WorldWideScience

Sample records for levels focused tree-planting

  1. Understanding the challenges of municipal tree planting

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson; R. Young

    2010-01-01

    Nine of the twelve largest cities in the U.S. have mayoral tree planting initiatives (TPIs), with pledges to plant nearly 20 million trees. Although executive-level support for trees has never been this widespread, many wonder if this support will endure as administrations change and budgets tighten. In an effort to share lessons learned from successes and setbacks, a...

  2. Public Reactions to New Street Tree Planting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth A. Rae

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available MillionTreesNYC, which has the goal of planting one million trees in New York City by 2017, is intended to make New York City a greener, more sustainable city and is part of the Mayor’s comprehensive long term strategic plan, PlaNYC. Through planting a tree at every suitable sidewalk location in the city, the City of New York is transforming blocks and communities, and providing a variety of environmental, social and aesthetic benefits. This article examines the large scale municipal planting of new street trees and the reaction by some of the pubic to this planting.Trees offer benefits to the city overall, but the public may not understand these benefits or the street tree planting process. Between 2007 and 2009, the Department of Parks & Recreation planted 53,235 new street trees, and received 4,108 items of correspondence from the public. The majority of this correspondence consisted of public comments about the City’s new street tree planting policies and processes including placement objections, maintenance concerns, reports of resultant damage from tree planting operations, requests for new street trees and reports of tree conditions.This study describes the operational policies that guide New York City's municipal street tree planting, and results of content and spatial analysis of the correspondence. Qualitative analysis of the correspondence revealed the public perceptions and concerns related to the MillionTreesNYC program. Spatial analysis explored the relationship between the planting locations of new street trees and the locations of the citizen correspondence.Public reactions to this large scale municipal planting are related to the dual public and private nature of the sidewalk, issues of territoriality, responsibility, aesthetics and place attachment. Correspondence volume was associated with the scale of the new street tree block planting program, and the effectiveness of NYC’s 311 Customer Service Center. The discussion

  3. Planting and care of fine hardwood seedlings: Financial and tax aspects of tree planting

    Science.gov (United States)

    William L. Hoover

    2004-01-01

    Trees are planted for many reasons, including soil and water conservation, wildlife habitat, nut and timber production. Altruism motivates many landowners to plant trees. There are, however, those who plant with the expectation of increasing their family's wealth. In this publication I discuss the financial and tax aspects of tree planting projects. The focus is...

  4. Farmers' tree planting and access to germplasm in the southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most farmers in the southern highlands of Tanzania plant significant numbers of trees and tree planting is an integral part of farming systems. Main purposes of tree planting are fuelwood, timber in a broad sense, and fruit production. People want to plant well-known species, which in most cases are exotics, and many ...

  5. Implications of tree planting on pollutant dispersion in street canyons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gromke, C.B.; Ruck, B.

    2009-01-01

    Traffic pollutant dispersion processes inside urban street canyons with avenue-like tree planting have been studied in wind tunnel experiments. Tree planting of different crown porosities and their effects on the pollutant concentrations at the canyon walls have been investigated for wind

  6. Growing Greener Cities: A Tree-Planting Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Gary; Young, Stanley

    This step-by-step guide, developed by the Global ReLeaf organization, presents tree-planting advice and simple steps to organizing a successful community tree-planting and tree-care program. The text is divided into three parts. Part 1 introduces trees and discusses the role they play as components of the living urban environment. Distinctions are…

  7. Does tree planting pay us back? Lessons from Sacramento, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yekang Ko; Lara A. Roman; E. Gregory McPherson; Junhak. Lee

    2016-01-01

    The past decade could be called a renaissance of urban forestry, driven by mayoral tree planting initiatives and increased attention on city trees as green infrastructure. The political support for urban greening has been fueled by research that quantifies and projects the ecosystem services of planting initiatives (Young and McPherson 2013). Major cities have been...

  8. Investigation of survival rate of trees planted in agroforestry and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low survival rate of trees planted during annual planting campaigns is often reported in many parts of the country and there is need to understand why and propose adequate solutions to improve survival rate of trees in plantation. The study was conducted in three sectors of Huye District namely Mukura, Tumba and Ngoma ...

  9. Tree planting in deserts and utilization of atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Sadao; Minato, Akio; Hashizume, Kenichi; Handa, Norihiko.

    1991-01-01

    Global environment problems are discussed actively, concretely, those are the warming of the earth, the advance of desertification, the damage due to acid rain, the decrease of tropical forests, the pollution of sea, the depletion of ozone layer and so on. Most of these phenomena advance gradually. However, the advance of desertification is different from other phenomena in that the people in the areas concerned are deprived of their living space and even their lives are threatened at this moment. Desertification is advancing on global scale, and its rate is estimated to be 60,000 km 2 yearly. Especially the area where the advance is remarkable is the southern edge of Sahara Desert, which advances southward at 10-30 km in one year. Recently also in Japan, the interest in the prevention of desertification has become high, and the experiment on tree planting in a desert using a huge desert dome of the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, 'Desert Aquanet concept' of Shimizu Construction Co., Ltd., 'Sahara green belt project' of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry and so on were published. Water and energy for tree planting in deserts, utilization of atomic energy for seawater desalination and the technical fields to which Japan can contribute are reported. (K.I.)

