without any adverse effects.

  14. Focus on Pivotal Role of Dietary Intake (Diet and Supplement and Blood Levels of Tocopherols and Tocotrienols in Obtaining Successful Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Rondanelli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerous specific age-related morbidities have been correlated with low intake and serum levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols. We performed a review in order to evaluate the extant evidence regarding: (1 the association between intake and serum levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols and age-related pathologies (osteoporosis, sarcopenia and cognitive impairment; and (2 the optimum diet therapy or supplementation with tocopherols and tocotrienols for the treatment of these abnormalities. This review included 51 eligible studies. The recent literature underlines that, given the detrimental effect of low intake and serum levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols on bone, muscle mass, and cognitive function, a change in the lifestyle must be the cornerstone in the prevention of these specific age-related pathologies related to vitamin E-deficient status. The optimum diet therapy in the elderly for avoiding vitamin E deficiency and its negative correlates, such as high inflammation and oxidation, must aim at achieving specific nutritional goals. These goals must be reached through: accession of the elderly subjects to specific personalized dietary programs aimed at achieving and/or maintaining body weight (avoid malnutrition; increase their intake of food rich in vitamin E, such as derivatives of oily seeds (in particular wheat germ oil, olive oil, hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, and cereals rich in vitamin E (such as specific rice cultivar rich in tocotrienols or take vitamin E supplements. In this case, vitamin E can be correctly used in a personalized way either for the outcome from the pathology or to achieve healthy aging and longevity without any adverse effects.

  15. Lactobacillus reuteri supplements do not affect salivary IgA or cytokine levels in healthy subjects: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Mette Rose; Keller, Mette Kirstine; Kragelund, Camilla; Hamberg, Kristina; Ericson, Dan; Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Twetman, Svante

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of daily ingestion of probiotic lactobacilli on the levels of secretory IgA (sIgA) and selected cytokines in whole saliva of healthy young adults. The study group consisted of 47 healthy adults (18-32 years) who volunteered for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial after informed consent. During intervention, the subjects ingested two lozenges per day containing two strains of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM 17938 and ATCC PTA 5289) or placebo lozenges. The intervention and wash-out periods were 3 weeks. Saliva samples were collected at baseline, immediately after each intervention period and 3 weeks post-intervention. ELISA was used to measure sIgA and luminex technology was used to measure the interleukins (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10. For statistical analyses a mixed ANOVA model was employed to calculate changes in the salivary outcome variables. Forty-one subjects completed the study and reported a good compliance. No significant differences in the concentrations of salivary sIgA or cytokines were recorded between the L. reuteri and placebo interventions or between baseline and 3 weeks post-intervention levels. No side- or adverse effects were reported. Supplementation with two strains of the probiotic L. reuteri did not affect sIgA or cytokine levels in whole saliva in healthy young adults. The results thereby indicate that daily oral supplementation with L. reuteri do not seem to modulate the salivary oral immune response in healthy young subjects (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02017886).

  16. Evaluation of in vitro gas production and nutrient digestibility of complete diets supplemented with different levels of thermotolerant yeast in Nellore rams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Harikrishna

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of the present study was to know the effect of dietary supplementation of varied levels of thermotolerant yeast to determine best levels for sheep diets by in vitro gas production. An in vivo study on Nellore rams was used for further evaluation of diets with three best levels of yeast (obtained from in vitro data to determine diet with optimum yeast level for growing lambs by assessing nutrient digestibility, plane of nutrition and nitrogen balance. Materials and methods: A complete diet was formulated and supplemented with five levels (0 g/kg (D ; 1 g/kg (D ; 2 g/kg 1 2 (D ; 3 g/kg (D ; 4 g/kg (D and 5 g/kg (D of thermotolerant yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, OBV-9 @ 5x108 cfu/g to 3 4 5 6 determine best levels for sheep diets by IVGP technique. An in vivo study was conducted on Nellore rams (39.75 0.24 kg body weight, aged 3 years in a 4 x 4 latin square design for further evaluation of diets with three best yeast levels based on in vitro data, to determine optimum yeast level for diets of growing lambs by assessing nutrient digestibility, plane of nutrition and nitrogen balance. The rams were housed individually in metabolic cages that allowed separation of urine and faeces to evaluate digestibility of nutrients and N balance. Animals were given 10 days adaptation period followed by 7-day collection period, feed intake and refusals were recorded. During the digestibility and N balance study, feed, refusals and faeces were analyzed for dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM and crude protein (CP as per AOAC, USA, while fibre fractions like neutral detergent fibre (aNDF and acid detergent fibre (ADF were analyzed. Data were analyzed as per the procedures suggested by Snedecor, G. W. and Cochran, W. G. (1994 and the difference between treatment means was tested for significance by Duncan's multiple-range and F Test. Results: Higher (P<0.01 IVGP volumes, in vitro organic matter degradability, metabolizable energy (ME and total

  17. Supplementation with Glucosamine Has no Adverse Effects on Glycemic Level and Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Mazloom

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Use of glucosamine as an alternative treatment for osteoarthritis is becoming more frequent, including in those who have diabetes at the same time. The results from in vitro and animal studies propose that glucosamine may inversely affect glucose metabolism. However, the recommended dose of oral glucosamine in healthy people or diabetics did not have such effects consistently. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of glucosamine on glycemic control and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: Fifty-four patients with type 2 diabetes participated in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The participants were assigned to receive 1500 mg glucosamine hydrochloride or placebo for 12 weeks. After determining their baseline characteristics, body mass index and dietary intake components, fasting blood glucose and fasting insulin were measured at weeks of 0, 8, and 12. Indices of insulin function including quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR were calculated by specific formulas. Independent t-test and general linear model repeated measures were used to analyze the data. Results: In the glucosamine group, the means of fasting blood glucose and insulin were 107.31±24.07 mg/dl and 8.75±4.37 μu/ ml, respectively at baseline, which reached 112.38±31.50 and 9.10±4.17 at week 12. In the placebo group, the mean for fasting blood glucose and insulin were 103.84±24.15 and 9.79±4.02 at the beginning of the study, which reached to 111.40±26.43 and 8.58±3.68 at week 12. The results showed that there were no significant differences in fasting blood glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and QUICKI indices at all the studied time points (weeks of 0, 8 and 12 within or between the groups. Conclusion: Twelve weeks of a normal recommended dose of glucosamine supplements may not have adverse effects on glycemic control and insulin

