WorldWideScience

Sample records for levels future studies

  1. Projecting future sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayan, Daniel R.; Bromirski, Peter; Hayhoe, Katharine; Tyree, Mary; Dettinger, Mike; Flick, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    California’s coastal observations and global model projections indicate that California’s open coast and estuaries will experience increasing sea levels over the next century. Sea level rise has affected much of the coast of California, including the Southern California coast, the Central California open coast, and the San Francisco Bay and upper estuary. These trends, quantified from a small set of California tide gages, have ranged from 10–20 centimeters (cm) (3.9–7.9 inches) per century, quite similar to that estimated for global mean sea level. So far, there is little evidence that the rate of rise has accelerated, and the rate of rise at California tide gages has actually flattened since 1980, but projections suggest substantial sea level rise may occur over the next century. Climate change simulations project a substantial rate of global sea level rise over the next century due to thermal expansion as the oceans warm and runoff from melting land-based snow and ice accelerates. Sea level rise projected from the models increases with the amount of warming. Relative to sea levels in 2000, by the 2070–2099 period, sea level rise projections range from 11–54 cm (4.3–21 in) for simulations following the lower (B1) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenario, from 14–61 cm (5.5–24 in) for the middle-upper (A2) emission scenario, and from 17–72 cm (6.7–28 in) for the highest (A1fi) scenario. In addition to relatively steady secular trends, sea levels along the California coast undergo shorter period variability above or below predicted tide levels and changes associated with long-term trends. These variations are caused by weather events and by seasonal to decadal climate fluctuations over the Pacific Ocean that in turn affect the Pacific coast. Highest coastal sea levels have occurred when winter storms and Pacific climate disturbances, such as El Niño, have coincided with high astronomical tides. This study considers a range of projected future

  2. Associations of Affective Responses During Free-Living Physical Activity and Future Physical Activity Levels: an Ecological Momentary Assessment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yue; Chou, Chih-Ping; Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam; Dunton, Genevieve

    2017-08-01

    Affective response during physical activity may influence motivation to perform future physical activity behavior. However, affective response during physical activity is often assessed under controlled laboratory conditions. The current study used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to capture affective responses during free-living physical activity performed by adults, and determined whether these affective responses predict future moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels after 6 and 12 months. At baseline, electronic EMA surveys were randomly prompted across 4 days asking about current activities and affective states (e.g., happy, stressed, energetic, tired). Affective response during physical activity was operationalized as the level of positive or negative affect reported when concurrent physical activity (e.g., exercise or sports) was also reported. Data were available for 82 adults. Future levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were measured using accelerometers, worn for seven consecutive days at 6 and 12 months after the baseline assessment. Feeling more energetic during physical activity was associated with performing more minutes of daily MVPA after both 6 and 12 months. Feeling less negative affect during physical activity was associated with engaging in more daily MVPA minutes after 12 months only. This study demonstrated how EMA can be used to capture affective responses during free-living physical activity. Results found that feelings more energetic and less negative during physical activity were associated with more future physical activity, suggesting that positive emotional benefits may reinforce behavior.

  3. Motivated for leisure in the future: a person-centred longitudinal study in the lowest level of secondary education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, I.; Peetsma, T.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term future time perspective on leisure has been found to relate negatively to school effort. This was studied further by recognizing types of students based on developments in long-term leisure perspectives and comparing their development in motivation and academic achievement. Around 1200

  4. Motivated for Leisure in the Future: A Person-Centred Longitudinal Study in the Lowest Level of Secondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Veen, Ineke; Peetsma, Thea

    2011-01-01

    Long-term future time perspective on leisure has been found to relate negatively to school effort. This was studied further by recognizing types of students based on developments in long-term leisure perspectives and comparing their development in motivation and academic achievement. Around 1200 12-13 year old students attending the lowest level…

  5. Increased Glutamate and Homocysteine and Decreased Glutamine Levels in Autism: A Review and Strategies for Future Studies of Amino Acids in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghanizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many reports about the significant roles of some amino acids in neurobiology and treatment of autism. This is a critical review of amino acids levels in autism. No published review article about the level of amino acids in autism was found. The levels of glutamate and homocystein are increased in autism while the levels of glutamine and tryptophan are decreased. Findings regarding the plasma levels of taurine and lysine are controversial. The urinary levels of homocysteine and essential amino acids in both the untreated and treated autistic children are significantly less than those in the controls. The current literature suffers from many methodological shortcomings which needed to be considered in future studies. Some of them are age, gender, developmental level, autism symptoms severity, type of autism spectrum disorders, medical comorbidities, intelligent quotient, diet, concomitant medications, body mass index, and technical method of assessment of amino acids.

  6. Increased Glutamate and Homocysteine and Decreased Glutamine Levels in Autism: A Review and Strategies for Future Studies of Amino Acids in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    There are many reports about the significant roles of some amino acids in neurobiology and treatment of autism. This is a critical review of amino acids levels in autism. No published review article about the level of amino acids in autism was found. The levels of glutamate and homocystein are increased in autism while the levels of glutamine and tryptophan are decreased. Findings regarding the plasma levels of taurine and lysine are controversial. The urinary levels of homocysteine and essential amino acids in both the untreated and treated autistic children are significantly less than those in the controls. The current literature suffers from many methodological shortcomings which needed to be considered in future studies. Some of them are age, gender, developmental level, autism symptoms severity, type of autism spectrum disorders, medical comorbidities, intelligent quotient, diet, concomitant medications, body mass index, and technical method of assessment of amino acids. PMID:24167375

  7. THE EFFECTS OF CHANGING MARGIN LEVELS ON FUTURES OPTIONS PRICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanling GU; Juan LI

    2006-01-01

    The paper studies the effects of changing margin levels on the price of futures options and how to organize a market maker's position. Black model (1976) becomes a special case of this paper.The paper prices futures options by duplicating them and adopting the theory of Backward Stochastic Differential Equations (BSDEs for short). Furthermore, the price of a futures option is the unique solution to a nonlinear BSDE.

  8. Cardiovascular diseases induced by low level ionizing radiation. Current status and proposal of future directions of the biological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Toshiyasu; Nomura, Takaharu; Ishii, Keiichiro

    2013-01-01

    In the publication on tissue reactions of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) was calculated based on linear non-threshold model, without taking account of dose-rate effect. To evaluate the validity of this estimation, we analyzed recent epidemiological and biological findings on CVD at low dose or low dose-rate. Though epidemiological data suggested that radiation would have a causal association with CVD by inducing atherosclerosis, it was limited by heterogeneity among studies, and the contribution of other pathways was also suggested. As biological mechanisms, inflammation is considered as the critical factor of radiation induced CVD. However, the inflammatory responses at low dose were inconsistent among studies, and there were few data at low dose-rate. Furthermore, because those responses were transient, it was very difficult to link them to CVD with long latency. We proposed a concept for the analysis of these long latency diseases by focusing the premonitory symptoms of CVD which could be affected by radiation. As the premonitory symptoms recruitment of white blood cells to inflamed blood vessels and/or tissues would have the highest priority to investigate. To elucidate the dose-rate effect and reflect the results on the radiological protection, it would be important to examine the premonitory symptoms after long term exposure mimicking the actual situation, such as chronic exposure or fractionated exposure of very small dose. (author)

  9. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, T.; Sandor, D.; Wiser, R.; Schneider, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  10. Study of future reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, J.

    1992-01-01

    Today, more than 420 large reactors with a gross output of close to 350 GWe supply 20 percent of world electricity needs, accounting for less than 5 percent of primary energy consumption. These figures are not expected to change in the near future, due to suspended reactor construction in many countries. Nevertheless, world energy needs continue to grow: the planet's population already exceeds five billion and is forecast to reach ten billion by the middle of the next century. Most less developed countries have a very low rate of energy consumption and, even though some savings can be made in industrialized countries, it will become increasingly difficult to satisfy needs using fossil fuels only. Furthermore, there has been no recent breakthrough in the energy landscape. The physical feasibility of the other great hope of nuclear energy, fusion, has yet to be proved; once this has been done, it will be necessary to solve technological problems and to assess economic viability. Although it is more ever necessary to pursue fusion programs, there is little likelihood of industrial applications being achieved in the coming decades. Coal and fission are the only ways to produce massive amounts of energy for the next century. Coal must overcome the pollution problems inherent in its use; fission nuclear power has to gain better public acceptance, which is obviously colored by safety and waste concerns. Most existing reactors were commissioned in the 1970s; reactor lifetime is a parameter that has not been clearly established. It will certainly be possible to refurbish some to extend their operation beyond the initial target of 30 or 40 years. But normal advances in technology and safety requirements will make the operation of the oldest reactors increasingly difficult. It becomes necessary to develop new generations of nuclear reactors, both to replace older ones and to revive plant construction in their countries that are not yet equipped or that have halted their

  11. Future ATLAS Higgs Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Smart, Ben; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The High-Luminosity LHC will prove a challenging environment to work in, with for example $=200$ expected. It will however also provide great opportunities for advancing studies of the Higgs boson. The ATLAS detector will be upgraded, and Higgs prospects analyses have been performed to assess the reach of ATLAS Higgs studies in the HL-LHC era. These analyses are presented, as are Run-2 ATLAS di-Higgs analyses for comparison.

  12. Association of triiodothyronine levels with future development of metabolic syndrome in euthyroid middle-aged subjects: a 6-year retrospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Jeong; Bae, Ji Cheol; Park, Hyeong Kyu; Byun, Dong Won; Suh, Kyoil; Yoo, Myung Hi; Jae Hwan, Jee; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Min, Yong-Ki; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon

    2017-04-01

    Several cross-sectional studies have reported that thyroid hormone levels are associated with cardiovascular risk markers and metabolic syndrome (MetS) even in euthyroid subjects. However, the prognostic role of serum thyroid hormone levels in the risk of incident MetS has not been elucidated. We aimed to investigate the associations of baseline serum thyroid hormone levels with the development of MetS in healthy subjects. This 6-year, cross-sectional, longitudinal and follow-up study was conducted in 12 037 euthyroid middle-aged subjects without MetS subjected to comprehensive health examinations. Subjects were grouped according to total triiodothyronine (T3) quartiles. The hazard ratio (HR) for the development of MetS according to T3 quartiles was estimated using Cox proportional hazards model. During the 6-year period, 3544 incident cases of MetS (29%) were identified. The proportion of subjects with incident MetS increased across the T3 quartiles ( P for trend <0.001). The HR and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the development of MetS were significantly higher in the highest T3 quartile compared with the lowest T3 quartile even after adjusting for confounding variables including gender, age and smoking (HR: 1.238, 95% CI: 1.128-1.358, P  < 0.001). In euthyroid middle-aged subjects, serum T3 levels are associated with increased risk for future development of MetS. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  13. Russian State Leveling Network (present and future)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurova, Elena; Kopeikin, Sergei; Karpik, Aleksander

    2017-04-01

    In August 2016 the sixth session of the United Nations Committee of Experts of Global Geospatial Information Management (UN-GGIM) endorsed the roadmap for the development of a Global Geodetic Reference Frame (GGRF) and urged countries to join efforts for its creation. In response to the UN appeal in this article describes the current state of the high-precision Leveling Network in Russia and prospects of its development. In this paper, we consider projects related to the construction of new high-precision leveling lines by the classical methods, as well as issues of creating high-precision leveling network, associated with the development and implementation of a fundamentally new method of determining heights in geodesy - chronometric leveling based on the application of quantum metrology of time and the fundamental laws of general relativity. Keywords: leveling network, chronometric leveling, quantum metrology of time, the general theory of relativity.

  14. Physical activity, C-reactive protein levels and the risk of future coronary artery disease in apparently healthy men and women: the EPIC-Norfolk prospective population study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Day, Nicholas E.; Luben, Robert; Bingham, Sheila A.; Peters, Ron J. G.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical activity is inversely associated with the risk of future coronary artery disease. Whether this relationship is in part mediated by lower levels of systemic inflammation, as indicated by C-reactive protein concentrations, is unknown. METHODS: We performed a nested case-control

  15. Renewable Electricity Futures Study Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schneider, Thomas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures Study (RE Futures) provides an analysis of the grid integration opportunities, challenges, and implications of high levels of renewable electricity generation for the U.S. electric system. The study is not a market or policy assessment. Rather, RE Futures examines renewable energy resources and many technical issues related to the operability of the U.S. electricity grid, and provides initial answers to important questions about the integration of high penetrations of renewable electricity technologies from a national perspective. RE Futures results indicate that a future U.S. electricity system that is largely powered by renewable sources is possible and that further work is warranted to investigate this clean generation pathway.

  16. Predictors of future fasting and 2-h post-OGTT plasma glucose levels in middle-aged men and women-the Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerch, K; Vaag, A; Witte, D R

    2009-01-01

    PG levels. Among the anthropometric variables, large waist circumference was the strongest predictor of increased FPG levels in men, whereas high body mass index (BMI) was the strongest predictor of increased FPG levels in women. In both men and women, BMI and waist circumference were equally strong...... elevations of FPG levels were different from those predicting elevations of 2hPG levels in men and women. METHODS: We used baseline and 5-year follow-up data from middle-aged men and women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) at baseline in the Danish population-based Inter99 study (n = 3164). Anthropometric...... and non-anthropometric baseline predictors of the 5-year FPG and 2hPG levels were estimated in linear regression models stratified by gender. RESULTS: In men, but not in women, smoking and family history of diabetes predicted increased FPG levels, whereas high physical activity predicted a decline in 2h...

  17. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 1. Exploration of High-Penetration Renewable Electricity Futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, M. M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baldwin, S. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); DeMeo, E. [Renewable Energy Consulting, Chicago, IL (United States); Reilly, J. M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Mai, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arent, D. [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Boulder, CO (United States); Porro, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Meshek, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  18. Communicating uncertainties in assessments of future sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikman-Svahn, P.

    2013-12-01

    How uncertainty should be managed and communicated in policy-relevant scientific assessments is directly connected to the role of science and the responsibility of scientists. These fundamentally philosophical issues influence how scientific assessments are made and how scientific findings are communicated to policymakers. It is therefore of high importance to discuss implicit assumptions and value judgments that are made in policy-relevant scientific assessments. The present paper examines these issues for the case of scientific assessments of future sea level rise. The magnitude of future sea level rise is very uncertain, mainly due to poor scientific understanding of all physical mechanisms affecting the great ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica, which together hold enough land-based ice to raise sea levels more than 60 meters if completely melted. There has been much confusion from policymakers on how different assessments of future sea levels should be interpreted. Much of this confusion is probably due to how uncertainties are characterized and communicated in these assessments. The present paper draws on the recent philosophical debate on the so-called "value-free ideal of science" - the view that science should not be based on social and ethical values. Issues related to how uncertainty is handled in scientific assessments are central to this debate. This literature has much focused on how uncertainty in data, parameters or models implies that choices have to be made, which can have social consequences. However, less emphasis has been on how uncertainty is characterized when communicating the findings of a study, which is the focus of the present paper. The paper argues that there is a tension between on the one hand the value-free ideal of science and on the other hand usefulness for practical applications in society. This means that even if the value-free ideal could be upheld in theory, by carefully constructing and hedging statements characterizing

  19. The Future of GLOSS Sea Level Data Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevrejeva, S.; Bradshaw, E.; Tamisiea, M. E.; Aarup, T.

    2014-12-01

    Long term climate records are rare, consisting of unique and unrepeatable measurements. However, data do exist in analogue form in archives, libraries and other repositories around the world. The Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS) Group of Experts aims to provide advice on locating hidden tide gauge data, scanning and digitising records and quality controlling the resulting data. Long sea level data time series are used in Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment reports and climate studies, in oceanography to study changes in ocean currents, tides and storm surges, in geodesy to establish national datum and in geography and geology to monitor coastal land movement. GLOSS has carried out a number of data archaeology activities over the past decade, which have mainly involved sending member organisations questionnaires on their repositories. The Group of Experts is now looking at future developments in sea level data archaeology and how new technologies coming on line could be used by member organisations to make data digitisation and transcription more efficient. Analogue tide data comes in two forms charts, which record the continuous measurements made by an instrument, usually via a pen trace on paper ledgers containing written values of observations The GLOSS data archaeology web pages will provide a list of software that member organisations have reported to be suitable for the automatic digitisation of tide gauge charts. Transcribing of ledgers has so far proved more labour intensive and is usually conducted by people entering numbers by hand. GLOSS is exploring using Citizen Science techniques, such as those employed by the Old Weather project, to improve the efficiency of transcribing ledgers. The Group of Experts is also looking at recent advances in Handwritten Text Recognition (HTR) technology, which mainly relies on patterns in the written word, but could be adapted to work with the patterns inherent in sea level data.

  20. FUTURE CIRCULAR COLLIDER LOGISTICS STUDY

    CERN Document Server

    Beißert, Ulrike; Kuhlmann, Gerd; Nettsträter, Andreas; Prasse, Christian; Wohlfahrt, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN in Geneva is the largest and most powerful collider in the world. CERN and its research and experimental infrastructure is not only a focus for the science community but is also very much in the public eye. With the Future Circular Collider (FCC) Study, CERN has begun to examine the feasibility of a new underground accelerator ring with a length of approximately 100 kilometres. Logistics is of great importance for the construction, assembly and operation of the FCC. During the planning, construction and assembly of the LHC, logistics proved to be one of the key factors. As the FCC is even larger than the LHC, logistics will also become more and more significant. This report therefore shows new concepts, methods and analytics for logistics, supply chain and transport concepts as part of the FCC study. This report deals with three different logistics aspects for the planning and construction phase of FCC: 1. A discussion of d...

  1. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 1: Exploration of High-Penetration Renewable Electricity Futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, T.; Wiser, R.; Sandor, D.; Brinkman, G.; Heath, G.; Denholm, P.; Hostick, D.J.; Darghouth, N.; Schlosser, A.; Strzepek, K.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  2. Adiabatic logic future trend and system level perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Teichmann, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Adiabatic logic is a potential successor for static CMOS circuit design when it comes to ultra-low-power energy consumption. Future development like the evolutionary shrinking of the minimum feature size as well as revolutionary novel transistor concepts will change the gate level savings gained by adiabatic logic. In addition, the impact of worsening degradation effects has to be considered in the design of adiabatic circuits. The impact of the technology trends on the figures of merit of adiabatic logic, energy saving potential and optimum operating frequency, are investigated, as well as degradation related issues. Adiabatic logic benefits from future devices, is not susceptible to Hot Carrier Injection, and shows less impact of Bias Temperature Instability than static CMOS circuits. Major interest also lies on the efficient generation of the applied power-clock signal. This oscillating power supply can be used to save energy in short idle times by disconnecting circuits. An efficient way to generate the p...

  3. Future radioactive liquid waste streams study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, A.S.

    1993-11-01

    This study provides design planning information for the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF). Predictions of estimated quantities of Radioactive Liquid Waste (RLW) and radioactivity levels of RLW to be generated are provided. This information will help assure that the new treatment facility is designed with the capacity to treat generated RLW during the years of operation. The proposed startup date for the RLWTF is estimated to be between 2002 and 2005, and the life span of the facility is estimated to be 40 years. The policies and requirements driving the replacement of the current RLW treatment facility are reviewed. Historical and current status of RLW generation at Los Alamos National Laboratory are provided. Laboratory Managers were interviewed to obtain their insights into future RLW activities at Los Alamos that might affect the amount of RLW generated at the Lab. Interviews, trends, and investigation data are analyzed and used to create scenarios. These scenarios form the basis for the predictions of future RLW generation and the level of RLW treatment capacity which will be needed at LANL

  4. Future radioactive liquid waste streams study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, A.S.

    1993-11-01

    This study provides design planning information for the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF). Predictions of estimated quantities of Radioactive Liquid Waste (RLW) and radioactivity levels of RLW to be generated are provided. This information will help assure that the new treatment facility is designed with the capacity to treat generated RLW during the years of operation. The proposed startup date for the RLWTF is estimated to be between 2002 and 2005, and the life span of the facility is estimated to be 40 years. The policies and requirements driving the replacement of the current RLW treatment facility are reviewed. Historical and current status of RLW generation at Los Alamos National Laboratory are provided. Laboratory Managers were interviewed to obtain their insights into future RLW activities at Los Alamos that might affect the amount of RLW generated at the Lab. Interviews, trends, and investigation data are analyzed and used to create scenarios. These scenarios form the basis for the predictions of future RLW generation and the level of RLW treatment capacity which will be needed at LANL.

  5. Study of Mothers' Anxieties Related to Their Children's Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilgar, Sengul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to study anxieties of mothers related to their children's future. Qualitative method was used in order to study anxieties of mothers from different socio-economic levels. Sample of the study participants are 129 mothers living in Istanbul. 32 of those mothers are from upper socio-economic level, 57, from middle…

  6. The CMS High Level Trigger System: Experience and Future Development

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gerry; Bowen, Matthew; Branson, James G; Bukowiec, Sebastian; Cittolin, Sergio; Coarasa, J A; Deldicque, Christian; Dobson, Marc; Dupont, Aymeric; Erhan, Samim; Flossdorf, Alexander; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino, R; Hartl, Christian; Hegeman, Jeroen; Holzner, André; Y L Hwong; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Meschi, Emilio; Mommsen, R K; O'Dell, Vivian; Orsini, Luciano; Paus, Christoph; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Polese, Giovanni; Racz, Attila; Raginel, Olivier; Sakulin, Hannes; Sani, Matteo; Schwick, Christoph; Shpakov, Dennis; Simon, M; Spataru, A C; Sumorok, Konstanty

    2012-01-01

    The CMS experiment at the LHC features a two-level trigger system. Events accepted by the first level trigger, at a maximum rate of 100 kHz, are read out by the Data Acquisition system (DAQ), and subsequently assembled in memory in a farm of computers running a software high-level trigger (HLT), which selects interesting events for offline storage and analysis at a rate of order few hundred Hz. The HLT algorithms consist of sequences of offline-style reconstruction and filtering modules, executed on a farm of 0(10000) CPU cores built from commodity hardware. Experience from the operation of the HLT system in the collider run 2010/2011 is reported. The current architecture of the CMS HLT, its integration with the CMS reconstruction framework and the CMS DAQ, are discussed in the light of future development. The possible short- and medium-term evolution of the HLT software infrastructure to support extensions of the HLT computing power, and to address remaining performance and maintenance issues, are discussed.

  7. Sea level ~400 000 years ago (MIS 11: analogue for present and future sea-level?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Q. Bowen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of the sea-level today with that of 400 000 years ago (MIS 11, when the Earth's orbital characteristics were similar may provide, under conditions of natural variability, indications of future sea-level during the present interglacial. Then, as now, orbital eccentricity was low and precession dampened. Evidence for MIS 11 sea-level occurs on uplifting coastlines where shorelines with geochronological ages have been preserved. The sea-level term and the uplift term may be separated with an "uplift correction" formula. This discovers the original sea-level at which the now uplifted shoreline was fashioned. Estimates are based on average uplift rates of the "last interglacial" sea-level (MIS 5.5 using a range of estimates for sea-level and age at that time at different locations. These, with varying secular tectonic regimes in different ocean basins, provide a band of estimates for the MIS 11 sea-level. They do not support the hypothesis of an MIS 11 sea-level at ~20 m, and instead show that it was closer to its present level.

  8. Reconnaissance level study Mississippi storm surge barrier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ledden, M.; Lansen, A.J.; De Ridder, H.A.J.; Edge, B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a reconnaissance level study of a storm surge barrier in the Mississippi River. Historical hurricanes have shown storm surge of several meters along the Mississippi River levees up to and upstream of New Orleans. Future changes due to sea level rise and subsidence will further

  9. Model shows future cut in U.S. ozone levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    A joint U.S. auto-oil industry research program says modeling shows that changing gasoline composition can reduce ozone levels for Los Angeles in 2010 and for New York City and Dallas-Fort Worth in 2005. The air quality modeling was based on vehicle emissions research data released late last year (OGJ, Dec. 24, 1990, p. 20). The effort is sponsored by the big three auto manufacturers and 14 oil companies. Sponsors the cars and small trucks account for about one third of ozone generated in the three cities studied but by 2005-10 will account for only 5-9%

  10. Assessing the Knowledge Level, Attitudes, Risky Behaviors and Preventive Practices on Sexually Transmitted Diseases among University Students as Future Healthcare Providers in the Central Zone of Malaysia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adigun Temiloluwa Folasayo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to assess the knowledge, attitudes, risky behaviors and preventive practices related to sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs among health and non-health sciences university students as future healthcare providers in Malaysia. A total of 700 health and non-health sciences university students (255 male; 445 female aged between 17 and 30 years were surveyed by using a self-administered questionnaire. The majority (86.6% had heard of STDs, and 50.4% knew STDs could present without symptoms. HIV remains the best known STD (83.6% by the students, while chlamydia (26% and trichomoniasis (21.0% were rarely known. Gender, age group, educational level and faculty type were strongly associated with knowledge level (p-values < 0.05. Most of them (88.8% were aware that STD screening was important while use of condoms was protective (63.8%. The majority of them strongly felt that treatment should be sought immediately if they (85.5% and their partners (87.4% have symptoms. Among the sexually-active students, 66.7% and 18% had sexual intercourse with multiple partners and commercial sex workers, while 17.4% and 9.4% took alcohol and drugs before having sex, respectively. By logistic regression analysis, students aged 24–30 years old (an odds ratio (AOR = 0.57, 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.377–0.859 and faculty type (AOR = 5.69, 95% CI = 4.019–8.057 were the significant predictors for the knowledge level. Knowledge on the non-HIV causes of STDs is still lacking, and the risky behavior practiced by the sexually-active students in this study is alarming. There is a need to revisit the existing STD education curriculum in both schools and universities so that appropriate intervention on STDs can be implemented.

  11. Assessing the Knowledge Level, Attitudes, Risky Behaviors and Preventive Practices on Sexually Transmitted Diseases among University Students as Future Healthcare Providers in the Central Zone of Malaysia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folasayo, Adigun Temiloluwa; Oluwasegun, Afolayan John; Samsudin, Suhailah; Saudi, Siti Nor Sakinah; Osman, Malina; Hamat, Rukman Awang

    2017-02-08

    This study was done to assess the knowledge, attitudes, risky behaviors and preventive practices related to sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs) among health and non-health sciences university students as future healthcare providers in Malaysia. A total of 700 health and non-health sciences university students (255 male; 445 female) aged between 17 and 30 years were surveyed by using a self-administered questionnaire. The majority (86.6%) had heard of STDs, and 50.4% knew STDs could present without symptoms. HIV remains the best known STD (83.6%) by the students, while chlamydia (26%) and trichomoniasis (21.0%) were rarely known. Gender, age group, educational level and faculty type were strongly associated with knowledge level ( p -values students, 66.7% and 18% had sexual intercourse with multiple partners and commercial sex workers, while 17.4% and 9.4% took alcohol and drugs before having sex, respectively. By logistic regression analysis, students aged 24-30 years old (an odds ratio (AOR) = 0.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.377-0.859) and faculty type (AOR = 5.69, 95% CI = 4.019-8.057) were the significant predictors for the knowledge level. Knowledge on the non-HIV causes of STDs is still lacking, and the risky behavior practiced by the sexually-active students in this study is alarming. There is a need to revisit the existing STD education curriculum in both schools and universities so that appropriate intervention on STDs can be implemented.

  12. Computing the distribution of return levels of extreme warm temperatures for future climate projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pausader, M.; Parey, S.; Nogaj, M. [EDF/R and D, Chatou Cedex (France); Bernie, D. [Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter (United Kingdom)

    2012-03-15

    In order to take into account uncertainties in the future climate projections there is a growing demand for probabilistic projections of climate change. This paper presents a methodology for producing such a probabilistic analysis of future temperature extremes. The 20- and 100-years return levels are obtained from that of the normalized variable and the changes in mean and standard deviation given by climate models for the desired future periods. Uncertainty in future change of these extremes is quantified using a multi-model ensemble and a perturbed physics ensemble. The probability density functions of future return levels are computed at a representative location from the joint probability distribution of mean and standard deviation changes given by the two combined ensembles of models. For the studied location, the 100-years return level at the end of the century is lower than 41 C with an 80% confidence. Then, as the number of model simulations is low to compute a reliable distribution, two techniques proposed in the literature (local pattern scaling and ANOVA) have been used to infer the changes in mean and standard deviation for the combinations of RCM and GCM which have not been run. The ANOVA technique leads to better results for the reconstruction of the mean changes, whereas the two methods fail to correctly infer the changes in standard deviation. As standard deviation change has a major impact on return level change, there is a need to improve the models and the different techniques regarding the variance changes. (orig.)

  13. Future directions for high-spin studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, F.S.

    1982-11-01

    Some future directions for experimental high-spin studies are discussed, concentrating mainly on the region above I -- 30h, where the γ-ray spectra are currently unresolvable. The 4π NaI balls offer a means to exploit the temperature effects recently shown to exist in such spectra. Large arrays of Compton-suppressed Ge detectors, on the other and, lead to higher effective resolution as it becomes possible to study triple and quadruple coincident events

  14. Past and future changes in extreme sea levels and waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Lawe, J.A.; Woodworth, P.L.; Knutson, T.; McDonald, R.E.; Mclnnes, K.L.; Woth, K.; Von Storch, H.; Wolf, J.; Swail, V.; Bernier, N.B.; Gulev, S.; Horsburgh, K.J.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Hunter, J.R.; Weisse, R.

    of Extreme Sea Level 11.3.1 An Introduction to Storms Both mid-latitude and tropical storms are associated with extremes of sea level. Storm surges are generated by low atmospheric pressure and intense winds over the ocean. The latter also cause high wave... timescales, extremes and mean-sea-level change are both major factors in determining coastal evolution including the development of coastal ecosystems. It will be seen below that, although it is difficult to determine how mean sea level has changed...

  15. Future extreme sea level seesaws in the tropical Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widlansky, Matthew J; Timmermann, Axel; Cai, Wenju

    2015-09-01

    Global mean sea levels are projected to gradually rise in response to greenhouse warming. However, on shorter time scales, modes of natural climate variability in the Pacific, such as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), can affect regional sea level variability and extremes, with considerable impacts on coastal ecosystems and island nations. How these shorter-term sea level fluctuations will change in association with a projected increase in extreme El Niño and its atmospheric variability remains unknown. Using present-generation coupled climate models forced with increasing greenhouse gas concentrations and subtracting the effect of global mean sea level rise, we find that climate change will enhance El Niño-related sea level extremes, especially in the tropical southwestern Pacific, where very low sea level events, locally known as Taimasa, are projected to double in occurrence. Additionally, and throughout the tropical Pacific, prolonged interannual sea level inundations are also found to become more likely with greenhouse warming and increased frequency of extreme La Niña events, thus exacerbating the coastal impacts of the projected global mean sea level rise.

  16. Global Knowledge Futures: Articulating the Emergence of a New Meta-level Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Gidley

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I articulate a new meta-level field of studies that I call global knowledge futures—a field through which other emerging transdisciplinary fields can be integrated to cohere knowledge at a higher level. I contrast this with the current dominant knowledge paradigm of the global knowledge economy with its fragmentation, commodification and instrumentalism based on neoliberal knowledge capitalism. I take a big-picture, macrohistorical lens to the new thinking and new knowledge patterns that are emerging within the evolution of consciousness discourse. I explore three discourses: postformal studies, integral studies and planetary studies—using a fourth discourse, futures studies, to provide a macro-temporal framing. By extending the meta-fields of postformal, integral and planetary studies into a prospective future dimension, I locate areas of development where these leading-edge discourses can be brought into closer dialogue with each other. In this meeting point of four boundary-spanning discourses I identify the new meta-level field of global knowledge futures, grounded in human thinking capacities, such as creativity, imagination, dialogue and collaboration.

  17. The future of very low level radioactive wastes in question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignes, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    After having recalled that nuclear plants produce various radioactive wastes, that the Cigeo project is the proposed solution to store these radioactive wastes, this article more particularly addresses the issue of very low level radioactive wastes which are now the main matter of concern for the IRSN as their quantity is expected to increase during the years to come (notably in relationship with nuclear reactor lifetime extension), and as present storage capacities will soon be saturated. The author first outlines that these wastes are not very dangerous but very cumbersome. Among these so-defined 'very low level' wastes, 30 to 50 per cent could be considered as harmless, but are now processed as dangerous wastes through costly processes. Various possibilities are then envisaged such as a diversification of storage options

  18. Urban phenological studies – Past, present, future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jochner, Susanne; Menzel, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Phenology is believed to be a suitable bio-indicator to track climate change. Based on the strong statistical association between phenology and temperature phenological observations provide an inexpensive means for the temporal and spatial analysis of the urban heat island. However, other environmental factors might also weaken this relationship. In addition, the investigation of urban phenology allows an estimation of future phenology from current information since cities with their amplified temperatures may serve as a proxy for future conditions. Nevertheless, the design of spatial compared to long-term studies might be influenced by different factors which should be taken into consideration when interpreting results from a specific study. In general, plants located in urban areas tend to flush and bloom earlier than in the countryside. What are the consequences of these urban–rural differences? This review will document existing findings on urban phenology and will highlight areas in which further research is needed. - Highlights: • Urban phenology can be used for the estimation of the urban heat island effect. • Confounding factors weaken the phenology–temperature relationship. • Urban phenology is useful as a proxy for climate change impacts on phenology. • Differences in the study design hinder the generalisation of one specific method. • Urban–rural variations in phenology affect vegetation, meteorology, human health. - Studies on urban phenology can be used to detect urban heat islands and to assess climate change impacts but it still remains important to adequately link spatial and long-term data

  19. The future for the Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS) Sea Level Data Rescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Elizabeth; Matthews, Andrew; Rickards, Lesley; Aarup, Thorkild

    2016-04-01

    Historical sea level data are rare and unrepeatable measurements with a number of applications in climate studies (sea level rise), oceanography (ocean currents, tides, surges), geodesy (national datum), geophysics and geology (coastal land movements) and other disciplines. However, long-term time series are concentrated in the northern hemisphere and there are no records at the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) global data bank longer than 100 years in the Arctic, Africa, South America or Antarctica. Data archaeology activities will help fill in the gaps in the global dataset and improve global sea level reconstruction. The Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS) is an international programme conducted under the auspices of the WMO-IOC Joint Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology. It was set up in 1985 to collect long-term tide gauge observations and to develop systems and standards "for ocean monitoring and flood warning purposes". At the GLOSS-GE-XIV Meeting in 2015, GLOSS agreed on a number of action items to be developed in the next two years. These were: 1. To explore mareogram digitisation applications, including NUNIEAU (more information available at: http://www.mediterranee.cerema.fr/logiciel-de-numerisation-des-enregistrements-r57.html) and other recent developments in scanning/digitisation software, such as IEDRO's Weather Wizards program, to see if they could be used via a browser. 2. To publicise sea level data archaeology and rescue by: • maintaining and regularly updating the Sea Level Data Archaeology page on the GLOSS website • strengthening links to the GLOSS data centres and data rescue organisations e.g. linking to IEDRO, ACRE, RDA • restarting the sea level data rescue blog with monthly posts. 3. Investigate sources of funding for data archaeology and rescue projects. 4. Propose "Guidelines" for rescuing sea level data. These action items will aid the discovery, scanning, digitising and quality control

  20. Future Circular Collider study week 2017

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The annual meetings of the worldwide Future Circular Collider study (FCC) are major international events that review the progress in every domain which is relevant to develop feasible concepts for a next generation frontier particle accelerate based high-energy physics research infrastructure. This 3rd meeting is jointly organised by CERN and DESY. It is also the annual meeting of the EuroCirCol EC Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Action project. Previous events took place in Washington and Rome. In 2017 the FCC Week will take place in Berlin, Germany between May 29 and June 2.

  1. The Topological Processor for the future ATLAS Level-1 Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Kahra, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    ATLAS is an experiment on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), located at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland. By 2015 the LHC instantaneous luminosity will be increased from $10^{34}$ up to $3\\cdot 10^{34} \\mathrm{cm}^{-2} \\mathrm{s}^{-1}$. This places stringent operational and physical requirements on the ATLAS Trigger in order to reduce the 40MHz collision rate to a manageable event storage rate of 1kHz while at the same time, selecting those events that contain interesting physics events. The Level-1 Trigger is the first rate-reducing step in the ATLAS Trigger, with an output rate of 100kHz and decision latency of less than $2.5 \\mu \\mathrm{s}$. It is composed of the Calorimeter Trigger, the Muon Trigger and the Central Trigger Processor (CTP). In 2014, there will be a new electronics module: the Topological Processor (L1Topo). The L1Topo will make it possible, for the first time, to use detailed information from subdetectors in a single Level-1 module. This allows the determi...

  2. Challenging Futures Studies To Enhance Participatory River Basin Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Helm, R.

    implementation. However, critical conceptual and design requirements have to be met in order to realise futures research potentials. Since the beginning of the 1990s futures studies are becoming (again) more and more widespread in many different domains (technology, education, urban development, agriculture, environment, etc.). Recently, experiences have been launched and are currently being launched in the water sector (of which the World Water Vision is a well -known - but not necessarily the most representative - example). Although futures studies on a river basin level are still scarce, they will offer already sufficient material for empirical analysis. The research, effectuated within a larger framework study on the implications of futures studies for environmental research, offers at this stage initially a conceptual understanding.

  3. The ATLAS High Level Trigger Infrastructure, Performance and Future Developments

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS High Level Trigger (HLT) is a distributed real-time software system that performs the final online selection of events produced during proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is designed as a two-stage event filter running on a farm of commodity PC hardware. Currently the system consists of about 850 multi-core processing nodes that will be extended incrementally following the increasing luminosity of the LHC to about 2000 nodes depending on the evolution of the processor technology. Due to the complexity and similarity of the algorithms a large fraction of the software is shared between the online and offline event reconstruction. The HLT Infrastructure serves as the interface between the two domains and provides common services for the trigger algorithms. The consequences of this design choice will be discussed and experiences from the operation of the ATLAS HLT during cosmic ray data taking and first beam in 2008 will be presented. Since the event processing time at the HL...

  4. Legacy and future of Kilauea's geodetic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery-Brown, E. D.; Miklius, A.

    2011-12-01

    Because of its extensive and detailed history of geodetic measurements, Kilauea is one of the best-studied if not also best-understood volcanic systems in the world. Hawaiian volcanoes have a long history of deformation observations. These observations range from native legends of Pele's underground travels, through initial measurements made by the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, and finally to current ground-based and satellite observations. Many questions still remain, relating to Kilauea's dynamics, where geodetic measurements could offer fundamental insights. For example, new geodetic experiments could lead to a better understanding of the degree of magmatic and tectonic interaction, the geometries of faults at depth, the extent of offshore deformation, and the magmatic plumbing system. While it is possible to design many experiments to address these issues, we focus on three deformation targets where geodetic improvements, including finer sampling in space and time, could yield significant advancements toward understanding Kilauea's dynamics. First, by scrutinizing spatially-dense space-borne geodetic data for signs of upper east rift zone deformation and incorporating gravity and seismic data in a high resolution tomographic model, the hydraulic connection between Kilauea's summit and the rift zone could be imaged, which would provide insight into the pathways that transport magma out to the rift zones. Second, a combination of geodetic and seismic data could be used to determine the nature of possible relationships and interactions between the Hilina fault system and Kilauea's basal decollement. Such a study would have important implications for assessments of future earthquake and sector collapse hazards. Lastly, by adding seafloor geodetic measurements and seismic data to the current geodetic network on Kilauea, we could delimit the offshore extent of transient and episodic decollement deformation. In addition to multidisciplinary approaches, future geodetic

  5. Assessing the Knowledge Level, Attitudes, Risky Behaviors and Preventive Practices on Sexually Transmitted Diseases among University Students as Future Healthcare Providers in the Central Zone of Malaysia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Folasayo, Adigun Temiloluwa; Oluwasegun, Afolayan John; Samsudin, Suhailah; Saudi, Siti Nor Sakinah; Osman, Malina; Hamat, Rukman Awang

    2017-01-01

    This study was done to assess the knowledge, attitudes, risky behaviors and preventive practices related to sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs) among health and non-health sciences university students as future healthcare providers in Malaysia. A total of 700 health and non-health sciences university students (255 male; 445 female) aged between 17 and 30 years were surveyed by using a self-administered questionnaire. The majority (86.6%) had heard of STDs, and 50.4% knew STDs could present w...

  6. Status of the Future Circular Collider Study

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2108454; Zimmermann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Following the 2013 update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics, the international Future Circular Collider (FCC) Study has been launched by CERN as host institute. Its main purpose and long-term goal is to design an energyfrontier hadron collider (FCC-hh) with a centre-of-mass energy of about 100 TeV in a new 80–100 km tunnel. The FCC study also includes the design of a 90–350 GeV highluminosity lepton collider (FCC-ee) installed in the same tunnel, serving as Higgs, top and Z factory, as a potential intermediate step, as well as an electron-proton collider option (FCC-he). The physics cases for such machines are being assessed and concepts for experiments will be developed by the end of 2018, in time for the next update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics. This overview summarizes the status of machine designs and parameters, and it discusses the essential technical components being developed in the frame of the FCC study. Key elements are superconducting accelerator-dipole magnets wit...

  7. Status of the Future Circular Collider Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedikt, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Following the 2013 update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics, the international Future Circular Collider (FCC) Study has been launched by CERN as host institute, to design an energy frontier hadron collider (FCC-hh) in a new 80-100 km tunnel with a centre-of-mass energy of about 100 TeV, an order of magnitude beyond the LHC's, as a long-term goal. The FCC study also includes the design of a 90-350 GeV high-luminosity lepton collider (FCC-ee) installed in the same tunnel, serving as Higgs, top and Z factory, as a potential intermediate step, as well as an electron-proton collider option (FCC-he). The physics cases for such machines will be assessed and concepts for experiments will be developed in time for the next update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics by the end of 2018. The presentation will summarize the status of machine designs and parameters and discuss the essential technical components to be developed in the frame of the FCC study. Key elements are superconducting accelerator-dipole magnets with a field of 16 T for the hadron collider and high-power, high-efficiency RF systems for the lepton collider. In addition the unprecedented beam power presents special challenges for the hadron collider for all aspects of beam handling and machine protection. First conclusions of geological investigations and implementation studies will be presented. The status of the FCC collaboration and the further planning for the study will be outlined.

  8. Reducing the likelihood of future human activities that could affect geologic high-level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    The disposal of radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations provides a means of isolating the waste from people until the radioactivity has decayed to safe levels. However, isolating people from the wastes is a different problem, since we do not know what the future condition of society will be. The Human Interference Task Force was convened by the US Department of Energy to determine whether reasonable means exist (or could be developed) to reduce the likelihood of future human unintentionally intruding on radioactive waste isolation systems. The task force concluded that significant reductions in the likelihood of human interference could be achieved, for perhaps thousands of years into the future, if appropriate steps are taken to communicate the existence of the repository. Consequently, for two years the task force directed most of its study toward the area of long-term communication. Methods are discussed for achieving long-term communication by using permanent markers and widely disseminated records, with various steps taken to provide multiple levels of protection against loss, destruction, and major language/societal changes. Also developed is the concept of a universal symbol to denote Caution - Biohazardous Waste Buried Here. If used for the thousands of non-radioactive biohazardous waste sites in this country alone, a symbol could transcend generations and language changes, thereby vastly improving the likelihood of successful isolation of all buried biohazardous wastes

  9. Reducing the likelihood of future human activities that could affect geologic high-level waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-05-01

    The disposal of radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations provides a means of isolating the waste from people until the radioactivity has decayed to safe levels. However, isolating people from the wastes is a different problem, since we do not know what the future condition of society will be. The Human Interference Task Force was convened by the US Department of Energy to determine whether reasonable means exist (or could be developed) to reduce the likelihood of future human unintentionally intruding on radioactive waste isolation systems. The task force concluded that significant reductions in the likelihood of human interference could be achieved, for perhaps thousands of years into the future, if appropriate steps are taken to communicate the existence of the repository. Consequently, for two years the task force directed most of its study toward the area of long-term communication. Methods are discussed for achieving long-term communication by using permanent markers and widely disseminated records, with various steps taken to provide multiple levels of protection against loss, destruction, and major language/societal changes. Also developed is the concept of a universal symbol to denote Caution - Biohazardous Waste Buried Here. If used for the thousands of non-radioactive biohazardous waste sites in this country alone, a symbol could transcend generations and language changes, thereby vastly improving the likelihood of successful isolation of all buried biohazardous wastes.

  10. Community-level climate change vulnerability research: trends, progress, and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Graham; Ford, James; Jones, Julie

    2016-03-01

    This study systematically identifies, characterizes, and critically evaluates community-level climate change vulnerability assessments published over the last 25 years (n = 274). We find that while the field has advanced considerably in terms of conceptual framing and methodological approaches, key shortcomings remain in how vulnerability is being studied at the community-level. We argue that vulnerability research needs to more critically engage with the following: methods for evaluating future vulnerability, the relevance of vulnerability research for decision-making, interdependencies between social and ecological systems, attention to researcher / subject power dynamics, critical interpretation of key terms, and consideration of the potentially positive opportunities presented by a changing climate. Addressing these research needs is necessary for generating knowledge that supports climate-affected communities in navigating the challenges and opportunities ahead.

  11. Coupling of sea level and tidal range changes, with implications for future water levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Adam T; Jay, David A; Talke, Stefan A; Zaron, Edward D; Pan, Jiayi; Lin, Hui

    2017-12-05

    Are perturbations to ocean tides correlated with changing sea-level and climate, and how will this affect high water levels? Here, we survey 152 tide gauges in the Pacific Ocean and South China Sea and statistically evaluate how the sum of the four largest tidal constituents, a proxy for the highest astronomical tide (HAT), changes over seasonal and interannual time scales. We find that the variability in HAT is significantly correlated with sea-level variability; approximately 35% of stations exhibit a greater than ±50 mm tidal change per meter sea-level fluctuation. Focusing on a subset of three stations with long records, probability density function (PDF) analyses of the 95% percentile exceedance of total sea level (TSL) show long-term changes of this high-water metric. At Hong Kong, the increase in tides significantly amplifies the risk caused by sea-level rise. Regions of tidal decrease and/or amplification highlight the non-linear response to sea-level variations, with the potential to amplify or mitigate against the increased flood risk caused by sea-level rise. Overall, our analysis suggests that in many regions, local flood level determinations should consider the joint effects of non-stationary tides and mean sea level (MSL) at multiple time scales.

  12. Modelling regional sea-level changes in recent past and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slangen, A.B.A.

    2012-01-01

    Sea-level change is one of the most important consequences of a warming climate, affecting many densely populated coastal communities. To improve coastal management and the planning of flood defences, information on the future development of sea-level rise is needed. However, sea-level rise is not

  13. Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Haldrup

    2017-01-01

    Currently both design thinking and critical social science experience an increased interest in speculating in alternative future scenarios. This interest is not least related to the challenges issues of global sustainability present for politics, ethics and design. This paper explores the potenti......Currently both design thinking and critical social science experience an increased interest in speculating in alternative future scenarios. This interest is not least related to the challenges issues of global sustainability present for politics, ethics and design. This paper explores...... the potentials of speculative thinking in relation to design and social and cultural studies, arguing that both offer valuable insights for creating a speculative space for new emergent criticalities challenging current assumptions of the relations between power and design. It does so by tracing out discussions...... of ‘futurity’ and ‘futuring’ in design as well as social and cultural studies. Firstly, by discussing futurist and speculative approaches in design thinking; secondly by engaging with ideas of scenario thinking and utopianism in current social and cultural studies; and thirdly by showing how the articulation...

  14. Seismic studies for Fermilab future collider projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauh, J.; Shiltsev, V.

    1997-11-01

    Ground motion can cause significant beam emittance growth and orbit oscillations in large hadron colliders due to a vibration of numerous focusing magnets. Larger accelerator ring circumference leads to smaller revolution frequency and, e.g. for the Fermilab Very Large Hadron Collider(VLHC) 50-150 Hz vibrations are of particular interest as they are resonant with the beam betatron frequency. Seismic measurements at an existing large accelerator under operation can help to estimate the vibrations generated by the technical systems in future machines. Comparison of noisy and quiet microseismic conditions might be useful for proper choice of technical solutions for future colliders. This article presents results of wide-band seismic measurements at the Fermilab site, namely, in the tunnel of the Tevatron and on the surface nearby, and in two deep tunnels in the Illinois dolomite which is though to be a possible geological environment of the future accelerators

  15. Future rise of the sea level: consequences and strategies on the shoreline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teisson, C.

    1991-11-01

    The Mean Sea Level may rise in a near future due to the warming of the atmosphere associated with the 'greenhouse effect'. The alarming estimations issued in the 1980's (several meters of surelevation in the next centuries) are now lowered: the ice sheets, the melting of which could induce such a rise, do not present signs of instability. A rise from 30 to 50 cm is likely to occur in the middle of the next century; there is a probability of 25% that the rise of sea level relative to the year 1980 stands beyond 1 meter by 2100. The consequences of such a rise on the shoreline and the maritime works are reviewed, and planning strategies are discussed. This study has been performed in the framework of a convention between EDF-LNH and the Sea State Secretary (Service Technique des Ports Maritimes et Voies Navigables) 41 refs., 31 figs., 6 tabs

  16. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 2. Renewable Electricity Generation and Storage Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustine, Chad [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bain, Richard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chapman, Jamie [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Drury, Easan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hall, Douglas G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lantz, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thresher, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bishop, Norman A. [Knight Piesold, Denver, CO (United States); Brown, Stephen R. [HDR/DTA, Portland, ME (Untied States); Cada, Glenn F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Felker, Fort [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fernandez, Steven J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Goodrich, Alan C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hagerman, George [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); O' Neil, Sean [Ocean Renewable Energy Coalition, Portland, OR (United States); Paquette, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Young, Katherine [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  17. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 3. End-Use Electricity Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostick, Donna [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Belzer, David B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hadley, Stanton W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Markel, Tony [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Marnay, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kintner-Meyer, Michael [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  18. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 4: Bulk Electric Power Systems. Operations and Transmission Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ela, Erik [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hein, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schneider, Thomas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brinkman, Gregory [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  19. Regional Sea Level Scenarios for Coastal Risk Management: Managing the Uncertainty of Future Sea Level Change and Extreme Water Levels for Department of Defense Coastal Sites Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    authors and do not necessarily reflect the view of the authors’ Agencies. MANAGING THE UNCERTAINTY OF FUTURE SEA LEVEL CHANGE AND EXTREME WATER LEVELS FOR...COASTAL RISK MANAGEMENT 2-20 contingent probabilities given their dependence on non-probabilistic emissions futures, have extended the ranges of...flood risk provides confidence in the associated projection as a true minimum value for risk management purposes. The contemporary rate observed by

  20. A scenarios study on future demands on container and truck sizes of the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Kraaijenhagen; Jan Jansen; H. Graser; Stef Weijers; I. Szylar

    2012-01-01

    To what extent will future demands of worldwide operating parties, regarding the (tertiary) packaging of their freight flows, determine or influence the future dimensions of freight trucks? That is the question we address to in this paper. In this study we have studied what container sizes may fit

  1. THE FUTURE OF INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS AS A STUDY FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Amatucci

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The field of International Business lies at a crossroads of analytical levels, themes and theoretical traditions, and it will probably remain at this point in the near future. This work follows five years (2001-2006 of the Journal of International Business Studies (JIBS to analyse the scope and evolution of themes, methodologies and theoretical traditions in 199 articles. After this phase, it discusses, with the help of colleagues gathered in two workshops, the future of the area in terms of two hypotheses: the convergence hypothesis of the dominance of a theoretical and thematic mainstream, and the divergence hypothesis of a “theoretical quilt” configuration of the field. It concludes that the editorial preferences of JIBS favour traditional approaches to the field and that the second “future” is the most likely to occur, leading International Business to evolve as a social reference more than an epistemological entity.

  2. Future extreme water levels and floodplains in Gironde Estuary considering climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborie, V.; Hissel, F.; Sergent, P.

    2012-04-01

    Within THESEUS European project, an overflowing model of Gironde Estuary has been used to evaluate future surge levels at Le Verdon and future water levels at 6 specific sites of the estuary : le Verdon, Richard, Laména, Pauillac, Le Marquis and Bordeaux. It was then used to study the evolution of floodplains' location and areas towards 2100 in the entire Estuary. In this study, no breaching and no modification in the elevation of the dike was considered. The model was fed by several data sources : wind fields at Royan and Mérignac interpolated from the grid of the European Climatolologic Model CLM/SGA, a tide signal at Le Verdon, the discharges of Garonne (at La Réole), the Dordogne (at Pessac) and Isle (at Libourne). A simplified mathematical model of surge levels has been adjusted at Le Verdon with 10 surge storms and by using wind and pressure fields given by CLM/SGA. This adjustment was led so that the statistical analysis of the global signal at Le Verdon gives the same quantiles as the same analysis driven on maregraphic observations for the period [1960 ; 2000]. The assumption used for sea level rise was the pessimistic one of the French national institute for climate change: 60 cm in 2100. The model was then used to study the evolution of extreme water levels towards 2100. The analysis of surge levels at Le Verdon shows a decrease in quantiles which is coherent with the analysis of climatologic fields. The analysis of water levels shows that the increase in mean water levels quantiles represents only a part of sea level rise in Gironde Estuary. Moreover this effect seems to decrease from the maritime limit of the model towards upstream. Concerning floodplains, those corresponding to return periods from 2 to 100 years for present conditions and 3 slices [2010; 2039], [2040; 2069] and [2070; 2099] have been mapped for 3 areas in Gironde Estuary : around Le Verdon, at the confluence between Garonne and Dordogne, and near Bordeaux. Concerning the evolution

  3. Future-oriented tweets predict lower county-level HIV prevalence in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Molly E; Schwartz, H Andrew; Chen, Qijia; Ungar, Lyle H; Albarracín, Dolores

    2015-12-01

    Future orientation promotes health and well-being at the individual level. Computerized text analysis of a dataset encompassing billions of words used across the United States on Twitter tested whether community-level rates of future-oriented messages correlated with lower human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) rates and moderated the association between behavioral risk indicators and HIV. Over 150 million tweets mapped to U.S. counties were analyzed using 2 methods of text analysis. First, county-level HIV rates (cases per 100,000) were regressed on aggregate usage of future-oriented language (e.g., will, gonna). A second data-driven method regressed HIV rates on individual words and phrases. Results showed that counties with higher rates of future tense on Twitter had fewer HIV cases, independent of strong structural predictors of HIV such as population density. Future-oriented messages also appeared to buffer health risk: Sexually transmitted infection rates and references to risky behavior on Twitter were associated with higher HIV prevalence in all counties except those with high rates of future orientation. Data-driven analyses likewise showed that words and phrases referencing the future (e.g., tomorrow, would be) correlated with lower HIV prevalence. Integrating big data approaches to text analysis and epidemiology with psychological theory may provide an inexpensive, real-time method of anticipating outbreaks of HIV and etiologically similar diseases. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Essay on Methods in Futures Studies and a Selective Bibliography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Claus

    2005-01-01

    Futures studies is often conflated with science fiction or pop-futurism. Consequently there is a need for demarcation of what is futures studies and what is not. From the same reason the essay stresses the need for quality control to focus on futures research and its methods: Publications in futu...... programme are (only) partly reduced by applying Causal Layered Analysis as an internal quality control. The following selective bibliography is focussed on these methodological issues...

  5. Specifying the Concept of Future Generations for Addressing Issues Related to High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermisch, Celine

    2016-12-01

    The nuclear community frequently refers to the concept of "future generations" when discussing the management of high-level radioactive waste. However, this notion is generally not defined. In this context, we have to assume a wide definition of the concept of future generations, conceived as people who will live after the contemporary people are dead. This definition embraces thus each generation following ours, without any restriction in time. The aim of this paper is to show that, in the debate about nuclear waste, this broad notion should be further specified and to clarify the related implications for nuclear waste management policies. Therefore, we provide an ethical analysis of different management strategies for high-level waste in the light of two principles, protection of future generations-based on safety and security-and respect for their choice. This analysis shows that high-level waste management options have different ethical impacts across future generations, depending on whether the memory of the waste and its location is lost, or not. We suggest taking this distinction into account by introducing the notions of "close future generations" and "remote future generations", which has important implications on nuclear waste management policies insofar as it stresses that a retrievable disposal has fewer benefits than usually assumed.

  6. Performance assessment for future low-level waste disposal facilities at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.W.; Kocher, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the strategy for waste management on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and the approach to preparing future performance assessments that has evolved from previous performance assessment studies of low-level radioactive waste disposal on the ORR. The strategy for waste management is based on the concept that waste classification should be determined by performance assessment other than the sources of waste. This dose-based strategy for waste classification and management places special importance on the preparation and interpretation of waste disposal performance assessments for selecting appropriate disposal technologies and developing waste acceptance criteria. Additionally, the challenges to be overcome in the preparation of performance assessments are discussed. 7 refs

  7. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 2: Renewable Electricity Generation and Storage Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustine, C.; Bain, R.; Chapman, J.; Denholm, P.; Drury, E.; Hall, D.G.; Lantz, E.; Margolis, R.; Thresher, R.; Sandor, D.; Bishop, N.A.; Brown, S.R.; Cada, G.F.; Felker, F.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  8. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 3: End-Use Electricity Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostick, D.; Belzer, D.B.; Hadley, S.W.; Markel, T.; Marnay, C.; Kintner-Meyer, M.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  9. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 4: Bulk Electric Power Systems: Operations and Transmission Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M.; Ela, E.; Hein, J.; Schneider, T.; Brinkman, G.; Denholm, P.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  10. Assessing the role of internal climate variability in Antarctica's contribution to future sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, C. Y.; Forest, C. E.; Pollard, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) has the potential to be a major contributor to future sea-level rise (SLR). Current projections of SLR due to AIS mass loss remain highly uncertain. Better understanding of how ice sheets respond to future climate forcing and variability is essential for assessing the long-term risk of SLR. However, the predictability of future climate is limited by uncertainties from emission scenarios, model structural differences, and the internal variability that is inherently generated within the fully coupled climate system. Among those uncertainties, the impact of internal variability on the AIS changes has not been explicitly assessed. In this study, we quantify the effect of internal variability on the AIS evolutions by using climate fields from two large-ensemble experiments using the Community Earth System Model to force a three-dimensional ice sheet model. We find that internal variability of climate fields, particularly atmospheric fields, among ensemble members leads to significantly different AIS responses. Our results show that the internal variability can cause about 80 mm differences of AIS contribution to SLR by 2100 compared to the ensemble-mean contribution of 380-450 mm. Moreover, using ensemble-mean climate fields as the forcing in the ice sheet model does not produce realistic simulations of the ice loss. Instead, it significantly delays the onset of retreat of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet for up to 20 years and significantly underestimates the AIS contribution to SLR by 0.07-0.11 m in 2100 and up to 0.34 m in the 2250's. Therefore, because the uncertainty caused by internal variability is irreducible, we seek to highlight a critical need to assess the role of internal variability in projecting the AIS loss over the next few centuries. By quantifying the impact of internal variability on AIS contribution to SLR, policy makers can obtain more robust estimates of SLR and implement suitable adaptation strategies.

  11. An independent verification and validation of the Future Theater Level Model conceptual model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, D.S. III; Kruse, K.L.; Martellaro, A.J.; Packard, S.L.; Thomas, B. Jr.; Turley, V.K.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes the methodology and results of independent verification and validation performed on a combat model in its design stage. The combat model is the Future Theater Level Model (FTLM), under development by The Joint Staff/J-8. J-8 has undertaken its development to provide an analysis tool that addresses the uncertainties of combat more directly than previous models and yields more rapid study results. The methodology adopted for this verification and validation consisted of document analyses. Included were detailed examination of the FTLM design documents (at all stages of development), the FTLM Mission Needs Statement, and selected documentation for other theater level combat models. These documents were compared to assess the FTLM as to its design stage, its purpose as an analytical combat model, and its capabilities as specified in the Mission Needs Statement. The conceptual design passed those tests. The recommendations included specific modifications as well as a recommendation for continued development. The methodology is significant because independent verification and validation have not been previously reported as being performed on a combat model in its design stage. The results are significant because The Joint Staff/J-8 will be using the recommendations from this study in determining whether to proceed with develop of the model.

  12. Projecting Future Sea Level Rise for Water Resources Planning in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J.; Kao, K.; Chung, F.

