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Sample records for levels suppressed expression

  1. Precise let-7 expression levels balance organ regeneration against tumor suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Linwei; Nguyen, Liem H; Zhou, Kejin; de Soysa, T Yvanka; Li, Lin; Miller, Jason B; Tian, Jianmin; Locker, Joseph; Zhang, Shuyuan; Shinoda, Gen; Seligson, Marc T; Zeitels, Lauren R; Acharya, Asha; Wang, Sam C; Mendell, Joshua T; He, Xiaoshun; Nishino, Jinsuke; Morrison, Sean J; Siegwart, Daniel J; Daley, George Q; Shyh-Chang, Ng; Zhu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    The in vivo roles for even the most intensely studied microRNAs remain poorly defined. Here, analysis of mouse models revealed that let-7, a large and ancient microRNA family, performs tumor suppressive roles at the expense of regeneration. Too little or too much let-7 resulted in compromised protection against cancer or tissue damage, respectively. Modest let-7 overexpression abrogated MYC-driven liver cancer by antagonizing multiple let-7 sensitive oncogenes. However, the same level of overexpression blocked liver regeneration, while let-7 deletion enhanced it, demonstrating that distinct let-7 levels can mediate desirable phenotypes. let-7 dependent regeneration phenotypes resulted from influences on the insulin-PI3K-mTOR pathway. We found that chronic high-dose let-7 overexpression caused liver damage and degeneration, paradoxically leading to tumorigenesis. These dose-dependent roles for let-7 in tissue repair and tumorigenesis rationalize the tight regulation of this microRNA in development, and have important implications for let-7 based therapeutics. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09431.001 PMID:26445246

  2. Chitooligosaccharides suppress the level of protein expression and acetylcholinesterase activity induced by Abeta25-35 in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hoon; Park, Jin-Sook; Kim, Se-Kwon; Ahn, Chang-Bum; Je, Jae-Young

    2009-02-01

    Clinical applications of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are widespread in Alzheimer's sufferers in order to activate central cholinergic system and alleviate cognitive deficits by inhibiting the hydrolysis of acetylcholine. In this study, six kinds of chitooligosaccharides (COSs) with different molecular weight and degree of deacetylation were examined for their inhibitory effects against AChE. The 90-COSs exhibited potent AChE inhibitory activities compared to 50-COSs, while 90-MMWCOS (1000-5000 Da) in the 90-COSs showed the highest activity. Cell culture experiment revealed that 90-MMWCOS suppressed the level of AChE protein expression and AChE activity induced by Abeta(25-35) in PC12 cell lines.

  3. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors suppress UV-induced human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gene expression at the posttranscriptional level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagoe, S.; Kohda, T.; Oishi, M.

    1991-01-01

    Gene expression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is induced not only by trans activation mediated through a gene product (tat) encoded by the virus but also by treatment of virus-carrying cells with DNA-damaging agents such as UV light. Employing an artificially constructed DNA in which the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene was placed under the control of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat, we analyzed the induction process in HeLa cells and found that inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase suppressed UV-induced HIV-1 gene expression but not tat-mediated expression. We also found that suppression occurs at the posttranscriptional level. These results indicate that HIV-1 gene expression is activated by at least two different mechanisms, one of which involves poly-ADP ribosylation. A possible new role of poly-ADP ribosylation in the regulation of specific gene expression is also discussed

  4. Regulation of gene expression by low levels of ultraviolet-B radiation in Pisum sativum: Isolation of novel genes by suppression subtractive hybridisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sävenstrand, H.; Brosché, M.; Strid, A.

    2002-01-01

    Suppression subtractive hybridisation was used to isolate genes differentially regulated by low levels (UV-B BE,300 0.13 W m -2 ) of ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B; 290–320 nm) in Pisum sativum. Six genes were regulated, two of which were novel. The mRNA levels for these two (PsTSDC and PsUOS1) were increased and depressed by UV-B treatment, respectively. Domains in the PsTSDC translation product was similar to TIR (Toll-Interleukin-1 receptor-similar) domains and a NB-ARC domain (nucleotide-binding domain in APAF-1, R gene products and CED-4). The PsUOS1 translation product was similar to an open reading frame in Arabidopsis. Genes encoding embryo-abundant protein (PsEMB) and S-adenosyl-l-methionine synthase (PsSAMS) were induced by UV-B, whereas the transcript levels for genes encoding sucrose transport protein (PsSUT) or ribulose-5-phosphate 3-epimerase (PsR5P3E) were decreased. These regulation patterns are novel, and the PsEMB and PsR5P3E sequences are reported for the first time. The stress-specificity of regulation of these genes were tested by ozone fumigation (100 ppb O 3 ). Qualitatively, the similarity of expression after both UV-B and ozone exposure suggests that, for these genes, similar stress-response pathways are in action. (author)

  5. Oxygen at nanomolar levels reversibly suppresses process rates and gene expression in anammox and denitrification in the oxygen minimum zone off Northern Chil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Tage; Stewart, Frank J.; Thamdrup, Bo

    2014-01-01

    at nanomolar levels affects anammox and denitrification rates and the transcription of nitrogen cycle genes in the anoxic OMZ off Chile. Rates of anammox and denitrification were reversibly suppressed, most likely at the enzyme level. Fiftypercent inhibition of N2 and N2O production by denitrification...

  6. Expression levels of novel cytokine IL-32 in periodontitis and its role in the suppression of IL-8 production by human gingival fibroblasts stimulated with Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhisa Ouhara

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:IL-32 was recently found to be elevated in the tissue of rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by polymicrobial infections that result in soft tissue destruction and alveolar bone loss. Although IL-32 is also thought to be associated with periodontal disease, its expression and possible role in periodontal tissue remain unclear. Therefore, this study investigated the expression patterns of IL-32 in healthy and periodontally diseased gingival tissue. The expression of IL-32 in cultured human gingival fibroblasts (HGF as well as effects of autocrine IL-32 on IL-8 production from HGF were also examined.Methods:Periodontal tissue was collected from both healthy volunteers and periodontitis patients, and immunofluorescent staining was performed in order to determine the production of IL-32. Using real-time PCR and ELISA, mRNA expression and protein production of IL-32 in HGF, stimulated by Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg, were also investigated.Results:Contrary to our expectation, the production of IL-32 in the periodontitis patients was significantly lower than in the healthy volunteers. According to immunofluorescent microscopy, positive staining for IL-32 was detected in prickle and basal cell layers in the epithelium as well as fibroblastic cells in connective tissue. Addition of fixed Pg in vitro was found to suppress the otherwise constitutive expression of IL-32 mRNA and protein in HGF. However, recombinant IL-32 in vitro inhibited the expression of IL-8 mRNA by HGF stimulated with Pg. Interestingly, anti-IL-32 neutralizing antibody upregulated the IL-8 mRNA expression in non-stimulated HGF, indicating that constitutive expression of IL-32 in HGF suppressed IL-8 mRNA expression in the absence of bacterial stimulation.Conclusion:These results indicate that IL-32 is constitutively produced by HGF which can be suppressed by Pg and may play a role in the downregulation

  7. Oxygen at nanomolar levels reversibly suppresses process rates and gene expression in anammox and denitrification in the oxygen minimum zone off northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalsgaard, Tage; Stewart, Frank J; Thamdrup, Bo; De Brabandere, Loreto; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Ulloa, Osvaldo; Canfield, Don E; DeLong, Edward F

    2014-10-28

    A major percentage (20 to 40%) of global marine fixed-nitrogen loss occurs in oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). Concentrations of O2 and the sensitivity of the anaerobic N2-producing processes of anammox and denitrification determine where this loss occurs. We studied experimentally how O2 at nanomolar levels affects anammox and denitrification rates and the transcription of nitrogen cycle genes in the anoxic OMZ off Chile. Rates of anammox and denitrification were reversibly suppressed, most likely at the enzyme level. Fifty percent inhibition of N2 and N2O production by denitrification was achieved at 205 and 297 nM O2, respectively, whereas anammox was 50% inhibited at 886 nM O2. Coupled metatranscriptomic analysis revealed that transcripts encoding nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ), nitrite reductase (nirS), and nitric oxide reductase (norB) decreased in relative abundance above 200 nM O2. This O2 concentration did not suppress the transcription of other dissimilatory nitrogen cycle genes, including nitrate reductase (narG), hydrazine oxidoreductase (hzo), and nitrite reductase (nirK). However, taxonomic characterization of transcripts suggested inhibition of narG transcription in gammaproteobacteria, whereas the transcription of anammox narG, whose gene product is likely used to oxidatively replenish electrons for carbon fixation, was not inhibited. The taxonomic composition of transcripts differed among denitrification enzymes, suggesting that distinct groups of microorganisms mediate different steps of denitrification. Sulfide addition (1 µM) did not affect anammox or O2 inhibition kinetics but strongly stimulated N2O production by denitrification. These results identify new O2 thresholds for delimiting marine nitrogen loss and highlight the utility of integrating biogeochemical and metatranscriptomic analyses. The removal of fixed nitrogen via anammox and denitrification associated with low O2 concentrations in oceanic oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) is a major sink in

  8. Mutant human torsinA, responsible for early-onset dystonia, dominantly suppresses GTPCH expression, dopamine levels and locomotion in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Wakabayashi-Ito

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dystonia represents the third most common movement disorder in humans with over 20 genetic loci identified. TOR1A (DYT1, the gene responsible for the most common primary hereditary dystonia, encodes torsinA, an AAA ATPase family protein. Most cases of DYT1 dystonia are caused by a 3 bp (ΔGAG deletion that results in the loss of a glutamic acid residue (ΔE302/303 in the carboxyl terminal region of torsinA. This torsinAΔE mutant protein has been speculated to act in a dominant-negative manner to decrease activity of wild type torsinA. Drosophila melanogaster has a single torsin-related gene, dtorsin. Null mutants of dtorsin exhibited locomotion defects in third instar larvae. Levels of dopamine and GTP cyclohydrolase (GTPCH proteins were severely reduced in dtorsin-null brains. Further, the locomotion defect was rescued by the expression of human torsinA or feeding with dopamine. Here, we demonstrate that human torsinAΔE dominantly inhibited locomotion in larvae and adults when expressed in neurons using a pan-neuronal promoter Elav. Dopamine and tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4 levels were significantly reduced in larval brains and the expression level of GTPCH protein was severely impaired in adult and larval brains. When human torsinA and torsinAΔE were co-expressed in neurons in dtorsin-null larvae and adults, the locomotion rates and the expression levels of GTPCH protein were severely reduced. These results support the hypothesis that torsinAΔE inhibits wild type torsinA activity. Similarly, neuronal expression of a Drosophila DtorsinΔE equivalent mutation dominantly inhibited larval locomotion and GTPCH protein expression. These results indicate that both torsinAΔE and DtorsinΔE act in a dominant-negative manner. We also demonstrate that Dtorsin regulates GTPCH expression at the post-transcriptional level. This Drosophila model of DYT1 dystonia provides an important tool for studying the differences in the molecular function between the

  9. Punica granatum L. Fruit Aqueous Extract Suppresses Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated p53/p65/miR-145 Expressions followed by Elevated Levels of irs-1 in Alloxan-Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharib, Ehsan; Montasser Kouhsari, Shideh; Izad, Maryam

    2018-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an apoptosis inducer in pancreatic β-cells that stimulates p53/p65 mediated microRNA (miR)-145 expression. Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) is an antioxidant fruit that attenuates ROS generation. This study examines the effects of pomegranate fruit aqueous extract (PGE) on the levels of ROS, p53, p65, miR-145, and its target insulin receptor substrate 1 (irs-1) mRNA in Alloxan-diabetic male Wistar rats. In this experimental study, diabetic rats received different doses of PGE. The effects of the PGE polyphenols were examined through a long-term PGE treatment period model, followed by an evaluation of the plasma and tissue contents of free fatty acids (FFAs), triglycerides (TG), and glycogen compared with diabetic controls (DC) and normal controls (NC). We used real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to investigate the modulation of p53, p65, miR-145, and irs-1 expression levels. There was a noticeable reduction in fasting blood glucose (FBG) and ROS generation compared to DC. We observed marked decreases in p53, p65, miR-145 expression levels followed by an elevated level of irs-1, which contributed to improvement in insulin sensitivity. PGE administration downregulated miR-145 levels in Alloxan-diabetic Wistar rats by suppression of ROS-mediated p53 and p65 overexpression. Copyright© by Royan Institute. All rights reserved.

  10. BMP suppresses PTEN expression via RAS/ERK signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Stayce E; Carethers, John M

    2007-08-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), a member of the transforming growth factor beta family, classically utilizes the SMAD signaling pathway for its growth suppressive effects,and loss of this signaling cascade may accelerate cell growth. In the colon cancer predisposition syndrome Juvenile Polyposis, as well as in the late progression stages of nonsyndromic colorectal cancers, SMAD4 function is typically abrogated. Here, we utilized the SMAD4-null SW480 colon cancer cell line to examine BMPs effect on a potential target gene, PTEN, and how its expression might be regulated. Initial treatment of the SMAD4-null cells with BMP resulted in mild growth suppression, but with prolonged exposure to BMP, the cells become growth stimulatory, which coincided with observed decreases in transcription and translation of PTEN, and with corresponding increases in phospho-AKT protein levels. BMP-induced PTEN suppression was mediated via the RAS/ERK pathway, as pharmacologic inhibition of RAS/ERK, or interference with protein function in the cytosol by DN-RAS prevented BMP-induced growth promotion and changes in PTEN levels, as did treatment with noggin, a BMP ligand inhibitor. Thus, BMP downregulates PTEN via RAS/ERK in a SMAD4-null environment that contributes to cell growth, and constitutes a SMAD4-independent but BMP-responsive signaling pathway.

  11. MRI correlates of interaction between gender and expressive suppression among the Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kangcheng; Huang, Hui; Chen, Li; Hou, Xin; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Junyi; Hao, Xin; Qiu, Jiang

    2017-04-07

    Expressive suppression is a kind of emotion regulation strategies by suppressing behaviors related to emotional responding. Despite the amount of behavioral research on expressive suppression, the structural and functional mechanisms underlying the interaction between gender and expressive suppression in Chinese healthy subjects have remained unknown. In the current study, we assessed the levels of expressive suppression and acquired the structural and functional imaging data from 273 Chinese individuals. A nearly automatic cortical processing technique was used to calculate cortical thickness for each subject. The results from cortical thickness analyses revealed a significant interaction between gender and expressive suppression in the superior frontal gyrus. Then, we conducted the whole-brain functional connectivity analysis with the seed of the superior frontal gyrus to explore the functionally related regions of brain. Subsequent analysis of the interaction between gender and expressive suppression indicated a significant functional connectivity between the superior frontal gyrus and default mode network (DMN) core regions, including the medial prefrontal cortex, precuneus and parahippocampal gyrus. Our results provided the robust empirical evidence illustrating the role of the superior frontal gyrus and DMN in gender difference of expressive suppression among the Chinese population. These findings might have implications for understanding gender difference in emotion processing and regulation. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Context shapes social judgments of positive emotion suppression and expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalokerinos, Elise K; Greenaway, Katharine H; Casey, James P

    2017-02-01

    It is generally considered socially undesirable to suppress the expression of positive emotion. However, previous research has not considered the role that social context plays in governing appropriate emotion regulation. We investigated a context in which it may be more appropriate to suppress than express positive emotion, hypothesizing that positive emotion expressions would be considered inappropriate when the valence of the expressed emotion (i.e., positive) did not match the valence of the context (i.e., negative). Six experiments (N = 1,621) supported this hypothesis: when there was a positive emotion-context mismatch, participants rated targets who suppressed positive emotion as more appropriate, and evaluated them more positively than targets who expressed positive emotion. This effect occurred even when participants were explicitly made aware that suppressing targets were experiencing mismatched emotion for the context (e.g., feeling positive in a negative context), suggesting that appropriate emotional expression is key to these effects. These studies are among the first to provide empirical evidence that social costs to suppression are not inevitable, but instead are dependent on context. Expressive suppression can be a socially useful emotion regulation strategy in situations that call for it. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Expressive suppression and neural responsiveness to nonverbal affective cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrican, Raluca; Rosenbaum, R Shayna; Grady, Cheryl

    2015-10-01

    Optimal social functioning occasionally requires concealment of one's emotions in order to meet one's immediate goals and environmental demands. However, because emotions serve an important communicative function, their habitual suppression disrupts the flow of social exchanges and, thus, incurs significant interpersonal costs. Evidence is accruing that the disruption in social interactions, linked to habitual expressive suppression use, stems not only from intrapersonal, but also from interpersonal causes, since the suppressors' restricted affective displays reportedly inhibit their interlocutors' emotionally expressive behaviors. However, expressive suppression use is not known to lead to clinically significant social impairments. One explanation may be that over the lifespan, individuals who habitually suppress their emotions come to compensate for their interlocutors' restrained expressive behaviors by developing an increased sensitivity to nonverbal affective cues. To probe this issue, the present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to scan healthy older women while they viewed silent videos of a male social target displaying nonverbal emotional behavior, together with a brief verbal description of the accompanying context, and then judged the target's affect. As predicted, perceivers who reported greater habitual use of expressive suppression showed increased neural processing of nonverbal affective cues. This effect appeared to be coordinated in a top-down manner via cognitive control. Greater neural processing of nonverbal cues among perceivers who habitually suppress their emotions was linked to increased ventral striatum activity, suggestive of increased reward value/personal relevance ascribed to emotionally expressive nonverbal behaviors. These findings thus provide neural evidence broadly consistent with the hypothesized link between habitual use of expressive suppression and compensatory development of increased responsiveness to

  14. Fear Expression Suppresses Medial Prefrontal Cortical Firing in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F Giustino

    Full Text Available The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC plays a crucial role in emotional learning and memory in rodents and humans. While many studies suggest a differential role for the prelimbic (PL and infralimbic (IL subdivisions of mPFC, few have considered the relationship between neural activity in these two brain regions recorded simultaneously in behaving animals. Importantly, how concurrent PL and IL activity relate to conditioned freezing behavior is largely unknown. Here we used single-unit recordings targeting PL and IL in awake, behaving rats during the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear. On Day 1, rats received either signaled or unsignaled footshocks in the recording chamber; an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS preceded signaled footshocks. Twenty-four hours later, animals were returned to the recording chamber (modified to create a novel context where they received 5 CS-alone trials. After fear conditioning, both signaled and unsignaled rats exhibited high levels of post-shock freezing that was associated with an enduring suppression of mPFC spontaneous firing, particularly in the IL of signaled rats. Twenty-four hours later, CS presentation produced differential conditioned freezing in signaled and unsignaled rats: freezing increased in rats that had received signaled shocks, but decreased in animals in the unsignaled condition (i.e., external inhibition. This group difference in CS-evoked freezing was mirrored in the spontaneous firing rate of neurons in both PL and IL. Interestingly, differences in PL and IL firing rate highly correlated with freezing levels. In other words, in the signaled group IL spontaneous rates were suppressed relative to PL, perhaps limiting IL-mediated suppression of fear and allowing PL activity to dominate performance, resulting in high levels of freezing. This was not observed in the unsignaled group, which exhibited low freezing. These data reveal that the activity of mPFC neurons is modulated by both

  15. Electroacupuncture at the Wangu acupoint suppresses expression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: The 54 healthy, male, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, 9 months old, and of clean grade (300-450) g, were randomly divided into three groups: sham surgery group, VD group and electro-acupuncture group. The ethology scores of VD rats were evaluated and the mRNA expressions of inflammatory ...

  16. Oxygen at Nanomolar Levels Reversibly Suppresses Process Rates and Gene Expression in Anammox and Denitrification in the Oxygen Minimum Zone off Northern Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Dalsgaard, Tage; Stewart, Frank J.; Thamdrup, Bo; De Brabandere, Loreto; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Ulloa, Osvaldo; Canfield, Don E.; DeLong, Edward

    2014-01-01

    A major percentage (20 to 40%) of global marine fixed-nitrogen loss occurs in oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). Concentrations of O[subscript 2] and the sensitivity of the anaerobic N[subscript 2]-producing processes of anammox and denitrification determine where this loss occurs. We studied experimentally how O[subscript 2] at nanomolar levels affects anammox and denitrification rates and the transcription of nitrogen cycle genes in the anoxic OMZ off Chile. Rates of anammox and denitrification w...

  17. Curcumin administration suppress acetylcholinesterase gene expression in cadmium treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemi, Ayodele Jacob; Oboh, Ganiyu; Fadaka, Adewale Oluwaseun; Olatunji, Babawale Peter; Akomolafe, Seun

    2017-09-01

    Curcumin, the main polyphenolic component of turmeric (Curcuma longa) rhizomes have been reported to exert anticholinesterase potential with limited information on how they regulate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) gene expression. Hence, this study sought to evaluate the effect of curcumin on cerebral cortex acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and their mRNA gene expression level in cadmium (Cd)-treated rats. Furthermore, in vitro effect of different concentrations of curcumin (1-5μg/mL) on rat cerebral cortex AChE activity was assessed. Animals were divided into six groups (n=6): group 1 serve as control (without Cd) and receive saline/vehicle, group 2 receive saline plus curcumin at 25mg/kg, group 3 receive saline plus curcumin 50mg/kg, group 4 receive Cd plus vehicle, group 5 receive Cd plus curcumin at 25mg/kg and group 6 receive Cd plus curcumin at 50mg/kg. Rats received Cd (2.5mg/kg) and curcumin (25 and 50mg/kg, respectively) by oral gavage for 7days. Acetylcholinesterase activity was measured by Ellman's method and AChE expression was carried out by a quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay. We observed that acute administration of Cd increased acetylcholinesterase activity and in addition caused a significant (Pcurcumin inhibited AChE activity and alters AChE mRNA levels when compared to Cd-treated group. In addition, curcumin inhibits rat cerebral cortex AChE activity in vitro. In conclusion, curcumin exhibit anti-acetylcholinesterase activity and suppressed AChE mRNA gene expression level in Cd exposed rats, thus providing some biochemical and molecular evidence on the therapeutic effect of this turmeric-derived compound in treating neurological disorders including Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Why expressive suppression does not pay? Cognitive costs of negative emotion suppression: The mediating role of subjective tense-arousal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczygieł Dorota

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to contribute to a broader understanding of the cognitive consequences of expressive suppression. Specifically, we examined whether the deteriorating effect of expressive suppression on cognitive functioning is caused by tense arousal enhanced by suppression. Two experiments were performed in order to test this prediction. In both studies we tested the effect of expressive suppression on working memory, as measured with a backwards digit-span task (Study 1, N = 43 and anagram problem-solving task (Study 2, N = 60. In addition, in Study 2 we tested whether expressive suppression degrades memory of the events that emerged during the period of expressive suppression. Both studies were conducted in a similar design: Participants watched a film clip which evoked negative emotions (i.e. disgust in Study 1 and a combination of sadness and anxiety in Study 2 under the instruction to suppress those negative emotions or (in the control condition to simply watch the film. The results of these experiments lead to three conclusions. First, the results reveal that expressive suppression degrades memory of the events that emerged during the period of expressive suppression and leads to poorer performance on working memory tasks, as measured with a backwards digit-span task and anagram problem-solving task. Second, the results indicate that expressive suppression leads to a significant increase in subjective tense arousal. Third, the results support our prediction that expressive suppression decreases cognitive performance through its effects on subjective tense arousal. The results of the Study 1 show that tense arousal activated during expressive suppression of disgust fully mediates the negative effect of suppression on working memory as measured with a backwards digit-span task. The results of Study 2 reveal that subjective tense arousal elicited while suppressing sadness and anxiety mediates both the effect of suppression on

  19. Suppression of antimicrobial peptide expression by ureaplasma species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Li; Crabb, Donna M; Dai, Yuling; Chen, Yuying; Waites, Ken B; Atkinson, T Prescott

    2014-04-01

    Ureaplasma species commonly colonize the adult urogenital tract and are implicated in invasive diseases of adults and neonates. Factors that permit the organisms to cause chronic colonization or infection are poorly understood. We sought to investigate whether host innate immune responses, specifically, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), are involved in determining the outcome of Ureaplasma infections. THP-1 cells, a human monocytoid tumor line, were cocultured with Ureaplasma parvum and U. urealyticum. Gene expression levels of a variety of host defense genes were quantified by real-time PCR. In vitro antimicrobial activities of synthetic AMPs against Ureaplasma spp. were determined using a flow cytometry-based assay. Chromosomal histone modifications in host defense gene promoters were tested by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). DNA methylation status in the AMP promoter regions was also investigated. After stimulation with U. parvum and U. urealyticum, the expression of cell defense genes, including the AMP genes (DEFB1, DEFA5, DEFA6, and CAMP), was significantly downregulated compared to that of TNFA and IL-8, which were upregulated. In vitro flow cytometry-based antimicrobial assay revealed that synthetic peptides LL-37, hBD-3, and hBD-1 had activity against Ureaplasma spp. Downregulation of the AMP genes was associated with chromatin modification alterations, including the significantly decreased histone H3K9 acetylation with U. parvum infection. No DNA methylation status changes were detected upon Ureaplasma infection. In conclusion, AMPs have in vitro activity against Ureaplasma spp., and suppression of AMP expression might be important for the organisms to avoid this aspect of the host innate immune response and to establish chronic infection and colonization.

  20. Suitable level of suppression in Pinus sylvestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagner, Mats

    1999-10-01

    It is `well known` among Swedish foresters that pine trees need light and cannot grow suppressed. It is also `well known` that old trees that have grown slowly are unable to react with good growth. However, these facts can be questioned in the light of new research as it has been found that thinning reaction is not correlated with age. It is also well known that the commercial value of a pine is closely related to the growth at young age. If the first 20 annual rings close to pith are wide (>3 mm) the log cannot be accepted as first class. This is related to number and size of branches on the young tree and to the features of the juvenile wood. This is to say that a pine must not grow fast when it is small and if this has happened it cannot be cured by artificial debranching or by growing the tree slowly at higher age. Accordingly, young pines should be grown under bigger trees that in their young age were grown under big trees, and so on. Today, when clear cutting is the dominating forest management system, the only way to obtain high quality pine trees is to start the rotation age with stands of very high density. This is of course a very expensive way as dense planting, followed by intensive thinning requires a lot of input. However, if pine is a pioneer species and cannot be grown in multistoried stands, then the economic solution is not present. This was the reason why the annual increment of three pines was measured. They were selected because their different growth pattern showed that old `well known facts` should be revised Working papers 139. 3 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  1. Suppression device for the reactor water level lowering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasuga, Hajime; Kasuga, Hiroshi.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To suppress the lowering in the reactor water level so as to avoid unnecessary actuation of ECCS upon generation of transient changes which forecasts the lowering of the reactor water level in a BWR type reactor. Constitution: There are provided a water level suppression signal generator for generating a water level suppression signal upon generation of a transient change signal which forecasts the water level lowering in a nuclear reactor and a recycling flow rate controller that applies a recycling flow rate control signal to a recycling pump drive motor by the water level lowering suppression signal. The velocity of the recycling pump is controlled by a reactor scram signal by way of the water level lowering suppresion signal generator and a recycling flow rate controller. Then, the recycling reactor core flow rate is decreased and the void amount in the reactor is transiently increased where the water level tends to increase. Accordingly, the water level lowering by the scram is moderated by the increasing tendency of the water level. (Ikeda, J.)

  2. Endoplasmic reticulum stress suppresses lipin-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Nobuhiko, E-mail: ntkhs@hoku-iryo-u.ac.jp [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757, Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Division of Gastroenterology and Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, 2-1-1-1, Midorigaoka-Higashi, Asahikawa, Hokkaido 078-8510 (Japan); Yoshizaki, Takayuki [Innovation Center, Kagoshima University, 1-21-40, Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Hiranaka, Natsumi; Suzuki, Takeshi [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757, Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Yui, Tomoo; Akanuma, Masayoshi [Department of Fixed Prosthodontics and Oral Implantology, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757, Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Kanazawa, Kaoru [Department of Dental Anesthesiology, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757, Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Yoshida, Mika; Naito, Sumiyoshi [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757, Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Fujiya, Mikihiro; Kohgo, Yutaka [Division of Gastroenterology and Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, 2-1-1-1, Midorigaoka-Higashi, Asahikawa, Hokkaido 078-8510 (Japan); Ieko, Masahiro [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757, Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan)

    2013-02-01

    Highlights: ► Lipin-1 involves lipid metabolism, adipocyte differentiation, and inflammation. ► Adipose lipin-1 expression is reduced in obesity. ► ER stress suppresses lipin-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ► Activation of PPAR-γ recovers ER stress-induced lipin-1 reduction. -- Abstract: Lipin-1 plays crucial roles in the regulation of lipid metabolism and cell differentiation in adipocytes. In obesity, adipose lipin-1 mRNA expression is decreased and positively correlated with systemic insulin sensitivity. Amelioration of the lipin-1 depletion might be improved dysmetabolism. Although some cytokines such as TNF-α and interleukin-1β reduces adipose lipin-1 expression, the mechanism of decreased adipose lipin-1 expression in obesity remains unclear. Recently, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity. Here we investigated the role of ER stress on the lipin-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We demonstrated that lipin-1 expression was suppressed by the treatment with ER stress inducers (tunicamycin and thapsigargin) at transcriptional level. We also showed that constitutive lipin-1 expression could be maintained by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ recovered the ER stress-induced lipin-1 suppression. These results suggested that ER stress might be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity through lipin-1 depletion.

  3. Endoplasmic reticulum stress suppresses lipin-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Nobuhiko; Yoshizaki, Takayuki; Hiranaka, Natsumi; Suzuki, Takeshi; Yui, Tomoo; Akanuma, Masayoshi; Kanazawa, Kaoru; Yoshida, Mika; Naito, Sumiyoshi; Fujiya, Mikihiro; Kohgo, Yutaka; Ieko, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Lipin-1 involves lipid metabolism, adipocyte differentiation, and inflammation. ► Adipose lipin-1 expression is reduced in obesity. ► ER stress suppresses lipin-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ► Activation of PPAR-γ recovers ER stress-induced lipin-1 reduction. -- Abstract: Lipin-1 plays crucial roles in the regulation of lipid metabolism and cell differentiation in adipocytes. In obesity, adipose lipin-1 mRNA expression is decreased and positively correlated with systemic insulin sensitivity. Amelioration of the lipin-1 depletion might be improved dysmetabolism. Although some cytokines such as TNF-α and interleukin-1β reduces adipose lipin-1 expression, the mechanism of decreased adipose lipin-1 expression in obesity remains unclear. Recently, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity. Here we investigated the role of ER stress on the lipin-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We demonstrated that lipin-1 expression was suppressed by the treatment with ER stress inducers (tunicamycin and thapsigargin) at transcriptional level. We also showed that constitutive lipin-1 expression could be maintained by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ recovered the ER stress-induced lipin-1 suppression. These results suggested that ER stress might be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity through lipin-1 depletion

  4. Measuring ability to enhance and suppress emotional expression: The Flexible Regulation of Emotional Expression (FREE) Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Charles L; Bonanno, George A

    2016-08-01

    Flexibility in self-regulatory behaviors has proved to be an important quality for adjusting to stressful life events and requires individuals to have a diverse repertoire of emotion regulation abilities. However, the most commonly used emotion regulation questionnaires assess frequency of behavior rather than ability, with little evidence linking these measures to observable capacity to enact a behavior. The aim of the current investigation was to develop and validate a Flexible Regulation of Emotional Expression (FREE) Scale that measures a person's ability to enhance and suppress displayed emotion across an array of hypothetical contexts. In Studies 1 and 2, a series of confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the FREE Scale consists of 4 first-order factors divided by regulation and emotional valence type that can contribute to 2 higher order factors: expressive enhancement ability and suppression ability. In Study 1, we also compared the FREE Scale to other commonly used emotion regulation measures, which revealed that suppression ability is conceptually distinct from suppression frequency. In Study 3, we compared the FREE Scale with a composite of traditional frequency-based indices of expressive regulation to predict performance in a previously validated emotional modulation paradigm. Participants' enhancement and suppression ability scores on the FREE Scale predicted their corresponding performance on the laboratory task, even when controlling for baseline expressiveness. These studies suggest that the FREE Scale is a valid and flexible measure of expressive regulation ability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Knockdown of p53 suppresses Nanog expression in embryonic stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelalim, Essam Mohamed, E-mail: emohamed@qf.org.qa [Qatar Biomedical Research Institute, Qatar Foundation, Doha 5825 (Qatar); Molecular Neuroscience Research Center, Shiga University of Medical Science, Setatsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Department of Cytology and Histology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt); Tooyama, Ikuo [Molecular Neuroscience Research Center, Shiga University of Medical Science, Setatsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan)

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •We investigate the role of p53 in ESCs in the absence of DNA damage. •p53 knockdown suppresses ESC proliferation. •p53 knockdown downregulates Nanog expression. •p53 is essential for mouse ESC self-renewal. -- Abstract: Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) express high levels of cytoplasmic p53. Exposure of mouse ESCs to DNA damage leads to activation of p53, inducing Nanog suppression. In contrast to earlier studies, we recently reported that chemical inhibition of p53 suppresses ESC proliferation. Here, we confirm that p53 signaling is involved in the maintenance of mouse ESC self-renewal. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of p53 induced downregulation of p21 and defects in ESC proliferation. Furthermore, p53 knockdown resulted in a significant downregulation in Nanog expression at 24 and 48 h post-transfection. p53 knockdown also caused a reduction in Oct4 expression at 48 h post-transfection. Conversely, exposure of ESCs to DNA damage caused a higher reduction of Nanog expression in control siRNA-treated cells than in p53 siRNA-treated cells. These data show that in the absence of DNA damage, p53 is required for the maintenance of mouse ESC self-renewal by regulating Nanog expression.

  6. Serum thyrotropin (TSH) levels in patients with suppressed pituitary function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasavada, P.; Chen, I.; Maxon, H.; Barnes, E.; Sperling, M.

    1984-01-01

    The diagnosis of borderline hyperthyroidism is difficult. A sensitive radioimmunoassay capable of detecting subnormal levels of serum TSH may be of value in confirming this diagnosis because of the suppressed pituitary function in this disease state. This sensitive assay may also be useful in monitoring the suppression of pituitary function in thyroid cancer patients receiving thyroid hormone therapy. A sensitive radioimmunoassay capable of detecting serum TSH levels as low as 0.25 μU/m1 with coefficients of variation less than 17.2% was used to measure serum TSH levels in 80 healthy subjects, 44 hyperthyroid patients, and 25 athyrotic thyroid cancer patients on daily suppressive doses of thyroxine. All healthy subjects had detectable TSH levels with a mean value of 1.17 and two standard deviation ranges of 0.41 - 2.70 μU/m1 (lognormal distribution). Although the mean +-1 SEM value of 0.63 +- 0.003 μUm1 for hyperthyroid patients and 0.76 +- 0.08 μU/ml for thyroid cancer patients were significantly lower than that of healthy subjects (t-test, p<0.05), subnormal levels of serum TSH were found in only 28.6% (12/42) and 24% (6/25) of hyperthyroid and thyroid cancer patients, respectively. TSH stimulation tests performed in 6 of the cancer patients all gave suppressed responses. Because of considerable overlap, serum TSH levels alone cannot distinguish hyperthyroidsm from euthyroidism. However, a sensitive TSH radioimmunoassay such as the one described here may be of value in evaluating the extent of pituitary suppression in thyroid cancer therapy

  7. Suppression and expression of emotion in social and interpersonal outcomes: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervonsky, Elizabeth; Hunt, Caroline

    2017-06-01

    Emotion expression is critical for the communication of important social information, such as emotional states and behavioral intentions. However, people tend to vary in their level of emotional expression. This meta-analysis investigated the relationships between levels of emotion expression and suppression, and social and interpersonal outcomes. PsycINFO databases, as well as reference lists were searched. Forty-three papers from a total of 3,200 papers met inclusion criteria, allowing for 105 effect sizes to be calculated. Meta-analyses revealed that greater suppression of emotion was significantly associated with poorer social wellbeing, including more negative first impressions, lower social support, lower social satisfaction and quality, and poorer romantic relationship quality. Furthermore, the expression of positive and general/nonspecific emotion was related to better social outcomes, while the expression of anger was associated with poorer social wellbeing. Expression of negative emotion generally was also associated with poorer social outcomes, although this effect size was very small and consisted of mixed results. These findings highlight the importance of considering the role that regulation of emotional expression can play in the development of social dysfunction and interpersonal problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Acidic conditions induce the suppression of CD86 and CD54 expression in THP-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitachi, Takafumi; Mezaki, Minori; Yamashita, Kunihiko; Itagaki, Hiroshi

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the sensitization potential of chemicals in cosmetics, using non-animal methods, a number of in vitro safety tests have been designed. Current assays are based on the expression of cell surface markers, such as CD86 and CD54, which are associated with the activation of dendritic cells, in skin sensitization tests. However, these markers are influenced by culture conditions through activating danger signals. In this study, we investigated the relationship between extracellular pH and the expression of the skin sensitization test human cell line activation test (h-CLAT) markers CD86 and CD54. We measured expression levels after THP-1 cells were exposed to representative contact allergens, i.e., 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene and imidazolidinyl urea, under acidic conditions. These conditions were set by exposure to hydrochloric acid, lactic acid, and citric acid. An acidic extracellular pH (6-7) suppressed the augmentation of CD86 and CD54 levels by the sensitizer. Additionally, when the CD86/CD54 expression levels were suppressed, a reduction in the intracellular pH was confirmed. Furthermore, we observed that Na + /H + exchanger 1 (NHE-1), a protein that contributes to the regulation of extracellular/intracellular pH, is involved in CD86 and CD54 expression. These findings suggest that the extracellular/intracellular pH has substantial effects on in vitro skin sensitization markers and should be considered in evaluations of the safety of mixtures and commercial products in the future.

  9. Citrus nobiletin suppresses inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression in interleukin-1β-treated hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshigai, Emi [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization (R-GIRO), Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Machida, Toru [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Okuyama, Tetsuya [Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization (R-GIRO), Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Mori, Masatoshi; Murase, Hiromitsu; Yamanishi, Ryota [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Okumura, Tadayoshi [Research Organization of Science and Technology, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Department of Surgery, Kansai Medical University, Hirakata, Osaka (Japan); Ikeya, Yukinobu [Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Nishino, Hoyoku [Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization (R-GIRO), Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Department of Biochemistry, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Nishizawa, Mikio, E-mail: nishizaw@sk.ritsumei.ac.jp [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan)

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •Nobiletin is a polymethoxylated flavone that is abundant in citrus peels. •Nobiletin is a major constituent of the Citrus unshiu peel extract. •Nobiletin suppresses induction of NO and reduces iNOS expression in hepatocytes. •Nobiletin reduces the iNOS promoter activity and the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB. -- Abstract: Background: Nobiletin is a polymethoxylated flavone that is abundant in the peels of citrus fruits, such as Citrus unshiu (Satsuma mandarin) and Citrus sinensis. The dried peels of C. unshiu (chinpi) have been included in several formulae of Japanese Kampo medicines. Nobiletin may suppress the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which synthesizes the inflammatory mediator nitric oxide (NO) in hepatocytes. Methods: A C. unshiu peel (CUP) extract was prepared. Primary cultured rat hepatocytes were treated with the CUP extract or nobiletin in the presence of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), which induces iNOS expression. NO production and iNOS gene expression were analyzed. Results: High-performance liquid chromatography analyses revealed that the nobiletin content in the CUP extract was 0.14%. Nobiletin dose-dependently reduced the NO levels and decreased iNOS expression at the protein, mRNA and antisense transcript levels. Flavone, which does not contain any methoxy groups, also suppressed iNOS induction. Nobiletin reduced the transcriptional activity of iNOS promoter-luciferase constructs and the DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) in the nuclei. Conclusions: The suppression of iNOS induction by nobiletin suggests that nobiletin may be responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of citrus peels and have a therapeutic potential for liver diseases.

  10. Thymoquinone Suppresses IRF-3-Mediated Expression of Type I Interferons via Suppression of TBK1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Aziz

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Interferon regulatory factor (IRF-3 is known to have a critical role in viral and bacterial innate immune responses by regulating the production of type I interferon (IFN. Thymoquinone (TQ is a compound derived from black cumin (Nigella sativa L. and is known to regulate immune responses by affecting transcription factors associated with inflammation, including nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB and activator protein-1 (AP-1. However, the role of TQ in the IRF-3 signaling pathway has not been elucidated. In this study, we explored the molecular mechanism of TQ-dependent regulation of enzymes in IRF-3 signaling pathways using the lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated murine macrophage-like RAW264.7 cell line. TQ decreased mRNA expression of the interferon genes IFN-α and IFN-β in these cells. This inhibition was due to its suppression of the transcriptional activation of IRF-3, as shown by inhibition of IRF-3 PRD (III-I luciferase activity as well as the phosphorylation pattern of IRF-3 in the immunoblotting experiment. Moreover, TQ targeted the autophosphorylation of TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1, an upstream key enzyme responsible for IRF-3 activation. Taken together, these findings suggest that TQ can downregulate IRF-3 activation via inhibition of TBK1, which would subsequently decrease the production of type I IFN. TQ also regulated IRF-3, one of the inflammatory transcription factors, providing a novel insight into its anti-inflammatory activities.

  11. Eosinophils from eosinophilic oesophagitis patients have T cell suppressive capacity and express FOXP3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingblom, C; Wallander, J; Ingelsten, M; Bergquist, H; Bove, M; Saalman, R; Welin, A; Wennerås, C

    2017-03-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an antigen-driven T cell-mediated chronic inflammatory disease where food and environmental antigens are thought to have a role. Human eosinophils express the immunoregulatory protein galectin-10 and have T cell suppressive capacity similar to regulatory T cells (T regs ). We hypothesized that one function of eosinophils in EoE might be to regulate the T cell-driven inflammation in the oesophagus. This was tested by evaluating the suppressive capacity of eosinophils isolated from the blood of adult EoE patients in a mixed lymphocyte reaction. In addition, eosinophilic expression of forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3), the canonical transcription factor of T regs , was determined by conventional and imaging flow cytometry, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), confocal microscopy and immunoblotting. It was found that blood eosinophils from EoE patients had T cell suppressive capacity, and that a fraction of the eosinophils expressed FOXP3. A comparison of EoE eosinophils with healthy control eosinophils indicated that the patients' eosinophils had inferior suppressive capacity. Furthermore, a higher percentage of the EoE eosinophils expressed FOXP3 protein compared with the healthy eosinophils, and they also had higher FOXP3 protein and mRNA levels. FOXP3 was found in the cytosol and nucleus of the eosinophils from both the patients and healthy individuals, contrasting with the strict nuclear localization of FOXP3 in T regs . To conclude, these findings suggest that the immunoregulatory function of eosinophils may be impaired in EoE. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  12. Fetuin-A induces cytokine expression and suppresses adiponectin production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita M Hennige

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The secreted liver protein fetuin-A (AHSG is up-regulated in hepatic steatosis and the metabolic syndrome. These states are strongly associated with low-grade inflammation and hypoadiponectinemia. We, therefore, hypothesized that fetuin-A may play a role in the regulation of cytokine expression, the modulation of adipose tissue expression and plasma concentration of the insulin-sensitizing and atheroprotective adipokine adiponectin. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human monocytic THP1 cells and human in vitro differenttiated adipocytes as well as C57BL/6 mice were treated with fetuin-A. mRNA expression of the genes encoding inflammatory cytokines and the adipokine adiponectin (ADIPOQ was assessed by real-time RT-PCR. In 122 subjects, plasma levels of fetuin-A, adiponectin and, in a subgroup, the multimeric forms of adiponectin were determined. Fetuin-A treatment induced TNF and IL1B mRNA expression in THP1 cells (p<0.05. Treatment of mice with fetuin-A, analogously, resulted in a marked increase in adipose tissue Tnf mRNA as well as Il6 expression (27- and 174-fold, respectively. These effects were accompanied by a decrease in adipose tissue Adipoq mRNA expression and lower circulating adiponectin levels (p<0.05, both. Furthermore, fetuin-A repressed ADIPOQ mRNA expression of human in vitro differentiated adipocytes (p<0.02 and induced inflammatory cytokine expression. In humans in plasma, fetuin-A correlated positively with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, a marker of subclinical inflammation (r = 0.26, p = 0.01, and negatively with total- (r = -0.28, p = 0.02 and, particularly, high molecular weight adiponectin (r = -0.36, p = 0.01. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: We provide novel evidence that the secreted liver protein fetuin-A induces low-grade inflammation and represses adiponectin production in animals and in humans. These data suggest an important role of fatty liver in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and

  13. Obesity-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress suppresses nuclear factor-Y expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yulan; Zhang, Yuwei; Zhang, Yanjie; Zhang, Jinlong; Liu, Yin; Feng, Peiqun; Su, Zhiguang

    2017-02-01

    Nuclear transcription factor Y (NF-Y) is an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor composed of three subunits, NF-YA, NF-YB, and NF-YC. NF-Y plays crucial roles in pre-adipocyte maintenance and/or commitment to adipogenesis. NF-YA dysfunction in adipocyte resulted in an age-dependent progressive loss of adipose tissue associated with metabolic complications. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has emerged as an important mediator in the pathogenesis of obesity. However, it is not known if NF-YA is involved in the ER stress-mediated pathogenesis of obesity. We first examined the effects of ER stress on the NF-YA expression in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes; then in ob/ob genetic obesity mice, we tested the effect of chemical chaperones alleviating ER stress on the expression levels of NF-YA. Subsequently, we inhibited the new mRNA synthesis using actinomycin D in 3T3-L1 cells to explore the mechanism modulating NF-YA expression. Finally, we evaluated the involvement of PPARg in the regulation of NF-YA expression by ER stress. We demonstrated that both obesity- and chemical chaperone -induced ER stress suppressed NF-YA expression and alleviation of ER stress by chemical chaperone could recover NF-YA expression in ob/ob mice. Moreover, we showed that ER stress suppressed NF-YA mRNA transcription through the involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARg). Activation of PPARg ameliorates the ER stress-induced NF-YA suppression. Our findings may point to a possible role of NF-YA in stress conditions that occur in chronic obesity, ER stress might be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity through NF-YA depletion.

  14. Calcium regulates caveolin-1 expression at the transcriptional level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiao-Yan; Huang, Cheng-Cheng; Kan, Qi-Ming; Li, Yan; Liu, Dan; Zhang, Xue-Cheng; Sato, Toshinori; Yamagata, Sadako; Yamagata, Tatsuya

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Caveolin-1 expression is regulated by calcium signaling at the transcriptional level. ► An inhibitor of or siRNA to L-type calcium channel suppressed caveolin-1 expression. ► Cyclosporine A or an NFAT inhibitor markedly reduced caveolin-1 expression. ► Caveolin-1 regulation by calcium signaling is observed in several mouse cell lines. -- Abstract: Caveolin-1, an indispensable component of caveolae serving as a transformation suppressor protein, is highly expressed in poorly metastatic mouse osteosarcoma FBJ-S1 cells while highly metastatic FBJ-LL cells express low levels of caveolin-1. Calcium concentration is higher in FBJ-S1 cells than in FBJ-LL cells; therefore, we investigated the possibility that calcium signaling positively regulates caveolin-1 in mouse FBJ-S1 cells. When cells were treated with the calcium channel blocker nifedipine, cyclosporin A (a calcineurin inhibitor), or INCA-6 (a nuclear factor of activated T-cells [NFAT] inhibitor), caveolin-1 expression at the mRNA and protein levels decreased. RNA silencing of voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1C resulted in suppression of caveolin-1 expression. This novel caveolin-1 regulation pathway was also identified in mouse NIH 3T3 cells and Lewis lung carcinoma cells. These results indicate that caveolin-1 is positively regulated at the transcriptional level through a novel calcium signaling pathway mediated by L-type calcium channel/Ca 2+ /calcineurin/NFAT.

  15. EBP1 suppresses growth, migration, and invasion of thyroid cancer cells through upregulating RASAL expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyan; Li, Zhenjie; Li, Liujuan; Peng, Haiying; Zhang, Zhijun

    2015-11-01

    Ebp1, a protein identified by its interactions with the ErbB3 receptor, has been characterized as a negative regulator of cancers. RAS GTPase-activating protein (RasGAP), RASAL1, was recently identified as a major tumor suppressor in thyroid cancer. In this study, we examined EBP1 expression in papillary and follicular thyroid cancer cells. We found that compared with normal thyroid cells, TPC1, WRO, and FTC133 thyroid tumor cells exhibited lower EBP1 expression at messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels. We then investigated the effects of forced EBP1 expression on growth, migration, and invasiveness of thyroid tumor cells. By using MTT and Boyden chamber assays, we showed that EBP1 overexpression dramatically reduced growth rate, migration, and invasiveness of K1 and FTC133 thyroid tumor cells. Furthermore, we explored the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of EBP1 on the cells by disclosing the correlation of EBP1 and RASAL1 expression. RASAL expression was elevated in thyroid tumor cells overexpressing EBP1. Knockdown RASAL by transduction of RASAL1 shRNA lentiviral particles markedly reduced RASAL levels with restoration of EBP1, and RASAL1 knockdown abrogated the effects of forced EBP1 expression on cell growth, migration, and invasiveness of thyroid tumor cells. These findings suggest that Ebp1 suppressed thyroid cancer cell lines by upregulating RASRAL expression.

  16. P53 suppresses expression of the 14-3-3gamma oncogene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wenqing

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 14-3-3 proteins are a family of highly conserved proteins that are involved in a wide range of cellular processes. Recent evidence indicates that some of these proteins have oncogenic activity and that they may promote tumorigenesis. We previously showed that one of the 14-3-3 family members, 14-3-3gamma, is over expressed in human lung cancers and that it can induce transformation of rodent cells in vitro. Methods qRTPCR and Western blot analysis were performed to examine 14-3-3gamma expression in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC. Gene copy number was analyzed by qPCR. P53 mutations were detected by direct sequencing and also by western blot. CHIP and yeast one hybrid assays were used to detect p53 binding to 14-3-3gamma promoter. Results Quantitative rtPCR results showed that the expression level of 14-3-3gamma was elevated in the majority of NSCLC that we examined which was also consistent with protein expression. Further analysis of the expression pattern of 14-3-3gamma in lung tumors showed a correlation with p53 mutations suggesting that p53 might suppress 14-3-3 gamma expression. Analysis of the gamma promoter sequence revealed the presence of a p53 consensus binding motif and in vitro assays demonstrated that wild-type p53 bound to this motif when activated by ionizing radiation. Deletion of the p53 binding motif eliminated p53's ability to suppress 14-3-3gamma expression. Conclusion Increased expression of 14-3-3gamma in lung cancer coincides with loss of functional p53. Hence, we propose that 14-3-3gamma's oncogenic activities cooperate with loss of p53 to promote lung tumorigenesis.

  17. Mercury exposure may suppress baseline corticosterone levels in juvenile birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T; Herzog, Mark P

    2012-06-05

    Mercury exposure has been associated with a wide variety of negative reproductive responses in birds, however few studies have examined the potential for chick impairment via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The HPA axis regulates corticosterone levels during periods of stress. We examined the relationship between baseline fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations and mercury concentrations in down feathers of recently hatched (feathers (decreasing by 45% across the range of observed mercury concentrations) while accounting for stronger positive correlations between corticosterone concentrations and colony nest abundance and date. These results indicate that chronic mercury exposure may suppress baseline corticosterone concentrations in tern chicks and suggests that a juvenile bird's ability to respond to stress may be reduced via the downregulation of the HPA axis.

  18. Serotonin suppresses β-casein expression via PTP1B activation in human mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Takeshi; Maeda, Tomoji; Sanbe, Atsushi; Kudo, Kenzo

    2016-04-22

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytriptamine, 5-HT) has an important role in milk volume homeostasis within the mammary gland during lactation. We have previously shown that the expression of β-casein, a differentiation marker in mammary epithelial cells, is suppressed via 5-HT-mediated inhibition of signal transduction and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) phosphorylation in the human mammary epithelial MCF-12A cell line. In addition, the reduction of β-casein in turn was associated with 5-HT7 receptor expression in the cells. The objective of this study was to determine the mechanisms underlying the 5-HT-mediated suppression of β-casein and STAT5 phosphorylation. The β-casein level and phosphorylated STAT5 (pSTAT5)/STAT5 ratio in the cells co-treated with 5-HT and a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor (KT5720) were significantly higher than those of cells treated with 5-HT alone. Exposure to 100 μM db-cAMP for 6 h significantly decreased the protein levels of β-casein and pSTAT5 and the pSTAT5/STAT5 ratio, and significantly increased PTP1B protein levels. In the cells co-treated with 5-HT and an extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK) inhibitor (FR180294) or Akt inhibitor (124005), the β-casein level and pSTAT5/STAT5 ratio were equal to those of cells treated with 5-HT alone. Treatment with 5-HT significantly induced PTP1B protein levels, whereas its increase was inhibited by KT5720. In addition, the PTP1B inhibitor sc-222227 increased the expression levels of β-casein and the pSTAT5/STAT5 ratio. Our observations indicate that PTP1B directly regulates STAT5 phosphorylation and that its activation via the cAMP/PKA pathway downstream of the 5-HT7 receptor is involved in the suppression of β-casein expression in MCF-12A cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Isolation of differentially expressed sex genes in garden asparagus using suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chuan-liang; Wang, Ning-na; Li, Shu-fen; Dong, Tian-yu; Zhao, Xin-peng; Wang, Shao-jing; Gao, Wu-jun; Lu, Long-dou

    2015-09-01

    Garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) is a dioecious species whose male and female flowers are found in separate unisexual individuals. A region called the M-locus, located on a pair of homomorphic sex chromosomes, controls sexual dimorphism in asparagus. To date, no sex determining gene has been isolated from asparagus. To identify more genes involved in flower development in asparagus, subtractive hybridization library of male flowers in asparagus was constructed by suppression subtraction hybridization. A total of 107 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified. BLASTX analysis showed that the library contained several genes that could be related to flower development. The expression patterns of seven selected genes believed to be involved in the development of asparagus male flower were further analyzed by semi-quantitative or real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results showed that AOEST4-5, AOEST12-40, and AOEST13-38 were strongly expressed in the male flower stage, whereas no transcript level of AOEST13-38 was detected in the female flower stage. The expression levels of AOEST13-87, AOEST13-92, AOEST13-40, and AOEST18-87 in the male flower stage were also higher than those in the female flower stage, although these transcripts were also expressed in other tissues. The identified genes can provide a strong starting point for further studies on the underlying molecular differences between the male and female flowers of asparagus.

  20. Keep calm! Gender differences in mental rotation performance are modulated by habitual expressive suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fladung, Anne-Katharina; Kiefer, Markus

    2016-11-01

    Men have been frequently found to perform more accurately than women in mental rotation tasks. However, men and women also differ with regard to the habitual use of emotion regulation strategies, particularly with regard to expressive suppression, i.e., the suppression of emotional expression in behavior. As emotional suppression is more often used by men, emotion regulation strategies might be a variable modulating gender differences in mental rotation performance. The present study, therefore, examined the influences of gender and emotion regulation strategies on mental rotation performance accuracy and feedback processing. Twenty-eight men and 28 women matched for relevant demographic variables performed mental rotation tasks of varying difficulty over a prolonged time. Emotional feedback was given immediately after each trial. Results showed that women reported to use expressive suppression less frequently than men. Women made more errors in the mental rotation task than men confirming earlier demonstrations of gender differences. Furthermore, women were more impaired by the negative feedback as indicated by the increased likelihood of subsequent errors compared with men. Task performance of women not habitually using expressive suppression was most inferior and most strongly influenced by failure feedback compared with men. Women using expressive suppression more habitually did not significantly differ in mental rotation accuracy and feedback processing from men. Hence, expressive suppression reduces gender differences in mental rotation accuracy by improving cognitive performance following failure feedback.

  1. Onbaekwon Suppresses Colon Cancer Cell Invasion by Inhibiting Expression of the CXC Chemokine Receptor 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Buyun; Yoon, Jaewoo; Yoon, Seong Woo; Park, Byoungduck

    2017-06-01

    Cysteine X cysteine (CXC) chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and C-X-C motif chemokine 12 (CXCL12) were originally identified as chemoattractants between immune cells and sites of inflammation. Since studies have validated an increased level of CXCL12 and its receptor in patients with colorectal cancers, CXCL12/CXCR4 axis has been considered as a valuable marker of cancer metastasis. Therefore, identification of CXCR4 inhibitors has great potential to abrogate tumor metastasis. Onbaekwon (OBW) is a complex herbal formula that is derived from the literature of traditional Korean medicine Dongeuibogam. In this study, we demonstrated that OBW suppressed CXCR4 expression in various cancer cell types in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Both proteasomal and lysosomal inhibitors had no effect to prevent the OBW-induced suppression of CXCR4, suggesting that the inhibitory effect of OBW was not due to proteolytic degradation but occurred at the transcriptional level. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay further confirmed that OBW could block endogenous activation of nuclear factor kappa B, a key transcription factor that regulates the expression of CXCR4 in colon cancer cells. Consistent with the aforementioned molecular basis, OBW abolished cell invasion induced by CXCL12 in colon cancer cells. Together, our results suggest that OBW, as a novel inhibitor of CXCR4, could be a promising therapeutic agent contributing to cancer treatment.

  2. α-Solanine Inhibits Invasion of Human Prostate Cancer Cell by Suppressing Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and MMPs Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Hung Shen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available α-Solanine, a naturally occurring steroidal glycoalkaloid found in nightshade (Solanum nigrum Linn., was found to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of tumor cells. However, the mechanism involved in suppression of cancer cell metastasis by α-solanine remains unclear. This study investigates the suppression mechanism of α-solanine on motility of the human prostate cancer cell PC-3. Results show that α-solanine reduces the viability of PC-3 cells. When treated with non-toxic doses of α-solanine, cell invasion is markedly suppressed by α-solanine. α-Solanine also significantly elevates epithelial marker E-cadherin expression, while it concomitantly decreases mesenchymal marker vimentin expression, suggesting it suppresses epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT. α-Solanine reduces the mRNA level of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2, MMP-9 and extracellular inducer of matrix metalloproteinase (EMMPRIN, but increases the expression of reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs (RECK, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2. Immunoblotting assays indicate α-solanine is effective in suppressing the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositide-3 kinase (PI3K, Akt and ERK. Moreover, α-solanine downregulates oncogenic microRNA-21 (miR-21 and upregulates tumor suppressor miR-138 expression. Taken together, the results suggest that inhibition of PC-3 cell invasion by α-solanine may be, at least in part, through blocking EMT and MMPs expression. α-Solanine also reduces ERK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways and regulates expression of miR-21 and miR-138. These findings suggest an attractive therapeutic potential of α-solanine for suppressing invasion of prostate cancer cell.

  3. Celecoxib suppresses fibroblast growth factor-2 expression in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma PANC-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Luo, Miaosha; Wang, Yan; Shang, Boxin; Dong, Lei

    2016-09-01

    The inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 has been reported to suppress growth and induce apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer cells. Nevertheless, the precise biological mechanism of how celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, regulates the growth and invasion of pancreatic tumors is not completely understood. It has been shown that fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and its receptor levels correlate with the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the hypothesis that the antitumor activity of celecoxib in PDAC may be exerted through modulation of FGF-2 function. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of celecoxib on the proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis of the PANC-1 cell line. Western blotting and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were used to examine the expression of FGF-2, FGFR-2, ERK1/2 and MMPs. In the present study, FGF-2 and FGFR-2 were expressed in PANC-1 cells and FGF-2 exerted a stimulatory effect on phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated kinase (p-ERK) expression. Celecoxib treatment suppressed FGF-2 and FGFR-2 expression and decreased MMP-2, MMP-9 and p-ERK expression in the PANC-1 cells. Furthermore, celecoxib treatment caused the resistance of PANC-1 cells to FGF-2 induced proliferation, migration and invasion ability, as well as the increase in their apoptotic rate. Our data provide evidence that targeting FGF-2 with celecoxib may be used as an effective treatment in PDAC.

  4. Adenovirus-encoding virus-associated RNAs suppress HDGF gene expression to support efficient viral replication.

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    Saki Kondo

    Full Text Available Non-coding small RNAs are involved in many physiological responses including viral life cycles. Adenovirus-encoding small RNAs, known as virus-associated RNAs (VA RNAs, are transcribed throughout the replication process in the host cells, and their transcript levels depend on the copy numbers of the viral genome. Therefore, VA RNAs are abundant in infected cells after genome replication, i.e. during the late phase of viral infection. Their function during the late phase is the inhibition of interferon-inducible protein kinase R (PKR activity to prevent antiviral responses; recently, mivaRNAs, the microRNAs processed from VA RNAs, have been reported to inhibit cellular gene expression. Although VA RNA transcription starts during the early phase, little is known about its function. The reason may be because much smaller amount of VA RNAs are transcribed during the early phase than the late phase. In this study, we applied replication-deficient adenovirus vectors (AdVs and novel AdVs lacking VA RNA genes to analyze the expression changes in cellular genes mediated by VA RNAs using microarray analysis. AdVs are suitable to examine the function of VA RNAs during the early phase, since they constitutively express VA RNAs but do not replicate except in 293 cells. We found that the expression level of hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF significantly decreased in response to the VA RNAs under replication-deficient condition, and this suppression was also observed during the early phase under replication-competent conditions. The suppression was independent of mivaRNA-induced downregulation, suggesting that the function of VA RNAs during the early phase differs from that during the late phase. Notably, overexpression of HDGF inhibited AdV growth. This is the first report to show the function, in part, of VA RNAs during the early phase that may be contribute to efficient viral growth.

  5. BMP Suppresses PTEN Expression via RAS/ERK Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Stayce E.; Carethers, John M.

    2007-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), a member of the transforming growth factor β family, classically utilizes the SMAD signaling pathway for its growth suppressive effects, and loss of this signaling cascade may accelerate cell growth. In the colon cancer predisposition syndrome Juvenile Polyposis, as well as in the late progression stages of nonsyndromic colorectal cancers, SMAD4 function is typically abrogated. Here, we utilized the SMAD4-null SW480 colon cancer cell line to examine BMPs effe...

  6. Global Screening of Antiviral Genes that Suppress Baculovirus Transgene Expression in Mammalian Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Hung; Naik, Nenavath Gopal; Liao, Lin-Li; Wei, Sung-Chan; Chao, Yu-Chan

    2017-09-15

    Although baculovirus has been used as a safe and convenient gene delivery vector in mammalian cells, baculovirus-mediated transgene expression is less effective in various mammalian cell lines. Identification of the negative regulators in host cells is necessary to improve baculovirus-based expression systems. Here, we performed high-throughput shRNA library screening, targeting 176 antiviral innate immune genes, and identified 43 host restriction factor genes in a human A549 lung carcinoma cell line. Among them, suppression of receptor interaction protein kinase 1 (RIP1, also known as RIPK1) significantly increased baculoviral transgene expression without resulting in significant cell death. Silencing of RIP1 did not affect viral entry or cell viability, but it did inhibit nuclear translocation of the IRF3 and NF-κB transcription factors. Also, activation of downstream signaling mediators (such as TBK1 and IRF7) was affected, and subsequent interferon and cytokine gene expression levels were abolished. Further, Necrostatin-1 (Nec-1)-an inhibitor of RIP1 kinase activity-dramatically increased baculoviral transgene expression in RIP1-silenced cells. Using baculovirus as a model system, this study presents an initial investigation of large numbers of human cell antiviral innate immune response factors against a "nonadaptive virus." In addition, our study has made baculovirus a more efficient gene transfer vector for some of the most frequently used mammalian cell systems.

  7. Serum-dependent expression of promyelocytic leukemia protein suppresses propagation of influenza virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iki, Shigeo; Yokota, Shin-ichi; Okabayashi, Tamaki; Yokosawa, Noriko; Nagata, Kyosuke; Fujii, Nobuhiro

    2005-01-01

    The rate of propagation of influenza virus in human adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells was found to negatively correlate with the concentration of fetal bovine serum (FBS) in the culture medium. Virus replicated more rapidly at lower FBS concentrations (0 or 2%) than at higher concentrations (10 or 20%) during an early stage of infection. Basal and interferon (IFN)-induced levels of typical IFN-inducible anti-viral proteins, such as 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase, dsRNA-activated protein kinase and MxA, were unaffected by variation in FBS concentrations. But promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) was expressed in a serum-dependent manner. In particular, the 65 to 70 kDa isoform of PML was markedly upregulated following the addition of serum. In contrast, other isoforms were induced by IFN treatment, and weakly induced by FBS concentrations. Immunofluorescence microscopy indicated that PML was mainly formed nuclear bodies in Caco-2 cells at various FBS concentrations, and the levels of the PML-nuclear bodies were upregulated by FBS. Overexpression of PML isoform consisting of 560 or 633 amino acid residues by transfection of expression plasmid results in significantly delayed viral replication rate in Caco-2 cells. On the other hand, downregulation of PML expression by RNAi enhanced viral replication. These results indicate that PML isoforms which are expressed in a serum-dependent manner suppress the propagation of influenza virus at an early stage of infection

  8. Calcineurin signaling and PGC-1alpha expression are suppressed during muscle atrophy due to diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Wilson, Tiffany K; Reddy, Ramesh N; Bailey, James L; Zheng, Bin; Ordas, Ronald; Gooch, Jennifer L; Price, S Russ

    2010-08-01

    PGC-1alpha is a transcriptional coactivator that controls energy homeostasis through regulation of glucose and oxidative metabolism. Both PGC-1alpha expression and oxidative capacity are decreased in skeletal muscle of patients and animals undergoing atrophy, suggesting that PGC-1alpha participates in the regulation of muscle mass. PGC-1alpha gene expression is controlled by calcium- and cAMP-sensitive pathways. However, the mechanism regulating PGC-1alpha in skeletal muscle during atrophy remains unclear. Therefore, we examined the mechanism responsible for decreased PGC-1alpha expression using a rodent streptozotocin (STZ) model of chronic diabetes and atrophy. After 21days, the levels of PGC-1alpha protein and mRNA were decreased. We examined the activation state of CREB, a potent activator of PGC-1alpha transcription, and found that phospho-CREB was paradoxically high in muscle of STZ-rats, suggesting that the cAMP pathway was not involved in PGC-1alpha regulation. In contrast, expression of calcineurin (Cn), a calcium-dependent phosphatase, was suppressed in the same muscles. PGC-1alpha expression is regulated by two Cn substrates, MEF2 and NFATc. Therefore, we examined MEF2 and NFATc activity in muscles from STZ-rats. Target genes MRF4 and MCIP1.4 mRNAs were both significantly reduced, consistent with reduced Cn signaling. Moreover, levels of MRF4, MCIP1.4, and PGC-1alpha were also decreased in muscles of CnAalpha-/- and CnAbeta-/- mice without diabetes indicating that decreased Cn signaling, rather than changes in other calcium- or cAMP-sensitive pathways, were responsible for decreased PGC-1alpha expression. These findings demonstrate that Cn activity is a major determinant of PGC-1alpha expression in skeletal muscle during diabetes and possibly other conditions associated with loss of muscle mass.

  9. Calcineurin signaling and PGC-1α expression are suppressed during muscle atrophy due to diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Wilson, Tiffany K.; Reddy, Ramesh N.; Bailey, James L.; Zheng, Bin; Ordas, Ronald; Gooch, Jennifer L.; Price, S. Russ

    2010-01-01

    PGC-1α is a transcriptional coactivator that controls energy homeostasis through regulation of glucose and oxidative metabolism. Both PGC-1α expression and oxidative capacity are decreased in skeletal muscle of patients and animals undergoing atrophy, suggesting that PGC-1α participates in the regulation of muscle mass. PGC-1α gene expression is controlled by calcium- and cAMP-sensitive pathways. However, the mechanism regulating PGC-1α in skeletal muscle during atrophy remains unclear. Therefore, we examined the mechanism responsible for decreased PGC-1α expression using a rodent streptozotocin (STZ) model of chronic diabetes and atrophy. After 21d, the levels of PGC-1α protein and mRNA were decreased. We examined the activation state of CREB, a potent activator of PGC-1α transcription, and found that phospho-CREB was paradoxically high in muscle of STZ-rats, suggesting that the cAMP pathway was not involved in PGC-1α regulation. In contrast, expression of calcineurin (Cn), a calcium-dependent phosphatase, was suppressed in the same muscles. PGC-1α expression is regulated by two Cn substrates, MEF2 and NFATc. Therefore, we examined MEF2 and NFATc activity in muscles from STZ-rats. Target genes MRF4 and MCIP1.4 were both significantly reduced, consistent with reduced Cn signaling. Moreover, levels of MRF4, MCIP1.4, and PGC-1α were also decreased in muscles of CnAα-/- and CnAβ-/- mice without diabetes indicating that decreased Cn signaling, rather than changes in other calcium- or cAMP-sensitive pathways, were responsible for decreased PGC-1α expression. These findings demonstrate that Cn activity is a major determinant of PGC-1α expression in skeletal muscle during diabetes and possibly other conditions associated with loss of muscle mass. PMID:20359506

  10. Behavioral experience induces zif268 expression in mature granule cells but suppresses its expression in immature granule cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckleberry, Kylie A.; Kane, Gary A.; Mathis, Rita J.; Cook, Sarah G.; Clutton, Jonathan E.; Drew, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of neurons are born each day in the dentate gyrus (DG), but many of these cells die before reaching maturity. Both death and survival of adult-born neurons are regulated by neuronal activity in the DG. The immediate-early gene (IEG) zif268 appears to be an important mediator of these effects, as its expression can be induced by neural activity and knockout of zif268 impairs survival of adult-born neurons (Richardson et al., 1992; Veyrac et al., 2013). Despite the apparent importance of zif268 for adult neurogenesis, its behavior-induced expression has not been fully characterized in adult-born neurons. Here we characterize behavior-evoked expression of zif268 in mature and newborn dentate granule cells (DGCs). We first quantified zif268 expression in doublecortin-positive (DCX+) immature neurons and in the general granule cell population after brief exposure to a novel environment (NE). In the general granule cell population, zif268 expression peaked 1 h after NE exposure and returned to baseline by 8 h post-exposure. However, in the DCX+ cells, zif268 expression was suppressed relative to home cage for at least 8 h post-exposure. We next asked whether suppression of zif268 in DCX+ immature cells occurs in other behavioral paradigms that recruit the hippocampus. Exposure to Morris water maze (MWM) training, an enriched environment, or a NE caused approximately equal suppression of zif268 expression in DCX+ cells and approximately equal activation of zif268 expression among the general granule cell population. The same behavioral procedures activated zif268 expression in 6-week-old BrdU-labeled adult-born neurons, indicating that zif268 suppression is specific to immature neurons. Finally, we asked whether zif268 suppression varied as a function of age within the DCX+ population, which ranges in age from 0 to approximately 4 weeks. NE exposure had no significant effect on zif268 expression in 2- or 4-week-old BrdU-labeled neurons, but it significantly

  11. Heme Oxygenase Induction Suppresses Hepatic Hepcidin and Rescues Ferroportin and Ferritin Expression in Obese Mice

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    Nitin Puri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepcidin, a phase II reactant secreted by hepatocytes, regulates cellular iron levels by increasing internalization of ferroportin-a transmembrane protein facilitating egress of cellular iron. Chronic low-grade inflammatory states, such as obesity, have been shown to increase oxidative stress and enhance hepcidin secretion from hepatocytes and macrophages. Heme-heme oxygenase (HO is a stress response system which reduces oxidative stress. We investigated the effects of HO-1 induction on hepatic hepcidin levels and on iron homeostasis in hepatic tissues from lean and obese mice. Obese mice exhibited hyperglycemia (p<0.05; increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines (MCP-1, IL-6, p<0.05; oxidative stress (p<0.05; and increased hepatic hepcidin levels (p<0.05. Enhancement of hepcidin was reflected in the reduced expression of ferroportin in obese mice (p<0.05. However, this effect is accompanied by a significant decline in ferritin expression. Additionally, there are reduced insulin receptor phosphorylation and attenuation of metabolic regulators pAMPK, pAKT, and pLKB1. Cobalt protoporphyrin- (CoPP- induced HO-1 upregulation in obese mice reversed these alterations (p<0.05, while attenuating hepatic hepcidin levels. These effects of CoPP were prevented in obese mice concurrently exposed to an inhibitor of HO (SnMP (p<0.05. Our results highlight a modulatory effect of HO on iron homeostasis mediated through the suppression of hepatic hepcidin.

  12. Cannabidivarin (CBDV suppresses pentylenetetrazole (PTZ-induced increases in epilepsy-related gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Amada

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To date, anticonvulsant effects of the plant cannabinoid, cannabidivarin (CBDV, have been reported in several animal models of seizure. However, these behaviourally observed anticonvulsant effects have not been confirmed at the molecular level. To examine changes to epilepsy-related gene expression following chemical convulsant treatment and their subsequent control by phytocannabinoid administration, we behaviourally evaluated effects of CBDV (400 mg/kg, p.o. on acute, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ: 95 mg/kg, i.p.-induced seizures, quantified expression levels of several epilepsy-related genes (Fos, Casp 3, Ccl3, Ccl4, Npy, Arc, Penk, Camk2a, Bdnf and Egr1 by qPCR using hippocampal, neocortical and prefrontal cortical tissue samples before examining correlations between expression changes and seizure severity. PTZ treatment alone produced generalised seizures (median: 5.00 and significantly increased expression of Fos, Egr1, Arc, Ccl4 and Bdnf. Consistent with previous findings, CBDV significantly decreased PTZ-induced seizure severity (median: 3.25 and increased latency to the first sign of seizure. Furthermore, there were correlations between reductions of seizure severity and mRNA expression of Fos, Egr1, Arc, Ccl4 and Bdnf in the majority of brain regions in the CBDV+PTZ treated group. When CBDV treated animals were grouped into CBDV responders (criterion: seizure severity ≤3.25 and non-responders (criterion: seizure severity >3.25, PTZ-induced increases of Fos, Egr1, Arc, Ccl4 and Bdnf expression were suppressed in CBDV responders. These results provide the first molecular confirmation of behaviourally observed effects of the non-psychoactive, anticonvulsant cannabinoid, CBDV, upon chemically-induced seizures and serve to underscore its suitability for clinical development.