  18. AWARENESS AND COGNITIVE LOAD LEVELS OF TEACHER CANDIDATES TOWARDS STUDENT PRODUCTS MADE BY DIGITAL STORYTELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figen KILIC

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to assess the student products created by digital storytelling, and to determine the awareness towards learning the topic and the cognitive loads of students during the process. Research was performed with a total of 52 teacher candidates attending 2nd class at “Classroom Teacher” department of Mersin University Faculty of Education in 2012-2013 education years. General scanning model was used to determine the cognitive loads and awareness of student products, created by teacher candidates through digital storytelling, for learning the topic. As a result of the Research, we reached the conclusion that the awareness related to basic concepts and program created by digital storytelling increased, and there was not a cognitive overload. Also, students’ opinions were taken on the process and according to acquired data, it was concluded that the students were pleased with the process, their awareness increased, and they made plans to improve what they learned and use them in the future. In line with acquired findings, it was suggested that experimental studies should be made on this topic. -

  19. The effect of fibre amount, energy level and viscosity of beverages containing oat fibre supplement on perceived satiety

    OpenAIRE

    Lyly, Marika; Ohls, Nora; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Salmenkallio-Marttila, Marjatta; Liukkonen, Kirsi-Helena; Karhunen, Leila; Poutanen, Kaisa

    2010-01-01

    Background: Soluble fibre has been proposed to suppress appetite-related perceptions and it could thus contribute favourably to the regulation of energy intake and the increasing obesity problem. Objective: To investigate the effect of an oat ingredient rich in b-glucan on perceived satiety at different dietary fibre (DF) concentrations, energy levels and viscosity levels. Design: A total of 29 healthy volunteers, age 1939, mean BMI 23.2 kg/m2 participated in this study. Measurement of subjec...

  20. Enhanced Nutrition Education Instead of Consuming Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, Todd; Kidd, Kellie; Jensen, Nancy; Jensen, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Fueled by the internet, instantaneous videos, and the emphasis to look "right" or always win athletic competitions, many students are seeking information on nutrition and dietary supplements. Classroom observations reveal student interest and discussions are among the highest when the topic is dietary supplements. Teachers and coaches provide an…

  1. TIMSS 2011 User Guide for the International Database. Supplement 3: Variables Derived from the Student, Home, Teacher, and School Questionnaire Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Pierre, Ed.; Arora, Alka, Ed.; Stanco, Gabrielle M., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    This supplement contains documentation on all the derived variables contained in the TIMSS 2011 data files that are based on background questionnaire variables. These variables were used to report background data in the TIMSS 2011 International Results in Mathematics and TIMSS 2011 International Results in Science reports, and are made available…

  2. Reciprocal Relationships between Teacher Ratings of Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors in Adolescents with Different Levels of Cognitive Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Alexandre J S; Arens, A Katrin; Maïano, Christophe; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Tracey, Danielle; Parker, Philip D; Craven, Rhonda G

    2017-04-01

    Are internalizing and externalizing behavior problems interrelated via mutually reinforcing relationships (with each behavior leading to increases over time in levels of the other behavior) or mutually suppressing relationships (with each behavior leading to decreases over time in levels of the other behavior)? Past research on the directionality of these relationships has led to ambiguous results, particularly in adolescence. Furthermore, the extent to which prior results will generalize to adolescents with low levels of cognitive abilities remains unknown. This second limit is particularly important, given that these adolescents are known to present higher levels of externalizing and internalizing behaviors than their peers with average-to-high levels of cognitive abilities, and that the mechanisms involved in the reciprocal relationships between these two types of behaviors may differ across both populations. This study examines the directionality of the longitudinal relationships between externalizing and internalizing behavior problems as rated by teachers across three measurement waves (corresponding to Grades 8-10) in matched samples of 138 adolescents (34.78 % girls) with low levels of cognitive abilities and 556 adolescents (44.88 % girls) with average-to-high levels of cognitive abilities. The results showed that the measurement structure was fully equivalent across time periods and groups of adolescents, revealing high levels of developmental stability in both types of problems, and moderately high levels of cross-sectional associations. Levels of both internalizing and externalizing behaviors were higher among adolescents with low levels of cognitive abilities relative to those with average-to-high levels of cognitive abilities. Finally, the predictive analyses revealed negative reciprocal longitudinal relationships (i.e., mutually suppressing relationships) between externalizing and internalizing problems, a result that was replicated within

  3. Supplementation by thylakoids to a high carbohydrate meal decreases feelings of hunger, elevates CCK levels and prevents postprandial hypoglycaemia in overweight women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenblom, Eva-Lena; Montelius, Caroline; Östbring, Karolina

    2013-01-01

    Thylakoids are chlorophyll-containing membranes in chloroplasts that have been isolated from green leaves. It has been previously shown that thylakoids supplemented with a high-fat meal can affect cholecystokinin (CCK), ghrelin, insulin and blood lipids in humans, and can act to suppress food...... intake and prevent body weight gain in rodents. This study investigates the addition of thylakoids to a high carbohydrate meal and its effects upon hunger motivation and fullness, and the levels of glucose, insulin, CCK, ghrelin and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in overweight women. Twenty...... moderately overweight female subjects received test meals on three different occasions; two thylakoid enriched and one control, separated by 1 week. The test meals consisted of a high carbohydrate Swedish breakfast, with or without addition of thylakoids. Blood samples and VAS-questionnaires were evaluated...