  10. Tree planting in deserts and utilization of atomic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Sadao; Minato, Akio [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Hashizume, Kenichi; Handa, Norihiko

    1991-06-01

    Global environment problems are discussed actively, concretely, those are the warming of the earth, the advance of desertification, the damage due to acid rain, the decrease of tropical forests, the pollution of sea, the depletion of ozone layer and so on. Most of these phenomena advance gradually. However, the advance of desertification is different from other phenomena in that the people in the areas concerned are deprived of their living space and even their lives are threatened at this moment. Desertification is advancing on global scale, and its rate is estimated to be 60,000 km{sup 2} yearly. Especially the area where the advance is remarkable is the southern edge of Sahara Desert, which advances southward at 10-30 km in one year. Recently also in Japan, the interest in the prevention of desertification has become high, and the experiment on tree planting in a desert using a huge desert dome of the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, 'Desert Aquanet concept' of Shimizu Construction Co., Ltd., 'Sahara green belt project' of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry and so on were published. Water and energy for tree planting in deserts, utilization of atomic energy for seawater desalination and the technical fields to which Japan can contribute are reported. (K.I.).

  11. Ergonomics aspects of tree-planting using 'multipot' technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giguère, D; Bélanger, R; Gauthier, J M; Larue, C

    1993-08-01

    The highlights of a descriptive study on the ergonomics and occupational health and safety aspects of tree-planting in Québec are presented. The study was planned to consider the most representative geographical sites, planting technologies, and planting organizations. Semi-directed interviews were made with a mixed group of 48 male and female tree-planters and physiological measurements were made on four male planters. Tools and other equipment were also examined. An analysis of the work identified the main elements of the planting cycle, and the high cardiac rate in the working planters was related more to his manual transportation of seedlings and travel on rough paths than to planting per se. A tree-planter will typically travel 2.4 km carrying 16.8 kg of material and equipment in order to plant an average of 1245 seedlings daily. One out of two interviewed planters reported having a work-related accident or incident during his or her lifetime planting career. The body parts reported most frequently injured were the lower extremities (knee, foot, ankle), the skin, the eyes, and the wrist. Recommendations on the development of appropriate tools and footwear for tree-planters and for further research on repetitive strain injury induced by tree-planting have been made.

  12. Development and application of the variable focus laser leveling gage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Kun; Ma Jinglong

    2005-01-01

    The variable focus laser leveling gage was developed. The performance and structure were introduced. The several alignments and tests in KrF laser angle multi-path optical system were accomplished with them. Its application in other optical equipment was discussed too. (author)

  13. Determinants of farmers' tree-planting investment decisions as a degraded landscape management strategy in the central highlands of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessesse, Berhan; Bewket, Woldeamlak; Bräuning, Achim

    2016-04-01

    Land degradation due to lack of sustainable land management practices is one of the critical challenges in many developing countries including Ethiopia. This study explored the major determinants of farm-level tree-planting decisions as a land management strategy in a typical farming and degraded landscape of the Modjo watershed, Ethiopia. The main data were generated from household surveys and analysed using descriptive statistics and a binary logistic regression model. The model significantly predicted farmers' tree-planting decisions (χ2 = 37.29, df = 15, P labour force availability, the disparity of schooling age, level of perception of the process of deforestation and the current land tenure system had a critical influence on tree-growing investment decisions in the study watershed. Eventually, the processes of land-use conversion and land degradation were serious, which in turn have had adverse effects on agricultural productivity, local food security and poverty trap nexus. Hence, the study recommended that devising and implementing sustainable land management policy options would enhance ecological restoration and livelihood sustainability in the study watershed.

  14. Determinants of farmers' tree planting investment decision as a degraded landscape management strategy in the central highlands of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessesse, B.; Bewket, W.; Bräuning, A.

    2015-11-01

    Land degradation due to lack of sustainable land management practices are one of the critical challenges in many developing countries including Ethiopia. This study explores the major determinants of farm level tree planting decision as a land management strategy in a typical framing and degraded landscape of the Modjo watershed, Ethiopia. The main data were generated from household surveys and analysed using descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression model. The model significantly predicted farmers' tree planting decision (Chi-square = 37.29, df = 15, Plabour force availability, the disparity of schooling age, level of perception of the process of deforestation and the current land tenure system have positively and significantly influence on tree growing investment decisions in the study watershed. Eventually, the processes of land use conversion and land degradation are serious which in turn have had adverse effects on agricultural productivity, local food security and poverty trap nexus. Hence, devising sustainable and integrated land management policy options and implementing them would enhance ecological restoration and livelihood sustainability in the study watershed.

  15. Trait-level and week-level regulatory focus as a motivation to craft a job

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrou, P.; Demerouti, E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to address regulatory focus (promotion vs prevention) as a trait-level variable and a week-level variable linked to employee job crafting behaviors (i.e. seeking resources, seeking challenges and reducing demands). The authors hypothesized that while promotion

  16. A method for locating potential tree-planting sites in urban areas: a case study of Los Angeles, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunxia Wua; Qingfu Xiaoa; Gregory E. McPherson

    2008-01-01

    A GIS-based method for locating potential tree-planting sites based on land cover data is introduced. Criteria were developed to identify locations that are spatially available for potential tree planting based on land cover, sufficient distance from impervious surfaces, a minimum amount of pervious surface, and no crown overlap with other trees. In an ArcGIS...