  13. The regulation of induced depression during a frustrating situation: benefits of expressive suppression in Chinese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jiajin; Liu, Yingying; Ding, Nanxiang; Yang, Jiemin

    2014-01-01

    Studies from European-American cultures consistently reported that expressive suppression was associated with worse emotional consequence (e.g. depression) in comparison with acceptance. However, this conclusion may not apply to Chinese, as suppressing emotional displays to maintain relational harmony is culturally valued in East Asian countries. Thus, the present study examined the effects of suppression and acceptance on the depressive mood induced by a frustrating task in a Chinese sample. Sixty-four subjects were randomly assigned to one of three instructions: suppression, acceptance or no-regulation during a frustrating arithmetic task. The experience of depressive emotion and skin conductance response (SCR) were recorded during pre-frustration baseline, frustration induction and post-frustration recovery phases, respectively. Compared with the control and acceptance instructions, suppression instruction was associated with decreased depressive experiences and smaller SCR activity during frustration. There were no significant differences between acceptance and control groups in both subjective depression and SCR activity during frustration. Moreover, the suppression group showed a better emotional recovery after the frustrating task, in comparison with the acceptance and control groups. Correlation analyses verified that SCR reactivity was a reliable index of experienced depression during the frustration. Expressive suppression is effective in reducing depressive experiences and depression-related physiological activity (SCR) when Chinese people are involved. By contrast, the acceptance of depressive emotion in Chinese people does not produce a similar regulation effect. These findings suggest that cultural context should be considered in understanding the emotional consequences of suppression and acceptance strategies.

  14. Post-translational suppression of expression of intestinal brush border enzymes by fructose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M

    1989-01-01

    The two major dietary sugars, fructose and sucrose, were found to suppress effectively the biosynthetic renewal of brush border enzymes in the gut. When studied in cultured explants of pig small intestine mucosa, 10-50 mM concentrations of fructose completely prevented the expression of mature...... cotranslational glycosylation that in turn triggers a rapid proteolytic breakdown. Our findings suggest that renewal of digestive brush border enzymes is transiently suppressed during intake of fructose- or sucrose-rich meals....

  15. Low-dose radiation suppresses Pokemon expression under hypoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Whan; Yu, Kweon; Shin, Kee-Sun; Kwon, Kisang; Hwang, Tae-Sik; Kwon, O-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Our previous data demonstrated that CoCl2-induced hypoxia controls endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-associated and other intracellular factors. One of them, the transcription factor Pokemon, was differentially regulated by low-dose radiation (LDR). There are limited data regarding how this transcription factor is involved in expression of the unfolded protein response (UPR) under hypoxic conditions. The purpose of this study was to obtain clues on how Pokemon is involved in the UPR. Pokemon was selected as a differentially expressed gene under hypoxic conditions; however, its regulation was clearly repressed by LDR. It was also demonstrated that both expression of ER chaperones and ER stress sensors were affected by hypoxic conditions, and the same results were obtained when cells in which Pokemon was up- or down-regulated were used. The current state of UPR and LDR research associated with the Pokemon pathway offers an important opportunity to understand the oncogenesis, senescence, and differentiation of cells, as well as to facilitate introduction of new therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals.

  16. Cotesia vestalis parasitization suppresses expression of a Plutella xylostella thioredoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, M; Zhao, S; Wang, Z-H; Stanley, D; Chen, X-X

    2016-12-01

    Thioredoxins (Trxs) are a family of small, highly conserved and ubiquitous proteins involved in protecting organisms against toxic reactive oxygen species. In this study, a typical thioredoxin gene, PxTrx, was isolated from Plutella xylostella. The full-length cDNA sequence is composed of 959 bp containing a 321 bp open reading frame that encodes a predicted protein of 106 amino acids, a predicted molecular weight of 11.7 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.03. PxTrx was mainly expressed in larval Malpighian tubules and the fat body. An enriched recombinant PxTrx had insulin disulphide reductase activity and stimulated Human Embryonic Kidney 293 (HEK293) cell proliferation. It also protected supercoiled DNA and living HEK293 cells from H 2 O 2 -induced damage. Parasitization by Cotesia vestalis and injections of 0.05 and 0.01 equivalents of C. vestalis Bracovirus (CvBv), the symbiotic virus carried by the parasitoid, led to down-regulation of PxTrx expression in host fat body. Taken together, our results indicate that PxTrx contributes to the maintenance of P. xylostella cellular haemostasis. Host fat body expression of PxTrx is strongly attenuated by parasitization and by injections of CvBv. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  17. Suppression of endothelial t-PA expression by prolonged high laminar shear stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulfhammer, Erik; Carlstroem, Maria; Bergh, Niklas; Larsson, Pia; Karlsson, Lena; Jern, Sverker

    2009-01-01

    Primary hypertension is associated with an impaired capacity for acute release of endothelial tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), which is an important local protective response to prevent thrombus extension. As hypertensive vascular remodeling potentially results in increased vascular wall shear stress, we investigated the impact of shear on regulation of t-PA. Cultured human endothelial cells were exposed to low (≤1.5 dyn/cm 2 ) or high (25 dyn/cm 2 ) laminar shear stress for up to 48 h in two different experimental models. Using real-time RT-PCR and ELISA, shear stress was observed to time and magnitude-dependently suppress t-PA transcript and protein secretion to approximately 30% of basal levels. Mechanistic experiments revealed reduced nuclear protein binding to the t-PA specific CRE element (EMSA) and an almost completely abrogated shear response with pharmacologic JNK inhibition. We conclude that prolonged high laminar shear stress suppresses endothelial t-PA expression and may therefore contribute to the enhanced risk of arterial thrombosis in hypertensive disease.

  18. Irinotecan (CPT-11)-induced elevation of bile acids potentiates suppression of IL-10 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Zhong-Ze; Zhang, Dunfang; Cao, Yun-Feng; Xie, Cen; Lu, Dan; Sun, Dong-Xue; Tanaka, Naoki; Jiang, Changtao; Chen, Qianming; Chen, Yu; Wang, Haina; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Irinotecan (CPT-11) is a first-line anti-colon cancer drug, however; CPT-11-induced toxicity remains a key factor limiting its clinical application. To search for clues to the mechanism of CPT-11-induced toxicity, metabolomics was applied using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg of CPT-11 induced loss of body weight, and intestine toxicity. Changes in gallbladder morphology suggested alterations in bile acid metabolism, as revealed at the molecular level by analysis of the liver, bile, and ileum metabolomes between the vehicle-treated control group and the CPT-11-treated group. Analysis of immune cell populations further showed that CPT-11 treatment significantly decreased the IL-10-producing CD4 T cell frequency in intestinal lamina propria lymphocytes, but not in spleen or mesenteric lymph nodes. In vitro cell culture studies showed that the addition of bile acids deoxycholic acid and taurodeoxycholic acid accelerated the CPT-11-induced suppression of IL-10 secretion by activated CD4 + naive T cells isolated from mouse splenocytes. These results showed that CPT-11 treatment caused metabolic changes in the composition of bile acids that altered CPT-11-induced suppression of IL-10 expression. - Highlights: • CPT-11 is an effective anticancer drug, but induced toxicity limits its application in the clinic. • CPT-11 decreased IL-10-producing CD4 T cell frequency in intestinal lamina propria lymphocytes. • CPT-11 altered the composition of bile acid metabolites, notably DCA and TDCA in liver, bile and intestine. • DCA and TDCA potentiated CPT-11-induced suppression of IL-10 secretion by active CD4 + naive T cells.

  19. Irinotecan (CPT-11)-induced elevation of bile acids potentiates suppression of IL-10 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Zhong-Ze [Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin (China); Joint Center for Translational Medicine, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences and First Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning Medical University, Dalian (China); Zhang, Dunfang [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Cao, Yun-Feng [Joint Center for Translational Medicine, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences and First Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning Medical University, Dalian (China); Xie, Cen [Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Lu, Dan [Department of Immunology, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin (China); Sun, Dong-Xue; Tanaka, Naoki; Jiang, Changtao [Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Chen, Qianming; Chen, Yu [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Wang, Haina [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan (China); Gonzalez, Frank J., E-mail: gonzalef@mail.nih.gov [Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Irinotecan (CPT-11) is a first-line anti-colon cancer drug, however; CPT-11-induced toxicity remains a key factor limiting its clinical application. To search for clues to the mechanism of CPT-11-induced toxicity, metabolomics was applied using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg of CPT-11 induced loss of body weight, and intestine toxicity. Changes in gallbladder morphology suggested alterations in bile acid metabolism, as revealed at the molecular level by analysis of the liver, bile, and ileum metabolomes between the vehicle-treated control group and the CPT-11-treated group. Analysis of immune cell populations further showed that CPT-11 treatment significantly decreased the IL-10-producing CD4 T cell frequency in intestinal lamina propria lymphocytes, but not in spleen or mesenteric lymph nodes. In vitro cell culture studies showed that the addition of bile acids deoxycholic acid and taurodeoxycholic acid accelerated the CPT-11-induced suppression of IL-10 secretion by activated CD4{sup +} naive T cells isolated from mouse splenocytes. These results showed that CPT-11 treatment caused metabolic changes in the composition of bile acids that altered CPT-11-induced suppression of IL-10 expression. - Highlights: • CPT-11 is an effective anticancer drug, but induced toxicity limits its application in the clinic. • CPT-11 decreased IL-10-producing CD4 T cell frequency in intestinal lamina propria lymphocytes. • CPT-11 altered the composition of bile acid metabolites, notably DCA and TDCA in liver, bile and intestine. • DCA and TDCA potentiated CPT-11-induced suppression of IL-10 secretion by active CD4{sup +} naive T cells.

  20. Altered Gene Expressions and Cytogenetic Repair Efficiency in Cells with Suppressed Expression of XPA after Proton Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Rohde, Larry H.; Gridley, Daila S.; Mehta, Satish K.; Pierson, Duane L.; Wu, Honglu

    2009-01-01

    Cellular responses to damages from ionizing radiation (IR) exposure are influenced not only by the genes involved in DNA double strand break (DSB) repair, but also by non- DSB repair genes. We demonstrated previously that suppressed expression of several non-DSB repair genes, such as XPA, elevated IR-induced cytogenetic damages. In the present study, we exposed human fibroblasts that were treated with control or XPA targeting siRNA to 250 MeV protons (0 to 4 Gy), and analyzed chromosome aberrations and expressions of genes involved in DNA repair. As expected, after proton irradiation, cells with suppressed expression of XPA showed a significantly elevated frequency of chromosome aberrations compared with control siRNA treated (CS) cells. Protons caused more severe DNA damages in XPA knock-down cells, as 36% cells contained multiple aberrations compared to 25% in CS cells after 4Gy proton irradiation. Comparison of gene expressions using the real-time PCR array technique revealed that expressions of p53 and its regulated genes in irradiated XPA suppressed cells were altered similarly as in CS cells, suggesting that the impairment of IR induced DNA repair in XPA suppressed cells is p53-independent. Except for XPA, which was more than 2 fold down regulated in XPA suppressed cells, several other DNA damage sensing and repair genes (GTSE1, RBBP8, RAD51, UNG and XRCC2) were shown a more than 1.5 fold difference between XPA knock-down cells and CS cells after proton exposure. The possible involvement of these genes in the impairment of DNA repair in XPA suppressed cells will be further investigated.

  1. Stage dependent expression and tumor suppressive function of FAM134B (JK1) in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Farhadul; Gopalan, Vinod; Wahab, Riajul; Smith, Robert A; Qiao, Bin; Lam, Alfred King-Yin

    2017-01-01

    The aims of the present study are to investigate sub-cellular location, differential expression in different cancer stages and functional role of FAM134B in colon cancer development. FAM134B expression was studied and quantified at protein and mRNA levels in cell lines using immunocytochemistry, Western blot and real-time PCR. In vitro functional assays and an in vivo xenotransplantation mouse models were used to investigate the molecular role of FAM134B in cancer cell biology in response to FAM134B silencing with shRNA lentiviral particles. FAM134B protein was noted in both cytoplasm and nuclei of cancer cells. In cancer cells derived from stage IV colon cancer, FAM134B expression was remarkably reduced when compared to non-cancer colon cells and cancer cells derived from stage II colon cancer. FAM134B knockdown significantly (P colon cancer cells following lentiviral transfection. Furthermore, FAM134B suppression significantly increased (34-52%; P cancer suppressor gene in colon cancer. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Chemokine CXCL16 Expression Suppresses Migration and Invasiveness and Induces Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeying Fang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Increasing evidence argues that soluble CXCL16 promotes proliferation, migration, and invasion of cancer cells in vitro. However, the role of transmembrane or cellular CXCL16 in cancer remains relatively unknown. In this study, we determine the function of cellular CXCL16 as tumor suppressor in breast cancer cells. Methods. Expression of cellular CXCL16 in breast cancer cell lines was determined at both RNA and protein levels. In vitro and in vivo studies that overexpressed or downregulated CXCL16 were conducted in breast cancer cells. Results. We report differential expression of cellular CXCL16 in breast cancer cell lines that was negatively correlated with cell invasiveness and migration. Overexpression of CXCL16 in MDA-MB-231 cells led to a decrease in cell invasion and migration and induced apoptosis of the cells; downregulation of CXCL16 in MCF-7 cells increased cell migration and invasiveness. Consistent with the in vitro data, CXCL16 overexpression inhibited tumorigenesis in vivo. Conclusions. Cellular CXCL16 suppresses invasion and metastasis of breast cancer cells in vitro and inhibits tumorigenesis in vivo. Targeting of cellular CXCL16 expression is a potential therapeutic strategy for breast cancer.

  3. "Keep calm and carry on": structural correlates of expressive suppression of emotions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Kühn

    Full Text Available There is a growing appreciation that individuals differ systematically in their use of particular emotion regulation strategies. Our aim was to examine the structural correlates of the habitual use of expressive suppression of emotions. Based on our previous research on the voluntary suppression of actions we expected this response-focused emotion regulation strategy to be associated with increased grey matter volume in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC. On high-resolution MRI scans of 42 college-aged healthy adults we computed optimized voxel-based-morphometry (VBM to explore the correlation between grey matter volume and inter-individual differences in the tendency to suppress the expression of emotions assessed by means of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (Gross & John, 2003. We found a positive correlation between the habitual use of expressive suppression as an emotion regulation strategy and grey matter volume in the dmPFC. No other brain area showed a significant positive or negative correlation with the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire scores. The association between the suppression of expression of emotions and volume in the dmPFC supports the behavioural stability and biological foundation of the concept of this particular emotion regulation strategy within an age-homogenous sample of adults.

  4. Suppression of prolactin gene expression in GH cells correlates with site-specific DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z X; Kumar, V; Rivera, R T; Pasion, S G; Chisholm, J; Biswas, D K

    1989-10-01

    Prolactin- (PRL) producing and nonproducing subclones of the GH line of (rat) pituitary tumor cells have been compared to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of PRL gene expression. Particular emphasis was placed on delineating the molecular basis of the suppressed state of the PRL gene in the prolactin-nonproducing (PRL-) GH subclone (GH(1)2C1). We examined six methylatable cytosine residues (5, -CCGG- and 1, -GCGC-) within the 30-kb region of the PRL gene in these subclones. This analysis revealed that -CCGG-sequences of the transcribed region, and specifically, one in the fourth exon of the PRL gene, were heavily methylated in the PRL-, GH(1)2C1 cells. Furthermore, the inhibition of PRL gene expression in GH(1)2C1 was reversed by short-term treatment of the cells with a sublethal concentration of azacytidine (AzaC), an inhibitor of DNA methylation. The reversion of PRL gene expression by AzaC was correlated with the concurrent demethylation of the same -CCGG- sequences in the transcribed region of PRL gene. An inverse correlation between PRL gene expression and the level of methylation of the internal -C- residues in the specific -CCGG-sequence of the transcribed region of the PRL gene was demonstrated. The DNase I sensitivity of these regions of the PRL gene in PRL+, PRL-, and AzaC-treated cells was also consistent with an inverse relationship between methylation state, a higher order of structural modification, and gene expression.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Behavioral experience induces zif268 expression in mature granule cells but suppresses its expression in immature granule cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylie A. Huckleberry

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Thousands of neurons are born each day in the dentate gyrus (DG, but many of these cells die before reaching maturity. Both death and survival of adult-born neurons are regulated by neuronal activity in DG. The immediate-early gene (IEG zif268 is an important mediator of these effects, as its expression is induced by neural activity and knockout of zif268 impairs survival of adult-born neurons (Veyrac et al., 2013. Despite the apparent importance of zif268 for adult neurogenesis, its behavior-induced expression has not been fully characterized in adult-born neurons. Here we characterize behavior-evoked expression of zif268 in mature and newborn dentate granule cells (DGCs. In the general granule cell population, zif268 expression peaked 1 hour after novel environment exposure and returned to baseline by 8 hours post-exposure. However, in the doublecortin-positive (DCX+ immature neurons, zif268 expression was suppressed relative to home cage for at least 8 hours post-exposure. We next determined that exposure to water maze training, an enriched environment, or a novel environment caused approximately equal suppression of zif268 expression in DCX+ cells and approximately equal activation of zif268 in the general DGC population and in 6-week-old adult-born neurons. Finally, we asked whether zif268 suppression varied as a function of age within the DCX+ population, which ranges in age from 0 to approximately 4 weeks. Novel environment exposure had no significant effect on zif268 expression in 2- or 4-week-old BrdU-labeled neurons, but it significantly suppressed zif268 expression in 3-week-old neurons. In summary, behavioral experience transiently activated expression of zif268 in mature DGCs but caused a more long-lasting suppression of zif268 expression in immature, adult-born DGCs. We hypothesize that zif268 suppression inhibits memory-related synaptic plasticity in immature DGCs or mediates learning-induced apoptosis of immature adult

  6. miR-370 suppresses HBV gene expression and replication by targeting nuclear factor IA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hongxia; Lv, Ping; Lv, Jing; Zhao, Xiaopei; Liu, Min; Zhang, Guangling; Tang, Hua

    2017-05-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major health problem worldwide. The roles of microRNAs in the regulation of HBV expression are being increasingly recognized. In this study, we found that overexpression of miR-370 suppressed HBV gene expression and replication in Huh7 cells, whereas antisense knockdown of endogenous miR-370 enhanced HBV gene expression and replication in Huh7 cells and HepG2.2.15 cells. Further, we identified the transcription factor nuclear factor IA (NFIA) as a new host target of miR-370. Overexpression and knockdown studies showed that NFIA stimulated HBV gene expression and replication. Importantly, overexpression of NFIA counteracted the effect of miR-370 on HBV gene expression and replication. Further mechanistic studies showed that miR-370 suppressed HBV replication and gene expression by repressing HBV Enhancer I activity, and one of the NFIA binding site in the Enhancer I element was responsible for the repressive effect of miR-370 on HBV Enhancer I activity. Altogether, our results demonstrated that miR-370 suppressed HBV gene expression and replication through repressing NFIA expression, which stimulates HBV replication via direct regulation on HBV Enhancer I activities. Our findings may provide a new antiviral strategy for HBV infection. J. Med. Virol. 89:834-844, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Two Alkaloids from Bulbs of Lycoris sanguinea MAXIM. Suppress PEPCK Expression by Inhibiting the Phosphorylation of CREB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Young Sook; Tajima, Miki; Takahashi, Shigeru; Takahashi, Yuji; Umemura, Mariko; Nakano, Haruo; Park, Hyun Sun; Inoue, Hideshi

    2016-10-01

    In the fasting state, gluconeogenesis is upregulated by glucagon. Glucagon stimulates cyclic adenosine monophosphate production, which induces the expression of key enzymes for gluconeogenesis, such as cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C), which are involved in gluconeogenesis through the protein kinase A/cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) pathway. Using a luciferase reporter gene assay, a methanol extract of the bulbs of Lycoris sanguinea M AXIM. var. kiushiana Makino was found to suppress cAMP-enhanced PEPCK-C promoter activity. In addition, two alkaloids, lycoricidine and lycoricidinol, in the extract were identified as active constituents. In forskolin-stimulated human hepatoma cells, these alkaloids suppressed the expression of a reporter gene under the control of cAMP response element and also prevented increases in the endogenous levels of phosphorylated CREB and PEPCK mRNA expression. These results suggest that lycoricidine and lycoricidinol suppress PEPCK-C expression by inhibiting the phosphorylation of CREB and may thus have the potential to prevent excessive gluconeogenesis in type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Tooth loss early in life suppresses neurogenesis and synaptophysin expression in the hippocampus and impairs learning in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Kin-Ya; Murabayashi, Chika; Kotachi, Mika; Suzuki, Ayumi; Mori, Daisuke; Sato, Yuichi; Onozuka, Minoru; Azuma, Kagaku; Iinuma, Mitsuo

    2017-02-01

    Tooth loss induced neurological alterations through activation of a stress hormone, corticosterone. Age-related hippocampal morphological and functional changes were accelerated by early tooth loss in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8). In order to explore the mechanism underlying the impaired hippocampal function resulting from early masticatory dysfunction due to tooth loss, we investigated the effects of early tooth loss on plasma corticosterone levels, learning ability, neurogenesis, and synaptophysin expression in the hippocampus later in life of SAMP8 mice. We examined the effects of tooth loss soon after tooth eruption (1 month of age) on plasma corticosterone levels, learning ability in the Morris water maze, newborn cell proliferation, survival and differentiation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, and synaptophysin expression in the hippocampus of aged (8 months of age) SAMP8 mice. Aged mice with early tooth loss exhibited increased plasma corticosterone levels, hippocampus-dependent learning deficits in the Morris water maze, decreased cell proliferation, and cell survival in the dentate gyrus, and suppressed synaptophysin expression in the hippocampus. Newborn cell differentiation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, however, was not affected by early tooth loss. These findings suggest that learning deficits in aged SAMP8 mice with tooth loss soon after tooth eruption are associated with suppressed neurogenesis and decreased synaptophysin expression resulting from increased plasma corticosterone levels, and that long-term tooth loss leads to impaired cognitive function in older age. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. The Regulation of Induced Depression during a Frustrating Situation: Benefits of Expressive Suppression in Chinese Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Nanxiang; Yang, Jiemin

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies from European-American cultures consistently reported that expressive suppression was associated with worse emotional consequence (e.g. depression) in comparison with acceptance. However, this conclusion may not apply to Chinese, as suppressing emotional displays to maintain relational harmony is culturally valued in East Asian countries. Thus, the present study examined the effects of suppression and acceptance on the depressive mood induced by a frustrating task in a Chinese sample. Method Sixty-four subjects were randomly assigned to one of three instructions: suppression, acceptance or no-regulation during a frustrating arithmetic task. The experience of depressive emotion and skin conductance response (SCR) were recorded during pre-frustration baseline, frustration induction and post-frustration recovery phases, respectively. Results Compared with the control and acceptance instructions, suppression instruction was associated with decreased depressive experiences and smaller SCR activity during frustration. There were no significant differences between acceptance and control groups in both subjective depression and SCR activity during frustration. Moreover, the suppression group showed a better emotional recovery after the frustrating task, in comparison with the acceptance and control groups. Correlation analyses verified that SCR reactivity was a reliable index of experienced depression during the frustration. Conclusions Expressive suppression is effective in reducing depressive experiences and depression-related physiological activity (SCR) when Chinese people are involved. By contrast, the acceptance of depressive emotion in Chinese people does not produce a similar regulation effect. These findings suggest that cultural context should be considered in understanding the emotional consequences of suppression and acceptance strategies. PMID:24827934

  10. The regulation of induced depression during a frustrating situation: benefits of expressive suppression in Chinese individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajin Yuan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies from European-American cultures consistently reported that expressive suppression was associated with worse emotional consequence (e.g. depression in comparison with acceptance. However, this conclusion may not apply to Chinese, as suppressing emotional displays to maintain relational harmony is culturally valued in East Asian countries. Thus, the present study examined the effects of suppression and acceptance on the depressive mood induced by a frustrating task in a Chinese sample. METHOD: Sixty-four subjects were randomly assigned to one of three instructions: suppression, acceptance or no-regulation during a frustrating arithmetic task. The experience of depressive emotion and skin conductance response (SCR were recorded during pre-frustration baseline, frustration induction and post-frustration recovery phases, respectively. RESULTS: Compared with the control and acceptance instructions, suppression instruction was associated with decreased depressive experiences and smaller SCR activity during frustration. There were no significant differences between acceptance and control groups in both subjective depression and SCR activity during frustration. Moreover, the suppression group showed a better emotional recovery after the frustrating task, in comparison with the acceptance and control groups. Correlation analyses verified that SCR reactivity was a reliable index of experienced depression during the frustration. CONCLUSIONS: Expressive suppression is effective in reducing depressive experiences and depression-related physiological activity (SCR when Chinese people are involved. By contrast, the acceptance of depressive emotion in Chinese people does not produce a similar regulation effect. These findings suggest that cultural context should be considered in understanding the emotional consequences of suppression and acceptance strategies.

  11. Synthetic triterpenoid induces 15-PGDH expression and suppresses inflammation-driven colon carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung Hee; Kim, Byung-Gyu; Robinson, Janet; Fink, Steve; Yan, Min; Sporn, Michael B; Markowitz, Sanford D; Letterio, John J

    2014-06-01

    Colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC) develops as a result of inflammation-induced epithelial transformation, which occurs in response to inflammatory cytokine-dependent downregulation of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) and subsequent suppression of prostaglandin metabolism. Agents that both enhance 15-PGDH expression and suppress cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) production may more effectively prevent CAC. Synthetic triterpenoids are a class of small molecules that suppress COX-2 as well as inflammatory cytokine signaling. Here, we found that administration of the synthetic triterpenoid 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-C28-methyl ester (CDDO-Me) suppresses CAC in mice. In a spontaneous, inflammation-driven intestinal neoplasia model, deletion of Smad4 specifically in T cells led to progressive production of inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IFN-γ, iNOS, IL-6, IL-1β; as well as activation of STAT1 and STAT3; along with suppression of 15-PGDH expression. Oral administration of CDDO-Me to mice with SMAD4-deficient T cells increased survival and suppressed intestinal epithelial neoplasia by decreasing production of inflammatory mediators and increasing expression of 15-PGDH. Induction of 15-PGDH by CDDO-Me was dose dependent in epithelial cells and was abrogated following treatment with TGF-β signaling inhibitors in vitro. Furthermore, CDDO-Me-dependent 15-PGDH induction was not observed in Smad3-/- mice. Similarly, CDDO-Me suppressed azoxymethane plus dextran sodium sulfate-induced carcinogenesis in wild-type animals, highlighting the potential of small molecules of the triterpenoid family as effective agents for the chemoprevention of CAC in humans.

  12. Knock-down of NDRG2 sensitizes cervical cancer Hela cells to cisplatin through suppressing Bcl-2 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Junye; Guo, Guozhen; Yang, Le; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Yongbin; Li, Kangchu; Li, Yurong; Li, Yan; Yao, Libo

    2012-01-01

    NDRG2, a member of N-Myc downstream regulated gene family, plays some roles in cellular stress, cell differentiation and tumor suppression. We have found that NDRG2 expression in cervical cancer Hela cells increases significantly upon stimulation with cisplatin, the most popular chemotherapeutic agent currently used for the treatment of advanced cervical cancer. This interesting phenomenon drove us to evaluate the role of NDRG2 in chemosensitivity of Hela cells. In the present study, RNA interference was employed to down-regulate NDRG2 expression in Hela cells. RT-PCR and Western blot were used to detect expression of NDRG2, Bcl-2 and Bax in cancer cells. Real-time PCR was applied to detect miR-15b and miR-16 expression levels. Drug sensitivity was determined with MTT assay. Cell cloning efficiency was evaluated by Colony-forming assay. Apoptotic cells were detected with annexin V staining and flow cytometry. In vitro drug sensitivity assay revealed that suppression of NDRG2 could sensitize Hela cells to cisplatin. Down-regulation of NDRG2 didn’t influence the colony-forming ability but promoted cisplatin-induced apoptosis of Hela cells. Inhibition of NDRG2 in Hela cells was accompanied by decreased Bcl-2 protein level. However, Bcl-2 mRNA level was not changed in Hela cells with down-regulation of NDRG2. Further study indicated that miR-15b and miR-16, two microRNAs targetting Bcl-2, were significantly up-regulated in NDRG2-suppressed Hela cells. These data suggested that down-regulation of NDRG2 could enhance sensitivity of Hela cells to cisplatin through inhibiting Bcl-2 protein expression, which might be mediated by up-regulating miR-15b and miR-16

  13. Emotion Regulation in Adolescence: A Prospective Study of Expressive Suppression and Depressive Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, J.K.; Vermulst, A.A.; Geenen, R.; Middendorp, H. van; English, T.; Gross, J.J.; Ha, P.T.; Evers, C.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have shown a positive association between expressive suppression and depressive symptoms. These results have been interpreted as reflecting the impact of emotion regulation efforts on depression. However, it is also possible that depression may alter emotion regulation

  14. Heterologous expression of gentian MYB1R transcription factors suppresses anthocyanin pigmentation in tobacco flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuka, Takashi; Yamada, Eri; Saito, Misa; Fujita, Kohei; Nishihara, Masahiro

    2013-12-01

    Single-repeat MYB transcription factors, GtMYB1R1 and GtMYB1R9 , were isolated from gentian. Overexpression of these genes reduced anthocyanin accumulation in tobacco flowers, demonstrating their applicability to modification of flower color. RNA interference (RNAi) has recently been used to successfully modify flower color intensity in several plant species. In most floricultural plants, this technique requires prior isolation of target flavonoid biosynthetic genes from the same or closely related species. To overcome this limitation, we developed a simple and efficient method for reducing floral anthocyanin accumulation based on genetic engineering using novel transcription factor genes isolated from Japanese gentians. We identified two single-repeat MYB genes--GtMYB1R and GtMYB1R9--predominantly expressed in gentian petals. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing these genes were produced, and their flowers were analyzed for flavonoid components and expression of flavonoid biosynthetic genes. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing GtMYB1R1 or GtMYB1R9 exhibited significant reductions in floral anthocyanin accumulation, resulting in white-flowered phenotypes. Expression levels of chalcone isomerase (CHI), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) genes were preferentially suppressed in these transgenic tobacco flowers. A yeast two-hybrid assay demonstrated that both GtMYB1R1 and GtMYB1R9 proteins interacted with the GtbHLH1 protein, previously identified as an anthocyanin biosynthesis regulator in gentian flowers. In addition, a transient expression assay indicated that activation of the gentian GtDFR promoter by the GtMYB3-GtbHLH1 complex was partly canceled by addition of GtMYB1R1 or GtMYB1R9. These results suggest that GtMYB1R1 and GtMYB1R9 act as antagonistic transcription factors of anthocyanin biosynthesis in gentian flowers. These genes should consequently be useful for manipulating anthocyanin accumulation via genetic engineering in

  15. Pharmacologic suppression of target cell recognition by engineered T cells expressing chimeric T-cell receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Vallina, L; Yañez, R; Blanco, B; Gil, M; Russell, S J

    2000-04-01

    Adoptive therapy with autologous T cells expressing chimeric T-cell receptors (chTCRs) is of potential interest for the treatment of malignancy. To limit possible T-cell-mediated damage to normal tissues that weakly express the targeted tumor antigen (Ag), we have tested a strategy for the suppression of target cell recognition by engineered T cells. Jurkat T cells were transduced with an anti-hapten chTCR tinder the control of a tetracycline-suppressible promoter and were shown to respond to Ag-positive (hapten-coated) but not to Ag-negative target cells. The engineered T cells were then reacted with hapten-coated target cells at different effector to target cell ratios before and after exposure to tetracycline. When the engineered T cells were treated with tetracycline, expression of the chTCR was greatly decreased and recognition of the hapten-coated target cells was completely suppressed. Tetracycline-mediated suppression of target cell recognition by engineered T cells may be a useful strategy to limit the toxicity of the approach to cancer gene therapy.

  16. Canyon of current suppression in an interacting two-level quantum dot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlström, O; Pedersen, Jonas Nyvold; Samuelsson, P

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by the recent discovery of a canyon of conductance suppression in a two-level equal-spin quantum dot system [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 186804 (2010)], the transport through this system is studied in detail. At low bias and low temperature a strong current suppression is found around...... the electron-hole symmetry point independent of the couplings, in agreement with previous results. By means of a Schrieffer–Wolff transformation we are able to give an intuitive explanation to this suppression in the low-energy regime. In the general situation, numerical simulations are carried out using...... for the current suppression. It is also shown how broadening, interference, and a finite interaction energy cause a shift of the current minimum away from degeneracy. Finally we see how an increased population of the upper level leads to current peaks on each side of the suppression line. At sufficiently high...

  17. Suppression of expression of muscle-associated proteins by PPARα in brown adipose tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, Yuhong; Hara, Atsushi; Komatsu, Makiko; Tanaka, Naoki; Kamijo, Yuji; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Aoyama, Toshifumi

    2005-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) belongs to the steroid/nuclear receptor superfamily. Two-dimensional (2D) SDS-PAGE analysis of brown adipose tissue (BAT) unexpectedly revealed six spots that were present only in PPARα-null mice. Proteomic analysis indicated that these proteins were tropomyosin-1 α chain, tropomyosin β chain, myosin regulatory light chain 2, myosin light chain 3, and parvalbumin α. Analyses of mRNA have revealed that PPARα suppressed the genes encoding these proteins in a synchronous manner in adult wild-type mice. Histological and physiological analyses of BAT showed in adult wild-type mice, a marked suppression of BAT growth concurrent with a prominent decrease in lipolytic and thermogenesis activities. These results suggest that in adult mice, PPARα functions to suppress the expression of the proteins that may be involved in the architecture of BAT, and thus may function in keeping BAT in a quiescent state

  18. Reduced Dnmt3a increases Gdf5 expression with suppressed satellite cell differentiation and impaired skeletal muscle regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatazawa, Yukino; Ono, Yusuke; Hirose, Yuma; Kanai, Sayaka; Fujii, Nobuharu L; Machida, Shuichi; Nishino, Ichizo; Shimizu, Takahiko; Okano, Masaki; Kamei, Yasutomi; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    2018-03-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism regulating gene expression. In this study, we observed that DNA methyltransferase 3a (Dnmt3a) expression is decreased after muscle atrophy. We made skeletal muscle-specific Dnmt3a-knockout (Dnmt3a-KO) mice. The regeneration capacity after muscle injury was markedly decreased in Dnmt3a-KO mice. Diminished mRNA and protein expression of Dnmt3a were observed in skeletal muscles as well as in satellite cells, which are important for muscle regeneration, in Dnmt3a-KO mice. Dnmt3a-KO satellite cell showed smaller in size (length/area), suggesting suppressed myotube differentiation. Microarray analysis of satellite cells showed that expression of growth differentiation factor 5 (Gdf5) mRNA was markedly increased in Dnmt3a-KO mice. The DNA methylation level of the Gdf5 promoter was markedly decreased in Dnmt3a-KO satellite cells. In addition, DNA methylation inhibitor azacytidine treatment increased Gdf5 expression in wild-type satellite cells, suggesting Gdf5 expression is regulated by DNA methylation. Also, we observed increased inhibitor of differentiation (a target of Gdf5) mRNA expression in Dnmt3a-KO satellite cells. Thus, Dnmt3a appears to regulate satellite cell differentiation via DNA methylation. This mechanism may play a role in the decreased regeneration capacity during atrophy such as in aged sarcopenia.-Hatazawa, Y., Ono, Y., Hirose, Y., Kanai, S., Fujii, N. L., Machida, S., Nishino, I., Shimizu, T., Okano, M., Kamei, Y., Ogawa, Y. Reduced Dnmt3a increases Gdf5 expression with suppressed satellite cell differentiation and impaired skeletal muscle regeneration.

  19. Suppression of interleukin-6-induced C-reactive protein expression by FXR agonists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Songwen; Liu Qiangyuan; Wang Juan; Harnish, Douglas C.

    2009-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP), a human acute-phase protein, is a risk factor for future cardiovascular events and exerts direct pro-inflammatory and pro-atherogenic properties. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, plays an essential role in the regulation of enterohepatic circulation and lipid homeostasis. In this study, we report that two synthetic FXR agonists, WAY-362450 and GW4064, suppressed interleukin-6-induced CRP expression in human Hep3B hepatoma cells. Knockdown of FXR by short interfering RNA attenuated the inhibitory effect of the FXR agonists and also increased the ability of interleukin-6 to induce CRP production. Furthermore, treatment of wild type C57BL/6 mice with the FXR agonist, WAY-362450, attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced serum amyloid P component and serum amyloid A3 mRNA levels in the liver, whereas no effect was observed in FXR knockout mice. These data provide new evidence for direct anti-inflammatory properties of FXR.

  20. Expressive Suppression of Emotions and Overeating in Individuals with Overweight and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görlach, Mirja Gianna; Kohlmann, Sebastian; Shedden-Mora, Meike; Rief, Winfried; Westermann, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Emotions have a considerable impact on eating behaviour; however, research addressing emotion regulation in obesity is rare. The present study is the first to investigate the association between emotional suppression and overeating in individuals with overweight. In total, 314 participants including 190 individuals with obesity filled in a cross-sectional online survey, which assessed emotional suppression, eating behaviour and psychopathology. A hierarchical linear regression analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with overeating. Individuals with obesity reported more frequent overeating compared with individuals without obesity. The habitual use of emotional suppression was associated with more overeating; however, this link was moderated by increased body mass index (BMI). The results suggest that suppression of emotional expression contributes to overeating and is maladaptive especially in individuals with obesity. Further research should longitudinally investigate the predictive value of emotional suppression on overweight, as the training of emotion regulation could contribute to treating obesity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  1. Traditional Chinese Medicine Baicalin Suppresses mESCs Proliferation through Inhibition of miR-294 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traditional Chinese herbal medicines (TCMs have been widely used against a broad spectrum of biological activities, including influencing the cardiac differentiation from mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs. However, their effects and mechanisms of action on ESCs proliferation remain to be determined. The present study aimed to determine the effect of three TCMs, baicalin, ginsenoside Rg1, and puerarin, on mESCs proliferation and to elucidate the possible mechanism of their action. Methods: Cell proliferation was examined with a cell proliferation assay Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8, propidium iodide (PI staining was used to visualize cell cycle. The mRNA expression level of c-myc, c-fos, c-jun, GAPDH and microRNAs were measured by quantitative real time RT-PCR. Results: We found that baicalin 50 μM suppressed the proliferation of mESCs as observations in more cells in G1 phase and less cells in either S phase or G2/M phase. Moreover, baicalin suppressed the expressions of c-jun and c-fos in mESCs and down-regulated the expression of miR-294. Overexpression of miR-294 in mESCs significantly reversed the effects of baicalin both on mESC proliferation and c-fos/c-jun expression. Conclusions: Baicalin down-regulation of miR-294 may be its key mechanism of action in decreasing mESCs proliferation.

  2. Expressive Suppression Tendencies, Projection Bias in Memory of Negative Emotions, and Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Valerie T; Overall, Nickola C; Madden, Helen; Low, Rachel S T

    2018-02-01

    The current research extends prior research linking negative emotions and emotion regulation tendencies to memory by investigating whether (a) naturally occurring negative emotions during routine weekly life are associated with more negatively biased memories of prior emotional experiences-a bias called projection; (b) tendencies to regulate emotions via expressive suppression are associated with greater projection bias in memory of negative emotions; and (c) greater projection bias in memory is associated with poorer future well-being. Participants (N = 308) completed a questionnaire assessing their general tendencies to engage in expressive suppression. Then, every week for 7 weeks, participants reported on (a) the negative emotions they experienced across the current week (e.g., "This week, I felt 'sad'"), (b) their memories of the negative emotions they experienced the prior week (e.g., "Last week, I felt 'sad'"), and (c) their well-being. First, participants demonstrated significant projection bias in memory: Greater negative emotions in a given week were associated with remembering emotions in the prior week more negatively than those prior emotions were originally reported. Second, projection bias in memory of negative emotions was greater for individuals who reported greater tendencies to regulate emotions via expressive suppression. Third, greater projection bias in memory of negative emotions was associated with reductions in well-being across weeks. These 3 novel findings indicate that (a) current negative emotions bias memory of past emotions, (b) this memory bias is magnified for people who habitually use expressive suppression to regulate emotions, and (c) this memory bias may undermine well-being over time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Angiopoietin 2 stimulates TIE2-expressing monocytes to suppress T cell activation and to promote regulatory T cell expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffelt, Seth B; Chen, Yung-Yi; Muthana, Munitta; Welford, Abigail F; Tal, Andrea O; Scholz, Alexander; Plate, Karl H; Reiss, Yvonne; Murdoch, Craig; De Palma, Michele; Lewis, Claire E

    2011-04-01

    Angiopoietin 2 (ANGPT2) is a proangiogenic cytokine whose expression is often upregulated by endothelial cells in tumors. Expression of its receptor, TIE2, defines a highly proangiogenic subpopulation of myeloid cells in circulation and tumors called TIE2-expressing monocytes/macrophages (TEMs). Genetic depletion of TEMs markedly reduces tumor angiogenesis in various tumor models, emphasizing their essential role in driving tumor progression. Previously, we demonstrated that ANGPT2 augments the expression of various proangiogenic genes, the potent immunosuppressive cytokine, IL-10, and a chemokine for regulatory T cells (Tregs), CCL17 by TEMs in vitro. We now show that TEMs also express higher levels of IL-10 than TIE2(-) macrophages in tumors and that ANGPT2-stimulated release of IL-10 by TEMs suppresses T cell proliferation, increases the ratio of CD4(+) T cells to CD8(+) T cells, and promotes the expansion of CD4(+)CD25(high)FOXP3(+) Tregs. Furthermore, syngeneic murine tumors expressing high levels of ANGPT2 contained not only high numbers of TEMs but also increased numbers of Tregs, whereas genetic depletion of tumor TEMs resulted in a marked reduction in the frequency of Tregs in tumors. Taken together, our data suggest that ANGPT2-stimulated TEMs represent a novel, potent immunosuppressive force in tumors.

  4. Metformin suppresses CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression in breast cancer cells by down-regulating aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Do, Minh Truong; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Tran, Thi Thu Phuong; Khanal, Tilak; Choi, Jae Ho [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young Chul [Department of Food Science and Culinary, International University of Korea, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Tae Cheon, E-mail: taecheon@ynu.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hye Gwang, E-mail: hgjeong@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-01

    Induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and CYP1B1 by environmental xenobiotic chemicals or endogenous ligands through the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) has been implicated in a variety of cellular processes related to cancer, such as transformation and tumorigenesis. Here, we investigated the effects of the anti-diabetes drug metformin on expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in breast cancer cells under constitutive and inducible conditions. Our results indicated that metformin down-regulated the expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in breast cancer cells under constitutive and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced conditions. Down-regulation of AhR expression was required for metformin-mediated decreases in CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression, and the metformin-mediated CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 reduction is irrelevant to estrogen receptor α (ERα) signaling. Furthermore, we found that metformin markedly down-regulated Sp1 protein levels in breast cancer cells. The use of genetic and pharmacological tools revealed that metformin-mediated down-regulation of AhR expression was mediated through the reduction of Sp1 protein. Metformin inhibited endogenous AhR ligand-induced CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression by suppressing tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) expression in MCF-7 cells. Finally, metformin inhibits TDO expression through a down-regulation of Sp1 and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein levels. Our findings demonstrate that metformin reduces CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression in breast cancer cells by down-regulating AhR signaling. Metformin would be able to act as a potential chemopreventive agent against CYP1A1 and CYP1B1-mediated carcinogenesis and development of cancer. - Graphical abstract: Schematic of the CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 gene regulation by metformin. - Highlights: • Metformin inhibits CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression. • Metformin down-regulates the AhR signaling. • Metformin reduces Sp1 protein expression. • Metformin suppresses TDO expression.

  5. Metformin suppresses CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression in breast cancer cells by down-regulating aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do, Minh Truong; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Tran, Thi Thu Phuong; Khanal, Tilak; Choi, Jae Ho; Chung, Young Chul; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2014-01-01

    Induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and CYP1B1 by environmental xenobiotic chemicals or endogenous ligands through the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) has been implicated in a variety of cellular processes related to cancer, such as transformation and tumorigenesis. Here, we investigated the effects of the anti-diabetes drug metformin on expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in breast cancer cells under constitutive and inducible conditions. Our results indicated that metformin down-regulated the expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in breast cancer cells under constitutive and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced conditions. Down-regulation of AhR expression was required for metformin-mediated decreases in CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression, and the metformin-mediated CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 reduction is irrelevant to estrogen receptor α (ERα) signaling. Furthermore, we found that metformin markedly down-regulated Sp1 protein levels in breast cancer cells. The use of genetic and pharmacological tools revealed that metformin-mediated down-regulation of AhR expression was mediated through the reduction of Sp1 protein. Metformin inhibited endogenous AhR ligand-induced CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression by suppressing tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) expression in MCF-7 cells. Finally, metformin inhibits TDO expression through a down-regulation of Sp1 and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein levels. Our findings demonstrate that metformin reduces CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression in breast cancer cells by down-regulating AhR signaling. Metformin would be able to act as a potential chemopreventive agent against CYP1A1 and CYP1B1-mediated carcinogenesis and development of cancer. - Graphical abstract: Schematic of the CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 gene regulation by metformin. - Highlights: • Metformin inhibits CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression. • Metformin down-regulates the AhR signaling. • Metformin reduces Sp1 protein expression. • Metformin suppresses TDO expression

  6. Expressive Suppression and Enhancement During Music-Elicited Emotions in Younger and Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine eVieillard

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available When presented with emotional visual scenes, older adults have been found to be equally capable to regulate emotion expression as younger adults, corroborating the view that emotion regulation skills are maintained or even improved in later adulthood. However, the possibility that gaze direction might help achieve an emotion control goal has not been taken into account, raising the question whether the effortful processing of expressive regulation is really spared from the general age-related decline. Since it does not allow perceptual attention to be redirected away from the emotional source, music provides a useful way to address this question. In the present study, affective, behavioral and physiological consequences of free expression of emotion, expressive suppression and expressive enhancement were measured in 31 younger and 30 older adults while they listened to positive and negative musical excerpts. The main results indicated that compared to younger adults, older adults reported experiencing less emotional intensity in response to negative music during the free expression of emotion condition. No age difference was found in the ability to amplify or reduce emotional expressions. However, an age-related decline in the ability to reduce the intensity of emotional state and an age-related increase in physiological reactivity were found when participants were instructed to suppress negative expression. Taken together, the current data support previous findings suggesting an age-related change in response to music. They also corroborate the observation that older adults are as efficient as younger adults at controlling behavioral expression. But most importantly, they suggest that when faced with auditory sources of negative emotion, older age does not always confer a better ability to regulate emotions.

  7. Aspirin augments the expression of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli protein by suppression of IKKβ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashida, Noboru; Kishihata, Masako; Tien, Dat Nguyen; Kamei, Kaeko; Kimura, Takeshi; Yokode, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Clinical studies revealed aspirin inhibits cancer, but the mechanism is not known. • Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) is a well-known tumor-suppressing gene. • We found aspirin up-regulates the protein of APC. • Aspirin suppressed the expression of IKKβ, an essential kinase in NFκB activation. • The deletion of IKKβ significantly increases the expression of APC protein. - Abstract: Aspirin has been widely used as analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory medicine for long. In addition to these traditional effects, clinical studies suggest that aspirin can protect against cancer, but its mechanism has not been explored. To unveil it, we identified the proteins up- or down-regulated after incubation with aspirin by using proteomics analysis with Nano-flow LC/MALDI-TOF system. Interestingly, the analysis identified the protein of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) as one of the most up-regulated protein. APC regulates cell proliferation or angiogenesis, and is widely known as a tumor-suppressing gene which can cause colorectal cancer when it is mutated. Western blots confirmed this result, and real-time PCR indicated it is transcriptionally regulated. We further tried to elucidate the molecular mechanism with focusing on IKKβ. IKKβ is the essential kinase in activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), major transcriptional factors that regulate genes responsible for inflammation or immune response. Previous reports indicated that aspirin specifically inhibits IKKβ activity, and constitutively active form of IKKβ accelerates APC loss. We found that aspirin suppressed the expression of IKKβ, and the deletion of IKKβ by siRNA increases the expression of APC in HEK294 cells. Finally, we observed similar effects of aspirin in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Taken together, these results reveal that aspirin up-regulates the expression of APC via the suppression of IKKβ. This can be a mechanism how aspirin prevents cancer at

  8. Aspirin augments the expression of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli protein by suppression of IKKβ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashida, Noboru, E-mail: nashida@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Innovative Medicine, Institute for Advancement of Clinical and Translational Science, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Kishihata, Masako [Department of Clinical Innovative Medicine, Institute for Advancement of Clinical and Translational Science, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Tien, Dat Nguyen [Department of Clinical Innovative Medicine, Institute for Advancement of Clinical and Translational Science, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kamei, Kaeko [Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kimura, Takeshi [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Yokode, Masayuki [Department of Clinical Innovative Medicine, Institute for Advancement of Clinical and Translational Science, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • Clinical studies revealed aspirin inhibits cancer, but the mechanism is not known. • Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) is a well-known tumor-suppressing gene. • We found aspirin up-regulates the protein of APC. • Aspirin suppressed the expression of IKKβ, an essential kinase in NFκB activation. • The deletion of IKKβ significantly increases the expression of APC protein. - Abstract: Aspirin has been widely used as analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory medicine for long. In addition to these traditional effects, clinical studies suggest that aspirin can protect against cancer, but its mechanism has not been explored. To unveil it, we identified the proteins up- or down-regulated after incubation with aspirin by using proteomics analysis with Nano-flow LC/MALDI-TOF system. Interestingly, the analysis identified the protein of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) as one of the most up-regulated protein. APC regulates cell proliferation or angiogenesis, and is widely known as a tumor-suppressing gene which can cause colorectal cancer when it is mutated. Western blots confirmed this result, and real-time PCR indicated it is transcriptionally regulated. We further tried to elucidate the molecular mechanism with focusing on IKKβ. IKKβ is the essential kinase in activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), major transcriptional factors that regulate genes responsible for inflammation or immune response. Previous reports indicated that aspirin specifically inhibits IKKβ activity, and constitutively active form of IKKβ accelerates APC loss. We found that aspirin suppressed the expression of IKKβ, and the deletion of IKKβ by siRNA increases the expression of APC in HEK294 cells. Finally, we observed similar effects of aspirin in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Taken together, these results reveal that aspirin up-regulates the expression of APC via the suppression of IKKβ. This can be a mechanism how aspirin prevents cancer at

  9. miR-935 suppresses gastric signet ring cell carcinoma tumorigenesis by targeting Notch1 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Chao [Department of General Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100730 (China); Yu, Jianchun, E-mail: yu_jchpumch@163.com [Department of General Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100730 (China); Kang, Weiming [Department of General Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100730 (China); Liu, Yuqin [Cell Culture Center, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100005 (China); Ma, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Li [Department of General Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100730 (China)

    2016-01-29

    Gastric signet ring cell carcinoma (GSRCC) is a unique pathological type of gastric carcinoma that is extremely invasive and has a poor prognosis. Expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been closely linked to the carcinogenesis of gastric cancer and has been considered as a powerful prognostic marker. The function of miR-935 has never been reported in cancer before. We found, using microRNA array, that expression of miR-935 in GSRCC cell lines is lower than in non-GSRCC cell lines, and enhanced expression of miR-935 in GSRCC cell-lines inhibit cell proliferation, migration and invasion. We also identified Notch1 as a direct target of miR-935. Knockdown of Notch1 reduced proliferation, migration/invasion of GSRCC cells, and overexpression Notch1's activated form (Notch intracellular domain) could rescue miR-935's tumor suppressive effect on GSRCC. Expression of miR-935 was lower in gastric carcinoma tissue than in paired normal tissue samples, and lower in GSRCC than in non-GSRCC. Our results demonstrate the inverse correlation between the expression of miR-935 and Notch1 in gastric tissues. We conclude that miR-935 inhibits gastric carcinoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion by targeting Notch1, suggesting potential applications of the miR-935-Notch1 pathway in gastric cancer clinical diagnosis and therapeutics, especially in gastric signet ring cell carcinoma. - Highlights: • The expression of miR-935 is lower in GC tissue than in paired normal tissue. • The expression of miR-935 is lower in GSRCC tissue than in non-GSRCC. • Enhanced expression of miR-935 suppresses tumorigenesis of GSRCC. • Notch1 is a direct target of miR-935.

  10. Epigenetic suppression of potassium-chloride co-transporter 2 expression in inflammatory pain induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C-R; Cheng, J-K; Wu, C-H; Chen, K-H; Liu, C-K

    2017-02-01

    Multiple mechanisms contribute to the stimulus-evoked pain hypersensitivity that may be experienced after peripheral inflammation. Persistent pathological stimuli in many pain conditions affect the expression of certain genes through epigenetic alternations. The main purpose of our study was to investigate the role of epigenetic modification on potassium-chloride co-transporter 2 (KCC2) gene expression in the persistence of inflammatory pain. Persistent inflammatory pain was induced through the injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in the left hind paw of rats. Acetyl-histone H3 and H4 level was determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation in the spinal dorsal horn. Pain behaviour and inhibitory synaptic function of spinal cord were determined before and after CFA injection. KCC2 expression was determined by real time RT-PCR and Western blot. Intrathecal KCC2 siRNA (2 μg per 10 μL per rat) or HDAC inhibitor (10 μg per 10 μL per rat) was injected once daily for 3 days before CFA injection. Persistent inflammatory pain epigenetically suppressed KCC2 expression through histone deacetylase (HDAC)-mediated histone hypoacetylation, resulting in decreased inhibitory signalling efficacy. KCC2 knock-down caused by intrathecal administration of KCC2 siRNA in naïve rats reduced KCC2 expression in the spinal cord, leading to sensitized pain behaviours and impaired inhibitory synaptic transmission in their spinal cords. Moreover, intrathecal HDAC inhibitor injection in CFA rats increased KCC2 expression, partially restoring the spinal inhibitory synaptic transmission and relieving the sensitized pain behaviour. These findings suggest that the transcription of spinal KCC2 is regulated by histone acetylation epigenetically following CFA. Persistent pain suppresses KCC2 expression through HDAC-mediated histone hypoacetylation and consequently impairs the inhibitory function of inhibitory interneurons. Drugs such as HDAC inhibitors that suppress the influences of

  11. Burst-suppression pattern in the electroencephalogram of newborns and infants. Its clinical expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cervantes Blanco Jorge Mauricio

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Burst-suppression pattern in the electroencephalogram (EEG is associated with severe brain damage and has a bad prognosis in 85% of the cases. Objectives. To identify the prevalence of the EEG burst-suppression pattern (BSP in fullterm newborns and infants, determine its etiol- ogy, clinical features and course. Methods. A retrospective study was conducted. Between January 2008 and December 2012, 4,891 EEGs were reviewed. The EEGs of newborns and infants (< 3 months of age with BSP were selected. Results. 11 cases identified with burst suppression pattern. The overall prevalence of which was 3.5%; 8.1% among the newborns and 1.2% among infants. Seizures were the main reason for doing an EEG in the newborn period in 7 patients and after day 28 in three. The clinical manifestations were abnormal level of consciousness (n=8, hypotonia (n=2, and spasticity (n=6. The main causes were hypoxic ischemic injury, stroke and kernicterus. There were two cases of early infantile epileptic encephalopathy. Two patients died before the third month of age; 8 survived an average of 13 months. All had epilepsy, neurologic retardation and disability. Two patients had persistent EEG burst-suppression pattern; 1 and 3 months after the neonatal period respectively; 7 had focal spikes and an asymmetric pattern. Conclusions. Electroencephalographic burst-suppression pat- tern predicts a severe neurologic injury in fullterm newborns and infants.

  12. Down-regulation of LncRNA TUG1 enhances radiosensitivity in bladder cancer via suppressing HMGB1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Huijuan; Hu, Xigang; Zhang, Hongzhi; Li, Wenbo

    2017-04-04

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to regulate the sensitivity of different cancer cells to chemoradiotherapy. Aberrant expression of lncRNA Taurine-upregulated gene 1 (TUG1) has been found to be involved in the development of bladder cancer, however, its function and underlying mechanism in the radioresistance of bladder cancer remains unclear. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was conducted to measure the expression of TUG1 and HMGB1 mRNA in bladder cancer tissues and cell lines. HMGB1 protein levels were tested by western blot assays. Different doses of X-ray were used for radiation treatment of bladder cancer cells. Colony survival and cell viability were detected by clonogenic assay and CCK-8 Kit, respectively. Cell apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry. A xenograft mouse model was constructed to observe the effect of TUG1 on tumor growth in vivo. The levels of TUG1 and HMGB1 were remarkably increased in bladder cancer tissues and cell lines. Radiation treatment markedly elevated the expression of TUG1 and HMGB1. TUG1 knockdown inhibited cell proliferation, promoted cell apoptosis and decreased colony survival in SW780 and BIU87 cells under radiation. Moreover, TUG1 depletion suppressed the HMGB1 mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, overexpression of HMGB1 reversed TUG1 knockdown-induced effect in bladder cancer cells. Radiation treatment dramatically reduced the tumor volume and weight in xenograft model, and this effect was more obvious when combined with TUG1 silencing. LncRNA TUG1 knockdown enhances radiosensitivity of bladder cancer by suppressing HMGB1 expression. TUG1 acts as a potential regulator of radioresistance of bladder cancer, and it may represent a promising therapeutic target for bladder cancer patients.

  13. Suppression of HBV replication by the expression of nickase- and nuclease dead-Cas9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Takeshi; Fukuhara, Takasuke; Ono, Chikako; Yamamoto, Satomi; Uemura, Kentaro; Okamoto, Toru; Sugiyama, Masaya; Motooka, Daisuke; Nakamura, Shota; Ikawa, Masato; Mizokami, Masashi; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Matsuura, Yoshiharu

    2017-07-21

    Complete removal of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA from nuclei is difficult by the current therapies. Recent reports have shown that a novel genome-editing tool using Cas9 with a single-guide RNA (sgRNA) system can cleave the HBV genome in vitro and in vivo. However, induction of a double-strand break (DSB) on the targeted genome by Cas9 risks undesirable off-target cleavage on the host genome. Nickase-Cas9 cleaves a single strand of DNA, and thereby two sgRNAs are required for inducing DSBs. To avoid Cas9-induced off-target mutagenesis, we examined the effects of the expressions of nickase-Cas9 and nuclease dead Cas9 (d-Cas9) with sgRNAs on HBV replication. The expression of nickase-Cas9 with a pair of sgRNAs cleaved the target HBV genome and suppressed the viral-protein expression and HBV replication in vitro. Moreover, nickase-Cas9 with the sgRNA pair cleaved the targeted HBV genome in mouse liver. Interestingly, d-Cas9 expression with the sgRNAs also suppressed HBV replication in vitro without cleaving the HBV genome. These results suggest the possible use of nickase-Cas9 and d-Cas9 with a pair of sgRNAs for eliminating HBV DNA from the livers of chronic hepatitis B patients with low risk of undesirable off-target mutation on the host genome.

  14. The cauliflower Orange gene enhances petiole elongation by suppressing expression of eukaryotic release factor 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiangjun; Sun, Tian-Hu; Wang, Ning; Ling, Hong-Qing; Lu, Shan; Li, Li

    2011-04-01

    The cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) Orange (Or) gene affects plant growth and development in addition to conferring β-carotene accumulation. This study was undertaken to investigate the molecular basis for the effects of the Or gene mutation in on plant growth. The OR protein was found to interact with cauliflower and Arabidopsis eukaryotic release factor 1-2 (eRF1-2), a member of the eRF1 family, by yeast two-hybrid analysis and by bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay. Concomitantly, the Or mutant showed reduced expression of the BoeRF1 family genes. Transgenic cauliflower plants with suppressed expression of BoeRF1-2 and BoeRF1-3 were generated by RNA interference. Like the Or mutant, the BoeRF1 RNAi lines showed increased elongation of the leaf petiole. This long-petiole phenotype was largely caused by enhanced cell elongation, which resulted from increased cell length and elevated expression of genes involved in cell-wall loosening. These findings demonstrate that the cauliflower Or gene controls petiole elongation by suppressing the expression of eRF1 genes, and provide new insights into the molecular mechanism of leaf petiole regulation. © 2010 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2010 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Suppression of HPV E6 and E7 expression by BAF53 depletion in cervical cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kiwon; Lee, Ah-Young; Kwon, Yunhee Kim; Kwon, Hyockman

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Integration of HPV into host genome critical for activation of E6 and E7 oncogenes. → BAF53 is essential for higher-order chromatin structure. → BAF53 knockdown suppresses E6 and E7 from HPV integrants, but not from episomal HPVs. → BAF53 knockdown decreases H3K9Ac and H4K12Ac on P105 promoter of integrated HPV 18. → BAF53 knockdown restores the p53-dependent signaling pathway in HeLa and SiHa cells. -- Abstract: Deregulation of the expression of human papillomavirus (HPV) oncogenes E6 and E7 plays a pivotal role in cervical carcinogenesis because the E6 and E7 proteins neutralize p53 and Rb tumor suppressor pathways, respectively. In approximately 90% of all cervical carcinomas, HPVs are found to be integrated into the host genome. Following integration, the core-enhancer element and P105 promoter that control expression of E6 and E7 adopt a chromatin structure that is different from that of episomal HPV, and this has been proposed to contribute to activation of E6 and E7 expression. However, the molecular basis underlying this chromatin structural change remains unknown. Previously, BAF53 has been shown to be essential for the integrity of higher-order chromatin structure and interchromosomal interactions. Here, we examined whether BAF53 is required for activated expression of E6 and E7 genes. We found that BAF53 knockdown led to suppression of expression of E6 and E7 genes from HPV integrants in cervical carcinoma cell lines HeLa and SiHa. Conversely, expression of transiently transfected HPV18-LCR-Luciferase was not suppressed by BAF53 knockdown. The level of the active histone marks H3K9Ac and H4K12Ac on the P105 promoter of integrated HPV 18 was decreased in BAF53 knockdown cells. BAF53 knockdown restored the p53-dependent signaling pathway in HeLa and SiHa cells. These results suggest that activated expression of the E6 and E7 genes of integrated HPV is dependent on BAF53-dependent higher-order chromatin structure or nuclear motor

  16. PCB 126 and Other Dioxin-Like PCBs Specifically Suppress Hepatic PEPCK Expression via the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenshuo; Sargis, Robert M.; Volden, Paul A.; Carmean, Christopher M.; Sun, Xiao J.; Brady, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds encompass a group of structurally related heterocyclic compounds that bind to and activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). The prototypical dioxin is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a highly toxic industrial byproduct that incites numerous adverse physiological effects. Global commercial production of the structurally similar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), however, commenced early in the 20th century and continued for decades; dioxin-like PCBs therefore contribute significantly to total dioxin-associated toxicity. In this study, PCB 126, the most potent dioxin-like PCB, was evaluated with respect to its direct effects on hepatic glucose metabolism using primary mouse hepatocytes. Overnight treatment with PCB 126 reduced hepatic glycogen stores in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, PCB 126 suppressed forskolin-stimulated gluconeogenesis from lactate. These effects were independent of acute toxicity, as PCB 126 did not increase lactate dehydrogenase release nor affect lipid metabolism or total intracellular ATP. Interestingly, provision of cells with glycerol instead of lactate as the carbon source completely restored hepatic glucose production, indicating specific impairment in the distal arm of gluconeogenesis. In concordance with this finding, PCB 126 blunted the forskolin-stimulated increase in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) mRNA levels without affecting glucose-6-phosphatase expression. Myricetin, a putative competitive AhR antagonist, reversed the suppression of PEPCK induction by PCB 126. Furthermore, other dioxin-like PCBs demonstrated similar effects on PEPCK expression in parallel with their ability to activate AhR. It therefore appears that AhR activation mediates the suppression of PEPCK expression by dioxin-like PCBs, suggesting a role for these pollutants as disruptors of energy metabolism. PMID:22615911

  17. PCB 126 and other dioxin-like PCBs specifically suppress hepatic PEPCK expression via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenshuo Zhang

    Full Text Available Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds encompass a group of structurally related heterocyclic compounds that bind to and activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR. The prototypical dioxin is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, a highly toxic industrial byproduct that incites numerous adverse physiological effects. Global commercial production of the structurally similar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, however, commenced early in the 20(th century and continued for decades; dioxin-like PCBs therefore contribute significantly to total dioxin-associated toxicity. In this study, PCB 126, the most potent dioxin-like PCB, was evaluated with respect to its direct effects on hepatic glucose metabolism using primary mouse hepatocytes. Overnight treatment with PCB 126 reduced hepatic glycogen stores in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, PCB 126 suppressed forskolin-stimulated gluconeogenesis from lactate. These effects were independent of acute toxicity, as PCB 126 did not increase lactate dehydrogenase release nor affect lipid metabolism or total intracellular ATP. Interestingly, provision of cells with glycerol instead of lactate as the carbon source completely restored hepatic glucose production, indicating specific impairment in the distal arm of gluconeogenesis. In concordance with this finding, PCB 126 blunted the forskolin-stimulated increase in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK mRNA levels without affecting glucose-6-phosphatase expression. Myricetin, a putative competitive AhR antagonist, reversed the suppression of PEPCK induction by PCB 126. Furthermore, other dioxin-like PCBs demonstrated similar effects on PEPCK expression in parallel with their ability to activate AhR. It therefore appears that AhR activation mediates the suppression of PEPCK expression by dioxin-like PCBs, suggesting a role for these pollutants as disruptors of energy metabolism.

  18. Knockdown of Pokemon protein expression inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation by suppression of AKT activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaosan; Dai, Yichen; Chen, Zhangxin; Xie, Junpei; Zeng, Wei; Lin, Yuanyuan

    2013-01-01

    Overexpression of Pokemon, which is an erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor protein, occurs in different cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Pokemon is also reported to have an oncogenic activity in various human cancers. This study investigated the effect of Pokemon knockdown on the regulation of HCC growth. POK shRNA suppressed the expression of Pokemon protein in HepG2 cells compared to the negative control vector-transfected HCC cells. Pokemon knockdown also reduced HCC cell viability and enhanced cisplatin-induced apoptosis in HCC cells. AKT activation and the expression of various cell cycle-related genes were inhibited following Pokemon knockdown. These data demonstrate that Pokemon may play a role in HCC progression, suggesting that inhibition of Pokemon expression using Pokemon shRNA should be further evaluated as a novel target for the control of HCC.

  19. A microRNA, mir133b, suppresses melanopsin expression mediated by failure dopaminergic amacrine cells in RCS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaochen; Li, Chunshi; Chen, Zhongshan; He, Jianrong; Tao, Zui; Yin, Zheng Qin

    2012-03-01

    The photopigment melanopsin and melanopsin-containing RGCs (mRGCs or ipRGCs) represent a brand-new and exciting direction in the field of visual field. Although the melanopsin is much less sensitive to light and has far less spatial resolution, mRGCs have the unique ability to project to brain areas by the retinohypothalamic tract (RHT) and communicate directly with the brain. Unfortunately, melanopsin presents lower expression levels in many acute and chronic retinal diseases. The molecular mechanisms underlying melanopsin expression are not yet really understood. MicroRNAs play important roles in the control of development. Most importantly, the link of microRNA biology to a diverse set of cellular processes, ranging from proliferation, apoptosis and malignant transformation to neuronal development and fate specification is emerging. We employed Royal College of Surgeon (RCS) rats as animal model to investigate the underlying molecular mechanism regulating melanopsin expression using a panel of miRNA by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. We identified a microRNA, mir133b, that is specifically expressed in retinal dopaminergic amacrine cells as well as markedly increased expression at early stage during retinal degeneration in RCS rats. The overexpression of mir133b downregulates the important transcription factor Pitx3 expression in dopaminergic amacrine cells in RCS rats retinas and makes amacrine cells stratification deficit in IPL. Furthermore, deficient dopaminergic amacrine cells presented decreased TH expression and dopamine production, which lead to a failure to direct mRGCs dendrite to stratify and enter INL and lead to the reduced correct connections between amacrine cells and mRGCs. Our study suggested that overexpression of mir133b and downregulated Pitx3 suppress maturation and function of dopaminergic amacrine cells, and overexpression of mir133b decreased TH and D2 receptor expression as well as dopamine

  20. Resveratrol Suppresses Growth and Migration of Myelodysplastic Cells by Inhibiting the Expression of Elevated Cyclin D1 (CCND1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Xu, Shilin; Ying, Yi; Zhou, Ruiqing; Chen, Xiaowei

    2017-11-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of heterogeneous diseases characterized by poorly formed blood cells. We wanted to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism to better determine pathogenesis, prognosis, diagnosis, and treatment for patients with MDS. We compared gene expression levels between normal and MDS tissue samples by immunohistochemical analysis. We studied the proliferation, survival, and migration of MDS cells using the EDU assay, colony formation, and transwell assays. We assessed the apoptotic rate and cell cycle status using flow cytometry and Hoechst staining. Finally, we evaluated RNA and protein expressions using polymerase chain reaction and Western blots, respectively. We found that resveratrol suppressed SKM-1 (an advanced MDS cell line) proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Consistent with this finding, the EDU and colony formation assays also showed that resveratrol inhibited SKM-1 growth. Moreover, flow cytometry and Hoechst 33258 staining demonstrated that resveratrol induced apoptosis and a change in cell cycle status in SKM-1 cells, while the transwell assay showed that resveratrol reduced the migratory ability of SKM-1 cells. Resveratrol also decreased the expression of CCND1 (a gene that encodes the cyclin D1 protein) and increased expressions of KMT2A [lysine (K)-specific methyltransferase 2A] and caspase-3, suggesting that resveratrol exerts its effect by regulating CCND1 in SKM-1 cells. In addition, a combination of resveratrol and the PI3K/AKT inhibitor LY294002 exhibited a stronger inhibitory effect on the SKM-1 cells, compared with resveratrol alone. Our study proved that resveratrol suppresses SKM-1 growth and migration by inhibiting CCND1 expression. This finding provides novel insights into the pathogenesis of MDS and might help develop new diagnosis and treatment for patients with MDS.

  1. Baicalin ameliorates neuropathic pain by suppressing HDAC1 expression in the spinal cord of spinal nerve ligation rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Hwan Cherng

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: The present findings suggest that baicalin can ameliorate neuropathic pain by suppressing HDAC1 expression and preventing histone-H3 acetylation in the spinal cord dorsal horn of SNL rats.

  2. Hepatitis B virus X protein suppresses caveolin-1 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma by regulating DNA methylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Jun; Lu, Qian; Dong, Jiahong; Li, Xiaowu; Ma, Kuansheng; Cai, Lei

    2012-01-01

    To understand the molecular mechanisms of caveolin-1 downregulation by hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx). The DNA methylation status of the caveolin-1 promoter was examined by nested methylation-specific PCR of 33 hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) samples. The SMMC-7721 hepatoma cell line was transfected with a recombinant HBx adenoviral vector, and the effects of HBx protein on caveolin-1 expression and promoter methylation were examined and confirmed by sequencing. A reporter gene containing the caveolin-1 promoter region was constructed, and the effects of HBx on the transcriptional activity of the promoter were also studied. Methylation of the caveolin-1 promoter was detected in 84.8% (28/33) of HBV-infected HCC samples. Expression of caveolin-1 was significantly downregulated (P = 0.022), and multiple CpG sites in the promoter region of caveolin-1 were methylated in SMMC-7721 cells after HBx transfection. Transfected HBx significantly suppressed caveolin-1 promoter activity (P = 0.001). HBx protein induces methylation of the caveolin-1 promoter region and suppresses its expression

  3. Human biallelic MFN2 mutations induce mitochondrial dysfunction, upper body adipose hyperplasia, and suppression of leptin expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Nuno M; Bulger, David A; Frontini, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    body adipose overgrowth. We describe similar massive adipose overgrowth with suppressed leptin expression in four further patients with biallelic MFN2 mutations and at least one p.Arg707Trp allele. Overgrown tissue was composed of normal-sized, UCP1-negative unilocular adipocytes, with mitochondrial...... network fragmentation, disorganised cristae, and increased autophagosomes. There was strong transcriptional evidence of mitochondrial stress signalling, increased protein synthesis, and suppression of signatures of cell death in affected tissue, whereas mitochondrial morphology and gene expression were...