    2008-12-01

    Sea level rise is one of the major concerns for the management of California's water resources. Higher water levels and salinity intrusion into the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta could affect water supplies, water quality, levee stability, and aquatic and terrestrial flora and fauna species and their habitat. Over the 20th century, sea levels near San Francisco Bay increased by over 0.6ft. Some tidal gauge and satellite data indicate that rates of sea level rise are accelerating. Sea levels are expected to continue to rise due to increasing air temperatures causing thermal expansion of the ocean and melting of land-based ice such as ice on Greenland and in southeastern Alaska. For water planners, two related questions are raised on the uncertainty of future sea levels. First, what is the expected sea level at a specific point in time in the future, e.g., what is the expected sea level in 2050? Second, what is the expected point of time in the future when sea levels will exceed a certain height, e.g., what is the expected range of time when the sea level rises by one foot? To address these two types of questions, two factors are considered: (1) long term sea level rise trend, and (2) local extreme sea level fluctuations. A two-step approach will be used to develop sea level rise projection guidelines for decision making that takes both of these factors into account. The first step is developing global sea level rise probability distributions for the long term trends. The second step will extend the approach to take into account the effects of local astronomical tides, changes in atmospheric pressure, wind stress, floods, and the El Niño/Southern Oscillation. In this paper, the development of the first step approach is presented. To project the long term sea level rise trend, one option is to extend the current rate of sea level rise into the future. However, since recent data indicate rates of sea level rise are accelerating, methods for estimating sea level rise

  13. Future Reef Growth Can Mitigate Physical Impacts of Sea-Level Rise on Atoll Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beetham, Edward; Kench, Paul S.; Popinet, Stéphane

    2017-10-01

    We present new detail on how future sea-level rise (SLR) will modify nonlinear wave transformation processes, shoreline wave energy, and wave driven flooding on atoll islands. Frequent and destructive wave inundation is a primary climate-change hazard that may render atoll islands uninhabitable in the near future. However, limited research has examined the physical vulnerability of atoll islands to future SLR and sparse information are available to implement process-based coastal management on coral reef environments. We utilize a field-verified numerical model capable of resolving all nonlinear wave transformation processes to simulate how future SLR will modify wave dissipation and overtopping on Funafuti Atoll, Tuvalu, accounting for static and accretionary reef adjustment morphologies. Results show that future SLR coupled with a static reef morphology will not only increase shoreline wave energy and overtopping but will fundamentally alter the spectral composition of shoreline energy by decreasing the contemporary influence of low-frequency infragravity waves. "Business-as-usual" emissions (RCP 8.5) will result in annual wave overtopping on Funafuti Atoll by 2030, with overtopping at high tide under mean wave conditions occurring from 2090. Comparatively, vertical reef accretion in response to SLR will prevent any significant increase in shoreline wave energy and mitigate wave driven flooding volume by 72%. Our results provide the first quantitative assessment of how effective future reef accretion can be at mitigating SLR-associated flooding on atoll islands and endorse active reef conservation and restoration for future coastal protection.

  14. DIAGNOSTICS OF LEVELS OF FORMATION OF FUTURE MUSIC TEACHERS’ ART REFLECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jingjing

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Features of diagnostics of levels of formation of art reflection are justified in the article. Four levels of future music teachers’ art reflection are defined. These levels are based on the research measures of desire to master art reflection; the degree of understanding the nature and characteristics of art reflection; measures of the emotional involvement into art reflection; degree of possession of the necessary skills for art reflection; formation of professionalism in music and performing activities. They are initial, satisfactory, sufficient and optimal. The importance of formation of future music teachers’ art reflection is considered as the basis for professional development, self-regulation on the acquisition of implementing art knowledge. The formation of art reflection requires the creation and implementation of specific methods of diagnostics of future music teachers’ art reflection. The article is dedicated to the problem of developing and testing diagnostic methods of formation of future music teachers’ art reflection. While writing the article there methods of analysis, synthesis, method of systematization of the material, the principles of objectivity and scientific character are being used. Diagnostics and analysis of the levels of future music teachers’ art reflection shows that the vast majority of students have art reflection at a satisfactory level (67.24%. 22.41% of students are found to have the initial level of formation of art reflection. Only 10.34% of students are found to have the sufficient level of art reflection. There are no students having the optimal level of art reflection. The author concluded that educational and behavior tasks, which the future music teachers have, are identified while testing the features of formation of future music teachers’ art reflection. They cause picking out the most appropriate areas and focus on the most prospective and effective methods of formation in the course of

  15. Frameworks for future critical STS studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markham, Annette

    and naturalize certain ways of being while obscuring other alternatives? This question is important particularly when and if people don’t think of datafication or algorithms as problems at all. A subtle shift in the discourse over the past 20 years indicates a growing acceptance of the ‘fact’ of constant....... At a broader structural level, similar question can be raised: What is the role of social media platforms in creating our memories? How much does the automated Facebook curation of our Year in Review exhibit, for example, dictate the stories that will eventually be understood as individual memory, generational......, information that helps individuals remember gets lost in deep file structures and outdated devices. Although there are many apps and programs to help us sort through these datasets, the digitizing processes has not significantly improved our ability to seamlessly retrieve and make sense of past events...

  16. Earth Matters: Studies for Our Global Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Pamela; Doyle, Andrea

    Through 12 readings and 32 activities this curriculum material introduces high school students to issues of the global environment and society, while both challenging them to critically evaluate the issues and motivating them to develop solutions. The materials are cited as being applicable to social studies, science, math, language arts, and…

  17. Results and future programme of HTR's study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mursid Djokolelono; Soedyartomo Soentono

    1990-01-01

    Study on the application of HTRs for the enhanced oil recovery in the Duri oil field (Sumatra, Indonesia) was performed in 1986/1987. The economic and technological advantages over crude burning option were identified. Crude oil prices, HTR capital costs, discount rates and company's income structure represented dominant parameters. Further sensitivity calculations on important economic parameters were obtained to reflect the condition of 1988. This nuclear option was also incorporated in the energy planning study for the whole of Indonesia using the MARKAL model, and resulted in the conditions of its applicability. The scenarios chosen in this MARKAL study were high and low GDP growth rate, whereas the criteria chosen were the minimum cost with and without a predetermined policy of reduced domestic use of oil. In the high scenario the HTRs as well as the natural gas options could not compete against the low cost boilers with crude-oil fuel. But in the case of reduced domestic oil use the HTRs came out to supplement the crudeburning boilers starting in the sixth five year plan (1994-999), even earlier than the natural gas option. The authors further discuss the industrial environment, in relation to the regional development, the possible local participation, as well as the plan to materialize the merits of this novel application. (author)

  18. Results and future programme of HTR's study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djokolelono, Mursid; Soentono, Soedyartomo [National Atomic Energy Agency (Indonesia)

    1990-07-01

    Study on the application of HTRs for the enhanced oil recovery in the Duri oil field (Sumatra, Indonesia) was performed in 1986/1987. The economic and technological advantages over crude burning option were identified. Crude oil prices, HTR capital costs, discount rates and company's income structure represented dominant parameters. Further sensitivity calculations on important economic parameters were obtained to reflect the condition of 1988. This nuclear option was also incorporated in the energy planning study for the whole of Indonesia using the MARKAL model, and resulted in the conditions of its applicability. The scenarios chosen in this MARKAL study were high and low GDP growth rate, whereas the criteria chosen were the minimum cost with and without a predetermined policy of reduced domestic use of oil. In the high scenario the HTRs as well as the natural gas options could not compete against the low cost boilers with crude-oil fuel. But in the case of reduced domestic oil use the HTRs came out to supplement the crudeburning boilers starting in the sixth five year plan (1994-999), even earlier than the natural gas option. The authors further discuss the industrial environment, in relation to the regional development, the possible local participation, as well as the plan to materialize the merits of this novel application. (author)

  19. Criteria, indicators and levels of formed professional functional competences of future teachers of physical culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsutina N.M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It is shown the structural components of the functional competence of professional teachers of physical education: motivational, cognitive and action-practical. We used the following methods of scientific knowledge, as the analysis of psychological, educational and methodological literature, synthesis, comparison, generalization, specification, classification, ordering Criteria and levels of occupational functional competence of future teachers of physical education. It is determined that the high level of professional formation of the functional competence of future teachers of physical culture is characterized by the motivation to perform professional functions of a teacher of physical culture, fundamental knowledge required to perform professional functions of a teacher of physical culture, a high level of general physical fitness, pronounced specific motor abilities and skills.

  20. Parents' concerns about future pregnancy after stillbirth: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney, Sarah; Everard, Claire M; Gallagher, Stephen; O'Donoghue, Keelin

    2017-08-01

    As stillbirth has a devastating impact, it is imperative to understand the importance of clinical and emotional care after stillbirth and how it influences subsequent pregnancies. The aim of the study was to gain insight into the consideration and planning of a subsequent pregnancy by parents in the weeks following stillbirth. A qualitative semi-structured interview format was utilized. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was employed as the analytic strategy. The recruitment strategy focused on couples whereby the parents of ten stillborn babies were contacted; however, five men declined to participate in the study. The final sample of 15 parents were all Irish: ten of whom were female and five of whom were male. Findings revealed two superordinate themes relating to a subsequent pregnancy after stillbirth: aspirations for future pregnancy and expectations of future care. Parents disclosed how the prospect of a subsequent pregnancy was daunting with fears about the potential loss of another child. Despite these fears, parents' aspirations differed in the days following stillbirth; mothers wished to plan a future pregnancy while fathers were reluctant to consider any pregnancies. Parents were unsure of what to expect in terms of the level of care that would be provided to them in a subsequent pregnancy. Additional appointments at the maternity hospital were considered crucial to provide reassurance during a subsequent pregnancy. These findings underscore the far-reaching and contrasting effects of stillbirth on parents. These complex needs highlight the importance of the multidisciplinary team approach. © 2016 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Prospects for future proton studies at HRIBF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, C.R.; Batchelder, J. C.; Ginter, T.N.; Gross, C.J.; Grzywacz, R.; Janas, Z.; Karny, M.; McConnell, J.W.; Toth, K.S.; Rykaczewski, K.; Zganjar, E. F.

    2000-01-01

    Great progress has been made in the last 20 years in the study of proton emission from unstable nuclei, but the prospects for additional strides in the next several years are bright. The present main limitations on the study of proton radioactivity are related to the inability to produce copious quantities of nuclides beyond the proton drip line, and the difficulty of measuring proton radioactivity of a mass-separated nucleus in the first few microseconds of its existence. At the Holifield Facility we will attack the second of these limitations by using new signal processing CAMAC modules DGF-4C. Digitizing of the preamplifier signals should enable the analysis of a proton decay occurring at times even less than 1 microsecond after an implant in a strip detector. In the same process, the threshold energy at which we can make measurements will be lowered. These two things will hopefully enable the measurement of lower-energy, but faster decays of isotopes in the 100 Sn region and below. For the latter region, the proton decays crucial for a rp-process scenario are of particular interest (e.g. 69 Br decay). Secondly, for very short-lived species, we plan to make measurements (without residue separation) at points much closer to the target, thus reducing the flight time between the target and detector. As more intense radioactive beams become available, eg. 56 Ni, we will utilize these to produce more neutron-deficient nuclides by use of colder reactions than is possible with stable beams. In some cases where delayed proton emitters are present in the same isobaric chain, the use of the cold reactions with radioactive beams can provide purer samples of the isotope of interest, with a reduction in background from the delayed proton emitters in the same mass chain

  2. LHC Report: studies for the future

    CERN Multimedia

    Jan Uythoven & Rogelio Tomás García for the LHC team

    2015-01-01

    The proton run finished in the morning of Wednesday, 4 November and was followed by five days of Machine Development period, just before the start of the Technical Stop on Monday, 9 November. A lot of lessons have been learned and this opens the way to providing higher luminosity to the experiments.    During this year’s third and final Machine Development period, the different teams working on the machine were able to deepen their understanding of beam control and beam dynamics. The careful study of beam instabilities revealed a major improvement during the year. This time, stabilising the beams in the LHC required much weaker octupole magnet stabilisation than during the previous Machine Development period. This was due to the very effective electron cloud scrubbing that took place during physics fills after the summer holidays. This opens the road towards having more bunches in the machine, higher bunch charge and thus higher luminosity. To obtain hig...

  3. Impacts of representing sea-level rise uncertainty on future flood risks: An example from San Francisco Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruckert, Kelsey L; Oddo, Perry C; Keller, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Rising sea levels increase the probability of future coastal flooding. Many decision-makers use risk analyses to inform the design of sea-level rise (SLR) adaptation strategies. These analyses are often silent on potentially relevant uncertainties. For example, some previous risk analyses use the expected, best, or large quantile (i.e., 90%) estimate of future SLR. Here, we use a case study to quantify and illustrate how neglecting SLR uncertainties can bias risk projections. Specifically, we focus on the future 100-yr (1% annual exceedance probability) coastal flood height (storm surge including SLR) in the year 2100 in the San Francisco Bay area. We find that accounting for uncertainty in future SLR increases the return level (the height associated with a probability of occurrence) by half a meter from roughly 2.2 to 2.7 m, compared to using the mean sea-level projection. Accounting for this uncertainty also changes the shape of the relationship between the return period (the inverse probability that an event of interest will occur) and the return level. For instance, incorporating uncertainties shortens the return period associated with the 2.2 m return level from a 100-yr to roughly a 7-yr return period (∼15% probability). Additionally, accounting for this uncertainty doubles the area at risk of flooding (the area to be flooded under a certain height; e.g., the 100-yr flood height) in San Francisco. These results indicate that the method of accounting for future SLR can have considerable impacts on the design of flood risk management strategies.

  4. Impacts of representing sea-level rise uncertainty on future flood risks: An example from San Francisco Bay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey L Ruckert

    Full Text Available Rising sea levels increase the probability of future coastal flooding. Many decision-makers use risk analyses to inform the design of sea-level rise (SLR adaptation strategies. These analyses are often silent on potentially relevant uncertainties. For example, some previous risk analyses use the expected, best, or large quantile (i.e., 90% estimate of future SLR. Here, we use a case study to quantify and illustrate how neglecting SLR uncertainties can bias risk projections. Specifically, we focus on the future 100-yr (1% annual exceedance probability coastal flood height (storm surge including SLR in the year 2100 in the San Francisco Bay area. We find that accounting for uncertainty in future SLR increases the return level (the height associated with a probability of occurrence by half a meter from roughly 2.2 to 2.7 m, compared to using the mean sea-level projection. Accounting for this uncertainty also changes the shape of the relationship between the return period (the inverse probability that an event of interest will occur and the return level. For instance, incorporating uncertainties shortens the return period associated with the 2.2 m return level from a 100-yr to roughly a 7-yr return period (∼15% probability. Additionally, accounting for this uncertainty doubles the area at risk of flooding (the area to be flooded under a certain height; e.g., the 100-yr flood height in San Francisco. These results indicate that the method of accounting for future SLR can have considerable impacts on the design of flood risk management strategies.

  5. Real cases study through computer applications for futures Agricultural Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moratiel, R.; Durán, J. M.; Tarquis, A. M.

    2010-05-01

    One of the huge concerns on the higher engineer education is the lag of real cases study that the future professionals need in the work and corporation market. This concern was reflected in Bologna higher education system including recommendations in this respect. The knowhow as why this or other methodology is one of the keys to resolve this problem. In the last courses given in Department of Crop Production, at the Agronomy Engineer School of Madrid (Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros Agrónomos, UPM) we have developed more than one hundred applications in Microsoft Excel®. Our aim was to show different real scenarios which the future Agronomic Engineers can be found in their professional life and with items related to crop production field. In order to achieve our target, each application in Excel presents a file text in which is explained the theoretical concepts and the objectives, as well as some resources used from Excel syntax. In this way, the student can understand and use of such application, even they can modify and customize it for a real case presented in their context and/or master project. This electronic monograph gives an answer to the need to manage data in several real scenarios showed in lectures, calculus resolution, information analysis and manage worksheets in a professional and student level.

  6. Studies of the Future Aged. An International Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Henning; Sheppard, Harold L., Ed.

    These six papers report on future-oriented studies of the situation of the elderly. "Changing Elderly in a Changing Society: Danish Elderly in the Next Century" (Henning Friis) reports on research dealing with preferences of the future elderly for their life when they grow older. "Aging Effectively: Meeting the Challenge of an Aging…

  7. Delivering high-level food industry skills for future food security through Advanced Training Partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Frazier, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    The UK Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council’s Advanced Training Partnerships initiative represents a significant investment in the provision of high-level skills for the UK food industry sector to address global food security from farm to fork. This paper summarises the background, aims and scope of the Advanced Training Partnerships, their development so far, and offers a view on future directions and evaluation of impact.

  8. The future sea-level rise contribution of Greenland’s glaciers and ice caps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machguth, H.; Rastner, P.; Bolch, T.

    2013-01-01

    We calculate the future sea-level rise contribution from the surface mass balance of all of Greenland's glaciers and ice caps (GICs, ~90 000 km2) using a simplified energy balance model which is driven by three future climate scenarios from the regional climate models HIRHAM5, RACMO2 and MAR...... experiments suggest that mass loss could be higher by 20–30% if a strong lowering of the surface albedo were to take place in the future. It is shown that the sea-level rise contribution from the north-easterly regions of Greenland is reduced by increasing precipitation while mass loss in the southern half...... feedback mechanisms are considered. The mass loss of all GICs by 2098 is calculated to be 2016 ± 129 Gt (HIRHAM5 forcing), 2584 ± 109 Gt (RACMO2) and 3907 ± 108 Gt (MAR). This corresponds to a total contribution to sea-level rise of 5.8 ± 0.4, 7.4 ± 0.3 and 11.2 ± 0.3 mm, respectively. Sensitivity...

  9. The Science-Policy Link: Stakeholder Reactions to the Uncertainties of Future Sea Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plag, H.; Bye, B.

    2011-12-01

    Policy makers and stakeholders in the coastal zone are equally challenged by the risk of an anticipated rise of coastal Local Sea Level (LSL) as a consequence of future global warming. Many low-lying and often densely populated coastal areas are under risk of increased inundation. More than 40% of the global population is living in or near the coastal zone and this fraction is steadily increasing. A rise in LSL will increase the vulnerability of coastal infrastructure and population dramatically, with potentially devastating consequences for the global economy, society, and environment. Policy makers are faced with a trade-off between imposing today the often very high costs of coastal protection and adaptation upon national economies and leaving the costs of potential major disasters to future generations. They are in need of actionable information that provides guidance for the development of coastal zones resilient to future sea level changes. Part of this actionable information comes from risk and vulnerability assessments, which require information on future LSL changes as input. In most cases, a deterministic approach has been applied based on predictions of the plausible range of future LSL trajectories as input. However, there is little consensus in the scientific community on how these trajectories should be determined, and what the boundaries of the plausible range are. Over the last few years, many publications in Science, Nature and other peer-reviewed scientific journals have revealed a broad range of possible futures and significant epistemic uncertainties and gaps concerning LSL changes. Based on the somewhat diffuse science input, policy and decision makers have made rather different choices for mitigation and adaptation in cases such as Venice, The Netherlands, New York City, and the San Francisco Bay area. Replacing the deterministic, prediction-based approach with a statistical one that fully accounts for the uncertainties and epistemic gaps

  10. US power plant sites at risk of future sea-level rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierkandt, R; Levermann, A; Auffhammer, M

    2015-01-01

    Unmitigated greenhouse gas emissions may increase global mean sea-level by about 1 meter during this century. Such elevation of the mean sea-level enhances the risk of flooding of coastal areas. We compute the power capacity that is currently out-of-reach of a 100-year coastal flooding but will be exposed to such a flood by the end of the century for different US states, if no adaptation measures are taken. The additional exposed capacity varies strongly among states. For Delaware it is 80% of the mean generated power load. For New York this number is 63% and for Florida 43%. The capacity that needs additional protection compared to today increases by more than 250% for Texas, 90% for Florida and 70% for New York. Current development in power plant building points towards a reduced future exposure to sea-level rise: proposed and planned power plants are less exposed than those which are currently operating. However, power plants that have been retired or canceled were less exposed than those operating at present. If sea-level rise is properly accounted for in future planning, an adaptation to sea-level rise may be costly but possible. (letter)

  11. Leader Narcissism and Outcomes in Organizations: A Review at Multiple Levels of Analysis and Implications for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Narcissists often pursue leadership and are selected for leadership positions by others. At the same time, they act in their own best interest, putting the needs and interests of others at risk. While theoretical arguments clearly link narcissism and leadership, the question whether leader narcissism is good or bad for organizations and their members remains unanswered. Narcissism seems to have two sides, a bright and a dark one. This systematic literature review seeks to contribute to the ongoing academic discussion about the positive or negative impact of leader narcissism in organizations. Forty-five original research articles were categorized according to outcomes at three levels of analysis: the dyadic level (focusing on leader-follower relationships), the team level (focusing on work teams and small groups), and the organizational level. On this basis, we first summarized the current state of knowledge about the impact that leader narcissism has on outcomes at different levels of analysis. Next, we revealed similarities and contradictions between research findings within and across levels of analysis, highlighting persistent inconsistencies concerning the question whether leader narcissism has positive or negative consequences. Finally, we outlined theoretical and methodological implications for future studies of leader narcissism. This multi-level perspective ascertains a new, systematic view of leader narcissism and its consequences for organizations and their stakeholders. The article demonstrates the need for future research in the field of leader narcissism and opens up new avenues for inquiry. PMID:28579967

  12. Leader Narcissism and Outcomes in Organizations: A Review at Multiple Levels of Analysis and Implications for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Braun

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Narcissists often pursue leadership and are selected for leadership positions by others. At the same time, they act in their own best interest, putting the needs and interests of others at risk. While theoretical arguments clearly link narcissism and leadership, the question whether leader narcissism is good or bad for organizations and their members remains unanswered. Narcissism seems to have two sides, a bright and a dark one. This systematic literature review seeks to contribute to the ongoing academic discussion about the positive or negative impact of leader narcissism in organizations. Forty-five original research articles were categorized according to outcomes at three levels of analysis: the dyadic level (focusing on leader-follower relationships, the team level (focusing on work teams and small groups, and the organizational level. On this basis, we first summarized the current state of knowledge about the impact that leader narcissism has on outcomes at different levels of analysis. Next, we revealed similarities and contradictions between research findings within and across levels of analysis, highlighting persistent inconsistencies concerning the question whether leader narcissism has positive or negative consequences. Finally, we outlined theoretical and methodological implications for future studies of leader narcissism. This multi-level perspective ascertains a new, systematic view of leader narcissism and its consequences for organizations and their stakeholders. The article demonstrates the need for future research in the field of leader narcissism and opens up new avenues for inquiry.

  13. Leader Narcissism and Outcomes in Organizations: A Review at Multiple Levels of Analysis and Implications for Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Narcissists often pursue leadership and are selected for leadership positions by others. At the same time, they act in their own best interest, putting the needs and interests of others at risk. While theoretical arguments clearly link narcissism and leadership, the question whether leader narcissism is good or bad for organizations and their members remains unanswered. Narcissism seems to have two sides, a bright and a dark one. This systematic literature review seeks to contribute to the ongoing academic discussion about the positive or negative impact of leader narcissism in organizations. Forty-five original research articles were categorized according to outcomes at three levels of analysis: the dyadic level (focusing on leader-follower relationships), the team level (focusing on work teams and small groups), and the organizational level. On this basis, we first summarized the current state of knowledge about the impact that leader narcissism has on outcomes at different levels of analysis. Next, we revealed similarities and contradictions between research findings within and across levels of analysis, highlighting persistent inconsistencies concerning the question whether leader narcissism has positive or negative consequences. Finally, we outlined theoretical and methodological implications for future studies of leader narcissism. This multi-level perspective ascertains a new, systematic view of leader narcissism and its consequences for organizations and their stakeholders. The article demonstrates the need for future research in the field of leader narcissism and opens up new avenues for inquiry.

  14. Future sea level rise constrained by observations and long-term commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel, Matthias; Levermann, Anders; Frieler, Katja; Robinson, Alexander; Marzeion, Ben; Winkelmann, Ricarda

    2016-01-01

    Sea level has been steadily rising over the past century, predominantly due to anthropogenic climate change. The rate of sea level rise will keep increasing with continued global warming, and, even if temperatures are stabilized through the phasing out of greenhouse gas emissions, sea level is still expected to rise for centuries. This will affect coastal areas worldwide, and robust projections are needed to assess mitigation options and guide adaptation measures. Here we combine the equilibrium response of the main sea level rise contributions with their last century's observed contribution to constrain projections of future sea level rise. Our model is calibrated to a set of observations for each contribution, and the observational and climate uncertainties are combined to produce uncertainty ranges for 21st century sea level rise. We project anthropogenic sea level rise of 28–56 cm, 37–77 cm, and 57–131 cm in 2100 for the greenhouse gas concentration scenarios RCP26, RCP45, and RCP85, respectively. Our uncertainty ranges for total sea level rise overlap with the process-based estimates of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The “constrained extrapolation” approach generalizes earlier global semiempirical models and may therefore lead to a better understanding of the discrepancies with process-based projections. PMID:26903648

  15. Future sea level rise constrained by observations and long-term commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel, Matthias; Levermann, Anders; Frieler, Katja; Robinson, Alexander; Marzeion, Ben; Winkelmann, Ricarda

    2016-03-08

    Sea level has been steadily rising over the past century, predominantly due to anthropogenic climate change. The rate of sea level rise will keep increasing with continued global warming, and, even if temperatures are stabilized through the phasing out of greenhouse gas emissions, sea level is still expected to rise for centuries. This will affect coastal areas worldwide, and robust projections are needed to assess mitigation options and guide adaptation measures. Here we combine the equilibrium response of the main sea level rise contributions with their last century's observed contribution to constrain projections of future sea level rise. Our model is calibrated to a set of observations for each contribution, and the observational and climate uncertainties are combined to produce uncertainty ranges for 21st century sea level rise. We project anthropogenic sea level rise of 28-56 cm, 37-77 cm, and 57-131 cm in 2100 for the greenhouse gas concentration scenarios RCP26, RCP45, and RCP85, respectively. Our uncertainty ranges for total sea level rise overlap with the process-based estimates of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The "constrained extrapolation" approach generalizes earlier global semiempirical models and may therefore lead to a better understanding of the discrepancies with process-based projections.

  16. On the regional characteristics of past and future sea-level change (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermann, A.; McGregor, S.

    2010-12-01

    Global sea-level rise due to the thermal expansion of the warming oceans and freshwater input from melting glaciers and ice-sheets is threatening to inundate low-lying islands and coast-lines worldwide. At present global mean sea level rises at 3.1 ± 0.7 mm/yr with an accelerating tendency. However, the magnitude of recent decadal sea-level trends varies greatly spatially attaining values of up to 10 mm/yr in some areas of the western tropical Pacific. Identifying the causes of recent regional sea-level trends and understanding the patterns of future projected sea-level change is of crucial importance. Using a wind-forced simplified dynamical ocean model, we show that the regional features of recent decadal and multidecadal sea-level trends in the tropical Indo-Pacific can be attributed to changes in the prevailing wind-regimes. Furthermore it is demonstrated that within an ensemble of ten state-of-the art coupled general circulation models, forced by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations over the next century, wind-induced re-distributions of upper-ocean water play a key role in establishing the spatial characteristics of projected regional sea-level rise. Wind-related changes in near- surface mass and heat convergence near the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Kiribati, the Cook Islands and French Polynesia oppose, but can not cancel the regional signal of global mean sea-level rise.

  17. Beyond Capitalist Realism - Why We Need Critical Future Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Goode

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the interdisciplinary field of Critical Future Studies (CFS. CFS investigates the scope and constraints within public culture for imagining and debating different potential futures. It interrogates imagined futures founded - often surreptitiously - upon values and assumptions from the past and present, as well as those representing a departure from current social trajectories. CFS draws on perspectives from various disciplines including sociology, political studies, intellectual history, cultural history, media and cultural studies, utopian studies, science and technology studies, and philosophy. CFS also engages with discourses and ideas from the natural sciences (including popular science, computing and economics. And, given our concern with public culture, CFS aims to contribute constructively to vigorous and imaginative public debate about the future - a futural public sphere - and to challenge a prevalent contemporary cynicism about our capacity to imagine alternative futures while trapped in a parlous present. To that extent, we propose CFS as a programme of engaged and open-ended social critique, not as a solely academic endeavour. Our paper begins by describing the relationship between CFS and mainstream Future Studies. Subsequently, we discuss the contemporary context for Critical Future Studies. Here we make the case that CFS is a timely and even urgent project at our current historical juncture, arguing also for the significance of both utopian and dystopian imaginings. We then go on to discuss methodologies within CFS scholarship. Finally, we conclude by reflecting on the values underpinning CFS. Overall, this paper not only describes CFS as a field of research but also serves as an invitation to cultural scholars to consider how their own work might intersect with and contribute to CFS.

  18. Minimum and Maximum Potential Contributions to Future Sea Level Rise from Polar Ice Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconto, R. M.; Pollard, D.

    2017-12-01

    New climate and ice-sheet modeling, calibrated to past changes in sea-level, is painting a stark picture of the future fate of the great polar ice sheets if greenhouse gas emissions continue unabated. This is especially true for Antarctica, where a substantial fraction of the ice sheet rests on bedrock more than 500-meters below sea level. Here, we explore the sensitivity of the polar ice sheets to a warming atmosphere and ocean under a range of future greenhouse gas emissions scenarios. The ice sheet-climate-ocean model used here considers time-evolving changes in surface mass balance and sub-ice oceanic melting, ice deformation, grounding line retreat on reverse-sloped bedrock (Marine Ice Sheet Instability), and newly added processes including hydrofracturing of ice shelves in response to surface meltwater and rain, and structural collapse of thick, marine-terminating ice margins with tall ice-cliff faces (Marine Ice Cliff Instability). The simulations improve on previous work by using 1) improved atmospheric forcing from a Regional Climate Model and 2) a much wider range of model physical parameters within the bounds of modern observations of ice dynamical processes (particularly calving rates) and paleo constraints on past ice-sheet response to warming. Approaches to more precisely define the climatic thresholds capable of triggering rapid and potentially irreversible ice-sheet retreat are also discussed, as is the potential for aggressive mitigation strategies like those discussed at the 2015 Paris Climate Conference (COP21) to substantially reduce the risk of extreme sea-level rise. These results, including physics that consider both ice deformation (creep) and calving (mechanical failure of marine terminating ice) expand on previously estimated limits of maximum rates of future sea level rise based solely on kinematic constraints of glacier flow. At the high end, the new results show the potential for more than 2m of global mean sea level rise by 2100

  19. The future sea-level rise contribution of Greenland’s glaciers and ice caps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machguth, H; Rastner, P; Bolch, T; Mölg, N; Sørensen, L Sandberg; Aðalgeirsdottir, G; Van Angelen, J H; Van den Broeke, M R; Fettweis, X

    2013-01-01

    We calculate the future sea-level rise contribution from the surface mass balance of all of Greenland’s glaciers and ice caps (GICs, ∼90 000 km 2 ) using a simplified energy balance model which is driven by three future climate scenarios from the regional climate models HIRHAM5, RACMO2 and MAR. Glacier extent and surface elevation are modified during the mass balance model runs according to a glacier retreat parameterization. Mass balance and glacier surface change are both calculated on a 250 m resolution digital elevation model yielding a high level of detail and ensuring that important feedback mechanisms are considered. The mass loss of all GICs by 2098 is calculated to be 2016 ± 129 Gt (HIRHAM5 forcing), 2584 ± 109 Gt (RACMO2) and 3907 ± 108 Gt (MAR). This corresponds to a total contribution to sea-level rise of 5.8 ± 0.4, 7.4 ± 0.3 and 11.2 ± 0.3 mm, respectively. Sensitivity experiments suggest that mass loss could be higher by 20–30% if a strong lowering of the surface albedo were to take place in the future. It is shown that the sea-level rise contribution from the north-easterly regions of Greenland is reduced by increasing precipitation while mass loss in the southern half of Greenland is dominated by steadily decreasing summer mass balances. In addition we observe glaciers in the north-eastern part of Greenland changing their characteristics towards greater activity and mass turnover. (letter)

  20. Future studies and research in Egypt. Overview, examples, perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goell, Edgar

    2012-02-15

    During the last decade there have been several distinct activities and efforts with regards to future research in Egypt. Several institutions and capacities have been created. Although these capacities do not always meet high scientific standards, their results and studies offer important and well-grounded elements for future-oriented discussions and political decisions. Not least because of the Egypt revolt which started in January 2011 and the ongoing complex and conflicting societal struggles in Egypt the objective needs as well as the demand for systematic future thinking and future studies will very likely increase further. For that reason this report presents an overview about the context conditions, experiences and forms of future research in Egypt. The major challenges as well as the major issues are described. The main part is the description of the most important institutions, which are conducting future research, their projects and in addition two concrete projects, which try to practice Sustainable Development in different ways. Finally, several (self-)critical assessments and perspectives from selected experts of the future research community in Egypt will be presented.

  1. Thoughts on future ESSR studies of inner core levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, M.O.

    1990-01-01

    Much of the research to be done at a tunable high-brightness, high-energy photon source can take as a starting point work done in the past, some in the distant past, some in the recent past, but almost always rudimentary or exploratory in nature. It began in the mid-twenties when Pierre Auger observed various tracks in a Wilson Cloud Chamber filled with a rare gas and irradiated by energetic x rays. Now-a-days this photographic plate is shown as evidence for the experimental discovery of the radiationless process of atomic de-excitation, the Auger Effect - no doubt true; but these plates also served the important purpose of determining the angular distributions of the photoelectrons, actually the primary goal at the outset of Auger's thesis. Today, the author shows this plate as an illustration of electron spectroscopy which at its very beginning used x rays of high energies lying in the regime to be covered by the APS, and sources such as PEP, ESRF and SPring 8

  2. Thirty Years of Social Science Research on High-Level Nuclear Waste: Achievements and Future Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, Barry D. (Dept. of Social Sciences, Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton (United States)), e-mail: bdsolomo@mtu.edu; Andren, Mats; Strandberg, Urban (Center for Public Sector Research, Univ. of Goeteborg, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    Research on high-level nuclear waste management has focused on technical and scientific issues since the U.S. National Academy of Sciences first studied the problem in the mid 1950s and recommended long-term disposal in deep salt formations. In this review, we trace the development of the problem's definition and its associated research since socioeconomic, political and policy issues were first given consideration and nuclear waste management became recognized as more than a technical issue. Three time periods are identified. First, from the mid 1970s to early 1980s, initial research explored institutional dimensions of nuclear waste, including ethics. The second period began in the early 1980s with a concerted effort to solve the problem and site nuclear waste repositories, and ended in the mid 1990s with minimal progress in the U.S. and general stalemate in Asia and Europe (with the notable exception of Sweden). This phase accelerated research on risk perception and stigma of nuclear waste, and elevated a focus on public trust. Great attention was given to repository siting conflicts, while minimal attention was placed on ethics, equity, political systems, and public participation. The last period, since the mid 1990s, has been characterized by continuing political stalemate and increased attention to public participation, political systems and international solutions. Questions of ethics have been given renewed attention, while research on risk perceptions and siting conflicts continues. We frame these periods in a broader context of the shifting role of applied social scientists. The paper concludes with a general discussion of this research area and prospects for future research

  3. Thirty Years of Social Science Research on High-Level Nuclear Waste: Achievements and Future Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, Barry D.; Andren, Mats; Strandberg, Urban

    2010-09-01

    Research on high-level nuclear waste management has focused on technical and scientific issues since the U.S. National Academy of Sciences first studied the problem in the mid 1950s and recommended long-term disposal in deep salt formations. In this review, we trace the development of the problem's definition and its associated research since socioeconomic, political and policy issues were first given consideration and nuclear waste management became recognized as more than a technical issue. Three time periods are identified. First, from the mid 1970s to early 1980s, initial research explored institutional dimensions of nuclear waste, including ethics. The second period began in the early 1980s with a concerted effort to solve the problem and site nuclear waste repositories, and ended in the mid 1990s with minimal progress in the U.S. and general stalemate in Asia and Europe (with the notable exception of Sweden). This phase accelerated research on risk perception and stigma of nuclear waste, and elevated a focus on public trust. Great attention was given to repository siting conflicts, while minimal attention was placed on ethics, equity, political systems, and public participation. The last period, since the mid 1990s, has been characterized by continuing political stalemate and increased attention to public participation, political systems and international solutions. Questions of ethics have been given renewed attention, while research on risk perceptions and siting conflicts continues. We frame these periods in a broader context of the shifting role of applied social scientists. The paper concludes with a general discussion of this research area and prospects for future research

  4. The Role of Level-3 PSA in the Regulatory Structure for the Licensing of Future NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jong Tae; Han, Sang Hoon

    2008-01-01

    accomplished. Therefore, the role of Level-3 PSA for the evaluation of dose consequences will be examined in this study

  5. 1st Annual Meeting of the Future Circular Collider study

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This first Annual Meeting of the Future Circular Collider study is an important milestone to conclude the first, exploratory phase, leading to the identification of the baseline for the further study. Organized as an IEEE conference, it will provide the opportunity for re-enforcing the cohesion of the community and to catalyse cross-fertilization within the FCC study.

  6. Estuarine Response to River Flow and Sea-Level Rise under Future Climate Change and Human Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Taiping; Voisin, Nathalie; Copping, Andrea E.

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the response of river flow and estuarine hydrodynamics to climate change, land-use/land-cover change (LULC), and sea-level rise is essential to managing water resources and stress on living organisms under these changing conditions. This paper presents a modeling study using a watershed hydrology model and an estuarine hydrodynamic model, in a one-way coupling, to investigate the estuarine hydrodynamic response to sea-level rise and change in river flow due to the effect of future climate and LULC changes in the Snohomish River estuary, Washington, USA. A set of hydrodynamic variables, including salinity intrusion points, average water depth, and salinity of the inundated area, were used to quantify the estuarine response to river flow and sea-level rise. Model results suggest that salinity intrusion points in the Snohomish River estuary and the average salinity of the inundated areas are a nonlinear function of river flow, although the average water depth in the inundated area is approximately linear with river flow. Future climate changes will shift salinity intrusion points further upstream under low flow conditions and further downstream under high flow conditions. In contrast, under the future LULC change scenario, the salinity intrusion point will shift downstream under both low and high flow conditions, compared to present conditions. The model results also suggest that the average water depth in the inundated areas increases linearly with sea-level rise but at a slower rate, and the average salinity in the inundated areas increases linearly with sea-level rise; however, the response of salinity intrusion points in the river to sea-level rise is strongly nonlinear.

  7. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on a global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacyna, Jozef M.; Travnikov, Oleg; De Simone, Francesco; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Sundseth, Kyrre; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.; Steenhuisen, Frits; Pirrone, Nicola; Munthe, John; Kindbom, Karin

    2016-10-01

    An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations, and atmospheric deposition of mercury worldwide is presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System) project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the main goal of applying them in models to assess current (2013) and future (2035) air concentrations and atmospheric deposition of this contaminant. The combustion of fossil fuels (mainly coal) for energy and heat production in power plants and in industrial and residential boilers, as well as artisanal and small-scale gold mining, is one of the major anthropogenic sources of Hg emissions to the atmosphere at present. These sources account for about 37 and 25 % of the total anthropogenic Hg emissions globally, estimated to be about 2000 t. Emissions in Asian countries, particularly in China and India, dominate the total emissions of Hg. The current estimates of mercury emissions from natural processes (primary mercury emissions and re-emissions), including mercury depletion events, were estimated to be 5207 t year-1, which represents nearly 70 % of the global mercury emission budget. Oceans are the most important sources (36 %), followed by biomass burning (9 %). A comparison of the 2035 anthropogenic emissions estimated for three different scenarios with current anthropogenic emissions indicates a reduction of these emissions in 2035 up to 85 % for the best-case scenario. Two global chemical transport models (GLEMOS and ECHMERIT) have been used for the evaluation of future mercury pollution levels considering future emission scenarios. Projections of future changes in mercury deposition on a global scale simulated by these models for three anthropogenic emissions scenarios of 2035 indicate a decrease in up to 50 % deposition in the Northern Hemisphere and up to 35 % in Southern Hemisphere for the best-case scenario. The EU GMOS project has proved to be a very important

  8. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on a global scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Pacyna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations, and atmospheric deposition of mercury worldwide is presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the main goal of applying them in models to assess current (2013 and future (2035 air concentrations and atmospheric deposition of this contaminant. The combustion of fossil fuels (mainly coal for energy and heat production in power plants and in industrial and residential boilers, as well as artisanal and small-scale gold mining, is one of the major anthropogenic sources of Hg emissions to the atmosphere at present. These sources account for about 37 and 25 % of the total anthropogenic Hg emissions globally, estimated to be about 2000 t. Emissions in Asian countries, particularly in China and India, dominate the total emissions of Hg. The current estimates of mercury emissions from natural processes (primary mercury emissions and re-emissions, including mercury depletion events, were estimated to be 5207 t year−1, which represents nearly 70 % of the global mercury emission budget. Oceans are the most important sources (36 %, followed by biomass burning (9 %. A comparison of the 2035 anthropogenic emissions estimated for three different scenarios with current anthropogenic emissions indicates a reduction of these emissions in 2035 up to 85 % for the best-case scenario. Two global chemical transport models (GLEMOS and ECHMERIT have been used for the evaluation of future mercury pollution levels considering future emission scenarios. Projections of future changes in mercury deposition on a global scale simulated by these models for three anthropogenic emissions scenarios of 2035 indicate a decrease in up to 50 % deposition in the Northern Hemisphere and up to 35 % in Southern Hemisphere for the best-case scenario. The EU GMOS project has

  9. A high-speed DAQ framework for future high-level trigger and event building clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caselle, M.; Perez, L.E. Ardila; Balzer, M.; Dritschler, T.; Kopmann, A.; Mohr, H.; Rota, L.; Vogelgesang, M.; Weber, M.

    2017-01-01

    Modern data acquisition and trigger systems require a throughput of several GB/s and latencies of the order of microseconds. To satisfy such requirements, a heterogeneous readout system based on FPGA readout cards and GPU-based computing nodes coupled by InfiniBand has been developed. The incoming data from the back-end electronics is delivered directly into the internal memory of GPUs through a dedicated peer-to-peer PCIe communication. High performance DMA engines have been developed for direct communication between FPGAs and GPUs using 'DirectGMA (AMD)' and 'GPUDirect (NVIDIA)' technologies. The proposed infrastructure is a candidate for future generations of event building clusters, high-level trigger filter farms and low-level trigger system. In this paper the heterogeneous FPGA-GPU architecture will be presented and its performance be discussed.

  10. Future health physics prospects in high-level nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waite, D.A.; Mayberry, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this presentation is to provide an overview of health physics activities anticipated to be required at a high-level nuclear waste repository and to project the numbers of health physics personnel expected to be required to carry out these activities. Health physics personnel receiving consideration in the projections include the health physics manager, shift supervisors, area supervisors, health physicists, and technologists. Phases of the repository addressed are construction, operation, retrieval, and decommissioning. Specific topics discussed in the process of developing the projections are: (a) the basic features of a geologic repository, (b) the staffing requirements of such a repository, (c) health physics involvement in repository operations, and (d) the anticipated schedule for operation of repositories in the United States. A quantitative assessment of future health physics prospects in high-level nuclear waste management is included

  11. Future Directions for Business Education: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesten, Cyril A.; Lambrecht, Judith J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to synthesize perceptions from the field about current issues and to propose future directions for the field of business education. Method: A modified three-stage Delphi study was carried out with business educators who attended national conferences and/or belonged to national professional organizations.…

  12. THEORETICAL ANALYSIS STUDY OF FORMATION OF FUTURE LEGAL LAWYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Stepanovich Shevlakov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with topical issues of formation of legal consciousness of future lawyers in high school. Obtained kinds of legal consciousness of future lawyers, determined its structure. Dedicated components of justice are mutually reinforcing, and provide an opportunity for further development of the personality of the future specialist, their personal growth.The purpose: to carry out theoretical analysis of the problem of formation of legal consciousness of future lawyers.The novelty is based. On the analysis of theoretical appro-aches of pedagogy, psychology, law, the notion of «lawfulness of the future of the law student», which is regarded as a form of social consciousness, which is a set of legal views and feelings, expressing the attitude to the law and legal phenomena that have regulatory in character and which includes know-ledge of legal phenomena and their evaluation from the point of view of fairness and justice, formed in the process of studying in the University.Results: this article analyzes different approaches to understanding the content and essence of the concept of legal consciousness of the legal profession. Define the types and structure of legal consciousness of future lawyers.

  13. The impact of future sea-level rise on the global tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, M. D.; Horsburgh, K. J.; Blundell, J. R.; Hirschi, J. J.-M.; Nicholls, R. J.; Verlaan, M.; Wells, N. C.

    2017-06-01

    Tides are a key component in coastal extreme water levels. Possible changes in the tides caused by mean sea-level rise (SLR) are therefore of importance in the analysis of coastal flooding, as well as many other applications. We investigate the effect of future SLR on the tides globally using a fully global forward tidal model: OTISmpi. Statistical comparisons of the modelled and observed tidal solutions demonstrate the skill of the refined model setup with no reliance on data assimilation. We simulate the response of the four primary tidal constituents to various SLR scenarios. Particular attention is paid to future changes at the largest 136 coastal cities, where changes in water level would have the greatest impact. Spatially uniform SLR scenarios ranging from 0.5 to 10 m with fixed coastlines show that the tidal amplitudes in shelf seas globally respond strongly to SLR with spatially coherent areas of increase and decrease. Changes in the M2 and S2 constituents occur globally in most shelf seas, whereas changes in K1 and O1 are confined to Asian shelves. With higher SLR tidal changes are often not proportional to the SLR imposed and larger portions of mean high water (MHW) changes are above proportional. Changes in MHW exceed ±10% of the SLR at 10% of coastal cities. SLR scenarios allowing for coastal recession tend increasingly to result in a reduction in tidal range. The fact that the fixed and recession shoreline scenarios result mainly in changes of opposing sign is explained by the effect of the perturbations on the natural period of oscillation of the basin. Our results suggest that coastal management strategies could influence the sign of the tidal amplitude change. The effect of a spatially varying SLR, in this case fingerprints of the initial elastic response to ice mass loss, modestly alters the tidal response with the largest differences at high latitudes.

  14. How Should the Fires Network for the Future Force BDE Level UA be Structured?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ulloa, Juan

    2004-01-01

    ... to all available fires in the area of operations. This monograph constitutes an exploratory study of and preliminary analysis of the effects of networking all available fires at the brigade level UA...

  15. Experience of department of internal diseases propaedeutics in formation of cultural level of future physician

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skvortsov Yu.I.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The problems concerning the study at clinical departments, ethics and deontology in communication between students and patients are discussed in the article. Special attention is paid to uprising of the cultural level of students.

  16. A study on relationship between abnormal accruals and future profitability: Evidence from Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khodaei Valahzaghard

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between future profitability and abnormal accruals on selected firms from Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE. The study selects 223 firms from TSE market over the period 2007-2011. Using the regression analysis, the study shows there was no meaningful relationship between abnormal earnings and future profitability when the level of significance is five percent. There are also seven sub-hypotheses associated with the proposed study of this paper. The results indicate that while there were no meaningful relationship between firm size, ratio of book value to equity, capital expenditure, earnings quality, earning forecasted error and book value leverage on one side and future earnings, the study confirms a significance relationship between market leverage and future earnings.

  17. Future Orientation, School Contexts, and Problem Behaviors: A Multilevel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pan; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.

    2013-01-01

    The association between future orientation and problem behaviors has received extensive empirical attention; however, previous work has not considered school contextual influences on this link. Using a sample of N = 9,163 9th to 12th graders (51.0% females) from N = 85 high schools of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the…

  18. Future prospects of antiarrhythmic treatment based on experimental studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, M. J.

    1995-01-01

    Based on recent experimental studies, a number of speculations about future developments are made regarding the treatment of atrial fibrillation, the problem of proarrhythmia in patients with heart failure, and the treatment of ventricular tachycardia developing during the first 6 weeks following

  19. Past and future of radio occultation studies of planetary atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshleman, Von R.; Hinson, David P.; Tyler, G. Leonard; Lindal, Gunnar F.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of radio waves that have propagated through planetary atmospheres have provided exploratory results on atmospheric constituents, structure, dynamics, and ionization for Venus, Mars, Titan, Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus. Highlights of past results are reviewed in order to define and illustrate the potential of occultation and related radio studies in future planetary missions.

  20. Ocean Studies Board annual report 1989 and future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The major activities of the Ocean Studies Board of the National Research Council for 1989 are reviewed. The following are discussed: the Navy Panel, the CO2 Panel, the Committee on the Ocean's Role in Global Change, the Committee on the Coastal Ocean, the Workshop on Issues of U.S. Marine Fisheries, and the Continental Margins Workshop Committee. Future plans are covered

  1. Carbon choices determine US cities committed to futures below sea level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Benjamin H; Kulp, Scott; Levermann, Anders

    2015-11-03

    Anthropogenic carbon emissions lock in long-term sea-level rise that greatly exceeds projections for this century, posing profound challenges for coastal development and cultural legacies. Analysis based on previously published relationships linking emissions to warming and warming to rise indicates that unabated carbon emissions up to the year 2100 would commit an eventual global sea-level rise of 4.3-9.9 m. Based on detailed topographic and population data, local high tide lines, and regional long-term sea-level commitment for different carbon emissions and ice sheet stability scenarios, we compute the current population living on endangered land at municipal, state, and national levels within the United States. For unabated climate change, we find that land that is home to more than 20 million people is implicated and is widely distributed among different states and coasts. The total area includes 1,185-1,825 municipalities where land that is home to more than half of the current population would be affected, among them at least 21 cities exceeding 100,000 residents. Under aggressive carbon cuts, more than half of these municipalities would avoid this commitment if the West Antarctic Ice Sheet remains stable. Similarly, more than half of the US population-weighted area under threat could be spared. We provide lists of implicated cities and state populations for different emissions scenarios and with and without a certain collapse of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. Although past anthropogenic emissions already have caused sea-level commitment that will force coastal cities to adapt, future emissions will determine which areas we can continue to occupy or may have to abandon.

  2. Stereotyping at the undergraduate level revealed during interprofessional learning between future doctors and biomedical scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewitt, Moira S; Ehrenborg, Ewa; Scheja, Max; Brauner, Annelie

    2010-01-01

    Interprofessional education (IPE) involving undergraduate health professionals is expected to promote collaboration in their later careers. The role of IPE between doctors and biomedical scientists has not been explored at the undergraduate level. Our aim was to introduce IPE sessions for medical and biomedical students in order to identify the benefits and barriers to these groups learning together. Medical and biomedical students together discussed laboratory results, relevant literature, and ideas for developing new diagnostic tools. The programme was evaluated with questionnaires and interviews. While there was general support for the idea of IPE, medical and biomedical students responded differently. Biomedical students were more critical, wanted more explicit learning objectives and felt that their professional role was often misunderstood. The medical students were more enthusiastic but regarded the way the biomedical students communicated concerns about their perceived role as a barrier to effective interprofessional learning. We conclude that stereotyping, which can impede effective collaborations between doctors and biomedical scientists, is already present at the undergraduate level and may be a barrier to IPE. Effective learning opportunities should be supported at the curriculum level and be designed to specifically enable a broad appreciation of each other's future professional roles.

  3. Near-future carbon dioxide levels alter fish behaviour by interfering with neurotransmitter function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Göran E.; Dixson, Danielle L.; Domenici, Paolo; McCormick, Mark I.; Sørensen, Christina; Watson, Sue-Ann; Munday, Philip L.

    2012-03-01

    Predicted future CO2 levels have been found to alter sensory responses and behaviour of marine fishes. Changes include increased boldness and activity, loss of behavioural lateralization, altered auditory preferences and impaired olfactory function. Impaired olfactory function makes larval fish attracted to odours they normally avoid, including ones from predators and unfavourable habitats. These behavioural alterations have significant effects on mortality that may have far-reaching implications for population replenishment, community structure and ecosystem function. However, the underlying mechanism linking high CO2 to these diverse responses has been unknown. Here we show that abnormal olfactory preferences and loss of behavioural lateralization exhibited by two species of larval coral reef fish exposed to high CO2 can be rapidly and effectively reversed by treatment with an antagonist of the GABA-A receptor. GABA-A is a major neurotransmitter receptor in the vertebrate brain. Thus, our results indicate that high CO2 interferes with neurotransmitter function, a hitherto unrecognized threat to marine populations and ecosystems. Given the ubiquity and conserved function of GABA-A receptors, we predict that rising CO2 levels could cause sensory and behavioural impairment in a wide range of marine species, especially those that tightly control their acid-base balance through regulatory changes in HCO3- and Cl- levels.

  4. Mental health issues from rising sea level in a remote coastal region of the Solomon Islands: current and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asugeni, James; MacLaren, David; Massey, Peter D; Speare, Rick

    2015-12-01

    There is little published research about mental health and climate change in the Pacific, including Solomon Islands. Solomon Islands has one of the highest rates of sea-level rise globally. The aim of this research was to document mental health issues related to sea-level rise for people in East Malaita, Solomon Islands. A cross-sectional study was carried out in six low-lying villages in East Malaita, Solomon Islands. The researcher travelled to villages by dugout canoe. In addition to quantitative, closed-ended questions, open-ended questions with villagers explored individual and community responses to rising sea level. Of 60 people asked, 57 completed the questionnaire. Of these, 90% reported having seen a change in the weather patterns. Nearly all participants reported that sea-level rise is affecting them and their family and is causing fear and worry on a personal and community level. Four themes emerged from the qualitative analysis: experience of physical impacts of climate change; worry about the future; adaptation to climate change; government response needed. Given predictions of ongoing sea-level rise in the Pacific it is essential that more research is conducted to further understand the human impact of climate change for small island states which will inform local, provincial and national-level mental health responses. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  5. Future extension of the Swedish repository for low and intermediate level waste (SFR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The existing Swedish repository for low and intermediate level waste (SFR) is licensed for disposal of short-lived waste originated from operation and maintenance of Swedish nuclear power plants. The repository is foreseen to be extended to accommodate short-lived waste from the future decommissioning of the Nuclear Power Plants. Long-lived waste from operation, maintenance and eventually decommissioning will be stored some years before disposal in a geological repository. This repository can be build either as a further extension of the SFR facility or as a separate repository. This paper discusses the strategy of a step-wise extended repository where the extensions are performed during operation of the existing parts of the repository. It describes the process for licensing new parts of the repository (and re-license of the existing parts). (author)

  6. Current state and future perspectives on coupled ice-sheet - sea-level modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Bas; Stocchi, Paolo; Whitehouse, Pippa L.; van de Wal, Roderik S. W.

    2017-08-01

    The interaction between ice-sheet growth and retreat and sea-level change has been an established field of research for many years. However, recent advances in numerical modelling have shed new light on the precise interaction of marine ice sheets with the change in near-field sea level, and the related stability of the grounding line position. Studies using fully coupled ice-sheet - sea-level models have shown that accounting for gravitationally self-consistent sea-level change will act to slow down the retreat and advance of marine ice-sheet grounding lines. Moreover, by simultaneously solving the 'sea-level equation' and modelling ice-sheet flow, coupled models provide a global field of relative sea-level change that is consistent with dynamic changes in ice-sheet extent. In this paper we present an overview of recent advances, possible caveats, methodologies and challenges involved in coupled ice-sheet - sea-level modelling. We conclude by presenting a first-order comparison between a suite of relative sea-level data and output from a coupled ice-sheet - sea-level model.

  7. High-level panel of experts to recommend future course for IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Full text: A high-level panel of experts, charged by IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei with making an assessment of the challenges the IAEA will face up to the year 2020 and beyond, holds its initial meetings in Vienna 25 - 26 February. The Commission of Eminent Persons, under the chairmanship of former Mexican President, Ernesto Zedillo, includes 18 senior international figures, and will make recommendations on ways in which the Agency can prepare to meet its expanding workload. The Commission's findings are intended to stimulate further discussion - among Member States, between the States and the IAEA Secretariat, and by the broader public - about the future of the Agency and how best it can contribute in the coming years to the efforts of the international community to achieve development, peace and security, said IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei. The members of the Commission are: Dr. Ernesto Zedillo (Chairman) - Director of the Yale Center for the Study of Globalization; former President of Mexico; Ambassador Oluyemi Adeniji - former Minister of Foreign Affairs, Nigeria; former Member of the Board of Governors of the IAEA; Lakhdar Brahimi - Visiting Scholar at the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey; former UN Under-Secretary-General, Special Adviser to the Secretary-General, and Chair of the Panel on UN Peace Operations; Lajos Bokros - Professor of Economics and Public Policy, and Chief Operating Officer of the Central European University, Budapest, Hungary; Dr. Rajagopala Chidambaram - Principal Scientific Advisor to the Government of India; DAE Homi Bhabha Professor; former Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission; former Director of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre; Senator Lamberto Dini - President of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the Italian Senate; Gareth Evans - President and Chief Executive Officer, International Crisis Group, Brussels; former Australian Foreign Minister 1988-1998; former Minister for Resources and

  8. Recent experience and future evolution of the CMS High Level Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gerry; Branson, James; Bukowiec, Sebastian Czeslaw; Chaze, Olivier; Cittolin, Sergio; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Deldicque, Christian; Dobson, Marc; Dupont, Aymeric; Erhan, Samim; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Hartl, Christian; Holzner, Andre Georg; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Franciscus; Meschi, Emilio; Mommsen, Remigius; Nunez Barranco Fernandez, Carlos; O'Dell, Vivian; Orsini, Luciano; Paus, Christoph Maria Ernst; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Polese, Giovanni; Racz, Attila; Raginel, Olivier; Sakulin, Hannes; Sani, Matteo; Schwick, Christoph; Spataru, Andrei Cristian; Stoeckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty

    2012-01-01

    The CMS experiment at the LHC uses a two-stage trigger system, with events flowing from the first level trigger at a rate of 100 kHz. These events are read out by the Data Acquisition system (DAQ), assembled in memory in a farm of computers, and finally fed into the high-level trigger (HLT) software running on the farm. The HLT software selects interesting events for offline storage and analysis at a rate of a few hundred Hz. The HLT algorithms consist of sequences of offline-style reconstruction and filtering modules, executed on a farm of 0(10000) CPU cores built from commodity hardware. Experience from the 2010-2011 collider run is detailed, as well as the current architecture of the CMS HLT, and its integration with the CMS reconstruction framework and CMS DAQ. The short- and medium-term evolution of the HLT software infrastructure is discussed, with future improvements aimed at supporting extensions of the HLT computing power, and addressing remaining performance and maintenance issues.

  9. Contributions of internal climate variability to mitigation of projected future regional sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, A.; Bates, S. C.

    2017-12-01

    Observations indicate that the global mean surface temperature is rising, so does the global mean sea level. Sea level rise (SLR) can impose significant impacts on island and coastal communities, especially when SLR is compounded with storm surges. Here, via analyzing results from two sets of ensemble simulations from the Community Earth System Model version 1, we investigate how the potential SLR benefits through mitigating the future emission scenarios from business as usual to a mild-mitigation over the 21st Century would be affected by internal climate variability. Results show that there is almost no SLR benefit in the near term due to the large SLR variability due to the internal ocean dynamics. However, toward the end of the 21st century, the SLR benefit can be as much as a 26±1% reduction of the global mean SLR due to seawater thermal expansion. Regionally, the benefits from this mitigation for both near and long terms are heterogeneous. They vary from just a 11±5% SLR reduction in Melbourne, Australia to a 35±6% reduction in London. The processes contributing to these regional differences are the coupling of the wind-driven ocean circulation with the decadal scale sea surface temperature mode in the Pacific and Southern Oceans, and the changes of the thermohaline circulation and the mid-latitude air-sea coupling in the Atlantic.