  17. Environmental justice and factors that influence participation in tree planting programs in Portland, Oregon, U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan; John Mills

    2014-01-01

    Many cities have policies encouraging homeowners to plant trees. For these policies to be effective, it is important to understand what motivates a homeowner’s tree-planting decision. Researchers address this question by identifying variables that influence participation in a tree-planting program in Portland, Oregon, U.S. According to the study, homeowners with street...

  18. Modeling the effectiveness of tree planting to mitigate habitat loss in blue oak woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard B. Standiford; Douglas McCreary; William Frost

    2002-01-01

    Many local conservation policies have attempted to mitigate the loss of oak woodland habitat resulting from conversion to urban or intensive agricultural land uses through tree planting. This paper models the development of blue oak (Quercus douglasii) stand structure attributes over 50 years after planting. The model uses a single tree, distance...

  19. Tree planting by small producers in the tropics: A comparative study of Brazil and Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia S. Simmons; Robert T. Walker; Charles H. Wood

    2002-01-01

    Forest regrowth is a notable phenomenon across the tropical forest latitudes. Such reforestation takes place in the wake of land abandonment, occurs cyclically in a rotational agricultural system, and may result from the deliberate planting of trees by farmers. Although less extensive than successional forest regeneration, tree planting by small farmers can have...

  20. Dispersion of traffic exhausts in urban street canyons with tree plantings : experimental and numerical investigations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gromke, C.B.; Denev, J.; Ruck, B.

    2007-01-01

    Wind tunnel experiments and numerical computations have been performed in order to investigate the influence of avenuelike tree plantings on the dispersion of traffic exhaust in an urban street canyon. Reduced natural ventilation and enhanced pollutant concentrations have been found in the presence

  1. Numerical modeling of flow and pollutant dispersion in street canyons with tree planting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balczó, M.; Gromke, C.B.; Ruck, B.

    2009-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the impact of tree planting on airflow and traffic pollutant dispersion in urban street canyons have been performed using the commercial CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) code MISKAM. A k-e turbulence model including additional terms for the treatment of vegetation, has

  2. The potential of urban tree plantings to be cost effective in carbon credit markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.R. McHale; E.G. McPherson; I.C. Burke

    2007-01-01

    Emission trading is considered to be an economically sensitive method for reducing the concentrations of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere. There has been debate about the viability of using urban tree plantings in these markets. The main concern is whether or not urban planting projects can be cost effective options for investors. We...

  3. Planting and care of fine hardwood seedlings: diseases in hardwood tree plantings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula M. Pijut

    2006-01-01

    Hardwood trees planted for timber production, wildlife habitat, riparian buffers, native woodland restoration, windbreaks, watershed protection, erosion control, and conservation are susceptible to damage or even death by various native and exotic fungal or bacterial diseases. Establishment, growth, and the quality of the trees produced can be affected by these disease...

  4. Assessing Education Needs at Tertiary Level: The Focus Group Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena-Mirela Samfira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the paper is to point out the advantages and disadvantages of the focus group method in assessing the education needs of teachers and students in veterinary medicine. It is the first stage of a wider research aiming at developing problem-based teaching and learning methodologies in the field of veterinary medicine. The materials used consisted of literature documents on focus group as a research method in social sciences. The authors studied the literature available in the field and synthesised its main advantages and disadvantages. The paper is the first of this kind in Romania. Results show that there is no agreement yet on the advantages and disadvantages of this method. The research limitation is that there is almost no Romanian literature on focus group as a method. The usefulness of the paper is obvious: it allows other researchers in the field of education see the benefits of using such a research method. The originality of the paper consists in the fact that there has been no such research so far in Romanian higher education. Based on the results of the focus groups organised, the authors will design and implement a problem-based learning methodology for the students in veterinary medicine.

  5. A Research Focused on Improving Vocalisation Level on Violin Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasiz, Gökalp

    2018-01-01

    The research aimed to improve vocalisation levels of music teacher's candidates on performance works for violin education moving from difficulties faced by prospective teachers. At the same time, it was aimed to provide new perspectives to violin educators. Study group was composed of six 3rd grade students studying violin education in a State…

  6. Patterns and drivers of fuelwood collection and tree planting in a Middle Hill watershed of Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, Edward L.; Dhakal, Arun

    2011-01-01

    The majority of residents in the rural Middle Hills of Nepal use fuelwood from public and private sources as their primary energy source. This study investigated fuelwood availability in accessed forests, amount of fuelwood collected, preferred tree species for fuelwood, contribution of public and private sources to total fuelwood consumption, and investment in tree planting on agricultural land. Fuelwood availability declined in the decades prior to 1990, but stabilized by 1990. Fuelwood from fifty-three species was collected from forests. Median annual per capita collection was 683 kg and predicted only by family size. Occupational castes ('low castes') did not show different harvesting rates than non-occupational castes and non-caste ethnic groups. Wealth was not associated with total fuelwood collection, probably because there was no fuelwood market. Most households collected fuelwood from a private source, namely trees planted on sloping, rain-fed agricultural land (bari), but this accounted for only a small portion of most households' requirement. Bari landholding area and livestock holdings-typical measures of wealth-drove the decision to plant trees on bari land, and the number of trees that were planted. Bari-poor and landless households were consequently the most vulnerable to forest degradation, so the promotion of private fuelwood planting by large bari landholders could reduce pressure on forests and promote greater fuelwood availability for landless households. Support of community forestry emphasizing access for bari-poor and landless families could further decrease fuelwood vulnerability of poorer households. (author)