  4. Let-7b-mediated suppression of basigin expression and metastasis in mouse melanoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Tzu-Yen; Chang, Chia-Che; Lin, Chun-Ting; Lai, Cong-Hao; Peng, Shao-Yu; Ko, Yi-Ju; Tang, Pin-Chi

    2011-01-01

    Basigin (Bsg), also called extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN), is highly expressed on the surface of tumor cells and stimulates adjacent fibroblasts or tumor cells to produce matrix metalloproteinases (mmps). It has been shown that Bsg plays an important role in growth, development, cell differentiation, and tumor progression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short endogenous non-protein coding RNAs of 20-25 nucleotides (nt) that function as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression by base-pairing to their target mRNAs and thereby mediate cleavage of target mRNAs or translational repression. In this study, let-7b, one of the let-7 family members, was investigated for its effect on the growth and invasiveness of the mouse melanoma cell line B16-F10. We have shown that let-7b can suppress the expression of Bsg in B16-F10 cells and also provided evidence that this suppression could result in the indirect suppression of mmp-9. The ability of B16-F10 cells transfected with let-7b to invade or migrate was significantly reduced. In addition, let-7b transfected B16-F10 cells displayed an inhibition of both cellular proliferation and colony formation. Furthermore, it was shown that the overexpression of let-7b in B16-F10 cells could reduce lung metastasis. Taken together, the present study identifies let-7b as a tumor suppressor that represses cancer cell proliferation and migration as well as tumor metastasis in mouse melanoma cells.

  5. Let-7b-mediated suppression of basigin expression and metastasis in mouse melanoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Tzu-Yen [Department of Animal Science, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chia-Che [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, 91 Hsueh Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chun-Ting [Department of Animal Science, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Lai, Cong-Hao [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Department of Life Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Peng, Shao-Yu; Ko, Yi-Ju [Department of Animal Science, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Tang, Pin-Chi, E-mail: pctang@dragon.nchu.edu.tw [Department of Animal Science, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China)

    2011-02-15

    Basigin (Bsg), also called extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN), is highly expressed on the surface of tumor cells and stimulates adjacent fibroblasts or tumor cells to produce matrix metalloproteinases (mmps). It has been shown that Bsg plays an important role in growth, development, cell differentiation, and tumor progression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short endogenous non-protein coding RNAs of 20-25 nucleotides (nt) that function as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression by base-pairing to their target mRNAs and thereby mediate cleavage of target mRNAs or translational repression. In this study, let-7b, one of the let-7 family members, was investigated for its effect on the growth and invasiveness of the mouse melanoma cell line B16-F10. We have shown that let-7b can suppress the expression of Bsg in B16-F10 cells and also provided evidence that this suppression could result in the indirect suppression of mmp-9. The ability of B16-F10 cells transfected with let-7b to invade or migrate was significantly reduced. In addition, let-7b transfected B16-F10 cells displayed an inhibition of both cellular proliferation and colony formation. Furthermore, it was shown that the overexpression of let-7b in B16-F10 cells could reduce lung metastasis. Taken together, the present study identifies let-7b as a tumor suppressor that represses cancer cell proliferation and migration as well as tumor metastasis in mouse melanoma cells.

  6. Screening differentially expressed genes in an amphipod (Hyalella azteca) exposed to fungicide vinclozolin by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yun H; Wu, Tsung M; Hong, Chwan Y; Wang, Yei S; Yen, Jui H

    2014-01-01

    Vinclozolin, a dicarboximide fungicide, is an endocrine disrupting chemical that competes with an androgenic endocrine disruptor compound. Most research has focused on the epigenetic effect of vinclozolin in humans. In terms of ecotoxicology, understanding the effect of vinclozolin on non-target organisms is important. The expression profile of a comprehensive set of genes in the amphipod Hyalella azteca exposed to vinclozolin was examined. The expressed sequence tags in low-dose vinclozolin-treated and -untreated amphipods were isolated and identified by suppression subtractive hybridization. DNA dot blotting was used to confirm the results and establish a subtracted cDNA library for comparing all differentially expressed sequences with and without vinclozolin treatment. In total, 494 differentially expressed genes, including hemocyanin, heatshock protein, cytochrome, cytochrome oxidase and NADH dehydrogenase were detected. Hemocyanin was the most abundant gene. DNA dot blotting revealed 55 genes with significant differential expression. These genes included larval serum protein 1 alpha, E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase, mitochondrial protein, proteasome inhibitor, hemocyanin, zinc-finger-containing protein, mitochondrial NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase and epididymal sperm-binding protein. Vinclozolin appears to upregulate stress-related genes and hemocyanin, related to immunity. Moreover, vinclozolin downregulated NADH dehydrogenase, related to respiration. Thus, even a non-lethal concentration of vinclozolin still has an effect at the genetic level in H. azteca and presents a potential risk, especially as it would affect non-target organism hormone metabolism.

  7. ZO-1 expression is suppressed by GM-CSF via miR-96/ERG in brain microvascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hu; Zhang, Shuhong; Zhang, Jilin; Liu, Dongxin; Wei, Jiayi; Fang, Wengang; Zhao, Weidong; Chen, Yuhua; Shang, Deshu

    2018-05-01

    The level of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) increases in some disorders such as vascular dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and multiple sclerosis. We previously reported that in Alzheimer's disease patients, a high level of GM-CSF in the brain parenchyma downregulated expression of ZO-1, a blood-brain barrier tight junction protein, and facilitated the infiltration of peripheral monocytes across the blood-brain barrier. However, the molecular mechanism underlying regulation of ZO-1 expression by GM-CSF is unclear. Herein, we found that the erythroblast transformation-specific (ETS) transcription factor ERG cooperated with the proto-oncogene protein c-MYC in regulation of ZO-1 transcription in brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs). The ERG expression was suppressed by miR-96 which was increased by GM-CSF through the phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. Inhibition of miR-96 prevented ZO-1 down-regulation induced by GM-CSF both in vitro and in vivo. Our results revealed the mechanism of ZO-1 expression reduced by GM-CSF, and provided a potential target, miR-96, which could block ZO-1 down-regulation caused by GM-CSF in BMECs.

  8. Noise suppress or express exponential growth for hybrid Hopfield neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Song; Shen Yi; Chen Guici

    2010-01-01

    In this Letter, we will show that noise can make the given hybrid Hopfield neural networks whose solution may grows exponentially become the new stochastic hybrid Hopfield neural networks whose solution will grows at most polynomially. On the other hand, we will also show that noise can make the given hybrid Hopfield neural networks whose solution grows at most polynomially become the new stochastic hybrid Hopfield neural networks whose solution will grows at exponentially. In other words, we will reveal that the noise can suppress or express exponential growth for hybrid Hopfield neural networks.

  9. Expression of immune-response genes in lepidopteran host is suppressed by venom from an endoparasitoid, Pteromalus puparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Qi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationships between parasitoids and their insect hosts have attracted attention at two levels. First, the basic biology of host-parasitoid interactions is of fundamental interest. Second, parasitoids are widely used as biological control agents in sustainable agricultural programs. Females of the gregarious endoparasitoid Pteromalus puparum (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae inject venom along with eggs into their hosts. P. puparum does not inject polydnaviruses during oviposition. For this reason, P. puparum and its pupal host, the small white butterfly Pieris rapae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae, comprise an excellent model system for studying the influence of an endoparasitoid venom on the biology of the pupal host. P. puparum venom suppresses the immunity of its host, although the suppressive mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we tested our hypothesis that P. puparum venom influences host gene expression in the two main immunity-conferring tissues, hemocytes and fat body. Results At 1 h post-venom injection, we recorded significant decreases in transcript levels of 217 EST clones (revealing 113 genes identified in silico, including 62 unknown contigs derived from forward subtractive libraries of host hemocytes and in transcript levels of 288 EST clones (221 genes identified in silico, including 123 unknown contigs from libraries of host fat body. These genes are related to insect immune response, cytoskeleton, cell cycle and apoptosis, metabolism, transport, stress response and transcriptional and translational regulation. We verified the reliability of the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH data with semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis of a set of randomly selected genes. This analysis showed that most of the selected genes were down-regulated after venom injection. Conclusions Our findings support our hypothesis that P. puparum venom influences gene expression in host hemocytes and fat body. Specifically

  10. Suppression of leaky expression of adenovirus genes by insertion of microRNA-targeted sequences in the replication-incompetent adenovirus vector genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahori Shimizu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaky expression of adenovirus (Ad genes occurs following transduction with a conventional replication-incompetent Ad vector, leading to an induction of cellular immunity against Ad proteins and Ad protein-induced toxicity, especially in the late phase following administration. To suppress the leaky expression of Ad genes, we developed novel Ad vectors by incorporating four tandem copies of sequences with perfect complementarity to miR-122a or miR-142-3p into the 3′-untranslated region (UTR of the E2A, E4, or pIX gene, which were mainly expressed from the Ad vector genome after transduction. These Ad vectors easily grew to high titers comparable to those of a conventional Ad vector in conventional 293 cells. The leaky expression of these Ad genes in mouse organs was significantly suppressed by 2- to 100-fold, compared with a conventional Ad vector, by insertion of the miRNA-targeted sequences. Notably, the Ad vector carrying the miR-122a–targeted sequences into the 3′-UTR of the E4 gene expressed higher and longer-term transgene expression and more than 20-fold lower levels of all the Ad early and late genes examined in the liver than a conventional Ad vector. miR-122a–mediated suppression of the E4 gene expression in the liver significantly reduced the hepatotoxicity which an Ad vector causes via both adaptive and non-adaptive immune responses.

  11. Myofibroblast Expression in Skin Wounds Is Enhanced by Collagen III Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M. Al-Qattan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Generally speaking, the excessive expression of myofibroblasts is associated with excessive collagen production. One exception is seen in patients and animal models of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV in which the COL3A1 gene mutation results in reduced collagen III but with concurrent increased myofibroblast expression. This paradox has not been examined with the use of external drugs/modalities to prevent hypertrophic scars. In this paper, we injected the rabbit ear wound model of hypertrophic scarring with two doses of a protein called nAG, which is known to reduce collagen expression and to suppress hypertrophic scarring in that animal model. The higher nAG dose was associated with significantly less collagen III expression and concurrent higher degree of myofibroblast expression. We concluded that collagen III content of the extracellular matrix may have a direct or an indirect effect on myofibroblast differentiation. However, further research is required to investigate the pathogenesis of this paradoxical phenomenon.

  12. Suppression subtractive hybridization and comparative expression analysis to identify developmentally regulated genes in filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesing, Stefan; Schindler, Daniel; Nowrousian, Minou

    2013-09-01

    Ascomycetes differentiate four major morphological types of fruiting bodies (apothecia, perithecia, pseudothecia and cleistothecia) that are derived from an ancestral fruiting body. Thus, fruiting body differentiation is most likely controlled by a set of common core genes. One way to identify such genes is to search for genes with evolutionary conserved expression patterns. Using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH), we selected differentially expressed transcripts in Pyronema confluens (Pezizales) by comparing two cDNA libraries specific for sexual and for vegetative development, respectively. The expression patterns of selected genes from both libraries were verified by quantitative real time PCR. Expression of several corresponding homologous genes was found to be conserved in two members of the Sordariales (Sordaria macrospora and Neurospora crassa), a derived group of ascomycetes that is only distantly related to the Pezizales. Knockout studies with N. crassa orthologues of differentially regulated genes revealed a functional role during fruiting body development for the gene NCU05079, encoding a putative MFS peptide transporter. These data indicate conserved gene expression patterns and a functional role of the corresponding genes during fruiting body development; such genes are candidates of choice for further functional analysis. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Cross-Circulating Current Suppression Method for Parallel Three-Phase Two-Level Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Baoze; Guerrero, Josep M.; Guo, Xiaoqiang

    2015-01-01

    The parallel architecture is very popular for power inverters to increase the power level. This paper presents a method for the parallel operation of inverters in an ac-distributed system, to suppress the cross-circulating current based on virtual impedance without current-sharing bus...

  14. High-level face shape adaptation depends on visual awareness : Evidence from continuous flash suppression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, T.; Sterzer, P.

    When incompatible images are presented to the two eyes, one image dominates awareness while the other is rendered invisible by interocular suppression. It has remained unclear whether complex visual information can reach high-level processing stages in the ventral visual pathway during such

  15. Andrographolide inhibits adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells by suppressing C/EBPβ expression and activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ching-Chu; Chuang, Wei-Ting; Lin, Ai-Hsuan; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Huang, Chin-Shiu; Chen, Yun-Ting; Chen, Haw-Wen; Lii, Chong-Kuei

    2016-01-01

    Andrographolide, a diterpenoid, is the most abundant terpenoid in Andrographis paniculata, a popular Chinese herbal medicine. Andrographolide displays diverse biological activities including hypoglycemia, hypolipidemia, anti-inflammation, and anti-tumorigenesis. Recent evidence indicates that andrographolide displays anti-obesity property by inhibiting lipogenic gene expression, however, the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In this study, the effects of andrographolide on transcription factor cascade and mitotic clonal expansion in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation into adipocyte were determined. Andrographolide dose-dependently (0–15 μM) inhibited CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα) and C/EBPβ mRNA and protein expression as well as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) protein level during the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells. Concomitantly, fatty acid synthase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase expression and lipid accumulation were attenuated by andrographolide. Oil-red O staining further showed that the first 48 h after the initiation of differentiation was critical for andrographolide inhibition of adipocyte formation. Andrographolide inhibited the phosphorylation of PKA and the activation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in response to a differentiation cocktail, which led to attenuated C/EBPβ expression. In addition, ERK and GSK3β-dependent C/EBPβ phosphorylation was attenuated by andrographolide. Moreover, andrographolide suppressed cyclin A, cyclin E, and CDK2 expression and impaired the progression of mitotic clonal expansion (MCE) by arresting the cell cycle at the Go/G1 phase. Taken together, these results indicate that andrographolide has a potent anti-obesity action by inhibiting PKA-CREB-mediated C/EBPβ expression as well as C/EBPβ transcriptional activity, which halts MCE progression and attenuates C/EBPα and PPARγ expression. - Highlights: • Andrographolide is a diterpenoid phytochemical.

  16. Andrographolide inhibits adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells by suppressing C/EBPβ expression and activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ching-Chu [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chuang, Wei-Ting; Lin, Ai-Hsuan; Tsai, Chia-Wen [Department of Nutrition, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chin-Shiu [Department of Health and Nutrition Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yun-Ting [Department of Nutrition, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Haw-Wen, E-mail: chenhw@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Nutrition, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lii, Chong-Kuei, E-mail: cklii@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Nutrition, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Health and Nutrition Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2016-09-15

    Andrographolide, a diterpenoid, is the most abundant terpenoid in Andrographis paniculata, a popular Chinese herbal medicine. Andrographolide displays diverse biological activities including hypoglycemia, hypolipidemia, anti-inflammation, and anti-tumorigenesis. Recent evidence indicates that andrographolide displays anti-obesity property by inhibiting lipogenic gene expression, however, the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In this study, the effects of andrographolide on transcription factor cascade and mitotic clonal expansion in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation into adipocyte were determined. Andrographolide dose-dependently (0–15 μM) inhibited CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα) and C/EBPβ mRNA and protein expression as well as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) protein level during the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells. Concomitantly, fatty acid synthase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase expression and lipid accumulation were attenuated by andrographolide. Oil-red O staining further showed that the first 48 h after the initiation of differentiation was critical for andrographolide inhibition of adipocyte formation. Andrographolide inhibited the phosphorylation of PKA and the activation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in response to a differentiation cocktail, which led to attenuated C/EBPβ expression. In addition, ERK and GSK3β-dependent C/EBPβ phosphorylation was attenuated by andrographolide. Moreover, andrographolide suppressed cyclin A, cyclin E, and CDK2 expression and impaired the progression of mitotic clonal expansion (MCE) by arresting the cell cycle at the Go/G1 phase. Taken together, these results indicate that andrographolide has a potent anti-obesity action by inhibiting PKA-CREB-mediated C/EBPβ expression as well as C/EBPβ transcriptional activity, which halts MCE progression and attenuates C/EBPα and PPARγ expression. - Highlights: • Andrographolide is a diterpenoid phytochemical.

  17. Attentional deployment is not necessary for successful emotion regulation via cognitive reappraisal or expressive suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebko, Genna M; Franconeri, Steven L; Ochsner, Kevin N; Chiao, Joan Y

    2014-06-01

    According to appraisal theories of emotion, cognitive reappraisal is a successful emotion regulation strategy because it involves cognitively changing our thoughts, which, in turn, change our emotions. However, recent evidence has challenged the importance of cognitive change and, instead, has suggested that attentional deployment may at least partly explain the emotion regulation success of cognitive reappraisal. The purpose of the current study was to examine the causal relationship between attentional deployment and emotion regulation success. We examined 2 commonly used emotion regulation strategies--cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression-because both depend on attention but have divergent behavioral, experiential, and physiological outcomes. Participants were either instructed to regulate emotions during free-viewing (unrestricted image viewing) or gaze-controlled (restricted image viewing) conditions and to self-report negative emotional experience. For both emotion regulation strategies, emotion regulation success was not altered by changes in participant control over the (a) direction of attention (free-viewing vs. gaze-controlled) during image viewing and (b) valence (negative vs. neutral) of visual stimuli viewed when gaze was controlled. Taken together, these findings provide convergent evidence that attentional deployment does not alter subjective negative emotional experience during either cognitive reappraisal or expressive suppression, suggesting that strategy-specific processes, such as cognitive appraisal and response modulation, respectively, may have a greater impact on emotional regulation success than processes common to both strategies, such as attention.

  18. Design of chimeric expression elements that confer high-level gene activity in chromoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroca, Rodrigo; Howell, Katharine A; Hasse, Claudia; Ruf, Stephanie; Bock, Ralph

    2013-02-01

    Non-green plastids, such as chromoplasts, generally have much lower activity of gene expression than chloroplasts in photosynthetically active tissues. Suppression of plastid genes in non-green tissues occurs through a complex interplay of transcriptional and translational control, with the contribution of regulation of transcript abundance versus translational activity being highly variable between genes. Here, we have investigated whether the low expression of the plastid genome in chromoplasts results from inherent limitations in gene expression capacity, or can be overcome by designing appropriate combinations of promoters and translation initiation signals in the 5' untranslated region (5'-UTR). We constructed chimeric expression elements that combine promoters and 5'-UTRs from plastid genes, which are suppressed during chloroplast-to-chromoplast conversion in Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) fruit ripening, either just at the translational level or just at the level of mRNA accumulation. These chimeric expression elements were introduced into the tomato plastid genome by stable chloroplast transformation. We report the identification of promoter-UTR combinations that confer high-level gene expression in chromoplasts of ripe tomato fruits, resulting in the accumulation of reporter protein GFP to up to 1% of total cellular protein. Our work demonstrates that non-green plastids are capable of expressing genes to high levels. Moreover, the chimeric cis-elements for chromoplasts developed here are widely applicable in basic and applied research using transplastomic methods. © 2012 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Xenopus msx-1 regulates dorso-ventral axis formation by suppressing the expression of organizer genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, M; Saito, Y; Sekine, R; Onitsuka, I; Maeda, R; Maéno, M

    2000-06-01

    We demonstrated previously that Xmsx-1 is involved in mesoderm patterning along the dorso-ventral axis, under the regulation of BMP-4 signaling. When Xmsx-1 RNA was injected into the dorsal blastomeres, a mass of muscle tissue formed instead of notochord. This activity was similar to that of Xwnt-8 reported previously. In this study, we investigated whether the activity of Xmsx-1 is related to the ventralizing signal and myogenesis promoting factor, Xwnt-8. Whole-mount in situ hybridization showed that Xmsx-1, Xwnt-8, and XmyoD were expressed in overlapping areas, including the ventro-lateral marginal zone at mid-gastrula stage. The expression of XmyoD was induced by the ectopic expression of either Xmsx-1 or Xwnt-8 in dorsal blastomeres, and Xwnt-8 was induced by the ectopic expression of Xmsx-1. On the other hand, the expression of Xmsx-1 was not affected by the loading of pCSKA-Xwnt-8 or dominant-negative Xwnt-8 (DN-Xwnt-8) RNA. In addition, Xmsx-1 RNA did not abrogate the formation of notochord if coinjected with DN-Xwnt-8 RNA. These results suggest that Xmsx-1 functions upstream of the Xwnt-8 signal. Furthermore, the antagonistic function of Xmsx-1 to the expression of organizer genes, such as Xlim-1 and goosecoid, was shown by in situ hybridization analysis and luciferase reporter assay using the goosecoid promoter construct. Finally if Xmsx-1/VP-16 fusion RNA, which was expected to function as a dominant-negative Xmsx-1, was injected into ventral blastomeres, a partial secondary axis formed in a significant number of embryos. In such embryos, the activity of luciferase, under the control of goosecoid promoter sequence, was significantly elevated at gastrula stage. These results led us to conclude that Xmsx-1 plays a central role in establishing dorso-ventral axis in gastrulating embryo, by suppressing the expression of organizer genes.

  20. Specificity in suppression of SOS expression by recA4162 and uvrD303.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoni, Shawn C; Sandler, Steven J

    2013-12-01

    Detection and repair of DNA damage is essential in all organisms and depends on the ability of proteins recognizing and processing specific DNA substrates. In E. coli, the RecA protein forms a filament on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) produced by DNA damage and induces the SOS response. Previous work has shown that one type of recA mutation (e.g., recA4162 (I298V)) and one type of uvrD mutation (e.g., uvrD303 (D403A, D404A)) can differentially decrease SOS expression depending on the type of inducing treatments (UV damage versus RecA mutants that constitutively express SOS). Here it is tested using other SOS inducing conditions if there is a general feature of ssDNA generated during these treatments that allows recA4162 and uvrD303 to decrease SOS expression. The SOS inducing conditions tested include growing cells containing temperature-sensitive DNA replication mutations (dnaE486, dnaG2903, dnaN159, dnaZ2016 (at 37°C)), a del(polA)501 mutation and induction of Double-Strand Breaks (DSBs). uvrD303 could decrease SOS expression under all conditions, while recA4162 could decrease SOS expression under all conditions except in the polA strain or when DSBs occur. It is hypothesized that recA4162 suppresses SOS expression best when the ssDNA occurs at a gap and that uvrD303 is able to decrease SOS expression when the ssDNA is either at a gap or when it is generated at a DSB (but does so better at a gap). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Andrographolide inhibits adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells by suppressing C/EBPβ expression and activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Chu; Chuang, Wei-Ting; Lin, Ai-Hsuan; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Huang, Chin-Shiu; Chen, Yun-Ting; Chen, Haw-Wen; Lii, Chong-Kuei

    2016-09-15

    Andrographolide, a diterpenoid, is the most abundant terpenoid in Andrographis paniculata, a popular Chinese herbal medicine. Andrographolide displays diverse biological activities including hypoglycemia, hypolipidemia, anti-inflammation, and anti-tumorigenesis. Recent evidence indicates that andrographolide displays anti-obesity property by inhibiting lipogenic gene expression, however, the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In this study, the effects of andrographolide on transcription factor cascade and mitotic clonal expansion in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation into adipocyte were determined. Andrographolide dose-dependently (0-15μM) inhibited CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα) and C/EBPβ mRNA and protein expression as well as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) protein level during the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells. Concomitantly, fatty acid synthase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase expression and lipid accumulation were attenuated by andrographolide. Oil-red O staining further showed that the first 48h after the initiation of differentiation was critical for andrographolide inhibition of adipocyte formation. Andrographolide inhibited the phosphorylation of PKA and the activation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in response to a differentiation cocktail, which led to attenuated C/EBPβ expression. In addition, ERK and GSK3β-dependent C/EBPβ phosphorylation was attenuated by andrographolide. Moreover, andrographolide suppressed cyclin A, cyclin E, and CDK2 expression and impaired the progression of mitotic clonal expansion (MCE) by arresting the cell cycle at the Go/G1 phase. Taken together, these results indicate that andrographolide has a potent anti-obesity action by inhibiting PKA-CREB-mediated C/EBPβ expression as well as C/EBPβ transcriptional activity, which halts MCE progression and attenuates C/EBPα and PPARγ expression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. MiR-26b Mimic Inhibits Glioma Proliferation In Vitro and In Vivo Suppressing COX-2 Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zheng-Gang; Zheng, Chuan-Yi; Cai, Wang-Qing; Li, Da-Wei; Ye, Fu-Yue; Zhou, Jian; Wu, Ran; Yang, Kun

    2017-08-11

    Glioma is the most common malignant tumor of the nervous system. Studies have shown the microRNA (miR)-26b/cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 axis in the development and progression in many tumor cells. Our study aims to investigate the effect and mechanism of miR-26b/COX-2 axis in glioma. Decreased expression of miR-26b with increased level of COX-2 was found in glioma tissues compared with matched normal tissues. A strong negative correlation was observed between the level of miR-26b and COX-2 in 30 glioma tissues. The miR-26b was then overexpressed by transfecting miR-26b mimic into U-373 cells. The invasive cell number and wounld closing rate were reduced in U-373 cells transfected with miR-26b mimic. Besides, COX2 siRNA enhanced the effect of miR-26b mimic in suppressing the expression of p-ERK1 and p-JNK. Finally, the in vivo experiment revealed that miR-26b mimic transfection strongly reduced the tumor growth, tumor volume and the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9). Taken together, our research indicated a miR-26b/COX-2/ERK/JNK axis in regulating the motility of glioma in vitro and in vivo, providing a new sight for treatment of glioma.

  3. Knockdown of ARK5 Expression Suppresses Invasion and Metastasis of Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehu Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Gastric cancer (GC is a common and lethal malignancy, and AMP-activated protein kinase-related kinase 5 (ARK5 has been discovered to promote cancer metastasis in certain types of cancer. In this study, we explored the role of ARK5 in GC invasion and metastasis. Methods: ARK5 and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT-related markers were determined by immunohistochemistry and western blot in GC specimens. Other methods including stably transfected against ARK5 into SGC7901 and AGS cells, western blot, migration and invasion assays in vitro and nude mice tumorigenicity in vivo were also employed. Results: The results demonstrated that ARK5 expression was increased and positively correlated with metastasis, EMT-related markers and poor prognosis in patients with GC. Knockdown of ARK5 expression remarkably suppressed GC cells invasion and metastasis via regulating EMT, rather than proliferation in vitro and in vivo. And knockdown of ARK5 expression in GC cells resulted in the down-regulation of the mTOR/p70S6k signals, Slug and SIP1. Conclusion: The elevated ARK5 expression was closely associated with cancer metastasis and patient survival, and it seemed to function in GC cells migration and invasion via EMT alteration, together with the alteration of the mTOR/p70S6k signals, Slug and SIP1, thus providing a potential therapeutic target for GC.

  4. Suppression subtractive hybridization identified differentially expressed genes in lung adenocarcinoma: ERGIC3 as a novel lung cancer-related gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Mingsong; Tu, Tao; Huang, Yunchao; Cao, Yi

    2013-01-01

    To understand the carcinogenesis caused by accumulated genetic and epigenetic alterations and seek novel biomarkers for various cancers, studying differentially expressed genes between cancerous and normal tissues is crucial. In the study, two cDNA libraries of lung cancer were constructed and screened for identification of differentially expressed genes. Two cDNA libraries of differentially expressed genes were constructed using lung adenocarcinoma tissue and adjacent nonmalignant lung tissue by suppression subtractive hybridization. The data of the cDNA libraries were then analyzed and compared using bioinformatics analysis. Levels of mRNA and protein were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-RT-PCR) and western blot respectively, as well as expression and localization of proteins were determined by immunostaining. Gene functions were investigated using proliferation and migration assays after gene silencing and gene over-expression. Two libraries of differentially expressed genes were obtained. The forward-subtracted library (FSL) and the reverse-subtracted library (RSL) contained 177 and 59 genes, respectively. Bioinformatic analysis demonstrated that these genes were involved in a wide range of cellular functions. The vast majority of these genes were newly identified to be abnormally expressed in lung cancer. In the first stage of the screening for 16 genes, we compared lung cancer tissues with their adjacent non-malignant tissues at the mRNA level, and found six genes (ERGIC3, DDR1, HSP90B1, SDC1, RPSA, and LPCAT1) from the FSL were significantly up-regulated while two genes (GPX3 and TIMP3) from the RSL were significantly down-regulated (P < 0.05). The ERGIC3 protein was also over-expressed in lung cancer tissues and cultured cells, and expression of ERGIC3 was correlated with the differentiated degree and histological type of lung cancer. The up-regulation of ERGIC3 could promote cellular migration and proliferation in vitro. The

  5. Comparison of muzzle suppression and ear-level hearing protection in firearm use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Matthew Parker

    2011-06-01

    To compare noise reduction of commercially available ear-level hearing protection (muffs/inserts) to that of firearm muzzle suppressors. Experimental sound measurements under consistent environmental conditions. None. Muzzle suppressors for 2 pistol and 2 rifle calibers were tested using the Bruel & Kjaer 2209 sound meter and Bruel & Kjaer 4136 microphone calibrated with the Bruel & Kjaer Pistonphone using Military-Standard 1474D placement protocol. Five shots were recorded unsuppressed and 10 shots suppressed under consistent environmental conditions. Sound reduction was then compared with the real-world noise reduction rate of the best available ear-level protectors. All suppressors offered significantly greater noise reduction than ear-level protection, usually greater than 50% better. Noise reduction of all ear-level protectors is unable to reduce the impulse pressure below 140 dB for certain common firearms, an international standard for prevention of sensorineural hearing loss. Modern muzzle-level suppression is vastly superior to ear-level protection and the only available form of suppression capable of making certain sporting arms safe for hearing. The inadequacy of standard hearing protectors with certain common firearms is not recognized by most hearing professionals or their patients and should affect the way hearing professionals counsel patients and the public.

  6. Hyaluronan suppresses prostate tumor cell proliferation through diminished expression of N-cadherin and aberrant growth factor receptor signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharadwaj, Alamelu G.; Goodrich, Nathaniel P.; McAtee, Caitlin O.; Haferbier, Katie; Oakley, Gregory G.; Wahl, James K.; Simpson, Melanie A.

    2011-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) production has been functionally implicated in prostate tumorigenesis and metastasis. We previously used prostate tumor cells overexpressing the HA synthesizing enzyme HAS3 or the clinically relevant hyaluronidase Hyal1 to show that excess HA production suppresses tumor growth, while HA turnover accelerates spontaneous metastasis from the prostate. Here, we examined pathways responsible for effects of HAS3 and Hyal1 on tumor cell phenotype. Detailed characterization of cell cycle progression revealed that expression of Hyal1 accelerated cell cycle re-entry following synchronization, whereas HAS3 alone delayed entry. Hyal1 expressing cells exhibited a significant reduction in their ability to sustain ERK phosphorylation upon stimulation by growth factors, and in their expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21. In contrast, HAS3 expressing cells showed prolonged ERK phosphorylation and increased expression of both p21 and p27, in asynchronous and synchronized cultures. Changes in cell cycle regulatory proteins were accompanied by HA-induced suppression of N-cadherin, while E-cadherin expression and β-catenin expression and distribution remained unchanged. Our results are consistent with a model in which excess HA synthesis suppresses cell proliferation by promoting homotypic E-cadherin mediated cell-cell adhesion, consequently signaling to elevate cell cycle inhibitor expression and suppress G1- to S-phase transition.

  7. Suppression of lipin-1 expression increases monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Nobuhiko, E-mail: ntkhs@hoku-iryo-u.ac.jp [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Division of Gastroenterology and Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, 2-1-1-1 Midorigaoka-Higashi, Asahikawa, Hokkaido 078-8510 (Japan); Yoshizaki, Takayuki [Innovation Center, Kagoshima University, 1-21-40 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Hiranaka, Natsumi; Suzuki, Takeshi [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Yui, Tomoo; Akanuma, Masayasu; Oka, Kazuya [Department of Fixed Prosthodontics and Oral Implantology, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Kanazawa, Kaoru [Department of Dental Anesthesiology, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Yoshida, Mika; Naito, Sumiyoshi [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Fujiya, Mikihiro; Kohgo, Yutaka [Division of Gastroenterology and Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, 2-1-1-1 Midorigaoka-Higashi, Asahikawa, Hokkaido 078-8510 (Japan); Ieko, Masahiro [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan)

    2011-11-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lipin-1 affects lipid metabolism, adipocyte differentiation, and transcription. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adipose lipin-1 expression is reduced in obesity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lipin-1 depletion using siRNA in 3T3-L1 adipocytes increased MCP-1 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lipin-1 is involved in adipose inflammation. -- Abstract: Lipin-1 plays a crucial role in the regulation of lipid metabolism and cell differentiation in adipocytes. Expression of adipose lipin-1 is reduced in obesity, and metabolic syndrome. However, the significance of this reduction remains unclear. This study investigated if and how reduced lipin-1 expression affected metabolism. We assessed mRNA expression levels of various genes related to adipocyte metabolism in lipin-1-depleted 3T3-L1 adipocytes by introducing its specific small interfering RNA. In lipin-1-depleted adipocytes, mRNA and protein expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were significantly increased, although the other genes tested were not altered. The conditioned media from the cells promoted monocyte chemotaxis. The increase in MCP-1 expression was prevented by treatment with quinazoline or salicylate, inhibitors of nuclear factor-{kappa}B activation. Because MCP-1 is related to adipose inflammation and systemic insulin resistance, these results suggest that a reduction in adipose lipin-1 in obesity may exacerbate adipose inflammation and metabolism.

  8. Suppression of lipin-1 expression increases monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Nobuhiko; Yoshizaki, Takayuki; Hiranaka, Natsumi; Suzuki, Takeshi; Yui, Tomoo; Akanuma, Masayasu; Oka, Kazuya; Kanazawa, Kaoru; Yoshida, Mika; Naito, Sumiyoshi; Fujiya, Mikihiro; Kohgo, Yutaka; Ieko, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Lipin-1 affects lipid metabolism, adipocyte differentiation, and transcription. ► Adipose lipin-1 expression is reduced in obesity. ► Lipin-1 depletion using siRNA in 3T3-L1 adipocytes increased MCP-1 expression. ► Lipin-1 is involved in adipose inflammation. -- Abstract: Lipin-1 plays a crucial role in the regulation of lipid metabolism and cell differentiation in adipocytes. Expression of adipose lipin-1 is reduced in obesity, and metabolic syndrome. However, the significance of this reduction remains unclear. This study investigated if and how reduced lipin-1 expression affected metabolism. We assessed mRNA expression levels of various genes related to adipocyte metabolism in lipin-1-depleted 3T3-L1 adipocytes by introducing its specific small interfering RNA. In lipin-1-depleted adipocytes, mRNA and protein expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were significantly increased, although the other genes tested were not altered. The conditioned media from the cells promoted monocyte chemotaxis. The increase in MCP-1 expression was prevented by treatment with quinazoline or salicylate, inhibitors of nuclear factor-κB activation. Because MCP-1 is related to adipose inflammation and systemic insulin resistance, these results suggest that a reduction in adipose lipin-1 in obesity may exacerbate adipose inflammation and metabolism.

  9. HDAC6 inhibition suppresses chondrosarcoma by restoring the expression of primary cilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Wei; Guo, Fengjing; Cheng, Weiting; Zhang, Jiaming; Huang, Junming; Wang, Rui; Ma, Zhongxi; Xu, Kai

    2017-07-01

    Chondrosarcoma is a bone tumor characterized by the secretion of a cartilage-like extracellular matrix. It has been proved to lack extracellular sensor primary cilia. This study aimed to illustrate a feasible therapeutic method for chondrosarcoma by regulating primary cilia assembly through inhibiting histone deacetylases 6 (HDAC6) activation. In order to detect the interaction between primary cilia and HDAC6 in human chondrosarcoma, Tubastatin A and small interfering RNA (siRNA) were used to inhibit the endogenous expression of HDAC6. Cell viability test and Transwell assay were applied to evaluate the effects of malignant biological properties. Primary cilia staining and related proteins were detected. The abnormal expression of HDAC6 and cilia intraflagellar transport protein 88 (IFT88) was found in chondrosarcoma tissues. The inhibition of HDAC6 could downregulate the proliferation of chondrosarcoma cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner and suppress the invasion capacity of tumor cells. Besides, the downregulation of HDAC6 exhibited a negative effect on the proliferation of relevant proteins but a positive effect on the primary cilia-related expression of IFT88 and acetylated α-tubulin. Primary cilia restoration could be observed after HDAC6 siRNA transfection. The Aurora A-HDAC6 cascade was involved in regulating primary cilia resorption by affecting α-tubulin deacetylation and Tubastatin A could inhibit chondrosarcoma cell growth in vivo. These results indicate that restricting HDAC6 can restore primary cilia assembly accompanied with suppressed chondrosarcoma cell proliferation and invasion capacities. Thus, promoting primary cilia restoration by targeting HDAC6 may be a feasible potential therapeutic method for chondro-sarcoma treatment.

  10. Suppression of MicroRNA let-7a Expression by Agmatine Regulates Neural Stem Cell Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Juhyun; Oh, Yumi; Kim, Jong Youl; Cho, Kyoung Joo; Lee, Jong Eun

    2016-11-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) effectively reverse some severe central nervous system (CNS) disorders, due to their ability to differentiate into neurons. Agmatine, a biogenic amine, has cellular protective effects and contributes to cellular proliferation and differentiation in the CNS. Recent studies have elucidated the function of microRNA let-7a (let-7a) as a regulator of cell differentiation with roles in regulating genes associated with CNS neurogenesis. This study aimed to investigate whether agmatine modulates the expression of crucial regulators of NSC differentiation including DCX, TLX, c-Myc, and ERK by controlling let-7a expression. Our data suggest that high levels of let-7a promoted the expression of TLX and c-Myc, as well as repressed DCX and ERK expression. In addition, agmatine attenuated expression of TLX and increased expression of ERK by negatively regulating let-7a. Our study therefore enhances the present understanding of the therapeutic potential of NSCs in CNS disorders.

  11. Hsa-mir-182 suppresses lung tumorigenesis through down regulation of RGS17 expression in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yihua; Fang, Rong; Li, Chenguang; Li, Li; Li, Fei; Ye, Xiaolei; Chen, Haiquan

    2010-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most devastating diseases worldwide. RGS17 is previously shown to be over-expressed in human lung adenocarcinomas and plays an important role in lung tumor growth. Here we have identified a miRNA, has-mir-182, involved in the regulation of RGS17 expression through two conserved sites located in its 3' UTR region. Consistently, endogenous RGS17 expression level is regulated by hsa-mir-182 in human lung cancer cell lines. Similar to the knockdown of RGS17, ectopic expression of hsa-mir-182 significantly inhibits lung cancer cell proliferation and anchorage-independent cell growth, which can be rescued by re-expression of RGS17. Taken together, these data have provided the first evidence of miRNA regulation of RGS17 expression in lung cancer.

  12. Identification of differentially expressed genes in SHSY5Y cells exposed to okadaic acid by suppression subtractive hybridization

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    Valdiglesias Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Okadaic acid (OA, a toxin produced by several dinoflagellate species is responsible for frequent food poisonings associated to shellfish consumption. Although several studies have documented the OA effects on different processes such as cell transformation, apoptosis, DNA repair or embryogenesis, the molecular mechanistic basis for these and other effects is not completely understood and the number of controversial data on OA is increasing in the literature. Results In this study, we used suppression subtractive hybridization in SHSY5Y cells to identify genes that are differentially expressed after OA exposure for different times (3, 24 and 48 h. A total of 247 subtracted clones which shared high homology with known genes were isolated. Among these, 5 specific genes associated with cytoskeleton and neurotransmission processes (NEFM, TUBB, SEPT7, SYT4 and NPY were selected to confirm their expression levels by real-time PCR. Significant down-regulation of these genes was obtained at the short term (3 and 24 h OA exposure, excepting for NEFM, but their expression was similar to the controls at 48 h. Conclusions From all the obtained genes, 114 genes were up-regulated and 133 were down-regulated. Based on the NCBI GenBank and Gene Ontology databases, most of these genes are involved in relevant cell functions such as metabolism, transport, translation, signal transduction and cell cycle. After quantitative PCR analysis, the observed underexpression of the selected genes could underlie the previously reported OA-induced cytoskeleton disruption, neurotransmission alterations and in vivo neurotoxic effects. The basal expression levels obtained at 48 h suggested that surviving cells were able to recover from OA-caused gene expression alterations.

  13. That "poker face" just might lose you the game! The impact of expressive suppression and mimicry on sensitivity to facial expressions of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Kristin G; Hempel, Roelie J; Lynch, Thomas R

    2013-10-01

    Successful interpersonal functioning often requires both the ability to mask inner feelings and the ability to accurately recognize others' expressions--but what if effortful control of emotional expressions impacts the ability to accurately read others? In this study, we examined the influence of self-controlled expressive suppression and mimicry on facial affect sensitivity--the speed with which one can accurately identify gradually intensifying facial expressions of emotion. Muscle activity of the brow (corrugator, related to anger), upper lip (levator, related to disgust), and cheek (zygomaticus, related to happiness) were recorded using facial electromyography while participants randomized to one of three conditions (Suppress, Mimic, and No-Instruction) viewed a series of six distinct emotional expressions (happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise, and disgust) as they morphed from neutral to full expression. As hypothesized, individuals instructed to suppress their own facial expressions showed impairment in facial affect sensitivity. Conversely, mimicry of emotion expressions appeared to facilitate facial affect sensitivity. Results suggest that it is difficult for a person to be able to simultaneously mask inner feelings and accurately "read" the facial expressions of others, at least when these expressions are at low intensity. The combined behavioral and physiological data suggest that the strategies an individual selects to control his or her own expression of emotion have important implications for interpersonal functioning.

  14. The role of ventromedial prefrontal cortex volume in the association of expressive suppression and externally oriented thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu; Lu, Jiamei; Li, Bingbing; Li, Haijiang; Jin, Li; Qiu, Jiang

    2017-11-01

    Studies have suggested that expressive suppression (ES) is linked to externally oriented thinking (EOT) through the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), and there are gender differences in their association. The present structural magnetic resonance imaging study was to investigate the neural bases of ES and EOT and their association in females versus males in a Chinese college sample. A total of 142 participants (83 females) were enrolled, and they completed the ES subscale of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, and anatomical scanning. Voxel-based morphometry, region of interest, and whole brain analyses with peak-level significance (family-wise error corrected at p design limited causal conclusions. The vmPFC may be the only neural base of ES and EOT and their association. In addition, these results were sex-specific. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Suppressing Sorbitol Synthesis Substantially Alters the Global Expression Profile of Stress Response Genes in Apple (Malus domestica) Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Yi; Zheng, Yi; Fei, Zhangjun; Dandekar, Abhaya M; Xu, Kenong; Han, Zhenhai; Cheng, Lailiang

    2015-09-01

    Sorbitol is a major product of photosynthesis in apple (Malus domestica) that is involved in carbohydrate metabolism and stress tolerance. However, little is known about how the global transcript levels in apple leaves respond to decreased sorbitol synthesis. In this study we used RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) profiling to characterize the transcriptome of leaves from transgenic lines of the apple cultivar 'Greensleeves' exhibiting suppressed expression of aldose-6-phosphate reductase (A6PR) to gain insights into sorbitol function and the consequences of decreased sorbitol synthesis on gene expression. We observed that, although the leaves of the low sorbitol transgenic lines accumulate higher levels of various primary metabolites, only very limited changes were found in the levels of transcripts associated with primary metabolism. We suggest that this is indicative of post-transcriptional and/or post-translational regulation of primary metabolite accumulation and central carbon metabolism. However, we identified significantly enriched gene ontology terms belonging to the 'stress related process' category in the antisense lines (P-value sorbitol plays a role in the responses of apple trees to abiotic and biotic stresses. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Chrysin inhibits tumor promoter-induced MMP-9 expression by blocking AP-1 via suppression of ERK and JNK pathways in gastric cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Xia

    Full Text Available Cell invasion is a crucial mechanism of cancer metastasis and malignancy. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 is an important proteolytic enzyme involved in the cancer cell invasion process. High expression levels of MMP-9 in gastric cancer positively correlate with tumor aggressiveness and have a significant negative correlation with patients' survival times. Recently, mechanisms suppressing MMP-9 by phytochemicals have become increasingly investigated. Chrysin, a naturally occurring chemical in plants, has been reported to suppress tumor metastasis. However, the effects of chrysin on MMP-9 expression in gastric cancer have not been well studied. In the present study, we tested the effects of chrysin on MMP-9 expression in gastric cancer cells, and determined its underlying mechanism. We examined the effects of chrysin on MMP-9 expression and activity via RT-PCR, zymography, promoter study, and western blotting in human gastric cancer AGS cells. Chrysin inhibited phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA-induced MMP-9 expression in a dose-dependent manner. Using AP-1 decoy oligodeoxynucleotides, we confirmed that AP-1 was the crucial transcriptional factor for MMP-9 expression. Chrysin blocked AP-1 via suppression of the phosphorylation of c-Jun and c-Fos through blocking the JNK1/2 and ERK1/2 pathways. Furthermore, AGS cells pretreated with PMA showed markedly enhanced invasiveness, which was partially abrogated by chrysin and MMP-9 antibody. Our results suggest that chrysin may exert at least part of its anticancer effect by controlling MMP-9 expression through suppression of AP-1 activity via a block of the JNK1/2 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in gastric cancer AGS cells.

  17. Matrine suppresses airway inflammation by downregulating SOCS3 expression via inhibition of NF-κB signaling in airway epithelial cells and asthmatic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Daqing [Department of Respiration, Xi’an Children’s Hospital, Xi’an 710003 (China); Wang, Jing [Department of Neonatology, Xi’an Children’s Hospital, Xi’an 710003 (China); Yang, Niandi [Outpatient Department, School of Aerospace Engineering, Air Force Engineering University, Xi’an 710038 (China); Ma, Haixin, E-mail: drhaixinma@163.com [Department of Quality Control, Xi’an Children’s Hospital, Xi’an 710003 (China)

    2016-08-12

    Matrine has been demonstrated to attenuate allergic airway inflammation. Elevated suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) was correlated with the severity of asthma. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of matrine on SOCS3 expression in airway inflammation. In this study, we found that matrine significantly inhibited OVA-induced AHR, inflammatory cell infiltration, goblet cell differentiation, and mucous production in a dose-dependent manner in mice. Matrine also abrogated the level of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13, but enhanced interferon (IFN)-γ expression, both in BALF and in lung homogenates. Furthermore, matrine impeded TNF-α-induced the expression of IL-6 and adhesion molecules in airway epithelial cells (BEAS-2B and MLE-12). Additionally, we found that matrine inhibited SOCS3 expression, both in asthmatic mice and TNF-α-stimulated epithelial cells via suppression of the NF-κB signaling pathway by using pcDNA3.1-SOCS3 plasmid, SOCS3 siRNA, or nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) inhibitor PDTC. Conclusions: Matrine suppresses airway inflammation by downregulating SOCS3 expression via inhibition of NF-κB signaling in airway epithelial cells and asthmatic mice. - Highlights: • Matrine attenuates asthmatic symptoms and regulates Th1/Th2 balance in vivo. • Matrine suppresses inflammation responses in vitro. • Matrine decreases SOCS3 expression both in vivo and in vitro. • Matrine inhibits SOCS3 expression by suppressing NF-κB signaling.

  18. Neural Substrates of Social Emotion Regulation: A fMRI Study on Imitation and Expressive Suppression to Dynamic Facial Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal eVrticka

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Emotion regulation is crucial for successfully engaging in social interactions. Yet, little is known about the neural mechanisms controlling behavioral responses to emotional expressions perceived in the face of other people, which constitute a key element of interpersonal communication. Here, we investigated brain systems involved in social emotion perception and regulation, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in 20 healthy participants who saw dynamic facial expressions of either happiness or sadness, and were asked to either imitate the expression or to suppress any expression on their own face (in addition to a gender judgment control task. fMRI results revealed higher activity in regions associated with emotion (e.g., the insula, motor function (e.g., motor cortex, and theory of mind during imitation. Activity in dorsal cingulate cortex was also increased during imitation, possibly reflecting greater action monitoring or conflict with own feeling states. In addition, premotor regions were more strongly activated during both imitation and suppression, suggesting a recruitment of motor control for both the production and inhibition of emotion expressions. Expressive suppression produced increases in dorsolateral and lateral prefrontal cortex typically related to cognitive control. These results suggest that voluntary imitation and expressive suppression modulate brain responses to emotional signals perceived from faces, by up- and down-regulating activity in distributed subcortical and cortical networks that are particularly involved in emotion, action monitoring, and cognitive control.

  19. Celecoxib inhibits osteoblast maturation by suppressing the expression of Wnt target genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Nagano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs have been shown to impair bone healing. We previously reported that in colon cancer cells, celecoxib, a COX-2-selective NSAID, inhibited the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Since this pathway also plays an important role in osteoblast growth and differentiation, we examined the effect of celecoxib on maturation of osteoblast-like cell line MC3T3-E1. Celecoxib induced degradation of transcription factor 7-like 2, a key transcription factor of the canonical Wnt pathway. Subsequently, we analyzed the effect of celecoxib on two osteoblast differentiation markers; runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2 and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, both of which are the products of the canonical Wnt pathway target genes. Celecoxib inhibited the expression of both RUNX2 and ALP by suppressing their promoter activity. Consistent with these observations, celecoxib also strongly inhibited osteoblast-mediated mineralization. These results suggest that celecoxib inhibits osteoblast maturation by suppressing Wnt target genes, and this could be the mechanism that NSAIDs inhibit bone formation and fracture healing.

  20. λ-Carrageenan Suppresses Tomato Chlorotic Dwarf Viroid (TCDVd Replication and Symptom Expression in Tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatinder S. Sangha

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of carrageenans on tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid (TCDVd replication and symptom expression was studied. Three-week-old tomato plants were spray-treated with iota(ɩ-, lambda(λ-, and kappa(κ-carrageenan at 1 g·L−1 and inoculated with TCDVd after 48 h. The λ-carrageenan significantly suppressed viroid symptom expression after eight weeks of inoculation, only 28% plants showed distinctive bunchy-top symptoms as compared to the 82% in the control group. Viroid concentration was reduced in the infected shoot cuttings incubated in λ-carrageenan amended growth medium. Proteome analysis revealed that 16 tomato proteins were differentially expressed in the λ-carrageenan treated plants. Jasmonic acid related genes, allene oxide synthase (AOS and lipoxygenase (LOX, were up-regulated in λ-carrageenan treatment during viroid infection. Taken together, our results suggest that λ-carrageenan induced tomato defense against TCDVd, which was partly jasmonic acid (JA dependent, and that it could be explored in plant protection against viroid infection.

  1. CXCL12 chemokine expression suppresses human pancreatic cancer growth and metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishan Roy

    Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is an unsolved health problem with nearly 75% of patients diagnosed with advanced disease and an overall 5-year survival rate near 5%. Despite the strong link between mortality and malignancy, the mechanisms behind pancreatic cancer dissemination and metastasis are poorly understood. Correlative pathological and cell culture analyses suggest the chemokine receptor CXCR4 plays a biological role in pancreatic cancer progression. In vivo roles for the CXCR4 ligand CXCL12 in pancreatic cancer malignancy were investigated. CXCR4 and CXCR7 were consistently expressed in normal and cancerous pancreatic ductal epithelium, established cell lines, and patient-derived primary cancer cells. Relative to healthy exocrine ducts, CXCL12 expression was pathologically repressed in pancreatic cancer tissue specimens and patient-derived cell lines. To test the functional consequences of CXCL12 silencing, pancreatic cancer cell lines stably expressingthe chemokine were engineered. Consistent with a role for CXCL12 as a tumor suppressor, cells producing the chemokine wereincreasingly adherent and migration deficient in vitro and poorly metastatic in vivo, compared to control cells. Further, CXCL12 reintroduction significantly reduced tumor growth in vitro, with significantly smaller tumors in vivo, leading to a pronounced survival advantage in a preclinical model. Together, these data demonstrate a functional tumor suppressive role for the normal expression of CXCL12 in pancreatic ducts, regulating both tumor growth andcellulardissemination to metastatic sites.

  2. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes Associated with Apple Fruit Ripening and Softening by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zongying; Jiang, Shenghui; Wang, Nan; Li, Min; Ji, Xiaohao; Sun, Shasha; Liu, Jingxuan; Wang, Deyun; Xu, Haifeng; Qi, Sumin; Wu, Shujing; Fei, Zhangjun; Feng, Shouqian; Chen, Xuesen

    2015-01-01

    Apple is one of the most economically important horticultural fruit crops worldwide. It is critical to gain insights into fruit ripening and softening to improve apple fruit quality and extend shelf life. In this study, forward and reverse suppression subtractive hybridization libraries were generated from 'Taishanzaoxia' apple fruits sampled around the ethylene climacteric to isolate ripening- and softening-related genes. A set of 648 unigenes were derived from sequence alignment and cluster assembly of 918 expressed sequence tags. According to gene ontology functional classification, 390 out of 443 unigenes (88%) were assigned to the biological process category, 356 unigenes (80%) were classified in the molecular function category, and 381 unigenes (86%) were allocated to the cellular component category. A total of 26 unigenes differentially expressed during fruit development period were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. These genes were involved in cell wall modification, anthocyanin biosynthesis, aroma production, stress response, metabolism, transcription, or were non-annotated. Some genes associated with cell wall modification, anthocyanin biosynthesis and aroma production were up-regulated and significantly correlated with ethylene production, suggesting that fruit texture, coloration and aroma may be regulated by ethylene in 'Taishanzaoxia'. Some of the identified unigenes associated with fruit ripening and softening have not been characterized in public databases. The results contribute to an improved characterization of changes in gene expression during apple fruit ripening and softening.

  3. Nimotuzumab enhances temozolomide-induced growth suppression of glioma cells expressing mutant EGFR in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitta, Yusuke; Shimizu, Saki; Shishido-Hara, Yukiko; Suzuki, Kaori; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki; Nagane, Motoo

    2016-01-01

    A mutant form of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), EGFRvIII, is common in glioblastoma (GBM) and confers enhanced tumorigenic activity and drug resistance. Nimotuzumab, an anti-EGFR antibody, has shown preclinical and clinical activity to GBM, but its specific activity against EGFRvIII has not been fully investigated. Human glioma U87MG or LNZ308 cells overexpressing either wild-type (wt) EGFR or EGFRvIII were treated with nimotuzumab, temozolomide, or both. Expression and phosphorylation status of molecules were determined by Western blot analysis. Methylation status of promoter region of O 6 -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) was detected by methylation-specific PCR. Antitumor activity was tested using nude mice bearing either subcutaneous or intracerebral xenografts along with analyses of EGFR phosphorylation status, proliferation, apoptosis, and vessel density. Nimotuzumab treatment resulted in reduction of EGFRvIII tyrosine phosphorylation with a decrease in Akt phosphorylation that was greater than that of wtEGFR. Correspondingly, antitumor effects, growth suppression and survival elongation, were more significant in mice bearing either subcutaneous or intracerebral tumor expressing EGFRvIII than in those expressing wtEGFR. These effects were markedly increased when temozolomide was combined with nimotuzumab. The post-treatment recurrent brain tumors exhibited a decrease in expression of the mismatch repair (MMR) proteins, MSH6 and MLH1, but their methylated MGMT status did not changed. Nimotuzumab has in vivo antitumor activity against GBM, especially those expressing EGFRvIII, when combined with temozolomide. This could provide a basis for preselection of patients with GBM by EGFR status who might benefit from the nimotuzumab and temozolomide combination therapy

  4. The Effects of Cognitive Reappraisal and Expressive Suppression on Memory of Emotional Pictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Mei Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the field of emotion research, the influence of emotion regulation strategies on memory with emotional materials has been widely discussed in recent years. However, existing studies have focused exclusively on regulating negative emotion but not positive emotion. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the influence of emotion regulation strategies for positive emotion on memory. One hundred and twenty college students were selected as participants. Emotional pictures (positive, negative and neutral were selected from Chinese Affective Picture System (CAPS as experimental materials. We employed a mixed, 4 (emotion regulation strategies: cognitive up-regulation, cognitive down-regulation, expressive suppression, passive viewing × 3 (emotional pictures: positive, neutral, negative experimental design. We investigated the influences of different emotion regulation strategies on memory performance, using free recall and recognition tasks with pictures varying in emotional content. The results showed that recognition and free recall memory performance of the cognitive reappraisal groups (up-regulation and down-regulation were both better than that of the passive viewing group for all emotional pictures. No significant differences were reported in the two kinds of memory scores between the expressive suppression and passive viewing groups. The results also showed that the memory performance with the emotional pictures differed according to the form of memory test. For the recognition test, participants performed better with positive images than with neutral images. Free recall scores with negative images were higher than those with neutral images. These results suggest that both cognitive reappraisal regulation strategies (up-regulation and down-regulation promoted explicit memories of the emotional content of stimuli, and the form of memory test influenced performance with emotional pictures.

  5. The Effects of Cognitive Reappraisal and Expressive Suppression on Memory of Emotional Pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan Mei; Chen, Jie; Han, Ben Yue

    2017-01-01

    In the field of emotion research, the influence of emotion regulation strategies on memory with emotional materials has been widely discussed in recent years. However, existing studies have focused exclusively on regulating negative emotion but not positive emotion. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the influence of emotion regulation strategies for positive emotion on memory. One hundred and twenty college students were selected as participants. Emotional pictures (positive, negative and neutral) were selected from Chinese Affective Picture System (CAPS) as experimental materials. We employed a mixed, 4 (emotion regulation strategies: cognitive up-regulation, cognitive down-regulation, expressive suppression, passive viewing) × 3 (emotional pictures: positive, neutral, negative) experimental design. We investigated the influences of different emotion regulation strategies on memory performance, using free recall and recognition tasks with pictures varying in emotional content. The results showed that recognition and free recall memory performance of the cognitive reappraisal groups (up-regulation and down-regulation) were both better than that of the passive viewing group for all emotional pictures. No significant differences were reported in the two kinds of memory scores between the expressive suppression and passive viewing groups. The results also showed that the memory performance with the emotional pictures differed according to the form of memory test. For the recognition test, participants performed better with positive images than with neutral images. Free recall scores with negative images were higher than those with neutral images. These results suggest that both cognitive reappraisal regulation strategies (up-regulation and down-regulation) promoted explicit memories of the emotional content of stimuli, and the form of memory test influenced performance with emotional pictures.

  6. Quercetin suppresses cyclooxygenase-2 expression and angiogenesis through inactivation of P300 signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangsheng Xiao

    Full Text Available Quercetin, a polyphenolic bioflavonoid, possesses multiple pharmacological actions including anti-inflammatory and antitumor properties. However, the precise action mechanisms of quercetin remain unclear. Here, we reported the regulatory actions of quercetin on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, an important mediator in inflammation and tumor promotion, and revealed the underlying mechanisms. Quercetin significantly suppressed COX-2 mRNA and protein expression and prostaglandin (PG E(2 production, as well as COX-2 promoter activation in breast cancer cells. Quercetin also significantly inhibited COX-2-mediated angiogenesis in human endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. The in vitro streptavidin-agarose pulldown assay and in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that quercetin considerably inhibited the binding of the transactivators CREB2, C-Jun, C/EBPβ and NF-κB and blocked the recruitment of the coactivator p300 to COX-2 promoter. Moreover, quercetin effectively inhibited p300 histone acetyltransferase (HAT activity, thereby attenuating the p300-mediated acetylation of NF-κB. Treatment of cells with p300 HAT inhibitor roscovitine was as effective as quercetin at inhibiting p300 HAT activity. Addition of quercetin to roscovitine-treated cells did not change the roscovitine-induced inhibition of p300 HAT activity. Conversely, gene delivery of constitutively active p300 significantly reversed the quercetin-mediated inhibition of endogenous HAT activity. These results indicate that quercetin suppresses COX-2 expression by inhibiting the p300 signaling and blocking the binding of multiple transactivators to COX-2 promoter. Our findings therefore reveal a novel mechanism of action of quercetin and suggest a potential use for quercetin in the treatment of COX-2-mediated diseases such as breast cancers.

  7. A promoter-level mammalian expression atlas

    KAUST Repository

    Forest, Alistair R R

    2014-03-26

    Regulated transcription controls the diversity, developmental pathways and spatial organization of the hundreds of cell types that make up a mammal. Using single-molecule cDNA sequencing, we mapped transcription start sites (TSSs) and their usage in human and mouse primary cells, cell lines and tissues to produce a comprehensive overview of mammalian gene expression across the human body. We find that few genes are truly ‘housekeeping’, whereas many mammalian promoters are composite entities composed of several closely separated TSSs, with independent cell-type-specific expression profiles. TSSs specific to different cell types evolve at different rates, whereas promoters of broadly expressed genes are the most conserved. Promoter-based expression analysis reveals key transcription factors defining cell states and links them to binding-site motifs. The functions of identified novel transcripts can be predicted by coexpression and sample ontology enrichment analyses. The functional annotation of the mammalian genome 5 (FANTOM5) project provides comprehensive expression profiles and functional annotation of mammalian cell-type-specific transcriptomes with wide applications in biomedical research.

  8. A promoter-level mammalian expression atlas

    KAUST Repository

    Forest, Alistair R R; Kawaji, Hideya; Rehli, Michael; Baillie, John Kenneth; De Hoon, Michiel Jl L; Haberle, Vanja; Lassmann, Timo; Kulakovskiy, Ivan V.; Lizio, Marina; Itoh, Masayoshi; Andersson, Robin; Iida, Kei; Ikawa, Tomokatsu; Jankovic, Boris R.; Jia, Hui; Joshi, Anagha Madhusudan; Jurman, Giuseppe; Kaczkowski, Bogumił; Kai, Chieko; Kaida, Kaoru; Kaiho, Ai; Mungall, Christopher J.; Kajiyama, Kazuhiro; Kanamori-Katayama, Mutsumi; Kasianov, Artem S.; Kasukawa, Takeya; Katayama, Shintaro; Kato, Sachi; Kawaguchi, Shuji; Kawamoto, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Yuki I.; Kawashima, Tsugumi; Meehan, Terrence F.; Kempfle, Judith S.; Kenna, Tony J.; Kere, Juha; Khachigian, Levon M.; Kitamura, Toshio; Klinken, Svend Peter; Knox, Alan; Kojima, Miki; Kojima, Soichi; Kondo, Naoto; Schmeier, Sebastian; Koseki, Haruhiko; Koyasu, Shigeo; Krampitz, Sarah; Kubosaki, Atsutaka; Kwon, Andrew T.; Laros, Jeroen F J; Lee, Weonju; Lennartsson, Andreas; Li, Kang; Lilje, Berit; Bertin, Nicolas; Lipovich, Leonard; MacKay-Sim, Alan; Manabe, Riichiroh; Mar, Jessica; Marchand, Benoî t; Mathelier, Anthony; Mejhert, Niklas; Meynert, Alison M.; Mizuno, Yosuke; De Morais, David A Lima; Jø rgensen, Mette Christine; Morikawa, Hiromasa; Morimoto, Mitsuru; Moro, Kazuyo; Motakis, Efthymios; Motohashi, Hozumi; Mummery, Christine L.; Murata, Mitsuyoshi; Nagao-Sato, Sayaka; Nakachi, Yutaka; Nakahara, Fumio; Dimont, Emmanuel; Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Yukio; Nakazato, Kenichi; Van Nimwegen, Erik; Ninomiya, Noriko; Nishiyori, Hiromi; Noma, Shohei; Nozaki, Tadasuke; Ogishima, Soichi; Ohkura, Naganari; Arner, Erik; Ohmiya, Hiroko; Ohno, Hiroshi; Ohshima, Mitsuhiro; Okada-Hatakeyama, Mariko; Okazaki, Yasushi; Orlando, Valerio; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry A.; Pain, Arnab; Passier, Robert C J J; Patrikakis, Margaret; Schmidl, Christian; Persson, Helena A.; Piazza, Silvano; Prendergast, James G D; Rackham, Owen J L; Ramilowski, Jordan A.; Rashid, Mamoon; Ravasi, Timothy; Rizzu, Patrizia; Roncador, Marco; Roy, Sugata; Schaefer, Ulf; Rye, Morten Beck; Saijyo, Eri; Sajantila, Antti; Saka, Akiko; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Sakai, Mizuho; Sato, Hiroki; Satoh, Hironori; Savvi, Suzana; Saxena, Alka; Medvedeva, Yulia; Schneider, Claudio H.; Schultes, Erik A.; Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula G.; Schwegmann, Anita; Sengstag, Thierry; Sheng, Guojun; Shimoji, Hisashi; Shimoni, Yishai; Shin, Jay W.; Simon, Chris M.; Plessy, Charles; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Sugiyama, Takaaki; Suzuki, Masanori; Suzuki, Naoko; Swoboda, Rolf K.; 't Hoen, Peter Ac Chr; Tagami, Michihira; Tagami, Naokotakahashi; Takai, Jun; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Vitezic, Morana; Tatsukawa, Hideki; Tatum, Zuotian; Thompson, Mark; Toyoda, Hiroo; Toyoda, Tetsuro; Valen, Eivind; Van De Wetering, Marc L.; Van Den Berg, Linda M.; Verardo, Roberto; Vijayan, Dipti; Severin, Jessica M.; Vorontsov, Ilya E.; Wasserman, Wyeth W.; Watanabe, Shoko; Wells, Christine A.; Winteringham, Louise Natalie; Wolvetang, Ernst Jurgen; Wood, Emily J.; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Yoneda, Misako; Semple, Colin Am M; Yonekura, Yohei; Yoshida, Shigehiro; Zabierowski, Susan E.; Zhang, Peter; Zhao, Xiaobei; Zucchelli, Silvia; Summers, Kim M.; Suzuki, Harukazu; Daub, Carsten Olivier; Kawai, Jun; Ishizu, Yuri; Heutink, Peter; Hide, Winston; Freeman, Tom C.; Lenhard, Boris; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Taylor, Martin S.; Makeev, Vsevolod J.; Sandelin, Albin; Hume, David A.; Carninci, Piero; Young, Robert S.; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide Yoshihide; Francescatto, Margherita; Altschuler, Intikhab Alam; Albanese, Davide; Altschule, Gabriel M.; Arakawa, Takahiro; Archer, John A.C.; Arner, Peter; Babina, Magda; Rennie, Sarah; Balwierz, Piotr J.; Beckhouse, Anthony G.; Pradhan-Bhatt, Swati; Blake, Judith A.; Blumenthal, Antje; Bodega, Beatrice; Bonetti, Alessandro; Briggs, James A.; Brombacher, Frank; Burroughs, Alexander Maxwell; Califano, Andrea C.; Cannistraci, Carlo; Carbajo, Daniel; Chen, Yun; Chierici, Marco; Ciani, Yari; Clevers, Hans C.; Dalla, Emiliano; Davis, Carrie Anne; Detmar, Michael J.; Diehl, Alexander D.; Dohi, Taeko; Drablø s, Finn; Edge, Albert SB B; Edinger, Matthias G.; Ekwall, Karl; Endoh, Mitsuhiro; Enomoto, Hideki; Fagiolini, Michela; Fairbairn, Lynsey R.; Fang, Hai; Farach-Carson, Mary Cindy; Faulkner, Geoffrey J.; Favorov, Alexander V.; Fisher, Malcolm E.; Frith, Martin C.; Fujita, Rie; Fukuda, Shiro; Furlanello, Cesare; Furuno, Masaaki; Furusawa, Junichi; Geijtenbeek, Teunis Bh H; Gibson, Andrew P.; Gingeras, Thomas R.; Goldowitz, Dan; Gough, Julian; Guhl, Sven; Guler, Reto; Gustincich, Stefano; Ha, Thomas; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Hara, Mitsuko; Harbers, Matthias; Harshbarger, Jayson; Hasegawa, Akira; Hasegawa, Yuki; Hashimoto, Takehiro; Herlyn, Meenhard F.; Hitchens, Kelly J.; Sui, Shannan J Ho; Hofmann, Oliver M.; Hoof, Ilka; Hori, Fumi; Huminiecki, Łukasz B.

    2014-01-01

    Regulated transcription controls the diversity, developmental pathways and spatial organization of the hundreds of cell types that make up a mammal. Using single-molecule cDNA sequencing, we mapped transcription start sites (TSSs) and their usage in human and mouse primary cells, cell lines and tissues to produce a comprehensive overview of mammalian gene expression across the human body. We find that few genes are truly ‘housekeeping’, whereas many mammalian promoters are composite entities composed of several closely separated TSSs, with independent cell-type-specific expression profiles. TSSs specific to different cell types evolve at different rates, whereas promoters of broadly expressed genes are the most conserved. Promoter-based expression analysis reveals key transcription factors defining cell states and links them to binding-site motifs. The functions of identified novel transcripts can be predicted by coexpression and sample ontology enrichment analyses. The functional annotation of the mammalian genome 5 (FANTOM5) project provides comprehensive expression profiles and functional annotation of mammalian cell-type-specific transcriptomes with wide applications in biomedical research.

  9. Emodin suppresses migration and invasion through the modulation of CXCR4 expression in an orthotopic model of human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanjoormana Aryan Manu

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence(s indicate that CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling cascade plays an important role in the process of invasion and metastasis that accounts for more than 80% of deaths in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC patients. Thus, identification of novel agents that can downregulate CXCR4 expression and its associated functions have a great potential in the treatment of metastatic HCC. In the present report, we investigated an anthraquinone derivative, emodin for its ability to affect CXCR4 expression as well as function in HCC cells. We observed that emodin downregulated the expression of CXCR4 in a dose-and time-dependent manner in HCC cells. Treatment with pharmacological proteasome and lysosomal inhibitors did not have substantial effect on emodin-induced decrease in CXCR4 expression. When investigated for the molecular mechanism(s, it was observed that the suppression of CXCR4 expression was due to downregulation of mRNA expression, inhibition of NF-κB activation, and abrogation of chromatin immunoprecipitation activity. Inhibition of CXCR4 expression by emodin further correlated with the suppression of CXCL12-induced migration and invasion in HCC cell lines. In addition, emodin treatment significantly suppressed metastasis to the lungs in an orthotopic HCC mice model and CXCR4 expression in tumor tissues. Overall, our results show that emodin exerts its anti-metastatic effect through the downregulation of CXCR4 expression and thus has the potential for the treatment of HCC.

