WorldWideScience

Sample records for levels similar studies

  1. Assessing levels of similarity to a "psychodynamic prototype" in psychodynamic psychotherapy with children: a case study approach (preliminary findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Bento Gastaud

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To analyze the degree of similarity to a "psychodynamic prototype" during the first year of two children's once-weekly psychodynamic psychotherapy.Methods: This study used a longitudinal, descriptive, repeated-measures design based on the systematic case study method. Two male school children (here referred to as Walter and Peter and their therapists took part in the study. All sessions were video and audio recorded. Ten sessions from each case were selected for analysis in this preliminary study. Trained examiners (randomly selected in pairs independently and blindly evaluated each session using the Child Psychotherapy Q-Set (CPQ. Experts in psychodynamic therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy from several countries rated each of the 100 CPQ items with regard to how well it characterized a hypothetical ideal session of either treatment modality. A series of paired t tests comparing analogous adherence scores within each session were conducted.Results:There were no significant correlations between time elapsed and adherence to the prototypes. Walter's treatment adhered to both prototypes and Peter's treatment did not adhere to either prototype.Conclusion:Child psychotherapy theory and practice are not absolutely coincident. Real psychotherapy sessions do not necessarily resemble the ideal prototypes.

  2. Elite level rhythmic gymnasts have significantly more and stronger pain than peers of similar age: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabeti, Manuel; Jeremian, Lusine; Graf, Alexandra; Kandelhart, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Rhythmic gymnastics (RG) unites aesthetic, ballet-like motion, and all aspects of gymnastics. To reach elite level, girls begin at early age the intensive training. To date it is unclear if such demanding training influences the incidence and intensity of painful overuse injuries. The purpose of this study is to analyze anatomical painful regions and pain intensity in elite level rhythmic gymnasts (elRG) and compare results with an age-matched control group (CG). This prospective field study was carried out at the European Championship in RG 2013 (218 participating athletes, Vienna, Austria). Volunteering athletes were interviewed according to a preformed questionnaire. As CG secondary school pupils without any competitive sports experience were analyzed accordingly. Overall, 243 young females (144 elRG/66 % of all participants and 99 CG) were observed. ElRGs were significantly (s.) smaller, lighter, and had s. stronger pain (p < 0.001). A total of 72 % of athletes reported to have at least one painful body region compared with 52 % of CG (p < 0.001). ElRG had nearly three times more serious injuries than the CG. In all 23 % off all elRG reported to have had no access to professional medical care. ElRGs were s. more frequently (25 vs 9 %) affected at the lumbar spine and the ankle joint (17.4 vs 7 %). To our knowledge, this trial analyzes the largest cohort of elRG to date. Hence, it is clearly alluded that intensive training in RG is a significant factor causing more and stronger pain than in a CG.

  3. Compressional Alfven Eigenmode Similarity Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidbrink, W. W.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Rhodes, T. L.

    2004-11-01

    NSTX and DIII-D are nearly ideal for Alfven eigenmode (AE) similarity experiments, having similar neutral beams, fast-ion to Alfven speed v_f/v_A, fast-ion pressure, and shape of the plasma, but with a factor of 2 difference in the major radius. Toroidicity-induced AE with ˜100 kHz frequencies were compared in an earlier study [1]; this paper focuses on higher frequency AE with f ˜ 1 MHz. Compressional AE (CAE) on NSTX have a polarization, dependence on the fast-ion distribution function, frequency scaling, and low-frequency limit that are qualitatively consistent with CAE theory [2]. Global AE (GAE) are also observed. On DIII-D, coherent modes in this frequency range are observed during low-field (0.6 T) similarity experiments. Experiments will compare the CAE stability limits on DIII-D with the NSTX stability limits, with the aim of determining if CAE will be excited by alphas in a reactor. Predicted differences in the frequency splitting Δ f between excited modes will also be used. \\vspace0.25em [1] W.W. Heidbrink, et al., Plasmas Phys. Control. Fusion 45, 983 (2003). [2] E.D. Fredrickson, et al., Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Report PPPL-3955 (2004).

  4. Oxygen levels versus chemical pollutants: do they have similar influence on macrofaunal assemblages? A case study in a harbour with two opposing entrances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra-Garcia, J.M.; Garcia-Gomez, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    Generally, harbours are polluted zones characterised by low values of hydrodynamism and oxygen in the water column and high concentrations of pollutants in sediments. The harbour of Ceuta, North Africa, has an unusual structure; it is located between two bays connected by a channel, which increases the water movement and exchange in the harbour, maintaining moderate oxygen levels in the water-sediment interface. Nevertheless, high concentration of organic matter, nutrients and heavy metals were measured in sediments from this harbour. Under these unusual conditions (high levels of pollution but total saturation of oxygen in the water column) we studied the responses of soft-bottom macrobenthic communities using uni and multivariate analyses. The number of species was similar inside and outside the harbour but the species composition differed between internal and external stations; oxygen levels seem to control the 'quantity' of species whereas pollutants control the 'quality' of them. - A high diversity of benthic animals was found in a polluted harbour where high oxygen levels occurred

  5. Similar levels of diversity and population Structure in superflock and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    superflock cichlid fishes from Lake Victoria, Africa. ... Tropical Freshwater Biology ... We use DNA microsatellite loci to estimate neutral genetic diversity and the level of gene flow among populations of two cichlid species from southern Lake Victoria, ...

  6. Tokunaga and Horton self-similarity for level set trees of Markov chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaliapin, Ilia; Kovchegov, Yevgeniy

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Self-similar properties of the level set trees for Markov chains are studied. ► Tokunaga and Horton self-similarity are established for symmetric Markov chains and regular Brownian motion. ► Strong, distributional self-similarity is established for symmetric Markov chains with exponential jumps. ► It is conjectured that fractional Brownian motions are Tokunaga self-similar. - Abstract: The Horton and Tokunaga branching laws provide a convenient framework for studying self-similarity in random trees. The Horton self-similarity is a weaker property that addresses the principal branching in a tree; it is a counterpart of the power-law size distribution for elements of a branching system. The stronger Tokunaga self-similarity addresses so-called side branching. The Horton and Tokunaga self-similarity have been empirically established in numerous observed and modeled systems, and proven for two paradigmatic models: the critical Galton–Watson branching process with finite progeny and the finite-tree representation of a regular Brownian excursion. This study establishes the Tokunaga and Horton self-similarity for a tree representation of a finite symmetric homogeneous Markov chain. We also extend the concept of Horton and Tokunaga self-similarity to infinite trees and establish self-similarity for an infinite-tree representation of a regular Brownian motion. We conjecture that fractional Brownian motions are also Tokunaga and Horton self-similar, with self-similarity parameters depending on the Hurst exponent.

  7. Numerical study of similarity in prototype and model pumped turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Z J; Wang, Z W; Bi, H L

    2014-01-01

    Similarity study of prototype and model pumped turbines are performed by numerical simulation and the partial discharge case is analysed in detail. It is found out that in the RSI (rotor-stator interaction) region where the flow is convectively accelerated with minor flow separation, a high level of similarity in flow patterns and pressure fluctuation appear with relative pressure fluctuation amplitude of model turbine slightly higher than that of prototype turbine. As for the condition in the runner where the flow is convectively accelerated with severe separation, similarity fades substantially due to different topology of flow separation and vortex formation brought by distinctive Reynolds numbers of the two turbines. In the draft tube where the flow is diffusively decelerated, similarity becomes debilitated owing to different vortex rope formation impacted by Reynolds number. It is noted that the pressure fluctuation amplitude and characteristic frequency of model turbine are larger than those of prototype turbine. The differences in pressure fluctuation characteristics are discussed theoretically through dimensionless Navier-Stokes equation. The above conclusions are all made based on simulation without regard to the penstock response and resonance

  8. Dependence centrality similarity: Measuring the diversity of profession levels of interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Deng-Cheng; Li, Ming; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2017-08-01

    To understand the relations between developers and software, we study a collaborative coding platform from the perspective of networks, including follower networks, dependence networks and developer-project bipartite networks. Through the analyzing of degree distribution, PageRank and degree-dependent nearest neighbors' centrality, we find that the degree distributions of all networks have a power-law form except the out-degree distributions of dependence networks. The nearest neighbors' centrality is negatively correlated with degree for developers but fluctuates around the average for projects. In order to measure the diversity of profession levels of interests, a new index called dependence centrality similarity is proposed and the correlation between dependence centrality similarity and degree is investigated. The result shows an obvious negative correlations between dependence centrality similarity and degree.

  9. Surface-Level Diversity and Decision-Making in Groups: When Does Deep-Level Similarity Help?

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Abstract We examined how surface-level diversity (based on race) and deep-level similarities influenced three-person decision-making groups on a hidden-profile task. Surface-level homogeneous groups perceived their information to be less unique and spent less time on the task than surface-level diverse groups. When the groups were given the opportunity to learn about their deep-level similarities prior to t...

  10. Source Similarity and Social Media Health Messages: Extending Construal Level Theory to Message Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Rachel

    2015-09-01

    Social media users post messages about health goals and behaviors to online social networks. Compared with more traditional sources of health communication such as physicians or health journalists, peer sources are likely to be perceived as more socially close or similar, which influences how messages are processed. This experimental study uses construal level theory of psychological distance to predict how mediated health messages from peers influence health-related cognition and behavioral intention. Participants were exposed to source cues that identified peer sources as being either highly attitudinally and demographically similar to or different from participants. As predicted by construal level theory, participants who perceived sources of social media health messages as highly similar listed a greater proportion of beliefs about the feasibility of health behaviors and a greater proportion of negative beliefs, while participants who perceived sources as more dissimilar listed a greater proportion of positive beliefs about the health behaviors. Results of the study could be useful in determining how health messages from peers could encourage individuals to set realistic health goals.

  11. The study on the cephalometric similarity between parents and offspring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Woo Ghon; Ahn, Hyung Kyu [Department of Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1975-11-15

    The study was performed to investigate cephalometric similarity between parents and offspring of the Korean family by lateral cephalometric analysis. The lateral cephalograms consist of the 8 families comprising 16 parents, 5 sons and 7 daughters. In order to make an investigation of the similarity, 12 measuring points were set up, and 22 linear measurements on each depth, height and 5 angular measurements were made. The author drew up the profilograms to compare parents with offspring in each family group. The obtained results were as follows: 1. There was no common similarity on specific region between parents and offspring in each family group. 2. There was partial similarity between single parent and offspring. 3. The partial similarity between single parent and offspring was noted on the upper face in general.

  12. The study on the cephalometric similarity between parents and offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Woo Ghon; Ahn, Hyung Kyu

    1975-01-01

    The study was performed to investigate cephalometric similarity between parents and offspring of the Korean family by lateral cephalometric analysis. The lateral cephalograms consist of the 8 families comprising 16 parents, 5 sons and 7 daughters. In order to make an investigation of the similarity, 12 measuring points were set up, and 22 linear measurements on each depth, height and 5 angular measurements were made. The author drew up the profilograms to compare parents with offspring in each family group. The obtained results were as follows: 1. There was no common similarity on specific region between parents and offspring in each family group. 2. There was partial similarity between single parent and offspring. 3. The partial similarity between single parent and offspring was noted on the upper face in general.

  13. Comparison of cardiorespiratory responses between Surya Namaskar and bicycle exercise at similar energy expenditure level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Biswajit; Sinha, Tulika Dasgupta; Pathak, Anjana; Tomer, O S

    2013-01-01

    Surya Namaskar (SN), a popular traditional Indian yogic practice called "Sun Salutations", includes practice of twelve physical postures involving alternate backward bending and forward bending postures. The practice of twelve postures in succession makes one round of its practice. Many people practise it as part of their daily physical fitness regimen. No study is available to compare cardiorespiratory responses of SN with bicycle exercise (BE). 20 healthy Yoga instructors practicing various Yogic practices including SN since last 7-8 years participated in the study. They performed SN in the laboratory according to their customary daily practice routine. The subject also performed incremental load bicycle exercise test till exhaustion on their second visit for measuring their VO2 max. SN and BE were compared at three similar exercise intensity levels in terms of % of VO2 max. The exercise intensities were light (10-20% VO2 max), moderate (21-40% VO2 max) and high intensities (41-50% VO2 max). Heart rate at high work intensity was significantly higher in BE than SN (P < .001). Ventilation and carbon dioxide output were significantly higher in BE than SN at high exercise intensity (P < 0.001). Overall, cardiorespiratory stress is less in SN than BE at similar work intensities.

  14. Orally disintegrating and oral standard olanzapine tablets similarly elevate the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index and plasma triglyceride levels in 12 healthy men: a randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidarsdottir, Solrun; Vlug, Pauline; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Frölich, Marijke; Pijl, Hanno

    2010-09-01

    Treatment with olanzapine is associated with obesity, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. Reports have indicated that orally disintegrating tablets (ODT) cause less weight gain than oral standard tablets (OST). The aim of this study was to compare the effect of short-term treatment with these 2 distinct olanzapine formulations on glucose and lipid metabolism in healthy men. Twelve healthy men (mean ± SEM age: 25.1 ± 5.5 years) received olanzapine ODT (10 mg od, 8 days), olanzapine OST (10 mg od, 8 days), or no intervention in a randomized crossover design. At breakfast and dinner, glucose, insulin, free fatty acids (FFA), and triglyceride concentrations were measured at 10-minute intervals from 30 minutes prior to 2 hours after ingestion of standard meals. Leptin and adiponectin concentrations were measured at 20- and 30-minute intervals, respectively, between 0000h-1200h. Physical activity was assessed with an accelerometer. Fuel oxidation was measured in fasting condition by indirect calorimetry. The study was conducted from April 2006 through September 2006. Treatment with olanzapine ODT and OST equally elevated the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (P = .005). At breakfast, both formulations equally increased fasting and postprandial triglyceride concentrations (P = .013 and P = .005, respectively) while decreasing fasting and postprandial FFA concentrations (P = .004 and P = .009, respectively). Body weight, body composition, physical activity, or fuel oxidation did not differ between treatment modalities. Eight days of treatment with both olanzapine formulations similarly increased HOMA-IR and triglyceride concentrations and decreased FFA concentrations in response to standard meals without affecting anthropometrics or physical activity. These data suggest that olanzapine hampers insulin action via mechanistic routes other than body adiposity or physical inactivity. controlled-trials.com. Identifier: ISRCTN17632637. © Copyright

  15. Similarities and differences in dream content at the cross-cultural, gender, and individual levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Domhoff, G; Schneider, Adam

    2008-12-01

    The similarities and differences in dream content at the cross-cultural, gender, and individual levels provide one starting point for carrying out studies that attempt to discover correspondences between dream content and various types of waking cognition. Hobson and Kahn's (Hobson, J. A., & Kahn, D. (2007). Dream content: Individual and generic aspects. Consciousness and Cognition, 16, 850-858.) conclusion that dream content may be more generic than most researchers realize, and that individual differences are less salient than usually thought, provides the occasion for a review of findings based on the Hall and Van de Castle (Hall, C., & Van de Castle, R. (1966). The content analysis of dreams. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.) coding system for the study of dream content. Then new findings based on a computationally intensive randomization strategy are presented to show the minimum sample sizes needed to detect gender and individual differences in dream content. Generally speaking, sample sizes of 100-125 dream reports are needed because most dream elements appear in less than 50% of dream reports and the magnitude of the differences usually is not large.

  16. Direct fitness benefits explain mate preference, but not choice, for similarity in heterozygosity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandberg, Lies; Gort, Gerrit; van Oers, Kees; Hinde, Camilla A

    2017-10-01

    Under sexual selection, mate preferences can evolve for traits advertising fitness benefits. Observed mating patterns (mate choice) are often assumed to represent preference, even though they result from the interaction between preference, sampling strategy and environmental factors. Correlating fitness with mate choice instead of preference will therefore lead to confounded conclusions about the role of preference in sexual selection. Here we show that direct fitness benefits underlie mate preferences for genetic characteristics in a unique experiment on wild great tits. In repeated mate preference tests, both sexes preferred mates that had similar heterozygosity levels to themselves, and not those with which they would optimise offspring heterozygosity. In a subsequent field experiment where we cross fostered offspring, foster parents with more similar heterozygosity levels had higher reproductive success, despite the absence of assortative mating patterns. These results support the idea that selection for preference persists despite constraints on mate choice. © 2017 The Authors Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Bench press and push-up at comparable levels of muscle activity results in similar strength gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Borreani, Sebastien; Colado, Juan C; Martin, Fernando; Tella, Victor; Andersen, Lars L

    2015-01-01

    Electromyography (EMG) exercise evaluation is commonly used to measure the intensity of muscle contraction. Although researchers assume that biomechanically comparable resistance exercises with similar high EMG levels will produce similar strength gains over the long term, no studies have actually corroborated this hypothesis. This study evaluated EMG levels during 6 repetition maximum (6RM) bench press and push-up, and subsequently performed a 5-week training period where subjects were randomly divided into 3 groups (i.e., 6RM bench press group, 6RM elastic band push-up group, or control group) to evaluate muscle strength gains. Thirty university students with advanced resistance training experience participated in the 2-part study. During the training period, exercises were performed using the same loads and variables that were used during the EMG data collection. At baseline, EMG amplitude showed no significant difference between 6RM bench press and band push-up. Significant differences among the groups were found for percent change (Δ) between pretest and posttest for 6RM (p = 0.017) and for 1 repetition maximum (1RM) (p bench press group and 6RM elastic band push-up group improved their 1RM and 6RM (Δ ranging from 13.65 to 22.21) tests significantly with similar gains, whereas control group remains unchanged. Thus, when the EMG values are comparable and the same conditions are reproduced, the aforementioned exercises can provide similar muscle strength gains.

  18. Antidepressant Use is Associated with Increased Energy Intake and Similar Levels of Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsbeth Jensen-Otsu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Antidepressants have been associated with weight gain, but the causes are unclear. The aims of this study were to assess the association of antidepressant use with energy intake, macronutrient diet composition, and physical activity. We used data on medication use, energy intake, diet composition, and physical activity for 3073 eligible adults from the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES. Potential confounding variables, including depression symptoms, were included in the models assessing energy intake, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. Antidepressant users reported consuming an additional (mean ± S.E. 215 ± 73 kcal/day compared to non-users (p = 0.01. There were no differences in percent calories from sugar, fat, or alcohol between the two groups. Antidepressant users had similar frequencies of walking or biking, engaging in muscle-strengthening activities, and engaging in moderate or vigorous physical activity. Antidepressant users were more likely to use a computer for ≥2 h/day (OR 1.77; 95% CI: 1.09–2.90, but TV watching was similar between the two groups. These results suggest increased energy intake and sedentary behavior may contribute to weight gain associated with antidepressant use. Focusing on limiting food intake and sedentary behaviors may be important in mitigating the weight gain associated with antidepressant use.

  19. A study of concept-based similarity approaches for recommending program examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Roya; Brusilovsky, Peter

    2017-07-01

    This paper investigates a range of concept-based example recommendation approaches that we developed to provide example-based problem-solving support in the domain of programming. The goal of these approaches is to offer students a set of most relevant remedial examples when they have trouble solving a code comprehension problem where students examine a program code to determine its output or the final value of a variable. In this paper, we use the ideas of semantic-level similarity-based linking developed in the area of intelligent hypertext to generate examples for the given problem. To determine the best-performing approach, we explored two groups of similarity approaches for selecting examples: non-structural approaches focusing on examples that are similar to the problem in terms of concept coverage and structural approaches focusing on examples that are similar to the problem by the structure of the content. We also explored the value of personalized example recommendation based on student's knowledge levels and learning goal of the exercise. The paper presents concept-based similarity approaches that we developed, explains the data collection studies and reports the result of comparative analysis. The results of our analysis showed better ranking performance of the personalized structural variant of cosine similarity approach.

  20. Similarity between intimate partners for personality traits as related to individual levels of satisfaction with life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrindell, WA; Luteijn, F

    Spousal similarity in terms of personality is advanced as a theoretically important factor to consider in subjective well-being (SWB). This is logically derived from four findings: (1) the consistent relationship between marital status and SWB, with married Ss having the highest SWB scores, which is

  1. Similar pro-NT and pro-RLX2 levels after preeclampsia and after uncomplicated pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoet, G. A.(Gerbrand); van Rijn, B. B.(Bas); Rehfeldt, M. (Miriam); Franx, A. (Arie); Maas, Angela H E M

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Women are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) after preeclampsia. Proneurotensin 1-117 (pro-NT) and prorelaxin 2 connecting peptide (pro-RLX2) have recently emerged as potential biomarkers for CVD risk in women. We assessed pro-NT and pro-RLX2 levels in women with

  2. Similar pro-NT and pro-RLX2 levels after preeclampsia and after uncomplicated pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoet, G. A.(Gerbrand); van Rijn, B. B.(Bas); Rehfeldt, M. (Miriam); Franx, A. (Arie); Maas, Angela H E M

    2017-01-01

    Objective Women are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) after preeclampsia. Proneurotensin 1-117 (pro-NT) and prorelaxin 2 connecting peptide (pro-RLX2) have recently emerged as potential biomarkers for CVD risk in women. We assessed pro-NT and pro-RLX2 levels in women with

  3. Similar serotonin-2A receptor binding in rats with different coping styles or levels of aggression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Anniek Kd; Ettrup, Anders; Klein, Anders Bue

    2015-01-01

    is not an important molecular marker for coping style. Since neither an antagonist nor an agonist tracer showed any binding differences, it is unlikely that the affinity state of the 5-HT2A R is co-varying with levels of aggression or active avoidance in WTG, RHA and RLA. This article is protected by copyright. All...

  4. Lower prevalence but similar fitness in a parasitic fungus at higher radiation levels near Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguileta, Gabriela; Badouin, Helene; Hood, Michael E; Møller, Anders P; Le Prieur, Stephanie; Snirc, Alodie; Siguenza, Sophie; Mousseau, Timothy A; Shykoff, Jacqui A; Cuomo, Christina A; Giraud, Tatiana

    2016-07-01

    Nuclear disasters at Chernobyl and Fukushima provide examples of effects of acute ionizing radiation on mutations that can affect the fitness and distribution of species. Here, we investigated the prevalence of Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae, a pollinator-transmitted fungal pathogen of plants causing anther-smut disease in Chernobyl, its viability, fertility and karyotype variation, and the accumulation of nonsynonymous mutations in its genome. We collected diseased flowers of Silene latifolia from locations ranging by more than two orders of magnitude in background radiation, from 0.05 to 21.03 μGy/h. Disease prevalence decreased significantly with increasing radiation level, possibly due to lower pollinator abundance and altered pollinator behaviour. Viability and fertility, measured as the budding rate of haploid sporidia following meiosis from the diploid teliospores, did not vary with increasing radiation levels and neither did karyotype overall structure and level of chromosomal size heterozygosity. We sequenced the genomes of twelve samples from Chernobyl and of four samples collected from uncontaminated areas and analysed alignments of 6068 predicted genes, corresponding to 1.04 × 10(7)  base pairs. We found no dose-dependent differences in substitution rates (neither dN, dS, nor dN/dS). Thus, we found no significant evidence of increased deleterious mutation rates at higher levels of background radiation in this plant pathogen. We even found lower levels of nonsynonymous substitution rates in contaminated areas compared to control regions, suggesting that purifying selection was stronger in contaminated than uncontaminated areas. We briefly discuss the possibilities for a mechanistic basis of radio resistance in this nonmelanized fungus. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Do Transit-Oriented Developments (TODs) and Established Urban Neighborhoods Have Similar Walking Levels in Hong Kong?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yang; Sarkar, Chinmoy; Zacharias, John

    2018-01-01

    A sharp drop in physical activity and skyrocketing obesity rate has accompanied rapid urbanization in China. The urban planning concept of transit-oriented development (TOD) has been widely advocated in China to promote physical activity, especially walking. Indeed, many design features thought to promote walking—e.g., mixed land use, densification, and well-connected street network—often characterize both TODs and established urban neighborhoods. Thus, it is often assumed that TODs have similar physical activity benefits as established urban neighborhoods. To verify this assumption, this study compared walking behaviors in established urban neighborhoods and transit-oriented new towns in Hong Kong. To address the limitation of self-selection bias, we conducted a study using Hong Kong citywide public housing scheme, which assigns residents to different housing estates by flat availability and family size rather than personal preference. The results show new town residents walked less for transportation purpose than urban residents. New town residents far from the transit station (800–1200 m) walked less for recreational purpose than TOD residents close to a rail transit station (urban residents. The observed disparity in walking behaviors challenges the common assumption that TOD and established urban neighborhoods have similar impact on walking behavior. The results suggest the necessity for more nuanced planning strategies, taking local-level factors into account to promote walking of TOD residents who live far from transit stations. PMID:29558379

  6. Do Transit-Oriented Developments (TODs and Established Urban Neighborhoods Have Similar Walking Levels in Hong Kong?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Lu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A sharp drop in physical activity and skyrocketing obesity rate has accompanied rapid urbanization in China. The urban planning concept of transit-oriented development (TOD has been widely advocated in China to promote physical activity, especially walking. Indeed, many design features thought to promote walking—e.g., mixed land use, densification, and well-connected street network—often characterize both TODs and established urban neighborhoods. Thus, it is often assumed that TODs have similar physical activity benefits as established urban neighborhoods. To verify this assumption, this study compared walking behaviors in established urban neighborhoods and transit-oriented new towns in Hong Kong. To address the limitation of self-selection bias, we conducted a study using Hong Kong citywide public housing scheme, which assigns residents to different housing estates by flat availability and family size rather than personal preference. The results show new town residents walked less for transportation purpose than urban residents. New town residents far from the transit station (800–1200 m walked less for recreational purpose than TOD residents close to a rail transit station (<400 m or urban residents. The observed disparity in walking behaviors challenges the common assumption that TOD and established urban neighborhoods have similar impact on walking behavior. The results suggest the necessity for more nuanced planning strategies, taking local-level factors into account to promote walking of TOD residents who live far from transit stations.

  7. Towards a PSA harmonization French-Belgian comparison of the level 1 PSA for two similar PWR types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, P.; Corenwinder, F.; Lanore, J.M.; Gryffroy, D.; Gelder, P. de; Hulsmans, M.

    2002-06-01

    In the framework of the cooperation between French and Belgian regulatory authorities, a PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) comparison exercise has been carried out for several years. This comparison deals with two PSA level 1 studies for internal events, performed for both power and shutdown states: the French PSA of the 900 MWe-series PWR, and the Belgian PSA of the Tihange 1 PWR, which both concern PWRs with a similar Framatome design. The purpose of this paper is to describe the PSA comparison methodology and to present, in a qualitative way, an overview of the insights obtained up to now. It also shows that such an 'a posteriori' benchmark exercise turns out to be a step towards PSA harmonization, and gives more confidence in the results of plant specific PSA when used for applications like precursor analysis or evaluations of importance to safety. (authors)

  8. Similar to adiponectin, serum levels of osteoprotegerin are associated with obesity in healthy subjects.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ashley, David T

    2011-07-01

    An increase in serum osteoprotegerin (OPG) is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the severity of vascular calcification, and coronary artery disease. Obesity is a risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease, but little is known about the relationship between OPG and obesity. The purpose of this study was to determine if changes in body mass index (BMI) and insulin sensitivity influence circulating OPG in healthy subjects. A total of 100 subjects (36 lean, 41 overweight, and 23 obese) with normal glucose tolerance, blood pressure, and electrocardiogram stress test result volunteered for this study. Insulin sensitivity was estimated using a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test with oral glucose insulin sensitivity analysis. Osteoprotegerin, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL),soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-κβ ligand (sRANKL), and adiponectin were analyzed using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Osteoprotegerin (P < .01) and adiponectin (P < .001) were significantly decreased in the obese compared with lean subjects. There was no significant difference between BMI categories for TRAIL or sRANKL. Controlling for age and sex, there was a significant correlation between OPG and adiponectin (r = 0.391, P < .001), BMI (r = -0.331, P < .001), waist circumference (r = -0.268, P < .01), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (r = -0.222, P < .05), and oral glucose insulin sensitivity (r = 0.221, P < .05). Both OPG and adiponectin were negatively correlated with body weight, BMI, waist circumference, and fasting plasma insulin while being positively correlated with insulin sensitivity (P < .05). Controlling for age, sex, and BMI, TRAIL was positively related to fat mass (r = 0.373, P < .001) and waist circumference (r = 0.257, P < .05). In contrast to patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, circulating OPG is lower in obese, but otherwise healthy subjects and is positively correlated

  9. Fringing reefs exposed to different levels of eutrophication and sedimentation can support similar benthic communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouzé, H.; Lecellier, G.; Langlade, M.J.; Planes, S.; Berteaux-Lecellier, V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We assess anthropogenic pressures on coral reef health. • We present a spatio-temporal survey of environmental parameters as bio-indicators. • Poor water quality (e.g. high turbidity and high sediments) was not correlated with lower coral cover. • Phytoplankton community size-composition and habitat stability were important predictors of coral reef health. - Abstract: Benthic communities are sensitive to anthropogenic disturbances which can result in changes in species assemblages. A spatio-temporal survey of environmental parameters was conducted over an 18-month period on four different fringing reefs of Moorea, French Polynesia, with unusual vs. frequent human pressures. This survey included assessment of biological, chemical, and physical parameters. First, the results showed a surprising lack of a seasonal trend, which was likely obscured by short-term variability in lagoons. More frequent sampling periods would likely improve the evaluation of a seasonal effect on biological and ecological processes. Second, the three reef habitats studied that were dominated by corals were highly stable, despite displaying antagonistic environmental conditions through eutrophication and sedimentation gradients, whereas the reef dominated by macroalgae was relatively unstable. Altogether, our data challenge the paradigm of labelling environmental parameters such as turbidity, sedimentation, and nutrient-richness as stress indicators

  10. Do hospital shift charge nurses from different cultures experience similar stress? An international cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admi, Hanna; Eilon-Moshe, Yael

    2016-11-01

    There is a need to improve understanding of role stress and how it affects nurses' wellbeing, burnout and health; and hence the quality and safety of patients' care, organizational outcomes and costs. The focus is on shift charge nurses in hospitals who are accountable during a specific shift for the patients' care and staff functioning in accordance with hospital and unit policy. To compare perceptions of stress and its intensity among hospital shift charge nurses amongst three countries: Israel, USA (state of Ohio) and Thailand. A cross-sectional study was performed across three countries, focusing on a convenience sample of 2616 hospital shift charge nurses recruited from 23 general hospitals. A validated shift Charge Nurse Stress Questionnaire was used to assess impacts of four factors: patient & family complaints, lack of resources, responsibility burden and professional conflict. Descriptive statistics were used to describe demographic and professional characteristics of the participants. Chi square and the Fisher Exact Test were performed to test for demographic differences amongst the three samples. Parametric and non-parametric tests were used to compare mean stress levels amongst the study samples. The mean stress level for the total sample was 2.84 (±0.71) on a Likert scale of 1-5, implying moderate stress levels. Significant differences in stress levels were found among countries, with Thai nurses scoring the highest and Israeli nurses the lowest. Similar perceptions of stress intensity were found for all countries, with the factors "responsibility burden" and "lack of resources" considered the most stressful. Israeli and American nurses perceived similar situations as stressful and different from those perceived by Thai nurses. The findings can be partially explained by demographic, professional and cultural differences. Similarities along with differences were found in the nature and levels of stress experienced across the studied countries. A

  11. A Comparison Study on Similarity and Dissimilarity Measures in Clustering Continuous Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Seyed Shirkhorshidi

    Full Text Available Similarity or distance measures are core components used by distance-based clustering algorithms to cluster similar data points into the same clusters, while dissimilar or distant data points are placed into different clusters. The performance of similarity measures is mostly addressed in two or three-dimensional spaces, beyond which, to the best of our knowledge, there is no empirical study that has revealed the behavior of similarity measures when dealing with high-dimensional datasets. To fill this gap, a technical framework is proposed in this study to analyze, compare and benchmark the influence of different similarity measures on the results of distance-based clustering algorithms. For reproducibility purposes, fifteen publicly available datasets were used for this study, and consequently, future distance measures can be evaluated and compared with the results of the measures discussed in this work. These datasets were classified as low and high-dimensional categories to study the performance of each measure against each category. This research should help the research community to identify suitable distance measures for datasets and also to facilitate a comparison and evaluation of the newly proposed similarity or distance measures with traditional ones.

  12. "Notice the Similarities between the Two Sets …": Imperative Usage in a Corpus of Upper-Level Student Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiderhiser, Justine A.; Kelley, Patrick; Kennedy, Kohlee M.; Swales, John M.; Vergaro, Carla

    2016-01-01

    The sparse literature on the use of imperatives in research papers suggests that they are relatively common in a small number of disciplines, but rare, if used at all, in others. The present study addresses the use of imperatives in a corpus of upper-level A-graded student papers from 16 disciplines. A total of 822 papers collected within the past…

  13. Predictive modeling of human perception subjectivity: feasibility study of mammographic lesion similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Songhua; Hudson, Kathleen; Bradley, Yong; Daley, Brian J.; Frederick-Dyer, Katherine; Tourassi, Georgia

    2012-02-01

    The majority of clinical content-based image retrieval (CBIR) studies disregard human perception subjectivity, aiming to duplicate the consensus expert assessment of the visual similarity on example cases. The purpose of our study is twofold: i) discern better the extent of human perception subjectivity when assessing the visual similarity of two images with similar semantic content, and (ii) explore the feasibility of personalized predictive modeling of visual similarity. We conducted a human observer study in which five observers of various expertise were shown ninety-nine triplets of mammographic masses with similar BI-RADS descriptors and were asked to select the two masses with the highest visual relevance. Pairwise agreement ranged between poor and fair among the five observers, as assessed by the kappa statistic. The observers' self-consistency rate was remarkably low, based on repeated questions where either the orientation or the presentation order of a mass was changed. Various machine learning algorithms were explored to determine whether they can predict each observer's personalized selection using textural features. Many algorithms performed with accuracy that exceeded each observer's self-consistency rate, as determined using a cross-validation scheme. This accuracy was statistically significantly higher than would be expected by chance alone (two-tailed p-value ranged between 0.001 and 0.01 for all five personalized models). The study confirmed that human perception subjectivity should be taken into account when developing CBIR-based medical applications.

  14. Cultural similarities and differences in medical professionalism: a multi-region study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandratilake, Madawa; McAleer, Sean; Gibson, John

    2012-03-01

    Over the last two decades, many medical educators have sought to define professionalism. Initial attempts to do so were focused on defining professionalism in a manner that allowed for universal agreement. This quest was later transformed into an effort to 'understand professionalism' as many researchers realised that professionalism is a social construct and is culture-sensitive. The determination of cultural differences in the understanding of professionalism, however, has been subject to very little research, possibly because of the practical difficulties of doing so. In this multi-region study, we illustrate the universal and culture-specific aspects of medical professionalism as it is perceived by medical practitioners. Forty-six professional attributes were identified by reviewing the literature. A total of 584 medical practitioners, representing the UK, Europe, North America and Asia, participated in a survey in which they indicated the importance of each of these attributes. We determined the 'essentialness' of each attribute in different geographic regions using the content validity index, supplemented with kappa statistics. With acceptable levels of consensus, all regional groups identified 29 attributes as 'essential', thereby indicating the universality of these professional attributes, and six attributes as non-essential. The essentialness of the rest varied by regional group. This study has helped to identify regional similarities and dissimilarities in understandings of professionalism, most of which can be explained by cultural differences in line with the theories of cultural dimensions and cultural value. However, certain dissonances among regions may well be attributable to socio-economic factors. Some of the responses appear to be counter-cultural and demonstrate practitioners' keenness to overcome cultural barriers in order to provide better patient care. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  15. Experimental Study of Dowel Bar Alternatives Based on Similarity Model Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chichun Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a small-scaled accelerated loading test based on similarity theory and Accelerated Pavement Analyzer was developed to evaluate dowel bars with different materials and cross-sections. Jointed concrete specimen consisting of one dowel was designed as scaled model for the test, and each specimen was subjected to 864 thousand loading cycles. Deflections between jointed slabs were measured with dial indicators, and strains of the dowel bars were monitored with strain gauges. The load transfer efficiency, differential deflection, and dowel-concrete bearing stress for each case were calculated from these measurements. The test results indicated that the effect of the dowel modulus on load transfer efficiency can be characterized based on the similarity model test developed in the study. Moreover, round steel dowel was found to have similar performance to larger FRP dowel, and elliptical dowel can be preferentially considered in practice.

  16. Emotional energy, work self-efficacy, and perceived similarity during the Mars 520 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solcová, Iva; Gushin, Vadim; Vinokhodova, Alla; Lukavský, Jirí

    2013-11-01

    The objective of the present research was to study the dynamics of changes in emotional energy, work self-efficacy and perceived similarity in the crew of the Mars 520 experimental study. The study comprised six volunteers, all men, between 27-38 yr of age (M = 32.16; SD = 4.99). The Mars 520 experimental study simulated all the elements of the proposed Mars mission that could be ground simulated, i.e., traveling to Mars, orbiting it, landing, and returning to Earth. During the simulation, measures of emotional energy, work self-efficacy, and perceived similarity were repeated every month. The data were analyzed using linear mixed effect models. Emotional energy, work self-efficacy, and perceived similarity gradually increased in the course of the simulation. There was no evidence for a so-called third quarter phenomenon (the most strenuous period of group isolation, psychologically, emotionally, and socially) in our data. On the contrary, work self-efficacy, emotional energy, and group cohesion (indexed here by the subject's perceived similarity to others) increased significantly in the course of the simulation, with the latter two variables showing positive growth in the group functioning.

  17. Similar effects of feature-based attention on motion perception and pursuit eye movements at different levels of awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spering, Miriam; Carrasco, Marisa

    2012-05-30

    Feature-based attention enhances visual processing and improves perception, even for visual features that we are not aware of. Does feature-based attention also modulate motor behavior in response to visual information that does or does not reach awareness? Here we compare the effect of feature-based attention on motion perception and smooth-pursuit eye movements in response to moving dichoptic plaids--stimuli composed of two orthogonally drifting gratings, presented separately to each eye--in human observers. Monocular adaptation to one grating before the presentation of both gratings renders the adapted grating perceptually weaker than the unadapted grating and decreases the level of awareness. Feature-based attention was directed to either the adapted or the unadapted grating's motion direction or to both (neutral condition). We show that observers were better at detecting a speed change in the attended than the unattended motion direction, indicating that they had successfully attended to one grating. Speed change detection was also better when the change occurred in the unadapted than the adapted grating, indicating that the adapted grating was perceptually weaker. In neutral conditions, perception and pursuit in response to plaid motion were dissociated: While perception followed one grating's motion direction almost exclusively (component motion), the eyes tracked the average of both gratings (pattern motion). In attention conditions, perception and pursuit were shifted toward the attended component. These results suggest that attention affects perception and pursuit similarly even though only the former reflects awareness. The eyes can track an attended feature even if observers do not perceive it.

  18. Do Transit-Oriented Developments (TODs) and Established Urban Neighborhoods Have Similar Walking Levels in Hong Kong?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Gou, Zhonghua; Xiao, Yang; Sarkar, Chinmoy; Zacharias, John

    2018-03-20

    A sharp drop in physical activity and skyrocketing obesity rate has accompanied rapid urbanization in China. The urban planning concept of transit-oriented development (TOD) has been widely advocated in China to promote physical activity, especially walking. Indeed, many design features thought to promote walking-e.g., mixed land use, densification, and well-connected street network-often characterize both TODs and established urban neighborhoods. Thus, it is often assumed that TODs have similar physical activity benefits as established urban neighborhoods. To verify this assumption, this study compared walking behaviors in established urban neighborhoods and transit-oriented new towns in Hong Kong. To address the limitation of self-selection bias, we conducted a study using Hong Kong citywide public housing scheme, which assigns residents to different housing estates by flat availability and family size rather than personal preference. The results show new town residents walked less for transportation purpose than urban residents. New town residents far from the transit station (800-1200 m) walked less for recreational purpose than TOD residents close to a rail transit station (transit stations.

  19. Saccharin and aspartame, compared with sucrose, induce greater weight gain in adult Wistar rats, at similar total caloric intake levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijó, Fernanda de Matos; Ballard, Cíntia Reis; Foletto, Kelly Carraro; Batista, Bruna Aparecida Melo; Neves, Alice Magagnin; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia Marques; Bertoluci, Marcello Casaccia

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs) can lead to weight gain, but evidence regarding their real effect in body weight and satiety is still inconclusive. Using a rat model, the present study compares the effect of saccharin and aspartame to sucrose in body weight gain and in caloric intake. Twenty-nine male Wistar rats received plain yogurt sweetened with 20% sucrose, 0.3% sodium saccharin or 0.4% aspartame, in addition to chow and water ad libitum, while physical activity was restrained. Measurements of cumulative body weight gain, total caloric intake, caloric intake of chow and caloric intake of sweetened yogurt were performed weekly for 12 weeks. Results showed that addition of either saccharin or aspartame to yogurt resulted in increased weight gain compared to addition of sucrose, however total caloric intake was similar among groups. In conclusion, greater weight gain was promoted by the use of saccharin or aspartame, compared with sucrose, and this weight gain was unrelated to caloric intake. We speculate that a decrease in energy expenditure or increase in fluid retention might be involved. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative 25-OH-vitamin D level in institutionalized women older than 65 years from two cities in Spain and Argentina having a similar solar radiation index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela, María Luz Pita Martin; Mónico, Amália; Barahona, Antonieta; Dupraz, Hernan; Sol Gonzales-Chaves, Macarena Maria; Zeni, Susana Noemi

    2010-03-01

    The present study evaluated and compared vitamin D nutritional status and calcium-phosphorus metabolism in institutionalized women >65 y from two cities that have a similar sun irradiation index (heliophany). The study was carried out in women living in similar social-status institutions from geographic cities having a similar solar radiation index (Lleida, Spain, n=49, and suburban Buenos Aires, Argentina [BA], n=48) at the end of summer. Fish consumption was higher in the Lleida group, as was red-meat consumption in the BA group. In both groups mean calcium intake was 800 mg/d. The daily intake of vitamin D was higher in the BA group (P100 pg/mL were found in 24% and 20% of women in Lleida and BA, respectively. There was a marked increase in carboxy-terminal telopeptide cross-links of type I collagen levels and a decrease in 25OHD with an increase in PTH levels (Pbone alkaline phosphatase increased significantly only when the PTH concentration duplicated the reference range. Even at the end of summer, vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency was prevalent in the two studied institutionalized elderly women. In the narrow range of the dietary calcium intake (close to 800 mg/d) of both studied groups, secondary hyperparathyroidism was absent when 25OHD levels were >17 ng/dL, indicating changes in the regulation control of serum PTH and consequently the changes in this threshold. As a result, vitamin D deficiency must be reversed to avoid the increment in bone turnover and to ensure the endocrine and paracrine functions of vitamin D for overall health and well-being. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Shift workers have similar leisure-time physical activity levels as day workers but are more sedentary at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsegge, Gerben; Gupta, Nidhi; Holtermann, Andreas; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Proper, Karin I; van der Beek, Allard J

    2017-03-01

    Objective Physical inactivity has been hypothesized as an underlying factor for the association between shift work and adverse health outcomes. We compared leisure-time and occupational physical activity and sedentary behavior between day, night, and non-night shift workers. Methods We identified 612 day workers, 139 night shift workers and 61 non-night shift workers aged 18-65 years (54% men) in two Danish studies: the New method for Objective Measurements of physical Activity in Daily living (NOMAD) and the Danish Physical ACTivity cohort with Objective measurements (DPhacto) between 2011-2013. Sedentary behavior, light, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were measured using an accelerometer. Physical activity was expressed as percentage of leisure and work time spent in each activity. Linear regression analyses were used to test differences in physical activity and sedentary behavior between day, night, and non-night shift workers. Results No differences in leisure-time sedentary behavior and physical activity were observed between day and shift workers (P>0.05). Non-night shift workers spent 7.2% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.3-12.1) more time in occupational sedentary behavior than day workers and 5.9% (95% CI -10.1- -1.7) and 1.9% (95% CI -3.7- -0.2) less time in occupational light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, respectively. Compared to day workers, night shift workers spent 4.3% (95% CI 2.4-6.1) more time at work in uninterrupted sedentary periods of ≥30 minutes. Conclusions Shift workers had similar leisure-time physical activity patterns as day workers, but were more sedentary at work. Future research should elucidate whether occupational physical inactivity and sedentary behavior contributes to shift work-related adverse health effects.

  2. QSAR and docking studies of anthraquinone derivatives by similarity cluster prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsa, Alexandra M; Harsa, Teodora E; Diudea, Mircea V

    2016-01-01

    Forty anthraquinone derivatives have been downloaded from PubChem database and investigated in a quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) study. The models describing log P and LD50 of this set were built up on the hypermolecule scheme that mimics the investigated receptor space; the models were validated by the leave-one-out procedure, in the external test set and in a new version of prediction by using similarity clusters. Molecular docking approach using Lamarckian Genetic Algorithm was made on this class of anthraquinones with respect to 3Q3B receptor. The best scored molecules in the docking assay were used as leaders in the similarity clustering procedure. It is demonstrated that the LD50 data of this set of anthraquinones are related to the binding energies of anthraquinone ligands to the 3Q3B receptor.

  3. Guar gum and scleroglucan interactions with borax: experimental and theoretical studies of an unexpected similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocchinfuso, Gianfranco; Mazzuca, Claudia; Sandolo, Chiara; Margheritelli, Silvia; Alhaique, Franco; Coviello, Tommasina; Palleschi, Antonio

    2010-10-21

    Guar gum is a galactomannan that assumes a very flexible conformation in solution, while Scleroglucan is a very rigid polysaccharide that dissolves in water as triple helices. Both polymers can form gels in the presence of borax. Despite their structural differences, the freeze-dried gel systems of both polymers, when compressed to form tablets, show a peculiar anisotropic swelling in water that reflects an amazing similarity in terms of their molecular properies. In this paper the behavior of the Guar/borax gel is compared with that of Scleroglucan/borax. The macroscopic properties of the two systems were characterized in terms of rheological measurements. Atomic force microscopy images and molecular dynamics simulation allowed to evaluate, at molecular level, the effect of borax addition to the Guar polymer. Both experiments show that an increasing of the polymer rigidity is produced by borax. The role played by galactose in the side chain was also discussed.

  4. Structure modulates similarity-based interference in sluicing: An eye tracking study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse A. Harris

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In cue-based content-addressable approaches to memory, a target and its competitors are retrieved in parallel from memory via a fast, associative cue-matching procedure under a severely limited focus of attention. Such a parallel matching procedure could in principle ignore the serial order or hierarchical structure characteristic of linguistic relations. I present an eye tracking while reading experiment that investigates whether the sentential position of a potential antecedent modulates the strength of similarity-based interference, a well-studied effect in which increased similarity in features between a target and its competitors results in slower and less accurate retrieval overall. The manipulation trades on an independently established Locality bias in sluiced structures to associate a wh-remnant (which ones in clausal ellipsis with the most local correlate (some wines, as in The tourists enjoyed some wines, but I don’t know which ones. The findings generally support cue-based parsing models of sentence processing that are subject to similarity-based interference in retrieval, and provide additional support to the growing body of evidence that retrieval is sensitive to both the structural position of a target antecedent and its competitors, and the specificity of retrieval cues.

  5. Big two personality and big three mate preferences: similarity attracts, but country-level mate preferences crucially matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Jochen E; Leary, Mark R; Neberich, Wiebke

    2012-12-01

    People differ regarding their "Big Three" mate preferences of attractiveness, status, and interpersonal warmth. We explain these differences by linking them to the "Big Two" personality dimensions of agency/competence and communion/warmth. The similarity-attracts hypothesis predicts that people high in agency prefer attractiveness and status in mates, whereas those high in communion prefer warmth. However, these effects may be moderated by agentics' tendency to contrast from ambient culture, and communals' tendency to assimilate to ambient culture. Attending to such agentic-cultural-contrast and communal-cultural-assimilation crucially qualifies the similarity-attracts hypothesis. Data from 187,957 online-daters across 11 countries supported this model for each of the Big Three. For example, agentics-more so than communals-preferred attractiveness, but this similarity-attracts effect virtually vanished in attractiveness-valuing countries. This research may reconcile inconsistencies in the literature while utilizing nonhypothetical and consequential mate preference reports that, for the first time, were directly linked to mate choice.

  6. Self-similarity and flow characteristics of vertical-axis wind turbine wakes: an LES study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abkar, Mahdi; Dabiri, John O.

    2017-04-01

    Large eddy simulation (LES) is coupled with a turbine model to study the structure of the wake behind a vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT). In the simulations, a tuning-free anisotropic minimum dissipation model is used to parameterise the subfilter stress tensor, while the turbine-induced forces are modelled with an actuator line technique. The LES framework is first validated in the simulation of the wake behind a model straight-bladed VAWT placed in the water channel and then used to study the wake structure downwind of a full-scale VAWT sited in the atmospheric boundary layer. In particular, the self-similarity of the wake is examined, and it is found that the wake velocity deficit can be well characterised by a two-dimensional multivariate Gaussian distribution. By assuming a self-similar Gaussian distribution of the velocity deficit, and applying mass and momentum conservation, an analytical model is developed and tested to predict the maximum velocity deficit downwind of the turbine. Also, a simple parameterisation of VAWTs for LES with very coarse grid resolutions is proposed, in which the turbine is modelled as a rectangular porous plate with the same thrust coefficient. The simulation results show that, after some downwind distance (x/D ≈ 6), both actuator line and rectangular porous plate models have similar predictions for the mean velocity deficit. These results are of particular importance in simulations of large wind farms where, due to the coarse spatial resolution, the flow around individual VAWTs is not resolved.

  7. Different processes lead to similar patterns: a test of codivergence and the role of sea level and climate changes in shaping a southern temperate freshwater assemblage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barber Brian R

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding how freshwater assemblages have been formed and maintained is a fundamental goal in evolutionary and ecological disciplines. Here we use a historical approach to test the hypothesis of codivergence in three clades of the Chilean freshwater species assemblage. Molecular studies of freshwater crabs (Aegla: Aeglidae: Anomura and catfish (Trichomycterus arealatus: Trichomycteridae: Teleostei exhibited similar levels of genetic divergences of mitochondrial lineages between species of crabs and phylogroups of the catfish, suggesting a shared evolutionary history among the three clades in this species assemblage. Results A phylogeny was constructed for Trichomycterus areolatus under the following best-fit molecular models of evolution GTR + I + R, HKY + I, and HKY for cytochrome b, growth hormone, and rag 1 respectively. A GTR + I + R model provided the best fit for both 28S and mitochondrial loci and was used to construct both Aegla phylogenies. Three different diversification models were observed and the three groups arose during different time periods, from 2.25 to 5.05 million years ago (Ma. Cladogenesis within Trichomycterus areolatus was initiated roughly 2.25 Ma (Late Pliocene - Early Pleistocene some 1.7 - 2.8 million years after the basal divergences observed in both Aegla clades. These results reject the hypothesis of codivergence. Conclusions The similar genetic distances between terminal sister-lineages observed in these select taxa from the freshwater Chilean species assemblage were formed by different processes occurring over the last ~5.0 Ma. Dramatic changes in historic sea levels documented in the region appear to have independently shaped the evolutionary history of each group. Our study illustrates the important role that history plays in shaping a species assemblage and argues against assuming similar patterns equal a shared evolutionary history.

  8. Similarities and Differences between Working Memory and Long-Term Memory: Evidence from the Levels-of-Processing Span Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Nathan S.; Myerson, Joel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Hale, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments compared the effects of depth of processing on working memory (WM) and long-term memory (LTM) using a levels-of-processing (LOP) span task, a newly developed WM span procedure that involves processing to-be-remembered words based on their visual, phonological, or semantic characteristics. Depth of processing had minimal effect on…

  9. Decreasing scoring errors on Wechsler Scale Vocabulary, Comprehension, and Similarities subtests: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linger, Michele L; Ray, Glen E; Zachar, Peter; Underhill, Andrea T; LoBello, Steven G

    2007-10-01

    Studies of graduate students learning to administer the Wechsler scales have generally shown that training is not associated with the development of scoring proficiency. Many studies report on the reduction of aggregated administration and scoring errors, a strategy that does not highlight the reduction of errors on subtests identified as most prone to error. This study evaluated the development of scoring proficiency specifically on the Wechsler (WISC-IV and WAIS-III) Vocabulary, Comprehension, and Similarities subtests during training by comparing a set of 'early test administrations' to 'later test administrations.' Twelve graduate students enrolled in an intelligence-testing course participated in the study. Scoring errors (e.g., incorrect point assignment) were evaluated on the students' actual practice administration test protocols. Errors on all three subtests declined significantly when scoring errors on 'early' sets of Wechsler scales were compared to those made on 'later' sets. However, correcting these subtest scoring errors did not cause significant changes in subtest scaled scores. Implications for clinical instruction and future research are discussed.

  10. Similar Adiponectin Levels in Obese Normotensive and Obese Hypertensive Men and No Vasorelaxant Effect of Adiponectin on Human Arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, Rasmus; Asferg, Camilla; Berg, Jais O

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a strong risk factor for hypertension, but the mechanism linking obesity to hypertension is not fully elucidated. In obesity, circulating concentrations of adiponectin are decreased and hypoadiponectinaemia has in some but not all studies been associated with increased risk of hyperten......Obesity is a strong risk factor for hypertension, but the mechanism linking obesity to hypertension is not fully elucidated. In obesity, circulating concentrations of adiponectin are decreased and hypoadiponectinaemia has in some but not all studies been associated with increased risk...... of hypertension. Due to this inconsistency, we decided to study adiponectin from two aspects in a cross-sectional in vivo study and in an experimental in vitro study. In the cross-sectional study, 103 men with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30.0 kg/m(2) were studied; 63 had 24-hr ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) ≥ 130....../80 mmHg (ObeseHT) and 40 had 24-hr ABP men with BMI between 20.0 and 24.9 kg/m(2) and 24-hr ABP

  11. Numerical study on similarity of plume infrared radiation between reduced-scale solid rocket motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaoying

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to determine the similarities in plume radiation between reduced and full-scale solid rocket models in ground test conditions through investigation of flow and radiation for a series of scale ratios ranging from 0.1 to 1. The radiative transfer equation (RTE considering gas and particle radiation in a non-uniform plume has been adopted and solved by the finite volume method (FVM to compute the three dimensional, spectral and directional radiation of a plume in the infrared waveband 2–6 μm. Conditions at wavelengths 2.7 μm and 4.3 μm are discussed in detail, and ratios of plume radiation for reduced-scale through full-scale models are examined. This work shows that, with increasing scale ratio of a computed rocket motor, area of the high-temperature core increases as a 2 power function of the scale ratio, and the radiation intensity of the plume increases with 2–2.5 power of the scale ratio. The infrared radiation of plume gases shows a strong spectral dependency, while that of Al2O3 particles shows spectral continuity of gray media. Spectral radiation intensity of a computed solid rocket plume’s high temperature core increases significantly in peak radiation spectra of plume gases CO and CO2. Al2O3 particles are the major radiation component in a rocket plume. There is good similarity between contours of plume spectral radiance from different scale models of computed rockets, and there are two peak spectra of radiation intensity at wavebands 2.7–3.0 μm and 4.2–4.6 μm. Directed radiation intensity of the entire plume volume will rise with increasing elevation angle.

  12. Food and drug cues activate similar brain regions: a meta-analysis of functional MRI studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, D W; Fellows, L K; Small, D M; Dagher, A

    2012-06-06

    In healthy individuals, food cues can trigger hunger and feeding behavior. Likewise, smoking cues can trigger craving and relapse in smokers. Brain imaging studies report that structures involved in appetitive behaviors and reward, notably the insula, striatum, amygdala and orbital frontal cortex, tend to be activated by both visual food and smoking cues. Here, by carrying out a meta-analysis of human neuro-imaging studies, we investigate the neural network activated by: 1) food versus neutral cues (14 studies, 142 foci) 2) smoking versus neutral cues (15 studies, 176 foci) 3) smoking versus neutral cues when correlated with craving scores (7 studies, 108 foci). PubMed was used to identify cue-reactivity imaging studies that compared brain response to visual food or smoking cues to neutral cues. Fourteen articles were identified for the food meta-analysis and fifteen articles were identified for the smoking meta-analysis. Six articles were identified for the smoking cue correlated with craving analysis. Meta-analyses were carried out using activation likelihood estimation. Food cues were associated with increased blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response in the left amygdala, bilateral insula, bilateral orbital frontal cortex, and striatum. Smoking cues were associated with increased BOLD signal in the same areas, with the exception of the insula. However, the smoking meta-analysis of brain maps correlating cue-reactivity with subjective craving did identify the insula, suggesting that insula activation is only found when craving levels are high. The brain areas identified here are involved in learning, memory and motivation, and their cue-induced activity is an index of the incentive salience of the cues. Using meta-analytic techniques to combine a series of studies, we found that food and smoking cues activate comparable brain networks. There is significant overlap in brain regions responding to conditioned cues associated with natural and drug rewards

  13. Effects of country size and language similarity on international attitudes: a six-nation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; Selenko, Eva; Otten, Sabine

    2010-02-01

    Linguistically similar neighbouring nations that differ in size are often asymmetrical in their attitudinal relations towards each other: Citizens of smaller nations tend to see larger nations as less likeable and less similar than vice versa. We hypothesized that the smaller nations' reaction is the consequence of a threatened identity due to its relative size combined with too much similarity on a vital part of its identity, namely language. To test this hypothesis, 832 high-school students from six different ethnic/national entities (France, Germany, Austria, the French- and German-speaking parts of Switzerland, the French- and Dutch-speaking parts of Belgium, and The Netherlands) completed a questionnaire on liking and similarity ratings. The results-to a large extent-showed that differences in size, in combination with linguistic similarity with another nation, pose a threat to the identity of the smaller nation or ethnic group. Differences in size, in combination with linguistic similarity, were associated with asymmetries in mutual liking on one hand and asymmetrical perceptions of similarity to the other country on the other hand. The conclusions of this study are consistent with findings of earlier research and stress the importance of language for a nation's identity. Moreover, the findings support social identity theory as a useful theory for understanding intergroup and international relations. Les nations voisines linguistiquement similaires qui diffèrent en taille sont souvent asymétriques dans leurs relations attitudinales l'une envers l'autre: les citoyens des nations plus petites tendent à voir les nations plus grandes comme moins sympathiques et moins semblables et vice-versa. Notre hypothèse était que la réaction des nations plus petites est la conséquence d'un sentiment de menace à l'identité dû à leur taille réduite combinée avec trop de similitudes concernant une partie vitale de leur identité: c'est-à-dire le langage. Pour

  14. Effects of country size and language similarity on international attitudes : A six-nation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; Selenko, Eva; Otten, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    Linguistically similar neighbouring nations that differ in size are often asymmetrical in their attitudinal relations towards each other: Citizens of smaller nations tend to see larger nations as less likeable and less similar than vice versa. We hypothesized that the smaller nations' reaction is

  15. Portuguese mothers and fathers share similar levels of work-family guilt according to a newly validated measure

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Gabriela; Sousa, Cátia; Santos, Joana; Silva, Tânia; Korabik, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Transformations in family and work life have led to profound changes in the articulation of both spheres. The massive entry of women into the labor market, the decline of a family model based on the male provider, increasing job demands, and persistent gender inequality are factors that can generate work-family conflict and lead to feelings of guilt. Work-family guilt is a topic still rarely studied, particularly in Portugal. Given the importance of understanding the complexity of the relatio...

  16. Lung structure and function similarities between primary ciliary dyskinesia and mild cystic fibrosis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglione, Marco; Montella, Silvia; Mollica, Carmine; Carnovale, Vincenzo; Iacotucci, Paola; De Gregorio, Fabiola; Tosco, Antonella; Cervasio, Mariarosaria; Raia, Valeria; Santamaria, Francesca

    2017-04-12

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) and cystic fibrosis (CF) are increasingly compared. There are no chest magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) comparative studies of PCD and CF. We assessed clinical, functional, microbiological and MRI findings in PCD and mild CF patients in order to evaluate different expression of lung disease. Twenty PCD (15.1 years) and 20 CF subjects with mild respiratory impairment (16 years, 70% with pancreatic insufficiency) underwent MRI, spirometry, and sputum cultures when clinically stable. MRI was scored using the modified Helbich system. PCD was diagnosed later than CF (9.9 versus 0.6 years, p = 0.03), despite earlier symptoms (0.1 versus 0.6 years, p = 0.02). In the year preceding the study, patients from both groups underwent two systemic antibiotic courses (p = 0.48). MRI total scores were 11.6 ± 0.7 and 9.1 ± 1 in PCD and CF, respectively. FEV 1 and FVC Z-scores were -1.75 (range, -4.6-0.7) and -0.6 (-3.9-1.8) in PCD, and -0.9 (range, -5.4-2.3) and -0.3 (-3.4-2.5) in CF, respectively. No difference was found between lung function or structure, despite a higher MRI subscore of collapse/consolidation in PCD versus CF (1.6 ± 0.1 and 0.6 ± 0.2, p < 0.001). These findings were confirmed after data-control for diagnostic delay. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were more frequent in CF than in PCD (p = 0.05 and p = 0.003, respectively). MRI is a valuable radiation-free tool for comparative PCD and CF lung disease assessment. Patients with PCD may exhibit similar MRI and lung function changes as CF subjects with mild pulmonary disease. Delay in PCD diagnosis is unlikely the only determinant of similarities.

  17. The Value Capture Brand Leaders by Own Brands. An Exploratory Study on Packaging Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Rufino Bambuy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Retail own brand are presenting growth, even with small investment in promotion. In this context, packaging can be a fundamental element in the communication of these offers to the consumer. Starting from the hypothesis that own brands adopt packaging strategies similar to the leading brands, aiming to capture brand equity, an offer set of 13 categories gathered from 3 retail chains that offer own brands was compared and attributed similarity scores. Using content analysis result in identifying high degree of similarity, when comparing own brand packaging to the leading brands of each category.

  18. A study of weld quality in ultrasonic spot welding of similar and dissimilar metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Sarraf, Z; Lucas, M

    2012-01-01

    Several difficulties are faced in joining thinner sheets of similar and dissimilar materials from fusion welding processes such as resistance welding and laser welding. Ultrasonic metal welding overcomes many of these difficulties by using high frequency vibration and applied pressure to create a solid-state weld. Ultrasonic metal welding is an effective technique in joining small components, such as in wire bonding, but is also capable of joining thicker sheet, depending on the control of welding conditions. This study presents the design, characterisation and test of a lateral-drive ultrasonic metal welding device. The ultrasonic welding horn is modelled using finite element analysis and its vibration behaviour is characterised experimentally to ensure ultrasonic energy is delivered to the weld coupon. The welding stack and fixtures are then designed and mounted on a test machine to allow a series of experiments to be conducted for various welding and ultrasonic parameters. Weld strength is subsequently analysed using tensile-shear tests. Control of the vibration amplitude profile through the weld cycle is used to enhance weld strength and quality, providing an opportunity to reduce part marking. Optical microscopic examination and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to investigate the weld quality. The results show how the weld quality is particularly sensitive to the combination of clamping force and vibration amplitude of the welding tip.