  7. Numerical modeling of flow and pollutant dispersion in street canyons with tree planting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balczo, Marton [Budapest Univ. of Technology and Economics (Hungary). Theodore von Karman Wind Tunnel Lab.; Gromke, Christof; Ruck, Bodo [Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany). Lab. of Building- and Environmental Aerodynamics

    2009-04-15

    Numerical simulations of the impact of tree planting on airflow and traffic pollutant dispersion in urban street canyons have been performed using the commercial CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) code MISKAM. A {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model including additional terms for the treatment of vegetation, has been employed to close the Reynolds-averaged-Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The numerical results were compared to wind tunnel data. In the case of the investigated wind direction perpendicular to the street axis, the presence of trees lead to increased pollutant concentrations inside the canyon. Concentrations increased strongly on the upstream side of the canyon, while on the downstream side a small concentration decrease could be observed. Lower flow velocities and higher pollutant concentrations were found in the numerical simulations when directly compared to the experimental results. However, the impact of tree planting on airflow and concentration fields when compared to the treeless street canyon as a reference configuration were simulated quite well, meaning that relative changes were similar in the wind tunnel investigations and numerical computations. This feature qualifies MISKAM for use as a tool for assessing the impacts of vegetation on local air quality. (orig.)

  8. Modelling short-rotation coppice and tree planting for urban carbon management - a citywide analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Nicola; Edmondson, Jill L; Gaston, Kevin J; Leake, Jonathan R; O'Sullivan, Odhran S

    2015-10-01

    The capacity of urban areas to deliver provisioning ecosystem services is commonly overlooked and underutilized. Urban populations have globally increased fivefold since 1950, and they disproportionately consume ecosystem services and contribute to carbon emissions, highlighting the need to increase urban sustainability and reduce environmental impacts of urban dwellers. Here, we investigated the potential for increasing carbon sequestration, and biomass fuel production, by planting trees and short-rotation coppice (SRC), respectively, in a mid-sized UK city as a contribution to meeting national commitments to reduce CO 2 emissions.Iterative GIS models were developed using high-resolution spatial data. The models were applied to patches of public and privately owned urban greenspace suitable for planting trees and SRC, across the 73 km 2 area of the city of Leicester. We modelled tree planting with a species mix based on the existing tree populations, and SRC with willow and poplar to calculate biomass production in new trees, and carbon sequestration into harvested biomass over 25 years.An area of 11 km 2 comprising 15% of the city met criteria for tree planting and had the potential over 25 years to sequester 4200 tonnes of carbon above-ground. Of this area, 5·8 km 2 also met criteria for SRC planting and over the same period this could yield 71 800 tonnes of carbon in harvested biomass.The harvested biomass could supply energy to over 1566 domestic homes or 30 municipal buildings, resulting in avoided carbon emissions of 29 236 tonnes of carbon over 25 years when compared to heating by natural gas. Together with the net carbon sequestration into trees, a total reduction of 33 419 tonnes of carbon in the atmosphere could be achieved in 25 years by combined SRC and tree planting across the city. Synthesis and applications . We demonstrate that urban greenspaces in a typical UK city are underutilized for provisioning ecosystem services by trees and

  9. Patterns and drivers of fuelwood collection and tree planting in a Middle Hill watershed of Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Edward L. [Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, 14 Science Drive 4 (Singapore); Dhakal, Arun [Nepal Agroforestry Foundation, Kathmandu (Nepal)

    2011-01-15

    The majority of residents in the rural Middle Hills of Nepal use fuelwood from public and private sources as their primary energy source. This study investigated fuelwood availability in accessed forests, amount of fuelwood collected, preferred tree species for fuelwood, contribution of public and private sources to total fuelwood consumption, and investment in tree planting on agricultural land. Fuelwood availability declined in the decades prior to 1990, but stabilized by 1990. Fuelwood from fifty-three species was collected from forests. Median annual per capita collection was 683 kg and predicted only by family size. Occupational castes ('low castes') did not show different harvesting rates than non-occupational castes and non-caste ethnic groups. Wealth was not associated with total fuelwood collection, probably because there was no fuelwood market. Most households collected fuelwood from a private source, namely trees planted on sloping, rain-fed agricultural land (bari), but this accounted for only a small portion of most households' requirement. Bari landholding area and livestock holdings-typical measures of wealth-drove the decision to plant trees on bari land, and the number of trees that were planted. Bari-poor and landless households were consequently the most vulnerable to forest degradation, so the promotion of private fuelwood planting by large bari landholders could reduce pressure on forests and promote greater fuelwood availability for landless households. Support of community forestry emphasizing access for bari-poor and landless families could further decrease fuelwood vulnerability of poorer households. (author)

  10. The Effects of Water-Absorbent Materials on Water Supply for Tree Planting in the Semi-Arid Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Reza Davarpanah Davarpanah