  10. SIRT1 inhibits proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells expressing pancreatic adenocarcinoma up-regulated factor (PAUF), a novel oncogene, by suppression of β-catenin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Il-Rae; Koh, Sang Seok; Malilas, Waraporn; Srisuttee, Ratakorn; Moon, Jeong; Choi, Young-Whan; Horio, Yoshiyuki; Oh, Sangtaek; Chung, Young-Hwa

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► SIRT1 inhibits protein levels of β-catenin and its transcriptional activity. ► Nuclear localization of SIRT1 is not required for the decrease of β-catenin expression. ► SIRT1-mediated degradation of β-catenin is not required for GSK-3β and Siah-1 but for proteosome. ► SIRT1 activation inhibits proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells expressing PAUF. -- Abstract: Because we found in a recent study that pancreatic adenocarcinoma up-regulated factor (PAUF), a novel oncogene, induces a rapid proliferation of pancreatic cells by up-regulation of β-catenin, we postulated that β-catenin might be a target molecule for pancreatic cancer treatment. We thus speculated whether SIRT1, known to target β-catenin in a colon cancer model, suppresses β-catenin in those pancreatic cancer cells that express PAUF (Panc-PAUF). We further evaluated whether such suppression would lead to inhibition of the proliferation of these cells. The ectopic expression of either SIRT1 or resveratrol (an activator of SIRT1) suppressed levels of β-catenin protein and its transcriptional activity in Panc-PAUF cells. Conversely, suppression of SIRT1 expression by siRNA enhanced β-catenin expression and transcriptional activity. SIRT1 mutant analysis showed that nuclear localization of SIRT1 is not required for reduction of β-catenin. Treatment with MG132, a proteasomal inhibitor, restored β-catenin protein levels, suggesting that SIRT1-mediated degradation of β-catenin requires proteasomal activity. It was reported that inhibition of GSK-3β or Siah-1 stabilizes β-catenin in colon cancer cells, but suppression of GSK-3β or Siah-1 using siRNA in the presence of resveratrol instead diminished β-catenin protein levels in Panc-PAUF cells. This suggests that GSK-3β and Siah-1 are not involved in SIRT1-mediated degradation of β-catenin in the cells. Finally, activation of SIRT1 inhibited the proliferation of Panc-PAUF cells by down-regulation of cyclin-D1, a target

  11. SIRT1 inhibits proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells expressing pancreatic adenocarcinoma up-regulated factor (PAUF), a novel oncogene, by suppression of {beta}-catenin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Il-Rae [WCU, Department of Cogno-Mechatronics Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Sang Seok [Immunotherapy Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Functional Genomics, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Malilas, Waraporn; Srisuttee, Ratakorn; Moon, Jeong [WCU, Department of Cogno-Mechatronics Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Young-Whan [Department of Horticultural Bioscience, Pusan National University, Miryang 627-706 (Korea, Republic of); Horio, Yoshiyuki [Department of Pharmacology, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo 060-8556 (Japan); Oh, Sangtaek [Department of Advanced Fermentation Fusion Science and Technology, Kookmin University, Seoul 136-702 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young-Hwa, E-mail: younghc@pusan.ac.kr [WCU, Department of Cogno-Mechatronics Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIRT1 inhibits protein levels of {beta}-catenin and its transcriptional activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nuclear localization of SIRT1 is not required for the decrease of {beta}-catenin expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIRT1-mediated degradation of {beta}-catenin is not required for GSK-3{beta} and Siah-1 but for proteosome. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIRT1 activation inhibits proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells expressing PAUF. -- Abstract: Because we found in a recent study that pancreatic adenocarcinoma up-regulated factor (PAUF), a novel oncogene, induces a rapid proliferation of pancreatic cells by up-regulation of {beta}-catenin, we postulated that {beta}-catenin might be a target molecule for pancreatic cancer treatment. We thus speculated whether SIRT1, known to target {beta}-catenin in a colon cancer model, suppresses {beta}-catenin in those pancreatic cancer cells that express PAUF (Panc-PAUF). We further evaluated whether such suppression would lead to inhibition of the proliferation of these cells. The ectopic expression of either SIRT1 or resveratrol (an activator of SIRT1) suppressed levels of {beta}-catenin protein and its transcriptional activity in Panc-PAUF cells. Conversely, suppression of SIRT1 expression by siRNA enhanced {beta}-catenin expression and transcriptional activity. SIRT1 mutant analysis showed that nuclear localization of SIRT1 is not required for reduction of {beta}-catenin. Treatment with MG132, a proteasomal inhibitor, restored {beta}-catenin protein levels, suggesting that SIRT1-mediated degradation of {beta}-catenin requires proteasomal activity. It was reported that inhibition of GSK-3{beta} or Siah-1 stabilizes {beta}-catenin in colon cancer cells, but suppression of GSK-3{beta} or Siah-1 using siRNA in the presence of resveratrol instead diminished {beta}-catenin protein levels in Panc-PAUF cells. This suggests that GSK-3{beta} and Siah-1 are not involved in SIRT1

  12. Pur-Alpha Induces JCV Gene Expression and Viral Replication by Suppressing SRSF1 in Glial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker Kudret Sariyer

    Full Text Available PML is a rare and fatal demyelinating disease of the CNS caused by the human polyomavirus, JC virus (JCV, which occurs in AIDS patients and those on immunosuppressive monoclonal antibody therapies (mAbs. We sought to identify mechanisms that could stimulate reactivation of JCV in a cell culture model system and targeted pathways which could affect early gene transcription and JCV T-antigen production, which are key steps of the viral life cycle for blocking reactivation of JCV. Two important regulatory partners we have previously identified for T-antigen include Pur-alpha and SRSF1 (SF2/ASF. SRSF1, an alternative splicing factor, is a potential regulator of JCV whose overexpression in glial cells strongly suppresses viral gene expression and replication. Pur-alpha has been most extensively characterized as a sequence-specific DNA- and RNA-binding protein which directs both viral gene transcription and mRNA translation, and is a potent inducer of the JCV early promoter through binding to T-antigen.Pur-alpha and SRSF1 both act directly as transcriptional regulators of the JCV promoter and here we have observed that Pur-alpha is capable of ameliorating SRSF1-mediated suppression of JCV gene expression and viral replication. Interestingly, Pur-alpha exerted its effect by suppressing SRSF1 at both the protein and mRNA levels in glial cells suggesting this effect can occur independent of T-antigen. Pur-alpha and SRSF1 were both localized to oligodendrocyte inclusion bodies by immunohistochemistry in brain sections from patients with HIV-1 associated PML. Interestingly, inclusion bodies were typically positive for either Pur-alpha or SRSF1, though some cells appeared to be positive for both proteins.Taken together, these results indicate the presence of an antagonistic interaction between these two proteins in regulating of JCV gene expression and viral replication and suggests that they play an important role during viral reactivation leading to

  13. Suppressing recombination in polymer photovoltaic devices via energy-level cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhi-Kuang; Johnson, Kerr; Vaynzof, Yana; Bakulin, Artem A; Chua, Lay-Lay; Ho, Peter K H; Friend, Richard H

    2013-08-14

    An energy cascading structure is designed in a polymer photovoltaic device to suppress recombination and improve quantum yields. By the insertion of a thin polymer interlayer with intermediate energy levels, electrons and holes can effectively shuttle away from each other while being spatially separated from recombination. An increase in open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current are observed in modified devices. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. 3-Deazaneplanocin A suppresses aggressive phenotype-related gene expression in an oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatta, Mitsutoki; Naganuma, Kaori; Kato, Kenichi; Yamazaki, Jun

    2015-01-01

    In tumor tissues, alterations of gene expression caused by aberrant epigenetic modifications confer phenotypic diversity on malignant cells. Although 3-deazaneplanocin A (DZNep) has been shown to reactivate tumor suppressor genes in several cancer cells, it remains unclear whether DZNep attenuates the malignant phenotypes of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of DZNep on the expression of genes related to aggressive phenotypes, such as epithelial–mesenchymal transition, in OSCC cells. We found that DZNep reduced the cellular levels of polycomb group proteins (EZH2, SUZ12, BMI1, and RING1A) and the associated trimethylation of Lys27 on histone H3 and monoubiquitination of Lys119 on histone H2A in the poorly differentiated OSCC cell line SAS. Immunocytochemical staining demonstrated that DZNep induced the reorganization of filamentous actin and the membrane localization of E-cadherin associated with cell–cell adhesions. We also found an inhibitory effect of DZNep on cell proliferation using a WST assay. Finally, quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that genes involved in the aggressive phenotypes (TWIST2, EGFR, ACTA2, TGFB1, WNT5B, and APLIN) were down-regulated, whereas epithelial phenotype genes (CDH1, CLDN4, IVL, and TGM1) were up-regulated in SAS cells treated with DZNep. Collectively, our findings suggest that DZNep reverses the aggressive characteristics of OSCC cells through the dynamic regulation of epithelial plasticity via the reprogramming of gene expression patterns. - Highlights: • DZNep reduced PcG proteins and associated histone modifications in OSCC cells. • DZNep enhanced cell–cell adhesion indicative of epithelial phenotype in OSCC cells. • DZNep suppressed the aggressive phenotype-related gene expression in OSCC cells. • DZNep activated the gene expression of epithelial markers in OSCC cells.

  15. 3-Deazaneplanocin A suppresses aggressive phenotype-related gene expression in an oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatta, Mitsutoki, E-mail: hatta@college.fdcnet.ac.jp [Department of Physiological Science and Molecular Biology, Fukuoka Dental College, Fukuoka (Japan); Naganuma, Kaori [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Fukuoka Dental College, Fukuoka (Japan); Kato, Kenichi; Yamazaki, Jun [Department of Physiological Science and Molecular Biology, Fukuoka Dental College, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2015-12-04

    In tumor tissues, alterations of gene expression caused by aberrant epigenetic modifications confer phenotypic diversity on malignant cells. Although 3-deazaneplanocin A (DZNep) has been shown to reactivate tumor suppressor genes in several cancer cells, it remains unclear whether DZNep attenuates the malignant phenotypes of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of DZNep on the expression of genes related to aggressive phenotypes, such as epithelial–mesenchymal transition, in OSCC cells. We found that DZNep reduced the cellular levels of polycomb group proteins (EZH2, SUZ12, BMI1, and RING1A) and the associated trimethylation of Lys27 on histone H3 and monoubiquitination of Lys119 on histone H2A in the poorly differentiated OSCC cell line SAS. Immunocytochemical staining demonstrated that DZNep induced the reorganization of filamentous actin and the membrane localization of E-cadherin associated with cell–cell adhesions. We also found an inhibitory effect of DZNep on cell proliferation using a WST assay. Finally, quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that genes involved in the aggressive phenotypes (TWIST2, EGFR, ACTA2, TGFB1, WNT5B, and APLIN) were down-regulated, whereas epithelial phenotype genes (CDH1, CLDN4, IVL, and TGM1) were up-regulated in SAS cells treated with DZNep. Collectively, our findings suggest that DZNep reverses the aggressive characteristics of OSCC cells through the dynamic regulation of epithelial plasticity via the reprogramming of gene expression patterns. - Highlights: • DZNep reduced PcG proteins and associated histone modifications in OSCC cells. • DZNep enhanced cell–cell adhesion indicative of epithelial phenotype in OSCC cells. • DZNep suppressed the aggressive phenotype-related gene expression in OSCC cells. • DZNep activated the gene expression of epithelial markers in OSCC cells.

  16. Analysis of baseline gene expression levels from ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of gene expression profiling to predict chemical mode of action would be enhanced by better characterization of variance due to individual, environmental, and technical factors. Meta-analysis of microarray data from untreated or vehicle-treated animals within the control arm of toxicogenomics studies has yielded useful information on baseline fluctuations in gene expression. A dataset of control animal microarray expression data was assembled by a working group of the Health and Environmental Sciences Institute's Technical Committee on the Application of Genomics in Mechanism Based Risk Assessment in order to provide a public resource for assessments of variability in baseline gene expression. Data from over 500 Affymetrix microarrays from control rat liver and kidney were collected from 16 different institutions. Thirty-five biological and technical factors were obtained for each animal, describing a wide range of study characteristics, and a subset were evaluated in detail for their contribution to total variability using multivariate statistical and graphical techniques. The study factors that emerged as key sources of variability included gender, organ section, strain, and fasting state. These and other study factors were identified as key descriptors that should be included in the minimal information about a toxicogenomics study needed for interpretation of results by an independent source. Genes that are the most and least variable, gender-selectiv

  17. Time warping of evolutionary distant temporal gene expression data based on noise suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papatsenko Dmitri

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative analysis of genome wide temporal gene expression data has a broad potential area of application, including evolutionary biology, developmental biology, and medicine. However, at large evolutionary distances, the construction of global alignments and the consequent comparison of the time-series data are difficult. The main reason is the accumulation of variability in expression profiles of orthologous genes, in the course of evolution. Results We applied Pearson distance matrices, in combination with other noise-suppression techniques and data filtering to improve alignments. This novel framework enhanced the capacity to capture the similarities between the temporal gene expression datasets separated by large evolutionary distances. We aligned and compared the temporal gene expression data in budding (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and fission (Schizosaccharomyces pombe yeast, which are separated by more then ~400 myr of evolution. We found that the global alignment (time warping properly matched the duration of cell cycle phases in these distant organisms, which was measured in prior studies. At the same time, when applied to individual ortholog pairs, this alignment procedure revealed groups of genes with distinct alignments, different from the global alignment. Conclusion Our alignment-based predictions of differences in the cell cycle phases between the two yeast species were in a good agreement with the existing data, thus supporting the computational strategy adopted in this study. We propose that the existence of the alternative alignments, specific to distinct groups of genes, suggests presence of different synchronization modes between the two organisms and possible functional decoupling of particular physiological gene networks in the course of evolution.

  18. Inflammation and Gli2 suppress gastrin gene expression in a murine model of antral hyperplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Saqui-Salces

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation in the stomach can lead to gastric cancer. We previously reported that gastrin-deficient (Gast⁻/⁻ mice develop bacterial overgrowth, inflammatory infiltrate, increased Il-1β expression, antral hyperplasia and eventually antral tumors. Since Hedgehog (Hh signaling is active in gastric cancers but its role in precursor lesions is poorly understood, we examined the role of inflammation and Hh signaling in antral hyperplasia. LacZ reporter mice for Sonic hedgehog (Shh, Gli1, and Gli2 expression bred onto the Gast⁻/⁻ background revealed reduced Shh and Gli1 expression in the antra compared to wild type controls (WT. Gli2 expression in the Gast⁻/⁻ corpus was unchanged. However in the hyperplastic Gast⁻/⁻ antra, Gli2 expression increased in both the mesenchyme and epithelium, whereas expression in WT mice remained exclusively mesenchymal. These observations suggested that Gli2 is differentially regulated in the hyperplastic Gast⁻/⁻ antrum versus the corpus and by a Shh ligand-independent mechanism. Moreover, the proinflammatory cytokines Il-1β and Il-11, which promote gastric epithelial proliferation, were increased in the Gast⁻/⁻ stomach along with Infγ. To test if inflammation could account for elevated epithelial Gli2 expression in the Gast⁻/⁻ antra, the human gastric cell line AGS was treated with IL-1β and was found to increase GLI2 but decrease GLI1 levels. IL-1β also repressed human GAST gene expression. Indeed, GLI2 but not GLI1 or GLI3 expression repressed gastrin luciferase reporter activity by ∼50 percent. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation of GLI2 in AGS cells confirmed that GLI2 directly binds to the GAST promoter. Using a mouse model of constitutively active epithelial GLI2 expression, we found that activated GLI2 repressed Gast expression but induced Il-1β gene expression and proliferation in the gastric antrum, along with a reduction of the number of G-cells. In summary

  19. Impaired NFAT and NFκB activation are involved in suppression of CD40 ligand expression by Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in human CD4+ T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngaotepprutaram, Thitirat; Kaplan, Barbara L.F.; Kaminski, Norbert E.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously reported that Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 9 -THC), the main psychoactive cannabinoid in marijuana, suppresses CD40 ligand (CD40L) expression by activated mouse CD4 + T cells. CD40L is involved in pathogenesis of many autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of Δ 9 -THC-mediated suppression of CD40L expression using peripheral blood human T cells. Pretreatment with Δ 9 -THC attenuated CD40L expression in human CD4 + T cells activated by anti-CD3/CD28 at both the protein and mRNA level, as determined by flow cytometry and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that Δ 9 -THC suppressed the DNA-binding activity of both NFAT and NFκB to their respective response elements within the CD40L promoter. An assessment of the effect of Δ 9 -THC on proximal T cell-receptor (TCR) signaling induced by anti-CD3/CD28 showed significant impairment in the rise of intracellular calcium, but no significant effect on the phosphorylation of ZAP70, PLCγ1/2, Akt, and GSK3β. Collectively, these findings identify perturbation of the calcium-NFAT and NFκB signaling cascade as a key mechanistic event by which Δ 9 -THC suppresses human T cell function. - Highlights: • Δ 9 -THC attenuated CD40L expression in activated human CD4+ T cells. • Δ 9 -THC suppressed DNA-binding activity of NFAT and NFκB. • Δ 9 -THC impaired elevation of intracellular Ca2+. • Δ 9 -THC did not affect phosphorylation of ZAP70, PLCγ1/2, Akt, and GSK3β

  20. Differentiation-inducing factor-1 suppresses gene expression of cyclin D1 in tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasmin, Tania; Takahashi-Yanaga, Fumi; Mori, Jun; Miwa, Yoshikazu; Hirata, Masato; Watanabe, Yutaka; Morimoto, Sachio; Sasaguri, Toshiyuki

    2005-01-01

    To determine the mechanism by which differentiation-inducing factor-1 (DIF-1), a morphogen of Dictyostelium discoideum, inhibits tumor cell proliferation, we examined the effect of DIF-1 on the gene expression of cyclin D1. DIF-1 strongly reduced the expression of cyclin D1 mRNA and correspondingly decreased the amount of β-catenin in HeLa cells and squamous cell carcinoma cells. DIF-1 activated glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and inhibition of GSK-3β attenuated the DIF-1-induced β-catenin degradation, indicating the involvement of GSK-3β in this effect. Moreover, DIF-1 reduced the activities of T-cell factor (TCF)/lymphoid enhancer factor (LEF) reporter plasmid and a reporter gene driven by the human cyclin D1 promoter. Eliminating the TCF/LEF consensus site from the cyclin D1 promoter diminished the effect of DIF-1. These results suggest that DIF-1 inhibits Wnt/β-catenin signaling, resulting in the suppression of cyclin D1 promoter activity

  1. Identification of a regulatory T cell specific cell surface molecule that mediates suppressive signals and induces Foxp3 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Wan, Qi; Kozhaya, Lina; Fujii, Hodaka; Unutmaz, Derya

    2008-07-16

    Regulatory T (T(reg)) cells control immune activation and maintain tolerance. How T(regs) mediate their suppressive function is unclear. Here we identified a cell surface molecule, called GARP, (or LRRC32), which within T cells is specifically expressed in T(regs) activated through the T cell receptor (TCR). Ectopic expression of GARP in human naïve T (T(N)) cells inhibited their proliferation and cytokine secretion upon TCR activation. Remarkably, GARP over-expression in T(N) cells induced expression of T(reg) master transcription factor Foxp3 and endowed them with a partial suppressive function. The extracellular but not the cytoplasmic region of GARP, was necessary for these functions. Silencing Foxp3 in human T(reg) cells reduced expression of GARP and attenuated their suppressive function. However, GARP function was not affected when Foxp3 was downregulated in GARP-overexpressing cells, while silencing GARP in Foxp3-overexpressing cells reduced their suppressive activity. These findings reveal a novel cell surface molecule-mediated regulatory mechanism, with implications for modulating aberrant immune responses.

  2. Identification of a regulatory T cell specific cell surface molecule that mediates suppressive signals and induces Foxp3 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wang

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory T (T(reg cells control immune activation and maintain tolerance. How T(regs mediate their suppressive function is unclear. Here we identified a cell surface molecule, called GARP, (or LRRC32, which within T cells is specifically expressed in T(regs activated through the T cell receptor (TCR. Ectopic expression of GARP in human naïve T (T(N cells inhibited their proliferation and cytokine secretion upon TCR activation. Remarkably, GARP over-expression in T(N cells induced expression of T(reg master transcription factor Foxp3 and endowed them with a partial suppressive function. The extracellular but not the cytoplasmic region of GARP, was necessary for these functions. Silencing Foxp3 in human T(reg cells reduced expression of GARP and attenuated their suppressive function. However, GARP function was not affected when Foxp3 was downregulated in GARP-overexpressing cells, while silencing GARP in Foxp3-overexpressing cells reduced their suppressive activity. These findings reveal a novel cell surface molecule-mediated regulatory mechanism, with implications for modulating aberrant immune responses.

  3. Is expressive suppression always associated with poorer psychological functioning? A cross-cultural comparison between European Americans and Hong Kong Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, José A; Perez, Christopher R; Kim, Young-Hoon; Lee, Elizabeth A; Minnick, Mark R

    2011-12-01

    The habitual use of expressive suppression as an emotion regulation strategy has been consistently linked to adverse outcomes in a number of domains, including psychological functioning. The present study aimed to uncover whether the suppression-health relationship is dependent on cultural context, given differing cultural norms surrounding the value of suppressing emotional displays. We hypothesized that the negative associations between suppression and psychological functioning seen in European Americans would not be seen among members of East Asian cultures, in which emotional restraint is relatively encouraged over emotional expression. To test this hypothesis, we asked 71 European American students and 100 Chinese students from Hong Kong to report on their use of expressive suppression, life satisfaction, and depressed mood. A moderation analysis revealed that expressive suppression was associated with adverse psychological functioning for European Americans, but not for Chinese participants. These findings highlight the importance of context in understanding the suppression-health relationship. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Emotion regulation and the temporal dynamics of emotions: Effects of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression on emotional inertia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koval, Peter; Butler, Emily A; Hollenstein, Tom; Lanteigne, Dianna; Kuppens, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The tendency for emotions to be predictable over time, labelled emotional inertia, has been linked to low well-being and is thought to reflect impaired emotion regulation. However, almost no studies have examined how emotion regulation relates to emotional inertia. We examined the effects of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression on the inertia of behavioural, subjective and physiological measures of emotion. In Study 1 (N = 111), trait suppression was associated with higher inertia of negative behaviours. We replicated this finding experimentally in Study 2 (N = 186). Furthermore, in Study 2, instructed suppressors and reappraisers both showed higher inertia of positive behaviours, and reappraisers displayed higher inertia of heart rate. Neither suppression nor reappraisal were associated with the inertia of subjective feelings in either study. Thus, the effects of suppression and reappraisal on the temporal dynamics of emotions depend on the valence and emotional response component in question.

  5. miR-101 suppresses HBV replication and expression by targeting FOXO1 in hepatoma carcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanjing; Tian, Hui

    2017-05-20

    microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified to participate in the progression of cancers and in the infection of viruses. miR-101 expression has been found to be suppressed by HBV, however, the regulatory relationship between miR-101 and HBV replication remains elusive. In this report, miR-101 was significantly downregulated in HepG2.2.15 cells with HBV expression. miR-101 overexpression dramatically suppressed HBV replication and expression. Oppositely, overexpression of FOXO1 significantly promoted HBV replication and expression. Moreover, luciferase reporter analysis, qRT-PCR analysis and western blot assay confirmed that FOXO1 was a functional target of miR-101. Furthermore, restored FOXO1 expression abolished the inhibitory effect of miR-101 overexpression on HBV replication and expression in HepG2.2.15 cells. Our data suggested that miR-101 suppressed HBV replication and expression partially by targeting FOXO1, providing new insights into the molecular mechanisms of miR-101 in HBV-host interactions and a promising therapeutic target for HBV replication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Aberrant expression of oncogenic and tumor-suppressive microRNAs in cervical cancer is required for cancer cell growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Wang

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs play important roles in cancer development. By cloning and sequencing of a HPV16(+ CaSki cell small RNA library, we isolated 174 miRNAs (including the novel miR-193c which could be grouped into 46 different miRNA species, with miR-21, miR-24, miR-27a, and miR-205 being most abundant. We chose for further study 10 miRNAs according to their cloning frequency and associated their levels in 10 cervical cancer- or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia-derived cell lines. No correlation was observed between their expression with the presence or absence of an integrated or episomal HPV genome. All cell lines examined contained no detectable miR-143 and miR-145. HPV-infected cell lines expressed a different set of miRNAs when grown in organotypic raft cultured as compared to monolayer cell culture, including expression of miR-143 and miR-145. This suggests a correlation between miRNA expression and tissue differentiation. Using miRNA array analyses for age-matched normal cervix and cervical cancer tissues, in combination with northern blot verification, we identified significantly deregulated miRNAs in cervical cancer tissues, with miR-126, miR-143, and miR-145 downregulation and miR-15b, miR-16, miR-146a, and miR-155 upregulation. Functional studies showed that both miR-143 and miR-145 are suppressive to cell growth. When introduced into cell lines, miR-146a was found to promote cell proliferation. Collectively, our data indicate that downregulation of miR-143 and miR-145 and upregulation of miR-146a play a role in cervical carcinogenesis.

  7. Oral delivery of Acid Alpha Glucosidase epitopes expressed in plant chloroplasts suppresses antibody formation in treatment of Pompe mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jin; Sherman, Alexandra; Doerfler, Phillip A; Byrne, Barry J; Herzog, Roland W; Daniell, Henry

    2015-10-01

    Deficiency of acid alpha glucosidase (GAA) causes Pompe disease in which the patients systemically accumulate lysosomal glycogen in muscles and nervous systems, often resulting in infant mortality. Although enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) is effective in treating patients with Pompe disease, formation of antibodies against rhGAA complicates treatment. In this report, we investigated induction of tolerance by oral administration of GAA expressed in chloroplasts. Because full-length GAA could not be expressed, N-terminal 410-amino acids of GAA (as determined by T-cell epitope mapping) were fused with the transmucosal carrier CTB. Tobacco transplastomic lines expressing CTB-GAA were generated through site-specific integration of transgenes into the chloroplast genome. Homoplasmic lines were confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Despite low-level expression of CTB-GAA in chloroplasts, yellow or albino phenotype of transplastomic lines was observed due to binding of GAA to a chloroplast protein that has homology to mannose-6 phosphate receptor. Oral administration of the plant-made CTB-GAA fusion protein even at 330-fold lower dose (1.5 μg) significantly suppressed immunoglobulin formation against GAA in Pompe mice injected with 500 μg rhGAA per dose, with several-fold lower titre of GAA-specific IgG1 and IgG2a. Lyophilization increased CTB-GAA concentration by 30-fold (up to 190 μg per g of freeze-dried leaf material), facilitating long-term storage at room temperature and higher dosage in future investigations. This study provides the first evidence that oral delivery of plant cells is effective in reducing antibody responses in ERT for lysosomal storage disorders facilitating further advances in clinical investigations using plant cell culture system or in vitro propagation. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Sal-like 4 (SALL4) suppresses CDH1 expression and maintains cell dispersion in basal-like breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itou, Junji; Matsumoto, Yoshiaki; Yoshikawa, Kiyotsugu; Toi, Masakazu

    2013-09-17

    In cell cultures, the dispersed phenotype is indicative of the migratory ability. Here we characterized Sal-like 4 (SALL4) as a dispersion factor in basal-like breast cancer. Our shRNA-mediated SALL4 knockdown system and SALL4 overexpression system revealed that SALL4 suppresses the expression of adhesion gene CDH1, and positively regulates the CDH1 suppressor ZEB1. Cell behavior analyses showed that SALL4 suppresses intercellular adhesion and maintains cell motility after cell-cell interaction and cell division, which results in the dispersed phenotype. Our findings indicate that SALL4 functions to suppress CDH1 expression and to maintain cell dispersion in basal-like breast cancer. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Carbon monoxide alleviates lipopolysaccharide-induced oxidative stress injury through suppressing the expression of Fis1 in NR8383 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Jia [Department of Anesthesiology, Tianjin Nankai Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300100 (China); Yu, Jian-bo, E-mail: yujianbo11@126.com [Department of Anesthesiology, Tianjin Nankai Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300100 (China); Liu, Wei; Wang, Dan; Zhang, Yuan; Gong, Li-rong; Dong, Shu-an [Department of Anesthesiology, Tianjin Nankai Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300100 (China); Liu, Da-quan [Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Acute Abdominal Diseases of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Tianjin 300100 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is one of the most devastating complications of sepsis lacking of effective therapy. Mitochondrial dynamics undergoing continuous fusion and fission play a crucial role in mitochondrial structure and function. Fis1, as a small protein located on the outer membrane of mitochondria, has been thought to be an important protein mediated mitochondrial fission. During ARDS, alveolar macrophages suffer from increased oxidative stress and apoptosis, and also accompanied by disrupted mitochondrial dynamics. In addition, as one of the products of heme degradation catalyzed by heme oxygenase, carbon monoxide (CO) possesses powerful protective properties in vivo or in vitro models, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-apoptosis function. However, there is little evidence that CO alleviates oxidative stress damage through altering mitochondrial fission in alveolar macrophages. In the present study, our results showed that CO increased cell vitality, improved mitochondrial SOD activity, reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and inhibited cell apoptosis in NR8383 exposed to LPS. Meanwhile, CO decreased the expression of Fis1, increased mitochondrial membrane potential and sustained elongation of mitochondria in LPS-incubated NR8383. Overall, our study underscored a critical role of CO in suppressing the expression of Fis1 and alleviating LPS- induced oxidative stress damage in alveolar macrophages. - Highlights: • LPS exposure triggered cell injury in NR8383. • CO alleviated LPS-induced oxidative stress damage in alveolar macrophages. • CO inhibited Fis1 levels and improved mitochondrial function in LPS-induced NR8383.

  10. Isolation and Expression Analysis of Novel Silicon Absorption Gene from Roots of Mangrove (Rhizophora apiculata via Suppression Subtractive Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbod Sahebi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon (Si is the second most abundant element in soil after oxygen. It is not an essential element for plant growth and formation but plays an important role in increasing plant tolerance towards different kinds of abiotic and biotic stresses. The molecular mechanism of Si absorption and accumulation may differ between plants, such as monocotyledons and dicotyledons. Silicon absorption and accumulation in mangrove plants are affected indirectly by some proteins rich in serine and proline amino acids. The expression level of the genes responsible for Si absorption varies in different parts of plants. In this study, Si is mainly observed in the epidermal roots’ cell walls of mangrove plants compared to other parts. The present work was carried out to discover further information on Si stress responsive genes in Rhizophora apiculata, using the suppression subtractive hybridization technique. To construct the cDNA library, two-month-old seedlings were exposed to 0.5, 1, and 1.5 mM SiO2 for 15 hrs and for 1 to 6 days resulting in a total of 360 high quality ESTs gained. Further examination by RT-PCR and real-time qRT-PCR showed the expression of a candidate gene of serine-rich protein.

  11. MicroRNA-101 mediates the suppressive effect of laminar shear stress on mTOR expression in vascular endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Kui; Fan, Wendong; Wang, Xing; Ke, Xiao [Division of Cardiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Wu, Guifu, E-mail: eecpchina@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory on Assisted Circulation, Ministry of Health, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Hu, Chengheng, E-mail: huchenghengpci@yahoo.com.cn [Division of Cardiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China)

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Laminar shear stress upregulates miR-101 expression in vascular endothelial cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-101 represses mTOR expression through a specific 3 Prime UTR binding site. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of miR-101 inhibits G1/S transition and endothelial cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Blockade of miR-101 attenuates the suppressive effect of laminar flow on mTOR expression. -- Abstract: Shear stress associated with blood flow plays an important role in regulating gene expression and cell function in endothelial cells (ECs). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are highly conserved, small non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate the expression of target genes by binding to the mRNA 3 Prime -untranslated region (3 Prime UTR) at the posttranscriptional level involved in diverse cellular processes. This study demonstrates that microRNA-101 in response to laminar shear stress (LSS) is involved in the flow regulation of gene expression in ECs. qRT-PCR analysis showed that miR-101 expression was significantly upregulated in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to 12 dyn/cm{sup 2} laminar shear stress for 12 h. We found that transfection of miR-101 significantly decreased the luciferase activity of plasmid reporter containing the 3 Prime UTR of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) gene. Western analysis revealed that the protein level of mTOR was significantly reduced in ECs transfected with miR-101. Furthermore, miR-101 overexpression induced cell cycle arrest at the G1/S transition and suppressed endothelial cell proliferation. Finally, transfection of miR-101 inhibitors attenuated the suppressive effects of LSS on mTOR expression, which identified the efficacy of loss-of-function of miR-101 in laminar flow-treated ECs. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that upregulation of miR-101 in response to LSS contributes to the suppressive effects of LSS on mTOR expression and EC

  12. [Herbs for calming liver and suppressing yang in treatment of hyperthyroidism with hyperactive liver yang: herbal effects on lymphocyte protein expression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangping; Yin, Tao; Zhong, Guangwei; Li, Wei; Luo, Yanhong; Xiang, Lingli; Liu, Zhehao

    2011-07-01

    To observe the herbal effects on hyperthyroidism patients with syndrome of hyperactivity of liver-Yang by method for calming the liver and suppressing Yang and investigate its effects on the lymphocyte protein expression. This approach may lay a foundation for the further investigation of the curative mechanisms of calming the liver and suppressing Yang treatment. A total of 48 hyperthyroidism patients with syndrome of hyperactivity of liver-Yang were randomly divided into treatment group and control group. The treatment group was treated by method for calming the liver and suppressing Yang in accordance with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the control group with thiamazole tablets for three periods of treatment The therapeutic effects, the score of TCM symptom, electrocardiogram (P wave), thyroid hormones and ultrasound were observed in both groups before and after the treatment. The side effects in the treatment course were observed in both groups. The level of differential protein expression was analyzed by two-dimensional electrphoresis and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionizaton time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The treatment group has the effect on stepping down the heart rate, cutting down the P wave amplitude changes, regulating the level of thyroid hormones and decreasing the volume of thyromegaly. There are not statistically significant between the treatment group and control group. However, the treatment group has obviously better effect on regulating TCM symptom and decreasing the side reaction than the control group (Peffective between the treatment group and control group. The average spots in lymphocyte for normal people, before and after treating hyperthyroidism patients with syndrome of hyperactivity of liver-Yang were (429 +/- 31), (452 +/- 28) and (437 +/- 36) spots respectively. Eight down-regulated protein expressions and 11 up-regulated protein expressions were obtained in the hyperthyroidism patients with syndrome of hyperactivity

  13. Influence of HLA-C Expression Level on HIV Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apps, Richard; Qi, Ying; Carlson, Jonathan M.; Chen, Haoyan; Gao, Xiaojiang; Thomas, Rasmi; Yuki, Yuko; Del Prete, Greg Q.; Goulder, Philip; Brumme, Zabrina L.; Brumme, Chanson J.; John, Mina; Mallal, Simon; Nelson, George; Bosch, Ronald; Heckerman, David; Stein, Judy L.; Soderberg, Kelly A.; Moody, M. Anthony; Denny, Thomas N.; Zeng, Xue; Fang, Jingyuan; Moffett, Ashley; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Goedert, James J.; Buchbinder, Susan; Kirk, Gregory D.; Fellay, Jacques; McLaren, Paul; Deeks, Steven G.; Pereyra, Florencia; Walker, Bruce; Michael, Nelson L.; Weintrob, Amy; Wolinsky, Steven; Liao, Wilson; Carrington, Mary

    2013-01-01

    A variant upstream of human leukocyte antigen C (HLA-C) shows the most significant genome-wide effect on HIV control in European Americans and is also associated with the level of HLA-C expression. We characterized the differential cell surface expression levels of all common HLA-C allotypes and tested directly for effects of HLA-C expression on outcomes of HIV infection in 5243 individuals. Increasing HLA-C expression was associated with protection against multiple outcomes independently of individual HLA allelic effects in both African and European Americans, regardless of their distinct HLA-C frequencies and linkage relationships with HLA-B and HLA-A. Higher HLA-C expression was correlated with increased likelihood of cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses and frequency of viral escape mutation. In contrast, high HLA-C expression had a deleterious effect in Crohn’s disease, suggesting a broader influence of HLA expression levels in human disease. PMID:23559252

  14. Performance evaluation of Compton suppression gamma spectrometer for low level environmental measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baburajan, A.; Sudheendran, V.; Rao, D.D.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental Survey Laboratory (ESL), Tarapur has started its environmental monitoring programme way back in 1964. Over the last four decades there was considerable improvement in the monitoring methodology and nuclear instrumentation techniques used in the laboratory. When the discharges from the nuclear facilities have reduced considerably; and global fall out level have became negligibly low, there is a need to upgrade our instrumental technique, to detect incremental changes in the environmental radioactivity however small it may be. As part of fulfilling this objective a Compton Suppression Gamma spectrometry system has been commissioned and the salient features and performance evaluation are discussed in this paper

  15. Induction of bacterial lipoprotein tolerance is associated with suppression of toll-like receptor 2 expression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wang, Jiang Huai

    2012-02-03

    Tolerance to bacterial cell wall components including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) may represent an essential regulatory mechanism during bacterial infection. Two members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, TLR2 and TLR4, recognize the specific pattern of bacterial cell wall components. TLR4 has been found to be responsible for LPS tolerance. However, the role of TLR2 in bacterial lipoprotein (BLP) tolerance and LPS tolerance is unclear. Pretreatment of human THP-1 monocytic cells with a synthetic bacterial lipopeptide induced tolerance to a second BLP challenge with diminished tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 production, termed BLP tolerance. Furthermore, BLP-tolerized THP-1 cells no longer responded to LPS stimulation, indicating a cross-tolerance to LPS. Induction of BLP tolerance was CD14-independent, as THP-1 cells that lack membrane-bound CD14 developed tolerance both in serum-free conditions and in the presence of a specific CD14 blocking monoclonal antibody (MEM-18). Pre-exposure of THP-1 cells to BLP suppressed mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation and nuclear factor-kappaB activation in response to subsequent BLP and LPS stimulation, which is comparable with that found in LPS-tolerized cells, indicating that BLP tolerance and LPS tolerance may share similar intracellular pathways. However, BLP strongly enhanced TLR2 expression in non-tolerized THP-1 cells, whereas LPS stimulation had no effect. Furthermore, a specific TLR2 blocking monoclonal antibody (2392) attenuated BLP-induced, but not LPS-induced, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 production, indicating BLP rather than LPS as a ligand for TLR2 engagement and activation. More importantly, pretreatment of THP-1 cells with BLP strongly inhibited TLR2 activation in response to subsequent BLP stimulation. In contrast, LPS tolerance did not prevent BLP-induced TLR2 overexpression. These results demonstrate that BLP tolerance develops through down-regulation of TLR2

  16. Upregulation of miR-3607 promotes lung adenocarcinoma proliferation by suppressing APC expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yong; Gu, Qiangye; Sun, Zongwen; Sheng, Baowei; Qi, Congcong; Liu, Bing; Fu, Tian; Liu, Cun; Zhang, Yan

    2017-11-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of worldwide cancer-related deaths, although many drugs and new therapeutic approaches have been used, the 5-years survival rate is still low for lung cancer patients. microRNAs have been shown to regulate lung cancer initiation and development, here we studied the role of miR-3607 in lung cancer cell proliferation. We found miR-3607 was upregulated in lung cancer tissues and cells, miR-3607 overexpression promoted lung cancer cell A549 proliferation determined by MTT assay, colony formation assay, anchorage-independent growth ability assay and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assay, while the opposite phenotypes were shown when miR-3607 was knocked down. Predicted analysis suggested a Wnt signaling pathway regulator adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) was the target of miR-3607, miR-3607 could directly bind to the 3'UTR of APC, and promoted Cyclin D1 and c-Myc expression which can be suppressed by APC. Double knockdown of miR-3607 and APC copied the phenotypes of miR-3607 overexpression, suggesting miR-3607 promoted lung cancer cell A549 proliferation by targeting APC. In conclusion, our study suggested miR-3607 contributes to lung cancer cell proliferation by inhibiting APC. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  17. Suppression of topoisomerase IIα expression and function in human cells decreases chromosomal radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, Samantha Y.A.; Riches, Andrew C.; Bryant, Peter E.

    2009-01-01

    The mechanism behind chromatid break formation is as yet unclear, although it is known that DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are the initiating lesions. Chromatid breaks formed in cells in the G2-phase of the cell-cycle disappear ('rejoin') as a function of time between radiation exposure and cell fixation. However, the kinetics of disappearance of chromatid breaks does not correspond to those of DSB rejoining, leading us to seek alternative models. We have proposed that chromatid breaks could be formed indirectly from DSB and that the mechanism involves topoisomerase IIα. In support of this hypothesis we have recently shown that frequencies of radiation-induced chromatid breaks are lower in two variant human promyelocytic leukaemic cell lines with reduced topoisomerase IIα expression. Here we report that suppression of topoisomerase IIα in human hTERT-RPE1 cells, either by its abrogation using specific siRNA or by inhibition of its catalytic activity with the inhibitor ICRF-193, causes a reduction in frequency of chromatid breaks in radiation-exposed cells. The findings support our hypothesis for the involvement of topoisomerase IIα in the formation of radiation-induced chromatid breaks, and could help explain inter-individual variation in human chromosomal radiosensitivity; elevation of which has been linked with cancer susceptibility.

  18. Antihistamines suppress upregulation of histidine decarboxylase gene expression with potencies different from their binding affinities for histamine H1 receptor in toluene 2,4-diisocyanate-sensitized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Mizuguchi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Antihistamines inhibit histamine signaling by blocking histamine H1 receptor (H1R or suppressing H1R signaling as inverse agonists. The H1R gene is upregulated in patients with pollinosis, and its expression level is correlated with the severity of nasal symptoms. Here, we show that antihistamine suppressed upregulation of histidine decarboxylase (HDC mRNA expression in patients with pollinosis, and its expression level was correlated with that of H1R mRNA. Certain antihistamines, including mepyramine and diphenhydramine, suppress toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI-induced upregulation of HDC gene expression and increase HDC activity in TDI-sensitized rats. However, d-chlorpheniramine did not demonstrate any effect. The potencies of antihistamine suppressive effects on HDC mRNA elevation were different from their H1R receptor binding affinities. In TDI-sensitized rats, the potencies of antihistamine inhibitory effects on sneezing in the early phase were related to H1R binding. In contrast, the potencies of their inhibitory effects on sneezing in the late phase were correlated with those of suppressive effects on HDC mRNA elevation. Data suggest that in addition to the antihistaminic and inverse agonistic activities, certain antihistamines possess additional properties unrelated to receptor binding and alleviate nasal symptoms in the late phase by inhibiting synthesis and release of histamine by suppressing HDC gene transcription.

  19. Suppression of cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) expression in hepatoma cells replicates the hepatic lipidosis observed in hepatic POR-null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Todd D; Banerjee, Subhashis; Stolarczyk, Elzbieta I; Zou, Ling

    2011-06-01

    Cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) is a microsomal electron transport protein essential to cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism and sterol and bile acid synthesis. The conditional deletion of hepatic POR gene expression in mice results in a marked decrease in plasma cholesterol levels counterbalanced by the accumulation of triglycerides in lipid droplets in hepatocytes. To evaluate the role of cholesterol and bile acid synthesis in this hepatic lipidosis, as well as the possible role of lipid transport from peripheral tissues, we developed a stable, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated cell culture model for the suppression of POR. POR mRNA and protein expression were decreased by greater than 50% in McArdle-RH7777 rat hepatoma cells 10 days after transfection with a POR-siRNA expression plasmid, and POR expression was nearly completely extinguished by day 20. Immunofluorescent analysis revealed a marked accumulation of lipid droplets in cells by day 15, accompanied by a nearly 2-fold increase in cellular triglyceride content, replicating the lipidosis seen in hepatic POR-null mouse liver. In contrast, suppression of CYP51A1 (lanosterol demethylase) did not result in lipid accumulation, indicating that loss of cholesterol synthesis is not the basis for this lipidosis. Indeed, addition of cholesterol to the medium appeared to augment the lipidosis in POR-suppressed cells, whereas removal of lipids from the medium reversed the lipidosis. Oxysterols did not accumulate in POR-suppressed cells, discounting a role for liver X receptor in stimulating triglyceride synthesis, but addition of chenodeoxycholate significantly repressed lipid accumulation, suggesting that the absence of bile acids and loss of farnesoid X receptor stimulation lead to excessive triglyceride synthesis.

  20. Experimental murine fascioliasis derives early immune suppression with increased levels of TGF-β and IL-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Joon-Yong; Bae, Young-An; Yun, Doo-Hee; Yang, Hyun-Jong; Kong, Yoon

    2012-12-01

    In fascioliasis, T-helper 2 (Th2) responses predominate, while little is known regarding early immune phenomenon. We herein analyzed early immunophenotype changes of BALB/c, C57BL/6, and C3H/He mice experimentally infected with 5 Fasciola hepatica metacercariae. A remarkable expansion of CD19(+) B cells was observed as early as week 1 post-infection while CD4(+)/CD8(+) T cells were down-regulated. Accumulation of Mac1(+) cells with time after infection correlated well with splenomegaly of all mice strains tested. The expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α mRNA in splenocytes significantly decreased while that of IL-4 up-regulated. IL-1β expression was down-modulated in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, but not in C3H/He. Serum levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β were considerably elevated in all mice during 3 weeks of infection period. These collective results suggest that experimental murine fascioliasis might derive immune suppression with elevated levels of TGF-β and IL-4 during the early stages of infection.

  1. Suppressing miRNA-15a/-16 expression by interleukin-6 enhances drug-resistance in myeloma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Hong

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The bone marrow microenvironment facilitates the survival, differentiation, and proliferation of myeloma (MM cells. This study identified that microRNA-15a and -16 expressions tightly correlated with proliferation and drug sensitivity of MM cells. miRNA-15a/-16 expression in MM cells was significantly increased after treatment with cytotoxic agents. The interaction of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC with MM cells resulted in decreased miRNA-15a/-16 expression and promoted the survival of the MM cells. Interleukin-6 (IL-6 produced by BMSCs suppressed the expression of miRNA-15a and 16 in a time- and dose- dependent pattern, with the suppression on miRNA-15a being more significant than on miRNA-16. miRNA-15a-transfected MM cells were found to be arrested in G1/S checkpoint, and the transfected MM cells had decreased growth and survival. In conclusion, our data suggest that via suppressing miRNA-15a and -16 expressions, IL-6 secreted by BMSCs promotes drug-resistance in myeloma cells.

  2. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor protects against high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis by suppressing hepatic PPAR-γ expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangi, Simon Musyoka; Peng, Sophia; Nezami, Behtash Ghazi; Thorn, Natalie; Farris, Alton B; Jain, Sanjay; Laroui, Hamed; Merlin, Didier; Anania, Frank; Srinivasan, Shanthi

    2016-01-15

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) protects against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis in mice, however, the mechanisms involved are not known. In this study we investigated the effects of GDNF overexpression and nanoparticle delivery of GDNF in mice on hepatic steatosis and fibrosis and the expression of genes involved in the regulation of hepatic lipid uptake and de novo lipogenesis. Transgenic overexpression of GDNF in liver and other metabolically active tissues was protective against HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. Mice overexpressing GDNF had significantly reduced P62/sequestosome 1 protein levels suggestive of accelerated autophagic clearance. They also had significantly reduced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) and CD36 gene expression and protein levels, and lower expression of mRNA coding for enzymes involved in de novo lipogenesis. GDNF-loaded nanoparticles were protective against short-term HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and attenuated liver fibrosis in mice with long-standing HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. They also suppressed the liver expression of steatosis-associated genes. In vitro, GDNF suppressed triglyceride accumulation in Hep G2 cells through enhanced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent signaling and inhibition of PPAR-γ gene promoter activity. These results show that GDNF acts directly in the liver to protect against HFD-induced cellular stress and that GDNF may have a role in the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  3. Hotair mediates hepatocarcinogenesis through suppressing miRNA-218 expression and activating P14 and P16 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wei-Ming; Zhu, Xiao; Wang, Wei-Mao; Lu, Ying-Fei; Hu, Bao-Guang; Wang, Hua; Liang, Wei-Cheng; Wang, Shan-Shan; Ko, Chun-Hay; Waye, Mary Miu-Yee; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Li, Gang; Zhang, Jin-Fang

    2015-10-01

    Long non-coding RNA Hotair has been considered as a pro-oncogene in multiple cancers. Although there is emerging evidence that reveals its biological function and the association with clinical prognosis, the precise mechanism remains largely elusive. We investigated the function and mechanism of Hotair in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell models and a xenograft mouse model. The regulatory network between miR-218 and Hotair was elucidated by RNA immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assays. Finally, the correlation between Hotair, miR-218 and the target gene Bmi-1 were evaluated in 52 paired HCC specimens. In this study, we reported that Hotair negatively regulated miR-218 expression in HCC, which might be mediated through an EZH2-targeting-miR-218-2 promoter regulatory axis. Further investigation revealed that Hotair knockdown dramatically inhibited cell viability and induced G1-phase arrest in vitro and suppressed tumorigenicity in vivo by promoting miR-218 expression. Oncogene Bmi-1 was shown to be a functional target of miR-218, and the main downstream targets signaling, P16(Ink4a) and P14(ARF), were activated in Hotair-suppressed tumorigenesis. In primary human HCC specimens, Hotair and Bmi-1 were concordantly upregulated whereas miR-218 was downregulated in these tissues. Furthermore, Hotair was inversely associated with miR-218 expression and positively correlated with Bmi-1 expression in these clinical tissues. Hotair silence activates P16(Ink4a) and P14(ARF) signaling by enhancing miR-218 expression and suppressing Bmi-1 expression, resulting in the suppression of tumorigenesis in HCC. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Obesity suppresses circulating level and function of endothelial progenitor cells and heart function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Tzu-Hsien

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aim This study tested the hypothesis that obesity suppresses circulating number as well as the function of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF. Methods High fat diet (45 Kcal% fat was given to 8-week-old C57BL/6 J mice (n = 8 for 20 weeks to induce obesity (group 1. Another age-matched group (n = 8 were fed with control diet for 20 weeks as controls (group 2. The animals were sacrificed at the end of 20 weeks after obesity induction. Results By the end of study period, the heart weight, body weight, abdominal fat weight, serum levels of total cholesterol and fasting blood sugar were remarkably higher in group 1 than in group 2 (all p Conclusions Obesity diminished circulating EPC level, impaired the recovery of damaged endothelium, suppressed EPC angiogenesis ability and LVEF, and increased LV remodeling.

  5. Hyaluronic Acid Suppresses the Expression of Metalloproteinases in Osteoarthritic Cartilage Stimulated Simultaneously by Interleukin 1β and Mechanical Load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Pohlig

    Full Text Available In patients with osteoarthritis (OA, intraarticular injection of hyaluronic acid (HA frequently results in reduced pain and improved function for prolonged periods of time, i.e. more than 6 months. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects are not fully understood. Our underlying hypothesis is that HA modifies the enzymatic breakdown of joint tissues.To test this hypothesis, we examined osteochondral cylinders from 12 OA patients. In a bioreactor, these samples were stimulated by interleukin 1β (Il1ß (2 ng/ml plus mechanical load (2.0 Mpa at 0.5 Hz horizontal and 0.1 Hz vertical rotation, thus the experimental setup recapitulated both catabolic and anabolic clues of the OA joint.Upon addition of HA at either 1 or 3 mg/ml, we observed a significant suppression of expression of metalloproteinase (MMP-13. A more detailed analysis based on the Kellgren and Lawrence (K&L OA grade, showed a much greater degree of suppression of MMP-13 expression in grade IV as compared to grade II OA. In contrast to the observed MMP-13 suppression, treatment with HA resulted in a suppression of MMP-1 expression only at 1 mg/ml HA, while MMP-2 expression was not significantly affected by either HA concentration.Together, these data suggest that under concurrent catabolic and anabolic stimulation, HA exhibits a pronounced suppressive effect on MMP-13. In the long-run these findings may benefit the development of treatment strategies aimed at blocking tissue degradation in OA patients.

  6. Abrogation of Gli3 expression suppresses the growth of colon cancer cells via activation of p53

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Han Na; Oh, Sang Cheul; Kim, Jun Suk; Yoo, Young A.

    2012-01-01

    p53, the major human tumor suppressor, appears to be related to sonic hedgehog (Shh)–Gli-mediated tumorigenesis. However, the role of p53 in tumor progression by the Shh–Gli signaling pathway is poorly understood. Herein we investigated the critical regulation of Gli3–p53 in tumorigenesis of colon cancer cells and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the mRNA level of Shh and Gli3 in colon tumor tissues was significantly higher than corresponding normal tissues (P < 0.001). The inhibition of Gli3 by treatment with Gli3 siRNA resulted in a clear decrease in cell proliferation and enhanced the level of expression of p53 proteins compared to treatment with control siRNA. The half-life of p53 was dramatically increased by treatment with Gli3 siRNA. In addition, treatment with MG132 blocked MDM2-mediated p53 ubiquitination and degradation, and led to accumulation of p53 in Gli3 siRNA-overexpressing cells. Importantly, ectopic expression of p53 siRNA reduced the ability of Gli3 siRNA to suppress proliferation of those cells compared with the cells treated with Gli3 siRNA alone. Moreover, Gli3 siRNA sensitized colon cancer cells to treatment with anti-cancer agents (5-FU and bevacizumab). Taken together, our studies demonstrate that loss of Gli3 signaling leads to disruption of the MDM2–p53 interaction and strongly potentiate p53-dependent cell growth inhibition in colon cancer cells, indicating a basis for the rational use of Gli3 antagonists as a novel treatment option for colon cancer.

  7. Impact of High-Level Expression of Heterologous Protein on Lactococcus lactis Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mina; Jin, Yerin; An, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Jaehan

    2017-07-28

    The impact of overproduction of a heterologous protein on the metabolic system of host Lactococcus lactis was investigated. The protein expression profiles of L. lactis IL1403 containing two near-identical plasmids that expressed high- and low-level of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) were examined via shotgun proteomics. Analysis of the two strains via high-throughput LC-MS/MS proteomics identified the expression of 294 proteins. The relative amount of each protein in the proteome of both strains was determined by label-free quantification using the spectral counting method. Although expression level of most proteins were similar, several significant alterations in metabolic network were identified in the high GFP-producing strain. These changes include alterations in the pyruvate fermentation pathway, oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, and de novo synthesis pathway for pyrimidine RNA. Expression of enzymes for the synthesis of dTDP-rhamnose and N -acetylglucosamine from glucose was suppressed in the high GFP strain. In addition, enzymes involved in the amino acid synthesis or interconversion pathway were downregulated. The most noticeable changes in the high GFP-producing strain were a 3.4-fold increase in the expression of stress response and chaperone proteins and increase of caseinolytic peptidase family proteins. Characterization of these host expression changes witnessed during overexpression of GFP was might suggested the metabolic requirements and networks that may limit protein expression, and will aid in the future development of lactococcal hosts to produce more heterologous protein.

  8. Escin Ia suppresses the metastasis of triple-negative breast cancer by inhibiting epithelial-mesenchymal transition via down-regulating LOXL2 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhui; Xu, Xiaotian; Zhao, Peng; Tong, Bei; Wei, Zhifeng; Dai, Yue

    2016-04-26

    The saponin fraction of Aesculus chinensis Bunge fruits (SFAC) could inhibit the invasion and migration of MDA-MB-231 cells. Among which, escin Ia showed more potent inhibition of the invasion than other five main saponin constituents. It selectively reduced the expression of LOXL2 mRNA and promoted the expression of E-cadherin mRNA, and prevented the EMT process of MDA-MB-231 cells and TNF-α/TGF-β-stimulated MCF-7 cells. Moreover, it reduced the LOXL2 level in MDA-MB-231 cells but not in MCF-7 cells. When MCF-7 cells were stimulated with TNF-α/TGF-β, transfected with LOXL2 or treated with hypoxia, escin Ia down-regulated the level of LOXL2 in MCF-7 cells. Meanwhile, escin Ia suppressed the EMT process in LOXL2-transfected or hypoxia-treated MCF-7 cells. Of interest, escin Ia did not alter the level of HIF-1α in hypoxia-induced MCF-7 cells. In TNBC xenograft mice, the metastasis and EMT of MDA-MB-231 cells were suppressed by escin Ia. In conclusion, escin Ia was the main active ingredient of SFAC for the anti-TNBC metastasis activity, and its action mechanisms involved inhibition of EMT process by down-regulating LOXL2 expression.

  9. Suppression of different classes of somatic mutations in Arabidopsis by vir gene-expressing Agrobacterium strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Jasmine M; Ramakrishnan, Anantha Maharasi; Singh, Amit Kumar; Ramachandran, Subalakshmi; Unniyampurath, Unnikrishnan; Jayshankar, Ajitha; Balasundaram, Nithya; Dhanapal, Shanmuhapreya; Hyde, Geoff; Baskar, Ramamurthy

    2015-08-26

    Agrobacterium infection, which is widely used to generate transgenic plants, is often accompanied by T-DNA-linked mutations and transpositions in flowering plants. It is not known if Agrobacterium infection also affects the rates of point mutations, somatic homologous recombinations (SHR) and frame-shift mutations (FSM). We examined the effects of Agrobacterium infection on five types of somatic mutations using a set of mutation detector lines of Arabidopsis thaliana. To verify the effect of secreted factors, we exposed the plants to different Agrobacterium strains, including wild type (Ach5), its derivatives lacking vir genes, oncogenes or T-DNA, and the heat-killed form for 48 h post-infection; also, for a smaller set of strains, we examined the rates of three types of mutations at multiple time-points. The mutation detector lines carried a non-functional β-glucuronidase gene (GUS) and a reversion of mutated GUS to its functional form resulted in blue spots. Based on the number of blue spots visible in plants grown for a further two weeks, we estimated the mutation frequencies. For plants co-cultivated for 48 h with Agrobacterium, if the strain contained vir genes, then the rates of transversions, SHRs and FSMs (measured 2 weeks later) were lower than those of uninfected controls. In contrast, co-cultivation for 48 h with any of the Agrobacterium strains raised the transposition rates above control levels. The multiple time-point study showed that in seedlings co-cultivated with wild type Ach5, the reduced rates of transversions and SHRs after 48 h co-cultivation represent an apparent suppression of an earlier short-lived increase in mutation rates (peaking for plants co-cultivated for 3 h). An increase after 3 h co-cultivation was also seen for rates of transversions (but not SHR) in seedlings exposed to the strain lacking vir genes, oncogenes and T-DNA. However, the mutation rates in plants co-cultivated for longer times with this strain subsequently

  10. LPS infusion suppresses serum FGF21 levels in healthy adult volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Esben Stistrup; Rittig, Nikolaj; Bach, Ermina

    2017-01-01

    circulating levels of FGF21 after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion. DESIGN: Two randomized, single blinded, placebo-controlled crossover trials were used. SETTING: The studies were performed at a university hospital clinical research center. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS: Study 1 (LPS bolus): Eight young......, healthy, lean males were investigated two times: 1) after isotonic saline injection, and 2) after LPS injection (bolus of 1 ng/kg). Each study day lasted 4 hours. Study 2 (continuous LPS infusion): Eight, healthy males were investigated two times: 1) during continuously isotonic saline infusion, and 2......) during continuously LPS infusion (0.06 ng/kg/h). Each study day lasted 4 hours. Circulating FGF21 levels were quantified every second hour by an immunoassay. RESULTS: A LPS bolus resulted in a late suppression (t = 240 minutes) of serum FGF21 (P=0.035). Continuous LPS infusion revealed no significant...

  11. Alteration of a recombinant protein N-glycan structure in silkworms by partial suppression of N-acetylglucosaminidase gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Tatsuya; Kikuta, Kotaro; Kanematsu, Ayumi; Kondo, Sachiko; Yagi, Hirokazu; Kato, Koichi; Park, Enoch Y

    2017-09-01

    To synthesize complex type N-glycans in silkworms, shRNAs against the fused lobe from Bombyx mori (BmFDL), which codes N-acetylglucosaminidase (GlcNAcase) in the Golgi, was expressed by recombinant B. mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) in silkworm larvae. Expression was under the control of the actin promoter of B. mori or the U6-2 and i.e.-2 promoters from Orgyia pseudotsugata multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (OpMNPV). The reduction of specific GlcNAcase activity was observed in Bm5 cells and silkworm larvae using the U6-2 promoter. In silkworm larvae, the partial suppression of BmFDL gene expression was observed. When shRNA against BmFDL was expressed under the control of U6-2 promoter, the Man 3 GlcNAc(Fuc)GlcNAc structure appeared in a main N-glycans of recombinant human IgG. These results suggested that the control of BmFDL expression by its shRNA in silkworms caused the modification of its N-glycan synthetic pathway, which may lead to the alteration of N-glycans in the expressed recombinant proteins. Suppression of BmFDL gene expression by shRNA is not sufficient to synthesize complex N-glycans in silkworm larvae but can modify the N-glycan synthetic pathway.

  12. miR-30a suppresses osteosarcoma proliferation and metastasis by downregulating MEF2D expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du L

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Liuxue Du,* Tianpei Chen,* Kai Zhao,* Dong Yang Department of Orthopedics, the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Many studies have revealed that microRNAs (miRNAs play crucial roles in cancer development and progression. miRNA-30a (miR-30a, as a member of the miR-30 family, has been implicated in various cancers. However, the role of miR-30a in osteosarcoma remains unclear. In the current study, we found that miR-30a was significantly downregulated in osteosarcoma tissues and cell lines by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. In addition, miR-30a could inhibit cancer cell growth, migration, and invasion in vitro. Furthermore, bioinformatics of miRNA target prediction and luciferase reporter assay indicated that MEF2D is a direct target of miR-30a. miR-30a was able to reduce the mRNA and protein expression of MEF2D as assessed using RT-PCR and Western blotting assay. Interestingly, overexpression of MEF2D partially reversed the miR-30a-reduced cell proliferation, migration, and invasion of osteosarcoma cell, indicating that miR-30a suppresses osteosarcoma cell proliferation and metastasis partially mediated by inhibition of MEF2D. Overall, our study demonstrated that miR-30a functions as a tumor suppressor by targeting MEF2D in osteosarcoma, providing a promising prognostic biomarker and a therapeutic strategy for osteosarcoma. Keywords: miR-30a, MEF2D, osteosarcoma, proliferation, invasion, migration

  13. Ebi/AP-1 suppresses pro-apoptotic genes expression and permits long-term survival of Drosophila sensory neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Mi Lim

    Full Text Available Sensory organs are constantly exposed to physical and chemical stresses that collectively threaten the survival of sensory neurons. Failure to protect stressed neurons leads to age-related loss of neurons and sensory dysfunction in organs in which the supply of new sensory neurons is limited, such as the human auditory system. Transducin β-like protein 1 (TBL1 is a candidate gene for ocular albinism with late-onset sensorineural deafness, a form of X-linked age-related hearing loss. TBL1 encodes an evolutionarily conserved F-box-like and WD40 repeats-containing subunit of the nuclear receptor co-repressor/silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid hormone receptor and other transcriptional co-repressor complexes. Here we report that a Drosophila homologue of TBL1, Ebi, is required for maintenance of photoreceptor neurons. Loss of ebi function caused late-onset neuronal apoptosis in the retina and increased sensitivity to oxidative stress. Ebi formed a complex with activator protein 1 (AP-1 and was required for repression of Drosophila pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes expression. These results suggest that Ebi/AP-1 suppresses basal transcription levels of apoptotic genes and thereby protects sensory neurons from degeneration.

  14. Pentoxifylline Attenuates Methionine- and Choline-Deficient-Diet-Induced Steatohepatitis by Suppressing TNF-α Expression and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Kyung Chae

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pentoxifylline (PTX anti-TNF properties are known to exert hepatoprotective effects in various liver injury models. The aim of this study was to investigate whether PTX has beneficial roles in the development of methionine- and choline-deficient-(MCD- diet-induced NAFLD SD rats in vivo and TNF-α-induced Hep3B cells in vitro. Methods. SD Rats were classified according to diet (chow or MCD diet and treatment (normal saline or PTX injection over a period of 4 weeks: group I (chow + saline, n=4, group II (chow + PTX, group III (MCD + saline, and group IV (MCD + PTX. Hep3B cells were treated with 100 ng/ml TNF-α (24 h in the absence or presence of PTX (1 mM. Results. PTX attenuated MCD-diet-induced serum ALT levels and hepatic steatosis. In real-time PCR and western blotting analysis, PTX decreased MCD-diet-induced TNF-alpha mRNA expression and proapoptotic unfolded protein response by ER stress (GRP78, p-eIF2, ATF4, IRE1α, CHOP, and p-JNK activation in vivo. PTX (1 mM reduced TNF-α-induced activation of GRP78, p-eIF2, ATF4, IRE1α, and CHOP in vitro. Conclusion. PTX has beneficial roles in the development of MCD-diet-induced steatohepatitis through partial suppression of TNF-α and ER stress.

  15. Chemical peeling by SA-PEG remodels photo-damaged skin: suppressing p53 expression and normalizing keratinocyte differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainichi, Teruki; Amano, Satoshi; Matsunaga, Yukiko; Iriyama, Shunsuke; Hirao, Tetsuji; Hariya, Takeshi; Hibino, Toshihiko; Katagiri, Chika; Takahashi, Motoji; Ueda, Setsuko; Furue, Masutaka

    2006-02-01

    Chemical peeling with salicylic acid in polyethylene glycol vehicle (SA-PEG), which specifically acts on the stratum corneum, suppresses the development of skin tumors in UVB-irradiated hairless mice. To elucidate the mechanism through which chemical peeling with SA-PEG suppresses skin tumor development, the effects of chemical peeling on photodamaged keratinocytes and cornified envelopes (CEs) were evaluated in vivo. Among UVB-irradiated hairless mice, the structural atypia and expression of p53 protein in keratinocytes induced by UVB irradiation were intensely suppressed in the SA-PEG-treated mice 28 days after the start of weekly SA-PEG treatments when compared to that in the control UVB-irradiated mice. Incomplete expression of filaggrin and loricrin in keratinocytes from the control mice was also improved in keratinocytes from the SA-PEG-treated mice. In photo-exposed human facial skin, immature CEs were replaced with mature CEs 4 weeks after treatment with SA-PEG. Restoration of photodamaged stratum corneum by treatment with SA-PEG, which may affect remodeling of the structural environment of the keratinocytes, involved the normalization of keratinocyte differentiation and suppression of skin tumor development. These results suggest that the stratum corneum plays a protective role against carcinogenesis, and provide a novel strategy for the prevention of photo-induced skin tumors.

  16. The ATM and ATR inhibitors CGK733 and caffeine suppress cyclin D1 levels and inhibit cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alao, John P; Sunnerhagen, Per

    2009-01-01

    The ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and the ATM- related (ATR) kinases play a central role in facilitating the resistance of cancer cells to genotoxic treatment regimens. The components of the ATM and ATR regulated signaling pathways thus provide attractive pharmacological targets, since their inhibition enhances cellular sensitivity to chemo- and radiotherapy. Caffeine as well as more specific inhibitors of ATM (KU55933) or ATM and ATR (CGK733) have recently been shown to induce cell death in drug-induced senescent tumor cells. Addition of these agents to cancer cells previously rendered senescent by exposure to genotoxins suppressed the ATM mediated p21 expression required for the survival of these cells. The precise molecular pharmacology of these agents however, is not well characterized. Herein, we report that caffeine, CGK733, and to a lesser extent KU55933, inhibit the proliferation of otherwise untreated human cancer and non-transformed mouse fibroblast cell lines. Exposure of human cancer cell lines to caffeine and CGK733 was associated with a rapid decline in cyclin D1 protein levels and a reduction in the levels of both phosphorylated and total retinoblastoma protein (RB). Our studies suggest that observations based on the effects of these compounds on cell proliferation and survival must be interpreted with caution. The differential effects of caffeine/CGK733 and KU55933 on cyclin D1 protein levels suggest that these agents will exhibit dissimilar molecular pharmacological profiles

  17. Suppressive effects of anti-allergic agent suplatast tosilate (IPD-1151T on the expression of co-stimulatory molecules on mouse splenocytes in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatsugu Kurokawa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of IPD-1151T on the expression of costimulatory molecules, CD40, CD80 and CD86, were investigated in vivo using mice with allergic disorders. BALB/c mice were immunized intraperitoneally with two doses of dinitrophenylated ovalbumin (DNP-OVA at 1-week intervals. These mice then were treated intraperitoneally with 100μg/kg of IPD1151T once a day for 14 days, starting 7 days after the first immunization. On day 21, some mice were challenged intraperitoneally with DNP-OVA and the other mice were not challenged. All mice were autopsied on day 22 and assayed for immunoglobulin E, interleuken (IL-4 and IL-5 productions following DNP-OVA immunization. The intraperitoneal treatment with IPD-1151T strongly suppressed immunoglobulin E contents in serum, which were enhanced by DNA-OVA immunization. IPD-1151T also caused a decrease in both IL-4 and IL-5 levels in splenic lymphocytes. We next examined the influence of IPD1151T on co-stimulatory molecule expression on splenic lymphocytes. IPD-1151T caused suppression of CD40 and CD86 expression; however, the treatments did not affect CD80 expression.

  18. Tim-3-expressing macrophages are functionally suppressed and expanded in oral squamous cell carcinoma due to virus-induced Gal-9 expression.

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    Dong, Jianfeng; Cheng, Lijun; Zhao, Minchao; Pan, Xiangfeng; Feng, Zhiqiang; Wang, Dawei

    2017-05-01

    Oropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is a common malignant tumor in the oral cavity. High-risk human papillomavirus 16 infection is a major cause of oropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma development. Strong antitumor immune responses, especially CD8 + T cell responses, are thought to be essential to effective cancer treatment and are associated with better prognosis in oropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. In this study, we examined the role of the Tim-3/Gal-9 pathway in oropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients. We found that Gal-9 expression by CD4 + T cells was increased in human papillomavirus-positive oropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients, but not in human papillomavirus-negative oropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients. Increased Gal-9 secretion by CD4 + T cells presented multiple immunosuppressive effects. Coculturing monocytes with high Gal-9-expressing CD4 + T cells resulted in the expansion of Tim-3 + monocytes, which suppressed interferon gamma production by activated CD8 + T cells. Subsequently, total monocytes incubated with exogenous Gal-9, or high Gal-9-expressing CD4 + T cells, suppressed the expression of interferon gamma by CD8 + T cells. Exogenous Gal-9 and high Gal-9-expressing CD4 + T cells also suppressed the secretion of both interleukin 10 and interleukin 12 by monocytes. These effects are Tim-3/Gal-9-dependent because blocking Tim-3 and/or Gal-9 could enhance the support of CD8 + T cell interferon gamma production and the interleukin 10 and interleukin 12 secretion by monocytes. Together, these data suggest that the high Tim-3 expression in monocytes could be utilized by tumor-promoting Gal-9 expression on CD4 + T cells. Immunotherapy in human papillomavirus-positive oropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients therefore faces an additional challenge posed by Tim-3 and Gal-9 and likely requires the blockade of these

  19. Identification of genes differentially expressed in Mikania micrantha during Cuscuta campestris infection by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong-Mei; Staehelin, Christian; Zhang, Yi-Shun; Peng, Shao-Lin

    2009-09-01

    The influence of Cuscuta campestris on its host Mikania micrantha has been studied with respect to biomass accumulation, physiology and ecology. Molecular events of this parasitic plant-plant interaction are poorly understood, however. In this study, we identified novel genes from M. micrantha induced by C. campestris infection. Genes expressed upon parasitization by C. campestris at early post-penetration stages were investigated by construction and characterization of subtracted cDNA libraries from shoots and stems of M. micrantha. Three hundred and three presumably up-regulated expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified and classified in functional categories, such as "metabolism", "cell defence and stress", "transcription factor", "signal transduction", "transportation" and "photosynthesis". In shoots and stems of infected M. micrantha, genes associated with defence responses and cell wall modifications were induced, confirming similar data from other parasitic plant-plant interactions. However, gene expression profiles in infected shoots and stems were found to be different. Compared to infected shoots, more genes induced in response to biotic and abiotic stress factors were identified in infected stems. Furthermore, database comparisons revealed a notable number of M. micrantha ESTs that matched genes with unknown function. Expression analysis by quantitative real-time RT-PCR of 21 genes (from different functional categories) showed significantly increased levels for 13 transcripts in response to C. campestris infection. In conclusion, this study provides an overview of genes from parasitized M. micrantha at early post-penetration stages. The acquired data form the basis for a molecular understanding of host reactions in response to parasitic plants.

  20. Lipoxins and aspirin-triggered lipoxin alleviate bone cancer pain in association with suppressing expression of spinal proinflammatory cytokines

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    Hu Shan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The neuroinflammatory responses in the spinal cord following bone cancer development have been shown to play an important role in cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP. Lipoxins (LXs, endogenous lipoxygenase-derived eicosanoids, represent a unique class of lipid mediators that possess a wide spectrum of anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving actions. In this study, we investigated the effects of intrathecal injection with lipoxin and related analogues on CIBP in rats. Methods The CIBP model was induced by intra-tibia inoculation of Walker 256 mammary gland carcinoma cells. Mechanical thresholds were determined by measuring the paw withdrawal threshold to probing with a series of calibrated von Frey filaments. Lipoxins and analogues were administered by intrathecal (i.t. or intravenous (i.v. injection. The protein level of LXA4 receptor (ALX was tested by western blot. The localization of lipoxin receptor in spinal cord was assessed by fluorescent immunohistochemistry. Real-time PCR was carried out for detecting the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Results Our results demonstrated that: 1 i.t. injection with the same dose (0.3 nmol of lipoxin A4 (LXA4, lipoxin B4 (LXB4 or aspirin-triggered-15-epi-lipoxin A4 (ATL could alleviate the mechanical allodynia in CIBP on day 7 after surgery. ATL showed a longer effect than the others and the effect lasted for 6 hours. ATL administered through i.v. injection could also attenuate the allodynia in cancer rats. 2 The results from western blot indicate that there is no difference in the expression of ALX among the naive, sham or cancer groups. 3 Immunohistochemistry showed that the lipoxin receptor (ALX-like immunoreactive substance was distributed in the spinal cord, mainly co-localized with astrocytes, rarely co-localized with neurons, and never co-localized with microglia. 4 Real-time PCR analysis revealed that, compared with vehicle, i.t. injection with ATL could significantly

  1. Aronia juice suppresses the elevation of postprandial blood glucose levels in adult healthy Japanese

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    Takuya Yamane

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aronia has various functions toward human health, including the beneficial effect on hypertension, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Recently, we identified cyanidin-3,5-O-diglucoside as DPP IV inhibitor from Aronia juice. We also found its beneficial effect on hyperglycemia in KKAy mice fed aronia juice. In this study, to examine the effect of aronia juice on postprandial blood glucose levels in Japanese, we performed an oral meal tolerance test (OMTT. We found that postprandial blood glucose levels were reduced in aronia juice-administered adult healthy Japanese. We also found that there was no difference of reduction levels of postprandial blood glucose between male and female. We also found that activities of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV, α-glucosidase and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE were reduced by aronia juice. These results suggest that aronia juice suppresses the elevation of postprandial blood glucose levels through inhibition of these enzyme activities and may be useful for prevention of metabolic diseases in adult healthy Japanese.

  2. Effects of estradiol and FSH on leptin levels in women with suppressed pituitary

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    Geber Selmo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female fertility depends on adequate nutrition and energy reserves, suggesting a correlation between the metabolic reserve and reproductive capacity. Leptin regulates body weight and energy homeostasis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether estradiol or FSH alone has a direct effect on the production of leptin. Methods A total of 64 patients submitted to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with recombinant FSH for assisted reproduction and 20 patients using estradiol valerate for endometrial preparation for oocyte donation treatment were included in the study. All patients used GnRH analogues before starting treatment to achieve pituitary suppression. Blood samples for hormonal measurements were collected before starting and after completing the respective treatments. Data were analyzed statistically by the chi-square test, Student’s t-test and Pearson’s correlation test. Results We observed an elevation of serum leptin levels secondary to the increase in estradiol, in the absence of influence of any other ovarian or pituitary hormone. The rising rate of leptin levels was higher in women treated with recombinant FSH, which also had higher levels of estradiol, than in those treated with estradiol valerate. Conclusions This study demonstrates a correlation between serum levels of estradiol and leptin, suggesting that estradiol is an important regulator of leptin production and that its effects can be amplified by its association with FSH.