  19. Similar simulation study on the characteristics of the electric potential response to coal mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yue; Li, Zhonghui; Kong, Biao; Wang, Enyuan; Lou, Quan; Qiu, Liming; Kong, Xiangguo; Wang, Jiali; Dong, Mingfu; Li, Baolin

    2018-02-01

    An electric potential (EP) can be generated during the failure process of coal and rock. In this article, a similar physical model of coal rock was built and the characteristics of the EP responding to the process of coal mining were studied. The results showed that, at the early mining stage, the structure of coal rock strata were stable in the simulation model, the support stress of overlying coal rock strata was low and the maximum subsidence was little, while the EP change was less. With the advancement of the working face, the support stress of the overlying coal rock strata in the mined-out area changed dramatically, the maximum subsidence increased constantly, the deformation and destruction were aggravated, and cracks expanded continuously. Meanwhile, the EP response was significant with fluctuation. When significant macro damage appeared in coal rock strata, the EP signal fluctuation was violent. The overlying coal rock strata were influenced by gravity and mining activity. During the mining process, the crack growth and the friction, together with slip between coal and rock particles, resulted in the response of EP. The change in EP was closely related to the damage state and stress distribution of the coal rock strata. EP monitoring has the advantages of accurate reflection and strong anti-interference in the field. Therefore, with further study, an EP monitoring method could be applied for monitoring and early warning of coal and rock dynamic disaster, and risk evaluation in the future. The strength of the EP and its fluctuation degree could serve as the key discrimination indexes.

  20. Striking similarity in the gene expression levels of individual Myc module members among ESCs, EpiSCs, and partial iPSCs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masataka Hirasaki

    Full Text Available Predominant transcriptional subnetworks called Core, Myc, and PRC modules have been shown to participate in preservation of the pluripotency and self-renewality of embryonic stem cells (ESCs. Epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs are another cell type that possesses pluripotency and self-renewality. However, the roles of these modules in EpiSCs have not been systematically examined to date. Here, we compared the average expression levels of Core, Myc, and PRC module genes between ESCs and EpiSCs. EpiSCs showed substantially higher and lower expression levels of PRC and Core module genes, respectively, compared with those in ESCs, while Myc module members showed almost equivalent levels of average gene expression. Subsequent analyses revealed that the similarity in gene expression levels of the Myc module between these two cell types was not just overall, but striking similarities were evident even when comparing the expression of individual genes. We also observed equivalent levels of similarity in the expression of individual Myc module genes between induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs and partial iPSCs that are an unwanted byproduct generated during iPSC induction. Moreover, our data demonstrate that partial iPSCs depend on a high level of c-Myc expression for their self-renewal properties.

  1. Variability in Women Faculty’s Preferences Regarding Mentor Similarity: A Multi-Institution Study in Academic Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carapinha, René; Ortiz-Walters, Rowena; McCracken, Caitlin M.; Hill, Emorcia V.; Reede, Joan Y.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate which mentor similarity characteristics women faculty in academic medicine rate most important and to determine whether the importance of similarity differs among women faculty based on current and prior mentoring, demographic and personal factors, and career factors. Method Cross-sectional survey data from 3,100 women faculty at 13 purposively sampled U.S. medical schools were collected in 2012. The preferences of participants regarding the importance of mentor similarity in terms of race/ethnicity, gender, personal and career interests, and department and institution were studied. Analysis entailed chi square tests and multivariable ordered logistic models. Results Overall, respondents ranked having a mentor in the same department and institution as most important. Same department and institution were less important for those without a current mentor and for senior faculty, and were more important for Asian faculty. Same career and personal interests were less important for older faculty and more important for those with a doctorate only. Same gender was more important for Black faculty, faculty at the rank of instructor, and those without current mentoring. Overall, same race/ethnicity was rated least important; however, it was more important for racial/ethnic minorities, foreign-born faculty, and those who had never had a mentor. Conclusions Mentor preferences, as indicated by level of importance assigned to types of mentor similarity, varied among women faculty. To advance effective mentoring, characterized by high degree of mentor-mentee fit, the authors provide recommendations on matching strategies to be used in academic medicine when considering the diverse mentor preferences of women faculty. PMID:27332871

  2. Similar representations of sequence knowledge in young and older adults: A study of effector independent transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Sebastiaan Barnhoorn

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Older adults show reduced motor performance and changes in motor skill development. To better understand these changes, we studied differences in sequence knowledge representations between young and older adults using a transfer task. Transfer, or the ability to apply motor skills flexibly, is highly relevant in day-to-day motor activity and facilitates generalization of learning to new contexts. By using movement types that are completely unrelated in terms of muscle activation and response location, we focused on transfer facilitated by the early, visuospatial system.We tested 32 right-handed older adults (65 – 74 and 32 young adults (18 – 30. During practice of a discrete sequence production task, participants learned two 6-element sequences using either unimanual key-presses (KPs or by moving a lever with lower arm flexion-extension (FE movements. Each sequence was performed 144 times. They then performed a test phase consisting of familiar and random sequences performed with the type of movements not used during practice. Both age groups displayed transfer from FE to KP movements as indicated by faster performance on the familiar sequences in the test phase. Only young adults transferred their sequence knowledge from KP to FE movements. In both directions, the young showed higher transfer than older adults. These results suggest that the older participants, like the young, represented their sequences in an abstract visuospatial manner. Transfer was asymmetric in both age groups: there was more transfer from FE to KP movements than vice versa. This similar asymmetry is a further indication that the types of representations that older adults develop are comparable to those that young adults develop. We furthermore found that older adults improved less during FE practice, gained less explicit knowledge, displayed a smaller visuospatial working memory capacity and had lower processing speed than young adults. Despite the many differences

  3. Similarity in Evolutionary Histories of Eocene Sediments from Subathu and Cambay Basins: Geochemical and Palaeontological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, S.; Halder, K.; Sarkar, S.

    2017-12-01

    elements may support increased erosional power, manifested as a quantitative increase in detrital flux for both the basins. So the geochemical and paleontological studies of Subathu and Cambay Shale Formations reveal similar evolutionary history in spite of their different tectonic scenario.

  4. A NUMERICAL STUDY OF UNIVERSALITY AND SELF-SIMILARITY IN SOME FAMILIES OF FORCED LOGISTIC MAPS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabassa, Pau; Jorba, Angel; Carles Tatjer, Joan

    We explore different two-parametric families of quasi-periodically Forced Logistic Maps looking for universality and self-similarity properties. In the bifurcation diagram of the one-dimensional Logistic Map, it is well known that there exist parameter values s(n) where the 2(n)-periodic orbit is

  5. Deep absorption line studies of quiescent galaxies at z similar z ~ 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Sune; Gallazzi, Anna Rita; Zirm, Andrew Wasmuth

    2012-01-01

    the majority of its stars at z > 3 and currently has little or no ongoing star formation. We compile a sample of three other z similar to 2 quiescent galaxies with measured velocity dispersions, two of which are also post-starburst like. Their dynamical-mass-size relation is offset significantly less than...... the stellar-mass-size relation from the local early-type relations, which we attribute to a lower central dark matter fraction. Recent cosmological merger simulations agree qualitatively with the data, but cannot fully account for the evolution in the dark matter fraction. The z similar to 2 FP requires......We present dynamical and structural scaling relations of quiescent galaxies at z = 2, including the dynamical-mass-size relation and the first constraints on the fundamental plane (FP). The backbone of the analysis is a new, very deep Very Large Telescope/X-shooter spectrum of a massive, compact...

  6. Corn fiber oil lowers plasma cholesterol levels and increases cholesterol excretion greater than corn oil and similar to diets containing soy sterols and soy stanols in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T A; DeSimone, A P; Romano, C A; Nicolosi, R J

    2000-09-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the cholesterol-lowering properties of corn fiber oil (CFO) to corn oil (CO), whether the addition of soy stanols or soy sterols to CO at similar levels in CFO would increase CO's cholesterol-lowering properties, and the mechanism(s) of action of these dietary ingredients. Fifty male Golden Syrian hamsters were divided into 5 groups of 10 hamsters each, based on similar plasma total cholesterol (TC) levels. The first group of hamsters was fed a chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet containing either 5% coconut oil + 0.24% cholesterol (coconut oil), 5% CO, 5% CFO, 5% CO + 0.6% soy sterols (sterol), or 5% CO + 0.6% soy stanols (stanol) in place of the coconut oil for 4 weeks. The stanol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma TC compared to all other dietary treatments. Also, the CFO and sterol diets significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma TC compared to the CO and coconut oil diets. The CFO, sterol, and stanol diets significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol compared to the CO and coconut oil diets. The stanol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) compared to all other dietary treatments. The sterol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma HDL-C compared to the CO and coconut oil diets, whereas the CFO diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma HDL-C compared to the coconut oil diet only. No differences were observed between the CFO and CO for plasma HDL-C. There were no differences observed between groups for plasma triglycerides. The CO and CFO diets had significantly less hepatic TC compared to the coconut oil, sterol, and stanol diets. The CO and CFO diets had significantly less hepatic free cholesterol compared to the sterol and stanol diets but not compared to the coconut oil diet; whereas the coconut oil and sterol diets had significantly less hepatic free cholesterol

  7. Chronic Neck Pain and Cervico-Craniofacial Pain Patients Express Similar Levels of Neck Pain-Related Disability, Pain Catastrophizing, and Cervical Range of Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-García, Daniel; Gil-Martínez, Alfonso; López-López, Almudena; Lopez-de-Uralde-Villanueva, Ibai; La Touche, Roy; Fernández-Carnero, Josué

    2016-01-01

    Background. Neck pain (NP) is strongly associated with cervico-craniofacial pain (CCFP). The primary aim of the present study was to compare the neck pain-related disability, pain catastrophizing, and cervical and mandibular ROM between patients with chronic mechanical NP and patients with CCFP, as well as asymptomatic subjects. Methods. A total of 64 participants formed three groups. All participants underwent a clinical examination evaluating the cervical range of motion and maximum mouth opening, neck disability index (NDI), and psychological factor of Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). Results. There were no statistically significant differences between patients with NP and CCFP for NDI and PCS (P > 0.05). One- way ANOVA revealed significant differences for all ROM measurements. The post hoc analysis showed no statistically significant differences in cervical extension and rotation between the two patient groups (P > 0.05). The Pearson correlation analysis shows a moderate positive association between NDI and the PCS for the group of patients with NP and CCFP. Conclusion. The CCFP and NP patient groups have similar neck disability levels and limitation in cervical ROM in extension and rotation. Both groups had positively correlated the NDI with the PCS. PMID:27119020

  8. Numerical Study on Similarity of Plume’s Infrared Radiation from Reduced Scaling Solid Rocket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoying Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Similarity of plume radiation between reduced scaling solid rocket models and full scale ones in ground conditions has been taken for investigation. Flow and radiation of plume from solid rockets with scaling ratio from 0.1 to 1 have been computed. The radiative transfer equation (RTE is solved by the finite volume method (FVM in infrared band 2~6 μm. The spectral characteristics of plume gases have been calculated with the weighted-sum-of-gray-gas (WSGG model, and those of the Al2O3 particles have been solved by the Mie scattering model. Our research shows that, with the decreasing scaling ratio of the rocket engine, the radiation intensity of the plume decreases with 1.5~2.5 power of the scaling ratio. The infrared radiation of the plume gases shows a strong spectral dependency, while that of the Al2O3 particles shows grey property. Spectral radiation intensity of the high temperature core of the solid rocket plume increases greatly in the peak absorption spectrum of plume gases. Al2O3 particle is the major radiation composition in the rocket plume, whose scattering coefficient is much larger than its absorption coefficient. There is good similarity between spectral variations of plumes from different scaling solid rockets. The directional plume radiation rises with the increasing azimuth angle.

  9. Two Echelon Supply Chain Integrated Inventory Model for Similar Products: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parjane, Manoj Baburao; Dabade, Balaji Marutirao; Gulve, Milind Bhaskar

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a mathematical model towards minimization of total cost across echelons in a multi-product supply chain environment. The scenario under consideration is a two-echelon supply chain system with one manufacturer, one retailer and M products. The retailer faces independent Poisson demand for each product. The retailer and the manufacturer are closely coupled in the sense that the information about any depletion in the inventory of a product at a retailer's end is immediately available to the manufacturer. Further, stock-out is backordered at the retailer's end. Thus the costs incurred at the retailer's end are the holding costs and the backorder costs. The manufacturer has only one processor which is time shared among the M products. Production changeover from one product to another entails a fixed setup cost and a fixed set up time. Each unit of a product has a production time. Considering the cost components, and assuming transportation time and cost to be negligible, the objective of the study is to minimize the expected total cost considering both the manufacturer and retailer. In the process two aspects are to be defined. Firstly, every time a product is taken up for production, how much of it (production batch size, q) should be produced. Considering a large value of q favors the manufacturer while a small value of q suits the retailers. Secondly, for a given batch size q, at what level of retailer's inventory (production queuing point), the batch size S of a product be taken up for production by the manufacturer. A higher value of S incurs more holding cost whereas a lower value of S increases the chance of backorder. A tradeoff between the holding and backorder cost must be taken into consideration while choosing an optimal value of S. It may be noted that due to multiple products and single processor, a product `taken' up for production may not get the processor immediately, and may have to wait in a queue. The `S

  10. Short-arm human centrifugation with 0.4g at eye and 0.75g at heart level provides similar cerebrovascular and cardiovascular responses to standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Nandu; Bruner, Michelle; Xu, Da; Bareille, Marie-Pierre; Beck, Arnaud; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut; Blaber, Andrew P

    2015-07-01

    Orthostatic intolerance continues to be a problem with astronauts upon return to Earth as a result of cerebral and cardiovascular adaptations to weightlessness. We tested the hypothesis that artificial gravity from a short-arm human centrifuge (SAHC) could provide cerebral and cardiovascular stimuli similar to upright posture and thereby serve as a suitable countermeasure. We compared cardiovascular and cerebrovascular responses before, during, and after exposure to hyper-G with that of standing in healthy young participants. The head was positioned such that the middle cerebral artery (MCA) was 0.46 m from the center of rotation. Two levels of hyper-G that provided 1g and 2g at foot level were investigated. Continuous blood pressure, heart rate, calf blood volume, MCA mean blood flow velocity (MFV) and end-tidal CO2 were measured. Blood pressure at the level of the MCA (BP-MCA) and MFV was reduced during stand and at 2g. The relationship between MFV and BP-MCA at 2g was different from supine and similar to standing, while 1g centrifugation was not different from supine. The cardiovascular system was also not different from supine at 1g but was similarly challenged in 2g compared to stand. Our data suggest that short-arm centrifugation 2g at the feet, with the head offset 0.5 m from the center, provides similar cardiovascular and cerebral responses to standing. This supports the hypothesis that passive 2g SAHC exposure at the feet could be used as a countermeasure for in-flight cardiovascular and cerebrovascular deconditioning.

  11. The Work-Study Interface: Similarities and Differences between Ethnic Minority and Ethnic Majority Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeuwisse, Marieke; de Meijer, Lonneke A.; Born, Marise Ph.; Severiens, Sabine E.

    2017-01-01

    Given the poorer academic outcomes of non-Western ethnic minority students compared to ethnic majority students, we investigated whether differences exist in work-study interface between ethnic groups. We tested a work-study interface model, in which the work-related factors work-study congruence, job control, job demands, work hours, job…

  12. Indicators of corporate financial success: Similar studies in South Africa and the USA, different results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JHvH de Wet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to test whether findings by Johnson and Soenen (2003 regarding indicators of successful companies in the USA also apply to South African JSE-listed companies. Problem investigated: To date, no South African study has tried to determine the indicators of the financial success of local companies specifically along the lines of Johnson and Soenen's (2003 study. Determining whether the indicators found to be most highly significant in the US study also apply in South Africa would constitute valuable information in the South African context. Approach: The study tested the significance of the linear relationships between possible indicators of financial success and three measures of financial success for South African companies and compared them to the results of the US study. Findings: The findings revealed that the relationships are far less significant for South African companies. Value of research: The study highlighted the fact that indicators of financial success for US companies are not necessarily contributors to the success of South African listed companies and that models developed in different environments should therefore be used with caution when applied in South Africa. Conclusion: Further studies need to be undertaken in order to identify the most significant South African indicators of corporate financial success.

  13. High-intensity interval and moderate-intensity continuous training elicit similar enjoyment and adherence levels in overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Chantal A; Taylor, Katrina; Drummer, Devin

    2017-10-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been shown to improve cardiometabolic health during supervised lab-based studies but adherence, enjoyment, and health benefits of HIIT performed independently are yet to be understood. We compared adherence, enjoyment, and cardiometabolic outcomes after 8 weeks of HIIT or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT), matched for energy expenditure, in overweight and obese young adults. 17 adults were randomized to HIIT or MICT. After completing 12 sessions of supervised training over 3 weeks, participants were asked to independently perform HIIT or MICT for 30 min, 4 times/week for 5 weeks. Cardiometabolic outcomes included cardiorespiratory fitness (VO 2 peak), lipids, and inflammatory markers. Exercise enjoyment was measured by the validated Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale. Exercise adherence (93.4 ± 3.1% vs. 93.1 ± 3.7%, respectively) and mean enjoyment across the intervention (100.1 ± 4.3 vs. 100.3 ± 4.4, respectively) were high, with no differences between HIIT and MICT (p > .05). Similarly, enjoyment levels did not change over time in either group (p > .05). After training, HIIT exhibited a greater decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol than MICT (-0.66 mmol L -1 vs. -0.03 mmol L -1 , respectively) and a greater increase in VO 2 peak than MICT (p HIIT (+0.5 pg mL -1 and + 31.4 nmol L -1 , respectively) and decreased in MICT (-0.6 pg mL -1 and -6.7 nmol L -1 , respectively, p HIIT is enjoyable and has high unsupervised adherence rates in overweight and obese adults. However, HIIT may be associated with an increase in inflammation with short-term exercise in this population.

  14. Similar Representations of Sequence Knowledge in Young and Older Adults: A Study of Effector Independent Transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnhoorn, Jonathan Sebastiaan; Döhring, Falko R.; van Asseldonk, Edwin H.F.; Verwey, Willem B.

    2016-01-01

    Older adults show reduced motor performance and changes in motor skill development. To better understand these changes, we studied differences in sequence knowledge representations between young and older adults using a transfer task. Transfer, or the ability to apply motor skills flexibly, is

  15. Modeling the angular motion dynamics of spacecraft with a magnetic attitude control system based on experimental studies and dynamic similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkov, V. M.; Medvedskii, A. L.; Terentyev, V. V.; Firsyuk, S. O.; Shemyakov, A. O.

    2017-12-01

    The problem of spacecraft attitude control using electromagnetic systems interacting with the Earth's magnetic field is considered. A set of dimensionless parameters has been formed to investigate the spacecraft orientation regimes based on dynamically similar models. The results of experimental studies of small spacecraft with a magnetic attitude control system can be extrapolated to the in-orbit spacecraft motion control regimes by using the methods of the dimensional and similarity theory.

  16. Dimensionally similar studies of confinement and H-mode transition in ASDEX Upgrade and JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryter, F.; Stober, J.; Suttrop, W.

    2001-01-01

    Joint experiments on confinement and L-H transition were performed in ASDEX Upgrade and JET. The confinement experiments suggest that the invariance principle is not always fulfilled at high density. For the L-H transition studies, the dimensionless variables taken at the plasma edge can be in general only made identical per pair, due to the condition imposed by the L-H transition. This new approach to investigate the L-H physics suggests a weak dependence of the L-H transition mechanism on collisionality. (author)

  17. Dimensionally similar studies of confinement and H-mode transition in ASDEX Upgrade and JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryter, F.; Stober, J.; Suttrop, W.

    1999-01-01

    Joint experiments on confinement and L-H transition were performed in ASDEX Upgrade and JET. The confinement experiments suggest that the invariance principle is not always fulfilled at high density. For the L-H transition studies, the dimensionless variables taken at the plasma edge can be in general only made identical per pair, due to the condition imposed by the L-H transition. This new approach to investigate the L-H physics suggests a weak dependence of the L-H transition mechanism on collisionality. (author)

  18. A study of the predictive model on the user reaction time using the information amount and its similarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Jin; Heo, Gyun Young; Chang, Soon Heung

    2004-01-01

    There are lots of studies on the user interface evaluation since it started. Recent studies focus on the contextual information of the user interface. We knew that the user reaction time increases as the amount of information increases. But, the relation between the contextual information and the user reaction time may be unknown. In this study, we proposed the similarity as one of the contextual information. We can expect that the similarity decreases the user reaction time. The goal of this study is to find some correlation about the user reaction time with both the information amount and the similarity. The experiment was performed with 20 participants. The results of experiment demonstrated our proposals

  19. Level dynamics: An approach to the study of avoided level crossings and transition to chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.; Chu, S.Y.

    1993-01-01

    The Dyson-Pechukas level dynamics has been reformulated and made suitable for studying avoided level crossings and transition to chaos. The N-level dynamics is converted into a many-body problem of one-dimensional Coulomb gas with N-constituent particles having intrinsic excitations. It is shown that local fluctuation of the level distribution is generated by a large number of avoided level crossings. The role played by avoided level crossings in generating chaoticity in level dynamics is similar to the role played by short-range collisions in causing thermalization in many-body dynamics. Furthermore, the effect of level changing rates in producing avoided level crossings is the same as particle velocities in causing particle-particle collisions. A one-dimensional su(2) Hamiltonian has been constructed as an illustration of the level dynamics, showing how the avoided level crossings cause the transition from a regular distribution to the chaotic Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (GOE) distribution of the levels. The existence of the one-dimensional su(2) Hamiltonian which can show both GOE and Poisson level statistics is remarkable and deserves further investigation

  20. Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and encephalomyelitis disseminata/multiple sclerosis show remarkable levels of similarity in phenomenology and neuroimmune characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background ‘Encephalomyelitis disseminata’ (multiple sclerosis) and myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) are both classified as diseases of the central nervous system by the World Health Organization. This review aims to compare the phenomenological and neuroimmune characteristics of MS with those of ME/CFS. Discussion There are remarkable phenomenological and neuroimmune overlaps between both disorders. Patients with ME/CFS and MS both experience severe levels of disabling fatigue and a worsening of symptoms following exercise and resort to energy conservation strategies in an attempt to meet the energy demands of day-to-day living. Debilitating autonomic symptoms, diminished cardiac responses to exercise, orthostatic intolerance and postural hypotension are experienced by patients with both illnesses. Both disorders show a relapsing-remitting or progressive course, while infections and psychosocial stress play a large part in worsening of fatigue symptoms. Activated immunoinflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative (O+NS) pathways and autoimmunity occur in both illnesses. The consequences of O+NS damage to self-epitopes is evidenced by the almost bewildering and almost identical array of autoantibodies formed against damaged epitopes seen in both illnesses. Mitochondrial dysfunctions, including lowered levels of ATP, decreased phosphocreatine synthesis and impaired oxidative phosphorylation, are heavily involved in the pathophysiology of both MS and ME/CFS. The findings produced by neuroimaging techniques are quite similar in both illnesses and show decreased cerebral blood flow, atrophy, gray matter reduction, white matter hyperintensities, increased cerebral lactate and choline signaling and lowered acetyl-aspartate levels. Summary This review shows that there are neuroimmune similarities between MS and ME/CFS. This further substantiates the view that ME/CFS is a neuroimmune illness and that patients with MS are immunologically primed to

  1. Reconnaissance level study Mississippi storm surge barrier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ledden, M.; Lansen, A.J.; De Ridder, H.A.J.; Edge, B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a reconnaissance level study of a storm surge barrier in the Mississippi River. Historical hurricanes have shown storm surge of several meters along the Mississippi River levees up to and upstream of New Orleans. Future changes due to sea level rise and subsidence will further

  2. A study on the quantitative model of human response time using the amount and the similarity of information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Jin

    2006-02-01

    The mental capacity to retain or recall information, or memory is related to human performance during processing of information. Although a large number of studies have been carried out on human performance, little is known about the similarity effect. The purpose of this study was to propose and validate a quantitative and predictive model on human response time in the user interface with the basic concepts of information amount, similarity and degree of practice. It was difficult to explain human performance by only similarity or information amount. There were two difficulties: constructing a quantitative model on human response time and validating the proposed model by experimental work. A quantitative model based on the Hick's law, the law of practice and similarity theory was developed. The model was validated under various experimental conditions by measuring the participants' response time in the environment of a computer-based display. Human performance was improved by degree of similarity and practice in the user interface. Also we found the age-related human performance which was degraded as he or she was more elder. The proposed model may be useful for training operators who will handle some interfaces and predicting human performance by changing system design

  3. Studies on microstructure, mechanical and pitting corrosion behaviour of similar and dissimilar stainless steel gas tungsten arc welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Raffi; Dilkush; Srinivasa Rao, K.; Madhusudhan Reddy, G.

    2018-03-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to weld dissimilar alloys of 5mm thick plates i.e., austenitic stainless steel (316L) and duplex stainless steel (2205) and compared with that of similar welds. Welds are made with conventional gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process with two different filler wires namely i.e., 309L and 2209. Welds were characterized using optical microscopy to observe the microstructural changes and correlate with mechanical properties using hardness, tensile and impact testing. Potentio-dynamic polarization studies were carried out to observe the pitting corrosion behaviour in different regions of the welds. Results of the present study established that change in filler wire composition resulted in microstructural variation in all the welds with different morphology of ferrite and austenite. Welds made with 2209 filler showed plate like widmanstatten austenite (WA) nucleated at grain boundaries. Compared to similar stainless steel welds inferior mechanical properties was observed in dissimilar stainless steel welds. Pitting corrosion resistance is observed to be low for dissimilar stainless steel welds when compared to similar stainless steel welds. Overall study showed that similar duplex stainless steel welds having favorable microstructure and resulted in better mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. Relatively dissimilar stainless steel welds made with 309L filler obtained optimum combination of mechanical properties and pitting corrosion resistance when compared to 2209 filler and is recommended for industrial practice.

  4. Similar metabolic responses in pigs and humans to breads with different contents and compositions of dietary fibers: a metabolomics study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirstine Lykke; Hartvigsen, Merete; Hedemann, Mette Skou

    2014-01-01

    Background: In nutritional studies, pigs are often used as models for humans because of nutritional and physiologic similarities. However, evidence supporting similar metabolic responses to nutritional interventions is lacking. Objective: The objective was to establish whether pigs and humans...... respond similarly to a nutritional intervention. Using metabolomics, we compared the acute metabolic response to 4 test breads between conventional pigs (growing) and adult human subjects (with the metabolic syndrome). Design: Six catheterized pigs and 15 human subjects were tested in a randomized...... different basal metabolome concentrations in the plasma of pigs and humans. Humans had higher contents of phosphatidylcholines, oleic acid, and carnitine in plasma, possibly reflecting a higher intake of meats and fats. In pigs, betaine, choline, creatinine, tryptophan, and phenylalanine were higher...

  5. A study on the cephalometric similarity between parents and offspring in cleft lip with or without palate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Su Beom; Lee, Un Gyeong; Na, Seung Mog; Koh, Kwang Joon

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether any similarity existed in craniofacial morphology between parents and offspring in cleft lip with or without cleft palate. Thirty three measurements of the various regions of cranium and face were obtained from lateral cephalometric radiograms in 28 families comprising 28 fathers, 28 mothers and 28 cleft patients. The measurements of cleft patients compared with those of their fathers, mothers and midparents. The obtained results were as follows: 1. There were similar measurements between the cleft patients and their fathers; ramal height (Ar-Go), mandibular angle (angle MP-RP). 2. There were similar measurements between the cleft patients and their mothers; cranial base angle (angle NSBa), relation of maxilla to the cranial base (angle SNA), relation of maxilla to the cranial base(soft tissue: ?BaN S n), angle of inferior border of mandible (angle SNL-MP ) and convexity of nose apex (soft tissue: angle N P rnPog ) . 3. There were similar measurements between the cleft patients and their midparents; ramal height (Ar-Go), cranial base angle (angle NSBa), relation of maxilla to the cranial base (soft tissue: angle BaN S n), Y axis angle (angle NSGn) and mandibular angle (angle MP-RP). 4. There was no similar measurements between the cleft patients and their fathers and mothers simultaneously

  6. A study on the cephalometric similarity between parents and offspring in cleft lip with or without palate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Su Beom; Lee, Un Gyeong; Na, Seung Mog; Koh, Kwang Joon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether any similarity existed in craniofacial morphology between parents and offspring in cleft lip with or without cleft palate. Thirty three measurements of the various regions of cranium and face were obtained from lateral cephalometric radiograms in 28 families comprising 28 fathers, 28 mothers and 28 cleft patients. The measurements of cleft patients compared with those of their fathers, mothers and midparents. The obtained results were as follows: 1. There were similar measurements between the cleft patients and their fathers; ramal height (Ar-Go), mandibular angle (angle MP-RP). 2. There were similar measurements between the cleft patients and their mothers; cranial base angle (angle NSBa), relation of maxilla to the cranial base (angle SNA), relation of maxilla to the cranial base(soft tissue: ?BaN{sup S}n), angle of inferior border of mandible (angle SNL-MP) and convexity of nose apex (soft tissue: angle N'PrnPog'). 3. There were similar measurements between the cleft patients and their midparents; ramal height (Ar-Go), cranial base angle (angle NSBa), relation of maxilla to the cranial base (soft tissue: angle BaN{sup S}n), Y axis angle (angle NSGn) and mandibular angle (angle MP-RP). 4. There was no similar measurements between the cleft patients and their fathers and mothers simultaneously

  7. Study for the design method of multi-agent diagnostic system to improve diagnostic performance for similar abnormality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minowa, Hirotsugu; Gofuku, Akio

    2014-01-01

    Accidents on industrial plants cause large loss on human, economic, social credibility. In recent, studies of diagnostic methods using techniques of machine learning such as support vector machine is expected to detect the occurrence of abnormality in a plant early and correctly. There were reported that these diagnostic machines has high accuracy to diagnose the operating state of industrial plant under mono abnormality occurrence. But the each diagnostic machine on the multi-agent diagnostic system may misdiagnose similar abnormalities as a same abnormality if abnormalities to diagnose increases. That causes that a single diagnostic machine may show higher diagnostic performance than one of multi-agent diagnostic system because decision-making considering with misdiagnosis is difficult. Therefore, we study the design method for multi-agent diagnostic system to diagnose similar abnormality correctly. This method aimed to realize automatic generation of diagnostic system where the generation process and location of diagnostic machines are optimized to diagnose correctly the similar abnormalities which are evaluated from the similarity of process signals by statistical method. This paper explains our design method and reports the result evaluated our method applied to the process data of the fast-breeder reactor Monju

  8. In silico peptide-binding predictions of passerine MHC class I reveal similarities across distantly related species, suggesting convergence on the level of protein function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follin, Elna; Karlsson, Maria; Lundegaard, Claus; Nielsen, Morten; Wallin, Stefan; Paulsson, Kajsa; Westerdahl, Helena

    2013-04-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are the most polymorphic genes found in the vertebrate genome, and they encode proteins that play an essential role in the adaptive immune response. Many songbirds (passerines) have been shown to have a large number of transcribed MHC class I genes compared to most mammals. To elucidate the reason for this large number of genes, we compared 14 MHC class I alleles (α1-α3 domains), from great reed warbler, house sparrow and tree sparrow, via phylogenetic analysis, homology modelling and in silico peptide-binding predictions to investigate their functional and genetic relationships. We found more pronounced clustering of the MHC class I allomorphs (allele specific proteins) in regards to their function (peptide-binding specificities) compared to their genetic relationships (amino acid sequences), indicating that the high number of alleles is of functional significance. The MHC class I allomorphs from house sparrow and tree sparrow, species that diverged 10 million years ago (MYA), had overlapping peptide-binding specificities, and these similarities across species were also confirmed in phylogenetic analyses based on amino acid sequences. Notably, there were also overlapping peptide-binding specificities in the allomorphs from house sparrow and great reed warbler, although these species diverged 30 MYA. This overlap was not found in a tree based on amino acid sequences. Our interpretation is that convergent evolution on the level of the protein function, possibly driven by selection from shared pathogens, has resulted in allomorphs with similar peptide-binding repertoires, although trans-species evolution in combination with gene conversion cannot be ruled out.

  9. Froude number fractions to increase walking pattern dynamic similarities: application to plantar pressure study in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, P; Bisiaux, M; Lafortune, M A

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if using similar walking velocities obtained from fractions of the Froude number (N(Fr)) and leg length can lead to kinematic and kinetic similarities and lower variability. Fifteen male subjects walked on a treadmill at 0.83 (VS(1)) and 1.16ms(-1) (VS(2)) and then at two similar velocities (V(Sim27) and V(Sim37)) determined from two fractions of the N(Fr) (0.27 and 0.37) so that the average group velocity remained unchanged in both conditions (VS(1)=V (Sim27)andVS(2)=V (Sim37)). N(Fr) can theoretically be used to determine walking velocities proportional to leg lengths and to establish dynamic similarities between subjects. This study represents the first attempt at using this approach to examine plantar pressure. The ankle and knee joint angles were studied in the sagittal plane and the plantar pressure distribution was assessed with an in-shoe measurement device. The similarity ratios were computed from anthropometric parameters and plantar pressure peaks. Dynamically similar conditions caused a 25% reduction in leg joint angles variation and a 10% significant decrease in dimensionless pressure peak variability on average of five footprint locations. It also lead to heel and under-midfoot pressure peaks proportional to body mass and to an increase in the number of under-forefoot plantar pressure peaks proportional to body mass and/or leg length. The use of walking velocities derived from N(Fr) allows kinematic and plantar pressure similarities between subjects to be observed and leads to a lower inter-subject variability. In-shoe pressure measurements have proven to be valuable for the understanding of lower extremity function. Set walking velocities used for clinical assessment mask the effects of body size and individual gait mechanics. The anthropometric scaling of walking velocities (fraction of N(Fr)) should improve identification of unique walking strategies and pathological foot functions.

  10. Driving clinical study efficiency by using a productivity breakdown model: comparative evaluation of a global clinical study and a similar Japanese study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, K; Sengoku, S; Kimura, H

    2011-02-01

    A fundamental management imperative of pharmaceutical companies is to contain surging costs of developing and launching drugs globally. Clinical studies are a research and development (R&D) cost driver. The objective of this study was to develop a productivity breakdown model, or a key performance indicator (KPI) tree, for an entire clinical study and to use it to compare a global clinical study with a similar Japanese study. We, thereby, hope to identify means of improving study productivity. We developed the new clinical study productivity breakdown model, covering operational aspects and cost factors. Elements for improving clinical study productivity were assessed from a management viewpoint by comparing empirical tracking data from a global clinical study with a Japanese study with similar protocols. The following unique and material differences, beyond simple international difference in cost of living, that could affect the efficiency of future clinical trials were identified: (i) more frequent site visits in the Japanese study, (ii) head counts at the Japanese study sites more than double those of the global study and (iii) a shorter enrollment time window of about a third that of the global study at the Japanese study sites. We identified major differences in the performance of the two studies. These findings demonstrate the potential of the KPI tree for improving clinical study productivity. Trade-offs, such as those between reduction in head count at study sites and expansion of the enrollment time window, must be considered carefully. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Occupancy in community-level studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Darryl I.; Nichols, James; Royle, Andy; Pollock, Kenneth H.; Bailey, Larissa L.; Hines, James

    2018-01-01

    Another type of multi-species studies, are those focused on community-level metrics such as species richness. In this chapter we detail how some of the single-species occupancy models described in earlier chapters have been applied, or extended, for use in such studies, while accounting for imperfect detection. We highlight how Bayesian methods using MCMC are particularly useful in such settings to easily calculate relevant community-level summaries based on presence/absence data. These modeling approaches can be used to assess richness at a single point in time, or to investigate changes in the species pool over time.

  12. Similar or different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornér, Solveig; Pyhältö, Kirsi; Peltonen, Jouni

    2018-01-01

    Previous research has identified researcher community and supervisory support as key determinants of the doctoral journey contributing to students’ persistence and robustness. However, we still know little about cross-cultural variation in the researcher community and supervisory support experien...... counter partners, whereas the Finnish students perceived lower levels of instrumental support than the Danish students. The findings imply that seemingly similar contexts hold valid differences in experienced social support and educational strategies at the PhD level....... experienced by PhD students within the same discipline. This study explores the support experiences of 381 PhD students within the humanities and social sciences from three research-intensive universities in Denmark (n=145) and Finland (n=236). The mixed methods design was utilized. The data were collected...... counter partners. The results also indicated that the only form of support in which the students expressed more matched support than mismatched support was informational support. Further investigation showed that the Danish students reported a high level of mismatch in emotional support than their Finnish...

  13. Racial Disparities and Similarities in Post-Release Recidivism and Employment Among Ex-prisoners with a Different Level of Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Klinker Lockwood

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies rarely examined racial disparities in post-release employment and recidivism. Finding a job is an immediate challenge to all released ex-prisoners, and often more difficult for African American ex-prisoners who typically return to economically-depressed neighborhoods upon release from prison. The present researchers conducted a 5-year (2005-2009 follow-up study in an attempt to understand racial disparities in post-release employment and recidivism among 6,394 released ex-prisoners (2,531 Caucasian and 3,863 African American, while controlling for the ex-prisoner’s level of education. Results of this study showed that African American ex-prisoners had a higher unemployment rate and recidivism rate than Caucasian ex-prisoners. This study also revealed that released ex-prisoners, if employed, would likely be under-employed and experience difficulties in sustaining employment, regardless of the ex-prisoner’s ethnicity. Most importantly, post-release employment and level of education were the two most influential predictors to recidivism among ex-prisoners, regardless of ethnicity.

  14. Residential exposures to indoor air pollutants could yield childhood leukemia risk levels similar to those associated with 60 Hz magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    Over a decade ago Easterly suggested that electromagnetic fields may be able to participate in a cooperative process leading to the expression of cancer. Evidence derived from the literature is presented to support the suggestion that potentially cooperative factors other than electromagnetic fields are present in homes in sufficient quantities to result in approximately the same risk levels as are being measured in epidemiology studies of childhood leukemia and electromagnetic fields. Generally these odds ratios vary from 1.5 to 2.5

  15. Comparing the similarity of responses received from studies in Amazon's Mechanical Turk to studies conducted online and with direct recruitment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Bartneck

    Full Text Available Computer and internet based questionnaires have become a standard tool in Human-Computer Interaction research and other related fields, such as psychology and sociology. Amazon's Mechanical Turk (AMT service is a new method of recruiting participants and conducting certain types of experiments. This study compares whether participants recruited through AMT give different responses than participants recruited through an online forum or recruited directly on a university campus. Moreover, we compare whether a study conducted within AMT results in different responses compared to a study for which participants are recruited through AMT but which is conducted using an external online questionnaire service. The results of this study show that there is a statistical difference between results obtained from participants recruited through AMT compared to the results from the participant recruited on campus or through online forums. We do, however, argue that this difference is so small that it has no practical consequence. There was no significant difference between running the study within AMT compared to running it with an online questionnaire service. There was no significant difference between results obtained directly from within AMT compared to results obtained in the campus and online forum condition. This may suggest that AMT is a viable and economical option for recruiting participants and for conducting studies as setting up and running a study with AMT generally requires less effort and time compared to other frequently used methods. We discuss our findings as well as limitations of using AMT for empirical studies.

  16. Comparing the similarity of responses received from studies in Amazon's Mechanical Turk to studies conducted online and with direct recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartneck, Christoph; Duenser, Andreas; Moltchanova, Elena; Zawieska, Karolina

    2015-01-01

    Computer and internet based questionnaires have become a standard tool in Human-Computer Interaction research and other related fields, such as psychology and sociology. Amazon's Mechanical Turk (AMT) service is a new method of recruiting participants and conducting certain types of experiments. This study compares whether participants recruited through AMT give different responses than participants recruited through an online forum or recruited directly on a university campus. Moreover, we compare whether a study conducted within AMT results in different responses compared to a study for which participants are recruited through AMT but which is conducted using an external online questionnaire service. The results of this study show that there is a statistical difference between results obtained from participants recruited through AMT compared to the results from the participant recruited on campus or through online forums. We do, however, argue that this difference is so small that it has no practical consequence. There was no significant difference between running the study within AMT compared to running it with an online questionnaire service. There was no significant difference between results obtained directly from within AMT compared to results obtained in the campus and online forum condition. This may suggest that AMT is a viable and economical option for recruiting participants and for conducting studies as setting up and running a study with AMT generally requires less effort and time compared to other frequently used methods. We discuss our findings as well as limitations of using AMT for empirical studies.

  17. Gender similarities and differences in brain activation strategies: Voxel-based meta-analysis on fMRI studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlRyalat, Saif Aldeen

    2017-01-01

    Gender similarities and differences have long been a matter of debate in almost all human research, especially upon reaching the discussion about brain functions. This large scale meta-analysis was performed on functional MRI studies. It included more than 700 active brain foci from more than 70 different experiments to study gender related similarities and differences in brain activation strategies for three of the main brain functions: Visual-spatial cognition, memory, and emotion. Areas that are significantly activated by both genders (i.e. core areas) for the tested brain function are mentioned, whereas those areas significantly activated exclusively in one gender are the gender specific areas. During visual-spatial cognition task, and in addition to the core areas, males significantly activated their left superior frontal gyrus, compared with left superior parietal lobule in females. For memory tasks, several different brain areas activated by each gender, but females significantly activated two areas from the limbic system during memory retrieval tasks. For emotional task, males tend to recruit their bilateral prefrontal regions, whereas females tend to recruit their bilateral amygdalae. This meta-analysis provides an overview based on functional MRI studies on how males and females use their brain.

  18. Night Owl Women are Similar to Men in Their Relationship Orientation, Risk-taking Propensities, and Cortisol Levels: Implications for the Adaptive Significance and Evolution of Eveningness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Maestripieri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Individual differences in morningness/eveningness are relatively stable over time and, in part, genetically based. The night-owl pattern is more prevalent in men than in women, particularly after puberty and before women reach menopause. It has been suggested that eveningness evolved relatively recently in human evolutionary history and that this trait may be advantageous to individuals pursuing short-term mating strategies. Consistent with this hypothesis, eveningness is associated with extraversion, novelty-seeking, and in males, with a higher number of sexual partners. In this study, I investigated whether eveningness is associated with short-term relationship orientation, higher risk-taking, and higher testosterone or cortisol. Both female and male night-owls were more likely to be single than in long-term relationships than early morning individuals. Eveningness was associated with higher risk-taking in women but not in men; this association was not testosterone-dependent but mediated by cortisol. Female night-owls had average cortisol profiles and risk-taking tendencies more similar to those of males than to those of early-morning females. Taken together, these findings provide some support to the hypothesis that eveningness is associated with psychological and behavioral traits that are instrumental in short-term mating strategies, with the evidence being stronger for women than for men.

  19. ASD Is Not DLI: Individuals With Autism and Individuals With Syntactic DLI Show Similar Performance Level in Syntactic Tasks, but Different Error Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nufar Sukenik

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Do individuals with autism have a developmental syntactic impairment, DLI (formerly known as SLI? In this study we directly compared the performance of 18 individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD aged 9;0–18;0 years with that of 93 individuals with Syntactic-Developmental Language Impairment (SyDLI aged 8;8–14;6 (and with 166 typically-developing children aged 5;2–18;1. We tested them using three syntactic tests assessing the comprehension and production of syntactic structures that are known to be sensitive to syntactic impairment: elicitation of subject and object relative clauses, reading and paraphrasing of object relatives, and repetition of complex syntactic structures including Wh questions, relative clauses, topicalized sentences, sentences with verb movement, sentences with A-movement, and embedded sentences. The results were consistent across the three tasks: the overall rate of correct performance on the syntactic tasks is similar for the children with ASD and those with SyDLI. However, once we look closer, they are very different. The types of errors of the ASD group differ from those of the SyDLI group—the children with ASD provide various types of pragmatically infelicitous responses that are not evinced in the SyDLI or in the age equivalent typically-developing groups. The two groups (ASD and SyDLI also differ in the pattern of performance—the children with SyDLI show a syntactically-principled pattern of impairment, with selective difficulty in specific sentence types (such as sentences derived by movement of the object across the subject, and normal performance on other structures (such as simple sentences. In contrast, the ASD participants showed generalized low performance on the various sentence structures. Syntactic performance was far from consistent within the ASD group. Whereas all ASD participants had errors that can originate in pragmatic/discourse difficulties, seven of them had completely normal syntax

  20. ASD Is Not DLI: Individuals With Autism and Individuals With Syntactic DLI Show Similar Performance Level in Syntactic Tasks, but Different Error Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukenik, Nufar; Friedmann, Naama

    2018-01-01

    Do individuals with autism have a developmental syntactic impairment, DLI (formerly known as SLI)? In this study we directly compared the performance of 18 individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) aged 9;0-18;0 years with that of 93 individuals with Syntactic-Developmental Language Impairment (SyDLI) aged 8;8-14;6 (and with 166 typically-developing children aged 5;2-18;1). We tested them using three syntactic tests assessing the comprehension and production of syntactic structures that are known to be sensitive to syntactic impairment: elicitation of subject and object relative clauses, reading and paraphrasing of object relatives, and repetition of complex syntactic structures including Wh questions, relative clauses, topicalized sentences, sentences with verb movement, sentences with A-movement, and embedded sentences. The results were consistent across the three tasks: the overall rate of correct performance on the syntactic tasks is similar for the children with ASD and those with SyDLI. However, once we look closer, they are very different. The types of errors of the ASD group differ from those of the SyDLI group-the children with ASD provide various types of pragmatically infelicitous responses that are not evinced in the SyDLI or in the age equivalent typically-developing groups. The two groups (ASD and SyDLI) also differ in the pattern of performance-the children with SyDLI show a syntactically-principled pattern of impairment, with selective difficulty in specific sentence types (such as sentences derived by movement of the object across the subject), and normal performance on other structures (such as simple sentences). In contrast, the ASD participants showed generalized low performance on the various sentence structures. Syntactic performance was far from consistent within the ASD group. Whereas all ASD participants had errors that can originate in pragmatic/discourse difficulties, seven of them had completely normal syntax in the structures we

  1. Community genetics reveal elevated levels of sympatric gene flow among morphologically similar but not among morphologically dissimilar species of Lake Victoria cichlid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konijnendijk, N.; Joyce, D.A.; Mrosso, H.D.J.; Egas, M.; Seehausen, O.

    2011-01-01

    We examined genetic structure among five species of Lake Victoria haplochromine cichlids in four island communities, using a full factorial sampling design that compared genetic differentiation between pairs of species and populations of varying morphological similarity and geographical proximity.

  2. Molecular similarity measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiora, Gerald M; Shanmugasundaram, Veerabahu

    2011-01-01

    Molecular similarity is a pervasive concept in chemistry. It is essential to many aspects of chemical reasoning and analysis and is perhaps the fundamental assumption underlying medicinal chemistry. Dissimilarity, the complement of similarity, also plays a major role in a growing number of applications of molecular diversity in combinatorial chemistry, high-throughput screening, and related fields. How molecular information is represented, called the representation problem, is important to the type of molecular similarity analysis (MSA) that can be carried out in any given situation. In this work, four types of mathematical structure are used to represent molecular information: sets, graphs, vectors, and functions. Molecular similarity is a pairwise relationship that induces structure into sets of molecules, giving rise to the concept of chemical space. Although all three concepts - molecular similarity, molecular representation, and chemical space - are treated in this chapter, the emphasis is on molecular similarity measures. Similarity measures, also called similarity coefficients or indices, are functions that map pairs of compatible molecular representations that are of the same mathematical form into real numbers usually, but not always, lying on the unit interval. This chapter presents a somewhat pedagogical discussion of many types of molecular similarity measures, their strengths and limitations, and their relationship to one another. An expanded account of the material on chemical spaces presented in the first edition of this book is also provided. It includes a discussion of the topography of activity landscapes and the role that activity cliffs in these landscapes play in structure-activity studies.

  3. High-Level Waste Melter Study Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Joseph M.; Bickford, Dennis F.; Day, Delbert E.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lambert, Steven L.; Marra, Sharon L.; Peeler, David K.; Strachan, Denis M.; Triplett, Mark B.; Vienna, John D.; Wittman, Richard S.

    2001-07-13

    At the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the path to site cleanup involves vitrification of the majority of the wastes that currently reside in large underground tanks. A Joule-heated glass melter is the equipment of choice for vitrifying the high-level fraction of these wastes. Even though this technology has general national and international acceptance, opportunities may exist to improve or change the technology to reduce the enormous cost of accomplishing the mission of site cleanup. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy requested the staff of the Tanks Focus Area to review immobilization technologies, waste forms, and modifications to requirements for solidification of the high-level waste fraction at Hanford to determine what aspects could affect cost reductions with reasonable long-term risk. The results of this study are summarized in this report.

  4. Continuous vs. blocks of physiotherapy for motor development in children with cerebral palsy and similar syndromes: A prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Anne-Louise; Rutz, Erich; Juenemann, Stephanie; Brunner, Reinald

    2014-12-01

    To determine whether physiotherapy is more effective when applied in blocks or continuously in children with cerebral palsy (CP). A prospective randomized cross-over design study compared the effect of regular physiotherapy (baseline) with blocks of physiotherapy alternating with no physiotherapy over one year. Thirty-nine institutionalized children with CP and clinically similar syndromes (6-16 years old, Gross Motor Function Classification Scale II-IV) were included. During the first scholastic year, group A received regular physiotherapy, group B blocks of physiotherapy and vice versa in the second year. The Gross Motor Function Measure 66 (GMFM-66) was the outcome measure. Thirteen children in each group completed the study. GMFM-66 improved (p Physiotherapy may be more effective when provided regularly rather than in blocks.

  5. Despite higher glucocorticoid levels and stress responses in female rats, both sexes exhibit similar stress-induced changes in hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, Henriëtte J; Novati, Arianna; Luiten, Paul G M; den Boer, Johan A; Meerlo, Peter

    2012-10-01

    Sex differences in stress reactivity may be one of the factors underlying the increased sensitivity for the development of psychopathologies in women. Particularly, an increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity in females may exacerbate stress-induced changes in neuronal plasticity and neurogenesis, which in turn may contribute to an increased sensitivity to psychopathology. The main aim of the present study was to examine male-female differences in stress-induced changes in different aspects of hippocampal neurogenesis, i.e. cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. Both sexes were exposed to a wide variety of stressors, where after differences in HPA-axis reactivity and neurogenesis were assessed. To study the role of oestradiol in potential sex differences, ovariectomized females received low or high physiological oestradiol level replacement pellets. The results show that females in general have a higher basal and stress-induced HPA-axis activity than males, with minimal differences between the two female groups. Cell proliferation in the dorsal hippocampus was significantly higher in high oestradiol females compared to low oestradiol females and males, while doublecortin (DCX) expression as a marker of cell differentiation was significantly higher in males compared to females, independent of oestradiol level. Stress exposure did not significantly influence cell proliferation or survival of new cells, but did reduce DCX expression. In conclusion, despite the male-female differences in HPA-axis activity, the effect of repeated stress exposure on hippocampal cell differentiation was not significantly different between sexes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Low level tank waste disposal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullally, J.A.

    1994-09-29

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) contracted a team consisting of Los Alamos Technical Associates (LATA), British Nuclear Fuel Laboratories (BNFL), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and TRW through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Technical Support Contract to conduct a study on several areas concerning vitrification and disposal of low-level-waste (LLW). The purpose of the study was to investigate how several parameters could be specified to achieve full compliance with regulations. The most restrictive regulation governing this disposal activity is the National Primary Drinking Water Act which sets the limits of exposure to 4 mrem per year for a person drinking two liters of ground water daily. To fully comply, this constraint would be met independently of the passage of time. In addition, another key factor in the investigation was the capability to retrieve the disposed waste during the first 50 years as specified in Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. The objective of the project was to develop a strategy for effective long-term disposal of the low-level waste at the Hanford site.

  7. Low level tank waste disposal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullally, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) contracted a team consisting of Los Alamos Technical Associates (LATA), British Nuclear Fuel Laboratories (BNFL), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and TRW through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Technical Support Contract to conduct a study on several areas concerning vitrification and disposal of low-level-waste (LLW). The purpose of the study was to investigate how several parameters could be specified to achieve full compliance with regulations. The most restrictive regulation governing this disposal activity is the National Primary Drinking Water Act which sets the limits of exposure to 4 mrem per year for a person drinking two liters of ground water daily. To fully comply, this constraint would be met independently of the passage of time. In addition, another key factor in the investigation was the capability to retrieve the disposed waste during the first 50 years as specified in Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. The objective of the project was to develop a strategy for effective long-term disposal of the low-level waste at the Hanford site

  8. Low-dose factor VIII infusion in Chinese adult haemophilia A patients: pharmacokinetics evidence that daily infusion results in higher trough level than with every-other-day infusion with similar factor VIII consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, B; Lee, A; Fan, L; Li, K; Zhang, Y; Poon, M-C; Zhao, Y

    2017-05-01

    Pharmacokinetics (PK) modelling suggests improvement of trough levels are achieved by using more frequent infusion strategy. However, no clinical study data exists to confirm or quantify improvement in trough level, particularly for low-dose prophylaxis in patients with haemophilia A. To provide evidence that low dose daily (ED) prophylaxis can increase trough levels without increasing FVIII consumption compared to every-other-day (EOD) infusion. A cross-over study on 5 IU kg -1 FVIII daily vs. 10 IU kg -1 EOD infusions, each for 14 days was conducted at the PUMCH-HTC. On the ED schedule, trough (immediate prior to infusion), and peak FVIII:C levels (30 min after infusion) were measured on days 1-5; and trough levels alone on days 7, 9, 11 and 13. For the EOD schedule, troughs, peaks and 4-h postinfusion were measured on day 1; troughs and peaks on days 3, 5, and 7; troughs alone on days 9, 11 and 13 and 24-h postinfusion on days 2, 4 and 6. FVIII inhibitors were assessed on days 0 and 14 during both infusion schedules. Six patients were enrolled. PK evidence showed that daily prophylaxis achieved higher (~2 times) steady-state FVIII trough levels compared to EOD with the same total factor consumption. The daily prophylaxis had good acceptability among patients and reduced chronic pain in the joints in some patients. Our PK study shows low-dose factor VIII daily infusion results in higher trough level than with EOD infusion with similar factor VIII consumption in Chinese adult haemophilia A patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Similarities of lean manufacturing approaches implementation in SMEs towards the success: Case study in the automotive component industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose A.N.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, manufacturing companies are striving for a better system like lean manufacturing (LM. The primary objective of LM is to identify and eliminate wastes. LM can be applied successfully in all industries providing a full understanding of lean ingredients i.e. concept, principles, and practices. There are a lot of practices which are necessary to be implemented in order to gain full benefits of LM. However, small and medium enterprises (SMEs are lack of knowledge in LM and facing difficulties to adopt all of the LM principles. Therefore, it is necessary to the researchers to come out with a simple guideline for LM implementation. The objective of this paper is to explore the journey of LM implementation including preliminary, in process and post of LM. This research was conducted through multi-case study research. There were four SMEs and two large companies. The gathered information shows that the preliminary stage of LM implementation is similar to each other including large companies. The result shows SMEs still have a potential to success in LM. This finding might give an opportunity to SMEs to prepare the basis for LM implementation effectively. As a result, SMEs able compete in the competitive global marketplace and strive for world class performance through implementation of LM.

  10. Assessing intrinsic and specific vulnerability models ability to indicate groundwater vulnerability to groups of similar pesticides: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Steven; Dixon, Barnali; Griffin, Dale W.

    2018-01-01

    With continued population growth and increasing use of fresh groundwater resources, protection of this valuable resource is critical. A cost effective means to assess risk of groundwater contamination potential will provide a useful tool to protect these resources. Integrating geospatial methods offers a means to quantify the risk of contaminant potential in cost effective and spatially explicit ways. This research was designed to compare the ability of intrinsic (DRASTIC) and specific (Attenuation Factor; AF) vulnerability models to indicate groundwater vulnerability areas by comparing model results to the presence of pesticides from groundwater sample datasets. A logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between the environmental variables and the presence or absence of pesticides within regions of varying vulnerability. According to the DRASTIC model, more than 20% of the study area is very highly vulnerable. Approximately 30% is very highly vulnerable according to the AF model. When groundwater concentrations of individual pesticides were compared to model predictions, the results were mixed. Model predictability improved when concentrations of the group of similar pesticides were compared to model results. Compared to the DRASTIC model, the AF model more accurately predicts the distribution of the number of contaminated wells within each vulnerability class.

  11. Adjacent level effects of bi level disc replacement, bi level fusion and disc replacement plus fusion in cervical spine--a finite element based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizan, Ahmad; Goel, Vijay K; Biyani, Ashok; Garfin, Steven R; Bono, Christopher M

    2012-03-01

    Studies delineating the adjacent level effect of single level disc replacement systems have been reported in literature. The aim of this study was to compare the adjacent level biomechanics of bi-level disc replacement, bi-level fusion and a construct having adjoining level disc replacement and fusion system. In total, biomechanics of four models- intact, bi level disc replacement, bi level fusion and fusion plus disc replacement at adjoining levels- was studied to gain insight into the effects of various instrumentation systems on cranial and caudal adjacent levels using finite element analysis (73.6N+varying moment). The bi-level fusion models are more than twice as stiff as compared to the intact model during flexion-extension, lateral bending and axial rotation. Bi-level disc replacement model required moments lower than intact model (1.5Nm). Fusion plus disc replacement model required moment 10-25% more than intact model, except in extension. Adjacent level motions, facet loads and endplate stresses increased substantially in the bi-level fusion model. On the other hand, adjacent level motions, facet loads and endplate stresses were similar to intact for the bi-level disc replacement model. For the fusion plus disc replacement model, adjacent level motions, facet loads and endplate stresses were closer to intact model rather than the bi-level fusion model, except in extension. Based on our finite element analysis, fusion plus disc replacement procedure has less severe biomechanical effects on adjacent levels when compared to bi-level fusion procedure. Bi-level disc replacement procedure did not have any adverse mechanical effects on adjacent levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Study of the temperature dependence of the uniaxial creep property of similar material of new soft rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. Y.; Wu, Y.; Fan, X. Y.; Zhang, J. L.; Guo, P.; Li, J. G.

    2017-11-01

    Using the experimental method, the experimental research of creep properties were conducted under different temperature ranging from 10°C to 60°C. The similar material of new soft rock consists of paraffin, which can obtain that the deformation contains the instantaneous elastic deformation and creep deformation through the uniaxial creep experimental results. And thus the increase of temperature has great influence on the creep characteristics of similar soft rock according to the creep curve of similar soft rock at 10°C to 60°C. With the increase of temperature, the slope of the stress-strain curve of similar soft rock is increasing, while the average of the creep modulus is decreasing, which means that the capacity of resist deformation is reduced. Therefore, the creeps law of high-temperature and short-time can be shown the creep phenomenon of low-temperature and long-time, and further shorten the creep experimental cycle.

  13. Similarities and differences between continuous sedation until death and euthanasia - professional caregivers' attitudes and experiences: A focus group study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anquinet, L.; Raus, K.; Sterckx, S.; Smets, T.; Deliens, L.; Rietjens, J.A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: According to various guidelines about continuous sedation until death, this practice can and should be clearly distinguished from euthanasia, which is legalized in Belgium. Aim: To explore professional caregivers perceptions of the similarities and differences between continuous sedation

  14. Comparative study of adipose-derived stem cells and bone marrow-derived stem cells in similar microenvironmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guneta, Vipra [Division of Materials Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Tan, Nguan Soon [School of Biological Science, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); KK Research Centre, KK Women' s and Children Hospital, 100 Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 229899 (Singapore); Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Agency for Science Technology & Research - A*STAR, 61 Biopolis Drive, Proteos, Singapore 138673 (Singapore); Chan, Soon Kiat Jeremy [School of Biological Science, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); Tanavde, Vivek [Bioinformatics Institute, Agency for Science Technology & Research - A*STAR, 30 Biopolis Street, Matrix, Singapore 138671 (Singapore); Lim, Thiam Chye [Division of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Department of Surgery, National University Hospital (NUH) and National University of Singapore (NUS), Kent Ridge Wing, Singapore 119074 (Singapore); Wong, Thien Chong Marcus [Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery Section, Tan Tock Seng Hospital (TTSH), 11, Jalan Tan Tock Seng, Singapore 308433 (Singapore); Choong, Cleo, E-mail: cleochoong@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Materials Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); KK Research Centre, KK Women' s and Children Hospital, 100 Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 229899 (Singapore)

    2016-11-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which were first isolated from the bone marrow, are now being extracted from various other tissues in the body, including the adipose tissue. The current study presents systematic evidence of how the adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Bm-MSCs) behave when cultured in specific pro-adipogenic microenvironments. The cells were first characterized and identified as MSCs in terms of their morphology, phenotypic expression, self-renewal capabilities and multi-lineage potential. Subsequently, the proliferation and gene expression profiles of the cell populations cultured on two-dimensional (2D) adipose tissue extracellular matrix (ECM)-coated tissue culture plastic (TCP) and in three-dimensional (3D) AlgiMatrix® microenvironments were analyzed. Overall, it was found that adipogenesis was triggered in both cell populations due to the presence of adipose tissue ECM. However, in 3D microenvironments, ASCs and Bm-MSCs were predisposed to the adipogenic and osteogenic lineages respectively. Overall, findings from this study will contribute to ongoing efforts in adipose tissue engineering as well as provide new insights into the role of the ECM and cues provided by the immediate microenvironment for stem cell differentiation. - Highlights: • Native adipose tissue ECM coated on 2D TCP triggers adipogenesis in both ASCs and Bm-MSCs. • A 3D microenvironment with similar stiffness to adipose tissue induces adipogenic differentiation of ASCs. • ASCs cultured in 3D alginate scaffolds exhibit predisposition to adipogenesis. • Bm-MSCs cultured in 3D alginate scaffolds exhibit predisposition to osteogenesis. • The native microenvironment of the cells affects their differentiation behaviour in vitro.

  15. Comparative study of adipose-derived stem cells and bone marrow-derived stem cells in similar microenvironmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guneta, Vipra; Tan, Nguan Soon; Chan, Soon Kiat Jeremy; Tanavde, Vivek; Lim, Thiam Chye; Wong, Thien Chong Marcus; Choong, Cleo

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which were first isolated from the bone marrow, are now being extracted from various other tissues in the body, including the adipose tissue. The current study presents systematic evidence of how the adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Bm-MSCs) behave when cultured in specific pro-adipogenic microenvironments. The cells were first characterized and identified as MSCs in terms of their morphology, phenotypic expression, self-renewal capabilities and multi-lineage potential. Subsequently, the proliferation and gene expression profiles of the cell populations cultured on two-dimensional (2D) adipose tissue extracellular matrix (ECM)-coated tissue culture plastic (TCP) and in three-dimensional (3D) AlgiMatrix® microenvironments were analyzed. Overall, it was found that adipogenesis was triggered in both cell populations due to the presence of adipose tissue ECM. However, in 3D microenvironments, ASCs and Bm-MSCs were predisposed to the adipogenic and osteogenic lineages respectively. Overall, findings from this study will contribute to ongoing efforts in adipose tissue engineering as well as provide new insights into the role of the ECM and cues provided by the immediate microenvironment for stem cell differentiation. - Highlights: • Native adipose tissue ECM coated on 2D TCP triggers adipogenesis in both ASCs and Bm-MSCs. • A 3D microenvironment with similar stiffness to adipose tissue induces adipogenic differentiation of ASCs. • ASCs cultured in 3D alginate scaffolds exhibit predisposition to adipogenesis. • Bm-MSCs cultured in 3D alginate scaffolds exhibit predisposition to osteogenesis. • The native microenvironment of the cells affects their differentiation behaviour in vitro.

  16. A study of the predictive model on the user reaction time using the information amount and similarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sungjin; Heo, Gyunyoung; Chang, S.H.