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have so far been focused on increasing irrigation efficiency through such measures as soil moisture retention and soil moisture capacity as well as improving soil physical conditions. In this study, surface runoff reduction, deep penetration of rain water, and use of rain water at irrigation sites with the help of water absorbent chemicals were investigated as measures of supplying for tree water demand and also of reducing drought effects. The absorbent material was purchased from Iran Polymer Research Center. The experimental design included three independent experiments in a completely randomized block design (CRBD with 5 treatments (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 gr. of the absorbent material and three replications. The tree species used in the experiments were Amygdalus sp., Vitis vinifera, and Pistacia vera. There were 5 experimental units with 4 trees planted 3×3 meters apart. Appropriate amounts of the test material (absorbent were mixed with soil. Three characters of survival including: growth diameter, height, and canopy cover were recorded 4 times a year over two consecutive years. Mstat-c statistical software was used in the statistical analysis (Factor option. Results showed that the tree species had significant differences in their survival due to their genetic and physiological characteristics, so that the species of Vitis vinifera and Pistacia vera recorded the minimum and maximum survival values, respectively. Data collection within the present study is suggested to be continued and similar studies with light and sandy textured soils under greenhouse conditions are needed in order to gain more accurate information on these effects.

  11. Evaluation of numerical flow and dispersion simulations for street canyons with avenue-like tree planting by comparison with wind tunnel data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gromke, C.B.; Buccolieri, R.; Sabatino, Di S.; Ruck, B.

    2008-01-01

    Flow and traffic-originated pollutant dispersion in an urban street canyon with avenue-like tree planting have been studied by means of wind tunnel and CFD investigations. The study comprises tree planting of different crown porosity, planted in two rows within a canyon of street width to building

  12. Performance assessment of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) for modeling dispersion in an urban street canyon with tree planting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, P.; Gromke, C.B.; Dorer, V.

    2013-01-01

    The potential of a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model to reliably predict near-field pollutant dispersion is assessed. To that extent, detailed time-resolved numerical simulations of coupled flow and dispersion are conducted for a street canyon with tree planting. Different crown porosities are

  13. Secondary forest succession and tree planting at the Laguna Cartagena and Cabo Rojo wildlife refuges in southwestern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.L. Weaver; J.J. Schwagerl

    2008-01-01

    Secondary forest succession and tree planting are contributing to the recovery of the Cabo Rojo refuge (Headquarters and Salinas tracts) and Laguna Cartagena refuge (Lagoon and Tinaja tracts) of the Fish and Wildlife Service in southwestern Puerto Rico. About 80 species, mainly natives, have been planted on 44 ha during the past 25 y in an effort to reduce the threat...

  14. Forest Focus Monitoring Database System - Technical Report 2003 Level II Data

    OpenAIRE

    HIEDERER ROLAND; DURRANT TRACY; GRANKE O.; LAMBOTTE Michel; LORENZ M.; MIGNON B.; OEHMICHEN K.

    2007-01-01

    Forest Focus (Regulation (EC) No 2152/2003) is a Community scheme for harmonized, broad-based, comprehensive and long-term monitoring of European forest ecosystems. Under this scheme the monitoring of air pollution effects on forests is carried out by participating countries on the basis of the systematic network of observation points (Level I) and of the network of observation plots for intensive and continuous monitoring (Level II). According to Article 15(1) of the Forest Focus Regulat...

  15. Forest Focus Monitoring Database System - Technical Report 2006 Level II Data

    OpenAIRE

    HIEDERER Roland; DURRANT Tracy; GRANKE Oliver; LAMBOTTE Michel; LORENZ Martin; MIGNON Bertrand

    2008-01-01

    Forest Focus (Regulation (EC) No 2152/2003) is a Community scheme for harmonized, broadbased, comprehensive and long-term monitoring of European forest ecosystems. Under this scheme the monitoring of air pollution effects on forests is carried out by participating countries on the basis of the systematic network of observation points (Level I) and of the network of observation plots for intensive and continuous monitoring (Level II). According to Article 15(1) of the Forest Focus Regulatio...

  16. Coastal sensitivity to sea level rise : a focus on the mid-atlantic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-15

    The focus of this product is to identify and review the potential impacts of future sea-level rise based on present scientific understanding. To do so, this product evaluates : several aspects of sea-level rise impacts to the natural environment and ...

  17. The Spatial Focus of Attention Is Controlled at Perceptual and Cognitive Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caparos, Serge; Linnell, Karina J.

    2010-01-01

    Selective attention has been hypothesized to reduce distractor interference at both perceptual and postperceptual levels (Lavie, 2005), respectively, by focusing perceptual resources on the attended location and by blocking at postperceptual levels distractors that survive perceptual selection. This study measured the impact of load on these…

  18. 3D shape recovery from image focus using gray level co-occurrence matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Fahad; Munir, Umair; Mehmood, Fahad; Iqbal, Javaid

    2018-04-01

    Recovering a precise and accurate 3-D shape of the target object utilizing robust 3-D shape recovery algorithm is an ultimate objective of computer vision community. Focus measure algorithm plays an important role in this architecture which convert the color values of each pixel of the acquired 2-D image dataset into corresponding focus values. After convolving the focus measure filter with the input 2-D image dataset, a 3-D shape recovery approach is applied which will recover the depth map. In this document, we are concerned with proposing Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix along with its statistical features for computing the focus information of the image dataset. The Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix quantifies the texture present in the image using statistical features and then applies joint probability distributive function of the gray level pairs of the input image. Finally, we quantify the focus value of the input image using Gaussian Mixture Model. Due to its little computational complexity, sharp focus measure curve, robust to random noise sources and accuracy, it is considered as superior alternative to most of recently proposed 3-D shape recovery approaches. This algorithm is deeply investigated on real image sequences and synthetic image dataset. The efficiency of the proposed scheme is also compared with the state of art 3-D shape recovery approaches. Finally, by means of two global statistical measures, root mean square error and correlation, we claim that this approach -in spite of simplicity generates accurate results.