  10. Electrification Futures Study: End-Use Electric Technology Cost and Performance Projections through 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, Laura J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jadun, Paige [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McMillan, Colin A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Steinberg, Daniel C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Muratori, Matteo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-02

    This report provides projected cost and performance assumptions for electric technologies considered in the Electrification Futures Study, a detailed and comprehensive analysis of the effects of widespread electrification of end-use service demands in all major economic sectors - transportation, residential and commercial buildings, and industry - for the contiguous United States through 2050. Using extensive literature searches and expert assessment, the authors identify slow, moderate, and rapid technology advancement sensitivities on technology cost and performance, and they offer a comparative analysis of levelized cost metrics as a reference indicator of total costs. The identification and characterization of these end-use service demand technologies is fundamental to the Electrification Futures Study. This report, the larger Electrification Futures Study, and the associated data and methodologies may be useful to planners and analysts in evaluating the potential role of electrification in an uncertain future. The report could be broadly applicable for other analysts and researchers who wish to assess electrification and electric technologies.

  11. Episodic Future Thinking in Semantic Dementia: A Cognitive and fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viard, Armelle; Piolino, Pascale; Belliard, Serge; de La Sayette, Vincent; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis

    2014-01-01

    Semantic dementia (SD) is characterized by gradual loss of semantic memory. While episodic autobiographical memory seems relatively preserved, behavioral studies suggest that episodic future thinking is impaired. We used fMRI to measure brain activity in four SD patients (JPL, EP, LL, EG) while they envisioned future events and remembered personal past events. Twelve healthy elders served as controls. Episodic quality, emotion, mental imagery and level of consciousness (via remember/know judgements) were checked at debriefing. We analyzed the future compared to the past for each patient. All patients presented lateral temporal atrophy, but varied in terms of frontal and anterior hippocampal atrophy. Patient JPL presented atrophy in bilateral superior medial frontal gyri and left anterior hippocampus and was unable to engage in episodic future thinking, despite hyperactivations in frontal and occipital regions. Patient EP presented no atrophy in the anterior hippocampus, but atrophy in bilateral superior medial frontal gyrus and had difficulties to engage in episodic future thinking. Patient LL presented atrophy in left anterior hippocampus, but hyperactivated its right counterpart for future compared to past thinking, permitting her to project efficiently in the future in an episodic way. Patient EG presented no atrophy in the superior medial frontal gyri or anterior hippocampi and was able to engage in episodic future thinking. Altogether, patients' future projections differed depending on the severity and localization of their atrophy. The functional integrity of bilateral superior medial frontal gyri and anterior hippocampus appear crucial for episodic future thinking: atrophy of both structures strongly impairs future projection, while integrity of these structures or hyperactivation of residual tissue normalizes episodic future projection. PMID:25333997

  12. Episodic future thinking in semantic dementia: a cognitive and FMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armelle Viard

    Full Text Available Semantic dementia (SD is characterized by gradual loss of semantic memory. While episodic autobiographical memory seems relatively preserved, behavioral studies suggest that episodic future thinking is impaired. We used fMRI to measure brain activity in four SD patients (JPL, EP, LL, EG while they envisioned future events and remembered personal past events. Twelve healthy elders served as controls. Episodic quality, emotion, mental imagery and level of consciousness (via remember/know judgements were checked at debriefing. We analyzed the future compared to the past for each patient. All patients presented lateral temporal atrophy, but varied in terms of frontal and anterior hippocampal atrophy. Patient JPL presented atrophy in bilateral superior medial frontal gyri and left anterior hippocampus and was unable to engage in episodic future thinking, despite hyperactivations in frontal and occipital regions. Patient EP presented no atrophy in the anterior hippocampus, but atrophy in bilateral superior medial frontal gyrus and had difficulties to engage in episodic future thinking. Patient LL presented atrophy in left anterior hippocampus, but hyperactivated its right counterpart for future compared to past thinking, permitting her to project efficiently in the future in an episodic way. Patient EG presented no atrophy in the superior medial frontal gyri or anterior hippocampi and was able to engage in episodic future thinking. Altogether, patients' future projections differed depending on the severity and localization of their atrophy. The functional integrity of bilateral superior medial frontal gyri and anterior hippocampus appear crucial for episodic future thinking: atrophy of both structures strongly impairs future projection, while integrity of these structures or hyperactivation of residual tissue normalizes episodic future projection.

  13. Past, Present, and Future in the Scientific Study of Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mccorkle, William W.; Xygalatas, Dimitris

    2012-01-01

    The study of religion is by its nature and by its history multi-disciplinary, incorporating diverse research paradigms ranging from historiography to experimental approaches and from scientific positivism to postmodern reflection. At a conference on the Past, Present, and Future in the Scientific...... in the humani- ties. The Laboratory for the Experimental Research of Religion in Brno, who hosted this conference, is the product of these developments...

  14. Study and Evaluation of Current and Future Aircraft Loaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    detonation intense Electromagnetic Pulse Eergy (DIP) is gene - rated which could seriously affect the electronic equipment. 2-105 The intense...speciality efforts, such as integrated logistics support (ILS), human factors engineering ( HFE ), and reliability, availability and m aintainability...task analyiis is outlined in detail in Appendix C: Human Fac- tors Enqineering Study and Evaluation of Current and Future Aircraft Loaders. The HFE

  15. Study Trade-Offs on Future European Expendable Launchers

    OpenAIRE

    Sippel, Martin; van Foreest, Arnold; Philip, Peter; Jäger, Markus

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes latest results of recent activities in Germany in the technical assessment of future European launcher architecture. In a joint effort of DLR-SART with German launcher indus-try a next generation upper-medium class expendable TSTO and options for new liquid fuel upper stages for the small VEGA-launcher are addressed. The WOTAN study has investigated fully cryogenic launchers as well as those with a combination of solid and cryogenic stages, fulfilling a requirement of a...

  16. Past and future contribution of global groundwater depletion to sea-level rise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wada, Y.; Beek, L.P.H. van; Sperna Weiland, F.C.; Chao, B.; Wu, Y.-H.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies suggest the increasing contribution of groundwater depletion to global sea-level rise. Groundwater depletion has more than doubled during the last decades, primarily due to increase in water demand, while the increase in water impoundments behind dams has been tapering off since

  17. A mathematical model of past, present and future shore level displacement in Fennoscandia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paasse, T. [Sveriges Geologiska Undersoekning, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1997-12-01

    Shore level displacement in Fennoscandia is mainly due to two interactive vertical movements, glacio-isostatic uplift and eustatic sea level rise. A recent investigation of the lake-tilting phenomenon has made it possible to discern the course of glacio-isostatic. As a consequence an iteration process to estimate glacio-isostatic uplift and eustatic rise using empirical data of the shore level displacement has been started. The model indicates that there are two mechanisms involved in glacio-isostatic uplift, one slow and the other fast. The main uplift, still in progress, acts slowly. Arctan functions have proved to be suitable tools for describing slow glacio-isostatic uplift. The time of maximal uplift rate is isochronous, meaning that slow uplift occurred simultaneously in all Fennoscandia in an interactive movement. For slow uplift there is a relationship between the rate of decline and the crustal thickness. In areas with greater crustal thickness the rate of decline of the glacio-isostatic recovery is lower than in areas with thinner crust. The fast mechanism gave rise to a crustal subsidence which started about 12 500 BP. After about 10 300 BP, in the early Holocene, the subsidence was restored by a fast uplift. Normal distribution functions have been used for calculating the fast mechanism. The mantle material exhibits plastic behaviour. When the mantle encounters short-lived stresses the material behaves like an elastic solid but in response to long-term stresses it will flow. The slow mechanism can be linked to viscous flow and as a response to long-term stresses. The fast mechanism is probably the response to a short-lived stress. This stress could have been caused by renewed ice loading, due to a self-triggered redistribution of the ice load during deglaciation. Future development regarding glacio-isostatic uplift, eustasy and shore level displacement is predicted in Fennoscandia using the results from the modelling. Predictions are based on the

  18. Past and future sea-level change from the surface mass balance of glaciers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Marzeion

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We present estimates of sea-level change caused by the global surface mass balance of glaciers, based on the reconstruction and projection of the surface mass balance of all the individual glaciers of the world, excluding the ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica. The model is validated using a leave-one-glacier-out cross-validation scheme against 3997 observed surface mass balances of 255 glaciers, and against 756 geodetically observed, temporally integrated volume and surface area changes of 341 glaciers. When forced with observed monthly precipitation and temperature data, the glaciers of the world are reconstructed to have lost mass corresponding to 114 ± 5 mm sea-level equivalent (SLE between 1902 and 2009. Using projected temperature and precipitation anomalies from 15 coupled general circulation models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5 ensemble, they are projected to lose an additional 148 ± 35 mm SLE (scenario RCP26, 166 ± 42 mm SLE (scenario RCP45, 175 ± 40 mm SLE (scenario RCP60, or 217 ± 47 mm SLE (scenario RCP85 during the 21st century. Based on the extended RCP scenarios, glaciers are projected to approach a new equilibrium towards the end of the 23rd century, after having lost either 248 ± 66 mm SLE (scenario RCP26, 313 ± 50 mm SLE (scenario RCP45, or 424 ± 46 mm SLE (scenario RCP85. Up until approximately 2100, ensemble uncertainty within each scenario is the biggest source of uncertainty for the future glacier mass loss; after that, the difference between the scenarios takes over as the biggest source of uncertainty. Ice mass loss rates are projected to peak 2040 ∼ 2050 (RCP26, 2050 ∼ 2060 (RCP45, 2070 ∼ 2090 (RCP60, or 2070 ∼ 2100 (RCP85.

  19. The future of event-level information repositories, indexing, and selection in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barberis, D; Cranshaw, J; Malon, D; Gemmeren, P Van; Zhang, Q; Dimitrov, G; Nairz, A; Sorokoletov, R; Doherty, T; Quilty, D; Gallas, E J; Hrivnac, J; Nowak, M

    2014-01-01

    ATLAS maintains a rich corpus of event-by-event information that provides a global view of the billions of events the collaboration has measured or simulated, along with sufficient auxiliary information to navigate to and retrieve data for any event at any production processing stage. This unique resource has been employed for a range of purposes, from monitoring, statistics, anomaly detection, and integrity checking, to event picking, subset selection, and sample extraction. Recent years of data-taking provide a foundation for assessment of how this resource has and has not been used in practice, of the uses for which it should be optimized, of how it should be deployed and provisioned for scalability to future data volumes, and of the areas in which enhancements to functionality would be most valuable. This paper describes how ATLAS event-level information repositories and selection infrastructure are evolving in light of this experience, and in view of their expected roles both in wide-area event delivery services and in an evolving ATLAS analysis model in which the importance of efficient selective access to data can only grow.

  20. Identification of high-level functional/system requirements for future civil transports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swink, Jay R.; Goins, Richard T.

    1992-01-01

    In order to accommodate the rapid growth in commercial aviation throughout the remainder of this century, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is faced with a formidable challenge to upgrade and/or modernize the National Airspace System (NAS) without compromising safety or efficiency. A recurring theme in both the Aviation System Capital Investment Plan (CIP), which has replaced the NAS Plan, and the new FAA Plan for Research, Engineering, and Development (RE&D) rely on the application of new technologies and a greater use of automation. Identifying the high-level functional and system impacts of such modernization efforts on future civil transport operational requirements, particularly in terms of cockpit functionality and information transfer, was the primary objective of this project. The FAA planning documents for the NAS of the 2005 era and beyond were surveyed; major aircraft functional capabilities and system components required for such an operating environment were identified. A hierarchical structured analysis of the information processing and flows emanating from such functional/system components were conducted and the results documented in graphical form depicting the relationships between functions and systems.

  1. Projected contributions of future wind farm development to community noise and annoyance levels in Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L.; Ollson, Christopher A.; Knopper, Loren D.

    2013-01-01

    Wind turbines produce sound during their operation; therefore, jurisdictions around the world have developed regulations regarding the placement of electricity generating wind farms with the intent of preventing unacceptable levels of ‘community noise’ in their vicinity. However, as survey results indicate that the relationship between wind turbine noise and annoyance may differ from noise-annoyance relationships for other common noise sources (e.g., rail, traffic), there are concerns that the application of general noise guidelines for wind turbines may lead to unacceptably high levels of annoyance in communities. In this study, previously published survey results that quantified wind turbine noise and self-reported annoyance were applied to the predicted noise levels (from turbines and transformers) for over 8000 receptors in the vicinity of 13 planned wind power developments in the province of Ontario, Canada. The results of this analysis indicate that the current wind turbine noise restrictions in Ontario will limit community exposure to wind turbine related noise such that levels of annoyance are unlikely to exceed previously established background levels of noise-related annoyance from other common noise sources. This provides valuable context that should be considered by policy-makers when evaluating the potential impacts of wind turbine noise on the community. -- highlights: •Wind turbine noise-annoyance relationship used to predict annoyance in Ontario. •Noise annoyance predicted to be <8% for non-participants <1 km from turbines. •Predicted levels of wind turbine noise annoyance similar to that from traffic noise. •Wind turbine noise annoyance not expected to exceed existing background levels

  2. Uncertainties in Future Regional Sea Level Trends: How to Deal with the Internal Climate Variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, M.; Karpytchev, M.; Hu, A.; Deser, C.; Lennartz-Sassinek, S.

    2017-12-01

    Today, the Climate models (CM) are the main tools for forecasting sea level rise (SLR) at global and regional scales. The CM forecasts are accompanied by inherent uncertainties. Understanding and reducing these uncertainties is becoming a matter of increasing urgency in order to provide robust estimates of SLR impact on coastal societies, which need sustainable choices of climate adaptation strategy. These CM uncertainties are linked to structural model formulation, initial conditions, emission scenario and internal variability. The internal variability is due to complex non-linear interactions within the Earth Climate System and can induce diverse quasi-periodic oscillatory modes and long-term persistences. To quantify the effects of internal variability, most studies used multi-model ensembles or sea level projections from a single model ran with perturbed initial conditions. However, large ensembles are not generally available, or too small, and computationally expensive. In this study, we use a power-law scaling of sea level fluctuations, as observed in many other geophysical signals and natural systems, which can be used to characterize the internal climate variability. From this specific statistical framework, we (1) use the pre-industrial control run of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate System Model (NCAR-CCSM) to test the robustness of the power-law scaling hypothesis; (2) employ the power-law statistics as a tool for assessing the spread of regional sea level projections due to the internal climate variability for the 21st century NCAR-CCSM; (3) compare the uncertainties in predicted sea level changes obtained from a NCAR-CCSM multi-member ensemble simulations with estimates derived for power-law processes, and (4) explore the sensitivity of spatial patterns of the internal variability and its effects on regional sea level projections.

  3. Occupancy in community-level studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Darryl I.; Nichols, James; Royle, Andy; Pollock, Kenneth H.; Bailey, Larissa L.; Hines, James

    2018-01-01

    Another type of multi-species studies, are those focused on community-level metrics such as species richness. In this chapter we detail how some of the single-species occupancy models described in earlier chapters have been applied, or extended, for use in such studies, while accounting for imperfect detection. We highlight how Bayesian methods using MCMC are particularly useful in such settings to easily calculate relevant community-level summaries based on presence/absence data. These modeling approaches can be used to assess richness at a single point in time, or to investigate changes in the species pool over time.

  4. Future climate change driven sea-level rise: secondary consequences from human displacement for island biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Florian T; Kissling, W Daniel; Beissmann, Helmut; Penn, Dustin J

    2012-09-01

    Sea-level rise (SLR) due to global warming will result in the loss of many coastal areas. The direct or primary effects due to inundation and erosion from SLR are currently being assessed; however, the indirect or secondary ecological effects, such as changes caused by the displacement of human populations, have not been previously evaluated. We examined the potential ecological consequences of future SLR on >1,200 islands in the Southeast Asian and the Pacific region. Using three SLR scenarios (1, 3, and 6 m elevation, where 1 m approximates most predictions by the end of this century), we assessed the consequences of primary and secondary SLR effects from human displacement on habitat availability and distributions of selected mammal species. We estimate that between 3-32% of the coastal zone of these islands could be lost from primary effects, and consequently 8-52 million people would become SLR refugees. Assuming that inundated urban and intensive agricultural areas will be relocated with an equal area of habitat loss in the hinterland, we project that secondary SLR effects can lead to an equal or even higher percent range loss than primary effects for at least 10-18% of the sample mammals in a moderate range loss scenario and for 22-46% in a maximum range loss scenario. In addition, we found some species to be more vulnerable to secondary than primary effects. Finally, we found high spatial variation in vulnerability: species on islands in Oceania are more vulnerable to primary SLR effects, whereas species on islands in Indo-Malaysia, with potentially 7-48 million SLR refugees, are more vulnerable to secondary effects. Our findings show that primary and secondary SLR effects can have enormous consequences for human inhabitants and island biodiversity, and that both need to be incorporated into ecological risk assessment, conservation, and regional planning. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. A Study on stabilization of energy supply and demand using foreign futures market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Won Chul; Lee, Sung Keun [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-02-01

    This study seeks to minimize financial cost related to the price stabilization and the supply and demand stabilization. In order to accomplish this, it derives a theoretical model of supply hedging to minimize fluctuation risk of price and financial cost intended for crude oil and LNG. Through the positive analysis based on this, it analyzes quantitatively the economic effect of utilizing foreign futures market. It shows the decline of average and divergence of supply cost. Despite the economic effect of utilizing a futures market, the degree of utilizing energy futures market of related firms in Korea appeared to be insufficient. To raise the utilization of trading in futures, the followings were suggested. Firstly, cost reduction and sharing relating information can be designed through the joint participation among allied enterprises. Secondly, energy futures transaction center in Korea can be established or trading linkage based on the existing international trading system can be built. Thirdly, it is possible to subsidize related cost by making a loan from trading in futures. Lastly, the participating directly in a futures market at government level can be considered. (author). 61 refs., 57 figs., 22 tabs.

  6. Case studies on the success or failure of futures contracts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Till

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Why do some futures contracts succeed and others fail? Although the U.S. futures markets have evolved in a trial-and-error fashion, research suggests key elements have determined whether particular futures contracts succeeded or failed. This knowledge could be useful for new financial centers as they build successful futures markets. This paper shows that there are three elements that determine whether a futures contract succeeds or not: 1. There must be a commercial need for hedging; 2. A pool of speculators must be attracted to a market; and 3. Public policy should not be too adverse to futures trading

  7. Future concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases CO2, CFC and CH4 - an assessment on the educational level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoppenau, S.

    1992-01-01

    A model on the educational level is described to estimate effective future atmospheric CO 2 concentrations. The effects of chlorofluorocarbon and methane emission and deforestation are taken into account. The influence of different emission scenarios on the time evolution of greenhouse-gas concentration are illustrated. Future global energy policies are discussed both under the aspects of rising world population and the reduction in global CO 2 emissions. The model can be handled on a PC or even on a pocket calculator

  8. Future prospects for studies in the VUV-SX region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kenichiro; Kitajima, Yoshinori

    1989-09-01

    This book carries papers presented at a workshop 'Future Prospects for Studies in the VUV-SX Region' held on March 22 and 23, 1989. The workshop focussed particularly on the promotion of research in the VUV and soft X-ray regions. Three sessions were held: Session 1 for studies in peripheral areas, Session 2 for theoretical studies, and Session 3 for recent developments. Session 1 covered five studies: 'Laser Spectroscopy: High-Resolution Observation of Highly Electronically Excited Gaseous Molecule', 'High-Resolution Electron Spectroscopy: Surface Phonon Spectroscopy', 'Experimental Study on Atoms and Molecules through Ion Trap', 'Basic Mechanism of Photo-Induced CVD', and 'Application of Circularly Polarized Light'. Session 2 covered five studies: 'Electronic State of High Tc Superconducting Oxide', 'Surface Condition and Electronic State', 'XES and XAS Study of Rare Earth Compound', 'Resonance Photoelectric Spectroscopy on Strongly Correlated Electronic System', and 'Circularly Polarized Light and Atomic Process in Soft X-Ray Region'. Session 3 covered six studies: 'Prospects of Application of Supercritical Liquid to Research on Physical Characteristics', 'Application of Orbit Radiation to Polarization Spectroscopy', 'XES Research for La Compounds', 'Characteristics of Ultra-Fine Particles', 'Surface Study by Angular-Resolution Photoelectric Spectroscopy', and 'EXAFS Study of Light Element'. (N.K.)

  9. Collection of Country-level Interim Surveys Implemented as Part of the Feed the Future Initiative

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Led by USAID, Feed the Future is the U.S. Government?s global hunger and food security initiative, which establishes a foundation for lasting progress against global...

  10. Collection of Country-level Baseline Surveys Implemented as Part of the Feed the Future Initiative

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Led by USAID, Feed the Future is the U.S. Government?s global hunger and food security initiative, which establishes a foundation for lasting progress against global...

  11. Effects of fuel and forest conservation on future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J C; Kasting, J F

    1992-01-01

    formulation of the rock cycle and to the dissolution of deep sea carbonate sediments. Atmospheric carbon dioxide continues to increase as long fossil fuel is burned at a significant rate, because the rate of fossil fuel production of carbon dioxide far exceeds the rates at which geochemical processes can remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The maximum concentration of carbon dioxide achieved in the atmosphere depends on the total amount of fossil fuel burned, but only weakly on the rate of burning. The future course of atmospheric carbon dioxide is, however, very sensitive to the fate of the forests in this simulation because of the important role assigned to carbon dioxide fertilization of plant growth rate. Forest clearance drives up atmospheric carbon dioxide not only by converting biomass into atmospheric carbon dioxide but more importantly by reducing the capacity of the biota to sequester fossil fuel carbon dioxide. In this simulation, atmospheric carbon dioxide levels could be sustained indefinitely below 500 parts per million (ppm) if fossil fuel combustion rates were immediately cut from their present value of 5 x 10(14) m/y to 0.2 x 10(14) m/y (a factor of 25 reduction) and if further forest clearance were halted. If neither of these conditions is met and if we consume most of the world's fossil fuel reserves, peak carbon dioxide concentrations of 1000-2000 ppm are probable within the next few centuries.

  12. Enabling the MLSpOC (Multi-Level Space Operations Center) of the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missal, D.

    2012-09-01

    accredited today at multiple sites both CONUS and OCONUS. It is designed to assist information systems developers achieve DCID 6/3 Protection Level 4 or 5 (PL4 or PL5) or DoD SABI C&A for SECRET-to-UNCLASSIFIED systems (PL3). The product is on the DoD/DNI Unified Cross-domain Management Office's (UCDMO) Baseline of accredited solutions, and is the only solution on the Baseline which the Government considers to be an "All-in-One" approach to the Cross-domain Security challenge. Our solution is also the only PL-4 Cloud in existence and that is deployed and operational in the entire world today (at DIA). The Space marketplace is a very unique cross-domain challenge, as a need exists for Unclassified SSA Data Sharing at a deeper and more fundamental level than anywhere else in the IC or DoD. For instance, certain Agencies and/or Programs have a requirement to share information with Partner Nations that are not considered to be "friendly" (e.g. China). Our Solution is the ONLY solution in the world today that's achieved C&A, and that is uniquely positioned to enable the Multi-level Space Operations Center (MLSpOC) of the Future.

  13. The impact of climate change and emissions control on future ozone levels: Implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, Jennifer D; Kim, Young-Min; Gao, Yang; Fu, Joshua S; Chang, Howard H; Liu, Yang

    2017-11-01

    Overwhelming evidence has shown that, from the Industrial Revolution to the present, human activities influence ground-level ozone (O 3 ) concentrations. Past studies demonstrate links between O 3 exposure and health. However, knowledge gaps remain in our understanding concerning the impacts of climate change mitigation policies on O 3 concentrations and health. Using a hybrid downscaling approach, we evaluated the separate impact of climate change and emission control policies on O 3 levels and associated excess mortality in the US in the 2050s under two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). We show that, by the 2050s, under RCP4.5, increased O 3 levels due to combined climate change and emission control policies, could contribute to an increase of approximately 50 premature deaths annually nationwide in the US. The biggest impact, however, is seen under RCP8.5, where rises in O 3 concentrations are expected to result in over 2,200 additional premature deaths annually. The largest increases in O 3 are seen in RCP8.5 in the Northeast, the Southeast, the Central, and the West regions of the US. Additionally, when O 3 increases are examined by climate change and emissions contributions separately, the benefits of emissions mitigation efforts may significantly outweigh the effects of climate change mitigation policies on O 3 -related mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Study on tooth development, past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Han-Sung; Hitoshi, Yamamoto; Kim, Hee-Jin

    2003-04-01

    For decades, the understanding of craniofacial development has been a central issue in odontology and developmental biology. As a consequence, a significant number of deformities are being studied for their variety of genotype and phenotype. Although there is little doubt about the essential roles of homeobox genes, transcription factors, and growth factors, we now know at least the fundamental strategy of craniofacial biology. The tooth as an organ performs a whole range of functions, each of which is truly indispensable for the maintenance of life. The possession of teeth is, therefore, obviously coupled with the complication of the natural structure of an individual organism. In the following, we shall focus on a brief history of tooth studies and some suggestions for obtaining a full understanding of teeth in the future. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. The Rare Cancer Network: ongoing studies and future strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Ozsahin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Rare Cancer Network (RCN was formed in the early 1990’s to create a global network that could pool knowledge and resources in the studies of rare malignancies whose infrequency prevented both their study with prospective clinical trials. To date, the RCN has initiated 74 studies resulting in 46 peer reviewed publications. The First International Symposium of the Rare Cancer Network took place in Nice in March of 2014. Status updates and proposals for new studies were heard for fifteen topics. Ongoing studies continue for cardiac sarcomas, thyroid cancers, glomus tumors, and adult medulloblastomas. New proposals were presented at the symposium for primary hepatic lymphoma, solitary fibrous tumors, Rosai-Dorfman disease, tumors of the ampulla of Vater, salivary gland tumors, anorectal melanoma, midline nuclear protein in testes carcinoma, pulmonary lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma of the trachea, osteosarcomas of the mandible, and extra-cranial hemangiopericytoma. This manuscript presents the abstracts of those proposals and updates on ongoing studies, as well a brief summary of the vision and future of the RCN.

  16. The present and future on surface analysis for corrosion study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsuka, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Surface analysis for corrosion study was reviewed. For the study, the in-situ analysis was desired to describe the real feature. Light i.e., electromagnetic wave from gamma rays to infrared light has been used for the in-situ measurement of the corroded surface, although various ideas should be introduced for the study. For the application of the electromagnetic waves, a suitable window material and a suitable distance between the window and specimen surface depending on the properties of the wave must be selected. Electron spectroscopy including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) is not applicable for the in-situ study and, however, it is very available for the corrosion study from the following points; elemental analysis, state analysis of the element, and microscopic analysis. In future, the tip enhance Raman scattering (TERS) for which the scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is combined with the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) may be useful for the in-situ corrosion study. (author)

  17. Framing the national nuclear legacy at the local level: Implications for the future of federal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrone, Michele; Basta, Tania B.; Somerville, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    There are several major federal nuclear facilities located in small towns and rural areas of the United States. While many of these facilities were developed in the 1950s to support national defense, in the 1960s and 1970s, some of these shifted their mission to focus on national energy infrastructure. Now, many of these facilities are in a clean-up phase, and local communities are becoming increasingly engaged in influencing decisions about the future of the sites. Communicating with the public in rural communities is challenging when it involves a complicated environmental issue that could have widespread economic impacts. The local media reflect public understanding, so getting a sense of how these media frame issues can be a crucial first step to developing an effective community engagement strategy. A media content analysis of one local newspaper was completed in relation to a major federal nuclear facility. The content analysis is compared to the results of a telephone survey in the region served by the paper and the results suggest that there is a relationship between how the facility is portrayed in local media and public concern. This study has important implications for other nuclear facilities because of the role of local citizens in decision-making. - Highlights: ► Decisions about federal nuclear facilities include local citizen participation. ► Local media can play an important role in public perception of environmental risk. ► Local print media rely on a limited number in of sources for their stories. ► Effective risk communication should begin by understanding local public concerns.

  18. Secondary particle in background levels and effects on detectors at future hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, T.

    1993-06-01

    The next generation of hadron colliders, the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), will operate at high center-of-mass energies and luminosities. Namely, for the SSC (LHC) √s = 40 TeV (√s = 16 TeV) and L = 10 33 cm -2 s -1 (L = 3 x 10 34 cm -2 s -1 ). These conditions will result in the production of large backgrounds as well as radiation environments. Ascertaining the backgrounds, in terms of the production of secondary charged and neutral particles, and the radiation environments are important considerations for the detectors proposed for these colliders. An initial investigation of the radiation levels in the SSC detectors was undertaken by D. Groom and colleagues, in the context of the ''task force on radiation levels in the SSC interaction regions.'' The method consisted essentially of an analytic approach, using standard descriptions of average events in conjunction with simulations of secondary processes. Following Groom's work, extensive Monte Carlo simulations were performed to address the issues of backgrounds and radiation environments for the GEM and SD C3 experiments proposed at the SSC, and for the ATLAS and CMS experiments planned for the LHC. The purpose of the present article is to give a brief summary of some aspects of the methods, assumptions, and calculations performed to date (principally for the SSC detectors), and to stress the relevance of such calculations to the detectors proposed for the study of B-physics in particular

  19. Leveling the Playing Field? Communication Technology as a Predictor of Future Attainments for Deaf Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Lou Garberoglio

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Communication technologies are often proposed to level the playing field for individuals with disabilities, but the benefits may be magnified for deaf individuals in particular due to the communication barriers experienced by these individuals. In this paper, we set out to test the assumption that increased engagement with communication technology, specifically computer-mediated communication, during adolescence would contribute to actual attainment gains in adult life for deaf individuals in three domains: life, education, and employment. A secondary analysis using the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 (NLTS2 was conducted, allowing for a longitudinal examination of deaf individuals' experiences in the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Findings revealed that deaf individuals who engaged with computer-mediated communication at higher frequencies during adolescence did not reveal discernible gains in adult life attainments in any domain. We propose that the benefits of communication technology only go so far, and that achieving greater equitable outcomes for deaf individuals requires larger systemic change.

  20. High-Level Waste Melter Study Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Joseph M.; Bickford, Dennis F.; Day, Delbert E.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lambert, Steven L.; Marra, Sharon L.; Peeler, David K.; Strachan, Denis M.; Triplett, Mark B.; Vienna, John D.; Wittman, Richard S.

    2001-07-13

    At the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the path to site cleanup involves vitrification of the majority of the wastes that currently reside in large underground tanks. A Joule-heated glass melter is the equipment of choice for vitrifying the high-level fraction of these wastes. Even though this technology has general national and international acceptance, opportunities may exist to improve or change the technology to reduce the enormous cost of accomplishing the mission of site cleanup. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy requested the staff of the Tanks Focus Area to review immobilization technologies, waste forms, and modifications to requirements for solidification of the high-level waste fraction at Hanford to determine what aspects could affect cost reductions with reasonable long-term risk. The results of this study are summarized in this report.

  1. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on a global scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacyna, J. M.; Travnikov, O.; De Simone, F.; Hedgecock, I. M.; Sundseth, K.; Pacyna, E. G.; Steenhuisen, F.; Pirrone, N.; Munthe, J.; Kindbom, K.

    2016-01-01

    An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations, and atmospheric deposition of mercury worldwide is presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System) project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the

  2. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on global scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacyna, Jozef M.; Travnikov, Oleg; De Simone, Francesco; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Sundseth, Kyrre; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.; Steenhuisen, Frits; Pirrone, Nicola; Munthe, John; Kindbom, Karin

    2016-01-01

    An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations and atmospheric deposition of mercury world-wide are presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System) project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the

  3. POPULAR MARKETS: FROM FUTURE STUDIES TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Thiago Benedete da Silva

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Strategies for running companies in low-income markets have been in the spotlight in both the academic and the corporate environments.However, the first discussions about the relevance of such markets arose during the 1980s, when scenario-prospecting studies showed that popular markets would provide many opportunities around the year 2000.Indeed, at present, the base of the pyramid has many unaddressed needs that offer business possibilities for those companies that are willing to review their strategies. In this context, product development becomes increasingly important, since products targeting consumers of the C, D and E classes may need different features from those of goods manufactured for the A and B classes.The aim of this study is to revisit past popular market forecasts and to identify development trends for goods that target low- income consumers.Our results indicate that Wright and Johnson’s (1984 studies predicted that Brazil would maintain both qualitative and quantitative progress in its socioeconomic development over the next two decades and that the development of popular products is undergoing a buoyant phase.Several functional perspectives were used to develop an understanding of the phenomenon, especially marketing, engineering and manufacturing.Key words: Future studies. Popular markets. Product development.

  4. Projecting county-level populations under three future scenarios: a technical document supporting the Forest Service 2010 RPA Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley J. Zarnoch; H. Ken Cordell; Carter J. Betz

    2010-01-01

    County-level population projections from 2010 to 2060 are developed under three national population growth scenarios for reporting in the 2010 Renewable Resources Planning Act (RPA) Assessment. These population growth scenarios are tied to global futures scenarios defined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), a program within the United Nations...

  5. Kiel Canal: Past and future threats for shipping resulting from precipitation, wind surge and sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganske, Anette; Hüttl-Kabus, Sabine; Möller, Jens; Schade, Nils; Heinrich, Hartmut; Tinz, Birger

    2017-04-01

    The Kiel Canal is the most frequented artificial waterway in the world. It connects the North Sea and the Hamburg Harbor with the Baltic Sea and has a length of about 100 km. The Canal receives its water from the upper catchment of the river Eider. Discharge from the Canal towards the North Sea is via the sluices at Brunsbüttel (90%) into river Elbe and into the Baltic Sea via the sluices at Kiel-Holtenau. A risk of closure of the Canal occurs when high precipitation in the catchment meets high water levels in the river Elbe and/or the Baltic preventing the discharge of excess Canal water. Future sea level rise jointly with other effects such as possibly increasing wind surge and precipitation will close the gap between the inner and outer water levels, so that someday the outside levels will surmount the inner one. The German Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure (BMVI) tasked its internal Network of Experts to run a case study on the evolution of critical water levels in order to estimate risks and vulnerabilities for adaptation measures. First step of the investigation is a search for factors or combination of factors responsible for closures in the past. Candidates are factors such as higher water levels at low tides, high precipitation events on land, soil moisture and human factors like preventive water management measures. Second step will be the search for the natural criteria in climate projections. Here we report on the results of the first step of the case study with a focus on the exit towards the North Sea. There, discharge is possible only during low tide. Presently still sufficient difference in height exists between the levels in the Canal and the river Elbe allowing for a free flow of excess Canal water. Shipping is ceased when levels in the Canal surpass safety limits due to high precipitation events in the catchment jointly with high outer water levels. We used atmospheric data from ERA-Interim reanalysis instead of gauge data

  6. Simulation of coastal floodings during a typhoon event with the consideration of future sea-level rises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu-Huei, Jhang; Chih-Chung, Wen; Dong-Jiing, Doong; Cheng-Han, Tsai

    2017-04-01

    Taiwan is an Island in the western Pacific Ocean and experienced more than 3 typhoons in a year. Typhoons bring intense rainfall, high waves, and storm surges, which often resulted in coastal flooding. The flooding can be aggravated by the sea level rise due to the global warming, which may subject Taiwan's coastal areas to more serious damage in the future than present. The objectives of this study are to investigate the flooding caused by typhoons in the Annan District, Tainan, a city on the southwest coast of Taiwan by numerical simulations, considering the effects of sea-level rises according to the level suggested by the 5th Assessment Report of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) for 2050 and 2100, respectively. The simulations were carried out by using MIKE21 HD (a hydrodynamic model) and MIKE21 SW (a spectral wave model). In our simulation, we used an intense typhoon, named Soudelor, as our base typhoon, which made its landfall on the east coast of Taiwan in the summer of 2015, traveled through the width of the island, and exited the island to the north of Tainan. The reasons we pick this typhoon are that it passed near our objective area, wind field data for this typhoon are available, and we have well documented coastal wave and water level measurements during the passage of Typhoon Soudelor. We firstly used ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) wind field data to reconstruct typhoon waves and storm surges for this typhoon by using coupled MIKE21 SW and MIKE21 HD in a regional model. The resultant simulated wave height and sea-level height matched satisfactorily with the measured data. The wave height and storm surge calculated by the regional model provided the boundary conditions for our fine-grid domain. Then different sea-level rises suggested by the IPCC were incorporated into the fine-grid model. Since river discharge due to intense rainfall has also to be considered for coastal flooding, our fine-grid models

  7. Low level tank waste disposal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullally, J.A.

    1994-09-29

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) contracted a team consisting of Los Alamos Technical Associates (LATA), British Nuclear Fuel Laboratories (BNFL), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and TRW through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Technical Support Contract to conduct a study on several areas concerning vitrification and disposal of low-level-waste (LLW). The purpose of the study was to investigate how several parameters could be specified to achieve full compliance with regulations. The most restrictive regulation governing this disposal activity is the National Primary Drinking Water Act which sets the limits of exposure to 4 mrem per year for a person drinking two liters of ground water daily. To fully comply, this constraint would be met independently of the passage of time. In addition, another key factor in the investigation was the capability to retrieve the disposed waste during the first 50 years as specified in Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. The objective of the project was to develop a strategy for effective long-term disposal of the low-level waste at the Hanford site.

  8. Low level tank waste disposal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullally, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) contracted a team consisting of Los Alamos Technical Associates (LATA), British Nuclear Fuel Laboratories (BNFL), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and TRW through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Technical Support Contract to conduct a study on several areas concerning vitrification and disposal of low-level-waste (LLW). The purpose of the study was to investigate how several parameters could be specified to achieve full compliance with regulations. The most restrictive regulation governing this disposal activity is the National Primary Drinking Water Act which sets the limits of exposure to 4 mrem per year for a person drinking two liters of ground water daily. To fully comply, this constraint would be met independently of the passage of time. In addition, another key factor in the investigation was the capability to retrieve the disposed waste during the first 50 years as specified in Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. The objective of the project was to develop a strategy for effective long-term disposal of the low-level waste at the Hanford site

  9. Feasibility study of an image slicer for future space application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcines, A.; Ichimoto, K.

    2014-08-01

    This communication presents the feasibility study of an image slicer for future space missions, especially for the integral field unit (IFU) of the SUVIT (Solar UV-Visible-IR telescope) spectro-polarimeter on board the Japanese-led solar space mission Solar-C as a backup option. The MuSICa (Multi-Slit Image slicer based on collimator-Camera) image slicer concept, originally developed for the European Solar Telescope, has been adapted to the SUVIT requirements. The IFU will reorganizes a 2-D field of view of 10 x 10 arcsec2 into three slits of 0.18 arcsec width by 185.12 arcsec length using flat slicer mirrors of 100 μm width. The layout of MuSICa for Solar-C is telecentric and offers an optical quality limited by diffraction. The entrance for the SUVIT spectro-polarimeter is composed by the three IFU slits and one ordinal long slit to study, using high resolution spectro-polarimetry, the solar atmosphere (Photosphere and Chromosphere) within a spectral range between 520 nm (optionally 280 nm) and 1,100 nm.

  10. International Scoping Study of a Future Accelerator Neutrino Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2006-01-01

    The International Scoping Study (ISS), launched at NuFact05 to evaluate the physics case for a future neutrino facility, along with options for the accelerator complex and detectors, is laying the foundations for a subsequent conceptual-design study. It is hosted by Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) and organized by the international community, with participants from Europe, Japan, and the U.S. Here we cover the work of the Accelerator Working Group. For the 4-MW proton driver, linacs, synchrotrons, and Fixed-Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG) rings are considered. For targets, issues of both liquid-metal and solid materials are examined. For beam conditioning, (phase rotation, bunching, and ionization cooling), we evaluate schemes both with and without cooling, the latter based on scaling-FFAG rings. For acceleration, we examine scaling FFAGs and hybrid systems comprising linacs, dogbone RLAs, and non-scaling FFAGs. For the decay ring, we consider racetrack and triangular shapes, the latter capable of simultaneously illuminating two different detectors at different long baselines. Comparisons are made between various technical approaches to identify optimum design choices

  11. Status and Challenges of the Future Circular Collider Study

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2108454; Zimmermann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Following the 2013 update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics, the international Future Circular Collider (FCC) study has been launched by CERN as host institute, to design an energy frontier hadron collider (FCC-hh) in a new 80-100 km tunnel with a centre-of-mass energy of about 100 TeV, an order of magnitude above the LHC's, as a long-term goal. The FCC study also includes the design of a 90-350 GeV high-luminosity lepton collider (FCC-ee) fitting the same tunnel, serving as Higgs, top and Z factory, as a potential intermediate step, as well as an electron-proton collider option (FCC-he). The physics cases for such machines will be assessed, concepts for experiments be worked out, and complete accelerator designs be developed in time for the next update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics by the end of 2018. Beside superconductor improvements and high-field magnet prototyping, the FCC R&D program includes the advancement of SRF cavities based on thin film coating, the development of ...

  12. Predicted impacts of future water level decline on monitoring wells using a ground-water model of the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurstner, S.K.; Freshley, M.D.

    1994-12-01

    A ground-water flow model was used to predict water level decline in selected wells in the operating areas (100, 200, 300, and 400 Areas) and the 600 Area. To predict future water levels, the unconfined aquifer system was stimulated with the two-dimensional version of a ground-water model of the Hanford Site, which is based on the Coupled Fluid, Energy, and Solute Transport (CFEST) Code in conjunction with the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software package. The model was developed using the assumption that artificial recharge to the unconfined aquifer system from Site operations was much greater than any natural recharge from precipitation or from the basalt aquifers below. However, artificial recharge is presently decreasing and projected to decrease even more in the future. Wells currently used for monitoring at the Hanford Site are beginning to go dry or are difficult to sample, and as the water table declines over the next 5 to 10 years, a larger number of wells is expected to be impacted. The water levels predicted by the ground-water model were compared with monitoring well completion intervals to determine which wells will become dry in the future. Predictions of wells that will go dry within the next 5 years have less uncertainty than predictions for wells that will become dry within 5 to 10 years. Each prediction is an estimate based on assumed future Hanford Site operating conditions and model assumptions

  13. The Swiss high-level waste programme: Status and future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, J.W.; Zuidema, P.

    2006-01-01

    After about 25 years of studies and investigations covering both the crystalline basement as well as the overlying sediments in northern Switzerland, Nagra submitted at the end of 2002 comprehensive project documentation on the feasibility of safe disposal of SF / HLW and longlived ILW in Opalinus Clay (Project Entsorgungsnachweis, or 'demonstration of disposal feasibility' in English). The recently published reviews by the Swiss safety authorities all came to a positive conclusion about the project. The review phase was followed by a broad public consultation phase in 2005. Based on the results of the review and the public consultation phase, the Swiss Government (the Federal Council), in its meeting on 28 June 2006, decided to accept the demonstration of disposal feasibility. Furthermore, Nagra recently published a report on the siting possibilities for a SF / HLW / ILW repository from the geological point of view. All these documents show that a level of maturity has been reached that allows moving towards siting of such a repository. As a first step in the siting process the Swiss Government is currently preparing a site selection procedure that also defines the corresponding criteria; a first draft has been published in June 2006. Thus, the Swiss HLW programme is currently moving towards the important and challenging phase of deciding on the site for repository implementation, involving all relevant stakeholders. (author)

  14. Stereotactic radiotherapy in the liver hilum. Basis for future studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamboglou, C.; Messmer, M.B.; Momm, F.; Becker, G.

    2012-01-01

    A basis for future trials with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for tumors of the liver hilum should be established. Thus, dosage concepts, planning processes, and dose constraints as well as technical innovations are summarized in this contribution. Methods On the background of our own data, the current literature was reviewed. The use of SBRT in the most common tumors of the liver hilum (pancreatic cancer and Klatskin tumors) was investigated. Dose constraints were calculated in 2 Gy standard fractionation doses. Results A total of 8 pilot or phase I/II studies about SBRT in the liver hilum were identified. In recent years, the SBRT technique has developed very quickly from classical stereotactic body frame radiotherapy to IGRT techniques including gating and tracking systems. In the studies using classical body frame technique, patients experienced considerable toxicities (duodenal ulcer/perforation) as compared to tolerable side effects in IGRT studies (<10% grade 3 and 4 toxicities). Dose constraints for duodenum, liver, kidneys, colon, and spinal cord were derived from the investigated studies. Survival and local tumor control data are very heterogeneous: median survival in these patients with locally advanced pancreatic or Klatskin tumors ranges between 5 and 32 months. Excellent local tumor control rates of about 80% over 24 months were achieved using SBRT. Conclusion Despite a few negative results, SBRT seems to be a promising technique in the treatment of tumors of the liver hilum. Highest precision in diagnostics, positioning, and irradiation as well as strict dose constraints should be applied to keep target volumes as small as possible and side effects tolerable. (orig.)

  15. Teaching Future Middle Level Educators to Craft Learning Activities That Enhance Young Adolescent Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Jason T.

    2016-01-01

    As social and academic forces begin to collide for young adolescents at the beginning of the middle level experience, students experience an unfortunate drop in their creativity. Appropriately trained middle level teachers have the potential to lessen this problem through the use of carefully selected open-ended learning activities that increase…

  16. Current state and future perspectives on coupled ice-sheet – sea-level modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Bas; Stocchi, Paolo; Whitehouse, Pippa L.; van de Wal, Roderik S.W.

    2017-01-01

    The interaction between ice-sheet growth and retreat and sea-level change has been an established field of research for many years. However, recent advances in numerical modelling have shed new light on the precise interaction of marine ice sheets with the change in near-field sea level, and the

  17. Global Climate targets and future consumption level: An evaluation of the required GHG intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girod, B.; van Vuuren, D.P.; Hertwich, E.G.

    2013-01-01

    Discussion and analysis on international climate policy often focuses on the rather abstract level of total national and regional greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. At some point, however, emission reductions need to be translated to consumption level. In this article, we evaluate the implications of

  18. Evaporation from a temperate closed-basin lake and its impact on present, past, and future water level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ke; Griffis, Timothy J.; Baker, John M.; Bolstad, Paul V.; Erickson, Matt D.; Lee, Xuhui; Wood, Jeffrey D.; Hu, Cheng; Nieber, John L.

    2018-06-01

    Lakes provide enormous economic, recreational, and aesthetic benefits to citizens. These ecosystem services may be adversely impacted by climate change. In the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area of Minnesota, USA, many lakes have been at historic low levels and water augmentation strategies have been proposed to alleviate the problem. White Bear Lake (WBL) is a notable example. Its water level declined 1.5 m during 2003-2013 for reasons that are not fully understood. This study examined current, past, and future lake evaporation to better understand how climate will impact the water balance of lakes within this region. Evaporation from WBL was measured from July 2014 to February 2017 using two eddy covariance (EC) systems to provide better constraints on the water budget and to investigate the impact of evaporation on lake level. The estimated annual evaporation losses for years 2014 through 2016 were 559 ± 22 mm, 779 ± 81 mm, and 766 ± 11 mm, respectively. The higher evaporation in 2015 and 2016 was caused by the combined effects of larger average daily evaporation and a longer ice-free season. The EC measurements were used to tune the Community Land Model 4 - Lake, Ice, Snow and Sediment Simulator (CLM4-LISSS) to estimate lake evaporation over the period 1979-2016. Retrospective analyses indicate that WBL evaporation increased during this time by about 3.8 mm year-1, which was driven by increased wind speed and lake-surface vapor pressure gradient. Using a business-as-usual greenhouse gas emission scenario (RCP8.5), lake evaporation was modeled forward in time from 2017 to 2100. Annual evaporation is expected to increase by 1.4 mm year-1 over this century, largely driven by lengthening ice-free periods. These changes in ice phenology and evaporation will have important implications for the regional water balance, and water management and water augmentation strategies that are being proposed for these Metropolitan lakes.

  19. Radiation education for secondary school level in Asia-application of Japanese experiences and future mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iimoto, Takeshi; Kakefu, Tomohisa; Takahashi, Itaru; Takaki, Rieko

    2015-01-01

    A mission on the development of nuclear science and technology education program for secondary school students in the Asia-Pacific Ocean area by the IAEA (2012 - 2015 years) is in progress. Attractive educational programs covering fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) have been developed. Selected pilot countries (the Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, UAE) use the programs and education tools as their trial under their own circumstances. Background and trends of this activity, Japanese support to the activity, and its future scope are introduced. (author)

  20. The Intra-Americas Sea low-level jet: overview and future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Jorge A

    2008-12-01

    A relevant climate feature of the Intra-Americas Sea (IAS) is the low-level jet (IALLJ) dominating the IAS circulation, both in summer and winter; and yet it is practically unknown with regard to its nature, structure, interactions with mid-latitude and tropical phenomena, and its role in regional weather and climate. This paper updates IALLJ current knowledge and its contribution to IAS circulation-precipitation patterns and presents recent findings about the IALLJ based on first in situ observations during Phase 3 of the Experimento Climático en las Albercas de Agua Cálida (ECAC), an international field campaign to study IALLJ dynamics during July 2001. Nonhydrostatic fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5) simulations were compared with observations and reanalysis. Large-scale circulation patterns of the IALLJ northern hemisphere summer and winter components suggest that trades, and so the IALLJ, are responding to land-ocean thermal contrasts during the summer season of each continent. The IALLJ is a natural component of the American monsoons as a result of the continent's approximate north-south land distribution. During warm (cold) El Niño-Southern Oscillation phases, winds associated with the IALLJ core (IALLJC) are stronger (weaker) than normal, so precipitation anomalies are positive (negative) in the western Caribbean near Central America and negative (positive) in the central IAS. During the ECAC Phase 3, strong surface winds associated with the IALLJ induced upwelling, cooling down the sea surface temperature by 1-2 degrees C. The atmospheric mixed layer height reached 1 km near the surface wind maximum below the IALLJC. Observations indicate that primary water vapor advection takes place in a shallow layer between the IALLJC and the ocean surface. Latent heat flux peaked below the IALLJC. Neither the reanalysis nor MM5 captured the observed thermodynamic and kinematic IALLJ

  1. Effect of Pumping on Groundwater Levels: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhu, G.; Vijayachandran, Lekshmi

    2018-03-01

    Groundwater is a major source for drinking and domestic purposes. Nowadays, extensive pumping has become a major issue of concern since pumping has led to rapid decline in the groundwater table, thus imposing landward gradient, leading to saline water intrusion especially in coastal areas. Groundwater pumping has seen its utmost effect on coastal aquifer systems, where the sea-ward gradient gets disturbed due to anthropogenic influences. Hence, a groundwater flow modelling of an aquifer system is essential for understanding the various hydro-geologic conditions, which can be used to study the responses of the aquifer system with regard to various pumping scenarios. Besides, a model helps to predict the water levels for the future period with respect to changing environment. In this study, a finite element groundwater flow model of a coastal aquifer system at Aakulam, Trivandrum district is developed, calibrated and simulated using the software Finite Element subsurface Flow system (FEFLOW 6.2).This simulated model is then used to predict the groundwater levels for a future 5 year period during pre monsoon and post monsoon season.

  2. Effect of Pumping on Groundwater Levels: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhu, G.; Vijayachandran, Lekshmi

    2018-06-01

    Groundwater is a major source for drinking and domestic purposes. Nowadays, extensive pumping has become a major issue of concern since pumping has led to rapid decline in the groundwater table, thus imposing landward gradient, leading to saline water intrusion especially in coastal areas. Groundwater pumping has seen its utmost effect on coastal aquifer systems, where the sea-ward gradient gets disturbed due to anthropogenic influences. Hence, a groundwater flow modelling of an aquifer system is essential for understanding the various hydro-geologic conditions, which can be used to study the responses of the aquifer system with regard to various pumping scenarios. Besides, a model helps to predict the water levels for the future period with respect to changing environment. In this study, a finite element groundwater flow model of a coastal aquifer system at Aakulam, Trivandrum district is developed, calibrated and simulated using the software Finite Element subsurface Flow system (FEFLOW 6.2).This simulated model is then used to predict the groundwater levels for a future 5 year period during pre monsoon and post monsoon season.

  3. Well-being and Anticipation for Future Positive Events: Evidences from an fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yangmei; Chen, Xuhai; Qi, Senqing; You, Xuqun; Huang, Xiting

    2017-01-01

    Anticipation for future confers great benefits to human well-being and mental health. However, previous work focus on how people's well-being correlate with brain activities during perception of emotional stimuli, rather than anticipation for the future events. Here, the current study investigated how well-being relates to neural circuitry underlying the anticipating process of future desired events. Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, 40 participants were scanned while they were performing an emotion anticipation task, in which they were instructed to anticipate the positive or neutral events. The results showed that bilateral medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) were activated during anticipation for positive events relative to neutral events, and the enhanced brain activation in MPFC was associated with higher level of well-being. The findings suggest a neural mechanism by which the anticipation process to future desired events correlates to human well-being, which provide a future-oriented view on the neural sources of well-being.

  4. Nuclear Structure Studies at the Future FAIR facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, Berta

    2010-01-01

    This article is intended to be an introduction to studies of nuclear structure at the future FAIR facility. It addresses interested readers not necessarily expert in the field. It outlines the physics aims and experiments to be carried out at FAIR in the field of nuclear structure and astrophysics. Starting with a brief description of what can be achieved in experiments with intense, high quality stable beams the article leads the reader to how beams of unstable radioactive nuclei will be produced and exploited at FAIR. The characteristics of the beams from the main separation device, the Super-FRS, are outlined and the limitations they impose on experiment are discussed. The various setups at the three experimental branches associated with the Super-FRS are described. The aims of the various experimental setups, how they complement each other and the physics they will address are all explained. The concept of the r-process of nucleosynthesis is outlined at the beginning and used as a running example of how useful it will be to be able to carry out experiments with beams of short-lived, exotic ions.

  5. Future Circular Collider Study FCC-he Baseline Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Bruning, Oliver; Klein, Max; Pellegrini, Dario; Schulte, Daniel; Zimmermann, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Initial considerations are presented on the FCC-he, the electron-hadron collider con guration within the Future Circular Collider study. This note considers arguments for the choice of the electron beam energy based on physics, ep scattering kinematics and cost. The default con guration for the electron accelerator, as for the LHeC, is chosen to be a multi-turn energy recovery linac external to the proton beam tunnel. The main accelerator parameters of the FCC-he are discussed, assuming the concurrent operation of ep with the 100TeV cms energy pp collider. These are compared with the LHeC design concept, for increased performance as for a Higgs facility using the HL-LHC, and also the high energy HE-LHC ep collider configuration. Initial estimates are also provided for the luminosity performance of electron-ion colliders for the 60 GeV electron ERL when combined with the LHC, the HE-LHC and the FCC ion beams.

  6. STUDY OF FUTURE PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS’ CULTURAL TRAINING WITHIN THE INFORMATION CULTURE OF SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Vinnyk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of scientific studies and experimental approbation of pedagogical conditions of future primary school teachers’ cultural training taking into account the information culture of society. The nature and structure of the notion «future primary school teachers’ cultural training» are clarified. The indicated phenomenon is considered as the structure of four levels, the core of which is personality’s humanistic orientation, the totality of psychological-pedagogical and cultural knowledge and skills, the complex of professionally significant personal qualities. The author pointed out the criteria and related indicators of cultural proficiency, they are: value-motivational (vocational and humanistic orientation; the presence of values and professional motives; motivation for success; substantial and procedural (knowledge and skills in psycho-pedagogical disciplines; the body of knowledge regarding the content and components of cultural training, cultural skills; assessment and behavioral (the existence of communicative qualities, ability to empathy, tolerance. Levels of future primary school teachers’ cultural readiness: high, average and low are characterized. The experience of ICT using in students’ cultural training is presented. Pedagogical conditions of future primary school teachers’ cultural training in University are identified, their effectiveness is proved by experimental testing

  7. Recommendations for future low-level and mixed waste management practices at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennrich, E.A.; Klein, R.B.; Murphy, E.S.; Shuman, R.; Hickman, W.W.; Rutz, A.C.; Uhl, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes recommendations concerning the management of low-level radioactive wastes and mixtures at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Performance assessments, characterization, site disposal design, shipment, and storage are discussed

  8. Global climate targets and future consumption level: an evaluation of the required GHG intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girod, Bastien; Van Vuuren, Detlef Peter; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2013-01-01

    Discussion and analysis on international climate policy often focuses on the rather abstract level of total national and regional greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. At some point, however, emission reductions need to be translated to consumption level. In this article, we evaluate the implications of the strictest IPCC representative concentration pathway for key consumption categories (food, travel, shelter, goods, services). We use IPAT style identities to account for possible growth in global consumption levels and indicate the required change in GHG emission intensity for each category (i.e. GHG emission per calorie, person kilometer, square meter, kilogram, US dollar). The proposed concept provides guidance for product developers, consumers and policymakers. To reach the 2 °C climate target (2.1 tCO 2 -eq. per capita in 2050), the GHG emission intensity of consumption has to be reduced by a factor of 5 in 2050. The climate targets on consumption level allow discussion of the feasibility of this climate target at product and consumption level. In most consumption categories products in line with this climate target are available. For animal food and air travel, reaching the GHG intensity targets with product modifications alone will be challenging and therefore structural changes in consumption patterns might be needed. The concept opens up possibilities for further research on potential solutions on the consumption and product level to global climate mitigation. (letter)

  9. The readiness of employees for the future society. Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena BĂTĂGAN

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The main components of sustainable development – economy, ecology and equity – have a special significance to contemporary cities, given their huge consumption and distribution of goods and services, with an ecological impact exceeding their own location. The sustainability challenge to cities, going hand in hand with the quality of life, makes it necessary to consider a series of social, economic, ecological, cultural, political and institutional measures adapted to both global trends and local characteristics.Based on these overall considerations this paper aims to investigate the implications of smart solutions for sustainable city development and to gauge the readiness of employees for smart solutions. These solutions concentrate on the core area of the city administration, education, health, transportation, etc. With this purpose in view, the framework for a case study is built up employing a quantitative and qualitative research for a mid-sized Romanian city. Exploratory research techniques combined with applying a survey methodology have been used for studying the preparation of employees for the smart solutions. A set of derived procedures have been employed for collecting and analyzing more than 400 observations from a heterogeneous population. They have been correlated with indicators able to characterize the sustainable city development, so as to point out the impact of the smart solutions and the possibilities to use their facilities in this respect. The results show that smart solutions are highly recommended for the future sustainable development and they are almost ready to penetrate the city from a technological perspective but information and understanding of citizens with regard to this new way of evolution are still lacking.

  10. The future of event-level information repositories, indexing, and selection in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Barberis, D; The ATLAS collaboration; Dimitrov, G; Doherty, T; Gallas, E; Hrivnac, J; Malon, D; Nairz, A; Nowak, M; Quilty, D; Sorokoletov, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zhang, Q

    2014-01-01

    ATLAS maintains a rich corpus of event-by-event information that provides a global view of virtually all of the billions of events the collaboration has seen or simulated, along with sufficient auxiliary information to navigate to and retrieve data for any event at any production processing stage. This unique resource has been employed for a range of purposes, from monitoring, statistics, anomaly detection, and integrity checking to event picking, subset selection, and sample extraction. Recent years of data-taking provide a foundation for assessment of how this resource has and has not been used in practice, of the uses for which it should be optimized, of how it should be deployed and provisioned for scalability to future data volumes, and of the areas in which enhancements to functionality would be most valuable. \

  11. Reflections on leadership at the local level and the future of Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Pratt

    2016-05-01

    The interviews provide insight into the complex world in which local leaders work and the opportunities and constraints they must negotiate. They must understand the issues their communities face when changes are impinging on those communities. This understanding helps to give them access, and once access is obtained, they must try to help to solve community problems using their experience and knowledge. The resources available— money, people, and materials—to get to the best outcomes are very limited, and the political setting presents significant challenges. Ultimately they may get results by joining their motivation to help, their local and outside knowledge, and the limited available resources with the power, or potential power, of local people. Finally, there are good reasonys to believe that what was learned here has important implications for the future of leadership in Laos.

  12. Modelling street level PM10 concentrations across Europe: source apportionment and possible futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesewetter, G.; Borken-Kleefeld, J.; Schöpp, W.; Heyes, C.; Thunis, P.; Bessagnet, B.; Terrenoire, E.; Fagerli, H.; Nyiri, A.; Amann, M.