    2004-01-01

    Human operations through a user interface are divided into two types. The one is the single operation that is performed on a static interface. The other is the sequential operation that achieves a goal by handling several displays through operator's navigation in the crt-based console. Sequential operation has similar meaning with continuous task. Most operations in recently developed computer applications correspond to the sequential operation, and the single operation can be considered as a part of the sequential operation. In the area of HCI (human computer interaction) evaluation, the Hick-Hyman law counts as the most powerful theory. The most important factor in the equation of Hick-Hyman law about choice reaction time is the quantified amount of information conveyed by a statement, stimulus, or event. Generally, we can expect that if there are some similarities between a series of interfaces, human operator is able to use his attention resource effectively. That is the performance of human operator is increased by the similarity. The similarity may be able to affect the allocation of attention resource based on separate STSS (short-term sensory store) and long-term memory. There are theories related with this concept, which are task switching paradigm and the law of practice. However, it is not easy to explain the human operator performance with only the similarity or the information amount. There are few theories to explain the performance with the combination of the similarity and the information amount. The objective of this paper is to purpose and validate the quantitative and predictive model on the user reaction time in CRT-based displays. Another objective is to validate various theories related with human cognition and perception, which are Hick-Hyman law and the law of practice as representative theories. (author)

  17. Similarity or difference?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Anders Ryom

    2013-01-01

    While the organizational structures and strategies of public organizations have attracted substantial research attention among public management scholars, little research has explored how these organizational core dimensions are interconnected and influenced by pressures for similarity....... In this paper I address this topic by exploring the relation between expenditure strategy isomorphism and structure isomorphism in Danish municipalities. Different literatures suggest that organizations exist in concurrent pressures for being similar to and different from other organizations in their field......-shaped relation exists between expenditure strategy isomorphism and structure isomorphism in a longitudinal quantitative study of Danish municipalities....

  18. A Comparison of the Developmental Experiences of Elite and Sub-Elite Swimmers: Similar Developmental Histories Can Lead to Differences in Performance Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael B.; Tenenbaum, Gershon; Edmonds, William A.; Castillo, Yvonne

    2008-01-01

    The current study fills a void in the literature that investigates the factors required for elite athlete development. Previous studies have (a) illustrated psychological and physiological differences between elites and non-elites; "or" (b) described the psychological and physiological developmental experiences of elite performers. The…

  19. Differences and similarities on neuronal activities of people being happily and unhappily in love: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoessel, Christina; Stiller, Juliane; Bleich, Stefan; Bönsch, Dominikus; Boensch, Dominikus; Doerfler, Arnd; Garcia, Meritxell; Richter-Schmidinger, Tanja; Kornhuber, Johannes; Forster, Clemens

    2011-01-01

    Brain activity was studied in grief following frustrated love compared to romantic love, and it was hypothesized that unhappy lovers compared to happy lovers would have decreased brain activity in regions specific to emotional and reward circuits, such as frontal brain areas, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), bilateral insula or posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Twelve volunteers intensely in love and 12 volunteers recently separated from their romantic partners were scanned performing 3 runs of functional magnetic resonance imaging acquisition. Subjects viewed partner pictures versus erotic pictures during the first run of the scanning process, autobiographical pictures versus neutral pictures during the second and autobiographical texts versus neutral texts during the third run. The Passionate Love Scale (PLS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were additionally recorded. Decreased brain activity in unhappy lovers compared to happy lovers occurred in frontal areas, ACC and PCC and bilateral insula. Unhappy lovers also revealed clinical depressive symptoms in the BDI. Unhappy lovers compared to happy lovers exhibited clinical depressive symptoms and reduced blood oxygen level dependency changes in a brain network which has been described as being involved in major depression. This might be a cue for the close relationship between grief and depression. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Similar associations between personality dimensions and anxiety or depressive disorders in a population study of Turkish-Dutch, Moroccan-Dutch, and native Dutch subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrier, Agnes C; de Wit, Matty A S; Krol, Anneke; Fassaert, Thijs J L; Verhoeff, Arnoud P; Kupka, Ralph W; Dekker, Jack; Beekman, Aartjan T F

    2013-05-01

    It is well established that personality traits are associated with anxiety and depressive disorders in Western populations, but it is not known whether this is true also for people from non-Western cultures. In this study, we examined whether ethnicity moderates the association between personality dimensions and anxiety or depressive disorders or symptoms. In a random urban population sample, stratified by ethnicity, in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, we interviewed 309 native Dutch subjects, 203 Turkish-Dutch subjects, and 170 Moroccan-Dutch subjects. Dimensions of personality were measured using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. Anxiety and depressive disorders and symptom levels were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. The association between personality factors and disorders or symptoms of anxiety and depression was very similar in the three ethnic groups: all show the typical profile of high neuroticism and low extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness.

  1. Wound healing delays in α-Klotho-deficient mice that have skin appearance similar to that in aged humans - Study of delayed wound healing mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Makoto; Hirohashi, Yoshihiko; Torigoe, Toshihiko; Matsumoto, Yoshitaka; Yamashita, Ken; Kayama, Musashi; Sato, Noriyuki; Yotsuyanagi, Takatoshi

    2016-05-13

    Skin atrophy and delayed wound healing are observed in aged humans; however, the molecular mechanism are still elusive. The aim of this study was to analyze the molecular mechanisms of delayed wound healing by aging using α-Klotho-deficient (kl/kl) mice, which have phenotypes similar to those of aged humans. The kl/kl mice showed delayed wound healing and impaired granulation formation compared with those in wild-type (WT) mice. The skin graft experiments revealed that delayed wound healing depends on humoral factors, but not on kl/kl skin tissue. The mRNA expression levels of cytokines related to acute inflammation including IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were higher in wound lesions of kl/kl mice compared with the levels in WT mice by RT-PCR analysis. LPS-induced TNF-α production model using spleen cells revealed that TNF-α production was significantly increased in the presence of FGF23. Thus, higher levels of FGF23 in kl/kl mouse may have a role to increase TNF-α production in would lesion independently of α-Klotho protein, and impair granulation formation and delay wound healing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Is the rate of medical publication from Israel similar to other countries? A comparative study of three medical specialties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zer, Matan; Lindner, Arie; Greenstein, Alexander; Leibovici, Dan

    2011-07-01

    Academic careers of individual doctors are commonly evaluated by examining the number and quality of authored publications. Similarly, the extent and quality of medical research may be assessed nationwide by measuring the number of publications originating from the country of interest over time. This in turn, may indicate on the quality of medicine practiced. To evaluate the extent and quality of IsraeLi publications we measured the rate and quality of medical publications originating from Israel for two decades in the fields of urology, cardiology and orthopedics, and compared the data to those of other countries. Leading journals in urology, cardiology, and orthopedics were selected. A Medline search (http://www.ncbi.ntm.nih.gov/sites/entrez] was conducted for all the publications originating in Israel between the years 1990-2009 in the selected journals. Data from Israel was compared to those from Italy, France, Germany, Egypt and Turkey. The change in rate of publications was tested using Linear regression. The quality of publications was calculated by multiplying the number of publications by the relevant impact factor. While the urology publications rate in Israel increased by 32.7% in the second study decade as compared with the first, the urology publication rates during the same time period from Italy, France, Germany, Egypt and Turkey were 199%, 115%, 184%, 180% and 227% respectively. The regression coefficient for the urology publication rate was 0.51 for Israel, and 0.78, 0.95, 0.78, 0.87 and 0.97 for the other countries, respectively. The regression coefficient for the change in the quality of publications from Israel was 0.31 and 0.81, 0.75, 0.92, 0.73, and 0.92 for the other countries, respectively. In cardiology, the Israeli publication rate increased by 26% during the second study decade, whereas in the other countries the increments were 46%, 35%, 76%, 80% and 309% respectively. The regression coefficient for Israeli pubLication rate was 0.45, and

  3. Assessing the similarity of mental models of operating room team members and implications for patient safety: a prospective, replicated study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakarada-Kordic, Ivana; Weller, Jennifer M; Webster, Craig S; Cumin, David; Frampton, Christopher; Boyd, Matt; Merry, Alan F

    2016-08-31

    Patient safety depends on effective teamwork. The similarity of team members' mental models - or their shared understanding-regarding clinical tasks is likely to influence the effectiveness of teamwork. Mental models have not been measured in the complex, high-acuity environment of the operating room (OR), where professionals of different backgrounds must work together to achieve the best surgical outcome for each patient. Therefore, we aimed to explore the similarity of mental models of task sequence and of responsibility for task within multidisciplinary OR teams. We developed a computer-based card sorting tool (Momento) to capture the information on mental models in 20 six-person surgical teams, each comprised of three subteams (anaesthesia, surgery, and nursing) for two simulated laparotomies. Team members sorted 20 cards depicting key tasks according to when in the procedure each task should be performed, and which subteam was primarily responsible for each task. Within each OR team and subteam, we conducted pairwise comparisons of scores to arrive at mean similarity scores for each task. Mean similarity score for task sequence was 87 % (range 57-97 %). Mean score for responsibility for task was 70 % (range = 38-100 %), but for half of the tasks was only 51 % (range = 38-69 %). Participants believed their own subteam was primarily responsible for approximately half the tasks in each procedure. We found differences in the mental models of some OR team members about responsibility for and order of certain tasks in an emergency laparotomy. Momento is a tool that could help elucidate and better align the mental models of OR team members about surgical procedures and thereby improve teamwork and outcomes for patients.

  4. A Study of Wavelet Analysis and Data Extraction from Second-Order Self-Similar Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo Estrada Vargas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Statistical analysis and synthesis of self-similar discrete time signals are presented. The analysis equation is formally defined through a special family of basis functions of which the simplest case matches the Haar wavelet. The original discrete time series is synthesized without loss by a linear combination of the basis functions after some scaling, displacement, and phase shift. The decomposition is then used to synthesize a new second-order self-similar signal with a different Hurst index than the original. The components are also used to describe the behavior of the estimated mean and variance of self-similar discrete time series. It is shown that the sample mean, although it is unbiased, provides less information about the process mean as its Hurst index is higher. It is also demonstrated that the classical variance estimator is biased and that the widely accepted aggregated variance-based estimator of the Hurst index results biased not due to its nature (which is being unbiased and has minimal variance but to flaws in its implementation. Using the proposed decomposition, the correct estimation of the Variance Plot is described, as well as its close association with the popular Logscale Diagram.

  5. Consortium study of lunar meteorites Yamato-793169 and Asuka-881757: Geochemical evidence of mutual similarity, and dissimilarity versus other mare basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Paul H.; Lindstrom, Marilyn M.

    1993-01-01

    Compositions of bulk powders and separated minerals from two meteorites derived from the mare lava plains of the Earth's Moon, Yamato-793169 and Asuka-881757, indicate a remarkable degree of similarity to one another, and clearly favor lunar origin. However, these meteorites are unlike any previously studied lunar rock. In both cases, the bulk-rock TiO2 content is slightly greater than the level separating VLT from low-Ti mare basalt, yet the Sc content is much higher than previously observed except among high-Ti mare basalts. Conceivably, the Sc enrichment in A881757 reflects origin of this rock as a cumulate from a mare magma of 'normal' Sc content, but this seems unlikely. Mineral-separate data suggest that most of the Sc is in pyroxene, and a variety of evidence weighs against the cumulus hypothesis as a major cause for the high Sc. The remarkable similarity between Y793169 and A881757 suggests the possibility that they were derived from a single source crater on the Moon.

  6. Native whey protein with high levels of leucine results in similar post-exercise muscular anabolic responses as regular whey protein: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamarsland, Håvard; Nordengen, Anne Lene; Nyvik Aas, Sigve; Holte, Kristin; Garthe, Ina; Paulsen, Gøran; Cotter, Matthew; Børsheim, Elisabet; Benestad, Haakon B; Raastad, Truls

    2017-01-01

    Protein intake is essential to maximally stimulate muscle protein synthesis, and the amino acid leucine seems to possess a superior effect on muscle protein synthesis compared to other amino acids. Native whey has higher leucine content and thus a potentially greater anabolic effect on muscle than regular whey (WPC-80). This study compared the acute anabolic effects of ingesting 2 × 20 g of native whey protein, WPC-80 or milk protein after a resistance exercise session. A total of 24 young resistance trained men and women took part in this double blind, randomized, partial crossover, controlled study. Participants received either WPC-80 and native whey ( n  = 10), in a crossover design, or milk ( n  = 12). Supplements were ingested immediately (20 g) and two hours after (20 g) a bout of heavy-load lower body resistance exercise. Blood samples and muscle biopsies were collected to measure plasma concentrations of amino acids by gas-chromatography mass spectrometry, muscle phosphorylation of p70S6K, 4E-BP1 and eEF-2 by immunoblotting, and mixed muscle protein synthesis by use of [ 2 H 5 ]phenylalanine-infusion, gas-chromatography mass spectrometry and isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Being the main comparison, differences between native whey and WPC-80 were analysed by a one-way ANOVA and comparisons between the whey supplements and milk were analysed by a two-way ANOVA. Native whey increased blood leucine concentrations more than WPC-80 and milk ( P  whey ingestion induced a greater phosphorylation of p70S6K than milk 180 min after exercise ( P  = 0.03). Muscle protein synthesis rates increased 1-3 h hours after exercise with WPC-80 (0.119%), and 1-5 h after exercise with native whey (0.112%). Muscle protein synthesis rates were higher 1-5 h after exercise with native whey than with milk (0.112% vs. 0.064, P  = 0.023). Despite higher-magnitude increases in blood leucine concentrations with native whey, it was not superior to WPC-80

  7. Clinical phenotype-based gene prioritization: an initial study using semantic similarity and the human phenotype ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masino, Aaron J; Dechene, Elizabeth T; Dulik, Matthew C; Wilkens, Alisha; Spinner, Nancy B; Krantz, Ian D; Pennington, Jeffrey W; Robinson, Peter N; White, Peter S

    2014-07-21

    Exome sequencing is a promising method for diagnosing patients with a complex phenotype. However, variant interpretation relative to patient phenotype can be challenging in some scenarios, particularly clinical assessment of rare complex phenotypes. Each patient's sequence reveals many possibly damaging variants that must be individually assessed to establish clear association with patient phenotype. To assist interpretation, we implemented an algorithm that ranks a given set of genes relative to patient phenotype. The algorithm orders genes by the semantic similarity computed between phenotypic descriptors associated with each gene and those describing the patient. Phenotypic descriptor terms are taken from the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) and semantic similarity is derived from each term's information content. Model validation was performed via simulation and with clinical data. We simulated 33 Mendelian diseases with 100 patients per disease. We modeled clinical conditions by adding noise and imprecision, i.e. phenotypic terms unrelated to the disease and terms less specific than the actual disease terms. We ranked the causative gene against all 2488 HPO annotated genes. The median causative gene rank was 1 for the optimal and noise cases, 12 for the imprecision case, and 60 for the imprecision with noise case. Additionally, we examined a clinical cohort of subjects with hearing impairment. The disease gene median rank was 22. However, when also considering the patient's exome data and filtering non-exomic and common variants, the median rank improved to 3. Semantic similarity can rank a causative gene highly within a gene list relative to patient phenotype characteristics, provided that imprecision is mitigated. The clinical case results suggest that phenotype rank combined with variant analysis provides significant improvement over the individual approaches. We expect that this combined prioritization approach may increase accuracy and decrease effort for

  8. Antimalarial activity of synthetic 1,2,4-trioxanes and cyclic peroxy ketals, a quantum similarity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gironés, X.; Gallegos, A.; Carbó-Dorca, R.

    2001-12-01

    In this work, the antimalarial activity of two series of 20 and 7 synthetic 1,2,4-trioxanes and a set of 20 cyclic peroxy ketals are tested for correlation search by means of Molecular Quantum Similarity Measures (MQSM). QSAR models, dealing with different biological responses (IC90, IC50 and ED90) of the parasite Plasmodium Falciparum, are constructed using MQSM as molecular descriptors and are satisfactorily correlated. The statistical results of the 20 1,2,4-trioxanes are deeply analyzed to elucidate the relevant structural features in the biological activity, revealing the importance of phenyl substitutions.

  9. Differences and similarities in the trajectories of self-esteem and positive and negative affect in persons with chronic illness: an explorative longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsaksen, Tore; Lerdal, Anners; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Fagermoen, May Solveig

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic illness is a risk factor for low self-esteem, and the research literature needs to include more studies of self-esteem and its development in chronic illness groups using longitudinal and comparative designs. The aim of this study was to explore the trajectories of self-esteem and of positive and negative affect in persons with morbid obesity and in persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods Patient education course attendants in Norway having morbid obesity (n=139) or COPD (n=97) participated in the study. Data concerning self-esteem, positive and negative affect, and sociodemographic background were collected at the start and at the end of the patient education, with subsequent follow-ups at 3, 6, and 12 months. Data were analyzed using linear mixed models for repeated measures. Results Taking all measurements into account, our data revealed a statistically significant increase in self-esteem for participants with morbid obesity but not for those with COPD. There were no significant differences in levels of negative and positive affect between the two groups, and the time-trajectories were also similar. However, participants in both groups achieved lower levels of negative affect for all the successive measurement points. Conclusion An increase in self-esteem during the first year after the patient education course was observed for persons with morbid obesity, but not for persons with COPD. Initial higher levels of self-esteem in the participants with COPD may indicate that they are less troubled with low self-esteem than people with morbid obesity are. The pattern of reduced negative affect for both groups during follow-up is promising. PMID:27574438

  10. Differences and similarities in the trajectories of self-esteem and positive and negative affect in persons with chronic illness: an explorative longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsaksen, Tore; Lerdal, Anners; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Fagermoen, May Solveig

    2016-01-01

    Chronic illness is a risk factor for low self-esteem, and the research literature needs to include more studies of self-esteem and its development in chronic illness groups using longitudinal and comparative designs. The aim of this study was to explore the trajectories of self-esteem and of positive and negative affect in persons with morbid obesity and in persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Patient education course attendants in Norway having morbid obesity (n=139) or COPD (n=97) participated in the study. Data concerning self-esteem, positive and negative affect, and sociodemographic background were collected at the start and at the end of the patient education, with subsequent follow-ups at 3, 6, and 12 months. Data were analyzed using linear mixed models for repeated measures. Taking all measurements into account, our data revealed a statistically significant increase in self-esteem for participants with morbid obesity but not for those with COPD. There were no significant differences in levels of negative and positive affect between the two groups, and the time-trajectories were also similar. However, participants in both groups achieved lower levels of negative affect for all the successive measurement points. An increase in self-esteem during the first year after the patient education course was observed for persons with morbid obesity, but not for persons with COPD. Initial higher levels of self-esteem in the participants with COPD may indicate that they are less troubled with low self-esteem than people with morbid obesity are. The pattern of reduced negative affect for both groups during follow-up is promising.

  11. Accident data study of concrete construction companies' similarities and differences between qualified and non-qualified workers in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Arquillos, Antonio; Rubio-Romero, Juan Carlos; Gibb, Alistair

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss findings from an analysis of accidents in concrete construction companies in Spain and to compare the accident rates of qualified and non-qualified workers. A total of 125,021 accidents between 2003 and 2008 involving both blue-collar and white-collar workers were analysed, comparing the variables of occupation, age, company staff, length of service, location of the accident, together with the severity of the accidents. Results showed that lack of experience in the first month is more significant in non-qualified workers and experienced supervisors and that head injuries are more likely to lead to fatalities. The most remarkable similarity was that fatal accidents to and from the worksite are a problem common to both groups of workers.

  12. Exploring men's and women's experiences of depression and engagement with health professionals: more similarities than differences? A qualitative interview study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziebland Sue

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is argued that the ways in which women express emotional distress mean that they are more likely to be diagnosed with depression, while men's relative lack of articulacy means their depression is hidden. This may have consequences for communicating with health professionals. The purpose of this analysis was to explore how men and women with depression articulate their emotional distress, and examine whether there are gender differences or similarities in the strategies that respondents found useful when engaging with health professionals. Methods In-depth qualitative interviews with 22 women and 16 men in the UK who identified themselves as having had depression, recruited through general practitioners, psychiatrists and support groups. Results We found gender similarities and gender differences in our sample. Both men and women found it difficult to recognise and articulate mental health problems and this had consequences for their ability to communicate with health professionals. Key gender differences noted were that men tended to value skills which helped them to talk while women valued listening skills in health professionals, and that men emphasised the importance of getting practical results from talking therapies in their narratives, as opposed to other forms of therapy which they conceptualised as 'just talking'. We also found diversity among women and among men; some respondents valued a close personal relationship with health professionals, while others felt that this personal relationship was a barrier to communication and preferred 'talking to a stranger'. Conclusion Our findings suggest that there is not a straightforward relationship between gender and engagement with health professionals for people with depression. Health professionals need to be sensitive to patients who have difficulties in expressing emotional distress and critical of gender stereotypes which suggest that women invariably find it easy to

  13. Atomic level characterization in corrosion studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Philippe; Maurice, Vincent

    2017-06-01

    Atomic level characterization brings fundamental insight into the mechanisms of self-protection against corrosion of metals and alloys by oxide passive films and into how localized corrosion is initiated on passivated metal surfaces. This is illustrated in this overview with selected data obtained at the subnanometre, i.e. atomic or molecular, scale and also at the nanometre scale on single-crystal copper, nickel, chromium and stainless steel surfaces passivated in well-controlled conditions and analysed in situ and/or ex situ by scanning tunnelling microscopy/spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. A selected example of corrosion modelling by ab initio density functional theory is also presented. The discussed aspects include the surface reconstruction induced by hydroxide adsorption and formation of two-dimensional (hydr)oxide precursors, the atomic structure, orientation and surface hydroxylation of three-dimensional ultrathin oxide passive films, the effect of grain boundaries in polycrystalline passive films acting as preferential sites of passivity breakdown, the differences in local electronic properties measured at grain boundaries of passive films and the role of step edges at the exposed surface of oxide grains on the dissolution of the passive film. This article is part of the themed issue 'The challenges of hydrogen and metals'.

  14. Infertile women below the age of 40 have similar anti-Müllerian hormone levels and antral follicle count compared with women of the same age with no history of infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvidman, H W; Bentzen, J G; Thuesen, L L; Lauritsen, M P; Forman, J L; Loft, A; Pinborg, A; Nyboe Andersen, A

    2016-05-01

    Do infertile patients below the age of 40 years have a lower ovarian reserve, estimated by anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and total antral follicle count (AFC), than women of the same age with no history of infertility? Serum AMH and AFC were not lower in infertile patients aged 20-39 years compared with a control group of the same age with no history of infertility. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY?: The management of patients with a low ovarian reserve and a poor response to controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) remains a challenge in assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Both AMH levels and AFC reflect the ovarian reserve and are valuable predictors of the ovarian response to exogenous gonadotrophins. However, there is a large inter-individual variation in the age-related depletion of the ovarian reserve and a broad variability in the levels of AMH and AFC compatible with conception. Women with an early depletion of the ovarian reserve may experience infertility as a consequence of postponement of childbearing. Thus, low ovarian reserve is considered to be overrepresented among infertile patients. A prospective cohort study including 382 women with a male partner referred to fertility treatment at Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark during 2011-2013 compared with a control group of 350 non-users of hormonal contraception with no history of infertility recruited during 2008-2010. Included patients and controls were aged 20-39 years. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome were excluded. On Cycle Days 2-5, AFC and ovarian volume were measured by transvaginal sonography, and serum levels of AMH, FSH and LH were assessed. Infertile patients had similar AMH levels (11%, 95% confidence interval (CI): -1;24%) and AFC (1%, 95% CI: -7;8%) compared with controls with no history of infertility in an age-adjusted linear regression analysis. The prevalence of very low AMH levels (<5 pmol/l) was similar in the two cohorts (age-adjusted odds ratio: 0.9, 95% CI: 0.5;1.7). The findings

  15. [Confidence interval or p-value--similarities and differences between two important methods of statistical inference of quantitative studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Gil

    2014-01-01

    Statistic significance, also known as p-value, and CI (Confidence Interval) are common statistics measures and are essential for the statistical analysis of studies in medicine and life sciences. These measures provide complementary information about the statistical probability and conclusions regarding the clinical significance of study findings. This article is intended to describe the methodologies, compare between the methods, assert their suitability for the different needs of study results analysis and to explain situations in which each method should be used.

  16. Increased alcohol consumption as a cause of alcoholism, without similar evidence for depression: a Mendelian randomization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne

    2015-04-01

    Increased alcohol consumption has been associated with depression and alcoholism, but whether these associations are causal remains unclear. We tested whether alcohol consumption is causally associated with depression and alcoholism. We included 78,154 men and women aged 20-100 years randomly selected in 1991-2010 from the general population of Copenhagen, Denmark, and genotyped 68,486 participants for two genetic variants in two alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes, ADH-1B (rs1229984) and ADH-1C (rs698). We performed observational and causal analyses using a Mendelian randomization design with antidepressant medication use and hospitalization/death, with depression and alcoholism as outcomes. In prospective analyses, the multifactorially adjusted hazard ratio for participants reporting >6 drinks/day vs participants reporting 0.1-1 drinks/day was 1.28 (95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.65) for prescription antidepressant use, with a corresponding hazard ratio of 0.80 (0.45-1.45) for hospitalization/death with depression and of 11.7 (8.77-15.6) for hospitalization/death with alcoholism. For hospitalization/death with alcoholism, instrumental variable analysis yielded a causal odds ratio of 28.6 (95 % confidence interval 6.47-126) for an increase of 1 drink/day estimated from the combined genotype combination, whereas the corresponding multifactorially adjusted observational odds ratio was 1.28 (1.25-1.31). Corresponding odds ratios were 1.11 (0.67-1.83) causal and 1.04 (1.03-1.06) observational for prescription antidepressant use, and 4.52 (0.99-20.5) causal and 0.98 (0.94-1.03) observational for hospitalization/death with depression. These data indicate that the association between increased alcohol consumption and alcoholism is causal, without similar strong evidence for depression. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  17. Differences and similarities in the trajectories of self-esteem and positive and negative affect in persons with chronic illness: an explorative longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonsaksen T

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Tore Bonsaksen,1 Anners Lerdal,2,3 Milada Cvancarova Småstuen,4 May Solveig Fagermoen3 1Department of Occupational Therapy, Prosthetics and Orthotics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Oslo, Norway; 2Research Department, Lovisenberg Diakonale Hospital, Oslo, Norway; 3Department of Nursing Science, Institute of Health and Society, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; 4Department of Nursing and Health Promotion, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Oslo, Norway Background: Chronic illness is a risk factor for low self-esteem, and the research literature needs to include more studies of self-esteem and its development in chronic illness groups using longitudinal and comparative designs. The aim of this study was to explore the trajectories of self-esteem and of positive and negative affect in persons with morbid obesity and in persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD.Methods: Patient education course attendants in Norway having morbid obesity (n=139 or COPD (n=97 participated in the study. Data concerning self-esteem, positive and negative affect, and sociodemographic background were collected at the start and at the end of the patient education, with subsequent follow-ups at 3, 6, and 12 months. Data were analyzed using linear mixed models for repeated measures.Results: Taking all measurements into account, our data revealed a statistically significant increase in self-esteem for participants with morbid obesity but not for those with COPD. There were no significant differences in levels of negative and positive affect between the two groups, and the time-trajectories were also similar. However, participants in both groups achieved lower levels of negative affect for all the successive measurement points.Conclusion: An increase in self-esteem during the first year after the patient education course was observed

  18. Similarities and differences in emotion regulation and psychopathology in Iranian and German school-children: A cross-cultural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloufar Tahmouresi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: A main result of the study showed that children in Iran report more internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Culture and emotional expression may explain differences between Iranian and German children. It seems to be difficult for young children in Iran to express themselves, this may be because they are expected to show respect to maintain harmony in the family.

  19. Similar and/or Different Writing Processes? A Study of Spanish Foreign Language and Heritage Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elola, Idoia; Mikulski, Ariana M.

    2016-01-01

    Following a cognitively-oriented framework, this study builds upon the authors' previous work (Elola and Mikulski 2013; Mikulski and Elola 2011), which analyzed writing processes (planning time, execution time, revision time), fluency, and accuracy of Spanish heritage language (SHL) learners when composing in English and in Spanish. By analyzing…

  20. Are women who work in bars, guesthouses and similar facilities a suitable study population for vaginal microbicide trials in Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Vallely

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A feasibility study was conducted to investigate whether an occupational at-risk cohort of women in Mwanza, Tanzania are a suitable study population for future phase III vaginal microbicide trials.1573 women aged 16-54 y working in traditional and modern bars, restaurants, hotels, guesthouses or as local food-handlers were enrolled at community-based reproductive health clinics, provided specimens for HIV/STI and pregnancy testing, and asked to attend three-monthly clinical follow-up visits for 12-months. HIV positive and negative women were eligible to enter the feasibility study and to receive free reproductive health services at any time. HIV prevalence at baseline was 26.5% (417/1573. HIV incidence among 1156 sero-negative women attending at baseline was 2.9/100PYs. Among 1020 HIV sero-negative, non-pregnant women, HIV incidence was 2.0/100PYs, HSV-2 incidence 12.7/100PYs and pregnancy rate 17.8/100PYs. Retention at three-months was 76.3% (778/1020. Among 771 HIV sero-negative, non-pregnant women attending at three-months, subsequent follow-up at 6, 9 and 12-months was 83.7%, 79.6%, and 72.1% respectively. Older women, those who had not moved home or changed their place of work in the last year, and women working in traditional bars or as local food handlers had the highest re-attendance.Women working in food outlets and recreational facilities in Tanzania and other parts of Africa may be a suitable study population for microbicide and other HIV prevention trials. Effective locally-appropriate strategies to address high pregnancy rates and early losses to follow-up are essential to minimise risk to clinical trials in these settings.

  1. Testing Self-Similarity Through Lamperti Transformations

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Myoungji

    2016-07-14

    Self-similar processes have been widely used in modeling real-world phenomena occurring in environmetrics, network traffic, image processing, and stock pricing, to name but a few. The estimation of the degree of self-similarity has been studied extensively, while statistical tests for self-similarity are scarce and limited to processes indexed in one dimension. This paper proposes a statistical hypothesis test procedure for self-similarity of a stochastic process indexed in one dimension and multi-self-similarity for a random field indexed in higher dimensions. If self-similarity is not rejected, our test provides a set of estimated self-similarity indexes. The key is to test stationarity of the inverse Lamperti transformations of the process. The inverse Lamperti transformation of a self-similar process is a strongly stationary process, revealing a theoretical connection between the two processes. To demonstrate the capability of our test, we test self-similarity of fractional Brownian motions and sheets, their time deformations and mixtures with Gaussian white noise, and the generalized Cauchy family. We also apply the self-similarity test to real data: annual minimum water levels of the Nile River, network traffic records, and surface heights of food wrappings. © 2016, International Biometric Society.

  2. New Similarity Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdani, Hossein; Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel; Kwasnicka, Halina

    2016-01-01

    spaces, in addition to their similarity in the vector space. Prioritized Weighted Feature Distance (PWFD) works similarly as WFD, but provides the ability to give priorities to desirable features. The accuracy of the proposed functions are compared with other similarity functions on several data sets....... Our results show that the proposed functions work better than other methods proposed in the literature....

  3. Phoneme Similarity and Confusability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, T.M.; Hahn, U.

    2005-01-01

    Similarity between component speech sounds influences language processing in numerous ways. Explanation and detailed prediction of linguistic performance consequently requires an understanding of these basic similarities. The research reported in this paper contrasts two broad classes of approach to the issue of phoneme similarity-theoretically…

  4. Similarities and differences of serotonin and its precursors in their interactions with model membranes studied by molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Irene; Martini, M. Florencia; Pickholz, Mónica

    2013-08-01

    In this work, we report a molecular dynamics (MD) simulations study of relevant biological molecules as serotonin (neutral and protonated) and its precursors, tryptophan and 5-hydroxy-tryptophan, in a fully hydrated bilayer of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidyl-choline (POPC). The simulations were carried out at the fluid lamellar phase of POPC at constant pressure and temperature conditions. Two guest molecules of each type were initially placed at the water phase. We have analyzed, the main localization, preferential orientation and specific interactions of the guest molecules within the bilayer. During the simulation run, the four molecules were preferentially found at the water-lipid interphase. We found that the interactions that stabilized the systems are essentially hydrogen bonds, salt bridges and cation-π. None of the guest molecules have access to the hydrophobic region of the bilayer. Besides, zwitterionic molecules have access to the water phase, while protonated serotonin is anchored in the interphase. Even taking into account that these simulations were done using a model membrane, our results suggest that the studied molecules could not cross the blood brain barrier by diffusion. These results are in good agreement with works that show that serotonin and Trp do not cross the BBB by simple diffusion.

  5. A Study of KHNP Nuclear Power Plant Technology Level Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seung Han; Lee, Sung Jin; Kim, Yo Han

    2016-01-01

    KHNP's 2030 mid and long term plan goal in technology field is securing global No. 1 NPP technology level. Quantifying technology level for this purpose, technology level at present should be surveyed. Technology level of South Korea has been surveyed by KISTEP (Korea Institute of S and T Evaluation and Planning) every two year but the technology level of KHNP has not been surveyed by any organization including KHNP itself. Also the size of technology surveyed by KISTEP was too broad to quantifying technology level of KHNP. In this paper, technology level of KHNP and South Korea are presented. In this study, NPP related technologies were divided into Level I and Level II technologies and conducted a survey for each Level II technologies using Delphi questionnaire survey that is widely used in technology level evaluation. The results of technology level and gap will be used from strategic point of view and also as a reference data for technology improvement planning

  6. A Study of KHNP Nuclear Power Plant Technology Level Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Seung Han; Lee, Sung Jin; Kim, Yo Han [KHNP, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    KHNP's 2030 mid and long term plan goal in technology field is securing global No. 1 NPP technology level. Quantifying technology level for this purpose, technology level at present should be surveyed. Technology level of South Korea has been surveyed by KISTEP (Korea Institute of S and T Evaluation and Planning) every two year but the technology level of KHNP has not been surveyed by any organization including KHNP itself. Also the size of technology surveyed by KISTEP was too broad to quantifying technology level of KHNP. In this paper, technology level of KHNP and South Korea are presented. In this study, NPP related technologies were divided into Level I and Level II technologies and conducted a survey for each Level II technologies using Delphi questionnaire survey that is widely used in technology level evaluation. The results of technology level and gap will be used from strategic point of view and also as a reference data for technology improvement planning.

  7. Similarities and Differences in Emotion Regulation and Psychopathology in Iranian and German School-children: A Cross-cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmouresi, Niloufar; Bender, Caroline; Schmitz, Julian; Baleshzar, Alireza; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2014-01-01

    Internalizing and externalizing disorders in children and adolescents have been described in many countries. This study was performed to better understand the effect of culture on emotion regulation, and aimed to identify the relationship between emotion regulation and psychopathology in children. Participants were 269 children from Iran and Germany who voluntarily agreed to participate. Groups were defined by cultural background, Participants completed the Children Emotion Management Scale (CEMS), Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ), and the Youth self-report YSF questionnaires. Data were analyzed using Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) with post-hoc Scheffe tests conducted to identify the exact nature of group differences. There were significant main effect of country (P Culture and emotional expression may explain differences between Iranian and German children. It seems to be difficult for young children in Iran to express themselves, this may be because they are expected to show respect to maintain harmony in the family.

  8. Similarities and differences between internationally adopted and nonadopted children in their toddler years: Outcomes from a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalen, Monica; Theie, Steinar

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we compare internationally adopted children's communication, gross motor development, temperament, and challenging behavior with the same characteristics in nonadopted children at age 24 and 36 months. At 24 months, adopted children lag behind in communication and in gross motor development. The adopted children are less active and show less physically challenging behavior. At age 36 months, most of these differences have diminished, but the adopted children still lag behind in communication. This is an important finding because communication skills in the toddler years are a crucial factor in children's attachment, social development, and later language and cognitive development. Looking at the overall outcomes during early toddler years, internationally adopted children are developing very well considering the preadoption adversity to which many of them have been exposed.

  9. Ontogenetic diet shifts and their incidence on ecological processes: a case study using two morphologically similar stoneflies (Plecoptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Céréghino, Régis

    2006-07-01

    Most ecological studies consider conspecific individuals as ecologically equivalent, assuming that inter-instar variation is weak and has a limited influence on functional processes. To test this assumption, we investigated the life history and trophic basis of production in two predatory stoneflies, Perlodes microcephalus and Isoperla acicularis, in a mountain stream. The variety of prey types increased with predator size. However, larvae started their development with a strictly phytophagous diet (3 months), then ingested both vegetal material and animal prey (2-3 months). Finally, larvae were strictly carnivorous when head width reached 1.1 mm. Young (herbivorous) I. acicularis larvae occurred from June to August. Young P. microcephalus larvae hatched in October, and were herbivorous until December, when I. acicularis larvae were omnivorous. Competition for animal prey was likely to occur in the spring, but P. microcephalus grew faster and emerged earlier. The cohort productions were mostly based on carnivory (78.7-90.7%), because most production occurred in later instars. Ontogenetic diet shifts could play a role in the structuring of species assemblages by adjusting species' requirements to the temporal dynamics of environmental conditions, including food availability and biotic interactions. However, their incidence on global processes is quantitatively limited, large individuals having the greatest impacts on the way energy flows.

  10. Audiologists' preferences for patient-centredness: a cross-sectional questionnaire study of cross-cultural differences and similarities among professionals in Portugal, India and Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchaiah, Vinaya; Gomersall, Philip A; Tomé, David; Ahmadi, Tayebeh; Krishna, Rajalakshmi

    2014-10-14

    Patient-centredness has become an important aspect of health service delivery; however, there are a limited number of studies that focus on this concept in the domain of hearing healthcare. The objective of this study was to examine and compare audiologists' preferences for patient-centredness in Portugal, India and Iran. The study used a cross-sectional survey design with audiologists recruited from three different countries. A total of 191 fully-completed responses were included in the analysis (55 from Portugal, 78 from India and 58 from Iran). The Patient-Practitioner Orientation Scale (PPOS). PPOS mean scores suggest that audiologists have a preference for patient-centredness (ie, mean of 3.6 in a 5-point scale). However, marked differences were observed between specific PPOS items suggesting these preferences vary across clinical situations. A significant level of difference (p<0.001) was found between audiologists' preferences for patient-centredness in three countries. Audiologists in Portugal had a greater preference for patient-centredness when compared to audiologists in India and Iran, although no significant differences were found in terms of age and duration of experience among these sample populations. There are differences and similarities in audiologists' preferences for patient-centredness among countries. These findings may have implications for the training of professionals and also for clinical practice in terms of optimising hearing healthcare across countries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Correlation between social proximity and mobility similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chao; Liu, Yiding; Huang, Junming; Rong, Zhihai; Zhou, Tao

    2017-09-20

    Human behaviors exhibit ubiquitous correlations in many aspects, such as individual and collective levels, temporal and spatial dimensions, content, social and geographical layers. With rich Internet data of online behaviors becoming available, it attracts academic interests to explore human mobility similarity from the perspective of social network proximity. Existent analysis shows a strong correlation between online social proximity and offline mobility similarity, namely, mobile records between friends are significantly more similar than between strangers, and those between friends with common neighbors are even more similar. We argue the importance of the number and diversity of common friends, with a counter intuitive finding that the number of common friends has no positive impact on mobility similarity while the diversity plays a key role, disagreeing with previous studies. Our analysis provides a novel view for better understanding the coupling between human online and offline behaviors, and will help model and predict human behaviors based on social proximity.

  12. Application of positron annihilation lifetime technique to the study of deep level transients in semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, A. H.; Shan, Y. Y.; Fung, S.; Beling, C. D.

    2002-03-01

    Unlike its conventional applications in lattice defect characterization, positron annihilation lifetime technique was applied to study temperature-dependent deep level transients in semiconductors. Defect levels in the band gap can be determined as they are determined by conventional deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) studies. The promising advantage of this application of positron annihilation over the conventional DLTS is that it could further extract extra microstructure information of deep-level defects, such as whether a deep level defect is vacancy related or not. A demonstration of EL2 defect level transient study in GaAs was shown and the EL2 level of 0.82±0.02 eV was obtained by a standard Arrhenius analysis, similar to that in conventional DLTS studies.

  13. A study of radon levels in NHS premises in affected areas around the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A.R.; Lewis, G.T.R.; Brennen, S.E.

    2002-01-01

    Radon gas contributes a significant fraction of the natural background radiation dose, and in some areas raised levels are found in buildings, both homes and the workplace. Different UK Action Levels apply to homes and the workplace, because of the diurnal variation of radon. This study reviews the results for a number of hospitals throughout England and Wales, and suggests that the likelihood of finding raised radon levels is similar in the workplace and homes in the same area. Radon measurements and consequent remediation of any raised levels are appropriate in all workplaces in radon Affected Areas with over 5% of houses above the UK domestic Action Level of 200 Bq m -3

  14. Study of nuclear level densities for exotic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasrabadi, M. N.; Sepiani, M.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear level density is one of the properties of nuclei with widespread applications in astrophysics and nuclear medicine. Since there has been little experimental and theoretical research on the study of nuclei which are far from stability line, studying nuclear level density for these nuclei is of crucial importance. Also, as nuclear level density is an important input for nuclear research codes, hence studying the methods for calculation of this parameter is essential. Besides introducing various methods and models for calculating nuclear level density for practical applications, we used exact spectra distribution (SPDM) for determining nuclear level density of two neutron and proton enriched exotic nuclei with the same mass number.

  15. Word-level prominence in Persian: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Vahid

    2017-12-01

    Previous literature on the phonetics of stress in Persian has reported that fundamental frequency is the only reliable acoustic correlate of stress, and that stressed and unstressed syllables are not differentiated from each other in the absence of accentuation. In this study, the effects of lexical stress on duration, overall intensity and spectral tilt were examined in Persian both in the accented and unaccented conditions. Results showed that syllable duration is consistently affected by stress in Persian in both the accented and unaccented conditions across all vowel types. Unlike duration, the results for overall intensity and spectral tilt were significant only in the accented condition, suggesting that measures of intensity are not a correlate of stress in Persian but they are mainly caused by the presence of a pitch movement. The findings are phonologically interpreted as suggesting that word-level prominence in Persian is typologically similar to 'stress accent' languages, in which multiple phonetic cues are used to signal the prominence contrast in the accented condition, and stressed and unstressed syllables are different from each other even when the word is not pitch-accented.

  16. Similarity Measure of Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine Labriji

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The topic of identifying the similarity of graphs was considered as highly recommended research field in the Web semantic, artificial intelligence, the shape recognition and information research. One of the fundamental problems of graph databases is finding similar graphs to a graph query. Existing approaches dealing with this problem are usually based on the nodes and arcs of the two graphs, regardless of parental semantic links. For instance, a common connection is not identified as being part of the similarity of two graphs in cases like two graphs without common concepts, the measure of similarity based on the union of two graphs, or the one based on the notion of maximum common sub-graph (SCM, or the distance of edition of graphs. This leads to an inadequate situation in the context of information research. To overcome this problem, we suggest a new measure of similarity between graphs, based on the similarity measure of Wu and Palmer. We have shown that this new measure satisfies the properties of a measure of similarities and we applied this new measure on examples. The results show that our measure provides a run time with a gain of time compared to existing approaches. In addition, we compared the relevance of the similarity values obtained, it appears that this new graphs measure is advantageous and  offers a contribution to solving the problem mentioned above.

  17. Processes of Similarity Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkey, Levi B.; Markman, Arthur B.

    2005-01-01

    Similarity underlies fundamental cognitive capabilities such as memory, categorization, decision making, problem solving, and reasoning. Although recent approaches to similarity appreciate the structure of mental representations, they differ in the processes posited to operate over these representations. We present an experiment that…

  18. Judgments of brand similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, THA; Wedel, M; Pieters, RGM; DeSarbo, WS

    This paper provides empirical insight into the way consumers make pairwise similarity judgments between brands, and how familiarity with the brands, serial position of the pair in a sequence, and the presentation format affect these judgments. Within the similarity judgment process both the

  19. Influence of Second Language Proficiency and Syntactic Structure Similarities on the Sensitivity and Processing of English Passive Sentence in Late Chinese-English Bilinguists: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xin; Wang, Pei

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the influence of L2 proficiency and syntactic similarity on English passive sentence processing, the present ERP study asked 40 late Chinese-English bilinguals (27 females and 13 males, mean age = 23.88) with high or intermediate L2 proficiency to read the sentences carefully and to indicate for each sentence whether or not it was…

  20. A Study of Students' Loneliness Levels and Their Attachment Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin Kiralp, F. Sülen; Serin, Nergüz B.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between loneliness levels and attachment styles of university students. In this research, it was investigated whether the attachment styles differed in terms of variables such as gender, class, place of stay, socio-economic level of their family, parental education levels, counterpart…

  1. Mobile Device Impairment ... Similar Problems, Similar Solutions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Simon; Yesilada, Yeliz; Chen, Tianyi

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have defined a new type of impairment in which an able-bodied user's behaviour is impaired by both the characteristics of a device and the environment in which it is used. This behavioural change is defined as a situationally-induced impairment and is often associated with small devices used in a mobile setting or constrained…

  2. The semantic similarity ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ballatore

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Computational measures of semantic similarity between geographic terms provide valuable support across geographic information retrieval, data mining, and information integration. To date, a wide variety of approaches to geo-semantic similarity have been devised. A judgment of similarity is not intrinsically right or wrong, but obtains a certain degree of cognitive plausibility, depending on how closely it mimics human behavior. Thus selecting the most appropriate measure for a specific task is a significant challenge. To address this issue, we make an analogy between computational similarity measures and soliciting domain expert opinions, which incorporate a subjective set of beliefs, perceptions, hypotheses, and epistemic biases. Following this analogy, we define the semantic similarity ensemble (SSE as a composition of different similarity measures, acting as a panel of experts having to reach a decision on the semantic similarity of a set of geographic terms. The approach is evaluated in comparison to human judgments, and results indicate that an SSE performs better than the average of its parts. Although the best member tends to outperform the ensemble, all ensembles outperform the average performance of each ensemble's member. Hence, in contexts where the best measure is unknown, the ensemble provides a more cognitively plausible approach.

  3. Low-Level Waste Drum Assay Intercomparison Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greutzmacher, K.; Kuzminski, J.; Myers, S. C.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear waste assay is an integral element of programs such as safeguards, waste management, and waste disposal. The majority of nuclear waste is packaged in drums and analyzed by various nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques to identify and quantify the radioactive content. Due to various regulations and the public interest in nuclear issues, the analytical results are required to be of high quality and supported by a rigorous Quality Assurance (QA) program. A valuable QA tool is an intercomparison program in which a known sample is analyzed by a number of different facilities. While transuranic waste (TRU) certified NDA teams are evaluated through the Performance Demonstration Program (PDP), low-level waste (LLW) assay specialists have not been afforded a similar opportunity. NDA specialists from throughout the DOE complex were invited to participate in this voluntary drum assay intercomparison study that was organized and facilitated by the Solid Waste Operations and the Safeguards Science and Technology groups at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and by Eberline Services. Each participating NDA team performed six replicate blind measurements of two 55-gallon drums with relatively low-density matrices (a 19.1 kg shredded paper matrix and a 54.4 kg mixed metal, rubber, paper and plastic matrix). This paper presents the results from this study, with an emphasis on discussing the lessons learned as well as desirable follow up programs for the future. The results will discuss the accuracy and precision of the replicate measurements for each NDA team as well as any issues that arose during the effort

  4. Gender similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2014-01-01

    Whether men and women are fundamentally different or similar has been debated for more than a century. This review summarizes major theories designed to explain gender differences: evolutionary theories, cognitive social learning theory, sociocultural theory, and expectancy-value theory. The gender similarities hypothesis raises the possibility of theorizing gender similarities. Statistical methods for the analysis of gender differences and similarities are reviewed, including effect sizes, meta-analysis, taxometric analysis, and equivalence testing. Then, relying mainly on evidence from meta-analyses, gender differences are reviewed in cognitive performance (e.g., math performance), personality and social behaviors (e.g., temperament, emotions, aggression, and leadership), and psychological well-being. The evidence on gender differences in variance is summarized. The final sections explore applications of intersectionality and directions for future research.

  5. Dynamic similarity in erosional processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, A.E.

    1963-01-01

    A study is made of the dynamic similarity conditions obtaining in a variety of erosional processes. The pertinent equations for each type of process are written in dimensionless form; the similarity conditions can then easily be deduced. The processes treated are: raindrop action, slope evolution and river erosion. ?? 1963 Istituto Geofisico Italiano.

  6. A COMPARISON OF SEMANTIC SIMILARITY MODELS IN EVALUATING CONCEPT SIMILARITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. X. Xu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The semantic similarities are important in concept definition, recognition, categorization, interpretation, and integration. Many semantic similarity models have been established to evaluate semantic similarities of objects or/and concepts. To find out the suitability and performance of different models in evaluating concept similarities, we make a comparison of four main types of models in this paper: the geometric model, the feature model, the network model, and the transformational model. Fundamental principles and main characteristics of these models are introduced and compared firstly. Land use and land cover concepts of NLCD92 are employed as examples in the case study. The results demonstrate that correlations between these models are very high for a possible reason that all these models are designed to simulate the similarity judgement of human mind.

  7. Effects of circulating member B of the family with sequence similarity 3 on the risk of developing metabolic syndrome and its components: A 5-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haoyu; Yu, Fadong; Zhang, Zhuo; Hou, Yuanyuan; Teng, Weiping; Shan, Zhongyan; Lai, Yaxin

    2017-11-27

    Member B of the family with sequence similarity 3 (FAM3B), also known as pancreatic-derived factor, is mainly synthesized and secreted by islet β-cells, and plays a role in abnormal metabolism of glucose and lipids. However, the prospective association of FAM3B with metabolic disorders remains unclear. The present study aimed to reveal the predictive relationship between pancreas-specific cytokine and metabolic syndrome (MetS). A total of 210 adults (88 men and 122 women) without MetS, aged between 40 and 65 years, were recruited and received a comprehensive health examination. Baseline serum FAM3B levels were determined by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Subsequently, all participants underwent a follow-up examination after 5 years. MetS was identified in accordance with the International Diabetes Federation criteria. During follow up, 35.7% participants developed MetS. In comparison with the non-MetS group, participants with MetS had an increased serum FAM3B at baseline (21.85 ng/mL [19.38, 24.17 ng/mL] vs 28.56 ng/mL [25.32, 38.10 ng/mL], P < 0.001). Moreover, serum FAM3B was significantly associated with variations in fasting plasma insulin (r = -0.306, P < 0.001), homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (r = -0.328, P < 0.001) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (r = -0.191, P = 0.006). Furthermore, a positive correlation between baseline FAM3B and the incidence of MetS was observed, even after multivariable adjustment (relative risk 1.23 [1.15, 1.31], P < 0.001). Furthermore, the optimal cut-off values of FAM3B was 23.98 ng/mL for predicting MetS based on the Youden Index. Elevated circulating FAM3B might be considered as a predictor of newly-onset MetS and its progression. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Masked-Volume-Wise PCA and "reference Logan" illustrate similar regional differences in kinetic behavior in human brain PET study using [11C]-PIB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engler Henry

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kinetic modeling using reference Logan is commonly used to analyze data obtained from dynamic Positron Emission Tomography (PET studies on patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD and healthy volunteers (HVs using amyloid imaging agent N-methyl [11C]2-(4'-methylaminophenyl-6-hydroxy-benzothiazole, [11C]-PIB. The aim of the present study was to explore whether results obtained using the newly introduced method, Masked Volume Wise Principal Component Analysis, MVW-PCA, were similar to the results obtained using reference Logan. Methods MVW-PCA and reference Logan were performed on dynamic PET images obtained from four Alzheimer's disease (AD patients on two occasions (baseline and follow-up and on four healthy volunteers (HVs. Regions of interest (ROIs of similar sizes were positioned in different parts of the brain in both AD patients and HVs where the difference between AD patients and HVs is largest. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR and discrimination power (DP were calculated for images generated by the different methods and the results were compared both qualitatively and quantitatively. Results MVW-PCA generated images that illustrated similar regional binding patterns compared to reference Logan images and with slightly higher quality, enhanced contrast, improved SNR and DP, without being based on modeling assumptions. MVW-PCA also generated additional MVW-PC images by using the whole dataset, which illustrated regions with different and uncorrelated kinetic behaviors of the administered tracer. This additional information might improve the understanding of kinetic behavior of the administered tracer. Conclusion MVW-PCA is a potential multivariate method that without modeling assumptions generates high quality images, which illustrated similar regional changes compared to modeling methods such as reference Logan. In addition, MVW-PCA could be used as a new technique, applicable not only on dynamic human brain studies but also on

  9. Orthopantomographic study of the alveolar bone level on periodontal disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ki Sik; You, Dong Soo [College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-11-15

    The author had measured the alveolar bone level of periodontal disease on 50 cases of orthopantomogram to detect the degree of alveolar bone resorption of both sexes of Korean. The results were obtained as follows; 1. Alveolar bone resorption of mesial and distal portion was similar in same patient. 2. The order of alveolar bone resorption was mandibular anterior region, posterior region, canine and premolar region of both jaws. 3. The degree of alveolar bone destruction was severe in shorter root length than longer one. 4. The degree of alveolar bone resorption was severe in fourth decades.

  10. Orthopantomographic study of the alveolar bone level on periodontal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ki Sik; You, Dong Soo

    1972-01-01

    The author had measured the alveolar bone level of periodontal disease on 50 cases of orthopantomogram to detect the degree of alveolar bone resorption of both sexes of Korean. The results were obtained as follows; 1. Alveolar bone resorption of mesial and distal portion was similar in same patient. 2. The order of alveolar bone resorption was mandibular anterior region, posterior region, canine and premolar region of both jaws. 3. The degree of alveolar bone destruction was severe in shorter root length than longer one. 4. The degree of alveolar bone resorption was severe in fourth decades.

  11. Economic Literacy Levels of Social Studies Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhan, Nadire Emel

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the levels of economic literacy--an important component of being a good citizen--among seniors studying at social studies teacher program which aims at cultivating good citizens and to find out its relationships in terms of various variables. The quantitative sample of the study was comprised of 726 senior…

  12. Comparing Harmonic Similarity Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, W.B.; Robine, M.; Hanna, P.; Veltkamp, R.C.; Wiering, F.

    2010-01-01

    We present an overview of the most recent developments in polyphonic music retrieval and an experiment in which we compare two harmonic similarity measures. In contrast to earlier work, in this paper we specifically focus on the symbolic chord description as the primary musical representation and

  13. Variations in voice level and fundamental frequency with changing background noise level and talker-to-listener distance while wearing hearing protectors: A pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouserhal, Rachel E.; MacDonald, Ewen; Falk, Tiago H.

    2016-01-01

    in voice level and fundamental frequency in noise and with varying talker-to-listener distance. Study sample: Twelve participants with a mean age of 28 participated in this study. Results: Compared to existing data, results show a trend similar to the open ear condition with the exception of the occluded...

  14. Comparative study of trace element levels in some local vegetable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The level of heavy metals in two varieties of vegetables harvested during the dry and wet seasons from seven different locations in Ilorin, Nigeria, were determined. The correlation between the level of metals in the vegetables and the irrigation water was also studied. Vegetables harvested during the dry season were found ...

  15. Entrepreneurship Education at Tertiary Education Level: Implication to Historical Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salahu Mohammed Lawal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria is richly endowed with both human and material resources that when well utilized can make her one of the richest and developed nation in the world.  But poor utilization of the resources, corruption and dwindling fortune in her education system made her among the first twenty five poorest nations in the world.  Similarly, report shows that 26% of the employable population remained unemployed.  This called for the need for entrepreneurship education most especially at tertiary level where high level manpower is supposed to be trained.  It is on this premise that the paper attempts to examine entrepreneurship education and its implication to history students and graduates.

  16. Semantic similarity between ontologies at different scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qingpeng; Haglin, David J.

    2016-04-01

    In the past decade, existing and new knowledge and datasets has been encoded in different ontologies for semantic web and biomedical research. The size of ontologies is often very large in terms of number of concepts and relationships, which makes the analysis of ontologies and the represented knowledge graph computational and time consuming. As the ontologies of various semantic web and biomedical applications usually show explicit hierarchical structures, it is interesting to explore the trade-offs between ontological scales and preservation/precision of results when we analyze ontologies. This paper presents the first effort of examining the capability of this idea via studying the relationship between scaling biomedical ontologies at different levels and the semantic similarity values. We evaluate the semantic similarity between three Gene Ontology slims (Plant, Yeast, and Candida, among which the latter two belong to the same kingdom—Fungi) using four popular measures commonly applied to biomedical ontologies (Resnik, Lin, Jiang-Conrath, and SimRel). The results of this study demonstrate that with proper selection of scaling levels and similarity measures, we can significantly reduce the size of ontologies without losing substantial detail. In particular, the performance of Jiang-Conrath and Lin are more reliable and stable than that of the other two in this experiment, as proven by (a) consistently showing that Yeast and Candida are more similar (as compared to Plant) at different scales, and (b) small deviations of the similarity values after excluding a majority of nodes from several lower scales. This study provides a deeper understanding of the application of semantic similarity to biomedical ontologies, and shed light on how to choose appropriate semantic similarity measures for biomedical engineering.

  17. Study of nuclear level density parameter and its temperature dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasrabadi, M. N.; Behkami, A. N.

    2000-01-01

    The nuclear level density ρ is the basic ingredient required for theoretical studies of nuclear reaction and structure. It describes the statistical nuclear properties and is expressed as a function of various constants of motion such as number of particles, excitation energy and angular momentum. In this work the energy and spin dependence of nuclear level density will be presented and discussed. In addition the level density parameter α will be extracted from this level density information, and its temperature and mass dependence will be obtained

  18. Study on force mechanism for therapeutic effect of pushing manipulation with one-finger meditation base on similarity analysis of force and waveform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lei; Fang, Min; Guo, Min-Min

    2016-12-27

    To reveal the force mechanism for therapeutic effect of pushing manipulation with one-finger meditation. A total of 15 participants were recruited in this study and assigned to an expert group, a skilled group and a novice group, with 5 participants in each group. Mechanical signals were collected from a biomechanical testing platform, and these data were further observed via similarity analysis and cluster analysis. Comparing the force waveforms of manipulation revealed that the manipulation forces were similar between the expert group and the skilled group (P>0.05). The mean value of vertical force was 9.8 N, and 95% CI rang from 6.37 to 14.70 N, but there were significant differences compared with the novice group (PPushing manipulation with one-finger meditation is a kind of light stimulation manipulation on the acupoint, and force characteristics of double waveforms continuously alternated during manual operation.

  19. Study of dynamics of level of physical preparedness of students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Коvalenko Y.A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of level of physical preparedness of students is studied in the article. A tendency is marked to the decline of level of physical preparedness of students of 1-3 courses. Methodical recommendations are presented on the improvement of the system of organization of physical education of students of the Zaporizhzhya national university. The dynamics of indexes of physical preparedness of students 1, 2, 3 courses of different years of teaching is studied. Principal reasons of decline of level of physical preparedness of students are certain. There are recommendations the department of physical education in relation to physical preparedness of students.

  20. Girls studying physics at post-secondary level in Malta

    OpenAIRE

    Gatt, Suzanne; Borg Marks, Joan; The Access of Women to Science

    2004-01-01

    All secondary level students in Malta study, at least, one science subject (Physics, Chemistry and/or Biology) up to school-leaving level. This is due to a pass in one science subject being compulsory for entry into general post-secondary education. On the other hand, Physics, rather than Chemistry or Biology, is compulsory in State Schools. This ensures that a large percentage of girls, in Malta, study Physics. Analysis of Physics exam results at school-leaving level, the Secondary Education...

  1. Clinical similarity of biosimilar ABP 501 to adalimumab in the treatment of patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis: A randomized, double-blind, multicenter, phase III study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Kim; Bachelez, Herve; Costanzo, Antonio; Foley, Peter; Gooderham, Melinda; Kaur, Primal; Narbutt, Joanna; Philipp, Sandra; Spelman, Lynda; Weglowska, Jolanta; Zhang, Nan; Strober, Bruce

    2017-06-01

    ABP 501 is a biosimilar of adalimumab. We sought to compare the efficacy and safety of ABP 501 with adalimumab. This 52-week, double-blind study randomized patients with moderate to severe psoriasis to ABP 501 or adalimumab. At week 16, those with 50% or more improvement in Psoriasis Area and Severity Index score from baseline on ABP 501 continued the same treatment, whereas adalimumab-treated patients were rerandomized to adalimumab or ABP 501. Clinical similarity in Psoriasis Area and Severity Index percent improvement from baseline to week 16 (primary end point) was established if the point estimate of treatment difference and its 2-sided 95% confidence interval between groups was within equivalence margin of ±15. Patients, including those undergoing a single transition at week 16, were evaluated for safety and immunogenicity. Psoriasis Area and Severity Index percent improvement at week 16 was 80.9 for ABP 501 and 83.1 for adalimumab (least-square mean difference -2.18 [95% confidence interval -7.39 to 3.02]). Adverse events (67.2% [117/174] vs 63.6% [110/173]) and antidrug antibody incidence (55.2% [96/174] vs 63.6% [110/173]) for ABP 501 vs adalimumab were similar. Safety, including immunogenicity, was similar among groups after single transition (week 20). The 52-week data are not reported here. ABP 501 was shown to be clinically similar to adalimumab. Safety and immunogenicity were not impacted immediately after single transition (adalimumab to ABP 501). Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Circulating irisin levels are lower in patients with either stable coronary artery disease (CAD) or myocardial infarction (MI) versus healthy controls, whereas follistatin and activin A levels are higher and can discriminate MI from CAD with similar to CK-MB accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasilakis, Athanasios D; Koulaxis, Dimitrios; Kefala, Nikoleta; Polyzos, Stergios A; Upadhyay, Jagriti; Pagkalidou, Eirini; Economou, Fotios; Anastasilakis, Chrysostomos D; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2017-08-01

    Several myokines are produced by cardiac muscle. We investigated changes in myokine levels at the time of acute myocardial infarction (MI) and following reperfusion in relation to controls. Patients with MI (MI Group, n=31) treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were compared to patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) subjected to scheduled PCI (CAD Group, n=40) and controls with symptoms mimicking CAD without stenosis in angiography (Control Group, n=43). The number and degree of stenosis were recorded. Irisin, follistatin, follistatin-like 3, activin A and B, ALT, AST, CK and CK-MB were measured at baseline and 6 or 24h after the intervention. MI and CAD patients had lower irisin than controls (p<0.001). MI patients had higher follistatin, activin A, CK, CK-MB and AST than CAD patients and controls (all p≤0.001). None of the myokines changed following reperfusion. Circulating irisin was associated with the degree of stenosis in all patients (p=0.05). Irisin was not inferior to CK-MB in predicting MI while folistatin and activin A could discriminate MI from CAD patients with similar to CK-MB accuracy. None of these myokines was altered following PCI in contrast to CK-MB. Irisin levels are lower in MI and CAD implying that their production may depend on myocadial blood supply. Follistatin and activin A are higher in MI than in CAD suggesting increased release due to myocardial necrosis. They can predict MI with accuracy similar to CK-MB and their role in the diagnosis of MI remains to be confirmed by prospective large clinical studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparative study on the level of bacteriological contamination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative study on the level of bacteriological contamination of automatic teller machines, public toilets and public transport commercial motorcycle crash ... Conclusion: This study has revealed the ability of these public devices to serve as vehicle of transmission of microorganisms with serious health implications.

  4. Mortality Associated with Severe Sepsis Among Age-Similar Women with and without Pregnancy-Associated Hospitalization in Texas: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Lavi

    2016-06-10

    BACKGROUND The reported mortality among women with pregnancy-associated severe sepsis (PASS) has been considerably lower than among severely septic patients in the general population, with the difference being attributed to the younger age and lack of chronic illness among the women with PASS. However, no comparative studies were reported to date between patients with PASS and age-similar women with severe sepsis not associated with pregnancy (NPSS). MATERIAL AND METHODS We used the Texas Inpatient Public Use Data File to compare the crude and adjusted hospital mortality between women with severe sepsis, aged 20-34 years, with and without pregnancy-associated hospitalizations during 2001-2010, following exclusion of those with reported chronic comorbidities, as well as alcohol and drug abuse. RESULTS Crude hospital mortality among PASS vs. NPSS hospitalizations was lower for the whole cohort (6.7% vs. 14.1% [p<0.0001]) and those with ≥3 organ failures (17.6% vs. 33.2% [p=0.0100]). Adjusted PASS mortality (odds ratio [95% CI]) was 0.57 (0.38-0.86) [p=0.0070]. CONCLUSIONS Hospital mortality was unexpectedly markedly and consistently lower among women with severe sepsis associated with pregnancy, as compared with contemporaneous, age-similar women with severe sepsis not associated with pregnancy, without reported chronic comorbidities. Further studies are warranted to examine the sources of the observed differences and to corroborate our findings.