  19. Macromycetes diversity of pine-tree plantings on a post-fire forest site in Notecka Forest (NW Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Friedrich

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a study on fungi in pine-tree plantings after the last great fire in Notecka Forest. The occurrence of 134 species of fungi and 3 species of myxomycetes was recorded in 25 permanent study areas investigated between 1993 and 1998. The particpalion of bio-ecological of macromycetes was described in the context of vegetation changes in the years following the fire.

  20. Evaluation of numerical flow and dispersion simulations for street canyons with avenue-like tree planting by comparison with wind tunnel data

    OpenAIRE

    Gromke, CB Christof; Buccolieri, R; Sabatino, S Di; Ruck, B

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: Flow and traffic-originated pollutant dispersion in an urban street canyon with avenue-like tree planting have been studied by means of wind tunnel and CFD investigations. The study comprises tree planting of different crown porosity, planted in two rows within a canyon of street width to building height ratio W/H = 2 and street length to building height ratio L/H = 10 exposed to a perpendicular approaching boundary layer flow. Numerical simulations have been performed with...

  1. Survey on weather changes associated with large-scale tree-planting. 2; Daikibo ryokuka ni tomonau kiko henka ni kansuru chosa. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    An investigational study was made for large-scale tree-planting aiming at CO2 fixation. Water resource and precipitation relating to tree-planting were determined from NASA data and arranged into the global distribution map. It was found that Australia and the Chinese continent are under the relatively favorable condition. As for the soil condition, nutrition resource is short in the desert and unused zone. From the vegetation data obtained from meteorological satellite NOAA, developed was a method for estimating net primary productivity of terrestrial ecosystem and obtained was a global distribution map for the amount of CO2 fixed under the present terrestrial vegetation. At the same time, areas which have great potentiality of tree-planting were selected from the map for estimating potentiality of the global tree-planting. To study the promotion of rainfall as a means of expanding the potential tree-planting area, the conventional meteorological and physical model was improved, and more realistic simulation was made possible. Also as to the water utilization technology, the modeling method was developed. As the area having a potentiality of expanding tree-planting, Australia (especially the west) was cited as the first candidate, and China the second candidate. 108 refs., 128 figs., 49 tabs.

  2. Consequences of Collective-Focused Leadership and Differentiated Individual-Focused Leadership : Development and Testing of an Organizational-Level Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kunze, Florian; de Jong, Simon Barend; Bruch, Heike

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in leadership research suggest that collective-focused leadership climate and differentiated individual-focused leadership might simultaneously, yet oppositely, affect collective outcomes. The present study extends this literature by addressing open questions regarding theory, methods, statistics, and level of analysis. Therefore, a new and more parsimonious theoretical model is developed on the organizational-level of analysis. Drawing on the commitment literature, we argue f...

  3. Impact of tree planting configuration on canopy interception and soil hydrological properties: Implications for flood mitigation in silvopastoral systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunka, Peter; Patil, Sopan

    2015-04-01

    Compaction of upper soil layers by intensive sheep grazing has been connected with increased local flood risk in silvopastoral systems. A 12 week field study was conducted at the Henfaes Research Station near Bangor, Wales to compare two silvopastoral configurations, trees planted in fenced off clumps and trees planted evenly spaced, in terms of canopy throughfall, soil water infiltration and soil bulk density. The study's aim was to characterize the potential of these tree planting configurations to reduce local flood risk. The study site (Henfaes) was established in 1992 on 14 ha of agricultural land and is part of the Silvopastoral National Network Experiment sites that have been set up across the UK to examine the potential of silvopasture and agroforestry on UK farms. Automated throughfall gauges were installed in each silvopastoral treatment along with a similarly designed control gauge located in the grazed control pasture. Soil water infiltration and bulk density were measured 20 times in a stratified random design for each treatment and the control. Soil infiltration capacity in the clumped configuration was significantly higher than in the even spaced configuration and control pasture. The clumped configuration had mean infiltration capacity 504% greater than the control pasture and 454% greater than the even spaced configuration. Canopy interception was higher in the clumped trees than in the evenly spaced trees. Average canopy interception was 34% in the clumped treatment and 28% in the evenly spaced treatment. Soil bulk density was lower in the clumped configuration than in the control pasture and evenly spaced configuration. Results suggest that in silvopastoral systems the clumped tree configuration is more likely to reduce local flood risk than the evenly spaced tree configuration due to enhanced infiltration and increased canopy interception.