  3. Effects of estradiol and FSH on leptin levels in women with suppressed pituitary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Selmo; Brandão, Augusto H F; Sampaio, Marcos

    2012-06-15

    Female fertility depends on adequate nutrition and energy reserves, suggesting a correlation between the metabolic reserve and reproductive capacity. Leptin regulates body weight and energy homeostasis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether estradiol or FSH alone has a direct effect on the production of leptin. A total of 64 patients submitted to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with recombinant FSH for assisted reproduction and 20 patients using estradiol valerate for endometrial preparation for oocyte donation treatment were included in the study. All patients used GnRH analogues before starting treatment to achieve pituitary suppression. Blood samples for hormonal measurements were collected before starting and after completing the respective treatments. Data were analyzed statistically by the chi-square test, Student's t-test and Pearson's correlation test. We observed an elevation of serum leptin levels secondary to the increase in estradiol, in the absence of influence of any other ovarian or pituitary hormone. The rising rate of leptin levels was higher in women treated with recombinant FSH, which also had higher levels of estradiol, than in those treated with estradiol valerate. This study demonstrates a correlation between serum levels of estradiol and leptin, suggesting that estradiol is an important regulator of leptin production and that its effects can be amplified by its association with FSH.

  4. Vanillin Suppresses Cell Motility by Inhibiting STAT3-Mediated HIF-1α mRNA Expression in Malignant Melanoma Cells.

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    Park, Eun-Ji; Lee, Yoon-Mi; Oh, Taek-In; Kim, Byeong Mo; Lim, Beong-Ou; Lim, Ji-Hong

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that vanillin has anti-cancer, anti-mutagenic, and anti-metastatic activity; however, the precise molecular mechanism whereby vanillin inhibits metastasis and cancer progression is not fully elucidated. In this study, we examined whether vanillin has anti-cancer and anti-metastatic activities via inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in A2058 and A375 human malignant melanoma cells. Immunoblotting and quantitative real time (RT)-PCR analysis revealed that vanillin down-regulates HIF-1α protein accumulation and the transcripts of HIF-1α target genes related to cancer metastasis including fibronectin 1 ( FN1 ), lysyl oxidase-like 2 ( LOXL2 ), and urokinase plasminogen activator receptor ( uPAR ). It was also found that vanillin significantly suppresses HIF-1α mRNA expression and de novo HIF-1α protein synthesis. To understand the suppressive mechanism of vanillin on HIF-1α expression, chromatin immunoprecipitation was performed. Consequently, it was found that vanillin causes inhibition of promoter occupancy by signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), but not nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), on HIF1A . Furthermore, an in vitro migration assay revealed that the motility of melanoma cells stimulated by hypoxia was attenuated by vanillin treatment. In conclusion, we demonstrate that vanillin might be a potential anti-metastatic agent that suppresses metastatic gene expression and migration activity under hypoxia via the STAT3-HIF-1α signaling pathway.

  5. Suppression of serotonin hyperinnervation does not alter the dysregulatory influences of dopamine depletion on striatal neuropeptide gene expression in rodent neonates.

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    Basura, G J; Walker, P D

    1999-10-15

    Sixty days following neonatal dopamine depletion (>98%) with 6-hydroxydopamine, preprotachykinin and preprodynorphin mRNA levels were significantly reduced (67 and 78% of vehicle controls, respectively) in the anterior striatum as determined by in situ hybridization while preproenkephalin mRNA expression was elevated (133% of vehicle controls). Suppression of the serotonin hyperinnervation phenomenon in the dopamine-depleted rat with 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine yielded no significant alterations in reduced striatal preprotachykinin (66%) or preprodynorphin (64%) mRNA levels, while preproenkephalin mRNA expression remained significantly elevated (140%). These data suggest that striatal serotonin hyperinnervation does not contribute to the development of dysregulated striatal neuropeptide transmission in either direct or indirect striatal output pathways following neonatal dopamine depletion.

  6. Codon usage and amino acid usage influence genes expression level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Prosenjit; Malakar, Arup Kumar; Chakraborty, Supriyo

    2018-02-01

    Highly expressed genes in any species differ in the usage frequency of synonymous codons. The relative recurrence of an event of the favored codon pair (amino acid pairs) varies between gene and genomes due to varying gene expression and different base composition. Here we propose a new measure for predicting the gene expression level, i.e., codon plus amino bias index (CABI). Our approach is based on the relative bias of the favored codon pair inclination among the genes, illustrated by analyzing the CABI score of the Medicago truncatula genes. CABI showed strong correlation with all other widely used measures (CAI, RCBS, SCUO) for gene expression analysis. Surprisingly, CABI outperforms all other measures by showing better correlation with the wet-lab data. This emphasizes the importance of the neighboring codons of the favored codon in a synonymous group while estimating the expression level of a gene.

  7. MiR-27a suppresses triglyceride accumulation and affects gene mRNA expression associated with fat metabolism in dairy goat mammary gland epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xian-Zi; Luo, Jun; Zhang, Li-Ping; Wang, Wei; Shi, Heng-Bo; Zhu, Jiang-Jiang

    2013-05-25

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a well-defined group of small RNAs containing about 22 nucleotides, participate in various biological metabolic processes. miR-27a is a miRNA that is known to regulate fat synthesis and differentiation in preadipocyte cells. However, little is known regarding the role that miR-27a plays in regulating goat milk fat synthesis. In this study, we determined the miR-27a expression profile in goat mammary gland and found that miR-27a expression was correlated with the lactation cycle. Additionally, prolactin promoted miR-27a expression in goat mammary gland epithelial cells. Further functional analysis showed that over-expression of miR-27a down-regulated triglyceride accumulation and decreased the ratio of unsaturated/saturated fatty acid in mammary gland epithelial cells. miR-27a also significantly affected mRNA expression related to milk fat metabolism. Specifically, over-expression of miR-27a reduced gene mRNA expression associated with triglyceride synthesis by suppressing PPARγ protein levels. This study provides the first experimental evidence that miR-27a regulates triglyceride synthesis in goat mammary gland epithelial cells and improves our understanding about the importance of miRNAs in milk fat synthesis. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The predictive nature of transcript expression levels on protein expression in adult human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauernfeind, Amy L; Babbitt, Courtney C

    2017-04-24

    Next generation sequencing methods are the gold standard for evaluating expression of the transcriptome. When determining the biological implications of such studies, the assumption is often made that transcript expression levels correspond to protein levels in a meaningful way. However, the strength of the overall correlation between transcript and protein expression is inconsistent, particularly in brain samples. Following high-throughput transcriptomic (RNA-Seq) and proteomic (liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry) analyses of adult human brain samples, we compared the correlation in the expression of transcripts and proteins that support various biological processes, molecular functions, and that are located in different areas of the cell. Although most categories of transcripts have extremely weak predictive value for the expression of their associated proteins (R 2 values of < 10%), transcripts coding for protein kinases and membrane-associated proteins, including those that are part of receptors or ion transporters, are among those that are most predictive of downstream protein expression levels. The predictive value of transcript expression for corresponding proteins is variable in human brain samples, reflecting the complex regulation of protein expression. However, we found that transcriptomic analyses are appropriate for assessing the expression levels of certain classes of proteins, including those that modify proteins, such as kinases and phosphatases, regulate metabolic and synaptic activity, or are associated with a cellular membrane. These findings can be used to guide the interpretation of gene expression results from primate brain samples.

  9. CX4945 suppresses the growth of castration-resistant prostate cancer cells by reducing AR-V7 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chuangzhong; Chen, Jieping; Guo, Shengjie; Wang, Yanjun; Zhou, Qianghua; Li, Zaishang; Yang, Xingping; Yu, Xingsu; Zhang, Zhenfeng; Zhou, Fangjian; Han, Hui; Yao, Kai

    2017-08-01

    The aberrant expression of casein kinase 2 (CK2) has been reported to be involved in the tumorigenesis and progression of prostate cancer. The inhibition of CK2 activity represses androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells by attenuating the androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathway. In this study, we examined the effect of CK2 inhibition in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) cells, in which AR variants (ARVs) play a predominant role. A newly synthetic CK2 selective inhibitor CX4945 was utilized to study the effect of CK2 inhibition in CRPC cells by CCK8 assay and colony formation assay. Protein and mRNA levels of full-length AR (AR-FL) and AR-V7 were determined by qPCR and western blot, respectively. The nuclear translocation of p50 and p65 was assessed to reflect the activity of the NF-κB pathway. CX4945 reduced the proliferation of CRPC cells in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. AR-V7 rather than AR-FL was downregulated by CX4945 in both the mRNA and protein level. Furthermore, CX4945 could restore the sensitivity of CRPC cells to bicalutamide. The analysis of possible mechanisms demonstrated that the inhibition of CK2 diminished the phosphorylation of p65 at ser529 and thus attenuated the activity of the NF-κB pathway. The inhibition of CK2 by CX4945 can repress the viability of CRPC cells and restore their sensitivity to anti-androgen therapy by suppressing AR-V7. This finding presents a potential option for the treatment of prostate cancer, especially CRPC.

  10. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery suppresses hypothalamic PTP1B protein level and alleviates leptin resistance in obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia-Yu; Mu, Song; Zhang, Shu-Ping; Guo, Wei; Li, Qi-Fu; Xiao, Xiao-Qiu; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Zhi-Hong

    2017-09-01

    The present study aimed to explore the effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery on protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) expression levels and leptin activity in hypothalami of obese rats. Obese rats induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) that underwent RYGB (n=11) or sham operation (SO, n=9), as well as an obese control cohort (Obese, n=10) and an additional normal-diet group (ND, n=10) were used. Food efficiency was measured at 8 weeks post-operation. Plasma leptin levels were evaluated and hypothalamic protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) levels and leptin signaling activity were examined at the genetic and protein levels. The results indicated that food efficiency was typically lower in RYGB rats compared with that in the Obese and SO rats. In the RYGB group, leptin receptor expression and proopiomelanocortin was significantly higher, while Neuropeptide Y levels were lower than those in the Obese and SO groups. Furthermore, the gene and protein expression levels of PTP1B in the RYGB group were lower, while levels of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 protein were much higher compared with those in the Obese and SO groups. In conclusion, RYGB surgery significantly suppressed hypothalamic PTP1B protein expression. PTP1B regulation may partially alleviate leptin resistance.

  11. Celecoxib Ameliorates Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis in Type 2 Diabetic Rats via Suppression of the Non-Canonical Wnt Signaling Pathway Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Feng; Zhang, Ya Jie; Li, Yu; Xie, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to test whether pharmacological inhibition of cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) reverses non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats via suppression of the non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway expression. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly distributed to two groups and were fed with a high fat and sucrose (HF-HS) diet or a normal chow diet, respectively. After four weeks, rats fed with a HF-HS diet were made diabetic with low-dose streptozotocin. At the 9th week the diabetic rats fed with a HF-HS diet or the non-diabetic rats fed with a normal chow diet were further divided into two subgroups treated with vehicle or celecoxib (a selective COX-2 inhibitor, 10 mg/Kg/day, gavage) for the last 4 weeks, respectively. At the end of the 12th week, rats were anesthetized. NASH was assessed by histology. Related cytokine expression was measured at both the protein and gene levels through immunohistochemistry (IHC), Western blot and real-time PCR. T2DM rats fed with a HF-HS diet developed steatohepatitis and insulin resistance associated with elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), insulin levels and the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) activity score (NAS). The expression of Wnt5a, JNK1, NF-κB p65, and COX-2 were all significantly increased in the T2DM-NASH group compared with the control and control-cele group. Hepatic injury was improved by celecoxib in T2DM-NASH-Cele group indicated by reduced serum ALT and AST levels and hepatic inflammation was reduced by celecoxib showed by histology and the NAFLD activity score (NAS). Serum related metabolic parameters, HOMA-IR and insulin sensitivity index were all improved by celecoxib. The expression of Wnt5a, JNK1, NF-κB p65, and COX-2 expression were all suppressed by celecoxib in T2DM-NASH-Cele group. The results of the present study indicated that celecoxib ameliorated NASH in T2DM rats via suppression of the non-canonical Wnt

  12. The STAT3 inhibitor pimozide impedes cell proliferation and induces ROS generation in human osteosarcoma by suppressing catalase expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Nan; Zhou, Wei; Ye, Lan-Lan; Chen, Jun; Liang, Qiu-Ni; Chang, Gang; Chen, Jia-Jie

    2017-01-01

    Currently, there is a considerable need to develop new treatments for osteosarcoma (OS), a very aggressive bone cancer. The activation of STAT3 signaling is positively associated with poor prognosis and aggressive progression in OS patients. Our previous study reported that the FDA-approved antipsychotic drug pimozide had anti-tumor activity against hepatocellular carcinoma and prostate cancer cells by suppressing STAT3 activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the specific effect of pimozide on OS cells and the underlying molecular mechanism. Pimozide inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation, and sphere formation capacities of the OS cells in a dose-dependent manner, inducing G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest. Pimozide reduced the percentage of side population cells representing cancer stem-like cells and enhanced the sensitivity of OS cells to 5-FU induced proliferative inhibition. In addition, pimozide induced apoptosis of U2OS cells, which showed increased expression of cleaved-PARP, a marker of programmed cell death. Moreover, pimozide suppressed Erk signaling in OS cells. Importantly, pimozide induced ROS generation by downregulating the expression of the antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT). NAC treatment partially reversed the ROS generation and cytotoxic effects induced by pimozide. CAT treatment attenuated the pimozide-induced proliferation inhibition. The decrease of CAT expression induced by pimozide was potentially mediated through the suppression of cellular STAT3 activity in OS cells. Thus, pimozide may be a novel STAT3 inhibitor that suppresses cellular STAT3 activity to inhibit OS cells or stem-like cells and is a novel potential anti-cancer agent in OS treatment.

  13. Andrographolide suppresses the migratory ability of human glioblastoma multiforme cells by targeting ERK1/2-mediated matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shih-Liang; Kuo, Fu-Hsuan; Chen, Pei-Ni; Hsieh, Yi-Hsien; Yu, Nuo-Yi; Yang, Wei-En; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Yang, Shun-Fa

    2017-12-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) can be a fatal tumor because of difficulties in treating the related metastasis. Andrographolide is the bioactive component of the Andrographis paniculata . Andrographolide possesses the anti-inflammatory activity and inhibits the growth of various cancers; however, its effect on GBM cancer motility remains largely unknown. In this study, we examined the antimetastatic properties of andrographolide in human GBM cells. Our results revealed that andrographolide inhibited the invasion and migration abilities of GBM8401 and U251 cells. Furthermore, andrographolide inhibited matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 activity and expression. Real-time PCR and promoter activity assays indicated that andrographolide inhibited MMP-2 expression at the transcriptional level. Such inhibitory effects were associated with the suppression of CREB DNA-binding activity and CREB expression. Mechanistically, andrographolide inhibited the cell motility of GBM8401 cells through the extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 pathway, and the blocking of the ERK 1/2 pathway could reverse MMP-2-mediated cell motility. In conclusion, CREB is a crucial target of andrographolide for suppressing MMP-2-mediated cell motility in GBM cells. Therefore, a combination of andrographolide and an ERK inhibitor might be a good strategy for preventing GBM metastasis.

  14. The Novel miR-9600 Suppresses Tumor Progression and Promotes Paclitaxel Sensitivity in Non–small-cell Lung Cancer Through Altering STAT3 Expression

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    Cheng-Cao Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs have been identified to be involved in center stage of cancer biology. They accommodate cell proliferation and migration by negatively regulate gene expression either by hampering the translation of targeted mRNAs or by promoting their degradation. We characterized and identified the novel miR-9600 and its target in human non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Our results demonstrated that the miR-9600 were downregulated in NSCLC tissues and cells. It is confirmed that signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3, a putative target gene, is directly inhibited by miR-9600. The miR-9600 markedly suppressed the protein expression of STAT3, but with no significant influence in corresponding mRNA levels, and the direct combination of miR-9600 and STAT3 was confirmed by a luciferase reporter assay. miR-9600 inhibited cell growth, hampered expression of cell cycle-related proteins and inhibited cell migration and invasion in human NSCLC cell lines. Further, miR-9600 significantly suppressed tumor growth in nude mice. Similarly, miR-9600 impeded tumorigenesis and metastasis through directly targeting STAT3. Furthermore, we identified that miR-9600 augmented paclitaxel and cisplatin sensitivity by downregulating STAT3 and promoting chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. These data demonstrate that miR-9600 might be a useful and novel therapeutic target for NSCLC.

  15. Lentiviral transgenic microRNA-based shRNA suppressed mouse cytochromosome P450 3A (CYP3A expression in a dose-dependent and inheritable manner.

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    Yong Wang

    Full Text Available Cytochomosome P450 enzymes (CYP are heme-containing monooxygenases responsible for oxidative metabolism of many exogenous and endogenous compounds including drugs. The species difference of CYP limits the extent to which data obtained from animals can be translated to humans in pharmacodynamics or pharmacokinetics studies. Transgenic expression of human CYP in animals lacking or with largely reduced endogenous CYP counterparts is recognized as an ideal strategy to correct CYP species difference. CYP3A is the most abundant CYP subfamily both in human and mammals. In this study, we designed a microRNA-based shRNA (miR-shRNA simultaneously targeting four members of mouse CYP3A subfamily (CYP3A11, CYP3A16, CYP3A41 and CYP3A44, and transgenic mice expressing the designed miR-shRNA were generated by lentiviral transgenesis. Results showed that the CYP3A expression level in transgenic mice was markedly reduced compared to that in wild type or unrelated miR-shRNA transgenic mice, and was inversely correlated to the miR-shRNA expression level. The CYP3A expression levels in transgenic offspring of different generations were also remarkably lower compared to those of controls, and moreover the inhibition rate of CYP3A expression remained comparable over generations. The ratio of the targeted CYP3A transcriptional levels was comparable between knockdown and control mice of the same gender as detected by RT-PCR DGGE analysis. These data suggested that transgenic miR-shRNA suppressed CYP3A expression in a dose-dependent and inheritable manner, and transcriptional levels of the targeted CYP3As were suppressed to a similar extent. The observed knockdown efficacy was further confirmed by enzymatic activity analysis, and data showed that CYP3A activities in transgenic mice were markedly reduced compared to those in wild-type or unrelated miR-shRNA transgenic controls (1.11±0.71 vs 5.85±1.74, 5.9±2.4; P<0.01. This work laid down a foundation to further knock

  16. Palmitic acid suppresses apolipoprotein M gene expression via the pathway of PPAR{sub β/δ} in HepG2 cells

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    Luo, Guanghua; Shi, Yuanping; Zhang, Jun; Mu, Qinfeng; Qin, Li; Zheng, Lu; Feng, Yuehua [Comprehensive Laboratory, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Changzhou 213003 (China); Berggren-Söderlund, Maria; Nilsson-Ehle, Peter [Division of Clinical Chemistry and Pharmacology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, S-221 85 Lund (Sweden); Zhang, Xiaoying, E-mail: zhangxy6689996@163.com [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Changzhou 213003 (China); Xu, Ning, E-mail: ning.xu@med.lu.se [Division of Clinical Chemistry and Pharmacology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, S-221 85 Lund (Sweden)

    2014-02-28

    Highlights: • Palmitic acid significantly inhibited APOM gene expression in HepG2 cells. • Palmitic acid could obviously increase PPARB/D mRNA levels in HepG2 cells. • PPAR{sub β/δ} antagonist, GSK3787, had no effect on APOM expression. • GSK3787 could reverse the palmitic acid-induced down-regulation of APOM expression. • Palmitic acid induced suppression of APOM expression is mediated via the PPAR{sub β/δ} pathway. - Abstract: It has been demonstrated that apolipoprotein M (APOM) is a vasculoprotective constituent of high density lipoprotein (HDL), which could be related to the anti-atherosclerotic property of HDL. Investigation of regulation of APOM expression is of important for further exploring its pathophysiological function in vivo. Our previous studies indicated that expression of APOM could be regulated by platelet activating factor (PAF), transforming growth factors (TGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), leptin, hyperglycemia and etc., in vivo and/or in vitro. In the present study, we demonstrated that palmitic acid could significantly inhibit APOM gene expression in HepG2 cells. Further study indicated neither PI-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 nor protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GFX could abolish palmitic acid induced down-regulation of APOM expression. In contrast, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPAR{sub β/δ}) antagonist GSK3787 could totally reverse the palmitic acid-induced down-regulation of APOM expression, which clearly demonstrates that down-regulation of APOM expression induced by palmitic acid is mediated via the PPAR{sub β/δ} pathway.

  17. WNT10B functional dualism: beta-catenin/Tcf-dependent growth promotion or independent suppression with deregulated expression in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hirohide; Matsubara, Kenichi; Zhou, Xiaoling; Okamura, Shu; Kubo, Takahiko; Murase, Yaeko; Shikauchi, Yuko; Esteller, Manel; Herman, James G; Wei Wang, Xin; Harris, Curtis C

    2007-11-01

    We found aberrant DNA methylation of the WNT10B promoter region in 46% of primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and 15% of colon cancer samples. Three of 10 HCC and one of two colon cancer cell lines demonstrated low or no expression, and 5-aza-2'deoxycytidine reactivated WNT10B expression with the induction of demethylation, indicating that WNT10B is silenced by DNA methylation in some cancers, whereas WNT10B expression is up-regulated in seven of the 10 HCC cell lines and a colon cancer cell line. These results indicate that WNT10B can be deregulated by either overexpression or silencing in cancer. We found that WNT10B up-regulated beta-catenin/Tcf activity. However, WNT10B-overexpressing cells demonstrated a reduced growth rate and anchorage-independent growth that is independent of the beta-catenin/Tcf activation, because mutant beta-catenin-transduced cells did not suppress growth, and dominant-negative hTcf-4 failed to alleviate the growth suppression by WNT10B. Although WNT10B expression alone inhibits cell growth, it acts synergistically with the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) to stimulate cell growth. WNT10B is bifunctional, one function of which is involved in beta-catenin/Tcf activation, and the other function is related to the down-regulation of cell growth through a different mechanism. We suggest that FGF switches WNT10B from a negative to a positive cell growth regulator.

  18. Yi Qi Qing Re Gao-containing serum inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced rat mesangial cell proliferation by suppressing the Wnt pathway and TGF-β1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liping; Sun, Xueyan; Zhan, Yongli; Liu, Huijie; Wen, Yumin; Mao, Huimin; Dong, X I; Li, Ping

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Yi Qi Qing Re Gao-containing serum (YQ-S) on rat mesangial cell (MC) proliferation and to investigate the underlying mechanism. MCs were divided into the control, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated, YQ-S and fosinopril-containing serum (For-S) groups, and cultured for 48 h. An MTT assay was used to evaluate the proliferation of MCs. In addition, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were conducted to detect the expression levels of Wnt4, β-catenin and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in MCs. The results indicated that YQ-S inhibited LPS-induced MC proliferation. The Wnt4 and TGF-β1 mRNA expression levels were reduced in the YQ-S group (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Furthermore, the Wnt4, β-catenin and TGF-β1 protein expression levels were suppressed in the YQ-S group (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Therefore, YQ-S appears to inhibit MC proliferation, and its mechanism may involve the inhibition of the Wnt signaling pathway and downregulation of TGF-β1 expression.

  19. Human Antiviral Protein IFIX Suppresses Viral Gene Expression during Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) Infection and Is Counteracted by Virus-induced Proteasomal Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Marni S; Cristea, Ileana M

    2017-04-01

    The interferon-inducible protein X (IFIX), a member of the PYHIN family, was recently recognized as an antiviral factor against infection with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). IFIX binds viral DNA upon infection and promotes expression of antiviral cytokines. How IFIX exerts its host defense functions and whether it is inhibited by the virus remain unknown. Here, we integrated live cell microscopy, proteomics, IFIX domain characterization, and molecular virology to investigate IFIX regulation and antiviral functions during HSV-1 infection. We find that IFIX has a dynamic localization during infection that changes from diffuse nuclear and nucleoli distribution in uninfected cells to discrete nuclear puncta early in infection. This is rapidly followed by a reduction in IFIX protein levels. Indeed, using immunoaffinity purification and mass spectrometry, we define IFIX interactions during HSV-1 infection, finding an association with a proteasome subunit and proteins involved in ubiquitin-proteasome processes. Using synchronized HSV-1 infection, microscopy, and proteasome-inhibition experiments, we demonstrate that IFIX co-localizes with nuclear proteasome puncta shortly after 3 h of infection and that its pyrin domain is rapidly degraded in a proteasome-dependent manner. We further demonstrate that, in contrast to several other host defense factors, IFIX degradation is not dependent on the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of the viral protein ICP0. However, we show IFIX degradation requires immediate-early viral gene expression, suggesting a viral host suppression mechanism. The IFIX interactome also demonstrated its association with transcriptional regulatory proteins, including the 5FMC complex. We validate this interaction using microscopy and reciprocal isolations and determine it is mediated by the IFIX HIN domain. Finally, we show IFIX suppresses immediate-early and early viral gene expression during infection. Altogether, our study demonstrates that IFIX antiviral

  20. Oxidative stress suppression by luteolin-induced heme oxygenase-1 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Gui-bo; Sun, Xiao; Wang, Min [Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resources Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine, Ministry of Education, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100193 (China); Ye, Jing-xue [Jilin Agricultural University, No.2888, Xincheng Street, Changchun, 130021, Jilin (China); Si, Jian-yong [Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resources Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine, Ministry of Education, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100193 (China); Xu, Hui-bo [Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences of Jilin Province, Gongnongda road 1745, Changchun, 130021, Jiblin (China); Meng, Xiang-bao; Qin, Meng; Sun, Jing [Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resources Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine, Ministry of Education, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100193 (China); Wang, Hong-wei, E-mail: hwang@nju.edu.cn [Center for Translational Medicine and Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Sun, Xiao-bo, E-mail: sunsubmit@163.com [Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resources Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine, Ministry of Education, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100193 (China)

    2012-12-01

    Luteolin enhances cellular antioxidant defense capacity. ► Luteolin increases the expression of heme oxygenase-1 protein levels. ► Luteolin activates Akt and ERK signal pathways.

  1. Oxidative stress suppression by luteolin-induced heme oxygenase-1 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Gui-bo; Sun, Xiao; Wang, Min; Ye, Jing-xue; Si, Jian-yong; Xu, Hui-bo; Meng, Xiang-bao; Qin, Meng; Sun, Jing; Wang, Hong-wei; Sun, Xiao-bo

    2012-01-01

    enhances cellular antioxidant defense capacity. ► Luteolin increases the expression of heme oxygenase-1 protein levels. ► Luteolin activates Akt and ERK signal pathways.

  2. Rice (Oryza sativa japonica) Albumin Suppresses the Elevation of Blood Glucose and Plasma Insulin Levels after Oral Glucose Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ina, Shigenobu; Ninomiya, Kazumi; Mogi, Takashi; Hase, Ayumu; Ando, Toshiki; Matsukaze, Narumi; Ogihara, Jun; Akao, Makoto; Kumagai, Hitoshi; Kumagai, Hitomi

    2016-06-22

    The suppressive effect of rice albumin (RA) of 16 kDa on elevation of blood glucose level after oral loading of starch or glucose and its possible mechanism were examined. RA suppressed the increase in blood glucose levels in both the oral starch tolerance test and the oral glucose tolerance test. The blood glucose concentrations 15 min after the oral administration of starch were 144 ± 6 mg/dL for control group and 127 ± 4 mg/dL for RA 200 mg/kg BW group, while those after the oral administration of glucose were 157 ± 7 mg/dL for control group and 137 ± 4 mg/dL for RA 200 mg/kg BW group. However, in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, no significant differences in blood glucose level were observed between RA and the control groups, indicating that RA suppresses the glucose absorption from the small intestine. However, RA did not inhibit the activity of mammalian α-amylase. RA was hydrolyzed to an indigestible high-molecular-weight peptide (HMP) of 14 kDa and low-molecular-weight peptides by pepsin and pancreatin. Furthermore, RA suppressed the glucose diffusion rate through a semipermeable membrane like dietary fibers in vitro. Therefore, the indigestible HMP may adsorb glucose and suppress its absorption from the small intestine.

  3. Suppression of LFA-1 expression by spermine is associated with enhanced methylation of ITGAL, the LFA-1 promoter area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiko Kano

    Full Text Available Spermine and spermidine, natural polyamines, suppress lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1 expression and its associated cellular functions through mechanisms that remain unknown. Inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase, which is required for polyamine synthesis, in Jurkat cells by 3 mM D,L-alpha-difluoromethylornithine hydrochloride (DFMO significantly decreased spermine and spermidine concentrations and was associated with decreased DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt activity, enhanced demethylation of the LFA-1 gene (ITGAL promoter area, and increased CD11a expression. Supplementation with extracellular spermine (500 µM of cells pretreated with DFMO significantly increased polyamine concentrations, increased Dnmt activity, enhanced methylation of the ITGAL promoter, and decreased CD11a expression. It has been shown that changes in intracellular polyamine concentrations affect activities of -adenosyl-L-methionine-decaroboxylase, and, as a result, affect concentrations of the methyl group donor, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM, and of the competitive Dnmt inhibitor, decarboxylated SAM. Additional treatments designed to increase the amount of SAM and decrease the amount of decarboxylated SAM-such as treatment with methylglyoxal bis-guanylhydrazone (an inhibitor of S-adenosyl-L-methionine-decaroboxylase and SAM supplementation-successfully decreased CD11a expression. Western blot analyses revealed that neither DFMO nor spermine supplementation affected the amount of active Ras-proximate-1, a member of the Ras superfamily of small GTPases and a key protein for regulation of CD11a expression. The results of this study suggest that polyamine-induced suppression of LFA-1 expression occurs via enhanced methylation of ITGAL.

  4. Etanercept Promotes Bone Formation via Suppression of Dickkopf-1 Expression in Rats with Collagen-Induced Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanida, Atsushi; Kishimoto, Yuji; Okano, Toru; Hagino, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Background Various clinical reports suggest etanercept (ETN) has some efficacy in bone formation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To examine this effect, we investigated the gene expression of cytokines relevant to osteoblast/osteoclast differentiation, and evaluated histomorphometric findings in mature rats with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Methods Total RNA was extracted from knee joints with CIA after ETN or placebo administration. Subsequently, realtime-PCR was carried out to quantify the mRNAs encoding Wnt-1, Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegelin (OPG) and TNF (tumor necrosis factor)-alpha. In histomorphometric analysis, the infiltrating pannus volume and pannus surface, and the following items in contact with pannus surface were measured: osteoclast number, osteoid surface, osteoid volume and labeling surface. These were evaluated in the distal femur with CIA with or without ETN administration. Results TNF-alpha, RANKL and OPG mRNA expressions, linked to osteoclastogenesis, were not significantly different with or without ETN administration. ETN administration significantly increased Wnt-1 mRNA expression, the osteoblast promoter, and decreased DKK-1 mRNA expression, the Wnt signal inhibitor. In histomorphometric analysis, pannus volume, pannus surface and osteoclast number, parameters of bone destruction, were not significantly different among groups. Osteoid volume, osteoid surface and labeling surface, parameters of bone formation, increased significantly with ETN administration. Conclusion Our results suggest that ETN suppresses DDK-1 expression, and, as a result, Wnt expression is promoted and osteoblastogenesis becomes more active, independent of the regulation of osteoclast activity. Marked bone formation is attributed to the fact that ETN directly promotes osteoblastogenesis, not as a result of suppressing osteoclastogenesis. PMID:24031147

  5. XIAP BIR domain suppresses miR-200a expression and subsequently promotes EGFR protein translation and anchorage-independent growth of bladder cancer cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP is a well-known potent apoptosis suppressor and also participates in cancer cell biological behaviors, therefore attracting great attentions as a potential antineoplastic therapeutic target for past years. Anti-IAP therapy is reported to be closely related to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR expression level. However, whether and how XIAP modulates EGFR expression remains largely unknown. Methods Human XIAP was knockdown with short-hairpin RNA in two different bladder cancer cell lines, T24T and UMUC3. Two XIAP mutants, XIAP ∆BIR (deletion of N-terminal three BIR domains and XIAP ∆RING (deletion of C-terminal RING domain and keeping the function of BIR domains, were generated to determine which domain is involved in regulating EGFR. Results We found here that lacking of XIAP expression resulted in a remarkable suppression of EGFR expression, consequently leading to the deficiency of anchorage-independent cell growth. Further study demonstrated that BIR domain of XIAP was crucial for regulating the EGFR translation by suppressing the transcription and expression of miR-200a. Mechanistic studies indicated that BIR domain activated the protein phosphatase 2 (PP2A activity by decreasing the phosphorylation of PP2A at Tyr307 in its catalytic subunit, PP2A-C. Such activated PP2A prevented the deviant phosphorylation and activation of MAPK kinases/MAPKs, their downstream effector c-Jun, and in turn inhibiting transcription of c-Jun-regulated the miR-200a. Conclusions Our study uncovered a novel function of BIR domain of XIAP in regulating the EGFR translation, providing significant insight into the understanding of the XIAP overexpression in the cancer development and progression, further offering a new theoretical support for using XIAP BIR domain and EGFR as targets for cancer therapy.

  6. Anti-inflammatory drugs suppress proliferation and induce apoptosis through altering expressions of cell cycle regulators and pro-apoptotic factors in cultured human osteoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J.-K.; Li, C.-J.; Liao, H.-J.; Wang, C.-K.; Wang, G.-J.; Ho, M.-L.

    2009-01-01

    It has been reported that anti-inflammatory drugs (AIDs) inhibited bone repair in animal studies, and suppressed proliferation and induced cell death in rat osteoblast cultures. In this study, we further investigated the molecular mechanisms of AID effects on proliferation and cell death in human osteoblasts (hOBs). We examined the effects of dexamethasone (10 -7 and 10 -6 M), non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs): indomethacin, ketorolac, piroxicam and diclofenac (10 -5 and 10 -4 M), and COX-2 inhibitor: celecoxib (10 -6 and 10 -5 M) on proliferation, cytotoxicity, cell death, and mRNA and protein levels of cell cycle and apoptosis-related regulators in hOBs. All the tested AIDs significantly inhibited proliferation and arrested cell cycle at G0/G1 phase in hOBs. Celecoxib and dexamethasone, but not non-selective NSAIDs, were found to have cytotoxic effects on hOB, and further demonstrated to induce apoptosis and necrosis (at higher concentration) in hOBs. We further found that indomethacin, celecoxib and dexamethasone increased the mRNA and protein expressions of p27 kip1 and decreased those of cyclin D2 and p-cdk2 in hOBs. Bak expression was increased by celecoxib and dexamethasone, while Bcl-XL level was declined only by dexamethasone. Furthermore, the replenishment of PGE1, PGE2 or PGF2α did not reverse the effects of AIDs on proliferation and expressions of p27 kip1 and cyclin D2 in hOBs. We conclude that the changes in expressions of regulators of cell cycle (p27 kip1 and cyclin D2) and/or apoptosis (Bak and Bcl-XL) by AIDs may contribute to AIDs caused proliferation suppression and apoptosis in hOBs. This effect might not relate to the blockage of prostaglandin synthesis by AIDs

  7. Prostacyclin Suppresses Twist Expression in the Presence of Indomethacin in Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Oliver; Herten, Monika; Fischer, Johannes; Haversath, Marcel; Beck, Sascha; Classen, Tim; Warwas, Sebastian; Tassemeier, Tjark; Landgraeber, Stefan; Lensing-Höhn, Sabine; Krauspe, Rüdiger; Jäger, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Background Iloprost, a stable prostacyclin I2 analogue, seems to have an osteoblast-protective potential, whereas indomethacin suppresses new bone formation. The aim of this study was to investigate human bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) proliferation and differentiation towards the osteoblastic lineage by administration of indomethacin and/or iloprost. Material/Methods Human bone marrow cells were obtained from 3 different donors (A=26 yrs/m; B=25 yrs/f, C=35 yrs/m) via vacuum aspiration of the iliac crest followed by density gradient centrifugation and flow cytometry with defined antigens (CD105+/73+/45−/14−). The cells were seeded and incubated as follows: without additives (Group 0; donor A/B/C), with 10−7 M iloprost only (Group 0+ilo; A/B), with indomethacin only in concentrations of 10−6 M (Group 1, A), 10−5 M (Group 2, B), 10−4 M (Group 3, A/B), and together with 10−7 M iloprost (Groups 4–6, A/B/C). On Day 10 and 28, UV/Vis spectrometric and immunocytochemical assays (4 samples per group and donor) were performed to investigate cell proliferation (cell count measurement) and differentiation towards the osteoblastic lineage (CD34−, CD45−, CD105+, type 1 collagen (Col1), osteocalcin (OC), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Runx2, Twist, specific ALP-activity). Results Indomethacin alone suppressed BMSC differentiation towards the osteoblastic lineage by downregulation of Runx2, Col1, and ALP. In combination with indomethacin, iloprost increased cell proliferation and differentiation and it completely suppressed Twist expression at Day 10 and 28. Iloprost alone did not promote cell proliferation, but moderately enhanced Runx2 and Twist expression. However, the proliferative effects and the specific ALP-activity varied donor-dependently. Conclusions Iloprost partially antagonized the suppressing effects of indomethacin on BMSC differentiation towards the osteoblast lineage. It enhanced the expression of Runx2 and, only in the presence of indomethacin

  8. [Suppressive Effects of Extract of Cedar Wood on Heat-induced Expression of Cellular Heat Shock Protein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakoshi, Junji; Matsubara, Eri; Narita, Eijiro; Koyama, Shin; Shimizu, Yoko; Kawai, Shuichi

    2018-01-01

     In recent years, highly antimicrobial properties of cedar heartwood essential oil against the wood-rotting fungi and pathogenic fungi have been reported in several papers. Antimicrobial properties against oral bacteria by hinokitiol contained in Thujopsis have been also extensively studied. The relation of naturally derived components and human immune system has been studied in some previous papers. In the present study, we focused on Japanese cedar, which has the widest artificial afforestation site in the country among various tree species. Extract oil was obtained from mixture of sapwood and heartwood of about 40-year cedar grown in Oguni, Kumamoto, Japan. We examined the influence of extract components from Japanese cedar woods on the expression of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) during heating, and on the micronucleus formation induced by the treatment of bleomycin as a DNA damaging agent. Cell lines used in this study were human fetal glial cells (SVGp12) and human glioma cells (MO54). Remarkable suppression of the Hsp70 expression induced by heating at 43°C was detected by the treatment of cedar extract in both SVGp12 and MO54 cells. We also found that cedar extract had an inhibitory tendency to reduce the micronucleus formation induced by bleomycin. From these results, the extract components from Japanese cedar woods would have an inhibitory effect of the stress response as a suppression of the heat-induced Hsp70 expression, and might have a reductive effect on carcinogenicity.

  9. Prdm5 suppresses Apc(Min)-driven intestinal adenomas and regulates monoacylglycerol lipase expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galli, G G; Multhaupt, H A; Carrara, M

    2013-01-01

    PRDM proteins are tissue-specific transcription factors often deregulated in diseases, particularly in cancer where different members have been found to act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. PRDM5 is a poorly characterized member of the PRDM family for which several studies have reported a high ...... PRDM5 target repertoire likely facilitating the tumor-suppressive functions of PRDM5.Oncogene advance online publication, 22 July 2013; doi:10.1038/onc.2013.283....

  10. Osthole inhibits the invasive ability of human lung adenocarcinoma cells via suppression of NF-κB-mediated matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, Shang-Jyh [Department of Chest Medicine, Shin-Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Respiratory Therapy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei Taiwan (China); Su, Jen-Liang [Graduate Institute of Cancer Biology, College of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Center for Molecular Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chi-Kuan [Graduate Institute of Toxicology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yu, Ming-Chih; Bai, Kuan-Jen; Chang, Jer-Hua [Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei Medical University-Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Bien, Mauo-Ying [School of Respiratory Therapy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei Taiwan (China); Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei Medical University-Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yang, Shun-Fa [Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chien, Ming-Hsien, E-mail: mhchien1976@gmail.com [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2012-05-15

    The induction of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 is particularly important for the invasiveness of various cancer cells. Osthole, a natural coumarin derivative extracted from traditional Chinese medicines, is known to inhibit the proliferation of a variety of tumor cells, but the effect of osthole on the invasiveness of tumor cells is largely unknown. This study determines whether and by what mechanism osthole inhibits invasion in CL1-5 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Herein, we found that osthole effectively inhibited the migratory and invasive abilities of CL1-5 cells. A zymographic assay showed that osthole inhibited the proteolytic activity of MMP-9 in CL1-5 cells. Inhibition of migration, invasion, and MMP2 and/or MMP-9 proteolytic activities was also observed in other lung adenocarcinoma cell lines (H1299 and A549). We further found that osthole inhibited MMP-9 expression at the messenger RNA and protein levels. Moreover, a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that osthole inhibited the transcriptional activity of MMP-9 by suppressing the DNA binding activity of nuclear factor (NF)-κB in the MMP-9 promoter. Using reporter assays with point-mutated promoter constructs further confirmed that the inhibitory effect of osthole requires an NF-κB binding site on the MMP-9 promoter. Western blot and immunofluorescence assays demonstrated that osthole inhibited NF-κB activity by inhibiting IκB-α degradation and NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation. In conclusion, we demonstrated that osthole inhibits NF-κB-mediated MMP-9 expression, resulting in suppression of lung cancer cell invasion and migration, and osthole might be a potential agent for preventing the invasion and metastasis of lung cancer. -- Highlights: ► Osthole treatment inhibits lung adenocarcinoma cells migration and invasion. ► Osthole reduces the expression and proteolytic activity of MMP-9. ► Osthole inhibits MMP-9 transcription via suppression of NF-κB binding activity. ► Osthole

  11. Suppression substractive hybridisation and NGS reveal differential transcriptome expression profiles in Wayfaring Tree (Viburnum lantana L. treated with ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena eGottardini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tropospheric ozone (O3 is a global air pollutant that causes high economical damages by decresing plant productivity. It entering leaves through the stomata, generating reactive oxygen species, which following decreases photosynthesis, plant growth, and biomass accumulation. In order to identify genes that are important for conferring O3 tolerance or sensitivity to plants, a suppression subtractive hybridization analysis was performed on the very sensitive woody shrub, Viburnum lantana, exposed to chronic O3 treatment (60 ppb, 5 h d-1 for 45 consecutive days. Transcript profiling and relative expression assessment were carried out in asymptomatic leaves, after 15 days of O3 exposure. At the end of the experiment symptoms were observed on all treated leaves and plants, with an injured leaf area per plant accounting for 4.2% of the total surface. Using 454-pyrosequencing, the transcriptome analysis of O3-responsive genes in leaves was performed, compiling a total of 38,800 and 12,495 high quality reads obtained in control and O3-treated libraries, respectively (average length of 319±156.7 and 255±107.4 bp. The Ensembl transcriptome yielded a total of 1241 unigenes with a total sequence length of 389,126 bp and an average length size of 389 bp (guanine-cytosine content = 49.9%. mRNA abundance was measured by reads per kilobase per million and 41 and 37 ensembl unigenes showed up- and down-regulation respectively. Photosynthetic performance of unigenes functionally associated to photosynthesis and carbon utilization was repressed, demonstrating the deleterious effect of O3 exposure. Unigenes functionally associated to heat-shock proteins and glutathione were concurrently induced, suggesting the role of thylakoid-localized proteins and antioxidant-detoxification pathways as an effective strategy for responding to O3. Gene Ontology analysis documented a differential expression of co-regulated transcripts for several functional categories, including

  12. Suppression of progranulin expression inhibits bladder cancer growth and sensitizes cancer cells to cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buraschi, Simone; Xu, Shi-Qiong; Stefanello, Manuela; Moskalev, Igor; Morcavallo, Alaide; Genua, Marco; Tanimoto, Ryuta; Birbe, Ruth; Peiper, Stephen C; Gomella, Leonard G; Belfiore, Antonino; Black, Peter C; Iozzo, Renato V; Morrione, Andrea

    2016-06-28

    We have recently demonstrated a critical role for progranulin in bladder cancer. Progranulin contributes, as an autocrine growth factor, to the transformed phenotype by modulating Akt-and MAPK-driven motility, invasion and anchorage-independent growth. Progranulin also induces F-actin remodeling by interacting with the F-actin binding protein drebrin. In addition, progranulin is overexpressed in invasive bladder cancer compared to normal tissue controls, suggesting that progranulin might play a key role in driving the transition to the invasive phenotype of urothelial cancer. However, it is not established whether targeting progranulin could have therapeutic effects on bladder cancer. In this study, we stably depleted urothelial cancer cells of endogenous progranulin by shRNA approaches and determined that progranulin depletion severely inhibited the ability of tumorigenic urothelial cancer cells to migrate, invade and grow in anchorage-independency. We further demonstrate that progranulin expression is critical for tumor growth in vivo, in both xenograft and orthotopic tumor models. Notably, progranulin levels correlated with response to cisplatin treatment and were upregulated in bladder tumors. Our data indicate that progranulin may constitute a novel target for therapeutic intervention in bladder tumors. In addition, progranulin may serve as a novel biomarker for bladder cancer.

  13. Affective State Level Recognition in Naturalistic Facial and Vocal Expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hongying; Bianchi-Berthouze, Nadia

    2014-03-01

    Naturalistic affective expressions change at a rate much slower than the typical rate at which video or audio is recorded. This increases the probability that consecutive recorded instants of expressions represent the same affective content. In this paper, we exploit such a relationship to improve the recognition performance of continuous naturalistic affective expressions. Using datasets of naturalistic affective expressions (AVEC 2011 audio and video dataset, PAINFUL video dataset) continuously labeled over time and over different dimensions, we analyze the transitions between levels of those dimensions (e.g., transitions in pain intensity level). We use an information theory approach to show that the transitions occur very slowly and hence suggest modeling them as first-order Markov models. The dimension levels are considered to be the hidden states in the Hidden Markov Model (HMM) framework. Their discrete transition and emission matrices are trained by using the labels provided with the training set. The recognition problem is converted into a best path-finding problem to obtain the best hidden states sequence in HMMs. This is a key difference from previous use of HMMs as classifiers. Modeling of the transitions between dimension levels is integrated in a multistage approach, where the first level performs a mapping between the affective expression features and a soft decision value (e.g., an affective dimension level), and further classification stages are modeled as HMMs that refine that mapping by taking into account the temporal relationships between the output decision labels. The experimental results for each of the unimodal datasets show overall performance to be significantly above that of a standard classification system that does not take into account temporal relationships. In particular, the results on the AVEC 2011 audio dataset outperform all other systems presented at the international competition.

  14. Adeno-associated virus-mediated doxycycline-regulatable TRAIL expression suppresses growth of human breast carcinoma in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Liu; Weilun, Zhang; Minghong, Jiang; Yaxi, Zhang; Shilian, Liu; Yanxin, Liu; Dexian, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) functions as a cytokine to selectively kill various cancer cells without toxicity to most normal cells. Numerous studies have demonstrated the potential use of recombinant soluble TRAIL as a cancer therapeutic agent. We have showed previous administration of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector expressing soluble TRAIL results in an efficient suppression of human tumor growth in nude mice. In the present study, we introduced Tet-On gene expression system into the rAAV vector to control the soluble TRAIL expression and evaluate the efficiency of the system in cancer gene therapy. Controllability of the Tet-On system was determined by luciferase activity assay, and Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. The breast cancer xenograft animal model was established and recombinant virus was administrated through tail vein injection to evaluate the tumoricidal activity. The expression of soluble TRAIL could be strictly controlled by the Tet-On system in both normal and cancer cells. Transduction of human cancer cell lines with rAAV-TRE-TRAIL&rAAV-Tet-On under the presence of inducer doxycycline resulted in a considerable cell death by apoptosis. Intravenous injection of the recombinant virus efficiently suppressed the growth of human breast carcinoma in nude mice when activated by doxycycline. These data suggest that rAAV-mediated soluble TRAIL expression under the control of the Tet-On system is a promising strategy for breast cancer therapy

  15. Adeno-associated virus-mediated doxycycline-regulatable TRAIL expression suppresses growth of human breast carcinoma in nude mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Liu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL functions as a cytokine to selectively kill various cancer cells without toxicity to most normal cells. Numerous studies have demonstrated the potential use of recombinant soluble TRAIL as a cancer therapeutic agent. We have showed previous administration of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV vector expressing soluble TRAIL results in an efficient suppression of human tumor growth in nude mice. In the present study, we introduced Tet-On gene expression system into the rAAV vector to control the soluble TRAIL expression and evaluate the efficiency of the system in cancer gene therapy. Methods Controllability of the Tet-On system was determined by luciferase activity assay, and Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. The breast cancer xenograft animal model was established and recombinant virus was administrated through tail vein injection to evaluate the tumoricidal activity. Results The expression of soluble TRAIL could be strictly controlled by the Tet-On system in both normal and cancer cells. Transduction of human cancer cell lines with rAAV-TRE-TRAIL&rAAV-Tet-On under the presence of inducer doxycycline resulted in a considerable cell death by apoptosis. Intravenous injection of the recombinant virus efficiently suppressed the growth of human breast carcinoma in nude mice when activated by doxycycline. Conclusion These data suggest that rAAV-mediated soluble TRAIL expression under the control of the Tet-On system is a promising strategy for breast cancer therapy.

  16. Preferential cytotoxicity of bortezomib toward highly malignant human liposarcoma cells via suppression of MDR1 expression and function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Yamei; Wang, Lingxian; Wang, Lu; Wu, Xuefeng; Wu, Xudong; Gu, Yanhong; Shu, Yongqian; Sun, Yang; Shen, Yan; Xu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Liposarcoma is the most common soft tissue sarcoma with a high risk of relapse. Few therapeutic options are available for the aggressive local or metastatic disease. Here, we report that the clinically used proteasome inhibitor bortezomib exhibits significantly stronger cytotoxicity toward highly malignant human liposarcoma SW872-S cells compared with its parental SW872 cells, which is accompanied by enhanced activation of apoptotic signaling both in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of cells with Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP60015 or the translation inhibitor cycloheximide ameliorated this enhanced apoptosis. Bortezomib inhibited MDR1 expression and function more effectively in SW872-S cells than in SW872 cells, indicating that the increased cytotoxicity relies on the degree of proteasome inhibition. Furthermore, the pharmacological or genetic inhibition of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase (SERCA) 2, which is highly expressed in SW872-S cells, resulted in partial reversal of cell growth inhibition and increase of MDR1 expression in bortezomib-treated SW872-S cells. These results show that bortezomib exhibits preferential cytotoxicity toward SW872-S cells possibly via highly expressed SERCA2-associated MDR1 suppression and suggest that bortezomib may serve as a potent agent for treating advanced liposarcoma. - Highlights: • We compare the cytotoxicity of different drugs between SW872-S and SW872 cells. • Highly malignant liposarcoma cells SW872-S show hypersensitivity to bortezomib. • Apoptotic signaling is robustly enhanced in bortezomib-treated SW872-S cells. • Bortezomib has strong suppression on MDR1 expression and function in SW872-S cells. • Inhibition of SERCA2 protects SW872-S cells from bortezomib

  17. Preferential cytotoxicity of bortezomib toward highly malignant human liposarcoma cells via suppression of MDR1 expression and function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Yamei; Wang, Lingxian; Wang, Lu; Wu, Xuefeng; Wu, Xudong [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Gu, Yanhong; Shu, Yongqian [Department of Clinical Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Sun, Yang [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Shen, Yan, E-mail: shenyan@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Xu, Qiang, E-mail: molpharm@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Liposarcoma is the most common soft tissue sarcoma with a high risk of relapse. Few therapeutic options are available for the aggressive local or metastatic disease. Here, we report that the clinically used proteasome inhibitor bortezomib exhibits significantly stronger cytotoxicity toward highly malignant human liposarcoma SW872-S cells compared with its parental SW872 cells, which is accompanied by enhanced activation of apoptotic signaling both in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of cells with Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP60015 or the translation inhibitor cycloheximide ameliorated this enhanced apoptosis. Bortezomib inhibited MDR1 expression and function more effectively in SW872-S cells than in SW872 cells, indicating that the increased cytotoxicity relies on the degree of proteasome inhibition. Furthermore, the pharmacological or genetic inhibition of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase (SERCA) 2, which is highly expressed in SW872-S cells, resulted in partial reversal of cell growth inhibition and increase of MDR1 expression in bortezomib-treated SW872-S cells. These results show that bortezomib exhibits preferential cytotoxicity toward SW872-S cells possibly via highly expressed SERCA2-associated MDR1 suppression and suggest that bortezomib may serve as a potent agent for treating advanced liposarcoma. - Highlights: • We compare the cytotoxicity of different drugs between SW872-S and SW872 cells. • Highly malignant liposarcoma cells SW872-S show hypersensitivity to bortezomib. • Apoptotic signaling is robustly enhanced in bortezomib-treated SW872-S cells. • Bortezomib has strong suppression on MDR1 expression and function in SW872-S cells. • Inhibition of SERCA2 protects SW872-S cells from bortezomib.

  18. NORMAL NASAL GENE EXPRESSION LEVELS USING CDNA ARRAY TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normal Nasal Gene Expression Levels Using cDNA Array Technology. The nasal epithelium is a target site for chemically-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity. To detect and analyze genetic events which contribute to nasal tumor development, we first defined the gene expressi...

  19. Sulforaphane Suppresses Hepatitis C Virus Replication by Up-Regulating Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression through PI3K/Nrf2 Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Sheng Yu

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection-induced oxidative stress is a major risk factor for the development of HCV-associated liver disease. Sulforaphane (SFN is an antioxidant phytocompound that acts against cellular oxidative stress and tumorigenesis. However, there is little known about its anti-viral activity. In this study, we demonstrated that SFN significantly suppressed HCV protein and RNA levels in HCV replicon cells and infectious system, with an IC50 value of 5.7 ± 0.2 μM. Moreover, combination of SFN with anti-viral drugs displayed synergistic effects in the suppression of HCV replication. In addition, we found nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2/HO-1 induction in response to SFN and determined the signaling pathways involved in this process, including inhibition of NS3 protease activity and induction of IFN response. In contrast, the anti-viral activities were attenuated by knockdown of HO-1 with specific inhibitor (SnPP and shRNA, suggesting that anti-HCV activity of SFN is dependent on HO-1 expression. Otherwise, SFN stimulated the phosphorylation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K leading Nrf2-mediated HO-1 expression against HCV replication. Overall, our results indicated that HO-1 is essential in SFN-mediated anti-HCV activity and provide new insights in the molecular mechanism of SFN in HCV replication.

  20. Melittin suppresses HIF-1α/VEGF expression through inhibition of ERK and mTOR/p70S6K pathway in human cervical carcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Moon Shin

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Melittin (MEL, a major component of bee venom, has been associated with various diseases including arthritis, rheumatism and various cancers. In this study, the anti-angiogenic effects of MEL in CaSki cells that were responsive to the epidermal growth factor (EGF were examined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: MEL decreased the EGF-induced hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α protein and significantly regulated angiogenesis and tumor progression. We found that inhibition of the HIF-1α protein level is due to the shortened half-life by MEL. Mechanistically, MEL specifically inhibited the EGF-induced HIF-1α expression by suppressing the phosphorylation of ERK, mTOR and p70S6K. It also blocked the EGF-induced DNA binding activity of HIF-1α and the secretion of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Furthermore, the chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assay revealed that MEL reduced the binding of HIF-1α to the VEGF promoter HRE region. The anti-angiogenesis effects of MEL were confirmed through a matrigel plus assay. CONCLUSIONS: MEL specifically suppressed EGF-induced VEGF secretion and new blood vessel formation by inhibiting HIF-1α. These results suggest that MEL may inhibit human cervical cancer progression and angiogenesis by inhibiting HIF-1α and VEGF expression.

  1. Spatial Splitting and Intensity Suppression of Four-Wave Mixing in V-Type Three-Level Atomic System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang-She, Li; Wei-Tao, Yin; Chen-Zhi, Yuan; Mei-Zhen, Shi; Yan, Zhao; Yan-Peng, Zhang

    2010-01-01

    We illustrate our experimental observation of coexisting the controllable spatial splitting and intensity suppression of four-wave mixing (FWM) beam in a V-type three-level atomic system. The peak number and separation distance of the FWM beam are controlled by the intensities and frequencies of the laser beams, as well as atomic density

  2. Expression of POEM, a positive regulator of osteoblast differentiation, is suppressed by TNF-α

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukasaki, Masayuki; Yamada, Atsushi; Suzuki, Dai; Aizawa, Ryo; Miyazono, Agasa; Miyamoto, Yoichi; Suzawa, Tetsuo; Takami, Masamichi; Yoshimura, Kentaro; Morimura, Naoko; Yamamoto, Matsuo; Kamijo, Ryutaro

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → TNF-α inhibits POEM gene expression. → Inhibition of POEM gene expression is caused by NF-κB activation by TNF-α. → Over-expression of POEM recovers inhibition of osteoblast differentiation by TNF-α. -- Abstract: POEM, also known as nephronectin, is an extracellular matrix protein considered to be a positive regulator of osteoblast differentiation. In the present study, we found that tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a key regulator of bone matrix properties and composition that also inhibits terminal osteoblast differentiation, strongly inhibited POEM expression in the mouse osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1. TNF-α-induced down-regulation of POEM gene expression occurred in both time- and dose-dependent manners through the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. In addition, expressions of marker genes in differentiated osteoblasts were down-regulated by TNF-α in a manner consistent with our findings for POEM, while over-expression of POEM recovered TNF-α-induced inhibition of osteoblast differentiation. These results suggest that TNF-α inhibits POEM expression through the NF-κB signaling pathway and down-regulation of POEM influences the inhibition of osteoblast differentiation by TNF-α.

  3. Expression of POEM, a positive regulator of osteoblast differentiation, is suppressed by TNF-{alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukasaki, Masayuki [Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan); Yamada, Atsushi, E-mail: yamadaa@dent.showa-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan); Suzuki, Dai [Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan); Aizawa, Ryo [Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan); Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Showa University, 2-1-1 Kitasenzoku, Ohta, Tokyo 145-8515 (Japan); Miyazono, Agasa [Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Showa University, 2-1-1 Kitasenzoku, Ohta, Tokyo 145-8515 (Japan); Miyamoto, Yoichi; Suzawa, Tetsuo; Takami, Masamichi; Yoshimura, Kentaro [Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan); Morimura, Naoko [Laboratory for Comparative Neurogenesis, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Yamamoto, Matsuo [Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Showa University, 2-1-1 Kitasenzoku, Ohta, Tokyo 145-8515 (Japan); Kamijo, Ryutaro [Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: {yields} TNF-{alpha} inhibits POEM gene expression. {yields} Inhibition of POEM gene expression is caused by NF-{kappa}B activation by TNF-{alpha}. {yields} Over-expression of POEM recovers inhibition of osteoblast differentiation by TNF-{alpha}. -- Abstract: POEM, also known as nephronectin, is an extracellular matrix protein considered to be a positive regulator of osteoblast differentiation. In the present study, we found that tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}), a key regulator of bone matrix properties and composition that also inhibits terminal osteoblast differentiation, strongly inhibited POEM expression in the mouse osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1. TNF-{alpha}-induced down-regulation of POEM gene expression occurred in both time- and dose-dependent manners through the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) pathway. In addition, expressions of marker genes in differentiated osteoblasts were down-regulated by TNF-{alpha} in a manner consistent with our findings for POEM, while over-expression of POEM recovered TNF-{alpha}-induced inhibition of osteoblast differentiation. These results suggest that TNF-{alpha} inhibits POEM expression through the NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway and down-regulation of POEM influences the inhibition of osteoblast differentiation by TNF-{alpha}.

  4. Increased Plasma Levels of Danger-Associated Molecular Patterns Are Associated With Immune Suppression and Postoperative Infections in Patients Undergoing Cytoreductive Surgery and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guus P. Leijte

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionDanger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs can elicit immune responses and may subsequently induce an immune-suppressed state. Previous work showed that increased plasma levels of DAMPs are associated with immune suppression and increased susceptibility toward infections in trauma patients. Like trauma, major surgical procedures, such as cytoreductive surgery (CRS combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC, are also thought to cause profound DAMP release. Furthermore, the incidence of postoperative infections in these patients, ranging from 10 to 36%, is very high compared to that observed in patients undergoing other major surgical procedures. We hypothesized that the double hit of surgical trauma (CRS in combination with HIPEC causes excessive DAMP release, which in turn contributes to the development of immune suppression. To investigate this, we assessed DAMP release in patients undergoing CRS-HIPEC, and investigated its relationship with immune suppression and postoperative infections.MethodsIn 20 patients undergoing CRS-HIPEC, blood was obtained at five time points: just before surgery (baseline, after CRS, after HIPEC, at ICU admission, and 1 day after surgery. Circulating levels of DAMPs [heat shock protein (HSP70, high mobility group box (HMGB1, S100A12, S100A8/S100A9, nuclear (nDNA, mitochondrial (mtDNA, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, a marker of unscheduled cell death], and cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNFα, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and MCP-1] were measured. The extent of immune suppression was determined by measuring HLA-DR gene expression and ex vivo leukocytic cytokine production capacity.ResultsPlasma levels of DAMPs (maximum fold increases of HSP70: 2.1 [1.5–2.8], HMGB1: 5.9 [3.2–9.8], S100A8/S100A9: 3.6 [1.8–5.6], S100A12: 2.6 [1.8–4.3], nDNA 3.9 [1.0–10.8], LDH 1.7 [1.2–2.5], and all measured cytokines increased profoundly following

  5. Septal Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Receptor Expression Determines Suppression of Cocaine-Induced Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasta, Anne E; Power, John M; von Jonquieres, Georg; Karl, Tim; Drucker, Daniel J; Housley, Gary D; Schneider, Miriam; Klugmann, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and its receptor GLP-1R are a key component of the satiety signaling system, and long-acting GLP-1 analogs have been approved for the treatment of type-2 diabetes mellitus. Previous reports demonstrate that GLP-1 regulates glucose homeostasis alongside the rewarding effects of food. Both palatable food and illicit drugs activate brain reward circuitries, and pharmacological studies suggest that central nervous system GLP-1 signaling holds potential for the treatment of addiction. However, the role of endogenous GLP-1 in the attenuation of reward-oriented behavior, and the essential domains of the mesolimbic system mediating these beneficial effects, are largely unknown. We hypothesized that the central regions of highest Glp-1r gene activity are essential in mediating responses to drugs of abuse. Here, we show that Glp-1r-deficient (Glp-1r−/−) mice have greatly augmented cocaine-induced locomotor responses and enhanced conditional place preference compared with wild-type (Glp-1r+/+) controls. Employing mRNA in situ hybridization we located peak Glp-1r mRNA expression in GABAergic neurons of the dorsal lateral septum, an anatomical site with a crucial function in reward perception. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of dorsal lateral septum neurons revealed that genetic Glp-1r ablation leads to increased excitability of these cells. Viral vector-mediated Glp-1r gene delivery to the dorsal lateral septum of Glp-1r−/− animals reduced cocaine-induced locomotion and conditional place preference to wild-type levels. This site-specific genetic complementation did not affect the anxiogenic phenotype observed in Glp-1r−/− controls. These data reveal a novel role of GLP-1R in dorsal lateral septum function driving behavioral responses to cocaine. PMID:25669605

  6. A mammalianized synthetic nitroreductase gene for high-level expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grohmann, Maik; Paulmann, Nils; Fleischhauer, Sebastian; Vowinckel, Jakob; Priller, Josef; Walther, Diego J

    2009-01-01

    The nitroreductase/5-(azaridin-1-yl)-2,4-dinitrobenzamide (NTR/CB1954) enzyme/prodrug system is considered as a promising candidate for anti-cancer strategies by gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) and has recently entered clinical trials. It requires the genetic modification of tumor cells to express the E. coli enzyme nitroreductase that bioactivates the prodrug CB1954 to a powerful cytotoxin. This metabolite causes apoptotic cell death by DNA interstrand crosslinking. Enhancing the enzymatic NTR activity for CB1954 should improve the therapeutical potential of this enzyme-prodrug combination in cancer gene therapy. We performed de novo synthesis of the bacterial nitroreductase gene adapting codon usage to mammalian preferences. The synthetic gene was investigated for its expression efficacy and ability to sensitize mammalian cells to CB1954 using western blotting analysis and cytotoxicity assays. In our study, we detected cytoplasmic protein aggregates by expressing GFP-tagged NTR in COS-7 cells, suggesting an impaired translation by divergent codon usage between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Therefore, we generated a synthetic variant of the nitroreductase gene, called ntro, adapted for high-level expression in mammalian cells. A total of 144 silent base substitutions were made within the bacterial ntr gene to change its codon usage to mammalian preferences. The codon-optimized ntro either tagged to gfp or c-myc showed higher expression levels in mammalian cell lines. Furthermore, the ntro rendered several cell lines ten times more sensitive to the prodrug CB1954 and also resulted in an improved bystander effect. Our results show that codon optimization overcomes expression limitations of the bacterial ntr gene in mammalian cells, thereby improving the NTR/CB1954 system at translational level for cancer gene therapy in humans

  7. γ-Oryzanol suppresses COX-2 expression by inhibiting reactive oxygen species-mediated Erk1/2 and Egr-1 signaling in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Soon Young; Kim, Heon-Woong; Jang, Hwan-Hee; Hwang, Yu-Jin; Choe, Jeong-Sook; Kim, Jung-Bong; Lim, Yoongho; Lee, Young Han

    2017-09-16

    Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 produces prostanoids, which contribute to inflammatory responses. Nuclear factor (NF)-κB is a key transcription factor mediating COX-2 expression. γ-Oryzanol is an active component in rice bran oil, which inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated COX-2 expression by inhibiting NF-κB. However, the inhibition of COX-2 expression by γ-oryzanol independently of NF-κB is poorly understood. We found that LPS upregulated Egr-1 expression at the transcriptional level. Forced expression of Egr-1 trans-activated the Cox-2 promoter independently of NF-κB. In contrast, silencing of Egr-1 abrogated LPS-mediated COX-2 expression. LPS produced reactive oxygen species (ROS), which, in turn, induced Egr-1 expression via the Erk1/2 MAPK pathway. ROS scavenging activity of γ-oryzanol suppressed Egr-1 expression by inhibiting the Erk1/2 MAPK pathway. Our results suggest that γ-oryzanol inhibits LPS-mediated COX-2 expression by suppressing Erk1/2-mediated Egr-1 expression. This study supports that γ-oryzanol may be useful for ameliorating LPS-mediated inflammatory responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. γ-Oryzanol reduces adhesion molecule expression in vascular endothelial cells via suppression of nuclear factor-κB activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Satoshi; Murata, Takahisa; Tsubosaka, Yoshiki; Ushio, Hideki; Hori, Masatoshi; Ozaki, Hiroshi

    2012-04-04

    γ-Oryzanol (γ-ORZ) is a mixture of phytosteryl ferulates purified from rice bran oil. In this study, we examined whether γ-ORZ represents a suppressive effect on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced adhesion molecule expression on vascular endothelium. Treatment with LPS elevated the mRNA expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and E-selectin in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs). Pretreatment with γ-ORZ dose-dependently decreased the LPS-mediated expression of these genes. Western blotting also revealed that pretreatment with γ-ORZ dose-dependently inhibited LPS-induced VCAM-1 expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Consistently, pretreatment with γ-ORZ dose-dependently reduced LPS-induced U937 monocyte adhesion to BAECs. In immunofluorescence, LPS caused nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) nuclear translocation in 40% of BAECs, which indicates NF-κB activation. Pretreatment with γ-ORZ, as well as its components (cycloartenyl ferulate, ferulic acid, or cycloartenol), dose-dependently inhibited LPS-mediated NF-κB activation. Collectively, our results suggested that γ-ORZ reduced LPS-mediated adhesion molecule expression through NF-κB inhibition in vascular endothelium.

  9. Recent Progress on Liver Kinase B1 (LKB1: Expression, Regulation, Downstream Signaling and Cancer Suppressive Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-You Gan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Liver kinase B1 (LKB1, known as a serine/threonine kinase, has been identified as a critical cancer suppressor in many cancer cells. It is a master upstream kinase of 13 AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK-related protein kinases, and possesses versatile biological functions. LKB1 gene is mutated in many cancers, and its protein can form different protein complexes with different cellular localizations in various cell types. The expression of LKB1 can be regulated through epigenetic modification, transcriptional regulation and post-translational modification. LKB1 dowcnstream pathways mainly include AMPK, microtubule affinity regulating kinase (MARK, salt-inducible kinase (SIK, sucrose non-fermenting protein-related kinase (SNRK and brain selective kinase (BRSK signalings, etc. This review, therefore, mainly discusses recent studies about the expression, regulation, downstream signaling and cancer suppressive function of LKB1, which can be helpful for better understanding of this molecular and its significance in cancers.

  10. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation influences expression and suppression of impulsive behaviour in Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; Elias, William J.; Frysinger, Robert C.; Bashore, Theodore R.; Downs, Kara E.; van Wouwe, Nelleke C.; van den Wildenberg, Wery P. M.

    2010-01-01

    Past studies show beneficial as well as detrimental effects of subthalamic nucleus deep-brain stimulation on impulsive behaviour. We address this paradox by investigating individuals with Parkinson’s disease treated with subthalamic nucleus stimulation (n = 17) and healthy controls without Parkinson’s disease (n = 17) on performance in a Simon task. In this reaction time task, conflict between premature response impulses and goal-directed action selection is manipulated. We applied distributional analytic methods to separate the strength of the initial response impulse from the proficiency of inhibitory control engaged subsequently to suppress the impulse. Patients with Parkinson’s disease were tested when stimulation was either turned on or off. Mean conflict interference effects did not differ between controls and patients, or within patients when stimulation was on versus off. In contrast, distributional analyses revealed two dissociable effects of subthalamic nucleus stimulation. Fast response errors indicated that stimulation increased impulsive, premature responding in high conflict situations. Later in the reaction process, however, stimulation improved the proficiency with which inhibitory control was engaged to suppress these impulses selectively, thereby facilitating selection of the correct action. This temporal dissociation supports a conceptual framework for resolving past paradoxical findings and further highlights that dynamic aspects of impulse and inhibitory control underlying goal-directed behaviour rely in part on neural circuitry inclusive of the subthalamic nucleus. PMID:20861152

  11. Protein Expression Analyses at the Single Cell Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masae Ohno

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The central dogma of molecular biology explains how genetic information is converted into its end product, proteins, which are responsible for the phenotypic state of the cell. Along with the protein type, the phenotypic state depends on the protein copy number. Therefore, quantification of the protein expression in a single cell is critical for quantitative characterization of the phenotypic states. Protein expression is typically a dynamic and stochastic phenomenon that cannot be well described by standard experimental methods. As an alternative, fluorescence imaging is being explored for the study of protein expression, because of its high sensitivity and high throughput. Here we review key recent progresses in fluorescence imaging-based methods and discuss their application to proteome analysis at the single cell level.

  12. Bee venom induces apoptosis and suppresses matrix metaloprotease-2 expression in human glioblastoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Sisakht

    Full Text Available Abstract Glioblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor representing with poor prognosis, therapy resistance and high metastasis rate. Increased expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2, a member of matrix metalloproteinase family proteins, has been reported in many cancers including glioblastoma. Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression has resulted in reduced aggression of glioblastoma tumors in several reports. In the present study, we evaluated effect of bee venom on expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 as well as potential toxicity and apoptogenic properties of bee venom on glioblastoma cells. Human A172 glioblastoma cells were treated with increasing concentrations of bee venom. Then, cell viability, apoptosis, matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity were measured using MMT assay, propidium iodide staining, real time-PCR, and zymography, respectively. The IC50 value of bee venom was 28.5 µg/ml in which it leads to decrease of cell viability and induction of apoptosis. Incubation with bee venom also decreased the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in this cell line (p < 0.05. In zymography, there was a reverse correlation between bee venom concentration and total matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity. Induction of apoptosis as well as inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity and expression can be suggested as molecular mechanisms involved in cytotoxic and antimetastatic effects of bee venom against glioblastoma cells.

  13. Inhibition of PRL-3 gene expression in gastric cancer cell line SGC7901 via microRNA suppressed reduces peritoneal metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhengrong; Zhan Wenhua; Wang Zhao; Zhu Baohe; He Yulong; Peng Junsheng; Cai Shirong; Ma Jinping

    2006-01-01

    High expression of PRL-3, a protein tyrosine phosphatase, is proved to be associated with lymph node metastasis in gastric carcinoma from previous studies. In this paper, we examined the relationship between PRL-3 expression and peritoneal metastasis in gastric carcinoma. We applied the artificial miRNA (pCMV-PRL3miRNA), which is based on the murine miR-155 sequence, to efficiently silence the target gene expression of PRL-3 in SGC7901 gastric cancer cells at both mRNA and protein levels. Then we observed that, in vitro, pCMV-PRL3miRNA significantly depressed the SGC7901 cell invasion and migration independent of cellular proliferation. In vivo, PRL-3 knockdown effectively suppressed the growth of peritoneal metastases and improved the prognosis in nude mice. Therefore, we concluded that artificial miRNA can depress the expression of PRL-3, and that PRL-3 might be a potential therapeutic target for gastric cancer peritoneal metastasis

  14. High-level transient expression of recombinant protein in lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joh, Lawrence D; Wroblewski, Tadeusz; Ewing, Nicholas N; VanderGheynst, Jean S

    2005-09-30

    Transient expression following agroinfiltration of plant tissue was investigated as a system for producing recombinant protein. As a model system, Agrobacterium tumefaciens containing the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene was vacuum infiltrated into lettuce leaf disks. Infiltration with a suspension of 10(9) colony forming units/mL followed by incubation for 72 h at 22 degrees C in continuous darkness produced a maximum of 0.16% GUS protein based on dry tissue or 1.1% GUS protein based on total soluble protein. This compares favorably to expression levels for commercially manufactured GUS protein from transgenic corn seeds. A. tumefaciens culture medium pH between 5.6 and 7.0 and surfactant concentrations lettuce to produce GUS protein more rapidly, but final levels did not exceed the GUS production in leaves incubated in continuous darkness after 72 h at 22 degrees C. The kinetics of GUS expression during incubation in continuous light and dark were represented well using a logistic model, with rate constants of 0.30 and 0.29/h, respectively. To semi-quantitatively measure the GUS expression in large numbers of leaf disks, a photometric enhancement of the standard histochemical staining method was developed. A linear relationship with an R2 value of 0.90 was determined between log10 (% leaf darkness) versus log10 (GUS activity). Although variability in expression level was observed, agroinfiltration appears to be a promising technology that could potentially be scaled up to produce high-value recombinant proteins in planta. Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  15. Mapping organism expression levels at cellular resolution in developing Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, David W.; Keranen, Soile; Biggin, Mark D.; Sudar, Damir

    2002-05-01

    The development of an animal embryo is orchestrated by a network of genetically determined, temporal and spatial gene expression patterns that determine the animals final form. To understand such networks, we are developing novel quantitative optical imaging techniques to map gene expression levels at cellular and sub-cellular resolution within pregastrula Drosophila. Embryos at different stages of development are labeled for total DNA and specific gene products using different fluorophors and imaged in 3D with confocal microscopy. Innovative steps have been made which allow the DNA-image to be automatically segmented to produce a morphological mask of the individual nuclear boundaries. For each stage of development an average morphology is chosen to which images from different embryo are compared. The morphological mask is then used to quantify gene-product on a per nuclei basis. What results is an atlas of the relative amount of the specific gene product expressed within the nucleus of every cell in the embryo at the various stages of development. We are creating a quantitative database of transcription factor and target gene expression patterns in wild-type and factor mutant embryos with single cell resolution. Our goal is to uncover the rules determining how patterns of gene expression are generated.