  5. False memory and level of processing effect: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beato, Maria Soledad; Boldini, Angela; Cadavid, Sara

    2012-09-12

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to determine the effects of level of processing on true and false memory, using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. In the DRM paradigm, lists of words highly associated to a single nonpresented word (the 'critical lure') are studied and, in a subsequent memory test, critical lures are often falsely remembered. Lists with three critical lures per list were auditorily presented here to participants who studied them with either a shallow (saying whether the word contained the letter 'o') or a deep (creating a mental image of the word) processing task. Visual presentation modality was used on a final recognition test. True recognition of studied words was significantly higher after deep encoding, whereas false recognition of nonpresented critical lures was similar in both experimental groups. At the ERP level, true and false recognition showed similar patterns: no FN400 effect was found, whereas comparable left parietal and late right frontal old/new effects were found for true and false recognition in both experimental conditions. Items studied under shallow encoding conditions elicited more positive ERP than items studied under deep encoding conditions at a 1000-1500 ms interval. These ERP results suggest that true and false recognition share some common underlying processes. Differential effects of level of processing on true and false memory were found only at the behavioral level but not at the ERP level.

  6. Dioxins levels in Australia. Key findings of studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivory, A.; Mobbs, C. [Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (Australia)

    2004-09-15

    The Australian Government established the National Dioxins Program (NDP) in 2001 to improve knowledge about levels of dioxins in Australia. The program aims to determine levels, assess the risks to Australians and the environment, and to consider appropriate management actions. Starting in mid 2001and completed in 2004, the studies constituted the largest survey of dioxin levels ever undertaken in Australia. The findings will contribute to debate on how to deal with dioxins in Australia, as well as helping to meet obligations under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, which Australia ratified on 20 May 2004. These studies will also contribute to a better understanding about dioxins in the southern hemisphere. This paper provides a summary of the key findings of these studies and the risk assessments.

  7. Energy Cost and Gait Efficiency of Below-Knee Amputee and Normal Subject with Similar Physical Parameters & Quality of Life: A Comparative Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durbadal Biswas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on the comparative analysis of energy cost and gait efficiency between a below knee (BK amputee and a reference subject (without amputation. It also attempted to indicate the specific feature responsible for a controlled gait with optimum energy cost for BK amputees. Selection criteria of the subjects were similar physical parameters and quality of life studied with WHOQOL-100 quality of life assessment. A Cosmed® k4 b2 Respiratory Analyzer system was used for the measurement of Oxygen Uptake (VO2, Energy Expenditure per minute (EE and Heart Rate (HR. Gait efficiency (p < 0.0002 was found higher for BK amputee than normal subject. The therapeutic activities and mainly walking rhythm contributed to improve the mobility & balance. This ensures the optimum time & co-ordination of movements and hence improves the gait efficiency for the BK amputee. Comparison with control group was performed to validate the data.

  8. Advanced supersonic propulsion study. [with emphasis on noise level reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatella, J. A. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the promising propulsion systems for advanced supersonic transport application, and to identify the critical propulsion technology requirements. It is shown that noise constraints have a major effect on the selection of the various engine types and cycle parameters. Several promising advanced propulsion systems were identified which show the potential of achieving lower levels of sideline jet noise than the first generation supersonic transport systems. The non-afterburning turbojet engine, utilizing a very high level of jet suppression, shows the potential to achieve FAR 36 noise level. The duct-heating turbofan with a low level of jet suppression is the most attractive engine for noise levels from FAR 36 to FAR 36 minus 5 EPNdb, and some series/parallel variable cycle engines show the potential of achieving noise levels down to FAR 36 minus 10 EPNdb with moderate additional penalty. The study also shows that an advanced supersonic commercial transport would benefit appreciably from advanced propulsion technology. The critical propulsion technology needed for a viable supersonic propulsion system, and the required specific propulsion technology programs are outlined.

  9. Cartilage collagen damage in hip osteoarthritis similar to that seen in knee osteoarthritis; a case-control study of relationship between collagen, glycosaminoglycan and cartilage swelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseininia, Shahrzad; Lindberg, Lisbeth R; Dahlberg, Leif E

    2013-01-09

    It remains to be shown whether OA shares molecular similarities between different joints in humans. This study provides evidence for similarities in cartilage molecular damage in osteoarthritic (OA) joints. Articular cartilage from osteoarthritic hip joints were analysed and compared to non-OA controls regarding collagen, glycosaminoglycan and water content. Femoral heads from 16 osteoarthritic (OA) and 20 reference patients were obtained from hip replacement surgery due to OA and femoral neck fracture, respectively. Cartilage histological changes were assessed by Mankin grading and denatured collagen type II immunostaining and cartilage was extracted by α-chymotrypsin. Hydroxyproline and Alcian blue binding assays were used to measure collagen and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content, respectively. Mankin and immunohistology scores were significantly higher in hip OA samples than in reference samples. Cartilage water content was 6% higher in OA samples than in references. 2.5 times more collagen was extracted from OA than from reference samples. There was a positive association between water content and percentage of extractable collagen pool (ECP) in both groups. The amounts of collagen per wet and dry weights did not differ statistically between OA and reference cartilage. % Extractable collagen was not related to collagen per dry weight in either group. However when collagen was expressed by wet weight there was a negative correlation between % extractable and collagen in OA cartilage. The amount of GAG per wet weight was similar in both groups but the amount of GAG per dry weight was higher in OA samples compared to reference samples, which suggests a capacity for GAG biosynthesis in hip OA cartilage. Neither of the studied parameters was related to age in either group. Increased collagen extractability and water content in human hip cartilage is associated with OA pathology and can be observed at early stages of the degenerative hip OA process. Our results

  10. Cartilage collagen damage in hip osteoarthritis similar to that seen in knee osteoarthritis; a case–control study of relationship between collagen, glycosaminoglycan and cartilage swelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseininia Shahrzad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It remains to be shown whether OA shares molecular similarities between different joints in humans. This study provides evidence for similarities in cartilage molecular damage in osteoarthritic (OA joints. Methods Articular cartilage from osteoarthritic hip joints were analysed and compared to non-OA controls regarding collagen, glycosaminoglycan and water content. Femoral heads from 16 osteoarthritic (OA and 20 reference patients were obtained from hip replacement surgery due to OA and femoral neck fracture, respectively. Cartilage histological changes were assessed by Mankin grading and denatured collagen type II immunostaining and cartilage was extracted by α-chymotrypsin. Hydroxyproline and Alcian blue binding assays were used to measure collagen and glycosaminoglycan (GAG content, respectively. Results Mankin and immunohistology scores were significantly higher in hip OA samples than in reference samples. Cartilage water content was 6% higher in OA samples than in references. 2.5 times more collagen was extracted from OA than from reference samples. There was a positive association between water content and percentage of extractable collagen pool (ECP in both groups. The amounts of collagen per wet and dry weights did not differ statistically between OA and reference cartilage. % Extractable collagen was not related to collagen per dry weight in either group. However when collagen was expressed by wet weight there was a negative correlation between % extractable and collagen in OA cartilage. The amount of GAG per wet weight was similar in both groups but the amount of GAG per dry weight was higher in OA samples compared to reference samples, which suggests a capacity for GAG biosynthesis in hip OA cartilage. Neither of the studied parameters was related to age in either group. Conclusions Increased collagen extractability and water content in human hip cartilage is associated with OA pathology and can be observed at

  11. An Analysis of Looking Back Method in Problem-Based Learning: Case Study on Congruence and Similarity in Junior High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosasih, U.; Wahyudin, W.; Prabawanto, S.

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to understand how learners do look back their idea of problem solving. This research is based on qualitative approach with case study design. Participants in this study were xx students of Junior High School, who were studying the material of congruence and similarity. The supporting instruments in this research are test and interview sheet. The data obtained were analyzed by coding and constant-comparison. The analysis find that there are three ways in which the students review the idea of problem solving, which is 1) carried out by comparing answers to the completion measures exemplified by learning resources; 2) carried out by examining the logical relationship between the solution and the problem; and 3) carried out by means of confirmation to the prior knowledge they have. This happens because most students learn in a mechanistic way. This study concludes that students validate the idea of problem solving obtained, influenced by teacher explanations, learning resources, and prior knowledge. Therefore, teacher explanations and learning resources contribute to the success or failure of students in solving problems.

  12. Post O-Level English--The Study of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, P.

    1976-01-01

    Examines objections to the study of language and linguistics in secondary education and suggests that it is time to resolve the false dichotomy between English literature and English language by providing a modest optional language element in A-level English. (Author/RK)

  13. Study of firedamp release in sub-level caving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castano, F.S.; Sanz Delgado, M.A.; Iturriaga Trenor, S.; Alberdi Vinas, C.

    1988-01-01

    The field work developed in the pits of 'Hullera Vasco-Leonesa' in Santa Lucia (Leon) to control firedamp release is described. Conclusions obtained concerning gas emission, irregularity and firedamp balance in sub-level caving winning faces are discussed. Some definitions of basic concepts in firedamp studies are also included. 7 figs.

  14. Choosing the Adequate Level of Graded Readers--Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prtljaga, Jelena; Palinkaševic, Radmila; Brkic, Jovana

    2015-01-01

    Graded readers have been used as second language teaching material since the end of the Second World War. They are an important source of simplified material which provides comprehensible input on all levels. It is of crucial importance for a successful usage of graded readers in the classroom and in studies which focus on graded readers, that an…

  15. LSP Studies As a Quest For Meso-Level Regularities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Jan

    2015-01-01

    the suggested type of analysis. I proceed to present Knowledge Communication as theoretical-methodological framework of such analyses, followed by a presentation of the differences between a micro, a macro and a meso level approach to studying specialized communication. In the last part of the paper, I...

  16. Studies of a general flat space/boson star transition model in a box through a language similar to holographic superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yan

    2017-07-01

    We study a general flat space/boson star transition model in quasi-local ensemble through approaches familiar from holographic superconductor theories. We manage to find a parameter ψ 2, which is proved to be useful in disclosing properties of phase transitions. In this work, we explore effects of the scalar mass, scalar charge and Stückelberg mechanism on the critical phase transition points and the order of transitions mainly from behaviors of the parameter ψ 2. We mention that properties of transitions in quasi-local gravity are strikingly similar to those in holographic superconductor models. We also obtain an analytical relation ψ 2 ∝ ( μ - μ c )1/2, which also holds for the condensed scalar operator in the holographic insulator/superconductor system in accordance with mean field theories.

  17. Elevation of serum insulin concentration during euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp studies leads to similar activation of insulin receptor kinase in skeletal muscle of subjects with and without NIDDM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, H H; Vestergaard, H; Kotzke, G

    1995-01-01

    The role of skeletal muscle insulin receptor kinase in the pathogenesis of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) was investigated. Muscle biopsies from 13 patients with NIDDM and 10 control subjects at fasting serum insulin concentrations and approximately 1,000 pmol/l steady-state serum...... insulin during euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps were immediately frozen. The biopsies were then solubilized, and the receptors were immobilized to anti-insulin receptor antibody-coated microwells. Receptor kinase and binding activities were consecutively measured in these wells. The increase in serum...... and control groups, respectively). Moreover, by selecting only the receptors that bound to anti-phosphotyrosine antibody, we found similar hyperinsulinemia-induced increases of this receptor fraction and its kinase activity in both study groups. In vitro activation of the immobilized receptors with 2 mmol...

  18. A Study on the Correlation between Cord Blood Glucose Level and the Apgar Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Kalyan; Saha, Ashis Ranjan

    2013-02-01

    The study of the biochemical parameters of cord blood acts as a mirror, which usually reflects the neonatal status. The widely used system for the evaluation of a neonate is the Apgar score. There is no comprehensive published data which has established the association between the cord blood glucose level and the Apgar score. Similarly, there is also no well accepted reference range of the cord blood glucose level. The main objectives of the present study was to ascertain any adverse effects of an abnormal cord blood glucose level on the neonatal status and to find out a standard reference level of glucose in cord blood. The cord blood glucose estimation was done by using the glucose oxidase peroxidase method and the statistical analysis was performed by using the SPSS, version 16 software. In the present study, the cord blood glucose level was found to have no correlation with the Apgar scores which were calculated at both one minute and five minutes after birth. It was also found that for the foetus to be free from any obvious complication, the cord blood glucose level had to be around 87 mg/dl. The fluctuations in the maternal glucose levels are weakly associated with the glucose level in the cord blood.

  19. Logic as Marr's Computational Level: Four Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggio, Giosuè; van Lambalgen, Michiel; Hagoort, Peter

    2015-04-01

    We sketch four applications of Marr's levels-of-analysis methodology to the relations between logic and experimental data in the cognitive neuroscience of language and reasoning. The first part of the paper illustrates the explanatory power of computational level theories based on logic. We show that a Bayesian treatment of the suppression task in reasoning with conditionals is ruled out by EEG data, supporting instead an analysis based on defeasible logic. Further, we describe how results from an EEG study on temporal prepositions can be reanalyzed using formal semantics, addressing a potential confound. The second part of the article demonstrates the predictive power of logical theories drawing on EEG data on processing progressive constructions and on behavioral data on conditional reasoning in people with autism. Logical theories can constrain processing hypotheses all the way down to neurophysiology, and conversely neuroscience data can guide the selection of alternative computational level models of cognition. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  20. Longitudinal study of leptin levels in chronic hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Averbukh Zhan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The influence of serum leptin levels on nutritional status and survival in chronic hemodialysis patients remained to be elucidated. We conducted a prospective longitudinal study of leptin levels and nutritional parameters to determine whether changes of serum leptin levels modify nutritional status and survival in a cohort of prevalent hemodialysis patients. Methods Leptin, dietary energy and protein intake, biochemical markers of nutrition and body composition (anthropometry and bioimpedance analysis were measured at baseline and at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months following enrollment, in 101 prevalent hemodialysis patients (37% women with a mean age of 64.6 ± 11.5 years. Observation of this cohort was continued over 2 additional years. Changes in repeated measures were evaluated, with adjustment for baseline differences in demographic and clinical parameters. Results Significant reduction of leptin levels with time were observed (linear estimate: -2.5010 ± 0.57 ng/ml/2y; p Conclusions Thus leptin levels reflect fat mass depots, rather than independently contributing to uremic anorexia or modifying nutritional status and/or survival in chronic hemodialysis patients. The importance of such information is high if leptin is contemplated as a potential therapeutic target in hemodialysis patients.

  1. Experimental study of self-leveling behavior in debris bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Bin; Harada, Tetsushi; Hirahara, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Tatsuya; Morita, Koji; Fukuda, Kenji; Yamano, Hidemasa; Suzuki, Tohru; Tobita, Yoshiharu

    2008-01-01

    After a core disruptive accident in a sodium-cooled fast reactor, core debris may settle on locations such as within the core-support structure or in the lower inlet plenum of the reactor vessel as debris beds, as a consequence of rapid quenching and fragmentation of core materials in subcooled sodium. The particle beds that are initially of varying depth have been observed to undergo a process of self-leveling when sodium boiling occurs within the beds. The boiling is believed to provide the driven force with debris needed to overcome resisting forces. Self-leveling ability has much effect on heat-removal capability of debris beds. In the present study, characteristics of self-leveling behaviors were investigated experimentally with simulant materials. Although the decay heat from fuel debris drives the coolant boiling in reactor accident conditions, the present experiments employed depressurization boiling of water to simulate axially increasing void distribution in a debris bed, which consists of solid particles of alumina or lead with different density. The particle size (from 0.5 mm to 6 mm in diameter) and shape (spherical or non-spherical particles) were also taken as experimental parameters. A rough criteria for self-leveling occurrence is proposed and compared with the experimental results. Characteristics of the self-leveling behaviors observed are analyzed and extrapolate to reactor accident conditions. (author)

  2. Cytoreductive surgery and HIPEC offers similar outcomes in patients with rectal peritoneal metastases compared to colon cancer patients: a matched case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkens, Geert A; van Oudheusden, Thijs R; Braam, Hidde J; Wiezer, Marinus J; Nienhuijs, Simon W; Rutten, Harm J; van Ramshorst, Bert; de Hingh, Ignace H

    2016-04-01

    The effect of cytoreduction and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) in patients with rectal peritoneal metastases (PM) is unclear. This case-control study aims to assess the results of cytoreduction and HIPEC in patients with rectal PM compared to colon PM patients. Colorectal PM patients treated with complete macroscopic cytoreduction and HIPEC were included. Two colon cancer patients were case-matched for each rectal cancer patient, based on prognostic factors (T stage, N stage, histology type, and extent of PM). Short- and long-term outcomes were compared between both groups. From 317 patients treated with complete macroscopic cytoreduction and HIPEC, 29 patients (9.1%) had rectal PM. Fifty-eight colon cases were selected as control patients. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. Major morbidity was 27.6% and 34.5% in the rectal and colon group, respectively (P = 0.516). Median disease-free survival was 13.5 months in the rectal group and 13.6 months in the colon group (P = 0.621). Two- and five-year overall survival rates were 54%/32% in rectal cancer patients, and 61%/24% in colon cancer patients (P = 0.987). Cytoreduction and HIPEC in selected patients with rectal PM is feasible and provides similar outcomes as in colon cancer patients. Rectal PM should not be regarded a contra-indication for cytoreduction and HIPEC in selected patients. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;113:548-553. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Framework for State-Level Renewable Energy Market Potential Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreycik, C.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Doris, E.

    2010-01-01

    State-level policymakers are relying on estimates of the market potential for renewable energy resources as they set goals and develop policies to accelerate the development of these resources. Therefore, accuracy of such estimates should be understood and possibly improved to appropriately support these decisions. This document provides a framework and next steps for state officials who require estimates of renewable energy market potential. The report gives insight into how to conduct a market potential study, including what supporting data are needed and what types of assumptions need to be made. The report distinguishes between goal-oriented studies and other types of studies, and explains the benefits of each.

  4. Comparative genomic analysis of Campylobacter jejuni associated with Guillain-Barré and Miller Fisher syndromes: neuropathogenic and enteritis-associated isolates can share high levels of genomic similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endtz Hubert P

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter jejuni infection represents the most frequent antecedent infection triggering the onset of the neuropathic disorders Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS and Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS. Although sialylated ganglioside-mimicking lipo-oligosaccharide (LOS structures are the strongest neuropathogenic determinants in C. jejuni, they do not appear to be the only requirement for a neuropathic outcome since strains capable of their production have been isolated from patients with uncomplicated cases of enteritis. Consequently, other pathogen and/or host-related factors contribute to the onset of neurological complications. We have used comparative genomic hybridization to perform a detailed genomic comparison of strains isolated from GBS/MFS and enteritis-only patients. Our dataset, in which the gene conservation profile for 1712 genes was assayed in 102 strains, including 56 neuropathogenic isolates, represents the largest systematic search for C. jejuni factors associated with GBS/MFS to date and has allowed us to analyze the genetic background of neuropathogenic C. jejuni strains with an unprecedented level of resolution. Results The majority of GBS/MFS strains can be assigned to one of six major lineages, suggesting that several genetic backgrounds can result in a neuropathogenic phenotype. A statistical analysis of gene conservation rates revealed that although genes involved in the sialylation of LOS structures were significantly associated with neuropathogenic strains, still many enteritis-control strains both bear these genes and share remarkable levels of genomic similarity with their neuropathogenic counterparts. Two capsule biosynthesis genes (Cj1421c and Cj1428c showed higher conservation rates among neuropathogenic strains compared to enteritis-control strains. Any potential involvement of these genes in neuropathogenesis must be assessed. A single gene (HS:3 Cj1135 had a higher conservation rate among enteritis

  5. Requests and usage of epidural analgesia in grand-grand multiparous and similar-aged women with lesser parity: prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioscovich, Alexander; Fadeev, Angelika; Rivilis, Alina; Elstein, Deborah

    2011-11-01

    Epidural analgesia in older and multiparous women has been associated with risks. The aim of this study was to compare epidural analgesia use for labor/delivery in grand-grand multiparous women (GGMP; ≥10 births) relative to that in similar-aged women with lesser parity. This was a prospective observational study of advanced age gravida. All laboring women in a six-month period admitted to a tertiary Israeli center were included if they were advanced age (≥36 years old) with one to two previous births (Low parity; n=128) or four to five previous births (Medium parity; n=181), and all GGMP (any age; n=187). Primary outcome was comparison of requests for and use of epidural analgesia for labor/delivery. There were no significant differences across parity groups in percent of gravida requesting or receiving epidural analgesia (46.5-59.4%). Time from admission to epidural administration (range mean times: 168-187 min) and from advent of epidural to delivery (range mean times: 155-160 min) were comparable across parity groups. Use of other analgesia (5.8-8%) was not significantly different. Requests for and use of epidural analgesia was comparable in older gravida and was not correlated with parity. Mean times from presentation to epidural administration, mean cervical dilatation at epidural initiation, and mean time from performing of epidural to delivery were comparable across groups.

  6. Tianeptine, olanzapine and fluoxetine show similar restoring effects on stress induced molecular changes in mice brain: An FT-IR study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türker-Kaya, Sevgi; Mutlu, Oğuz; Çelikyurt, İpek K.; Akar, Furuzan; Ulak, Güner

    2016-05-01

    Chronic stress which can cause a variety of disorders and illness ranging from metabolic and cardiovascular to mental leads to alterations in content, structure and dynamics of biomolecules in brain. The determination of stress-induced changes along with the effects of antidepressant treatment on these parameters might bring about more effective therapeutic strategies. In the present study, we investigated unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS)-induced changes in biomolecules in mouse brain and the restoring effects of tianeptine (TIA), olanzapine (OLZ) and fluoxetine (FLX) on these variations, by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results revealed that chronic stress causes different membrane packing and an increase in lipid peroxidation, membrane fluidity. A significant increment for lipid/protein, Cdbnd O/lipid, CH3/lipid, CH2/lipid, PO-2/lipid, COO-/lipid and RNA/protein ratios but a significant decrease for lipid/protein ratios were also obtained. Additionally, altered protein secondary structure components were estimated, such as increment in random coils and beta structures. The administration of TIA, OLZ and FLX drugs restored these stress-induced variations except for alterations in protein structure and RNA/protein ratio. This may suggest that these drugs have similar restoring effects on the consequences of stress activity in brain, in spite of the differences in their action mechanisms. All findings might have importance in understanding molecular mechanisms underlying chronic stress and contribute to studies aimed for drug development.

  7. Study of plasma adrenomedullin level in normal pregnancy and preclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senna, Azza Abo; Zedan, Magda; el-Salam, Gamal E Abd; el-Mashad, Ashraf I

    2008-02-06

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether maternal circulating adrenomedullin (AM) values in patients with preeclampsia are different from those in normotensive pregnant women at different gestational ages. In a prospective clinical study, 90 women aged 17 to 40 years old, were divided into 4 main groups: group I (45 women): Normotensive pregnant women at first trimester (15 women), second trimester (15 women), and third trimester (15 women) of pregnancies. Group II (15 women): Pregnant women with preeclampsia at 25 to 38 weeks of gestation. Group III (15 women): Normotensive healthy nonpregnant women. Group IV (15 women): Hypertensive nonpregnant women. The plasma AM concentration was measured in all women by using enzyme immunoassay kits. Plasma AM levels in pregnant women with normal blood pressure at different gestational ages (first, second, and third trimesters) were statistically significantly higher than those detected in nonpregnant normotensive women and significantly increased with increasing gestational age (P < .001). Moreover, there was significant positive correlation between plasma AM levels and increasing gestational age (r = 0.915, P < .001). Preeclamptic patients had the highest mean plasma AM levels compared with all other groups, which is statistically significant (P < .001) and there was a significant positive correlation between plasma AM levels and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, severity of preeclampsia, and proteinuria in pregnant patients with preeclampsia. Maternal plasma AM concentration increases throughout pregnancy and increases as gestational age progresses. AM production starts very early in gestation, suggesting that it may have an important role in human reproduction, from implantation to delivery. Maternal plasma AM level in preeclampsia appears to be higher than that in normal pregnancy.

  8. A Pilot Study on Measuring Customer’s Satisfaction Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vide Boltez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available RQ: Determine the level of customer satisfaction of a company’s products and services to obtain information on needed improvements.Purpose: The purpose of measuring customer’s satisfaction level is to obtain information directly from the final buyer that bought our product. The next step is to analyze the information obtained and to take the results into consideration to improve the working process in production and in other departments of the company.Method: The method used for the pilot study to measure customer satisfaction was a short questionnaire that was given to 10 customers of our product and 10 completed questionnaires were obtained.Results: The results showed the level of satisfaction of final buyers of roof tiles and roofs that the company has achieved through their products and services. The results facilitate the production, logistics, purchasing and sales department to obtain information on positive satisfaction levels and areas that need change. At the same time, the final buyer was identified (i.e., name, surname, address, and so forth, which up until now had not been.Organization: The organization will save time and money in the future, because it will continuously measure customer satisfaction to improve production and other departments in the organization towards creating satisfied customers.Society: Final buyers of roofs are, and will be, more satisfied with their decisions, because the organization carries out after-sales satisfaction levels.Originality: The research was original, because up to this date the organization has not conducted research in such a manner.Limitations: The pilot study used 10 completed questionnaires that represent a very small sample to make any generalizations.

  9. Obesity and type 2 diabetes in sub-Saharan Africans - Is the burden in today's Africa similar to African migrants in Europe? The RODAM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyemang, Charles; Meeks, Karlijn; Beune, Erik; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Mockenhaupt, Frank P; Addo, Juliet; de Graft Aikins, Ama; Bahendeka, Silver; Danquah, Ina; Schulze, Matthias B; Spranger, Joachim; Burr, Tom; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Amoah, Stephen K; Galbete, Cecilia; Henneman, Peter; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Nicolaou, Mary; Adeyemo, Adebowale; van Straalen, Jan; Smeeth, Liam; Stronks, Karien

    2016-10-21

    Rising rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are impending major threats to the health of African populations, but the extent to which they differ between rural and urban settings in Africa and upon migration to Europe is unknown. We assessed the burden of obesity and T2D among Ghanaians living in rural and urban Ghana and Ghanaian migrants living in different European countries. A multi-centre cross-sectional study was conducted among Ghanaian adults (n = 5659) aged 25-70 years residing in rural and urban Ghana and three European cities (Amsterdam, London and Berlin). Comparisons between groups were made using prevalence ratios (PRs) with adjustments for age and education. In rural Ghana, the prevalence of obesity was 1.3 % in men and 8.3 % in women. The prevalence was considerably higher in urban Ghana (men, 6.9 %; PR: 5.26, 95 % CI, 2.04-13.57; women, 33.9 %; PR: 4.11, 3.13-5.40) and even more so in Europe, especially in London (men, 21.4 %; PR: 15.04, 5.98-37.84; women, 54.2 %; PR: 6.63, 5.04-8.72). The prevalence of T2D was low at 3.6 % and 5.5 % in rural Ghanaian men and women, and increased in urban Ghanaians (men, 10.3 %; PR: 3.06; 1.73-5.40; women, 9.2 %; PR: 1.81, 1.25-2.64) and highest in Berlin (men, 15.3 %; PR: 4.47; 2.50-7.98; women, 10.2 %; PR: 2.21, 1.30-3.75). Impaired fasting glycaemia prevalence was comparatively higher only in Amsterdam, and in London, men compared with rural Ghana. Our study shows high risks of obesity and T2D among sub-Saharan African populations living in Europe. In Ghana, similarly high prevalence rates were seen in an urban environment, whereas in rural areas, the prevalence of obesity among women is already remarkable. Similar processes underlying the high burden of obesity and T2D following migration may also be at play in sub-Saharan Africa as a consequence of urbanisation.

  10. High-level waste canister envelope study: structural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    The structural integrity of waste canisters, fabricated from standard weight Type 304L stainless steel pipe, was analyzed for sizes ranging from 8 to 24 in. diameter and 10 to 16 feet long under normal, abnormal, and improbable life cycle loading conditions. The canisters are assumed to be filled with vitrified high-level nuclear waste, stored temporarily at a fuel reprocessing plant, and then transported for storage in an underground salt bed or other geologic storage. In each of the three impact conditions studies, the resulting impact force is far greater than the elastic limit capacity of the material. Recommendations are made for further study

  11. Placental morphology at different maternal hemoglobin levels: a histopathological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiran, N.; Zubair, A.; Malik, T.M.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the histopathological parameters of the placenta like weight, infarct and syncytial knots, at different maternal hemoglobin levels, in both qualitative and quantitative manner. Study design: Descriptive study Place and Duration of Study: Army Medical College, National University of Sciences and Technology in collaboration with Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from December 2011 to November 2012. Patients and Methods: A total of 75 placentas were included, that were collected from full term mothers at the time of childbirth. Placental weight was taken without umbilical cord and gross placental infarcts were noted. Samples of placental tissue were taken and stained by haematoxylin and eosin (H and E). Microscopic study was done to evaluate placental infarcts and syncytial knots. Results: Mean placental weight at normal and low maternal hemoglobin was 581.67 ± 83.97g and 482.58 ± 104.74g respectively. Gross placental infarcts were found in all cases having low maternal hemoglobin concentration (60% cases). Syncytial knots were found in all placentas but they were considerably more at decreasing levels of maternal hemoglobin (19.79 ± 5.22). Conclusion: The present study showed decrease in placental weight, increase in placental infarcts and syncytial knot hyperplasia at low maternal hemoglobin concentration, displaying adaptive alterations. (author)

  12. Public health preparedness in Alberta: a systems-level study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Douglas; Shiell, Alan; Noseworthy, Tom; Russell, Margaret; Predy, Gerald

    2006-12-28

    Recent international and national events have brought critical attention to the Canadian public health system and how prepared the system is to respond to various types of contemporary public health threats. This article describes the study design and methods being used to conduct a systems-level analysis of public health preparedness in the province of Alberta, Canada. The project is being funded under the Health Research Fund, Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research. We use an embedded, multiple-case study design, integrating qualitative and quantitative methods to measure empirically the degree of inter-organizational coordination existing among public health agencies in Alberta, Canada. We situate our measures of inter-organizational network ties within a systems-level framework to assess the relative influence of inter-organizational ties, individual organizational attributes, and institutional environmental features on public health preparedness. The relative contribution of each component is examined for two potential public health threats: pandemic influenza and West Nile virus. The organizational dimensions of public health preparedness depend on a complex mix of individual organizational characteristics, inter-agency relationships, and institutional environmental factors. Our study is designed to discriminate among these different system components and assess the independent influence of each on the other, as well as the overall level of public health preparedness in Alberta. While all agree that competent organizations and functioning networks are important components of public health preparedness, this study is one of the first to use formal network analysis to study the role of inter-agency networks in the development of prepared public health systems.

  13. Public health preparedness in Alberta: a systems-level study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noseworthy Tom

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent international and national events have brought critical attention to the Canadian public health system and how prepared the system is to respond to various types of contemporary public health threats. This article describes the study design and methods being used to conduct a systems-level analysis of public health preparedness in the province of Alberta, Canada. The project is being funded under the Health Research Fund, Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research. Methods/Design We use an embedded, multiple-case study design, integrating qualitative and quantitative methods to measure empirically the degree of inter-organizational coordination existing among public health agencies in Alberta, Canada. We situate our measures of inter-organizational network ties within a systems-level framework to assess the relative influence of inter-organizational ties, individual organizational attributes, and institutional environmental features on public health preparedness. The relative contribution of each component is examined for two potential public health threats: pandemic influenza and West Nile virus. Discussion The organizational dimensions of public health preparedness depend on a complex mix of individual organizational characteristics, inter-agency relationships, and institutional environmental factors. Our study is designed to discriminate among these different system components and assess the independent influence of each on the other, as well as the overall level of public health preparedness in Alberta. While all agree that competent organizations and functioning networks are important components of public health preparedness, this study is one of the first to use formal network analysis to study the role of inter-agency networks in the development of prepared public health systems.

  14. Study on high-level waste geological disposal metadata model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Xiaobin; Wang Changhong; Zhu Hehua; Li Xiaojun

    2008-01-01

    This paper expatiated the concept of metadata and its researches within china and abroad, then explain why start the study on the metadata model of high-level nuclear waste deep geological disposal project. As reference to GML, the author first set up DML under the framework of digital underground space engineering. Based on DML, a standardized metadata employed in high-level nuclear waste deep geological disposal project is presented. Then, a Metadata Model with the utilization of internet is put forward. With the standardized data and CSW services, this model may solve the problem in the data sharing and exchanging of different data form A metadata editor is build up in order to search and maintain metadata based on this model. (authors)

  15. Study and microscopic characterization of the cadmium telluride deep levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biglari, B.

    1989-05-01

    The spectroscopic methods PICTS, QTS and CTS were developed and perfected to investigate deep level analysis of high resistivity CdTe crystals which were either undoped, or doped with chlorine and copper. Crystals which were grown in space were also investigated. The main characterization of defect levels was determined and different correlations were established between the material's resistivity, chemical residues, dopant concentration and the nuclear radiation detector parameters. Using PICTS and CTS techniques, the generation of defects, under strong gamma-ray irradiation and particle bombardment was also studied. The influence of hydrogen on the main electrical characteristics of CdTe, in particular its ability to passivate the electrical activity of many deep defect and impurity states have been demonstrated. The compensation effects of Cl, Cu and H + are interpreted using the qualitative models based on different possibilities of pairing or triplet formation between the ions of these dopants and those of defects [fr

  16. Update on the national low level radioactive waste repository study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veitch, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Activity to establish a national repository for low-level and short-lived intermediate-level radioactive waste in Australia began in the early 1980's. From the early 1990's computer-based geographic information systems had developed sufficiently so that all of Australia could be quickly reviewed using digital data relevant to site selection criteria. A three-phased approach to site selection was commenced which included an iterative process of data collection, interpretation, and public involvement through discussion papers. All of Australia was reviewed using national-scale data, and eight broad regions were identified and reviewed using regional-scale data. A third phase report will be released shortly which includes details on the process for identifying the preferred region of the eight. This region will be the focus for public involvement and for detailed study to identify a site for the national repository

  17. Tradescantia in studies of genetic effects of low level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Atsushi

    1976-01-01

    Tradescantia in studies on genetic effects of low level radiation is briefly introduced. Radiosensitivity, method of screening stamen hair mutation, materials in current uses, spontaneous mutation rate, and modifying factors are refered. For stamen hair mutation b values in exponential model were lower in irradiation with low dose rate at high environmental temperature. The dose response curves under these modifying conditions, when extrapolated to low dose range, well fit to the line which was obtained by Sparrow's experiment of low level irradiation. In chronic irradiation, the frequency of stamen hair mutation reaches to the constant value after 17 days from the start of irradiation, and is as much as 4 times higher than the peak value in one day irradiation at the same exposure rate. The spontaneous mutation rate of KU-7 varied with temperature. The increase with 1 0 C increment of mean temperature was -0.04%. Uses of Tradescantia in monitoring the environmental radiation is discussed. (auth.)

  18. Study of serum osteocalcin levels in patients with hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Ningyan; Zhang Jingxin; Li Huiping; Gong Yiming

    2001-01-01

    In order to study the serum osteocalcin (OC) level in hyperthyroidism, serum osteocalcin, FT 3 , FT 4 and TSH were measured by radioimmunoassay in 87 patients with hyperthyroidism and 52 healthy volunteers. The results indicated that the serum osteocalcin level was decreased with age increasing in healthy volunteers and there was no significant difference in sex (P > 0.05). Serum concentration of OC was significantly higher in untreated hyperthyroid patients than that in healthy volunteers (P 3 , FT 4 (FT 3 :r 0.84 - 0.27, P 4 :r = 0.58 - 0.29, P < 0.01), but not with TSH. Conclusion: Thyroid hormones might speed up bone turnover directly with increased bone resorption to induce bone mass loss. These results indicate that OC is a highly sensitive marker for altered bone metabolism in hyperthyroidism

  19. Comparative study of the second antibody for radioimmunoassay totally produced in the country to a similar imported one (sheep serum anti-rabbit IgG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, S.R. da; Borghi, V.C.; Wajchenberg, B.L.

    1992-01-01

    This work compares a second antibody for radioimmunoassay (RIA) produced at IPEN-CNEN/SP with a commercial one of known quality, produced by Radioassay Systems Laboratories, U.S.A.. This antiserum, sheep serum anti-rabbit IgG produced in its totality in the country, presented title and precipitation characteristics similar to those exhibited by the commercial product, being as suitable for the RIA separation as its imported similar. (author)

  20. Low- and High-Volume Water-Based Resistance Training Induces Similar Strength and Functional Capacity Improvements in Older Women: A Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Thaís; Delevatti, Rodrigo Sudatti; Prado, Alexandre Konig Garcia; Bagatini, Natália Carvalho; Simmer, Nicole Monticelli; Meinerz, Andressa Pellegrini; Barroso, Bruna Machado; Costa, Rochelle Rocha; Kanitz, Ana Carolina; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2018-03-27

    Water-based resistance training (WRT) has been indicated to promote strength gains in elderly population. However, no study has compared different training strategies to identify the most efficient one. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 3 WRT strategies on the strength and functional capacity of older women. In total, 36 women were randomly allocated to training groups: simple set of 30 seconds [1 × 30s; 66.41 (1.36) y; n = 12], multiple sets of 10 seconds [3 × 10s; 66.50 (1.43) y; n = 11], and simple set of 10 seconds [1 × 10s; 65.23 (1.09) y; n = 13]. Training lasted for 12 weeks. The maximal dynamic strength (in kilograms) and muscular endurance (number of repetitions) of knee extension, knee flexion, elbow flexion, and bench press, as well as functional capacity (number of repetitions), were evaluated. All types of training promoted similar gains in maximal dynamic strength of knee extension and flexion as well as elbow flexion. Only the 1 × 30s and 1 × 10s groups presented increments in bench press maximal strength. All 3 groups showed increases in muscular endurance in all exercises and functional capacity. WRT using long- or short-duration simple sets promotes the same gains in strength and functional capacity in older women as does WRT using multiple sets.

  1. Fuzzy Similarity and Fuzzy Inclusion Measures in Polyline Matching: A Case Study of Potential Streams Identification for Archaeological Modelling in GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ďuračiová, Renata; Rášová, Alexandra; Lieskovský, Tibor

    2017-12-01

    When combining spatial data from various sources, it is often important to determine similarity or identity of spatial objects. Besides the differences in geometry, representations of spatial objects are inevitably more or less uncertain. Fuzzy set theory can be used to address both modelling of the spatial objects uncertainty and determining the identity, similarity, and inclusion of two sets as fuzzy identity, fuzzy similarity, and fuzzy inclusion. In this paper, we propose to use fuzzy measures to determine the similarity or identity of two uncertain spatial object representations in geographic information systems. Labelling the spatial objects by the degree of their similarity or inclusion measure makes the process of their identification more efficient. It reduces the need for a manual control. This leads to a more simple process of spatial datasets update from external data sources. We use this approach to get an accurate and correct representation of historical streams, which is derived from contemporary digital elevation model, i.e. we identify the segments that are similar to the streams depicted on historical maps.

  2. Fuzzy Similarity and Fuzzy Inclusion Measures in Polyline Matching: A Case Study of Potential Streams Identification for Archaeological Modelling in GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ďuračiová Renata

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available When combining spatial data from various sources, it is often important to determine similarity or identity of spatial objects. Besides the differences in geometry, representations of spatial objects are inevitably more or less uncertain. Fuzzy set theory can be used to address both modelling of the spatial objects uncertainty and determining the identity, similarity, and inclusion of two sets as fuzzy identity, fuzzy similarity, and fuzzy inclusion. In this paper, we propose to use fuzzy measures to determine the similarity or identity of two uncertain spatial object representations in geographic information systems. Labelling the spatial objects by the degree of their similarity or inclusion measure makes the process of their identification more efficient. It reduces the need for a manual control. This leads to a more simple process of spatial datasets update from external data sources. We use this approach to get an accurate and correct representation of historical streams, which is derived from contemporary digital elevation model, i.e. we identify the segments that are similar to the streams depicted on historical maps.

  3. Nurses’ Knowledge Levels of Chest Drain Management: A Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Tarhan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The physician is responsible for inserting one or more chest tubes into the pleural space or the mediastinal space and connecting them to an appropriate drainage system. When the general principles about care of patients with chest drains were implemented correctly and effectively by nurses, nurse will contribute to accelerate the healing process of patients. In this context, the aim of this study was to determine the nurses’ level of knowledge regarding the care of patients with chest drains. Methods: The study was conducted with 153 nurses who worked in a chest diseases and thoracic surgery hospital in July 2014. Questionnaire form of 35 questions prepared by investigators was used to collect data. For the analysis of results, frequency tests, independent sample t-test and oneway ANOVA test were used. Results: 69.3% of nurses stated that they had obtained information from colleguages. 35.3% considered their knowledge about chest drain management to be inadequate. 55.6% scored 13 points and above from knowledge questionnaire about chest drain management. There were statistically significant difference between knowledge level and educational background, clinic work type, working unit, years of professional experience and institutional experience, frequency of contact patients with chest drain and perception of knowledge level (p<0.05. Conclusion: Results of this study indicate that lack of evidence-based nursing care and insufficient training has resulted in uncertainty and knowledge deficit in important aspects of chest drain care. It can be concluded that nurses receive training needs and training protocols are about chest drain management.

  4. Experimental study on intermediate level radioactive waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagakura, Tadashi; Abe, Hirotoshi; Okazawa, Takao; Hattori, Seiichi; Maki, Yasuro

    1977-01-01

    In the disposal of intermediate level radioactive wastes, multilayer package will be adopted. The multilayer package consists of cement-solidified waste and a container such as a drum - can with concrete liner or a concrete container. So, on the waste to be cement-solidified in such container, experimental study was carried out as follows. (1) Cement-solidification method. (2) Mechanical behaviour of cement-solidified waste. The mechanical behaviour of the containers was studied by the finite element method and experiment, and the function of pressure-balancing valves was also studied. The following data on processing intermediate level radioactive wastes were obtained. (1) In the case of cement-solidified waste, the data to select the suitable solidifying material and the standard mixing proportion were determined. (2) The basic data concerning the uniaxial compressive strength of cement-solidified waste, the mechanical behaviour of cement-solidified waste packed in a drum under high hydrostatic pressure, the shock response of cement-solidified waste at the time of falling and so on were obtained. (3) The pressure-balancing valves worked at about 0.5 Kg/cm 2 pressure difference inside and outside a container, and the deformation of a drum cover was 10 to 13 mm. In case of the pressure difference less than 0,5 Kg/cm 2 , the valves shut, and water flow did occur. (auth.)

  5. Study of Acrylamide Level in Food from Vending Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haouet, Naceur; Pistolese, Simona; Branciari, Raffaella; Ranucci, David; Altissimi, Maria Serena

    2016-09-20

    Acrylamide is a by-product of the Maillard reaction and is potentially carcinogenic to humans. It is found in a number of foods with higher concentrations in carbohydrate-rich foods and moderate levels of protein-rich foods such as meat, fish and seafood. Acrylamide levels in food distributed in vending machines placed in public areas of the city of Perugia were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Samples included five different categories, depending on the characteristics of the products: i) potato chips; ii) salted bakery products; iii) biscuits and wafers; iv) sweet bakery products; v) sandwiches. A high variability in acrylamide level among different foods and within the same category was detected. Potato chips showed the highest amount of acrylamide (1781±637 μg/kg) followed by salted bakery products (211 ±245 μg/kg), biscuits and wafers (184±254 μg/kg), sweet bakery products (100±72 μg/kg) and sandwiches (42±10 μg/kg). In the potato chips and sandwiches categories, all of the samples revealed the presence of acrylamide, while different prevalence was registered in the other foods considered. The data of this study highlight the presence of acrylamide in different foods sold in vending machines and this data could be useful to understand the contribution of this type of consumption to human exposure to this compound.

  6. Study of acrylamide level in food from vending machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naceur Haouet

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Acrylamide is a by-product of the Maillard reaction and is potentially carcinogenic to humans. It is found in a number of foods with higher concentrations in carbohydrate-rich foods and moderate levels of protein-rich foods such as meat, fish and seafood. Acrylamide levels in food distributed in vending machines placed in public areas of the city of Perugia were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Samples included five different categories, depending on the characteristics of the products: i potato chips; ii salted bakery products; iii biscuits and wafers; iv sweet bakery products; v sandwiches. A high variability in acrylamide level among different foods and within the same category was detected. Potato chips showed the highest amount of acrylamide (1781±637 μg/kg followed by salted bakery products (211±245 μg/kg, biscuits and wafers (184±254 μg/kg, sweet bakery products (100±72 μg/kg and sandwiches (42±10 μg/kg. In the potato chips and sandwiches categories, all of the samples revealed the presence of acrylamide, while different prevalence was registered in the other foods considered. The data of this study highlight the presence of acrylamide in different foods sold in vending machines and this data could be useful to understand the contribution of this type of consumption to human exposure to this compound.

  7. Spectroscopic study of low-lying 16N levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardayan, Daniel W.; O'Malley, Patrick; Blackmon, Jeff C.; Chae, K.Y.; Chipps, K.; Cizewski, J.A.; Hatarik, Robert; Jones, K.L.; Kozub, R. L.; Matei, Catalin; Moazen, Brian; Nesaraja, Caroline D.; Pain, Steven D.; Paulauskas, Stanley; Peters, W.A.; Pittman, S.T.; Schmitt, Kyle; Shriner, J.F. Jr.; Smith, Michael Scott

    2008-01-01

    The magnitude of the 15N(n,gamma)16N reaction rate in asymptotic giant branch stars depends directly on the neutron spectroscopic factors of low-lying 16N levels. A new study of the 15N(d,p)16N reaction is reported populating the ground and first three excited states in 16N. The measured spectroscopic factors are near unity as expected from shell model calculations, resolving a long-standing discrepancy with earlier measurements that had never been confirmed or understood. Updated 15N(n,gamma)16N reaction rates are presented

  8. Alpha low-level stored waste systems design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Teheranian, B. (Morrison Knudson Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States). Environmental Services Div.); Quapp, W.J. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

    1992-08-01

    The Stored Waste System Design Study (SWSDS), commissioned by the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examines relative life-cycle costs associated with three system concepts for processing the alpha low-level waste (alpha-LLW) stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Transuranic Storage Area at the INEL. The three system concepts are incineration/melting; thermal treatment/solidification; and sort, treat, and repackage. The SWSDS identifies system functional and operational requirements and assesses implementability; effectiveness; cost; and demonstration, testing, and evaluation (DT E) requirements for each of the three concepts.

  9. Alpha low-level stored waste systems design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Teheranian, B. [Morrison Knudson Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States). Environmental Services Div.; Quapp, W.J. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1992-08-01

    The Stored Waste System Design Study (SWSDS), commissioned by the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examines relative life-cycle costs associated with three system concepts for processing the alpha low-level waste (alpha-LLW) stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex`s Transuranic Storage Area at the INEL. The three system concepts are incineration/melting; thermal treatment/solidification; and sort, treat, and repackage. The SWSDS identifies system functional and operational requirements and assesses implementability; effectiveness; cost; and demonstration, testing, and evaluation (DT&E) requirements for each of the three concepts.

  10. Molecular level in silico studies for oncology. Direct models review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psakhie, S. G.; Tsukanov, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    The combination of therapy and diagnostics in one process "theranostics" is a trend in a modern medicine, especially in oncology. Such an approach requires development and usage of multifunctional hybrid nanoparticles with a hierarchical structure. Numerical methods and mathematical models play a significant role in the design of the hierarchical nanoparticles and allow looking inside the nanoscale mechanisms of agent-cell interactions. The current position of in silico approach in biomedicine and oncology is discussed. The review of the molecular level in silico studies in oncology, which are using the direct models, is presented.

  11. Alpha low-level stored waste systems design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feizollahi, F.; Teheranian, B.

    1992-08-01

    The Stored Waste System Design Study (SWSDS), commissioned by the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examines relative life-cycle costs associated with three system concepts for processing the alpha low-level waste (alpha-LLW) stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Transuranic Storage Area at the INEL. The three system concepts are incineration/melting; thermal treatment/solidification; and sort, treat, and repackage. The SWSDS identifies system functional and operational requirements and assesses implementability; effectiveness; cost; and demonstration, testing, and evaluation (DT ampersand E) requirements for each of the three concepts

  12. An Alfven eigenmode similarity experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidbrink, W W; Fredrickson, E; Gorelenkov, N N; Hyatt, A W; Kramer, G; Luo, Y

    2003-01-01

    The major radius dependence of Alfven mode stability is studied by creating plasmas with similar minor radius, shape, magnetic field (0.5 T), density (n e ≅3x10 19 m -3 ), electron temperature (1.0 keV) and beam ion population (near-tangential 80 keV deuterium injection) on both NSTX and DIII-D. The major radius of NSTX is half the major radius of DIII-D. The super-Alfvenic beam ions that drive the modes have overlapping values of v f /v A in the two devices. Observed beam-driven instabilities include toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE). The stability threshold for the TAE is similar in the two devices. As expected theoretically, the most unstable toroidal mode number n is larger in DIII-D

  13. Empirically Examining the Performance of Approaches to Multi-Level Matching to Study the Effect of School-Level Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, Kelly; Cook, Thomas D.; Figlio, David

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to provide guidance for applied education researchers in using multi-level data to study the effects of interventions implemented at the school level. Two primary approaches are currently employed in observational studies of the effect of school-level interventions. One approach employs intact school matching: matching…

  14. New York State's low-level radioactive waste storage study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spath, John P.

    1992-01-01

    Like their counterparts in other states, low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) generators in New York State face the prospect of being unable to transfer their LLRW off site beginning January 1, 1993. How long will those generators be able to accumulate and store LLRW on site before activities producing the waste are seriously interrupted? Would a centralized storage facility be a more economically viable solution for medical and academic institutions? The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority is conducting a study that seeks to answer these and a variety of related questions over the coming year. This paper describes the origin and design of the study. It reviews the plans for generator-specific data collection, the method for assessing generator storage capability, and the approach to evaluating economic viability. In pursuing this study, the Energy Authority has attempted to incorporate the views of the broad spectrum of LLRW interests. The formation and role of the Study Review Panel, established specifically for that purpose, is discussed. Finally, the paper reviews some of the more interesting questions and issues raised in the development of the study and relates the study to the State's other LLRW management activities, particularly its Interim LLRW Management Plan. (author)

  15. A Study of Army Civilian Entry Level and Mid-Level Program Management Leadership Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-08

    and mid-grade level positions is an important responsibility for senior leaders. Mentoring and coaching entry level and mid-grade level...Program Management Leadership Development Craig J. Maurice Defense Acquisition University Senior Service College Fellowship 2015-2016 Huntsville...requirements for the Army’s Senior Service College Fellowship (SSCF) under the direction of SSCF Director, Mr. John Daniels and Research Advisor, Mr. Van

  16. Studies of ATM for ATLAS high-level triggers

    CERN Document Server

    Bystrický, J; Huet, M; Le Dû, P; Mandjavidze, I D

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents some of the conclusions of our studies on asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) and fast Ethernet in the ATLAS level-2 trigger pilot project. We describe the general concept and principles of our data-collection and event-building scheme that could be transposed to various experiments in high-energy and nuclear physics. To validate the approach in view of ATLAS high-level triggers, we assembled a testbed composed of up to 48 computers linked by a 7.5-Gbit/s ATM switch. This modular switch is used as a single entity or is split into several smaller interconnected switches. This allows study of how to construct a large network from smaller units. Alternatively, the ATM network can be replaced by fast Ethernet. We detail the operation of the system and present series of performance measurements made with event-building traffic pattern. We extrapolate these results to show how today's commercial networking components could be used to build a 1000-port network adequate for ATLAS needs. Lastly, we li...

  17. Effect of Pumping on Groundwater Levels: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhu, G.; Vijayachandran, Lekshmi

    2018-03-01

    Groundwater is a major source for drinking and domestic purposes. Nowadays, extensive pumping has become a major issue of concern since pumping has led to rapid decline in the groundwater table, thus imposing landward gradient, leading to saline water intrusion especially in coastal areas. Groundwater pumping has seen its utmost effect on coastal aquifer systems, where the sea-ward gradient gets disturbed due to anthropogenic influences. Hence, a groundwater flow modelling of an aquifer system is essential for understanding the various hydro-geologic conditions, which can be used to study the responses of the aquifer system with regard to various pumping scenarios. Besides, a model helps to predict the water levels for the future period with respect to changing environment. In this study, a finite element groundwater flow model of a coastal aquifer system at Aakulam, Trivandrum district is developed, calibrated and simulated using the software Finite Element subsurface Flow system (FEFLOW 6.2).This simulated model is then used to predict the groundwater levels for a future 5 year period during pre monsoon and post monsoon season.

  18. Effect of Pumping on Groundwater Levels: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhu, G.; Vijayachandran, Lekshmi

    2018-06-01

    Groundwater is a major source for drinking and domestic purposes. Nowadays, extensive pumping has become a major issue of concern since pumping has led to rapid decline in the groundwater table, thus imposing landward gradient, leading to saline water intrusion especially in coastal areas. Groundwater pumping has seen its utmost effect on coastal aquifer systems, where the sea-ward gradient gets disturbed due to anthropogenic influences. Hence, a groundwater flow modelling of an aquifer system is essential for understanding the various hydro-geologic conditions, which can be used to study the responses of the aquifer system with regard to various pumping scenarios. Besides, a model helps to predict the water levels for the future period with respect to changing environment. In this study, a finite element groundwater flow model of a coastal aquifer system at Aakulam, Trivandrum district is developed, calibrated and simulated using the software Finite Element subsurface Flow system (FEFLOW 6.2).This simulated model is then used to predict the groundwater levels for a future 5 year period during pre monsoon and post monsoon season.

  19. Serum homocysteine level in gestational diabetes: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davari Tanha F

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Increased total plasma homocysteine (Hcy is an accepted risk factor of cardiovascular disease (CVD, stroke, preclampsia, recurrent abortion and diabetes type I and II. The aim of the current study was to assess serum homocysteine and its relation with serum folat, vitamine B12 and lipid profile in gestational diabetes mellitus and to compare these with those of pregnant women."n"n Methods: In a prospective controlled survey 80 pregnant women (24-28 weeks with uncomplicated pregnancies were evaluated. They were assigned to one of two groups according to the results of 100g-OGTT. In the case group there were pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus according to the OGTT and in the control group women who had normal OGTT results were put. Levels of fasting glucose, homocysteine, vit B12, and folic acid, uric acid, total cholesterol, triglyceride, Low Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL and High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL were measured in both groups."n"nResults: The mean level of homocysteine in GDM group was significantly higher than control group (p=0.000. The mean level of folic acid and vit B12 was significantly lower than the level in control group (p=0.001, p=0.004 respectively. Body

  20. Experimental study of rectenna coupling at low power level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douyère, A; Alicalapa, F; Lan Sun Luk, J-D; Rivière, S

    2013-01-01

    The experimental results presented in this paper focus on the performance of a rectenna array by studying the effect of mutual coupling between two rectennas. The measurements in several planes of the space are investigated and used to help us to define the minimum distance for future rectenna arrays that can be used at a low power density level. The single element chosen for the array is composed of a rectifier circuit and a CSPA (Circular Slot Patch Antenna). This study shows that at a distance greater than 6cm (λ/2) between two rectennas in reception, we observe that the DC received voltage is constant in the Y plane, while in the X plane, the DC received voltage remains constant whatever the distance. We deduce that these rectennas are uncoupled in this case. We can consider each rectenna like an independent system.

  1. Differences and similarities in the serotonergic diathesis for suicide attempts and mood disorders: a 22-year longitudinal gene-environment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezo, J; Bureau, A; Mérette, C; Jomphe, V; Barker, E D; Vitaro, F; Hébert, M; Carbonneau, R; Tremblay, R E; Turecki, G

    2010-08-01

    To investigate similarities and differences in the serotonergic diathesis for mood disorders and suicide attempts, we conducted a study in a cohort followed longitudinally for 22 years. A total of 1255 members of this cohort, which is representative of the French-speaking population of Quebec, were investigated. Main outcome measures included (1) mood disorders (bipolar disorder and major depression) and suicide attempts by early adulthood; (2) odds ratios and probabilities associated with 143 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 11 serotonergic genes, acting directly or as moderators in gene-environment interactions with childhood sexual or childhood physical abuse (CPA), and in gene-gene interactions; (3) regression coefficients for putative endophenotypes for mood disorders (childhood anxiousness) and suicide attempts (childhood disruptiveness). Five genes showed significant adjusted effects (HTR2A, TPH1, HTR5A, SLC6A4 and HTR1A). Of these, HTR2A variation influenced both suicide attempts and mood disorders, although through different mechanisms. In suicide attempts, HTR2A variants (rs6561333, rs7997012 and rs1885884) were involved through interactions with histories of sexual and physical abuse whereas in mood disorders through one main effect (rs9316235). In terms of phenotype-specific contributions, TPH1 variation (rs10488683) was relevant only in the diathesis for suicide attempts. Three genes contributed exclusively to mood disorders, one through a main effect (HTR5A (rs1657268)) and two through gene-environment interactions with CPA (HTR1A (rs878567) and SLC6A4 (rs3794808)). Childhood anxiousness did not mediate the effects of HTR2A and HTR5A on mood disorders, nor did childhood disruptiveness mediate the effects of TPH1 on suicide attempts. Of the serotonergic genes implicated in mood disorders and suicidal behaviors, four exhibited phenotype-specific effects, suggesting that despite their high concordance and common genetic determinants, suicide attempts

  2. Circulating and brain BDNF levels in stroke rats. Relevance to clinical studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Béjot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Whereas brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF levels are measured in the brain in animal models of stroke, neurotrophin levels in stroke patients are measured in plasma or serum samples. The present study was designed to investigate the meaning of circulating BDNF levels in stroke patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Unilateral ischemic stroke was induced in rats by the injection of various numbers of microspheres into the carotid circulation in order to mimic the different degrees of stroke severity observed in stroke patients. Blood was serially collected from the jugular vein before and after (4 h, 24 h and 8 d embolization and the whole brains were collected at 4, 24 h and 8 d post-embolization. Rats were then selected from their degree of embolization, so that the distribution of stroke severity in the rats at the different time points was large but similar. Using ELISA tests, BDNF levels were measured in plasma, serum and brain of selected rats. Whereas plasma and serum BDNF levels were not changed by stroke, stroke induced an increase in brain BDNF levels at 4 h and 24 h post-embolization, which was not correlated with stroke severity. Individual plasma BDNF levels did not correlate with brain levels at any time point after stroke but a positive correlation (r = 0.67 was observed between individual plasma BDNF levels and stroke severity at 4 h post-embolization. CONCLUSION: Circulating BDNF levels do not mirror brain BDNF levels after stroke, and severe stroke is associated with high plasma BDNF in the very acute stage.

  3. Canadian National Dairy Study: Herd-level milk quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, C A; Barkema, H W; Dubuc, J; Keefe, G P; Kelton, D F

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate Canadian national milk quality parameters and estimate the bulk tank milk (BTM) prevalence of 4 mastitis pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Mycoplasma bovis, and Prototheca spp., on Canadian dairy farms. A questionnaire was sent to all Canadian dairy producers. Of the 1,062 producers who completed the questionnaire, 374 producers from across the country were visited and milking hygiene was assessed. Farm-level milk quality data for all Canadian dairy producers was collected from the provincial marketing boards and combined with the questionnaire and farm visit data. In addition, a BTM sample was collected either during the farm visit or by the marketing board in November of 2015 and was tested for 4 major mastitis pathogens using the PathoProof Mastitis Major 4 PCR Assay (Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., Waltham, MA). Apparent herd-level prevalence was 46% for S. aureus, 6% for Prototheca spp., 0% for M. bovis, and 0% for Strep. agalactiae. Due to the low prevalence of M. bovis and Strep. agalactiae and a lack of significant factors associated with farms testing positive for Prototheca spp., an association analysis could only be carried out for Staph. aureus-positive farms. Factors associated with Staph. aureus-positive farms were not fore-stripping cows before milking (odds ratio = 1.87), milking with a pipeline system (odds ratio = 2.21), and stall bases made of a rubberized surface (mats and mattresses), whereas protective factors were using blanket dry cow therapy (odds ratio = 0.49) and applying a tag or visible mark on cows known to have chronic mastitis infections (odds ratio = 0.45). The Canadian national production-weighted geometric mean somatic cell count was determined to be 208,000 cells/mL. This is the first national dairy study conducted in Canada. Participating farms had higher milk yield; were more likely to have a loose housing system, parlor, or automated milking system; and had

  4. Relationship between Plasma Ghrelin Levels and Sarcopenia in Elderly Subjects: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Prat, M; Papiol, M; Monteis, R; Palomera, E; Cabré, M

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between plasma ghrelin levels and sarcopenia in elderly people. Cross-sectional study. Health consortium medical centers in the Maresme region, Barcelona (Spain). Two groups of subjects: persons ≥70 years (elderly group) and persons 25-65 years (young adults). Sarcopenia, diagnosed according to the EWGSOP definition, fasting and postprandial plasma ghrelin levels, body composition, hand grip, Barthel score, and frailty using Fried criteria. Fifty-five elderly subjects and 33 young adults were recruited. In both age groups, mean ghrelin levels were significantly higher in women than in men. However, mean ghrelin levels were similar in elderly and young men (716 vs. 752 pg mL-1, P = 0.763) as well as in elderly and young women (859 vs. 995 pg mL-1, P = 0.190). In the elderly group, subjects with sarcopenia showed significantly lower ghrelin levels than those without sarcopenia (650 vs. 899 pg mL-1, P = 0.036), but these differences disappeared when stratifying by gender. Elderly subjects without sarcopenia had the same ghrelin levels as young adults (899.3 vs. 899.6 pg mL-1). In young women, ghrelin levels correlated with fat free mass (rs = 0.58, P = 0.007) and muscular mass (rs = 0.54, P = 0.015) but these correlations were not observed in men nor in elderly women. This cross-sectional study does not allow a definitive conclusion about the relationship between ghrelin levels and sarcopenia. Further large prospective studies are needed to test this hypothesis.

  5. Genetic Diversity of Brown Trout Populations Using Mitochondrial Markers In Relatively Similar Geographical and Ecological Conditions – a Carpathian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Gina-Oana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Analiza diversităţii genetice cu ajutorul markerilor mitocondriali, a unor populaţii de păstrav comun aflate în condiţii geografice şi ecologice relativ similare în Munţii Carpaţi.

  6. Why is the Groundwater Level Rising? A Case Study Using HARTT to Simulate Groundwater Level Dynamic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yihdego, Yohannes; Danis, Cara; Paffard, Andrew

    2017-12-01

      Groundwater from a shallow unconfined aquifer at a site in coastal New South Wales has been causing recent water logging issues. A trend of rising groundwater level has been anecdotally observed over the last 10 years. It was not clear whether the changes in groundwater levels were solely natural variations within the groundwater system or whether human interference was driving the level up. Time series topographic images revealed significant surrounding land use changes and human modification to the environment of the groundwater catchment. A statistical model utilising HARTT (multiple linear regression hydrograph analysis method) simulated the groundwater level dynamics at five key monitoring locations and successfully showed a trend of rising groundwater level. Utilising hydrogeological input from field investigations, the model successfully simulated the rise in the water table over time to the present day levels, whilst taking into consideration rainfall and land changes. The underlying geological/land conditions were found to be just as significant as the impact of climate variation. The correlation coefficient for the monitoring bores (MB), excluding MB4, show that the groundwater level fluctuation can be explained by the climate variable (rainfall) with the lag time between the atypical rainfall and groundwater level ranging from 4 to 7 months. The low R2 value for MB4 indicates that there are factors missing in the model which are primarily related to human interference. The elevated groundwater levels in the affected area are the result of long term cumulative land use changes, instigated by humans, which have directly resulted in detrimental changes to the groundwater aquifer properties.