  4. The effect of fibre amount, energy level and viscosity of beverages containing oat fibre supplement on perceived satiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyly, Marika; Ohls, Nora; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2010-01-01

    at different dietary fibre (DF) concentrations, energy levels and viscosity levels. Design: A total of 29 healthy volunteers, age 1939, mean BMI 23.2 kg/m2 participated in this study. Measurement of subjective perceptions (satiety, fullness, hunger, desire to eat something/the sample food and thirst......) was performed during a 180-min period after ingestion of the sample. There were altogether six samples: two beverages without fibre at energy levels 700 and 1,400 kJ; two beverages containing 5 or 10 g oat DF (2.5 and 5 g oat b-glucan, respectively) at energy level 700 kJ, one beverage containing 10 g oat DF/1......,400 kJ and one beverage containing 10 g enzymatically treated oat DF with low viscosity at energy level 700 kJ. Each beverage portion weighted 300 g. The order of the samples was randomised for each subject and evaluated during six separate days. The results are reported in three sets of samples: 'fibre...

  5. Exploring How Second Grade Elementary Teachers Translate Their Nature of Science Views into Classroom Practice After a Graduate Level Nature of Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Hasan; Adibelli, Elif

    2015-12-01

    The main purpose of this study was to explore the factors mediating the translation of second grade teachers' nature of science (NOS) views into classroom practice after completing a graduate level NOS course. Four second grade in-service elementary teachers comprised the sample of this study. Data were collected from several sources during the course of this study. The primary data sources were (a) assessment of the elementary teachers' NOS views before and after the graduate level NOS course using the Views of Nature of Science Questionnaire Version B (VNOS-B) (Lederman et al., 2002) coupled with interviews, and (b) a classroom observation and videotaped recording of the elementary teachers' best NOS lessons coupled with interview. We identified three distinct but related factors that mediated the translation of NOS views into classroom practice: the teachers' perspectives about the developmental appropriateness of the NOS aspect, the teachers' selection of target NOS aspects, and the relative importance placed by teachers on each NOS aspect.

  6. Dietary supplementation with low-dose omega-3 fatty acids reduces salivary tumor necrosis factor-α levels in patients with chronic periodontitis: a randomized controlled clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskiner, I; Saygun, I; Bal, V; Serdar, M; Kantarci, A

    2017-08-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on physiological processes and on a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases, including periodontal diseases. In this study, we evaluated the impact of omega-3 PUFAs in conjunction with scaling and root planing (SRP) on salivary markers in patients with chronic periodontitis. Thirty systemically healthy subjects with chronic periodontitis were enrolled and randomly allocated into two groups. The control group (n = 15) was treated with SRP + placebo whereas the test group was treated with SRP and dietary supplementation of low-dose omega-3 PUFAs (6.25 mg eicosapentaenoic acid and 19.19 mg docosahexaenoic acid). Clinical parameters were taken at baseline, 1, 3 and 6 mo following therapy. Saliva samples were obtained at the same time intervals and analyzed for tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Both groups showed significant changes in clinical parameters in response to treatment compared to baseline with no significant difference between groups. Salivary TNF-α levels showed a statistically significant decrease in the test group at 6 mo compared to the control group. Salivary SOD levels increased significantly at 3 and 6 mo in the test group and at 6 mo in placebo groups compared to baseline with no statistically significant differences between the groups. The results demonstrated that dietary supplementation with low-dose omega-3 PUFAs improves salivary TNF-α without any significant impact on clinical parameters in patients with chronic periodontitis, suggesting that the systemic benefits of dietary omega-3 PUFAs may not be translated to periodontal health. (ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT02719587). © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Increased 3-nitrotyrosine levels in mitochondrial membranes and impaired respiratory chain activity in brain regions of adult female rats submitted to daily vitamin A supplementation for 2 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Marcos Roberto; Lorenzi, Rodrigo; Schnorr, Carlos Eduardo; Morrone, Maurílio; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2011-10-10

    Vitamin A supplementation among women is a common habit worldwide in an attempt to slow aging progression due to the antioxidant potential attributed to retinoids. Nonetheless, vitamin A elicits a myriad of side effects that result from either therapeutic or inadvertent intake at varying doses for different periods. The mechanism behind such effects remains to be elucidated. In this regard, we performed the present work aiming to investigate the effects of vitamin A supplementation at 100, 200, or 500IU/kgday(-1) for 2 months on female rat brain, analyzing tissue lipid peroxidation levels, antioxidant enzyme activities (both Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase - SOD - and Mn-SOD); glutathione S-transferase (GST) and monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzyme activity; mitochondrial respiratory chain activity and redox parameters in mitochondrial membranes, as well as quantifying α- and β-synucleins, β-amyloid peptide(1-40), immunoglobulin heavy-chain binding protein/78kDa glucose-regulated protein (BiP/GRP78), receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), D2 receptor, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) contents in rat frontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and cerebellum. We observed increased lipid peroxidation marker levels, altered Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD enzyme activities, mitochondrial nitrosative stress, and impaired respiratory chain activity in such brain regions. On the other hand, we did not find any change in MAO and GST enzyme activities, and on α- and β-synucleins, β-amyloid peptide(1-40), GRP78/BiP, RAGE, D2 receptor, and TNF-α contents. Importantly, we did not observed any evidence regarding an antioxidant effect of such vitamin at low doses in this experimental model. The use of vitamin A as an antioxidant therapy among women needs to be reexamined. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Aquaculture. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Susan S.

    This color-coded guide was developed to assist teachers in helping interested students plan, build, stock, and run aquaculture facilities of varied sizes. The guide contains 15 instructional units, each of which includes some or all of the following basic components: objective sheet, suggested activities for the teacher, instructor supplements,…

  9. How special are teachers of specialized schools? : a quantitative investigation of Turkish mathematics teachers' self-confidence levels in the technology domain

    OpenAIRE

    Çatma, Zehra

    2013-01-01

    Ankara : The Program of Curriculum and Instruction, Bilkent University, 2013. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2013. Includes bibliographical refences. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether specialized high school mathematics teachers, who were selected to educate selected students, were mentally ready to integrate Fatih project technologies into their teaching. The sample consisted of 40 teachers, who voluntarily participated the study and work...