  16. Suppression of cotton leaf curl disease symptoms in Gossypium hirsutum through over expression of host-encoded miRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmal, Mohd; Baig, Mirza S; Khan, Jawaid A

    2017-12-10

    Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD), a major factor resulting in the enormous yield losses in cotton crop, is caused by a distinct monopartite begomovirus in association with Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB). Micro(mi)RNAs are known to regulate gene expression in eukaryotes, including antiviral defense in plants. In a previous study, we had computationally identified a set of cotton miRNAs, which were shown to have potential targets in the genomes of Cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMuV) and CLCuMB at multiple loci. In the current study, effect of Gossypium arboreum-encoded miRNAs on the genome of CLCuMuV and CLCuMB was investigated in planta. Two computationally predicted cotton-encoded miRNAs (miR398 and miR2950) that showed potential to bind multiple Open Reading Frames (ORFs; C1, C4, V1, and non- coding intergenic region) of CLCuMuV, and (βC1) of CLCuMB were selected. Functional validation of miR398 and miR2950 was done by overexpression approach in G. hirsutum var. HS6. A total of ten in vitro cotton plants were generated from independent events and subjected to biological and molecular analyses. Presence of the respective Precursor (pre)-miRNA was confirmed through PCR and Southern blotting, and their expression level was assessed by semi quantitative RT-PCR, Real Time quantitative PCR and northern hybridization in the PCR-positive lines. Southern hybridization revealed 2-4 copy integration of T-DNA in the genome of the transformed lines. Remarkably, expression of pre-miRNAs was shown up to 5.8-fold higher in the transgenic (T 0 ) lines as revealed by Real Time PCR. The virus resistance was monitored following inoculation of the transgenic cotton lines with viruliferous whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) insect vector. After inoculation, four of the transgenic lines remained apparently symptom free. While a very low titre of viral DNA could be detected by Rolling circle amplification, betasatellite responsible for symptom induction could not be detected

  17. C-Type Lectin-Like Receptor 2 Suppresses AKT Signaling and Invasive Activities of Gastric Cancer Cells by Blocking Expression of Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan; Yin, Jie; Wang, Xuefei; Shao, Miaomiao; Duan, Fangfang; Wu, Weicheng; Peng, Peike; Jin, Jing; Tang, Yue; Ruan, Yuanyuan; Sun, Yihong; Gu, Jianxin

    2016-05-01

    markers; these tumor-suppressive effects of CLEC2 required SYK. CLEC2 and SYK interacted physically, and SYK maintained the stability of CLEC2 in cells. AGS cells with CLEC2 knockdown had increased levels of phosphorylated AKT and glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta, increased expression of Snail, reduced levels of E-cadherin, and formed more metastases in mice than AGS cells that expressed CLEC2; these knockdown changes were prevented by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Activation of CLEC2 in AGS cells reduced protein and messenger RNA levels of PI3K subunits p85 and p110; this effect was blocked by SYK inhibitor R406. Levels of CLEC2 and SYK proteins and messenger RNAs correlated in gastric tumor samples. CLEC2 suppresses metastasis of gastric cancer cells injected into mice, and prevents activation of AKT and glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta signaling, as well as invasiveness and expression of epithelial to mesenchymal transition markers in gastric cancer cell lines. CLEC2 prevents expression of PI3K subunits, in a SYK-dependent manner. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Andrographolide suppresses high glucose-induced fibronectin expression in mesangial cells via inhibiting the AP-1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Tian; Wu, Teng; Gou, Hongju; Zhang, Qianqian; Li, Jiangchao; Qi, Cuiling; He, Xiaodong; Wu, Pingxiang; Wang, Lijing

    2013-11-01

    Mesangial cells (MCs) proliferation and accumulation of glomerular matrix proteins such as fibronectin (FN) are the early features of diabetic nephropathy, with MCs known to upregulate matrix protein synthesis in response to high glucose. Recently, it has been found that andrographolide has renoprotective effects on diabetic nephropathy. However, the molecular mechanism underlying these effects remains unclear. Cell viability and proliferation was evaluated by MTT. FN expression was examined by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting. Activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation was assessed by immunoblotting, luciferase reporter and electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Andrographolide significantly decreased high glucose-induced cell proliferation and FN expression in MCs. Exposure of MCs to high glucose markedly stimulated the expression of phosphorylated c-jun, whereas the stimulation was inhibited by andrographolide. Plasmid pAP-1-Luc luciferase reporter assay showed that andrographolide blocked high glucose-induced AP-1 transcriptional activity. EMSA assay demonstrated that increased AP-1 binding to an AP-1 binding site at -1,029 in the FN gene promoter upon high glucose stimulation, and the binding were disrupted by andrographolide treatment. These data indicate that andrographolide suppresses high glucose-induced FN expression by inhibiting AP-1-mediated pathway. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Histone deacetylase inhibitor romidepsin induces HIV expression in CD4 T cells from patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy at concentrations achieved by clinical dosing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Datsen George Wei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Persistent latent reservoir of replication-competent proviruses in memory CD4 T cells is a major obstacle to curing HIV infection. Pharmacological activation of HIV expression in latently infected cells is being explored as one of the strategies to deplete the latent HIV reservoir. In this study, we characterized the ability of romidepsin (RMD, a histone deacetylase inhibitor approved for the treatment of T-cell lymphomas, to activate the expression of latent HIV. In an in vitro T-cell model of HIV latency, RMD was the most potent inducer of HIV (EC50 = 4.5 nM compared with vorinostat (VOR; EC50 = 3,950 nM and other histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors in clinical development including panobinostat (PNB; EC50 = 10 nM. The HIV induction potencies of RMD, VOR, and PNB paralleled their inhibitory activities against multiple human HDAC isoenzymes. In both resting and memory CD4 T cells isolated from HIV-infected patients on suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART, a 4-hour exposure to 40 nM RMD induced a mean 6-fold increase in intracellular HIV RNA levels, whereas a 24-hour treatment with 1 µM VOR resulted in 2- to 3-fold increases. RMD-induced intracellular HIV RNA expression persisted for 48 hours and correlated with sustained inhibition of cell-associated HDAC activity. By comparison, the induction of HIV RNA by VOR and PNB was transient and diminished after 24 hours. RMD also increased levels of extracellular HIV RNA and virions from both memory and resting CD4 T-cell cultures. The activation of HIV expression was observed at RMD concentrations below the drug plasma levels achieved by doses used in patients treated for T-cell lymphomas. In conclusion, RMD induces HIV expression ex vivo at concentrations that can be achieved clinically, indicating that the drug may reactivate latent HIV in patients on suppressive cART.

  20. miR-200c targets nuclear factor IA to suppress HBV replication and gene expression via repressing HBV Enhancer I activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hui; He, Zhenkun

    2018-03-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) chronic infection is a health problem in the worldwide, with a underlying higher risk of liver cirrhosis and hepaticocellular carcinoma. A number of studies indicate that microRNAs (miRNAs) play vital roles in HBV replication. This study was designed to explore the potential molecular mechanism of miR-200c in HBV replication. The expression of miR-200c, nuclear factor IA (NFIA) mRNA, HBV DNA, and HBV RNA (pregenomic RNA (pgRNA), and total RNA) were measured by qRCR. The levels of HBsAg and HBeAg were detected by ELISA. NFIA expression at protein level was measured by western blot. The direct interaction between miR-200c and NFIA were identified by Targetscan software and Dual-Luciferase reporter analysis. Enhance I activity were detected by Dual-Luciferase reporter assay. miR-200c expression was prominently reduced in pHBV1.3-tranfected Huh7 and in stable HBV-producing cell line (HepG2.2.15). The enforced expression of miR-200c significantly suppressed HBV replication, as demonstrated by the reduced levels of HBV protein (HBsAg and HBeAg) and, DNA and RNA (pgRNA and total RNA) levels. NFIA was proved to be a target of miR-200c and NFIA overexpression notably stimulated HBV replication. In addition, the inhibitory effect of miR-200c on HBV Enhance I activity was abolished following restoration of NFIA. miR-200c repressed HBV replication by directly targeting NFIA, which might provide a novel therapeutic target for HBV infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. [Suppression of VEGF protein expression by arctigenin in oral squamous cell carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Guang-rui; Liu, Fa-yu; Wang, Bo

    2015-08-01

    To observe arctigenin's inhibitory effect on oral squamous cell carcinoma, and explore the possible mechanism. The expression of VEGF in 32 cases of oral squamous cell cancer and 20 adjacent tissue specimen were detected with immunohistochemistry. Human nude mouse transplantation tumor model of oral squamous cell cancer was prepared with HSC-3 cells line. Transplanted tumor growth and VEGF expression in transplanted tumor tissues were assayed after treatment with arctigenin. One-way ANOVA was used for comparison between groups with SPSS 16.0 software package. Compared with the adjacent tissue, immunohistochemical staining score of VEGF was significantly higher (Parctigenin, the growth of oral squamous cell transplanted tumors in nude mouse was inhibited (Parctigenin group (PArctigenin can dose-dependently inhibit the growth of oral squamous cell carcinomas, and this effect may be related to down regulation of VEGF expression.

  2. Growth suppression by transforming growth factor beta 1 of human small-cell lung cancer cell lines is associated with expression of the type II receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, P; Damstrup, L; Rygaard, K

    1994-01-01

    was observed in two cell lines expressing only type III receptor and in TGF-beta-r negative cell lines. In two cell lines expressing all three receptor types, growth suppression was accompanied by morphological changes. To evaluate the possible involvement of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) in mediating...

  3. Suppression of tumor growth and angiogenesis by a specific antagonist of the cell-surface expressed nucleolin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Destouches

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Emerging evidences suggest that nucleolin expressed on the cell surface is implicated in growth of tumor cells and angiogenesis. Nucleolin is one of the major proteins of the nucleolus, but it is also expressed on the cell surface where is serves as a binding protein for variety of ligands implicated in cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, mitogenesis and angiogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By using a specific antagonist that binds the C-terminal tail of nucleolin, the HB-19 pseudopeptide, here we show that the growth of tumor cells and angiogenesis are suppressed in various in vitro and in vivo experimental models. HB-19 inhibited colony formation in soft agar of tumor cell lines, impaired migration of endothelial cells and formation of capillary-like structures in collagen gel, and reduced blood vessel branching in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane. In athymic nude mice, HB-19 treatment markedly suppressed the progression of established human breast tumor cell xenografts in nude mice, and in some cases eliminated measurable tumors while displaying no toxicity to normal tissue. This potent antitumoral effect is attributed to the direct inhibitory action of HB-19 on both tumor and endothelial cells by blocking and down regulating surface nucleolin, but without any apparent effect on nucleolar nucleolin. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results illustrate the dual inhibitory action of HB-19 on the tumor development and the neovascularization process, thus validating the cell-surface expressed nucleolin as a strategic target for an effective cancer drug. Consequently, the HB-19 pseudopeptide provides a unique candidate to consider for innovative cancer therapy.

  4. Novel system uses probasin-based promoter, transcriptional silencers and amplification loop to induce high-level prostate expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hong

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite several effective treatment options available for prostate cancer, it remains the second leading cause of cancer death in American men. Thus, there is a great need for new treatments to improve outcomes. One such strategy is to eliminate cancer through the expression of cytotoxic genes specifically in prostate cells by gene therapy vectored delivery. To prevent systemic toxicity, tissue- and/or cancer-specific gene expression is required. However, the use of tissue- or cancer-specific promoters to target transgene expression has been hampered by their weak activity. Results To address this issue, we have developed a regulation strategy that includes feedback amplification of gene expression along with a differentially suppressible tetracycline regulated expression system (DiSTRES. By differentially suppressing expression of the tetracycline-regulated transcriptional activator (tTA and silencer (tTS genes based on the cell origin, this leads to the activation and silencing of the TRE promoter, respectively. In vitro transduction of LNCaP cells with Ad/GFPDiSTRES lead to GFP expression levels that were over 30-fold higher than Ad/CMV-GFP. Furthermore, Ad/FasL-GFPDiSTRES demonstrated cytotoxic effects in prostate cancer cells known to be resistant to Fas-mediated apoptosis. Conclusion Prostate-specific regulation from the DiSTRES system, therefore, serves as a promising new regulation strategy for future applications in the field of cancer gene therapy and gene therapy as a whole.

  5. The effects of laughter on post-prandial glucose levels and gene expression in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Takashi; Murakami, Kazuo

    2009-07-31

    This report mainly summarizes the results of our study in which the physiological effects of laughter--as a positive emotional expression--were analyzed with respect to gene expression changes to demonstrate the hypothesis that the mind and genes mutually influence each other. We observed that laughter suppressed 2-h postprandial blood glucose level increase in patients with type 2 diabetes and analyzed gene expression changes. Some genes showed specific changes in their expression. In addition, we revealed that laughter decreased the levels of prorenin in blood; prorenin is involved in the onset of diabetic complications. Further, laughter normalized the expression of the prorenin receptor gene on peripheral blood leukocytes, which had been reduced in diabetic patients; this demonstrated that the inhibitory effects of laughter on the onset/deterioration of diabetic complications at the gene-expression level. In a subsequent study, we demonstrated the effects of laughter by discriminating 14 genes, related to natural killer (NK) cell activity, to exhibit continuous increases in expression as a result of laughter. Our results supported NK cell-mediated improvement in glucose tolerance at the gene-expression level. In this report, we also review other previous studies on laughter.

  6. GnRH-agonist implants suppress reproductive function and affects ovarian LHR and FSHR expression in prepubertal female cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl, N S; Srisuwatanasagul, S; Swangchan-Uthai, T; Sirivaidyapong, S; Khalid, M

    2017-01-01

    Effect of a GnRH-agonist (deslorelin) was studied on reproductive function and ovarian luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) expression in prepubertal female cats that were either implanted with 4.7-mg deslorelin (implanted: n = 6) or not (controls: n = 18) or ovariohysterectomized at prepubertal age (prepubertal OVH: n = 6). Body weights, fecal estradiol, and sexual behavior of implanted and control cats were monitored for 48 weeks followed by collection of ovaries and uteri. Ovaries and uteri were collected from control cats at follicular, luteal, and inactive stage (n = 6/group) and from prepubertal OVH cats at prepubertal age. Ovaries and uteri were analyzed for anatomical/histological characteristics. Ovaries were also analyzed for LHR and FSHR expression. Statistical analysis showed higher (P ≤ 0.05) body weight in control than implanted cats only during 22nd to 26th weeks of the study. Estrus was observed in control cats only. Deslorelin reduced (P ≤ 0.05) ovarian weight and number of antral follicles but did not affect endometrial thickness and gland diameter. However, myometrial thickness of implanted cats was significantly lower than control cats at follicular and luteal stage. Ovarian LHR mRNA expression was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in implanted cats than control cats at follicular stage. FSHR mRNA and LHR protein expression did not differ among the three groups. FSHR protein expression was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in prepubertal OVH cats and was not affected by deslorelin. In conclusion, deslorelin suppresses reproductive function in prepubertal female cats for at least 48 weeks possibly through a change in the ovarian mRNA expression of LHR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Abscisic acid ameliorates experimental IBD by downregulating cellular adhesion molecule expression and suppressing immune cell infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guri, Amir J; Hontecillas, Raquel; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2010-12-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) has shown effectiveness in ameliorating inflammation in obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease models. The objective of this study was to determine whether ABA prevents or ameliorates experimental inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). C57BL/6J mice were fed diets with or without ABA (100mg/kg) for 35 days prior to challenge with 2.5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). The severity of clinical disease was assessed daily. Colonic mucosal lesions were evaluated by histopathology, and cellular adhesion molecular and inflammatory markers were assayed by real-time quantitative PCR. Flow cytometry was used to quantify leukocyte populations in the blood, spleen, and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). The effect of ABA on cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) expression in splenocytes was also investigated. ABA significantly ameliorated disease activity, colitis and reduced colonic leukocyte infiltration and inflammation. These improvements were associated with downregulation in vascular cell adhesion marker-1 (VCAM-1), E-selectin, and mucosal addressin adhesion marker-1 (MAdCAM-1) expression. ABA also increased CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocytes in blood and MLN and regulatory T cells in blood. In vitro, ABA increased CTLA-4 expression through a PPAR γ-dependent mechanism. We conclude that ABA ameliorates gut inflammation by modulating T cell distribution and adhesion molecule expression. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  8. Expressing Emotions in Teaching: Inducement, Suppression, and Disclosure as Caring Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuu

    2010-01-01

    Is teaching emotional labor? Are teachers selling their own emotions in exchange for money? To examine these questions, this paper examines teachers' emotion expression in teaching. Most previous studies have assessed teachers' emotional experience using interviews, and have reported that because teachers manage their own emotions, teaching is…

  9. Differences Between Expressive Suppression and Cognitive Reappraisal Between Heart Disease and Generalal Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mohammad Reza Mirlohi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Heart disease and emotional disorders often co-occur, but effective role in dysregulation of heart disease that is often overlooked. Evidence suggests that people with heart disease are more problems in regulating their emotions. The study compared the re-evaluation of cognitive emotion regulation commonly used two strategies- and suppression- between heart disease and the general population. Methods: Sixty men (30 with heart complaints and 30 without the condition were selected by convenience sampling method and they responded to the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (Gross and John and a demographic questionnaire responded. To analyze the results and descriptive statistics such as frequency tables and inferential statistics, independent T-test was used SPSS software was used. Results: The result shows that heart disease and general population re-evaluation strategies groups (P<0.01. This is not only different from the strategy reassessment, but in different repression, too. (P <0.001. Conclusion: The results showed that heart disease and general population used different strategies to regulate their emotions. The key to finding the heart disease group prefer repression to regulate their emotions.

  10. Growth differentiation factor 9 reverses activin A suppression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression and progesterone production in human granulosa-lutein cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Feng-Tao; Cheung, Anthony P; Klausen, Christian; Huang, He-Feng; Leung, Peter C K

    2010-10-01

    We have reported that growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) can enhance activin A (β(A)β(A))-induced inhibin B (αβ(B)) secretion in human granulosa-lutein (hGL) cells, but its effects on steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), ovarian steroidogenic enzymes, and progesterone production are unknown. We undertook this study to further evaluate GDF9 in this regard. hGL cells from women undergoing in vitro fertilization treatment were cultured with and without small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection targeted at inhibin α-subunit or GDF9 before treatment with GDF9, activin A, FSH, or combinations. We compared StAR, P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme, and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase expression in hGL cells and progesterone levels in culture media after these treatments. mRNA, protein, and hormone levels were assessed with real-time RT-PCR, immunoblotting, and ELISA, respectively. Data were analyzed by ANOVA followed by Tukey's test. Activin A alone reduced basal and FSH-induced progesterone production by decreasing the expression of StAR protein, which regulates the rate-limiting step in steroidogenesis but not P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. GDF9 attenuated these activin A effects on StAR and progesterone. After transfection of α-subunit siRNA, activin A level increased (P progesterone production were attenuated (P progesterone secretion than those observed with activin A treatment alone. GDF9 attenuates the suppressive effects of activin A on StAR expression and progesterone production by increasing the expression of inhibin B, which acts as an activin A competitor.

  11. Fibrates suppress fibrinogen gene expression in rodents via activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kockx, M.; Gervois, P.P.; Poulain, P.; Derudas, B.; Peters, J.M.; Gonzalez, F.J.; Princen, H.M.G.; Kooistra, T.; Staels, B.

    1999-01-01

    Plasma fibrinogen levels have been identified as an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Among the few compounds known to lower circulating fibrinogen levels in humans are certain fibrates. We have studied the regulation of fibrinogen gene expression by fibrates in rodents. Treatment

  12. High epitope expression levels increase competition between T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almut Scherer

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Both theoretical predictions and experimental findings suggest that T cell populations can compete with each other. There is some debate on whether T cells compete for aspecific stimuli, such as access to the surface on antigen-presenting cells (APCs or for specific stimuli, such as their cognate epitope ligand. We have developed an individual-based computer simulation model to study T cell competition. Our model shows that the expression level of foreign epitopes per APC determines whether T cell competition is mainly for specific or aspecific stimuli. Under low epitope expression, competition is mainly for the specific epitope stimuli, and, hence, different epitope-specific T cell populations coexist readily. However, if epitope expression levels are high, aspecific competition becomes more important. Such between-specificity competition can lead to competitive exclusion between different epitope-specific T cell populations. Our model allows us to delineate the circumstances that facilitate coexistence of T cells of different epitope specificity. Understanding mechanisms of T cell coexistence has important practical implications for immune therapies that require a broad immune response.

  13. Galunisertib suppresses the staminal phenotype in hepatocellular carcinoma by modulating CD44 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Bhavna; Malfettone, Andrea; Dituri, Francesco; Soukupova, Jitka; Lupo, Luigi; Mancarella, Serena; Fabregat, Isabel; Giannelli, Gianluigi

    2018-03-07

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) niche in the tumor microenvironment is responsible for cancer recurrence and therapy failure. To better understand its molecular and biological involvement in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression, one can design more effective therapies and tailored then to individual patients. While sorafenib is currently the only approved drug for first-line treatment of advanced stage HCC, its role in modulating the CSC niche is estimated to be small. By contrast, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β pathway seems to influence the CSC and thus may impact hallmarks of HCC, such as liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and tumor progression. Therefore, blocking this pathway may offer an appealing and druggable target. In our study, we have used galunisertib (LY2157299), a selective ATP-mimetic inhibitor of TGF-β receptor I (TGFβI/ALK5) activation, currently under clinical investigation in HCC patients. Because the drug resistance is mainly mediated by CSCs, we tested the effects of galunisertib on stemness phenotype in HCC cells to determine whether TGF-β signaling modulates CSC niche and drug resistance. Galunisertib modulated the expression of stemness-related genes only in the invasive (HLE and HLF) HCC cells inducing a decreased expression of CD44 and THY1. Furthermore, galunisertib also reduced the stemness-related functions of invasive HCC cells decreasing the formation of colonies, liver spheroids and invasive growth ability. Interestingly, CD44 loss of function mimicked the galunisertib effects on HCC stemness-related functions. Galunisertib treatment also reduced the expression of stemness-related genes in ex vivo human HCC specimens. Our observations are the first evidence that galunisertib effectiveness overcomes stemness-derived aggressiveness via decreased expression CD44 and THY1.

  14. Nimotuzumab enhances temozolomide?induced growth suppression of glioma cells expressing mutant EGFR in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Nitta, Yusuke; Shimizu, Saki; Shishido?Hara, Yukiko; Suzuki, Kaori; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki; Nagane, Motoo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A mutant form of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), EGFRvIII, is common in glioblastoma (GBM) and confers enhanced tumorigenic activity and drug resistance. Nimotuzumab, an anti?EGFR antibody, has shown preclinical and clinical activity to GBM, but its specific activity against EGFRvIII has not been fully investigated. Human glioma U87MG or LNZ308 cells overexpressing either wild?type (wt) EGFR or EGFRvIII were treated with nimotuzumab, temozolomide, or both. Expression and pho...

  15. Oocyte-specific gene Oog1 suppresses the expression of spermatogenesis-specific genes in oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Shinnosuke; Miki, Yuka; Miyamoto, Yuya; Kawahara, Yu; Tsukamoto, Satoshi; Imai, Hiroshi; Minami, Naojiro

    2018-05-03

    Oog1, an oocyte-specific gene that encodes a protein of 425 amino acids, is present in five copies on mouse chromosomes 4 and 12. In mouse oocytes, Oog1 mRNA expression begins at embryonic day 15.5 and almost disappears by the late two-cell stage. Meanwhile, OOG1 protein is detectable in oocytes in ovarian cysts and disappears by the four-cell stage; the protein is transported to the nucleus in late one-cell to early two-cell stage embryos. In this study, we examined the role of Oog1 during oogenesis in mice. Oog1 RNAi-transgenic mice were generated by expressing double-stranded hairpin Oog1 RNA, which is processed into siRNAs targeting Oog1 mRNA. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the amount of Oog1 mRNA was dramatically reduced in oocytes obtained from Oog1-knockdown mice, whereas the abundance of spermatogenesis-associated transcripts (Klhl10, Tekt2, Tdrd6, and Tnp2) was increased in Oog1 knockdown ovaries. Tdrd6 is involved in the formation of the chromatoid body, Tnp2 contributes to the formation of sperm heads, Tekt2 is required for the formation of ciliary and flagellar microtubules, and Klhl10 plays a key role in the elongated sperm differentiation. These results indicate that Oog1 down-regulates the expression of spermatogenesis-associated genes in female germ cells, allowing them to develop normally into oocytes.

  16. Suppression of vascular endothelial growth factor expression by cannabinoids in a canine osteosarcoma cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueiredo AS

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Andreza S Figueiredo,1 Hiram J García-Crescioni,1 Sandra C Bulla,1 Matthew K Ross,2 Chelsea McIntosh,1 Kari Lunsford,3 Camilo Bulla11Department of Pathobiology and Population Medicine, 2Department of Basic Sciences, 3Department of Clinical Sciences and Animal Health Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, USAAbstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is a key regulator in both physiologic and pathologic angiogenesis, and cannabinoids decrease VEGF release in human and murine cancer cells. The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro effects of a synthetic cannabinoid, WIN-55,212-2, on the expression of the proangiogenic factor VEGF-A in the canine osteosarcoma cell line 8. After analysis of gene expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, the compound decreased VEGF-A expression by 35% ± 10% (P < 0.0001 as compared with the control. This synthetic cannabinoid shows promise as a potential inhibitor of angiogenesis, and further studies are warranted to investigate its in vivo effects and to explore the potential of this and related compounds as adjuvant cancer therapy in the dog.Keywords: dog, cancer, angiogenesis, cannabinoids

  17. Valsartan attenuates pulmonary hypertension via suppression of mitogen activated protein kinase signaling and matrix metalloproteinase expression in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuyan; Guo, Haipeng; Sun, Yuxi; Pan, Xin; Dong, Jia; Gao, Di; Chen, Wei; Xu, Yawei; Xu, Dachun

    2017-08-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that the renin-angiotensin system is involved in the pathogenesis and development of pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, the efficacy of angiotensin II type I (AT1) receptor blockers in the treatment of PH is variable. The present study examined the effects of the AT1 receptor blocker valsartan on monocrotaline (MCT)‑induced PH in rats and chronic hypoxia‑induced PH in mice. The results demonstrated that valsartan markedly attenuated development of PH in rats and mice, as indicated by reduced right ventricular systolic pressure, diminished lung vascular remodeling and decreased right ventricular hypertrophy, compared with vehicle treated animals. Immunohistochemical analyses of proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression revealed that valsartan suppressed smooth muscle cell proliferation. Western blot analysis demonstrated that valsartan limited activation of p38, c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase 1/2 and extracellular signal‑regulated kinase 1/2 signaling pathways and significantly reduced MCT‑induced upregulation of pulmonary matrix metalloproteinases‑2 and ‑9, and transforming growth factor‑β1 expression. The results suggested that valsartan attenuates development of PH in rodents by reducing expression of extracellular matrix remodeling factors and limiting smooth muscle cell proliferation to decrease pathological vascular remodeling. Therefore, valsartan may be a valuable future therapeutic approach for the treatment of PH.

  18. Cinnamic aldehyde suppresses hypoxia-induced angiogenesis via inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression during tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Woom-Yee; Choi, Jae-Sun; Kim, Ja-Eun; Jeong, Joo-Won

    2015-11-01

    During tumor progression, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) plays a critical role in tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth by regulating the transcription of several genes in response to a hypoxic environment and changes in growth factors. This study was designed to investigate the effects of cinnamic aldehyde (CA) on tumor growth and angiogenesis and the mechanisms underlying CA's anti-angiogenic activities. We found that CA administration inhibits tumor growth and blocks tumor angiogenesis in BALB/c mice. In addition, CA treatment decreased HIF-1α protein expression and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in mouse tumors and Renca cells exposed to hypoxia in vitro. Interestingly, CA treatment did not affect the stability of von Hippel-Lindau protein (pVHL)-associated HIF-1α and CA attenuated the activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Collectively, these findings strongly indicate that the anti-angiogenic activity of CA is, at least in part, regulated by the mTOR pathway-mediated suppression of HIF-1α protein expression and these findings suggest that CA may be a potential drug for human cancer therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Schiff Base Metal Derivatives Enhance the Expression of HSP70 and Suppress BAX Proteins in Prevention of Acute Gastric Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Golbabapour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Schiff base complexes have appeared to be promising in the treatment of different diseases and disorders and have drawn a lot of attention to their biological activities. This study was conducted to evaluate the regulatory effect of Schiff base metal derivatives on the expression of heat shock proteins (HSP 70 and BAX in protection against acute haemorrhagic gastric ulcer in rats. Rats were assigned to 6 groups of 6 rats: the normal control (Tween 20 5% v/v, 5 mL/kg, the positive control (Tween 20 5% v/v, 5 mL/kg, and four Schiff base derivative groups named Schiff_1, Schiff_2, Schiff_3, and Schiff_4 (25 mg/kg. After 1 h, all of the groups received ethanol 95% (5 mL/kg but the normal control received Tween 20 (Tween 20 5% v/v, 5 mL/kg. The animals were euthanized after 60 min and the stomachs were dissected for histology (H&E, immunohistochemistry, and western blot analysis against HSP70 and BAX proteins. The results showed that the Schiff base metal derivatives enhanced the expression of HSP70 and suppressed the expression of BAX proteins during their gastroprotection against ethanol-induced gastric lesion in rats.

  20. Schiff base metal derivatives enhance the expression of HSP70 and suppress BAX proteins in prevention of acute gastric lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbabapour, Shahram; Gwaram, Nura Suleiman; Al-Obaidi, Mazen M Jamil; Soleimani, A F; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Abdul Majid, Nazia

    2013-01-01

    Schiff base complexes have appeared to be promising in the treatment of different diseases and disorders and have drawn a lot of attention to their biological activities. This study was conducted to evaluate the regulatory effect of Schiff base metal derivatives on the expression of heat shock proteins (HSP) 70 and BAX in protection against acute haemorrhagic gastric ulcer in rats. Rats were assigned to 6 groups of 6 rats: the normal control (Tween 20 5% v/v, 5 mL/kg), the positive control (Tween 20 5% v/v, 5 mL/kg), and four Schiff base derivative groups named Schiff_1, Schiff_2, Schiff_3, and Schiff_4 (25 mg/kg). After 1 h, all of the groups received ethanol 95% (5 mL/kg) but the normal control received Tween 20 (Tween 20 5% v/v, 5 mL/kg). The animals were euthanized after 60 min and the stomachs were dissected for histology (H&E), immunohistochemistry, and western blot analysis against HSP70 and BAX proteins. The results showed that the Schiff base metal derivatives enhanced the expression of HSP70 and suppressed the expression of BAX proteins during their gastroprotection against ethanol-induced gastric lesion in rats.

  1. Suppressed Expression of T-Box Transcription Factors is Involved in Senescence in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

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    Acquaah-Mensah, George; Malhotra, Deepti; Vulimiri, Madhulika; McDermott, Jason E.; Biswal, Shyam

    2012-06-19

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major global health problem. The etiology of COPD has been associated with apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. However, understanding of the molecular interactions that modulate COPD pathogenesis remains only partly resolved. We conducted an exploratory study on COPD etiology to identify the key molecular participants. We used information-theoretic algorithms including Context Likelihood of Relatedness (CLR), Algorithm for the Reconstruction of Accurate Cellular Networks (ARACNE), and Inferelator. We captured direct functional associations among genes, given a compendium of gene expression profiles of human lung epithelial cells. A set of genes differentially expressed in COPD, as reported in a previous study were superposed with the resulting transcriptional regulatory networks. After factoring in the properties of the networks, an established COPD susceptibility locus and domain-domain interactions involving protein products of genes in the generated networks, several molecular candidates were predicted to be involved in the etiology of COPD. These include COL4A3, CFLAR, GULP1, PDCD1, CASP10, PAX3, BOK, HSPD1, PITX2, and PML. Furthermore, T-box (TBX) genes and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A), which are in a direct transcriptional regulatory relationship, emerged as preeminent participants in the etiology of COPD by means of senescence. Contrary to observations in neoplasms, our study reveals that the expression of genes and proteins in the lung samples from patients with COPD indicate an increased tendency towards cellular senescence. The expression of the anti-senescence mediators TBX transcription factors, chromatin modifiers histone deacetylases, and sirtuins was suppressed; while the expression of TBX-regulated cellular senescence markers such as CDKN2A, CDKN1A, and CAV1 was elevated in the peripheral lung tissue samples from patients with COPD. The critical balance between senescence

  2. Teneligliptin Decreases Uric Acid Levels by Reducing Xanthine Dehydrogenase Expression in White Adipose Tissue of Male Wistar Rats

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    Chihiro Moriya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of teneligliptin on uric acid metabolism in male Wistar rats and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The rats were fed with a normal chow diet (NCD or a 60% high-fat diet (HFD with or without teneligliptin for 4 weeks. The plasma uric acid level was not significantly different between the control and teneligliptin groups under the NCD condition. However, the plasma uric acid level was significantly decreased in the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared to the HFD-fed control rats. The expression levels of xanthine dehydrogenase (Xdh mRNA in liver and epididymal adipose tissue of NCD-fed rats were not altered by teneligliptin treatment. On the other hand, Xdh expression was reduced significantly in the epididymal adipose tissue of the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared with that of HFD-fed control rats, whereas Xdh expression in liver did not change significantly in either group. Furthermore, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DPP-4 treatment significantly increased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. With DPP-4 pretreatment, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh mRNA expression compared to the DPP-4-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In conclusion, our studies suggest that teneligliptin reduces uric acid levels by suppressing Xdh expression in epididymal adipose tissue of obese subjects.

  3. Suppression of Sirtuin-1 Increases IL-6 Expression by Activation of the Akt Pathway During Allergic Asthma

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    Lingling Tang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: A growing number of studies have demonstrated that the activity and expression level of sirtuin-1 (SIRT1 are decreased in asthma patients; however, the mechanisms underlying decreased SIRT1 expression and function are still not completely understood. Interleukin (IL-6 plays important roles in inflammation during allergic asthma. In this study, we examined whether loss of SIRT1 activity regulated the expression of IL-6 and further verified the underlying mechanisms. Methods: The human airway epithelial cell line 16HBE was used to test the effects of the SIRT1 inhibitor (salermide on expression of IL-6. IL-6 mRNA and protein expression were assessed with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR, immunochemistry, and ELISA. OVA-challenged mice were used as an asthma model to investigate the effect of SIRT1 activation on IL-6 and relative Akt phosphorylation level. Results: We found that inhibition of SIRT1 increased IL-6 mRNA and protein levels in a time-dependent manner, which was accompanied by increased Akt pathway activation in 16HBE cells. Furthermore activation of Akt showed upregulated expression of the IL-6 protein whereas Akt inhibitor, LY294002 or Akt siRNA significantly inhibited SIRT1-regulated IL-6 expression. Conversely, activation of SIRT1 inhibited Akt activation and IL-6 expression in an asthmatic mice model and 16HBE cells. Conclusion: Our results indicate the potential role of SIRT1 in regulating inflammation by modulation of IL-6 expression in an Akt-dependent manner during allergic asthma.

  4. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR agonists suppress interleukin-6 expression by bone marrow stromal cells: an immunotoxicology study

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    Schlezinger Jennifer J

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone marrow stromal cells produce cytokines required for the normal growth and development of all eight hematopoietic cell lineages. Aberrant cytokine production by stromal cells contributes to blood cell dyscrasias. Consequently, factors that alter stromal cell cytokine production may significantly compromise the development of normal blood cells. We have shown that environmental chemicals, such as aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AhR agonists, suppress B lymphopoiesis by modulating bone marrow stromal cell function. Here, we extend these studies to evaluate the potential for two prototypic AhR agonists, 7,12-dimethylbenz [a]anthracene (DMBA and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, to alter stromal cell cytokine responses. Methods Bone marrow stromal cells were treated with AhR agonists and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS to mimic innate inflammatory cytokine responses and to study the effects of AhR ligands on those responses. Steady state cytokine RNA levels were screened by RNAse protection assays (RPA and quantified by real-time PCR. Cytokine (IL-6 protein production was measured by ELISA. NF-κB EMSAs were used to study IL-6 transcriptional regulation. Results RPAs indicated that AhR+ bone marrow stromal cells consistently up-regulated genes encoding IL-6 and LIF in response to LPS, presumably through activation of Toll-like receptor 4. Pre-treatment with low doses of DMBA or TCDD selectively abrogated IL-6 gene induction but had no effect on LIF mRNA. Real-time-PCR indicated a significant inhibition of IL-6 mRNA by AhR ligands within 1 hour of LPS challenge which was reflected in a profound down-regulation of IL-6 protein induction, with DMBA and TCDD suppressing IL-6 levels as much as 65% and 88%, respectively. This potent inhibitory effect persisted for at least 72 hours. EMSAs measuring NF-κB binding to IL-6 promoter sequences, an event known to induce IL-6 transcription, indicated a significant decrease in

  5. Luteolin and fisetin suppress oxidative stress by modulating sirtuins and forkhead box O3a expression under in vitro diabetic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Arang; Lee, Wooje; Yun, Jung-Mi

    2017-10-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia induces oxidative stress via accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and contributes to diabetic complications. Hyperglycemia induces mitochondrial superoxide anion production through the increased activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase. This study aimed to determine whether fisetin and luteolin treatments suppress the oxidative stress by modulating the expression of sirtuins (SIRTs) and forkhead box O3a (FOXO3a) under hyperglycemic conditions in human monocytes. Human monocytic cells (THP-1) were cultured under osmotic control (14.5 mmol/L mannitol), normoglycemic (NG, 5.5 mmol/L glucose), or hyperglycemic (HG, 20 mmol/L glucose) conditions, in the absence or presence of fisetin and luteolin for 48 h. To determine the effect of fisetin and luteolin treatments on high glucose-induced oxidative stress, western blotting and intracellular staining were performed. Hyperglycemic conditions increased the ROS production, as compared to normoglycemic condition. However, fisetin and luteolin treatments inhibited ROS production under hyperglycemia. To obtain further insight into ROS production in hyperglycemic conditions, evaluation of p47phox expression revealed that fisetin and luteolin treatments inhibited p47phox expression under hyperglycemic conditions. Conversely, the expression levels of SIRT1, SIRT3, SIRT6, and FOXO3a were decreased under high glucose conditions compared to normal glucose conditions, but exposure to fisetin and luteolin induced the expression of SIRT1, SIRT3, SIRT6, and FOXO3a. The above findings suggest that fisetin and luteolin inhibited high glucose-induced ROS production in monocytes through the activation of SIRTs and FOXO3a. The results of our study supports current researches that state fisetin and luteolin as potential agents for the development of novel strategies for diabetes.

  6. Tanshinol suppresses endothelial cells apoptosis in mice with atherosclerosis via lncRNA TUG1 up-regulating the expression of miR-26a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Cheng, Guangqing; Yang, Xiaoni; Li, Changsheng; Shi, Ran; Zhao, Ningning

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis is a crucial process for the development of atherosclerosis. Tanshinol is reported to protect vascular endothelia and attenuate the formation of atherosclerosis. However, the potential molecule mechanism of the protective role of tanshinol in atherosclerosis need to be further investigated. ApoE(-/-)mice were fed with a high-fat diet and treated with tanshinol to detect the effect of tanshinol on endothelial cells apoptosis with TUNEL staining assay. qRT-PCR and Western blot were performed to examine the expression of TUG1 and miR-26a in endothelial cells. RNA-binding protein immunoprecipitation assay was performed to verify the relationship between TUG1 and miR-26a. It has been shown that tanshinol reduced the aortic atherosclerotic lesion area in the entire aorta and aortic sinus in a concentration dependent manner, and suppressed the endothelial cells apoptosis in ApoE(-/-) mice. We further found that the mRNA level of TUG1 was reduced and the expression of miR-26a was up-regulated by tanshinol in endothelial cells. In addition, TUG1 down-regulated the expression of miR-26a in ECV304 cells. Finally, it was shown that overexpression of TUG1 removed the reversed effect of tanshinol on oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced endothelial cells apoptosis. Taken together, our study reveals that tanshinol could attenuate the endothelial cells apoptosis in atherosclerotic ApoE(-/-) mice. Moreover, low TUG1 expression and high level of miR-26a are associated with the endothelial protecting effect of tanshinol.

  7. Cytogenetic Response to Ionizing Radiation Exposure in Human Fibroblasts with Suppressed Expression of Non-DSB Repair Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Rohde, Larry H.; Emami, Kamal; Hammond, Dianne; Mehta, Satish K.; Jeevarajan, Antony S.; Pierson, Duane L.; Wu, Honglu

    2009-01-01

    Changes of gene expression profile are one of the most important biological responses in living cells after ionizing radiation (IR) exposure. Although some studies have shown that genes up-regulated by IR may play important roles in DNA damage repair, the relationship between the regulation of gene expression by IR, particularly genes not known for their roles in double-strand break (DSB) repair, and its impact on cytogenetic responses has not been well studied. The purpose of this study is to identify new roles of IR inducible genes in radiation-induced chromosome aberrations and micronuclei formation. In the study, the expression of 25 genes selected on the basis of their transcriptional changes in response to IR was individually knocked down by small interfering RNA in human fibroblast cells. Frequencies of micronuclei (MN) formation and chromosome aberrations were measured to determine the efficiency of cytogenetic repair, and the fraction of bi-nucleated cells in the MN analysis was used as a marker for cell cycle progression. In response to gamma radiation, the formation of MN was significantly increased by suppressed expression of five genes: Ku70 (DSB repair pathway), XPA (nucleotide excision repair pathway), RPA1 (mismatch repair pathway), RAD17 and RBBP8 (cell cycle control). Knocked-down expression of four genes (MRE11A, RAD51 in the DSB pathway, SESN1, and SUMO1) significantly inhibited cell cycle progression, possibly because of severe impairment of DNA damage repair. Moreover, decreased XPA, p21, or MLH1 expression resulted in both significantly enhanced cell cycle progression and increased yields of chromosome aberrations, indicating that these gene products modulate both cell cycle control and DNA damage repair. Nine of these eleven genes, whose knock-down expression affected cytogenetic repair, were up-regulated in cells exposed to gamma radiation, suggesting that genes transcriptionally modulated by IR were critical to regulate IR

  8. MicroRNA-99 family members suppress Homeobox A1 expression in epithelial cells.

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    Dan Chen

    Full Text Available The miR-99 family is one of the evolutionarily most ancient microRNA families, and it plays a critical role in developmental timing and the maintenance of tissue identity. Recent studies, including reports from our group, suggested that the miR-99 family regulates various physiological processes in adult tissues, such as dermal wound healing, and a number of disease processes, including cancer. By combining 5 independent genome-wide expression profiling experiments, we identified a panel of 266 unique transcripts that were down-regulated in epithelial cells transfected with miR-99 family members. A comprehensive bioinformatics analysis using 12 different sequence-based microRNA target prediction algorithms revealed that 81 out of these 266 down-regulated transcripts are potential direct targets for the miR-99 family. Confirmation experiments and functional analyses were performed to further assess 6 selected miR-99 target genes, including mammalian Target of rapamycin (mTOR, Homeobox A1 (HOXA1, CTD small phosphatase-like (CTDSPL, N-myristoyltransferase 1 (NMT1, Transmembrane protein 30A (TMEM30A, and SWI/SNF-related matrix-associated actin-dependent regulator of chromatin subfamily A member 5 (SMARCA5. HOXA1 is a known proto-oncogene, and it also plays an important role in embryonic development. The direct targeting of the miR-99 family to two candidate binding sequences located in the HOXA1 mRNA was confirmed using a luciferase reporter gene assay and a ribonucleoprotein-immunoprecipitation (RIP-IP assay. Ectopic transfection of miR-99 family reduced the expression of HOXA1, which, in consequence, down-regulated the expression of its downstream gene (i.e., Bcl-2 and led to reduced proliferation and cell migration, as well as enhanced apoptosis. In summary, we identified a number of high-confidence miR-99 family target genes, including proto-oncogene HOXA1, which may play an important role in regulating epithelial cell proliferation and

  9. MicroRNA-99 family members suppress Homeobox A1 expression in epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dan; Chen, Zujian; Jin, Yi; Dragas, Dragan; Zhang, Leitao; Adjei, Barima S; Wang, Anxun; Dai, Yang; Zhou, Xiaofeng

    2013-01-01

    The miR-99 family is one of the evolutionarily most ancient microRNA families, and it plays a critical role in developmental timing and the maintenance of tissue identity. Recent studies, including reports from our group, suggested that the miR-99 family regulates various physiological processes in adult tissues, such as dermal wound healing, and a number of disease processes, including cancer. By combining 5 independent genome-wide expression profiling experiments, we identified a panel of 266 unique transcripts that were down-regulated in epithelial cells transfected with miR-99 family members. A comprehensive bioinformatics analysis using 12 different sequence-based microRNA target prediction algorithms revealed that 81 out of these 266 down-regulated transcripts are potential direct targets for the miR-99 family. Confirmation experiments and functional analyses were performed to further assess 6 selected miR-99 target genes, including mammalian Target of rapamycin (mTOR), Homeobox A1 (HOXA1), CTD small phosphatase-like (CTDSPL), N-myristoyltransferase 1 (NMT1), Transmembrane protein 30A (TMEM30A), and SWI/SNF-related matrix-associated actin-dependent regulator of chromatin subfamily A member 5 (SMARCA5). HOXA1 is a known proto-oncogene, and it also plays an important role in embryonic development. The direct targeting of the miR-99 family to two candidate binding sequences located in the HOXA1 mRNA was confirmed using a luciferase reporter gene assay and a ribonucleoprotein-immunoprecipitation (RIP-IP) assay. Ectopic transfection of miR-99 family reduced the expression of HOXA1, which, in consequence, down-regulated the expression of its downstream gene (i.e., Bcl-2) and led to reduced proliferation and cell migration, as well as enhanced apoptosis. In summary, we identified a number of high-confidence miR-99 family target genes, including proto-oncogene HOXA1, which may play an important role in regulating epithelial cell proliferation and migration during

  10. Impaired NFAT and NFκB activation are involved in suppression of CD40 ligand expression by Δ{sup 9}-tetrahydrocannabinol in human CD4{sup +} T cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngaotepprutaram, Thitirat [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Michigan State University (United States); Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University (United States); Kaplan, Barbara L.F. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Michigan State University (United States); Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University (United States); Neuroscience Program, Michigan State University (United States); Kaminski, Norbert E., E-mail: kamins11@msu.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Michigan State University (United States); Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University (United States)

    2013-11-15

    We have previously reported that Δ{sup 9}-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ{sup 9}-THC), the main psychoactive cannabinoid in marijuana, suppresses CD40 ligand (CD40L) expression by activated mouse CD4{sup +} T cells. CD40L is involved in pathogenesis of many autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of Δ{sup 9}-THC-mediated suppression of CD40L expression using peripheral blood human T cells. Pretreatment with Δ{sup 9}-THC attenuated CD40L expression in human CD4{sup +} T cells activated by anti-CD3/CD28 at both the protein and mRNA level, as determined by flow cytometry and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that Δ{sup 9}-THC suppressed the DNA-binding activity of both NFAT and NFκB to their respective response elements within the CD40L promoter. An assessment of the effect of Δ{sup 9}-THC on proximal T cell-receptor (TCR) signaling induced by anti-CD3/CD28 showed significant impairment in the rise of intracellular calcium, but no significant effect on the phosphorylation of ZAP70, PLCγ1/2, Akt, and GSK3β. Collectively, these findings identify perturbation of the calcium-NFAT and NFκB signaling cascade as a key mechanistic event by which Δ{sup 9}-THC suppresses human T cell function. - Highlights: • Δ{sup 9}-THC attenuated CD40L expression in activated human CD4+ T cells. • Δ{sup 9}-THC suppressed DNA-binding activity of NFAT and NFκB. • Δ{sup 9}-THC impaired elevation of intracellular Ca2+. • Δ{sup 9}-THC did not affect phosphorylation of ZAP70, PLCγ1/2, Akt, and GSK3β.

  11. Thymic epithelial cells. I. Expression of strong suppressive (veto) activity in mouse thymic epithelial cell cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claesson, Mogens Helweg; Ropke, C

    1990-01-01

    We show that thymic epithelial cells grown under serum-free conditions in a chemically defined culture medium can act as veto cells in vitro. The veto activity of thymic epithelial cells results in inactivation of specific alloreactive cytotoxic T-cell precursors at the clonal level. It is conclu......We show that thymic epithelial cells grown under serum-free conditions in a chemically defined culture medium can act as veto cells in vitro. The veto activity of thymic epithelial cells results in inactivation of specific alloreactive cytotoxic T-cell precursors at the clonal level...

  12. Expression of Msx-1 is suppressed in bisphosphonate associated osteonecrosis related jaw tissue-etiopathology considerations respecting jaw developmental biology-related unique features

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    Schlegel Karl A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone-destructive disease treatments include bisphosphonates and antibodies against the osteoclast differentiator, RANKL (aRANKL; however, osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ is a frequent side-effect. Current models fail to explain the restriction of bisphosphonate (BP-related and denosumab (anti-RANKL antibody-related ONJ to jaws. Msx-1 is exclusively expressed in craniofacial structures and pivotal to cranial neural crest (CNC-derived periodontal tissue remodeling. We hypothesised that Msx-1 expression might be impaired in bisphosphonate-related ONJ. The study aim was to elucidate Msx-1 and RANKL-associated signal transduction (BMP-2/4, RANKL in ONJ-altered and healthy periodontal tissue. Methods Twenty ONJ and twenty non-BP exposed periodontal samples were processed for RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. An automated staining-based alkaline phosphatase-anti-alkaline phosphatase method was used to measure the stained cells:total cell-number ratio (labelling index, Bonferroni adjustment. Real-time RT-PCR was performed on ONJ-affected and healthy jaw periodontal samples (n = 20 each to quantitatively compare Msx-1, BMP-2, RANKL, and GAPDH mRNA levels. Results Semi-quantitative assessment of the ratio of stained cells showed decreased Msx-1 and RANKL and increased BMP-2/4 (all p Conclusions These results explain the sclerotic and osteopetrotic changes of periodontal tissue following BP application and substantiate clinical findings of BP-related impaired remodeling specific to periodontal tissue. RANKL suppression substantiated the clinical finding of impaired bone remodelling in BP- and aRANKL-induced ONJ-affected bone structures. Msx-1 suppression in ONJ-adjacent periodontal tissue suggested a bisphosphonate-related impairment in cellular differentiation that occurred exclusively jaw remodelling. Further research on developmental biology-related unique features of jaw bone structures will help to elucidate pathologies restricted to

  13. Competitive Expression of Endogenous Wheat CENH3 May Lead to Suppression of Alien ZmCENH3 in Transgenic Wheat × Maize Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Zhu, Qilin; Wang, Haiyan; Xiao, Jin; Xing, Liping; Chen, Peidu; Jin, Weiwei; Wang, Xiu-E

    2015-11-20

    Uniparental chromosome elimination in wheat × maize hybrid embryos is widely used in double haploid production of wheat. Several explanations have been proposed for this phenomenon, one of which is that the lack of cross-species CENH3 incorporation may act as a barrier to interspecies hybridization. However, it is unknown if this mechanism applies universally. To study the role of CENH3 in maize chromosome elimination of wheat × maize hybrid embryos, maize ZmCENH3 and wheat αTaCENH3-B driven by the constitutive CaMV35S promoter were transformed into wheat variety Yangmai 158. Five transgenic lines for ZmCENH3 and six transgenic lines for αTaCENH3-B were identified. RT-PCR analysis showed that the transgene could be transcribed at a low level in all ZmCENH3 transgenic lines, whereas transcription of endogenous wheat CENH3 was significantly up-regulated. Interestingly, the expression levels of both wheat CENH3 and ZmCENH3 in the ZmCENH3 transgenic wheat × maize hybrid embryos were higher than those in the non-transformed Yangmai 158 × maize hybrid embryos. This indicates that the alien ZmCENH3 in wheat may induce competitive expression of endogenous wheat CENH3, leading to suppression of ZmCENH3 over-expression. Eliminations of maize chromosomes in hybrid embryos of ZmCENH3 transgenic wheat × maize and Yangmai 158 × maize were compared by observations on micronuclei presence, by marker analysis using maize SSRs (simple sequence repeats), and by FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) using 45S rDNA as a probe. The results indicate that maize chromosome elimination events in the two crosses are not significantly different. Fusion protein ZmCENH3-YFP could not be detected in ZmCENH3 transgenic wheat by either Western blotting or immnunostaining, whereas accumulation and loading of the αTaCENH3-B-GFP fusion protein was normal in αTaCENH3-B transgenic lines. As ZmCENH3-YFP did not accumulate after AM114 treatment, we speculate that low levels of Zm

  14. Characterization by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization of Transcripts That Are Differentially Expressed in Leaves of Anthracnose-Resistant Ramie Cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuxia, Wang; Jie, Chen; Bo, Wang; Lijun, Liu; Hui, Jiang; Diluo, Tang; Dingxiang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    For the purpose of screening putative anthracnose resistance-related genes of ramie ( Boehmeria nivea L. Gaud), a cDNA library was constructed by suppression subtractive hybridization using anthracnose-resistant cultivar Huazhu no. 4. The cDNAs from Huazhu no. 4, which were infected with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides , were used as the tester and cDNAs from uninfected Huazhu no. 4 as the driver. Sequencing analysis and homology searching showed that these clones represented 132 single genes, which were assigned to functional categories, including 14 putative cellular functions, according to categories established for Arabidopsis . These 132 genes included 35 disease resistance and stress tolerance-related genes including putative heat-shock protein 90, metallothionein, PR-1.2 protein, catalase gene, WRKY family genes, and proteinase inhibitor-like protein. Partial disease-related genes were further analyzed by reverse transcription PCR and RNA gel blot. These expressed sequence tags are the first anthracnose resistance-related expressed sequence tags reported in ramie.

  15. Comparison of RNA expression profiles on generations of Porphyra yezoensis (Rhodophyta, based on suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Songdong

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porphyra yezoensis Ueda is one of the most important edible seaweed, with a dimorphic life cycle which consists of gametophyte as macroscopical blade and sporophyte as microscopic filamentous. Conspicuous differences exist in the two generations, such as morphology, cell structure, biochemistry, physiology, and so on. The developmental process of Porphyra yezoensis has been studied thoroughly, but the mechanism is still ambiguous and few studies on genetic expression have been carried out. In this study, the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH method conducted to generate large-scale expressed sequence tags (EST is designed to identify gene candidates related to the morphological and physiological differences between the gametophytic and sporophytic generations of Porphyra yezoensis Ueda. Findings Each 300 clones of sporophyte and gametophyte cells were dipped onto the membrane for hybridization. The result of dot-blot suggested there were 222 positive clones in gametophyte library and 236 positive clones in sporophyte library. 383 positive clones of strongest signals had been sequenced, and 191 EST sequences of gametophyte and 192 of sporophyte were obtained. A total of 196 genes were obtained, within which 104 genes were identified from the gametophyte and 92 from the sporophyte. Thirty-nine genes of the gametophyte and 62 genes of the sporophyte showed sequence similarity to those genes with known or putative functions which were classified according to their putative biological roles and molecular functions. The GO annotation showed about 58% of the cellular component of sporophyte and gametophyte cells were mainly located in cytoplasm and nucleus. The special genes were located in Golgi apparatus, and high expression in plastid, ribosome and endoplasmic reticulum. The main biological functions of gametophyte cells contributed to DNA repair/replication, carbohydrate metabolism, transport and transcription

  16. High-Salt Intake Suppressed MicroRNA-133a Expression in Dahl SS Rat Myocardium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tong-Shuai; Zhang, Jie; Mu, Jian-Jun; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Yuan, Zu-Yi; Ren, Ke-Yu; Wang, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Salt-sensitive individuals show earlier and more serious cardiac damage than nonsalt-sensitive ones. Some studies have suggested that microRNA-133a could reduce cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis. The current study aims to investigate the different functions of high-salt intake on salt-sensitive (SS) rats and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and the involvement of microRNA-133a in these roles. After high-salt intervention, the left ventricular mass (LVW) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) of the salt-sensitive high salt (SHS) group were obviously higher than those of the salt-sensitive low salt (SLS) group. However, the difference between the Sprague-Dawley high salt (DHS) group and the Sprague-Dawley low salt (DLS) group was not significant. Compared with SLS group, collagen I and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in the heart of SHS group were significantly higher, whereas no statistical difference was observed between the DHS group and the DLS group. Compared with low-salt diet, microRNA-133a in the heart of both strains were significantly decreased, but that in the SHS group decreased more significantly. These results suggest that high salt intervention could down-regulate the expression of myocardial microRNA-133a, which may be one of the mechanisms involved in myocardial fibrosis in salt-sensitive hypertension. PMID:24937684

  17. High-Salt Intake Suppressed MicroRNA-133a Expression in Dahl SS Rat Myocardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong-Shuai Guo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Salt-sensitive individuals show earlier and more serious cardiac damage than nonsalt-sensitive ones. Some studies have suggested that microRNA-133a could reduce cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis. The current study aims to investigate the different functions of high-salt intake on salt-sensitive (SS rats and Sprague-Dawley (SD rats and the involvement of microRNA-133a in these roles. After high-salt intervention, the left ventricular mass (LVW and left ventricular mass index (LVMI of the salt-sensitive high salt (SHS group were obviously higher than those of the salt-sensitive low salt (SLS group. However, the difference between the Sprague-Dawley high salt (DHS group and the Sprague-Dawley low salt (DLS group was not significant. Compared with SLS group, collagen I and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF in the heart of SHS group were significantly higher, whereas no statistical difference was observed between the DHS group and the DLS group. Compared with low-salt diet, microRNA-133a in the heart of both strains were significantly decreased, but that in the SHS group decreased more significantly. These results suggest that high salt intervention could down-regulate the expression of myocardial microRNA-133a, which may be one of the mechanisms involved in myocardial fibrosis in salt-sensitive hypertension.

  18. G9a and ZNF644 Physically Associate to Suppress Progenitor Gene Expression during Neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan B. Olsen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Proliferating progenitor cells undergo changes in competence to give rise to post-mitotic progeny of specialized function. These cell-fate transitions typically involve dynamic regulation of gene expression by histone methyltransferase (HMT complexes. However, the composition, roles, and regulation of these assemblies in regulating cell-fate decisions in vivo are poorly understood. Using unbiased affinity purification and mass spectrometry, we identified the uncharacterized C2H2-like zinc finger protein ZNF644 as a G9a/GLP-interacting protein and co-regulator of histone methylation. In zebrafish, functional characterization of ZNF644 orthologs, znf644a and znf644b, revealed complementary roles in regulating G9a/H3K9me2-mediated gene silencing during neurogenesis. The non-overlapping requirements for znf644a and znf644b during retinal differentiation demarcate critical aspects of retinal differentiation programs regulated by differential G9a-ZNF644 associations, such as transitioning proliferating progenitor cells toward differentiation. Collectively, our data point to ZNF644 as a critical co-regulator of G9a/H3K9me2-mediated gene silencing during neuronal differentiation.

  19. Silencing Dkk1 expression rescues dexamethasone-induced suppression of primary human osteoblast differentiation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Butler, Joseph S

    2010-09-01

    The Wnt\\/β-catenin pathway is a major signaling cascade in bone biology, playing a key role in bone development and remodeling. The objectives of this study were firstly, to determine the effects of dexamethasone exposure on Wnt\\/β-catenin signaling at an intracellular and transcriptional level, and secondly, to assess the phenotypic effects of silencing the Wnt antagonist, Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1) in the setting of dexamethasone exposure.

  20. Sugar and hexokinase suppress expression of PIP aquaporins and reduce leaf hydraulics that preserves leaf water potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Gilor; Sade, Nir; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Lerner, Stephen; Shatil-Cohen, Arava; Yeselson, Yelena; Egbaria, Aiman; Kottapalli, Jayaram; Schaffer, Arthur A; Moshelion, Menachem; Granot, David

    2017-07-01

    Sugars affect central aspects of plant physiology, including photosynthesis, stomatal behavior and the loss of water through the stomata. Yet, the potential effects of sugars on plant aquaporins (AQPs) and water conductance have not been examined. We used database and transcriptional analyses, as well as cellular and whole-plant functional techniques to examine the link between sugar-related genes and AQPs. Database analyses revealed a high level of correlation between the expression of AQPs and that of sugar-related genes, including the Arabidopsis hexokinases 1 (AtHXK1). Increased expression of AtHXK1, as well as the addition of its primary substrate, glucose (Glc), repressed the expression of 10 AQPs from the plasma membrane-intrinsic proteins (PIP) subfamily (PIP-AQPs) and induced the expression of two stress-related PIP-AQPs. The osmotic water permeability of mesophyll protoplasts of AtHXK1-expressing plants and the leaf hydraulic conductance of those plants were significantly reduced, in line with the decreased expression of PIP-AQPs. Conversely, hxk1 mutants demonstrated a higher level of hydraulic conductance, with increased water potential in their leaves. In addition, the presence of Glc reduced leaf water potential, as compared with an osmotic control, indicating that Glc reduces the movement of water from the xylem into the mesophyll. The production of sugars entails a significant loss of water and these results suggest that sugars and AtHXK1 affect the expression of AQP genes and reduce leaf water conductance, to coordinate sugar levels with the loss of water through transpiration. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Suppression of inflammation by dexamethasone prolongs adenoviral vector-mediated transgene expression in the facial nucleus of the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermens, W.T.J.M.C.; Verhaagen, J

    1998-01-01

    Adenoviral vector directed gene transfer to rat facial motoneurons occurs efficiently following intra-parenchymal injection of relatively high dosages (> or =10(7) pfu per injection) of a prototype first generation adenoviral vector. However, high level of transgene expression, as observed during

  2. Triptolide Suppresses Alkali Burn-Induced Corneal Angiogenesis Along with a Downregulation of VEGFA and VEGFC Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Geng; Li, Na; Lv, Xiaohong; Ahmed, Naila; Li, Xinlei; Liu, Huidong; Ma, Jing; Zhang, Yafang

    2017-07-01

    Triptolide (TPL) is an active compound extracted from a Chinese herbal medicine tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f. (Celastraceae), which has been used as an anti-inflammatory drug for years. It also inhibits the growth and proliferation of different types of cancer cells. The inhibitory effect of TPL on angiogenesis after chemical-induced corneal inflammation was studied in vivo. The effects of TPL on the proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and tube formation of rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs) were studied in vitro. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were measured by MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Migration was analyzed using the scratch wound healing assay and transwell assay. Tube formation assay was used to examine angiogenesis. Real-time PCR and Western blot were used to determine the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and VEGFC. To study the in vivo effects of TPL, the mouse model of alkali burn-induced corneal angiogenesis was used. The angiogenesis was analyzed by determining the density of the newly generated blood vessels in corneas. We found that TPL induced apoptosis and inhibited the proliferation of RAECs in a dose-dependent manner. TPL inhibited migration and tube formation of RAECs and decreased the expression of VEGFA and VEGFC in vitro. Furthermore, TPL suppressed alkali burn-induced corneal angiogenesis and inhibited the expression of VEGFA and VEGFC in corneas in vivo. In conclusion, topical TPL as a pharmacological agent has the ability to reduce angiogenesis in cornea and may have clinical indications for the treatment of corneal angiogenesis diseases which have to be further explored. Anat Rec, 300:1348-1355, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. BAG3 increases the invasiveness of uterine corpus carcinoma cells by suppressing miR-29b and enhancing MMP2 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habata, Shutaro; Iwasaki, Masahiro; Sugio, Asuka; Suzuki, Miwa; Tamate, Masato; Satohisa, Seiro; Tanaka, Ryoichi; Saito, Tsuyoshi

    2015-05-01

    Approximately 30% of uterine corpus carcinomas are diagnosed at an advanced stage and have a poor prognosis. Our previous study indicated that BCL2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) enhances matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) expression and binds to MMP2 to positively regulate the process of cell invasion in ovarian cancer cells. Recently, altered miRNA expression patterns were observed in several groups of patients with endometrial cancers. One of the altered miRNAs, miR-29b, reportedly reduces tumor invasiveness by suppressing MMP2 expression. Our aim in the present study was to examine the relationships among BAG3, miR-29b and MMP2 in endometrioid adenocarcinoma cells. We found that BAG3 suppresses miR-29b expression and enhances MMP2 expression, which in turn increases cell motility and invasiveness. Moreover, restoration of miR-29b through BAG3 knockdown reduced MMP2 expression, as well as cell motility and invasiveness. Collectively, our findings indicate that BAG3 enhances MMP2 expression by suppressing miR-29b, thereby increasing the metastatic potential of endometrioid adenocarcinomas.

  4. Induction of granzyme B expression in T-cell receptor/CD28-stimulated human regulatory T cells is suppressed by inhibitors of the PI3K-mTOR pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley Todd W

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regulatory T cells (Tregs can employ a cell contact- and granzyme B-dependent mechanism to mediate suppression of bystander T and B cells. Murine studies indicate that granzyme B is involved in the Treg-mediated suppression of anti-tumor immunity in the tumor microenvironment and in the Treg-mediated maintenance of allograft survival. In spite of its central importance, a detailed study of granzyme B expression patterns in human Tregs has not been performed. Results Our data demonstrated that natural Tregs freshly isolated from the peripheral blood of normal adults lacked granzyme B expression. Tregs subjected to prolonged TCR and CD28 triggering, in the presence of IL-2, expressed high levels of granzyme B but CD3 stimulation alone or IL-2 treatment alone failed to induce granzyme B. Treatment of Tregs with the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin or the PI3 kinase (PI3K inhibitor LY294002 markedly suppressed granzyme B expression. However, neither rapamycin, as previously reported by others, nor LY294002 inhibited Treg proliferation or induced significant cell death in TCR/CD28/IL-2 stimulated cells. The proliferation rate of Tregs was markedly higher than that of CD4+ conventional T cells in the setting of rapamycin treatment. Tregs expanded by CD3/CD28/IL-2 stimulation without rapamycin demonstrated increased in vitro cytotoxic activity compared to Tregs expanded in the presence of rapamycin in both short term (6 hours and long term (48 hours cytotoxicity assays. Conclusion TCR/CD28 mediated activation of the PI3K-mTOR pathway is important for granyzme B expression but not proliferation in regulatory T cells. These findings may indicate that suppressive mechanisms other than granzyme B are utilized by rapamycin-expanded Tregs.

  5. TIM-3 Suppresses Anti-CD3/CD28-Induced TCR Activation and IL-2 Expression through the NFAT Signaling Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Tomkowicz

    Full Text Available TIM-3 (T cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain containing protein 3 is a member of the TIM family of proteins that is preferentially expressed on Th1 polarized CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Recent studies indicate that TIM-3 serves as a negative regulator of T cell function (i.e. T cell dependent immune responses, proliferation, tolerance, and exhaustion. Despite having no recognizable inhibitory signaling motifs, the intracellular tail of TIM-3 is apparently indispensable for function. Specifically, the conserved residues Y265/Y272 and surrounding amino acids appear to be critical for function. Mechanistically, several studies suggest that TIM-3 can associate with interleukin inducible T cell kinase (ITK, the Src kinases Fyn and Lck, and the p85 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K adaptor protein to positively or negatively regulate IL-2 production via NF-κB/NFAT signaling pathways. To begin to address this discrepancy, we examined the effect of TIM-3 in two model systems. First, we generated several Jurkat T cell lines stably expressing human TIM-3 or murine CD28-ECD/human TIM-3 intracellular tail chimeras and examined the effects that TIM-3 exerts on T cell Receptor (TCR-mediated activation, cytokine secretion, promoter activity, and protein kinase association. In this model, our results demonstrate that TIM-3 inhibits several TCR-mediated phenotypes: i NF-kB/NFAT activation, ii CD69 expression, and iii suppression of IL-2 secretion. To confirm our Jurkat cell observations we developed a primary human CD8+ cell system that expresses endogenous levels of TIM-3. Upon TCR ligation, we observed the loss of NFAT reporter activity and IL-2 secretion, and identified the association of Src kinase Lck, and PLC-γ with TIM-3. Taken together, our results support the conclusion that TIM-3 is a negative regulator of TCR-function by attenuating activation signals mediated by CD3/CD28 co-stimulation.

  6. FACTOR-ANALYSIS OF THE LEVEL OF EXPRESSED EMOTION SCALE, A QUESTIONNAIRE INTENDED TO MEASURE PERCEIVED EXPRESSED EMOTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GERLSMA, C; VANDERLUBBE, PM; VANNIEUWENHUIZEN, C

    When the factor structure and psychometric qualities of the Level of Expressed Emotion scale, an instrument intended to assess patient's perceptions of expressed emotion, were evaluated, three moderately intercorrelated factors emerged, with good internal consistency; these were lack of emotional

  7. Long Noncoding RNA HOXC-AS1 Suppresses Ox-LDL-Induced Cholesterol Accumulation Through Promoting HOXC6 Expression in THP-1 Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chuan; Hu, Yan-Wei; Zhao, Jing-Jing; Ma, Xin; Zhang, Yuan; Guo, Feng-Xia; Kang, Chun-Min; Lu, Jing-Bo; Xiu, Jian-Cheng; Sha, Yan-Hua; Gao, Ji-Juan; Wang, Yan-Chao; Li, Pan; Xu, Bang-Ming; Zheng, Lei; Wang, Qian

    2016-11-01

    Atherosclerosis is a common pathological basis of cardiovascular disease, which remains the leading cause of mortality. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are newly studied non-protein-coding RNAs involved in gene regulation, but how lncRNAs exert regulatory effect on atherosclerosis remains unclear. In this study, we found that lncRNA HOXC cluster antisense RNA 1 (HOXC-AS1) and homeobox C6 (HOXC6) were downregulated in carotid atherosclerosis by performing microarray analysis. The results were verified in atherosclerotic plaques and normal arterial intima tissues by quantitative reverse transcription PCR and western blot analysis. Lentivirus-mediated overexpression of HOXC-AS1 induced HOXC6 expression at mRNA and protein levels in THP-1 macrophages. Besides, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) decreased expression of HOXC-AS1 and HOXC6 in a time-dependent manner. Induction of cholesterol accumulation by Ox-LDL could be partly suppressed by overexpression of HOXC-AS1.

  8. Full Viral Suppression, Low-Level Viremia, and Quantifiable Plasma HIV-RNA at the End of Pregnancy in HIV-Infected Women on Antiretroviral Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Baroncelli, Silvia; Pirillo, Maria F.; Tamburrini, Enrica; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Pinnetti, Carmela; Antoni, Anna Degli; Galluzzo, Clementina M.; Stentarelli, Chiara; Amici, Roberta; Floridia, Marco

    2015-01-01

    There is limited information on full viral suppression and low-level HIV-RNA viremia in HIV-infected women at the end of pregnancy. We investigated HIV-RNA levels close to delivery in women on antiretroviral treatment in order to define rates of complete suppression, low-level viremia, and quantifiable HIV-RNA, exploring as potential determinants some clinical and viroimmunological variables. Plasma samples from a national study in Italy, collected between 2003 and 2012, were used. According ...