    2015-02-01

    Despite increasing emission controls, particulate matter (PM) has remained a critical issue for European air quality in recent years. The various sources of PM, both from primary particulate emissions as well as secondary formation from precursor gases, make this a complex problem to tackle. In order to allow for credible predictions of future concentrations under policy assumptions, a modelling approach is needed that considers all chemical processes and spatial dimensions involved, from long-range transport of pollution to local emissions in street canyons. Here we describe a modelling scheme which has been implemented in the GAINS integrated assessment model to assess compliance with PM10 (PM with aerodynamic diameter dispersion calculations, and a traffic increment calculation wherever applicable. At each monitoring station fulfilling a few data coverage criteria, measured concentrations in the base year 2009 are explained to the extent possible and then modelled for the past and future. More than 1850 monitoring stations are covered, including more than 300 traffic stations and 80% of the stations which exceeded the EU air quality limit values in 2009. As a validation, we compare modelled trends in the period 2000-2008 to observations, which are well reproduced. The modelling scheme is applied here to quantify explicitly source contributions to ambient concentrations at several critical monitoring stations, displaying the differences in spatial origin and chemical composition of urban roadside PM10 across Europe. Furthermore, we analyse the predicted evolution of PM10 concentrations in the European Union until 2030 under different policy scenarios. Significant improvements in ambient PM10 concentrations are expected assuming successful implementation of already agreed legislation; however, these will not be large enough to ensure attainment of PM10 limit values in hot spot locations such as Southern Poland and major European cities. Remaining issues are

  13. A delphi study on health in future India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohatgi, K; Rohatgi, P K

    1980-07-01

    A delphi study was conducted to identify or envision health scenarios in India by the year 2000. Questionnaires consisting of 48 questions on 5 areas (diagnosis and therapy; family planning; pharmaceuticals and drugs; biochemical and biomedical research; health services) were mailed to 250 experts in India. 36 responded. Results were compiled and mailed back to the respondents for changes and comments. 17 people responded. Results of the delphi study shows that policy decisions with respect to compulsory family planning as well as health education at secondary school level will precede further breakthroughs in birth control technology. Non operation reversible sterilization procedures, immunological birth control, Ayurvedic medicines for contraception and abortion, and selection of baby's sex are all possible by 2000 thereafter. Complete eradication of infectious diseases, malnutrition and associated diseases is considered unlikely before 2000, as are advances in biomedical research. Changes in health services (e.g., significant increases in hospital beds and doctors, cheap bulk drugs), particularly in rural areas, are imminent, leading to prolonging of life expectancy to 70 years. Genetic engineering may provide significant breakthroughs in the prevention of malignancies and cardiac disorders. The India delphi study is patterned after a similar delphi study conducted in the U.S. by Smith, Kline and French (SKF) Laboratories in 1968. The SKF study was able to predict some breakthroughs with basic research which have been realized.

  14. Future directions of defense programs high-level waste technology programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chee, T.C.; Shupe, M.W.; Turner, D.A.; Campbell, M.H.

    1987-01-01

    The Department of Energy has been managing high-level waste from the production of nuclear materials for defense activities over the last forty years. An objective for the Defense Waste and Transportation Management program is to develop technology which ensures the safe, permanent disposal of all defense radioactive wastes. Technology programs are underway to address the long-term strategy for permanent disposal of high-level waste generated at each Department of Energy site. Technology is being developed for assessing the hazards, environmental impacts, and costs of each long-term disposal alternative for selection and implementation. This paper addresses key technology development areas, and consideration of recent regulatory requirements associated with the long-term management of defense radioactive high-level waste

  15. Marketing Study on Secondary Metal Futures Might be Finished Within This Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Commissioned by Shanghai Futures Exchange,China Nonferrous Metals Industry Association Secondary Metal Branch is carrying out"Study on development and marketing of secondary nonferrous metal product futures variety"(ADC12 marketing feasibility study),according

  16. THE YOUTH PERSPECTIVE MANAGER FUTURE CHALLENGES AHEAD TO PROPOSED BY ORGANIZATIONAL STUDIES: A PRELIMINARY DIAGNOSIS AND ITS FUTURE PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Antonio Gonçalves

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to diagnose as young students of management define and realize the factors related to man and the fear of freedom to develop their future assignments subjective as future managers and their subsequent execution. To achieve the proposal, we employed the qualitative research method using script focused in order to observe the ontology interview. Respondents showed be used in your academic life conceptual inclinations towards various definitions found in the literature which litigiou the assumptions of the authors in relation to human and professional activities they will face as future managers, even taking into account the different decades (time. Keywords: Perspectives of human beings. The fear of freedom. Student management. People management. Organizational Studies.

  17. Greenland plays a large role in the gloomy picture painted of probable future sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Edward

    2012-12-01

    Goelzer et al (2012) paint a portentous picture of what is likely to happen to the global sea-level over the next 1000 years. This worrying assessment is based on our current best understanding of how the world's giant ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica, as well as a quarter of a million smaller glacial ice masses, and the ocean collectively respond to ongoing climate change. Theirs is a state of the science study that integrates these key contributors of sea-level change based on the latest models and current understanding, and an integrated Earth systems modelling approach termed LOVECLIM. As they point out in their study, only a handful of global climate models to date—i.e. models that are used to make predictions of future climate change—incorporate dynamically (fully) coupled ice-sheet models. According to the scenarios presented by Goelzer et al (2012), we could see between 2.1 and 6.8 m of global sea-level rise by 3000 AD, compared with 'just' 1.1 m if the atmosphere is stabilised at 2000 CO2 levels. Much, up to some 4 m, of this contribution comes from increased melting and mass loss of the Greenland ice sheet, which is several times more sensitive than the Antarctic ice sheet to warming temperatures in these simulations. Interestingly, dynamical ice mass losses through iceberg calving become increasingly less significant for Greenland as the ice sheet retreats further inland during the 1000 yr runs (Sole et al 2008). The latest modelling studies show that around a half, perhaps more, of the recent Greenland mass losses (Barletta et al 2012, Rignot et al 2011) are already through increased melt and runoff (Hanna et al 2008, 2012, van den Broeke et al 2009); note also the recent (summer 2012) record surface melting of the Greenland ice sheet (Nghiem et al 2012) caused by atmospheric forcing (Overland et al 2012) and the potential of such events to impact on ice flow (Bartholomew et al 2011). By contrast, the greatest sea-level rise reported for

  18. Winning the Future: An Investigation into the Creativity Capacity across the Levels of Education in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Keelin

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated the creativity capacity across the levels of education in Ireland, involving 702 participants. Creative capacity was investigated through a comparative analysis of creativity quotient (CQ). A divergent thinking task comprising the "how many uses" activity was assessed using the criteria for determining CQ;…

  19. Addressing challenges for future strategic-level emergency management: reframing, networking, and capacity-building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosomworth, Karyn; Owen, Christine; Curnin, Steven

    2017-04-01

    The mounting frequency and intensity of natural hazards, alongside growing interdependencies between social-technical and ecological systems, are placing increased pressure on emergency management. This is particularly true at the strategic level of emergency management, which involves planning for and managing non-routine, high-consequence events. Drawing on the literature, a survey, and interviews and workshops with Australia's senior emergency managers, this paper presents an analysis of five core challenges that these pressures are creating for strategic-level emergency management. It argues that emphasising 'emergency management' as a primary adaptation strategy is a retrograde step that ignores the importance of addressing socio-political drivers of vulnerabilities. Three key suggestions are presented that could assist the country's strategic-level emergency management in tackling these challenges: (i) reframe emergency management as a component of disaster risk reduction rather than them being one and the same; (ii) adopt a network governance approach; and (iii) further develop the capacities of strategic-level emergency managers. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  20. The multi-millennial Antarctic commitment to future sea-level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golledge, N R; Kowalewski, D E; Naish, T R; Levy, R H; Fogwill, C J; Gasson, E G W

    2015-10-15

    Atmospheric warming is projected to increase global mean surface temperatures by 0.3 to 4.8 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial values by the end of this century. If anthropogenic emissions continue unchecked, the warming increase may reach 8-10 degrees Celsius by 2300 (ref. 2). The contribution that large ice sheets will make to sea-level rise under such warming scenarios is difficult to quantify because the equilibrium-response timescale of ice sheets is longer than those of the atmosphere or ocean. Here we use a coupled ice-sheet/ice-shelf model to show that if atmospheric warming exceeds 1.5 to 2 degrees Celsius above present, collapse of the major Antarctic ice shelves triggers a centennial- to millennial-scale response of the Antarctic ice sheet in which enhanced viscous flow produces a long-term commitment (an unstoppable contribution) to sea-level rise. Our simulations represent the response of the present-day Antarctic ice-sheet system to the oceanic and climatic changes of four representative concentration pathways (RCPs) from the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. We find that substantial Antarctic ice loss can be prevented only by limiting greenhouse gas emissions to RCP 2.6 levels. Higher-emissions scenarios lead to ice loss from Antarctic that will raise sea level by 0.6-3 metres by the year 2300. Our results imply that greenhouse gas emissions in the next few decades will strongly influence the long-term contribution of the Antarctic ice sheet to global sea level.

  1. Evaporation from a temperate closed-basin lake and its impact on present, past, and future water level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, K.; Griffis, T. J.; Baker, J. M.; Bolstad, P. V.; Erickson, M. D.; Lee, X.; Wood, J. D.; Hu, C.

    2017-12-01

    Lakes provide enormous economic, recreational, and aesthetic benefits to citizens. These ecosystem services may be adversely impacted by climate change. In the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area of Minnesota, USA, many lakes have been at historic low levels and water augmentation strategies have been proposed to alleviate the problem. For example, the water level of White Bear Lake (WBL) declined 1.5 m during 2003-2013 for reasons that are not fully understood. This study examined current, past, and future lake evaporation to better understand how climate will impact the water balance of lakes within this region. Evaporation from WBL was measured from July 2014 to February 2017 using two eddy covariance (EC) systems to provide better constraints on the water budget and to investigate the impact of evaporation on lake level. The annual evaporation for years 2014 through 2016 were 559±22 mm, 779±81 mm, and 766±11 mm, respectively. The larger evaporation in 2015 and 2016 was caused by the combined effects of larger average daily evaporation and a longer ice-free season. The EC measurements were used to tune the Community Land Model 4 - Lake, Ice, Snow and Sediment Simulator (CLM4-LISSS) to estimate lake evaporation over the period 1979-2016. Retrospective analyses indicated that WBL evaporation increased by about 3.8 mm yr-1. Mass balance analysis implied that the lake level declines at WBL during 1986-1990 and 2003-2012 were mainly caused by the coupled low precipitation and high evaporation. Using a business-as-usual greenhouse gas emission scenario (RCP8.5), lake evaporation was modeled forward in time from 2017 to 2100. Annual evaporation is expected to increase by 1.4 mm yr-1 over this century, which is largely driven by lengthening ice-free periods. These changes in ice phenology and evaporation will have important implications for the regional water balance, and water management and water augmentation strategies that are being proposed for these Metropolitan

  2. The contribution to future flood risk in the Severn Estuary from extreme sea level rise due to ice sheet mass loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, N.; Bates, P. D.; Siddall, M.

    2013-12-01

    The rate at which sea levels will rise in the coming century is of great interest to decision makers tasked with developing mitigation policies to cope with the risk of coastal inundation. Accurate estimates of future sea levels are vital in the provision of effective policy. Recent reports from UK Climate Impacts Programme (UKCIP) suggest that mean sea levels in the UK may rise by as much as 80 cm by 2100; however, a great deal of uncertainty surrounds model predictions, particularly the contribution from ice sheets responding to climatic warming. For this reason, the application of semi-empirical modelling approaches for sea level rise predictions has increased of late, the results from which suggest that the rate of sea level rise may be greater than previously thought, exceeding 1 m by 2100. Furthermore, studies in the Red Sea indicate that rapid sea level rise beyond 1m per century has occurred in the past. In light of such research, the latest UKCIP assessment has included a H++ scenario for sea level rise in the UK of up to 1.9 m which is defined as improbable but, crucially, physically plausible. The significance of such low-probability sea level rise scenarios upon the estimation of future flood risk is assessed using the Somerset levels (UK) as a case study. A simple asymmetric probability distribution is constructed to include sea level rise scenarios of up to 1.9 m by 2100 which are added to a current 1:200 year event water level to force a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model of coastal inundation. From the resulting ensemble predictions an estimation of risk by 2100 is established. The results indicate that although the likelihood of extreme sea level rise due to rapid ice sheet mass loss is low, the resulting hazard can be large, resulting in a significant (27%) increase to the projected annual risk. Furthermore, current defence construction guidelines for the coming century in the UK are expected to account for 95% of the sea level rise distribution

  3. Future hydrological alterations in the Mekong Delta under the impact of water resources development, land subsidence and sea level rise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Duc Dang

    2018-02-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: Depending on hydrological characteristics of each region (river-dominated, transitional or tidal, the influence of each potential driver may vary. The operation of proposed hydropower dams would change river-dominated upper floodplain’s water levels by 26 to 70% and −0.8 to −5.9% in the dry and wet season respectively, but the impact diminishes throughout the floodplains. In the wet season, the upper Vietnamese Delta changes from a transitional stage to a river-dominated stage, and localized water infrastructure development in the upper delta has the greatest effect on water levels in the region. Land subsidence combined with sea level rise could have the greatest future influence on flooding in the delta if current rates are extrapolated. Sustainable water management strategies are thus necessary to mitigate changes in the floodplains and delta and increase resilience to sea level rise and land subsidence.

  4. Projected near-future levels of temperature and pCO2 reduce coral fertilization success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Albright

    Full Text Available Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (pCO2 are projected to contribute to a 1.1-6.4°C rise in global average surface temperatures and a 0.14-0.35 reduction in the average pH of the global surface ocean by 2100. If realized, these changes are expected to have negative consequences for reef-building corals including increased frequency and severity of coral bleaching and reduced rates of calcification and reef accretion. Much less is known regarding the independent and combined effects of temperature and pCO2 on critical early life history processes such as fertilization. Here we show that increases in temperature (+3°C and pCO2 (+400 µatm projected for this century negatively impact fertilization success of a common Indo-Pacific coral species, Acropora tenuis. While maximum fertilization did not differ among treatments, the sperm concentration required to obtain 50% of maximum fertilization increased 6- to 8- fold with the addition of a single factor (temperature or CO2 and nearly 50- fold when both factors interact. Our results indicate that near-future changes in temperature and pCO2 narrow the range of sperm concentrations that are capable of yielding high fertilization success in A. tenuis. Increased sperm limitation, in conjunction with adult population decline, may have severe consequences for coral reproductive success. Impaired sexual reproduction will further challenge corals by inhibiting population recovery and adaptation potential.

  5. Modelling street level PM10 concentrations across Europe: source apportionment and possible futures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kiesewetter

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasing emission controls, particulate matter (PM has remained a critical issue for European air quality in recent years. The various sources of PM, both from primary particulate emissions as well as secondary formation from precursor gases, make this a complex problem to tackle. In order to allow for credible predictions of future concentrations under policy assumptions, a modelling approach is needed that considers all chemical processes and spatial dimensions involved, from long-range transport of pollution to local emissions in street canyons. Here we describe a modelling scheme which has been implemented in the GAINS integrated assessment model to assess compliance with PM10 (PM with aerodynamic diameter 10 across Europe. Furthermore, we analyse the predicted evolution of PM10 concentrations in the European Union until 2030 under different policy scenarios. Significant improvements in ambient PM10 concentrations are expected assuming successful implementation of already agreed legislation; however, these will not be large enough to ensure attainment of PM10 limit values in hot spot locations such as Southern Poland and major European cities. Remaining issues are largely eliminated in a scenario applying the best available emission control technologies to the maximal technically feasible extent.

  6. Experimental study of rectenna coupling at low power level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douyère, A; Alicalapa, F; Lan Sun Luk, J-D; Rivière, S

    2013-01-01

    The experimental results presented in this paper focus on the performance of a rectenna array by studying the effect of mutual coupling between two rectennas. The measurements in several planes of the space are investigated and used to help us to define the minimum distance for future rectenna arrays that can be used at a low power density level. The single element chosen for the array is composed of a rectifier circuit and a CSPA (Circular Slot Patch Antenna). This study shows that at a distance greater than 6cm (λ/2) between two rectennas in reception, we observe that the DC received voltage is constant in the Y plane, while in the X plane, the DC received voltage remains constant whatever the distance. We deduce that these rectennas are uncoupled in this case. We can consider each rectenna like an independent system.

  7. Future directions for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's low-level waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starmer, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act envisioned that all states would be able to dispose of commercial low-level waste generated within their borders by 1986, either individually or through interstate compacts. Based on the current status of state and compact efforts, it is clear that no new disposal sites will be available by 1986 or for some period thereafter. In the short-term, there is uncertainty that the existing disposal sites will remain open after January 1, 1986, or if restrictions will apply after that time. If restrictions occur, storage, treatment or even curtailed generation may result for individual waste producers. Other uncertainties clouding implementation of the Policy Act include the final configuration of regional compacts - in the northeast in particular - clear assignment of responsibility for disposal of classes of waste, the method of disposal - shallow land burial or alternatives - that will be employed for low-level waste, and regulation of mixed wastes, wastes which have both radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous constituents. The NRC strategy for low-level waste management aims to resolve or reduce these uncertainties, and to encourage transition to a stable, national system based on timely state action. NRC will continue development of regulatory and technical guidance for disposal site licensing and build on its capabilities to address specific areas of state concern, such as alternatives to shallow land burial, and site characterization and modeling. NRC also plans to expand state and compact outreach efforts to help ensure that our technical work is properly focused. The authors will also be directly assisting those states and compacts on technical matters they confront in actual disposal site development and licensing

  8. The Topological Processor for the future ATLAS Level-1 Trigger: from design to commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Simioni, E; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is located at the European Centre for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland. It is designed to measure decay properties of highly energetic particles produced in the protons collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC has a beam collision frequency of 40 MHz, and thus requires a trigger system to efficiently select events, thereby reducing the storage rate to a manageable level of about 400 Hz. Event triggering is therefore one of the extraordinary challenges faced by the ATLAS detector. The Level-1 Trigger is the first rate-reducing step in the ATLAS Trigger, with an output rate of 75kHz and decision latency of less than 2.5 s. It is primarily composed of the Calorimeter Trigger, Muon Trigger, the Central Trigger Processor (CTP). Due to the increase in the LHC instantaneous luminosity up 3 x 10^34/cm2 s from 2015 onwards, a new element will be included in the Level-1 Trigger scheme: the Topological Processor (L1Topo). The L1Topo receives data in a specialized format from the ...

  9. Remote coral reefs can sustain high growth potential and may match future sea-level trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Chris T; Murphy, Gary N; Graham, Nicholas A J; Wilson, Shaun K; Januchowski-Hartley, Fraser A; East, Holly K

    2015-12-16

    Climate-induced disturbances are contributing to rapid, global-scale changes in coral reef ecology. As a consequence, reef carbonate budgets are declining, threatening reef growth potential and thus capacity to track rising sea-levels. Whether disturbed reefs can recover their growth potential and how rapidly, are thus critical research questions. Here we address these questions by measuring the carbonate budgets of 28 reefs across the Chagos Archipelago (Indian Ocean) which, while geographically remote and largely isolated from compounding human impacts, experienced severe (>90%) coral mortality during the 1998 warming event. Coral communities on most reefs recovered rapidly and we show that carbonate budgets in 2015 average +3.7 G (G = kg CaCO3 m(-2) yr(-1)). Most significantly the production rates on Acropora-dominated reefs, the corals most severely impacted in 1998, averaged +8.4 G by 2015, comparable with estimates under pre-human (Holocene) disturbance conditions. These positive budgets are reflected in high reef growth rates (4.2 mm yr(-1)) on Acropora-dominated reefs, demonstrating that carbonate budgets on these remote reefs have recovered rapidly from major climate-driven disturbances. Critically, these reefs retain the capacity to grow at rates exceeding measured regional mid-late Holocene and 20th century sea-level rise, and close to IPCC sea-level rise projections through to 2100.

  10. Large-Ensemble modeling of past and future variations of the Antarctic Ice Sheet with a coupled ice-Earth-sea level model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, David; DeConto, Robert; Gomez, Natalya

    2016-04-01

    To date, most modeling of the Antarctic Ice Sheet's response to future warming has been calibrated using recent and modern observations. As an alternate approach, we apply a hybrid 3-D ice sheet-shelf model to the last deglacial retreat of Antarctica, making use of geologic data of the last ~20,000 years to test the model against the large-scale variations during this period. The ice model is coupled to a global Earth-sea level model to improve modeling of the bedrock response and to capture ocean-ice gravitational interactions. Following several recent ice-sheet studies, we use Large Ensemble (LE) statistical methods, performing sets of 625 runs from 30,000 years to present with systematically varying model parameters. Objective scores for each run are calculated using modern data and past reconstructed grounding lines, relative sea level records, cosmogenic elevation-age data and uplift rates. The LE results are analyzed to calibrate 4 particularly uncertain model parameters that concern marginal ice processes and interaction with the ocean. LE's are extended into the future with climates following RCP scenarios. An additional scoring criterion tests the model's ability to reproduce estimated sea-level high stands in the warm mid-Pliocene, for which drastic retreat mechanisms of hydrofracturing and ice-cliff failure are needed in the model. The LE analysis provides future sea-level-rise envelopes with well-defined parametric uncertainty bounds. Sensitivities of future LE results to Pliocene sea-level estimates, coupling to the Earth-sea level model, and vertical profiles of Earth properties, will be presented.

  11. Planetary X-ray studies: past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella

    2016-07-01

    Our solar system is a fascinating physics laboratory and X-ray observations are now firmly established as a powerful diagnostic tool of the multiple processes taking place in it. The science that X-rays reveal encompasses solar, space plasma and planetary physics, and the response of bodies in the solar system to the impact of the Sun's activity. This talk will review what we know from past observations and what we expect to learn in the short, medium and long term. Observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton have demonstrated that the origin of Jupiter's bright soft X-ray aurorae lies in the Charge eXchange (CX) process, likely to involve the interaction with atmospheric neutrals of local magnetospheric ions, as well as those carried in the solar wind. At higher energies electron bremsstrahlung is thought to be the X-ray emitting mechanism, while the whole planetary disk acts as a mirror for the solar X-ray flux via Thomson and fluorescent scattering. This 'X-ray mirror' phenomenon is all that is observed from Saturn's disk, which otherwise lacks X-ray auroral features. The Earth's X-ray aurora is bright and variable and mostly due to electron bremsstrahlung and line emission from atmospheric species. Un-magnetised planets, Venus and Mars, do not show X-ray aurorae but display the interesting combination of mirroring the solar X-ray flux and producing X-rays by Solar Wind Charge eXchange (SWCX) in their exospheres. These processes respond to different solar stimulation (photons and solar wind plasma respectively) hence their relative contributions are seen to vary according to the Sun's output. Present and future of planetary X-ray studies are very bright. We are preparing for the arrival of the Juno mission at Jupiter this summer and for coordinated observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton on the approach and later during Juno's orbital phase. These will allow direct correlation of the local plasma conditions with the X-ray emissions and the establishment of the

  12. Secondary particle background levels and effects on detectors at future hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, T.

    1993-01-01

    The next generation of hadron colliders, the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), will operate at high center-of-mass energies and luminosities. Namely, for the SSC(LHC) √s=40TeV (√s=16TeV) and L=10 33 cm -2 s -1 (L=3x10 34 cm -2 s -1 ). These conditions will result in the production of large backgrounds as well as radiation environments. Ascertaining the backgrounds, in terms of the production of secondary charged and neutral particles, and the radiation environments are important considerations for the detectors proposed for these colliders. An initial investigation of the radiation levels in the SSC detectors was undertaken by D. Groom and colleagues, in the context of the open-quotes task force on radiation levels in the SSC interaction regions.close quotes The method consisted essentially of an analytic approach, using standard descriptions of average events in conjunction with simulations of secondary processes

  13. Factors that influence consumers' acceptance of future energy systems : the effects of adjustment type, production level, and price

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, Fenna R. M.; Bolderdijk, Jan Willem; Keizer, Kees; Gorsira, Madelijne; van der Werff, Ellen; Steg, Linda

    2014-01-01

    To promote the successful introduction of sustainable energy systems, more insight is needed into factors influencing consumer's acceptance of future energy systems. A questionnaire study among 139 Dutch citizens (aged 18-85) was conducted. Participants rated the acceptability of energy systems made

  14. A Pilot Study on Measuring Customer’s Satisfaction Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vide Boltez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available RQ: Determine the level of customer satisfaction of a company’s products and services to obtain information on needed improvements.Purpose: The purpose of measuring customer’s satisfaction level is to obtain information directly from the final buyer that bought our product. The next step is to analyze the information obtained and to take the results into consideration to improve the working process in production and in other departments of the company.Method: The method used for the pilot study to measure customer satisfaction was a short questionnaire that was given to 10 customers of our product and 10 completed questionnaires were obtained.Results: The results showed the level of satisfaction of final buyers of roof tiles and roofs that the company has achieved through their products and services. The results facilitate the production, logistics, purchasing and sales department to obtain information on positive satisfaction levels and areas that need change. At the same time, the final buyer was identified (i.e., name, surname, address, and so forth, which up until now had not been.Organization: The organization will save time and money in the future, because it will continuously measure customer satisfaction to improve production and other departments in the organization towards creating satisfied customers.Society: Final buyers of roofs are, and will be, more satisfied with their decisions, because the organization carries out after-sales satisfaction levels.Originality: The research was original, because up to this date the organization has not conducted research in such a manner.Limitations: The pilot study used 10 completed questionnaires that represent a very small sample to make any generalizations.

  15. Modeling Anthropogenic Impact on Sediment Balance and Relative Sea-Level Rise in Contemporary and Future Deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessler, Z. D.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Overeem, I.; Syvitski, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Modern deltas are dependent on human-mediated freshwater and sediment fluxes. Changes to these fluxes impact delta biogeophysical functioning, and affect the long-term sustainability of these landscapes for both human and natural systems. Here we present contemporary estimates of long-term mean sediment balance and relative sea-level rise across 46 global deltas. We model ongoing development and scenarios of future water resource management and hydropower infrastructure in upstream river basins to explore how changing sediment fluxes impact relative sea-level in coastal delta systems. Model results show that contemporary sediment fluxes, anthropogenic drivers of land subsidence, and sea-level rise result in relative sea-level rise rates in deltas that average 6.8 mm/year. Currently planned or under-construction dams can be expected to increase rates of relative sea-level rise on the order of 1 mm/year. Some deltas systems, including the Magdalena, Orinoco, and Indus, are highly sensitive to future impoundment of river basins, with RSLR rates increasing up to 4 mm/year in a high-hydropower-utilization scenario. Sediment fluxes may be reduced by up to 60% in the Danube and 21% in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Megnha if all currently planned dams are constructed. Reduced sediment retention on deltas due to increased river channelization and local flood controls increases RSLR on average by nearly 2 mm/year. Long-term delta sustainability requires a more complete understanding of how geophysical and anthropogenic change impact delta geomorphology. Strategies for sustainable delta management that focus on local and regional drivers of change, especially groundwater and hydrocarbon extraction and upstream dam construction, can be highly impactful even in the context of global climate-induced sea-level rise.

  16. The Topological Processor for the future ATLAS Level-1 Trigger: from design to commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Simioni, E; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is designed to measure decay properties of high energetic particles produced in the proton-proton collisions. During its first run, the LHC collided proton bunches at a frequency of 20 MHz, and therefore the detector required a Trigger system to efficiently select events down to a manageable event storage rate of about 400 Hz. By 2015 the LHC instantaneous luminosity will be increased up to 3$\\times$$10^{34}cm^{-2}s^{-1}$: this represent an unprecedented challenge faced by the ATLAS Trigger system. To cope with the higher event rate and efficiently select relevant events from physics point of view, a new element will be included in the Level-1 Trigger scheme after 2015: the Topological Processor (L1Topo).\\\\ The L1Topo system, currently developed at CERN, will consist initially of an ATCA crate and two L1Topo modules. A high density opto-electroconverter (AVAGO miniPOD) drives up to 1.6 Tb/s of data from the calorimeter and muon detectors into two high end ...

  17. The Topological Processor for the future ATLAS Level-1 Trigger: from design to commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00226165

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS detector at LHC will require a Trigger system to efficiently select events down to a manageable event storage rate of about 400 Hz. By 2015 the LHC instantaneous luminosity will be increased up to 3 x 10^34 cm-2s-1, this represents an unprecedented challenge faced by the ATLAS Trigger system. To cope with the higher event rate and efficiently select relevant events from a physics point of view, a new element will be included in the Level-1 Trigger scheme after 2015: the Topological Processor (L1Topo). The L1Topo system, currently developed at CERN, will consist initially of an ATCA crate and two L1Topo modules. A high density opto-electroconverter (AVAGO miniPOD) drives up to 1.6 Tb/s of data from the calorimeter and muon detectors into two high-end FPGA (Virtex7-690), to be processed in about 200 ns. The design has been optimized to guarantee excellent signal in- tegrity of the high-speed links and low latency data transmission on the Real Time Data Path (RTDP). The L1Topo receives data in a standa...

  18. Mainstreaming ecosystem services in state-level conservation planning: progress and future needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan R. Noe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem services (ES have become an important focus of the conservation movement but have yet to be mainstreamed into environmental policy and management, especially at the state and federal levels. Adoption of an ES approach requires agency personnel to have knowledge or experience in implementing an ES approach and metrics that link potential actions to impacts on ES. We characterize the degree to which ES considerations are taken into account in setting priorities for conservation acquisitions in the U.S. state of Minnesota. We assess two core dimensions of an ES approach: (1 multiobjective targeting and (2 measuring program benefits in terms of increases in human well-being. We assess the degree to which these two dimensions occur in statute and in conservation program decision making. We find that state statute provides clear support for an ES approach in conservation funding mechanisms. However, we find that many of the programs funded through those mechanisms have more traditional habitat-centric approaches. In contrast to statutory emphasis, water quality related metrics were not prominent. We recommend expanding current prioritization systems to include a broader suite of metrics that are linked to human well-being to further mainstream ES in Minnesota. These metrics can be generated from existing data and would allow program managers to better communicate the public benefits of conservation spending.

  19. Grain protein concentration and harvestable protein under future climate conditions. A study of 108 spring barley accessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvordsen, Cathrine Heinz; Gislum, René; Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn

    2016-01-01

    In the present study a set of 108 spring barley (H. vulgare L.) accessions were cultivated under predicted future levels of temperature and [CO2] as single factors and in combination (IPCC, AR5, RCP8.5). Across all genotypes, elevated [CO2] (700 ppm day/night) slightly decreased protein concentra......In the present study a set of 108 spring barley (H. vulgare L.) accessions were cultivated under predicted future levels of temperature and [CO2] as single factors and in combination (IPCC, AR5, RCP8.5). Across all genotypes, elevated [CO2] (700 ppm day/night) slightly decreased protein...

  20. Biosynthesis of flavonoids in bilberry and blueberry - possibilities of the gene level information for the future

    OpenAIRE

    Jaakola, Laura

    2007-01-01

    We have studied the biosynthesis of flavonoids in various tissues of naturally growing European blueberry (bilberry) and the blueberry cultivar 'Northblue'. Focus has also been on the biosynthesis of flavonoids in developing bilberry fruits as well as on the control genes regulating fruit development.

  1. LEVEL OF ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION OF YOUNG TENNIS PLAYERS AND THEIR FUTURE PROGRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Unierzyski

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Psychological factors influencing tennis performance have long been recognised As American champion Jimmy Connors put it in 1981: 'Tennis is 90% mental Psychological issues with respect to tennis have also been addressed in a large number of scientific studies which have examined many of the mental characteristics during competition

  2. Future orbital transfer vehicle technology study. Volume 2: Technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, E. E.

    1982-01-01

    Missions for future orbit transfer vehicles (1995-2010) are identified and the technology, operations and vehicle concepts that satisfy the transportation requirements are defined. Comparison of reusable space and ground based LO2/LH2 OTV's was made. Both vehicles used advanced space engines and aero assist capability. The SB OTV provided advantages in life cycle cost, performance and potential for improvement. Comparison of an all LO2/LH2 OTV fleet with a fleet of LO2/LH2 OTVs and electric OTV's was also made. The normal growth technology electric OTV used silicon cells with heavy shielding and argon ion thrusters. This provided a 23% advantage in total transportation cost. The impact of accelerated technology was considered in terms of improvements in performance and cost effectiveness. The accelerated technology electric vehicle used GaAs cells and annealing but did not result in the mixed fleet being any cheaper than an all LO2/LH2 OTV fleet. It is concluded that reusable LO2/LH2 OTV's can serve all general purpose cargo roles between LEO and GEO for the forseeable future. The most significant technology for the second generation vehicle would be space debris protection, on-orbit propellant storage and transfer and on-orbit maintenance capability.

  3. Study on the effects of near-future ocean acidification on marine yeasts: a microcosm approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Evamaria; Wichels, Antje; Erler, René; Gerdts, Gunnar

    2013-12-01

    Marine yeasts play an important role in biodegradation and nutrient cycling and are often associated with marine flora and fauna. They show maximum growth at pH levels lower than present-day seawater pH. Thus, contrary to many other marine organisms, they may actually profit from ocean acidification. Hence, we conducted a microcosm study, incubating natural seawater from the North Sea at present-day pH (8.10) and two near-future pH levels (7.81 and 7.67). Yeasts were isolated from the initial seawater sample and after 2 and 4 weeks of incubation. Isolates were classified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and representative isolates were identified by partial sequencing of the large subunit rRNA gene. From the initial seawater sample, we predominantly isolated a yeast-like filamentous fungus related to Aureobasidium pullulans, Cryptococcus sp., Candida sake, and various cold-adapted yeasts. After incubation, we found more different yeast species at near-future pH levels than at present-day pH. Yeasts reacting to low pH were related to Leucosporidium scottii, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Cryptococcus sp., and Debaryomyces hansenii. Our results suggest that these yeasts will benefit from seawater pH reductions and give a first indication that the importance of yeasts will increase in a more acidic ocean.

  4. A study on future nuclear reactor technology and development strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Sohn, D. S.; Suk, S. D.; Zee, S. K.; Yang, M. H.; Kim, H. J.; Park, W. S

    2000-12-01

    Development of nuclear reactor and fuel cycle technology for future is essential to meet the current issues such as enhancement of nuclear power reactor safety, economically competitive with gas turbine power generation, less production of radioactive waste, proliferation resistant fuel cycle, and public acceptance in consideration of lack of energy resources in the nuclear countries worldwide as well as in Korea. This report deals with as follows, 1) Review the world energy demand and supply perspective and analyse nature of energy and sustainable development to set-up nuclear policy in Korea 2) Recaptitulate the current long term nuclear R and D activities 3) Review nuclear R and D activities and programs of USA, Japan, France, Russia, international organizations such as IAEA, OECD/NEA 4) Recommend development directions of nuclear reactors and fuels.

  5. Empirical Study on Arbitrage Opportunities in China Copper Futures Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    No-arbitrage bound is established with no-arbitrage theory considering all kinds of trade costs, different deposit and loan interest rate, margin and tax in fuuaes markets. The empirical results find that there are many lower bound arbitrage opportunities in China copper futures market from August 8th, 2003 to August 16th, 2005. Concretely, no-arbitrage opportunity is dominant and lower bound arbitrage is narrow in normal market segment. Lower bound arbitrage almost always exists with huge magnitude in inverted market segment. There is basically no-arbitrage in normal market because spot volume is enough, so that upper or lower bound arbitrage can be realized. There is mostly lower bound arbitrage in inverted market because spot volume is lack.

  6. A study on future nuclear reactor technology and development strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Sohn, D. S.; Suk, S. D.; Zee, S. K.; Yang, M. H.; Kim, H. J.; Park, W. S.

    2000-12-01

    Development of nuclear reactor and fuel cycle technology for future is essential to meet the current issues such as enhancement of nuclear power reactor safety, economically competitive with gas turbine power generation, less production of radioactive waste, proliferation resistant fuel cycle, and public acceptance in consideration of lack of energy resources in the nuclear countries worldwide as well as in Korea. This report deals with as follows, 1) Review the world energy demand and supply perspective and analyse nature of energy and sustainable development to set-up nuclear policy in Korea 2) Recaptitulate the current long term nuclear R and D activities 3) Review nuclear R and D activities and programs of USA, Japan, France, Russia, international organizations such as IAEA, OECD/NEA 4) Recommend development directions of nuclear reactors and fuels

  7. Predictors of Future Expectations of Inner-City Children: A 9-Month Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubow, Eric F.; Arnett, Mitzi; Smith, Katherine; Ippolito, Maria F.

    2001-01-01

    Assessed contributions of internal resources, supportive family and peer relations, peer negative influences, and behavioral adjustment to positive expectations for the future for inner-city school children. Found that higher levels of positive expectation related to lower levels of problem behavior and to higher levels of school involvement,…

  8. Introducing future engineers to sustainable ecology problems: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipkowski, A.

    2011-12-01

    The problem of Earth environmental destruction by human activities is becoming dangerous. Engineers responsible for the production of any goods should be well aware of the negative influence of their activities on the state of the planet. This is why the understanding of ecological problems is essential for people responsible for production and industrial design. The energy, which they consume, is increasing the greenhouse effect and the waste poisons the environment. So far, most courses on ecology are offered to specialists in environmental engineering. These courses are filled with many details. The Warsaw Academy of Computer Science, Management and Administration teaches students in the direction of management and production engineering. Upon completion, the students receive the degree of 'engineer'. Their future work will mainly concern management of different types of industrial enterprises and they will be responsible for organising it in such a way as to avoid a dangerous contribution to environmental pollution and climate change. This is why it was decided to introduce a new course entitled 'Principles of Ecology and Environmental Management'. This course is quite broad, concerning almost all technical, law and organisational aspects of the problem. The presentation is made in a spectacular way, aiming to convince students that their future activity must be environmentally friendly. It contains information about international activities in ecology, legal aspects concerning pollution, technical and information methods of monitoring and, finally, the description of 'green' solutions. Altogether, 27 hours of lectures and 15 hours of discussions and students' presentations complete the course. Details of this course are described in this paper.

  9. Projected near-future CO2 levels increase activity and alter defensive behaviours in the tropical squid Idiosepius pygmaeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake L. Spady

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO2 levels projected to occur in the oceans by the end of this century cause a range of behavioural effects in fish, but whether other highly active marine organisms, such as cephalopods, are similarly affected is unknown. We tested the effects of projected future CO2 levels (626 and 956 µatm on the behaviour of male two-toned pygmy squid, Idiosepius pygmaeus. Exposure to elevated CO2 increased the number of active individuals by 19–25% and increased movement (number of line-crosses by nearly 3 times compared to squid at present-day CO2. Squid vigilance and defensive behaviours were also altered by elevated CO2 with >80% of individuals choosing jet escape responses over defensive arm postures in response to a visual startle stimulus, compared with 50% choosing jet escape responses at control CO2. In addition, more escape responses were chosen over threat behaviours in body pattern displays at elevated CO2 and individuals were more than twice as likely to use ink as a defence strategy at 956 µatm CO2, compared with controls. Increased activity could lead to adverse effects on energy budgets as well as increasing visibility to predators. A tendency to respond to a stimulus with escape behaviours could increase survival, but may also be energetically costly and could potentially lead to more chases by predators compared with individuals that use defensive postures. These results demonstrate that projected future ocean acidification affects the behaviours of a tropical squid species.

  10. The Delaware Bay Estuary as a Classroom: A Research Experience for Future Elementary Grade-Level Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, J.; Fifield, S.; Allen, D.; Shipman, H.; Ford, D.; Dagher, Z.; Brickhouse, N.

    2004-05-01

    With supplemental funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF), students from the University of Delaware's Science Semester course took part in a two-day research cruise in the Delaware Bay Estuary. The Science Semester, an NSF-funded project, is an integrated 15-credit sequence that encompasses the entire course work for the spring semester for approximately 60 sophomore-level elementary education majors. The semester includes the earth, life, and physical science content courses and the education science methods course integrated into one curriculum. In this curriculum, problem-based learning and other inquiry-based approaches are applied to foster integrated understandings of science and pedagogy that future elementary teachers need to effectively use inquiry-based approaches in their classrooms. The research cruise was conducted as part of one of the four major investigations during the course. The investigation focused on Delaware's state marine animal, Limulus polyphemus. It is one of the four remaining species of horseshoe crabs; the largest spawning population of Limulus is found in Delaware Bay. Within the problem- and inquiry-based learning approaches of the Science Semester course, the students became aware that very little data exists on the benthic habitat of Limulus polyphemus. In order to learn more about this habitat, a cohort of seven students from the course was recruited as part of the scientific party to take part in the research cruise to collect data on the floor of Delaware Bay. The data included: multibeam bathymetry/backscatter data, grab samples of bay bottom sediments, and CTD profiles. Prior to the cruise, all students in the course took part in laboratory exercises to learn about topographic maps and navigation charts using the Delaware Bay area as the region of study. While "at-sea", the cruise participants sent the ship's latitude and longitude positions as a function of time. The positions were used by the on-land students to

  11. Relevance of future snowfall level height in the Peruvian Andes for glacier loss in the 21st century under different emission scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauwecker, Simone; Kronenberg, Marlene; Rohrer, Mario; Huggel, Christian; Endries, Jason; Montoya, Nilton; Neukom, Raphael; Perry, Baker; Salzmann, Nadine; Schwarb, Manfred; Suarez, Wilson

    2017-04-01

    In many regions of Peru, the competition for limited hydrological resources already represents a large risk for conflicts. In this context, and within the circumstances of climate change, there is a great interest in estimating the future loss of Peruvian glaciers. Solid precipitation on glaciers, which affects the shortwave radiation budget via its effects on albedo, in general reduces ablation. For that reason, the height of the upper level of the transition zone between liquid and solid precipitation (snowfall level height) is considered to play a critical role. This snowfall level height is linked to air temperature. The observed and projected warming of the atmosphere is therefore affecting the glaciers amongst others by changing the snowfall level height. Despite the potential significance of these changes for Peruvian glaciers, the relations between snowfall level heights, glacier extents and climate scenarios have been poorly investigated so far. In our study, we first analyse the snowfall level heights over the Peruvian Cordilleras. Second, we investigate the relationship between the present snowfall level heights and current glacier extents. As a third step, we derive projected changes of snowfall level heights from GCMs for the RCP2.6 and 8.5 emission scenarios and use them to roughly estimate the end of XXI century glaciation for the Peruvian Cordilleras. Our results indicate a large difference in future glacier extent between the high-emission (pessimistic) RCP8.5 and the low-emission (optimistic) RCP2.6. If global emissions can be substantially reduced, a significant part of the glaciated area of Peru can be maintained. On the contrary, if mitigation is unsuccessful, most of the glacier mass in Peru will be lost during the 21st century. In both cases, but even more so for the high-emission scenario, adaptation will play a critical role and should focus on improvements in water resource management which is essential on a local to regional scale. Air

  12. Results from levels 2/3 fusion implementations: issues, challenges, retrospectives, and perspectives for the future an annotated perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadar, Ivan; Bosse, Eloi; Salerno, John; Lambert, Dale A.; Das, Subrata; Ruspini, Enrique H.; Rhodes, Bradley J.; Biermann, Joachim

    2008-04-01

    Even though the definition of the Joint Director of Laboratories (JDL) "fusion levels" were established in 1987, published 1991, revised in 1999 and 2004, the meaning, effects, control and optimization of interactions among the fusion levels have not as yet been fully explored and understood. Specifically, this is apparent from the abstract JDL definitions of "Levels 2/3 Fusion" - situation and threat assessment (SA/TA), which involve deriving relations among entities, e.g., the aggregation of object states (i.e., classification and location) in SA, while TA uses SA products to estimate/predict the impact of actions/interactions effects on situations taken by the participant entities involved. Given all the existing knowledge in the information fusion and human factors literature, (both prior to and after the introduction of "fusion levels" in 1987) there are still open questions remaining in regard to implementation of knowledge representation and reasoning methods under uncertainty to afford SA/TA. Therefore, to promote exchange of ideas and to illuminate the historical, current and future issues associated with Levels 2/3 implementations, leading experts were invited to present their respective views on various facets of this complex problem. This paper is a retrospective annotated view of the invited panel discussion organized by Ivan Kadar (first author), supported by John Salerno, in order to provide both a historical perspective of the evolution of the state-of-the-art (SOA) in higher-level "Levels 2/3" information fusion implementations by looking back over the past ten or more years (before JDL), and based upon the lessons learned to forecast where focus should be placed to further enhance and advance the SOA by addressing key issues and challenges. In order to convey the panel discussion to audiences not present at the panel, annotated position papers summarizing the panel presentation are included.

  13. A model of water and sediment balance as determinants of relative sea level rise in contemporary and future deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessler, Zachary D.; Vörösmarty, Charles J.; Overeem, Irina; Syvitski, James P. M.

    2018-03-01

    Modern deltas are dependent on human-mediated freshwater and sediment fluxes. Changes to these fluxes impact delta biogeophysical functioning and affect the long-term sustainability of these landscapes for human and for natural systems. Here we present contemporary estimates of long-term mean sediment balance and relative sea level rise across 46 global deltas. We model scenarios of contemporary and future water resource management schemes and hydropower infrastructure in upstream river basins to explore how changing sediment fluxes impact relative sea level rise in delta systems. Model results show that contemporary sediment fluxes, anthropogenic drivers of land subsidence, and sea level rise result in delta relative sea level rise rates that average 6.8 mm/y. Assessment of impacts of planned and under-construction dams on relative sea level rise rates suggests increases on the order of 1 mm/y in deltas with new upstream construction. Sediment fluxes are estimated to decrease by up to 60% in the Danube and 21% in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna if all currently planned dams are constructed. Reduced sediment retention on deltas caused by increased river channelization and management has a larger impact, increasing relative sea level rise on average by nearly 2 mm/y. Long-term delta sustainability requires a more complete understanding of how geophysical and anthropogenic change impact delta geomorphology. Local and regional strategies for sustainable delta management that focus on local and regional drivers of change, especially groundwater and hydrocarbon extraction and upstream dam construction, can be highly impactful even in the context of global climate-induced sea level rise.

  14. Future orbital transfer vehicle technology study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, E. E.

    1982-01-01

    Reusable space and ground based LO2/LH2 OTV's, both advanced space engines and aero assist capability were compared. The SB OTV provided advantages in life cycle cost, performance and potential for improvement. An all LO2/LH2 OTV fleet was also compared with a fleet of LO2/.H2 OTV's and electric OTV's. The normal growth technology electric OTV used silicon cells with heavy shielding and argon ion thrusters. In this case, the LO2/LH2 OTV fleet provided a 23% advantage in total transportation cost. An accelerated technology LF2/LH2 OTV provided improvements in performance relative to LO2/.H2 OTV but has higher DDT&E cost which negated its cost effectiveness. The accelerated technology electric vehicle used GaAs cells and annealing but still did not result in the mixed fleet being any cheaper than an all LO2/LH2 OTV fleet. It is concluded that reusable LO2/LH2 OTV's can serve all general purpose cargo roles between LEO and GEO for the forseeable future. The most significant technology for the second generation vehicle would be space debris protection, on orbit propellant storage and transfer and on orbit maintenance capability.

  15. Electron cloud studies for the LHC and future proton colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Domínguez Sánchez de la Blanca, César Octavio; Zimmermann, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world’s largest and most powerful particle collider. Its main objectives are to explore the validity of the standard model of particle physics and to look for new physics beyond it, at unprecedented collision energies and rates. A good luminosity performance is imperative to attain these goals. In the last stage of the LHC commissioning (2011-2012), the limiting factor to achieving the design bunch spacing of 25 ns has been the electron cloud effects. The electron cloud is also expected to be the most important luminosity limitation after the first Long Shut-Down of the LHC (LS1), when the machine should be operated at higher energy and with 25-ns spacing, as well as for the planned luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC) and future high energy proton colliders (HE-LHC and VHE-LHC). This thesis contributes to the understanding of the electron cloud observations during the first run of the LHC (2010-2012), presents the first beam dynamics analysis for the next generation of high en...

  16. Organic saffron position in the future household consumption basket and effective structures (Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadreza Shahpouri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of planning at the production level, it is necessary to identify the consumer's future behavior towards organic products. Thus, using seemingly unrelated regression and data of 2012 for 200 households in mashhad, in the present study we have tried to determine the future share of these products in the household's basket and also survey the effective factors on this share in organic saffron. The results showed that households in mashhad tend to allocate an average of 34 percent of their future consumption basket for organic saffron. The regression results illustrated that while children below 10 years old in the households, willingness to pay the price differential compared with non-organic products and organic labeling positively affected the willingness to pay for organic products, environmental concerns variables created by non-organic products had a negative effect on their willingness. Considering the research results, helping to raise people's awareness about food through different educational and advertising approaches, providing a mechanism to label organic products and assessing the strengths and weaknesses of producing and distributing the organic products are provided as suggestions.

  17. Significance of the fuel cycle aspects in CEA studies on future nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carre, F.; Thomas, J.B.; Boidron, M.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear energy has unique assets to meet the requirements for a sustainable development in terms of economic competitiveness, environmental friendliness and natural resources saving. Future nuclear system studies conducted by the CEA aim at investigating and developing promising technologies for the medium and the long term for reactors, fuels and the fuel cycle to make nuclear power eligible as one of the major energy sources of the sustainable development. It also aims at maintaining at the best possible level the expertise and the technologies that the CEA will be able to bring to future national and international projects likely to meet market needs in the next decades, which are still uncertain both in terms of performances and time scale. Progress for future nuclear systems is principally sought in the following areas: reinforced economic competitiveness against other available electricity generation means, with a special emphasis put on reducing the investment cost; enhanced safety, especially through an increased resistance to core damages in case of severe accident, and whenever possible by dedicated strategies to exclude core melting; cleanliness through minimising the production of long lived radioactive waste; resource saving through an optimum utilisation of the available resources of fissile and fertile materials; enhanced resistance to proliferation risks; potentialities for other applications than electricity production. (author)

  18. Atomic level characterization in corrosion studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Philippe; Maurice, Vincent

    2017-06-01

    Atomic level characterization brings fundamental insight into the mechanisms of self-protection against corrosion of metals and alloys by oxide passive films and into how localized corrosion is initiated on passivated metal surfaces. This is illustrated in this overview with selected data obtained at the subnanometre, i.e. atomic or molecular, scale and also at the nanometre scale on single-crystal copper, nickel, chromium and stainless steel surfaces passivated in well-controlled conditions and analysed in situ and/or ex situ by scanning tunnelling microscopy/spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. A selected example of corrosion modelling by ab initio density functional theory is also presented. The discussed aspects include the surface reconstruction induced by hydroxide adsorption and formation of two-dimensional (hydr)oxide precursors, the atomic structure, orientation and surface hydroxylation of three-dimensional ultrathin oxide passive films, the effect of grain boundaries in polycrystalline passive films acting as preferential sites of passivity breakdown, the differences in local electronic properties measured at grain boundaries of passive films and the role of step edges at the exposed surface of oxide grains on the dissolution of the passive film. This article is part of the themed issue 'The challenges of hydrogen and metals'.

  19. Volcanic harzards studies tailored to future populations and facilities: Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keating, Gordon N.; Perry, Frank V.; Harrington, Charles; Krier, Don; Valentine, Greg A.; Gaffney, Edward; Cline, Mike

    2004-01-01

    The evaluation of impacts of potential volcanic eruptions on populations and facilities far in the future may involve detailed volcanological studies that differ from traditional hazards analyses. The proximity of Quaternary volcanoes to a proposed repository for disposal of the USA's high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, has required in-depth study of probability and consequences of basaltic igneous activity. Because of the underground nature of the repository, evaluation of the potential effects of dike intrusion and interaction with the waste packages stored in underground tunnels (dnfts) as well as effects of eruption and ash dispersal have been important. These studies include analyses of dike propagation, dike-drift intersection, flow of magma into dnfts, heat and volcanic gas migration, atmospheric dispersal of tephra, and redistribution of waste-contaminated tephra by surficial processes. Unlike traditional volcanic hazards studies that focus on impacts on housing, transportation, communications, etc. (to name a small subset), the igneous consequences studies at Yucca Mountain have focused on evaluation of igneous impacts on nuclear waste packages and implications for enhanced radioactive dose on a hypothetical future ((le) 10000 yrs) local population. Potential exposure pathways include groundwater (affected by in-situ degradation of waste packages by igneous heat and corrosion) and inhalation, ingestion, and external exposure due to deposition and redistribution of waste-contaminated tephra

  20. A simulation study of capacity utilization to predict future capacity for manufacturing system sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimo, Tan Hauw Sen; Chai Tin, Ong

    2017-12-01

    Capacity utilization (CU) measurement is an important task in a manufacturing system, especially in make-to-order (MTO) type manufacturing system with product customization, in predicting capacity to meet future demand. A stochastic discrete-event simulation is developed using ARENA software to determine CU and capacity gap (CG) in short run production function. This study focused on machinery breakdown and product defective rate as random variables in the simulation. The study found that the manufacturing system run in 68.01% CU and 31.99% CG. It is revealed that machinery breakdown and product defective rate have a direct relationship with CU. By improving product defective rate into zero defect, manufacturing system can improve CU up to 73.56% and CG decrease to 26.44%. While improving machinery breakdown into zero breakdowns will improve CU up to 93.99% and the CG decrease to 6.01%. This study helps operation level to study CU using “what-if” analysis in order to meet future demand in more practical and easier method by using simulation approach. Further study is recommended by including other random variables that affect CU to make the simulation closer with the real-life situation for a better decision.

  1. Future Coastal Population Growth and Exposure to Sea-Level Rise and Coastal Flooding - A Global Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Barbara; Vafeidis, Athanasios T.; Zimmermann, Juliane; Nicholls, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Coastal zones are exposed to a range of coastal hazards including sea-level rise with its related effects. At the same time, they are more densely populated than the hinterland and exhibit higher rates of population growth and urbanisation. As this trend is expected to continue into the future, we investigate how coastal populations will be affected by such impacts at global and regional scales by the years 2030 and 2060. Starting from baseline population estimates for the year 2000, we assess future population change in the low-elevation coastal zone and trends in exposure to 100-year coastal floods based on four different sea-level and socio-economic scenarios. Our method accounts for differential growth of coastal areas against the land-locked hinterland and for trends of urbanisation and expansive urban growth, as currently observed, but does not explicitly consider possible displacement or out-migration due to factors such as sea-level rise. We combine spatially explicit estimates of the baseline population with demographic data in order to derive scenario-driven projections of coastal population development. Our scenarios show that the number of people living in the low-elevation coastal zone, as well as the number of people exposed to flooding from 1-in-100 year storm surge events, is highest in Asia. China, India, Bangladesh, Indonesia and Viet Nam are estimated to have the highest total coastal population exposure in the baseline year and this ranking is expected to remain largely unchanged in the future. However, Africa is expected to experience the highest rates of population growth and urbanisation in the coastal zone, particularly in Egypt and sub-Saharan countries in Western and Eastern Africa. The results highlight countries and regions with a high degree of exposure to coastal flooding and help identifying regions where policies and adaptive planning for building resilient coastal communities are not only desirable but essential. Furthermore, we

  2. Future coastal population growth and exposure to sea-level rise and coastal flooding--a global assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Barbara; Vafeidis, Athanasios T; Zimmermann, Juliane; Nicholls, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Coastal zones are exposed to a range of coastal hazards including sea-level rise with its related effects. At the same time, they are more densely populated than the hinterland and exhibit higher rates of population growth and urbanisation. As this trend is expected to continue into the future, we investigate how coastal populations will be affected by such impacts at global and regional scales by the years 2030 and 2060. Starting from baseline population estimates for the year 2000, we assess future population change in the low-elevation coastal zone and trends in exposure to 100-year coastal floods based on four different sea-level and socio-economic scenarios. Our method accounts for differential growth of coastal areas against the land-locked hinterland and for trends of urbanisation and expansive urban growth, as currently observed, but does not explicitly consider possible displacement or out-migration due to factors such as sea-level rise. We combine spatially explicit estimates of the baseline population with demographic data in order to derive scenario-driven projections of coastal population development. Our scenarios show that the number of people living in the low-elevation coastal zone, as well as the number of people exposed to flooding from 1-in-100 year storm surge events, is highest in Asia. China, India, Bangladesh, Indonesia and Viet Nam are estimated to have the highest total coastal population exposure in the baseline year and this ranking is expected to remain largely unchanged in the future. However, Africa is expected to experience the highest rates of population growth and urbanisation in the coastal zone, particularly in Egypt and sub-Saharan countries in Western and Eastern Africa. The results highlight countries and regions with a high degree of exposure to coastal flooding and help identifying regions where policies and adaptive planning for building resilient coastal communities are not only desirable but essential. Furthermore, we

  3. Future coastal population growth and exposure to sea-level rise and coastal flooding--a global assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Neumann

    Full Text Available Coastal zones are exposed to a range of coastal hazards including sea-level rise with its related effects. At the same time, they are more densely populated than the hinterland and exhibit higher rates of population growth and urbanisation. As this trend is expected to continue into the future, we investigate how coastal populations will be affected by such impacts at global and regional scales by the years 2030 and 2060. Starting from baseline population estimates for the year 2000, we assess future population change in the low-elevation coastal zone and trends in exposure to 100-year coastal floods based on four different sea-level and socio-economic scenarios. Our method accounts for differential growth of coastal areas against the land-locked hinterland and for trends of urbanisation and expansive urban growth, as currently observed, but does not explicitly consider possible displacement or out-migration due to factors such as sea-level rise. We combine spatially explicit estimates of the baseline population with demographic data in order to derive scenario-driven projections of coastal population development. Our scenarios show that the number of people living in the low-elevation coastal zone, as well as the number of people exposed to flooding from 1-in-100 year storm surge events, is highest in Asia. China, India, Bangladesh, Indonesia and Viet Nam are estimated to have the highest total coastal population exposure in the baseline year and this ranking is expected to remain largely unchanged in the future. However, Africa is expected to experience the highest rates of population growth and urbanisation in the coastal zone, particularly in Egypt and sub-Saharan countries in Western and Eastern Africa. The results highlight countries and regions with a high degree of exposure to coastal flooding and help identifying regions where policies and adaptive planning for building resilient coastal communities are not only desirable but essential

  4. Television Futures: A Social Action Methodology for Studying Interpretive Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Klaus Bruhn

    1990-01-01

    Presents a qualitative methodology employing workshop sessions for studying audience assessment of the mass media's service to the public. Finds that viewers are capable of a sophisticated critique of television, and raises implications both for the politics of communication and for further reception studies. (MG)

  5. A Self-Study on Preparing Future School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, William C.; Riley, Ann T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a self-study project that goes beyond the surface of praxis to examine the internal academic teaching process of a PK-12 school leader educator. The study systematically relates one professor's intrapersonal struggle and professional challenge in addressing his lived contradiction of teaching aspiring school leaders. Results…

  6. Feminist Studies / Activities in Japan: present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuko Takemura

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The essay provides an overview of feminist studies in Japan nowadays, exploring in particular how new perspectives on sexuality and postcolonial theory have been gradually incorporated into feminist studies since the 1990s. In relation to sexuality, approaches to gender-sexuality have been enriched by the incorporation of new theories from areas such as literary criticism, art or history, among others. This has allowed for new critical examinations of heterosexism and of questions about gender and sexuality, and has eventually derived in the institutionalization of feminist studies with a poststructuralist influence in the Japanese academia. The article also analyzes the incorporation of postcolonial studies into feminist studies, as well as the impact that the question of prostitution during the war has had on them.

  7. Recommendations on Future Science and Engineering Studies for Ocean Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannino, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The Ocean Health Index measured Ecological Integrity as the relative condition of assessed species in a given location. This was calculated as the weighted sum of the International Union for Conservation of Natures (IUCN) assessments of species. Weights used were based on the level of extinction risk following Butchart et al.2007: EX (extinct) 0.0, CR (critically endangered) 0.2, EN (endangered) 0.5, VU (vulnerable) 0.7, NT (not threatened) 0.9, and LC (least concern) 0.99. For primarily coastal goals, the spatial average of these per pixel scores was based on a 3nmi buffer; for goals derived from all ocean waters, the spatial average was computed for the entire EEZ.

  8. Studies of future readout links for the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bukowiec, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies a possible replacement of the existing S-LINK64 implementation by an optical link, based on 10 Gigabit Ethernet. The new link will employ commercial protocols in order to be able to receive the data by standard hardware components like PCs or network switches. Currently prototypes using multiple Gigabit Ethernet links are being developed and tested. The paper summarizes the status of these studies.