  10. The synergistic effects of ω-3 fatty acids and nano-curcumin supplementation on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α gene expression and serum level in migraine patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolahi, Mina; Tafakhori, Abbas; Togha, Mansoureh; Okhovat, Ali Asghar; Siassi, Feridoun; Eshraghian, Mohammad Reza; Sedighiyan, Mohsen; Djalali, Mona; Mohammadzadeh Honarvar, Niyaz; Djalali, Mahmoud

    2017-06-01

    Migraine is a destabilizing neuroinflammatory disorder characterized by recurrent headache attacks. Evidences show tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α play a role in neuroimmunity pathogenesis of migraine. TNF-α increase prostanoid production, hyperexcitability of neurons, and nociceptor activation resulted in neuroinflammation and neurogenic pain. ω-3 fatty acids and curcumin exert neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects via several mechanisms including suppression of TNF-α gene expression and its serum levels. The aim of this study is an evaluation of synergistic effects of ω-3 fatty acids and nano-curcumin on TNF-α gene expression and serum levels in migraine patients. The present study performed as a clinical trial over a 2 month period included 74 episodic migraine patients in 4 groups and received ω-3 fatty acids, nano-curcumin, and combination of them or placebo. At the start and the end of the study, the gene expression of TNF-α and TNF-α serum levels was measured by real-time PCR and ELISA method, respectively. Our results showed that the combination of ω-3 fatty acids and nano-curcumin downregulated TNF-α messenger RNA (mRNA) significantly in a synergistic manner (P curcumin alone did not show significant reduction either in mRNA or serum levels of TNF-α. In addition, a much greater reduction in attack frequency was found in the combination group (P curcumin supplementation can be considered as a new promising approach in migraine management.

  11. Utilization of online technologies in mathematical problem solving at high school level: Student and teacher perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Yurtseven Avci

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The availability of internet-based technologies and practices are increasing every day for our daily lives. Most of those contemporary technologies have interactive features and provide unique opportunities for today’s learners. Although a growing amount of research focuses on learning with online tools, little known about which features and affordances contribute for effective classroom learning. This study investigates student and teacher perceptions on how students’ mathematics learning was impacted by online practice, communication and collaboration tools. The present experimental research has been designed with using qualitative case study method and provides detailed accounts of students' experiences with the technologies along with investigation of the features and affordances of the tools that made them contribute to effective learning.

  12. Dietary supplementation of extracts from a halophyte affects the level of the circulating enzymes in irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. G.; Lee, B. H. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. H.; Youn, Y. D. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    Extracts from Salicornia herbacea with two extraction methods (using water or ethanol) were examined for their potential as a radioprotector. This plant accumulates a great amount of salt , Mg, Ca, Fe, and K and thus contains high levels of mineral in its body. It is famous as a remedial material for the constipation and glycosuria in folk medicine. The present study was designed to explore the in vivo antioxidant effects of water - and ethanol- extracts of S. herbacea. Both extracts of the plants were tested for their free radical scavenging activity with the DPPH assay. For the in vivo studies, male F344 rats (3 week- old) received po administration of both extracts 0.5 mg/ml during 5 days before whole- body irradiation. Six hours after irradiation, we measured the body and organ weight and collected blood. The levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) showed a similar pattern six hours after irradiation. In case of the water extract - dietary group after irradiation, the levels of all enzymes had a tendency to decrease toward to the base level. Therefore, the results reflects the antioxidant activity of S. herbacea extracts and its potential to protect against radiation damage.

  13. Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Plasma Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 Levels in Post-Myocardial Infarction Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: The Alpha Omega Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin H. de Borst

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23 is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular mortality in chronic kidney disease. Omega-3 (n-3 fatty acid consumption has been inversely associated with FGF23 levels and with cardiovascular risk. We examined the effect of marine n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and plant-derived alpha-linolenic acid (ALA on plasma FGF23 levels in post-myocardial infarction patients with chronic kidney disease. In the randomized double-blind Alpha Omega Trial, 4837 patients with a history of myocardial infarction aged 60–80 years (81% men were randomized to one of four trial margarines supplemented with a targeted additional intake of 400 mg/day EPA and DHA, 2 g/day ALA, EPA-DHA plus ALA, or placebo for 41 months. In a subcohort of 336 patients with an eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (creatinine-cystatin C-based CKD-EPI formula, plasma C-terminal FGF23 was measured by ELISA at baseline and end of follow-up. We used analysis of covariance to examine treatment effects on FGF23 levels adjusted for baseline FGF23. Patients consumed 19.8 g margarine/day on average, providing an additional amount of 236 mg/day EPA with 158 mg/day DHA, 1.99 g/day ALA or both, in the active intervention groups. Over 79% of patients were treated with antihypertensive and antithrombotic medication and statins. At baseline, plasma FGF23 was 150 (128 to 172 RU/mL (mean (95% CI. After 41 months, overall FGF23 levels had increased significantly (p < 0.0001 to 212 (183 to 241 RU/mL. Relative to the placebo, the treatment effect of EPA-DHA was indifferent, with a mean change in FGF23 (95% CI of −17 (−97, 62 RU/mL (p = 0.7. Results were similar for ALA (36 (−42, 115 RU/mL and combined EPA-DHA and ALA (34 (−44, 113 RU/mL. Multivariable adjustment, pooled analyses, and subgroup analyses yielded similar non-significant results. Long-term supplementation with modest quantities of EPA-DHA or ALA does not reduce plasma

  14. The Discourse of Partnership and the Reality of Reform: Interrogating the Recent Reform Agenda at Initial Teacher Education and Induction Levels in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Harford

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, teacher education in Ireland has experienced radical reconceptualization and restructuring at both initial teacher education [ITE] and induction levels, with reform of continuous professional development now in the planning phase. The establishment of the Teaching Council (2006 as a statutory, regulatory body, with a role in the review and accreditation of teacher education, increased the visibility of and policy focus on teacher education. Significant reform of initial teacher education was announced in 2011 that included both an extension of the duration of programmes and, most notably, the period the student teachers were to be engaged in school-based professional development. This increased period has been accompanied by a shift in the understanding of what is involved in practicum and implies a redefinition of the respective roles of the university and the school, and the development of a new form of partnership between both agencies. The period of induction and probation has also become an area of reform with an emphasis on school-based coaching and the evaluation of newly qualified teachers, which devolves decisions on teachers’ full recognition and membership of the profession, to principals and colleagues. This shift, which changes the established approach to induction for primary level teachers, has resulted in the withdrawal of cooperation with this policy by the main teacher union and to the implementation process being stymied. Both policy developments bring the concept of partnership within Irish education into sharp focus: a partnership between schools and universities in ITE, but also partnership in policy development and implementation in the case of induction.