  9. Identification of hemostatic genes expressed in human and rat leg muscles and a novel gene (LPP1/PAP2A suppressed during prolonged physical inactivity (sitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zderic Theodore W

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Partly because of functional genomics, there has been a major paradigm shift from solely thinking of skeletal muscle as contractile machinery to an understanding that it can have roles in paracrine and endocrine functions. Physical inactivity is an established risk factor for some blood clotting disorders. The effects of inactivity during sitting are most alarming when a person develops the enigmatic condition in the legs called deep venous thrombosis (DVT or “coach syndrome,” caused in part by muscular inactivity. The goal of this study was to determine if skeletal muscle expresses genes with roles in hemostasis and if their expression level was responsive to muscular inactivity such as occurs in prolonged sitting. Methods Microarray analyses were performed on skeletal muscle samples from rats and humans to identify genes associated with hemostatic function that were significantly expressed above background based on multiple probe sets with perfect and mismatch sequences. Furthermore, we determined if any of these genes were responsive to models of physical inactivity. Multiple criteria were used to determine differential expression including significant expression above background, fold change, and non-parametric statistical tests. Results These studies demonstrate skeletal muscle tissue expresses at least 17 genes involved in hemostasis. These include the fibrinolytic factors tetranectin, annexin A2, and tPA; the anti-coagulant factors TFPI, protein C receptor, PAF acetylhydrolase; coagulation factors, and genes necessary for the posttranslational modification of these coagulation factors such as vitamin K epoxide reductase. Of special interest, lipid phosphate phosphatase-1 (LPP1/PAP2A, a key gene for degrading prothrombotic and proinflammatory lysophospholipids, was suppressed locally in muscle tissue within hours after sitting in humans; this was also observed after acute and chronic physical inactivity conditions

  10. Identification of hemostatic genes expressed in human and rat leg muscles and a novel gene (LPP1/PAP2A) suppressed during prolonged physical inactivity (sitting)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Partly because of functional genomics, there has been a major paradigm shift from solely thinking of skeletal muscle as contractile machinery to an understanding that it can have roles in paracrine and endocrine functions. Physical inactivity is an established risk factor for some blood clotting disorders. The effects of inactivity during sitting are most alarming when a person develops the enigmatic condition in the legs called deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or “coach syndrome,” caused in part by muscular inactivity. The goal of this study was to determine if skeletal muscle expresses genes with roles in hemostasis and if their expression level was responsive to muscular inactivity such as occurs in prolonged sitting. Methods Microarray analyses were performed on skeletal muscle samples from rats and humans to identify genes associated with hemostatic function that were significantly expressed above background based on multiple probe sets with perfect and mismatch sequences. Furthermore, we determined if any of these genes were responsive to models of physical inactivity. Multiple criteria were used to determine differential expression including significant expression above background, fold change, and non-parametric statistical tests. Results These studies demonstrate skeletal muscle tissue expresses at least 17 genes involved in hemostasis. These include the fibrinolytic factors tetranectin, annexin A2, and tPA; the anti-coagulant factors TFPI, protein C receptor, PAF acetylhydrolase; coagulation factors, and genes necessary for the posttranslational modification of these coagulation factors such as vitamin K epoxide reductase. Of special interest, lipid phosphate phosphatase-1 (LPP1/PAP2A), a key gene for degrading prothrombotic and proinflammatory lysophospholipids, was suppressed locally in muscle tissue within hours after sitting in humans; this was also observed after acute and chronic physical inactivity conditions in rats, and exercise was

  11. Social Anxiety and Positive Emotions: A Prospective Examination of a Self-Regulatory Model with Tendencies to Suppress or Express Emotions as a Moderating Variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashdan, Todd B.; Breen, William E.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine social anxiety as a predictor of positive emotions using a short-term prospective design. We examined whether the effects of social anxiety on positive emotions are moderated by tendencies to openly express or suppress emotions. Over the course of a 3-month interval, people with excessive social…

  12. Serotonin 2A receptor mRNA levels in the neonatal dopamine-depleted rat striatum remain upregulated following suppression of serotonin hyperinnervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basura, G J; Walker, P D

    1999-08-05

    Sixty days after bilateral dopamine (DA) depletion (>98%) with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in neonatal rats, serotonin (5-HT) content doubled and 5-HT(2A) receptor mRNA expression rose 54% within the rostral striatum. To determine if striatal 5-HT(2A) receptor mRNA upregulation is dependent on increased 5-HT levels following DA depletion, neonatal rats received dual injections of 6-OHDA and 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) which suppressed 5-HT content by approximately 90%. In these 6-OHDA/5,7-DHT-treated rats, striatal 5-HT(2A) receptor mRNA expression was still elevated (87% above vehicle controls). Comparative analysis of 5-HT(2C) receptor mRNA expression yielded no significant changes in any experimental group. These results demonstrate that upregulated 5-HT(2A) receptor biosynthesis in the DA-depleted rat is not dependent on subsequent 5-HT hyperinnervation. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  13. The activity of satellite cells and myonuclei following 8 weeks of strength training in young men with suppressed testosterone levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvorning, T; Kadi, F; Schjerling, P

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate how suppression of endogenous testosterone during an 8-week strength training period influences the activity of satellite cells and myonuclei. METHODS: Twenty-two moderately trained young men participated in this randomized, placebo-controlled, and double-blinded intervention...... from the mid-portion of the vastus lateralis muscle. RESULTS: Testosterone resting level in goserelin was 10-20 times lower compared with placebo, and the training-induced increase in the level of testosterone was abolished in goserelin. Training increased satellite cells number in type II fibres by 20...... of testosterone. The data indicate that low testosterone levels could reduce the differentiation of satellite cells to myonuclei via the bone morphogenetic proteins signalling pathway, resulting in reduced increases in lean leg mass....

  14. BC047440 antisense eukaryotic expression vectors inhibited HepG2 cell proliferation and suppressed xenograft tumorigenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Zheng; Ping, Liang; JianBo, Zhou; XiaoBing, Huang; Yu, Wen; Zheng, Wang; Jing, Li

    2012-01-01

    The biological functions of the BC047440 gene highly expressed by hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are unknown. The objective of this study was to reconstruct antisense eukaryotic expression vectors of the gene for inhibiting HepG 2 cell proliferation and suppressing their xenograft tumorigenicity. The full-length BC047440 cDNA was cloned from human primary HCC by RT-PCR. BC047440 gene fragments were ligated with pMD18-T simple vectors and subsequent pcDNA3.1(+) plasmids to construct the recombinant antisense eukaryotic vector pcDNA3.1(+)BC047440AS. The endogenous BC047440 mRNA abundance in target gene-transfected, vector-transfected and naive HepG 2 cells was semiquantitatively analyzed by RT-PCR and cell proliferation was measured by the MTT assay. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were profiled by flow cytometry. The in vivo xenograft experiment was performed on nude mice to examine the effects of antisense vector on tumorigenicity. BC047440 cDNA fragments were reversely inserted into pcDNA3.1(+) plasmids. The antisense vector significantly reduced the endogenous BC047440 mRNA abundance by 41% in HepG 2 cells and inhibited their proliferation in vitro (P < 0.01). More cells were arrested by the antisense vector at the G 1 phase in an apoptosis-independent manner (P = 0.014). Additionally, transfection with pcDNA3.1(+) BC047440AS significantly reduced the xenograft tumorigenicity in nude mice. As a novel cell cycle regulator associated with HCC, the BC047440 gene was involved in cell proliferation in vitro and xenograft tumorigenicity in vivo through apoptosis-independent mechanisms

  15. The stealth episome: suppression of gene expression on the excised genomic island PPHGI-1 from Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A C Godfrey

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola is the causative agent of halo blight in the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris. P. syringae pv. phaseolicola race 4 strain 1302A contains the avirulence gene avrPphB (syn. hopAR1, which resides on PPHGI-1, a 106 kb genomic island. Loss of PPHGI-1 from P. syringae pv. phaseolicola 1302A following exposure to the hypersensitive resistance response (HR leads to the evolution of strains with altered virulence. Here we have used fluorescent protein reporter systems to gain insight into the mobility of PPHGI-1. Confocal imaging of dual-labelled P. syringae pv. phaseolicola 1302A strain, F532 (dsRFP in chromosome and eGFP in PPHGI-1, revealed loss of PPHGI-1::eGFP encoded fluorescence during plant infection and when grown in vitro on extracted leaf apoplastic fluids. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS of fluorescent and non-fluorescent PPHGI-1::eGFP F532 populations showed that cells lost fluorescence not only when the GI was deleted, but also when it had excised and was present as a circular episome. In addition to reduced expression of eGFP, quantitative PCR on sub-populations separated by FACS showed that transcription of other genes on PPHGI-1 (avrPphB and xerC was also greatly reduced in F532 cells harbouring the excised PPHGI-1::eGFP episome. Our results show how virulence determinants located on mobile pathogenicity islands may be hidden from detection by host surveillance systems through the suppression of gene expression in the episomal state.

  16. Isolation of genes differentially expressed during development and ripening of Fragaria chiloensis fruit by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Paula; Salvatierra, Ariel; Moya-León, María Alejandra; Herrera, Raúl

    2010-09-15

    Fragaria chiloensis, the native Chilean strawberry, is noted for its good fruit quality characters. However, it is a highly perishable fruit due to its rapid softening. With the aim to screen for genes differentially expressed during development and ripening of strawberry fruit, the subtractive suppressive hybridization (SSH) methodology was employed. Six libraries were generated contrasting transcripts from four different developmental stages. A set of 1807 genes was isolated and characterized. In our EST collection, approximately 90% of partial cDNAs showed significant similarity to proteins with known or unknown function registered in databases. Among them, proteins related to protein fate were identified in a large green fruit library and protein related with cellular transport, cell wall-related proteins, and transcription regulators were identified in a ripe fruit library. Thirteen genes were analyzed by qRT-PCR during development and ripening of the Chilean strawberry fruit. The information generated in this study provides new clues to aid the understanding of the ripening process in F. chiloensis fruit. Copyright 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. An inducible expression system for high-level expression of recombinant proteins in slow growing mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leotta, Lisa; Spratt, Joanne M; Kong, Carlyn U; Triccas, James A

    2015-09-01

    A novel protein expression vector utilising the inducible hspX promoter of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was constructed and evaluated in this study. High-level induction of three mycobacterial antigens, comprising up to 9% of bacterial sonicate, was demonstrated in recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG when grown under low-oxygen tension, which serves to enhance hspX promoter activity. Recombinant proteins were efficiently purified from bacterial lysates in a soluble form by virtue of a C-terminal 6-histidine tag. Purification of the immunodominant M. tuberculosis Ag85B antigen using this system resulted in a recombinant protein that stimulated significant IFN-γ release from Ag85B-reactive T cells generated after vaccination of mice with an Ag85B-expressing vaccine. Further, the M. tuberculosis L-alanine dehydrogenase (Ald) protein purified from recombinant BCG displayed strong enzymatic activity in recombinant form. This study demonstrated that high levels of native-like recombinant mycobacterial proteins can be produced in mycobacterial hosts, and this may aid the analysis of mycobacterial protein function and the development of new treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Antisense Suppression of 2-Cysteine Peroxiredoxin in Arabidopsis Specifically Enhances the Activities and Expression of Enzymes Associated with Ascorbate Metabolism But Not Glutathione Metabolism1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Margarete; Noctor, Graham; Foyer, Christine H.; Dietz, Karl-Josef

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of decreased 2-cysteine peroxiredoxin (2-CP) on the leaf anti-oxidative system in Arabidopsis. At three stages of leaf development, two lines of transgenic Arabidopsis mutants with decreased contents of chloroplast 2-CP were compared with wild type and a control line transformed with an empty vector. Glutathione contents and redox state were similar in all plants, and no changes in transcript levels for enzymes involved in glutathione metabolism were observed. Transcript levels for chloroplastic glutathione peroxidase were much lower than those for 2-CP, and both cytosolic and chloroplastic glutathione peroxidase were not increased in the mutants. In contrast, the foliar ascorbate pool was more oxidized in the mutants, although the difference decreased with plant age. The activities of thylakoid and stromal ascorbate peroxidase and particularly monodehydroascorbate reductase were increased as were transcripts for these enzymes. No change in dehydroascorbate reductase activity was observed, and effects on transcript abundance for glutathione reductase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase were slight or absent. The results demonstrate that 2-CP forms an integral part of the anti-oxidant network of chloroplasts and is functionally interconnected with other defense systems. Suppression of 2-CP leads to increased expression of other anti-oxidative genes possibly mediated by increased oxidation state of the leaf ascorbate pool. PMID:11027730

  19. A standardized extract of Butea monosperma (Lam.) flowers suppresses the IL-1β-induced expression of IL-6 and matrix-metalloproteases by activating autophagy in human osteoarthritis chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Mohammad Y; Khan, Nazir M; Haqqi, Tariq M

    2017-12-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of joint dysfunction, disability and poor quality of life in the affected population. The underlying mechanism of joint dysfunction involves increased oxidative stress, inflammation, high levels of cartilage extracellular matrix degrading proteases and decline in autophagy-a mechanism of cellular defense. There is no disease modifying therapies currently available for OA. Different parts of the Butea monosperma (Lam.) plant have widely been used in the traditional Indian Ayurvedic medicine system for the treatment of various human diseases including inflammatory conditions. Here we studied the chondroprotective effect of hydromethanolic extract of Butea monosperma (Lam.) flowers (BME) standardized to the concentration of Butein on human OA chondrocytes stimulated with IL-1β. The hydromethanolic extract of Butea monosperma (Lam.) (BME) was prepared with 70% methanol-water mixer using Soxhlet. Chondrocytes viability after BME treatment was measured by MTT assay. Gene expression levels were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) using TaqMan assays and immunoblotting with specific antibodies. Autophagy activation was determined by measuring the levels of microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3-II (LC3-II) by immunoblotting and visualization of autophagosomes by transmission electron and confocal microscopy. BME was non-toxic to the OA chondrocytes at the doses employed and suppressed the IL-1β induced expression of inerleukin-6 (IL-6) and matrix metalloprotease-3 (MMP-3), MMP-9 and MMP-13. BME enhanced autophagy in chondrocytes as determined by measuring the levels of LC3-II by immunoblotting and increased number of autophagosomes in BME treated chondrocytes by transmission electron microscopy and confocal microscopy. BME upregulated the expression of several autophagy related genes and increased the autophagy flux in human OA chondrocytes under pathological conditions. Further analysis revealed that

  20. KAI1 suppresses HIF-1α and VEGF expression by blocking CDCP1-enhanced Src activation in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Jung-Jin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background KAI1 was initially identified as a metastasis-suppressor gene in prostate cancer. It is a member of the tetraspan transmembrane superfamily (TM4SF of membrane glycoproteins. As part of a tetraspanin-enriched microdomain (TEM, KAI1 inhibits tumor metastasis by negative regulation of Src. However, the underlying regulatory mechanism has not yet been fully elucidated. CUB-domain-containing protein 1 (CDCP1, which was previously known as tetraspanin-interacting protein in TEM, promoted metastasis via enhancement of Src activity. To better understand how KAI1 is involved in the negative regulation of Src, we here examined the function of KAI1 in CDCP1-mediated Src kinase activation and the consequences of this process, focusing on HIF-1 α and VEGF expression. Methods We used the human prostate cancer cell line PC3 which was devoid of KAI1 expression. Vector-transfected cells (PC3-GFP clone #8 and KAI1-expressing PC3 clones (PC3-KAI1 clone #5 and #6 were picked after stable transfection with KAI1 cDNA and selection in 800 μg/ml G418. Protein levels were assessed by immunoblotting and VEGF reporter gene activity was measured by assaying luciferase activitiy. We followed tumor growth in vivo and immunohistochemistry was performed for detection of HIF-1, CDCP1, and VHL protein level. Results We demonstrated that Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α and VEGF expression were significantly inhibited by restoration of KAI1 in PC3 cells. In response to KAI1 expression, CDCP1-enhanced Src activation was down-regulated and the level of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL protein was significantly increased. In an in vivo xenograft model, KAI1 inhibited the expression of CDCP1 and HIF-1α. Conclusions These novel observations may indicate that KAI1 exerts profound metastasis-suppressor activity in the tumor malignancy process via inhibition of CDCP1-mediated Src activation, followed by VHL-induced HIF-1α degradation and, ultimately, decreased VEGF

  1. Lebein, a snake venom disintegrin, suppresses human colon cancer cells proliferation and tumor-induced angiogenesis through cell cycle arrest, apoptosis induction and inhibition of VEGF expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakraoui, Ons; Marcinkiewicz, Cezary; Aloui, Zohra; Othman, Houcemeddine; Grépin, Renaud; Haoues, Meriam; Essafi, Makram; Srairi-Abid, Najet; Gasmi, Ammar; Karoui, Habib; Pagès, Gilles; Essafi-Benkhadir, Khadija

    2017-01-01

    Lebein, is an heterodimeric disintegrin isolated from Macrovipera lebetina snake venom that was previously characterized as an inhibitor of ADP-induced platelet aggregation. In this study, we investigated the effect of Lebein on the p53-dependent growth of human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines. We found that Lebein significantly inhibited LS174 (p53wt), HCT116 (p53wt), and HT29 (p53mut) colon cancer cell viability by inducing cell cycle arrest through the modulation of expression levels of the tumor suppression factor p53, cell cycle regulating proteins cyclin D1, CDK2, CDK4, retinoblastoma (Rb), CDK1, and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27. Interestingly, Lebein-induced apoptosis of colon cancer cells was dependent on their p53 status. Thus, in LS174 cells, cell death was associated with PARP cleavage and the activation of caspases 3 and 8 while in HCT116 cells, Lebein induced caspase-independent apoptosis through increased expression of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF). In LS174 cells, Lebein triggers the activation of the MAPK ERK1/2 pathway through induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). It also decreased cell adhesion and migration to fibronectin through down regulation of α5β1 integrin. Moreover, Lebein significantly reduced the expression of two angiogenesis stimulators, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and Neuropilin 1 (NRP1). It inhibited the VEGF-induced neovascularization process in the quail embryonic CAM system and blocked the development of human colon adenocarcinoma in nude mice. Overall, our work indicates that Lebein may be useful to design a new therapy against colon cancer. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Physiological exercise loading suppresses post-traumatic osteoarthritis progression via an increase in bone morphogenetic proteins expression in an experimental rat knee model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, H; Ito, A; Nagai, M; Tajino, J; Yamaguchi, S; Kiyan, W; Nakahata, A; Zhang, J; Wang, T; Aoyama, T; Nishitani, K; Kuroki, H

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the dose-response relationship of exercise loading in the cartilage-subchondral bone (SB) unit in surgically-induced post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) of the knee. Destabilized medial meniscus (DMM) surgery was performed on the right knee of 12-week-old male Wistar rats, and sham surgery was performed on the contralateral knee. Four weeks after the surgery, the animals were subjected to moderate (12 m/min) or intense (21 m/min) treadmill exercises for 30 min/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. PTOA development in articular cartilage and SB was examined using histological and immunohistochemical analyses, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis, and biomechanical testing at 8 weeks after surgery. Gremlin-1 was injected to determine the role of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling on PTOA development following moderate exercise. Moderate exercise increased BMP-2, BMP-4, BMP-6, BMP receptor 2, pSmad-5, and inhibitor of DNA binding protein-1 expression in the superficial zone chondrocytes and suppressed cartilage degeneration, osteophyte growth, SB damage, and osteoclast-mediated SB resorption. However, intense exercise had little effect on BMP expression and even caused progression of these osteoarthritis (OA) changes. Gremlin-1 injection following moderate exercise caused progression of the PTOA development down to the level of the non-exercise DMM-operated knee. Exercise regulated cartilage-SB PTOA development in DMM-operated knees in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings shed light on the important role of BMP expression in superficial zone chondrocytes in attenuation of PTOA development following physiological exercise loading. Further studies to support a mechanism by which BMPs would be beneficial in preventing PTOA progression are warranted. Copyright © 2016 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. PER, a Circadian Clock Component, Mediates the Suppression of MMP-1 Expression in HaCaT Keratinocytes by cAMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Miji; Lee, HansongI; Shin, Seoungwoo; Park, Deokhoon; Jung, Eunsun

    2018-03-23

    Skin circadian clock system responds to daily changes, thereby regulating skin functions. Exposure of the skin to UV irradiation induces the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and causes DNA damage. It has been reported both DNA repair and DNA replication are regulated by the circadian clock in mouse skin. However, the molecular link between circadian clock and MMP-1 has little been investigated. We found PERIOD protein, a morning clock component, represses the expression of MMP-1 in human keratinocytes by using a PER-knockdown strategy. Treatment with siPer3 alleviated the suppression of MMP-1 expression induced by forskolin. Results revealed PER3 suppresses the expression of MMP-1 via cAMP signaling pathway. Additionally, we screened for an activator of PER that could repress the expression of MMP-1 using HaCaT cell line containing PER promoter-luciferase reporter gene. Results showed Lespedeza capitate extract (LCE) increased PER promoter activity. LCE inhibited the expression of MMP-1 and its effect of LCE was abolished in knockdown of PER2 or PER3, demonstrating LCE can repress the expression of MMP-1 through PER. Since circadian clock component PER can regulate MMP-1 expression, it might be a new molecular mechanism to develop therapeutics to alleviate skin aging and skin cancer.

  4. Crocin Suppresses LPS-Stimulated Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase by Upregulation of Heme Oxygenase-1 via Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hee Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crocin is a water-soluble carotenoid pigment that is primarily used in various cuisines as a seasoning and coloring agent, as well as in traditional medicines for the treatment of edema, fever, and hepatic disorder. In this study, we demonstrated that crocin markedly induces the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 which leads to an anti-inflammatory response. Crocin inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression and nitric oxide production via downregulation of nuclear factor kappa B activity in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. These effects were abrogated by blocking of HO-1 expression or activity. Crocin also induced Ca2+ mobilization from intracellular pools and phosphorylation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 4 (CAMK4. CAMK4 knockdown and kinase-dead mutant inhibited crocin-mediated HO-1 expression, Nrf2 activation, and phosphorylation of Akt, indicating that HO-1 expression is mediated by CAMK4 and that Akt is a downstream mediator of CAMK4 in crocin signaling. Moreover, crocin-mediated suppression of iNOS expression was blocked by CAMK4 inhibition. Overall, these results suggest that crocin suppresses LPS-stimulated expression of iNOS by inducing HO-1 expression via Ca2+/calmodulin-CAMK4-PI3K/Akt-Nrf2 signaling cascades. Our findings provide a novel molecular mechanism for the inhibitory effects of crocin against endotoxin-mediated inflammation.

  5. PER, a Circadian Clock Component, Mediates the Suppression of MMP-1 Expression in HaCaT Keratinocytes by cAMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miji Yeom

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Skin circadian clock system responds to daily changes, thereby regulating skin functions. Exposure of the skin to UV irradiation induces the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1 and causes DNA damage. It has been reported both DNA repair and DNA replication are regulated by the circadian clock in mouse skin. However, the molecular link between circadian clock and MMP-1 has little been investigated. We found PERIOD protein, a morning clock component, represses the expression of MMP-1 in human keratinocytes by using a PER-knockdown strategy. Treatment with siPer3 alleviated the suppression of MMP-1 expression induced by forskolin. Results revealed PER3 suppresses the expression of MMP-1 via cAMP signaling pathway. Additionally, we screened for an activator of PER that could repress the expression of MMP-1 using HaCaT cell line containing PER promoter-luciferase reporter gene. Results showed Lespedeza capitate extract (LCE increased PER promoter activity. LCE inhibited the expression of MMP-1 and its effect of LCE was abolished in knockdown of PER2 or PER3, demonstrating LCE can repress the expression of MMP-1 through PER. Since circadian clock component PER can regulate MMP-1 expression, it might be a new molecular mechanism to develop therapeutics to alleviate skin aging and skin cancer.

  6. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine protects against emphysema in mice via suppressing p16Ink4a expression in lung tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He ZH

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Zhi-Hui He,1 Yan Chen,2 Ping Chen,2 Sheng-Dong He,2 Hui-Hui Zeng,2 Ji-Ru Ye,2 Da Liu,2 Jun Cao3 1Intensive Care Unit, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, 3Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hunan Provincial People’s Hospital, Changsha, China Background: There is a growing realization that COPD, or at least emphysema, involves several processes presenting in aging and cellular senescence. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs contribute to neovascularization and play an important role in the development of COPD. The gene for p16Ink4a is a major dominant senescence one. The aim of the present study was to observe changes in lung function, histomorphology of lung tissue, and expression of p16Ink4a in lung tissue and bone marrow-derived EPCs in emphysematous mice induced by cigarette-smoke extract (CSE, and further to search for a potential candidate agent protecting against emphysema induced by CSE. Materials and methods: An animal emphysema model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of CSE. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR was administered to the emphysematous mice. Lung function and histomorphology of lung tissue were measured. The p16Ink4a protein and mRNA in EPCs and lung tissues were detected using Western blotting and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Results: CSE induced emphysema with increased p16Ink4a expression in lung tissue and bone marrow-derived EPCs. 5-Aza-CdR partly protected against emphysema, especially in the lung-morphology profile, and partly protest against the overexpression of p16Ink4a in EPCs and lung tissue induced by CSE. Conclusion: 5-Aza-CdR partly protected against emphysema in mice via suppressing p16Ink4a expression in EPCs and lung tissue. Keywords: 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine, cigarette smoke, emphysema, endothelial progenitor cells, p16Ink4a

  7. Expression levels of parvalbumins determine allergenicity of fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesmeier, U; Vázquez-Cortés, S; Bublin, M; Radauer, C; Ma, Y; Briza, P; Fernández-Rivas, M; Breiteneder, H

    2010-02-01

    Parvalbumins are the most important fish allergens. Polysensitization to various fish species is frequently reported and linked to the cross-reactivity of their parvalbumins. Studies on cross-reactivity and its association to the allergenicity of purified natural parvalbumins from different fish species are still lacking. In addition, some studies indicate that dark muscled fish such as tuna are less allergenic. Total protein extracts and purified parvalbumins from cod, whiff, and swordfish, all eaten frequently in Spain, were tested for their IgE-binding properties with 16 fish allergic patients' sera from Madrid. The extent of cross-reactivity of these parvalbumins was investigated by IgE ELISA inhibition assays. Additionally, the cDNA sequences of whiff and swordfish parvalbumins were determined. Extractable amounts of parvalbumins from cod were 20 times and from whiff 30 times higher than from swordfish. Parvalbumins were recognized by 94% of the patients in extracts of cod and whiff, but only by 60% in swordfish extracts. Nevertheless, a high cross-reactivity was determined for all purified parvalbumins by IgE inhibition. The amino acid sequence identities of the three parvalbumins were in a range of 62-74%. The parvalbumins of cod, whiff and swordfish are highly cross-reactive. The high amino acid sequence identity among cod, whiff and swordfish parvalbumins results in the observed IgE cross-reactivity. The low allergenicity of swordfish is due to the low expression levels of its parvalbumin.

  8. New levels in 168Er: Use of a Compton-suppressed Ge array with the (n,γ) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, R.L.; Casten, R.F.; Phillips, W.R.; Varley, B.J.; Lister, C.J.; Durell, J.L.; Shannon, J.A.; Warner, D.D.

    1996-01-01

    For the first time an (n,γ) reaction has been extensively studied using a large array of Compton-suppressed Ge detectors (the TESSA array). The nucleus 168 Er was studied and the data show substantial improvement, in both quantity and quality, over previous coincidence data. Even though 168 Er is perhaps the best studied deformed nucleus, over 250 new coincidence relations and a number of new levels in 168 Er were disclosed, demonstrating the usefulness of this approach. Nuclear physics applications relate to the extension of nearly complete spectroscopy to higher excitation energies and to the study of statistical and chaotic features of the decay of low spin compound nuclear levels. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  9. Repetitive Hyperbaric Oxygenation Attenuates Reactive Astrogliosis and Suppresses Expression of Inflammatory Mediators in the Rat Model of Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Lavrnja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The exact mechanisms by which treatment with hyperbaric oxygen (HBOT exerts its beneficial effects on recovery after brain injury are still unrevealed. Therefore, in this study we investigated the influence of repetitive HBOT on the reactive astrogliosis and expression of mediators of inflammation after cortical stab injury (CSI. CSI was performed on male Wistar rats, divided into control, sham, and lesioned groups with appropriate HBO. The HBOT protocol was as follows: 10 minutes of slow compression, 2.5 atmospheres absolute (ATA for 60 minutes, and 10 minutes of slow decompression, once a day for 10 consecutive days. Data obtained using real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence analyses revealed that repetitive HBOT applied after the CSI attenuates reactive astrogliosis and glial scarring, and reduces expression of GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein, vimentin, and ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1 both at gene and tissue levels. In addition, HBOT prevents expression of CD40 and its ligand CD40L on microglia, neutrophils, cortical neurons, and reactive astrocytes. Accordingly, repetitive HBOT, by prevention of glial scarring and limiting of expression of inflammatory mediators, supports formation of more permissive environment for repair and regeneration.

  10. The constrained maximal expression level owing to haploidy shapes gene content on the mammalian X chromosome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurst, Laurence D.; Ghanbarian, Avazeh T.; Forrest, Alistair R R

    2015-01-01

    that the trend is shaped by the maximal expression level not the breadth of expression per se. Importantly, a limit to the maximal expression level explains biased tissue of expression profiles of X-linked genes. Tissues whose tissue-specific genes are very highly expressed (e.g., secretory tissues, tissues...... abundant in structural proteins) are also tissues in which gene expression is relatively rare on the X chromosome. These trends cannot be fully accounted for in terms of alternative models of biased expression. In conclusion, the notion that it is hard for genes on the Therian X to be highly expressed...

  11. Morphology, sex steroid level and gene expression analysis in gonadal sex reversal of triploid female (XXX) rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gefeng; Huang, Tianqing; Jin, Xian; Cui, Cunhe; Li, Depeng; Sun, Cong; Han, Ying; Mu, Zhenbo

    2016-02-01

    In non-mammalian vertebrates, estrogens and expressions of cyp19a1 and foxl2 play critical roles in maintaining ovary differentiation and development, while dmrt1 and sox9 are male-specific genes in testicular differentiation and are highly conserved. In order to deeply understand the morphological change, sex steroids level and molecular mechanism of triploid female gonadal reversal in rainbow trout, we studied the ovary morphology, tendency of estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T) levels and the relative expressions of dmrt1, cyp19a1, sox9 and foxl2 in juvenile and adult fish. Our results demonstrated that the development of triploid female gonads in rainbow trout went through arrested development, oocytes dedifferentiation, ovary reconstruction and sex reversal finally. During early gonadal development (154-334 days post-fertilization), the expressions of foxl2 and cyp19a1 increased linearly, while expressions of dmrt1 and sox9 were extremely suppressed, and E2 level was higher, while T level was lower. During the mid-to-late period of triploid female gonadal development (574-964 days post-fertilization), the expressions of dmrt1 and sox9 remained high and were very close to the quantity of diploid male genes, and T levels were even reaching diploid male plasma concentrations, while expressions of cyp19a1 and foxl2 were decreased, leading to decrease in E2 level. We realized that the development model of rainbow trout triploid female gonads was extremely rare, and the regulatory mechanism was very special. Genes involved in gonadal development and endogenous estrogens are pivotal factors in fish natural sex reversal.

  12. Use of high-dose, twice-yearly albendazole and ivermectin to suppress Wuchereria bancrofti microfilarial levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembele, Benoit; Coulibaly, Yaya I; Dolo, Housseini; Konate, Siaka; Coulibaly, Siaka Y; Sanogo, Dramane; Soumaoro, Lamine; Coulibaly, Michel E; Doumbia, Salif Seriba; Diallo, Abdallah A; Traore, Sekou F; Diaman Keita, Adama; Fay, Michael P; Nutman, Thomas B; Klion, Amy D

    2010-12-01

    Annual mass treatment with albendazole and ivermectin is the mainstay of current strategies to interrupt transmission of Wuchereria bancrofti in Africa. More-effective microfilarial suppression could potentially reduce the time necessary to interrupt transmission, easing the economic burden of mass treatment programs in countries with limited resources. To determine the effect of increased dose and frequency of albendazole-ivermectin treatment on microfilarial clearance, 51 W. bancrofti microfilaremic residents of an area of W. bancrofti endemicity in Mali were randomized to receive 2 doses of annual, standard-dose albendazole-ivermectin therapy (400 mg and 150 μg/kg; n = 26) or 4 doses of twice-yearly, increased-dose albendazole-ivermectin therapy (800 mg and 400 μg/kg; n = 25). Although microfilarial levels decreased significantly after therapy in both groups, levels were significantly lower in the high-dose, twice-yearly group at 12, 18, and 24 months. Furthermore, there was complete clearance of detectable microfilariae at 12 months in the 19 patients in the twice-yearly therapy group with data available at 12 months, compared with 9 of 21 patients in the annual therapy group (P < .001, by Fisher's exact test). This difference between the 2 groups was sustained at 18 and 24 months, with no detectable microfilariae in the patients receiving twice-yearly treatment. Worm nests detectable by ultrasonography and W. bancrofti circulating antigen levels, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were decreased to the same degree in both groups at 24 months, compared with baseline. These findings suggest that increasing the dosage and frequency of albendazole-ivermectin treatment enhances suppression of microfilariae but that this effect may not be attributable to improved adulticidal activity.

  13. Immunization with a recombinant vaccinia virus that encodes nonstructural proteins of the hepatitis C virus suppresses viral protein levels in mouse liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Satoshi; Kimura, Kiminori; Chiyo, Tomoko; Ohtsuki, Takahiro; Tobita, Yoshimi; Tokunaga, Yuko; Yasui, Fumihiko; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Wakita, Takaji; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Miyasaka, Masayuki; Mizuno, Kyosuke; Hayashi, Yukiko; Hishima, Tsunekazu; Matsushima, Kouji; Kohara, Michinori

    2012-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C, which is caused by infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV), is a global health problem. Using a mouse model of hepatitis C, we examined the therapeutic effects of a recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV) that encodes an HCV protein. We generated immunocompetent mice that each expressed multiple HCV proteins via a Cre/loxP switching system and established several distinct attenuated rVV strains. The HCV core protein was expressed consistently in the liver after polyinosinic acid-polycytidylic acid injection, and these mice showed chronic hepatitis C-related pathological findings (hepatocyte abnormalities, accumulation of glycogen, steatosis), liver fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Immunization with one rVV strain (rVV-N25), which encoded nonstructural HCV proteins, suppressed serum inflammatory cytokine levels and alleviated the symptoms of pathological chronic hepatitis C within 7 days after injection. Furthermore, HCV protein levels in liver tissue also decreased in a CD4 and CD8 T-cell-dependent manner. Consistent with these results, we showed that rVV-N25 immunization induced a robust CD8 T-cell immune response that was specific to the HCV nonstructural protein 2. We also demonstrated that the onset of chronic hepatitis in CN2-29((+/-))/MxCre((+/-)) mice was mainly attributable to inflammatory cytokines, (tumor necrosis factor) TNF-α and (interleukin) IL-6. Thus, our generated mice model should be useful for further investigation of the immunological processes associated with persistent expression of HCV proteins because these mice had not developed immune tolerance to the HCV antigen. In addition, we propose that rVV-N25 could be developed as an effective therapeutic vaccine.

  14. Immunization with a recombinant vaccinia virus that encodes nonstructural proteins of the hepatitis C virus suppresses viral protein levels in mouse liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Sekiguchi

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatitis C, which is caused by infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV, is a global health problem. Using a mouse model of hepatitis C, we examined the therapeutic effects of a recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV that encodes an HCV protein. We generated immunocompetent mice that each expressed multiple HCV proteins via a Cre/loxP switching system and established several distinct attenuated rVV strains. The HCV core protein was expressed consistently in the liver after polyinosinic acid-polycytidylic acid injection, and these mice showed chronic hepatitis C-related pathological findings (hepatocyte abnormalities, accumulation of glycogen, steatosis, liver fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Immunization with one rVV strain (rVV-N25, which encoded nonstructural HCV proteins, suppressed serum inflammatory cytokine levels and alleviated the symptoms of pathological chronic hepatitis C within 7 days after injection. Furthermore, HCV protein levels in liver tissue also decreased in a CD4 and CD8 T-cell-dependent manner. Consistent with these results, we showed that rVV-N25 immunization induced a robust CD8 T-cell immune response that was specific to the HCV nonstructural protein 2. We also demonstrated that the onset of chronic hepatitis in CN2-29((+/-/MxCre((+/- mice was mainly attributable to inflammatory cytokines, (tumor necrosis factor TNF-α and (interleukin IL-6. Thus, our generated mice model should be useful for further investigation of the immunological processes associated with persistent expression of HCV proteins because these mice had not developed immune tolerance to the HCV antigen. In addition, we propose that rVV-N25 could be developed as an effective therapeutic vaccine.

  15. Cryptochrome 2 expression level is critical for adrenocorticotropin stimulation of cortisol production in the capuchin monkey adrenal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Farfan, C; Abarzua-Catalan, L; Valenzuela, F J; Mendez, N; Richter, H G; Valenzuela, G J; Serón-Ferré, M

    2009-06-01

    Timely production of glucocorticoid hormones in response to ACTH is essential for survival by coordinating energy intake and expenditure and acting as homeostatic regulators against stress. Adrenal cortisol response to ACTH is clock time dependent, suggesting that an intrinsic circadian oscillator in the adrenal cortex contributes to modulate the response to ACTH. Circadian clock gene expression has been reported in the adrenal cortex of several species. However, there are no reports accounting for potential involvement of adrenal clock proteins on cortisol response to ACTH. Here we explored whether the clock protein cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) knockdown modifies the adrenal response to ACTH in a primate. Adrenal gland explants from adult capuchin monkey (n = 5) were preincubated for 6 h with transfection vehicle (control) or with two different Cry2 antisense and sense probes followed by 48 h incubation in medium alone (no ACTH) or with 100 nm ACTH. Under control and sense conditions, ACTH increased cortisol production, whereas CRY2 suppression inhibited ACTH-stimulated cortisol production. Expression of the steroidogenic enzymes steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase at 48 h of incubation was increased by ACTH in control explants and suppressed by Cry2 knockdown. Additionally, we found that Cry2 knockdown decreased the expression of the clock gene brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like protein (Bmal1) at the mRNA and protein levels. Altogether these results strongly support that the clock protein CRY2 is involved in the mechanism by which ACTH increases the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Thus, adequate expression levels of components of the adrenal circadian clock are required for an appropriate cortisol response to ACTH.

  16. Mechanisms of suppression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in RAW 264.7 cells by andrographolide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Wen-Fei; Chen, Chieh-Fu; Lin, Jin-Jung

    2000-01-01

    Andrographolide, an active component found in leaves of Andrographis paniculata, has been reported to exhibit nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory property in endotoxin-stimulated macrophages, however, the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study we investigated the effect of andrographolide on the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity in RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus interferon-γ (IFN-γ).RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with LPS/IFN-γ activated NO production; in this condition andrographolide (1–100 μM) inhibited NO production in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 17.4±1.1 μM. Andrographolide also reduces the expression of iNOS protein level but without a significant effect on iNOS mRNA. The reduction of iNOS activity is thought to be caused by decreased expression of iNOS protein.In a protein stability assay, andrographolide moderately but significantly reduced the amount of iNOS protein as suggested by accelerating degradation. Furthermore, andrographolide also inhibited total protein de novo synthesis as demonstrated by [35S]-methionine incorporation.As a whole, these data suggest that andrographolide inhibits NO synthesis in RAW 264.7 cells by reducing the expression of iNOS protein and the reduction could occur through two additional mechanisms: prevention of the de novo protein synthesis and decreasing the protein stability via a post-transcriptional mechanism. It is also possible that inhibition of iNOS protein expression and NO production under immune stimulation and/or bacteria infection may explain, in part, the beneficial effects of andrographolide as an anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:10780958

  17. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) suppresses ghrelin levels in humans via increased insulin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagemann, Dirk; Holst, Jens Juul; Gethmann, Arnica

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Ghrelin is an orexigenic peptide predominantly secreted by the stomach. Ghrelin plasma levels rise before meal ingestion and sharply decline afterwards, but the mechanisms controlling ghrelin secretion are largely unknown. Since meal ingestion also elicits the secretion...... of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), we examined whether exogenous GLP-1 administration reduces ghrelin secretion in humans. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 14 healthy male volunteers were given intravenous infusions of GLP-1(1.2 pmol x kg(-1) min(-1)) or placebo over 390 min. After 30 min, a solid test...... meal was served. Venous blood was drawn frequently for the determination of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, GLP-1 and ghrelin. RESULTS: During the infusion of exogenous GLP-1 and placebo, GLP-1 plasma concentrations reached steady-state levels of 139+/-15 pmol/l and 12+/-2 pmol/l, respectively (p

  18. Mesenchymal stromal cells reverse hypoxia-mediated suppression of α-smooth muscle actin expression in human dermal fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faulknor, Renea A.; Olekson, Melissa A.; Nativ, Nir I.; Ghodbane, Mehdi; Gray, Andrea J.; Berthiaume, François

    2015-01-01

    During wound healing, fibroblasts deposit extracellular matrix that guides angiogenesis and supports the migration and proliferation of cells that eventually form the scar. They also promote wound closure via differentiation into α-smooth muscle actin (SMA)-expressing myofibroblasts, which cause wound contraction. Low oxygen tension typical of chronic nonhealing wounds inhibits fibroblast collagen production and differentiation. It has been suggested that hypoxic mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) secrete factors that promote wound healing in animal models; however, it is unclear whether these factors are equally effective on the target cells in a hypoxic wound environment. Here we investigated the impact of MSC-derived soluble factors on the function of fibroblasts cultured in hypoxic fibroblast-populated collagen lattices (FPCLs). Hypoxia alone significantly decreased FPCL contraction and α-SMA expression. MSC-conditioned medium restored hypoxic FPCL contraction and α-SMA expression to levels similar to normoxic FPCLs. (SB431542), an inhibitor of transforming growth factor-β 1 (TGF-β 1 )-mediated signaling, blocked most of the MSC effect on FPCL contraction, while exogenous TGF-β 1 at levels similar to that secreted by MSCs reproduced the MSC effect. These results suggest that TGF-β 1 is a major paracrine signal secreted by MSCs that can restore fibroblast functions relevant to the wound healing process and that are impaired in hypoxia. - Highlights: • Fibroblasts were cultured in collagen lattices (FPCLs) as model contracting wounds. • Hypoxia decreased FPCL contraction and fibroblast α-smooth muscle actin expression. • Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) restored function of hypoxic fibroblasts. • MSCs regulate fibroblast function mainly via secreted transforming growth factor-β 1

  19. Mesenchymal stromal cells reverse hypoxia-mediated suppression of α-smooth muscle actin expression in human dermal fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulknor, Renea A.; Olekson, Melissa A.; Nativ, Nir I.; Ghodbane, Mehdi; Gray, Andrea J.; Berthiaume, François, E-mail: fberthia@rci.rutgers.edu

    2015-02-27

    During wound healing, fibroblasts deposit extracellular matrix that guides angiogenesis and supports the migration and proliferation of cells that eventually form the scar. They also promote wound closure via differentiation into α-smooth muscle actin (SMA)-expressing myofibroblasts, which cause wound contraction. Low oxygen tension typical of chronic nonhealing wounds inhibits fibroblast collagen production and differentiation. It has been suggested that hypoxic mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) secrete factors that promote wound healing in animal models; however, it is unclear whether these factors are equally effective on the target cells in a hypoxic wound environment. Here we investigated the impact of MSC-derived soluble factors on the function of fibroblasts cultured in hypoxic fibroblast-populated collagen lattices (FPCLs). Hypoxia alone significantly decreased FPCL contraction and α-SMA expression. MSC-conditioned medium restored hypoxic FPCL contraction and α-SMA expression to levels similar to normoxic FPCLs. (SB431542), an inhibitor of transforming growth factor-β{sub 1} (TGF-β{sub 1})-mediated signaling, blocked most of the MSC effect on FPCL contraction, while exogenous TGF-β{sub 1} at levels similar to that secreted by MSCs reproduced the MSC effect. These results suggest that TGF-β{sub 1} is a major paracrine signal secreted by MSCs that can restore fibroblast functions relevant to the wound healing process and that are impaired in hypoxia. - Highlights: • Fibroblasts were cultured in collagen lattices (FPCLs) as model contracting wounds. • Hypoxia decreased FPCL contraction and fibroblast α-smooth muscle actin expression. • Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) restored function of hypoxic fibroblasts. • MSCs regulate fibroblast function mainly via secreted transforming growth factor-β{sub 1}.

  20. Tetramethylpyrazine suppresses transient oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced connexin32 expression and cell apoptosis via the ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathway in cultured hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Gu; Yuan, Libang; Cai, Lin; Ran, Maorong; Zhang, Yulan; Gong, Huaqu; Dai, Xuemei; Wu, Wei; Dong, Hailong

    2014-01-01

    Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) has been widely used in China as a drug for the treatment of various diseases. Recent studies have suggested that TMP has a protective effect on ischemic neuronal damage. However, the exact mechanism is still unclear. This study aims to investigate the mechanism of TMP mediated ischemic hippocampal neurons injury induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). The effect of TMP on hippocampal neurons viability was detected by MTT assay, LDH release assay and apoptosis rate was measured by flow cytometry. TMP significantly suppressed neuron apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. TMP could significantly reduce the elevated levels of connexin32 (Cx32) induced by OGD. Knockdown of Cx32 by siRNA attenuated OGD injury. Moreover, our study showed that viability was increased in siRNA-Cx32-treated-neurons, and neuron apoptosis was suppressed by activating Bcl-2 expression and inhibiting Bax expression. Over expression of Cx32 could decrease neurons viability and increase LDH release. Furthermore, OGD increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38, whose inhibitors relieved the neuron injury and Cx32 up-regulation. Taken together, TMP can reverse the OGD-induced Cx32 expression and cell apoptosis via the ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways.

  1. Tetramethylpyrazine suppresses transient oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced connexin32 expression and cell apoptosis via the ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathway in cultured hippocampal neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Gong

    Full Text Available Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP has been widely used in China as a drug for the treatment of various diseases. Recent studies have suggested that TMP has a protective effect on ischemic neuronal damage. However, the exact mechanism is still unclear. This study aims to investigate the mechanism of TMP mediated ischemic hippocampal neurons injury induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD. The effect of TMP on hippocampal neurons viability was detected by MTT assay, LDH release assay and apoptosis rate was measured by flow cytometry. TMP significantly suppressed neuron apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. TMP could significantly reduce the elevated levels of connexin32 (Cx32 induced by OGD. Knockdown of Cx32 by siRNA attenuated OGD injury. Moreover, our study showed that viability was increased in siRNA-Cx32-treated-neurons, and neuron apoptosis was suppressed by activating Bcl-2 expression and inhibiting Bax expression. Over expression of Cx32 could decrease neurons viability and increase LDH release. Furthermore, OGD increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38, whose inhibitors relieved the neuron injury and Cx32 up-regulation. Taken together, TMP can reverse the OGD-induced Cx32 expression and cell apoptosis via the ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways.

  2. The evolution of gene expression levels in mammalian organs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brawand, David; Soumillon, Magali; Necsulea, Anamaria

    2011-01-01

    and chromosomes, owing to differences in selective pressures: transcriptome change was slow in nervous tissues and rapid in testes, slower in rodents than in apes and monotremes, and rapid for the X chromosome right after its formation. Although gene expression evolution in mammals was strongly shaped......Changes in gene expression are thought to underlie many of the phenotypic differences between species. However, large-scale analyses of gene expression evolution were until recently prevented by technological limitations. Here we report the sequencing of polyadenylated RNA from six organs across...... ten species that represent all major mammalian lineages (placentals, marsupials and monotremes) and birds (the evolutionary outgroup), with the goal of understanding the dynamics of mammalian transcriptome evolution. We show that the rate of gene expression evolution varies among organs, lineages...

  3. FOXP3 renders activated human regulatory T cells resistant to restimulation-induced cell death by suppressing SAP expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Gil; Voss, Kelsey; Yan, Toria F; Kim, Yong Chan; Kortum, Robert L; Scott, David W; Snow, Andrew L

    2018-05-01

    Restimulation-induced cell death (RICD) is an apoptotic program that regulates effector T cell expansion, triggered by repeated stimulation through the T cell receptor (TCR) in the presence of interleukin-2 (IL-2). Although CD4 + regulatory T cells (Tregs) consume IL-2 and experience frequent TCR stimulation, they are highly resistant to RICD. Resistance in Tregs is dependent on the forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) transcription factor, although the mechanism remains unclear. T cells from patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP-1), that lack the adaptor molecule SLAM-associated protein (SAP), are also resistant to RICD. Here we demonstrate that normal Tregs express very low levels of SAP compared to conventional T cells. FOXP3 reduces SAP expression by directly binding to and repressing the SH2D1A (SAP) promoter. Indeed, ectopic SAP expression restores RICD sensitivity in human FOXP3 + Tregs. Our findings illuminate the mechanism behind FOXP3-mediated RICD resistance in Tregs, providing new insight into their long-term persistence. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Expression of Msx-1 is suppressed in bisphosphonate associated osteonecrosis related jaw tissue-etiopathology considerations respecting jaw developmental biology-related unique features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrhan, Falk; Hyckel, Peter; Ries, Jutta; Stockmann, Phillip; Nkenke, Emeka; Schlegel, Karl A; Neukam, Friedrich W; Amann, Kerstin

    2010-10-13

    Bone-destructive disease treatments include bisphosphonates and antibodies against the osteoclast differentiator, RANKL (aRANKL); however, osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is a frequent side-effect. Current models fail to explain the restriction of bisphosphonate (BP)-related and denosumab (anti-RANKL antibody)-related ONJ to jaws. Msx-1 is exclusively expressed in craniofacial structures and pivotal to cranial neural crest (CNC)-derived periodontal tissue remodeling. We hypothesised that Msx-1 expression might be impaired in bisphosphonate-related ONJ. The study aim was to elucidate Msx-1 and RANKL-associated signal transduction (BMP-2/4, RANKL) in ONJ-altered and healthy periodontal tissue. Twenty ONJ and twenty non-BP exposed periodontal samples were processed for RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. An automated staining-based alkaline phosphatase-anti-alkaline phosphatase method was used to measure the stained cells:total cell-number ratio (labelling index, Bonferroni adjustment). Real-time RT-PCR was performed on ONJ-affected and healthy jaw periodontal samples (n = 20 each) to quantitatively compare Msx-1, BMP-2, RANKL, and GAPDH mRNA levels. Semi-quantitative assessment of the ratio of stained cells showed decreased Msx-1 and RANKL and increased BMP-2/4 (all p Msx-1 (p Msx-1 suppression in ONJ-adjacent periodontal tissue suggested a bisphosphonate-related impairment in cellular differentiation that occurred exclusively jaw remodelling. Further research on developmental biology-related unique features of jaw bone structures will help to elucidate pathologies restricted to maxillofacial tissue.

  5. Linc00472 suppresses proliferation and promotes apoptosis through elevating PDCD4 expression by sponging miR-196a in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yafei; Yang, Shengnan; Han, Yanping; Sun, Jingjing; Xv, Lijuan; Wu, Lina; Wang, Yongfeng; Ming, Liang

    2018-06-21

    Long intergenic non-coding RNA Linc00472 has been considered as a tumor suppressor in some cancers. However, the function and mechanism of Linc00472 in colorectal cancer has not been well elucidated. In this study, we found that Linc00472 was down-regulated in colorectal cancer tissues and cells. Elevated Linc00472 expression suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells. Moreover, Linc00472 acted as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) of miR-196a to release programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4). Furthermore, miR-196a overexpression or PDCD4 knockdown reversed Linc00472-mediated proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction in colorectal cancer cells. Ectopic Linc00472 expression hindered tumor growth in vivo . Our study demonstrated that Linc00472 suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis through up-regulating PDCD4 by decoying miR-196a, which may be an effective therapeutic target for colorectal cancer.

  6. Human MLH1 suppresses the insertion of telomeric sequences at intra-chromosomal sites in telomerase-expressing cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Pingping; Chastain, Megan; Zou, Ying; Her, Chengtao

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aberrant formation of interstitial telomeric sequences (ITSs) promotes genome instabilities. However, it is unclear how aberrant ITS formation is suppressed in human cells. Here, we report that MLH1, a key protein involved in mismatch repair (MMR), suppresses telomeric sequence insertion (TSI) at intra-chromosomal regions. The frequency of TSI can be elevated by double-strand break (DSB) inducer and abolished by ATM/ATR inhibition. Suppression of TSI requires MLH1 recruitment to DSBs, indicating that MLH1's role in DSB response/repair is important for suppressing TSI. Moreover, TSI requires telomerase activity but is independent of the functional status of p53 and Rb. Lastly, we show that TSI is associated with chromosome instabilities including chromosome loss, micronuclei formation and chromosome breakage that are further elevated by replication stress. Our studies uncover a novel link between MLH1, telomerase, telomere and genome stability. PMID:28180301

  7. [EFFECT OF α-LIPOIC ACID IN INHIBITING OXIDATIVE STRESS AND PROMOTING DIABETIC WOUND HEALING BY SUPPRESSING EXPRESSION OF miR-29b IN MICE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Tang, Huiqin; Liu, Qun; Gan, Dingyun; Zhou, Man

    2016-08-08

    To investigate the effect of α-lipoic acid on the oxidative stress of wound tissues and diabetic wound healing in mice with diabetic feet. Sixty male C57BL/6J mice weighting 200-300 g were randomly divided into model group (control group, n =15), α-lipoic acid-treated model group ( n =15), miR-29b mimic group ( n =15), and miR-29b mimic negative control group (NC group, n =15). All animals received intraperitoneal injection of streptozocin to establish the diabetic model. Then, a full thickness wound of 5 mm×2 mm in size was created at 4 weeks after modeling. All mice were administrated with high-sugar-fat-diet. At the same day after modeling, α-lipoic acid-treated model group was continuously given intravenous injection of 100 mg/(kg·d) α-lipoic acid for 14 days; miR-29b mimic group and NC group received the tail intravenous injection of lentiviral vector for miR-29b mimic and miR-29b mimic negative control (a total of 2×10 7 TU), respectively, with the treatment of α-lipoic acid. The wound healing was observed and wound area was measured at 7 and 14 days. The wound tissues were harvested to detect the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) using xanthine oxidase method and 5, 5-dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid staining method at 14 days. At the same day, 7, and 14 days after modeling, the relative miR-29b expression in wound tissues from control and α-lipoic acid-treated model groups was detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR. All mice survived to the experiment end. The wound healing was faster in α-lipoic acid-treated group than control group. At 7 and 14 days, the relative wound area and miR-29b expression level were significantly lower, while the contents of SOD and GSH were significantly higher in α-lipoic acid-treated group than control group ( P diabetic wound healing by suppressing expression of miR-29b in mice.

  8. Sphingosine-1-phosphate suppresses chondrosarcoma metastasis by upregulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 through suppressing miR-101 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chun-Hao; Yang, Dong-Ying; Lin, Chih-Yang; Chen, Tsung-Ming; Tang, Chih-Hsin; Huang, Yuan-Li

    2017-10-01

    Chondrosarcoma is the second most common primary malignancy form of bone cancer, exhibiting resistance to chemotherapy and radiation therapy as well as developing high metastasis ability in late-stage tumors. Thus, understanding the metastatic processes of chondrosarcoma is considered a strategy for the treatment of this disease. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive sphingolipid, is produced intracellularly by sphingosine kinase (SphK) and is regarded as a second signaling molecule that regulates inflammation, proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis. However, the effect of S1P on chondrosarcoma remains uncertain. As demonstrated by the transwell, immunoblotting, and real-time PCR analyses, we found that S1P inhibited cell migration and MMP-2 expression through the upregulation of the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP-3) expression in human chondrosarcoma cells. Additionally, we also showed that microRNA (miRNA)-101, which targets the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of TIMP-3, decreased significantly following S1P treatment. After transfection with miR-101 mimics, the S1P-regulated cell migration and TIMP-3 expression were both reversed. Furthermore, we also showed that the S1P-inhibited cell migration is mediated through the c-Src/MEK/ERK signaling axis. Meanwhile, the in vivo study indicated that overexpression of SphK1 decreases chondrosarcoma metastasis to the lungs. Our results illustrate the clinical significance between SphK1, TIMP-3, and miR-101 in human chondrosarcoma patients. Taken together, our results suggest that S1P and miR-101 may prove to be potential therapeutic targets for future chondrosarcoma treatment. © 2017 The Authors. Published by FEBS Press and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. High levels of pigment epithelium-derived factor in diabetes impair wound healing through suppression of Wnt signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Weiwei; Yang, Chuan; Dai, Zhiyu; Che, Di; Feng, Juan; Mao, Yuling; Cheng, Rui; Wang, Zhongxiao; He, Xuemin; Zhou, Ti; Gu, Xiaoqiong; Yan, Li; Yang, Xia; Ma, Jian-Xing; Gao, Guoquan

    2015-04-01

    Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) caused by impaired wound healing is a common vascular complication of diabetes. The current study revealed that plasma levels of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) were elevated in type 2 diabetic patients with DFU and in db/db mice. To test whether elevated PEDF levels contribute to skin wound-healing delay in diabetes, endogenous PEDF was neutralized with an anti-PEDF antibody in db/db mice. Our results showed that neutralization of PEDF accelerated wound healing, increased angiogenesis in the wound skin, and improved the functions and numbers of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in the diabetic mice. Further, PEDF-deficient mice showed higher baseline blood flow in the skin, higher density of cutaneous microvessels, increased skin thickness, improved numbers and functions of circulating EPCs, and accelerated wound healing compared with wild-type mice. Overexpression of PEDF suppressed the Wnt signaling pathway in the wound skin. Lithium chloride-induced Wnt signaling activation downstream of the PEDF interaction site attenuated the inhibitory effect of PEDF on EPCs and rescued the wound-healing deficiency in diabetic mice. Taken together, these results suggest that elevated circulating PEDF levels contribute to impaired wound healing in the process of angiogenesis and vasculogenesis through the inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  10. Paeoniflorin Suppressed High Glucose-Induced Retinal Microglia MMP-9 Expression and Inflammatory Response via Inhibition of TLR4/NF-κB Pathway Through Upregulation of SOCS3 in Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Su-Hua; Liu, Bing-Qian; Hao, Mao-Juan; Fan, Yi-Xin; Qian, Cheng; Teng, Peng; Zhou, Xiao-Wei; Hu, Liang; Liu, Wen-Tao; Yuan, Zhi-Lan; Li, Qing-Ping

    2017-10-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a serious-threatening complication of diabetes and urgently needed to be treated. Evidence has accumulated indicating that microglia inflammation within the retina plays a critical role in DR. Microglial matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) has an important role in the destruction of the integrity of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) associated with the development of DR. MMP-9 was also considered important for regulating inflammatory responses. Paeoniflorin, a monoterpene glucoside, has a potent immunomodulatory effect on microglia. We hypothesized that paeoniflorin could significantly suppress microglial MMP-9 activation induced by high glucose and further relieve DR. BV2 cells were used to investigate the effects and mechanism of paeoniflorin. The activation of MMP-9 was measured by gelatin zymography. Cell signaling was measured by western blot assay and immunofluorescence assay. High glucose increased the activation of MMP-9 in BV2 cells, which was abolished by HMGB1, TLR4, p38 MAPK, and NF-κB inhibition. Phosphorylation of p38 MAPK induced by high glucose was decreased by TLR4 inhibition in BV2 cells. Paeoniflorin induced suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) expression and reduced MMP-9 activation in BV2 cells. The effect of paeoniflorin on SOCS3 was abolished by the TLR4 inhibitor. In streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mice, paeoniflorin induced SOCS3 expression and reduced MMP-9 activation. Paeoniflorin suppressed STZ-induced IBA-1 and IL-1β expression and decreased STZ-induced high blood glucose level. In conclusion, paeoniflorin suppressed high glucose-induced retinal microglia MMP-9 expression and inflammatory response via inhibition of the TLR4/NF-κB pathway through upregulation of SOCS3 in diabetic retinopathy.

  11. Suppression of cancer growth in mice by adeno-associated virus vector-mediated IFN-beta expression driven by hTERT promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ling Feng; Wang, Yi Gang; Xiao, Tian; Zhang, Kang Jiang; Li, Gong Chu; Gu, Jin Fa; Chu, Liang; Tang, Wen Hao; Tan, Wen-Song; Liu, Xin Yuan

    2009-12-28

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has rapidly become a promising gene delivery vehicle for its excellent advantages of non-immunogenic, low pathogenicity and long-term gene expression in vivo. However, a major obstacle in development of effective AAV vector is the lack of tissue specificity, which caused low efficiency of AAV transfer to target cells. The application of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter is a prior targeting strategy for AAV in cancer gene therapy as hTERT activity is transcriptionally upregulated in most cancer cells. In the present work, we investigated whether AAV-mediated human interferon beta (IFN-beta) gene driven by hTERT promoter could specifically express in tumor cells and suppress tumor cell growth. Our data demonstrated that hTERT promoter-driven IFN-beta expression was the tumor-specific, decreased the cell viability of tumor cells but not normal cells, and induced tumor cell apoptosis via activation of caspase pathway and release of cytochrome c. AAV-mediated IFN-beta expression driven by hTERT promoter significantly suppressed the growth of colorectal cancer and lung cancer xenograft in mice and resulted in tumor cells death in vivo. These data suggested that AAVs in combination with hTERT-mediated IFN-beta expression could exert potential antitumor activity and provide a novel targeting approach to clinical gene therapy of varieties of cancers.

  12. Cold induced changes of adenosine levels in common eelpout (Zoarces viviparus): a role in modulating cytochrome c oxidase expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerle, L G; Lucassen, M; Hirse, T; Pörtner, H O

    2008-04-01

    Exposure of ectothermic organisms to variations in temperatures causes a transient mismatch between energy supply and demand, which needs to be compensated for during acclimation. Adenosine accumulation from ATP breakdown indicates such an imbalance and its reversal reflects a restoration of energy status. We monitored adenosine levels in blood serum and liver of common eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) during cold exposure in vivo. Furthermore, we tested its effect on the pattern of thermal acclimation in hepatocytes isolated from cold- (4 degrees C) versus warm- (11 degrees C) exposed fish. Adenosine levels increased during cold exposure in vivo and reached a transient maximum after 24 h in serum, but remained permanently elevated in liver. Whole animal cold acclimation induced a rise of liver citrate synthase activity by 44+/-15%, but left cytochrome c oxidase activity (COX) and RNA expression of the respective genes unchanged. Cold incubation of hepatocytes from warm-acclimated fish failed to cause an increase of mitochondrial enzyme activities despite increased COX4 mRNA levels. Conversely, warm acclimation of hepatocytes from cold-acclimated fish reduced both enzyme activities and COX2 and COX4 mRNA levels by 26-37%. Adenosine treatment of both warm- and cold-acclimated hepatocytes suppressed COX activities but activated COX mRNA expression. These effects were not receptor mediated. The present findings indicate that adenosine has the potential to regulate mitochondrial functioning in vivo, albeit the pathways resulting in the contrasting effects on expression and activity need to be identified.

  13. Expression of Programmed Death-Ligand 1 by Human Colonic CD90+ Stromal Cells Differs Between Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn’s Disease and Determines Their Capacity to Suppress Th1 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen J. Beswick

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and AimsThe role of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1 and its ligands in the dysregulation of T helper immune responses observed in the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is unclear. Recently, a novel concept emerged that CD90+ colonic (myofibroblasts (CMFs, also known as stromal cells, act as immunosuppressors, and are among the key regulators of acute and chronic inflammation. The objective of this study was to determine if the level of the PD-1 ligands is changed in the IBD inflamed colonic mucosa and to test the hypothesis that changes in IBD-CMF-mediated PD-1 ligand-linked immunosuppression is a mechanism promoting the dysregulation of Th1 cell responses.MethodsTissues and cells derived from Crohn’s disease (CD, ulcerative colitis (UC, and healthy individuals (N were studied in situ, ex vivo, and in culture.ResultsA significant increase in programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1 was observed in the inflamed UC colonic mucosa when compared to the non-inflamed matched tissue samples, CD, and healthy controls. UC-CMFs were among the major populations in the colonic mucosa contributing to the enhanced PD-L1 expression. In contrast, PD-L1 expression was decreased in CD-CMFs. When compared to CD-CMFs and N-CMFs, UC-CMFs demonstrated stronger suppression of IL-2, Th1 transcriptional factor Tbet, and IFN-γ expression by CD3/CD28-activated CD4+ T cells, and this process was PD-L1 dependent. Similar observations were made when differentiated Th1 cells were cocultured with UC-CMFs. In contrast, CD-CMFs showed reduced capacity to suppress Th1 cell activity and addition of recombinant PD-L1 Fc to CD-CMF:T cell cocultures partially restored the suppression of the Th1 type responses.ConclusionWe present evidence showing that increased PD-L1 expression suppresses Th1 cell activity in UC. In contrast, loss of PD-L1 expression observed in CD contributes to the persistence of the Th1 inflammatory milieu in CD. Our data suggest that

  14. Evaluation of transforming growth factor-β1 suppress Pokemon/epithelial-mesenchymal transition expression in human bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Kidiyoor, Amritha; Hu, Yangyang; Guo, Changcheng; Liu, Min; Yao, Xudong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Peng, Bo; Zheng, Junhua

    2015-02-01

    Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) plays a dual role in apoptosis and in proapoptotic responses in the support of survival in a variety of cells. The aim of this study was to determine the function of TGF-β1 in bladder cancer cells and the relationship with POK erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor (Pokemon). TGF-β1 and its receptors mediate several tumorigenic cascades that regulate cell proliferation, migration, and survival of bladder cancer cells. Bladder cancer cells T24 were treated with different levels of TGF-β1. Levels of Pokemon, E-cadherin, Snail, MMP2, MMP9, Twist, VEGF, and β-catenin messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein were examined by real-time quantitative fluorescent PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. The effects of TGF-β1 on epithelial-mesenchymal transition of T24 cells were evaluated with wound-healing assay, proliferation of T24 was evaluated with reference to growth curves with MTT assay, and cell invasive ability was investigated by Transwell assay. Data show that Pokemon was inhibited by TGF-β1 treatment; the gene and protein of E-cadherin and β-catenin expression level showed decreased markedly after TGF-β1 treatment (P Pokemon, β-catenin, and E-cadherin. The high expression of TGF-β1 leads to an increase in the phenotype and apical-base polarity of epithelial cells. These changes of cells may result in the recurrence and progression of bladder cancer at last. Related mechanism is worthy of further investigation.

  15. Curcumin decreases the expression of Pokemon by suppressing the binding activity of the Sp1 protein in human lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jiajun; Meng, Xianfeng; Gao, Xudong; Tan, Guangxuan

    2010-03-01

    Pokemon, which stands for POK erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor, can regulate expression of many genes and plays an important role in tumorigenesis. Curcumin, a natural and non-toxic yellow compound, has capacity for antioxidant, free radical scavenger, anti-inflammatory properties. Recent studies shows it is a potential inhibitor of cell proliferation in a variety of tumour cells. To investigate whether curcumin can regulate the expression of Pokemon, a series of experiments were carried out. Transient transfection experiments demonstrated that curcumin could decrease the activity of the Pokemon promoter. Western blot analysis suggested that curcumin could significantly decrease the expression of the Pokemon. Overexpression of Sp1 could enhance the activity of the Pokemon promoter, whereas knockdown of Sp1 could decrease its activity. More important, we also found that curcumin could decrease the expression of the Pokemon by suppressing the stimulation of the Sp1 protein. Therefore, curcumin is a potential reagent for tumour therapy which may target Pokemon.

  16. High-level expression, purification, polyclonal antibody preparation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OprD is a specific porin which can binds imipenem and carbapenems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. OprD loss plays a central role in mediating carbapenem resistance. Therefore, purification of oprD protein lays a pavement for the study in vivo and in vitro. In our study, the oprD gene was cloned into pQE30 expression ...

  17. Fluctuating levels of reprogramming factor expression in cultured ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although human undifferentiated keratinocytes (HUKs) can be reprogrammed to become induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) with high efficiency and rapid kinetics by transducing reprogramming factors (RFs), the endogenous expression of reprogramming factors in cultured HUKs is not clear at different stages. In this ...

  18. Deferoxamine Suppresses Collagen Cleavage and Protease, Cytokine, and COL10A1 Expression and Upregulates AMPK and Krebs Cycle Genes in Human Osteoarthritic Cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Tchetina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the effects of the iron chelator deferoxamine (DFO on collagen cleavage, inflammation, and chondrocyte hypertrophy in relation to energy metabolism-related gene expression in osteoarthritic (OA articular cartilage. Full-depth explants of human OA knee articular cartilage from arthroplasty were cultured with exogenous DFO (1–50 μM. Type II collagen cleavage and phospho-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (pAMPK concentrations were measured using ELISAs. Gene expression studies employed real-time PCR and included AMPK analyses in PBMCs. In OA explants collagen cleavage was frequently downregulated by 10–50 μM DFO. PCR analysis of 7 OA patient cartilages revealed that 10 μM DFO suppressed expression of MMP-1, MMP-13, IL-1β, and TNFα and a marker of chondrocyte hypertrophy, COL10A1. No changes were observed in the expression of glycolysis-related genes. In contrast, expressions of genes associated with the mitochondrial Krebs cycle (TCA, AMPK, HIF1α, and COL2A1 were upregulated. AMPK gene expression was reduced in OA cartilage and increased in PBMCs from the same patients compared to healthy controls. Our studies demonstrate that DFO is capable of suppressing excessive collagenase-mediated type II collagen cleavage in OA cartilage and reversing phenotypic changes. The concomitant upregulation of proanabolic TCA-related gene expressions points to a potential for availability of energy generating substrates required for matrix repair by end-stage OA chondrocytes. This might normally be prevented by high whole-body energy requirements indicated by elevated AMPK expression in PBMCs of OA patients.

  19. Androgen-androgen receptor system improves chronic inflammatory conditions by suppressing monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 gene expression in adipocytes via transcriptional regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morooka, Nobukatsu, E-mail: amorooka@gunma-u.ac.jp [Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, 3-39-15 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma, 371-8512 (Japan); Ueguri, Kei [Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, 3-39-15 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma, 371-8512 (Japan); Yee, Karen Kar Lye [Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, 3-39-15 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma, 371-8512 (Japan); Human Resources Cultivation Center, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryushi, Gunma, 376-8515 (Japan); Yanase, Toshihiko [Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes Mellitus, School of Medicine, Fukuoka University, Jonan-ku, Fukuoka, 814-0180 (Japan); Sato, Takashi [Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, 3-39-15 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma, 371-8512 (Japan)

    2016-09-02

    Age-related decreases in sex hormones are closely related to chronic inflammation in obesity and metabolic diseases. Particularly, the molecular basis of androgen activity in regulating inflammation and controlling metabolism remains largely unknown. Obese adipocytes secrete monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), a key chemokine that promotes the infiltration of monocytes/macrophages into adipose tissue, thereby leading to metabolic disorders. Here, we studied the role of androgen-androgen receptor (AR) action in regulating MCP-1 expression in adipose tissue. We observed the induction of Mcp-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes co-cultured with RAW264.7 macrophages. Additionally, Mcp-1 expression was upregulated by culturing in conditioned medium derived from inflammatory macrophages (M1-Mφ) containing tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). We found that sex hormones downregulated TNF-α-induced Mcp-1 and interleukin (Il)-6 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Furthermore, luciferase-reporter analysis indicated that MCP-1 promoter activity was predominantly suppressed by dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-AR interactions through functional canonical nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) sites, whereas non-canonical NF-κB site containing important flanking sequences exhibited minor contributions to DHT-AR transcriptional repression. These findings suggested that androgen-AR suppressed obesity-induced chronic inflammation in adipose tissue. - Highlights: • DHT, non-aromatizable androgen suppresses Mcp-1 expression in adipocytes. • Mcp-1 transcription was negatively regulated by DHT-AR action. • DHT-AR selectively regulates Mcp-1 transcription through distinct NF-κB sites.

  20. Androgen-androgen receptor system improves chronic inflammatory conditions by suppressing monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 gene expression in adipocytes via transcriptional regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morooka, Nobukatsu; Ueguri, Kei; Yee, Karen Kar Lye; Yanase, Toshihiko; Sato, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Age-related decreases in sex hormones are closely related to chronic inflammation in obesity and metabolic diseases. Particularly, the molecular basis of androgen activity in regulating inflammation and controlling metabolism remains largely unknown. Obese adipocytes secrete monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), a key chemokine that promotes the infiltration of monocytes/macrophages into adipose tissue, thereby leading to metabolic disorders. Here, we studied the role of androgen-androgen receptor (AR) action in regulating MCP-1 expression in adipose tissue. We observed the induction of Mcp-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes co-cultured with RAW264.7 macrophages. Additionally, Mcp-1 expression was upregulated by culturing in conditioned medium derived from inflammatory macrophages (M1-Mφ) containing tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). We found that sex hormones downregulated TNF-α-induced Mcp-1 and interleukin (Il)-6 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Furthermore, luciferase-reporter analysis indicated that MCP-1 promoter activity was predominantly suppressed by dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-AR interactions through functional canonical nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) sites, whereas non-canonical NF-κB site containing important flanking sequences exhibited minor contributions to DHT-AR transcriptional repression. These findings suggested that androgen-AR suppressed obesity-induced chronic inflammation in adipose tissue. - Highlights: • DHT, non-aromatizable androgen suppresses Mcp-1 expression in adipocytes. • Mcp-1 transcription was negatively regulated by DHT-AR action. • DHT-AR selectively regulates Mcp-1 transcription through distinct NF-κB sites.