  4. Strategies for Sharing Scientific Research on Sea Level Rise: Suggestions from Stakeholder Focus Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLorme, D.; Hagen, S. C.; Stephens, S. H.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation reports results of focus groups with coastal resource managers on suggestions for effectively sharing sea level rise (SLR) scientific research with the public and other target audiences. The focus groups were conducted during three annual stakeholder workshops as an important and innovative component of an ongoing five-year multi-disciplinary NOAA-funded project, Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (EESLR-NGOM). The EESLR-NGOM project is assessing SLR risks to the natural and built environment along the Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida Panhandle coasts. The purpose was to engage stakeholders (e.g., coastal resource managers) in helping target, translate, and tailor the EESLR-NGOM project's scientific findings and emerging products so they are readily accessible, understandable, and useful. The focus groups provided insight into stakeholders' SLR informational and operational needs, solicited input on the project's products, and gathered suggestions for public communication and outreach. A total of three ninety-minute focus groups of between eight and thirteen participants each were conducted at annual workshops in Alabama, Florida, and Mississippi. The moderator asked a series of open-ended questions about SLR-related topics using an interview guide and encouraged participant interaction. All focus group audio-recordings were transcribed, and analyzed by carefully reading the 102 total pages of transcript data and identifying patterns and themes. Participants thought outreach about SLR impact and the EESLR-NGOM project scientific research/products was vital and acknowledged various communication challenges and opportunities. They identified three target audiences (local officials, general public, coastal resource managers themselves) that likely require different educational efforts and tools. Participants felt confident the EESLR-NGOM project products will benefit their resource planning and decision making and

  5. Tree Mortality Undercuts Ability of Tree-Planting Programs to Provide Benefits: Results of a Three-City Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Widney

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Trees provide numerous benefits for urban residents, including reduced energy usage, improved air quality, stormwater management, carbon sequestration, and increased property values. Quantifying these benefits can help justify the costs of planting trees. In this paper, we use i-Tree Streets to quantify the benefits of street trees planted by nonprofits in three U.S. cities (Detroit, Michigan; Indianapolis, Indiana, and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania from 2009 to 2011. We also use both measured and modeled survival and growth rates to “grow” the tree populations 5 and 10 years into the future to project the future benefits of the trees under different survival and growth scenarios. The 4059 re-inventoried trees (2864 of which are living currently provide almost $40,000 (USD in estimated annual benefits ($9–$20/tree depending on the city, the majority (75% of which are increased property values. The trees can be expected to provide increasing annual benefits during the 10 years after planting if the annual survival rate is higher than the 93% annual survival measured during the establishment period. However, our projections show that with continued 93% or lower annual survival, the increase in annual benefits from tree growth will not be able to make up for the loss of benefits as trees die. This means that estimated total annual benefits from a cohort of planted trees will decrease between the 5-year projection and the 10-year projection. The results of this study indicate that without early intervention to ensure survival of planted street trees, tree mortality may be significantly undercutting the ability of tree-planting programs to provide benefits to neighborhood residents.

  6. The Impact of Solution-Focused Brief Group Psychological Counseling on University Students’ Burnout Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmi Bayram Ilbay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was done to analyze the effects of Coping with Burnout Program, developed on the basis of Solution-Focused Brief Therapy on the burnout levels of university students. To select the subjects that would participate in the research, Maslach Burnout Inventory­­–Student Survey was applied on 461 university students from the University of Sakarya. As a result of pre-interviews, 24 students who had experienced student burnout voluntarily participated in a Coping with Burnout Program. The students were randomly appointed to one of the experimental and control groups. At this stage, a six-session Coping with Burnout Program developed by the researcher was applied on the students from the experimental group. No application was performed on the students from the control group. A 2x3 design (experimental/ control groups X pretest/ posttest/ follow up was used in the research. The scores from the Maslach Burnout Inventory–Student Survey formed the dependent variable of the research, and the application of Coping with Burnout Program formed the independent variable of the research. The scale used in the research was applied on the groups as pretest two weeks before the sessions started, and as posttest two weeks after the sessions ended, and as follow-up two months after the posttest in order to determine the resistance of the experimental process. In the analysis of the data obtained through these processes, two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to determine whether or not there was a significant difference between groups and the survey. The data obtained through the research proved that the Coping with Burnout Program decreased the burnout levels of the students in the experimental group as were determined with the Maslach Burnout Inventory–Student Survey, and follow up tests showed that the situation remained the same. It was seen that there was no significant difference between the scores of the participants of the control

  7. Spectral mapping of savanna tree species at canopy level, with focus on tall trees, using an integrated CAO Hyperspectral & LiDAR sensor approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, L

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The detection and mapping of tree/plant species in the savanna ecosystem can provide numerous benefits for the managerial authorities. This includes the accurate mapping of the spatial distribution of economically viable trees which are a key source...

  8. HBsAg level and hepatitis B viral load correlation with focus on pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belopolskaya, Maria; Avrutin, Viktor; Firsov, Sergey; Yakovlev, Alexey

    2015-01-01

    Background Viral load measurement is necessary to estimate mother-to-child transmission risk for women with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), however, it is expensive. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between HBsAg and hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA levels, and to determine potential applications of HBsAg level monitoring for estimating viral load. Methods 85 patients with CHB (31 pregnant women, 26 non-pregnant women, 28 men) were included in the study. HBV DNA level was measured by real-time PCR, and HBsAg level by chemiluminescent immunoassay method. Dependency between viral load and HBsAg level was determined by Spearman correlation coefficient ρ. Results The correlation between HBsAg and HBV DNA levels was significant for all patients [ρ=0.3762 (P<0.0005; n=85)]. In the group of pregnant women, a low (unmeasurable) HBV DNA level led to a decrease in the Spearman coefficient ρ. In almost all cases a low level of the HBsAg corresponded to a low HBV DNA level. Only 2 patients had a low level of HBsAg and a relatively high viral load. By contrast, a high HBsAg level was observed in patients both with high and low viral load. Conclusions Correlation between HBsAg and HBV DNA levels is significant. In most cases, a low level of HBsAg indicates a low HBV DNA level, whereas a high HBsAg level does not always correspond to a high viral load. The measurement of HBV DNA level is necessary for pregnant women with a high HBsAg level. PMID:26127004