  15. The effect of dietary phosphorus level and phytase supplementation on growth performance, bone-breaking strength, and litter phosphorus concentration in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, S; Johnston, S; Gaston, L; Southern, L L

    2008-05-01

    This research was conducted to determine the effects of feeding different P levels with and without phytase supplementation on broiler growth performance, bone-breaking strength (BBS), and litter P concentration. An experiment with 4 trials was conducted with 7,840 Ross x Ross straight-run broilers. For each trial, 1,960 broilers were allotted on d 0 to treatments, with 7 replications each and with 70 broilers per replication. The broilers were fed a 4-period feeding program consisting of starter (0 to 14 d), grower (14 to 32 d), finisher (32 to 41 d), and withdrawal (41 to 50 d) periods. For each trial, the same pen was used continuously for each treatment-replication combination, and the litter was not removed between trials. Broilers were fed a control diet [0.43, 0.40, 0.36, or 0.32% nonphytate P (nPP)] in the starter, grower, finisher, and withdrawal periods, respectively, a low Ca and P (LCaP) diet with a 0.05% reduction in nPP in each period, and these 2 diets supplemented with phytase at 600 phytase units/kg (nPP and Ca were reduced by 0.094% in diets with phytase). Diet did not affect (P > 0.10) broiler performance in the starter or withdrawal periods. Generally, both phytase addition and the LCaP diet decreased some aspects of growth performance during the grower and finisher periods. There was no main effect of phytase on BBS, but BBS was decreased in the broilers fed the LCaP diet with phytase addition (nPP x phytase, P broilers fed the LCaP diet. Total P, soluble P (SP), and reactive soluble P (RSP) were decreased (P litter of broilers fed the LCaP diets. Total P, SP, and RSP were decreased (P litter of broilers fed phytase. These data indicate that phytase supplementation at 600 phytase units/kg reduces growth in some periods, has no effect on BBS, and reduces total P, SP, and RSP in the litter.

  16. Double blind randomized placebo-controlled trial on the effects of testosterone supplementation in elderly men with moderate to low testosterone levels: design and baseline characteristics [ISRCTN23688581

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verhaar Harald JJ

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In ageing men testosterone levels decline, while cognitive function, muscle and bone mass, sexual hair growth, libido and sexual activity decline and the risk of cardiovascular diseases increase. We set up a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial to investigate the effects of testosterone supplementation on functional mobility, quality of life, body composition, cognitive function, vascular function and risk factors, and bone mineral density in older hypogonadal men. We recruited 237 men with serum testosterone levels below 13.7 nmol/L and ages 60–80 years. They were randomized to either four capsules of 40 mg testosterone undecanoate (TU or placebo daily for 26 weeks. Primary endpoints are functional mobility and quality of life. Secondary endpoints are body composition, cognitive function, aortic stiffness and cardiovascular risk factors and bone mineral density. Effects on prostate, liver and hematological parameters will be studied with respect to safety. Measure of effect will be the difference in change from baseline visit to final visit between TU and placebo. We will study whether the effect of TU differs across subgroups of baseline waist girth ( At baseline, mean age, BMI and testosterone levels were 67 years, 27 kg/m2 and 10.72 nmol/L, respectively.

  17. Growth performance, carcass and meat quality of lambs supplemented with increasing levels of a tanniferous bush (Cistus ladanifer L.) and vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, A; Dentinho, M T; Alves, S P; Portugal, P V; Fernandes, F; Sengo, S; Jerónimo, E; Oliveira, M A; Costa, P; Sequeira, A; Bessa, R J B; Santos-Silva, J

    2015-02-01

    The effects of dietary inclusion of Cistus ladanifer L. (CL) and a vegetable oil blend were evaluated on growth performance,carcass and meat quality of fifty four lambs that were assigned to 9 diets, corresponding to 3 levels of CL(50, 100 and 200 g/kg DM) and 3 levels of oil inclusion (0, 40 and 80 g/kg DM). Treatments had no effects on growth rate. Oil depressed dry matter intake (P = 0.017), carcass muscle (P = 0.041) and increased (P = 0.016) kidney knob channel fat. Chemical and physical meat quality traits were not affected by treatments. Off-flavour perception was higher for 8% of oil (P b 0.001). The level of 100 g/kg DM of CL inclusion improved meat stability after 7 days of storage. Supplementation with linseed and soybean oils (2:1) was a good approach to improve meat nutritional value from feedlot lambs, increasing total n-3 PUFA.

  18. Effects of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation on Serum Leptin Levels, Appetite Sensations, and Intake of Energy and Macronutrients in Obese People: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payahoo, L; Ostadrahimi, A; Farrin, N; Khaje-Bishak, Y

    2017-10-05

    Obesity is a common health problem. Appetite is one of the main obesity-controlling factors that can be influenced by leptin. Leptin reduces food intake and accelerates energy expenditure. Leptin levels can be affected by dietary factors such as fats, special amino acids, and fructose. This study aimed to determine the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acid n-3 (PUFA n-3) supplementation on serum leptin levels, appetite sensations, and dietary intakes in obese people. This study was performed on 60 obese individuals with body mass index (BMI) 30 (kg/m 2 ) and above in 2012 in Tabriz, Iran. The participants were randomly allocated to the intervention (consumed two capsules containing 1 g/day n-3 fatty acids [180 mg EPA, 120 mg DHA] for 4 weeks) and control groups. Serum leptin levels were assessed by ELISA method, and visual analogue scale (VAS) questionnaire was completed for evaluating appetite sensations. The mean caloric [before = 1,575.39 (600), after = 1,236.14 (448.40)] and macronutrient intakes were decreased significantly in the intervention group (p macronutrient intakes, probably through the modulating of satiety. The short period of study caused the nonsignificant changes in BMI and circulatory leptin. Further studies are needed to confirm these results.