  7. Pre- and post-bronchodilator airway obstruction are associated with similar clinical characteristics but different prognosis – report from a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawalha S

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Sami Sawalha,1 Linnea Hedman,2 Eva Rönmark,2 Bo Lundbäck,3 Anne Lindberg1 1Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Division of Medicine, 2Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, The OLIN Unit, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, 3Krefting Research Center, Institution of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden Introduction: According to guidelines, the diagnosis of COPD should be confirmed by post-bronchodilator (post-BD airway obstruction on spirometry; however, in clinical practice, this is not always performed. The aim of this population-based study was to compare clinical characteristics and prognosis, assessed as mortality, between subjects with airway obstruction divided into pre- but not post-BD obstruction, post-BD airway obstruction (COPD, and subjects without airway obstruction.Materials and methods: In 2002–2004, four adult population-based cohorts were reexamined with spirometry and structured interview. Subjects with airway obstruction, with a ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s to (forced vital capacity <0.70 (n=993, were identified together with sex- and age-matched referents (n=993. These subjects were further divided into subjects with pre- but not post-BD airway obstruction (pre- not post-BD obstruction and subjects with post-BD airway obstruction (COPD. Mortality data were collected until December 31, 2014.Results: Out of 993 subjects with airway obstruction, 736 (74% had COPD and 257 (26% pre- not post-BD obstruction. Any respiratory symptoms, allergic rhinitis, asthma, exacerbations, and comorbidities were equally common among subjects with COPD and pre- not post-BD obstruction, but less common among nonobstructive subjects. Mortality was highest among subjects with COPD and higher in men than in women. In both sexes, COPD, but not pre- not post-BD obstruction, was associated with an increased risk for death compared to those without

  8. Physical activity levels in adolescents: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Sevilla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical Activity (PA is very important during childhood and adolescence in order to promote healthy development and prevent obesity. The WHO recommends 60 minutes daily of moderate-vigorous activity (e» 3 METs/day. The main objective of the study is to assess the levels of PA intensity performed daily by adolescents from a school using the triaxial accelerometry system and to know if they achieve the WHO recommendations. The sample size was 60 Spanish adolescents (14.52 ± .854 year-old belongs to the Empordá school (Empúries, Spain. Previous informed consent was obtained from their parents and/or tutors. PA levels were obtained through accelerometry, Body Mass Index (BMI was calculated though weight and height, heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP were measured using a digital automatic blood pressure monitor. Descriptive for all data was calculated, and T–test (p < .05 was used to analyze the differences between boys and girls. The main result show that males performed PA during longer time and at higher intensity than women. There is a low percentage of students who achieve the WHO recommendations. In conclusion, we believe very important to seek new strategies and methods to involve more adolescents in the practice of PA, and we believe that PA sessions at school are very important.

  9. Oxidative stress and decreased thiol level in patients with migraine: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Yasemin; Dirik, Ebru; Neşelioğlu, Salim; Erel, Özcan

    2015-12-01

    Although migraine is a neurological disorder known since long, its physiopathology remains unclear. Recent studies suggest that migraine is associated with oxidative stress; however, they report divergent results. The aim of the present study was to evaluate total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI), and serum thiol level in migraine patients with or without aura. The study group consisted of 141 migraine patients. The control group included 70 healthy subjects. TAS, TOS, OSI were evaluated using a method developed by Erel. Serum thiol level was measured using the Hu method. No difference was found in TAS, TOS, OSI between the patients and controls. The level of thiol was significantly lower in patients than in controls. Negative correlations were detected between thiol level and Migraine Disability Assessment score in patients. Although TAS, TOS, and OSI were similar to those of the control group, serum thiol level, an important marker of antioxidant capacity, was significantly lower in migraines compared with controls, and caused more serious disability. Novel treatment approaches may be developed based on these data, and compounds containing thiol, such as alpha lipoic acid and N-acetyl cysteine, may be used in prophylaxis.

  10. A study of fish and shellfish radioactivity levels within the Cumbria Sea Fisheries District

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, W.A.; Latawiec, D.

    1986-11-01

    Fish (cod, plaice, whiting and skate), crustacea (shrimp and Nephrops) and mollusc (winkle) samples have been collected from the Cumbria Sea Fisheries District between November 1984 and end of December 1985. The samples have been counted for total beta activity, and a range of gamma and alpha emitters have been determined. The mean levels over the study period are, in general, of the same order as found by MAFF in 1984 in Cumbrian coastal waters and thus the dose from these nuclides on eating this seafood would be expected to be similar to 1984, within the ICRP principal dose limit of 1 mSv year -1 , assuming similar consumption rates. Most of the radiation dose to the critical group within the Cumbrian community comes through winkle consumption. (author)

  11. Platelet serotonin level and impulsivity in human self-destructive behavior: A biological and psychological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Era Dutta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Suicide is a disease and a global public health problem. Suicidology has come to become a topic of study for intervention and research. The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5HT] system has remained a prime area of investigation. The neurons and platelets display structural and functional similarities. Ninety-nine percent of 5HT is contained in platelets, which shares similar 5HT uptake and release mechanisms with 5HT neurons. Aims: This study aims to study human self-destructive behavior (HSDB. Objectives: Exploring the biological (serotonin levels in platelets and psychological aspects (impulsivity of attempted suicide or HSDB. Settings and Design: Thirty-one patients, above the age of 18 years, with a recent history of HSDB, were studied and given an International Classification of Diseases-10 diagnosis, after a detailed interview. Subjects and Methods: For the platelet 5HT estimation, blood samples were collected, and enzyme immunometric assay carried out. Detailed assessment of the impulsivity was done by the 25-item structured diagnostic interview for borderlines by Zanarini et al. Statistical Analysis Used: We obtained both categorical and continuous data. Chi-square test, Fisher's test, Student's t-test, and Pearson's product moment correlation were used. Results: Female subjects outnumbered males by 2:1. Major depression, adjustment disorder, personality disorder were predominant diagnoses. The mean platelet serotonin concentration for males = 57.3 ng/ml, that of females = 56.05 ng/ml (P > 0.05. Platelet 5HT levels were found to be negatively correlated with impulsivity scores (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Platelet serotonin levels in our study sample were quite low when compared with those reported in published literature. Low serotonin levels were inversely related to impulsivity, but only in males.

  12. HYPOTHESIS TESTING WITH THE SIMILARITY INDEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulltilocus DNA fingerprinting methods have been used extensively to address genetic issues in wildlife populations. Hypotheses concerning population subdivision and differing levels of diversity can be addressed through the use of the similarity index (S), a band-sharing coeffic...

  13. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels throughout pregnancy: a longitudinal study in healthy and preeclamptic pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yessica Agudelo-Zapata

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Worldwide there is a high prevalence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD deficiency and has been associated with adverse outcomes during pregnancy. Objective: This is a nested, case–control study in a longitudinal cohort to compare the serum 25OHD levels and other biomarkers throughout pregnancy in a group of 20 preeclamptic women and 61 healthy pregnant women. An additional group of 29 healthy non-pregnant women were also studied during the two phases of the menstrual cycle. Results: Mean 25OHD levels in non-pregnant women were 31.9 ng/mL and 34.9 ng/mL during follicular and luteal phase, respectively (P < 0.01. Mean serum 25OHD levels in healthy pregnant women were 26.5, 30.1 and 31.9 ng/mL, at first, second and third trimester, respectively (P < 0.001. The first trimester levels of 25OHD were lower than those of healthy non-pregnant women (P < 0.001, showing a significant recovery at third trimester. In the group of healthy pregnant women, the 25OHD levels were 25.7 ng/mL and 27.2 ng/mL at 3 and 6 months postpartum, respectively; both values were lower than those observed in the non-pregnant women (P < 0.001. In preeclamptic women, 25OHD serum levels were similar to those of healthy pregnant women; nevertheless, they remained almost unchanged throughout pregnancy. Conclusion: There were no significant differences between healthy and preeclamptic pregnant women in terms of 25OHD levels throughout the pregnancy. Serum 25OHD levels in non-pregnant women were higher during luteal phase compared with follicular phase. The 25OHD levels of non-pregnant women tended to be higher than those of pregnant women.

  14. Similarities and differences among paramilitaries, severe aggressors and communal control, a case-control study in Medellín, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. Duque

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A case-control study was performed in Medellín during 2003-2004 to compare characteristics of severe aggressors, members of Colombian United Selfdefense Forces members (AUC, otherwise named paramilitaries, and communal control. Severe aggressors and paramilitaries have lower educational level than communal control; their families were biparental in a lower proportion, and experienced drug and alcohol abuse in a higher proportion than in the case of families of communal control. Severe aggressors and paramilitaries’ families suffered forced displacement and assassination of one of its members in a higher proportion than those of controls. There were no differences relating time of residence in Medellín or current neighborhood, or current family socioeconomic stressors. No differences were found regarding believing in God, religious practice and reasons for practicing religion. There were no significant differences for all mentioned variables between severe aggressors and paramilitaries. Paramilitaries did inform having suffered extreme poverty conditions during childhood in a higher proportion than severe aggressors and controls. Progress opportunities perception was also explored.

  15. New study sees greater low-level radiation threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobsenz, G.

    1992-01-01

    A new analysis of Energy Department medical records has found higher than expected cancer rates among workers at DOE's Hanford nuclear weapons plant, suggesting occupational exposure to low-level radiation may be more dangerous than previously thought. The study, released Tuesday by the Philadelphia-based Three Mile Island Public Health Fund, is important not only because of its controversial conclusions, but also because it represents the first independent review of DOE's long-secret worker medical records. The new study done by Stewart and Kneale looked at Hanford worker health records dating up to 1986 - part of a huge trove of data withheld by DOE from independent researchers until two years ago. In their re-analysis of the Hanford worker records, Stewart and Kneale found increased cancer rates among older workers who were over 40 years of age when exposed. And they said that increased susceptibility of older people to radiation-induced cancer was not reflected in the highly influential Japanese atomic bomb studies because people over 50 years of age were open-quotes grossly under-representedclose quotes in the A-bomb analyses, possibly because many bomb victims suffered early deaths from high doses

  16. Social Studies Student Teachers' Levels of Understanding Sociology Concepts within Social Studies Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatekin, Kadir

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at investigating social studies student teachers' levels of understanding sociology concepts within social studies curriculum. Study group of the research consists of 266 teacher candidates attending the Department of Social Studies, Faculty of Education, Kastamonu University during 2012 to 2013 education year. A semi-structured…

  17. Hydrological similarity approach and rainfall satellite utilization for mini hydro power dam basic design (case study on the ungauged catchment at West Borneo, Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakoso, W. G.; Murtilaksono, K.; Tarigan, S. D.; Purwanto, Y. J.

    2018-05-01

    An approach on flow duration and flood design estimation on the ungauged catchment with no rainfall and discharge data availability was been being develop with hydrological modelling including rainfall run off model implemented with watershed characteristic dataset. Near real time Rainfall data from multi satellite platform e.g. TRMM can be utilized for regionalization approach on the ungauged catchment. Watershed hydrologically similarity analysis were conducted including all of the major watershed in Borneo which was predicted to be similar with the Nanga Raun Watershed. It was found that a satisfactory hydrological model calibration could be achieved using catchment weighted time series of TRMM daily rainfall data, performed on nearby catchment deemed to be sufficiently similar to Nanga Raun catchment in hydrological terms. Based on this calibration, rainfall runoff parameters were then transferred to a model. Relatively reliable flow duration curve and extreme discharge value estimation were produced with reasonable several limitation. Further approach may be performed in order to deal with the primary limitations inherent in the hydrological and statistical analysis, especially to give prolongation to the availability of the rainfall and climate data with some novel approach like downscaling of global climate model.

  18. Accelerated uncertainty propagation in two-level probabilistic studies under monotony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limbourg, Philipp; Rocquigny, Etienne de; Andrianov, Guennadi

    2010-01-01

    Double-level probabilistic uncertainty models that separate aleatory and epistemic components enjoy significant interest in risk assessment. But the expensive computational costs associated with calculations of rare failure probabilities are still a large obstacle in practice. Computing accurately a risk lower than 10 -3 with 95% epistemic confidence usually requires 10 7 -10 8 runs in a brute-force double Monte Carlo. For single-level probabilistic studies, FORM (First Order Reliability Analysis) is a classical recipe allowing fast approximation of failure probabilities while MRM (Monotonous Reliability Method) recently proved an attractive robust alternative under monotony. This paper extends these methods to double-level probabilistic models through two novel algorithms designed to compute a set of failure probabilities or an aleatory risk level with an epistemic confidence quantile. The first, L2-FORM (level-2 FORM), allows a rapid approximation of the failure probabilities through a combination of FORM with new ideas to use similarity between computations. L2-MRM (level-2 MRM), a quadrature approach, provides 100%-guaranteed error bounds on the results. Experiments on three flood prediction problems showed that both algorithms approximate a set of 500 failure probabilities of 10 -3 -10 -2 or derived 95% epistemic quantiles with a total of only 500-1000 function evaluations, outperforming importance sampling, iterative FORM and regression splines metamodels.

  19. Personality similarity and life satisfaction in couples

    OpenAIRE

    Furler Katrin; Gomez Veronica; Grob Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the association between personality similarity and life satisfaction in a large nationally representative sample of 1608 romantic couples. Similarity effects were computed for the Big Five personality traits as well as for personality profiles with global and differentiated indices of similarity. Results showed substantial actor and partner effects indicating that both partners' personality traits were related to both partners' life satisfaction. Personality similar...

  20. Scoping Adaptation Needs for Smallholders in the Brazilian Amazon: A Municipal Level Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osuna Vanesa Rodríguez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, several climate extreme events have caused considerable economic damage and hardship in the Brazilian Amazon region, especially for small-scale producers. Based on household surveys and focus group interviews in the Municipality of Alenquer as well as secondary data analyses and a literature review at the regional level, this study seeks to assess rural small-scale producers’ vulnerability to climate and non-climate related shocks and identify entry points for government action to support adaptation at the local level. In our case study area, small-scale producers with similar wealth, self-sufficiency, and resource use specialisation levels exhibited stark variation in levels of sensitivity and adaptive capacity to climate and nonclimate related shocks. Our findings indicate that this variation is partly driven by cultural, historical, and environmental resource use specialisation strategies and partly by differences in local governance capacity and the level of social organisation. Emerging governmentled initiatives to promote climate change adaptation in the region would benefit from taking these factors into account when designing local implementation strategies and priorities.

  1. Organizational Trust Levels of Elementary Teachers: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukadder BOYDAK ÖZAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, the main feature of a well-functioning organization is trust in the organization. In the research, it is researched which conceptions are needed to ensue organizational trust by the teachers who work in the primary schools and that the effects of the factors of organizational trust formation on the organizational atmosphere. The research is designed qualitatively. The study group of the research consists of 50 teachers working in Elazığ and the centrum of the city boundries. The interview form was prepared by studying on the subject of the research. The validity of the interview forms, content and appearance are provided thanks to be taken the expert opinions of faculty members (n=3. The interview forms are used as a unique data source. In the research , it is evaluated how organizational trust affects on the importantresults in terms of the organization such as organizational commitment, organizational burnout, organizational citizenship, organizational cynicism, identification with the organization, productivity according to the perception of the teachers. As a result, it is observed that organizational trust affects organizational commitment, the organizational burnout and organizational communication levels significantly

  2. Handheld Navigation Device and Patient-Specific Cutting Guides Result in Similar Coronal Alignment for Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty: a Retrospective Matched Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Michael E; McLawhorn, Alexander S; Richardson, Shawn S; Maher, Patrick; Mayman, David J

    2016-10-01

    Proper alignment of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is essential for TKA function and may reduce the risk of aseptic failure. Technologies that prevent malalignment may reduce the risk of revision surgery. The purpose of this study was to compare two competing TKA systems that purport improved alignment: patient-specific instrumentation (PSI), and a handheld portable navigation device (NAV). After IRB approval, 49 consecutive PSI TKAs (40 patients) were matched based on preoperative characteristics to 49 NAV TKAs (40 patients) performed by a single surgeon. A blinded observer measured alignment on digital radiographs. Operating room records were reviewed for procedure times. Two-tailed paired sample t tests and McNemar's test were used as appropriate. Alpha level was 0.05 for all tests. Preoperative cohort characteristics were not different. Mean postoperative long-leg mechanical alignment was within ±1° of neutral for both groups, although statistically different ( p  = 0.026). There were no other significant differences in coronal alignment. PSI exhibited significantly greater posterior tibial slope (4.4°) compared to NAV (2.7°) ( p  = 0.004); PSI resulted in significantly more outliers (>6°; p  = 0.004). Procedure time for unilateral TKAs was lower for PSI (74.4 min) compared to that for NAV (80.6 min; p  = 0.023). NAV and PSI technologies provided excellent coronal plane alignment. NAV was better for sagittal tibial slope, while PSI procedure times were shorter for unilateral TKA. The impact of these technologies on patient-reported outcomes and TKA survivorship is controversial and should be the focus of future research.

  3. Simple or Complex Stenting for Bifurcation Coronary Lesions: A Patient-Level Pooled-Analysis of the Nordic Bifurcation Study and the British Bifurcation Coronary Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behan, Miles W; Holm, Niels Ramsing; Curzen, Nicholas P

    2011-01-01

    Background— Controversy persists regarding the correct strategy for bifurcation lesions. Therefore, we combined the patient-level data from 2 large trials with similar methodology: the NORDIC Bifurcation Study (NORDIC I) and the British Bifurcation Coronary Study (BBC ONE). Methods and Results— B...

  4. Entrepreneurship Education at Tertiary Education Level: Implication to Historical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, Salahu Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Nigeria is richly endowed with both human and material resources that when well utilized can make her one of the richest and developed nation in the world. But poor utilization of the resources, corruption and dwindling fortune in her education system made her among the first twenty five poorest nations in the world. Similarly, report shows that…

  5. Leaching studies of low-level radioactive waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayal, R.; Arora, H.; Milian, L.; Clinton, J.

    1985-01-01

    A research program has been underway at the Brookhaven National Laboratory to investigate the release of radionuclides from low-level waste forms under laboratory conditions. This paper describes the leaching behavior of Cs-137 from two major low-level waste streams, that is, ion exchange bead resin and boric acid concentrate, solidified in Portland cement. The resultant leach data are employed to evaluate and predict the release behavior of Cs-137 from low-level waste forms under field burial conditions

  6. Assessment of vitamin K2 levels in osteoporotic patients: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noori, Akram; Lashkari, Mahin; Oveisi, Sonia; Khair Khah, Mohamad Reza; Zargar, Ali

    2014-07-14

    The aim of this study was to measure the level of Vitamin K2 (Vit K2) in osteoporotic patients and individuals with normal bone density as controls. This case-control study was done in Outpatient Department of Rheumatology at Qazvin Boo-ali Sina Hospital in 2013. Participants were 50 patients with osteoporotic densitometry measured by DEXA (T score? -2.5) who were matched with 48 persons in control group with normal bone density (T score> -1). The level of Vit K2 in samples was measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U test and Chi-square test. The level of Vit K2 in patients with osteoporosis was not significantly different from the control group (Median: 75.95 vs. 71.35 nmol/L, respectively; P-value: 0.709). The authors determined cut-offs 75 percentile of vitamin K2 in all participants that was 85 nmol/L and percentages of persons in two groups were similar. Although Vit K2 level in patients with osteoporosis was not significantly different from the control group, further studies are necessary to confirm the association of osteoporosis and Vit K2.

  7. Experimental Study of a Multi Level Overtopping Wave Power Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Hald, Tue; Frigaard, Peter Bak

    2002-01-01

    Results of experimental investigations of a floating wave energy device called Power Pyramid is presented. The Power Pyramid utilizes reservoirs in multiple levels when capturing wave overtopping and converting it into electrical energy. The effect of capturing the overtopping in multiple levels,......, using 5 levels introduces practical problems, and is most probably not economically feasible. It is concluded that it is reasonable to use 2 levels (maybe 3), which can increase the efficiency by 25-40 % compared to using a single level.......Results of experimental investigations of a floating wave energy device called Power Pyramid is presented. The Power Pyramid utilizes reservoirs in multiple levels when capturing wave overtopping and converting it into electrical energy. The effect of capturing the overtopping in multiple levels......, compared to only one level, has been evaluated experimentally. From the experimental results, and the performed optimizations based on these, it has been found that the efficiency of a wave power device of the overtopping type can be increased by as much as 76 % by using 5 levels instead of 1. However...

  8. Theoretical studies on core-level spectra of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotani, Akio

    1995-01-01

    I present a review on theoretical studies of core-level spectra (CLS) in solids. In CLS, the dynamical response of outer electrons to a core hole is reflected through the screening of core hole potential. Impurity Anderson model (IAM) or cluster model is successfully applied to the analysis of X-ray photoemission spectra (XPS) and X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) in f and d electron systems, where the f and d electron states are hybridized with the other valence or conduction electron states. The effect of the core-hole potential in the final state of XPS and XAS plays an important role, as well as the solid state hybridization and intra-atomic multiplet coupling effects. As typical examples, the calculated results for XPS of rare-earth compounds and transition metal compounds are shown, and some discussions are given. As a subject of remarkable progress with high brightness synchrotron radiation sources, I discuss some theoretical aspects of X-ray emission spectra (XES) and their resonant enhancement at the X-ray absorption threshold. Some experimental data and their theoretical analysis are also given. (author)

  9. A comparative study of image low level feature extraction algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. El-gayar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Feature extraction and matching is at the base of many computer vision problems, such as object recognition or structure from motion. Current methods for assessing the performance of popular image matching algorithms are presented and rely on costly descriptors for detection and matching. Specifically, the method assesses the type of images under which each of the algorithms reviewed herein perform to its maximum or highest efficiency. The efficiency is measured in terms of the number of matches founds by the algorithm and the number of type I and type II errors encountered when the algorithm is tested against a specific pair of images. Current comparative studies asses the performance of the algorithms based on the results obtained in different criteria such as speed, sensitivity, occlusion, and others. This study addresses the limitations of the existing comparative tools and delivers a generalized criterion to determine beforehand the level of efficiency expected from a matching algorithm given the type of images evaluated. The algorithms and the respective images used within this work are divided into two groups: feature-based and texture-based. And from this broad classification only three of the most widely used algorithms are assessed: color histogram, FAST (Features from Accelerated Segment Test, SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform, PCA-SIFT (Principal Component Analysis-SIFT, F-SIFT (fast-SIFT and SURF (speeded up robust features. The performance of the Fast-SIFT (F-SIFT feature detection methods are compared for scale changes, rotation, blur, illumination changes and affine transformations. All the experiments use repeatability measurement and the number of correct matches for the evaluation measurements. SIFT presents its stability in most situations although its slow. F-SIFT is the fastest one with good performance as the same as SURF, SIFT, PCA-SIFT show its advantages in rotation and illumination changes.

  10. Logic as Marr's computational level: Four case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baggio, G.; Lambalgen, M. van; Hagoort, P.

    2015-01-01

    We sketch four applications of Marr's levels-of-analysis methodology to the relations between logic and experimental data in the cognitive neuroscience of language and reasoning. The first part of the paper illustrates the explanatory power of computational level theories based on logic. We show

  11. High level waste canister emplacement and retrieval concepts study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-09-01

    Several concepts are described for the interim (20 to 30 years) storage of canisters containing high level waste, cladding waste, and intermediate level-TRU wastes. It includes requirements, ground rules and assumptions for the entire storage pilot plant. Concepts are generally evaluated and the most promising are selected for additional work. Follow-on recommendations are made

  12. Feasibility study on a cosmic-ray level gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, H.; Fukaya, M.; Minato, S.

    1989-01-01

    Cosmic-ray intensities were measured at the stairs in a subway station in Nagoya City, inside a tall concrete building and under a cylindrical water tank, to examine the feasibility of a cosmic-ray level gauge. The measured results agreed quite well with the theoretical calculations. These results show that a cosmic-ray level gauge is feasible. (author)

  13. Elementary study on γ analysis software for low level measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan Guanglin; Huang Xianguo; Xing Shixiong

    2001-01-01

    The difficulty in using fashion γ analysis software in low level measurement is discussed. The ROI report file of ORTEC operation system has been chosen as interface file to write γ analysis software for low-level measurement. The author gives software flowchart and applied example and discusses the existent problems

  14. Experimental and theoretical study of radon levels in a house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ameon, R.; Dupuis, M.; Marie, L.; Diez, O.; LionS, J.; Tymen, G.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Radon being a radioactive gas of natural origin is omnipresent everywhere at the surface of earth. It is created by the radium decay issued from the uranium contained in the earth crust and more specifically in granitic and volcanic subsoils. Because of the dilution due to air masses, its concentration in open air is low. On the other hand, radon may accumulate in the confined atmosphere of buildings and achieve high concentration levels. Across France, it has been estimated that 300 000 individual dwellings present concentration higher than the French reference level of 400 Bq.m -3 and that 60 000 other ones would exhibit concentration above 1 000 Bq.m -3 , the French warning threshold. Indoor radon concentration may vary significantly for various reasons, including design of buildings, radium content and texture of the soil in contact with the building's slab and walls, the under pressure value between the inside and outside and the fresh air supply rate. These considerations have led the I.R.S.N. to develop a code called R.A.D.O.N. 2 for conducting simple and methodical studies of indoor radon concentrations, to take into account the above-mentioned factors. But, the achievement of an effective diagnosis and risk management -aiding tool requires to first check its validity on the phenomenological model at the origin of the code. A 3-year experimental follow-up was, thus, conducted within an unoccupied house built on an uranium-bearing geological formation. After characterization of the subsoil, the instrumentation was implemented on site to continuously monitor the following parameters: - the radon source term in the building (exhalation rate of 222 Rn at the ground/building interface and at soil surface, radon concentration at the soil and in outdoor air), - the radon penetration by advection (differential pressure in the house basement), - the driving mechanisms for natural ventilation in the house (weather conditions, indoor

  15. Experimental and theoretical study of radon levels in a house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ameon, R.; Dupuis, M.; Marie, L.; Diez, O.; LionS, J. [Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Fontenay-aux-roses (France); Tymen, G. [LARAAH, Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest (France)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Radon being a radioactive gas of natural origin is omnipresent everywhere at the surface of earth. It is created by the radium decay issued from the uranium contained in the earth crust and more specifically in granitic and volcanic subsoils. Because of the dilution due to air masses, its concentration in open air is low. On the other hand, radon may accumulate in the confined atmosphere of buildings and achieve high concentration levels. Across France, it has been estimated that 300 000 individual dwellings present concentration higher than the French reference level of 400 Bq.m{sup -3} and that 60 000 other ones would exhibit concentration above 1 000 Bq.m{sup -3}, the French warning threshold. Indoor radon concentration may vary significantly for various reasons, including design of buildings, radium content and texture of the soil in contact with the building's slab and walls, the under pressure value between the inside and outside and the fresh air supply rate. These considerations have led the I.R.S.N. to develop a code called R.A.D.O.N. 2 for conducting simple and methodical studies of indoor radon concentrations, to take into account the above-mentioned factors. But, the achievement of an effective diagnosis and risk management -aiding tool requires to first check its validity on the phenomenological model at the origin of the code. A 3-year experimental follow-up was, thus, conducted within an unoccupied house built on an uranium-bearing geological formation. After characterization of the subsoil, the instrumentation was implemented on site to continuously monitor the following parameters: - the radon source term in the building (exhalation rate of {sup 222}Rn at the ground/building interface and at soil surface, radon concentration at the soil and in outdoor air), - the radon penetration by advection (differential pressure in the house basement), - the driving mechanisms for natural ventilation in the house (weather

  16. Modeling Timbre Similarity of Short Music Clips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedenburg, Kai; Müllensiefen, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    There is evidence from a number of recent studies that most listeners are able to extract information related to song identity, emotion, or genre from music excerpts with durations in the range of tenths of seconds. Because of these very short durations, timbre as a multifaceted auditory attribute appears as a plausible candidate for the type of features that listeners make use of when processing short music excerpts. However, the importance of timbre in listening tasks that involve short excerpts has not yet been demonstrated empirically. Hence, the goal of this study was to develop a method that allows to explore to what degree similarity judgments of short music clips can be modeled with low-level acoustic features related to timbre. We utilized the similarity data from two large samples of participants: Sample I was obtained via an online survey, used 16 clips of 400 ms length, and contained responses of 137,339 participants. Sample II was collected in a lab environment, used 16 clips of 800 ms length, and contained responses from 648 participants. Our model used two sets of audio features which included commonly used timbre descriptors and the well-known Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients as well as their temporal derivates. In order to predict pairwise similarities, the resulting distances between clips in terms of their audio features were used as predictor variables with partial least-squares regression. We found that a sparse selection of three to seven features from both descriptor sets-mainly encoding the coarse shape of the spectrum as well as spectrotemporal variability-best predicted similarities across the two sets of sounds. Notably, the inclusion of non-acoustic predictors of musical genre and record release date allowed much better generalization performance and explained up to 50% of shared variance ( R 2 ) between observations and model predictions. Overall, the results of this study empirically demonstrate that both acoustic features related

  17. Studies of deep levels in He+-irradiated silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, D.C.; Barbot, J.F.; Blanchard, C.

    1997-01-01

    Deep levels created in n-epitaxial silicon by alpha particle irradiation in the dose range from 10 9 to 10 13 particles/cm 2 have been investigated by the deep level transient spectroscopy technique and capacitance-voltage profiling. Under low fluence irradiation at least four main electron traps have been observed. With further increase in irradiation fluence, two new levels located at E c -0.56 eV and E c -0.64 eV appear on the high-temperature side of the DLTS signal. The slope change observed in the amplitude variations of the singly negative charge state of the divacancy versus the dose takes place when these two new levels appear. This suggests that both are multivacancy-related defects. After annealing at 350 C for 15 min, all electron traps have disappeared. Moreover, no shallow levels are created during the annealing. (orig.)

  18. Integrative study of the mean sea level and its components

    CERN Document Server

    Champollion, Nicolas; Paul, Frank; Benveniste, Jérôme

    2017-01-01

    This volume presents the most recent results of global mean sea level variations over the satellite altimetry era (starting in the early 1990s) and associated contributions, such as glaciers and ice sheets mass loss, ocean thermal expansion, and land water storage changes. Sea level is one of the best indicators of global climate changes as it integrates the response of several components of the climate system to external forcing factors (including anthropogenic forcing) and internal climate variability. Providing long, accurate records of the sea level at global and regional scales and of the various components causing sea level changes is of crucial importance to improve our understanding of climate processes at work and to validate the climate models used for future projections. The Climate Change Initiative project of the European Space Agency has provided a first attempt to produce consistent and continuous space-based records for several climate parameters observable from space, among them sea level. Th...

  19. [Sampling, storage and transport of biological materials collected from living and deceased subjects for determination of concentration levels of ethyl alcohol and similarly acting substances. A proposal of updating the blood and urine sampling protocol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiergowski, Marek; Reguła, Krystyna; Pieśniak, Dorota; Galer-Tatarowicz, Katarzyna; Szpiech, Beata; Jankowski, Zbigniew

    2007-01-01

    The present paper emphasizes the most common mistakes committed at the beginning of an analytical procedure. To shorten the time and decrease the cost of determinations of substances with similar to alcohol activity, it is postulated to introduce mass-scale screening analysis of saliva collected from a living subject at the site of the event, with all positive results confirmed in blood or urine samples. If no saliva sample is collected for toxicology, a urine sample, allowing for a stat fast screening analysis, and a blood sample, to confirm the result, should be ensured. Inappropriate storage of a blood sample in the tube without a preservative can cause sample spilling and its irretrievable loss. The authors propose updating the "Blood/urine sampling protocol", with the updated version to be introduced into practice following consultations and revisions.

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL REPORTING AT INTERNATIONAL LEVEL (STUDY OF THE LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IENCIU Ionel-Alin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important areas of development during the last 15 years, as far as accounting is concerned, has been the environmental reporting and accounting, generating interests beyond the restrictions imposed by purely academic discussions or the professional accountants community. The objective of the paper is represented by the analysis of scientific knowledge and existing practices in the area of environmental reporting. Mathews (1997, 2001 and Parker (2005 are one of the most representative studies that examine the evolution and status of researches in the area of accounting and environmental reporting. Because of the fact that reports offered by the traditional financial accounting system are insufficient for reflecting a clear and complete image of the company's environmantal impact, I monitored the frameworks or mechanisms of environmental information. Also, the paper analysis the articles treating international environmental reporting, articles publised in ISI quoted or BDI indexed journals. The collection and analysis of reporting frames, the interpretation and analysis thereof represent the main instruments used in order to bring to the forefront the main existing reporting frames for environmental information, found at international level. The quantitative, applicative research is used to reflect the current status of researches in the field of environmental reporting, using the non-participative observation to reflect the current status of researches in the field of environmental reporting, by using the non-participative observation, the collection and analysis of articles as main research instruments. The study concludes that environmental reporting continues to represent the main attraction of researchers in the field of environmental accounting. The main reason for researches on environmental reporting is represented by the description, investigation and improvement of practices on accounting and reporting environmental

  1. Unification and extension of the similarity scaling criteria and mixing transition for studying astrophysics using high energy density laboratory experiments or numerial simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Y

    2006-08-21

    The Euler similarity criteria for laboratory experiments and time-dependent mixing transition are important concepts introduced recently for application to prediction and analysis of astrophysical phenomena. However Euler scaling by itself provides no information on the distinctive spectral range of high Reynolds number turbulent flows found in astrophysics situations. On the other hand, time-dependent mixing transition gives no indication on whether a flow that just passed the mixing transition is sufficient to capture all of the significant dynamics of the complete astrophysical spectral range. In this paper, a new approach, based on additional insight gained from review of Navier-Stokes turbulence theory, is developed. It allows for revelations about the distinctive spectral scale dynamics associated with high Reynolds number astrophysical flows. From this perspective, we caution that the energy containing range of the turbulent flow measured in a laboratory setting must not be unintentionally contaminated in such a way that the interactive influences of this spectral scale range in the corresponding astrophysical situation cannot be faithfully represented. In this paper we introduce the concept of a minimum state as the lowest Reynolds number turbulent flow that a time-dependent mixing transition must achieve to fulfill this objective. Later in the paper we show that the Reynolds number of the minimum state may be determined as 1.6 x 10{sup 5}. Our efforts here can be viewed as a unification and extension of the concepts of both similarity scaling and transient mixing transition concepts. At the last the implications of our approach in planning future intensive laser experiments or massively parallel numerical simulations are discussed. A systematic procedure is outlined so that as the capabilities of the laser interaction experiments and supporting results from detailed numerical simulations performed in recently advanced supercomputing facilities increase

  2. Unification and extension of the similarity scaling criteria and mixing transition for studying astrophysics using high energy density laboratory experiments or numerical simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Ye

    2007-01-01

    The Euler similarity criteria for laboratory experiments and time-dependent mixing transition are important concepts introduced recently for application to prediction and analysis of astrophysical phenomena. However, Euler scaling by itself provides no information on the distinctive spectral range of high Reynolds number turbulent flows found in astrophysics situations. On the other hand, time-dependent mixing transition gives no indication on whether a flow that just passed the mixing transition is sufficient to capture all of the significant dynamics of the complete astrophysical spectral range. In this paper, a new approach, based on additional insight gained from review of Navier-Stokes turbulence theory, is developed. It allows for revelations about the distinctive spectral scale dynamics associated with high Reynolds number astrophysical flows. From this perspective, the energy-containing range of the turbulent flow measured in a laboratory setting must not be unintentionally contaminated in such a way that the interactive influences of this spectral scale range in the corresponding astrophysical situation cannot be faithfully represented. In this paper, the concept of a minimum state is introduced as the lowest Reynolds number turbulent flow that a time-dependent mixing transition must achieve to fulfill this objective. Later in the paper, the Reynolds number of the minimum state is determined as 1.6x10 5 . The temporal criterion for the minimum state is also obtained. The efforts here can be viewed as a unification and extension of the concepts of both similarity scaling and transient mixing transition concepts. Finally, the implications of our approach in planning future intensive laser experiments or massively parallel numerical simulations are discussed. A systematic procedure is outlined so that as the capabilities of the laser interaction experiments and supporting results from detailed numerical simulations performed in recently advanced

  3. Experimental study on source efficiencies for estimating surface contamination level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiji, Takeshi; Ogino, Haruyuki

    2008-01-01

    Source efficiency was measured experimentally for various materials, such as metals, nonmetals, flooring materials, sheet materials and other materials, contaminated by alpha and beta emitter radioactive nuclides. Five nuclides, 147 Pm, 60 Co, 137 Cs, 204 Tl and 90 Sr- 90 Y, were used as the beta emitters, and one nuclide 241 Am was used as the alpha emitter. The test samples were prepared by placing drops of the radioactive standardized solutions uniformly on the various materials using an automatic quantitative dispenser system from Musashi Engineering, Inc. After placing drops of the radioactive standardized solutions, the test materials were allowed to dry for more than 12 hours in a draft chamber with a hood. The radioactivity of each test material was about 30 Bq. Beta rays or alpha rays from the test materials were measured with a 2-pi gas flow proportional counter from Aloka Co., Ltd. The source efficiencies of the metals, nonmetals and sheet materials were higher than 0.5 in the case of contamination by the 137 Cs, 204 Tl and 90 Sr- 90 Y radioactive standardized solutions, higher than 0.4 in the case of contamination by the 60 Co radioactive standardized solution, and higher than 0.25 in the case of contamination by the alpha emitter the 241 Am radioactive standardized solution. These values were higher than those given in Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) documents. In contrast, the source efficiencies of some permeable materials were lower than those given in JIS documents, because source efficiency varies depending on whether the materials or radioactive sources are wet or dry. This study provides basic data on source efficiency, which is useful for estimating the surface contamination level of materials. (author)

  4. Peptide Level Turnover Measurements Enable the Study of Proteoform Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecha, Jana; Meng, Chen; Zolg, Daniel Paul; Samaras, Patroklos; Wilhelm, Mathias; Kuster, Bernhard

    2018-05-01

    The coordination of protein synthesis and degradation regulating protein abundance is a fundamental process in cellular homeostasis. Today, mass spectrometry-based technologies allow determination of endogenous protein turnover on a proteome-wide scale. However, standard dynamic SILAC (Stable Isotope Labeling in Cell Culture) approaches can suffer from missing data across pulse time-points limiting the accuracy of such analysis. This issue is of particular relevance when studying protein stability at the level of proteoforms because often only single peptides distinguish between different protein products of the same gene. To address this shortcoming, we evaluated the merits of combining dynamic SILAC and tandem mass tag (TMT)-labeling of ten pulse time-points in a single experiment. Although the comparison to the standard dynamic SILAC method showed a high concordance of protein turnover rates, the pulsed SILAC-TMT approach yielded more comprehensive data (6000 proteins on average) without missing values. Replicate analysis further established that the same reproducibility of turnover rate determination can be obtained for peptides and proteins facilitating proteoform resolved investigation of protein stability. We provide several examples of differentially turned over splice variants and show that post-translational modifications can affect cellular protein half-lives. For example, N-terminally processed peptides exhibited both faster and slower turnover behavior compared with other peptides of the same protein. In addition, the suspected proteolytic processing of the fusion protein FAU was substantiated by measuring vastly different stabilities of the cleavage products. Furthermore, differential peptide turnover suggested a previously unknown mechanism of activity regulation by post-translational destabilization of cathepsin D as well as the DNA helicase BLM. Finally, our comprehensive data set facilitated a detailed evaluation of the impact of protein

  5. Cultural similarity, cultural competence, and nurse workforce diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Sandra L; Brush, Barbara L; Moore, Jean

    2010-11-01

    Proponents of health workforce diversity argue that increasing the number of minority health care providers will enhance cultural similarity between patients and providers as well as the health system's capacity to provide culturally competent care. Measuring cultural similarity has been difficult, however, given that current benchmarks of workforce diversity categorize health workers by major racial/ethnic classifications rather than by cultural measures. This study examined the use of national racial/ethnic categories in both patient and registered nurse (RN) populations and found them to be a poor indicator of cultural similarity. Rather, we found that cultural similarity between RN and patient populations needs to be established at the level of local labor markets and broadened to include other cultural parameters such as country of origin, primary language, and self-identified ancestry. Only then can the relationship between cultural similarity and cultural competence be accurately determined and its outcomes measured.

  6. Some numerical studies of interface advection properties of level set ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    explicit computational elements moving through an Eulerian grid. ... location. The interface is implicitly defined (captured) as the location of the discontinuity in the ... This level set function is advected with the background flow field and thus ...

  7. Study of serum copper and ceruloplasmin levels in Egyptian autistic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farida El-Baz

    2018-02-15

    Feb 15, 2018 ... examination, IQ assessment, estimation of serum copper and ceruloplasmin levels. Results: A statistically ... April 2012. The control group ... Mental age рMAЮ assessed using the proper test ..... In: Reynolds CR, Kamphaus.

  8. Renewing the Respect for Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimon eEdelman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In psychology, the concept of similarity has traditionally evoked a mixture of respect, stemmingfrom its ubiquity and intuitive appeal, and concern, due to its dependence on the framing of the problemat hand and on its context. We argue for a renewed focus on similarity as an explanatory concept, bysurveying established results and new developments in the theory and methods of similarity-preservingassociative lookup and dimensionality reduction — critical components of many cognitive functions, aswell as of intelligent data management in computer vision. We focus in particular on the growing familyof algorithms that support associative memory by performing hashing that respects local similarity, andon the uses of similarity in representing structured objects and scenes. Insofar as these similarity-basedideas and methods are useful in cognitive modeling and in AI applications, they should be included inthe core conceptual toolkit of computational neuroscience.

  9. Study and characterization of noble metal deposits on similar rusty surfaces to those of the reactor U-1 type BWR of nuclear power station of Laguna Verde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores S, V. H.

    2011-01-01

    In the present investigation work, were determined the parameters to simulate the conditions of internal oxidation reactor circulation pipes of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde in Veracruz. We used 304l stainless steel cylinders with two faces prepared with abrasive paper of No. 600, with the finality to obtain similar surface to the internal circulation piping nuclear reactor. Oxides was formed within an autoclave (Autoclave MEX-02 unit B), which is a device that simulates the working conditions of the nuclear reactor, but without radiation generated by the fission reaction within the reactor. The oxidation conditions were a temperature of 280 C and pressure of 8 MPa, similar conditions to the reactor operating in nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde in Veracruz, Mexico (BWR conditions), with an average conductivity of 4.58 ms / cm and 2352 ppb oxygen to simulate normal water chemistry NWC. Were obtained deposits of noble metal oxides formed on 304l stainless steel samples, in a 250 ml autoclave at a temperature range of 180 to 200 C. The elements that were used to deposit platinum-rhodium (Pt-Rh) with aqueous Na 2 Pt (OH) 6 and Na 3 Rh (NO 2 ) 6 , Silver (Ag) with an aqueous solution of AgNO 3 , zirconium (Zr) with aqueous Zr O (NO 3 ) and ZrO 2 , and zinc (Zn) in aqueous solution of Zn (NO 3 ) 2 under conditions of normal water chemistry. Also there was the oxidation of 304l stainless steel specimens in normal water chemistry with a solution of Zinc (Zn) (NWC + Zn). Oxidation of the specimens in water chemistry with a solution of zinc (Zn + NWC) was prepared in two ways: within the MEX-02 autoclave unit A in a solution of zinc and a flask at constant temperature in zinc solution. The oxides formed and deposits were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, elemental field analysis and X-ray diffraction. By other hand was evaluated the electrochemical behavior of the oxides formed on the surface of 304l stainless steel

  10. Genetically elevated fetuin-A levels, fasting glucose levels, and risk of type 2 diabetes: the cardiovascular health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Majken K; Bartz, Traci M; Djoussé, Luc; Kizer, Jorge R; Zieman, Susan J; Rimm, Eric B; Siscovick, David S; Psaty, Bruce M; Ix, Joachim H; Mukamal, Kenneth J

    2013-10-01

    Fetuin-A levels are associated with higher risk of type 2 diabetes, but it is unknown if the association is causal. We investigated common (>5%) genetic variants in the fetuin-A gene (AHSG) fetuin-A levels, fasting glucose, and risk of type 2 diabetes. Genetic variation, fetuin-A levels, and fasting glucose were assessed in 2,893 Caucasian and 542 African American community-living individuals 65 years of age or older in 1992-1993. Common AHSG variants (rs4917 and rs2248690) were strongly associated with fetuin-A concentrations (Pfasting glucose concentrations (1.9 mg/dL [95% CI, 1.2-2.7] higher per SD in Caucasians), but Mendelian randomization analyses using both SNPs as unbiased proxies for measured fetuin-A did not support an association between genetically predicted fetuin-A levels and fasting glucose (-0.3 mg/dL [95% CI, -1.9 to 1.3] lower per SD in Caucasians). The difference between the associations of fasting glucose with actual and genetically predicted fetuin-A level was statistically significant (P=0.001). Results among the smaller sample of African Americans trended in similar directions but were statistically insignificant. Common variants in the AHSG gene are strongly associated with plasma fetuin-A concentrations, but not with risk of type 2 diabetes or glucose concentrations, raising the possibility that the association between fetuin-A and type 2 diabetes may not be causal.

  11. Is the population level link between drinking and harm similar for women and men?--a time series analysis with focus on gender-specific drinking and alcohol-related hospitalizations in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engdahl, Barbro; Ramstedt, Mats

    2011-08-01

    A question that has not been addressed in the literature is whether the population level association between alcohol and harm differs between men and women. The main aim of this article is to fill this gap by analysing recently collected time series data of male and female self-reported drinking in relation to gender-specific harm indicators in Sweden. Male and female per capita and risk consumption was estimated on the basis of self-reported data from monthly alcohol surveys for the period 2002-07. Overall per capita consumption including recorded sales and estimates of unrecorded consumption were also collected for the same period. Alcohol-related hospitalizations were used as indicators of alcohol-related harm. Data were aggregated into quarterly observations and analysed by means of time series analyses (ARIMA-modelling). Overall per capita consumption was significantly related to both male and female alcohol-related hospitalizations. Male per capita consumption and risk consumption were also significantly related to alcohol-related hospitalizations among men. Female per capita consumption and risk consumption had also a positive association with alcohol-related hospitalizations but statistical significance was only reached for alcohol poisonings where the association was even stronger than for men. Changes in alcohol consumption in Sweden was associated with changes in male and female alcohol-related hospitalizations also in analyses based on gender-specific consumption measures. There was no clear evidence that the population level association between alcohol and harm differed between men and women.

  12. STUDIES OF SHADING LEVELS AND NUTRITION SOURCES ON GROWTH, YIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Purwanto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Growth and biochemical content of medicinal crops are influenced by agroecosystems characteristics . The objective of this research was to determine the optimum shading level and type of fertilizer as sources of nutrition on the growth, yield, and andrographolide content of sambiloto. The experiment used Split Plot Design with basic design of Randomized Complete Block Design arranged with two treatment factors, with three replications. The first factor as the main plot was shading levels, namely without shading, 25% shading, 50% shading, and 75% shading. The second factor as the sub plot was sources of nutrition reprented by type of fertilizer, namely NPK fertilizer, cow stable fertilizer, and compost fertilizer. The result of research indicated that shading level and the kind of nutrition influenced some growth and yield variables such as number of leaves, number of branches, plant height, plant dry weight and simplisia weight, and andrographolide content. Interaction of shading level at 25% and straw compost fertilizer performed best in growth characteristics, while the highest andrographolide content resulted from the treatment combination of 50% shading level and straw compost fertilizer.

  13. Plasma levels of nitrate and risk of prostate cancer: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tianying; Wang, Yushan; Ho, Shuk-Mei; Giovannucci, Edward

    2013-07-01

    Nitrate and nitrite supplements have recently been shown to improve cardiovascular health, but there is concern that these supplements could contribute to the development of cancer. Previous small, cross-sectional studies reported positive associations between circulating nitrate/nitrite levels and cancer. Prospective studies examining the association between plasma nitrate and cancer, especially prostate cancer, are lacking. We conducted a nested case-control study within the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Baseline blood samples were collected in 1994, and incident cases of prostate cancer were identified from 1997 to 2005. Baseline plasma levels of nitrate were measured in the 630 cases and 630 matched controls. We have found that baseline levels of plasma nitrate were not associated with risk of prostate cancer. Compared to quintile 1, the relative risk from quintiles 2 to 5 were 1.13 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.78-1.63], 0.93 (95% CI, 0.63-1.38), 0.95 (95% CI, 0.65-1.39), and 0.99 (95% CI, 0.68-1.48); Ptrend was 0.9 after adjustment of multivariate risk factors. When analyses were restricted to men fasting more than 6 hours, the trend was similar. Furthermore, plasma nitrate seemed to be inversely associated with advanced-stage prostate cancer. The relative risk across extreme quartiles was 0.44 (95% CI, 0.17-1.12; Ptrend = 0.07) for the whole dataset and 0.30 (95% CI, 0.09-0.99; Ptrend = 0.05) for the fasting dataset. In summary, we did not find an increased risk of prostate cancer associated with higher plasma nitrate levels. A potential protective association between nitrate and aggressive forms of prostate cancer requires confirmation. Nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway has emerged as a new therapeutic pathway for chronic diseases. The results of this study certainly merit replications in other prospective studies.

  14. Similar clinical outcome after unicompartmental knee arthroplasty using a conventional or accelerated care program: a randomized, controlled study of 40 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgwardt, Lotte; Zerahn, Bo; Bliddal, Henning

    2009-01-01

    within 3 months, contact with a general physician or nurse, and level of satisfaction were registered. Patients in the A group attended an information meeting. An intraarticular infiltration with Marcaine and adrenaline was used peroperatively. Patients in the C group had an epidural pump for 2 or 3 days....... Patients in the A program were treated with NSAID and paracetamol postoperatively. Opiates were used in both groups in the case of breakthrough pain. The patients were considered ready for discharge when they were able to climb stairs to the second floor within 5 min. RESULTS: The median length of stay...

  15. Nitrogen balance study in young Nigerian adult males using four levels of protein intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atinmo, T; Mbofung, C M; Egun, G; Osotimehin, B

    1988-11-01

    1. The present study was carried out to estimate precisely, via the nitrogen balance technique, the protein requirement of Nigerians (earlier estimated via the obligatory N method) using graded levels of protein intake. 2. Fifteen medical students of the University of Ibadan who volunteered to participate in the study were given graded levels of protein (0.3, 0.45, 0.6 and 0.75 g/kg body-weight per d) derived from foods similar to those usually consumed by the subjects. 3. Each subject was given each of the dietary protein levels for a period of 10 d. Subjects were divided into two groups and the feeding pattern followed a criss-cross design with one group starting with the highest level of protein intake (0.3 g). Mean energy intake during each of the eleven experimental periods was maintained at 0.2 MJ/kg per d. After an initial 5 d adaptation period in each experimental period, 24 h urine and faecal samples were collected in marked containers for five consecutive days for N determination. 4. Mean N balance during consumption of the four protein levels (0.30, 0.45, 0.6 and 0.75 g/kg) were -11.02 (SD 8.07), -9.90 (SD 6.64), +9.70 (SD 4.15) and +5.13 (SD 4.62) respectively. Using regression analysis, the mean daily N requirement was estimated at 110.25 mg N/kg body-weight (0.69 g protein/kg body-weight). Estimates of allowances for individual variations to cover 97.5% of the population adjusted this value to 0.75 g protein/kg body-weight. Net protein utilization for the diet at maintenance level was estimated at 57.5.

  16. Significance levels for studies with correlated test statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianxin; Levinson, Douglas F; Whittemore, Alice S

    2008-07-01

    When testing large numbers of null hypotheses, one needs to assess the evidence against the global null hypothesis that none of the hypotheses is false. Such evidence typically is based on the test statistic of the largest magnitude, whose statistical significance is evaluated by permuting the sample units to simulate its null distribution. Efron (2007) has noted that correlation among the test statistics can induce substantial interstudy variation in the shapes of their histograms, which may cause misleading tail counts. Here, we show that permutation-based estimates of the overall significance level also can be misleading when the test statistics are correlated. We propose that such estimates be conditioned on a simple measure of the spread of the observed histogram, and we provide a method for obtaining conditional significance levels. We justify this conditioning using the conditionality principle described by Cox and Hinkley (1974). Application of the method to gene expression data illustrates the circumstances when conditional significance levels are needed.

  17. Measuring level of friendliness of smart city: a perceptual study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani Roychansyah, Muhammad; Felasari, Sushardjanti

    2018-03-01

    Currently the concept of smart city comes not only at the level of discussion, but some cities have stepped in the stage of implementation. Many of promised benefits will be met for the needs of urban residents if the city applies this concept. Conversely, many professionals and scholars are still in doubt about readiness of a city in the application of this concept. Dimension of friendliness of the real city certainly will have some limitations in a smart city that relies more on interactions with information and communication technology (ICT). This new paradigm becomes background of this paper in viewing the friendliness dimension of a smart city based on city residents’ perceptions. This paper uses case of 2 cities that have different level of readiness in the application of smart city. They are Yogyakarta City and Magelang City, both are located in Central Java. The method applied in this paper is quantitative method based on perceptual answer of respondents structured in a Likert Scale. Importance Performance Analysis (IPA) is then used to look at the attributes of smart city’s dimension which will show the relationship of the level of city friendliness and the level of city readiness in an application of smart city. The result briefly shows that the level of city sensitivity in the application of smart city is very influential in viewing the friendliness of the city. The city that is better equipped to meet the needs of its population according to the dimensions of the smart city based on its existing characteristics has higher friendliness. Time period of applying a smart city concept as the City of Yogyakarta has done longer before Magelang City, is not a guarantee that the city then has a better level of friendliness. The urban citizens have appropriate affective aspect to articulate between what they need and what the city has provided.

  18. Feasibility studies of a Level-1 Tracking Trigger for ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Warren, M; Brenner, R; Konstantinidis, N; Sutton, M

    2009-01-01

    The existing ATLAS Level-1 trigger system is seriously challenged at the SLHC's higher luminosity. A hardware tracking trigger might be needed, but requires a detailed understanding of the detector. Simulation of high pile-up events, with various data-reduction techniques applied will be described. Two scenarios are envisaged: (a) regional readout - calorimeter and muon triggers are used to identify portions of the tracker; and (b) track-stub finding using special trigger layers. A proposed hardware system, including data reduction on the front-end ASICs, readout within a super-module and integrating regional triggering into all levels of the readout system, will be discussed.

  19. Immobilized low-level waste disposal options configuration study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, D.E.

    1995-02-01

    This report compiles information that supports the eventual conceptual and definitive design of a disposal facility for immobilized low-level waste. The report includes the results of a joint Westinghouse/Fluor Daniel Inc. evaluation of trade-offs for glass manufacturing and product (waste form) disposal. Though recommendations for the preferred manufacturing and disposal option for low-level waste are outside the scope of this document, relative ranking as applied to facility complexity, safety, remote operation concepts and ease of retrieval are addressed

  20. Feasibility study of a level gauge using cosmic-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hideharu; Fukaya, Mitsuharu; Minato, Susumu

    1989-01-01

    Cosmic-ray intensities were measured at the stairs in a subway station in Nagoya City, inside a tall concrete building and under a cylindrical water tank to examine the feasibility of a cosmic-ray level gauge using a scintillation counter. The measured results agreed quite well with theoretical calculations. The maximum distinguishable water depth was evaluated to be approximately the radius of the tank from the results of many systematic calculations. It was found from these results that the practical application of a cosmic-ray level gauge is feasible. (author)

  1. Do cognition and other non-motor symptoms decline similarly among patients with Parkinson's disease motor subtypes? Findings from a 5-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arie, L; Herman, Talia; Shema-Shiratzky, S; Giladi, N; Hausdorff, J M

    2017-10-01

    Among patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), a wide range of motor and non-motor symptoms (NMS) are evident. PD is often divided into tremor dominant (TD) and postural instability gait difficulty (PIGD) motor subtypes. We evaluated the effect of disease duration and aimed to characterize whether there are differences in the deterioration of cognitive function and other NMS between the PIGD and TD subtypes. Sixty-three subjects were re-evaluated at the follow-up visit about 5 years after baseline examination. Cognitive function and other NMS were assessed. At follow-up, the PIGD and TD groups were similar with respect to medications, comorbidities and disease-related symptoms. There was a significant time effect for all measures, indicating deterioration and worsening in both groups. However, cognitive scores, particularly those related to executive function, became significantly worse in the PIGD with a more moderate decrease in the TD group. For example, the computerized global cognitive score declined in the PIGD group from 94.21 ± 11.88 to 83.91 ± 13.76, p motor-cognitive catch game (p = 0.008). In contrast, several NMS including depression, health-related quality of life and fear of falling deteriorated in parallel in both subtypes, with no interaction effect. The present findings highlight the difference in the natural history of the disease between the two PD "motor" subtypes. While the PIGD group demonstrated a significant cognitive decline, especially in executive functions, a more favorable course was observed in the TD subtype. This behavior was not seen in regards to the other NMS.

  2. Self-similar cosmological models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, W Z [Cambridge Univ. (UK). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics

    1981-07-01

    The kinematics and dynamics of self-similar cosmological models are discussed. The degrees of freedom of the solutions of Einstein's equations for different types of models are listed. The relation between kinematic quantities and the classifications of the self-similarity group is examined. All dust local rotational symmetry models have been found.

  3. Self-similar factor approximants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluzman, S.; Yukalov, V.I.; Sornette, D.

    2003-01-01

    The problem of reconstructing functions from their asymptotic expansions in powers of a small variable is addressed by deriving an improved type of approximants. The derivation is based on the self-similar approximation theory, which presents the passage from one approximant to another as the motion realized by a dynamical system with the property of group self-similarity. The derived approximants, because of their form, are called self-similar factor approximants. These complement the obtained earlier self-similar exponential approximants and self-similar root approximants. The specific feature of self-similar factor approximants is that their control functions, providing convergence of the computational algorithm, are completely defined from the accuracy-through-order conditions. These approximants contain the Pade approximants as a particular case, and in some limit they can be reduced to the self-similar exponential approximants previously introduced by two of us. It is proved that the self-similar factor approximants are able to reproduce exactly a wide class of functions, which include a variety of nonalgebraic functions. For other functions, not pertaining to this exactly reproducible class, the factor approximants provide very accurate approximations, whose accuracy surpasses significantly that of the most accurate Pade approximants. This is illustrated by a number of examples showing the generality and accuracy of the factor approximants even when conventional techniques meet serious difficulties

  4. Time to competency, reliability of flexible transnasal laryngoscopy by training level: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Christopher D; Platt, Michael P; Russell, Kimberly; Grillone, Gregory A; Aliphas, Avner; Noordzij, J Pieter

    2015-05-01

    To determine the progression of flexible transnasal laryngoscopy reliability and competency in otolaryngology residency training. Prospective case control study. Academic otolaryngology department. Medical students, otolaryngology residents, and otolaryngology attending physicians. Fourteen otolaryngology residents from PGY-1 to PGY-5 and 3 attending otolaryngologists viewed 25 selected and digitally recorded flexible transnasal laryngoscopies. The evaluators were asked to rate 13 items relating to abnormalities in the oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx, and subglottis. The level of concern and level of comfort with the diagnosis were assessed. Intraclass correlations were calculated for each topic and by level of training to determine reliability within each class and compare competency versus attending interpretations. Intraclass correlation of residents compared to attending physicians demonstrated significant improvements by year for left and right vocal fold immobility, subglottic stenosis, laryngeal mass, left and right vocal cord abnormalities, and level of concern. Additionally, pooled vocal cord mobility and pooled results in categories with good attending reliability demonstrated stepwise improvement as well. For these categories, resident reliability was found to be statistically similar to attending physicians in all categories by PGY-3. There were no trends for base of tongue abnormalities, pharyngeal abnormalities, and pharyngeal and hypopharyngeal masses. Resident competency for flexible transnasal laryngoscopy progresses during residency to reliability with attending otolaryngologists by the PGY-3 year over key facets of the examination. © American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  5. Personalized recommendation with corrected similarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xuzhen; Tian, Hui; Cai, Shimin

    2014-01-01

    Personalized recommendation has attracted a surge of interdisciplinary research. Especially, similarity-based methods in applications of real recommendation systems have achieved great success. However, the computations of similarities are overestimated or underestimated, in particular because of the defective strategy of unidirectional similarity estimation. In this paper, we solve this drawback by leveraging mutual correction of forward and backward similarity estimations, and propose a new personalized recommendation index, i.e., corrected similarity based inference (CSI). Through extensive experiments on four benchmark datasets, the results show a greater improvement of CSI in comparison with these mainstream baselines. And a detailed analysis is presented to unveil and understand the origin of such difference between CSI and mainstream indices. (paper)

  6. County-level characteristics as predictors of dentists’ ECC counseling in the USA: a survey study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Transmission of Streptococcus mutans from mother-to-child can lead to Early Childhood Caries. A previous study identified characteristics and beliefs of general dentists about counseling pregnant women to reduce risk of infection and Early Childhood Caries. This study extends those findings with an analysis of county level factors. Methods In 2006, we surveyed 732 general dentists in Oregon, USA about dental care for pregnant women. Survey items asked about individual and practice characteristics. In the present study we matched those data to county level factors and used multinomial logistic regression to test the effects of the factors (i.e., dentist to population ratio, percentage of female dentists, percentage of females of childbearing age, and percentage of individuals living in poverty) on counseling behavior. Results County level factors were unrelated to counseling behavior when the models controlled for dentists' individual attitudes, beliefs, and practice level characteristics. The adjusted odds ratios for no counseling of pregnant patients (versus 100 percent counseling) were 1.1 (95% CI .8-1.7), 1.0 (1.0-1.1), 1.2 (.9-1.5), and 1.1 (1.0-1.2) for dentist/population ratio, percent female dentists, percent females of childbearing age, and percent in poverty, respectively Similar results were obtained when dentists who counseled some patients were compared to those counseling 100 percent of patients. Conclusions Community level factors do not appear to impact the individual counseling behavior of general dentists in Oregon, USA regarding the risk of maternal transmission of Early Childhood Caries. PMID:23688178

  7. County-level characteristics as predictors of dentists' ECC counseling in the USA: a survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, Peter; Huebner, Colleen E; Mancl, Lloyd A; Chi, Donald L; Garson, Gayle; Grembowski, David

    2013-05-20

    Transmission of Streptococcus mutans from mother-to-child can lead to Early Childhood Caries. A previous study identified characteristics and beliefs of general dentists about counseling pregnant women to reduce risk of infection and Early Childhood Caries. This study extends those findings with an analysis of county level factors. In 2006, we surveyed 732 general dentists in Oregon, USA about dental care for pregnant women. Survey items asked about individual and practice characteristics. In the present study we matched those data to county level factors and used multinomial logistic regression to test the effects of the factors (i.e., dentist to population ratio, percentage of female dentists, percentage of females of childbearing age, and percentage of individuals living in poverty) on counseling behavior. County level factors were unrelated to counseling behavior when the models controlled for dentists' individual attitudes, beliefs, and practice level characteristics. The adjusted odds ratios for no counseling of pregnant patients (versus 100 percent counseling) were 1.1 (95% CI .8-1.7), 1.0 (1.0-1.1), 1.2 (.9-1.5), and 1.1 (1.0-1.2) for dentist/population ratio, percent female dentists, percent females of childbearing age, and percent in poverty, respectively Similar results were obtained when dentists who counseled some patients were compared to those counseling 100 percent of patients. Community level factors do not appear to impact the individual counseling behavior of general dentists in Oregon, USA regarding the risk of maternal transmission of Early Childhood Caries.