  9. A social work study on different factors influencing youth on hope for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Fakhri Fakhramini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an empirical study to study the effects of religious duties, communicating with parents; leisure, media planning, city planning, socio-economic and education on different factors influencing the future of youth. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 400 people aged 18 to 29 and the results are investigated using Pearson correlation ratios. The results of our investigation indicate that there are some positive and meaningful relationship between religious duties and their hope for future (r=44%, a positive and meaningful relationship between leisure and hope for future (31%. In addition, there is a relatively positive and somewhat meaningful relationship between city planning and hope for future (15% and finally, a small but positive relationship between media planning and hope for the future (6%. However, there is no evidence belief that there is any meaningful relationship between education and hope for the future.

  10. Meeting the future of coherent neutrino scattering. A feasibility study for upcoming reactor experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salathe, Marco; Rink, Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Due to ongoing progress in detector development and background suppression techniques first evidence of neutrino coherent scattering seems reachable in future experiments. In recent years efforts have been enhanced to detect this effect with germanium detectors. This work aims at summarizing and improving past studies on the potential of an experiment at a reactor site to a new level of accuracy by using the most recent neutrino spectra, knowledge gained in recent detector developments and in contrast to prior studies an energy-dependent quenching factor. The influence of the main parameters (background suppression, detector resolution and threshold, reactor spectra, different isotopes) of a germanium detector experiment is presented and the sensitivities regarding the main reaction channels are calculated. The results were obtained through two independent methods; an algebraic computation and a numerical simulation. Both methods reveal the most important experimental parameters and clarify the state of the art challenges that research has to meet in such an experiment.

  11. Assessment of studies and researches on warehousing - High-level and intermediate-level-long-lived radioactive wastes - December 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This large report first presents the approach adopted for the study and research on the warehousing of high-level and intermediate-level-long-lived radioactive wastes. It outlines how reversible storage and warehousing are complementary, discusses the lessons learned from researches performed by the CEA on long duration warehousing, presents the framework of studies and researches performed since 2006, and presents the scientific and technical content of studies and researches (warehousing need analysis, search for technical options providing complementarity with storage, extension or creation of warehousing installations). The second part addresses high-level and intermediate-level-long-lived radioactive waste parcels, indicates their origins and quantities. The third part proposes an analysis of warehousing capacities: existing capacities, French industrial experience in waste parcel warehousing, foreign experience in waste warehousing. The fourth part addresses reversible storage in deep geological formation: storage safety functions, storage reversibility, storage parcels, storage architecture, chronicle draft. The fifth part proposes an inventory of warehousing needs in terms of additional capacities for the both types of wastes (high-level, and intermediate-level-long-lived), and discusses warehousing functionalities and safety objectives. The sixth and seventh parts propose a detailed overview of design options for warehousing installations, respectively for high-level and for intermediate-level-long-lived waste parcels: main technical issues, feasibility studies of different concepts or architecture shapes, results of previous studies and introduction to studies performed since 2011, possible evolutions of the HA1, HA2 and MAVL concepts. The eighth chapter reports a phenomenological analysis of warehousing and the optimisation of material selection and construction arrangements. The last part discusses the application of researches to the extension of the

  12. Shielding studies and LMFBR development achievements and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatores, M.

    1990-01-01

    Shielding studies in the last decade have been performed in cooperation with several European countries. Shielding has become a mature discipline that takes advantage of improvements in data and methods and supplies the designer with a better set of tools to tackle much stricter requirements. The paper describes achievements to date and the Super Phenix start-up experiments. The present trends to design (a) reduced axial/radial shields, (b) cores that allow internal storage of irradiated sub-assemblies, and (c) cores with specific axial/radial peripheral core zone architectures to improve sodium void reactivity effects require further studies and experimental validation

  13. Studying neutrino properties in the future LENA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurm, Michael

    2013-01-01

    LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy) is a next-generation neutrino detector based on 50 kt of liquid scintillator. The low detection threshold, the good energy resolution and the potent background discrimination inherent to liquid scintillator make LENA a versatile observatory for astrophysical and terrestrial neutrinos. The present contribution highlights LENA's capabilities for studying neutrino properties based on both natural and artificial sources

  14. Radiological environmental study in area to future anthropogenic transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinnan, T.; MIller, C.R.A.

    1998-01-01

    In this work the existent relationship is identified between the data radioecologics and the geological formations to the north area Holguin with the objective to study the possible incidence that this can have in the rate environmental dose in the event of transformations anthropogenic the place

  15. Fast reactor physics at CEA: present studies and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, P.

    1980-09-01

    This paper aims at giving a general survey of the fast reactor core physics and shielding studies wich are in progress at CEA (1979-1983) in order to solve the neutronic problems related to: - core design optimization, - reactor operation and fuel management, - safety, for the development of fast commercial breeders in France after the SUPER-PHENIX 1 construction is achieved

  16. Nuclear structure studies with INGA at IUAC and future possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.P.

    2016-01-01

    Study of nuclear structure exhibits a wide variety of modes of nuclear excitations. The various modes of excitations reflect different underlying structures nuclei adopt to for a given situation of spin, iso-spin and excitation energy. Trying to understand and reconcile these large variety of underlying structures (and symmetries) in a finite quantal system, like nuclei, is of great interest to physicists. The gamma ray spectrometer called Indian National Gamma detector Array (INGA) (a national collaboration) has given further impetus to these studies due to enhanced photo-peak detection efficiency for gamma rays. In recent years our group in collaboration with universities and institutes have probed the various dynamical symmetries like chirality, shears and gamma bands built over excited configurations. I would discuss some of the recent results from these studies. Further, at IUAC we are working on combining the INGA spectrometer with our hybrid gas-filled mass analyser HYRA for study of heavy nuclei in the forthcoming INGA-HYRA campaign. Some of these developments would also be discussed

  17. Parents’ concerns about future pregnancy after stillbirth: a qualitative study

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Meaney, Sarah

    2016-07-01

    As stillbirth has a devastating impact, it is imperative to understand the importance of clinical and emotional care after stillbirth and how it influences subsequent pregnancies. The aim of the study was to gain insight into the consideration and planning of a subsequent pregnancy by parents in the weeks following stillbirth.

  18. Integrative study of the mean sea level and its components

    CERN Document Server

    Champollion, Nicolas; Paul, Frank; Benveniste, Jérôme

    2017-01-01

    This volume presents the most recent results of global mean sea level variations over the satellite altimetry era (starting in the early 1990s) and associated contributions, such as glaciers and ice sheets mass loss, ocean thermal expansion, and land water storage changes. Sea level is one of the best indicators of global climate changes as it integrates the response of several components of the climate system to external forcing factors (including anthropogenic forcing) and internal climate variability. Providing long, accurate records of the sea level at global and regional scales and of the various components causing sea level changes is of crucial importance to improve our understanding of climate processes at work and to validate the climate models used for future projections. The Climate Change Initiative project of the European Space Agency has provided a first attempt to produce consistent and continuous space-based records for several climate parameters observable from space, among them sea level. Th...

  19. The Role of Future Time Perspective in Psychological Contracts: A Study among Older Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, P. Matthijs; Jansen, Paul G. W.; van der Velde, Mandy E. G.; de Lange, Annet H.; Rousseau, Denise M.

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of post-retirement workers (N = 176), this study investigated the role of future time perspective (FTP) in psychological contracts. The study aimed to test: (i) whether future time perspective is related to employer psychological contract fulfillment and (ii) whether it moderates relations between psychological contract fulfillment…

  20. The role of future time perspective in psychological contracts : A study among older workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, P. Matthijs; Jansen, Paul G. W.; van der Velde, Mandy E. G.; de Lange, Annet H.; Rousseau, Denise M.

    Using a sample of post-retirement workers (N = 176), this study investigated the role of future time perspective (FTP) in psychological contracts. The study aimed to test: (i) whether future time perspective is related to employer psychological contract fulfillment and (ii) whether it moderates

  1. The role of future time perspective in psychological contracts: a study among older workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, P.M.; Jansen, P.G.W.; van der Velde, M.E.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/183262107; de Lange, A.H.; Rousseau, D.M.

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of post-retirement workers (N = 176), this study investigated the role of future time perspective (FTP) in psychological contracts. The study aimed to test: (i) whether future time perspective is related to employer psychological contract fulfillment and (ii) whether it moderates

  2. The role of future time perspective in psychological contracts. A study among older workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, P.M.; Jansen, P.G.W.; van der Velde, E.G.; de Lange, A.H.; Rousseau, D.M.

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of post-retirement workers (N=176), this study investigated the role of future time perspective (FTP) in psychological contracts. The study aimed to test: (i) whether future time perspective is related to employer psychological contract fulfillment and (ii) whether it moderates

  3. The role of future time perspective in psychological contracts: A study among older workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, P.M.; Jansen, P.G.W.; Velde, M.E.G. van der; Lange, A.H. de; Rousseau, D.M.

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of post-retirement workers (N = 176), this study investigated the role of future time perspective (FTP) in psychological contracts. The study aimed to test: (i) whether future time perspective is related to employer psychological contract fulfillment and (ii) whether it moderates

  4. Studies of Expansive Learning: Foundations, Findings and Future Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yrjö Engeström

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines studies based on the theory of expansive learning, formulated in 1987. In recent years the theory has been used in a wide variety of studies and interventions. The theory builds on foundational ideas put forward by Vygotsky, Leont’ev, Il’enkov, and Davydov, key figures in the Russian school of cultural-historical activity theory. Studies based on the theory are reviewed in six sections: expansive learning as transformation of the object, expansive learning as movement in the zone of proximal development, expansive learning as cycles of learning actions, expansive learning as boundary crossing and network building, expansive learning as distributed and discontinuous movement, and formative interventions.A separate section is devoted to critiques of expansive learning. It is concluded that the ultimate test of learning theories is how they help practitioners to generate learning that grasps pressing issues the humankind is facing. The theory of expansive learning currently expands its analyses both up and down, outward and inward. Moving up and outward, it tackles learning in fields or networks of interconnected activity systems with their partially shared and often contested objects. Moving down and inward, it tackles issues of subjectivity, experiencing, personal sense, emotion, embodiment, identity, and moral commitment.

  5. Perceptions of vulnerability to a future outbreak: a study of horse managers affected by the first Australian equine influenza outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A growing body of work shows the benefits of applying social cognitive behavioural theory to investigate infection control and biosecurity practices. Protection motivation theory has been used to predict protective health behaviours. The theory outlines that a perception of a lack of vulnerability to a disease contributes to a reduced threat appraisal, which results in poorer motivation, and is linked to poorer compliance with advised health protective behaviours. This study, conducted following the first-ever outbreak of equine influenza in Australia in 2007, identified factors associated with horse managers’ perceived vulnerability to a future equine influenza outbreak. Results Of the 200 respondents, 31.9% perceived themselves to be very vulnerable, 36.6% vulnerable and 31.4% not vulnerable to a future outbreak of equine influenza. Multivariable logistic regression modelling revealed that managers involved in horse racing and those on rural horse premises perceived themselves to have low levels of vulnerability. Managers of horse premises that experienced infection in their horses in 2007 and those seeking infection control information from specific sources reported increased levels of perceived vulnerability to a future outbreak. Conclusion Different groups across the horse industry perceived differing levels of vulnerability to a future outbreak. Increased vulnerability contributes to favourable infection control behaviour and hence these findings are important for understanding uptake of recommended infection control measures. Future biosecurity communication strategies should be delivered through information sources suitable for the horse racing and rural sectors. PMID:23902718

  6. Perceptions of vulnerability to a future outbreak: a study of horse managers affected by the first Australian equine influenza outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemann, Kathrin; Firestone, Simon M; Taylor, Melanie R; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L; Ward, Michael P; Dhand, Navneet K

    2013-07-31

    A growing body of work shows the benefits of applying social cognitive behavioural theory to investigate infection control and biosecurity practices. Protection motivation theory has been used to predict protective health behaviours. The theory outlines that a perception of a lack of vulnerability to a disease contributes to a reduced threat appraisal, which results in poorer motivation, and is linked to poorer compliance with advised health protective behaviours. This study, conducted following the first-ever outbreak of equine influenza in Australia in 2007, identified factors associated with horse managers' perceived vulnerability to a future equine influenza outbreak. Of the 200 respondents, 31.9% perceived themselves to be very vulnerable, 36.6% vulnerable and 31.4% not vulnerable to a future outbreak of equine influenza. Multivariable logistic regression modelling revealed that managers involved in horse racing and those on rural horse premises perceived themselves to have low levels of vulnerability. Managers of horse premises that experienced infection in their horses in 2007 and those seeking infection control information from specific sources reported increased levels of perceived vulnerability to a future outbreak. Different groups across the horse industry perceived differing levels of vulnerability to a future outbreak. Increased vulnerability contributes to favourable infection control behaviour and hence these findings are important for understanding uptake of recommended infection control measures. Future biosecurity communication strategies should be delivered through information sources suitable for the horse racing and rural sectors.

  7. Scenarios for future agriculture in Finland: a Delphi study among agri-food sector stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. RIKKONEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents alternative scenarios for future agriculture in Finland up to 2025. These scenarios are the results of a large Delphi study carried out among Finnish agri-food sector stakeholders. The Delphi panel members gave their future view on desirable and probable futures. From these two dimensions, three scenarios were elaborated through the future images – the subjective future path and the importance analysis. The scenarios represent a technology optimistic “day-dream agriculture”, a probable future as “industrialised agriculture” and an undesirable future path as “drifting agriculture”. Two mini-scenarios are also presented. They are based on a discontinuity event as an unexpected impact of climate change and an analogy event as an ecological breakdown due to the expansive animal disease epidemics. In both mini-scenarios, the directions of storylines are dramatically changed. The scenarios support strategic planning introducing not only one forecast but alternative outcomes as a basis for future strategy and decisions. In this study the scenarios were constructed to address the opportunities as a desired vision and also the threats as to an undesirable future in the agricultural sector. These results bring to the table a Finnish agri-food expert community view of the future directions of relevant key issues in the agricultural policy agenda.;

  8. Estimation of future levels and changes in profitability: The effect of the relative position of the firm in its industry and the operating-financing disaggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja Amor-Tapia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine how the relative position of a firm's Return on Equity (ROE in industries affects the predictability of the next-year ROE levels, and the ROE changes from year to year. Using Nissim and Penman breakdown into operating and financing drivers, the significant role of the industry factor is established, although changes in signs suggest subtle non-linear relations in the drivers. Our study avoids problems originating from negative signs by analyzing sorts and by making new regressions with disaggregated second-order drivers by signs. This way, our results provide evidence of some different patterns in the influence of the first-level drivers of ROE (the operating factor and the financing factor, and the second-level drivers (profit margin, asset turnover, leverage and return spread on future profitability, depending on the industry spread. The results on the role of contextual factors to improve the estimation of future profitability remain consistent for small and large firms, although adding some nuances.

  9. The Future of the Past in Management and Organization Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadhwani, Dan; Bucheli, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    This chapter examines the opportunities and challenges presented by the incorporation of historical research and reasoning into management and organizational studies, and argues that the value of history lies in its ability to offer unique perspectives on management, organizations, and markets......, rather than in providing a longitudinal version of social scientific explanations. Researchers interested in the use of history will need to recognize its distinct epistemic assumptions and its employment of a retrospective viewpoint to understand organizational behavior and cognition, and to understand...... Organizations in Time: History, Theory, Methods and frames them in relationship to the broad topic of historical methods in organizational research....

  10. A multi-omic future for microbiome studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Janet K.; Baker, Erin S.

    2016-04-26

    Microbes constitute about a third of the Earth’s biomass and play critical roles in sustaining life. While results from multiple sequence-based studies have illustrated the importance of microbial communities for human health and the environment, additional technological developments are still needed to gain more insight into their functions [1]. To date, the majority of sequencing studies have focused on the 16S rRNA gene as a phylogenetic marker. This approach has enabled exploration of microbial compositions in a range of sample types, while bypassing the need for cultivation. 16S rRNA gene sequencing has also enabled a vast majority of microorganisms never previously isolated in culture to be identified and placed into a phylogenetic context [2]. These technologies have been utilized to map the locations of microbes inhabiting various locations of the body [3]. Similarly, sequencing has been used to determine the identities and distributions of microorganisms inhabiting different ecosystems [4, 5], and efforts in single cell sequencing of the microbiome have helped fill in missing branches of the phylogenetic tree [6].

  11. Metacognitive deficits predict future levels of negative symptoms in schizophrenia controlling for neurocognition, affect recognition, and self-expectation of goal attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysaker, Paul H; Kukla, Marina; Dubreucq, Julien; Gumley, Andrew; McLeod, Hamish; Vohs, Jenifer L; Buck, Kelly D; Minor, Kyle S; Luther, Lauren; Leonhardt, Bethany L; Belanger, Elizabeth A; Popolo, Raffaele; Dimaggio, Giancarlo

    2015-10-01

    The recalcitrance of negative symptoms in the face of pharmacologic treatment has spurred interest in understanding the psychological factors that contribute to their formation and persistence. Accordingly, this study investigated whether deficits in metacognition, or the ability to form integrated ideas about oneself, others, and the world, prospectively predicted levels of negative symptoms independent of deficits in neurocognition, affect recognition and defeatist beliefs. Participants were 53 adults with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. Prior to entry into a rehabilitation program, all participants completed concurrent assessments of metacognition with the Metacognitive Assessment Scale-Abbreviated, negative symptoms with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, neurocognition with the MATRICS battery, affect recognition with the Bell Lysaker Emotion Recognition Task, and one form of defeatist beliefs with the Recovery Assessment Scale. Negative symptoms were then reassessed one week, 9weeks, and 17weeks after entry into the program. A mixed effects regression model revealed that after controlling for baseline negative symptoms, a general index of neurocognition, defeatist beliefs and capacity for affect recognition, lower levels of metacognition predicted higher levels of negative symptoms across all subsequent time points. Poorer metacognition was able to predict later levels of elevated negative symptoms even after controlling for initial levels of negative symptoms. Results may suggest that metacognitive deficits are a risk factor for elevated levels of negative symptoms in the future. Clinical implications are also discussed. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Habitat heterogeneity of hadal trenches: Considerations and implications for future studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Heather A.; Jamieson, Alan J.

    2018-02-01

    The hadal zone largely comprises a series of subduction trenches that do not form part of the continental shelf-slope rise to abyssal plain continuum. Instead they form geographically isolated clusters of deep-sea (6000-11,000 m water depth) environments. There is a growing realization in hadal science that ecological patterns and processes are not driven solely by responses to hydrostatic pressure, with comparable levels of habitat heterogeneity as observed in other marine biozones. Furthermore, this heterogeneity can be expressed at multiple scales from inter-trench levels (degrees of geographical isolation, and biochemical province), to intra-trench levels (variation between trench flanks and axis), topographical features within the trench interior (sedimentary basins, ridges, escarpments, 'deeps', seamounts) to the substrate of the trench floor (seabed-sediment composition, mass movement deposits, bedrock outcrop). Using best available bathymetry data combined with the largest lander-derived imaging dataset that spans the full depth range of three hadal trenches (including adjacent slopes); the Mariana, Kermadec and New Hebrides trenches, the topographic variability, fine-scale habitat heterogeneity and distribution of seabed sediments of these three trenches have been assessed for the first time. As well as serving as the first descriptive study of habitat heterogeneity at hadal depths, this study also provides guidance for future hadal sampling campaigns taking into account geographic isolation, total trench particulate organic matter flux, maximum water depth and area.

  13. Derivation of working levels for animal feedstuffs for use in the event of a future nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisbet, A.; Woodman, R.; Brown, J.

    1998-04-01

    In the event of a future nuclear accident, European Council Food Intervention Levels (CFILs) would be legally binding for foodstuffs marketed in the UK. Practical guidance has been developed on the activity concentrations of radiocaesium and radiostrontium in animal feedstuffs that would give rise to concentrations equivalent to the relevant CFIL in the final animal product. The animals considered were dairy and beef cattle, lambs, pigs, broiler chickens and laying hens. Typical diets have been derived for each animal. The NRPB foodchain model FARMLAND has been used to predict activity concentrations in different feedstuffs for accidents occurring at different times of the year. The predicted concentrations were combined with the data on dietary composition, information on feed-to-product transfer and the relevant CFIL to estimate the corresponding Working levels in Animal Feedstuffs (WAFs). The calculations were carried out using a dedicated software system called SILAFOD. This flexible system can be used to carry out more specific assessments. A handbook that accompanies this report contains detailed information on animal diets, contributions from various feedstuffs to intakes of activity and the corresponding WAFs. The early phase after an accident and the longer-term phase are both considered. The work received partial financial support from the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Radiological Safety and Nutrition Division. (author)

  14. Operation of a low-level waste disposal facility and how to prevent problems in future facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Sibio, R.

    1985-01-01

    Operation of a low-level waste facility is an ever increasing problem nationally, and specifically one that could grow to crisis proportion in Pennsylvania. There have been, nevertheless, a variety of changes over the years in the management of low level radioactive waste, particularly with regard to disposal facilities that can avert a crisis condition. A number of companies have been organized thru possible a broad range of services to the nuclear industry, including those that emphasize solidification of waste materials, engineering services, waste management, and transportation to disposal sites across the United States. This paper addresses one particular site and the problems which evolved at that site from an environmental perspective. It is important that it is clearly understood that, although these problems are resolvable, the lessons learned here are critical for the prevention of problems at future facilities. The focus of this paper is on the Maxey Flats, Kentucky disposal facility which was closed in 1977. It must be understood that the regulations for siting, management, burial techniques, waste classification, and the overall management of disposal sites were limited when this facility was in operation

  15. A Study of KHNP Nuclear Power Plant Technology Level Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seung Han; Lee, Sung Jin; Kim, Yo Han

    2016-01-01

    KHNP's 2030 mid and long term plan goal in technology field is securing global No. 1 NPP technology level. Quantifying technology level for this purpose, technology level at present should be surveyed. Technology level of South Korea has been surveyed by KISTEP (Korea Institute of S and T Evaluation and Planning) every two year but the technology level of KHNP has not been surveyed by any organization including KHNP itself. Also the size of technology surveyed by KISTEP was too broad to quantifying technology level of KHNP. In this paper, technology level of KHNP and South Korea are presented. In this study, NPP related technologies were divided into Level I and Level II technologies and conducted a survey for each Level II technologies using Delphi questionnaire survey that is widely used in technology level evaluation. The results of technology level and gap will be used from strategic point of view and also as a reference data for technology improvement planning

  16. A Study of KHNP Nuclear Power Plant Technology Level Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Seung Han; Lee, Sung Jin; Kim, Yo Han [KHNP, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    KHNP's 2030 mid and long term plan goal in technology field is securing global No. 1 NPP technology level. Quantifying technology level for this purpose, technology level at present should be surveyed. Technology level of South Korea has been surveyed by KISTEP (Korea Institute of S and T Evaluation and Planning) every two year but the technology level of KHNP has not been surveyed by any organization including KHNP itself. Also the size of technology surveyed by KISTEP was too broad to quantifying technology level of KHNP. In this paper, technology level of KHNP and South Korea are presented. In this study, NPP related technologies were divided into Level I and Level II technologies and conducted a survey for each Level II technologies using Delphi questionnaire survey that is widely used in technology level evaluation. The results of technology level and gap will be used from strategic point of view and also as a reference data for technology improvement planning.

  17. A study of students’ travellers values and needs in order to establish futures patterns and insights

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Cavagnaro; Simona Staffieri

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – If the only viable future for tourism is sustainable tourism then ways should be sought to increase the demand for sustainable offers. The purpose of this paper is to explore whether sustainability values influence the travel needs of students. The aim is to discover cues in the present behaviour of young tourists that can enhance sustainable travel choices and therefore secure the future of the tourism industry. Moreover, the study provides a solid basis for predicting the future t...

  18. Is there a Future to the study of the Past?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyd, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Whereas historical scholarship is prospering and is constantly moving into new and uncharted territories, the teaching of history seems to be in a serious crisis in terms of student enrollment and its public prestige. This is true at least in some countries and is especially so with respect to the teaching of eras which precede the twentieth century. The present article seeks to explore some of the reasons for this crisis, and proposes a few arguments which can provide a raison d’être for the study of history at the beginning of the twenty-first century. While history is no longer regarded simply as magistra vitae, nor is it the foundation for competing ideologies as it used to be in the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth, there are very important cultural functions, beyond sheer intellectual curiosity, that the study of history fulfills, functions which can, and should, be emphasized also to the public at large. Chief among them is the need to come to terms with rapid change in society and human affairs, a need which is especially acute nowadays, and which only the discipline of history is equipped to deal with systematically.

    Mientras el estudio académico de la Historia prospera y avanza constantemente en nuevos e inexplorados territorios, la enseñanza de la Historia parece estar en severa crisis, en términos de captación de estudiantes y de prestigio público. Esto es cierto al menos en algunos países, y especialmente respecto a la enseñanza de las épocas que precedieron al siglo XX. En este artículo se pretende explorar algunos de los motivos de esta crisis, y proponer algunos argumentos que puedan proporcionar una raison d’être para el estudio de la Historia en los comienzos del siglo XXI. Aunque la Historia ya no se contemple simplemente como magistra vitae, ni como el fundamento de ideologías en competencia, como solía ocurrir en el siglo XIX y en la primera mitad del siglo XX, persisten

  19. Pilot study on microvascular anastomosis: performance and future educational prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berretti, G; Colletti, G; Parrinello, G; Iavarone, A; Vannucchi, P; Deganello, A

    2017-11-30

    The introduction of microvascular free flaps has revolutionised modern reconstructive surgery. Unfortunately, access to training opportunities at standardised training courses is limited and expensive. We designed a pilot study on microvascular anastomoses with the aim of verifying if a short course, easily reproducible, could transmit microvascular skills to participants; if the chosen pre-test was predictive of final performance; and if age could influence the outcome. A total of 30 participants (10 students, 10 residents and 10 surgeons) without any previous microvascular experience were instructed and tested during a single 3 to 5 hour course. The two microanastomoses evaluated were the first ever performed by each participant. More than the half of the cohort was able to produce both patent microanastomoses in less than 2 hours; two-thirds of the attempted microanastomoses were patent. The pretest predicted decent scores from poor performances with a sensitivity of 61.5%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 40%. Students and residents obtained significantly higher scores than surgeons. Since our course model is short, cost-effective and highly reproducible, it could be introduced and implemented anywhere as an educational prospect for preselecting young residents showing talent and natural predisposition and having ambitions towards microvascular reconstructive surgery. © Copyright by Società Italiana di Otorinolaringologia e Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale.

  20. Thinking about the future as a way to succeed in the present: a longitudinal study of future orientation and violent behaviors among African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Sarah A; Zimmerman, Marc A; Bauermeister, José A

    2011-12-01

    Previous research has linked higher levels of hopelessness about one's future to violent behavior during adolescence; however, little is known about this relationship over time for adolescents. Using growth curve modeling, we tested the association between future orientation and violent behavior across the high school years of adolescence in a sample of African American youth (n = 681). Variation based on demographic characteristics (i.e., sex, SES, previous violence) was explored. At baseline, differences in violent behavior varied by demographic characteristics. Overall, violent behavior decreased with age. Higher levels of future orientation were associated with greater decreases in violent behavior over time. Demographic characteristics were not associated with change in violent behavior overtime. Our findings suggest that future orientation can act as a promotive factor for at risk African American youth. Interventions that help support the development of future goals and aspirations could play a vital role in violence prevention efforts.

  1. Projecting the self into the future in individuals with schizophrenia: a preliminary cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffard, Stéphane; Bortolon, Catherine; D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Gardes, Jeanne; Gely-Nargeot, Marie-Christine; Capdevielle, Delphine; Van der Linden, Martial

    2016-07-01

    The ability to project oneself into the future contributes to development and maintenance of a coherent sense of identity. If recent research has revealed that schizophrenia is associated with difficulties envisioning the future, little is known about patients' future self-representations. In this study, 27 participants with schizophrenia and 26 healthy controls were asked to simulate mental representations of plausible and highly significant future events (self-defining future projections, SDFPs) that they anticipate to happen in their personal future. Main results showed that schizophrenia patients had difficulties in reflecting on the broader meaning and implications of imagined future events. In addition, and contrary to our hypothesis, a large majority of SDFPs in schizophrenia patients were positive events, including achievements, relationship, and leisure contents. Interestingly, patients and controls did not differ on the perceived probability that these events will occur in the future. Our results suggest that schizophrenia patients have an exaggerated positive perception of their future selves. Together, these findings lend support to the idea that past and future self-defining representations have both similar and distinct characteristics in schizophrenia.

  2. Attributions, future time perspective and career maturity in nursing undergraduates: correlational study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cheng; Yang, Liu; Chen, Yuxia; Zou, Huijing; Su, Yonggang; Fan, Xiuzhen

    2016-01-25

    Career maturity is an important parameter as nursing undergraduates prepare for their future careers. However, little is known regarding the relationships between attributions, future time perspective and career maturity among nursing undergraduates. The purpose of this study was to investigate the degree of career maturity and its relationship with attributions and future time perspective. A cross-sectional survey was designed. This survey was administered to 431 Chinese nursing undergraduates. Independent-sample t-tests and one-way ANOVA were performed to examine the mean differences between categories of binary and categorical demographic characteristics, respectively. Pearson correlations and multiple linear regressions were used to test the relationships between attributions, future time perspective and career maturity. The degree of career maturity was moderate among nursing undergraduates and that internal attributions of academic achievement, future efficacy and future purpose consciousness were positively associated with career maturity (all p time perspective and to facilitate their transition from school to clinical practice.

  3. Multi-path transportation futures study : vehicle characterization and scenario analyses.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S. E.; Singh, M. K.; Energy Systems; TA Engineering; ORNL

    2009-12-03

    Projecting the future role of advanced drivetrains and fuels in the light vehicle market is inherently difficult, given the uncertainty (and likely volatility) of future oil prices, inadequate understanding of likely consumer response to new technologies, the relative infancy of several important new technologies with inevitable future changes in their performance and costs, and the importance - and uncertainty - of future government marketplace interventions (e.g., new regulatory standards or vehicle purchase incentives). This Multi-Path Transportation Futures (MP) Study has attempted to improve our understanding of this future role by examining several scenarios of vehicle costs, fuel prices, government subsidies, and other key factors. These are projections, not forecasts, in that they try to answer a series of 'what if' questions without assigning probabilities to most of the basic assumptions.

  4. Measurement Error Correction Formula for Cluster-Level Group Differences in Cluster Randomized and Observational Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sun-Joo; Preacher, Kristopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Multilevel modeling (MLM) is frequently used to detect cluster-level group differences in cluster randomized trial and observational studies. Group differences on the outcomes (posttest scores) are detected by controlling for the covariate (pretest scores) as a proxy variable for unobserved factors that predict future attributes. The pretest and…

  5. Psychological-Educational Research of Professionally Essential Characteristics of Law Students’ Personalities, Studying at Bachelor Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina A. Polyanskaya

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the results of psychological-educational research, implemented in teaching process of law students’, studying at bachelor level. Special attention is attached to self-determination of future lawyers in professional specialization during introduction training

  6. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF FORMING A PROFESSIONAL IMAGE OF THE FUTURE PUBLIC RELATIONS SPECIALIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Mikhailovna Semenova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the organization of research work on forming professional image of the future public relations specialist. The purposes of the work were to study components of students’ image, to test the concept of a professional image of the specialist, and also to process and evaluate the results. The author has presented three phases of experimental research: statement, formative and evaluative. As a result, a positive trend of forming a professional image was found. The conceptual model of forming a professional image of the future experts tested in the course of experiment has shown to be highly effective, while new methods of training (training, workshops, panel discussions, action games, etc. have substantially improved the level of development of a professional image. The results can be used in the training and retraining of specialists of higher education and people whose profession related to communications.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-48

  7. Beyond speculative robot ethics: A vision assessment study on the future of the robotic caretaker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plas, A.P. van der; Smits, M.; Wehrmann, C.

    2010-01-01

    In this article we develop a dialogue model for robot technology experts and designated users to discuss visions on the future of robotics in long-term care. Our vision assessment study aims for more distinguished and more informed visions on future robots. Surprisingly, our experiment also led to

  8. Level dynamics: An approach to the study of avoided level crossings and transition to chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.; Chu, S.Y.

    1993-01-01

    The Dyson-Pechukas level dynamics has been reformulated and made suitable for studying avoided level crossings and transition to chaos. The N-level dynamics is converted into a many-body problem of one-dimensional Coulomb gas with N-constituent particles having intrinsic excitations. It is shown that local fluctuation of the level distribution is generated by a large number of avoided level crossings. The role played by avoided level crossings in generating chaoticity in level dynamics is similar to the role played by short-range collisions in causing thermalization in many-body dynamics. Furthermore, the effect of level changing rates in producing avoided level crossings is the same as particle velocities in causing particle-particle collisions. A one-dimensional su(2) Hamiltonian has been constructed as an illustration of the level dynamics, showing how the avoided level crossings cause the transition from a regular distribution to the chaotic Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (GOE) distribution of the levels. The existence of the one-dimensional su(2) Hamiltonian which can show both GOE and Poisson level statistics is remarkable and deserves further investigation

  9. Study of nuclear level densities for exotic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasrabadi, M. N.; Sepiani, M.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear level density is one of the properties of nuclei with widespread applications in astrophysics and nuclear medicine. Since there has been little experimental and theoretical research on the study of nuclei which are far from stability line, studying nuclear level density for these nuclei is of crucial importance. Also, as nuclear level density is an important input for nuclear research codes, hence studying the methods for calculation of this parameter is essential. Besides introducing various methods and models for calculating nuclear level density for practical applications, we used exact spectra distribution (SPDM) for determining nuclear level density of two neutron and proton enriched exotic nuclei with the same mass number.

  10. Portfolio assessments for future generation investment in newly industrializing countries – A case study of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vithayasrichareon, Peerapat; MacGill, Iain F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses future electricity generation portfolios in Thailand in 2030 given uncertain future fossil-fuel prices, carbon pricing policies, electricity demand, and capital costs. Thailand faces challenges for generation investment given its rapid socio-economic progress and fast growing demand. A novel generation investment and planning decision-support tool which incorporates a Monte Carlo extension to conventional optimal generation mix methods combined with portfolio-based analysis techniques, is used. The tool can formally assess tradeoffs between expected future generation costs, cost uncertainties, and CO 2 emissions for the range of different generation portfolios. Results highlight that different levels of future carbon pricing will have significant impacts on the most appropriate generation portfolios. The impact of carbon pricing, however, is not on the appropriate proportion of combined cycle gas turbines (CCGT) in the mix but, instead, on the future role of coal versus nuclear in Thailand. Compared with the current proposed 2030 generation mix, it is possible that there are other generation portfolios that offer lower expected costs, cost uncertainty, and CO 2 emissions depending on future carbon pricing. Results suggest that this investment decision-support approach may have value for electric utilities and policy-makers contemplating significant generation investments under high future uncertainty and conflicting policy objectives. -- Highlights: ► Assess Thailand's future generation portfolios in 2030 under uncertainties. ► Future carbon prices have significant impacts on the appropriate generation mixes. ► Carbon pricing affects the future role of coal versus nuclear in Thailand. ► There may be more appropriate alternatives than the proposed 2030 generation mix. ► This decision-support approach has value for utility and policy decision-making.

  11. Low-Level Waste Drum Assay Intercomparison Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greutzmacher, K.; Kuzminski, J.; Myers, S. C.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear waste assay is an integral element of programs such as safeguards, waste management, and waste disposal. The majority of nuclear waste is packaged in drums and analyzed by various nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques to identify and quantify the radioactive content. Due to various regulations and the public interest in nuclear issues, the analytical results are required to be of high quality and supported by a rigorous Quality Assurance (QA) program. A valuable QA tool is an intercomparison program in which a known sample is analyzed by a number of different facilities. While transuranic waste (TRU) certified NDA teams are evaluated through the Performance Demonstration Program (PDP), low-level waste (LLW) assay specialists have not been afforded a similar opportunity. NDA specialists from throughout the DOE complex were invited to participate in this voluntary drum assay intercomparison study that was organized and facilitated by the Solid Waste Operations and the Safeguards Science and Technology groups at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and by Eberline Services. Each participating NDA team performed six replicate blind measurements of two 55-gallon drums with relatively low-density matrices (a 19.1 kg shredded paper matrix and a 54.4 kg mixed metal, rubber, paper and plastic matrix). This paper presents the results from this study, with an emphasis on discussing the lessons learned as well as desirable follow up programs for the future. The results will discuss the accuracy and precision of the replicate measurements for each NDA team as well as any issues that arose during the effort

  12. Simulation of the effects of Devils Lake outlet alternatives on future lake levels and water quality in the Sheyenne River and Red River of the North

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2011-01-01

    Since 1992, Devils Lake in northeastern North Dakota has risen nearly 30 feet, destroying hundreds of homes, inundating thousands of acres of productive farmland, and costing more than $1 billion for road raises, levee construction, and other flood mitigation measures. In 2011, the lake level is expected to rise at least another 2 feet above the historical record set in 2010 (1,452.0 feet above the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929), cresting less than 4 feet from the lake's natural spill elevation to the Sheyenne River (1,458.0 feet). In an effort to slow the rising lake and reduce the chance of an uncontrolled spill, the State of North Dakota is considering options to expand a previously constructed outlet from the west end of Devils Lake or construct a second outlet from East Devils Lake. Future outlet discharges from Devils Lake, when combined with downstream receiving waters, need to be in compliance with applicable Clean Water Act requirements. This study was completed by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the North Dakota Department of Health Division of Water Quality, to evaluate the various outlet alternatives with respect to their effect on downstream water quality and their ability to control future lake levels.

  13. A Study of Students' Loneliness Levels and Their Attachment Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin Kiralp, F. Sülen; Serin, Nergüz B.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between loneliness levels and attachment styles of university students. In this research, it was investigated whether the attachment styles differed in terms of variables such as gender, class, place of stay, socio-economic level of their family, parental education levels, counterpart…

  14. Calcifying invertebrates succeed in a naturally CO2-rich coastal habitat but are threatened by high levels of future acidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wahl

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available CO2 emissions are leading to an acidification of the oceans. Predicting marine community vulnerability towards acidification is difficult, as adaptation processes cannot be accounted for in most experimental studies. Naturally CO2 enriched sites thus can serve as valuable proxies for future changes in community structure. Here we describe a natural analogue site in the Western Baltic Sea. Seawater pCO2 in Kiel Fjord is elevated for large parts of the year due to upwelling of CO2 rich waters. Peak pCO2 values of >230 Pa (>2300 μatm and pHNBS values of pCO2 values are ~70 Pa (~700 μatm. In contrast to previously described naturally CO2 enriched sites that have suggested a progressive displacement of calcifying auto- and heterotrophic species, the macrobenthic community in Kiel Fjord is dominated by calcifying invertebrates. We show that blue mussels from Kiel Fjord can maintain control rates of somatic and shell growth at a pCO2 of 142 Pa (1400 μatm, pHNBS = 7.7. Juvenile mussel recruitment peaks during the summer months, when high water pCO2 values of ~100 Pa (~1000 μatm prevail. Our findings indicate that calcifying keystone species may be able to cope with surface ocean pHNBS values projected for the end of this century when food supply is sufficient. However, owing to non-linear synergistic effects of future acidification and upwelling of corrosive water, peak seawater pCO2 in Kiel Fjord and many other productive estuarine habitats could increase to values >400 Pa (>4000 μatm. These changes will most likely affect calcification and recruitment, and increase external shell dissolution.

  15. WHERE WILL FUTURE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING INFORMATION COME FROM: NEW JERSEY PEACH MARKET - A CASE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Thatch, Daymon W.; Perkins, Frederick A.

    1985-01-01

    Researchers and decision makers are currently faced with a reduced supply of agricultural marketing information at both federal and state levels. Although a number of on-line computer informational sources are available to help fill this gap, the data are relatively expensive and often not available in the form or detail needed at the farm level. This paper examines expected future sources of agricultural information in the public, private and semi-public/private sectors. A working model of a...

  16. Electrification Futures Study: End-Use Electric Technology Cost and Performance Projections through 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadun, Paige [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McMillan, Colin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Steinberg, Daniel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Muratori, Matteo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vimmerstedt, Laura [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-01

    This report is the first in a series of Electrification Futures Study (EFS) publications. The EFS is a multiyear research project to explore widespread electrification in the future energy system of the United States. More specifically, the EFS is designed to examine electric technology advancement and adoption for end uses in all major economic sectors as well as electricity consumption growth and load profiles, future power system infrastructure development and operations, and the economic and environmental implications of widespread electrification. Because of the expansive scope and the multiyear duration of the study, research findings and supporting data will be published as a series of reports, with each report released on its own timeframe.

  17. Review of Ecosystem Level Impacts of Emerald Ash Borer on Black Ash Wetlands: What Does the Future Hold?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall K. Kolka

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The emerald ash borer (EAB is rapidly spreading throughout eastern North America and devastating ecosystems where ash is a component tree. This rapid and sustained loss of ash trees has already resulted in ecological impacts on both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and is projected to be even more severe as EAB invades black ash-dominated wetlands of the western Great Lakes region. Using two companion studies that are simulating short- and long-term EAB infestations and what is known from the literature, we synthesize our current limited understanding and predict anticipated future impacts of EAB on black ash wetlands. A key response to the die-back of mature black ash will be higher water tables and the potential for flooding and resulting changes to both the vegetation and animal communities. Although seedling planting studies have shown some possible replacement species, little is known about how the removal of black ash from the canopy will affect non-ash species growth and regeneration. Because black ash litter is relatively high in nitrogen, it is expected that there will be important changes in nutrient and carbon cycling and subsequent rates of productivity and decomposition. Changes in hydrology and nutrient and carbon cycling will have cascading effects on the biological community which have been scarcely studied. Research to address these important gaps is currently underway and should lead to alternatives to mitigate the effects of EAB on black ash wetland forests and develop management options pre- and post-EAB invasion.

  18. Cochin backwaters: An introduction to the system, prior studies, historical trends and future implication

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Devi, K.S.

    Studies over the last 2 decades in the Cochin backwater system in India are reviewed to have an integrated profile with a point to evaluate future development projects in terms of potential consequences to the estuarine ecosystem. The trends...

  19. Quantifying trade-offs between future yield levels, food availability and forest and woodland conservation in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duku, Confidence; Zwart, Sander J; van Bussel, Lenny G J; Hein, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Meeting the dual objectives of food security and ecosystem protection is a major challenge in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). To this end agricultural intensification is considered desirable, yet, there remain uncertainties regarding the impact of climate change on opportunities for agricultural intensification and the adequacy of intensification options given the rapid population growth. We quantify trade-offs between levels of yield gap closure, food availability and forest and woodland conservation under different scenarios. Each scenario is made up of a combination of variants of four parameters i.e. (1) climate change based on Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs); (2) population growth based on Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs); (3) cropland expansion with varying degrees of deforestation; and (4) different degrees of yield gap closure. We carry out these analyses for three major food crops, i.e. maize, cassava and yam, in Benin. Our analyses show that in most of the scenarios, the required levels of yield gap closures required to maintain the current levels of food availability can be achieved by 2050 by maintaining the average rate of yield increases recorded over the past two and half decades in addition to the current cropping intensity. However, yields will have to increase at a faster rate than has been recorded over the past two and half decades in order to achieve the required levels of yield gap closures by 2100. Our analyses also show that without the stated levels of yield gap closure, the areas under maize, cassava and yam cultivation will have to increase by 95%, 102% and 250% respectively in order to maintain the current levels of per capita food availability. Our study shows that food security outcomes and forest and woodland conservation goals in Benin and likely the larger SSA region are inextricably linked together and require holistic management strategies that considers trade-offs and co-benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  20. A Futures Orientation in the Australian Curriculum: Current Levels of Teacher Interest, Activity and Support in Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paynter, Mark; Bruce, Neville

    2014-01-01

    The soon to be implemented Australian Curriculum aims to integrate a futures orientation across subject areas. Guidelines and support for this specific initiative are being finalized. Only a little is known about the current teaching of a futures orientation or of secondary teacher interest, understanding and support for this important but…

  1. Study of methane hydrate as a future energy resource: low emission extraction and power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.; Yamada, H.; Kanda, Y.; Sasaki, H.; Okajima, J.; Iga, Y.; Komiya, A.; Maruyama, S.

    2016-08-01

    With the fast increase of world energy consumption in recent years, new and sustainable energy sources are becoming more and more important. Methane Hydrate is one promising candidate for the future energy supply of humankind, due to its vast existence in permafrost regions and near-coast seabed. This study is focused on the effective low emission utilization of methane hydrate from deep seabed. The Nankai Trough of Japan is taken as the target region in this study for methane hydrate extraction and utilization system design. Low emission system and power generation system with CCS (Carbon Capture and Sequestration) processes are proposed and analyzed for production rate and electricity generation efficiency problem study. It is found that the gas production price can reach the current domestic natural gas supply price level if the production rate can be improved. The optimized system is estimated to have power efficiency about 35%. In addition, current development and analysis from micro-to-macro scale methane hydrate production and dissociation dynamics are also discussed into detail in this study.

  2. Impact of global warming and rising CO2 levels on coral reef fishes: what hope for the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, Philip L; McCormick, Mark I; Nilsson, Göran E

    2012-11-15

    Average sea-surface temperature and the amount of CO(2) dissolved in the ocean are rising as a result of increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO(2). Many coral reef fishes appear to be living close to their thermal optimum, and for some of them, even relatively moderate increases in temperature (2-4°C) lead to significant reductions in aerobic scope. Reduced aerobic capacity could affect population sustainability because less energy can be devoted to feeding and reproduction. Coral reef fishes seem to have limited capacity to acclimate to elevated temperature as adults, but recent research shows that developmental and transgenerational plasticity occur, which might enable some species to adjust to rising ocean temperatures. Predicted increases in P(CO(2)), and associated ocean acidification, can also influence the aerobic scope of coral reef fishes, although there is considerable interspecific variation, with some species exhibiting a decline and others an increase in aerobic scope at near-future CO(2) levels. As with thermal effects, there are transgenerational changes in response to elevated CO(2) that could mitigate impacts of high CO(2) on the growth and survival of reef fishes. An unexpected discovery is that elevated CO(2) has a dramatic effect on a wide range of behaviours and sensory responses of reef fishes, with consequences for the timing of settlement, habitat selection, predator avoidance and individual fitness. The underlying physiological mechanism appears to be the interference of acid-base regulatory processes with brain neurotransmitter function. Differences in the sensitivity of species and populations to global warming and rising CO(2) have been identified that will lead to changes in fish community structure as the oceans warm and becomes more acidic; however, the prospect for acclimation and adaptation of populations to these threats also needs to be considered. Ultimately, it will be the capacity for species to adjust to environmental

  3. Wind Turbines’ End-of-Life: Quantification and Characterisation of Future Waste Materials on a National Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Andersen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Globally, wind power is growing fast and in Sweden alone more than 3000 turbines have been installed since the mid-1990s. Although the number of decommissioned turbines so far is few, the high installation rate suggests that a similarly high decommissioning rate can be expected at some point in the future. If the waste material from these turbines is not handled sustainably the whole concept of wind power as a clean energy alternative is challenged. This study presents a generally applicable method and quantification based on statistics of the waste amounts from wind turbines in Sweden. The expected annual mean growth is 12% until 2026, followed by a mean increase of 41% until 2034. By then, annual waste amounts are estimated to 240,000 tonnes steel and iron (16% of currently recycled materials, 2300 tonnes aluminium (4%, 3300 tonnes copper (5%, 340 tonnes electronics (<1% and 28,000 tonnes blade materials (barely recycled today. Three studied scenarios suggest that a well-functioning market for re-use may postpone the effects of these waste amounts until improved recycling systems are in place.

  4. Innovative Disposal Practices at the Nevada Test Site to Meet Its Low-Level Waste Generators' Future Disposal Needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Sanza, E.F.; Carilli, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) streams which have a clear, defined pathway to disposal are becoming less common as U.S. Department of Energy accelerated cleanup sites enters their closure phase. These commonly disposed LLW waste streams are rapidly being disposed and the LLW inventory awaiting disposal is dwindling. However, more complex waste streams that have no path for disposal are now requiring attention. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NSO) Environmental Management Program is charged with the responsibility of carrying out the disposal of onsite and off-site defense-generated and research-related LLW at the Nevada. Test Site (NTS). The NSO and its generator community are constantly pursuing new LLW disposal techniques while meeting the core mission of safe and cost-effective disposal that protects the worker, the public and the environment. From trenches to present-day super-cells, the NTS disposal techniques must change to meet the LLW generator's disposal needs. One of the many ways the NTS is addressing complex waste streams is by designing waste specific pits and trenches. This ensures unusual waste streams with high-activity or large packaging have a disposal path. Another option the NTS offers is disposal of classified low-level radioactive-contaminated material. In order to perform this function, the NTS has a safety plan in place as well as a secure facility. By doing this, the NTS can accept DOE generated classified low-level radioactive-contaminated material that would be equivalent to U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Class B, C, and Greater than Class C waste. In fiscal year 2006, the NTS will be the only federal disposal facility that will be able to dispose mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) streams. This is an activity that is highly anticipated by waste generators. In order for the NTS to accept MLLW, generators will have to meet the stringent requirements of the NTS

  5. The Orinoco megadelta as a conservation target in the face of the ongoing and future sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegas-Vilarrúbia, T; Hernández, E; Rull, Valentí; Rull Vegas, Elisa

    2015-05-15

    Currently, risk assessments related to rising sea levels and the adoption of defensive or adaptive measures to counter these sea level increases are underway for densely populated deltas where economic losses might be important, especially in the developed world. However, many underpopulated deltas harbouring high biological and cultural diversity are also at risk but will most likely continue to be ignored as conservation targets. In this study, we explore the potential effects of erosion, inundation and salinisation on one of the world's comparatively underpopulated megadeltas, the Orinoco Delta. With a 1 m sea level rise expected to occur by 2100, several models predict a moderate erosion of the delta's shorelines, migration or loss of mangroves, general inundation of the delta with an accompanying submersion of wetlands, and an increase in the distance to which sea water intrudes into streams, resulting in harm to the freshwater biota and resources. The Warao people are the indigenous inhabitants of the Orinoco Delta and currently are subject to various socioeconomic stressors. Changes due to sea level rise will occur extremely rapidly and cause abrupt shifts in the Warao's traditional environments and resources, resulting in migrations and abandonment of their ancestral territories. However, evidence indicates that deltaic aggradation/accretion processes at the Orinoco delta due to allochthonous sediment input and vegetation growth could be elevating the surface of the land, keeping pace with the local sea level rise. Other underpopulated and large deltas of the world also may risk immeasurable biodiversity and cultural losses and should not be forgotten as important conservation targets. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. A methodology for the preliminary scoping of future changes in ecosystem services, with an illustration from the future midwestern landscapes study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The product is a white paper defining a methodology for the preliminary scoping of future changes in ecosystem services, with an Illustration from the Future Midwestern Landscapes Study. The scoping method develops a hierarchy of relevant societal values, identifies the ecosyste...

  7. Beyond speculative robot ethics: a vision assessment study on the future of the robotic caretaker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Plas, Arjanna; Smits, Martijntje; Wehrmann, Caroline

    2010-11-01

    In this article we develop a dialogue model for robot technology experts and designated users to discuss visions on the future of robotics in long-term care. Our vision assessment study aims for more distinguished and more informed visions on future robots. Surprisingly, our experiment also led to some promising co-designed robot concepts in which jointly articulated moral guidelines are embedded. With our model, we think to have designed an interesting response on a recent call for a less speculative ethics of technology by encouraging discussions about the quality of positive and negative visions on the future of robotics.

  8. The future of marine renewable energies. Summary of the Ifremer Futures study on marine renewable energies to 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, D.; Paillard, M.

    2008-01-01

    The challenge posed by climate change and the predicted scarcity of fossil fuels is so great that energy questions are increasingly in the headlines. There has, in this context, been an increasing promotion of renewable energies, as is attested by France and the EU's stated objective of producing 20% of consumed energy from renewable sources by 2020. Among the different renewable energies, the ocean represents an immense reserve (tidal and tidal-stream energy, wave and wind power, marine biomass etc.) and a genuine asset for those countries like France which have the good fortune to have many seaboards (both at home and overseas). In order to gauge the potential of marine renewable energies, Ifremer began an enormous foresight exercise in March 2007 examining scenarios to the year 2030 in partnership with the main actors in the maritime world and with methodological support from Futuribles. Denis Lacroix and Michel Paillard, who were members of the steering committee of that study, present the broad outlines of this foresight exercise and the possible prospects for marine renewable energies. After reviewing the various forms of marine energy, they set out the methods followed and the range of possible scenarios selected, together with the potential of the different technologies associated with marine renewable energies. They then show the extent to which these energies could contribute to the French energy supply to 2030, before developing a ''normative'' scenario that can serve as a strategic axis for French energy policy so far as marine renewable energies are concerned (on the basis of a contribution of around 3% to the French energy mix in 2020). (author)

  9. The study of the price of gold futures based on heterogeneous investors' overconfidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Jiang; Pupu Luan; Chunpeng Yang

    2014-01-01

    Purpose-The purpose of this paper is to research and analyze the price of gold futures based on heterogeneous investors' overconfidence.Design/methodology/approach-This paper divides the traders of gold futures market into two kinds:the speculators and arbitrageurs,and then constructs a market equilibrium model of futures pricing to analyze the behaviors of the two kinds of traders with overconfidence.After getting the decision-making function,the market equilibrium futures price is attained on the condition of market clearing.Then,this paper analyzes how the overconfidence impacts on futures price,volatility of the price of gold futures and the effects on individual utility.Findings-Under different market conditions,the overconfidence psychological impacts of heterogeneous investor on the price and volatility of futures are different,sometimes completely opposite.Originality/value-In the past literature,the relationships between overconfidence and the price or volatility are positive;however,the study shows that sometimes it is positive,and sometimes it is negative

  10. Experience of Future Economists' Self-Study Organization in Foreign Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyev, Oktay

    2016-01-01

    The article consolidates information sources on the issues of future economists' self-study organization at foreign universities. There has been carried out the study of approaches to the interpretation of the term "self-study process" in the contemporary scientific thought abroad. There have been specified the productive ideas of…

  11. The Impact of Life Coaching Sessions on the Behavior of Future Romanian Entrepreneurs - Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popescul Lorena Florentina

    2017-01-01

    This study has the ambition of being a relevant contribution to this field, given that no such study has been conducted in Romania. The study sheds light on the way in which life coaching can alter the behavior of future entrepreneurs, helping them to better establish and attain business objectives.

  12. Economic Literacy Levels of Social Studies Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhan, Nadire Emel

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the levels of economic literacy--an important component of being a good citizen--among seniors studying at social studies teacher program which aims at cultivating good citizens and to find out its relationships in terms of various variables. The quantitative sample of the study was comprised of 726 senior…

  13. Environmental chemicals in human milk: a review of levels, infant exposures and health, and guidance for future research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaKind, Judy S.; Amina Wilkins, A.; Berlin, Cheston M.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this review is to introduce the reader to various science and policy aspects of the topic of environmental chemicals in human milk. Although information on environmental chemicals in human milk has been available since the 1950s, it is only relatively recently that public awareness of the issue has grown. This review on environmental chemicals in human milk provides a resource summarizing what is currently known about levels and trends of environmental chemicals in human milk, potential infant exposures, and benefits of breast-feeding relative to the risks of exposures to environmental chemicals. The term 'environmental chemicals', as it pertains to human milk, refers to many classes of exogenous chemicals that may be detected in human milk. For example, pharmaceutical agents and alcohol are environmental chemicals that have been found in human milk. Other chemicals, such as heavy metals and volatile organic compounds, have also been detected in human milk. Most research on environmental chemicals in human milk has concentrated on persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) chemicals. In this review, a description of human milk is provided, including a brief review of endogenous substances in human milk. Determinants of levels of PBTs are discussed, as are models that have been developed to predict levels of PBTs in human milk and associated body burdens in breast-feeding infants. Methodologies for human milk sampling and analysis, and concepts for consideration in interpretation and communication of study results, as developed by the Technical Workshop on Human Milk Surveillance and Research for Environmental Chemicals in the United States are described. Studies which have compared the health risks and benefits associated with breast-feeding and formula-feeding are discussed

  14. Comparative study of trace element levels in some local vegetable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The level of heavy metals in two varieties of vegetables harvested during the dry and wet seasons from seven different locations in Ilorin, Nigeria, were determined. The correlation between the level of metals in the vegetables and the irrigation water was also studied. Vegetables harvested during the dry season were found ...

  15. Imagining the Future: Perspectives Among Youth and Caregivers in the Trans Youth Family Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L.; Budge, Stephanie L.; Orovecz, Joe J.; Nguyen, Bradford; Nava-Coulter, Brett; Thomson, Katharine

    2016-01-01

    Future perspectives of transgender youth and their caregivers may be shaped by knowledge of discrimination and adverse mental health among transgender adults. Qualitative data from the Trans Youth Family Study were used to examine how transgender and gender nonconforming (TGN) youth and their caregivers imagine the youth's future. A community-based sample of 16 families (16 TGN youth, ages 7-18 years, and 29 caregivers) was recruited from two regions in the United States. Participants completed in-person qualitative interviews and surveys. Interview transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory methodology for coding procedures. Analyses yielded 104 higher order themes across 45 interviews, with eight prominent themes: comparing experiences with others, gender affirming hormones, gender affirming surgery, gender norms, questioning whether the youth is really transgender, expectations for romantic relationships, uncertainty about the future, and worries about physical and emotional safety. A conceptual model of future perspectives in TGN youth and caregivers is presented and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:28068129

  16. The language of future-thought: an fMRI study of embodiment and tense processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilead, Michael; Liberman, Nira; Maril, Anat

    2013-01-15

    The ability to comprehend and represent the temporal properties of an occurrence is a crucial aspect of human language and cognition. Despite advances in neurolinguistic research into semantic processing, surprisingly little is known regarding the mechanisms which support the comprehension of temporal semantics. We used fMRI to investigate neural activity associated with processing of concrete and abstract sentences across the three temporal categories: past, present, and future. Theories of embodied cognition predict that concreteness-related activity would be evident in sensory and motor areas regardless of tense. Contrastingly, relying upon construal level theory we hypothesized that: (1) the neural markers associated with concrete language processing would appear for past and present tense sentences, but not for future sentences; (2) future tense sentences would activate intention-processing areas. Consistent with our first prediction, the results showed that activation in the parahippocampal gyrus differentiated between concrete and abstract sentences for past and present tense sentences, but not for future sentences. Not consistent with our second prediction, future tense sentences did not activate most of the regions that are implicated in the processing of intentions, but only activated the vmPFC. We discuss the implications of the current results to theories of embodied cognition and tense semantics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Study of nuclear level density parameter and its temperature dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasrabadi, M. N.; Behkami, A. N.

    2000-01-01

    The nuclear level density ρ is the basic ingredient required for theoretical studies of nuclear reaction and structure. It describes the statistical nuclear properties and is expressed as a function of various constants of motion such as number of particles, excitation energy and angular momentum. In this work the energy and spin dependence of nuclear level density will be presented and discussed. In addition the level density parameter α will be extracted from this level density information, and its temperature and mass dependence will be obtained

  18. Performance of Modular Prefabricated Architecture: Case Study-Based Review and Future Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Edmond Boafo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Even though tightened building energy efficiency standards are implemented periodically in many countries, existing buildings continually consume a momentous quota of the total primary energy. Energy efficiency solutions range from material components to bulk systems. A technique of building construction, referred to as prefabricated architecture (prefab, is increasing in reputation. Prefab encompasses the offsite fabrication of building components to a greater degree of finish as bulk building structures and systems, and their assembly on-site. In this context, prefab improves the speed of construction, quality of architecture, efficiency of materials, and worker safety, while limiting environmental impacts of construction, as compared to conventional site-built construction practices. Quite recently, a 57 story skyscraper was built in 19 days using prefabricated modules. From the building physics point of view, the bulk systems and tighter integration method of prefab minimizes thermal bridges. This study seeks to clearly characterize the levels of prefab and to investigate the performance of modular prefab; considering acoustic constrain, seismic resistance, thermal behavior, energy consumption, and life cycle analysis of existing prefab cases and, thus, provides a dynamic case study-based review. Generally, prefab can be categorized into components, panels (2D, modules (3D, hybrids, and unitized whole buildings. On average, greenhouse gas emissions from conventional construction were higher than for modular construction, not discounting some individual discrepancies. Few studies have focused on monitored data on prefab and occupants’ comfort but additional studies are required to understand the public’s perception of the technology. The scope of the work examined will be of interest to building engineers, manufacturers, and energy experts, as well as serve as a foundational reference for future study.