  19. Effect of crude protein levels and organic selenium supplementation in the diets fed during the breeding season on reproductive parameters of red-winged tinamous (Rhynchotus rufescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Felipe

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available There is little information on the nutrition of red-winged tinamous (Rhynchotus rufescens reared in captivity, and their nutritional requirements still need to be determined. This study aimed at determining dietary crude protein requirements and testing four organic selenium supplementation levels in the diet of red-winged tinamous during the breeding season. Birds were housed in a conventional broiler house divided in 16 boxes with one male and three females each. Iso-energy (2800kcal ME/kg pelleted feeds, based on corn and soybean meal, were supplied in tube feeders. In the first experiment, treatments consisted of four different diets containing different crude protein (CP contents (15, 18, 21, or 24% and in the second experiment, the four diets contained equal protein level (22.5% and four different organic selenium levels (0, 0.2, 0.4, or 0.8ppm. Data were analyzed by the least square method. The best egg weight and eggshell thickness were obtained with 22.5% dietary CP. Organic selenium did not influence the studied reproductive traits of red-winged tinamous (Rhynchotus rufescens males or females.

  20. Effects of Six Weeks Endurance Training and Aloe Vera Supplementation on COX-2 and VEGF Levels in Mice with Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirali, Saeed; Barari, Alireza; Hosseini, Seyed Ahmad; Khodadi, Elaheh

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine effects of six weeks endurance training and Aloe Vera supplementation on COX-2 and VEGF levels in mice with breast cancer. For this purpose, 35 rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: control (healthy) and 4 cancer groups: control (cancer only), training, Aloe Vera and Aloe Vera + training. Breast cancer tumors were generated in mice by implantind. The training program comprised six weeks of swimming training accomplished in three sessions per week. Training time started with 10 minutes on the first day and increased to 60 minutes in the second week and the water flow rate was increased from 7 to 15 liters per minute at a constant rate. Aloe Vera extract at a dose of 300 mg/kg BW was administrated to rats by intraperitoneal injection. At the end of the study period, rats were anesthetized and blood samples were taken. Significant differences were concluded at pAloe Vera extract caused significant decrease in the COX-2 level in the cancer group. Also, in the training (swimming exercise) and Aloe Vera + training cancer groups, we observed significant decrease in the VEGF level as compared to controls. Our results suggest that Aloe Vera and training inhibit the COX pathway and cause decrease production of prostaglandin E2. Hence administration of Aloe Vera in combination with endurance training might synergistically improve the host milieu in mice bearing breast cancers. Creative Commons Attribution License

  1. Comparison of the eight weeks of supplementation Creatine and Glutamine consumption along with resistance exercise on the level of ALP in female mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A eskandari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: in recent years, in order to improve power, speed, the increase in the volume of the musculature, preventing sports injuries and maintain the muscle performance athletes use from different resistance exercises and food supplements. In this regard, present study has been conducted with the aim of comparison the influence of an 8 week period consumption of creatine (2 gr.kg-1.day-1 in 1st week and 0.48 gr.kg-1.day-1during 2nd to 8th weeks and glutamine (1 gr.kg-1.day-1 from first to eighth weeks along with resistance exercise on level of ALP of female mice. Materials and methods: This experimental study was done on 80 Small adult female mice of Surrey species (28 ± 5 gram. The animals were randomly divided into 8 groups of: resistance exercise, resistance exercise + creatine, resistance exercise + glutamine, resistance exercise + glutamine + creatine, creatine, glutamine, creatine + glutamine and control groups (N= 10. Resistance exercise (5 days a week was including: climbing (4 sets, 5 times repetition with two minutes rest between the sets from a ladder (with the height of one meter and including 26 steps and bearing 30 percent of the weight of the Mouse body (hanging from tail in the first week and the increasing it up to 200 percent of body weight till the last week of the experiment. During 48 hours after the last practice session of resistance exercise, the blood sample was taken and the the level of ALP has been measured. Findings:The results showed that the level of ALP enzyme in creatine + glutamine + resistance exercise groug had been increased in comparison with the control group (144.3 ± 15.86 in comparison with 234.7 ± 25.69 U.L-1 P < 0.05. Conclusion: The results of this research indicate Creatine and Glutamine supplementation consumption along with resistance exercise increases in the level of ALP enzyme in the liver of mice.

  2. Supplementation with Red Palm Oil Increases β-Carotene and Vitamin A Blood Levels in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Sommerburg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF show decreased plasma concentrations of antioxidants due to malabsorption of lipid soluble vitamins and consumption by chronic pulmonary inflammation. β-Carotene is a major source of retinol and therefore is of particular significance in CF. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of daily intake of red palm oil (RPO containing high amounts of β-carotene on the antioxidant levels in CF patients. Sixteen subjects were recruited and instructed to enrich their food with 2 to 3 tablespoons of RPO (~1.5 mg of β-carotene daily over 8 weeks. Carotenoids, retinol, and α-tocopherol were measured in plasma at baseline and after intervention. In addition β-carotene, lycopene, α-tocopherol, and vitamin C were measured in buccal mucosa cells (BMC to determine the influence of RPO on antioxidant tissue levels. Eleven subjects completed the study properly. Plasma β-carotene, retinol, and α-carotene of these patients increased, but plasma concentrations of other carotenoids and α-tocopherol as well as concentrations of β-carotene, lycopene, α-tocopherol, and vitamin C in BMC remained unchanged. Since RPO on a daily basis did not show negative side effects the data suggest that RPO may be used to elevate plasma β-carotene in CF.