  8. Study of serum copper and ceruloplasmin levels in Egyptian autistic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Autism is a behaviorally defined neurodevelopmental disorder of unknown etiology. Objective: To assess serum copper and ceruloplasmin levels in Egyptian autistic children patients. Subjects and methods: 40 participants have been subjected to thorough history taking, complete clinical examination, ...

  9. Preliminary study of daily selenium level intake in algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benamar, M.A.; Tchantchane, A.; Tobbeche, S.

    1992-10-01

    The amount of selenium in onions and potatoes was measured by Pixe (particle Induced X-ray Emission) in the Nuclear Center at Bordeaux-Gradignan (CNBG). The goal of this work is to investigate the level of selenium concentration that may be consumed by different class of people

  10. Towards Personalized Medicine: Leveraging Patient Similarity and Drug Similarity Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Wang, Fei; Hu, Jianying; Sorrentino, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The rapid adoption of electronic health records (EHR) provides a comprehensive source for exploratory and predictive analytic to support clinical decision-making. In this paper, we investigate how to utilize EHR to tailor treatments to individual patients based on their likelihood to respond to a therapy. We construct a heterogeneous graph which includes two domains (patients and drugs) and encodes three relationships (patient similarity, drug similarity, and patient-drug prior associations). We describe a novel approach for performing a label propagation procedure to spread the label information representing the effectiveness of different drugs for different patients over this heterogeneous graph. The proposed method has been applied on a real-world EHR dataset to help identify personalized treatments for hypercholesterolemia. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach and suggest that the combination of appropriate patient similarity and drug similarity analytics could lead to actionable insights for personalized medicine. Particularly, by leveraging drug similarity in combination with patient similarity, our method could perform well even on new or rarely used drugs for which there are few records of known past performance. PMID:25717413

  11. High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility Feasibility Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. A. Lopez

    1999-01-01

    A ''Settlement Agreement'' between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates that all radioactive high-level waste now stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center will be treated so that it is ready to be moved out of Idaho for disposal by a compliance date of 2035. This report investigates vitrification treatment of the high-level waste in a High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility based on the assumption that no more New Waste Calcining Facility campaigns will be conducted after June 2000. Under this option, the sodium-bearing waste remaining in the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tank Farm, and newly generated liquid waste produced between now and the start of 2013, will be processed using a different option, such as a Cesium Ion Exchange Facility. The cesium-saturated waste from this other option will be sent to the Calcine Solids Storage Facilities to be mixed with existing calcine. The calcine and cesium-saturated waste will be processed in the High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility by the end of calendar year 2035. In addition, the High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility will process all newly-generated liquid waste produced between 2013 and the end of 2035. Vitrification of this waste is an acceptable treatment method for complying with the Settlement Agreement. This method involves vitrifying the waste and pouring it into stainless-steel canisters that will be ready for shipment out of Idaho to a disposal facility by 2035. These canisters will be stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory until they are sent to a national geologic repository. The operating period for vitrification treatment will be from the end of 2015 through 2035

  12. High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. A. Lopez

    1999-08-01

    A ''Settlement Agreement'' between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates that all radioactive high-level waste now stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center will be treated so that it is ready to be moved out of Idaho for disposal by a compliance date of 2035. This report investigates vitrification treatment of the high-level waste in a High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility based on the assumption that no more New Waste Calcining Facility campaigns will be conducted after June 2000. Under this option, the sodium-bearing waste remaining in the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tank Farm, and newly generated liquid waste produced between now and the start of 2013, will be processed using a different option, such as a Cesium Ion Exchange Facility. The cesium-saturated waste from this other option will be sent to the Calcine Solids Storage Facilities to be mixed with existing calcine. The calcine and cesium-saturated waste will be processed in the High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility by the end of calendar year 2035. In addition, the High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility will process all newly-generated liquid waste produced between 2013 and the end of 2035. Vitrification of this waste is an acceptable treatment method for complying with the Settlement Agreement. This method involves vitrifying the waste and pouring it into stainless-steel canisters that will be ready for shipment out of Idaho to a disposal facility by 2035. These canisters will be stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory until they are sent to a national geologic repository. The operating period for vitrification treatment will be from the end of 2015 through 2035.

  13. Assessment of studies and researches on warehousing - High-level and intermediate-level-long-lived radioactive wastes - December 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This large report first presents the approach adopted for the study and research on the warehousing of high-level and intermediate-level-long-lived radioactive wastes. It outlines how reversible storage and warehousing are complementary, discusses the lessons learned from researches performed by the CEA on long duration warehousing, presents the framework of studies and researches performed since 2006, and presents the scientific and technical content of studies and researches (warehousing need analysis, search for technical options providing complementarity with storage, extension or creation of warehousing installations). The second part addresses high-level and intermediate-level-long-lived radioactive waste parcels, indicates their origins and quantities. The third part proposes an analysis of warehousing capacities: existing capacities, French industrial experience in waste parcel warehousing, foreign experience in waste warehousing. The fourth part addresses reversible storage in deep geological formation: storage safety functions, storage reversibility, storage parcels, storage architecture, chronicle draft. The fifth part proposes an inventory of warehousing needs in terms of additional capacities for the both types of wastes (high-level, and intermediate-level-long-lived), and discusses warehousing functionalities and safety objectives. The sixth and seventh parts propose a detailed overview of design options for warehousing installations, respectively for high-level and for intermediate-level-long-lived waste parcels: main technical issues, feasibility studies of different concepts or architecture shapes, results of previous studies and introduction to studies performed since 2011, possible evolutions of the HA1, HA2 and MAVL concepts. The eighth chapter reports a phenomenological analysis of warehousing and the optimisation of material selection and construction arrangements. The last part discusses the application of researches to the extension of the

  14. Pilot study of methods and equipment for in-home noise level measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitzel, Richard L; Heikkinen, Maire S A; Williams, Christopher C; Viet, Susan Marie; Dellarco, Michael

    2015-01-15

    Knowledge of the auditory and non-auditory effects of noise has increased dramatically over the past decade, but indoor noise exposure measurement methods have not advanced appreciably, despite the introduction of applicable new technologies. This study evaluated various conventional and smart devices for exposure assessment in the National Children's Study. Three devices were tested: a sound level meter (SLM), a dosimeter, and a smart device with a noise measurement application installed. Instrument performance was evaluated in a series of semi-controlled tests in office environments over 96-hour periods, followed by measurements made continuously in two rooms (a child's bedroom and a most used room) in nine participating homes over a 7-day period with subsequent computation of a range of noise metrics. The SLMs and dosimeters yielded similar A-weighted average noise levels. Levels measured by the smart devices often differed substantially (showing both positive and negative bias, depending on the metric) from those measured via SLM and dosimeter, and demonstrated attenuation in some frequency bands in spectral analysis compared to SLM results. Virtually all measurements exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency's 45 dBA day-night limit for indoor residential exposures. The measurement protocol developed here can be employed in homes, demonstrates the possibility of measuring long-term noise exposures in homes with technologies beyond traditional SLMs, and highlights potential pitfalls associated with measurements made by smart devices.

  15. The study and improvement of water level control of pressurizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Peng; Zhang Qinshun

    2006-01-01

    The PI controller which is used widely in water level control of pressurizer in reactor control system usually leads dynamic overshoot and long setting time. The improvement project for intelligent fuzzy controller to take the place of PI controller is advanced. This paper researches the water level control of pressurizer in reactor control system of Daya Bay Phase I, and describes the method of intelligent fuzzy control in practice. Simulation indicates that the fuzzy control has advantages of small overshoot and short settling time. It can also improve control system's real time property and anti-interference ability. Especially for non-linear and time-varying complicated control systems, it can obtain good control results. (authors)

  16. Infertile women below the age of 40 have similar anti-Müllerian hormone levels and antral follicle count compared with women of the same age with no history of infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidman, H. W.; Bentzen, J. G.; Thuesen, L. L.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Do infertile patients below the age of 40 years have a lower ovarian reserve, estimated by anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and total antral follicle count (AFC), than women of the same age with no history of infertility? SUMMARY ANSWER: Serum AMH and AFC were not lower in infertile p...

  17. Local muscle metabolic demand induced by neuromuscular electrical stimulation and voluntary contractions at different force levels: a NIRS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makii Muthalib

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Functional Muscle metabolic demand during contractions evoked by neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES has been consistently documented to be greater than voluntary contractions (VOL at the same force level (10-50% maximal voluntary contraction-MVC. However, we have shown using a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS technique that local muscle metabolic demand is similar between NMES and VOL performed at MVC levels, thus controversy exists. This study therefore compared biceps brachii muscle metabolic demand (tissue oxygenation index-TOI and total hemoglobin volume-tHb during a 10s isometric contraction of the elbow flexors between NMES (stimulation frequency of 30Hz and current level to evoke 30% MVC and VOL at 30% MVC (VOL-30%MVC and MVC (VOL-MVC level in 8 healthy men (23-33-y. Greater changes in TOI and tHb induced by NMES than VOL-30%MVC confirm previous studies of a greater local metabolic demand for NMES than VOL at the same force level. The same TOI and tHb changes for NMES and VOL-MVC suggest that local muscle metabolic demand and intramuscular pressure were similar between conditions. In conclusion, these findings indicate that NMES induce a similar local muscle metabolic demand as that of maximal VOL.

  18. Local Muscle Metabolic Demand Induced by Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation and Voluntary Contractions at Different Force Levels: A NIRS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthalib, Makii; Kerr, Graham; Nosaka, Kazunori; Perrey, Stephane

    2016-06-13

    Functional Muscle metabolic demand during contractions evoked by neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been consistently documented to be greater than voluntary contractions (VOL) at the same force level (10-50% maximal voluntary contraction-MVC). However, we have shown using a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique that local muscle metabolic demand is similar between NMES and VOL performed at MVC levels, thus controversy exists. This study therefore compared biceps brachii muscle metabolic demand (tissue oxygenation index-TOI and total hemoglobin volume-tHb) during a 10s isometric contraction of the elbow flexors between NMES (stimulation frequency of 30Hz and current level to evoke 30% MVC) and VOL at 30% MVC (VOL-30%MVC) and MVC (VOL-MVC) level in 8 healthy men (23-33-y). Greater changes in TOI and tHb induced by NMES than VOL-30%MVC confirm previous studies of a greater local metabolic demand for NMES than VOL at the same force level. The same TOI and tHb changes for NMES and VOL-MVC suggest that local muscle metabolic demand and intramuscular pressure were similar between conditions. In conclusion, these findings indicate that NMES induce a similar local muscle metabolic demand as that of maximal VOL.

  19. Similarities of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption, Lutein/Zeaxanthin and Lycopene Intakes between Hispanic-American College Students and Their Respective Parents: A Two Generation and Gender Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Chick; Janeke, Emilia; Chan, Oi Ling; Xi, Emily; Sarkissian-Pakachet, Ivet; Banchi, Waka

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of age and gender on the consumption of fruits and vegetables, lutein/zeaxanthin (lut+zea) and lycopene (lyc) in Hispanic-American college students living in the same household with their respective parents. There were 160 subjects (42 males and 118 females) including 80 young (ages 18-49) and 80…

  20. Information Processing Differences and Similarities in Adults with Dyslexia and Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder during a Continuous Performance Test: A Study of Cortical Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Monica; Been, Pieter H.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Althaus, Monika

    2010-01-01

    Twenty male adults with ADHD, 16 dyslexic adults, 15 comorbid adults, and 16 normal controls were compared on performance and underlying brain responses, during a cued Continuous Performance Test (O-X CPT), with the aim of discovering features of information processing differentiating between the groups. The study evaluated both cue- and…

  1. A study of the transition pathways of school level scholarship ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    intervention. The benefits reported included a sound preparation for life and academic studies, and other benefits that the .... fied (on average) in this study as stress inducing. Adding further ...... Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.

  2. Boosting Reading Fluency: An Intervention Case Study at Subword Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairaluoma, Leila; Ahonen, Timo; Aro, Mikko; Holopainen, Leena

    2007-01-01

    This study is an intervention case study of fluency in Finnish-speaking children with dyslexia. Two 7-year-old children, a girl and a boy, were selected from the Jyvaskyla Longitudinal Study of Dyslexia. The intervention emphasised syllables as reading units, and proceeded from reading syllables to reading words and text. Letter knowledge, reading…

  3. Physical Activity Levels in Chinese One-Year-Old Children and Their Parents, an Early STOPP China Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Mei

    Full Text Available Physical activity (PA is associated with health benefits, already in childhood. However, little is known about actual levels, patterns and gender differences in PA level in very young children. This study examines Chinese one-year-old children and their parents' PA levels and patterns, and assesses the correlations between children's PA level and gender, body mass index standard deviation score (BMI SDS, parental BMI and parental PA level.Data from 123 families participating in the Early STOPP China study were used. Families were recruited based on parental BMI and were classified as either high-risk or low-risk of obesity. Parents and children wore an ActiGraph GT3X+ to assess the average PA levels. PA levels and hourly patterns during weekdays and weekends were examined as were correlations with gender, BMI SDS, parental BMI and parental PA levels.There were no significant differences in children's averaged PA between risk groups, genders, or between weekdays and weekends. Children's peak average activity level was at 7 pm and they were least active at 3 pm (p<0.001. Both mothers and fathers demonstrated a similar PA pattern as their children, although paternal PA level was consistently lower than that of mothers and children. No significant association was found between children's PA and their gender, BMI SDS, parental BMI or paternal PA levels. Maternal PA was found positively associated with child PA (p<0.05.PA in one-year-old Chinese children vary over the day but weekdays and weekends are similar. At this age, children's PA is not related to gender, BMI SDS, parental BMI or paternal PA. Larger scale studies with more contextual information are needed to improve the understanding of our findings.

  4. The association between systemic inflammatory cellular levels and lung function: a population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tricia McKeever

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lower lung function is associated with an elevated systemic white cell count in men. However, these observations have not been demonstrated in a representative population that includes females and may be susceptible to confounding by recent airway infections or recent cigarette smoking. We tested the hypothesis that lung function is inversely associated with systemic white cell count in a population-based study. METHODS: The study population consisted adults aged 17-90+ years who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey who did not report a recent cough, cold or acute illness in a non-smoking and smoking population. RESULTS: In non-smoking adults with the highest quintile of the total white cell count had a FEV(1 125.3 ml lower than those in the lowest quintile (95% confidence interval CI: -163.1 to -87.5. Adults with the highest quintile of the total white cell count had a FVC 151.1 ml lower than those in the lowest quintile (95% confidence interval CI: -195.0 to -107.2. Similar associations were observed for granulocytes, mononuclear cells and lymphocytes. In current smokers, similar smaller associations observed for total white cell count, granulocytes and mononuclear cells. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic cellular inflammation levels are inversely associated with lung function in a population of both non-smokers and smokers without acute illnesses. This may contribute to the increased mortality observed in individuals with a higher baseline white cell count.

  5. MEASURING THE LEVEL OF TOURIST SATISFACTION. CASE STUDY BRASOV COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Bratucu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to measure the satisfaction level of Romanian and foreign tourists visiting Brașov. In order to achieve the above mentioned objective, a survey was carried out on a sample of 1,119 visitors to Brașov County. This quantitative research is part of a project entitled Destination Intelligent Management for Sustainable Tourism, won following a national competition. These findings can be used by businesses and the local managing authorities in establishing the strategies for the sustainable development of tourism in the in the region.

  6. The economy and absenteeism: a macro-level study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoss, Mindy K; Penney, Lisa M

    2012-07-01

    Despite much speculation, little is known about the net effects of the economy on the employed workforce. To fill this gap, we used state-level data collected by the Bureau of Labor Statistics to examine the effects of the condition of the economy, as indicated by the unemployment rate, on incidence rates of absence reportedly due to symptoms of illness and violent acts in the workplace for 43 states from 1992 to 2009. Our results suggest that the unemployment rate is positively associated with these indicators of absenteeism, and that these effects are delayed in time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Sanitary quality of surface water during base-flow conditions in the Municipality of Caguas, Puerto Rico, 2014–15: A comparison with results from a similar 1997–99 study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús; Guzmán-Ríos, Senén

    2017-06-26

    A study was conducted in 2014–15 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Municipality of Caguas, to determine if changes in the stream sanitary quality during base-flow conditions have occurred since 1997–99, when a similar study was completed by the USGS. Water samples were collected for the current study during two synoptic surveys in 2014 and 2015. Water samples were analyzed for fecal and total coliform bacteria, nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen, nitrogen and oxygen isotopes of nitrate, and human health and pharmaceutical products. Water sampling occurred at 39 stream locations used during the 1997–99 study by the USGS and at 11 additional sites. A total of 151 stream miles were classified on the basis of fecal and total coliform bacteria results.The overall spatial pattern of the sanitary quality of surface water during 2014–15 is similar to the pattern observed in 1997–99 in relation to the standards adopted by the Puerto Rico Environmental Quality Board in 1990. Surface water at most of the water-sampling sites exceeded the current standard for fecal coliform of 200 colonies per 100 milliliters adopted by the Puerto Rico Environmental Quality Board in 2010. The poorest sanitary quality was within the urban area of the Municipality of Caguas, particularly in urban stream reaches of Río Caguitas and in rural and suburban reaches bordered by houses in high density that either have inadequate septic tanks or discharge domestic wastewater directly into the stream channels. The best sanitary quality occurred in areas having little or no human development, such as in the wards of San Salvador and Beatriz to the south and southwest of Caguas, respectively. The concentration of nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen ranged from 0.02 to 9.0 milligrams per liter, and did not exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standard for nitrate as nitrogen of 10 milligrams per liter. The composition of nitrogen and oxygen

  8. Self-Similar Traffic In Wireless Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jerjomins, R.; Petersons, E.

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have shown that traffic in Ethernet and other wired networks is self-similar. This paper reveals that wireless network traffic is also self-similar and long-range dependant by analyzing big amount of data captured from the wireless router.

  9. Average effect estimates remain similar as evidence evolves from single trials to high-quality bodies of evidence: a meta-epidemiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartlehner, Gerald; Dobrescu, Andreea; Evans, Tammeka Swinson; Thaler, Kylie; Nussbaumer, Barbara; Sommer, Isolde; Lohr, Kathleen N

    2016-01-01

    The objective of our study was to use a diverse sample of medical interventions to assess empirically whether first trials rendered substantially different treatment effect estimates than reliable, high-quality bodies of evidence. We used a meta-epidemiologic study design using 100 randomly selected bodies of evidence from Cochrane reports that had been graded as high quality of evidence. To determine the concordance of effect estimates between first and subsequent trials, we applied both quantitative and qualitative approaches. For quantitative assessment, we used Lin's concordance correlation and calculated z-scores; to determine the magnitude of differences of treatment effects, we calculated standardized mean differences (SMDs) and ratios of relative risks. We determined qualitative concordance based on a two-tiered approach incorporating changes in statistical significance and magnitude of effect. First trials both overestimated and underestimated the true treatment effects in no discernible pattern. Nevertheless, depending on the definition of concordance, effect estimates of first trials were concordant with pooled subsequent studies in at least 33% but up to 50% of comparisons. The pooled magnitude of change as bodies of evidence advanced from single trials to high-quality bodies of evidence was 0.16 SMD [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.12, 0.21]. In 80% of comparisons, the difference in effect estimates was smaller than 0.5 SMDs. In first trials with large treatment effects (>0.5 SMD), however, estimates of effect substantially changed as new evidence accrued (mean change 0.68 SMD; 95% CI: 0.50, 0.86). Results of first trials often change, but the magnitude of change, on average, is small. Exceptions are first trials that present large treatment effects, which often dissipate as new evidence accrues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Case studies to test: A framework for using structural, reactivity, metabolic and physicochemical similarity to evaluate the suitability of analogs for SAR-based toxicological assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Karen; Bjerke, Donald; Daston, George; Felter, Susan; Mahony, Catherine; Naciff, Jorge; Robison, Steven; Wu, Shengde

    2011-06-01

    A process for evaluating analogs for use in SAR (Structure-Activity Relationship) assessments was previously published (Wu et al. 2010). Subsequently, this process has been updated to include a decision tree for estrogen binding (from US EPA) and flags for developmental and reproductive toxicity (DART). This paper presents the results of blinded case studies designed to test this updated framework. The results of these case studies support the conclusion that the process outlined by Wu et al. (2010) can be successfully applied to develop surrogate values for risk assessment. The read across results generated by the process were shown to be protective when compared to the actual toxicity data. Successful application of the approach requires significant expertise as well as discipline to not overstep the boundaries of the defined analogs and the rating system. The end result of this rigor can be the inability to read across all endpoints for all chemicals resulting in data gaps that cannot be filled using read across, however, this reflects the current state of the science and is preferable to making non-protective decisions. Future work will be targeted towards expanding read across capabilities. Two examples of a broader category approach are also shown. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Study on a quantitative evaluation method of equipment maintenance level and plant safety level for giant complex plant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Takayuki

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a quantitative method on maintenance level which is determined by the two factors, maintenance plan and field work implementation ability by maintenance crew is discussed. And also a quantitative evaluation method on safety level for giant complex plant system is discussed. As a result of consideration, the following results were obtained. (1) It was considered that equipment condition after maintenance work was determined by the two factors, maintenance plan and field work implementation ability possessed by maintenance crew. The equipment condition determined by the two factors was named as 'equipment maintenance level' and its quantitative evaluation method was clarified. (2) It was considered that CDF in a nuclear power plant, evaluated by using a failure rate counting the above maintenance level was quite different from CDF evaluated by using existing failure rates including a safety margin. Then, the former CDF was named as 'plant safety level' of plant system and its quantitative evaluation method was clarified. (3) Enhancing equipment maintenance level means an improvement of maintenance quality. That results in the enhancement of plant safety level. Therefore, plant safety level should be always watched as a plant performance indicator. (author)

  12. Longitudinal study of distributions of similar antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella serovars in pigs and their environment in two distinct swine production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keelara, Shivaramu; Scott, H Morgan; Morrow, William M; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A; Correa, Maria; Nayak, Rajesh; Stefanova, Rossina; Thakur, Siddhartha

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to determine and compare the prevalences and genotypic profiles of antimicrobial-resistant (AR) Salmonella isolates from pigs reared in antimicrobial-free (ABF) and conventional production systems at farm, at slaughter, and in their environment. We collected 2,889 pig fecal and 2,122 environmental (feed, water, soil, lagoon, truck, and floor swabs) samples from 10 conventional and eight ABF longitudinal cohorts at different stages of production (farrowing, nursery, finishing) and slaughter (postevisceration, postchill, and mesenteric lymph nodes [MLN]). In addition, we collected 1,363 carcass swabs and 205 lairage and truck samples at slaughter. A total of 1,090 Salmonella isolates were recovered from the samples; these were isolated with a significantly higher prevalence in conventionally reared pigs (4.0%; n = 66) and their environment (11.7%; n = 156) than in ABF pigs (0.2%; n = 2) and their environment (0.6%; n = 5) (P antimicrobial resistance (AR) were exhibited to tetracycline (71%), sulfisoxazole (42%), and streptomycin (17%). Multidrug resistance (resistance to ≥ 3 antimicrobials; MDR) was detected in 27% (n = 254) of the Salmonella isolates from the conventional system. Our study reports a low prevalence of Salmonella in both production systems in pigs on farms, while a higher prevalence was detected among the carcasses at slaughter. The dynamics of Salmonella prevalence in pigs and carcasses were reciprocated in the farm and slaughter environment, clearly indicating an exchange of this pathogen between the pigs and their surroundings. Furthermore, the phenotypic and genotypic fingerprint profile results underscore the potential role played by environmental factors in dissemination of AR Salmonella to pigs.

  13. A study of the transition pathways of school level scholarship ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study tracked the progress of alumni of an educational intervention two or three years post school, in order to investigate their pathways to their destinations of work and study. Forty percent of the alumni were successfully traced, and asked to fill in an online questionnaire. Of the 104 traced alumni, 80% reported good ...

  14. Domain similarity based orthology detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitard-Feildel, Tristan; Kemena, Carsten; Greenwood, Jenny M; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich

    2015-05-13

    Orthologous protein detection software mostly uses pairwise comparisons of amino-acid sequences to assert whether two proteins are orthologous or not. Accordingly, when the number of sequences for comparison increases, the number of comparisons to compute grows in a quadratic order. A current challenge of bioinformatic research, especially when taking into account the increasing number of sequenced organisms available, is to make this ever-growing number of comparisons computationally feasible in a reasonable amount of time. We propose to speed up the detection of orthologous proteins by using strings of domains to characterize the proteins. We present two new protein similarity measures, a cosine and a maximal weight matching score based on domain content similarity, and new software, named porthoDom. The qualities of the cosine and the maximal weight matching similarity measures are compared against curated datasets. The measures show that domain content similarities are able to correctly group proteins into their families. Accordingly, the cosine similarity measure is used inside porthoDom, the wrapper developed for proteinortho. porthoDom makes use of domain content similarity measures to group proteins together before searching for orthologs. By using domains instead of amino acid sequences, the reduction of the search space decreases the computational complexity of an all-against-all sequence comparison. We demonstrate that representing and comparing proteins as strings of discrete domains, i.e. as a concatenation of their unique identifiers, allows a drastic simplification of search space. porthoDom has the advantage of speeding up orthology detection while maintaining a degree of accuracy similar to proteinortho. The implementation of porthoDom is released using python and C++ languages and is available under the GNU GPL licence 3 at http://www.bornberglab.org/pages/porthoda .

  15. Why Study A Level Religious Studies? Qualitative Perspectives from Two English Midlands Sixth Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Religious Studies (RS) is expected to impact students' personal development as well as enabling acquisition of knowledge and understanding of religious and philosophical traditions. But to what extent does this actually occur? As part of a larger quantitative investigation of the effects of A Level RS in students' beliefs, values and worldviews…

  16. Atomistic study of two-level systems in amorphous silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damart, T.; Rodney, D.

    2018-01-01

    Internal friction is analyzed in an atomic-scale model of amorphous silica. The potential energy landscape of more than 100 glasses is explored to identify a sample of about 700 two-level systems (TLSs). We discuss the properties of TLSs, particularly their energy asymmetry and barrier as well as their deformation potential, computed as longitudinal and transverse averages of the full deformation potential tensors. The discrete sampling is used to predict dissipation in the classical regime. Comparison with experimental data shows a better agreement with poorly relaxed thin films than well relaxed vitreous silica, as expected from the large quench rates used to produce numerical glasses. The TLSs are categorized in three types that are shown to affect dissipation in different temperature ranges. The sampling is also used to discuss critically the usual approximations employed in the literature to represent the statistical properties of TLSs.

  17. Studying borrower level risk characteristics of education loan in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arindam Bandyopadhyay

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically investigates the granular level risk of education loan using a cross section of data from 5000 borrowers obtained from four major public sector banks in India. The findings suggest that education loan defaults are mainly influenced by security, borrower margin, and repayment periods. The presence of guarantor or co-borrower and collateral significantly reduce default loss rates. The socioeconomic characteristics of borrowers and their regional locations also act as important factors associated with education loan defaults. The results suggest that by segmenting borrowers by probability of default and loss given default in a multidimensional scale, banks can adopt better risk mitigation and pricing strategies to resolve borrower problems.

  18. Development of nanosensors for studying intracellular phosphate levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Hong

    -time monitoring of Pi metabolism in living cells, providing a new tool for fluxomics (measurement of metabolic flux), analysis of pathophysiology or changes of Pi during cell activity. Transformation of plants with FLIPs had resulted in only low expression levels. As an alternative a protein transduction domain......Abstract Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is an essential macronutrient that plays a central role in metabolism and signal transduction in plants. Uptake, compartmentation and transport are important players of cellular Pi homeostasis; however, methods to determine the cellular phosphate concentration...... of a substrate-binding protein linked to two fluorescent reporter proteins. Substrate binding changes the conformation of the nanosensor and, hence, the efficiency of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between the reporter proteins. The aim of the present project was to develop nanosensors for Pi...

  19. Study on generic intervention levels for protecting the public in a nuclear accident or radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Fabio Fumio

    2003-01-01

    After a nuclear accident or radiological emergency, several social and economical factors shall be considered for the actions to protect the public and to recover the environment. The application of the radiological protection principles on practices in intervention situations may lead to adoption of protective measures disproportional to the involved risk, compromising the resources available to more effective actions. This causes a negative impact on the population and may conduct to discredit about the protective measures and the lost of confidence on the authorities. In this context, the principles of radiological protection for interventions should be studied and analyzed for being adequately applied in accident situations or radiological emergencies that involves the country. These principles are constantly improved and the concept of generic intervention level plays an important role in the decision-making to protect the public. The costs involved to the protective measures for the public in Brazil were studied and cost benefit analysis techniques were applied to estimate the generic intervention levels for public protection applicable in the country. These results were compared to those values internationally recommended, as well to values obtained in a similar study accomplished for Japan. It was also performed a sensibility analysis of the results regarding a value and a simple analysis of the results considering the costs of the several protective measures. (author)

  20. A Model to Determine the Level of Serum Aldosterone in the Workers Attributed to the Combined Effects of Sound Pressure Level, Exposure Time and Serum Potassium Level: A Field-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Nassiri

    2016-09-01

    The obtained model in the study revealed that the results of predictive models to determine aldosterone level were very similar to real values; therefore, the obtained values of this model were largely in line with the ones obtained from the field.

  1. Study of Blood Leptin Levels before and After Treatment with Metformin in Diabetes Type Ii Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Didehdar

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leptin is a fat tissue hormone that has 176 amino acids with a molecular weight of 16 KD . Leptin has effects on the hypothalamus and peripheral tissues resulting in decreased food absorption and increased energy consumption that finally reduces the body weight and BMI. The aim of this research was to investigate the blood levels of leptin before and after treatment with Metformin in type II diabetic patients. Methods: 25 type II diabetic patients without any previous drug treatment history were investigated. This study was a clinical trail before and after treatment with Metformin. Results: There was no particular difference in BMI, average body weight, fat mass and free fat mass before and after treatment. Similarly, the difference in concentration levels of blood glucose, cholesterol, tri-glycerides and LDL-cholesterol before and after treatment was not statistically significant. Also, there was no difference in the average concentration of leptin and insulin before and after treatment Conclusion: This result showed that although metformin decreased glucose and lipid levels during the treatment period, (1 month it did not have an effect on leptin, Insulin and other related factors during treatment.;

  2. Study of Effects of Sorghum Cultivation on Some Soil Biological Indicators at Different Zinc Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bagheri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Zinc is an essential element for plant growth which its high concentrations can cause pollution and toxicity in plant. In this study, the effects of sorghum cultivation on some indicators of microbial activity and its association with increased zinc concentrations in two soils with relatively similar physical and chemical properties, but different in concentration of heavy metals were investigated. In both soils zinc levels were added to obtain 250, 375 and 500 mg kg-1 (based on the initial nitric acid extractable content. Using plastic boxes containing 8 kg of soil, growth boxes (Rhizobox were prepared. The box interior was divided into three sections S1 (the rhizosphere, S2 (adjacent to the rhizosphere and S3 (bulk soil using nylon net plates. The results showed that at all levels of zinc in both soil types, BCF were bigger than units, so using this indicator, sorghum can be considered as a plant for accumulation of zinc. Microbial respiration and dehydrogenase activity was reduced in all sections adjacent to root in the polluted soil. It is generally understood that substrates and inhibitors (heavy metals compete in the formation of substrate-enzyme and inhibitor-enzyme complexes, but the effects of sorghum cultivation in increasing biological and enzyme activity indexes in soil 1 (non-polluted was higher than soil 2 (polluted, perhaps due to improvements in microbial activity in the vicinity of the roots, even in concentration higher than stress condition levels for zinc in soil.

  3. Value Similarities among Fathers, Mothers, and Adolescents and the Role of a Cultural Stereotype: Different Measurement Strategies Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roest, Annette M. C.; Dubas, Judith Semon; Gerris, Jan R. M.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2009-01-01

    In research on value similarity and transmission between parents and adolescents, no consensus exists on the level of value similarity. Reports of high-value similarities coexist with reports of low-value similarities within the family. The present study shows that different conclusions may be explained by the use of different measurement…

  4. Value Similarities Among Fathers, Mothers, and Adolescents and the Role of a Cultural Stereotype: Different Measurement Strategies Reconsidered

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, A.M.C.; Dubas, J.S.; Gerris, J.R.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    In research on value similarity and transmission between parents and adolescents, no consensus exists on the level of value similarity. Reports of high-value similarities coexist with reports of low-value similarities within the family. The present study shows that different conclusions may be

  5. Bilateral Trade Flows and Income Distribution Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Current models of bilateral trade neglect the effects of income distribution. This paper addresses the issue by accounting for non-homothetic consumer preferences and hence investigating the role of income distribution in the context of the gravity model of trade. A theoretically justified gravity model is estimated for disaggregated trade data (Dollar volume is used as dependent variable) using a sample of 104 exporters and 108 importers for 1980–2003 to achieve two main goals. We define and calculate new measures of income distribution similarity and empirically confirm that greater similarity of income distribution between countries implies more trade. Using distribution-based measures as a proxy for demand similarities in gravity models, we find consistent and robust support for the hypothesis that countries with more similar income-distributions trade more with each other. The hypothesis is also confirmed at disaggregated level for differentiated product categories. PMID:27137462

  6. Studies Related to the Oregon State University High Temperature Test Facility: Scaling, the Validation Matrix, and Similarities to the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard R. Schultz; Paul D. Bayless; Richard W. Johnson; William T. Taitano; James R. Wolf; Glenn E. McCreery

    2010-09-01

    inadequate to permit steady-state operation at reasonable conditions. 4. To enable the HTTF to operate at a more representative steady-state conditions, DOE recently allocated funding via a DOE subcontract to HTTF to permit an OSU infrastructure upgrade such that 2.2 MW will become available for HTTF experiments. 5. Analyses have been performed to study the relationship between HTTF and MHTGR via the hierarchical two-tiered scaling methodology which has been used successfully in the past, e.g., APEX facility scaling to the Westinghouse AP600 plant. These analyses have focused on the relationship between key variables that will be measured in the HTTF to the counterpart variables in the MHTGR with a focus on natural circulation, using nitrogen as a working fluid, and core heat transfer. 6. Both RELAP5-3D and computational fluid dynamics (CD-Adapco’s STAR-CCM+) numerical models of the MHTGR and the HTTF have been constructed and analyses are underway to study the relationship between the reference reactor and the HTTF. The HTTF is presently being designed. It has ¼-scaling relationship to the MHTGR in both the height and the diameter. Decisions have been made to design the reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) simulation as a boundary condition for the HTTF to ensure that (a) the boundary condition is well defined and (b) the boundary condition can be modified easily to achieve the desired heat transfer sink for HTTF experimental operations.

  7. A study of serum magnesium, calcium and phosphorus level, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M.P. Basheer

    2015-11-30

    Nov 30, 2015 ... ... Kerala state in India. Individuals participating in this study were administered .... or English or both were chosen as participants. Individual par- ..... in the number of functional synapses, activation of key signal- ing molecules ...

  8. Similarity between generic and brand-name antihypertensive drugs for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: evidence from a large population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrao, Giovanni; Soranna, Davide; Merlino, Luca; Mancia, Giuseppe

    2014-10-01

    Although generic and earlier brand-name counterparts are bioequivalent, their equivalence in preventing relevant clinical outcomes is of concern. To compare effectiveness of generic and brand-name antihypertensive drugs for preventing the onset of cardiovascular (CV) outcomes. A population-based, nested case-control study was carried out by including the cohort of 78 520 patients from Lombardy (Italy) aged 18 years or older who were newly treated with antihypertensive drugs during 2005. Cases were the 2206 patients who experienced a hospitalization for CV disease from initial prescription until 2011. One control for each case was randomly selected from the same cohort that generated cases. Logistic regression was used to model the CV risk associated with starting on and/or continuing with generic or brand-name agents. There was no evidence that patients who started on generics experienced different CV risk than those on brand-name product (OR 0·86; 95% CI 0·63-1·17). Patients at whom generics were main dispensed had not significantly difference in CV outcomes than those mainly on brand-name agents (OR 1·19; 95% CI 0·86-1·63). Compared with patients who kept initial brand-name therapy, those who experienced brand-to-generic or generic-to-brand switches, and those always on generics, did not show differential CV risks, being the corresponding ORs (and 95% CIs), 1·18 (0·96-1·47), 0·87 (0·63-1·21) and 1·08 (0·80-1·46). Our findings do not support the notion that brand-name antihypertensive agents are superior to generics for preventing CV outcomes in the real-world clinical practice. © 2014 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  9. Mortality in high-risk patients with bleeding Mallory-Weiss syndrome is similar to that of peptic ulcer bleeding. Results of a prospective database study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubičić, Neven; Budimir, Ivan; Pavić, Tajana; Bišćanin, Alen; Puljiz, Zeljko; Bratanić, Andre; Troskot, Branko; Zekanović, Dražen

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the predictive factors influencing mortality in patients with bleeding Mallory-Weiss syndrome in comparison with peptic ulcer bleeding. Between January 2005 and December 2009, 281 patients with endoscopically confirmed Mallory-Weiss syndrome and 1530 patients with peptic ulcer bleeding were consecutively evaluated. The 30-day mortality and clinical outcome were related to the patients' demographic data, endoscopic, and clinical characteristics. The one-year cumulative incidence for bleeding Mallory-Weiss syndrome was 7.3 cases/100,000 people and for peptic ulcer bleeding 40.4 cases/100,000 people. The age-standardized incidence for both bleeding Mallory-Weiss syndrome and peptic ulcer bleeding remained unchanged during the observational five-year period. The majority of patients with bleeding Mallory-Weiss syndrome were male patients with significant overall comorbidities (ASA class 3-4). Overall 30-day mortality rate was 5.3% for patients with bleeding Mallory-Weiss syndrome and 4.6% for patients with peptic ulcer bleeding (p = 0.578). In both patients with bleeding Mallory-Weiss syndrome and peptic ulcer bleeding, mortality was significantly higher in patients over 65 years of age and those with significant overall comorbidities (ASA class 3-4). The incidence of bleeding Mallory-Weiss syndrome and peptic ulcer bleeding has not changed over a five-year observational period. The overall 30-day mortality was almost equal for both bleeding Mallory-Weiss syndrome and peptic ulcer bleeding and was positively correlated to older age and underlying comorbid illnesses.

  10. Extending the Similarity-Attraction Effect : The effects of When-Similarity in mediated communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, M.C.; Castaneda, D.; Fernandez, N.; Nass, C.

    2014-01-01

    The feeling of connectedness experienced in computer-mediated relationships can be explained by the similarity-attraction effect (SAE). Though SAE is well established in psychology, the effects of some types of similarity have not yet been explored. In 2 studies, we demonstrate similarity-attraction

  11. Measure of Node Similarity in Multilayer Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Mollgaard

    Full Text Available The weight of links in a network is often related to the similarity of the nodes. Here, we introduce a simple tunable measure for analysing the similarity of nodes across different link weights. In particular, we use the measure to analyze homophily in a group of 659 freshman students at a large university. Our analysis is based on data obtained using smartphones equipped with custom data collection software, complemented by questionnaire-based data. The network of social contacts is represented as a weighted multilayer network constructed from different channels of telecommunication as well as data on face-to-face contacts. We find that even strongly connected individuals are not more similar with respect to basic personality traits than randomly chosen pairs of individuals. In contrast, several socio-demographics variables have a significant degree of similarity. We further observe that similarity might be present in one layer of the multilayer network and simultaneously be absent in the other layers. For a variable such as gender, our measure reveals a transition from similarity between nodes connected with links of relatively low weight to dis-similarity for the nodes connected by the strongest links. We finally analyze the overlap between layers in the network for different levels of acquaintanceships.

  12. A Study Similarities and Differences in Selected Human Resource Practices and Their Relation to Teacher Retention in a Sample of Four School Districts, Two with High and Two with Low Rates of Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Patrick M.

    2010-01-01

    This is a study of the practices utilized by four school districts, two with high and two with low retention rates of teachers, to examine how similarities and differences in selected human resources practices relate to the successful retention of teachers in these districts. The factors studied that may impact teacher retention included…

  13. Similarity measures for face recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Vezzetti, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Face recognition has several applications, including security, such as (authentication and identification of device users and criminal suspects), and in medicine (corrective surgery and diagnosis). Facial recognition programs rely on algorithms that can compare and compute the similarity between two sets of images. This eBook explains some of the similarity measures used in facial recognition systems in a single volume. Readers will learn about various measures including Minkowski distances, Mahalanobis distances, Hansdorff distances, cosine-based distances, among other methods. The book also summarizes errors that may occur in face recognition methods. Computer scientists "facing face" and looking to select and test different methods of computing similarities will benefit from this book. The book is also useful tool for students undertaking computer vision courses.

  14. Cytogenetic studies on newborns from high level natural background radiation areas of Kerala coast, South India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherian, V.D.; Kurien, C.J.; Das, Birajalaxmi

    1997-01-01

    The human population residing in the monazite bearing high level natural background radiation (HLNBR) areas of Kerala, along the South-West coast of India provides unique opportunities of assessing directly in man, the health effects of chronic low-level radiation exposure. The per capita dose received by this population is nearly four times the normal background radiation level. While this is the average dose, the radiation levels prevailing in these HLNBR areas are in the range of 1 to over 35 mGy per year. Chromosomal aberration studies in the lymphocytes of newborns and adults from these areas have been in progress for two decades. So far, 4156 newborn babies from HLNBR and 7321 from normal background radiation (NBR) areas have been screened for the incidence of chromosomal aberrations (dicentrics and rings). The mean frequency of dicentrics and rings did not show any significant difference between the newborns in the control and the HLNBRA population. Assessment of the frequency of micronuclei in cytochalasin-B blocked binucleated lymphocytes of 49 newborns from control areas and 131 newborns from radioactive areas also showed similar values. While an age-dependent increase in chromosome aberration frequency was observed in the adult samples from control and the study areas, the regression analysis of the data indicated a marginally higher slope for the samples from HLNBRA. Karyotype anomalies recorded so far among the newborns have not revealed any significant difference in the incidence of numerical (including Down syndrome) and structural alterations between the control and the exposed populations. A noteworthy observation, herein reported for the first time from any HLNBR area is that there is no discernible increase in the incidence of micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations in the peripheral lymphocytes of newborn babies hailing from HLNBR areas, where their ancestral generations have lived for several hundreds of years. (author)

  15. A case study in low-level radioactive waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broderick, W.; Rella, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Due to the current trend in Federal and State legislation, utilities are faced with the invitable problem of on-site storage of radioactive waste. Recognizing this problem, the New York Power Authority has taken measures to preclude the possibility of a plant shutdown due to a lack of space allocation for waste disposal at commercial burial sites coincident with an inability to safely store radioactive waste on-site. Capital funds have been appropriated for the design, engineering, and construction of an interim low-level radioactive waste storage facility. This project is currently in the preliminary design phase with a scheduled engineering completion date of September 1, 1984. Operation of the facility is expected for late 1985. The facility will provide storage space solidified liners, drums, and low specific activity (LSA) boxes at the historic rate of waste generation at the James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant, which is owned and operated by the New York Power Authority. Materials stored in the facility will be suitable for burial at a licensed burial facility and will be packaged to comply with the Department of Transportation regulations for shipment to a licensed burial ground. Waste shipments from the facility will normally be made on a first-in, first-out basis to minimize the storage time of any liner, drum or

  16. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON INDIRECT TAXES AT EU LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARALAMBIE GEORGE ALIN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic downturn, affecting lately the states all over the world, imposed their governments to take measures in fiscal and budget plan in order to reduce the budget deficit, by reducing spending and increasing the revenue mobilized to the budget, especially tax revenues, by increasing the tax burden both for the individuals and legal entities. Reforming the tax system at European level involved widening the tax base both for the income earned by individual taxpayers and those made by companies to the detriment of effective tax rates increase. The share in GDP of mandatory levies is uneven across the EU. In the year 2012, it range from 30% in Lithuania with 50% to Denmark. Fiscal consolidation in the member states aimed reforms in the field of indirect taxation (by increasing VAT- 1% for the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Italy, Poland and Finland to 7% in Hungary with 5%, Romania, 4%, excise duties and environmental taxes and a downward trend in the rate of taxation in the case of direct taxes through progressive taxation of personal income, which led to increased revenue due compulsory levies in most countries of the European Union. 13 EU countries have acted to increase the VAT rate between 2010-2014.

  17. Low-level 239PuO2 lifespan studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    This project will produce data to generate a dose-response curve (and to evaluate other statistical methods that also incorporate survival time) for lung-tumor incidence in Wistar rats following inhalation of 239 PuO 2 at levels producing lifetime radiation doses to the lung of 2000 rad. The lung clearance of 239 Pu is best represented by a two-exponential equation, with 78% of the initial alveolar depositions (IAD) cleared with a half-time of 19 days and 22% cleared with a half-time of 180 days. A total of 593 of 2134 exposed and 242 of 1058 sham-exposed rats have died. Among the dead rats, the percent with primary lung tumors was 71% for the 150-nCi group, 70% for the 82-nCi group, and 23% for the 32-nCi group. No lung tumors have been found in controls, and only three have been found at an IAD of < 7.5 nCi. 1 figure, 3 tables

  18. THE STUDY OF SERUM PROCALCITONIN LEVEL IN CORRELATION WITH SEPSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish M

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Sepsis refers to the systemic response to serious infection. It can be response to the infection caused by any class of microorganism. The presence of bacteraemia is an indicator of disseminated infection and generally indicates a poorer prognosis when associated with localised disease. This study was undertaken to study the diagnostic and prognostic value of Procalcitonin (PCT in patients with sepsis. AIM To study the diagnostic and prognostic value of Procalcitonin (PCT in patients with sepsis. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifty patients of age more than 18 years with sepsis admitted in KMC Hospitals, Mangalore, from August 2008 to June 2010 were subjects in the study after due permission from institution and informed consent from the patients. Diagnosis of sepsis was made according to criteria by ACCP/SCCM definition for sepsis. Definitive aetiological diagnosis requires isolation of microorganism from the blood and local site of infection, Gram stain and culture of the material from the primary site of infection for the microbial aetiology was taken. Other appropriate laboratory investigations depending upon requirement were done as mentioned in the investigations. RESULTS Out of total 50 patients, 23 patients were in group of sepsis, 14 were in group of severe sepsis while 13 had septic shock. Maximum number of the study patients were in the age group of 51-60 years. 52% of the study patients were male and 48% were female. Most common symptom in patients with sepsis was fever. Most common sign in the patient with sepsis is tachycardia followed by high temperature and then tachypnoea. Most common source of sepsis was respiratory infection followed by UTI. CONCLUSION Our data suggest the possibility that the addition of Procalcitonin into the standard workup of critically ill patients with suspected sepsis could increase diagnostic certainty and improve patient management.

  19. Matching Three Classifications of Secondary Students to Differential Levels of Study Guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Steven V.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of matching 82 secondary students (learning disabled, remedial, and nondisabled) to differential levels of study guides. The study evaluated two treatment conditions (multilevel study guides containing different levels of referential cues, and single-level study guides without referential cues), used in…

  20. Study of excitation energy dependence of nuclear level density parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanto, G.; Nayak, B.K.; Saxena, A.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we have populated CN by fusion reaction and excitation energy of the intermediate nuclei is determined after first chance α-emission to investigate excitation energy dependence of the NLD parameter. Evaporated neutron spectra were measured following alpha evaporation for obtaining NLD parameter for the reaction 11 B + 197 Au, populating CN 208 Po. This CN after evaporating an α-particle populates intermediate nucleus 204 Pb. The 204 Pb has magic number of Z=82. Our aim is to study the excitation energy dependence of NLD parameter for closed shell nuclei

  1. Similar or different? The role of the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in similarity detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béatrice Garcin

    Full Text Available Patients with frontal lobe syndrome can exhibit two types of abnormal behaviour when asked to place a banana and an orange in a single category: some patients categorize them at a concrete level (e.g., "both have peel", while others continue to look for differences between these objects (e.g., "one is yellow, the other is orange". These observations raise the question of whether abstraction and similarity detection are distinct processes involved in abstract categorization, and that depend on separate areas of the prefrontal cortex (PFC. We designed an original experimental paradigm for a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study involving healthy subjects, confirming the existence of two distinct processes relying on different prefrontal areas, and thus explaining the behavioural dissociation in frontal lesion patients. We showed that: 1 Similarity detection involves the anterior ventrolateral PFC bilaterally with a right-left asymmetry: the right anterior ventrolateral PFC is only engaged in detecting physical similarities; 2 Abstraction per se activates the left dorsolateral PFC.

  2. Study of the impact behaviour of packages containing intermediate level radioactive waste coming from nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, D.; Lund, J.S.; Meredith, P.; Walker, P.; Wells, D.A.; Jowett, J.; Kinsella, K.

    1989-01-01

    The following describes primarily an experimental study into the benefits, for impact resistance, to be gained by incorporating a welded lid into the design of the cement filled drum type of intermediate level waste package. Tests on packages which were not provided with a lid showed that matrix material began to be expelled from drop heights of about 16m. This damage threshold was similar for packages composed of both high and low strength matrix. Above the damage threshold, however, the rate of increase of expelled mass with drop height was greater for the packages filled with a low strength matrix. Similar tests were conducted with specimens to which a lid had been attached by welding. Even from the greatest drop height available at the test facility (28m) only one package showed a significant amount of drum tearing but even then little matrix was lost. The benefits of incorporating a welded lid into package design were thus clearly established. Simple calculations were performed to predict the local deformations and deceleration/time histories of the packages. By optimisation of the impact resistive stress used in the computer model, final knockback areas were predicted to an accuracy of 30%. The average deceleration predicted for four of the six tests for which deceleration histories were available were also within 30% of measured values

  3. Study on the relationship between serum testosterone level and forearm distal bone density in post-menopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenqi; Zhou Zhengli; Li Xin; Zhou Jiwen

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between the androgen level and bone density in post-menopausal women. Methods: Serum testosterone (T) level and forearm distal bone density (BMD) were measured in 39 past-menopausal women who had never taken any estrogen or calcium preparation. Their serum estradiol (E 2 ) levels were about the same. According to their BMD, the 39 subjects were divided into normal (n = 22) and osteoporotic (n = 17) groups. Results: The mean serum testosterone (T) level in the normal group was significantly higher than that in the osteoporotic group (p 1 = 0.72, r 2 0.75; p 1 and r 2 was 0.14, suggesting similarity of the positive cor-relationship for both groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Serum testosterone level seems to bear close relationship with bone density and osteoporosis

  4. A study of serum magnesium, calcium and phosphorus level, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Different studies have shown the role of micro and macronutrients on cognitive function. Macronutrients have been involved in many metabolic activities of the body including oxidation and reduction reactions in the central nervous system. This involvement of macronutrients in the activities of central nervous ...

  5. Non-Print Social Studies Materials--Elementary School Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Karen

    Types of non-print social studies materials developed for presentation to, and use by, elementary school students are identified. "Non-print" materials include films, filmstrips, video cassettes, audio recordings, computer databases, telecommunications, and hypertext. An explanation of why elementary school students can benefit from the use of…

  6. Burnout in College Student Volunteers: A Cross-Level Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yueh-tzu

    2009-01-01

    Burnout in college students is an issue of concern. It adversely affects the learning of students as well as their overall health and well-being. However, little attention has been paid to burnout in college students who donate their time as volunteers in services to their community. This study examined both individual and group factors…

  7. A study investigating sound sources and noise levels in neonatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Exposure to noise in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) has the potential to affect neonatal auditory development, sleep patterns and physiological stability, thus impacting on developmental progress. Objectives. This study aimed to identify noise sources in three NICUs in Johannesburg, South Africa, and ...

  8. An epidemiological study of gammaglobulin levels in newborn calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobbelaar, P.; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.; Keulen, K.A.S. van

    The effect of various factors on serum gammaglobulin concentration in newborn dairy calves was studied in 181 calves on six commercial farms. The refractometer test for monitoring colostrum management was found to be a reliable, rapid and practical method up to 6 days after birth. The three factors,

  9. Male convict cichlid 11-ketotestosterone levels throughout the reproductive cycle: an exploratory profile study in laboratory and field populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie April van Breukelen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The convict cichlid (Amatitlania nigrofasciata has been extensively examined in relation to many behavioral topics, such as courtship, pair-bonding, bi-parental care, and territoriality. Recently, this model species has been utilized in studies on genetics, endocrinology, and neuroanatomy, with an ultimate goal of connecting behavior with its underlying mechanisms. The goal of this study was two-fold: (1 profile the circulating levels of plasma 11KT in the male convict cichlid at multiple points during the reproductive cycle and (2 generally compare the hormonal profiles of the widely used laboratory populations and those of a free-living population in the streams of Costa Rica. The results of the field experiment showed that male convict cichlids had higher levels of circulating 11KT during courtship and lower during the parental care and non-breeding phases. The profile of the laboratory population was similar to the profile of the free-living individuals, with significantly higher levels of 11KT occurring during courtship than during parental care, though the level of 11KT during non-breeding phase was elevated in the laboratory. The high levels of 11KT during courtship and low levels of 11KT during parental care found in both the field and the laboratory is similar to what has been reported in other species of teleosts, and may suggest an important function of 11KT in the expression of courtship behavior and the subsequent onset of parental behaviors in this model species.

  10. Similarity in Bilateral Isolated Internal Orbital Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hung-Chang; Cox, Jacob T; Sanyal, Abanti; Mahoney, Nicholas R

    2018-04-13

    In evaluating patients sustaining bilateral isolated internal orbital fractures, the authors have observed both similar fracture locations and also similar expansion of orbital volumes. In this study, we aim to investigate if there is a propensity for the 2 orbits to fracture in symmetrically similar patterns when sustaining similar trauma. A retrospective chart review was performed studying all cases at our institution of bilateral isolated internal orbital fractures involving the medial wall and/or the floor at the time of presentation. The similarity of the bilateral fracture locations was evaluated using the Fisher's exact test. The bilateral expanded orbital volumes were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test to assess for orbital volume similarity. Twenty-four patients with bilateral internal orbital fractures were analyzed for fracture location similarity. Seventeen patients (70.8%) had 100% concordance in the orbital subregion fractured, and the association between the right and the left orbital fracture subregion locations was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). Fifteen patients were analyzed for orbital volume similarity. The average orbital cavity volume was 31.2 ± 3.8 cm on the right and 32.0 ± 3.7 cm on the left. There was a statistically significant difference between right and left orbital cavity volumes (P = 0.0026). The data from this study suggest that an individual who suffers isolated bilateral internal orbital fractures has a statistically significant similarity in the location of their orbital fractures. However, there does not appear to be statistically significant similarity in the expansion of the orbital volumes in these patients.

  11. Deep-level defects in semiconductors: studies by magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerlaan, C.A.J.

    1983-01-01

    This work is divided into two parts. In the first one, the following topics are discussed: paramagnetic centers in semiconductors, principles of magnetic resonance, spin-Hamiltonian, g-tensor, hyperfine interaction, magnetic resonance spectrometer. In the second part it is dicussed defects studied by magnetic resonance including vacancy and divacancy in silicon, iron in silicon, nitrogen in diamond and antisite defects in III-V compounds. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  12. Revisiting Inter-Genre Similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.; Gouyon, Fabien

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the idea of ``inter-genre similarity'' (IGS) for machine learning in general, and music genre recognition in particular. We show analytically that the probability of error for IGS is higher than naive Bayes classification with zero-one loss (NB). We show empirically that IGS does...... not perform well, even for data that satisfies all its assumptions....

  13. Fast business process similarity search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Z.; Dijkman, R.M.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, it is common for organizations to maintain collections of hundreds or even thousands of business processes. Techniques exist to search through such a collection, for business process models that are similar to a given query model. However, those techniques compare the query model to each

  14. Glove boxes and similar containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    According to the present invention a glove box or similar containment is provided with an exhaust system including a vortex amplifier venting into the system, the vortex amplifier also having its main inlet in fluid flow connection with the containment and a control inlet in fluid flow connection with the atmosphere outside the containment. (U.S.)

  15. Dihydrotestosterone and testosterone levels in men screened for prostate cancer: a study of a randomized population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, O; Norming, U; Gustafsson, S; Eneroth, P; Aström, G; Nyman, C R

    1996-03-01

    To investigate the possible relationship between serum levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), testosterone, sexual-hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and tumour stage, grade and ploidy in 65 cases of prostate cancer diagnosed in a screening study compared to 130 controls from the same population. From a population of 26,602 men between the ages of 55 and 70 years, 2400 were selected randomly and invited to undergo screening for prostate cancer using a digital rectal examination, transrectal ultrasonography and PSA analysis. Among the 1782 attendees, 65 cases of prostate cancer were diagnosed. Each case was matched with two control subjects of similar age and prostate volume from the screening population. Frozen serum samples were analysed for PSA, DHT, testosterone and SHBG, and compared to the diagnosis and tumour stage, grade and ploidy. Comparisons between these variables, and multivariate and regression analyses were performed. There were significant differences in PSA level with all variables except tumour ploidy. DHT levels were slightly lower in patients with prostate cancer but the difference was not statistically significant. There was a trend towards lower DHT values in more advanced tumours and the difference for T-stages was close to statistical significance (P = 0.059). Testosterone levels were lower in patients with cancer than in the control group, but the differences were not significant. There was no correlation between testosterone levels, tumour stage and ploidy, but the differences in testosterone level in tumours of a low grade of differentiation compared to those with intermediate and high grade was nearly significant (P = 0.058). The testosterone/DHT ratio tended to be higher in patients with more advanced tumours. SHBG levels were lower in patients with cancer than in controls but the differences were not statistically significant. There were no systematic variations of tumour stage, grade and ploidy. Multivariate

  16. Information filtering based on transferring similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Duo; Zhou, Tao; Liu, Jian-Guo; Liu, Run-Ran; Jia, Chun-Xiao; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2009-07-01

    In this Brief Report, we propose an index of user similarity, namely, the transferring similarity, which involves all high-order similarities between users. Accordingly, we design a modified collaborative filtering algorithm, which provides remarkably higher accurate predictions than the standard collaborative filtering. More interestingly, we find that the algorithmic performance will approach its optimal value when the parameter, contained in the definition of transferring similarity, gets close to its critical value, before which the series expansion of transferring similarity is convergent and after which it is divergent. Our study is complementary to the one reported in [E. A. Leicht, P. Holme, and M. E. J. Newman, Phys. Rev. E 73, 026120 (2006)], and is relevant to the missing link prediction problem.

  17. Scalar Similarity for Relaxed Eddy Accumulation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Johannes; Thomas, Christoph; Foken, Thomas

    2006-07-01

    The relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) method allows the measurement of trace gas fluxes when no fast sensors are available for eddy covariance measurements. The flux parameterisation used in REA is based on the assumption of scalar similarity, i.e., similarity of the turbulent exchange of two scalar quantities. In this study changes in scalar similarity between carbon dioxide, sonic temperature and water vapour were assessed using scalar correlation coefficients and spectral analysis. The influence on REA measurements was assessed by simulation. The evaluation is based on observations over grassland, irrigated cotton plantation and spruce forest. Scalar similarity between carbon dioxide, sonic temperature and water vapour showed a distinct diurnal pattern and change within the day. Poor scalar similarity was found to be linked to dissimilarities in the energy contained in the low frequency part of the turbulent spectra ( definition.

  18. Studies on the chronic effect of lower dose level irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, T.G.; Yun, E.S.; Chung, I.Y.; Yun, M.S.; Chae, H.S.; Lee, J.Y.

    1982-01-01

    This experiment was carried out to evaluate the chronic hazard of Co-60 low dose radiation on ICR mice. There is now considerable evidence from human studies that age, both at exposure to radiation and at observation for risk, can be major determinant of radiation induced cancer risk. For this reason, ICR mice at different ages such as below were exposed to 60m rads/week, 500m rads/week and 60 rads/biweek whole body Co-60 radiation at a dose rate of 3.6 rads/min. ICR mice were irradiated during pregnant period, from 1st week to 3rd week, from 3rd week to 52nd week, from 6th week to 52nd week, and from 22nd week to 52nd week after the birth. All experimental mice were autopsied immediately after being sacrificed at 52nd week. All major organs were examined grossly and weighed. After fixation histo-pathological preparations were made for microscopical study. Blood cells W.B.C., R.B.C., Hb-from eye's vein were counted by hemocytometer and hemometer. (Author)

  19. Developing study habits inventory for secondary level students in Nepal: A psycho-educational survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Aryal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-one standardized non-repeated 1-5 rank order questionnaires were administered to 480 students from twelve districts of Nepal. Twenty-four schools (12 governments and 12 private and ten boys and ten girls of average level from each school were chosen randomly for the survey. The questionnaires covered the six different areas of studies e.g. foundation of the study, hardworking, interpersonal relationship, study habits, study skills and study related problems. This study found noticeable similarities and differences in various issues related to study habit among government and private schools students. About 50 percent Nepalese students like to study in silent and free of an interrupted room. For 36.25 percent Nepalese students qualified teachers and effective teaching methods are the major factors that determine the effective study habits. About 28.95 percent Nepalese students believe that aim and future vision is the key motivating factors for the effective study habits . According to the 36.04 percent Nepalese students the major problems they are facing in the school is unhygienic environment . About 36.87 percent Nepalese students believe that encouragement from the teachers and parents play an important role to proceed ahead even in repeated failure (Table-5. About 39.58 percent Nepalese students are eagerly seeking to be counseled how they can improve their study habits. The survey has found that most of the Nepalese students spend daily two to three hours for the house related works. They should know how to invest their time according to the importance of the task .

  20. Similarity indices I: what do they measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, J.W.

    1976-11-01

    A method for estimating the effects of environmental effusions on ecosystems is described. The characteristics of 25 similarity indices used in studies of ecological communities were investigated. The type of data structure, to which these indices are frequently applied, was described as consisting of vectors of measurements on attributes (species) observed in a set of samples. A general similarity index was characterized as the result of a two-step process defined on a pair of vectors. In the first step an attribute similarity score is obtained for each attribute by comparing the attribute values observed in the pair of vectors. The result is a vector of attribute similarity scores. These are combined in the second step to arrive at the similarity index. The operation in the first step was characterized as a function, g, defined on pairs of attribute values. The second operation was characterized as a function, F, defined on the vector of attribute similarity scores from the first step. Usually, F was a simple sum or weighted sum of the attribute similarity scores. It is concluded that similarity indices should not be used as the test statistic to discriminate between two ecological communities

  1. Similarity indices I: what do they measure.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, J.W.

    1976-11-01

    A method for estimating the effects of environmental effusions on ecosystems is described. The characteristics of 25 similarity indices used in studies of ecological communities were investigated. The type of data structure, to which these indices are frequently applied, was described as consisting of vectors of measurements on attributes (species) observed in a set of samples. A general similarity index was characterized as the result of a two-step process defined on a pair of vectors. In the first step an attribute similarity score is obtained for each attribute by comparing the attribute values observed in the pair of vectors. The result is a vector of attribute similarity scores. These are combined in the second step to arrive at the similarity index. The operation in the first step was characterized as a function, g, defined on pairs of attribute values. The second operation was characterized as a function, F, defined on the vector of attribute similarity scores from the first step. Usually, F was a simple sum or weighted sum of the attribute similarity scores. It is concluded that similarity indices should not be used as the test statistic to discriminate between two ecological communities.