  19. Possible futures for the Mediterranean: A cross-cutting approach of foresight analysis studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANNA Serena

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Which are the possible scenarios that await the Mediterranean by 2025? This question characterizes the Plan Bleu synthesis report developed in the framework of the Pegaso project – funded by the 7 thFramework Programme of the European Union and devoted to Integrated Coastal Zone Management in the Mediterranean and Black Sea. As one of the Regional Activity Centres of the United Nations Environment Programme’s Mediterranean Action Plan (UNEP/MAP and as an observatory of the environment and development in the Mediterranean, Plan Bleu carried out various prospective studies to identify the threats and opportunities that arise in relation to sustainable development in the region, and the possible policy responses that might be needed. Plan Bleu developed recently a transversal analysis, synthetizing several relevant prospective studies at the Mediterranean level. Starting from the “business as usual” and alternative scenarios offered by those studies, this synthesis develops a cross-cutting approach between different dimensions of change (demographic trends, climate change, globalization and topics (water, energy, coastal development, urbanization, tourism, maritime transportation. It also takes into account recent events and changes (i.e. global economic crisis, Arab Spring, institutional reforms whose impacts on the future political trends could not be ignored. On the one hand the synthesis gathers a critical collection of scenarios for the Mediterranean, as outlined by a range of recent prospective studies. On the other hand, taking into account seeds of change and inflections of current trends, the reflection raises the crucial perspective towards a new regional prospective study at the 2050 horizon.

  20. Past, present and future aspects of studies of heavy ion radiotherapy. 2. Future view of clinical studies of heavy ion radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujii, Hirohiko; Kamata, Tadashi

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of clinical studies of heavy ion radiotherapy (HIR, using carbon beam) in National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) is, in treatment of cancers, to elucidate its potential and significance for establishing the methodology for curing the disease safely and reliably to further spread the therapy. Here is presented a future view of clinical studies of HIR based on the past results and along authorities' medical policy. NIRS has treated 3,100 or more cancer patients in about 50 clinical trials from the start of HIR in 1994. In those studies, curing the intractable malignancies has become possible in a short term of therapy, and the irradiating machine is being miniaturized (actually under construction in Gunma Univ.). At the end of 2006, about 4,000 patients have been treated with HIR globally: the impact of NIRS HIR. There are such future HIR plans as the promotion of clinical trials, development of irradiation technology, promotion and efficient practice as an advanced frontier medicare, imaging diagnosis for the aim of treatment, biological studies, and comparative studies to elucidate the usefulness. Cooperation of NIRS, manufacturers and authorities will make HIR a more useful, less burdensome mean to treat patients with more intractable cancers. (R.T.)

  1. Future Orientation, Social Support, and Psychological Adjustment among Left-behind Children in Rural China: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shaobing; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua; Zhu, Maoling

    2017-01-01

    Existing research has found that parental migration may negatively impact the psychological adjustment of left-behind children. However, limited longitudinal research has examined if and how future orientation (individual protective factor) and social support (contextual protective factor) are associated with the indicators of psychological adjustment (i.e., life satisfaction, school satisfaction, happiness, and loneliness) of left-behind children. In the current longitudinal study, we examined the differences in psychological adjustment between left-behind children and non-left behind children (comparison children) in rural areas, and explored the protective roles of future orientation and social support on the immediate (cross-sectional effects) and subsequent (lagged effects) status of psychological adjustment for both groups of children, respectively. The sample included 897 rural children ( M age = 14.09, SD = 1.40) who participated in two waves of surveys across six months. Among the participants, 227 were left-behind children with two parents migrating, 176 were with one parent migrating, and 485 were comparison children. Results showed that, (1) left-behind children reported lower levels of life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and happiness, as well as a higher level of loneliness in both waves; (2) After controlling for several demographics and characteristics of parental migration among left-behind children, future orientation significantly predicted life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and happiness in both cross-sectional and longitudinal regression models, as well as loneliness in the longitudinal regression analysis. Social support predicted immediate life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and happiness, as well as subsequent school satisfaction. Similar to left-behind children, comparison children who reported higher scores in future orientation, especially future expectation, were likely to have higher scores in most indicators of

  2. Future Orientation, Social Support, and Psychological Adjustment among Left-behind Children in Rural China: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaobing Su

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Existing research has found that parental migration may negatively impact the psychological adjustment of left-behind children. However, limited longitudinal research has examined if and how future orientation (individual protective factor and social support (contextual protective factor are associated with the indicators of psychological adjustment (i.e., life satisfaction, school satisfaction, happiness, and loneliness of left-behind children. In the current longitudinal study, we examined the differences in psychological adjustment between left-behind children and non-left behind children (comparison children in rural areas, and explored the protective roles of future orientation and social support on the immediate (cross-sectional effects and subsequent (lagged effects status of psychological adjustment for both groups of children, respectively. The sample included 897 rural children (Mage = 14.09, SD = 1.40 who participated in two waves of surveys across six months. Among the participants, 227 were left-behind children with two parents migrating, 176 were with one parent migrating, and 485 were comparison children. Results showed that, (1 left-behind children reported lower levels of life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and happiness, as well as a higher level of loneliness in both waves; (2 After controlling for several demographics and characteristics of parental migration among left-behind children, future orientation significantly predicted life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and happiness in both cross-sectional and longitudinal regression models, as well as loneliness in the longitudinal regression analysis. Social support predicted immediate life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and happiness, as well as subsequent school satisfaction. Similar to left-behind children, comparison children who reported higher scores in future orientation, especially future expectation, were likely to have higher scores in most indicators of

  3. Strengthening Sustainability and Resiliency of a Future Force, Phase 1. FY2010-2011 Summer Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Resiliency of a Future Force: Phase I Interim Report - 48 Please Enter Custom Water factor adjustments below: m Unit Level* (Gat/Ptisan/ Dti ...cost of mov- ing the consumables in terms of the assets required to move the commodity and the security Intra Theater Resupply: 4 Legs Army...Expeditionary Force-Logistics ResupplyDetails Legl Leg 2 Leg 3 Leg 4 Resupply Trip Legs Super FOB (Div)to Base Camp (bde) Base Camp (Bde) to FOB (Bn

  4. Study of dynamics of level of physical preparedness of students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Коvalenko Y.A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of level of physical preparedness of students is studied in the article. A tendency is marked to the decline of level of physical preparedness of students of 1-3 courses. Methodical recommendations are presented on the improvement of the system of organization of physical education of students of the Zaporizhzhya national university. The dynamics of indexes of physical preparedness of students 1, 2, 3 courses of different years of teaching is studied. Principal reasons of decline of level of physical preparedness of students are certain. There are recommendations the department of physical education in relation to physical preparedness of students.

  5. Girls studying physics at post-secondary level in Malta

    OpenAIRE

    Gatt, Suzanne; Borg Marks, Joan; The Access of Women to Science

    2004-01-01

    All secondary level students in Malta study, at least, one science subject (Physics, Chemistry and/or Biology) up to school-leaving level. This is due to a pass in one science subject being compulsory for entry into general post-secondary education. On the other hand, Physics, rather than Chemistry or Biology, is compulsory in State Schools. This ensures that a large percentage of girls, in Malta, study Physics. Analysis of Physics exam results at school-leaving level, the Secondary Education...

  6. Connections Between Future Time Perspectives and Self-Regulated Learning for Mid-Year Engineering Students: A Multiple Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasmar, Justine

    This dissertation presents multiple studies with the purpose of understanding the connections between undergraduate engineering students' motivations, specifically students' Future Time Perspectives (FTPs) and Self-Regulated Learning (SRL). FTP refers to the views students hold about the future and how their perceptions of current tasks are affected by these views. SRL connects the behaviors, metacognition, and motivation of students in their learning. The goals of this research project were to 1) qualitatively describe and document engineering students' SRL strategies, 2) examine interactions between engineering students' FTPs and SRL strategy use, and 3) explore goal-setting as a bridge between FTP and SRL. In an exploratory qualitative study with mid-year industrial engineering students to examine the SRL strategies used before and after an SRL intervention, results showed that students intended to use more SRL strategies than they attempted. However, students self-reported using new SRL strategies from the intervention. Students in this population also completed a survey and a single interview about FTP and SRL. Results showed perceptions of instrumentality of coursework and skills as motivation for using SRL strategies, and a varied use of SRL strategies for students with different FTPs. Overall, three types of student FTP were seen: students with a single realistic view of the future, conflicting ideal and realistic future views, or open views of the future. A sequential explanatory mixed methods study was conducted with mid-year students from multiple engineering majors. First a cluster analysis of survey results of FTP items compared to FTP interview responses was used for participant selection. Then a multiple case study was conducted with data collected through surveys, journal entries, course performance, and two interviews. Results showed that students with a well-defined FTP self-regulated in the present based on their varied perceptions of

  7. Exchange Rates’ Effect on Spot and Futures Equity Index Markets: A Study on Borsa Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayben Koy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the linkages between the foreign exchange rates, spot equity index and equity index futures. The study aims to investi-gate whether there is difference between the spot and futures markets in the scope of relation with the foreign exchange rates’ returns and which leads the other. The relationships are examined by using the vector autoregression (VAR model, impulse-response functions, variance decomposition and Granger Causality tests. The sample of the study consists of US dollar to Turkish Lira rate (USD/TRY, Euro to Turkish Lira rate (EUR/TRY, BIST 30 Index and BIST 30 Index Futures. The data of the study includes the period between January 2011 and December 2014 with daily data range. Our results have evidence that the foreign exchange rate markets in Turkey are driven by the equity market.

  8. Study on spillover effect of copper futures between LME and SHFE using wavelet multiresolution analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Research on information spillover effects between financial markets remains active in the economic community. A Granger-type model has recently been used to investigate the spillover between London Metal Exchange (LME) and Shanghai Futures Exchange (SHFE), however, possible correlation between the future price and return on different time scales have been ignored. In this paper, wavelet multiresolution decomposition is used to investigate the spillover effects of copper future returns between the two markets. The daily return time series are decomposed on 2n (n=1, ..., 6) frequency bands through wavelet multiresolution analysis. The correlation between the two markets is studied with decomposed data. It is shown that high frequency detail components represent much more energy than low-frequency smooth components. The relation between copper future daily returns in LME and that in SHFE are different on different time scales. The fluctuations of the copper future daily returns in LME have large effect on that in SHFE in 32-day scale, but small effect in high frequency scales. It also has evidence that strong effects exist between LME and SHFE for monthly responses of the copper futures but not for daily responses.

  9. Estimating Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance contribution to future sea level rise using the regional atmospheric climate model MAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fettweis, X.; Franco, B.; Tedesco, M.; van Angelen, J.H.; Lenaerts, J.T.M.; van den Broeke, M.R.; Gallee, H

    2012-01-01

    We report future projections of Surface Mass Balance (SMB) over the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) obtained with the regional climate model MAR, forced by the outputs of three CMIP5 General Circulation Models (GCMs) when considering two different warming scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5). The GCMs

  10. Preparing Future Leaders in Higher Education: Excellence Practices from Staff to Mid-Level Management Role Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Erica Sherese

    2016-01-01

    Mid-level leadership is key to a functioning university and it is important that mid-level leaders feel they have the tools and resources they need in order to succeed. To be successful in a new mid-level leadership position, entering supervisors must clearly communicate a strong sense of vision, values, and principles to their staff and establish…

  11. The Healthy Primary School of the Future: study protocol of a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willeboordse, M; Jansen, M W; van den Heijkant, S N; Simons, A; Winkens, B; de Groot, R H M; Bartelink, N; Kremers, S P; van Assema, P; Savelberg, H H; de Neubourg, E; Borghans, L; Schils, T; Coppens, K M; Dietvorst, R; Ten Hoopen, R; Coomans, F; Klosse, S; Conjaerts, M H J; Oosterhoff, M; Joore, M A; Ferreira, I; Muris, P; Bosma, H; Toppenberg, H L; van Schayck, C P

    2016-07-26

    Unhealthy lifestyles in early childhood are a major global health challenge. These lifestyles often persist from generation to generation and contribute to a vicious cycle of health-related and social problems. This design article presents a study evaluating the effects of two novel healthy school interventions. The main outcome measure will be changes in children's body mass index (BMI). In addition, lifestyle behaviours, academic achievement, child well-being, socio-economic differences, and societal costs will be examined. In close collaboration with various stakeholders, a quasi-experimental study was developed, for which children of four intervention schools (n = 1200) in the southern part of the Netherlands are compared with children of four control schools (n = 1200) in the same region. The interventions started in November 2015. In two of the four intervention schools, a whole-school approach named 'The Healthy Primary School of the Future', is implemented with the aim of improving physical activity and dietary behaviour. For this intervention, pupils are offered an extended curriculum, including a healthy lunch, more physical exercises, and social and educational activities, next to the regular school curriculum. In the two other intervention schools, a physical-activity school approach called 'The Physical Activity School', is implemented, which is essentially similar to the other intervention, except that no lunch is provided. The interventions proceed during a period of 4 years. Apart from the effectiveness of both interventions, the process, the cost-effectiveness, and the expected legal implications are studied. Data collection is conducted within the school system. The baseline measurements started in September 2015 and yearly follow-up measurements are taking place until 2019. A whole-school approach is a new concept in the Netherlands. Due to its innovative, multifaceted nature and sound scientific foundation, these integrated programmes

  12. Comparative study on the level of bacteriological contamination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative study on the level of bacteriological contamination of automatic teller machines, public toilets and public transport commercial motorcycle crash ... Conclusion: This study has revealed the ability of these public devices to serve as vehicle of transmission of microorganisms with serious health implications.

  13. Buildings of the Future Scoping Study: A Framework for Vision Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Na [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Goins, John D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The Buildings of the Future Scoping Study, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Technologies Office, seeks to develop a vision for what U.S. mainstream commercial and residential buildings could become in 100 years. This effort is not intended to predict the future or develop a specific building design solution. Rather, it will explore future building attributes and offer possible pathways of future development. Whether we achieve a more sustainable built environment depends not just on technologies themselves, but on how effectively we envision the future and integrate these technologies in a balanced way that generates economic, social, and environmental value. A clear, compelling vision of future buildings will attract the right strategies, inspire innovation, and motivate action. This project will create a cross-disciplinary forum of thought leaders to share their views. The collective views will be integrated into a future building vision and published in September 2015. This report presents a research framework for the vision development effort based on a literature survey and gap analysis. This document has four objectives. First, it defines the project scope. Next, it identifies gaps in the existing visions and goals for buildings and discusses the possible reasons why some visions did not work out as hoped. Third, it proposes a framework to address those gaps in the vision development. Finally, it presents a plan for a series of panel discussions and interviews to explore a vision that mitigates problems with past building paradigms while addressing key areas that will affect buildings going forward.

  14. Reporting Crime Victimizations to the Police and the Incidence of Future Victimizations: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranapurwala, Shabbar I; Berg, Mark T; Casteel, Carri

    2016-01-01

    Law enforcement depends on cooperation from the public and crime victims to protect citizens and maintain public safety; however, many crimes are not reported to police because of fear of repercussions or because the crime is considered trivial. It is unclear how police reporting affects the incidence of future victimization. To evaluate the association between reporting victimization to police and incident future victimization. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using National Crime Victimization Survey 2008-2012 data. Participants were 12+ years old household members who may or may not be victimized, were followed biannually for 3 years, and who completed at least one follow-up survey after their first reported victimization between 2008 and 2012. Crude and adjusted generalized linear mixed regression for survey data with Poisson link were used to compare rates of future victimization. Out of 18,657 eligible participants, 41% participants reported to their initial victimization to police and had a future victimization rate of 42.8/100 person-years (PY) (95% CI: 40.7, 44.8). The future victimization rate of those who did not report to the police (59%) was 55.0/100 PY (95% CI: 53.0, 57.0). The adjusted rate ratio comparing police reporting to not reporting was 0.78 (95%CI: 0.72, 0.84) for all future victimizations, 0.80 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.90) for interpersonal violence, 0.73 (95% CI: 0.68, 0.78) for thefts, and 0.95 (95% CI: 0.84, 1.07) for burglaries. Reporting victimization to police is associated with fewer future victimization, underscoring the importance of police reporting in crime prevention. This association may be attributed to police action and victim services provisions resulting from reporting.

  15. The global pyrogenic carbon cycle and its impact on the level of atmospheric CO2 over past and future centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Jean-Sébastien; Matthews, H Damon

    2017-08-01

    The incomplete combustion of vegetation and dead organic matter by landscape fires creates recalcitrant pyrogenic carbon (PyC), which could be consequential for the global carbon budget if changes in fire regime, climate, and atmospheric CO 2 were to substantially affect gains and losses of PyC on land and in oceans. Here, we included global PyC cycling in a coupled climate-carbon model to assess the role of PyC in historical and future simulations, accounting for uncertainties through five sets of parameter estimates. We obtained year-2000 global stocks of (Central estimate, likely uncertainty range in parentheses) 86 (11-154), 47 (2-64), and 1129 (90-5892) Pg C for terrestrial residual PyC (RPyC), marine dissolved PyC, and marine particulate PyC, respectively. PyC cycling decreased atmospheric CO 2 only slightly between 1751 and 2000 (by 0.8 Pg C for the Central estimate) as PyC-related fluxes changed little over the period. For 2000 to 2300, we combined Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5 with stable or continuously increasing future fire frequencies. For the increasing future fire regime, the production of new RPyC generally outpaced the warming-induced accelerated loss of existing RPyC, so that PyC cycling decreased atmospheric CO 2 between 2000 and 2300 for most estimates (by 4-8 Pg C for Central). For the stable fire regime, however, PyC cycling usually increased atmospheric CO 2 (by 1-9 Pg C for Central), and only the most extreme choice of parameters maximizing PyC production and minimizing PyC decomposition led to atmospheric CO 2 decreases under RCPs 4.5 and 8.5 (by 5-8 Pg C). Our results suggest that PyC cycling will likely reduce the future increase in atmospheric CO 2 if landscape fires become much more frequent; however, in the absence of a substantial increase in fire frequency, PyC cycling might contribute to, rather than mitigate, the future increase in atmospheric CO 2 . © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Estimation of future levels and changes in profitability: The effect of the relative position of the firm in its industry and the operating-financing disaggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja Amor-Tapia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine how the relative position of a firm’s Return on Equity (ROE in industries affects the predictability of the next-year ROE levels, and the ROE changes from year to year. Using Nissim and Penman breakdown into operating and financing drivers, the significant role of the industry factor is established, although changes in signs suggest subtle non-linear relations in the drivers. Our study avoids problems originating from negative signs by analyzing sorts and by making new regressions with disaggregated second-order drivers by signs. This way, our results provide evidence of some different patterns in the influence of the first-level drivers of ROE (the operating factor and the financing factor, and the second-level drivers (profit margin, asset turnover, leverage and return spread on future profitability, depending on the industry spread. The results on the role of contextual factors to improve the estimation of future profitability remain consistent for small and large firms, although adding some nuances En este trabajo examinamos si la posición relativa del ROE de la empresa en el sector afecta a la estimación del nivel de ROE en el a˜no posterior, y a la estimación de su variación. Empleando el desglose operativo-financiero de Nissim y Penman, encontramos que el factor sectorial es significativo, aunque las variaciones de los signos sugieren la presencia de relaciones no lineales. Nuestro trabajo evita los problemas generados por los signos negativos en los ratios al emplear cuantiles y realizar regresiones independientes para los diferentes signos que toman las variables. De esta forma, los resultados muestran diferentes patrones en el impacto de los inductores del ROE de primer nivel (los factores operativo y financiero y de segundo nivel (margen de resultados, rotaciones de los activos, endeudamiento y diferencial de rentabilidad sobre la rentabilidad futura, dependiendo del diferencial de rentabilidad con

  17. Internet of Things in Higher Education: A Study on Future Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldowah, Hanan; Rehman, Shafiq Ul; Ghazal, Samar; Naufal Umar, Irfan

    2017-09-01

    In the coming years, technology will impact the learning experience in many ways. Internet of Things (IoT) continues to confirm its important position in the context of Information and Communication Technologies and the development of society. With the support of IoT, institutions can enhance learning outcomes by providing more affluent learning experiences, improved operational efficiency, and by gaining real-time, actionable insight into student performance. The purpose of this study is to find out the potential of IoT in higher education and how to maximize its benefits and reducing the risks involved with it. Further efforts are necessary for releasing the full potential of IoT systems and technologies. Therefore, this paper presents a study about the impact of IoT on higher education especially universities. IoT stands to change dramatically the way universities work, and enhance student learning in many disciplines and at any level. It has huge potential for universities or any other educational institutions; if well prepared to ensure widespread and successful implementation by leadership, staff, and students. IoT needs development where universities can lead. Academics, researchers, and students are in a unique place to lead the discovery and development of IoT systems, devices, applications, and services. Moreover, this paper provides an evidences about the future of IoT in the higher education during the next few years, which have offered by a number of research organizations and enterprises. On the other hand, IoT also brings tremendous challenges to higher education. Hence, this paper also presents the perspective on the challenges of IoT in higher education.

  18. A pilot investigation to optimise methods for a future satiety preload study

    OpenAIRE

    Hobden, Mark R.; Guérin-Deremaux, Laetitia; Commane, Daniel M.; Rowland, Ian; Gibson, Glenn R.; Kennedy, Orla B.

    2017-01-01

    Background Preload studies are used to investigate the satiating effects of foods and food ingredients. However, the design of preload studies is complex, with many methodological considerations influencing appetite responses. The aim of this pilot investigation was to determine acceptability, and optimise methods, for a future satiety preload study. Specifically, we investigated the effects of altering (i) energy intake at a standardised breakfast (gender-specific or non-gender specific), an...

  19. A universal model for predicting human migration under climate change: examining future sea level rise in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel Davis, Kyle; Bhattachan, Abinash; D’Odorico, Paolo; Suweis, Samir

    2018-06-01

    Climate change is expected to impact the habitability of many places around the world in significant and unprecedented ways in the coming decades. While previous studies have provided estimates of populations potentially exposed to various climate impacts, little work has been done to assess the number of people that may actually be displaced or where they will choose to go. Here we modify a diffusion-based model of human mobility in combination with population, geographic, and climatic data to estimate the sources, destinations, and flux of potential migrants as driven by sea level rise (SLR) in Bangladesh in the years 2050 and 2100. Using only maps of population and elevation, we predict that 0.9 million people (by year 2050) to 2.1 million people (by year 2100) could be displaced by direct inundation and that almost all of this movement will occur locally within the southern half of the country. We also find that destination locations should anticipate substantial additional demands on jobs (594 000), housing (197 000), and food (783 × 109 calories) by mid-century as a result of those displaced by SLR. By linking the sources of migrants displaced by SLR with their likely destinations, we demonstrate an effective approach for predicting climate-driven migrant flows, especially in data-limited settings.

  20. The future of organization development: A delphi study among Dutch experts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korten, F.; de Caluwe, L.I.A.; Geurts, J.

    2010-01-01

    From this Delphi study among Dutch experts, the future of organization development (OD) emerges as a loosely coupled community of practice, linking very diverse members, professionals as well as scholars. One finds different priorities and values in this community, some of them even dilemmatic. The

  1. The Chinese Society of Rare Earth is Studying The Feasibility of Marketing Rare Earth Futures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Lin Donglu,secretary-general of the Chinese Society of Rare Earth recently said,the Chinese Society of Rare Earth undertook the research on subject of the National Social Science Fund Foundation on the reform of Chinese rare earth trading pricing mechanism on promoting RMB globalization,and is focusing on studying the feasibility of marketing rare earth futures variety.

  2. Dioxins levels in Australia. Key findings of studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivory, A.; Mobbs, C. [Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (Australia)

    2004-09-15

    The Australian Government established the National Dioxins Program (NDP) in 2001 to improve knowledge about levels of dioxins in Australia. The program aims to determine levels, assess the risks to Australians and the environment, and to consider appropriate management actions. Starting in mid 2001and completed in 2004, the studies constituted the largest survey of dioxin levels ever undertaken in Australia. The findings will contribute to debate on how to deal with dioxins in Australia, as well as helping to meet obligations under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, which Australia ratified on 20 May 2004. These studies will also contribute to a better understanding about dioxins in the southern hemisphere. This paper provides a summary of the key findings of these studies and the risk assessments.

  3. Advanced supersonic propulsion study. [with emphasis on noise level reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatella, J. A. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the promising propulsion systems for advanced supersonic transport application, and to identify the critical propulsion technology requirements. It is shown that noise constraints have a major effect on the selection of the various engine types and cycle parameters. Several promising advanced propulsion systems were identified which show the potential of achieving lower levels of sideline jet noise than the first generation supersonic transport systems. The non-afterburning turbojet engine, utilizing a very high level of jet suppression, shows the potential to achieve FAR 36 noise level. The duct-heating turbofan with a low level of jet suppression is the most attractive engine for noise levels from FAR 36 to FAR 36 minus 5 EPNdb, and some series/parallel variable cycle engines show the potential of achieving noise levels down to FAR 36 minus 10 EPNdb with moderate additional penalty. The study also shows that an advanced supersonic commercial transport would benefit appreciably from advanced propulsion technology. The critical propulsion technology needed for a viable supersonic propulsion system, and the required specific propulsion technology programs are outlined.

  4. Proceedings of the eighth annual DOE low-level waste management forum: Technical Session 8, Future DOE low-level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This volume contains the following papers: (1) DOE Systems Approach and Integration; (2) Impacts of Hazardous Waste Regulation on Low-Level Waste Management; (3) Site Operator Needs and Resolution Status; and (4) Establishment of New Disposal Capacity for the Savannah River Plant. All papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (AT)

  5. METHODOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF STUDYING THE PROBLEM OF PERCEPTION IN FUTURE MUSIC TEACHERS’ PROFESSIONAL TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Bo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article the methodological analysis of problem of perception in future music teachers’ professional training is presented. The author of the article analyses works of outstanding scientists in philosophy, psychology, and art education. The hierarchical system of musical perception options is revealed. A methodological foundation is supported by consideration of the following modern research in specialty – a theory and methodology of musical study that gives proper appearance and circumstantiality to the presented material. Studying the vocal and choral researches in the field of forming the valued music art perception by future music teachers, an author sets an aim to present the methodological analysis of the problem of perception in future music teachers’ professional training. Realization of the system approach to updating the problem of forming the valued music art perception of future music teachers while being trained to vocal and choral work with senior pupils extends their artistic awareness; contributes to distinguishing art works, phenomena; to seeing their properties; to providing orientation in the informative content of music art works. The special attention is paid to revealing methodological principles of perception of category research in the aspect of the valued understanding images of music art works. As a result of analysing scientific sources on the issue of voice production the author of the article finds out that perception is densely related to transformation of external information, conditioning for forming images, operating category attention, memory, thinking, and emotions. The features of perception of maintaining vocal and choral studies and students’ extrapolation are analysed in the process of future professional activity with senior pupils in the aspects of perception and transformation of musical and intonation information, analysis, object perception, and interpretation in accordance with future

  6. Veterinary medicinal products for the bees - the current situation and future strategies - an important topic discussed at European level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Karina Draghici,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the current situation and future issues relating to health and treatment options bees, bee breeders in Europe, agencies and drug manufacturers in Europe have held several meetings. One of thesetook place last year in December at the EMEA (European Medicines Agency in London, United Kingdom. The purpose of this meeting was to consider the current situation of pathology in bees to identify the most common diseases found in this species, identification and lack of treatment options for some diseases, and identifying solutions to improve the situation.

  7. A study of students’ travellers values and needs in order to establish futures patterns and insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Cavagnaro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – If the only viable future for tourism is sustainable tourism then ways should be sought to increase the demand for sustainable offers. The purpose of this paper is to explore whether sustainability values influence the travel needs of students. The aim is to discover cues in the present behaviour of young tourists that can enhance sustainable travel choices and therefore secure the future of the tourism industry. Moreover, the study provides a solid basis for predicting the future travel behaviour of young tourists. Design/methodology/approach – Data were collected in The Netherlands in 2013 through a survey. A non‐probabilistic sample of 365 students (a sub‐group of young tourists was reached. Multivariate analyses were used to test whether position in the social structure and value orientation influence the travel need. The logistic models allowed youth tourism behaviour to be predicted. Findings – Respondents with a biospheric value orientation associate travel with being in contact with nature and chose rest as a motivation. This is highly interesting from a future perspective because biospheric values are considered the most stable antecedent of sustainable behaviour. Findings also highlight women's role as the sustainable tourists of the future: women harbour strong sustainability values and see travel as a growth opportunity. Research limitations/implications – This research focuses on travel needs because this is the most future‐oriented phase of the tourism experience, and on students because they tend to travel independently. Future research might include travel consumption and evaluation as well as non‐students in the sample to give a more balanced view on young tourists. Future research might also include values not related to sustainability to assess their relative strengths in influencing youth tourism. Practical implications – Both policy makers and industry could capitalise on the sustainability values

  8. Future Time Perspective in the Work Context: A Systematic Review of Quantitative Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Hélène; Zacher, Hannes; Desmette, Donatienne

    2017-01-01

    A core construct in the lifespan theory of socioemotional selectivity, future time perspective (FTP) refers to individuals’ perceptions of their remaining time in life. Its adaptation to the work context, occupational future time perspective (OFTP), entails workers’ perceptions of remaining time and opportunities in their careers. Over the past decade, several quantitative studies have investigated antecedents and consequences of general FTP and OFTP in the work context (i.e., FTP at work). We systematically review and critically discuss this literature on general FTP (k = 17 studies) and OFTP (k = 16 studies) and highlight implications for future research and practice. Results of our systematic review show that, in addition to its strong negative relationship with age, FTP at work is also associated with other individual (e.g., personality traits) and contextual variables (e.g., job characteristics). Moreover, FTP at work has been shown to mediate and moderate relationships of individual and contextual antecedents with occupational well-being, as well as motivational and behavioral outcomes. As a whole, findings suggest that FTP at work is an important variable in the field of work and aging, and that future research should improve the ways in which FTP at work is measured and results on FTP at work are reported. PMID:28400741

  9. Future Time Perspective in the Work Context: A Systematic Review of Quantitative Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Hélène; Zacher, Hannes; Desmette, Donatienne

    2017-01-01

    A core construct in the lifespan theory of socioemotional selectivity, future time perspective (FTP) refers to individuals' perceptions of their remaining time in life. Its adaptation to the work context, occupational future time perspective (OFTP), entails workers' perceptions of remaining time and opportunities in their careers. Over the past decade, several quantitative studies have investigated antecedents and consequences of general FTP and OFTP in the work context (i.e., FTP at work). We systematically review and critically discuss this literature on general FTP ( k = 17 studies) and OFTP ( k = 16 studies) and highlight implications for future research and practice. Results of our systematic review show that, in addition to its strong negative relationship with age, FTP at work is also associated with other individual (e.g., personality traits) and contextual variables (e.g., job characteristics). Moreover, FTP at work has been shown to mediate and moderate relationships of individual and contextual antecedents with occupational well-being, as well as motivational and behavioral outcomes. As a whole, findings suggest that FTP at work is an important variable in the field of work and aging, and that future research should improve the ways in which FTP at work is measured and results on FTP at work are reported.

  10. The first symposium of Research Center for Radiation Safety, NIRS. Perspective of future studies of radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimo, Michikuni

    2002-03-01

    This paper summarizes presentations given in the title symposium, held at the Conference Room of National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) on November 29 and 30, 2001. Contained are Introductory remarks: Basic presentations concerning exposure dose in man; Environmental levels of radiation and radioactivity, environmental radon level and exposure dose, and radiation levels in the specific environment (like in the aircraft): Special lecture (biological effects given by space environment) concerning various needs for studies of radiation safety; Requirement for open investigations, from the view of utilization, research and development of atomic energy, from the clinical aspect, and from the epidemiological aspect: Special lecture (safety in utilization of atomic energy and radiation-Activities of Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan) concerning present state and perspective of studies of radiation safety; Safety of radiation and studies of biological effects of radiation-perspective, and radiation protection and radiation safety studies: Studies in the Research Center for Radiation Safety; Summary of studies in the center, studies of the biological effects of neutron beam, carcinogenesis by radiation and living environmental factors-complicated effects, and studies of hereditary effects: Panel discussion (future direction of studies of radiation safety for the purpose of the center's direction): and concluding remarks. (N.I.)

  11. Extremely low genetic diversity across mangrove taxa reflects past sea level changes and hints at poor future responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zixiao; Li, Xinnian; He, Ziwen; Yang, Yuchen; Wang, Wenqing; Zhong, Cairong; Greenberg, Anthony J; Wu, Chung-I; Duke, Norman C; Shi, Suhua

    2018-04-01

    The projected increases in sea levels are expected to affect coastal ecosystems. Tropical communities, anchored by mangrove trees and having experienced frequent past sea level changes, appear to be vibrant at present. However, any optimism about the resilience of these ecosystems is premature because the impact of past climate events may not be reflected in the current abundance. To assess the impact of historical sea level changes, we conducted an extensive genetic diversity survey on the Indo-Malayan coast, a hotspot with a large global mangrove distribution. A survey of 26 populations in six species reveals extremely low genome-wide nucleotide diversity and hence very small effective population sizes (N e ) in all populations. Whole-genome sequencing of three mangrove species further shows the decline in N e to be strongly associated with the speed of past changes in sea level. We also used a recent series of flooding events in Yalong Bay, southern China, to test the robustness of mangroves to sea level changes in relation to their genetic diversity. The events resulted in the death of half of the mangrove trees in this area. Significantly, less genetically diverse mangrove species suffered much greater destruction. The dieback was accompanied by a drastic reduction in local invertebrate biodiversity. We thus predict that tropical coastal communities will be seriously endangered as the global sea level rises. Well-planned coastal development near mangrove forests will be essential to avert this crisis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Characteristics in childhood and adolescence associated with future multiple sclerosis risk in men: cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, M; Udumyan, R; Bahmanyar, S; Nilsagård, Y; Montgomery, S

    2015-07-01

    Associations with multiple sclerosis (MS) of living conditions in childhood and characteristics in adolescence including physical fitness, cognitive function and psychological stress resilience were investigated. A cohort of male Swedish residents born 1952-1956 who were included in the Swedish Military Conscription Register was used to create a nested case-control study comprising 628 MS cases and 6187 controls matched on birth year, county of residence and vital status at time of diagnosis. Conscription examination records were linked with other national register data. Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate associations with MS subsequent to the conscription examination. Men with MS were less likely to be from more crowded households in childhood (>two persons per room) with an adjusted odds ratio of 0.67 (95% confidence interval 0.51-0.86, P = 0.023). They had lower physical working capacity in adolescence with adjusted odds ratio of 0.94 (95% confidence interval 0.89-0.99, P = 0.026). Cognitive function and stress resilience scores displayed no significant differences between cases and controls. Parental occupation in childhood and body mass index in adolescence were not associated with future MS risk. The inverse association of MS risk with higher levels of household crowding may reflect environmental factors such as the pattern of exposure to microorganisms. Lower physical fitness in men at MS risk may indicate a protective effect of exercise or could be due to prodromal disease activity, although there was no association with cognitive function. Poor psychological stress resilience (and thus risk of chronic stress arousal) was not associated with MS. © 2015 The Authors. European Journal of Neurology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Academy of Neurology.

  13. Survey Probability and Factors affecting Farmers Participation in Future and Option Markets Case Study: Cotton product in Gonbad kavos city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. sakhi

    2016-03-01

    .5 respectively. Multinomial Logit model estimation results for the probability of participation in the future and option markets showed that variables of the level of education, farm ownership, cotton acreage, and non-farm income, work experience in agriculture, the index of willing to use new technologies, the index of risk perception cotton market and risk aversion index are statistically significant. The variables of farm ownership, non-farm income and work experience in agriculture, showed negative effects and the other variables showed positive effects on the probability of participation in these markets. The results are in line with previous studies. Conclusion: The purpose of the current study was to look at the possibility of farmers participations in the future and option markets that presented as a means to reduce the cotton prices volatility. The dependent variable for this purpose, have four categories: participation in both market, and future market, participation in option market and participation in both future and option markets. Multinomial Legit Regression Model was used for data analysis. Results indicated that during the period of 2014 -2015 and the sample under study 35% of cotton growers unwilling to participate in the future and option markets. Farmers willingness to participate in the future and option market was 19% and %21.5, respectively. Multinomial Legit model estimation results for the probability of participation in the future and option markets showed that the variables of the level of education, farm ownership, cotton acreage, and non-farm income, work experience in agriculture, the index of willing to use new technologies, the index of risk perception cotton market and risk aversion index were statistically significant. The variables of farm ownership, non-farm income and work experience in agriculture, showed negative effects and the other variables positive effects on the probability of participation in these markets. The results are in line

  14. A Study of Hope in the Future among Students and its Affecting Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Bagher Alizadeh Aghdam

    2013-01-01

    Introduction   Hopefulness and hopelessness towards future is one of the important and considerable issues in social science which has been studied scientifically since 1960s. This issue was studied in different forms in relation with negative feelings, compatibility. Being hopeful is considered as the most important motivation in one’s life, because hope is root of creativity and development in human life. It prepares bed for goal achievement and also helps people to get it. Snyder and his c...

  15. Design status of the NLC beam-delivery system and possible future studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, F.; Bowden, G.; Burke, D.

    1996-10-01

    The authors outline some highlights in the present design of the beam-delivery and removal system for the Next Linear Collider (NLC), and present a long list of possible or desirable future studies. On several of the listed items work has already been started since the Snowmass workshop. Other studies could be conducted, for example, in the framework of a conceptual design report (CDR)

  16. Intranet of the future: functional study, comparison of products and practical implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Bertran Ribalaygua, Ignasi

    2010-01-01

    Future intranet: functional study, comparison of products and practical implementation 1. Introduction The project has fulfilled three goals: 1) To perform a study of the functionalities which have to be covered in a modern intranet (web 2.0, unified communication, collaboration, etc) 2) To perform a comparison of tools of the market which can be used to implement intranets (commercial and open source products) 3) To test three of these tools (Oracle WebCenter, Liferay Portal and Microsoft Sh...

  17. Post O-Level English--The Study of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, P.

    1976-01-01

    Examines objections to the study of language and linguistics in secondary education and suggests that it is time to resolve the false dichotomy between English literature and English language by providing a modest optional language element in A-level English. (Author/RK)

  18. Study of firedamp release in sub-level caving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castano, F.S.; Sanz Delgado, M.A.; Iturriaga Trenor, S.; Alberdi Vinas, C.

    1988-01-01

    The field work developed in the pits of 'Hullera Vasco-Leonesa' in Santa Lucia (Leon) to control firedamp release is described. Conclusions obtained concerning gas emission, irregularity and firedamp balance in sub-level caving winning faces are discussed. Some definitions of basic concepts in firedamp studies are also included. 7 figs.

  19. Choosing the Adequate Level of Graded Readers--Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prtljaga, Jelena; Palinkaševic, Radmila; Brkic, Jovana

    2015-01-01

    Graded readers have been used as second language teaching material since the end of the Second World War. They are an important source of simplified material which provides comprehensible input on all levels. It is of crucial importance for a successful usage of graded readers in the classroom and in studies which focus on graded readers, that an…

  20. LSP Studies As a Quest For Meso-Level Regularities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Jan

    2015-01-01

    the suggested type of analysis. I proceed to present Knowledge Communication as theoretical-methodological framework of such analyses, followed by a presentation of the differences between a micro, a macro and a meso level approach to studying specialized communication. In the last part of the paper, I...

  1. Future changes in the climatology of the Great Plains low-level jet derived from fine resolution multi-model simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ying; Winkler, Julie; Zhong, Shiyuan; Bian, Xindi; Doubler, Dana; Yu, Lejiang; Walters, Claudia

    2017-07-10

    The southerly Great Plains low-level jet (GPLLJ) is one of the most significant circulation features of the central U.S. linking large-scale atmospheric circulation with the regional climate. GPLLJs transport heat and moisture, contribute to thunderstorm and severe weather formation, provide a corridor for the springtime migration of birds and insects, enhance wind energy availability, and disperse air pollution. We assess future changes in GPLLJ frequency using an eight member ensemble of dynamically-downscaled climate simulations for the mid-21st century. Nocturnal GPLLJ frequency is projected to increase in the southern plains in spring and in the central plains in summer, whereas current climatological patterns persist into the future for daytime and cool season GPLLJs. The relationship between future GPLLJ frequency and the extent and strength of anticyclonic airflow over eastern North America varies with season. Most simulations project a westward shift of anticyclonic airflow in summer, but uncertainty is larger for spring with only half of the simulations suggesting a westward expansion. The choice of regional climate model and the driving lateral boundary conditions have a large influence on the projected future changes in GPLLJ frequency and highlight the importance of multi-model ensembles to estimate the uncertainty surrounding the future GPLLJ climatology.

  2. Mercury contamination level and speciation inventory in Lakes Titicaca & Uru-Uru (Bolivia): Current status and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guédron, S; Point, D; Acha, D; Bouchet, S; Baya, P A; Tessier, E; Monperrus, M; Molina, C I; Groleau, A; Chauvaud, L; Thebault, J; Amice, E; Alanoca, L; Duwig, C; Uzu, G; Lazzaro, X; Bertrand, A; Bertrand, S; Barbraud, C; Delord, K; Gibon, F M; Ibanez, C; Flores, M; Fernandez Saavedra, P; Ezpinoza, M E; Heredia, C; Rocha, F; Zepita, C; Amouroux, D

    2017-12-01

    Aquatic ecosystems of the Bolivian Altiplano (∼3800 m a.s.l.) are characterized by extreme hydro-climatic constrains (e.g., high UV-radiations and low oxygen) and are under the pressure of increasing anthropogenic activities, unregulated mining, agricultural and urban development. We report here a complete inventory of mercury (Hg) levels and speciation in the water column, atmosphere, sediment and key sentinel organisms (i.e., plankton, fish and birds) of two endorheic Lakes of the same watershed differing with respect to their size, eutrophication and contamination levels. Total Hg (THg) and monomethylmercury (MMHg) concentrations in filtered water and sediment of Lake Titicaca are in the lowest range of reported levels in other large lakes worldwide. Downstream, Hg levels are 3-10 times higher in the shallow eutrophic Lake Uru-Uru than in Lake Titicaca due to high Hg inputs from the surrounding mining region. High percentages of MMHg were found in the filtered and unfiltered water rising up from <1 to ∼50% THg from the oligo/hetero-trophic Lake Titicaca to the eutrophic Lake Uru-Uru. Such high %MMHg is explained by a high in situ MMHg production in relation to the sulfate rich substrate, the low oxygen levels of the water column, and the stabilization of MMHg due to abundant ligands present in these alkaline waters. Differences in MMHg concentrations in water and sediments compartments between Lake Titicaca and Uru-Uru were found to mirror the offset in MMHg levels that also exist in their respective food webs. This suggests that in situ MMHg baseline production is likely the main factor controlling MMHg levels in fish species consumed by the local population. Finally, the increase of anthropogenic pressure in Lake Titicaca may probably enhance eutrophication processes which favor MMHg production and thus accumulation in water and biota. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The future of soil protection strategy at the level of European Union at the filed of soil monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Kubík

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available European Union deals long with problems of the two components of environment the air and the water. So far soil wasnęt in the main scope of the European Union. The European Union deal now with problems of soil, where we can find question of the soil monitoring. This issue was solve in the framework of the Working group on soil monitoring (WG. The recommendations from the WG are base for deciding of the European Commission, which will have interest to formulate new soil directive. The main tasks of the WG were to review of existing soil monitoring systems, to specify basic soil parameters, indicators, to define soil parameters for each soil threats and to harmonize future soil monitoring activity and soil data.

  4. Study of New Silicon Sensors for Experiments at Future Particle Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Muñoz Sánchez, Francisca Javiela

    In this work, two new technologies for future tracker detectors at future colliders are studied. In addition, the characterization techniques are described and the obtained results are presented. On one side, we studied two-dimensional position-sensitive microstrip sensors. This sensors use a resistive material as electrode instead of the standard metallic one. In this way, using a single sensor we can get information about two coordinates of a particle hit. On the other side, we studied double-sided double-type 3D pixel sensors. This sensors are manufactured in 3D technology instead of in the planar technology. They show more radiation hardness and require less energy to be efficiently operated than sensors manufactured in planar technology. With this work, we demonstrate the resistive microstrip sensors functionality as particle detector and the radiation hardness of 3D pixel detectors has been evaluated.

  5. Using machine-coded event data for the micro-level study of political violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Hammond

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Machine-coded datasets likely represent the future of event data analysis. We assess the use of one of these datasets—Global Database of Events, Language and Tone (GDELT—for the micro-level study of political violence by comparing it to two hand-coded conflict event datasets. Our findings indicate that GDELT should be used with caution for geo-spatial analyses at the subnational level: its overall correlation with hand-coded data is mediocre, and at the local level major issues of geographic bias exist in how events are reported. Overall, our findings suggest that due to these issues, researchers studying local conflict processes may want to wait for a more reliable geocoding method before relying too heavily on this set of machine-coded data.

  6. Progress and future direction for the interim safe storage and disposal of Hanford high level waste (HLW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wodrich, D.D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the progress made at the largest environmental cleanup program in the United States. Substantial advances in methods to start interim safe storage of Hanford Site high-level wastes, waste characterization to support both safety- and disposal-related information needs, and proceeding with cost-effective disposal by the US DOE and its Hanford Site contractors, have been realized. Challenges facing the Tank Waste Remediation System Program, which is charged with the dual and parallel missions of interim safe storage and disposal of the high-level tank waste stored at the Hanford Site, are described

  7. To better know the biological behaviour of future nuclear materials: a need to maintain a good level of protection against ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaumont, R.; Metivier, H.

    2007-01-01

    An important program of research, called 'Generation IV' is currently developed at an international level to prepare the launching of reactors for the future. Its objective is to satisfy the growing needs in electric power within the framework for a sustainable development. One of the major aspects of this program is the search and the development for new nuclear materials containing fissile/fertile isotopes. Unfortunately, one realizes today that for many compounds considered to be used to manufacture these materials, there are no radio-toxicologic data, allowing to the occupational physicist to evaluate the real risk in the event of contaminations and to prescribe adapted therapeutic de-corporation. An emergency revival of 'workplace' studies, where are or will be handled these compounds or materials is mandatory. The lesson of the past showed that the prevision in radioprotection was rather difficult and that an experimental validation of the behaviour of hazardous heavy elements both in vitro and in vivo was necessary. (authors)

  8. FUTURE MUSIC TEACHERS’ PROFESSIONAL AND INDIVIDUAL DEVELOPMENT WHILE STUDYING CONDUCTING AND CHORAL DISCIPLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Kozyr

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of professional and individual development of Art Institute students. The aim of the article is to disclose the effectiveness of organising future music teachers’ methodological training which causes their professional and individual development. There is an urgent necessity of implementing integrated knowledge system in musical and pedagogical education which requires greater coordination of the disciplines. The article gives a detailed analysis of future music teachers ‘theoretic and methodological training in the course of conducting and choral disciplines that takes place during the whole period of studying at Art Institutes and at Music and Pedagogics Faculties of Pedagogical Universities. The author claims that the course of conducting and choral disciplines helps overcome drawbacks of future teachers’ training to practice. But this course should be combined with vocal and instrumental training, the unity of these components promote to forming performance skills. It is shown that the main task of learning conducting and choral disciplines at Art Institutes and at Music and Pedagogics Faculties of Pedagogical Universities is directing students to the constant acmeological self-development. The basis for this is future teachers’ independent work that is supervised by tutors. Tutors should encourage students to have responsible attitude to the author’s text. The future conductor should have a habit of accurate reading of author’s text which is one of the preconditions of successful performance. In the article much attention is given to getting basic professional skills that involves training the leaders of school choral groups according to the following trends: studying music and theoretical materials thoroughly; mastering conducting techniques; learning vocal and choral technique and methodology of working with the choir. The author concludes that mastering the main professional skills means

  9. Physical Responses of Convective Heavy Rainfall to Future Warming Condition: Case Study of the Hiroshima Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenshi Hibino

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An extreme precipitation event happened at Hiroshima in 2014. Over 200 mm of total rainfall was observed on the night of August 19th, which caused floods and many landslides. The rainfall event was estimated to be a rare event happening once in approximately 30 years. The physical response of this event to the change of the future atmospheric condition, which includes a temperature increase on average and convective stability change, is investigated in the present study using a 27-member ensemble experiment and pseudo global warming downscaling method. The experiment is integrated using the Japan Meteorological Research Institute non-hydrostatic regional climate model. A very high-resolution horizontal grid, 500 m, is used to reproduce dense cumulonimbus cloud formation causing heavy rainfall in the model. The future climate condition determined by a higher greenhouse gas concentration is prescribed to the model, in which the surface air temperature globally averaged is 4 K warmer than that in the preindustrial era. The total amounts of precipitation around the Hiroshima area in the future experiments are closer to or slightly lower than in the current experiments in spite of the increase in water vapor due to the atmospheric warming. The effect of the water vapor increase on extreme precipitation is found to be canceled out by the suppression of convection due to the thermal stability enhancement. The fact that future extreme precipitation like the Hiroshima event is not intensified is in contrast to the well-known result that extreme rainfall tends to be intensified in the future. The results in the present study imply that the response of extreme precipitation to global warming differs for each rainfall phenomenon.

  10. Logic as Marr's Computational Level: Four Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggio, Giosuè; van Lambalgen, Michiel; Hagoort, Peter

    2015-04-01

    We sketch four applications of Marr's levels-of-analysis methodology to the relations between logic and experimental data in the cognitive neuroscience of language and reasoning. The first part of the paper illustrates the explanatory power of computational level theories based on logic. We show that a Bayesian treatment of the suppression task in reasoning with conditionals is ruled out by EEG data, supporting instead an analysis based on defeasible logic. Further, we describe how results from an EEG study on temporal prepositions can be reanalyzed using formal semantics, addressing a potential confound. The second part of the article demonstrates the predictive power of logical theories drawing on EEG data on processing progressive constructions and on behavioral data on conditional reasoning in people with autism. Logical theories can constrain processing hypotheses all the way down to neurophysiology, and conversely neuroscience data can guide the selection of alternative computational level models of cognition. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  11. Nitrates in drinking water and methemoglobin levels in pregnancy: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manassaram, Deana M; Backer, Lorraine C; Messing, Rita; Fleming, Lora E; Luke, Barbara; Monteilh, Carolyn P

    2010-10-14

    Private water systems are more likely to have nitrate levels above the maximum contaminant level (MCL). Pregnant women are considered vulnerable to the effects of exposure to high levels of nitrates in drinking water due to their altered physiological states. The level of methemoglobin in the blood is the biomarker often used in research for assessing exposure to nitrates. The objective of this study was to assess methemoglobin levels and examine how various factors affected methemoglobin levels during pregnancy. We also examined whether differences in water use practices existed among pregnant women based on household drinking water source of private vs. public supply. A longitudinal study of 357 pregnant women was conducted. Longitudinal regression models were used to examine changes and predictors of the change in methemoglobin levels over the period of gestation. Pregnant women showed a decrease in methemoglobin levels with increasing gestation although nitrate intake from tap water among pregnant women around 36 weeks gestation (β = 0.046, p = 0.986). Four women had tap water nitrate levels above the MCL of 10 mg/L. At enrollment, a greater proportion of women who reported using water treatment devices were private wells users (66%) compared to public system users (46%) (p nitrate from water (p nitrate levels primarily below the MCL for drinking water were unlikely to show methemoglobin levels above the physiologic normal. Water use practices such as the use of treatment devices to remove nitrates varied according to water source and should be considered in the assessment of exposure to nitrates in future studies.

  12. The AGE-RAGE axis in an Arab population: The United Arab Emirates Healthy Futures (UAEHFS pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire K. Inman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The transformation of the United Arab Emirates (UAE from a semi-nomadic to a high income society has been accompanied by increasing rates of obesity and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. We examined if the AGE-RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation endproducts axis is associated with obesity and diabetes mellitus in the pilot phase of the UAE Healthy Futures Study (UAEHFS. Methods: 517 Emirati subjects were enrolled and plasma/serum levels of AGE, carboxy methyl lysine (CML-AGE, soluble (sRAGE and endogenous secretory (esRAGE were measured along with weight, height, waist and hip circumference (WC/HC, blood pressure, HbA1c, Vitamin D levels and routine chemistries. The relationship between the AGE-RAGE axis and obesity and diabetes mellitus was tested using proportional odds models and linear regression. Results: After covariate adjustment, AGE levels were significantly associated with diabetes status. Levels of sRAGE and esRAGE were associated with BMI and levels of sRAGE were associated with WC/HC. Conclusions: The AGE-RAGE axis is associated with diabetes status and obesity in this Arab population. Prospective serial analysis of this axis may identify predictive biomarkers of obesity and cardiometabolic dysfunction in the UAEHFS. Keywords: Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs, Receptor for AGE (RAGE, Cohort study, Diabetes mellitus, Obesity

  13. Evaporation from a temperate closed-basin lake and its impact on present, past, and future water level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakes provide enormous economic, recreational, and aesthetic benefits to citizens. These ecosystem services may be adversely impacted by climate change. In the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area of Minnesota, USA, many lakes have been at historic low levels and water augmentation strategies have been pro...

  14. Methods for diagnosing the level of preparedness of future specialists of physical education and sports unto the organization labour staff of youth sports school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perepletchikov D.A.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical questions of determination of level of readiness of future specialists are examined to organization of activity of child's sporting schools. The plan of creation of structural functional model of readiness of specialists is presented to organization of activity of child's sporting schools. Procedure of determination of specific gravity of factors of professional readiness of specialists is described to organization of activity of child's sporting schools. The qualimetry vehicle of determination of level of their professional readiness is given. The general view of form of expert estimation of this readiness is presented.

  15. Longitudinal study of leptin levels in chronic hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Averbukh Zhan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The influence of serum leptin levels on nutritional status and survival in chronic hemodialysis patients remained to be elucidated. We conducted a prospective longitudinal study of leptin levels and nutritional parameters to determine whether changes of serum leptin levels modify nutritional status and survival in a cohort of prevalent hemodialysis patients. Methods Leptin, dietary energy and protein intake, biochemical markers of nutrition and body composition (anthropometry and bioimpedance analysis were measured at baseline and at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months following enrollment, in 101 prevalent hemodialysis patients (37% women with a mean age of 64.6 ± 11.5 years. Observation of this cohort was continued over 2 additional years. Changes in repeated measures were evaluated, with adjustment for baseline differences in demographic and clinical parameters. Results Significant reduction of leptin levels with time were observed (linear estimate: -2.5010 ± 0.57 ng/ml/2y; p Conclusions Thus leptin levels reflect fat mass depots, rather than independently contributing to uremic anorexia or modifying nutritional status and/or survival in chronic hemodialysis patients. The importance of such information is high if leptin is contemplated as a potential therapeutic target in hemodialysis patients.

  16. Experimental study of self-leveling behavior in debris bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Bin; Harada, Tetsushi; Hirahara, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Tatsuya; Morita, Koji; Fukuda, Kenji; Yamano, Hidemasa; Suzuki, Tohru; Tobita, Yoshiharu

    2008-01-01

    After a core disruptive accident in a sodium-cooled fast reactor, core debris may settle on locations such as within the core-support structure or in the lower inlet plenum of the reactor vessel as debris beds, as a consequence of rapid quenching and fragmentation of core materials in subcooled sodium. The particle beds that are initially of varying depth have been observed to undergo a process of self-leveling when sodium boiling occurs within the beds. The boiling is believed to provide the driven force with debris needed to overcome resisting forces. Self-leveling ability has much effect on heat-removal capability of debris beds. In the present study, characteristics of self-leveling behaviors were investigated experimentally with simulant materials. Although the decay heat from fuel debris drives the coolant boiling in reactor accident conditions, the present experiments employed depressurization boiling of water to simulate axially increasing void distribution in a debris bed, which consists of solid particles of alumina or lead with different density. The particle size (from 0.5 mm to 6 mm in diameter) and shape (spherical or non-spherical particles) were also taken as experimental parameters. A rough criteria for self-leveling occurrence is proposed and compared with the experimental results. Characteristics of the self-leveling behaviors observed are analyzed and extrapolate to reactor accident conditions. (author)

  17. Framework for State-Level Renewable Energy Market Potential Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreycik, C.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Doris, E.

    2010-01-01

    State-level policymakers are relying on estimates of the market potential for renewable energy resources as they set goals and develop policies to accelerate the development of these resources. Therefore, accuracy of such estimates should be understood and possibly improved to appropriately support these decisions. This document provides a framework and next steps for state officials who require estimates of renewable energy market potential. The report gives insight into how to conduct a market potential study, including what supporting data are needed and what types of assumptions need to be made. The report distinguishes between goal-oriented studies and other types of studies, and explains the benefits of each.

  18. Environmental studies for mining of deep-sea polymetallic nodules - Accomplishments and future plans

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.

    on marine ecosystem, the project on ‘EIA studies for nodule mining in CIB’ was initiated in 1996, under the national programme on polymetallic nodules funded by the Dept. of Ocean Development. Mining of the deep-sea minerals [1] is expected to alter... for the future • Development of predictive ecosystem models • Creation of environmental database • Evaluating the biogeochemical coupling of biota with deep-sea ecosystem • Development of environment management plan for nodule mining References...

  19. Service design as an approach to new service development : reflections and futures studies

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Eun; Sangiorgi, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    This paper illustrates how, although Service Design has been described as evolving from a narrow description of a phase in New Service Development (NSD) to an approach to Service Innovation, the current Service Design research is still focused on the initial stages of NSD. Comparing existing Service Design research with foundational knowledge on NSD, the authors have proposed two complementary directions for future Service Design studies: 1) the expansion of ‘service design as a phase’ to inv...

  20. A Marketing Approach to Commodity Futures Exchanges : A Case Study of the Dutch Hog Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes a marketing strategic approach to commodity futures exchanges to optimise the (hedging) services offered. First, the environment of commodity futures exchanges is examined. Second, the threats and opportunities of commodity futures exchanges are analysed. Our analysis

  1. Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM) - a review of performed validation studies, and future prospects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kakosimos K.E., Konstantinos E.; Hertel, Ole; Ketzel, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    in this context is the fast and easy to apply Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM). For almost 20 years, OSPM has been routinely used in many countries for studying traffic pollution, performing analyses of field campaign measurements, studying efficiency of pollution abatement strategies, carrying out...... exposure assessments and as reference in comparisons to other models. OSPM is generally considered as state-of-the-art in applied street pollution modelling. This paper outlines the most important findings in OSPM validation and application studies in literature. At the end of the paper, future research...... needs are outlined for traffic air pollution modelling in general but with outset in the research performed with OSPM....

  2. Study of plasma adrenomedullin level in normal pregnancy and preclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senna, Azza Abo; Zedan, Magda; el-Salam, Gamal E Abd; el-Mashad, Ashraf I

    2008-02-06

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether maternal circulating adrenomedullin (AM) values in patients with preeclampsia are different from those in normotensive pregnant women at different gestational ages. In a prospective clinical study, 90 women aged 17 to 40 years old, were divided into 4 main groups: group I (45 women): Normotensive pregnant women at first trimester (15 women), second trimester (15 women), and third trimester (15 women) of pregnancies. Group II (15 women): Pregnant women with preeclampsia at 25 to 38 weeks of gestation. Group III (15 women): Normotensive healthy nonpregnant women. Group IV (15 women): Hypertensive nonpregnant women. The plasma AM concentration was measured in all women by using enzyme immunoassay kits. Plasma AM levels in pregnant women with normal blood pressure at different gestational ages (first, second, and third trimesters) were statistically significantly higher than those detected in nonpregnant normotensive women and significantly increased with increasing gestational age (P < .001). Moreover, there was significant positive correlation between plasma AM levels and increasing gestational age (r = 0.915, P < .001). Preeclamptic patients had the highest mean plasma AM levels compared with all other groups, which is statistically significant (P < .001) and there was a significant positive correlation between plasma AM levels and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, severity of preeclampsia, and proteinuria in pregnant patients with preeclampsia. Maternal plasma AM concentration increases throughout pregnancy and increases as gestational age progresses. AM production starts very early in gestation, suggesting that it may have an important role in human reproduction, from implantation to delivery. Maternal plasma AM level in preeclampsia appears to be higher than that in normal pregnancy.