  3. Prebiotic potential of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) in Wistar rats: effects of levels of supplementation on hindgut fermentation, intestinal morphology, blood metabolites and immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, Lipismita; Chaturvedi, Vishwa Bandhu; Saikumar, Guttula; Somvanshi, Ramesh; Pattanaik, Ashok Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Many studies have been conducted using purified prebiotics such as inulin or fructooligosaccharides (FOS) as nutraceuticals, but there is very little information available on the prebiotic potential of raw products rich in inulin and FOS, such as Jerusalem artichoke (JA; Helianthus tuberosus L.). The present experiment aimed to evaluate the prebiotic effects of JA tubers in rats. Seventy-two Wistar weanling rats divided into four groups were fed for 12 weeks on a basal diet fortified with pulverized JA tubers at 0 (control), 20, 40 and 60 g kg(-1) levels. Enhanced cell-mediated immunity in terms of skin indurations (P = 0.082) and CD4+ T-lymphocyte population (P = 0.002) was observed in the JA-supplemented groups compared with the control group. Blood haemoglobin (P = 0.017), glucose (P = 0.001), urea (P = 0.004) and calcium (P = 0.048) varied favourably upon inclusion of JA. An increasing trend (P = 0.059) in the length of large intestine was apparent in the JA-fed groups. The tissue mass of caecum (P = 0.069) and colon (P = 0.003) was increased in the JA-supplemented groups, accompanied by higher (P = 0.007) caecal crypt depth. The pH and ammonia concentrations of intestinal digesta decreased and those of lactate and total volatile fatty acids increased in the JA-fed groups. The results suggest that JA had beneficial effects on immunity, blood metabolites, intestinal morphometry and hindgut fermentation of rats. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Lead in calcium supplements (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, S.; Khalid, N.

    2011-01-01

    Lead present in calcium supplements is of grave concern as some lead levels have been measured up to the extent of regulatory limit set by the United States. Calcium supplements inevitably get contaminated with lead as both are naturally occurring elements. Therefore, it is imperative to indicate its level in these supplements in order to create awareness among consumers. In this study, a sophisticated analytical technique, atomic absorption spectrometry was used to analyze Pb contents in 27 commonly consumed Ca supplements manufactured by different national and multinational companies. The daily intake of lead through these supplements was calculated. Only 10% of the calcium supplements analyzed met the criteria of acceptable Pb levels (1.5 mu g/daily dose) in supplements/consumer products set by the United States. It was also found that Pb intake was highest in chelated calcium supplements 28.5 mu g/daily dose, whereas lowest 0.47 mu g/daily dose through calcium supplements with vitamin D formulation. In order to validate our results from the study conducted, IAEA-certified reference material (animal bone, H-5) was analyzed for its Pb levels. The levels of Pb determined were quite in good agreement with the certified values. (author)

  5. Comparing Levels of Professional Satisfaction in Preschool Teachers Whose Classes Include or Do Not Include a Special-Needs Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyutürk, Nazife; Sahbaz, Ümit

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the professional satisfaction of the preschool teachers in whose class there is a student with special needs to the preschool teachers in whose class there are not any students with special needs. The research study group was composed of 185 pre-school teachers who work in the city and county center in…

  6. Why Choose Teaching? an International Review of Empirical Studies Exploring Student Teachers' Career Motivations and Levels of Commitment to Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    Why do individuals all over the world choose to become school teachers? What motivates them to become educators of young people, and how committed are they to this cause when they enter their teacher education courses? Considering that teacher motivation and commitment have been identified as crucial factors for the future success of education and…

  7. A Comprehensive Analysis on Technopedagogical Education Competency and Technology Perception of Pre-Service Teachers: Relation, Levels and Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incik, Eylem Yalcin; Akay, Cenk

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this research is to identify the competency and the perceptions of pre-service teachers on technopedagogical education. While study group of quantitative dimension is composed of 626 pre-service teachers; study group of qualitative extent is composed of 67 pre-service teachers. The sample represents 35% of the population of…

  8. The Development and Evolution of an Introductory Statistics Course for In-Service Middle-Level Mathematics Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmind, Kendra K.; Blankenship, Erin E.; Kerby. April T.; Green, Jennifer L.; Smith, Wendy M.

    2014-01-01

    The statistical preparation of in-service teachers, particularly middle school teachers, has been an area of concern for several years. This paper discusses the creation and delivery of an introductory statistics course as part of a master's degree program for in-service mathematics teachers. The initial course development took place before the…

  9. HOW IS CLASSMATE AND PE TEACHER SUPPORT ASSOCIATED WITH THE LEVEL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN YOUNG ADOLESCENTS FROM KOSOVO? THE ROLE OF GENDER AND AGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronikowski, Michal; Laudańska-Krzemińska, Ida; Bronikowska, Małgorzata; Morina, Besnik

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate how were the peer and physical education (PE) teacher variables associated with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among Kosovar teenagers (13-15 years of age), and the role of age and gender in these associations. Cross-sectional data was gathered through a study conducted in seven major municipalities of Kosovo. 632 girls (aged 14.3 ± 0.8) and 664 boys (aged 14.2 ± 0.8) were examined using the adjusted Classmate and Teacher Support Scale and the Physical Activity Screening measure. A three-way (support*age*gender) ANOVA was used to compare the individuals' MVPA level with the different levels of support they received, with different age in groups of girls and boys. Boys reported higher levels of MVPA than girls in all age categories. A higher level of MVPA was reported by boys receiving high or medium support from classmates. In case of PE teacher support, high, medium and even low support correlated with high MVPA in all age categories. In girls only 13 year olds reported receiving high levels of both classmate and PE teachers support which correlated with a higher level of MVPA. It appears that engagement in MVPA among young Kosovar adolescents is relatively high in boys, regardless of the level of classmate or PE teacher support, whereas in girls the level of MVPA decreased over their time at school. Support from both classmates and PE teachers turned out to be the most significant factor in 13 years old girls, before they moved from primary to secondary school. This issue requires more detailed insight, considering traditional ethnical and religious barriers to engagement of young female adolescents in physical activity.