  2. The effect of milk on plasmatic and tissue levels of macrolides: in vivo study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Groppo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    The ingestion of milk with drugs, particularly some antibiotics, is frequently recommended in order to decrease possible gastrointestinal discomfort. The objective of this study was to assess the interference of milk in the absorption and tissue levels of macrolide antibiotics (erythromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin and azithromycin. Forty female rats received surgicallyimplanted PVC sponges on their backs. One week later, granulomatous tissue was observed and the animals were divided into eight groups, which received erythromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin and azithromycin with and without milk. One hour after administration of antibiotic, the animals were sacrificed. The serum and tissue samples were submitted to microbiological assay with Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341, in order to determine drug concentration. Milk did not cause any reduction in the serum and tissue levels of azithromycin and clarithromycin (p>0.05,t-test. However, ingestion of milk reduced by approximately 28.7% the roxithromycin (p<0.0001, t-test and by 34.1% the erythromycin (p<0.0001, t test serum concentrations. Similar effects were observed on tissue levels. Milk ingestion caused a reduction of approximately 20.8% in the roxithromycin (p<0.0001, t-test and 40% in the erythromycin (p<0.0001, t-test tissue levels. We concluded that erythromycin and roxithromycin should be not administered with milk. Keywords: Pharmacokinetics, macrolides, milk, serum concentration

  3. Comparison study on models for calculation of NPP’s levelized unit electricity cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuryanti; Mochamad Nasrullah; Suparman

    2014-01-01

    Economic analysis that is generally done through the calculation of Levelized Unit Electricity Cost (LUEC) is crucial to be done prior to any investment decision on the nuclear power plant (NPP) project. There are several models that can be used to calculate LUEC, which are: R&D PT. PLN (Persero) Model, Mini G4ECONS model and Levelized Cost model. This study aimed to perform a comparison between the three models. Comparison technique was done by tracking the similarity used for each model and then given a case of LUEC calculation for SMR NPP 2 x 100 MW using these models. The result showed that the R&D PT. PLN (Persero) Model have a common principle with Mini G4ECONS model, which use Capital Recovery Factor (CRF) to discount the investment cost which eventually become annuity value along the life of plant. LUEC on both models is calculated by dividing the sum of the annual investment cost and the cost for operating NPP with an annual electricity production.While Levelized Cost model based on the annual cash flow. Total of annual costs and annual electricity production were discounted to the first year of construction in order to obtain the total discounted annual cost and the total discounted energy generation. LUEC was obtained by dividing both of the discounted values. LUEC calculations on the three models produce LUEC value, which are: 14.5942 cents US$/kWh for R&D PT. PLN (Persero) Model, 15.056 cents US$/kWh for Mini G4ECONs model and 14.240 cents US$/kWh for Levelized Cost model. (author)

  4. Outline of facility for studying high level radioactive materials (CPF) and study programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Motoi

    1983-01-01

    The Chemical Processing Facility for studying high level radioactive materials in Tokai Works of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. is a facility for fundamental studies centering around hot cells, necessary for the development of fuel recycle techniques for fast breeder reactors, an important point of nuclear fuel cycle, and of the techniques for processing and disposing high level radioactive liquid wastes. The operation of the facility was started in 1982, for both the system A (the test of fuel recycle for fast breeder reactors) and the system B (the test of vitrification of high level liquid wastes). In this report, the outline of the facility, the contents of testings and the reflection of the results are described. For the fuel recycle test, the hot test of the spent fuel pins of JOYO MK-1 core was started, and now the uranium and plutonium extraction test is underway. The scheduled tests are fuel solubility, the confirmation of residual properties in fuel melting, the confirmation of extracting conditions, the electrolytic reduction of plutonium, off-gas behaviour and the test of material reliability. For the test of vitrification of high level liquid wastes, the fundamental test on the solidifying techniques for the actual high level wastes eluted from the Tokai reprocessing plant has been started, and the following tests are programmed: Assessment of the properties of actual liquid wastes, denitration and concentration test, vitrification test, off-gas treatment test, the test of evaluating solidified wastes, and the test of storing solidified wastes. These test results are programmed to be reflected to the safety deliberation and the demonstration operation of a vitrification pilot plant. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  5. Comparative Study on Atmospheric Dispersion Module of Level 3 PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Dahye; Jang, Misuk; Kang, Hyun Sik; Kim, Seoung Rae [NESS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Some regulation documents such as Regulatory Guides and NUREG publications from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have influences on domestic radiation environmental analyses. As renewal versions of NUREG-0800 and NUREG-1555 have issued lately, the assessment for Severe Accident (SA) with Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) should be added to Safety Analysis Report (SAR) and Radiation Environmental Report (RER). Because these reports are the required documents for obtaining the construction permit and operating license, it is important to understand the PSA methodology and it needs to improve the site-specific input data of L3PSA codes for SA. First, our review focuses on the atmospheric dispersion and deposition related input data of L3PSA code in this paper. Then we will continue to review the improvements of other input data. Two atmospheric dispersion models, which are PAVAN developed for design basis accident and ATMOS of MACCS2 code developed for SA, were reviewed in this paper. L3PSA deals with the effects of severe accidents and basically includes the evaluation of both short- and long-term effects. Therefore, both the deposition effects and nuclide information(type, amount, and chemical characteristics of released radionuclide) would be considered as the input parameters of atmospheric dispersion model for L3PSA. Additionally, the meteorological data would be sampled randomly to meet the purpose of probabilistic method. However, the sampling method would be selected according to analysis purpose. After review, ATMOS module and its input data are suitably developed for the atmospheric dispersion analysis of L3PSA. However, ATMOS module was developed using the site-specific terrain and environment characteristics. For the domestic application, it needs to study the input data reflecting the Korean terrain and environment characteristics. It would be also continuously improved in response to the time- and site-specific changes of weather

  6. Short-term antidiabetic treatment with insulin or metformin has a similar impact on the components of metabolic syndrome in women with gestational diabetes mellitus requiring antidiabetic agents: results of a prospective, randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawiejska, A; Wender-Ozegowska, E; Grewling-Szmit, K; Brazert, M; Brazert, J

    2016-04-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with an increased prevalence of fetal and maternal complications primarily caused by maternal hyperglycemia, which results in abnormal fetal growth. Diet modification is a common first step in the treatment of GDM, followed by antidiabetic pharmacotherapy if this approach fails. Insulin therapy is generally accepted; however, oral hypoglycemic agents have been used in this population. In this prospective, randomised study, we compared maternal metabolic status after treatment with insulin or metformin. Pregnant women (gestational age: ≥ 20 weeks) with GDM requiring medical hypoglycemic treatment were randomly allocated to the Metformin (n = 35) or Insulin (n = 43) Groups. Maternal metabolic status - assessed by glycated hemoglobin (HBA1c) level, glycemic profile, insulin concentration, Homeostatic Model Assessment - Insulin Resistance index, and lipids - was recorded at booking and throughout pregnancy. The characteristics of the study group were: maternal age 33.5 ± 5.9 years, gestational age at baseline 28.5 ± 3.5 weeks, prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) 32.2 ± 3.5 kg/m(2), HbA1c at baseline 5.6 ± 0.6%, and average daily glycemia 5.9 ± 0.6 mmol/dl. Fasting glycemia at term was significantly lower in the Insulin Group but there were no significant differences in mean daily glycemia, HbA1c and BMI at term between the groups. Longitudinally, there was a small but significant increase in BMI and a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in the Insulin Group and a significant increase in the atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) and a trend towards higher triglycerides in the Metformin Group. Both fasting and average daily glycemia were significantly reduced following treatment in both groups. No such change was evident for HbA1c. In a relative risk analysis, metformin treatment was associated with an insignificant elevated risk of HbA1c, triglycerides and lipid indices falling within the

  7. The effects of ownership, staffing level and organisational justice on nurse commitment, involvement, and satisfaction: a questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heponiemi, Tarja; Elovainio, Marko; Kouvonen, Anne; Kuusio, Hannamaria; Noro, Anja; Finne-Soveri, Harriet; Sinervo, Timo

    2011-12-01

    Elderly care systems have undergone a lot of changes in many European countries, including Finland. Most notably, the number of private for-profit firms has increased. Previous studies suggest that employee well-being and the quality of care might differ according to the ownership type. The present study examined whether the ownership type and the staffing level were associated with organisational commitment, job involvement, and job satisfaction. In addition, we examined the potential moderating effect of organisational justice on these associations. Cross-sectional questionnaire study. 1047 Finnish female staff members aged 18-69 years working in sheltered housing or nursing homes (units n=179). The relationships were studied with analyses of covariance (ANCOVA), adjusting for the effects of age and case-mix. Organisational commitment and job satisfaction levels were low in for-profit sheltered homes when justice levels were low, but when justice levels were high, for-profit sheltered homes did not differ from other ownership types. Similarly, organisational justice acted as a buffer against low commitment resulting from low staffing levels. Staffing levels were lowest in public sheltered homes and highest in not-for-profit sheltered homes. The results show that organisational justice can act as a buffer against low organisational commitment that results from low staffing levels and working in for-profit sheltered homes. Increasing justice in regard to the management, outcomes, and procedures in the organisation would thus be important. 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaporation studies on Oak Ridge National Laboratory liquid low-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, V.L. [PAI Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Perona, J.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Evaporation studies were performed with Melton Valley storage tank liquid low-level radioactive waste concentrate and with surrogates (nonradioactive) to determine the feasibility of a proposed out-of-tank-evaporation project. Bench-scale tests indicated that volume reductions ranging from 30 to 55% could be attained. Vendor-site tests were conducted (with surrogate waste forms) using a bench-scale single-stage, low-pressure (subatmospheric), low-temperature (120 to 173{degree}F) evaporator similar to units in operation at several nuclear facilities. Vendor tests were successful; a 30% volume reduction was attained with no crystallization of solids and no foaming, as would be expected from a high pH solution. No fouling of the heat exchanger surfaces occurred during these tests. It is projected that 52,000 to 120,000 gal of water could be evaporated from the supernate stored in the Melton and Bethel Valley liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) storage tanks with this type of evaporator.

  9. Multi-level computational chemistry study on hydrogen recombination catalyst of off-gas treatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatakeyama, Nozomu; Ise, Mariko; Inaba, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    In order to reveal the deactivation mechanism of the hydrogen recombination catalyst of off-gas treatment system, we investigate by using multi-level computational chemistry simulation methods. The recombiner apparatus is modeled by the numerical mesh system in the axial coordinates, and unsteady, advection and reaction rate equations are solved by using a finite difference method. The chemical reactions are formulated to represent adsorption-desorption of hydrogen and oxygen on Pt catalyst, and time developments of the coverage factors of Pt are solved numerically. The computational simulations successfully reproduce the very similar behaviors observed by experiments, such as increasing of the inversion rates of H 2 to H 2 O, the temperatures distributions along the flow direction, dependencies of experimental condition, and so on. Thus Pt poisoning is considered to cause the deactivation of the hydrogen recombination catalyst. To clarify the poisoning mechanism, the molecular level simulation is applied to the system of Pt on boehmite attacked by a cyclic siloxane which has been detected by experiments and considered as one of poisoning spices. The simulation shows ring-opening reaction of the cyclic siloxane on Pt, then attachment of two ends of the chain-like siloxane to Pt and boehmite, respectively, and that finally the recombination reaction is prevented. This may be the first study to find out the detailed dynamical mechanism of hydrogen recombination catalyst poisoning with cyclic siloxane. (author)

  10. Genetic variation in FADS genes and plasma cholesterol levels in 2-year-old infants: KOALA Birth Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Moltó-Puigmartí

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in genes involved in fatty acid metabolism (FADS1 FADS2 gene cluster are associated with plasma lipid levels. We aimed to investigate whether these associations are already present early in life and compare the relative contribution of FADS SNPs vs traditional (non-genetic factors as determinants of plasma lipid levels. METHODS: Information on infants' plasma total cholesterol levels, genotypes of five FADS SNPs (rs174545, rs174546, rs174556, rs174561, and rs3834458, anthropometric data, maternal characteristics, and breastfeeding history was available for 521 2-year-old children from the KOALA Birth Cohort Study. For 295 of these 521 children, plasma HDLc and non-HDLc levels were also known. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to study the associations of genetic and non-genetic determinants with cholesterol levels. RESULTS: All FADS SNPs were significantly associated with total cholesterol levels. Heterozygous and homozygous for the minor allele children had about 4% and 8% lower total cholesterol levels than major allele homozygotes. In addition, homozygous for the minor allele children had about 7% lower HDLc levels. This difference reached significance for the SNPs rs174546 and rs3834458. The associations went in the same direction for non-HDLc, but statistical significance was not reached. The percentage of total variance of total cholesterol levels explained by FADS SNPs was relatively low (lower than 3% but of the same order as that explained by gender and the non-genetic determinants together. CONCLUSIONS: FADS SNPs are associated with plasma total cholesterol and HDLc levels in preschool children. This brings a new piece of evidence to explain how blood lipid levels may track from childhood to adulthood. Moreover, the finding that these SNPs explain a similar amount of variance in total cholesterol levels as the non-genetic determinants studied reveals the potential

  11. Low-level laser therapy: Case-control study in dogs with sterile pyogranulomatous pododermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Perego

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT is a therapeutic photobiostimulation with properties in reducing swelling, inflammation, and promoting tissue healing. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate LLLT in sterile pyogranulomatous pododermatitis in five dogs. Materials and Methods: In each dog, one lesion was designated as the control (treated with a 0.0584% hydrocortisone aceponate spray, and one or more other lesions were treated with a gallium aluminum arsenide-laser, daily for 5 days. Lesions were scored before treatment (D0, at the end (D4, 16 days after the last laser treatment (D20, and after 2 months (D65. Results: Comparing the treated lesion group with the control lesion group, the clinical score was similar at D0, whereas there was a statistically significant difference at D4 and D20; in the treated group over time, there was a statistically significant improvement between D0, D4, and D20. Lesion recurrence was absent in more than 50% of the treated lesions at D65. No adverse reactions were reported. Conclusion: Given the positive results of this first clinical study, it would be interesting to extend the study to confirm the validity of this type of therapy in sterile pyogranulomatous pododermatitis in the dog.

  12. Similarity analysis between quantum images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ri-Gui; Liu, XingAo; Zhu, Changming; Wei, Lai; Zhang, Xiafen; Ian, Hou

    2018-06-01

    Similarity analyses between quantum images are so essential in quantum image processing that it provides fundamental research for the other fields, such as quantum image matching, quantum pattern recognition. In this paper, a quantum scheme based on a novel quantum image representation and quantum amplitude amplification algorithm is proposed. At the end of the paper, three examples and simulation experiments show that the measurement result must be 0 when two images are same, and the measurement result has high probability of being 1 when two images are different.

  13. Similarity flows in relativistic hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaizot, J.P.; Ollitrault, J.Y.

    1986-01-01

    In ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions, one expects in particular to observe a deconfinement transition leading to a formation of quark gluon plasma. In the framework of the hydrodynamic model, experimental signatures of such a plasma may be looked for as observable consequences of a first order transition on the evolution of the system. In most of the possible scenario, the phase transition is accompanied with discontinuities in the hydrodynamic flow, such as shock waves. The method presented in this paper has been developed to treat without too much numerical effort such discontinuous flow. It relies heavily on the use of similarity solutions of the hydrodynamic equations

  14. Trajectory similarity join in spatial networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo

    2017-09-07

    The matching of similar pairs of objects, called similarity join, is fundamental functionality in data management. We consider the case of trajectory similarity join (TS-Join), where the objects are trajectories of vehicles moving in road networks. Thus, given two sets of trajectories and a threshold θ, the TS-Join returns all pairs of trajectories from the two sets with similarity above θ. This join targets applications such as trajectory near-duplicate detection, data cleaning, ridesharing recommendation, and traffic congestion prediction. With these applications in mind, we provide a purposeful definition of similarity. To enable efficient TS-Join processing on large sets of trajectories, we develop search space pruning techniques and take into account the parallel processing capabilities of modern processors. Specifically, we present a two-phase divide-and-conquer algorithm. For each trajectory, the algorithm first finds similar trajectories. Then it merges the results to achieve a final result. The algorithm exploits an upper bound on the spatiotemporal similarity and a heuristic scheduling strategy for search space pruning. The algorithm\\'s per-trajectory searches are independent of each other and can be performed in parallel, and the merging has constant cost. An empirical study with real data offers insight in the performance of the algorithm and demonstrates that is capable of outperforming a well-designed baseline algorithm by an order of magnitude.

  15. Contingency and similarity in response selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Wolfgang

    2018-05-09

    This paper explores issues of task representation in choice reaction time tasks. How is it possible, and what does it take, to represent such a task in a way that enables a performer to do the task in line with the prescriptions entailed in the instructions? First, a framework for task representation is outlined which combines the implementation of task sets and their use for performance with different kinds of representational operations (pertaining to feature compounds for event codes and code assemblies for task sets, respectively). Then, in a second step, the framework is itself embedded in the bigger picture of the classical debate on the roles of contingency and similarity for the formation of associations. The final conclusion is that both principles are needed and that the operation of similarity at the level of task sets requires and presupposes the operation of contingency at the level of event codes. Copyright © 2018 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetic and 'cultural' similarity in wild chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langergraber, Kevin E; Boesch, Christophe; Inoue, Eiji; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Mitani, John C; Nishida, Toshisada; Pusey, Anne; Reynolds, Vernon; Schubert, Grit; Wrangham, Richard W; Wroblewski, Emily; Vigilant, Linda

    2011-02-07

    The question of whether animals possess 'cultures' or 'traditions' continues to generate widespread theoretical and empirical interest. Studies of wild chimpanzees have featured prominently in this discussion, as the dominant approach used to identify culture in wild animals was first applied to them. This procedure, the 'method of exclusion,' begins by documenting behavioural differences between groups and then infers the existence of culture by eliminating ecological explanations for their occurrence. The validity of this approach has been questioned because genetic differences between groups have not explicitly been ruled out as a factor contributing to between-group differences in behaviour. Here we investigate this issue directly by analysing genetic and behavioural data from nine groups of wild chimpanzees. We find that the overall levels of genetic and behavioural dissimilarity between groups are highly and statistically significantly correlated. Additional analyses show that only a very small number of behaviours vary between genetically similar groups, and that there is no obvious pattern as to which classes of behaviours (e.g. tool-use versus communicative) have a distribution that matches patterns of between-group genetic dissimilarity. These results indicate that genetic dissimilarity cannot be eliminated as playing a major role in generating group differences in chimpanzee behaviour.

  17. A prospective study of brain natriuretic peptide levels in three subgroups: Stroke with hypertension, stroke without hypertension, and hypertension alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cakir Zeynep

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study brain natriuretic peptide (BNP levels in three subgroups: patients having stroke with hypertension (HT, those having stroke without HT, and those with HT alone. We also tried to identify whether BNP levels predict the length of stay in hospital and mortality. Materials and Methods: The groups were formed by patients who had been admitted to the emergency department in the first 4-12 h after the onset of symptoms. There were 30 stroke patients with a history of HT (group I, 30 stroke patients without a history of HT (group II, and 20 HT patients without stroke (group III. Patients with congestive heart failure, chronic cor pulmonale, severe valvular heart disease, chronic renal failure, liver insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, and those with a history of stroke were excluded from the study since these diseases can affect the plasma BNP levels. Results: The demographic characteristics, except the age distribution, were similar among the groups. The mean BNP levels in the three groups were 168.8 ± 223.9 pg/ml, 85.0 ± 75.1 pg/ml, and 84.8 ± 178.3 pg/ml, respectively. The differences between the groups were statistically significant. Conclusion: The mean BNP levels were affected by HT and/or stroke. The simultaneous presence of HT and stroke results in a more significant increase BNP than the presence of either stroke or HT alone. When diseases that can affect the plasma BNP levels are excluded, the BNP levels in stroke patients without a history of HT are similar to the levels seen in patients with only HT.

  18. Self-similar gravitational clustering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efstathiou, G.; Fall, S.M.; Hogan, C.

    1979-01-01

    The evolution of gravitational clustering is considered and several new scaling relations are derived for the multiplicity function. These include generalizations of the Press-Schechter theory to different densities and cosmological parameters. The theory is then tested against multiplicity function and correlation function estimates for a series of 1000-body experiments. The results are consistent with the theory and show some dependence on initial conditions and cosmological density parameter. The statistical significance of the results, however, is fairly low because of several small number effects in the experiments. There is no evidence for a non-linear bootstrap effect or a dependence of the multiplicity function on the internal dynamics of condensed groups. Empirical estimates of the multiplicity function by Gott and Turner have a feature near the characteristic luminosity predicted by the theory. The scaling relations allow the inference from estimates of the galaxy luminosity function that galaxies must have suffered considerable dissipation if they originally formed from a self-similar hierarchy. A method is also developed for relating the multiplicity function to similar measures of clustering, such as those of Bhavsar, for the distribution of galaxies on the sky. These are shown to depend on the luminosity function in a complicated way. (author)

  19. Different levels of taxonomic resolution in bioassessment: a case study of oligochaeta in lowland streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Cortelezzi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study evaluated the use of oligochaetes at different levels of taxonomic resolution as environmental indicators in Argentine lowland streams affected by different land uses. METHODS: Sampling sites were grouped based on the physicochemical and habitat characteristics (low-, moderate-, and high-impact disturbance. Collection of the oligochaetes samples was carried out seasonally in sediment and vegetation habitats. RESULTS: The increases in nutrients and organic matter produced elevated densities of the Oligochaeta, but when the disturbance also involved changes in the physical habitat or enhancements in toxic substances, the abundance decreased significantly to values even lower than those of non-impacted environments. The responses of Naidinae and Tubificinae were similar. The density of the Pristininae decreased with increasing impact, but those of the Enchytraeidae and Rhyacodrilinae increased at the most highly impacted sites. The Opistocystidae were not recorded in high-impact sites. Species richness and diversity (H' were lower in high-impact sites and even lower in sediments. Some species presented no restrictions in the habitat type or with the contamination level: Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri, Dero furcatus, D. digitata, D. pectinata, Pristina longiseta, and P. aequiseta. Moreover, Trieminentia corderoi, Slavina appendiculata, and Aulodrilus pigueti exhibited the highest abundances at low-impact sites and were not registered in high-impact sites. CONCLUSIONS: The Oligochaeta show a relatively wide ecological valence through their extensive number of species. Although lower taxonomic levels can give information about environmental status, test-species' sensitivities to different types and degrees of contamination will be of utmost relevance to the evaluation of ecological quality.

  20. Cadmium toxicity studies under long term-low level exposure (LLE) conditions. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbioni, E.; Marafante, E.; Amantini, L.; Ubertalli, L.; Pietra, R.

    1978-01-01

    A long term-low level exposure (LLE) experiment was conducted on rats to determine the metabolic patterns for realistic dietary levels of cadmium. Male rats fed with 61 ppb of cadmium ad libitum, 50 labelled with 109 Cd radiotracer as cadmium chloride via drinking mineral water and 11 unlabelled via food for 2 years. The diet was characterized in its metal content by neutron activation analysis to obtain the total dietary intake of different elements. The kidney was found to be the tissue with the major concentration of cadmium which accumulated continuously during the experiment. The variation of the accumulation pattern of Cd concentration in the liver and intestine indicated an initial rapid increase of Cd during the first 100 days. After this period an apparent equilibrium was attained in both these tissues until the end of the study. The intracellular distribution of cadmium in kidneys, liver, intestine and pancreas were similar, the cytosol fractions containing about 80% of the cellular cadmium. Dialysis experiments indicated that significant amounts of cadmium were able to be associated with cellular organelles, the mitochondria representing the most important organelle capable of binding cadmium. The cytoplasmatic Cd-profiles obtained at various stages of the experiment showed that the metal was only bound to a low-molecular-weight component, cadmium-binding protein (CdBP), which represents the specific cellular-binding component for cadmium under the long term-low level exposure (LLE) conditions. No significant variations in the concentrations of the elements in different organs were observed in animals supplemented with 109 Cd in respect to 109 Cd untreated controls. (Auth.)

  1. Discovering Music Structure via Similarity Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    for representing music structure is studied in a simplified scenario consisting of 4412 songs and two similarity measures among them. The results suggest that the PLSA model is a useful framework to combine different sources of information, and provides a reasonable space for song representation.......Automatic methods for music navigation and music recommendation exploit the structure in the music to carry out a meaningful exploration of the “song space”. To get a satisfactory performance from such systems, one should incorporate as much information about songs similarity as possible; however...... semantics”, in such a way that all observed similarities can be satisfactorily explained using the latent semantics. Therefore, one can think of these semantics as the real structure in music, in the sense that they can explain the observed similarities among songs. The suitability of the PLSA model...

  2. Discovering Music Structure via Similarity Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arenas-García, Jerónimo; Parrado-Hernandez, Emilio; Meng, Anders

    Automatic methods for music navigation and music recommendation exploit the structure in the music to carry out a meaningful exploration of the “song space”. To get a satisfactory performance from such systems, one should incorporate as much information about songs similarity as possible; however...... semantics”, in such a way that all observed similarities can be satisfactorily explained using the latent semantics. Therefore, one can think of these semantics as the real structure in music, in the sense that they can explain the observed similarities among songs. The suitability of the PLSA model...... for representing music structure is studied in a simplified scenario consisting of 4412 songs and two similarity measures among them. The results suggest that the PLSA model is a useful framework to combine different sources of information, and provides a reasonable space for song representation....

  3. Outsourced similarity search on metric data assets

    KAUST Repository

    Yiu, Man Lung

    2012-02-01

    This paper considers a cloud computing setting in which similarity querying of metric data is outsourced to a service provider. The data is to be revealed only to trusted users, not to the service provider or anyone else. Users query the server for the most similar data objects to a query example. Outsourcing offers the data owner scalability and a low-initial investment. The need for privacy may be due to the data being sensitive (e.g., in medicine), valuable (e.g., in astronomy), or otherwise confidential. Given this setting, the paper presents techniques that transform the data prior to supplying it to the service provider for similarity queries on the transformed data. Our techniques provide interesting trade-offs between query cost and accuracy. They are then further extended to offer an intuitive privacy guarantee. Empirical studies with real data demonstrate that the techniques are capable of offering privacy while enabling efficient and accurate processing of similarity queries.

  4. Studies of quantum levels in GaInNAs single quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirakata, Sho; Kondow, Masahiko; Kitatani, Takeshi

    2006-01-01

    Spectroscopic studies have been carried out on the quantum levels in GaInNAs/GaAs single quantum wells (SQWs). Photoluminescence (PL), PL excitation (PLE), photoreflectance (PR), and high-density-excited PL (HDE-PL) were measured on high quality GaInNAs SQWs, Ga 0.65 In 0.35 N 0.01 As 0.99 /GaAs (well thickness: l z =10 nm) and Ga 0.65 In 0.35 N 0.005 As 0.995 /GaAs (l z =3∝10 nm), grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. For Ga 0.65 In 0.35 N 0.01 As 0.99 /GaAs (l z =10 nm), PL at 8 K exhibited a peak at 1.07 eV due to the exciton-related transition between quantum levels of ground states (e1-hh1). Both PR and PLE exhibited three transitions (1.17, 1.20 and 1.32 eV), and the former two transitions were assigned to as either of e1-lh1 and e2-hh2 transitions, while the transition at 1.32 eV was assigned to as the e2-lh2 transition. For HDE-PL, a new PL peak was observed at about 1.2 eV, and it was assigned to the unresolved e1-lh1 and e2-hh2 transitions. Similar optical measurements have been done on the Ga 0.65 In 0.35 N 0.005 As 0.995 /GaAs with various l z (3∝10 nm). Dependence of optical spectra and energies of quantum levels on l z have been studied. It has been found that HDE-PL in combination with PLE is a good tool for the study of the quantum level of GaInNAs SQW. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Are calanco landforms similar to river basins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraballo-Arias, N A; Ferro, V

    2017-12-15

    In the past badlands have been often considered as ideal field laboratories for studying landscape evolution because of their geometrical similarity to larger fluvial systems. For a given hydrological process, no scientific proof exists that badlands can be considered a model of river basin prototypes. In this paper the measurements carried out on 45 Sicilian calanchi, a type of badlands that appears as a small-scale hydrographic unit, are used to establish their morphological similarity with river systems whose data are available in the literature. At first the geomorphological similarity is studied by identifying the dimensionless groups, which can assume the same value or a scaled one in a fixed ratio, representing drainage basin shape, stream network and relief properties. Then, for each property, the dimensionless groups are calculated for the investigated calanchi and the river basins and their corresponding scale ratio is evaluated. The applicability of Hack's, Horton's and Melton's laws for establishing similarity criteria is also tested. The developed analysis allows to conclude that a quantitative morphological similarity between calanco landforms and river basins can be established using commonly applied dimensionless groups. In particular, the analysis showed that i) calanchi and river basins have a geometrically similar shape respect to the parameters Rf and Re with a scale factor close to 1, ii) calanchi and river basins are similar respect to the bifurcation and length ratios (λ=1), iii) for the investigated calanchi the Melton number assumes values less than that (0.694) corresponding to the river case and a scale ratio ranging from 0.52 and 0.78 can be used, iv) calanchi and river basins have similar mean relief ratio values (λ=1.13) and v) calanchi present active geomorphic processes and therefore fall in a more juvenile stage with respect to river basins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Differences and similarities of motivating and demotivating factors of emergency nursing care in rural and urban emergency units – A study of selected rural and urban emergency units in the Volta Region of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Confidence Alorse Atakro

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to explore differences and similarities of motivating and demotivating factors of emergency nursing care in selected rural and urban emergency units in the Volta Region of Ghana. Materials and methods: This study was conducted at selected rural and urban emergency units in the Volta Region of Ghana. The study utilised qualitative exploratory descriptive design. Purposive sampling technique was employed in selecting emergency units and nurses. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews of 30 nurses. Data saturation was determined after interviewing 30 participants. Data analysis was done through qualitative content analysis. Results: Twenty-six (26 out of a total of thirty (30 participants were between the ages of twenty-five (25 and twenty-nine (29. Nurses working in the emergency units studied general nursing at the Nurses Training Colleges (NTCs. None of the respondents studied emergency nursing as a degree programme. Twenty four (24 out of thirty (30 participants had worked for about two years in emergency units. Four thematic categories that represented differences and similarities of motivating and demotivating factors for nurses in rural and urban emergency units were extracted from data. The thematic categories are: a Support from hospital management for provision of material resources; b Task shifting to nurses; c Stimulant for learning; d Interpersonal relations. Discussions: Evidence available in this study suggests that there are differences as well as similarities of motivating and demotivating factors within emergency units of rural and urban settings in the Volta Region of Ghana. Differences in resource allocation and task shifting was identified. Stimulating environments of emergency unit for learning and excellent interpersonal relations were found to be common motivations for both rural and urban emergency unit nurses. Keywords: Motivating, Demotivating, Emergency

  7. Seniority bosons from similarity transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyer, H.B.

    1986-01-01

    The requirement of associating in the boson space seniority with twice the number of non-s bosons defines a similarity transformation which re-expresses the Dyson pair boson images in terms of seniority bosons. In particular the fermion S-pair creation operator is mapped onto an operator which, unlike the pair boson image, does not change the number of non-s bosons. The original results of Otsuka, Arima and Iachello are recovered by this procedure while at the same time they are generalized to include g-bosons or even bosons with J>4 as well as any higher order boson terms. Furthermore the seniority boson images are valid for an arbitrary number of d- or g-bosons - a result which is not readily obtainable within the framework of the usual Marumori- or OAI-method

  8. West Valley high-level nuclear waste glass development: a statistically designed mixture study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chick, L.A.; Bowen, W.M.; Lokken, R.O.; Wald, J.W.; Bunnell, L.R.; Strachan, D.M.

    1984-10-01

    The first full-scale conversion of high-level commercial nuclear wastes to glass in the United States will be conducted at West Valley, New York, by West Valley Nuclear Services Company, Inc. (WVNS), for the US Department of Energy. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is supporting WVNS in the design of the glass-making process and the chemical formulation of the glass. This report describes the statistically designed study performed by PNL to develop the glass composition recommended for use at West Valley. The recommended glass contains 28 wt% waste, as limited by process requirements. The waste loading and the silica content (45 wt%) are similar to those in previously developed waste glasses; however, the new formulation contains more calcium and less boron. A series of tests verified that the increased calcium results in improved chemical durability and does not adversely affect the other modeled properties. The optimization study assessed the effects of seven oxide components on glass properties. Over 100 melts combining the seven components into a wide variety of statistically chosen compositions were tested. Viscosity, electrical conductivity, thermal expansion, crystallinity, and chemical durability were measured and empirically modeled as a function of the glass composition. The mathematical models were then used to predict the optimum formulation. This glass was tested and adjusted to arrive at the final composition recommended for use at West Valley. 56 references, 49 figures, 18 tables.

  9. New Zealand rugby health study: motor cortex excitability in retired elite and community level rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gwyn N; Hume, Patria A; Stavric, Verna; Brown, Scott R; Taylor, Denise

    2017-01-13

    Rugby union is a high contact sport in which players frequently experience brain injuries. Acute brain injury is associated with altered corticomotor function. However, it is uncertain if long-term exposure to rugby is associated with any alterations in corticomotor function. The aim of the study was to assess measures of corticomotor excitability and inhibition in retired rugby players in comparison to retired non-contact sport players. The design was a cross-sectional study with three groups of retired athletes: elite rugby (n=23), community level rugby (n=28) and non-contact sport control (n=22). Assessments of corticomotor excitability were made using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Resting motor threshold was significantly higher and long-interval intracortical inhibition was greater in the elite rugby group compared to the control group. Participants in the two rugby groups had sustained significantly more concussions than the control group. We provide some evidence of altered corticomotor excitation and inhibition in retired elite rugby players in comparison to retired non-contact sport players. Given the absence of findings in the community rugby group, who had experienced a similar number of concussions, the association with previous brain injury is unclear.

  10. Serum pepsin levels Hiroshima adult health study. Relation to radiation, ABO blood groups, and gastrointestinal diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knittle, J L

    1961-07-12

    At the ABCC clinic in Hiroshima 1330 subjects were investigated as to serum pepsin levels over a four month period. The normal mean values compared well with those reported for a United States population using a similar technique. There appeared to be no significant change in serum pepsin level with age, and no difference could be detected among individuals of the ABO blood groups. No relationship was found between serum pepsin level and exposure to ionizing radiation. Patients with gastric and duodenal ulcers had mean levels which were higher than normal mean values, while patients with leukemia had lower than normal mean levels. Patients with gastric polyps and gastric cancer had normal mean values. It is believed that the relation of serum pepsin activity to cancer of the stomach is not settled and deserves further investigation. 23 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  11. Antibody levels to tetanus, diphtheria, measles and varicella in patients with primary immunodeficiency undergoing intravenous immunoglobulin therapy: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Fernanda Aimée; Gonzalez, Isabela Garrido da Silva; Simão, Raquel Maria; de Moraes Pinto, Maria Isabel; Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz Tavares

    2014-06-21

    Patients with antibody deficiencies depend on the presence of a variety of antibody specificities in intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) to ensure continued protection against pathogens. Few studies have examined levels of antibodies to specific pathogens in IVIG preparations and little is known about the specific antibody levels in patients under regular IVIG treatment. The current study determined the range of antibodies to tetanus, diphtheria, measles and varicella in IVIG products and the levels of these antibodies in patients undergoing IVIG treatment. We selected 21 patients with primary antibody deficiencies who were receiving regular therapy with IVIG. Over a period of one year, we collected four blood samples from each patient (every 3 months), immediately before immunoglobulin infusion. We also collected samples from the IVIG preparation the patients received the month prior to blood collection. Antibody levels to tetanus, diphtheria, measles and varicella virus were measured in plasma and IVIG samples. Total IgG levels were determined in plasma samples. Antibody levels to tetanus, diphtheria, varicella virus and measles showed considerable variation in different IVIG lots, but they were similar when compared between commercial preparations. All patients presented with protective levels of antibodies specific for tetanus, measles and varicella. Some patients had suboptimal diphtheria antibody levels. There was a significant correlation between serum and IVIG antibodies to all pathogens, except tetanus. There was a significant correlation between diphtheria and varicella antibodies with total IgG levels, but there was no significant correlation with antibodies to tetanus or measles. The study confirmed the variation in specific antibody levels between batches of the same brand of IVIG. Apart from the most common infections to which these patients are susceptible, health care providers must be aware of other vaccine preventable diseases, which still exist

  12. Chromatographic fingerprint similarity analysis for pollutant source identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Juan-Ping; Ni, Hong-Gang

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a similarity analysis method was proposed to evaluate the source-sink relationships among environmental media for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which were taken as the representative contaminants. Chromatographic fingerprint analysis has been widely used in the fields of natural products chemistry and forensic chemistry, but its application to environmental science has been limited. We established a library of various sources of media containing contaminants (e.g., plastics), recognizing that the establishment of a more comprehensive library allows for a better understanding of the sources of contamination. We then compared an environmental complex mixture (e.g., sediment, soil) with the profiles in the library. These comparisons could be used as the first step in source tracking. The cosine similarities between plastic and soil or sediment ranged from 0.53 to 0.68, suggesting that plastic in electronic waste is an important source of PBDEs in the environment, but it is not the only source. A similarity analysis between soil and sediment indicated that they have a source-sink relationship. Generally, the similarity analysis method can encompass more relevant information of complex mixtures in the environment than a profile-based approach that only focuses on target pollutants. There is an inherent advantage to creating a data matrix containing all peaks and their relative levels after matching the peaks based on retention times and peak areas. This data matrix can be used for source identification via a similarity analysis without quantitative or qualitative analysis of all chemicals in a sample. - Highlights: • Chromatographic fingerprint analysis can be used as the first step in source tracking. • Similarity analysis method can encompass more relevant information of pollution. • The fingerprints strongly depend on the chromatographic conditions. • A more effective and robust method for identifying similarities is required

  13. Poverty levels and children's health status: study of risk factors in an urban population of low socioeconomic level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issler Roberto M.S.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available To test the hypothesis that the low socioeconomic population living is shanty towns in Porto Alegre presents different levels of poverty which are reflected on its health status, a cross-sectional study was designed involving 477 families living in Vila Grande Cruzeiro, Porto Alegre, Brazil. The poverty level of the families was measured by using an instrument specifically designed for poor urban populations. Children from families living in extreme poverty (poorest quartile were found to have higher infant mortality rate, lower birth weights, more hospitalizations, and higher malnutrition rates, in addition to belonging to more numerous families. Thus, the shanty town population of Porto Alegre is not homogeneous, and priority should be given to the more vulnerable subgroups.

  14. Poverty levels and children's health status: study of risk factors in an urban population of low socioeconomic level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto M.S. Issler

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available To test the hypothesis that the low socioeconomic population living is shanty towns in Porto Alegre presents different levels of poverty which are reflected on its health status, a cross-sectional study was designed involving 477 families living in Vila Grande Cruzeiro, Porto Alegre, Brazil. The poverty level of the families was measured by using an instrument specifically designed for poor urban populations. Children from families living in extreme poverty (poorest quartile were found to have higher infant mortality rate, lower birth weights, more hospitalizations, and higher malnutrition rates, in addition to belonging to more numerous families. Thus, the shanty town population of Porto Alegre is not homogeneous, and priority should be given to the more vulnerable subgroups.

  15. Genetic similarity of soybean genotypes revealed by seed protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Ana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available More accurate and complete descriptions of genotypes could help determinate future breeding strategies and facilitate introgression of new genotypes in current soybean genetic pool. The objective of this study was to characterize 20 soybean genotypes from the Maize Research Institute "Zemun Polje" collection, which have good agronomic performances, high yield, lodging and drought resistance, and low shuttering by seed proteins as biochemical markers. Seed proteins were isolated and separated by PAA electrophoresis. On the basis of the presence/absence of protein fractions coefficients of similarity were calculated as Dice and Roger and Tanamoto coefficient between pairs of genotypes. The similarity matrix was submitted for hierarchical cluster analysis of un weighted pair group using arithmetic average (UPGMA method and necessary computation were performed using NTSYS-pc program. Protein seed analysis confirmed low level of genetic diversity in soybean. The highest genetic similarity was between genotypes P9272 and Kador. According to obtained results, soybean genotypes were assigned in two larger groups and coefficients of similarity showed similar results. Because of the lack of pedigree data for analyzed genotypes, correspondence with marker data could not be determined. In plant with a narrow genetic base in their gene pool, such as soybean, protein markers may not be sufficient for characterization and study of genetic diversity.

  16. Parallel trajectory similarity joins in spatial networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo

    2018-04-04

    The matching of similar pairs of objects, called similarity join, is fundamental functionality in data management. We consider two cases of trajectory similarity joins (TS-Joins), including a threshold-based join (Tb-TS-Join) and a top-k TS-Join (k-TS-Join), where the objects are trajectories of vehicles moving in road networks. Given two sets of trajectories and a threshold θ, the Tb-TS-Join returns all pairs of trajectories from the two sets with similarity above θ. In contrast, the k-TS-Join does not take a threshold as a parameter, and it returns the top-k most similar trajectory pairs from the two sets. The TS-Joins target diverse applications such as trajectory near-duplicate detection, data cleaning, ridesharing recommendation, and traffic congestion prediction. With these applications in mind, we provide purposeful definitions of similarity. To enable efficient processing of the TS-Joins on large sets of trajectories, we develop search space pruning techniques and enable use of the parallel processing capabilities of modern processors. Specifically, we present a two-phase divide-and-conquer search framework that lays the foundation for the algorithms for the Tb-TS-Join and the k-TS-Join that rely on different pruning techniques to achieve efficiency. For each trajectory, the algorithms first find similar trajectories. Then they merge the results to obtain the final result. The algorithms for the two joins exploit different upper and lower bounds on the spatiotemporal trajectory similarity and different heuristic scheduling strategies for search space pruning. Their per-trajectory searches are independent of each other and can be performed in parallel, and the mergings have constant cost. An empirical study with real data offers insight in the performance of the algorithms and demonstrates that they are capable of outperforming well-designed baseline algorithms by an order of magnitude.

  17. Parallel trajectory similarity joins in spatial networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo; Chen, Lisi; Wei, Zhewei; Jensen, Christian S.; Zheng, Kai; Kalnis, Panos

    2018-01-01

    The matching of similar pairs of objects, called similarity join, is fundamental functionality in data management. We consider two cases of trajectory similarity joins (TS-Joins), including a threshold-based join (Tb-TS-Join) and a top-k TS-Join (k-TS-Join), where the objects are trajectories of vehicles moving in road networks. Given two sets of trajectories and a threshold θ, the Tb-TS-Join returns all pairs of trajectories from the two sets with similarity above θ. In contrast, the k-TS-Join does not take a threshold as a parameter, and it returns the top-k most similar trajectory pairs from the two sets. The TS-Joins target diverse applications such as trajectory near-duplicate detection, data cleaning, ridesharing recommendation, and traffic congestion prediction. With these applications in mind, we provide purposeful definitions of similarity. To enable efficient processing of the TS-Joins on large sets of trajectories, we develop search space pruning techniques and enable use of the parallel processing capabilities of modern processors. Specifically, we present a two-phase divide-and-conquer search framework that lays the foundation for the algorithms for the Tb-TS-Join and the k-TS-Join that rely on different pruning techniques to achieve efficiency. For each trajectory, the algorithms first find similar trajectories. Then they merge the results to obtain the final result. The algorithms for the two joins exploit different upper and lower bounds on the spatiotemporal trajectory similarity and different heuristic scheduling strategies for search space pruning. Their per-trajectory searches are independent of each other and can be performed in parallel, and the mergings have constant cost. An empirical study with real data offers insight in the performance of the algorithms and demonstrates that they are capable of outperforming well-designed baseline algorithms by an order of magnitude.

  18. Alaska, Gulf spills share similarities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, D.

    1991-01-01

    The accidental Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska and the deliberate dumping of crude oil into the Persian Gulf as a tactic of war contain both glaring differences and surprising similarities. Public reaction and public response was much greater to the Exxon Valdez spill in pristine Prince William Sound than to the war-related tragedy in the Persian Gulf. More than 12,000 workers helped in the Alaskan cleanup; only 350 have been involved in Kuwait. But in both instances, environmental damages appear to be less than anticipated. Natures highly effective self-cleansing action is primarily responsible for minimizing the damages. One positive action growing out of the two incidents is increased international cooperation and participation in oil-spill clean-up efforts. In 1990, in the aftermath of the Exxon Valdez spill, 94 nations signed an international accord on cooperation in future spills. The spills can be historic environmental landmarks leading to creation of more sophisticated response systems worldwide

  19. Similarity principles for equipment qualification by experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kana, D.D.; Pomerening, D.J.

    1988-07-01

    A methodology is developed for seismic qualification of nuclear plant equipment by applying similarity principles to existing experience data. Experience data are available from previous qualifications by analysis or testing, or from actual earthquake events. Similarity principles are defined in terms of excitation, equipment physical characteristics, and equipment response. Physical similarity is further defined in terms of a critical transfer function for response at a location on a primary structure, whose response can be assumed directly related to ultimate fragility of the item under elevated levels of excitation. Procedures are developed for combining experience data into composite specifications for qualification of equipment that can be shown to be physically similar to the reference equipment. Other procedures are developed for extending qualifications beyond the original specifications under certain conditions. Some examples for application of the procedures and verification of them are given for certain cases that can be approximated by a two degree of freedom simple primary/secondary system. Other examples are based on use of actual test data available from previous qualifications. Relationships of the developments with other previously-published methods are discussed. The developments are intended to elaborate on the rather broad revised guidelines developed by the IEEE 344 Standards Committee for equipment qualification in new nuclear plants. However, the results also contribute to filling a gap that exists between the IEEE 344 methodology and that previously developed by the Seismic Qualification Utilities Group. The relationship of the results to safety margin methodology is also discussed. (author)

  20. AMS Weather Studies and AMS Ocean Studies: Dynamic, College-Level Geoscience Courses Emphasizing Current Earth System Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brey, J. A.; Geer, I. W.; Moran, J. M.; Weinbeck, R. S.; Mills, E. W.; Blair, B. A.; Hopkins, E. J.; Kiley, T. P.; Ruwe, E. E.

    2008-12-01

    AMS Weather Studies and AMS Ocean Studies are introductory college-level courses developed by the American Meteorological Society, with NSF and NOAA support, for local offering at undergraduate institutions nationwide. The courses place students in a dynamic and highly motivational educational environment where they investigate the atmosphere and world ocean using real-world and real-time environmental data. Over 360 colleges throughout the United States have offered these courses in course environments ranging from traditional lecture/laboratory to completely online. AMS Diversity Projects aim to increase undergraduate student access to the geosciences through implementation of the courses at minority-serving institutions and training programs for MSI faculty. The AMS Weather Studies and AMS Ocean Studies course packages consist of a hard-cover, 15-chapter textbook, Investigations Manual with 30 lab-style activities, and course website containing weekly current weather and ocean investigations. Course instructors receive access to a faculty website and CD containing answer keys and course management system-compatible files, which allow full integration to a college's e-learning environment. The unique aspect of the courses is the focus on current Earth system data through weekly Current Weather Studies and Current Ocean Studies investigations written in real time and posted to the course website, as well as weekly news files and a daily weather summary for AMS Weather Studies. Students therefore study meteorology or oceanography as it happens, which creates a dynamic learning environment where student relate their experiences and observations to the course, and actively discuss the science with their instructor and classmates. With NSF support, AMS has held expenses-paid course implementation workshops for minority-serving institution faculty planning to offer AMS Weather Studies or AMS Ocean Studies. From May 2002-2007, AMS conducted week-long weather workshops

  1. Effects of chronic low level radiation in the population residing in the high level natural radiation area in Kerala, India: employing heritable DNA mutation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shazia; Koya, P K M; Seshadri, M

    2013-03-18

    To study the effect of chronic low level radiation, 4040 meiosis were screened at eight microsatellite and five minisatellite (2485 and 1555 meiosis respectively) marker loci in people residing in high and normal level natural radiation areas of Kerala. Variants in the repeat length of allele were considered as mutants. Mutation rates (expressed as the number of mutations observed in the total number of meiosis) were 6.4×10(-3) (16/2485) and 2.6×10(-3) (4/1555) at microsatellite and minisatellite respectively. The germline microsatellite mutation frequency of father was 1.78 times higher at 7.52×10(-3) (8/1064) compared to 4.22×10(-3) (6/1421) of mother (P=0.292, Fisher's Exact two-sided test). The paternal and maternal mutation rates at minisatellite loci were more or less similar at 2.78×10(-3) (2/719) and 2.39×10(-3) (2/836), respectively (P=1.0, Fisher's Exact two-sided test). Higher but statistically non-significant microsatellite mutation frequency was observed in HLNRA compared to NLNRA (7.25×10(-3) vs 3.64×10(-3); P=0.547). The apparent increase in the mutation rate of microsatellite loci with the increase in radiation dose was also not statistically significant. All the four minisatellite mutation observed were from HLNRA (1198 meiosis) and no mutation was observed among 357 meiosis screened from NLNRA families. All the markers used in the present study were in the non-coding region and hence mutations in these regions may not cause adverse health effects, but the study is important in understanding the effect of chronic low level radiation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Preparation of electrodeless discharge lamps for emission studies of uranium isotopes at trace level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhowmick, G.K.; Verma, R.; Verma, M.K.; Raman, V.A.; Joshi, A.R.; Deo, M.N.; Gantayet, L.M.; Tiwari, A.K.; Ramakumar, K.L.; Kumar, Navin

    2010-01-01

    A simplified method for preparation of electrodeless discharge lamp for uranium isotopes with specific concerns for 232 U is described. Micro-gram quantities of solid uranium oxides and aqueous solution of uranium nitrate have been used as a starting material for in situ synthesis of uranium tetraiodide. High temperature iodination reaction is carried out in the presence of inert gas neon. By careful design, the preparation time and surface area of quartz reaction tubes have been reduced considerably. The latter decreases the level of contamination which has a direct bearing on the operational lifetime of the lamps. Incorporation of steps to purify the product from an unwanted material improved the stability of the lamps. The procedure provides a safe and convenient way of handling 232 U in particular but can be extended in general to any actinides having radioactivity similar to that of freshly separated 232 U. Characteristic emission of uranium isotopes have been recorded by Fourier Transform Spectrometer to show the satisfactory operation of the lamps as well as their usage for studying emission spectra of the specific isotope.

  3. The impact of bereaved parents' perceived grief similarity on relationship satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukcan-Tetik, Asuman; Finkenauer, Catrin; Schut, Henk; Stroebe, Margaret; Stroebe, Wolfgang

    2017-06-01

    The present research focused on bereaved parents' perceived grief similarity, and aimed to investigate the concurrent and longitudinal effects of the perceptions that the partner has less, equal, or more grief intensity than oneself on relationship satisfaction. Participants of our longitudinal study were 229 heterosexual bereaved Dutch couples who completed questionnaires 6, 13, and 20 months after the loss of their child. Average age of participants was 40.7 (SD = 9.5). Across 3 study waves, participants' perceived grief similarity and relationship satisfaction were assessed. To control for their effects, own grief level, child's gender, expectedness of loss, parent's age, parent's gender, and time were also included in the analyses. Consistent with the hypotheses, cross-sectional results revealed that bereaved parents who perceived dissimilar levels of grief (less or more grief) had lower relationship satisfaction than bereaved parents who perceived similar levels of grief. This effect remained significant controlling for the effects of possible confounding variables and actual similarity in grief between partners. We also found that perceived grief similarity at the first study wave was related to the highest level of relationship satisfaction at the second study wave. Moreover, results showed that perceived grief similarity was associated with a higher level in partner's relationship satisfaction. Results are discussed considering the comparison and similarity in grief across bereaved partners after child loss. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. International program to study subseabed disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlin, E.M.; Hinga, K.R.; Knauss, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the international program to study seabed disposal of nuclear wastes. Its purpose is to inform legislators, other policy makers, and the general public as to the history of the program, technological requirements necessary for feasibility assessment, legal questions involved, international coordination of research, national policies, and research and development activities. Each of these major aspects of the program is presented in a separate section. The objective of seabed burial, similar to its continental counterparts, is to contain and to isolate the wastes. The subseabed option should not be confuesed with past practices of ocean dumping which have introduced wastes into ocean waters. Seabed disposal refers to the emplacement of solidified high-level radioactive waste (with or without reprocessing) in certain geologically stable sediments of the deep ocean floor. Specially designed surface ships would transport waste canisters from a port facility to the disposal site. Canisters would be buried from a few tens to a few hundreds of meters below the surface of ocean bottom sediments, and hence would not be in contact with the overlying ocean water. The concept is a multi-barrier approach for disposal. Barriers, including waste form, canister, ad deep ocean sediments, will separate wastes from the ocean environment. High-level wastes (HLW) would be stabilized by conversion into a leach-resistant solid form such as glass. This solid would be placed inside a metallic canister or other type of package which represents a second barrier. The deep ocean sediments, a third barrier, are discussed in the Feasibility Assessment section. The waste form and canister would provide a barrier for several hundred years, and the sediments would be relied upon as a barrier for thousands of years. 62 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  5. [Self-concept level in children with burns sequelae: A comparative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo C, Carmen; Santander M, Dolores; Solís F, Fresia

    2015-01-01

    Self-concept is the set of ideas and attitudes that a person has about him/herself. To evaluate whether there are differences in the level of self-concept in children 8-12 years old with and without burns sequelae. To identify predictive variables of self-concept in children with sequelae. A comparative cross-sectional study of self-concept in 109 children with burns sequelae, from 8 to 12 years old, with 109 children without burns sequelae, and of the same age and socioeconomic status. The Piers-Harris self-concept scale is used, which provides a general measurement of self-concept and behavioural, intellectual and school status, appearance, and physical attributes, anxiety, popularity, happiness and satisfaction dimensions. There were no significant differences in the level of general self-concept or their dimensions (P>.05). In the group with burns sequelae, the protective factor was the variable number of sequels was associated with the dimensions of anxiety, popularity, happiness-satisfaction and general self-concept. The location variable emerged as a risk factor for the behavioural dimension. The absence of differences in self-concept between children with burns sequelae and children without them is similar to that reported in the literature. The finding in the risk and protective factors encourages to further research, and perhaps incorporating pre-morbidity and family background. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Clinical instructors' perceptions of behaviors that comprise entry-level clinical performance in physical therapist students: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jette, Diane U; Bertoni, Alicia; Coots, Renee; Johnson, Heidi; McLaughlin, Catherine; Weisbach, Cody

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to qualitatively explore clinical instructors' (CIs) perceptions of students' behaviors that comprise entry-level clinical performance, as well as how those perceptions were integrated into their decision making. The participants were 21 physical therapists who were CIs for physical therapist students. Using a grounded theory approach, we conducted interviews, asking the question, "What is it about students' performance that makes you see them as entry-level therapists?" We determined common themes among the interviews and developed a schema to explain the decision-making process. Participants identified 7 attributes that, when demonstrated to a sufficient degree, illustrated to them students' ability to practice at the entry level. Those attributes were knowledge, clinical skills, safety, clinical decision making, self-directed learning, interpersonal communication, and professional demeanor. Participants viewed these attributes in concert to form a subjective "gut feeling" that a student demonstrated entry-level performance. A final theme emerged suggesting a definition of entry-level performance as "mentored independence." Participants reported evaluating students' performance based on attributes similar to those suggested by the American Physical Therapy Association's Physical Therapist Clinical Performance Instrument and previous research. However, subjectivity also was involved in their decision about whether students were able to practice at the entry level. Participants also concluded that entry-level students need not be independent in all clinical situations.

  7. Understanding similarity of groundwater systems with empirical copulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaf, Ezra; Kumar, Rohini; Samaniego, Luis; Barthel, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Within the classification framework for groundwater systems that aims for identifying similarity of hydrogeological systems and transferring information from a well-observed to an ungauged system (Haaf and Barthel, 2015; Haaf and Barthel, 2016), we propose a copula-based method for describing groundwater-systems similarity. Copulas are an emerging method in hydrological sciences that make it possible to model the dependence structure of two groundwater level time series, independently of the effects of their marginal distributions. This study is based on Samaniego et al. (2010), which described an approach calculating dissimilarity measures from bivariate empirical copula densities of streamflow time series. Subsequently, streamflow is predicted in ungauged basins by transferring properties from similar catchments. The proposed approach is innovative because copula-based similarity has not yet been applied to groundwater systems. Here we estimate the pairwise dependence structure of 600 wells in Southern Germany using 10 years of weekly groundwater level observations. Based on these empirical copulas, dissimilarity measures are estimated, such as the copula's lower- and upper corner cumulated probability, copula-based Spearman's rank correlation - as proposed by Samaniego et al. (2010). For the characterization of groundwater systems, copula-based metrics are compared with dissimilarities obtained from precipitation signals corresponding to the presumed area of influence of each groundwater well. This promising approach provides a new tool for advancing similarity-based classification of groundwater system dynamics. Haaf, E., Barthel, R., 2015. Methods for assessing hydrogeological similarity and for classification of groundwater systems on the regional scale, EGU General Assembly 2015, Vienna, Austria. Haaf, E., Barthel, R., 2016. An approach for classification of hydrogeological systems at the regional scale based on groundwater hydrographs EGU General Assembly

  8. Similarity of Experience and Empathy in Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Mark A.

    The present study examined the role of similarity of experience in young children's affective reactions to others. Some preschoolers played one of two games (Puzzle Board or Buckets) and were informed that they had either failed or succeeded; others merely observed the games being played and were given no evaluative feedback. Subsequently, each…

  9. Cultural Similarities and Differences on Idiom Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄频频; 陈于全

    2010-01-01

    Both English and Chinese are abound with idioms. Idioms are an important part of the hnguage and culture of a society. English and Chinese idioms carved with cultural characteristics account for a great part in the tramlation. This paper studies the translation of idioms concerning their cultural similarities, cultural differences and transhtion principles.

  10. Making Benefit Transfers Work: Deriving and Testing Principles for Value Transfers for Similar and Dissimilar Sites Using a Case Study of the Non-Market Benefits of Water Quality Improvements Across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bateman, Ian; Brouwer, Roy; Ferreri, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    We implement a controlled, multi-site experiment to develop and test guidance principles for benefits transfers. These argue that when transferring across relatively similar sites, simple mean value transfers are to be preferred but that when sites are relatively dissimilar then value function...... transfers will yield lower errors. The paper also provides guidance on the appropriate specification of transferable value functions arguing that these should be developed from theoretical rather than ad-hoc statistical approaches. These principles are tested via a common format valuation study of water...... quality improvements across five countries. While this provides an idealised tested, results support the above principles and suggest directions for future transfer studies....

  11. Cultural similarity and adjustment of expatriate academics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    The findings of a number of recent empirical studies of business expatriates, using different samples and methodologies, seem to support the counter-intuitive proposition that cultural similarity may be as difficult to adjust to as cultural dissimilarity. However, it is not obvious...... and non-EU countries. Results showed that although the perceived cultural similarity between host and home country for the two groups of investigated respondents was different, there was neither any difference in their adjustment nor in the time it took for them to become proficient. Implications...

  12. An Evaluation of the Empathy Levels of Pre-Service Social Studies Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Baris

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the factors that affect the empathy levels of pre-service teachers studying in the Department of Social Studies Teaching. The research questions developed in this context aimed to determine the roles of gender, age and being a member of a school club in the empathy levels of pre-service teachers. The study…

  13. [Similarity system theory to evaluate similarity of chromatographic fingerprints of traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongsuo; Meng, Qinghua; Jiang, Shumin; Hu, Yuzhu

    2005-03-01

    The similarity evaluation of the fingerprints is one of the most important problems in the quality control of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Similarity measures used to evaluate the similarity of the common peaks in the chromatogram of TCM have been discussed. Comparative studies were carried out among correlation coefficient, cosine of the angle and an improved extent similarity method using simulated data and experimental data. Correlation coefficient and cosine of the angle are not sensitive to the differences of the data set. They are still not sensitive to the differences of the data even after normalization. According to the similarity system theory, an improved extent similarity method was proposed. The improved extent similarity is more sensitive to the differences of the data sets than correlation coefficient and cosine of the angle. And the character of the data sets needs not to be changed compared with log-transformation. The improved extent similarity can be used to evaluate the similarity of the chromatographic fingerprints of TCM.

  14. PHOG analysis of self-similarity in aesthetic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirshahi, Seyed Ali; Koch, Michael; Denzler, Joachim; Redies, Christoph

    2012-03-01

    In recent years, there have been efforts in defining the statistical properties of aesthetic photographs and artworks using computer vision techniques. However, it is still an open question how to distinguish aesthetic from non-aesthetic images with a high recognition rate. This is possibly because aesthetic perception is influenced also by a large number of cultural variables. Nevertheless, the search for statistical properties of aesthetic images has not been futile. For example, we have shown that the radially averaged power spectrum of monochrome artworks of Western and Eastern provenance falls off according to a power law with increasing spatial frequency (1/f2 characteristics). This finding implies that this particular subset of artworks possesses a Fourier power spectrum that is self-similar across different scales of spatial resolution. Other types of aesthetic images, such as cartoons, comics and mangas also display this type of self-similarity, as do photographs of complex natural scenes. Since the human visual system is adapted to encode images of natural scenes in a particular efficient way, we have argued that artists imitate these statistics in their artworks. In support of this notion, we presented results that artists portrait human faces with the self-similar Fourier statistics of complex natural scenes although real-world photographs of faces are not self-similar. In view of these previous findings, we investigated other statistical measures of self-similarity to characterize aesthetic and non-aesthetic images. In the present work, we propose a novel measure of self-similarity that is based on the Pyramid Histogram of Oriented Gradients (PHOG). For every image, we first calculate PHOG up to pyramid level 3. The similarity between the histograms of each section at a particular level is then calculated to the parent section at the previous level (or to the histogram at the ground level). The proposed approach is tested on datasets of aesthetic and

  15. Incentivizing Advanced Mathematics Study at Upper Secondary Level: The Case of Bonus Points in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treacy, Páraic Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Secondary level mathematics education in Ireland has recently experienced a period of significant change with the introduction of new curricula and the addition of an incentive to study upper secondary mathematics at the most advanced level (Higher Level). This incentive, typically referred to as 'bonus points', appears to have aided a significant…

  16. Trajectory similarity join in spatial networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo; Chen, Lisi; Wei, Zhewei; Jensen, Christian S.; Zheng, Kai; Kalnis, Panos

    2017-01-01

    With these applications in mind, we provide a purposeful definition of similarity. To enable efficient TS-Join processing on large sets of trajectories, we develop search space pruning techniques and take into account the parallel processing capabilities of modern processors. Specifically, we present a two-phase divide-and-conquer algorithm. For each trajectory, the algorithm first finds similar trajectories. Then it merges the results to achieve a final result. The algorithm exploits an upper bound on the spatiotemporal similarity and a heuristic scheduling strategy for search space pruning. The algorithm's per-trajectory searches are independent of each other and can be performed in parallel, and the merging has constant cost. An empirical study with real data offers insight in the performance of the algorithm and demonstrates that is capable of outperforming a well-designed baseline algorithm by an order of magnitude.

  17. Unveiling Music Structure Via PLSA Similarity Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arenas-García, Jerónimo; Meng, Anders; Petersen, Kaare Brandt

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays there is an increasing interest in developing methods for building music recommendation systems. In order to get a satisfactory performance from such a system, one needs to incorporate as much information about songs similarity as possible; however, how to do so is not obvious. In this p......Nowadays there is an increasing interest in developing methods for building music recommendation systems. In order to get a satisfactory performance from such a system, one needs to incorporate as much information about songs similarity as possible; however, how to do so is not obvious...... observed similarities can be satisfactorily explained using the latent semantics. Additionally, this approach significantly simplifies the song retrieval phase, leading to a more practical system implementation. The suitability of the PLSA model for representing music structure is studied in a simplified...