  3. Powering up the future : 2008 labour market information study : full report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    As a result of an aging labour force and a diminishing supply of trained and educated young workers, Canada's electricity sector faces the prospect of a prolonged period of increasing competition for professional and skilled workers. It is crucial that industry, education and training institutions, regulatory authorities and policy makers have a complete understanding of the human resource challenges that can affect the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity in order to ensure the current and future stability of the supply of electricity. This report discussed a study that was undertaken in order to develop a labour market information system and web-based application that would provide accurate information and viable projections of current and future labour supply and demand in the electricity sector. The report provided background information on the Electricity Sector Council; the purpose and objectives of the study; the research methodology; study limitations; and data and definitions. The report provided a profile of the electricity sector and the human resource implications associated with the sector and presented the demographics and characteristics of the current workforce in the electricity industry. Other data that was presented included the supply of labour for the electricity industry; projected retirement estimates associated with non-support positions within the electricity industry; future demand for skilled workers in the electricity industry; and recruitment options available to employers in the electricity industry. Last, human resource recommendations for the electricity sector arising from the report were presented. It was concluded that serious effort must be made to prepare for the future workforce within the electricity sector. 46 refs., 3 appendices

  4. Social transactions with future generations for the management of high level radioactive waste in deep repositories: Reflections on institutional control and retrievability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heriard Dubreuil, G.; Schieber, C.; Schneider, T.; Viala, M.

    1999-01-01

    The management of high level radioactive waste and spent fuel is a key issue and one of the most sensitive aspect of radioactive waste management. Recognising that it is the responsibility of our generation to find a way to isolate the waste, deep geological disposals have been envisaged to provide a definitive solution to the problem, in order to avoid 'undue burden on future generations'. However, even if they are buried, the wastes still exist and human intrusion is still possible as well as releases into the environment in the very far future. At the same time, the ongoing reflections on the ethical aspects of disposals show that it is of great worth that we guarantee future generations the same right of control and responsibility that we ourselves enjoy. This paper presents some reflections on the social transactions associated with the management and design of geological repositories. It is focused on the mission of institutional control in the transmission to future generation of a safety patrimony, composed of the know-how and techniques that permit the human community to 'domesticate' and control the risk. As it appears that the efficiency and the confidence in the control system rely mainly on the capability of implementing corrective actions, some considerations on the role, the consequences and the implementation of retrievability are also presented

  5. Disposal Options for Low and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Waste: Comparative Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdellatif, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the status of current disposal options for Low and Intermediate- Level Radioactive Waste (LILRW) generated in different countries and outlines the potential for future disposal option/s of these wastes in Egypt. Since approaches used in other countries may provide useful lessons for managing Egyptian radioactive wastes. This study was based on data for19 countries repositories and we focused on 6 countries, which considered as leaders in the field of disposal of rad waste. Several countries have plans for repositories which are sufficiently advanced that it was based on their own of their extensive experience with nuclear power generation and with constructing and operating LLRW disposal facilities. On the other hand, our programme for site selection and host rock characterization for low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal is under study. We are preparing our criteria for selecting a national repository for LIL rad waste.

  6. High-level waste canister envelope study: structural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    The structural integrity of waste canisters, fabricated from standard weight Type 304L stainless steel pipe, was analyzed for sizes ranging from 8 to 24 in. diameter and 10 to 16 feet long under normal, abnormal, and improbable life cycle loading conditions. The canisters are assumed to be filled with vitrified high-level nuclear waste, stored temporarily at a fuel reprocessing plant, and then transported for storage in an underground salt bed or other geologic storage. In each of the three impact conditions studies, the resulting impact force is far greater than the elastic limit capacity of the material. Recommendations are made for further study

  7. The AGE-RAGE axis in an Arab population: The United Arab Emirates Healthy Futures (UAEHFS) pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inman, Claire K; Aljunaibi, Abdullah; Koh, Hyunwook; Abdulle, Abdishakur; Ali, Raghib; Alnaeemi, Abdullah; Al Zaabi, Eiman; Oumeziane, Naima; Al Bastaki, Marina; Al-Houqani, Mohammed; Al-Maskari, Fatma; Al Dhaheri, Ayesha; Shah, Syed M; Abdel Wareth, Laila; Al Mahmeed, Wael; Alsafar, Habiba; Al Anouti, Fatme; Al Hosani, Ayesha; Haji, Muna; Galani, Divya; O'Connor, Matthew J; Ahn, Jiyoung; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Sherman, Scott; Hayes, Richard B; Li, Huilin; Ramasamy, Ravichandran; Schmidt, Ann Marie

    2017-12-01

    The transformation of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) from a semi-nomadic to a high income society has been accompanied by increasing rates of obesity and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. We examined if the AGE-RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation endproducts) axis is associated with obesity and diabetes mellitus in the pilot phase of the UAE Healthy Futures Study (UAEHFS). 517 Emirati subjects were enrolled and plasma/serum levels of AGE, carboxy methyl lysine (CML)-AGE, soluble (s)RAGE and endogenous secretory (es)RAGE were measured along with weight, height, waist and hip circumference (WC/HC), blood pressure, HbA1c, Vitamin D levels and routine chemistries. The relationship between the AGE-RAGE axis and obesity and diabetes mellitus was tested using proportional odds models and linear regression. After covariate adjustment, AGE levels were significantly associated with diabetes status. Levels of sRAGE and esRAGE were associated with BMI and levels of sRAGE were associated with WC/HC. The AGE-RAGE axis is associated with diabetes status and obesity in this Arab population. Prospective serial analysis of this axis may identify predictive biomarkers of obesity and cardiometabolic dysfunction in the UAEHFS.

  8. Placental morphology at different maternal hemoglobin levels: a histopathological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiran, N.; Zubair, A.; Malik, T.M.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the histopathological parameters of the placenta like weight, infarct and syncytial knots, at different maternal hemoglobin levels, in both qualitative and quantitative manner. Study design: Descriptive study Place and Duration of Study: Army Medical College, National University of Sciences and Technology in collaboration with Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from December 2011 to November 2012. Patients and Methods: A total of 75 placentas were included, that were collected from full term mothers at the time of childbirth. Placental weight was taken without umbilical cord and gross placental infarcts were noted. Samples of placental tissue were taken and stained by haematoxylin and eosin (H and E). Microscopic study was done to evaluate placental infarcts and syncytial knots. Results: Mean placental weight at normal and low maternal hemoglobin was 581.67 ± 83.97g and 482.58 ± 104.74g respectively. Gross placental infarcts were found in all cases having low maternal hemoglobin concentration (60% cases). Syncytial knots were found in all placentas but they were considerably more at decreasing levels of maternal hemoglobin (19.79 ± 5.22). Conclusion: The present study showed decrease in placental weight, increase in placental infarcts and syncytial knot hyperplasia at low maternal hemoglobin concentration, displaying adaptive alterations. (author)

  9. Counting bodies? On future engagements with science studies in medical anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates-Doerr, Emily

    2017-08-01

    Thirty years ago, Nancy Scheper-Hughes and Margaret Lock outlined a strategy for 'future work in medical anthropology' that focused on three bodies. Their article - a zeitgeist for the field - sought to intervene into the Cartesian dualisms characterizing ethnomedical anthropology at the time. Taking a descriptive and diagnostic approach, they defined 'the mindful body' as a domain of future anthropological inquiry and mapped three analytic concepts that could be used to study it: the individual/phenomenological body, the social body, and the body politic. Three decades later, this paper returns to the 'three bodies'. It analyses ethnographic fieldwork on chronic illness, using a rescriptive, practice-oriented approach to bodies developed by science studies scholars that was not part of the initial three bodies framework. It illustrates how embodiment was a technical achievement in some practices, while in others bodies did not figure as relevant. This leads to the suggestion that an anthropology of health need not be organized around numerable bodies. The paper concludes by suggesting that future work in medical anthropology might embrace translational competency, which does not have the goal of better definitions (better health, better bodies, etc.) but the goal of better engaging with exchanges between medical and non-medical practices. That health professionals are themselves moving away from bodies to embrace 'planetary health' makes a practice-focused orientation especially crucial for medical anthropology today.

  10. ADHD symptoms, academic achievement, self-perception of academic competence and future orientation: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtens, Sara; Rydell, Ann-Margret; Yang-Wallentin, Fan

    2013-06-01

    In the investigation of the effect of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms on school careers there is a need to study the role of adolescent and childhood ADHD symptoms and academic achievement, and to incorporate measures that include the individual's perspective. Our aim was to gain an overview of the long-term development of school careers in relation to ADHD symptoms. We studied associations between ADHD symptoms and academic achievement at different time-points and future orientation at the end of high school, and assessed the role of self-perceptions of academic competence in these associations. Participants were 192 children (47% girls) with a range of ADHD symptoms taken from a community sample. Collecting data at three time points, in 6th, 11th and 12th grade we tested a structural equation model. Results showed that ADHD symptoms in 6th grade negatively affected academic achievement concurrently and longitudinally. ADHD symptoms in 11th grade negatively affected concurrent academic achievement and academic self-perception and future orientation in 12th grade. Academic achievement had a positive influence on academic self-perception and future orientation. Given the other factors, self-perception of academic competence did not contribute to outcomes. We concluded that early ADHD symptoms may cast long shadows on young people's academic progress. This happens mainly by way of stability in symptoms and relations to early low academic achievement. © 2013 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  11. Future lighting and the appearance of cities at night: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Rankel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Future lighting solutions based on solid state lighting will transform the appearance of cities at night. They can be positioned and used in an urban environment in numerous ways. This article studies whether their future use in general outdoor lighting will positively affect people’s acceptance of urban space illuminated in this way. Two different lighting concepts were formed based on the innovative use of solid state lighting solutions. The first concept is based on plane lighting, and the second is based on a detailed depiction of architectural and urban elements. Lighting proposals were designed for five different city locations. They consider not only functional needs, but also urban planning and the architectural aspects of illumination. I present my study of the underlying core effects on the respondents through their assessment of the affective quality of graphic representations. My findings indicate that the respondents strongly agree with the assessment of the “pleasantness” and “arousal” variables of most proposals. However, the statistics show characteristic differences between the answers of both variables for both concepts. Direct comparison of the two concepts shows that the respondents’ attitudes towards a certain lighting concept also depend on their location in the city. This article emphasises the importance of the appearance of a city at night in developing future lighting strategies based on solid state light sources.

  12. Counterfactual thinking: an fMRI study on changing the past for a better future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Ampe, Lisa; Baetens, Kris; Van Overwalle, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that a brain network mainly associated with episodic memory has a more general function in imagining oneself in another time, place or perspective (e.g. episodic future thought, theory of mind, default mode). If this is true, counterfactual thinking (e.g. ‘If I had left the office earlier, I wouldn’t have missed my train.’) should also activate this network. Present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study explores the common and distinct neural activity of counterfactual and episodic thinking by directly comparing the imagining of upward counterfactuals (creating better outcomes for negative past events) with the re-experiencing of negative past events and the imagining of positive future events. Results confirm that episodic and counterfactual thinking share a common brain network, involving a core memory network (hippocampal area, temporal lobes, midline, and lateral parietal lobes) and prefrontal areas that might be related to mentalizing (medial prefrontal cortex) and performance monitoring (right prefrontal cortex). In contrast to episodic past and future thinking, counterfactual thinking recruits some of these areas more strongly and extensively, and additionally activates the bilateral inferior parietal lobe and posterior medial frontal cortex. We discuss these findings in view of recent fMRI evidence on the working of episodic memory and theory of mind. PMID:22403155

  13. A study of current world telecommunications and a projection of the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorgis, Costas

    1992-09-01

    Telecommunications today are important factors in economic and social progress. The last decades of the 20th century and the early years of the 21st have been characterized as the Information Age. Telecommunications, the movement of information through distances, is absolutely critical to the economic and military survival of nations. This thesis is an attempt to predict the future of telecommunications, by studying and analyzing the past and present. First it examines the meaning of telecommunications today and some basics of information transmission. The current status of telecommunications is then presented, by examining the regional profiles as they are divided by the International Telecommunications Union. A number of statistical studies are given, which present a thorough picture of current world telecommunications. In an effort to predict future industry trends, the competition among the three largest telecommunications markets, U.S.A., Japan and the European Community, is also considered by looking at their present telecommunications industry, the efforts they make to improve their technology, and their plans for future investment. Finally, some major technological trends including BISDN, the use of fiber technology in the communications loop, and the use of solitons are examined. The new Metropolitan Area Network Protocol, FDDI-2 is also reviewed.

  14. Track parameter resolution study of a pixel only detector for LHC geometry and future high rate experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blago, Michele Piero; Kar, Tamasi Rameshchandra; Schoening, Andre [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Recent progress in pixel detector technology, for example using High Voltage-Monolithic Pixel Sensors (HV-MAPS), makes it feasible to construct an all-silicon pixel detector for large scale particle experiments like ATLAS and CMS or other future collider experiments. Preliminary studies have shown that nine layers of pixel sensors are sufficient to reliably reconstruct particle trajectories. The performance of such an all-pixel detector is studied based on a full GEANT simulation for high luminosity conditions at the upgraded LHC. Furthermore, the ability of an all-pixel detector to form trigger decisions using a special triplet pixel layer design is studied. Such a design could be used to reconstruct all tracks originating from the proton-proton interaction at the first hardware level at 40 MHz collision frequency.

  15. Public health preparedness in Alberta: a systems-level study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Douglas; Shiell, Alan; Noseworthy, Tom; Russell, Margaret; Predy, Gerald

    2006-12-28

    Recent international and national events have brought critical attention to the Canadian public health system and how prepared the system is to respond to various types of contemporary public health threats. This article describes the study design and methods being used to conduct a systems-level analysis of public health preparedness in the province of Alberta, Canada. The project is being funded under the Health Research Fund, Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research. We use an embedded, multiple-case study design, integrating qualitative and quantitative methods to measure empirically the degree of inter-organizational coordination existing among public health agencies in Alberta, Canada. We situate our measures of inter-organizational network ties within a systems-level framework to assess the relative influence of inter-organizational ties, individual organizational attributes, and institutional environmental features on public health preparedness. The relative contribution of each component is examined for two potential public health threats: pandemic influenza and West Nile virus. The organizational dimensions of public health preparedness depend on a complex mix of individual organizational characteristics, inter-agency relationships, and institutional environmental factors. Our study is designed to discriminate among these different system components and assess the independent influence of each on the other, as well as the overall level of public health preparedness in Alberta. While all agree that competent organizations and functioning networks are important components of public health preparedness, this study is one of the first to use formal network analysis to study the role of inter-agency networks in the development of prepared public health systems.

  16. Public health preparedness in Alberta: a systems-level study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noseworthy Tom

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent international and national events have brought critical attention to the Canadian public health system and how prepared the system is to respond to various types of contemporary public health threats. This article describes the study design and methods being used to conduct a systems-level analysis of public health preparedness in the province of Alberta, Canada. The project is being funded under the Health Research Fund, Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research. Methods/Design We use an embedded, multiple-case study design, integrating qualitative and quantitative methods to measure empirically the degree of inter-organizational coordination existing among public health agencies in Alberta, Canada. We situate our measures of inter-organizational network ties within a systems-level framework to assess the relative influence of inter-organizational ties, individual organizational attributes, and institutional environmental features on public health preparedness. The relative contribution of each component is examined for two potential public health threats: pandemic influenza and West Nile virus. Discussion The organizational dimensions of public health preparedness depend on a complex mix of individual organizational characteristics, inter-agency relationships, and institutional environmental factors. Our study is designed to discriminate among these different system components and assess the independent influence of each on the other, as well as the overall level of public health preparedness in Alberta. While all agree that competent organizations and functioning networks are important components of public health preparedness, this study is one of the first to use formal network analysis to study the role of inter-agency networks in the development of prepared public health systems.

  17. Transboundary geophysical mapping of geological elements and salinity distribution critical for the assessment of future sea water intrusion in response to sea level rise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jørgensen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical techniques are increasingly being used as tools for characterising the subsurface, and they are generally required to develop subsurface models that properly delineate the distribution of aquifers and aquitards, salt/freshwater interfaces, and geological structures that affect groundwater flow. In a study area covering 730 km2 across the border between Germany and Denmark, a combination of an airborne electromagnetic survey (performed with the SkyTEM system, a high-resolution seismic survey and borehole logging has been used in an integrated mapping of important geological, physical and chemical features of the subsurface. The spacing between flight lines is 200–250 m which gives a total of about 3200 line km. About 38 km of seismic lines have been collected. Faults bordering a graben structure, buried tunnel valleys, glaciotectonic thrust complexes, marine clay units, and sand aquifers are all examples of geological structures mapped by the geophysical data that control groundwater flow and to some extent hydrochemistry. Additionally, the data provide an excellent picture of the salinity distribution in the area and thus provide important information on the salt/freshwater boundary and the chemical status of groundwater. Although the westernmost part of the study area along the North Sea coast is saturated with saline water and the TEM data therefore are strongly influenced by the increased electrical conductivity there, buried valleys and other geological elements are still revealed. The mapped salinity distribution indicates preferential flow paths through and along specific geological structures within the area. The effects of a future sea level rise on the groundwater system and groundwater chemistry are discussed with special emphasis on the importance of knowing the existence, distribution and geometry of the mapped geological elements, and their control on the groundwater salinity distribution is assessed.

  18. Study on high-level waste geological disposal metadata model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Xiaobin; Wang Changhong; Zhu Hehua; Li Xiaojun

    2008-01-01

    This paper expatiated the concept of metadata and its researches within china and abroad, then explain why start the study on the metadata model of high-level nuclear waste deep geological disposal project. As reference to GML, the author first set up DML under the framework of digital underground space engineering. Based on DML, a standardized metadata employed in high-level nuclear waste deep geological disposal project is presented. Then, a Metadata Model with the utilization of internet is put forward. With the standardized data and CSW services, this model may solve the problem in the data sharing and exchanging of different data form A metadata editor is build up in order to search and maintain metadata based on this model. (authors)

  19. Study and microscopic characterization of the cadmium telluride deep levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biglari, B.

    1989-05-01

    The spectroscopic methods PICTS, QTS and CTS were developed and perfected to investigate deep level analysis of high resistivity CdTe crystals which were either undoped, or doped with chlorine and copper. Crystals which were grown in space were also investigated. The main characterization of defect levels was determined and different correlations were established between the material's resistivity, chemical residues, dopant concentration and the nuclear radiation detector parameters. Using PICTS and CTS techniques, the generation of defects, under strong gamma-ray irradiation and particle bombardment was also studied. The influence of hydrogen on the main electrical characteristics of CdTe, in particular its ability to passivate the electrical activity of many deep defect and impurity states have been demonstrated. The compensation effects of Cl, Cu and H + are interpreted using the qualitative models based on different possibilities of pairing or triplet formation between the ions of these dopants and those of defects [fr

  20. Update on the national low level radioactive waste repository study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veitch, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Activity to establish a national repository for low-level and short-lived intermediate-level radioactive waste in Australia began in the early 1980's. From the early 1990's computer-based geographic information systems had developed sufficiently so that all of Australia could be quickly reviewed using digital data relevant to site selection criteria. A three-phased approach to site selection was commenced which included an iterative process of data collection, interpretation, and public involvement through discussion papers. All of Australia was reviewed using national-scale data, and eight broad regions were identified and reviewed using regional-scale data. A third phase report will be released shortly which includes details on the process for identifying the preferred region of the eight. This region will be the focus for public involvement and for detailed study to identify a site for the national repository

  1. Tradescantia in studies of genetic effects of low level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Atsushi

    1976-01-01

    Tradescantia in studies on genetic effects of low level radiation is briefly introduced. Radiosensitivity, method of screening stamen hair mutation, materials in current uses, spontaneous mutation rate, and modifying factors are refered. For stamen hair mutation b values in exponential model were lower in irradiation with low dose rate at high environmental temperature. The dose response curves under these modifying conditions, when extrapolated to low dose range, well fit to the line which was obtained by Sparrow's experiment of low level irradiation. In chronic irradiation, the frequency of stamen hair mutation reaches to the constant value after 17 days from the start of irradiation, and is as much as 4 times higher than the peak value in one day irradiation at the same exposure rate. The spontaneous mutation rate of KU-7 varied with temperature. The increase with 1 0 C increment of mean temperature was -0.04%. Uses of Tradescantia in monitoring the environmental radiation is discussed. (auth.)

  2. Study of serum osteocalcin levels in patients with hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Ningyan; Zhang Jingxin; Li Huiping; Gong Yiming

    2001-01-01

    In order to study the serum osteocalcin (OC) level in hyperthyroidism, serum osteocalcin, FT 3 , FT 4 and TSH were measured by radioimmunoassay in 87 patients with hyperthyroidism and 52 healthy volunteers. The results indicated that the serum osteocalcin level was decreased with age increasing in healthy volunteers and there was no significant difference in sex (P > 0.05). Serum concentration of OC was significantly higher in untreated hyperthyroid patients than that in healthy volunteers (P 3 , FT 4 (FT 3 :r 0.84 - 0.27, P 4 :r = 0.58 - 0.29, P < 0.01), but not with TSH. Conclusion: Thyroid hormones might speed up bone turnover directly with increased bone resorption to induce bone mass loss. These results indicate that OC is a highly sensitive marker for altered bone metabolism in hyperthyroidism

  3. A study of the status and future of superconducting magnetic energy storage in power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, X D; Cheng, K W E; Sutanto, D

    2006-01-01

    Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems offering flexible, reliable, and fast acting power compensation are applicable to power systems to improve power system stabilities and to advance power qualities. The authors have summarized researches on SMES applications to power systems. Furthermore, various SMES applications to power systems have been described briefly and some crucial schematic diagrams and equations are given. In addition, this study presents valuable suggestions for future studies of SMES applications to power systems. Hence, this paper is helpful for co-researchers who want to know about the status of SMES applications to power systems. (topical review)

  4. Human error in maintenance: An investigative study for the factories of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhillon, B S

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a study of human error in maintenance. Many different aspects of human error in maintenance considered useful for the factories of the future are studied, including facts, figures, and examples; occurrence of maintenance error in equipment life cycle, elements of a maintenance person's time, maintenance environment and the causes for the occurrence of maintenance error, types and typical maintenance errors, common maintainability design errors and useful design guidelines to reduce equipment maintenance errors, maintenance work instructions, and maintenance error analysis methods

  5. Future Circular Collider Study (FCC) kick-off meeting | 12-15 February

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    The kick-off meeting of the international "Future Circular Collider Study" (FCC) will take place in Geneva from 12 to 15 February 2014 at the University of Geneva, Unimail site. The programme and registration details can be found on the meeting's website. This meeting is the starting point of the five-year international "Future Circular Collider Study" (FCC). The main emphasis of the conceptual design study will be on a hadron collider with a centre-of-mass energy of the order of 100 TeV in a new tunnel with a 80-100 km circumference for the purposes of studying physics at the highest energies. The study will also include a lepton collider, as a potential intermediate step towards realisation of the hadron facility. Options for e-p scenarios will also be considered. The main purpose of this meeting is to discuss the study topics and to prepare international collaborations. The meeting is a public meeting with a registration deadline closing on Friday 31 Janua...

  6. The future of practical skills in undergraduate medical education - an explorative Delphi-Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenberg, Katja Anne; Stroben, Fabian; Schröder, Therese; Thomas, Anke; Hautz, Wolf E

    2016-01-01

    , and 57 were deemed irrelevant for the short-term future. The theses on the future of healthcare, which were generated in this study and which were validated by numerous experts, provide indications of future developments of overall requirements for medical school graduates. For example, when applied to the content of the "Clinical-Practical Skills" NKLM chapter, they largely validate the future relevance of developing practical skills while also providing indications for their further development as applied to the consensus statement.

  7. The future of practical skills in undergraduate medical education – an explorative Delphi-Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dannenberg, Katja Anne

    2016-08-01

    the consensus statement, 231 of the goals were assessed as relevant, and 57 were deemed irrelevant for the short-term future. Discussion: The theses on the future of healthcare, which were generated in this study and which were validated by numerous experts, provide indications of future developments of overall requirements for medical school graduates. For example, when applied to the content of the “Clinical-Practical Skills” NKLM chapter, they largely validate the future relevance of developing practical skills while also providing indications for their further development as applied to the consensus statement.

  8. Predict the Medicare Functional Classification Level (K-level) using the Amputee Mobility Predictor in people with unilateral transfemoral and transtibial amputation: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Michael P; Major, Matthew J; Kaluf, Brian; Balasanov, Yuri; Fatone, Stefania

    2018-04-01

    While Amputee Mobility Predictor scores differ between Medicare Functional Classification Levels (K-level), this does not demonstrate that the Amputee Mobility Predictor can accurately predict K-level. To determine how accurately K-level could be predicted using the Amputee Mobility Predictor in combination with patient characteristics for persons with transtibial and transfemoral amputation. Prediction. A cumulative odds ordinal logistic regression was built to determine the effect that the Amputee Mobility Predictor, in combination with patient characteristics, had on the odds of being assigned to a particular K-level in 198 people with transtibial or transfemoral amputation. For people assigned to the K2 or K3 level by their clinician, the Amputee Mobility Predictor predicted the clinician-assigned K-level more than 80% of the time. For people assigned to the K1 or K4 level by their clinician, the prediction of clinician-assigned K-level was less accurate. The odds of being in a higher K-level improved with younger age and transfemoral amputation. Ordinal logistic regression can be used to predict the odds of being assigned to a particular K-level using the Amputee Mobility Predictor and patient characteristics. This pilot study highlighted critical method design issues, such as potential predictor variables and sample size requirements for future prospective research. Clinical relevance This pilot study demonstrated that the odds of being assigned a particular K-level could be predicted using the Amputee Mobility Predictor score and patient characteristics. While the model seemed sufficiently accurate to predict clinician assignment to the K2 or K3 level, further work is needed in larger and more representative samples, particularly for people with low (K1) and high (K4) levels of mobility, to be confident in the model's predictive value prior to use in clinical practice.

  9. Basal cortisol levels and metabolic syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcez, Anderson; Leite, Heloísa Marquardt; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Paniz, Vera Maria Vieira; Watte, Guilherme; Canuto, Raquel; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2018-05-17

    and meta-analysis does not reveal any association between basal cortisol levels and MetS based on results of observational studies. The results of a random-effect meta-analysis showed no significant difference in basal cortisol levels between subjects with and without MetS. The present findings should be considered in order to help future studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Incorporating future change into current conservation planning: Evaluating tidal saline wetland migration along the U.S. Gulf of Mexico coast under alternative sea-level rise and urbanization scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enwright, Nicholas M.; Griffith, Kereen T.; Osland, Michael J.

    2015-11-02

    In this study, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, quantified the potential for landward migration of tidal saline wetlands along the U.S. Gulf of Mexico coast under alternative future sea-level rise and urbanization scenarios. Our analyses focused exclusively on tidal saline wetlands (that is, mangrove forests, salt marshes, and salt flats), and we combined these diverse tidal saline wetland ecosystems into a single grouping, “tidal saline wetland.” Collectively, our approach and findings can provide useful information for scientists and environmental planners working to develop future-focused adaptation strategies for conserving coastal landscapes and the ecosystem goods and services provided by tidal saline wetlands. The primary product of this work is a public dataset that identifies locations where landward migration of tidal saline wetlands is expected to occur under alternative future sea-level rise and urbanization scenarios. In addition to identifying areas where landward migration of tidal saline wetlands is possible because of the absence of barriers, these data also identify locations where landward migration of these wetlands could be prevented by barriers associated with current urbanization, future urbanization, and levees.

  11. Ethnocultural Development of Future Music Teachers in Process of the Tatar Piano Music’s Studying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliya I. Salikhova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Studying the Tatar piano repertoire as element of national musical traditions is an important factor of ethnocultural development of the future music teachers of Tatarstan in the course of vocational training in higher education institution. It is caused inexhaustible by opportunities of ethnomusical heritage in formation of the personality, need of development in students of professionally significant ethnopsychological qualities, readiness for the solution of musical and educational tasks on the basis of the Tatar national culture. Disclosure of potential of the Tatar piano music in ethnocultural development of future music teachers became a research objective. On the basis of synthesis of experience of musical and performing training of future music teachers - students of Leo Tolstoy Institute of Philology and Intercultural Communication of Kazan Federal University, the performing analysis of the Tatar piano music, authors submit compositions in which found the brightest embodiment of tradition of the Tatar folk art. It is shown that, working on piano works, students learn deep moral and esthetic meaning of the Tatar folklore. They develop ethnocultural ideas of love, family values, gratitude to parents and respect of seniors, devotion to traditions of a sort, the importance of family education. Performance of songs always opened the emotional world of the person, reflected his intimate thoughts and experiences connected with hard destiny, aspiration fortunately and belief in the best. The deep moral and esthetic meaning of the Tatar folklore embodied by means of expression of piano music is shown in article; musical contents of works of the Tatar composers, their variety and opportunities in ethnocultural development of future music teachers reveal.

  12. Nurses’ Knowledge Levels of Chest Drain Management: A Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Tarhan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The physician is responsible for inserting one or more chest tubes into the pleural space or the mediastinal space and connecting them to an appropriate drainage system. When the general principles about care of patients with chest drains were implemented correctly and effectively by nurses, nurse will contribute to accelerate the healing process of patients. In this context, the aim of this study was to determine the nurses’ level of knowledge regarding the care of patients with chest drains. Methods: The study was conducted with 153 nurses who worked in a chest diseases and thoracic surgery hospital in July 2014. Questionnaire form of 35 questions prepared by investigators was used to collect data. For the analysis of results, frequency tests, independent sample t-test and oneway ANOVA test were used. Results: 69.3% of nurses stated that they had obtained information from colleguages. 35.3% considered their knowledge about chest drain management to be inadequate. 55.6% scored 13 points and above from knowledge questionnaire about chest drain management. There were statistically significant difference between knowledge level and educational background, clinic work type, working unit, years of professional experience and institutional experience, frequency of contact patients with chest drain and perception of knowledge level (p<0.05. Conclusion: Results of this study indicate that lack of evidence-based nursing care and insufficient training has resulted in uncertainty and knowledge deficit in important aspects of chest drain care. It can be concluded that nurses receive training needs and training protocols are about chest drain management.

  13. Diabetic ketoacidosis at the onset of type 1 diabetes is associated with future HbA(1c) levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredheim, S; Johannesen, J; Johansen, A

    2013-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We investigated the long-term impact of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at onset on metabolic regulation and residual beta cell function in a Danish population with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: The study is based on data from DanDiabKids, a Danish national diabetes register for children....... The register provides clinical and biochemical data on patients with type 1 diabetes diagnosed in 1996-2009 and then followed-up until 1 January 2012. Repeated-measurement models were used as statistical methods. RESULTS: The study population comprised 2,964 children...

  14. Experimental study on intermediate level radioactive waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagakura, Tadashi; Abe, Hirotoshi; Okazawa, Takao; Hattori, Seiichi; Maki, Yasuro

    1977-01-01

    In the disposal of intermediate level radioactive wastes, multilayer package will be adopted. The multilayer package consists of cement-solidified waste and a container such as a drum - can with concrete liner or a concrete container. So, on the waste to be cement-solidified in such container, experimental study was carried out as follows. (1) Cement-solidification method. (2) Mechanical behaviour of cement-solidified waste. The mechanical behaviour of the containers was studied by the finite element method and experiment, and the function of pressure-balancing valves was also studied. The following data on processing intermediate level radioactive wastes were obtained. (1) In the case of cement-solidified waste, the data to select the suitable solidifying material and the standard mixing proportion were determined. (2) The basic data concerning the uniaxial compressive strength of cement-solidified waste, the mechanical behaviour of cement-solidified waste packed in a drum under high hydrostatic pressure, the shock response of cement-solidified waste at the time of falling and so on were obtained. (3) The pressure-balancing valves worked at about 0.5 Kg/cm 2 pressure difference inside and outside a container, and the deformation of a drum cover was 10 to 13 mm. In case of the pressure difference less than 0,5 Kg/cm 2 , the valves shut, and water flow did occur. (auth.)

  15. Study of Acrylamide Level in Food from Vending Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haouet, Naceur; Pistolese, Simona; Branciari, Raffaella; Ranucci, David; Altissimi, Maria Serena

    2016-09-20

    Acrylamide is a by-product of the Maillard reaction and is potentially carcinogenic to humans. It is found in a number of foods with higher concentrations in carbohydrate-rich foods and moderate levels of protein-rich foods such as meat, fish and seafood. Acrylamide levels in food distributed in vending machines placed in public areas of the city of Perugia were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Samples included five different categories, depending on the characteristics of the products: i) potato chips; ii) salted bakery products; iii) biscuits and wafers; iv) sweet bakery products; v) sandwiches. A high variability in acrylamide level among different foods and within the same category was detected. Potato chips showed the highest amount of acrylamide (1781±637 μg/kg) followed by salted bakery products (211 ±245 μg/kg), biscuits and wafers (184±254 μg/kg), sweet bakery products (100±72 μg/kg) and sandwiches (42±10 μg/kg). In the potato chips and sandwiches categories, all of the samples revealed the presence of acrylamide, while different prevalence was registered in the other foods considered. The data of this study highlight the presence of acrylamide in different foods sold in vending machines and this data could be useful to understand the contribution of this type of consumption to human exposure to this compound.

  16. Study of acrylamide level in food from vending machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naceur Haouet

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Acrylamide is a by-product of the Maillard reaction and is potentially carcinogenic to humans. It is found in a number of foods with higher concentrations in carbohydrate-rich foods and moderate levels of protein-rich foods such as meat, fish and seafood. Acrylamide levels in food distributed in vending machines placed in public areas of the city of Perugia were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Samples included five different categories, depending on the characteristics of the products: i potato chips; ii salted bakery products; iii biscuits and wafers; iv sweet bakery products; v sandwiches. A high variability in acrylamide level among different foods and within the same category was detected. Potato chips showed the highest amount of acrylamide (1781±637 μg/kg followed by salted bakery products (211±245 μg/kg, biscuits and wafers (184±254 μg/kg, sweet bakery products (100±72 μg/kg and sandwiches (42±10 μg/kg. In the potato chips and sandwiches categories, all of the samples revealed the presence of acrylamide, while different prevalence was registered in the other foods considered. The data of this study highlight the presence of acrylamide in different foods sold in vending machines and this data could be useful to understand the contribution of this type of consumption to human exposure to this compound.

  17. Spectroscopic study of low-lying 16N levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardayan, Daniel W.; O'Malley, Patrick; Blackmon, Jeff C.; Chae, K.Y.; Chipps, K.; Cizewski, J.A.; Hatarik, Robert; Jones, K.L.; Kozub, R. L.; Matei, Catalin; Moazen, Brian; Nesaraja, Caroline D.; Pain, Steven D.; Paulauskas, Stanley; Peters, W.A.; Pittman, S.T.; Schmitt, Kyle; Shriner, J.F. Jr.; Smith, Michael Scott

    2008-01-01

    The magnitude of the 15N(n,gamma)16N reaction rate in asymptotic giant branch stars depends directly on the neutron spectroscopic factors of low-lying 16N levels. A new study of the 15N(d,p)16N reaction is reported populating the ground and first three excited states in 16N. The measured spectroscopic factors are near unity as expected from shell model calculations, resolving a long-standing discrepancy with earlier measurements that had never been confirmed or understood. Updated 15N(n,gamma)16N reaction rates are presented

  18. Alpha low-level stored waste systems design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Teheranian, B. (Morrison Knudson Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States). Environmental Services Div.); Quapp, W.J. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

    1992-08-01

    The Stored Waste System Design Study (SWSDS), commissioned by the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examines relative life-cycle costs associated with three system concepts for processing the alpha low-level waste (alpha-LLW) stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Transuranic Storage Area at the INEL. The three system concepts are incineration/melting; thermal treatment/solidification; and sort, treat, and repackage. The SWSDS identifies system functional and operational requirements and assesses implementability; effectiveness; cost; and demonstration, testing, and evaluation (DT E) requirements for each of the three concepts.

  19. Alpha low-level stored waste systems design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Teheranian, B. [Morrison Knudson Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States). Environmental Services Div.; Quapp, W.J. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1992-08-01

    The Stored Waste System Design Study (SWSDS), commissioned by the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examines relative life-cycle costs associated with three system concepts for processing the alpha low-level waste (alpha-LLW) stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex`s Transuranic Storage Area at the INEL. The three system concepts are incineration/melting; thermal treatment/solidification; and sort, treat, and repackage. The SWSDS identifies system functional and operational requirements and assesses implementability; effectiveness; cost; and demonstration, testing, and evaluation (DT&E) requirements for each of the three concepts.

  20. Molecular level in silico studies for oncology. Direct models review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psakhie, S. G.; Tsukanov, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    The combination of therapy and diagnostics in one process "theranostics" is a trend in a modern medicine, especially in oncology. Such an approach requires development and usage of multifunctional hybrid nanoparticles with a hierarchical structure. Numerical methods and mathematical models play a significant role in the design of the hierarchical nanoparticles and allow looking inside the nanoscale mechanisms of agent-cell interactions. The current position of in silico approach in biomedicine and oncology is discussed. The review of the molecular level in silico studies in oncology, which are using the direct models, is presented.

  1. Alpha low-level stored waste systems design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feizollahi, F.; Teheranian, B.

    1992-08-01

    The Stored Waste System Design Study (SWSDS), commissioned by the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examines relative life-cycle costs associated with three system concepts for processing the alpha low-level waste (alpha-LLW) stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Transuranic Storage Area at the INEL. The three system concepts are incineration/melting; thermal treatment/solidification; and sort, treat, and repackage. The SWSDS identifies system functional and operational requirements and assesses implementability; effectiveness; cost; and demonstration, testing, and evaluation (DT ampersand E) requirements for each of the three concepts

  2. Adjacent level effects of bi level disc replacement, bi level fusion and disc replacement plus fusion in cervical spine--a finite element based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizan, Ahmad; Goel, Vijay K; Biyani, Ashok; Garfin, Steven R; Bono, Christopher M

    2012-03-01

    Studies delineating the adjacent level effect of single level disc replacement systems have been reported in literature. The aim of this study was to compare the adjacent level biomechanics of bi-level disc replacement, bi-level fusion and a construct having adjoining level disc replacement and fusion system. In total, biomechanics of four models- intact, bi level disc replacement, bi level fusion and fusion plus disc replacement at adjoining levels- was studied to gain insight into the effects of various instrumentation systems on cranial and caudal adjacent levels using finite element analysis (73.6N+varying moment). The bi-level fusion models are more than twice as stiff as compared to the intact model during flexion-extension, lateral bending and axial rotation. Bi-level disc replacement model required moments lower than intact model (1.5Nm). Fusion plus disc replacement model required moment 10-25% more than intact model, except in extension. Adjacent level motions, facet loads and endplate stresses increased substantially in the bi-level fusion model. On the other hand, adjacent level motions, facet loads and endplate stresses were similar to intact for the bi-level disc replacement model. For the fusion plus disc replacement model, adjacent level motions, facet loads and endplate stresses were closer to intact model rather than the bi-level fusion model, except in extension. Based on our finite element analysis, fusion plus disc replacement procedure has less severe biomechanical effects on adjacent levels when compared to bi-level fusion procedure. Bi-level disc replacement procedure did not have any adverse mechanical effects on adjacent levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. High blood pressure during pregnancy is associated with future cardiovascular disease: an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooher, Jane; Chiu, Christine L; Yeung, Kristen; Lupton, Samantha J; Thornton, Charlene; Makris, Angela; O'Loughlin, Aiden; Hennessy, Annemarie; Lind, Joanne M

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to determine if having a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (HDP) is a risk factor for future cardiovascular disease (CVD), independent of age and body mass index (BMI). Data were sourced from the baseline questionnaire of the 45 and Up Study, Australia, an observational cohort study. Participants were randomly selected from the Australian Medicare Database within New South Wales. A total of 84 619 women were eligible for this study, of which 71 819 were included. These women had given birth between the ages of 18 and 45 years, had an intact uterus and ovaries, and had not been diagnosed with high blood pressure prior to their first pregnancy. HDP was associated with higher odds of having high blood pressure (high blood pressure (45.6 vs 54.8 years, phigh blood pressure, compared with women who were normotensive during pregnancy (high blood pressure (<58 years: 12.48, 10.63 to 14.66; p<0.001 and ≥58 years, 5.16, 4.54 to 5.86; p<0.001), compared with healthy weight women with a normotensive pregnancy. HDP is an independent risk factor for future CVD, and this risk is further exacerbated by the presence of overweight or obesity in later life.

  4. Empirically Examining the Performance of Approaches to Multi-Level Matching to Study the Effect of School-Level Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, Kelly; Cook, Thomas D.; Figlio, David

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to provide guidance for applied education researchers in using multi-level data to study the effects of interventions implemented at the school level. Two primary approaches are currently employed in observational studies of the effect of school-level interventions. One approach employs intact school matching: matching…

  5. New York State's low-level radioactive waste storage study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spath, John P.

    1992-01-01

    Like their counterparts in other states, low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) generators in New York State face the prospect of being unable to transfer their LLRW off site beginning January 1, 1993. How long will those generators be able to accumulate and store LLRW on site before activities producing the waste are seriously interrupted? Would a centralized storage facility be a more economically viable solution for medical and academic institutions? The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority is conducting a study that seeks to answer these and a variety of related questions over the coming year. This paper describes the origin and design of the study. It reviews the plans for generator-specific data collection, the method for assessing generator storage capability, and the approach to evaluating economic viability. In pursuing this study, the Energy Authority has attempted to incorporate the views of the broad spectrum of LLRW interests. The formation and role of the Study Review Panel, established specifically for that purpose, is discussed. Finally, the paper reviews some of the more interesting questions and issues raised in the development of the study and relates the study to the State's other LLRW management activities, particularly its Interim LLRW Management Plan. (author)

  6. A Study of Army Civilian Entry Level and Mid-Level Program Management Leadership Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-08

    and mid-grade level positions is an important responsibility for senior leaders. Mentoring and coaching entry level and mid-grade level...Program Management Leadership Development Craig J. Maurice Defense Acquisition University Senior Service College Fellowship 2015-2016 Huntsville...requirements for the Army’s Senior Service College Fellowship (SSCF) under the direction of SSCF Director, Mr. John Daniels and Research Advisor, Mr. Van

  7. The UAE healthy future study: a pilot for a prospective cohort study of 20,000 United Arab Emirates nationals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulle, Abdishakur; Alnaeemi, Abdullah; Aljunaibi, Abdullah; Al Ali, Abdulrahman; Al Saedi, Khaled; Al Zaabi, Eiman; Oumeziane, Naima; Al Bastaki, Marina; Al-Houqani, Mohammed; Al Maskari, Fatma; Al Dhaheri, Ayesha; Shah, Syed M; Loney, Tom; El-Sadig, Mohamed; Oulhaj, Abderrahim; Wareth, Leila Abdel; Al Mahmeed, Wael; Alsafar, Habiba; Hirsch, Benjamin; Al Anouti, Fatme; Yaaqoub, Jamila; Inman, Claire K; Al Hamiz, Aisha; Al Hosani, Ayesha; Haji, Muna; Alsharid, Teeb; Al Zaabi, Thekra; Al Maisary, Fatima; Galani, Divya; Sprosen, Tim; El Shahawy, Omar; Ahn, Jiyoung; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Ramasamy, Ravichandran; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Hayes, Richard; Sherman, Scott; Ali, Raghib

    2018-01-05

    The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is faced with a rapidly increasing burden of non-communicable diseases including obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The UAE Healthy Future study is a prospective cohort designed to identify associations between risk factors and these diseases amongst Emiratis. The study will enroll 20,000 UAE nationals aged ≥18 years. Environmental and genetic risk factors will be characterized and participants will be followed for future disease events. As this was the first time a prospective cohort study was being planned in the UAE, a pilot study was conducted in 2015 with the primary aim of establishing the feasibility of conducting the study. Other objectives were to evaluate the implementation of the main study protocols, and to build adequate capacity to conduct advanced clinical laboratory analyses. Seven hundred sixty nine UAE nationals aged ≥18 years were invited to participate voluntarily in the pilot study. Participants signed an informed consent, completed a detailed questionnaire, provided random blood, urine, and mouthwash samples and were assessed for a series of clinical measures. All specimens were transported to the New York University Abu Dhabi laboratories where samples were processed and analyzed for routine chemistry and hematology. Plasma, serum, and a small whole blood sample for DNA extraction were aliquoted and stored at -80 °C for future analyses. Overall, 517 Emirati men and women agreed to participate (68% response rate). Of the total participants, 495 (95.0%), 430 (82.2%), and 492 (94.4%), completed the questionnaire, physical measurements, and provided biological samples, respectively. The pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of recruitment and completion of the study protocols for the first large-scale cohort study designed to identify emerging risk factors for the major non-communicable diseases in the region.

  8. Studies of ATM for ATLAS high-level triggers

    CERN Document Server

    Bystrický, J; Huet, M; Le Dû, P; Mandjavidze, I D

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents some of the conclusions of our studies on asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) and fast Ethernet in the ATLAS level-2 trigger pilot project. We describe the general concept and principles of our data-collection and event-building scheme that could be transposed to various experiments in high-energy and nuclear physics. To validate the approach in view of ATLAS high-level triggers, we assembled a testbed composed of up to 48 computers linked by a 7.5-Gbit/s ATM switch. This modular switch is used as a single entity or is split into several smaller interconnected switches. This allows study of how to construct a large network from smaller units. Alternatively, the ATM network can be replaced by fast Ethernet. We detail the operation of the system and present series of performance measurements made with event-building traffic pattern. We extrapolate these results to show how today's commercial networking components could be used to build a 1000-port network adequate for ATLAS needs. Lastly, we li...

  9. Serum homocysteine level in gestational diabetes: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davari Tanha F

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Increased total plasma homocysteine (Hcy is an accepted risk factor of cardiovascular disease (CVD, stroke, preclampsia, recurrent abortion and diabetes type I and II. The aim of the current study was to assess serum homocysteine and its relation with serum folat, vitamine B12 and lipid profile in gestational diabetes mellitus and to compare these with those of pregnant women."n"n Methods: In a prospective controlled survey 80 pregnant women (24-28 weeks with uncomplicated pregnancies were evaluated. They were assigned to one of two groups according to the results of 100g-OGTT. In the case group there were pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus according to the OGTT and in the control group women who had normal OGTT results were put. Levels of fasting glucose, homocysteine, vit B12, and folic acid, uric acid, total cholesterol, triglyceride, Low Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL and High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL were measured in both groups."n"nResults: The mean level of homocysteine in GDM group was significantly higher than control group (p=0.000. The mean level of folic acid and vit B12 was significantly lower than the level in control group (p=0.001, p=0.004 respectively. Body

  10. Debating the future of genetically modified plants - bridging knowledge dimensions. A technology foresight study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Kristian; Rasmussen, Birgitte

    2003-01-01

    Rapid developments in, and the controversial nature of, biotechnology call for communication, networks, partnerships, and collaboration in research, not just among researchers but also between researchers and research “users” in industry, government, andelsewhere. Technological foresight appears...... to offer a coordinating method for developing and strengthening those linkages. To test this, a technological foresight study was performed on genetically modified (GM) crop technology in the Danish context. Thebackground to the study was the conflict and intense debate in Denmark over applications of gene...... public audience finds it hard to comprehend this type of debate. The study pursues the notion thatpublic dialogue can act as a driver of future applications in the technological domain, specifically GM crops. The study concluded with a stakeholder workshop that revealed three key issues that might...

  11. Optimization studies on BEPC II future pre-injector with two SHBs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei Shilun; Wang Shuhong; Gu Pengda; Liu Bo

    2004-01-01

    The BEPC II future pre-injector consists of a thermionic gun followed by two subharmonic bunchers (SHB), a travelling wave prebuncher and a travelling wave buncher. All components downstream of the gun are immersed in a solenoid field for transverse focusing. Beam dynamics simulation and optimization have been carried out with programs PARMELA and EGUN. SHBs' bunching voltage and bunching drift distance, prebuncher and buncher's phase and acceleration gradient, and solenoid field profile have been studied. The bunch charge limitation for 10 ps bunch length at the buncher exit is also investigated

  12. Futures market efficiency diagnostics via temporal two-point correlations. Russian market case study

    OpenAIRE

    Kopytin, Mikhail; Kazantsev, Evgeniy

    2013-01-01

    Using a two-point correlation technique, we study emergence of market efficiency in the emergent Russian futures market by focusing on lagged correlations. The correlation strength of leader-follower effects in the lagged inter-market correlations on the hourly time frame is seen to be significant initially (2009-2011) but gradually goes down, as the erstwhile leader instruments -- crude oil, the USD/RUB exchange rate, and the Russian stock market index -- seem to lose the leader status. An i...

  13. History and future of the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Amy; Ponté, Linnae; Jerome, Lisa; Doblin, Rick

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the teenage vision of the founder of the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS) that humanity's future would be aided by the therapeutic and spiritual potential of psychedelic substances. The article traces the trajectory of MAPS from inception in 1986 to its present, noting future goals with respect to research, outreach, and harm reduction. MAPS was created as a non-profit psychedelic pharmaceutical company in response to the 1985 scheduling of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Overcoming many hurdles, MAPS developed the first double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and plans for FDA prescription approval in 2021. MAPS' program of research expanded to include a trial of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)-assisted psychotherapy for anxiety when facing life-threatening illness, observational studies of ibogaine in the treatment of addiction, and studies of MDMA for social anxiety in people with autism spectrum disorders. MAPS meets the challenges of drug development through a clinical research team led by a former Novartis drug development professional experienced in the conduct, monitoring, and analysis of clinical trials. MAPS' harm-reduction efforts are intended to avoid backlash and build a post-prohibition world by assisting non-medical users to transform difficult psychedelic experiences into opportunities for growth.

  14. Svalbard as a study model of future High Arctic coastal environments in a warming world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Piskozub

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Svalbard archipelago, a high latitude area in a region undergoing rapid climate change, is relatively easily accessible for field research. This makes the fjords of Spitsbergen, its largest island, some of the best studied Arctic coastal areas. This paper aims at answering the question of how climatically diverse the fjords are, and how representative they are for the expected future Arctic diminishing range of seasonal sea-ice. This study uses a meteorological reanalysis, sea surface temperature climatology, and the results of a recent one-year meteorological campaign in Spitsbergen to determine the seasonal differences between different Spitsbergen fjords, as well as the sea water temperature and ice ranges around Svalbard in recent years. The results show that Spitsbergen fjords have diverse seasonal patterns of air temperature due to differences in the SST of the adjacent ocean, and different cloudiness. The sea water temperatures and ice concentrations around Svalbard in recent years are similar to what is expected most of the Arctic coastal areas in the second half of this century. This makes Spitsbergen a unique field study model of the conditions expected in future warmer High Arctic.

  15. Canadian National Dairy Study: Herd-level milk quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, C A; Barkema, H W; Dubuc, J; Keefe, G P; Kelton, D F

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate Canadian national milk quality parameters and estimate the bulk tank milk (BTM) prevalence of 4 mastitis pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Mycoplasma bovis, and Prototheca spp., on Canadian dairy farms. A questionnaire was sent to all Canadian dairy producers. Of the 1,062 producers who completed the questionnaire, 374 producers from across the country were visited and milking hygiene was assessed. Farm-level milk quality data for all Canadian dairy producers was collected from the provincial marketing boards and combined with the questionnaire and farm visit data. In addition, a BTM sample was collected either during the farm visit or by the marketing board in November of 2015 and was tested for 4 major mastitis pathogens using the PathoProof Mastitis Major 4 PCR Assay (Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., Waltham, MA). Apparent herd-level prevalence was 46% for S. aureus, 6% for Prototheca spp., 0% for M. bovis, and 0% for Strep. agalactiae. Due to the low prevalence of M. bovis and Strep. agalactiae and a lack of significant factors associated with farms testing positive for Prototheca spp., an association analysis could only be carried out for Staph. aureus-positive farms. Factors associated with Staph. aureus-positive farms were not fore-stripping cows before milking (odds ratio = 1.87), milking with a pipeline system (odds ratio = 2.21), and stall bases made of a rubberized surface (mats and mattresses), whereas protective factors were using blanket dry cow therapy (odds ratio = 0.49) and applying a tag or visible mark on cows known to have chronic mastitis infections (odds ratio = 0.45). The Canadian national production-weighted geometric mean somatic cell count was determined to be 208,000 cells/mL. This is the first national dairy study conducted in Canada. Participating farms had higher milk yield; were more likely to have a loose housing system, parlor, or automated milking system; and had

  16. Are children's activity levels determined by their genes or environment? A systematic review of twin studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Fisher

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Although genetic influences may be expressed when children have brief opportunities for autonomous activity, activity levels in daily-life are predominantly explained by environmental factors. Future research should aim to identify key environmental drivers of childhood activity.

  17. The SusHouse project. Use and maintenance of clothing as an example. Environmental analysis of system-level future scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knot, M.; Bras-Klapwijk, R.M.

    2001-01-01

    The SusHouse project assumed that system-level innovations are necessary for sustainable development, involving new arrangements and combined innovations in technology, organisation and behaviour. The life cycle analysis (LCA) method has been used and adapted to evaluate the potential of such complex system-level strategies to reduce environmental impact. This article explains and discusses this approach and presents some assessment results for the SusHouse research into clothing. The requirements and systems used were found to yield interesting insights into relevant solutions and strategies. The future scenarios for clothing promise major improvements in most of the environmental indicators, with particular contributions from changes in the quantity and quality of clothing consumed. The article recommends extending the approach with a 'turning points' analysis, because of the many uncertainties, as well as the use of more differentiated indicators and the inclusion of a focused trend analysis. 17 refs

  18. Future ecological studies of Brazilian headwater streams under global-changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Callisto

    Full Text Available This paper results from discussions triggered during the "Stream Ecology Symposium" that took place at the XIII Congress of the Brazilian Society of Limnology in September of 2011 in Natal, Brazil. Based on our experiences, we have raised several questions regarding ecological studies of headwater streams facing threats under global-changes and proposed numerous subjects to be addressed in future studies in Brazil. These studies deal with the necessity of knowing species biology and the elaboration of models to assess changes (which implies the availability of time-series or large-scale data sets; the ecology of riparian zones and the interchange of materials and energy across the land-water boundaries; forest conversions and standardized sampling strategies and data treatment to assess global change.

  19. "Towards a Future Linear Collider" and "The Linear Collider Studies at CERN"

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    During the week 18-22 October, more than 400 physicists will meet at CERN and in the CICG (International Conference Centre Geneva) to review the global progress towards a future linear collider. The 2010 International Workshop on Linear Colliders will study the physics, detectors and accelerator complex of a linear collider covering both the CLIC and ILC options. Among the topics presented and discussed will be the progress towards the CLIC Conceptual Design Report in 2011, the ILC Technical Design Report in 2012, physics and detector studies linked to these reports, and an increasing numbers of common working group activities. The seminar will give an overview of these topics and also CERN’s linear collider studies, focusing on current activities and initial plans for the period 2011-16. n.b: The Council Chamber is also reserved for this colloquium with a live transmission from the Main Auditorium.

  20. Leadership meta-competences for the future world of work: an explorative study in the retail industry

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    To achieve this purpose a leadership meta-competence model, based on levels of work theory, was developed for the future world of work. This model was firstly validated by senior managers in the retail industry. Subsequently a questionnaire assessing the perceived importance of these competencies currently and in the future was designed. This questionnaire was completed by 101 managers from various South African retail industries. The resultant data was analysed and the results indicated that...

  1. Cardiorespiratory fitness and future risk of pneumonia: a long-term prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunutsor, Setor K; Laukkanen, Tanjaniina; Laukkanen, Jari A

    2017-09-01

    We aimed to assess the prospective association of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with the risk of pneumonia. Cardiorespiratory fitness, as measured by maximal oxygen uptake, was assessed using a respiratory gas exchange analyzer in 2244 middle-aged men in the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease cohort. We corrected for within-person variability in CRF levels using data from repeat measurements taken several years apart. During a median follow-up of 25.8 years, 369 men received a hospital diagnosis of pneumonia. The age-adjusted regression dilution ratio of CRF was 0.58 (95% confidence interval: 0.53-0.63). Cardiorespiratory fitness was linearly associated with pneumonia risk. The hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for pneumonia per 1 standard deviation increase in CRF in analysis adjusted for several risk factors for pneumonia was 0.77 (0.68-0.87). The association remained consistent on additional adjustment for total energy intake, socioeconomic status, physical activity, and C-reactive protein 0.82 (0.72-0.94). The corresponding adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 0.58 (0.41-0.80) and 0.67 (0.48-0.95) respectively, when comparing the extreme quartiles of CRF levels. Our findings indicate a graded inverse and independent association between CRF and the future risk of pneumonia in a general male population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Why is the Groundwater Level Rising? A Case Study Using HARTT to Simulate Groundwater Level Dynamic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yihdego, Yohannes; Danis, Cara; Paffard, Andrew

    2017-12-01

      Groundwater from a shallow unconfined aquifer at a site in coastal New South Wales has been causing recent water logging issues. A trend of rising groundwater level has been anecdotally observed over the last 10 years. It was not clear whether the changes in groundwater levels were solely natural variations within the groundwater system or whether human interference was driving the level up. Time series topographic images revealed significant surrounding land use changes and human modification to the environment of the groundwater catchment. A statistical model utilising HARTT (multiple linear regression hydrograph analysis method) simulated the groundwater level dynamics at five key monitoring locations and successfully showed a trend of rising groundwater level. Utilising hydrogeological input from field investigations, the model successfully simulated the rise in the water table over time to the present day levels, whilst taking into consideration rainfall and land changes. The underlying geological/land conditions were found to be just as significant as the impact of climate variation. The correlation coefficient for the monitoring bores (MB), excluding MB4, show that the groundwater level fluctuation can be explained by the climate variable (rainfall) with the lag time between the atypical rainfall and groundwater level ranging from 4 to 7 months. The low R2 value for MB4 indicates that there are factors missing in the model which are primarily related to human interference. The elevated groundwater levels in the affected area are the result of long term cumulative land use changes, instigated by humans, which have directly resulted in detrimental changes to the groundwater aquifer properties.

  3. The Healthy Primary School of the Future: study protocol of a quasi-experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willeboordse, Maartje; Jansen, Maria; Van den Heijkant, S.N.; Simons, Andrew; Winkens, B.; De Groot, Renate; Bartelink, Nina; Kremers, Stef; Van Assema, Patricia; Savelberg, Hans; De Neubourg, E.; Borghans, Lex; Schils, T.; Coppens, K.M.; Dietvorst, R.; Ten Hoopen, R.; Coomans, F.; Klosse, S.; Conjaerts, Martien; Oosterhoff, M.; Joore, Manuela; Ferreira, I.; Muris, P.; Bosma, Hans; Toppenberg, H.L.; Van Schayck, Onno

    2017-01-01

    Background: Unhealthy lifestyles in early childhood are a major global health challenge. These lifestyles often persist from generation to generation and contribute to a vicious cycle of health-related and social problems. This design article presents a study evaluating the effects of two novel

  4. Cycling environmental perception in Beijing – A study of residents' attitudes towards future cycling and car purchasing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Chunli; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Olafsson, Anton Stahl

    2018-01-01

    distances up to 2 km are positively linked to future cycling prospects. Non-car owners' attitude to future car ownership is strongly linked to socio-demographic status - low education and low income level groups seems to be most unlikely to take up driving in the future. To encourage people to cycle more...... and drive less, policy should direct efforts to promoting the clarity of cycling space on the street and strengthen pro-cycling policies. Attention should also be given to stabilizing the current travel modes of non-car users, including promoting the image of cycling, improving the service of walking...

  5. Physical activity levels in adolescents: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Sevilla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical Activity (PA is very important during childhood and adolescence in order to promote healthy development and prevent obesity. The WHO recommends 60 minutes daily of moderate-vigorous activity (e» 3 METs/day. The main objective of the study is to assess the levels of PA intensity performed daily by adolescents from a school using the triaxial accelerometry system and to know if they achieve the WHO recommendations. The sample size was 60 Spanish adolescents (14.52 ± .854 year-old belongs to the Empordá school (Empúries, Spain. Previous informed consent was obtained from their parents and/or tutors. PA levels were obtained through accelerometry, Body Mass Index (BMI was calculated though weight and height, heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP were measured using a digital automatic blood pressure monitor. Descriptive for all data was calculated, and T–test (p < .05 was used to analyze the differences between boys and girls. The main result show that males performed PA during longer time and at higher intensity than women. There is a low percentage of students who achieve the WHO recommendations. In conclusion, we believe very important to seek new strategies and methods to involve more adolescents in the practice of PA, and we believe that PA sessions at school are very important.