  10. Views on Values Education: From Teacher Candidates to Experienced Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iscan, Canay Demirhan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the views of experienced class teachers and class teacher candidates on values education. It conducted standard open-ended interviews with experienced class teachers and teacher candidates. The study group comprised 9 experienced class teachers from different socio-economic levels and 9 teacher candidates with…

  11. Effect of supplementation of drinking water with different levels of boron on performance and immune organ parameters of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhui Jin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate changes in growth performance, immune organs weight and microstructure of broilers fed different levels of boron (0, 100, 200 and 400 mg/L in drinking water for 6 weeks. A total of 240 newly-hatched Gushi chickens [body weight (BW=34±2 kg; male: female=1:1] were equally divided into 4 treatments with 5 pens each (n=12 per pen. The birds were weighed after fasting for 12 h every two weeks until the end of experiment. The thymus, bursa and spleen samples were collected every two weeks and fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde phosphate buffer at room temperature (25°C. Results showed that BW and average daily gain significantly reduced by addition of 200 and 400 mg/L boron to drinking water compared to control group (P200 mg/L could significantly inhibit the growth of immune organs and even exhibit toxic effects.

  12. Nutritional supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Gry Bjerg; Andersen, Jens Rikardt

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have indicated that cancer patients have significantly altered taste sensitivity without specifying the preferences. One of the related problems is low compliance to nutritional therapy with oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in patients suffering severe weight loss...

  13. Supplemental information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Supplemental information showing results of inter-comparison between C-PORT, AERMOD and R-LINE dispersion algorithms. This dataset is associated with the following...

  14. On the Issue of Individual Culture in Teachers in the Context of Approbation and Implementation of Professional Standard for Teachers on Municipal Level (From the Author’s Work Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mityashov P.V.,

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article refers to one of the most difficult for realization directions of the work of managers of different levels with teaching staff - the expansion of cultural horizons, formation of particular outlook and development of intelligence of the modern school teacher. From his point of view, this direction is a necessary condition for approbation and implementation of the professional standard "Teacher (educational activities in the field of preschool, primary general, basic general, secondary education (tutor, teacher" (hereinafter - Professional standard of the teacher and in general - requirement of life. Analyzing the overall situation in terms of readiness of the teacher to work in the context of the development of the federal state educational standard for general education (hereinafter referred to as FSES, approbation of professional standard, the author refers to the experience of educational management body of Novonikolaevsk municipal district of the Volgograd region offering concrete steps and measures for solution of the overall problem of general culture of teacher personality.

  15. Effect of different levels of dietary zinc supplementation on body weight and learning ability in rats%不同剂量补锌对大鼠体重和学习记忆的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱虹; 李积胜

    2004-01-01

    [Objective]:To investigate the effect of increasing dietary zinc supplementation on body weight and learning ability in rats.[Methods]Zinc supplemental diet contained 200, 400, 600, 800 or 1 600 mg/kg zinc,respectively.Y-labyrinth test was applied to exam the learning and memory function of rats.[Results]Significantly greater weight gain was observed in rats fed with 400 mg/kg zinc diet than in rats fed with 200 mg/kg zinc diet(P<0.05). During the early experiment, lower weight increments were notably observed in rats with 600, 800 or 1 600 mg/kg zinc supplementation than that in control group, respectively. But the influence on weight relief became weaker in pace with time on the whole. Learning and memory function for rats were strikingly improved at level of 200 mg/kg zinc diet compared with the control level(P<0.05), and were damaged in varying degrees at higher(except 1 600 mg/kg) zinc supplementation levels in feeds, among which,800 mg/kg zinc dosage had produced obviously lesion for learning ability in rats compared with normal, 200 or 1 600 mg/kg zinc levels(P<0.05, respectively).[Conclusion]These results suggest that different levels of zinc supplementation have some incompletely parallel effects on the growth, memory and capacity to learn in rats.

  16. Urea levels in multiple supplement for lambs grazing on buffelgrass = Teores de uréia no suplemento múltiplo de cordeiros mantidos em pastos de capim-búffel

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Leal Teixeira de Oliveira; Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro Pereira; Gherman Garcia Leal de Araújo; Salete Alves de Moraes; Tadeu Vinhas Voltolini

    2010-01-01

    The objective of present trial was to evaluate the intake of supplement dry matter, productive performance, carcass traits, and weight and yields of commercial meat cuts of lambs grazing on dormant buffelgrass pastures and receiving multiple supplementation containing different urea levels. Urea levels used were: 5, 8, 11 and 14% on dry matter. Thirty-six male lambs were used, nine animals per treatment, with 18.0 �� 2.0 kg initial body weight, distributed into four groups. The experimental d...

  17. An Investigation into the Perceptions of Mathematics and Information Literacy Self-Efficacy Levels of Pre-Service Primary Mathematics Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinçer, Bahar; Yilmaz, Süha

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between perceptions of the self-efficacy levels for both mathematics literacy and information literacy in pre-service primary mathematics teachers and the factors on which the relationship depends (variables include gender, class level, hours spent reading books and computer-access…

  18. Does Feeling Part of a Learning Community Help Students to Do Well in Their A-Levels? Exploring Teacher-Student Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziubinski, Julian P.

    2014-01-01

    Each year, around 250,000 16-year-olds in the United Kingdom finish their GCSEs and begin studying for their Advanced (A-) levels, many of them at further education (FE) college. Students study their A-level courses at FE college for a number of reasons, including a more mature relationship with teachers. As we approach the 64th anniversary of…

  19. Exploring the Alignment of the Intended and Implemented Curriculum through Teachers' Interpretation: A Case Study of A-Level Biology Practical Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaeton, Mukaro Joe; Stears, Michèle

    2017-01-01

    The research reported on here is part of a larger study exploring the alignment of the intended, implemented and attained curriculum with regard to practical work in the Zimbabwean A-level Biology curriculum. In this paper we focus on the alignment between the intended and implemented A-Level Biology curriculum through the lens of teachers'…

  20. Improving Chemistry Education by Offering Salient Technology Training to Preservice Teachers: A Graduate-Level Course on Using Software to Teach Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofan, Daniel C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an upper-level undergraduate and graduate-level course on computers in chemical education that was developed and offered for the first time in Fall 2007. The course provides future chemistry teachers with exposure to current software tools that can improve productivity in teaching, curriculum development, and education…