  1. Complete suppression of viral gene expression is associated with the onset and progression of lymphoid malignancy: observations in Bovine Leukemia Virus-infected sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burny Arsène

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During malignant progression, tumor cells need to acquire novel characteristics that lead to uncontrolled growth and reduced immunogenicity. In the Bovine Leukemia Virus-induced ovine leukemia model, silencing of viral gene expression has been proposed as a mechanism leading to immune evasion. However, whether proviral expression in tumors is completely suppressed in vivo was not conclusively demonstrated. Therefore, we studied viral expression in two selected experimentally-infected sheep, the virus or the disease of which had features that made it possible to distinguish tumor cells from their nontransformed counterparts. Results In the first animal, we observed the emergence of a genetically modified provirus simultaneously with leukemia onset. We found a Tax-mutated (TaxK303 replication-deficient provirus in the malignant B-cell clone while functional provirus (TaxE303 had been consistently monitored over the 17-month aleukemic period. In the second case, both non-transformed and transformed BLV-infected cells were present at the same time, but at distinct sites. While there was potentially-active provirus in the non-leukemic blood B-cell population, as demonstrated by ex-vivo culture and injection into naïve sheep, virus expression was completely suppressed in the malignant B-cells isolated from the lymphoid tumors despite the absence of genetic alterations in the proviral genome. These observations suggest that silencing of viral genes, including the oncoprotein Tax, is associated with tumor onset. Conclusion Our findings suggest that silencing is critical for tumor progression and identify two distinct mechanisms-genetic and epigenetic-involved in the complete suppression of virus and Tax expression. We demonstrate that, in contrast to systems that require sustained oncogene expression, the major viral transforming protein Tax can be turned-off without reversing the transformed phenotype. We propose that suppression

  2. Sodium arsenite accelerates TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in melanoma cells through upregulation of TRAIL-R1/R2 surface levels and downregulation of cFLIP expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Vladimir N.; Hei, Tom K.

    2006-01-01

    AP-1/cJun, NF-κB and STAT3 transcription factors control expression of numerous genes, which regulate critical cell functions including proliferation, survival and apoptosis. Sodium arsenite is known to suppress both the IKK-NF-κB and JAK2-STAT3 signaling pathways and to activate the MAPK/JNK-cJun pathways, thereby committing some cancers to undergo apoptosis. Indeed, sodium arsenite is an effective drug for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia with little nonspecific toxicity. Malignant melanoma is highly refractory to conventional radio- and chemotherapy. In the present study, we observed strong effects of sodium arsenite treatment on upregulation of TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in human and mouse melanomas. Arsenite treatment upregulated surface levels of death receptors, TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2, through increased translocation of these proteins from cytoplasm to the cell surface. Furthermore, activation of cJun and suppression of NF-κB by sodium arsenite resulted in upregulation of the endogenous TRAIL and downregulation of the cFLIP gene expression (which encodes one of the main anti-apoptotic proteins in melanomas) followed by cFLIP protein degradation and, finally, by acceleration of TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Direct suppression of cFLIP expression by cFLIP RNAi also accelerated TRAIL-induced apoptosis in these melanomas, while COX-2 suppression substantially increased levels of both TRAIL-induced and arsenite-induced apoptosis. In contrast, overexpression of permanently active AKTmyr inhibited TRAIL-mediated apoptosis via downregulation of TRAIL-R1 levels. Finally, AKT overactivation increased melanoma survival in cell culture and dramatically accelerated growth of melanoma transplant in vivo, highlighting a role of AKT suppression for effective anticancer treatment

  3. IBMX protects human proximal tubular epithelial cells from hypoxic stress through suppressing hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Arif Ul; Kittikulsuth, Wararat; Yamaguchi, Fuminori; Musarrat Ansary, Tuba; Rahman, Asadur; Shibayama, Yuki; Nakano, Daisuke; Hitomi, Hirofumi; Tokuda, Masaaki; Nishiyama, Akira

    2017-09-15

    Hypoxia predisposes renal fibrosis. This study was conducted to identify novel approaches to ameliorate the pathogenic effect of hypoxia. Using human proximal tubular epithelial cells we showed that a pan-phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) dose and time dependently downregulated hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) mRNA expression, which was further augmented by addition of a transcriptional inhibitor, actinomycin D. IBMX also increased the cellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) level. Luciferase assay showed that blocking of protein kinase A (PKA) using H89 reduced, while 8-Br-cAMP agonized the repression of HIF-1α promoter activity in hypoxic condition. Deletion of cAMP response element binding sites from the HIF-1α promoter abrogated the effect of IBMX. Western blot and immunofluorescent study confirmed that the CoCl 2 induced increased HIF-1α protein in whole cell lysate and in nucleus was reduced by the IBMX. Through this process, IBMX attenuated both CoCl 2 and hypoxia induced mRNA expressions of two pro-fibrogenic factors, platelet-derived growth factor B and lysyl oxidase. Moreover, IBMX reduced production of a mesenchymal transformation factor, β-catenin; as well as protected against hypoxia induced cell-death. Taken together, our study showed novel evidence that the PDE inhibitor IBMX can downregulate the transcription of HIF-1α, and thus may attenuate hypoxia induced renal fibrosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Full Viral Suppression, Low-Level Viremia, and Quantifiable Plasma HIV-RNA at the End of Pregnancy in HIV-Infected Women on Antiretroviral Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroncelli, Silvia; Pirillo, Maria F; Tamburrini, Enrica; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Pinnetti, Carmela; Degli Antoni, Anna; Galluzzo, Clementina M; Stentarelli, Chiara; Amici, Roberta; Floridia, Marco

    2015-07-01

    There is limited information on full viral suppression and low-level HIV-RNA viremia in HIV-infected women at the end of pregnancy. We investigated HIV-RNA levels close to delivery in women on antiretroviral treatment in order to define rates of complete suppression, low-level viremia, and quantifiable HIV-RNA, exploring as potential determinants some clinical and viroimmunological variables. Plasma samples from a national study in Italy, collected between 2003 and 2012, were used. According to plasma HIV-RNA levels, three groups were defined: full suppression (target not detected), low-level viremia (target detected but HIV-RNA (≥37 copies/ml). Multivariable logistic regression was used to define determinants of full viral suppression and of quantifiable HIV-RNA. Among 107 women evaluated at a median gestational age of 35 weeks, 90 (84.1%) had HIV-RNA HIV-RNA was 109 copies/ml (IQR 46-251), with only one case showing resistance (mutation M184V; rate: 9.1%). In multivariable analyses, women with higher baseline HIV-RNA levels and with hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection were significantly more likely to have quantifiable HIV-RNA in late pregnancy. Full viral suppression was significantly more likely with nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based regimens and significantly less likely with higher HIV-RNA in early pregnancy. No cases of HIV transmission occurred. In conclusion, HIV-infected pregnant women showed a high rate of viral suppression and a low resistance rate before delivery. In most cases no target HIV-RNA was detected in plasma, suggesting a low risk of subsequent virological rebound and development of resistance. Women with high levels of HIV-RNA in early pregnancy and those who have concomitant HCV infection should be considered at higher risk of having quantifiable HIV-RNA at the end of pregnancy.

  5. T cell suppression by naturally occurring HLA-G-expressing regulatory CD4+ T cells is IL-10-dependent and reversible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Hwa; Zozulya, Alla L; Weidenfeller, Christian; Schwab, Nicholas; Wiendl, Heinz

    2009-08-01

    CD4(+) T cells constitutively expressing the immune-tolerogenic HLA-G have been described recently as a new type of nT(reg) (HLA-G(pos) T(reg)) in humans. HLA-G(pos) T(reg) accumulate at sites of inflammation and are potent suppressors of T cell proliferation in vitro, suggesting their role in immune regulation. We here characterize the mechanism of how CD4(+) HLA-G(pos) T(reg) influence autologous HLA-G(neg) T(resp) function. Using a suppression system free of APC, we demonstrate a T-T cell interaction, resulting in suppression of HLA-G(neg) T(resp), which is facilitated by TCR engagement on HLA-G(pos) T(reg). Suppression is independent of cell-cell contact and is reversible, as the removal of HLA-G(pos) T(reg) from the established coculture restored the proliferative capability of responder cells. Further, HLA-G(pos) T(reg)-mediated suppression critically depends on the secretion of IL-10 but not TGF-beta.

  6. [Selection and construction of cell line stably expressing survivin gene in lower level through eukaryotic plasmid vector of shRNA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Xia; Sun, Shan-Zhen; Song, Ying

    2008-06-01

    To construct a short hairpin RNA(shRNA) interference expression plasmid vector of survivin gene, transfect tongue squamous cell carcinoma line Tca8113 which expressed survivin gene in a high level, and choose the cells whose survivin gene were suppressed significantly. Two pairs of oligonucleotide sequences specific for survivin gene were designed and synthesized, and cloned into pSilencer-2.1U6-neo plasmid. The recombinant plasmids (named PS1 and PS2) were amplified in Ecoli. DH5alpha was identified by restriction digestion, PCR and sequencing. The vectors were transfected into Tca8113 cells with lipofectamine 2000. After selection with G418, the stable cell clones were attained. Survivn expression was assayed with real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting. SAS8.0 software package was used for Student t test. Two vectors were constructed successfully and stable cell clones with PS1 or PS2 plasmid were obtained. As compared with those of control, survivin expression of transfected cell with PS1 or PS2 in mRNA level was significantly suppressed (P<0.05). In protein level, only those of transfected cell with PS2 was significantly suppressed (P<0.01). The shRNA interference expression plasmid vectors of survivin gene are successfully constructed, and Tca8113 cells which express survivin gene in a stable lower level are attained, which enable us to carry out further research on gene therapy of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No.30572056).

  7. LOX: Inferring level of expression from diverse methods of census sequencing

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhang

    2010-06-10

    Summary: We present LOX (Level Of eXpression) that estimates the Level Of gene eXpression from high-throughput-expressed sequence datasets with multiple treatments or samples. Unlike most analyses, LOX incorporates a gene bias model that facilitates integration of diverse transcriptomic sequencing data that arises when transcriptomic data have been produced using diverse experimental methodologies. LOX integrates overall sequence count tallies normalized by total expressed sequence count to provide expression levels for each gene relative to all treatments as well as Bayesian credible intervals. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  8. LOX: Inferring level of expression from diverse methods of census sequencing

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhang; Ló pez-Girá ldez, Francesc Francisco; Townsend, Jeffrey P.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: We present LOX (Level Of eXpression) that estimates the Level Of gene eXpression from high-throughput-expressed sequence datasets with multiple treatments or samples. Unlike most analyses, LOX incorporates a gene bias model that facilitates integration of diverse transcriptomic sequencing data that arises when transcriptomic data have been produced using diverse experimental methodologies. LOX integrates overall sequence count tallies normalized by total expressed sequence count to provide expression levels for each gene relative to all treatments as well as Bayesian credible intervals. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  9. Overexpression of pucC improves the heterologous protein expression level in a Rhodobacter sphaeroides expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L; Chen, G; Ding, G; Zhao, Z; Dong, T; Hu, Z

    2015-04-27

    The Rhodobacter sphaeroides system has been used to express membrane proteins. However, its low yield has substantially limited its application. In order to promote the protein expression capability of this system, the pucC gene, which plays a crucial role in assembling the R. sphaeroides light-harvesting 2 complex (LH2), was overexpressed. To build a pucC overexpression strain, a pucC overexpression vector was constructed and transformed into R. sphaeroides CQU68. The overexpression efficiency was evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. A well-used reporter β-glucuronidase (GUS) was fusion-expressed with LH2 to evaluate the heterologous protein expression level. As a result, the cell culture and protein in the pucC overexpression strain showed much higher typical spectral absorption peaks at 800 and 850 nm compared with the non-overexpression strain, suggesting a higher expression level of LH2-GUS fusion protein in the pucC overexpression strain. This result was further confirmed by Western blot, which also showed a much higher level of heterologous protein expression in the pucC overexpression strain. We further compared GUS activity in pucC overexpression and non-overexpression strains, the results of which showed that GUS activity in the pucC overexpression strain was approximately ten-fold that in the non-overexpression strain. These results demonstrate that overexpressed pucC can promote heterologous protein expression levels in R. sphaeroides.

  10. The antagonistic regulation of abscisic acid-inhibited root growth by brassinosteroids is partially mediated via direct suppression of ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 5 expression by BRASSINAZOLE RESISTANT 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaorui; Bai, Yang; Shang, Jianxiu; Xin, Ruijiao; Tang, Wenqiang

    2016-09-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) and abscisic acid (ABA) are plant hormones that antagonistically regulate many aspects of plant growth and development; however, the mechanisms that regulate the crosstalk of these two hormones are still not well understood. BRs regulate plant growth and development by activating BRASSINAZOLE RESISTANT 1 (BZR1) family transcription factors. Here we show that the crosstalk between BRs and ABA signalling is partially mediated by BZR1 regulated gene expression. bzr1-1D is a dominant mutant with enhanced BR signalling; our results showed that bzr1-1D mutant is less sensitive to ABA-inhibited primary root growth. By RNA sequencing, a subset of BZR1 regulated ABA-responsive root genes were identified. Of these genes, the expression of a major ABA signalling component ABA INSENSITIVE 5 (ABI5) was found to be suppressed by BR and by BZR1. Additional evidences showed that BZR1 could bind strongly with several G-box cis-elements in the promoter of ABI5, suppress the expression of ABI5 and make plants less sensitive to ABA. Our study demonstrated that ABI5 is a direct target gene of BZR1, and modulating the expression of ABI5 by BZR1 plays important roles in regulating the crosstalk between the BR and ABA signalling pathways. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Arctigenin inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS expression in RAW264.7 cells through suppressing JAK-STAT signal pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Xianjuan; Qi, Shimei; Dai, Wuxing; Luo, Lan; Yin, Zhimin

    2011-08-01

    Arctigenin has been demonstrated to have an anti-inflammatory function, but the precise mechanisms of its action remain to be fully defined. In the present study, we determined the effects of arctigenin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of proinflammatory mediators and the underlying mechanisms involved in RAW264.7 cells. Our results indicated that arctigenin exerted its anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting ROS-dependent STAT signaling through its antioxidant activity. Arctigenin also significantly reduced the phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT 3 as well as JAK2 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. The inhibitions of STAT1 and STAT 3 by arctigenin prevented their translocation to the nucleus and consequently inhibited expression of iNOS, thereby suppressing the expression of inflammation-associated genes, such as IL-1β, IL-6 and MCP-1, whose promoters contain STAT-binding elements. However, COX-2 expression was slightly inhibited at higher drug concentrations (50 μM). Our data demonstrate that arctigenin inhibits iNOS expression via suppressing JAK-STAT signaling pathway in macrophages. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Biotin augments acetyl CoA carboxylase 2 gene expression in the hypothalamus, leading to the suppression of food intake in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sone, Hideyuki; Kamiyama, Shin; Higuchi, Mutsumi; Fujino, Kaho; Kubo, Shizuka; Miyazawa, Masami; Shirato, Saya; Hiroi, Yuka; Shiozawa, Kota

    2016-07-29

    It is known that biotin prevents the development of diabetes by increasing the functions of pancreatic beta-cells and improving insulin sensitivity in the periphery. However, its anti-obesity effects such as anorectic effects remain to be clarified. Acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC), a biotin-dependent enzyme, has two isoforms (ACC1 and ACC2) and serves to catalyze the reaction of acetyl CoA to malonyl CoA. In the hypothalamus, ACC2 increases the production of malonyl CoA, which acts as a satiety signal. In this study, we investigated whether biotin increases the gene expression of ACC2 in the hypothalamus and suppresses food intake in mice administered excessive biotin. Food intake was significantly decreased by biotin, but plasma regulators of appetite, including glucose, ghrelin, and leptin, were not affected. On the other hand, biotin notably accumulated in the hypothalamus and enhanced ACC2 gene expression there, but it did not change the gene expression of ACC1, malonyl CoA decarboxylase (a malonyl CoA-degrading enzyme), and AMP-activated protein kinase α-2 (an ACC-inhibitory enzyme). These findings strongly suggest that biotin potentiates the suppression of appetite by upregulating ACC2 gene expression in the hypothalamus. This effect of biotin may contribute to the prevention of diabetes by biotin treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. HIV-Specific CD8+ T Cell-Mediated Viral Suppression Correlates With the Expression of CD57

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sanne S; Tingstedt, Jeanette Linnea; Larsen, Tine Kochendorf

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Virus-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses are believed to play an important role in the control of HIV-1 infection; however, what constitutes an effective HIV-1 CD8(+) T-cell response remains a topic of debate. The ex vivo viral suppressive capacity was measured of CD8(+) T cells from 44...

  14. CRP and SAA1 Haplotypes Are Associated with Both C-Reactive Protein and Serum Amyloid A Levels: Role of Suppression Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Lin Ko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To test the statistical association of the CRP and SAA1 locus variants with their corresponding circulating levels and metabolic and inflammatory biomarker levels by using mediation analysis, a sample population of 599 Taiwanese subjects was enrolled and five CRP and four SAA1 variants were genotyped. Correlation analysis revealed that C-reactive protein (CRP and serum amyloid A (SAA levels were significantly associated with multiple metabolic phenotypes and inflammatory marker levels. Our data further revealed a significant association of CRP and SAA1 variants with both CRP and SAA levels. Mediation analysis revealed that SAA levels suppressed the association between SAA1 genotypes/haplotypes and CRP levels and that CRP levels suppressed the association between CRP haplotypes and SAA levels. In conclusion, genetic variants at the CRP and SAA1 loci independently affect both CRP and SAA levels, and their respective circulating levels act as suppressors. These results provided further evidence of the role of the suppression effect in biological science and may partially explain the missing heritability in genetic association studies.

  15. The NF-κB family member RelB regulates microRNA miR-146a to suppress cigarette smoke-induced COX-2 protein expression in lung fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Michela; Rico de Souza, Angela; Hecht, Emelia; Rousseau, Simon; Hamid, Qutayba; Eidelman, David H; Baglole, Carolyn J

    2014-04-21

    Diseases due to cigarette smoke exposure, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer, are associated with chronic inflammation typified by the increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein. RelB is an NF-κB family member that suppresses cigarette smoke induction of COX-2 through an unknown mechanism. The ability of RelB to regulate COX-2 expression may be via miR-146a, a miRNA that attenuates COX-2 in lung fibroblasts. In this study we tested whether RelB attenuation of cigarette smoke-induced COX-2 protein is due to miR-146a. Utilizing pulmonary fibroblasts deficient in RelB expression, together with siRNA knock-down of RelB, we show the essential role of RelB in diminishing smoke-induced COX-2 protein expression despite robust activation of the canonical NF-κB pathway and subsequent induction of Cox-2 mRNA. RelB did not regulate COX-2 protein expression at the level of mRNA stability. Basal levels of miR-146a were significantly lower in Relb-deficient cells and cigarette smoke increased miR-146a expression only in Relb-expressing cells. Inhibition of miR-146a had no effects on Relb expression or induction of Cox-2 mRNA by cigarette smoke but significantly increased COX-2 protein. These data highlight the potential of a RelB-miR-146a axis as a novel regulatory pathway that attenuates inflammation in response to respiratory toxicants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Silencing of RhoA and RhoC expression by RNA interference suppresses human colorectal carcinoma growth in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Haibo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RhoA and RhoC have been proved to be over-expressed in many solid cancers, including colorectal cancer. The reduction of RhoA and RhoC expression by RNA interference (RNAi resulted growth inhibition of cancer cells. The present study was to evaluate the effect of silencing of RhoA and RhoC expression by RNAi on growth of human colorectal carcinoma (CRC in tumor-bearing nude mice in vivo. Methods To establish HCT116 cell transplantable model, the nude mice were subcutaneously inoculated with 1.0 × 107 HCT116 cells and kept growing till the tumor xenografts reached 5-7 mm in diameter. Then the mice were randomly assigned to three groups(seven mice in each group: (1 normal saline(NS group, (2replication-defective recombinant adenovirus carrying the negative control shRNA (Ad-HK group and (3replication-defective recombinant adenovirus carrying the 4-tandem linked RhoA and RhoC shRNAs (Ad-RhoA-RhoC group. Ad-HK (4 × 108 pfu, 30 ul/mouse, Ad-RhoA-RhoC (4 × 108 pfu, 30 ul/mouse or PBS (30 ul/mouse was injected intratumorally four times once every other day. The weight and volumes of tumor xenografts were recorded. The levels of RhoA and RhoC mRNA transcripts and proteins in tumor xenografts were detected by reverse quantitative transcription polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining respectively. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assay was used to detect the death of cells. Results The xenografts in mice could be seen at 5th day from the implantation of HCT116 cells and all had reached 5-7 mm in size at 9th day. After injection intratumorally, the growth speed of tumor xenografts in Ad-RhoA-RhoC group was significantly delayed compared with those in NS and Ad-HK group(P RhoA and RhoC reduced more in Ad-RhoA-RhoC group than those in NS and Ad-HK group. The relative RhoA and RhoC mRNA transcripts were decreased to 48% and 43% respectively (P RhoA and Rho

  17. The Natural Product Osthole Attenuates Yeast Growth by Extensively Suppressing the Gene Expressions of Mitochondrial Respiration Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Shen, Yan

    2017-03-01

    The fast growing evidences have indicated that the natural product osthole is a promising drug candidate for fighting several serious human diseases, for example, cancer and inflammation. However, the mode-of-action (MoA) of osthole remains largely incomplete. In this study, we investigated the growth inhibition activity of osthole using fission yeast as a model, with the goal of understanding the osthole's mechanism of action, especially from the molecular level. Microarray analysis indicated that osthole has significant impacts on gene transcription levels (In total, 214 genes are up-regulated, and 97 genes are down-regulated). Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) indicated that 11 genes belong to the "Respiration module" category, especially including the components of complex III and V of mitochondrial respiration chain. Based on GSEA and network analysis, we also found that 54 up-regulated genes belong to the "Core Environmental Stress Responses" category, particularly including many transporter genes, which suggests that the rapidly activated nutrient exchange between cell and environment is part of the MoA of osthole. In summary, osthole can greatly impact on fission yeast transcriptome, and it primarily represses the expression levels of the genes in respiration chain, which next causes the inefficiency of ATP production and thus largely explains osthole's growth inhibition activity in Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S. pombe). The complexity of the osthole's MoA shown in previous studies and our current research demonstrates that the omics approach and bioinformatics tools should be applied together to acquire the complete landscape of osthole's growth inhibition activity.

  18. ELECTROACUPUNCTURE AT THE WANGU ACUPOINT SUPPRESSES EXPRESSION OF INFLAMMATORY CYTOKINES IN THE HIPPOCAMPUS OF RATS WITH VASCULAR DEMENTIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yanan; Sui, Rubo

    2016-01-01

    Vascular dementia (VD) is the most frequent psychiatric complication of stroke, and is often difficult to treat. Incidence rate of vascular cognition impairment is still 70% after stroke in one year (Sui R et al.2011). Stroke patients with VD suffer from a higher mortality rate and have worse functional outcomes and quality of life. However, despite the extensive literatures on this topic, there is no agreement on the causal mechanisms and effective therapy for VD. The objective of this study is to examine if electroacupuncture at the Wangu acupoint (GB 12), whose position is similar to the cerebellar fastigial nucleus, could reduce inflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus of rats with vascular dementia (VD). The 54 healthy, male, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, 9 months old, and of clean grade (300-450) g, were randomly divided into three groups: sham surgery group, VD group and electro-acupuncture group. The ethology scores of VD rats were evaluated and the mRNA expressions of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β) in the hippocampus were assessed and the hippocampal tissues were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Compared with the VD group, in the electroacupuncture group, the rats' learning ability improved significantly and the mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β decreased. Simultaneously, the damage extent of nerve cells in the hippocampal tissues decreased, with their morphology recovered to nearly normal. Electro-acupuncture at the Wangu acupoint can decrease the levels of inflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus, reduce the damage extent of nerve cells in the hippocampus, and thus provide a new neuroprotective method in VD.

  19. Reduced miR-433 expression is associated with advanced stages and early relapse of colorectal cancer and restored miR-433 expression suppresses the migration, invasion and proliferation of tumor cells in vitro and in nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Tong; Dong, Xin-Min; Zhu, Yu; Chen, Long-Hua

    2018-05-01

    The expression of microRNA (miR-433) is altered in various types of human cancer. The present study analyzed the prognostic and biological value of miR-433 expression in colorectal cancer using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 125 colorectal tissue specimens (including a test cohort of 40 cases of paired colorectal cancer and adjacent normal mucosae and a confirmation cohort of 85 cases of stage I-III colorectal cancer). In vitro and nude mouse xenograft experiments were subsequently used to assess the effects of miR-433 expression on the regulation of colorectal cancer cell proliferation, adhesion, migration, and invasion. The data indicated that miR-433 expression was significantly downregulated in colorectal cancer tissues in the test and confirmation patient cohorts and that low miR-433 expression was associated with advanced tumor stage and early relapse. Furthermore, the restoration of miR-433 expression was able to significantly inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells by inducing G1-S cell cycle arrest, suppressing cyclinD1 and CDK4 expression, and markedly inhibited the migratory and invasive capacities of tumor cells in vitro . The restoration of miR-433 expression or liposome-based delivery of miR-433 mimics suppressed the growth of colorectal cancer cell xenografts in nude mice. In conclusion, miR-433 may be a putative tumor suppressor in colorectal cancer, and the detection of low miR-433 expression will be investigated in further studies as a putative biomarker for the detection of early relapse in patients with colorectal cancer.

  20. Geomorphic expression of late Quaternary sea level changes along ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, M. S. University of Baroda, Vadodara 390 002, India. ∗ e-mail: ... referred to as miliolite limestone and shell lime- stone that form coastal ... the bed rocks and corresponding to the prevailing sea level.

  1. High-level expression of the native barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor in Pichia pastoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micheelsen, Pernille Ollendorff; Ostergaard, Peter Rahbek; Lange, Lene

    2008-01-01

    An expression system for high-level expression of the native Hordeum vulgare alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (BASI) has been developed in Pichia pastoris, using the methanol inducible alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) promoter. To optimize expression, two codon-optimized coding regions have been designed...... and expressed alongside the wild-type coding region. To ensure secretion of the native mature protein, a truncated version of the alpha mating factor secretion signal from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used. In order to be able to compare expression levels from different clones, single insertion transformants...

  2. Enteral peptide formulas inhibit radiation induced enteritis and apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells and suppress the expression and function of Alzheimer's and cell division control gene products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cope, F.O.; Issinger, O.G.; McArdle, A.H.; Shapiro, J.; Tomei, L.D.

    1991-01-01

    Studies have shown that patients receiving enteral peptide formulas prior to irradiation have a significantly reduced incidence of enteritis and express a profound increase in intestinal cellularity. Two conceptual approaches were taken to describe this response. First was the evaluation in changes in programmed intestinal cell death and secondly the evaluation of a gene product controlling cell division cycling. This study provided a relationship between the ratio of cell death to cell formulations. The results indicate that in the canine and murine models, irradiation induces expression of the Alzheimer's gene in intestinal crypt cells, while the incidence of apoptosis in apical cells is significantly increased. The use of peptide enteral formulations suppresses the expression of the Alzheimer's gene in crypt cells, while apoptosis is eliminated in the apical cells of the intestine. Concomitantly, enteral peptide formulations suppress the function of the CK-II gene product in the basal and baso-lateral cells of the intestine. These data indicate that although the mitotic index is significantly reduced in enterocytes, this phenomenon alone is not sufficient to account for the peptide-induced radio-resistance of the intestine. The data also indicate a significant reduction of normal apoptosis in the upper lateral and apical cells of the intestinal villi. Thus, the ratio of cell death to cell replacement is significantly decreased resulting in an increase in villus height and hypertrophy of the apical villus cells. Thus, peptide solutions should be considered as an adjunct treatment both in radio- and chemotherapy

  3. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells suppress MHC class II expression on rat vascular endothelium and prolong survival time of cardiac allograft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Ying; Yun, Mark M; Han, Xia; Zhao, Ruidong; Zhou, Erxia; Yun, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Background: Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells (UC-MSCs) have low immunogenicity and immune regulation. To investigate immunomodulatory effects of human UC-MSCs on MHC class II expression and allograft, we transplanted heart of transgenic rats with MHC class II expression on vascular endothelium. Methods: UC-MSCs were obtained from human umbilical cords and confirmed with flow cytometry analysis. Transgenic rat line was established using the construct of human MHC class II transactivator gene (CIITA) under mouse ICAM-2 promoter control. The induced MHC class II expression on transgenic rat vascular endothelial cells (VECs) was assessed with immunohistological staining. And the survival time of cardiac allograft was compared between the recipients with and without UC-MSC transfusion. Results: Flow cytometry confirmed that the human UC-MSCs were positive for CD29, CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105, CD271, and negative for CD34 and HLA-DR. Repeated infusion of human UC-MSCs reduced MHC class II expression on vascular endothelia of transplanted hearts, and increased survival time of allograft. The UC-MSCs increased regulatory cytokines IL10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and suppressed proinflammatory cytokines IL2 and IFN-γ in vivo. The UC-MSC culture supernatant had similar effects on cytokine expression, and decreased lymphocyte proliferation in vitro. Conclusions: Repeated transfusion of the human UC-MSCs reduced MHC class II expression on vascular endothelia and prolonged the survival time of rat cardiac allograft. PMID:25126177

  4. Modulating ectopic gene expression levels by using retroviral vectors equipped with synthetic promoters

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Joshua P.; Peacock, Ryan W. S.; Lawhorn, Ingrid E. B.; Wang, Clifford L.

    2011-01-01

    The human cytomegalovirus and elongation factor 1α promoters are constitutive promoters commonly employed by mammalian expression vectors. These promoters generally produce high levels of expression in many types of cells and tissues. To generate a library of synthetic promoters capable of generating a range of low, intermediate, and high expression levels, the TATA and CAAT box elements of these promoters were mutated. Other promoter variants were also generated by random mutagenesis. Evalua...

  5. Relationship between Legible Handwriting and Level of Success of Third Grade Students in Written Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Seher; Küçükayar, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to identify third-grade students' performance levels for written expression and handwriting and to find the relationship between these performances. The study is based on relational screening model. It is carried out with 110 third grade students. Students' levels of success in handwriting and in written expression are evaluated…

  6. The Constrained Maximal Expression Level Owing to Haploidy Shapes Gene Content on the Mammalian X Chromosome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence D Hurst

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available X chromosomes are unusual in many regards, not least of which is their nonrandom gene content. The causes of this bias are commonly discussed in the context of sexual antagonism and the avoidance of activity in the male germline. Here, we examine the notion that, at least in some taxa, functionally biased gene content may more profoundly be shaped by limits imposed on gene expression owing to haploid expression of the X chromosome. Notably, if the X, as in primates, is transcribed at rates comparable to the ancestral rate (per promoter prior to the X chromosome formation, then the X is not a tolerable environment for genes with very high maximal net levels of expression, owing to transcriptional traffic jams. We test this hypothesis using The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE and data from the Functional Annotation of the Mammalian Genome (FANTOM5 project. As predicted, the maximal expression of human X-linked genes is much lower than that of genes on autosomes: on average, maximal expression is three times lower on the X chromosome than on autosomes. Similarly, autosome-to-X retroposition events are associated with lower maximal expression of retrogenes on the X than seen for X-to-autosome retrogenes on autosomes. Also as expected, X-linked genes have a lesser degree of increase in gene expression than autosomal ones (compared to the human/Chimpanzee common ancestor if highly expressed, but not if lowly expressed. The traffic jam model also explains the known lower breadth of expression for genes on the X (and the Z of birds, as genes with broad expression are, on average, those with high maximal expression. As then further predicted, highly expressed tissue-specific genes are also rare on the X and broadly expressed genes on the X tend to be lowly expressed, both indicating that the trend is shaped by the maximal expression level not the breadth of expression per se. Importantly, a limit to the maximal expression level explains biased

  7. The Constrained Maximal Expression Level Owing to Haploidy Shapes Gene Content on the Mammalian X Chromosome

    KAUST Repository

    Hurst, Laurence D.

    2015-12-18

    X chromosomes are unusual in many regards, not least of which is their nonrandom gene content. The causes of this bias are commonly discussed in the context of sexual antagonism and the avoidance of activity in the male germline. Here, we examine the notion that, at least in some taxa, functionally biased gene content may more profoundly be shaped by limits imposed on gene expression owing to haploid expression of the X chromosome. Notably, if the X, as in primates, is transcribed at rates comparable to the ancestral rate (per promoter) prior to the X chromosome formation, then the X is not a tolerable environment for genes with very high maximal net levels of expression, owing to transcriptional traffic jams. We test this hypothesis using The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) and data from the Functional Annotation of the Mammalian Genome (FANTOM5) project. As predicted, the maximal expression of human X-linked genes is much lower than that of genes on autosomes: on average, maximal expression is three times lower on the X chromosome than on autosomes. Similarly, autosome-to-X retroposition events are associated with lower maximal expression of retrogenes on the X than seen for X-to-autosome retrogenes on autosomes. Also as expected, X-linked genes have a lesser degree of increase in gene expression than autosomal ones (compared to the human/Chimpanzee common ancestor) if highly expressed, but not if lowly expressed. The traffic jam model also explains the known lower breadth of expression for genes on the X (and the Z of birds), as genes with broad expression are, on average, those with high maximal expression. As then further predicted, highly expressed tissue-specific genes are also rare on the X and broadly expressed genes on the X tend to be lowly expressed, both indicating that the trend is shaped by the maximal expression level not the breadth of expression per se. Importantly, a limit to the maximal expression level explains biased tissue of expression

  8. Is an absolute level of cortical beta suppression required for proper movement? Magnetoencephalographic evidence from healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs-Graham, Elizabeth; Wilson, Tony W

    2016-07-01

    Previous research has connected a specific pattern of beta oscillatory activity to proper motor execution, but no study to date has directly examined how resting beta levels affect motor-related beta oscillatory activity in the motor cortex. Understanding this relationship is imperative to determining the basic mechanisms of motor control, as well as the impact of pathological beta oscillations on movement execution. In the current study, we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) and a complex movement paradigm to quantify resting beta activity and movement-related beta oscillations in the context of healthy aging. We chose healthy aging as a model because preliminary evidence suggests that beta activity is elevated in older adults, and thus by examining older and younger adults we were able to naturally vary resting beta levels. To this end, healthy younger and older participants were recorded during motor performance and at rest. Using beamforming, we imaged the peri-movement beta event-related desynchronization (ERD) and extracted virtual sensors from the peak voxels, which enabled absolute and relative beta power to be assessed. Interestingly, absolute beta power during the pre-movement baseline was much stronger in older relative to younger adults, and older adults also exhibited proportionally large beta desynchronization (ERD) responses during motor planning and execution compared to younger adults. Crucially, we found a significant relationship between spontaneous (resting) beta power and beta ERD magnitude in both primary motor cortices, above and beyond the effects of age. A similar link was found between beta ERD magnitude and movement duration. These findings suggest a direct linkage between beta reduction during movement and spontaneous activity in the motor cortex, such that as spontaneous beta power increases, a greater reduction in beta activity is required to execute movement. We propose that, on an individual level, the primary motor cortices have an

  9. The influence of cis-acting P1 protein and translational elements on the expression of Potato virus Y helper-component proteinase (HCPro) in heterologous systems and its suppression of silencing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tena Fernández, Fátima; González, Inmaculada; Doblas, Paula; Rodríguez, César; Sahana, Nandita; Kaur, Harpreet; Tenllado, Francisco; Praveen, Shelly; Canto, Tomas

    2013-06-01

    In the Potyvirus genus, the P1 protein is the first N-terminal product processed from the viral polyprotein, followed by the helper-component proteinase (HCPro). In silencing suppression patch assays, we found that Potato virus Y (PVY) HCPro expressed from a P1-HCPro sequence increased the accumulation of a reporter gene, whereas protein expressed from an HCPro sequence did not, even with P1 supplied in trans. This enhancing effect of P1 has been noted in other potyviruses, but has remained unexplained. We analysed the accumulation of PVY HCPro in infiltrated tissues and found that it was higher when expressed from P1-HCPro than from HCPro sequences. Co-expression of heterologous suppressors increased the steady-state level of mRNA expressed from the HCPro sequence, but not that of protein. This suggests that, in the absence of P1 upstream, either HCPro acquires a conformation that affects negatively its activity or stability, or that its translation is reduced. To test these options, we purified HCPro expressed in the presence or absence of upstream P1, and found no difference in purification pattern and final soluble state. By contrast, alteration of the Kozak context in the HCPro mRNA sequence to favour translation increased partially suppressor accumulation and activity. Furthermore, protein activity was not lower than in protein expressed from P1-HCPro sequences. Thus, a direct role for P1 on HCPro suppressor activity or stability, by influencing its conformation during translation, can be excluded. However, P1 could still have an indirect effect favouring HCPro accumulation. Our data highlight the relevance of cis-acting translational elements in the heterologous expression of HCPro. © 2013 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  10. Suppression and enhancement of deep level emission of ZnO on Si4+ & V5+ substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, T.; Bajpai, G.; Sen, S.

    2018-03-01

    ZnO possess a wide range of tunable properties depending on the type and concentration of dopant. Defects in ZnO due to doped aliovalent ions can generate certain functionalities. Such defects in the lattice do not deteriorate the material properties but actually modifies the material towards infinite number of possibilities. Defects like oxygen vacancies play a significant role in photocatalytic and sensing applications. Depending upon the functionality, defect state of ZnO can be modified by suitable doping. Amount and nature of different dopant has different effect on defect state of ZnO. It depends upon the ionic radii, valence state, chemical stability etc. of the ion doped. Two samples with two different dopants i.e., silicon and vanadium, Zn1-xSixO and Zn1-xVxO, for x=0 & 0.020, were synthesized using solgel method (a citric acid-glycerol route) followed by solid state sintering. A comparison of their optical properties, photoluminescence and UV-Vis spectroscopy, with pure ZnO was studied at room temperature. Silicon doping drastically reduces whereas vanadium doping enhances the green emission as compared with pure ZnO. Suppression and enhancement of defect levels (DLE) is rationalized by the effects of extra charge present on Si4+ & V5+ (in comparison to Zn2+) and formation of new hybrid state (V3d O2p) within bandgap. Reduction of defects in Zn1-xSixO makes it suitable material for opto-electronics application whereas enhancement in defects in Zn1-xVxO makes it suitable material for photocatalytic as well as gas sensing application.

  11. Suppression of cadmium-induced JNK/p38 activation and HSP70 family gene expression by LL-Z1640-2 in NIH3T3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugisawa, Nobusuke; Matsuoka, Masato; Okuno, Takeo; Igisu, Hideki

    2004-01-01

    When NIH3T3 cells were exposed to CdCl 2 , the three major mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH 2 -terminal kinase (JNK), and p38, were phosphorylated in a time (1-9 h)- and dose (1-20 μM)-dependent manner. Treatment with a macrocyclic nonaketide compound, LL-Z1640-2 (10-100 ng/ml), suppressed the phosphorylation of MAPKs without affecting the total protein level in cells exposed to 10 μM CdCl 2 for 6 h. CdCl 2 -induced phosphorylation of c-Jun on Ser63 and that on Ser73, and resultant accumulation of total c-Jun protein were also suppressed by LL-Z1640-2 treatment. The in vitro kinase assays also showed significant inhibitory effects of LL-Z1640-2 (at 10 or 25 ng/ml) on JNK and p38 but less markedly. In contrast to JNK and p38, ERK activity was inhibited moderately only at 50 or 100 ng/ml LL-Z1640-2. On the other hand, other JNK inhibitors, SP600125 and L-JNKI1, failed to suppress CdCl 2 -induced activation of the JNK pathway. Among the mouse stress response genes upregulated in response to CdCl 2 exposure, the expressions of hsp68 (encoding for heat shock 70 kDa protein 1; Hsp70-1) and grp78 (encoding for 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein; Grp78) genes were suppressed by treatment with 25 ng/ml LL-Z1640-2. Thus, LL-Z1640-2 could suppress CdCl 2 -induced activation of JNK/p38 pathways and expression of HSP70 family genes in NIH3T3 cells. LL-Z1640-2 seems to be useful to analyze functions of toxic metal-induced JNK/p38 activation

  12. Tranexamic acid suppresses ultraviolet B eye irradiation-induced melanocyte activation by decreasing the levels of prohormone convertase 2 and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramoto, Keiichi; Yamate, Yurika; Sugiyama, Daijiro; Takahashi, Yumi; Mafune, Eiichi

    2014-12-01

    Tranexamic acid (trans-4-aminomethylcyclohexanecarboxylic acid) is a medicinal amino acid used in skin whitening care. This study examined the effects of tranexamic acid on the melanocyte activation of the skin induced by an ultraviolet (UV) B eye irradiation. The eye or ear was locally exposed to UVB at a dose of 1.0 kJ/m(2) using a 20SE sunlamp after covering the remaining body surface with aluminum foil. UVB eye irradiation induced melanocyte activation of the skin, similar to that observed following UVB ear irradiation, which was suppressed by the administration of tranexamic acid treatment. The plasma α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) content was increased by UVB irradiation of the eye; however, the increase in α-MSH was suppressed by tranexamic acid treatment. In addition, UVB eye irradiation induced the up-regulation of prohormone convertase (PC) 2 in the pituitary gland. Meanwhile, the increase in PC2 induced by UVB eye irradiation was suppressed by tranexamic acid treatment. These results clearly indicate that tranexamic acid decreases the expression of PC2, which cleavages from proopiomelanocortin to α-MSH in the pituitary gland, thereby suppressing melanocyte activation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Prostacyclin Suppresses Twist Expression in the Presence of Indomethacin in Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kemper, Oliver; Herten, Monika; Fischer, Johannes; Haversath, Marcel; Beck, Sascha; Classen, Tim; Warwas, Sebastian; Tassemeier, Tjark; Landgraeber, Stefan; Lensing-Höhn, Sabine; Krauspe, Rüdiger; Jäger, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Background Iloprost, a stable prostacyclin I2 analogue, seems to have an osteoblast-protective potential, whereas indomethacin suppresses new bone formation. The aim of this study was to investigate human bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) proliferation and differentiation towards the osteoblastic lineage by administration of indomethacin and/or iloprost. Material/Methods Human bone marrow cells were obtained from 3 different donors (A=26 yrs/m; B=25 yrs/f, C=35 yrs/m) via vacuum aspiration of t...

  14. Differentially expressed genes of Tetrahymena thermophila in response to tributyltin (TBT) identified by suppression subtractive hybridization and real time quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lifang; Miao, Wei; Wu, Yuxuan

    2007-02-15

    Tributyltin (TBT) is widely used as antifouling paints, agriculture biocides, and plastic stabilizers around the world, resulting in great pollution problem in aquatic environments. However, it has been short of the biomonitor to detect TBT in freshwater. We constructed the suppression subtractive hybridization library of Tetrahymena thermophila exposed to TBT, and screened out 101 Expressed Sequence Tags whose expressions were significantly up- or down-regulated with TBT treatment. From this, a series of genes related to the TBT toxicity were discovered, such as glutathione-S-transferase gene (down-regulated), plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase isoforms 3 gene (up-regulated) and NgoA (up-regulated). Furthermore, their expressions under different concentrations of TBT treatment (0.5-40 ppb) were detected by real time fluorescent quantitative PCR. The differentially expressed genes of T. thermophila in response to TBT were identified, which provide the basic to make Tetrahymena as a sensitive, rapid and convenient TBT biomonitor in freshwater based on rDNA inducible expression system.

  15. Representational momentum in dynamic facial expressions is modulated by the level of expressed pain: Amplitude and direction effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigent, Elise; Amorim, Michel-Ange; de Oliveira, Armando Mónica

    2018-01-01

    Humans have developed a specific capacity to rapidly perceive and anticipate other people's facial expressions so as to get an immediate impression of their emotional state of mind. We carried out two experiments to examine the perceptual and memory dynamics of facial expressions of pain. In the first experiment, we investigated how people estimate other people's levels of pain based on the perception of various dynamic facial expressions; these differ both in terms of the amount and intensity of activated action units. A second experiment used a representational momentum (RM) paradigm to study the emotional anticipation (memory bias) elicited by the same facial expressions of pain studied in Experiment 1. Our results highlighted the relationship between the level of perceived pain (in Experiment 1) and the direction and magnitude of memory bias (in Experiment 2): When perceived pain increases, the memory bias tends to be reduced (if positive) and ultimately becomes negative. Dynamic facial expressions of pain may reenact an "immediate perceptual history" in the perceiver before leading to an emotional anticipation of the agent's upcoming state. Thus, a subtle facial expression of pain (i.e., a low contraction around the eyes) that leads to a significant positive anticipation can be considered an adaptive process-one through which we can swiftly and involuntarily detect other people's pain.

  16. Diverse Soil Carbon Dynamics Expressed at the Molecular Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Voort, T. S.; Zell, C. I.; Hagedorn, F.; Feng, X.; McIntyre, C. P.; Haghipour, N.; Graf Pannatier, E.; Eglinton, T. I.

    2017-12-01

    The stability and potential vulnerability of soil organic matter (SOM) to global change remain incompletely understood due to the complex processes involved in its formation and turnover. Here we combine compound-specific radiocarbon analysis with fraction-specific and bulk-level radiocarbon measurements in order to further elucidate controls on SOM dynamics in a temperate and subalpine forested ecosystem. Radiocarbon contents of individual organic compounds isolated from the same soil interval generally exhibit greater variation than those among corresponding operationally defined fractions. Notably, markedly older ages of long-chain plant leaf wax lipids (n-alkanoic acids) imply that they reflect a highly stable carbon pool. Furthermore, marked 14C variations among shorter- and longer-chain n-alkanoic acid homologues suggest that they track different SOM pools. Extremes in SOM dynamics thus manifest themselves within a single compound class. This exploratory study highlights the potential of compound-specific radiocarbon analysis for understanding SOM dynamics in ecosystems potentially vulnerable to global change.

  17. Osthole Suppresses the Migratory Ability of Human Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells via Inhibition of Focal Adhesion Kinase-Mediated Matrix Metalloproteinase-13 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Fang Tsai

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most common type of primary and malignant tumor occurring in the adult central nervous system. GBM often invades surrounding regions of the brain during its early stages, making successful treatment difficult. Osthole, an active constituent isolated from the dried C. monnieri fruit, has been shown to suppress tumor migration and invasion. However, the effects of osthole in human GBM are largely unknown. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK is important for the metastasis of cancer cells. Results from this study show that osthole can not only induce cell death but also inhibit phosphorylation of FAK in human GBM cells. Results from this study show that incubating GBM cells with osthole reduces matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-13 expression and cell motility, as assessed by cell transwell and wound healing assays. This study also provides evidence supporting the potential of osthole in reducing FAK activation, MMP-13 expression, and cell motility in human GBM cells.

  18. Galangin and kaempferol suppress phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yu Jung; Lee, Young Hun; Lee, Seung-Taek

    2015-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 degrades type IV collagen in the basement membrane and plays crucial roles in several pathological implications, including tumorigenesis and inflammation. In this study, we analyzed the effect of flavonols on MMP-9 expression in phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-induced human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 cells. Galangin and kaempferol efficiently decreased MMP-9 secretion, whereas fisetin only weakly decreased its secretion. Galangin and kaempferol did not affect cell viability at concentrations up to 30 μM. Luciferase reporter assays showed that galangin and kaempferol decrease transcription of MMP-9 mRNA. Moreover, galangin and kaempferol strongly reduce IκBα phosphorylation and significantly decrease JNK phosphorylation. These results indicate that galangin and kaempferol suppress PMA-induced MMP-9 expression by blocking activation of NF-κB and AP-1. Therefore, these flavonols could be used as chemopreventive agents to lower the risk of diseases involving MMP-9.

  19. Modulating ectopic gene expression levels by using retroviral vectors equipped with synthetic promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Joshua P; Peacock, Ryan W S; Lawhorn, Ingrid E B; Wang, Clifford L

    2011-12-01

    The human cytomegalovirus and elongation factor 1α promoters are constitutive promoters commonly employed by mammalian expression vectors. These promoters generally produce high levels of expression in many types of cells and tissues. To generate a library of synthetic promoters capable of generating a range of low, intermediate, and high expression levels, the TATA and CAAT box elements of these promoters were mutated. Other promoter variants were also generated by random mutagenesis. Evaluation using plasmid vectors integrated at a single site in the genome revealed that these various synthetic promoters were capable of expression levels spanning a 40-fold range. Retroviral vectors were equipped with the synthetic promoters and evaluated for their ability to reproduce the graded expression demonstrated by plasmid integration. A vector with a self-inactivating long terminal repeat could neither reproduce the full range of expression levels nor produce stable expression. Using a second vector design, the different synthetic promoters enabled stable expression over a broad range of expression levels in different cell lines. The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11693-011-9089-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  20. Cinnamaldehyde inhibits the tumor necrosis factor-α-induced expression of cell adhesion molecules in endothelial cells by suppressing NF-κB activation: Effects upon IκB and Nrf2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, B.-C.; Hsieh, C.-W.; Liu, Y.-C.; Tzeng, T.-T.; Sun, Y.-W.; Wung, B.-S.

    2008-01-01

    The production of adhesion molecules and subsequent attachment of leukocytes to endothelial cells (ECs) are critical early events in atherogenesis. These adhesion molecules thus play an important role in the development of this disease. Recent studies have highlighted the chemoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of cinnamaldehyde, a Cinnamomum cassia Presl-specific diterpene. In our current study, we have examined the effects of both cinnamaldehyde and extracts of C. cassia on cytokine-induced monocyte/human endothelial cell interactions. We find that these compounds inhibit the adhesion of TNFα-induced monocytes to endothelial cells and suppress the expression of the cell adhesion molecules, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1, at the transcriptional level. Moreover, in TNFα-treated ECs, the principal downstream signal of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1, NF-κB, was also found to be abolished in a time-dependent manner. Interestingly, cinnamaldehyde exerts its anti-inflammatory effects by blocking the degradation of the inhibitory protein IκB-α, but only in short term pretreatments, whereas it does so via the induction of Nrf2-related genes, including heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1), over long term pretreatments. Treating ECs with zinc protoporphyrin, a HO-1 inhibitor, partially blocks the anti-inflammatory effects of cinnamaldehyde. Elevated HO-1 protein levels were associated with the inhibition of TNFα-induced ICAM-1 expression. In addition to HO-1, we also found that cinnamaldehyde can upregulate Nrf2 in nuclear extracts, and can increase ARE-luciferase activity and upregulate thioredoxin reductase-1, another Nrf2-related gene. Moreover, cinnamaldehyde exposure rapidly reduces the cellular GSH levels in ECs over short term treatments but increases these levels after 9 h exposure. Hence, our present findings indicate that cinnamaldehyde suppresses TNF-induced singling pathways via two distinct mechanisms that are activated by different pretreatment periods

  1. Anti-sense suppression of epidermal growth factor receptor expression alters cellular proliferation, cell-adhesion and tumorigenicity in ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alper, O; De Santis, M L; Stromberg, K; Hacker, N F; Cho-Chung, Y S; Salomon, D S

    2000-11-15

    Over-expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in ovarian cancer has been well documented. Human NIH:OVCAR-8 ovarian carcinoma cells were transfected with an expression vector containing the anti-sense orientation of truncated human EGFR cDNA. EGFR anti-sense over-expression resulted in decreased EGFR protein and mRNA expression, cell proliferation and tumor formation in nude mice. In accordance with the reduced levels of EGFR in EGFR anti-sense-expressing cells, tyrosine phosphorylation of EGFR was decreased compared to untransfected parental cells treated with EGF. In EGFR anti-sense-transfected cells, expression of erbB-3, but not erbB-2, was increased. In addition, basal and heregulin-beta 1-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of erbB-3 was higher in EGFR anti-sense vector-transfected cells. A morphological alteration in EGFR anti-sense gene-expressing cells was correlated with a decrease in the expression of E-cadherin, alpha-catenin and, to a lesser extent, beta-catenin. Changes in the expression of these proteins were associated with a reduction in complex formation among E-cadherin, beta-catenin and alpha-catenin and between beta-catenin and EGFR in EGFR anti-sense-expressing cells compared to sense-transfected control cells. These results demonstrate that EGFR expression in ovarian carcinoma cells regulates expression of cell adhesion proteins that may enhance cell growth and invasiveness. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. MicroRNA-302a suppresses influenza A virus-stimulated interferon regulatory factor-5 expression and cytokine storm induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueyuan; Zhou, Li; Peng, Nanfang; Yu, Haisheng; Li, Mengqi; Cao, Zhongying; Lin, Yong; Wang, Xueyu; Li, Qian; Wang, Jun; She, Yinglong; Zhu, Chengliang; Lu, Mengji; Zhu, Ying; Liu, Shi

    2017-12-29

    During influenza A virus (IAV) infection, cytokine storms play a vital and critical role in clinical outcomes. We have previously reported that microRNA (miR)-302c regulates IAV-induced IFN expression by targeting the 3'-UTR of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB)-inducing kinase. In the current study, we found that miR-302a, another member of the miR-302 cluster, controls the IAV-induced cytokine storm. According to results from cell-based and knockout mouse models, IAV induces a cytokine storm via interferon regulatory factor-5 (IRF-5). We also found that IAV infection up-regulates IRF-5 expression and that IRF-5 in turn promotes IAV replication. Furthermore, we observed that IRF-5 is a direct target of miR-302a, which down-regulated IRF-5 expression by binding its 3'-UTR. Moreover, IAV increased IRF-5 expression by down-regulating miR-302a expression. Interestingly, miR-302a inhibited IAV replication. In IAV-infected patients, miR-302a expression was down-regulated, whereas IRF-5 expression was up-regulated. Taken together, our work uncovers and defines a signaling pathway implicated in an IAV-induced cytokine storm. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. PCI-24781 down-regulates EZH2 expression and then promotes glioma apoptosis by suppressing the PIK3K/Akt/mTOR pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Lv, Shengqing; Liu, Jun; Zang, Zhenle; Yin, Junyi; An, Ning; Yang, Hui; Song, Yechun

    2014-10-01

    PCI-24781 is a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor that inhibits tumor proliferation and promotes cell apoptosis. However, it is unclear whether PCI-24781 inhibits Enhancer of Zeste 2 (EZH2) expression in malignant gliomas. In this work, three glioma cell lines were incubated with various concentrations of PCI-24781 (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2.5 and 5 μM) and analyzed for cell proliferation by the MTS [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium] assay and colony formation, and cell cycle and apoptosis were assessed by flow cytometry. The expression of EZH2 and apoptosis-related proteins was assessed by western blotting. Malignant glioma cells were also transfected with EZH2 siRNA to examine how PCI-24781 suppresses tumor cells. EZH2 was highly expressed in the three glioma cell lines. Incubation with PCI-24781 reduced cell proliferation and increased cell apoptosis by down-regulating EZH2 in a concentration-dependent manner. These effects were simulated by EZH2 siRNA. In addition, PCI-24781 or EZH2 siRNA accelerated cell apoptosis by down-regulating the expression of AKT, mTOR, p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70s6k), glycogen synthase kinase 3A and B (GSK3a/b) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1). These data suggest that PCI-24781 may be a promising therapeutic agent for treating gliomas by down-regulating EZH2 which promotes cell apoptosis by suppressing the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) pathway.

  4. Augmenter of liver regeneration inhibits TGF-β1-induced renal tubular epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition via suppressing TβR II expression in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Xiao-hui; Zhang, Ling; Chen, Guo-tao; Yan, Ru-yu; Sun, Hang; Guo, Hui; Liu, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Tubular epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a crucial role in the progression of renal tubular interstitial fibrosis (TIF), which subsequently leads to chronic kidney disease (CKD) and eventually, end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We propose that augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR), a member of the newly discovered ALR/Erv1 protein family shown to ameliorate hepatic fibrosis, plays a similar protective role in renal tubular cells and has potential as a new treatment option for CKD. Here, we showed that recombinant human ALR (rhALR) inhibits EMT in renal tubular cells by antagonizing activation of the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) signaling pathway. Further investigation revealed that rhALR suppresses the expression of TGF-β receptor type II (TβR II) and significantly alleviates TGF-β1-induced phosphorylation of Smad2 and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). No apparent adverse effects were observed upon the addition of rhALR alone to cells. These findings collectively suggest that ALR plays a role in inhibiting progression of renal tubular EMT, supporting its potential utility as an effective antifibrotic strategy to reverse TIF in CKD. - Highlights: • ALR is involved in the pathological progression of renal EMT in NRK-52E cells. • ALR suppresses the expression of TβRII and the phosphorylation of Smad2 and NF-κB. • ALR plays a role in inhibiting progression of renal tubular EMT

  5. Augmenter of liver regeneration inhibits TGF-β1-induced renal tubular epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition via suppressing TβR II expression in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Xiao-hui [Department of Nephrology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400010 (China); Zhang, Ling, E-mail: lindazhang8508@hotmail.com [Department of Nephrology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400010 (China); Chen, Guo-tao; Yan, Ru-yu [Department of Nephrology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400010 (China); Sun, Hang; Guo, Hui [Institute for Viral Hepatitis, Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology for Infectious Diseases, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400010 (China); Liu, Qi, E-mail: txzzliuqi@163.com [Institute for Viral Hepatitis, Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology for Infectious Diseases, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400010 (China)

    2014-10-01

    Tubular epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a crucial role in the progression of renal tubular interstitial fibrosis (TIF), which subsequently leads to chronic kidney disease (CKD) and eventually, end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We propose that augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR), a member of the newly discovered ALR/Erv1 protein family shown to ameliorate hepatic fibrosis, plays a similar protective role in renal tubular cells and has potential as a new treatment option for CKD. Here, we showed that recombinant human ALR (rhALR) inhibits EMT in renal tubular cells by antagonizing activation of the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) signaling pathway. Further investigation revealed that rhALR suppresses the expression of TGF-β receptor type II (TβR II) and significantly alleviates TGF-β1-induced phosphorylation of Smad2 and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). No apparent adverse effects were observed upon the addition of rhALR alone to cells. These findings collectively suggest that ALR plays a role in inhibiting progression of renal tubular EMT, supporting its potential utility as an effective antifibrotic strategy to reverse TIF in CKD. - Highlights: • ALR is involved in the pathological progression of renal EMT in NRK-52E cells. • ALR suppresses the expression of TβRII and the phosphorylation of Smad2 and NF-κB. • ALR plays a role in inhibiting progression of renal tubular EMT.

  6. FABP4 dynamics in obesity: discrepancies in adipose tissue and liver expression regarding circulating plasma levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Queipo-Ortuño

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: FABP4 is predominantly expressed in adipose tissue, and its circulating levels are linked with obesity and a poor atherogenic profile. OBJECTIVE: In patients with a wide BMI range, we analyze FABP4 expression in adipose and hepatic tissues in the settings of obesity and insulin resistance. Associations between FABP4 expression in adipose tissue and the FABP4 plasma level as well as the main adipogenic and lipolytic genes expressed in adipose tissue were also analyzed. METHODS: The expression of several lipogenic, lipolytic, PPAR family and FABP family genes was analyzed by real time PCR. FABP4 protein expression in total adipose tissues and its fractions were determined by western blot. RESULTS: In obesity FABP4 expression was down-regulated (at both mRNA and protein levels, with its levels mainly predicted by ATGL and inversely by the HOMA-IR index. The BMI appeared as the only determinant of the FABP4 variation in both adipose tissue depots. FABP4 plasma levels showed a significant progressive increase according to BMI but no association was detected between FABP4 circulating levels and SAT or VAT FABP4 gene expression. The gene expression of FABP1, FABP4 and FABP5 in hepatic tissue was significantly higher in tissue from the obese IR patients compared to the non-IR group. CONCLUSION: The inverse pattern in FABP4 expression between adipose and hepatic tissue observed in morbid obese patients, regarding the IR context, suggests that both tissues may act in a balanced manner. These differences may help us to understand the discrepancies between circulating plasma levels and adipose tissue expression in obesity.

  7. Autism and increased paternal age related changes in global levels of gene expression regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Alter

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A causal role of mutations in multiple general transcription factors in neurodevelopmental disorders including autism suggested that alterations in global levels of gene expression regulation might also relate to disease risk in sporadic cases of autism. This premise can be tested by evaluating for changes in the overall distribution of gene expression levels. For instance, in mice, variability in hippocampal-dependent behaviors was associated with variability in the pattern of the overall distribution of gene expression levels, as assessed by variance in the distribution of gene expression levels in the hippocampus. We hypothesized that a similar change in variance might be found in children with autism. Gene expression microarrays covering greater than 47,000 unique RNA transcripts were done on RNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL of children with autism (n = 82 and controls (n = 64. Variance in the distribution of gene expression levels from each microarray was compared between groups of children. Also tested was whether a risk factor for autism, increased paternal age, was associated with variance. A decrease in the variance in the distribution of gene expression levels in PBL was associated with the diagnosis of autism and a risk factor for autism, increased paternal age. Traditional approaches to microarray analysis of gene expression suggested a possible mechanism for decreased variance in gene expression. Gene expression pathways involved in transcriptional regulation were down-regulated in the blood of children with autism and children of older fathers. Thus, results from global and gene specific approaches to studying microarray data were complimentary and supported the hypothesis that alterations at the global level of gene expression regulation are related to autism and increased paternal age. Global regulation of transcription, thus, represents a possible point of convergence for multiple etiologies of autism and other

  8. Prenatal low-dose methylmercury exposure impairs neurite outgrowth and synaptic protein expression and suppresses TrkA pathway activity and eEF1A1 expression in the rat cerebellum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimura, Masatake, E-mail: fujimura@nimd.go.jp [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, National Institute for Minamata Disease, Kumamoto (Japan); Usuki, Fusako [Department of Clinical Medicine, National Institute for Minamata Disease, Kumamoto (Japan); Cheng, Jinping; Zhao, Wenchang [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-05-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a highly neurotoxic environmental chemical that can cause developmental impairments. Human fetuses and neonates are particularly susceptible to MeHg toxicity; however, the mechanisms governing its effects in the developing brain are unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of prenatal and lactational MeHg exposure on the developing cerebellum in rats. We demonstrated that exposure to 5 ppm MeHg decreased postnatal expression of pre- and postsynaptic proteins, suggesting an impairment in synaptic development. MeHg exposure also reduced neurite outgrowth, as shown by a decrease in the expression of the neurite marker neurofilament H. These changes were not observed in rats exposed to 1 ppm MeHg. In order to define the underlying mechanism, we investigated the effects of MeHg exposure on the tropomyosin receptor kinase (Trk) A pathway, which plays important roles in neuronal differentiation and synapse formation. We demonstrated suppression of the TrkA pathway on gestation day 20 in rats exposed to 5 ppm MeHg. In addition, down-regulation of eukaryotic elongation factor 1A1 (eEF1A1) was observed on postnatal day 1. eEF1A1 knockdown in differentiating PC12 cells impaired neurite outgrowth and synaptic protein expression, similar to the results of MeHg exposure in the cerebellum. These results suggest that suppression of the TrkA pathway and subsequent decreases in eEF1A1 expression induced by prenatal exposure to MeHg may lead to reduced neurite outgrowth and synaptic protein expression in the developing cerebellum. - Highlights: • Prenatal exposure to MeHg decreased postnatal expression of synaptic proteins. • MeHg exposure also reduced neurite outgrowth postnatally. • Suppression of the TrkA pathway and eEF1A1 expression was induced by MeHg exposure. • eEF1A1 knockdown impaired neurite outgrowth and synaptic protein expression.

  9. Prenatal low-dose methylmercury exposure impairs neurite outgrowth and synaptic protein expression and suppresses TrkA pathway activity and eEF1A1 expression in the rat cerebellum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, Masatake; Usuki, Fusako; Cheng, Jinping; Zhao, Wenchang

    2016-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a highly neurotoxic environmental chemical that can cause developmental impairments. Human fetuses and neonates are particularly susceptible to MeHg toxicity; however, the mechanisms governing its effects in the developing brain are unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of prenatal and lactational MeHg exposure on the developing cerebellum in rats. We demonstrated that exposure to 5 ppm MeHg decreased postnatal expression of pre- and postsynaptic proteins, suggesting an impairment in synaptic development. MeHg exposure also reduced neurite outgrowth, as shown by a decrease in the expression of the neurite marker neurofilament H. These changes were not observed in rats exposed to 1 ppm MeHg. In order to define the underlying mechanism, we investigated the effects of MeHg exposure on the tropomyosin receptor kinase (Trk) A pathway, which plays important roles in neuronal differentiation and synapse formation. We demonstrated suppression of the TrkA pathway on gestation day 20 in rats exposed to 5 ppm MeHg. In addition, down-regulation of eukaryotic elongation factor 1A1 (eEF1A1) was observed on postnatal day 1. eEF1A1 knockdown in differentiating PC12 cells impaired neurite outgrowth and synaptic protein expression, similar to the results of MeHg exposure in the cerebellum. These results suggest that suppression of the TrkA pathway and subsequent decreases in eEF1A1 expression induced by prenatal exposure to MeHg may lead to reduced neurite outgrowth and synaptic protein expression in the developing cerebellum. - Highlights: • Prenatal exposure to MeHg decreased postnatal expression of synaptic proteins. • MeHg exposure also reduced neurite outgrowth postnatally. • Suppression of the TrkA pathway and eEF1A1 expression was induced by MeHg exposure. • eEF1A1 knockdown impaired neurite outgrowth and synaptic protein expression.

  10. MicroRNA-125b-5p suppresses Brucella abortus intracellular survival via control of A20 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Wang, Lin; Sun, Changjiang; Yang, Li; Sun, Wanchun; Peng, Qisheng

    2016-07-29

    Brucella may establish chronic infection by regulating the expression of miRNAs. However, the role of miRNAs in modulating the intracellular growth of Brucella remains unclear. In this study, we show that Brucella. abortus infection leads to downregulation of miR-125b-5p in macrophages. We establish that miR-125b-5p targets A20, an inhibitor of the NF-kB activation. Additionally, expression of miR-125b-5p decreases A20 expression in B. abortus-infected macrophages and leads to NF-kB activation and increased production of TNFα. Furthermore, B. abortus survival is attenuated in the presence of miR-125b-5p. These results uncover a role for miR-125b-5p in the regulation of B. abortus intracellular survival via the control of A20 expression.

  11. Suppression of Tla1 gene expression for improved solar conversion efficiency and photosynthetic productivity in plants and algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Anastasios; Mitra, Mautusi

    2010-06-29

    The invention provides method and compositions to minimize the chlorophyll antenna size of photosynthesis by decreasing TLA1 gene expression, thereby improving solar conversion efficiencies and photosynthetic productivity in plants, e.g., green microalgae, under bright sunlight conditions.

  12. PEDF expression is inhibited by insulin treatment in adipose tissue via suppressing 11β-HSD1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinli Zhou

    Full Text Available Early intensive insulin therapy improves insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients; while the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF, an anti-angiogenic factor, is believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Here, we hypothesize that PEDF might be down regulated by insulin and then lead to the improved insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients during insulin therapy. We addressed this issue by investigating insulin regulation of PEDF expression in diabetic conditions. The results showed that serum PEDF was reduced by 15% in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients after insulin therapy. In adipose tissue of diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats, PEDF expression was associated with TNF-α elevation and it could be decreased both in serum and in adipose tissue by insulin treatment. In adipocytes, PEDF was induced by TNF-α through activation of NF-κB. The response was inhibited by knockdown and enhanced by over expression of NF-κB p65. However, PEDF expression was indirectly, not directly, induced by NF-κB which promoted 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1 expression in adipocytes. 11β-HSD1 is likely to stimulate PEDF expression through production of active form of glucocorticoids as dexamethasone induced PEDF expression in adipose tissue. Insulin inhibited PEDF by down-regulating 11β-HSD1 expression. The results suggest that PEDF activity is induced by inflammation and decreased by insulin through targeting 11β-HSD1/glucocorticoid pathway in adipose tissue of diabetic patients.

  13. Proton pump inhibitors suppress iNOS-dependent DNA damage in Barrett's esophagus by increasing Mn-SOD expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanan, Raynoo [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Suzuka, Mie 513-8670 (Japan); Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan); Ma, Ning [Faculty of Health Science, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Suzuka, Mie 513-0293 (Japan); Iijima, Katsunori; Abe, Yasuhiko; Koike, Tomoyuki; Shimosegawa, Tooru [Division of Gastroenterology, Tohoku University Hospital, Sendai, Miyaki 980-8574 (Japan); Pinlaor, Somchai [Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Hiraku, Yusuke; Oikawa, Shinji; Murata, Mariko [Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan); Kawanishi, Shosuke, E-mail: kawanisi@suzuka-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Suzuka, Mie 513-8670 (Japan)

    2012-05-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inflammation by Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a risk factor of its adenocarcinoma (BEA). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 8-Nitroguanine and 8-oxodG are inflammation-related DNA lesions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA lesions and iNOS expression were higher in the order, BEA > BE > normal tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proton pump inhibitors suppress DNA damage by increasing Mn-SOD via Nrf2 activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA lesions can be useful biomarkers to predict risk of BEA in BE patients. -- Abstract: Barrett's esophagus (BE), an inflammatory disease, is a risk factor for Barrett's esophageal adenocarcinoma (BEA). Treatment of BE patients with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) is expected to reduce the risk of BEA. We performed an immunohistochemical study to examine the formation of nitrative and oxidative DNA lesions, 8-nitroguanine and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2 Prime -deoxygaunosine (8-oxodG), in normal esophageal, BE with pre- and post-treatment by PPIs and BEA tissues. We also observed the expression of an oxidant-generating enzyme (iNOS) and its transcription factor NF-{kappa}B, an antioxidant enzyme (Mn-SOD), its transcription factor (Nrf2) and an Nrf2 inhibitor (Keap1). The immunoreactivity of DNA lesions was significantly higher in the order of BEA > BE > normal tissues. iNOS expression was significantly higher in the order of BEA > BE > normal tissues, while Mn-SOD expression was significantly lower in the order of BEA < BE < normal tissues. Interestingly, Mn-SOD expression and the nuclear localization of Nrf2 were significantly increased, and the formation of DNA lesions was significantly decreased in BE tissues after PPIs treatment for 3-6 months. Keap1 and iNOS expression was not significantly changed by the PPIs treatment in BE tissues. These results indicate that 8-nitroguanine and 8-oxodG play a role in BE-derived BEA. Additionally, PPIs treatment may trigger the activation and

  14. Radioimmunotherapy with an antibody to HPV16 E6 oncoprotein is effective in experimental cervical tumor expressing low levels of E6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zewei; Wang, Xing Guo; Einstein, Mark H; Goldberg, Gary L; Casadevall, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    Purpose HPV16 is associated with ∼50% of all cervical cancers worldwide. The E6 and E7 genes of oncogenic HPV types, such as HPV16, are necessary for the HPV transforming function and tumorogenesis making them ideal targets for novel treatments. Radioimmunotherapy employs systemically administered radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that bind to tumor-associated antigens. Previously we demonstrated in mice that radioimmunotherapy targeting viral antigens with mAb to HPV16 E6 suppressed CasKi cervical tumors expressing high levels of E6 (∼600 copies of HPV per cell). However, that study opened the question whether radioimmunotherapy can suppress the growth of cervical tumors with low E6 and E7 expression, such as may be seen in patients. Experimental Design We evaluated the expression of E6 in patients' tumors and in the SiHa cell line expressing low levels of E6 and E7 (1–2 copies of HPV per cell) and found them comparable. We initiated SiHa tumors in nude mice, radiolabeled C1P5 mAb to E6 with a beta-emitter 188-Rhenium (188Re) and treated tumor-bearing mice with: (1) 200 µCi 188Re-C1P5 alone; (2) proteasome inhibitor MG132 alone; (3) MG132 followed by 200 µCi 188Re-C1P5; (4) unlabeled C1P5; (5) 200 µCi 188Re-18B7 (isotype-matching control mAb); (6) no treatment. 188Re-C1P5 alone and in combination with MG-132 significantly retarded tumor growth compared to all control groups. Conclusions Our data demonstrate the possibility to suppress tumor growth by targeting viral antigens even in cervical tumors with low E6 expression and provide additional evidence for the potential usefulness of radioimmunotherapy targeting HPV-related antigens in the clinic. PMID:20861673

  15. Fasting and meal-suppressed ghrelin levels before and after intragastric balloons and balloon-induced weight loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathus-Vliegen, E. M. H.; Eichenberger, R. I.

    2014-01-01

    Intragastric balloons may be an option for obese patients with weight loss failure. Its mode of action remains enigmatic. We hypothesised depressed fasting ghrelin concentrations and enhanced meal suppression of ghrelin secretion by the gastric fundus through balloon contact and balloon-induced

  16. Activations of c-fos/c-jun signaling are involved in the modulation of hypothalamic superoxide dismutase (SOD) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene expression in amphetamine-mediated appetite suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Y.-S.; Yang, S.-F.; Chiou, H.-L.; Kuo, D.-Y.

    2006-01-01

    Amphetamine (AMPH) is known as an anorectic agent. The mechanism underlying the anorectic action of AMPH has been attributed to its inhibitory action on hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY), an appetite stimulant in the brain. This study was aimed to examine the molecular mechanisms behind the anorectic effect of AMPH. Results showed that AMPH treatment decreased food intake, which was correlated with changes of NPY mRNA level, but increased c-fos, c-jun and superoxide dismutase (SOD) mRNA levels in hypothalamus. To determine if c-fos or c-jun was involved in the anorectic response of AMPH, infusions of antisense oligonucleotide into the brain were performed at 1 h before daily AMPH treatment in freely moving rats, and the results showed that c-fos or c-jun knockdown could block this anorectic response and restore NPY mRNA level. Moreover, c-fos or c-jun knockdown could partially block SOD mRNA level that might involve in the modulation of NPY gene expression. It was suggested that c-fos/c-jun signaling might involve in the central regulation of AMPH-mediated feeding suppression via the modulation of NPY g