  6. Determinants of maternal and umbilical blood lead levels: a cross-sectional study, Mosul, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Jomard Raghad A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The populations who are most sensitive to lead exposure from various sources are pregnant women and their newborns. Aiming to explore the presence of correlation between maternal and cord blood lead levels and to identify potential predictors that may influence both levels, the present study has been conducted. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted covering 350 full terms maternal-newborns pairs from Mosul maternity hospitals. Data were obtained directly from women just before delivery by the use of a detailed questionnaire form. Maternal and umbilical blood lead levels were estimated using LEADCARE® Blood Lead Testing System and Kits. Results A positive significant correlation was found between maternal and cord blood lead values (r = 0.856, p = 0.001. By backward stepwise logistic regression analysis the followings emerged as significant potential predictors of high maternal blood lead: low parity, smoking and Hb level Conclusion Study results have provided baseline data needed to be transformed to decision makers to implement measures to eliminate lead from the environment and protect future generation from its deleterious effects.

  7. Assessing hydrological drought risk for the irrigation sector in future climate scenarios: lessons learned from the Apulia case study (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critto, Andrea; Torresan, Silvia; Ronco, Paolo; Zennaro, Federica; Santini, Monia; Trabucco, Antonio; Marcomini, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Climate change is already affecting the frequency of drought events which may threaten the current stocks of water resources and thus the availability of freshwater for the irrigation. The achievement of a sustainable equilibrium between the availability of water resources and the irrigation demand is essentially related to the planning and implementation of evidence-based adaptation strategies and actions. In this sense, the improvement (of existing) and the development of (new) appropriate risk assessment methods and tools to evaluate the impact of drought events on irrigated crops is fundamental in order to assure that the agricultural yields are appropriate to meet the current and future food and market demand. This study evaluates the risk of hydrological drought on the irrigated agronomic compartment of Apulia, a semi-arid region in Southern Italy. We applied a stepwise Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) procedure, based on the consecutive analysis of hazards, exposure, vulnerability and risks, integrating the qualitative and quantitative available information. Future climate projections for the timeframes 2021-2050 and 2041-2070 were provided by COSMO-CLM under the radiative forcing RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. The run-off feeding the water stocks of the most important irrigation reservoirs in Apulia was then modeled with Arc-SWAT. Hence, the hazard analysis was carried out in order to estimate the degree of fulfillment of actual irrigation demand satisfied by water supply of different reservoirs in future scenarios. Vulnerability of exposed irrigated crops was evaluated depending on three factors accounting for crop yield variation vs water stress, water losses along the irrigation network, diversification of water supply. Resulting risk and vulnerability maps allowed: the identification of Reclamation Consortia at higher risk of not fulfilling their future irrigation demand (e.g. Capitanata Reclamation Consortia in RCP8.5 2041-2070 scenario); the ranking of most

  8. Rational reference levels for Pacific Coast radioactive pollution studies supplied by samples from northern Baja California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folsom, T.R.

    1974-01-01

    Background levels of radioactivity in the marine environment along the Pacific Coast are at present extremely low. However, these certainly will rise along with the growth of coastal populations and with the increased use of nuclear energy. It would be desirable to anticipate where and how fast concentrations of artificial radioactivities may reach unacceptable levels in coastal water. Successful prediction of this sort requires knowing how the ocean responds, in given regions, to specific inputs. Fortunately, some of the fate of a large class of radioactive pollutants that must be faced in the future may be inferred from careful studies during the past 20 years of the behavior of certain constituents of nuclear fallout that have entered the ocean along the coasts of California and Baja California. (CH)

  9. The global status of freshwater fish age validation studies and a prioritization framework for future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Kevin L.; Hamel, Martin J.; Pegg, Mark A.; Spurgeon, Jonathan J.

    2016-01-01

    Age information derived from calcified structures is commonly used to estimate recruitment, growth, and mortality for fish populations. Validation of daily or annual marks on age structures is often assumed, presumably due to a lack of general knowledge concerning the status of age validation studies. Therefore, the current status of freshwater fish age validation studies was summarized to show where additional effort is needed, and increase the accessibility of validation studies to researchers. In total, 1351 original peer-reviewed articles were reviewed from freshwater systems that studied age in fish. Periodicity and age validation studies were found for 88 freshwater species comprising 21 fish families. The number of age validation studies has increased over the last 30 years following previous calls for more research; however, few species have validated structures spanning all life stages. In addition, few fishes of conservation concern have validated ageing structures. A prioritization framework, using a combination of eight characteristics, is offered to direct future age validation studies and close the validation information gap. Additional study, using the offered prioritization framework, and increased availability of published studies that incorporate uncertainty when presenting research results dealing with age information are needed.

  10. Study on the academic future of second-generation immigrants in Setubal and Faro (Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente J. Llorent

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The research focuses on the Luso-African secondary school pupils studying in two of the Portuguese cities with the largest number of immigrants (Setúbal and Faro. Especially this cities, according to the latest data offered in Portugal by the National Institute of Statistics, in the near future these young people constitute the majority of the school population in many schools in the country and at the same time, a large portion of them will help to raise and high rates of dropout and failure. In order to facilitate the social inclusion of these students wanted to determine their expectations of their school career, taking into account social, family, economic, educational and school aspects.After a relevant documentary study, we conducted a data collection based on the in situ observation and a vertebrate of questionnaire scales in seven groups: characteristics of their parents, school career, self-esteem, motivation to continue studying, expectations about the future professional, characterization and evaluation of the school context, and expectations after high school. Thus, variables relate concerning their social and family situation, your school career and social integration with their future prospects. Following the interpretation and analysis of the extracted data, among other findings, we argue that the most influential in the expectations of the Luso- African students who complete their secondary education factor is the interest of parents in the education of childrenIn order to facilitate the inclusion of socio students involved in migration processes, we aim to determine their expectations about their school. Especially because, according to latest data provided by the National Institute of Statistics in Portugal, in the near future these young people constitute the majority of the school population in many centers in that country and at the same time, much of it will help raise the actual high dropout and failure rates. Through our

  11. Implications of demographics on future blood supply: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greinacher, Andreas; Fendrich, Konstanze; Brzenska, Ralf; Kiefel, Volker; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

    2011-04-01

    Data on blood recipients are sparse and unconnected to data on blood donors. The objective was to analyze the impact of the demographic change on future blood demand and supply in a German federal state. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted. For all in-hospital transfused red blood cells (RBCs; n = 95,477), in the German federal state Mecklenburg-Pomerania in 2005, characteristics of the patient and the blood donor (118,406 blood donations) were obtained. Population data were used to predict blood demand and supply until 2020. By 2020 the population increase of those aged 65 years or more (+26.4%) in Mecklenburg-Pomerania will be paralleled by a decrease of the potential donor population (18-68 years; -16.1%). Assuming stable rates per age group until 2020, the demand for in-hospital blood transfusions will increase by approximately 25% (24,000 RBC units) while blood donations will decrease by approximately 27% (32,000 RBC units). The resulting, predicted shortfall is 47% of demand for in-hospital patients (56,000 RBC units). Validation using historical data (1997-2007) showed that the model predicted the RBC demand with a deviation of only 1.2%. Demographic changes are particularly pronounced in former East Germany, but by 2030 most European countries will face a similar situation. The decrease of younger age groups requires an increase of blood donation rates and interdisciplinary approaches to reduce the need for transfusion to maintain sufficient blood supply. Demography is a major determinant of future transfusion demand. All efforts should be made by Western societies to systematically obtain data on blood donors and recipients to develop strategies to meet future blood demand. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  12. Shaping the future of dental education: Caries as a case-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, N B; Mazevet, M E; Mayne, C

    2018-03-01

    This study reports on the full-day workshop "The Shape of The Future of Dental Education for Dental Caries-and how we get there" held immediately prior to the May 2017 ADEE/ADEA/King's College London meeting "Shaping the Future of Dental Education." A standardised, evidence-led Core Curriculum in Cariology (CCC) was developed jointly and systematically by ORCA and ADEE, starting in 2010. At the same time, the ICDAS Foundation was developing a comprehensive caries management system, ICCMS™. The workshop reported on what has been achieved on a global basis by many building on these initiatives. The CCC has been, or is currently being, localised in a number of places around the world and has, in some countries, been successfully implemented. There are also other areas which are struggling more with the logistics of introducing it. The workshop presented geographical perspectives and experiences on implementing the CCC from Colombia, the United States and Europe, as well as professional perspectives from hygienists, students and policymakers. The workshop then considered the future of the CCC and the roles of Interprofessional Education, Technology, Global Networking and Assessment in a Global Context in 4 breakout groups. Having had reports back and plenary discussion, it was concluded that the caries world has made good progress towards a "futuristic" curriculum with parallel development of a comprehensive, preventive and tooth-preserving caries management system-ICCMS™. The implementation challenge is now to share even more effectively in order to have these developments more widely accepted and adopted worldwide. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Challenges to and the future of medication safety in Saudi Arabia: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljadhey, Hisham; Mahmoud, Mansour Adam; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Alrasheedy, Alian; Alahmad, Amjad; Saleem, Fahad; Sheikh, Aziz; Murray, Michael; Bates, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Medication safety is a global concern among healthcare providers. However, the challenges to and the future of medication safety in Saudi Arabia have not been explored. Objectives We explored the perspectives of healthcare practitioners on current issues about medication safety in hospitals and community settings in Saudi Arabia in order to identify challenges to improving it and explore the future of medication safety practice. Methods A total of 65 physicians, pharmacists, academics and nurses attended a one-day meeting in March 2010, designed especially for the purpose of this study. The participants were divided into nine round-table discussion sessions. Three major themes were explored in these sessions, including: major factors contributing to medication safety problems, challenges to improving medication safety practice, and participants’ suggestions for improving medication safety. The round-table discussion sessions were videotaped and transcribed verbatim and analyzed by two independent researchers. Results The round-table discussions revealed that major factors contributing to medication safety problems included unrestricted public access to medications from various hospitals and community pharmacies, communication gaps between healthcare institutions, limited use of important technologies such as computerized provider order entry, and the lack of medication safety programs in hospitals. Challenges to current medication safety practice identified by participants included underreporting of medication errors and adverse drug reactions, multilingualism and differing backgrounds of healthcare professionals, lack of communication between healthcare providers and patients, and high workloads. Suggestions for improving medication safety practices in Saudi Arabia included continuous education for healthcare professionals and competency assessment focusing on medication safety, development of a culture that encourages medication error and adverse

  14. New study sees greater low-level radiation threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobsenz, G.

    1992-01-01

    A new analysis of Energy Department medical records has found higher than expected cancer rates among workers at DOE's Hanford nuclear weapons plant, suggesting occupational exposure to low-level radiation may be more dangerous than previously thought. The study, released Tuesday by the Philadelphia-based Three Mile Island Public Health Fund, is important not only because of its controversial conclusions, but also because it represents the first independent review of DOE's long-secret worker medical records. The new study done by Stewart and Kneale looked at Hanford worker health records dating up to 1986 - part of a huge trove of data withheld by DOE from independent researchers until two years ago. In their re-analysis of the Hanford worker records, Stewart and Kneale found increased cancer rates among older workers who were over 40 years of age when exposed. And they said that increased susceptibility of older people to radiation-induced cancer was not reflected in the highly influential Japanese atomic bomb studies because people over 50 years of age were open-quotes grossly under-representedclose quotes in the A-bomb analyses, possibly because many bomb victims suffered early deaths from high doses

  15. Neural correlates of self-appraisals in the near and distant future: an event-related potential study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangmei Luo

    Full Text Available To investigate perceptual and neural correlates of future self-appraisals as a function of temporal distance, event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded while participants (11 women, eight men made judgments about the applicability of trait adjectives to their near future selves (i.e., one month from now and their distant future selves (i.e., three years from now. Behavioral results indicated people used fewer positive adjectives, more negative adjectives, recalled more specific events coming to mind and felt more psychologically connected to the near future self than the distant future self. Electrophysiological results demonstrated that negative trait adjectives elicited more positive ERP deflections than did positive trait adjectives in the interval between 550 and 800 ms (late positive component within the near future self condition. However, within the same interval, there were no significant differences between negative and positive traits adjectives in the distant future self condition. The results suggest that negative emotional processing in future self-appraisals is modulated by temporal distance, consistent with predictions of construal level theory.

  16. A Flexible Socioeconomic Scenarios Framework for the Study of Plausible Arctic Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissell, A. K.; Peters, G. P.; Riahi, K.; Kroglund, M.; Lovecraft, A. L.; Nilsson, A. E.; Preston, B. L.; van Ruijven, B. J.

    2016-12-01

    Future developments of the Arctic region are associated with different drivers of change - climate, environmental, and socio-economic - and their interactions, and are highly uncertain. The uncertainty poses challenges for decision-making, calling for development of new analytical frameworks. Scenarios - coherent narratives describing potential futures, pathways to futures, and drivers of change along the way - can be used to explore the consequences of the key uncertainties, particularly in the long-term. In a participatory scenarios workshop, we used both top-down and bottom-up approaches for the development of a flexible socioeconomic scenarios framework. The top-down approach was linked to the global Integrated Assessment Modeling framework and its Shared Socio-Economic Pathways (SSPs), developing an Arctic extension of the set of five storylines on the main socioeconomic uncertainties in global climate change research. The bottom-up approach included participatory development of narratives originating from within the Arctic region. For extension of global SSPs to the regional level, we compared the key elements in the global SSPs (Population, Human Development, Economy & Lifestyle, Policies & Institutions, Technology, and Environment & Natural Resources) and key elements in the Arctic. Additional key elements for the Arctic scenarios include, for example, seasonal migration, the large role of traditional knowledge and culture, mixed economy, nested governance structure, human and environmental security, quality of infrastructure. The bottom-up derived results suggested that the scenarios developed independent of the SSPs could be mapped back to the SSPs to demonstrate consistency with respect to representing similar boundary conditions. The two approaches are complimentary, as the top-down approach can be used to set the global socio-economic and climate boundary conditions, and the bottom-up approach providing the regional context. One key uncertainty and

  17. Capability and dependency in the Newcastle 85+ cohort study. Projections of future care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagger, Carol; Collerton, Joanna C; Davies, Karen; Kingston, Andrew; Robinson, Louise A; Eccles, Martin P; von Zglinicki, Thomas; Martin-Ruiz, Carmen; James, Oliver F W; Kirkwood, Tom B L; Bond, John

    2011-05-04

    Little is known of the capabilities of the oldest old, the fastest growing age group in the population. We aimed to estimate capability and dependency in a cohort of 85 year olds and to project future demand for care. Structured interviews at age 85 with 841 people born in 1921 and living in Newcastle and North Tyneside, UK who were permanently registered with participating general practices. Measures of capability included were self-reported activities of daily living (ADL), timed up and go test (TUG), standardised mini-mental state examination (SMMSE), and assessment of urinary continence in order to classify interval-need dependency. To project future demand for care the proportion needing 24-hour care was applied to the 2008 England and Wales population projections of those aged 80 years and over by gender. Of participants, 62% (522/841) were women, 77% (651/841) lived in standard housing, 13% (106/841) in sheltered housing and 10% (84/841) in a care home. Overall, 20% (165/841) reported no difficulty with any of the ADLs. Men were more capable in performing ADLs and more independent than women. TUG validated self-reported ADLs. When classified by 'interval of need' 41% (332/810) were independent, 39% (317/810) required help less often than daily, 12% (94/810) required help at regular times of the day and 8% (67/810) required 24-hour care. Of care-home residents, 94% (77/82) required daily help or 24-hour care. Future need for 24-hour care for people aged 80 years or over in England and Wales is projected to increase by 82% from 2010 to 2030 with a demand for 630,000 care-home places by 2030. This analysis highlights the diversity of capability and levels of dependency in this cohort. A remarkably high proportion remain independent, particularly men. However a significant proportion of this population require 24-hour care at home or in care homes. Projections for the next 20 years suggest substantial increases in the number requiring 24-hour care due to

  18. The Healthy Primary School of the Future: study protocol of a quasi-experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Willeboordse

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unhealthy lifestyles in early childhood are a major global health challenge. These lifestyles often persist from generation to generation and contribute to a vicious cycle of health-related and social problems. This design article presents a study evaluating the effects of two novel healthy school interventions. The main outcome measure will be changes in children’s body mass index (BMI. In addition, lifestyle behaviours, academic achievement, child well-being, socio-economic differences, and societal costs will be examined. Methods In close collaboration with various stakeholders, a quasi-experimental study was developed, for which children of four intervention schools (n = 1200 in the southern part of the Netherlands are compared with children of four control schools (n = 1200 in the same region. The interventions started in November 2015. In two of the four intervention schools, a whole-school approach named ‘The Healthy Primary School of the Future’, is implemented with the aim of improving physical activity and dietary behaviour. For this intervention, pupils are offered an extended curriculum, including a healthy lunch, more physical exercises, and social and educational activities, next to the regular school curriculum. In the two other intervention schools, a physical-activity school approach called ‘The Physical Activity School’, is implemented, which is essentially similar to the other intervention, except that no lunch is provided. The interventions proceed during a period of 4 years. Apart from the effectiveness of both interventions, the process, the cost-effectiveness, and the expected legal implications are studied. Data collection is conducted within the school system. The baseline measurements started in September 2015 and yearly follow-up measurements are taking place until 2019. Discussion A whole-school approach is a new concept in the Netherlands. Due to its innovative, multifaceted

  19. Social Studies Student Teachers' Levels of Understanding Sociology Concepts within Social Studies Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatekin, Kadir

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at investigating social studies student teachers' levels of understanding sociology concepts within social studies curriculum. Study group of the research consists of 266 teacher candidates attending the Department of Social Studies, Faculty of Education, Kastamonu University during 2012 to 2013 education year. A semi-structured…

  20. Integrated study of Mediterranean deep canyons: Novel results and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canals, M.; Company, J. B.; Martín, D.; Sànchez-Vidal, A.; Ramírez-Llodrà, E.

    2013-11-01

    intermediate and deep-water masses, and the associated fluxes of matter and energy are a main driver of deep-sea ecosystems; (iv) deep-sea organisms are highly sensitive to the arrival of external inputs, starting from the lowest food web levels and propagating upwards as time passes, which also relies upon the biology, nutritional needs and life expectancy of each individual species; and (v) innovative knowledge gained through such multidisciplinary research is of the utmost significance for an improved management of deep-sea living resources, such as the highly priced red shrimp Aristeus antennatus, for which a pilot management plan largely based in the findings described here and in related articles has been recently published (BOE, 2013). The researchers involved in such challenging endeavour have learnt tremendously from the results obtained so far and from each other, but are fully aware that there are still many unsolved questions. That is why this introductory article also includes “Future challenges” both in the title and as an individual section at the end, to express that there is still a long way to go.

  1. The Impacts of 3-D Earth Structure on GIA-Induced Crustal Deformation and Future Sea-Level Change in the Antarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, E. M.; Hay, C.; Latychev, K.; Gomez, N. A.; Mitrovica, J. X.

    2017-12-01

    Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) models used to constrain the extent of past ice sheets and viscoelastic Earth structure, or to correct geodetic and geological observables for ice age effects, generally only consider depth-dependent variations in Earth viscosity and lithospheric structure. A et al. [2013] argued that 3-D Earth structure could impact GIA observables in Antarctica, but concluded that the presence of such structure contributes less to GIA uncertainty than do differences in Antarctic deglaciation histories. New seismic and geological evidence, however, indicates the Antarctic is underlain by complex, high amplitude variability in viscoelastic structure, including a low viscosity zone (LVZ) under West Antarctica. Hay et al. [2016] showed that sea-level fingerprints of modern melting calculated using such Earth models differ from those based on elastic or 1-D viscoelastic Earth models within decades of melting. Our investigation is motivated by two questions: (1) How does 3-D Earth structure, especially this LVZ, impact observations of GIA-induced crustal deformation associated with the last deglaciation? (2) How will 3-D Earth structure affect predictions of future sea-level rise in Antarctica? We compute the gravitationally self-consistent sea level, uplift, and gravity changes using the finite volume treatment of Latychev et al. [2005]. We consider four viscoelastic Earth models: a global 1-D model; a regional, West Antarctic-like 1-D model; a 3-D model where the lithospheric thickness varies laterally; and a 3-D model where both viscosity and lithospheric thickness vary laterally. For our Last Glacial Maximum to present investigations we employ ICE6g [Peltier et al., 2015]. For our present-future investigations we consider a melt scenario consistent with GRACE satellite gravity derived solutions [Harig et al., 2015]. Our calculations indicate that predictions of crustal deformations due to both GIA and ongoing melting are strongly influenced by 3-D

  2. Accelerator mass spectrometry-enabled studies: current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjomand, Ali

    2010-03-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry is a detection platform with exceptional sensitivity compared with other bioanalytical platforms. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is widely used in archeology for radiocarbon dating applications. Early exploration of the biological and pharmaceutical applications of AMS began in the early 1990s. AMS has since demonstrated unique problem-solving ability in nutrition science, toxicology and pharmacology. AMS has also enabled the development of new applications, such as Phase 0 microdosing. Recent development of AMS-enabled applications has transformed this novelty research instrument to a valuable tool within the pharmaceutical industry. Although there is now greater awareness of AMS technology, recognition and appreciation of the range of AMS-enabled applications is still lacking, including study-design strategies. This review aims to provide further insight into the wide range of AMS-enabled applications. Examples of studies conducted over the past two decades will be presented, as well as prospects for the future of AMS.

  3. Review of levoglucosan in glacier snow and ice studies: Recent progress and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Chao; Xu, Chao

    2018-03-01

    Levoglucosan (LEV) in glacier snow and ice layers provides a fingerprint of fire activity, ranging from modern air pollution to ancient fire emissions. In this study, we review recent progress in our understanding and application of LEV in glaciers, including analytical methods, transport and post-depositional processes, and historical records. We firstly summarize progress in analytical methods for determination of LEV in glacier snow and ice. Then, we discuss the processes influencing the records of LEV in snow and ice layers. Finally, we make some recommendations for future work, such as assessing the stability of LEV and obtaining continuous records, to increase reliability of the reconstructed ancient fire activity. This review provides an update for researchers working with LEV and will facilitate the further use of LEV as a biomarker in paleo-fire studies based on ice core records. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Academic plastic surgery: a study of current issues and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetrenne, Eleonore; Kosins, Aaron M; Wirth, Garrett A; Bui, Albert; Evans, Gregory R D; Wells, James H

    2008-06-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the role of a full-time academic plastic surgeon, (2) to define the indicators predictive of a successful career in academic plastic surgery, and (3) to understand the current issues that will affect future trends in the practice of academic plastic surgery. A questionnaire was developed to evaluate the role of current full-time academic plastic surgeons and to understand the current issues and future challenges facing academic plastic surgery. Each plastic surgery program director in the United States was sent the survey for distribution among all full-time academic plastic surgeons. Over a 6-week period, responses from 143 full-time academic plastic surgeons (approximately 31%) were returned. Fifty-three percent of respondents had been academic plastic surgeons for longer than 10 years. Seventy-three percent of respondents defined academic plastic surgeons as clinicians who are teachers and researchers. However, 53% of respondents believed that academic plastic surgeons were not required to teach or practice within university hospitals/academic centers. The 3 factors reported most frequently as indicative of a successful career in academic plastic surgery were peer recognition, personal satisfaction, and program reputation. Dedication and motivation were the personal characteristics rated most likely to contribute to academic success. Forty-four percent of respondents were unable to identify future academic plastic surgeons from plastic surgery residency applicants, and 27% were not sure. Most (93%) of the respondents believed that academic surgery as practiced today will change. The overall job description of a full-time academic plastic surgeon remains unchanged (teacher and researcher). Whereas peer recognition, personal satisfaction, and program reputation were most frequently cited as indicative of a successful plastic surgery career, financial success was rated the least indicative. Similarly, whereas the

  5. Ecoclimatic indicators to study crop suitability in present and future climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caubel, Julie; Garcia de Cortazar Atauri, Inaki; Huard, Frédéric; Launay, Marie; Ripoche, Dominique; Gouache, David; Bancal, Marie-Odile; Graux, Anne-Isabelle; De Noblet, Nathalie

    2013-04-01

    Climate change is expected to affect both regional and global food production through changes in overall agroclimatic conditions. It is therefore necessary to develop simple tools of crop suitability diagnosis in a given area so that stakeholders can envisage land use adaptations under climate change conditions. The most common way to investigate potential impacts of climate on the evolution of agrosystems is to make use of an array of agroclimatic indicators, which provide synthetic information derived from climatic variables and calculated within fixed periods (i.e. January first - 31th July). However, the information obtained during these periods does not enable to take account of the plant response to climate. In this work, we present some results of the research program ORACLE (Opportunities and Risks of Agrosystems & forests in response to CLimate, socio-economic and policy changEs in France (and Europe). We proposed a suite of relevant ecoclimatic indicators, based on temperature and rainfall, in order to evaluate crop suitability for both present and new climatic conditions. Ecoclimatic indicators are agroclimatic indicators (e.g., grain heat stress) calculated during specific phenological phases so as to take account of the plant response to climate (e.g., the grain filling period, flowering- harvest). These indicators are linked with the ecophysiological processes they characterize (for e.g., the grain filling). To represent this methodology, we studied the suitability of winter wheat in future climatic conditions through three distinct French sites, Toulouse, Dijon and Versailles. Indicators have been calculated using climatic data from 1950 to 2100 simulated by the global climate model ARPEGE forced by a greenhouse effect corresponding to the SRES A1B scenario. The Quantile-Quantile downscaling method was applied to obtain data for the three locations. Phenological stages (emergence, ear 1 cm, flowering, beginning of grain filling and harvest) have been

  6. Ecoclimatic indicators to study crop suitability in present and future climatic conditionsTIC CONDITIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caubel, Julie; Garcia de Cortazar Atauri, Inaki; Huard, Frédéric; Launay, Marie; Ripoche, Dominique; Gouache, David; Bancal, Marie-Odile; Graux, Anne-Isabelle; De Noblet, Nathalie

    2013-04-01

    Climate change is expected to affect both regional and global food production through changes in overall agroclimatic conditions. It is therefore necessary to develop simple tools of crop suitability diagnosis in a given area so that stakeholders can envisage land use adaptations under climate change conditions. The most common way to investigate potential impacts of climate on the evolution of agrosystems is to make use of an array of agroclimatic indicators, which provide synthetic information derived from climatic variables and calculated within fixed periods (i.e. January first - 31th July). However, the information obtained during these periods does not enable to take account of the plant response to climate. In this work, we present some results of the research program ORACLE (Opportunities and Risks of Agrosystems & forests in response to CLimate, socio-economic and policy changEs in France (and Europe). We proposed a suite of relevant ecoclimatic indicators, based on temperature and rainfall, in order to evaluate crop suitability for both present and new climatic conditions. Ecoclimatic indicators are agroclimatic indicators (e.g., grain heat stress) calculated during specific phenological phases so as to take account of the plant response to climate (e.g., the grain filling period, flowering- harvest). These indicators are linked with the ecophysiological processes they characterize (for e.g., the grain filling). To represent this methodology, we studied the suitability of winter wheat in future climatic conditions through three distinct French sites, Toulouse, Dijon and Versailles. Indicators have been calculated using climatic data from 1950 to 2100 simulated by the global climate model ARPEGE forced by a greenhouse effect corresponding to the SRES A1B scenario. The Quantile-Quantile downscaling method was applied to obtain data for the three locations. Phenological stages (emergence, ear 1 cm, flowering, beginning of grain filling and harvest) have been

  7. Connections between Future Time Perspectives and Self-Regulated Learning for Mid-Year Engineering Students: A Multiple Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasmar, Justine

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation presents multiple studies with the purpose of understanding the connections between undergraduate engineering students' motivations, specifically students' Future Time Perspectives (FTPs) and Self-Regulated Learning (SRL). FTP refers to the views students hold about the future and how their perceptions of current tasks are…

  8. Mental Time Travel into the Past and the Future in Healthy Aged Adults: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viard, Armelle; Chetelat, Gael; Lebreton, Karine; Desgranges, Beatrice; Landeau, Brigitte; de La Sayette, Vincent; Eustache, Francis; Piolino, Pascale

    2011-01-01

    Remembering the past and envisioning the future rely on episodic memory which enables mental time travel. Studies in young adults indicate that past and future thinking share common cognitive and neural underpinnings. No imaging data is yet available in healthy aged subjects. Using fMRI, we scanned older subjects while they remembered personal…

  9. E-cigarette use in adults: a qualitative study of users' perceptions and future use intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Vani Nath; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Harrell, Paul T; Meltzer, Lauren R; Correa, John B; Unrod, Marina; Brandon, Thomas H

    2016-01-01

    There has been an exponential increase in the prevalence of e-cigarette use, particularly among youth. However, adult use is also rising, and there have been relatively few qualitative studies with adult users to understand their reasons for use and future use intentions. Such information is needed to inform both prevention and cessation approaches. Thirty-one e-cigarette users participated in one of several focus groups assessing the appeal of e-cigarettes as well as comparisons to combustible cigarettes and approved smoking cessation aids. We also obtained perspectives on future use intentions and interest in e-cigarette cessation interventions. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using the constant comparative method. Participants reported several aspects of e-cigarette appeal as compared to approved cessation treatment options. These included similarities to combustible cigarettes, fewer side effects, and control of e-cigarettes to suit personal preferences. Participants were split on whether they preferred flavors that mimicked or contrasted with their combustible cigarettes (i.e., tobacco vs. alternative flavors, such as candy). Some participants who were unmotivated to quit smoking reported an unanticipated disinterest in continuing use of combustible cigarettes shortly after initiating e-cigarettes. Despite strong interest in reducing nicotine dosage, the majority did not intend to fully discontinue e-cigarettes. Understanding e-cigarette users' perspectives can inform policy and treatment development. Regulatory and policy initiatives will need to balance the appealing characteristics of e-cigarettes with the potential for negative public health outcomes.

  10. Does virtual reality have a future for the study of episodic memory in aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abichou, Kouloud; La Corte, Valentina; Piolino, Pascale

    2017-03-01

    Episodic memory is the memory of personally lived events located in time and space, it shapes our identity and allows us to project ourselves into the past and the future. This form of memory is vulnerable to the effects of age and its alteration, hindering the autonomy of the subjects, can predict the evolution towards neurodegenerative disorders. Hence, a better understanding of this type of memory is a priority in the field of public health. Actually, traditional neuropsychological tools are often decontextualized, using simplistic situations that did not require the mobilization of all the characteristics of episodic memory, thus they just offer a partial measure of this complex mnemonic capacity. Nowadays, the virtual reality (VR) is a tool allowing the immersion of subjects in simulations of real situations, rich in spatial and temporal naturalistic contexts. Due to its many characteristics, the VR allows to solve several limitations of the traditional tests. The purpose of this review is to expose studies that investigated episodic memory in normal and Alzheimer's disease using VR in order to address its relevance as a new tool in the future practice of neuropsychology of aging.

  11. Second-hand smoking and carboxyhemoglobin levels in children: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Branden E; Ahmed, Mohammed I; Brugge, Doug; Farrell, Maureen; Lozada, Gustavo; Idupaganthi, Raghu; Schumann, Roman

    2010-01-01

    To establish baseline noninvasive carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels in children and determine the influence of exposure to environmental sources of carbon monoxide (CO), especially environmental tobacco smoke, on such levels. Second-hand smoking may be a risk factor for adverse outcomes following anesthesia and surgery in children (1) and may potentially be preventable. Parents and their children between the ages of 1-12 were enrolled on the day of elective surgery. The preoperative COHb levels of the children were assessed noninvasively using a CO-Oximeter (Radical-7 Rainbow SET Pulse CO-Oximeter; Masimo, Irvine, CA, USA). The parents were asked to complete an environmental air-quality questionnaire. The COHb levels were tabulated and correlated with responses to the survey in aggregate analysis. Statistical analyses were performed using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. P < 0.05 was statistically significant. Two hundred children with their parents were enrolled. Children exposed to parental smoking had higher COHb levels than the children of nonsmoking controls. Higher COHb values were seen in the youngest children, ages 1-2, exposed to parental cigarette smoke. However, these trends did not reach statistical significance, and confidence intervals were wide. This study revealed interesting trends of COHb levels in children presenting for anesthesia and surgery. However, the COHb levels measured in our patients were close to the error margin of the device used in our study. An expected improvement in measurement technology may allow screening children for potential pulmonary perioperative risk factors in the future.

  12. Intervention studies to foster resilience - A systematic review and proposal for a resilience framework in future intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmitorz, A; Kunzler, A; Helmreich, I; Tüscher, O; Kalisch, R; Kubiak, T; Wessa, M; Lieb, K

    2018-02-01

    Psychological resilience refers to the phenomenon that many people are able to adapt to the challenges of life and maintain mental health despite exposure to adversity. This has stimulated research on training programs to foster psychological resilience. We evaluated concepts, methods and designs of 43 randomized controlled trials published between 1979 and 2014 which assessed the efficacy of such training programs and propose standards for future intervention research based on recent developments in the field. We found that concepts, methods and designs in current resilience intervention studies are of limited use to properly assess efficacy of interventions to foster resilience. Major problems are the use of definitions of resilience as trait or a composite of resilience factors, the use of unsuited assessment instruments, and inappropriate study designs. To overcome these challenges, we propose 1) an outcome-oriented definition of resilience, 2) an outcome-oriented assessment of resilience as change in mental health in relation to stressor load, and 3) methodological standards for suitable study designs of future intervention studies. Our proposals may contribute to an improved quality of resilience intervention studies and may stimulate further progress in this growing research field. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Organizational Trust Levels of Elementary Teachers: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukadder BOYDAK ÖZAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, the main feature of a well-functioning organization is trust in the organization. In the research, it is researched which conceptions are needed to ensue organizational trust by the teachers who work in the primary schools and that the effects of the factors of organizational trust formation on the organizational atmosphere. The research is designed qualitatively. The study group of the research consists of 50 teachers working in Elazığ and the centrum of the city boundries. The interview form was prepared by studying on the subject of the research. The validity of the interview forms, content and appearance are provided thanks to be taken the expert opinions of faculty members (n=3. The interview forms are used as a unique data source. In the research , it is evaluated how organizational trust affects on the importantresults in terms of the organization such as organizational commitment, organizational burnout, organizational citizenship, organizational cynicism, identification with the organization, productivity according to the perception of the teachers. As a result, it is observed that organizational trust affects organizational commitment, the organizational burnout and organizational communication levels significantly

  14. Catecholamine levels in a Ramadan fasting model in rats: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakize Gamze Erten Bucaktepe

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Eating habits as well as physical exercise are very important for a healthy lifespan. Ramadan-type fasting, which is food and water avoidance during the daylight period for four weeks, has drawn attention due to its positive impacts on metabolism and health. The aim of this study was to compare the blood and urine catecholamine (CA levels in fasting and non-fasting rats, in terms of stress response. A total of 20 male rats were randomly divided into a fasting group and a control group. Four weeks later, blood and urine samples were taken after decapitation. Analysis of CAs was done using high-performance liquid chromatography with florescence detection (HPLC-FLD. The dopamine (DA, adrenaline (ADR and noradrenaline (NA blood and urine concentrations were found to be higher in the fasting group compared to the control group, but the difference was statistically significant only for the blood DA levels (p < 0.05. In the fasting group, the blood values of ADR and NA correlated with each other but not with the DA levels, whereas there was correlation among the urine levels of DA, ADR and NA. In the control group, the blood and urine values of DA, ADR and NA correlated with each other. The differences observed in the blood and urine CAs indicate a specific regulation of CAs in Ramadan-type fasting, which needs to be investigated thoroughly in future studies.

  15. A study of statistics anxiety levels of graduate dental hygiene students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Paul S; Jacks, Mary E; Smiley, Lynn A; Walden, Carolyn E; Clark, William D; Nguyen, Carol A

    2015-02-01

    In light of increased emphasis on evidence-based practice in the profession of dental hygiene, it is important that today's dental hygienist comprehend statistical measures to fully understand research articles, and thereby apply scientific evidence to practice. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate statistics anxiety among graduate dental hygiene students in the U.S. A web-based self-report, anonymous survey was emailed to directors of 17 MSDH programs in the U.S. with a request to distribute to graduate students. The survey collected data on statistics anxiety, sociodemographic characteristics and evidence-based practice. Statistic anxiety was assessed using the Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale. Study significance level was α=0.05. Only 8 of the 17 invited programs participated in the study. Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale data revealed graduate dental hygiene students experience low to moderate levels of statistics anxiety. Specifically, the level of anxiety on the Interpretation Anxiety factor indicated this population could struggle with making sense of scientific research. A decisive majority (92%) of students indicated statistics is essential for evidence-based practice and should be a required course for all dental hygienists. This study served to identify statistics anxiety in a previously unexplored population. The findings should be useful in both theory building and in practical applications. Furthermore, the results can be used to direct future research. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  16. Future migratory behaviour predicted from premigratory levels of gill Na+/K(+-)ATPase activity in individual wild brown trout ( Salmo trutta )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C.; Aarestrup, Kim; Norum, U.

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between premigratory gill Na+/K(+-)ATPase activity, determined at two dates during spring, and future migratory behaviour was investigated using non-lethal gill biopsies and PIT-tagging in wild brown trout (Salmo trutta) from two tributaries. No significant relationship between......(-1)), with an average of 91 % of the predictions being correct. The present study shows that a non-lethal premigratory biochemical measurement can successfully select individual brown trout with high probability of migration...... was obtained. The ability of this regression model from the tributaries to predict future migratory behaviour in an independent group of trout caught in early April in the mainstream was evaluated. A threshold probability of migration was used to predict the behaviour of the mainstream individuals as either...

  17. Survey of studies of occupational populations exposed to low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, S.

    1980-04-01

    Studies of occupational populations exposed to large doses of radiation, principally from the ingestion of radium by dial painters and inhalation of radon and its daughters by miners, have provided important information on the health effects of those radioisotopes. Studies of medical radiologists, military personnel exposed to nuclear tests, and factory workers exposed to thorium are in progress. Employees of DOE-contractor facilities and of naval shipyards are also under study. Personnel dosimetry data are generally available for the latter category of occupational populations. Reasons for conducting the studies include interest in exploring the verification at low exposure levels of results of studies of heavily exposed populations and the responsibility of the employer to maintain adequate surveillance of the health of his workers by conducting appropriate epidemiologic studies. The low level of exposure of workers in facilities where adequate personnel dosimetry records are available make it unlikely that the results of such studies can be used to provide health risk estimates in the near future

  18. Publicly Available Geosynchronous (GEO) Space Object Catalog for Future Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblick, D. C.; Shankar, P.; Xu, S.

    Previously, there have been many commercial proposals and extensive academic studies regarding ground and space based sensors to assist a space surveillance network in obtaining metric observations of satellites and debris near Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). Most use physics based models for geometric constraints, lighting, and tasker/scheduler operations of sensor architectures. Under similar physics modeling assumptions, the space object catalog is often different due to proprietary standards and datasets. Lack of catalog commonality between studies creates barriers and difficulty comparing performance benefits of sensor trades. To solve this problem, we have constructed a future GEO space catalog from publicly available datasets and literature. The annual number of new payloads and rocket bodies is drawn from a Poisson distribution while the growth of the current GEO catalog is bootstrapped from the historical payload, upper stage, and debris data. We adopt a spherically symmetric explosion model and couple it with the NASA standard breakup model to simulate explosions of payloads and rocket bodies as they are the primary drivers of the debris population growth. The cumulative number of fragments follow a power-law distribution. Result from 1,000 random catalog growth simulations indicates that the GEO space object population in the year 2050 will include over 3,600 objects, nearly half of which are debris greater than 10 cm spherical diameter. The number of rocket bodies and dead payloads is projected to nearly double over the next 33 years. For comparison, the current Air Force Space Command catalog snapshot contains fewer than 50 pieces of debris and coarse Radar Cross Section (RCS) estimates which include: small, medium, and large. The current catalog may be sufficient for conjunction studies, but not for analyzing future sensor system performance. The 2050 GEO projected catalog will be available online for commercial/academic research and development.

  19. The past, present, and future of soils and human health studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, E. C.; Sauer, T. J.

    2015-01-01

    The idea that human health is tied to the soil is not a new one. As far back as circa 1400 BC the Bible depicts Moses as understanding that fertile soil was essential to the well-being of his people. In 400 BC the Greek philosopher Hippocrates provided a list of things that should be considered in a proper medical evaluation, including the properties of the local ground. By the late 1700s and early 1800s, American farmers had recognized that soil properties had some connection to human health. In the modern world, we recognize that soils have a distinct influence on human health. We recognize that soils influence (1) food availability and quality (food security), (2) human contact with various chemicals, and (3) human contact with various pathogens. Soils and human health studies include investigations into nutrient supply through the food chain and routes of exposure to chemicals and pathogens. However, making strong, scientific connections between soils and human health can be difficult. There are multiple variables to consider in the soil environment, meaning traditional scientific studies that seek to isolate and manipulate a single variable often do not provide meaningful data. The complete study of soils and human health also involves many different specialties such as soil scientists, toxicologists, medical professionals, anthropologists, etc. These groups do not traditionally work together on research projects, and do not always effectively communicate with one another. Climate change and how it will affect the soil environment/ecosystem going into the future is another variable affecting the relationship between soils and health. Future successes in soils and human health research will require effectively addressing difficult issues such as these.

  20. Geoscientific investigations on the Indian coast: Their application to interpret the paleoclimates and future sea level changes with special reference to greenhouse effect

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Hashimi, N.H.; Pathak, M.C.

    Objectives of this paper are: (1) To delineate the paleo sea level fluctuations and erosional environmental changes along the Indian Coast and their relationship with the changing coastline and human settlements in the recent past. (2) To study...

  1. Leaching studies of low-level radioactive waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayal, R.; Arora, H.; Milian, L.; Clinton, J.

    1985-01-01

    A research program has been underway at the Brookhaven National Laboratory to investigate the release of radionuclides from low-level waste forms under laboratory conditions. This paper describes the leaching behavior of Cs-137 from two major low-level waste streams, that is, ion exchange bead resin and boric acid concentrate, solidified in Portland cement. The resultant leach data are employed to evaluate and predict the release behavior of Cs-137 from low-level waste forms under field burial conditions

  2. Experimental Study of a Multi Level Overtopping Wave Power Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Hald, Tue; Frigaard, Peter Bak

    2002-01-01

    Results of experimental investigations of a floating wave energy device called Power Pyramid is presented. The Power Pyramid utilizes reservoirs in multiple levels when capturing wave overtopping and converting it into electrical energy. The effect of capturing the overtopping in multiple levels,......, using 5 levels introduces practical problems, and is most probably not economically feasible. It is concluded that it is reasonable to use 2 levels (maybe 3), which can increase the efficiency by 25-40 % compared to using a single level.......Results of experimental investigations of a floating wave energy device called Power Pyramid is presented. The Power Pyramid utilizes reservoirs in multiple levels when capturing wave overtopping and converting it into electrical energy. The effect of capturing the overtopping in multiple levels......, compared to only one level, has been evaluated experimentally. From the experimental results, and the performed optimizations based on these, it has been found that the efficiency of a wave power device of the overtopping type can be increased by as much as 76 % by using 5 levels instead of 1. However...

  3. Assessing the impact of systematic reviews on future research: two case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Meera; Nerz, Patrick; Dalberth, Barbara; Voisin, Christiane; Lohr, Kathleen N; Tant, Elizabeth; Jonas, Daniel E; Carey, Timothy

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the impact of systematic reviews on research funded by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) through Evidence-based Practice Centers (EPCs), and to identify barriers to and facilitators for the effects of these documents on future research. Two AHRQ systematic reviews were selected as case studies to evaluate their impact on future research. Key citations generated by these reports were identified through ISI Web of Science and PubMed Central and traced forward to identify effects on subsequent studies through citation analysis from updated systematic reviews on the topics. Requests for applications and program announcements from the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts website were reviewed and dissemination data were obtained from AHRQ. Finally, interviews were conducted with 13 key informants to help identify short-, medium- and long-term impacts of the EPC reviews. The measurable impact of the two EPC reviews is demonstrably greater on short-term outcomes (greater awareness of the issues) than on medium-term (e.g., the generation of new knowledge) or long-term outcomes (e.g., changes in patient practice or health outcomes). Factors such as the topic and the timing of the report relative to the development of the field may explain the impact of these two AHRQ reports. The degree to which the new research can be directly attributed to the AHRQ reviews remains unclear. Key informants discussed several benefits stemming from the EPC reports, including providing a foundation for the research community on which to build, heightening awareness of the gaps in knowledge, increasing the quality of research and sparking new directions of research. However, the degree to which these reports were influential hinged on several factors including marketing efforts, the very nature of the reports and other influences external to the EPC domain. The findings outlined in this article illustrate the importance of numerous factors influencing future

  4. Comprehensive embryo testing. Experts' opinions regarding future directions: an expert panel study on comprehensive embryo testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hens, Kristien; Dondorp, Wybo J; Geraedts, Joep P M; de Wert, Guido M

    2013-05-01

    four Western Europe countries. As willingness to participate in this study may be connected with expectations regarding the pace and direction of future developments, selection bias cannot be excluded. The introduction of comprehensive screening techniques in embryo testing calls for further ethical reflection that is grounded in empirical work. Specifically, there is a need for studies querying the opinions of infertile couples undergoing IVF/PGS regarding the desirability of embryo screening beyond aneuploidy. This research was supported by the CSG, Centre for Society and Life Sciences (project number: 70.1.074). The authors declare no conflict of interest. N/A.

  5. Study on the water related disaster risks using the future socio-economic scenario in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiguchi, M.; Hatono, M.; Ikeuchi, H.; Nakamura, S.; Hirabayashi, Y.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, flood risks in the present and the end of the 21st century in Asia are estimated using a future socio-economic scenario. Using the runoff data of 7 GCMs (RCP 8.5) of CMIP5, the river discharge, inundation area, and inundation depth are calculated for the assessment of flood risk. Finally, the flood risk is estimated using a function of damage. The flood frequency in the end of the 21st century in Asia tends to increase. Inundation area in Japan, Taiwan, and Kyrgyz is almost unchanged. At the same time, that in Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Laos, and Myanmar reached about 1.4-1.6 times compared to present. Damage cost is largely influenced by economic growth, however, we show that it is important that we distinguish the influence of climate change from economic development and evaluate it when we think about an adaptation.

  6. A study on the establishment of nuclear cooperative relations and future direction between Korea and Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, M. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, H. J.; Yun, S. W.; Ko, H. S

    2000-10-01

    This study was carried out in order to review the cooperation with Egypt and establish and activate the cooperative relations with Egypt. Recent policy trends in the use and development of nuclear energy in Egypt, were investigated including introduction of nuclear power plant, and cooperative relations between two nations were also established under the implementation of the project. It was agreed through exchanges of visits of nuclear cooperation delegation; 1) exchange of visits of cooperation delegation, 2) invitation of egypt experts to policy seminar 3) cooperation between relevant nuclear related organizations of two countries, 4) future cooperation fields and directions between two countries. It is recommended that cooperation with Egypt be implemented systematically through the long term based on national basic cooperation directions and integrated strategies.

  7. Safeguards Licensing Aspects of a Future Gen IV Test Facility - a Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, M. Aberg; Grape, S.; Hakansson, A.; Svaerd, S. Jacobsson

    2010-01-01

    The scope of this study covers safeguards licensing aspects of a possible future Gen IV demonstration facility. As a basis for the investigation, the facility was assumed to be located in Sweden, comprising a lead-cooled fast reactor and a reprocessing plant with fuel fabrication. The aim has been to identify safeguards requirements that may be set by the IAEA and the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, and also to suggest how the safeguards system could be implemented in practice. The changed usage and handling of nuclear fuel, as compared to that of today, has been examined in order to determine how today's safeguards measures can be modified and extended to meet the needs of the demonstration facility. This work is part of GENIUS, the Swedish Gen IV research and development programme, which emphasizes lead-cooled fast reactors. (author)

  8. Study of Nb-Cu 1.3 GHz SRF cavity resonators for future particle accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Amelin, Kirill

    2017-01-01

    Niobium-coated superconducting radio-frequency cavities have a number of advantages over cavities made from bulk niobium. Cavities coated with high-power impulse magnetron sputtering are tested at CERN in order to optimize the coating and study the Q-slope that limits the performance. To accurately measure the quality factor as a function of accelerating field, it is important to have good matching between an input antenna and a cavity impedance. To improve the matching, a variable coupler that changes the length of the antenna can be used. We have shown that the Q-factor of the input antenna can be changed between $10^7-10^{11}$ by moving the antenna, which should allow to achieve critical coupling with a cavity. This technology could be used in future measurements, so that reflections are always minimized.

  9. A holistic approach to anesthesia-induced neurotoxicity and its implications for future mechanistic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanghi, Christine N; Jevtovic-Todorovic, Vesna

    The year 2016 marked the 15th anniversary since anesthesia-induced developmental neurotoxicity and its resulting cognitive dysfunction were first described. Since that time, multiple scientific studies have supported these original findings and investigated possible mechanisms behind anesthesia-induced neurotoxicity. This paper reviews the existing mechanistic literature on anesthesia-induced neurotoxicity in the context of a holistic approach that emphasizes the importance of both neuronal and non-neuronal cells during early postnatal development. Sections are divided into key stages in early neural development; apoptosis, neurogenesis, migration, differentiation, synaptogenesis, gliogenesis, myelination and blood brain barrier/cerebrovasculature. In addition, the authors combine the established literature in the field of anesthesia-induced neurotoxicity with literature from other related scientific fields to speculate on the potential role of non-neuronal cells and to generate new future hypotheses for understanding anesthetic toxicity and its application to the practice of pediatric anesthesia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A study on the establishment of nuclear cooperative relations and future direction between Korea and Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, H. J.; Yun, S. W.; Ko, H. S.

    2000-10-01

    This study was carried out in order to review the cooperation with Egypt and establish and activate the cooperative relations with Egypt. Recent policy trends in the use and development of nuclear energy in Egypt, were investigated including introduction of nuclear power plant, and cooperative relations between two nations were also established under the implementation of the project. It was agreed through exchanges of visits of nuclear cooperation delegation; 1) exchange of visits of cooperation delegation, 2) invitation of egypt experts to policy seminar 3) cooperation between relevant nuclear related organizations of two countries, 4) future cooperation fields and directions between two countries. It is recommended that cooperation with Egypt be implemented systematically through the long term based on national basic cooperation directions and integrated strategies

  11. Big data analytics for the Future Circular Collider reliability and availability studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begy, Volodimir; Apollonio, Andrea; Gutleber, Johannes; Martin-Marquez, Manuel; Niemi, Arto; Penttinen, Jussi-Pekka; Rogova, Elena; Romero-Marin, Antonio; Sollander, Peter

    2017-10-01

    Responding to the European Strategy for Particle Physics update 2013, the Future Circular Collider study explores scenarios of circular frontier colliders for the post-LHC era. One branch of the study assesses industrial approaches to model and simulate the reliability and availability of the entire particle collider complex based on the continuous monitoring of CERN’s accelerator complex operation. The modelling is based on an in-depth study of the CERN injector chain and LHC, and is carried out as a cooperative effort with the HL-LHC project. The work so far has revealed that a major challenge is obtaining accelerator monitoring and operational data with sufficient quality, to automate the data quality annotation and calculation of reliability distribution functions for systems, subsystems and components where needed. A flexible data management and analytics environment that permits integrating the heterogeneous data sources, the domain-specific data quality management algorithms and the reliability modelling and simulation suite is a key enabler to complete this accelerator operation study. This paper describes the Big Data infrastructure and analytics ecosystem that has been put in operation at CERN, serving as the foundation on which reliability and availability analysis and simulations can be built. This contribution focuses on data infrastructure and data management aspects and presents case studies chosen for its validation.

  12. A pilot investigation to optimise methods for a future satiety preload study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobden, Mark R; Guérin-Deremaux, Laetitia; Commane, Daniel M; Rowland, Ian; Gibson, Glenn R; Kennedy, Orla B

    2017-01-01

    Preload studies are used to investigate the satiating effects of foods and food ingredients. However, the design of preload studies is complex, with many methodological considerations influencing appetite responses. The aim of this pilot investigation was to determine acceptability, and optimise methods, for a future satiety preload study. Specifically, we investigated the effects of altering (i) energy intake at a standardised breakfast (gender-specific or non-gender specific), and (ii) the duration between mid-morning preload and ad libitum lunch meal, on morning appetite scores and energy intake at lunch. Participants attended a single study visit. Female participants consumed a 214-kcal breakfast ( n  = 10) or 266-kcal breakfast ( n  = 10), equivalent to 10% of recommended daily energy intakes for females and males, respectively. Male participants ( n  = 20) consumed a 266-kcal breakfast. All participants received a 250-ml orange juice preload 2 h after breakfast. The impact of different study timings was evaluated in male participants, with 10 males following one protocol (protocol 1) and 10 males following another (protocol 2). The duration between preload and ad libitum lunch meal was 2 h (protocol 1) or 2.5 h (protocol 2), with the ad libitum lunch meal provided at 12.00 or 13.00, respectively. All female participants followed protocol 2. Visual analogue scale (VAS) questionnaires were used to assess appetite responses and food/drink palatability. Correlation between male and female appetite scores was higher with the provision of a gender-specific breakfast, compared to non-gender-specific breakfast (Pearson correlation of 0.747 and 0.479, respectively). No differences in subjective appetite or ad libitum energy intake were found between protocols 1 and 2. VAS mean ratings of liking, enjoyment, and palatability were all > 66 out of 100 mm for breakfast, preload, and lunch meals. The findings of this pilot study confirm the acceptability

  13. Theoretical studies on core-level spectra of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotani, Akio

    1995-01-01

    I present a review on theoretical studies of core-level spectra (CLS) in solids. In CLS, the dynamical response of outer electrons to a core hole is reflected through the screening of core hole potential. Impurity Anderson model (IAM) or cluster model is successfully applied to the analysis of X-ray photoemission spectra (XPS) and X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) in f and d electron systems, where the f and d electron states are hybridized with the other valence or conduction electron states. The effect of the core-hole potential in the final state of XPS and XAS plays an important role, as well as the solid state hybridization and intra-atomic multiplet coupling effects. As typical examples, the calculated results for XPS of rare-earth compounds and transition metal compounds are shown, and some discussions are given. As a subject of remarkable progress with high brightness synchrotron radiation sources, I discuss some theoretical aspects of X-ray emission spectra (XES) and their resonant enhancement at the X-ray absorption threshold. Some experimental data and their theoretical analysis are also given. (author)

  14. Word-level prominence in Persian: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Vahid

    2017-12-01

    Previous literature on the phonetics of stress in Persian has reported that fundamental frequency is the only reliable acoustic correlate of stress, and that stressed and unstressed syllables are not differentiated from each other in the absence of accentuation. In this study, the effects of lexical stress on duration, overall intensity and spectral tilt were examined in Persian both in the accented and unaccented conditions. Results showed that syllable duration is consistently affected by stress in Persian in both the accented and unaccented conditions across all vowel types. Unlike duration, the results for overall intensity and spectral tilt were significant only in the accented condition, suggesting that measures of intensity are not a correlate of stress in Persian but they are mainly caused by the presence of a pitch movement. The findings are phonologically interpreted as suggesting that word-level prominence in Persian is typologically similar to 'stress accent' languages, in which multiple phonetic cues are used to signal the prominence contrast in the accented condition, and stressed and unstressed syllables are different from each other even when the word is not pitch-accented.

  15. Levels of Acculturation of Chinese Older Adults in the Greater Chicago Area - The Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, XinQi; Bergren, Stephanie M; Chang, E-Shien

    2015-09-01

    Acculturation is a difficult process for minority older adults for a variety of reasons, including access and exposure to mainstream culture, competing ethnic identities, and linguistic ability and preference. There is a paucity of research regarding overall level of acculturation for Chinese older adults in the United States. This study aimed to provide an overall estimate of level of acculturation of Chinese older adults in the United States and to examine correlations between sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported health measures, and level of acculturation. Data were collected through the Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago (PINE) study. This community-based participatory research study surveyed 3,159 Chinese older adults aged 60 and older. The PINE Study Acculturation Scale was used to assess level of acculturation in three dimensions: language preference, media use, and ethnic social relations. Mean acculturation level for all items was 15.3 ± 5.1, indicating low levels of acculturation. Older age, more offspring, lower income, fewer years living in the United States, lower overall health status, and lower quality of life were associated with lower levels of acculturation. Level of acculturation was low in Chinese older adults, and certain subsets of the population were more likely to have a lower level of acculturation. Future research should investigate causality and effects of level of acculturation. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  16. A comparative study of image low level feature extraction algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. El-gayar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Feature extraction and matching is at the base of many computer vision problems, such as object recognition or structure from motion. Current methods for assessing the performance of popular image matching algorithms are presented and rely on costly descriptors for detection and matching. Specifically, the method assesses the type of images under which each of the algorithms reviewed herein perform to its maximum or highest efficiency. The efficiency is measured in terms of the number of matches founds by the algorithm and the number of type I and type II errors encountered when the algorithm is tested against a specific pair of images. Current comparative studies asses the performance of the algorithms based on the results obtained in different criteria such as speed, sensitivity, occlusion, and others. This study addresses the limitations of the existing comparative tools and delivers a generalized criterion to determine beforehand the level of efficiency expected from a matching algorithm given the type of images evaluated. The algorithms and the respective images used within this work are divided into two groups: feature-based and texture-based. And from this broad classification only three of the most widely used algorithms are assessed: color histogram, FAST (Features from Accelerated Segment Test, SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform, PCA-SIFT (Principal Component Analysis-SIFT, F-SIFT (fast-SIFT and SURF (speeded up robust features. The performance of the Fast-SIFT (F-SIFT feature detection methods are compared for scale changes, rotation, blur, illumination changes and affine transformations. All the experiments use repeatability measurement and the number of correct matches for the evaluation measurements. SIFT presents its stability in most situations although its slow. F-SIFT is the fastest one with good performance as the same as SURF, SIFT, PCA-SIFT show its advantages in rotation and illumination changes.

  17. A critical assessment of the perceptions of graduates regarding their generic skills level: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elroy Eugene Smith

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines the perceptions of potential Business Management graduates regarding their generic skills level.  To achieve the aim of this article, a literature study and empirical research were undertaken.  A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 205 potential Business Management graduates at a tertiary institution. To investigate the relationship between the independent and dependent variables, thirteen null-hypotheses were tested.  The results revealed some significant relationships between these variables.  Seven predetermined generic skills factors, namely basic, communication, management, environmental awareness, intellectual, self and career management as well as interpersonal skills, were identified and empirically tested in this article.  Skills development should take place within an overall framework providing for the coordination and progression of skills development from first to final year of studyFuture curricula development should specifically focus on developing those skills lacking most by potential graduates as identified in this article.

  18. Logic as Marr's computational level: Four case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baggio, G.; Lambalgen, M. van; Hagoort, P.

    2015-01-01

    We sketch four applications of Marr's levels-of-analysis methodology to the relations between logic and experimental data in the cognitive neuroscience of language and reasoning. The first part of the paper illustrates the explanatory power of computational level theories based on logic. We show

  19. High level waste canister emplacement and retrieval concepts study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-09-01

    Several concepts are described for the interim (20 to 30 years) storage of canisters containing high level waste, cladding waste, and intermediate level-TRU wastes. It includes requirements, ground rules and assumptions for the entire storage pilot plant. Concepts are generally evaluated and the most promising are selected for additional work. Follow-on recommendations are made

  20. Feasibility study on a cosmic-ray level gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, H.; Fukaya, M.; Minato, S.

    1989-01-01

    Cosmic-ray intensities were measured at the stairs in a subway station in Nagoya City, inside a tall concrete building and under a cylindrical water tank, to examine the feasibility of a cosmic-ray level gauge. The measured results agreed quite well with the theoretical calculations. These results show that a cosmic-ray level gauge is feasible. (author)