  18. Socioeconomic and racial/ethnic differentials of C-reactive protein levels: a systematic review of population-based studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victora Cesar G

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic and racial/ethnic factors strongly influence cardiovascular disease outcomes and risk factors. C-reactive protein (CRP, a non-specific marker of inflammation, is associated with cardiovascular risk, and knowledge about its distribution in the population may help direct preventive efforts. A systematic review was undertaken to critically assess CRP levels according to socioeconomic and racial/ethnic factors. Methods Medline was searched through December 2006 for population-based studies examining CRP levels among adults with respect to indicators of socioeconomic position (SEP and/or race/ethnicity. Bibliographies from located studies were scanned and 26 experts in the field were contacted for unpublished work. Results Thirty-two relevant articles were located. Cross-sectional (n = 20 and cohort studies (n = 11 were included, as was the control group of one trial. CRP levels were examined with respect to SEP and race/ethnicity in 25 and 15 analyses, respectively. Of 20 studies that were unadjusted or adjusted for demographic variables, 19 found inverse associations between CRP levels and SEP. Of 15 similar studies, 14 found differences between racial/ethnic groups such that whites had the lowest while blacks, Hispanics and South Asians had the highest CRP levels. Most studies also included adjustment for potential mediating variables in the causal chain between SEP or race/ethnicity and CRP. Most of these studies showed attenuated but still significant associations. Conclusion Increasing poverty and non-white race was associated with elevated CRP levels among adults. Most analyses in the literature are underestimating the true effects of racial/ethnic and socioeconomic factors due to adjustment for mediating factors.

  19. External Differences and Internal Similarities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz-Gerro, Tally; Jæger, Mads Meier

    This paper analyzes change in cultural consumption profiles in Denmark over the period 1975-2004 along three dimensions: number of profiles; between-profile socioeconomic heterogeneity; and within-profile socioeconomic heterogeneity. Previous studies have considered the first and second aforement......This paper analyzes change in cultural consumption profiles in Denmark over the period 1975-2004 along three dimensions: number of profiles; between-profile socioeconomic heterogeneity; and within-profile socioeconomic heterogeneity. Previous studies have considered the first and second...

  20. Pakistanis living in Oslo have lower serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels but higher serum ionized calcium levels compared with ethnic Norwegians. The Oslo Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holvik, Kristin; Meyer, Haakon E; Søgaard, Anne Johanne; Haug, Egil; Falch, Jan A

    2007-01-01

    Background Persons of Pakistani origin living in Oslo have a much higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism but similar bone mineral density compared with ethnic Norwegians. Our objective was to investigate whether Pakistani immigrants living in Oslo have an altered vitamin D metabolism by means of compensatory higher serum levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (s-1,25(OH)2D) compared with ethnic Norwegians; and whether serum levels of ionized calcium (s-Ca2+) differ between Pakistanis and Norwegians. Methods In a cross-sectional, population-based study venous serum samples were drawn from 94 Pakistani men and 67 Pakistani women aged 30–60 years, and 290 Norwegian men and 270 Norwegian women aged 45–60 years; in total 721 subjects. Results Pakistanis had lower s-1,25(OH)2D compared with Norwegians (p Oslo with low vitamin D status and secondary hyperparathyroidism have lower s-1,25(OH)2D compared with ethnic Norwegians. However, the Pakistanis have higher s-Ca2+. The cause of the higher s-Ca2+ in Pakistanis in spite of their higher iPTH remains unclear. PMID:17945003

  1. Physical activity level in Achilles tendinosis is associated with blood levels of pain-related factors: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagge, J; Gaida, J E; Danielson, P; Alfredson, H; Forsgren, S

    2011-12-01

    Physical activity affects the pain symptoms for Achilles tendinosis patients. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and their receptors have been detected in human Achilles tendon. This pilot study aimed to compare serum BDNF and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor I (sTNFRI) levels in Achilles tendinosis patients and healthy controls and to examine the influence of physical activity, and BMI and gender, on these levels. Physical activity was measured with a validated questionnaire, total physical activity being the parameter analyzed. Physical activity was strongly correlated with BDNF among tendinosis women [Spearman's rho (ρ)=0.90, Pwomen (ρ=-0.08, P=0.83), or among tendinosis and control men. Physical activity was significantly correlated with sTNFRI in the entire tendinosis group and among tendinosis men (ρ=0.65, P=0.01), but not in the entire control group or among control men (ρ=0.04, P=0.91). Thus, the physical activity pattern is related to the TNF and BDNF systems for tendinosis patients but not controls, the relationship being gender dependent. This is new information concerning the relationship between physical activity and Achilles tendinosis, which may be related to pain for the patients. This aspect should be further evaluated using larger patient materials. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Mechanical similarity as a generalization of scale symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozzi, E; Mauro, D

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we study the symmetry known (Landau and Lifshits 1976 Course of Theoretical Physics vol 1: Mechanics (Oxford: Pergamon)) as mechanical similarity (LMS) and present for any monomial potential. We analyse it in the framework of the Koopman-von Neumann formulation of classical mechanics and prove that in this framework the LMS can be given a canonical implementation. We also show that the LMS is a generalization of the scale symmetry which is present only for the inverse square and a few other potentials. Finally, we study the main obstructions which one encounters in implementing the LMS at the quantum-mechanical level

  3. Fuzzifying historical peak water levels: case study of the river Rhine at Basel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Jose Luis; Kiss, Andrea; Blöschl, Günter

    2016-04-01

    Hydrological information comes from a variety of sources, which in some cases might be non-precise. In particular, this is an important issue for the available information on water stages during historical floods. An accurate estimation of the water level profile, together with an elevation model of the riverbed and floodplain areas is fundamental for the hydraulic reconstruction of historical flood events, allowing the back calculation of flood peak discharges, velocity and erosion fields, damages, among others. For the greatest floods during the last 1700 years, Wetter et al. (2011) reconstructed the water levels and historical discharges at different locations in the old city centre from a variety of historical sources (stone marks, official documents, paintings, etc). This work presents a model for the inherent unpreciseness of these historical water levels. This is, with the arithmetics of fuzzy numbers, described by their membership functions, in a similar fashion as the probability density function describes the uncertainty of a random variable. Additional to the in-site collected water stages from floodmarks and other documentary evidence (e.g. preserved in narratives and newspaper flood reports) are prone to be modeled in a fuzzy way. This study presents the use of fuzzy logic to transform historical information from different sources, in this case of flood water stages, into membership functions. This values might then introduced in the mathematical framework of Fuzzy Bayesian Inference to perform the statistical analyses with the rules of fuzzy numbers algebra. The results of this flood frequency analysis, as in the traditional non-fuzzy way, link discharges with exceedance probabilities or return periods. The main difference is, that the modeled discharge quantiles are not precise values, but fuzzy numbers instead, represented by their membership functions explicitly including the unpreciseness of the historical information used. Wetter, O., Pfister, C

  4. An Applied Study of the Storage for Old Intermediate Level Waste at the Studsvik Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeblom, Rolf; Lindskog, Staffan

    2004-02-01

    The Storage for Old Intermediate Level Waste (SOILW) at Studsvik has been used for interim storage of intermediate and high level radioactive waste from various activities at the Studsvik site including post irradiation investigations. The SOILW facility was in operation during the years 1961 - 1984. The waste was stored in tube positions in concrete blocks and in concrete vaults. In some instances, radioactive debris and liquid has contaminated the storage positions as well as the underlying ventilation space. The primary purpose of the present work is to improve and extend the present knowledge basis for cost estimates for decommissioning, with the ACSF facility as an example. The main objective has been to explore the possibilities to improve the reliability and accuracy of capital budgeting for decommissioning costs at SOILW. In this study, the present international status of decommissioning, planning and cost estimation has been compiled. The various relevant guidance documents of the IAEA are also compiled, and their emphasis on the necessity of radiological and other surveying as well as technical planning and method selection is reiterated. Cost calculation schemes for new plants and for decommissioning are compiled. It is emphasized that the calculations should be carried out differently at different stages. At the early stages of decommissioning, there should be more emphasis on comparison, and at later stages the emphasis should be more oriented towards summation. The error/uncertainty in a cost calculation is strongly dependent on the selection of methodology, which, in turn, is strongly dependent on the radiological condition. The magnitude of the level of uncertainty has been illustrated by the example of concrete surface removal, and advice is provided on how to identify alternative measures that will enable more sure decisions. An example is also given on a rather similar decontamination and dismantling involving highly contaminated tubes in a

  5. A study to establish international diagnostic reference levels for paediatric computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassileva, J.; Rehani, M.; Kostova-Lefterova, D.; Al-Naemi, H.M.; Al Suwaidi, J.S.; Arandjic, D.; Bashier, E.H.O.; Kodlulovich Renha, S.; El-Nachef, L.; Aguilar, J.G.; Gershan, V.; Gershkevitsh, E.; Gruppetta, E.; Hustuc, A.; Jauhari, A.; Hassan Kharita, Mohammad; Khelassi-Toutaoui, N.; Khosravi, H.R.; Khoury, H.; Kralik, I.; Mahere, S.; Mazuoliene, J.; Mora, P.; Muhogora, W.; Muthuvelu, P.; Nikodemova, D.; Novak, L.; Pallewatte, A.; Pekarovic, D.; Shaaban, M.; Shelly, E.; Stepanyan, K.; Thelsy, N.; Visrutaratna, P.; Zaman, A.

    2015-01-01

    The article reports results from the largest international dose survey in paediatric computed tomography (CT) in 32 countries and proposes international diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in terms of computed tomography dose index (CTDI vol ) and dose length product (DLP). It also assesses whether mean or median values of individual facilities should be used. A total of 6115 individual patient data were recorded among four age groups: <1 y, >1-5 y, >5-10 y and >10-15 y. CTDI w , CTDI vol and DLP from the CT console were recorded in dedicated forms together with patient data and technical parameters. Statistical analysis was performed, and international DRLs were established at rounded 75. percentile values of distribution of median values from all CT facilities. The study presents evidence in favour of using median rather than mean of patient dose indices as the representative of typical local dose in a facility, and for establishing DRLs as third quartile of median values. International DRLs were established for paediatric CT examinations for routine head, chest and abdomen in the four age groups. DRLs for CTDI vol are similar to the reference values from other published reports, with some differences for chest and abdomen CT. Higher variations were observed between DLP values, based on a survey of whole multi-phase exams. It may be noted that other studies in literature were based on single phase only. DRLs reported in this article can be used in countries without sufficient medical physics support to identify non-optimised practice. Recommendations to improve the accuracy and importance of future surveys are provided. (authors)

  6. A framework for the study of multiple realizations: The importance of levels of analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten eOvergaard

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The brain may undergo functional reorganizations. Selective loss of sensory input or training within a restricted part of a modality cause shifts within for instance somatotopic or tonotopic maps. Cross-modal plasticity occurs when input within a modality is absent – e.g. in the congenitally blind. Reorganizations are also found in functional recovery after brain injury. Focusing on such reorganizations, it may be studied whether a cognitive or conscious process can exclusively be mediated by one neural substrate – or may be associated with multiple neural representations. This is typically known as the problem of multiple realization – an essentially empirical issue with wide theoretical implications. This issue may appear to have a simple solution. When, for instance, the symptoms associated with brain injury disappear and the recovery is associated with increased activities within spared regions of the brain, it is tempting to conclude that the processes originally associated with the injured part of the brain are now mediated by an alternative neural substrate. Such a conclusion is, however, not a simple matter. Without a more thorough analysis, it cannot be concluded that a functional recovery of for instance language or attention is necessarily associated with a novel representation of the processes lost to injury. Alternatively, for instance, the recovery may reflect that apparently similar surface phenomena are obtained via dissimilar cognitive mechanisms. In this paper we propose a theoretical framework, which we believe can guide the design and interpretations of studies of posttraumatic recovery. It is essential to distinguish between a number of levels of analysis – including a differentiation between the surface phenomena and the underlying information processing – when addressing, for instance, whether a pretraumatic and posttraumatically recovered cognitive or conscious process are actually the same. We propose a

  7. Variations in voice level and fundamental frequency with changing background noise level and talker-to-listener distance while wearing hearing protectors: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouserhal, Rachel E; Macdonald, Ewen N; Falk, Tiago H; Voix, Jérémie

    2016-01-01

    Speech production in noise with varying talker-to-listener distance has been well studied for the open ear condition. However, occluding the ear canal can affect the auditory feedback and cause deviations from the models presented for the open-ear condition. Communication is a main concern for people wearing hearing protection devices (HPD). Although practical, radio communication is cumbersome, as it does not distinguish designated receivers. A smarter radio communication protocol must be developed to alleviate this problem. Thus, it is necessary to model speech production in noise while wearing HPDs. Such a model opens the door to radio communication systems that distinguish receivers and offer more efficient communication between persons wearing HPDs. This paper presents the results of a pilot study aimed to investigate the effects of occluding the ear on changes in voice level and fundamental frequency in noise and with varying talker-to-listener distance. Twelve participants with a mean age of 28 participated in this study. Compared to existing data, results show a trend similar to the open ear condition with the exception of the occluded quiet condition. This implies that a model can be developed to better understand speech production for the occluded ear.

  8. High-resolution study of levels in the astrophysically important nucleus 26Mg and resulting updated level assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adsley, P.; Brümmer, J. W.; Faestermann, T.; Fox, S. P.; Hammache, F.; Hertenberger, R.; Meyer, A.; Neveling, R.; Seiler, D.; de Séréville, N.; Wirth, H.-F.

    2018-04-01

    Background: The 22Ne(α ,n )25Mg reaction is an important source of neutrons for the s -process. Direct measurement of this reaction and the competing 22Ne(α ,γ )26Mg reaction are challenging due to the gaseous nature of both reactants, the low cross section and the experimental challenges of detecting neutrons and high-energy γ rays. Detailed knowledge of the resonance properties enables the rates to be constrained for s -process models. Purpose: Previous experimental studies have demonstrated a lack of agreement in both the number and excitation energy of levels in 26Mg. To try to resolve the disagreement between different experiments, proton and deuteron inelastic scattering from 26Mg have been used to identify excited states. Method: Proton and deuteron beams from the tandem accelerator at the Maier-Leibnitz Laboratorium at Garching, Munich, were incident upon enriched 26MgO targets. Scattered particles were momentum-analyzed in the Q3D magnetic spectrograph and detected at the focal plane. Results: Reassignments of states around Ex=10.8 -10.83 MeV in 26Mg suggested in previous works have been confirmed. In addition, new states in 26Mg have been observed, two below and two above the neutron threshold. Up to six additional states above the neutron threshold may have been observed compared to experimental studies of neutron reactions on 25Mg, but some or all of these states may be due to 24Mg contamination in the target. Finally, inconsistencies between measured resonance strengths and some previously accepted Jπ assignments of excited 26Mg states have been noted. Conclusion: There are still a large number of nuclear properties in 26Mg that have yet to be determined and levels that are, at present, not included in calculations of the reaction rates. In addition, some inconsistencies between existing nuclear data exist that must be resolved in order for the reaction rates to be properly calculated.

  9. Effects of Oral Contraceptives on Natriuretic Peptide Levels in Women with Hypothalamic Amenorrhea: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Eleanor; Grinspoon, Steven; Wang, Thomas; Miller, Karen K.

    2011-01-01

    Natriuretic peptides, which are important regulators of salt handling and blood pressure, are 60 – 75% higher in healthy young women than in men, consistent with a gender dimorphism. In this randomized, placebo-controlled study in women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, we show that administration of oral contraceptives increases natriuretic peptide levels and that end-of-study free testosterone levels are inversely associated with NT-proBNP levels, consistent with the hypothesis that ...

  10. Neutrosophic Refined Similarity Measure Based on Cosine Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Broumi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the cosine similarity measure of neutrosophic refined (multi- sets is proposed and its properties are studied. The concept of this cosine similarity measure of neutrosophic refined sets is the extension of improved cosine similarity measure of single valued neutrosophic. Finally, using this cosine similarity measure of neutrosophic refined set, the application of medical diagnosis is presented.

  11. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency following acute pancreatitis: Systematic review and study level meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollemans, Robbert A; Hallensleben, Nora D L; Mager, David J; Kelder, Johannes C; Besselink, Marc G; Bruno, Marco J; Verdonk, Robert C; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C

    2018-04-01

    This study systematically explores the prevalence of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) after acute pancreatitis in different subgroups of etiology (biliary/alcoholic/other), disease severity and follow-up time ( 36 months after index admission). PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched, 32 studies were included in this study level meta-analysis. In a total of 1495 patients with acute pancreatitis, tested at a mean of 36 months after index admission, the pooled prevalence of PEI was 27.1% (95%-confidence interval [CI]: 20.3%-35.1%). Patients from seven studies (n = 194) underwent direct tests with pooled prevalence of 41.7% [18.5%-69.2%]. Patients from 26 studies (n = 1305) underwent indirect tests with pooled prevalence of 24.4% [18.3%-31.8%]. In subgroup analyses on patients that underwent fecal elastase-1 tests, PEI occurred more often in alcoholic pancreatitis (22.7% [16.6%-30.1%]) than in biliary pancreatitis (10.2% [6.2%-16.4%]) or other etiology (13.4% [7.7%-22.4%]; P = 0.02). Pooled prevalence of PEI after mild and severe pancreatitis was 19.4% [8.6%-38.2%] and 33.4% [22.6%-46.3%] respectively in studies using fecal elaste-1 tests (P = 0.049). Similar results were seen in patients without (18.9% [9.3%-34.6%]) and with necrotizing pancreatitis (32.0% [18.2%-49.8%]; P = 0.053). Over time, the prevalence of PEI decreased in patients who underwent the fecal elastase-1 test and increased in patients who underwent the fecal fat analysis. After acute pancreatitis, a quarter of all patients develop PEI during follow-up. Alcoholic etiology and severe and necrotizing pancreatitis are associated with higher risk of PEI. The prevalence of PEI may change as time of follow-up increases. Copyright © 2018 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Serum immunoglobulin levels in the ABCC-JNIH adult health study: Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, R A; Milton, R C; Hamilton, H B

    1973-05-31

    Immunoglobulin levels (IgG, IgA, and IgM) were determined on 2043 individuals in the ABCC-JNIH Adult Health Study population, and levels were compared to disease states and the dose of radiation ATB. Mean levels for both cities and sexes combined were IgG = 1577 mg%, IgA = 312 mg%, and IgM = 127 mg%. Differences between these mean levels and those reported in other studies are thought secondary to racial and environmental factors, and technical differences with the methods used for quantitation. Females had higher IgM levels that tended to go down with advancing age. Of the diseases evaluated, rheumatoid arthritis, cirrhosis, and pulmonary tuberculosis affected immunoglobulin levels the greatest. There was no apparent relationship between radiation dose from the atomic bomb and immunoglobulin levels determined more than 25 years after exposure. (6 tables)

  13. Operationalizing Levels of Academic Mastery Based on Vygotsky's Theory: The Study of Mathematical Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezhnov, Peter; Kardanova, Elena; Vasilyeva, Marina; Ludlow, Larry

    2015-01-01

    The present study tested the possibility of operationalizing levels of knowledge acquisition based on Vygotsky's theory of cognitive growth. An assessment tool (SAM-Math) was developed to capture a hypothesized hierarchical structure of mathematical knowledge consisting of procedural, conceptual, and functional levels. In Study 1, SAM-Math was…

  14. Levels of Evidence: Cancer Genetics Studies (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levels of Evidence for Cancer Genetics Studies addresses the process and challenges of developing evidence-based summaries. Get information about how to weigh the strength of the evidence from cancer genetics studies in this summary for clinicians.

  15. Is Preventative Long-Segment Surgery for Multi-Level Spondylolysis Necessary? A Finite Element Analysis Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiang Mo

    Full Text Available For multi-level spondylolysis patients, surgeons commonly choose to fix all the segments with pars interarticularis defect even those without slippage and not responsible for clinical symptoms. In this study, we tried to study the necessity of the preventative long-segment surgery for the defected segment without slippage in treatment of multi-level spondylolysis patients from a biomechanical perspective.We established a bi-level spondylolysis model with pars defects at L4 and L5 segments, and simulated posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF and pedicle screw fixation at L5-S1 level. Then we compared the biomechanical changes at L4 segment before and after surgery in neutral, flexion, extension, lateral bending and axial rotation position.The stress on L4 pars interarticularis was very similar before and after surgery, and reached the highest in axial rotation. The L3-L4 intradiscal pressure was almost the same, while L4-L5 intradiscal pressure changed a little in lateral bending (increase from 1.993 to 2.160 MPa and axial rotation (decrease from 1.639 to 1.307 MPa after surgery. The PLIF surgery caused a little increase of range of motion at adjacent L4-L5 and L3-L4 levels, but the change is very tiny (1 degree.The PLIF surgery will not cause significant biomechanical change at adjacent segment with pars defect in multi-level spondylolysis. On the contrary, excessive long-segment surgery will damage surrounding soft tissues which are important for maintaining the stability of spine. So a preventative long-segment surgery is not necessary for multi-level spondylolysis as long as there are no soft tissue degeneration signs at adjacent level.

  16. Is Preventative Long-Segment Surgery for Multi-Level Spondylolysis Necessary? A Finite Element Analysis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Jianqiang; Zhang, Wen; Zhong, Dongyan; Xu, Hao; Wang, Lan; Yu, Jia; Luo, Zongping

    2016-01-01

    For multi-level spondylolysis patients, surgeons commonly choose to fix all the segments with pars interarticularis defect even those without slippage and not responsible for clinical symptoms. In this study, we tried to study the necessity of the preventative long-segment surgery for the defected segment without slippage in treatment of multi-level spondylolysis patients from a biomechanical perspective. We established a bi-level spondylolysis model with pars defects at L4 and L5 segments, and simulated posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) and pedicle screw fixation at L5-S1 level. Then we compared the biomechanical changes at L4 segment before and after surgery in neutral, flexion, extension, lateral bending and axial rotation position. The stress on L4 pars interarticularis was very similar before and after surgery, and reached the highest in axial rotation. The L3-L4 intradiscal pressure was almost the same, while L4-L5 intradiscal pressure changed a little in lateral bending (increase from 1.993 to 2.160 MPa) and axial rotation (decrease from 1.639 to 1.307 MPa) after surgery. The PLIF surgery caused a little increase of range of motion at adjacent L4-L5 and L3-L4 levels, but the change is very tiny (1 degree). The PLIF surgery will not cause significant biomechanical change at adjacent segment with pars defect in multi-level spondylolysis. On the contrary, excessive long-segment surgery will damage surrounding soft tissues which are important for maintaining the stability of spine. So a preventative long-segment surgery is not necessary for multi-level spondylolysis as long as there are no soft tissue degeneration signs at adjacent level.

  17. Relationship between educational and occupational levels, and Chronic Kidney Disease in a multi-ethnic sample- The HELIUS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjei, David N; Stronks, Karien; Adu, Dwomoa; Snijder, Marieke B; Modesti, Pietro A; Peters, Ron J G; Vogt, Liffert; Agyemang, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Ethnic minority groups in high-income countries are disproportionately affected by Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) for reasons that are unclear. We assessed the association of educational and occupational levels with CKD in a multi-ethnic population. Furthermore, we assessed to what extent ethnic inequalities in the prevalence of CKD were accounted for by educational and occupational levels. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the Healthy Life in an Urban Setting (HELIUS) study of 21,433 adults (4,525 Dutch, 3,027 South-Asian Surinamese, 4,105 African Surinamese, 2,314 Ghanaians, 3,579 Turks, and 3,883 Moroccans) aged 18 to 70 years living in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Three CKD outcomes were considered using the 2012 KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) severity of CKD classification. Comparisons between educational and occupational levels were made using logistic regression analyses. After adjustment for sex and age, low-level and middle-level education were significantly associated with higher odds of high to very high-risk of CKD in Dutch (Odds Ratio (OR) 2.10, 95% C.I., 1.37-2.95; OR 1.55, 95% C.I., 1.03-2.34). Among ethnic minority groups, low-level education was significantly associated with higher odds of high to very-high-risk CKD but only in South-Asian Surinamese (OR 1.58, 95% C.I., 1.06-2.34). Similar results were found for the occupational level in relation to CKD risk. The lower educational and occupational levels of ethnic minority groups partly accounted for the observed ethnic inequalities in CKD. Reducing CKD risk in ethnic minority populations with low educational and occupational levels may help to reduce ethnic inequalities in CKD and its related complications.

  18. Application of Adjusted Canonical Correlation Analysis (ACCA) to study the association between mathematics in Level 1 and Level 2 and performance of engineering disciplines in Level 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris, T. S. G.; Nanayakkara, K. A. D. S. A.

    2017-09-01

    Mathematics plays a key role in engineering sciences as it assists to develop the intellectual maturity and analytical thinking of engineering students and exploring the student academic performance has received great attention recently. The lack of control over covariates motivates the need for their adjustment when measuring the degree of association between two sets of variables in Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA). Thus to examine the individual effects of mathematics in Level 1 and Level 2 on engineering performance in Level 2, two adjusted analyses in CCA: Part CCA and Partial CCA were applied for the raw marks of engineering undergraduates for three different disciplines, at the Faculty of Engineering, University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka. The joint influence of mathematics in Level 1 and Level 2 is significant on engineering performance in Level 2 irrespective of the engineering disciplines. The individual effect of mathematics in Level 2 is significantly higher compared to the individual effect of mathematics in Level 1 on engineering performance in Level 2. Furthermore, the individual effect of mathematics in Level 1 can be negligible. But, there would be a notable indirect effect of mathematics in Level 1 on engineering performance in Level 2. It can be concluded that the joint effect of mathematics in both Level 1 and Level 2 is immensely beneficial to improve the overall academic performance at the end of Level 2 of the engineering students. Furthermore, it was found that the impact mathematics varies among engineering disciplines. As partial CCA and partial CCA are not widely explored in applied work, it is recommended to use these techniques for various applications.

  19. Depression and anxiety levels in mothers of children with cerebral palsy: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, H; Erkin, G; Nalbant, L

    2013-12-01

    Studies investigating depression and anxiety levels in mothers of children with CP and related factors are limited, and controversial findings are reported in these studies. The study was aimed to determine depression and anxiety levels in mothers of children with cerebral palsy (CP) and to define factors related to depression and anxiety levels. A descriptive study. Outpatient physical medicine and rehabilitation clinic of an education and research hospital. The study was composed of two groups: group 1, 116 mothers of children with CP and group 2, 114 mothers of healthy children. Mothers of children with spastic-type CP were included into group 1. Functional levels in children with CP were investigated with The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). Depression levels of mothers in both groups were assessed with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and anxiety levels with Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). BDI and BAI scores were statistically and significantly higher in group 1, compared to group 2. Among mothers in group 1, a positive correlation was determined between GMFCS score, and depression and anxiety levels. However, no correlation was detected between depression and anxiety levels, and body involvement of CP, education status, age and economic level among patients. In logistic regression analysis, the most significant risk factors of depressive symptoms were detected to be GMFCS score and speech defects. Our findings indicate that depression and anxiety levels of mothers with CP children are higher than those with healthy children and associated with speech defects and functional disability levels in children with CP. Healthcare professionals should take into account that depression and anxiety levels may be higher in mothers of children with CP. For an effective rehabilitation program related to children with CP, depression and anxiety levels in mothers of such children should be taken into account, and mothers should closely be followed and if

  20. Nasal Nitric Oxide Levels in HIV Infection: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia T. Costiniuk

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Low levels of nasal NO have been associated with increased propensity to rhinosinusitis and respiratory tract infections. Our objective was to describe nasal NO levels in HIV-infected individuals versus healthy controls and determine possible risk factors for reduced nasal NO levels. Materials and Methods. HIV-infected individuals and healthy controls were recruited. Participants underwent nasal NO testing by standardized methods using a CLD88 chemiluminescence analyzer and completed the Sinonasal Outcome Test-20 (SNOT-20 on symptoms of rhinosinusitis. Results. Participants included 41 HIV-infected individuals with suppressed VL on antiretroviral therapy (ART group, 5 HIV-infected individuals with detectable VL off ART (viremic group, and 12 healthy controls (HC group. Mean nasal NO level was 253 (±77 nL/min in the ART group, 213 (±48 nL/min in the viremic group, and 289 (±68 nL/min in the HC group (p=0.133; ANOVA. There was no correlation between nasal NO level and VL in viremic individuals (r=-0.200; p=0.747. Differences were observed in mean total points on the SNOT-20 which were 19 (±16/100, 18 (±26/100, and 4 (±4/100 in the ART, viremic, and HC groups, respectively (p=0.013; ANOVA. Conclusion. Healthy individuals, HIV patients on ART, and viremic individuals off ART display similar nasal NO levels. However, rhinosinusitis symptoms remain prominent despite ART-treatment.

  1. Measuring structural similarity in large online networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yongren; Macy, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Structural similarity based on bipartite graphs can be used to detect meaningful communities, but the networks have been tiny compared to massive online networks. Scalability is important in applications involving tens of millions of individuals with highly skewed degree distributions. Simulation analysis holding underlying similarity constant shows that two widely used measures - Jaccard index and cosine similarity - are biased by the distribution of out-degree in web-scale networks. However, an alternative measure, the Standardized Co-incident Ratio (SCR), is unbiased. We apply SCR to members of Congress, musical artists, and professional sports teams to show how massive co-following on Twitter can be used to map meaningful affiliations among cultural entities, even in the absence of direct connections to one another. Our results show how structural similarity can be used to map cultural alignments and demonstrate the potential usefulness of social media data in the study of culture, politics, and organizations across the social and behavioral sciences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Guide to Visual Multi-Level Interface Design From Synthesis of Empirical Study Evidence

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, Heidi

    2010-01-01

    Displaying multiple levels of data visually has been proposed to address the challenge of limited screen space. Although many previous empirical studies have addressed different aspects of this question, the information visualization research community does not currently have a clearly articulated consensus on how, when, or even if displaying data at multiple levels is effective. To shed more light on this complex topic, we conducted a systematic review of 22 existing multi-level interface studies to extract high-level design guidelines. To facilitate discussion, we cast our analysis findings

  3. Should applicants to Nottingham University Medical School study a non-science A-level?: a cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Yates, Janet; Smith, Jennifer; James, David; Ferguson, Eamonn

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background It has been suggested that studying non-science subjects at A-level should be compulsory for medical students. Our admissions criteria specify only Biology, Chemistry and one or more additional subjects. This study aimed to determine whether studying a non-science subject for A-level is an independent predictor of achievement on the undergraduate medical course. Methods The subjects of this retrospective cohort study were 164 students from one entry-year group (October 200...

  4. Development of similarity theory for control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myshlyaev, L. P.; Evtushenko, V. F.; Ivushkin, K. A.; Makarov, G. V.

    2018-05-01

    The area of effective application of the traditional similarity theory and the need necessity of its development for systems are discussed. The main statements underlying the similarity theory of control systems are given. The conditions for the similarity of control systems and the need for similarity control control are formulated. Methods and algorithms for estimating and similarity control of control systems and the results of research of control systems based on their similarity are presented. The similarity control of systems includes the current evaluation of the degree of similarity of control systems and the development of actions controlling similarity, and the corresponding targeted change in the state of any element of control systems.

  5. Binary similarity measures for fingerprint analysis of qualitative metabolomic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rácz, Anita; Andrić, Filip; Bajusz, Dávid; Héberger, Károly

    2018-01-01

    Contemporary metabolomic fingerprinting is based on multiple spectrometric and chromatographic signals, used either alone or combined with structural and chemical information of metabolic markers at the qualitative and semiquantitative level. However, signal shifting, convolution, and matrix effects may compromise metabolomic patterns. Recent increase in the use of qualitative metabolomic data, described by the presence (1) or absence (0) of particular metabolites, demonstrates great potential in the field of metabolomic profiling and fingerprint analysis. The aim of this study is a comprehensive evaluation of binary similarity measures for the elucidation of patterns among samples of different botanical origin and various metabolomic profiles. Nine qualitative metabolomic data sets covering a wide range of natural products and metabolomic profiles were applied to assess 44 binary similarity measures for the fingerprinting of plant extracts and natural products. The measures were analyzed by the novel sum of ranking differences method (SRD), searching for the most promising candidates. Baroni-Urbani-Buser (BUB) and Hawkins-Dotson (HD) similarity coefficients were selected as the best measures by SRD and analysis of variance (ANOVA), while Dice (Di1), Yule, Russel-Rao, and Consonni-Todeschini 3 ranked the worst. ANOVA revealed that concordantly and intermediately symmetric similarity coefficients are better candidates for metabolomic fingerprinting than the asymmetric and correlation based ones. The fingerprint analysis based on the BUB and HD coefficients and qualitative metabolomic data performed equally well as the quantitative metabolomic profile analysis. Fingerprint analysis based on the qualitative metabolomic profiles and binary similarity measures proved to be a reliable way in finding the same/similar patterns in metabolomic data as that extracted from quantitative data.

  6. A STUDY ON THE DETERMINATION OF WORK ENGAGEMENT LEVELS OF HEALTH EMPLOYEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Özer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine work engagement levels of health employees and to reveal whether the individual and demographic features of the employees have an effect on the level of work engagement or not. The population of study included all employees in Aydin Atatürk State Hospital. The sample is selected in the study, tried to reach the whole universe and a total of 414 usable responses were obtained. According to result of this study, there are statistically significant differences between employees’ evaluations related to work engagement level by level of education, occupational status and gender whereas total work years, age and marital status do not create a difference in terms of work engagement levels of employees.

  7. Study on traffic noise level of Sylhet by multiple regression analysis associated with health hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Alam, M. Jobair Bin Alam, M. M. Rahman, A. K. Dikshit, S. K. Khan

    Full Text Available The study reports the level of traffic-induced noise pollution in Sylhet City. For this purpose noise levels have been measured at thirty-seven major locations of the city from 7 am to 11 pm during the working days. It was observed that at all the locations the level of noise remains far above the acceptable limit for all the time. The noise level on the main road near residential area, hospital area and educational area were above the recommended level (65dBA. It was found that the predictive equations are in 60-70% correlated with the measured noise level. The study suggests that vulnerable institutions like school and hospital should be located about 60m away from the roadside unless any special arrangement to alleviate sound is used.

  8. Sustained transmission of high-level azithromycin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae in England: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifer, Helen; Cole, Michelle; Hughes, Gwenda; Padfield, Simon; Smolarchuk, Christa; Woodford, Neil; Wensley, Adrian; Mustafa, Nazim; Schaefer, Ulf; Myers, Richard; Templeton, Kate; Shepherd, Jill; Underwood, Anthony

    2018-05-01

    Between Nov 3, 2014, and Feb 24, 2017, 70 cases of high-level azithromycin-resistant (HL-AziR; minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] ≥256 mg/L) Neisseria gonorrhoeae were reported from across England. Whole-genome sequencing was done to investigate this outbreak to determine whether the ongoing outbreak represented clonal spread of an HL-AziR N gonorrhoeae strain identified in Leeds. We also wanted to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of azithromycin resistance in N gonorrhoeae in the UK. In this observational study, whole-genome sequencing was done on the HL-AziR N gonorrhoeae isolates from England. As comparators, 110 isolates from the UK and Ireland with a range of azithromycin MICs were also sequenced, including eight isolates from Scotland with azithromycin MICs ranging from 0·12 mg/L to 1·00 mg/L that were N gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence type 9768 (ST9768), which was the sequence type initially responsible for the outbreak. The presence of mutations or genes associated with azithromycin resistance was also investigated. 37 of the 60 HL-AziR isolates from England belonged to ST9768, and were genetically similar (mean 4·3 single-nucleotide polymorphisms). A 2059A→G mutation was detected in three or all four alleles of the 23S rRNA gene. Five susceptible ST9768 isolates had one mutated 23S rRNA allele and one low-level resistant ST9768 isolate had two mutated alleles. Sustained transmission of a successful HL-AziR clone was seen across England. Mutation 2059A→G was found in isolates with lower azithromycin MICs. Azithromycin exposure might have provided the selection pressure for one or two mutated copies of the 23S rRNA gene to recombine with wild-type copies, leading to three or four mutated copies and the HL-AziR phenotype. HL-AziR could emerge in isolates with low azithromycin MICs and eliminate the effectiveness of azithromycin as part of dual therapy for the treatment of gonorrhoea. Public Health England. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All

  9. EVALUATION OF PERCEIVED STRESS LEVELS AND ITS SOURCE AMONG DENTAL STUDENTS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Praveen K; Christofer; Purna Singh; Shivanand

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT Recent reports show high amount of academic stress among the students and chronic stress is shown to have a negative effect on cognitive functioning and learning of students. AIMS The purpose of study was to determine the prevalence of self-perceived stress among dental students and to observe any possible association between the levels of stress and (a) academic year, (b) motivation to study dental science, (c) medium of study at 10+2 level, (d) mother tongue, (e...

  10. Physical activity levels and determinants of change in young adults: a longitudinal panel study

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann Erwin; Wanner Miriam; Zimmermann-Sloutskis Dorith; Martin Brian W

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background There is growing concern about physical inactivity in adolescents and young adults. Identifying determinants that are associated with low levels of physical activity and with changes in physical activity levels will help to develop specific prevention strategies. The present study describes the prevalence and potential determinants of physical activity behavior and behavior changes of young adults. The study is based on the Swiss Household Panel (SHP), a longitudinal study...

  11. The Relationship between Personality Type and Acceptable Noise Levels: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Franklin, Cliff; Johnson, Laura V.; White, Letitia; Franklin, Clay; Smith-Olinde, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined the relationship between acceptable noise level (ANL) and personality. ANL is the difference between a person’s most comfortable level for speech and the loudest level of background noise they are willing to accept while listening to speech. Design. Forty young adults with normal hearing participated. ANLs were measured and two personality tests (Big Five Inventory, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) were administered. Results. The analysis revealed a correlation bet...

  12. Relations between Prejudice, Cultural Intelligence and Level of Entrepreneurship: A Study of School Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaci, Ali

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the mediating role of prejudice in the relationship between the cultural intelligence of school principals and the level of entrepreneurship. The design of this study was classified as correlational survey research. This study was designed by quantitative research method. The universe of this study constitutes…

  13. Occupational exposure to radon in Australian Tourist Caves an Australian-wide study of radon levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, S B; Langroo, R; Peggie, J R [Australian Radiation Laboratory. Yallambie, VIC (Australia); Lyons, R G [University of Auckland, Auckland, (New Zealand). Department of Physics; James, J M [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Department of Chemisty

    1996-02-01

    The study described in this report sets out to determine which Australian show caves have long- term radon levels in excess of the proposed action level of 1000 Bq m{sup -3}. The collaborative study between the Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL), the University of Sydney and the University of Auckland, was carried out with the support of a Research Grant from Worksafe Australia. The aims of this study were to measure radon levels for each season over a period of one year, at representative sites in all developed show caves around Australia, to determine yearly average radon levels for each cave tour, based on these site measurements, to estimate the radiation doses to the tour guides employed in these caves, and to identify caves with radon concentrations in excess of the action level. (authors) 7 refs., 10 tabs., 2 figs.

  14. Occupational exposure to radon in Australian Tourist Caves an Australian-wide study of radon levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, S.B.; Langroo, R.; Peggie, J.R.; Lyons, R.G.; James, J.M.

    1996-02-01

    The study described in this report sets out to determine which Australian show caves have long- term radon levels in excess of the proposed action level of 1000 Bq m -3 . The collaborative study between the Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL), the University of Sydney and the University of Auckland, was carried out with the support of a Research Grant from Worksafe Australia. The aims of this study were to measure radon levels for each season over a period of one year, at representative sites in all developed show caves around Australia, to determine yearly average radon levels for each cave tour, based on these site measurements, to estimate the radiation doses to the tour guides employed in these caves, and to identify caves with radon concentrations in excess of the action level. (authors)

  15. Marriage Matters: Spousal Similarity in Life Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich Schimmack; Richard Lucas

    2006-01-01

    Examined the concurrent and cross-lagged spousal similarity in life satisfaction over a 21-year period. Analyses were based on married couples (N = 847) in the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP). Concurrent spousal similarity was considerably higher than one-year retest similarity, revealing spousal similarity in the variable component of life satisfac-tion. Spousal similarity systematically decreased with length of retest interval, revealing simi-larity in the changing component of life sati...

  16. Learning semantic and visual similarity for endomicroscopy video retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Barbara; Vercauteren, Tom; Buchner, Anna M; Wallace, Michael B; Ayache, Nicholas

    2012-06-01

    Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) is a valuable computer vision technique which is increasingly being applied in the medical community for diagnosis support. However, traditional CBIR systems only deliver visual outputs, i.e., images having a similar appearance to the query, which is not directly interpretable by the physicians. Our objective is to provide a system for endomicroscopy video retrieval which delivers both visual and semantic outputs that are consistent with each other. In a previous study, we developed an adapted bag-of-visual-words method for endomicroscopy retrieval, called "Dense-Sift," that computes a visual signature for each video. In this paper, we present a novel approach to complement visual similarity learning with semantic knowledge extraction, in the field of in vivo endomicroscopy. We first leverage a semantic ground truth based on eight binary concepts, in order to transform these visual signatures into semantic signatures that reflect how much the presence of each semantic concept is expressed by the visual words describing the videos. Using cross-validation, we demonstrate that, in terms of semantic detection, our intuitive Fisher-based method transforming visual-word histograms into semantic estimations outperforms support vector machine (SVM) methods with statistical significance. In a second step, we propose to improve retrieval relevance by learning an adjusted similarity distance from a perceived similarity ground truth. As a result, our distance learning method allows to statistically improve the correlation with the perceived similarity. We also demonstrate that, in terms of perceived similarity, the recall performance of the semantic signatures is close to that of visual signatures and significantly better than those of several state-of-the-art CBIR methods. The semantic signatures are thus able to communicate high-level medical knowledge while being consistent with the low-level visual signatures and much shorter than them

  17. Evaluation of person-level heterogeneity of treatment effects in published multiperson N-of-1 studies: systematic review and reanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Gowri; Balk, Ethan M; Lai, Lana; Shi, Jennifer; Chan, Jeffrey; Lutz, Jennifer S; Dubois, Robert W; Kravitz, Richard L; Kent, David M

    2018-05-26

    Individual patients with the same condition may respond differently to similar treatments. Our aim is to summarise the reporting of person-level heterogeneity of treatment effects (HTE) in multiperson N-of-1 studies and to examine the evidence for person-level HTE through reanalysis. Systematic review and reanalysis of multiperson N-of-1 studies. Medline, Cochrane Controlled Trials, EMBASE, Web of Science and review of references through August 2017 for N-of-1 studies published in English. N-of-1 studies of pharmacological interventions with at least two subjects. Citation screening and data extractions were performed in duplicate. We performed statistical reanalysis testing for person-level HTE on all studies presenting person-level data. We identified 62 multiperson N-of-1 studies with at least two subjects. Statistical tests examining HTE were described in only 13 (21%), of which only two (3%) tested person-level HTE. Only 25 studies (40%) provided person-level data sufficient to reanalyse person-level HTE. Reanalysis using a fixed effect linear model identified statistically significant person-level HTE in 8 of the 13 studies (62%) reporting person-level treatment effects and in 8 of the 14 studies (57%) reporting person-level outcomes. Our analysis suggests that person-level HTE is common and often substantial. Reviewed studies had incomplete information on person-level treatment effects and their variation. Improved assessment and reporting of person-level treatment effects in multiperson N-of-1 studies are needed. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Examination of "Art Literacy" Levels of Students Studying in the Education Faculties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koksoy, Aylin Mentis

    2018-01-01

    Art literacy refers to achieving artistic knowledge, evaluating this knowledge and integrating it with experiences. The aim of the study is to examine the ''art literacy'' levels of the students attending the educational faculty in terms of grade level, gender, the fact that they love art books, the fact that they love doing research in library,…

  19. Study of the level of stem cell factor in patients with bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Gouda El-Gazzar

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the serum level of SCF was higher in asthmatic patients especially among eosinophilic phenotype than among healthy control subjects. Also there was a significant association between higher SCF and higher levels of asthma severity, sputum and blood eosinophil%.

  20. Serum apolipoprotein e level is not increased in Alzheimer's disease : The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slooter, A.J.C.; Knijff, P. de; Hofman, A.; Cruts, M.; Breteler, M.M.B.; Broeckhoven, C. van; Havekes, L.M.; Duijn, C.M. van

    1998-01-01

    The APOE*4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) is an important risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. It has been suggested that levels of apolipoprotein E (apoE) in plasma are increased in Alzheimer's disease. In this population-based study, we found that serum apoE levels were lower in

  1. Negotiating rural tourism development at the local level : a case study in Pisece, Slovenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbole, A.

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the policy and politics of the development of rural tourism at the local level in Slovenia. Its purpose was to increase our understanding of the socio-political dimensions of the rural tourism development process at the local community level by contributing to the

  2. Low levels of sarin affect the EEG in marmoset monkeys: A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helden, H.H.P.M. van; Vanwersch, R.A.P.; Kuijpers, W.C.; Trap, H.C.; Philippens, I.H.C.; Benschop, H.P.

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this pilot study was to estimate the lowest observable adverse effect level (LOAEL) for the electroencephalogram (EEG) upon long-term, low-level exposure of vehicle-pretreated and pyridostigmine-pretreated marmoset monkeys to sarin vapour. This is the C·t value (t = 5 h) of

  3. Design, installation and in-situ performance study of ultrasonic continuous level meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surya Prakash, G.; Somayaji, K.M.

    1995-01-01

    The report discusses the design and the development of a continuous liquid level meter based on ultrasonic pulse-echo technique. A review of various methods for level measurement along with the details of pulse-echo technique are presented. Also discussed is the development of discrete level detectors based on ultrasonic techniques. Lastly, the procedures adopted for in-situ installation of these level meters in FBTR and RML are given along with the field performance study. Some of the typical merits and limitations of the method and the surface preparation procedure are also highlighted. (author) (author)

  4. Protein from meat or vegetable sources in meals matched for fiber content has similar effects on subjective appetite sensations and energy intake - A randomized acute cross-over meal test study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lone Vestergaard; Kristensen, Marlene D; Klingenberg, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Higher-protein meals decrease hunger and increase satiety compared to lower-protein meals. However, no consensus exists about the different effects of animal and vegetable proteins on appetite. We investigated how a meal based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas) affected ad libitum energy......-balanced, fiber-matched meals based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas) or animal protein (veal/pork or eggs) had similar effects on ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations....... intake and appetite sensations, compared to macronutrient-balanced, iso-caloric meals based on animal protein (veal/pork or eggs). Thirty-five healthy men were enrolled in this acute cross-over study. On each test day, participants were presented with one of four test meals (~3550 kilojoules (kJ) 19...

  5. Prospective cohort study on noise levels in a pediatric cardiac intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Guerra, Gonzalo; Joffe, Ari R; Sheppard, Cathy; Pugh, Jodie; Moez, Elham Khodayari; Dinu, Irina A; Jou, Hsing; Hartling, Lisa; Vohra, Sunita

    2018-04-01

    To describe noise levels in a pediatric cardiac intensive care unit, and to determine the relationship between sound levels and patient sedation requirements. Prospective observational study at a pediatric cardiac intensive care unit (PCICU). Sound levels were measured continuously in slow A weighted decibels dB(A) with a sound level meter SoundEarPro® during a 4-week period. Sedation requirement was assessed using the number of intermittent (PRNs) doses given per hour. Analysis was conducted with autoregressive moving average models and the Granger test for causality. 39 children were included in the study. The average (SD) sound level in the open area was 59.4 (2.5) dB(A) with a statistically significant but clinically unimportant difference between day/night hours (60.1 vs. 58.6; p-value noise levels were > 90 dB. There was a significant association between average (p-value = 0.030) and peak sound levels (p-value = 0.006), and number of sedation PRNs. Sound levels were above the recommended values with no differences between day/night or open area/single room. High sound levels were significantly associated with sedation requirements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Text Previews and Three Level Study Guides for Content Area Critical Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Thomas W.; Ericson, Bonnie O.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the integration of text previews (teacher-developed synopses of the text) and three-level study guides (encouraging factual, inferential, and problem solving responses). Claims a combination of these constitutes a powerful strategy for content area reading. (RS)

  7. Study of the levels of serum cortisol and gastrin in dogs with vibration-induced injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Zikun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of levels of serum cortisol and gastrin in dogs with vibration-induced injury for providing better treatment regimen. Methods: In this experiment, 8 or 10 domestic dogs were placed on each of four sites away from explosion center about 0, 100, 200, 300 meters respectively. The dogs were standing uncontrolled or lying right side down under anesthesia. Serum cortisol and gastrin levels were detected with RIA both before and after explosion. Results: The levels of serum cortisol and gastrin began to fall about 24 hours after explosion. The serum levels of cortisol were still decreased significantly after 9 days and 17 days. Conclusion: The levels of the serum cortisol declined when the animals were injured by vibration. Detection of serum cortisol levels might lead to definitive diagnosis and supplemental treatment with cortical hormones for vibration-induced injury. (authors)

  8. A study on relations between the levels of GMP-140 and microangiopathy in NIDDM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Tongxin; Wang Zizheng; Shi Hongzhen

    1995-01-01

    The relations between the level of GMP-140 and microangiopathy in NIDDM for earlier diagnosis or better treatment are investigated, the level of GMP-140 in both platelet and plasma was measured. The level of GMP-140 in both platelet and plasma in 104 cases with NIDDM (55 with and 49 without microagiopathy) and 38 controls were assayed by RIA and also simultaneously with direct platelet count. The level of GMP-140 in both platelet and plasma in NIDDM was remarkably higher than that in controls (P 1 = 0.69, r 2 = 0.75). No differences existed in platelet count between NIDDM and controls. The level of GMP-140 and ophthalmoscopic study had no change after decreasing the concentration of blood glucose (<7.8 mmol/L) and administrating aspirin for 6 months. Microangiopathy in NIDDM had close relation with platelet function and the level of GMP-140

  9. Blood lead levels, iron metabolism gene polymorphisms and homocysteine: a gene-environment interaction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Lee, Mee-Ri; Lim, Youn-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2017-12-01

    Homocysteine has been causally associated with various adverse health outcomes. Evidence supporting the relationship between lead and homocysteine levels has been accumulating, but most prior studies have not focused on the interaction with genetic polymorphisms. From a community-based prospective cohort, we analysed 386 participants (aged 41-71 years) with information regarding blood lead and plasma homocysteine levels. Blood lead levels were measured between 2001 and 2003, and plasma homocysteine levels were measured in 2007. Interactions of lead levels with 42 genotyped single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in five genes ( TF , HFE , CBS , BHMT and MTR ) were assessed via a 2-degree of freedom (df) joint test and a 1-df interaction test. In secondary analyses using imputation, we further assessed 58 imputed SNPs in the TF and MTHFR genes. Blood lead concentrations were positively associated with plasma homocysteine levels (p=0.0276). Six SNPs in the TF and MTR genes were screened using the 2-df joint test, and among them, three SNPs in the TF gene showed interactions with lead with respect to homocysteine levels through the 1-df interaction test (plead levels. Blood lead levels were positively associated with plasma homocysteine levels measured 4-6 years later, and three SNPs in the TF gene modified the association. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Are Plasma Oxytocin and Vasopressin Levels Reflective of Amygdala Activation during the Processing of Negative Emotions? A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoki, Kosuke; Sugiura, Motoaki; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    Plasma oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) are associated with individual differences in emotional responses and behaviors. The amygdala is considered to be an important brain region for regulating emotion-based behavior, with OT and AVP modulating activity in the amygdala during the processing of negative emotions. In particular, increased OT levels may diminish amygdala activation (anxiolytic effects) and enhanced AVP levels may augment amygdala activation (anxiogenic effects) when negative emotions are processed. A growing body of research has shown that the effects of OT and AVP are modulated by sex: the aforementioned anxiolytic effects of OT and the anxiogenic effects of AVP occur in men, but not in women. However, we have little knowledge regarding the biological mechanisms underlying OT and AVP plasma levels or their respective anxiogenic and anxiolytic effects; similarly, little is known about the causes and nature of sex differences related to these neuropeptides and their effects on emotional processing. In the current study, we focused on the neural functions associated with the biological mechanisms underlying such effects. We hypothesized that amygdala activation would correlate with trait plasma OT (anxiolytic effects) and AVP (anxiogenic effects) levels because the amygdala is thought to affect the coordinated release of these neuropeptides following affective experiences. We further hypothesized that the effects would be modulated by sex. We assessed 51 participants (male and female) using a paradigm involving negative emotion in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging and measurements of plasma OT and AVP levels. We determined that increased plasma AVP levels were positively associated with amygdala activation (anxiogenic effects) in men, but not in women. These findings highlight the potential underlying neural mechanisms of plasma AVP levels in men.

  11. Are plasma oxytocin and vasopressin levels reflective of amygdala activation during the processing of negative emotions? A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke eMotoki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Plasma oxytocin (OT and arginine vasopressin (AVP are associated with individual differences in emotional responses and behaviors. The amygdala is considered to be an important brain region for regulating emotion-based behavior, with OT and AVP modulating activity in the amygdala during the processing of negative emotions. In particular, increased OT levels may diminish amygdala activation (anxiolytic effects and enhanced AVP levels may augment amygdala activation (anxiogenic effects when negative emotions are processed. A growing body of research has shown that the effects of OT and AVP are modulated by sex: the aforementioned anxiolytic effects of OT and the anxiogenic effects of AVP occur in men, but not in women. However, we have little knowledge regarding the biological mechanisms underlying OT and AVP plasma levels or their respective anxiogenic and anxiolytic effects; similarly, little is known about the causes and nature of sex differences related to these neuropeptides and their effects on emotional processing. In the current study, we focused on the neural functions associated with the biological mechanisms underlying such effects. We hypothesized that amygdala activation would correlate with plasma OT (anxiolytic effects and AVP (anxiogenic effects levels because the amygdala is thought to affect the coordinated release of these neuropeptides following affective experiences. We further hypothesized that the effects would be modulated by sex. We assessed 51 participants (male and female using a paradigm involving negative emotion in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging and measurements of plasma OT and AVP levels. We determined that increased plasma AVP levels were positively associated with amygdala activation (anxiogenic effects in men, but not in women. These findings highlight the potential underlying neural mechanisms of plasma AVP levels in men.

  12. Evaluation of Fitness and the Balance Levels of Children with a Diagnosis of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patti, Antonino; Maggio, Maria Cristina; Corsello, Giovanni; Messina, Giuseppe; Iovane, Angelo; Palma, Antonio

    2017-07-19

    Background: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is a main cause of physical disability and has high economic costs for society. The purpose of this study was to assess the fitness levels and the postural and balance deficits with a specific test battery. Methods: Fifty-six subjects were enrolled in this study. Thirty-nine healthy subjects were included in the control group and seventeen in the juvenile idiopathic arthritis group. All subjects were evaluated using a posturography system. The fitness level was evaluated with a battery of tests (Abalakov test, sit-up test, hand grip test, backsaver sit and reach, the toe touch test). An unpaired t -test was used to determine differences. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the correlation between the tests. Results: The battery of tests demonstrated that subjects in the juvenile idiopathic arthritis group have lower fitness levels compared to the control group. The juvenile idiopathic arthritis group showed low postural control with respect to the control group. Pearson analysis of the juvenile idiopathic arthritis group data showed significant correlations between variables. Pearson's results from the control group data showed a similar trend. Conclusions: The results suggest that the battery of tests used could be an appropriate tool. However, we highlight that these conclusions need to be supported by other studies with a larger population scale.

  13. The multi-level perspective analysis: Indonesia geothermal energy transition study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisaksono, A.; Murphy, J.; Sharp, J. H.; Younger, P. L.

    2018-01-01

    The study adopts a multi-level perspective in technology transition to analyse how the transition process in the development of geothermal energy in Indonesia is able to compete against the incumbent fossil-fuelled energy sources. Three levels of multi-level perspective are socio-technical landscape (ST-landscape), socio-technical regime (ST-regime) and niche innovations in Indonesia geothermal development. The identification, mapping and analysis of the dynamic relationship between each level are the important pillars of the multi-level perspective framework. The analysis considers the set of rules, actors and controversies that may arise in the technological transition process. The identified geothermal resource risks are the basis of the emerging geothermal technological innovations in Indonesian geothermal. The analysis of this study reveals the transition pathway, which yields a forecast for the Indonesian geothermal technology transition in the form of scenarios and probable impacts.

  14. Educational Level, Anticoagulation Quality, and Clinical Outcomes in Elderly Patients with Acute Venous Thromboembolism: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Eveline; Faller, Nicolas; Limacher, Andreas; Méan, Marie; Tritschler, Tobias; Rodondi, Nicolas; Aujesky, Drahomir

    2016-01-01

    Whether the level of education is associated with anticoagulation quality and clinical outcomes in patients with acute venous thromboembolism (VTE) is uncertain. We thus aimed to investigate the association between educational level and anticoagulation quality and clinical outcomes in elderly patients with acute VTE. We studied 817 patients aged ≥65 years with acute VTE from a Swiss prospective multicenter cohort study (09/2009-12/2013). We defined three educational levels: 1) less than high school, 2) high school, and 3) post-secondary degree. The primary outcome was the anticoagulation quality, expressed as the percentage of time spent in the therapeutic INR range (TTR). Secondary outcomes were the time to a first recurrent VTE and major bleeding. We adjusted for potential confounders and periods of anticoagulation. Overall, 56% of patients had less than high school, 25% a high school degree, and 18% a post-secondary degree. The mean percentage of TTR was similar across educational levels (less than high school, 61%; high school, 64%; and post-secondary, 63%; P = 0.36). Within three years of follow-up, patients with less than high school, high school, and a post-secondary degree had a cumulative incidence of recurrent VTE of 14.2%, 12.9%, and 16.4%, and a cumulative incidence of major bleeding of 13.3%, 15.1%, and 15.4%, respectively. After adjustment, educational level was neither associated with anticoagulation quality nor with recurrent VTE or major bleeding. In elderly patients with VTE, we did not find an association between educational level and anticoagulation quality or clinical outcomes.

  15. Study of a Level-3 Tau Trigger with the Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kotlinski, Danek; Nikitenko, Alexander

    2001-01-01

    We present a Monte Carlo study of the performance of a Level-3 Tau trigger based on the Pixel Detector data. The trigger is designed to select of the Higgs bosons decaying into two tau leptons with tau jet(s) in the final state. The proposed trigger is particularly useful as it operates at an early stage of the CMS High Level Trigger system. The performance of the trigger is studied for the most difficult case of high luminosity LHC scenario.

  16. Study on Generic Intervention Levels for Protecting the Public in a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, E. F.; Sordi, G. M. A. A.; Rodrigues, D. L.

    2004-01-01

    Large amounts of radioactive material can be released to the environment in a nuclear accident or radiological emergency. In these cases, social and economical factors should be considered in the actions for protecting the public and to recover the environment, as these actions may affect not only the exposed individuals but also the society as a whole, because of the social impact and high costs. In 1994, the International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA, published the radiological protection principles for intervention criteria in accident situations involving radioactive materials, as well as numeric values for the generic intervention levels, GIL, for the main countermeasures for protecting the public. These GIL values were selected to achieve broadly the maximum net benefit in many accident situations and, nowadays, those principles still represent the international consensus about this matter. On the other hand, the economic differences between countries can lead the optimization process to get GIL values that are quite different from those recommended. In this context, the monetary value of unit collective averted dose, called alpha-value, is a key element for the determination of the GIL. In this work, the method recommended by the IAEA, based on the human capital approach, was used to estimate the alpha-value for Brazil and the value of US$ 3268 per person-sievert was obtained, considering the year 2000 prices. The per capita costs of the countermeasures for protecting the public, as sheltering, evacuation, temporary relocation and permanent resettlement, were estimated and the cost-benefit analysis technique was applied to estimate the respective GIL applicable in the country. Some of the results for the GILs were smaller than those internationally recommended, even the alpha-value being about six times lower than the alpha-value considered by the IAEA. These results were discussed and they were also compared to values estimated by a similar study accomplished

  17. [Study on the dynamic variations and influencing factors of serum lipid levels during pregnancy and postpartum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D; Liang, C; Chen, L; Wu, X D; He, J

    2018-04-25

    Objective: To study the variations and influencing factors of serum triglycerides and cholesterol levels during pregnancy and postpartum. Methods: A retrospective study was performed among 5 020 healthy singleton (95.10%, 4 774/5 020) and twin (4.90%, 246/5 020) women who had delivery in Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine from January 2011 to December 2016. Serum triglycerides and cholesterol levels during pregnancy and postpartum of all the cases were collected. Both singleton and twin pregnant women were divided into advanced age and appropriate age groups, and then data of serum sample were assigned to 3 groups according to the gestation weeks, which were second trimester pregnancy (24-28 gestation weeks) , third trimester pregnancy (32-41 gestation weeks) and postpartum (within 72 hours after delivery) . The serum triglycerides and cholesterol levels in each groups were compared. Results: (1) Serum triglycerides and cholesterol levels during the second trimester pregnancy, third trimester pregnancy and postpartum were higher than levels of non-pregnancy in both singleton and twin groups (all Ppregnancy group were higher than those of second trimester pregnancy group in both advanced age and appropriate aged women regardless singleton or twin pregnancy (all Ppregnancy were as follows: in appropriate aged singleton group, the triglycerides levels were 1.07-4.13 and 1.52-7.21 mmol/L, and the cholesterol levels were 2.77-12.11 and 4.44-9.36 mmol/L. In advanced aged singleton group, the triglycerides levels were 1.28-4.61 and 1.70-7.80 mmol/L, and the cholesterol levels were 4.35-8.40 and 4.46-9.35 mmol/L; in appropriate aged twin group, the triglycerides levels were 1.39-7.16 and 1.90-9.29 mmol/L, and the cholesterol levels were 4.99-12.16 and 4.52-10.07 mmol/L; in advanced aged twin group, the triglycerides levels were 1.61-5.32 and 1.94-9.29 mmol/L, and the cholesterol levels were 5.24-8.10 and 4.53-8.86 mmol/L. (3) Serum lipids levels

  18. Nitrates in drinking water and methemoglobin levels in pregnancy: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manassaram, Deana M; Backer, Lorraine C; Messing, Rita; Fleming, Lora E; Luke, Barbara; Monteilh, Carolyn P

    2010-10-14

    Private water systems are more likely to have nitrate levels above the maximum contaminant level (MCL). Pregnant women are considered vulnerable to the effects of exposure to high levels of nitrates in drinking water due to their altered physiological states. The level of methemoglobin in the blood is the biomarker often used in research for assessing exposure to nitrates. The objective of this study was to assess methemoglobin levels and examine how various factors affected methemoglobin levels during pregnancy. We also examined whether differences in water use practices existed among pregnant women based on household drinking water source of private vs. public supply. A longitudinal study of 357 pregnant women was conducted. Longitudinal regression models were used to examine changes and predictors of the change in methemoglobin levels over the period of gestation. Pregnant women showed a decrease in methemoglobin levels with increasing gestation although nitrate intake from tap water among pregnant women around 36 weeks gestation (β = 0.046, p = 0.986). Four women had tap water nitrate levels above the MCL of 10 mg/L. At enrollment, a greater proportion of women who reported using water treatment devices were private wells users (66%) compared to public system users (46%) (p nitrate from water (p nitrate levels primarily below the MCL for drinking water were unlikely to show methemoglobin levels above the physiologic normal. Water use practices such as the use of treatment devices to remove nitrates varied according to water source and should be considered in the assessment of exposure to nitrates in future studies.

  19. Vitrification Studies with DOE Low-Level Mixed Waste Wastewater Treatment Sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero, C.A.; Andrews, M.K.; Bickford, D.F.; Hewlett, K.J.; Bennert, D.M.; Overcamp, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    Vitrification studies with simulated Low Level Mixed Waste (LLMW) sludges were performed at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). These studies focused on finding the optimum glass compositions for four simulated LLMW wastewater treatment sludges and were based on both crucible-scale and pilot-scale studies. Optimum compositions were determined based on the maximum waste loading achievable without sacrificing glass integrity

  20. A Study on Sibling Relationships, Life Satisfaction and Loneliness Level of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soysal, F. Selda Öz

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between sibling relationships, life satisfaction, and the loneliness level of adolescents with regard to gender, order of birth, and sibling dyads. The study group consisted of 382 (209 female, 173 male) students in total, who were studying at high schools (regular high school, vocational high…