  9. Just the facts? Introductory undergraduate biology courses focus on low-level cognitive skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momsen, Jennifer L; Long, Tammy M; Wyse, Sara A; Ebert-May, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Introductory biology courses are widely criticized for overemphasizing details and rote memorization of facts. Data to support such claims, however, are surprisingly scarce. We sought to determine whether this claim was evidence-based. To do so we quantified the cognitive level of learning targeted by faculty in introductory-level biology courses. We used Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives to assign cognitive learning levels to course goals as articulated on syllabi and individual items on high-stakes assessments (i.e., exams and quizzes). Our investigation revealed the following: 1) assessment items overwhelmingly targeted lower cognitive levels, 2) the cognitive level of articulated course goals was not predictive of the cognitive level of assessment items, and 3) there was no influence of course size or institution type on the cognitive levels of assessments. These results support the claim that introductory biology courses emphasize facts more than higher-order thinking.

  10. Cooling our communities: A guidebook on tree planting and light-colored surfacing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, H.; Davis, S.; Huang, J. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Dorsano, S. (ed.) (The Bruce Co., (United States)); Winnett, S. (ed.) (Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States). Climate Change Div.)

    1992-01-01

    This book is a practical guide that presents the current state of knowledge on potential environmental and economic benefits of strategic landscaping and altering surface colors in our communities. The guidebook, reviews the causes, magnitude, and impacts of increased urban warming, then focuses on actions by citizens and communities that can be undertaken to improve the quality of our homes and towns in cost-effective ways.

  11. Just the Facts? Introductory Undergraduate Biology Courses Focus on Low-Level Cognitive Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momsen, Jennifer L.; Long, Tammy M.; Wyse, Sara A.; Ebert-May, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Introductory biology courses are widely criticized for overemphasizing details and rote memorization of facts. Data to support such claims, however, are surprisingly scarce. We sought to determine whether this claim was evidence-based. To do so we quantified the cognitive level of learning targeted by faculty in introductory-level biology courses.…

  12. On the structure of critical energy levels for the cubic focusing NLS on star graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adami, Riccardo; Noja, Diego; Cacciapuoti, Claudio; Finco, Domenico

    2012-01-01

    We provide information on a non-trivial structure of phase space of the cubic nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) on a three-edge star graph. We prove that, in contrast to the case of the standard NLS on the line, the energy associated with the cubic focusing Schrödinger equation on the three-edge star graph with a free (Kirchhoff) vertex does not attain a minimum value on any sphere of constant L 2 -norm. We moreover show that the only stationary state with prescribed L 2 -norm is indeed a saddle point. (fast track communication)

  13. Performance assessment of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) for modeling dispersion in an urban street canyon with tree planting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonen, P.; Gromke, C.; Dorer, V.

    2013-08-01

    The potential of a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model to reliably predict near-field pollutant dispersion is assessed. To that extent, detailed time-resolved numerical simulations of coupled flow and dispersion are conducted for a street canyon with tree planting. Different crown porosities are considered. The model performance is assessed in several steps, ranging from a qualitative comparison to measured concentrations, over statistical data analysis by means of scatter plots and box plots, up to the calculation of objective validation metrics. The extensive validation effort highlights and quantifies notable features and shortcomings of the model, which would otherwise remain unnoticed. The model performance is found to be spatially non-uniform. Closer agreement with measurement data is achieved near the canyon ends than for the central part of the canyon, and typical model acceptance criteria are satisfied more easily for the leeward than for the windward canyon wall. This demonstrates the need for rigorous model evaluation. Only quality-assured models can be used with confidence to support assessment, planning and implementation of pollutant mitigation strategies.

  14. How to select the best tree planting locations to enhance air pollution removal in the MillionTreesNYC initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morani, Arianna; Nowak, David J.; Hirabayashi, Satoshi; Calfapietra, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    Highest priority zones for tree planting within New York City were selected by using a planting priority index developed combining three main indicators: pollution concentration, population density and low canopy cover. This new tree population was projected through time to estimate potential air quality and carbon benefits. Those trees will likely remove more than 10 000 tons of air pollutants and a maximum of 1500 tons of carbon over the next 100 years given a 4% annual mortality rate. Cumulative carbon storage will be reduced through time as carbon loss through tree mortality outweighs carbon accumulation through tree growth. Model projections are strongly affected by mortality rate whose uncertainties limit estimations accuracy. Increasing mortality rate from 4 to 8% per year produce a significant decrease in the total pollution removal over a 100 year period from 11 000 tons to 3000 tons. - Highlights: → The manuscript is part of the IUFRO Special section 'Adaptation of Forest Ecosystems to Air Pollution and Climate Change' (Elena Paoletti and Yusuf Serengil Eds.) approved by William J. Manning. → It has been already peer-reviewed and accepted outside EES. → The reference number of this manuscript is IUFRO49. - Carbon and air pollutant uptake by urban forests are highly influenced by mortality rates.

  15. How to select the best tree planting locations to enhance air pollution removal in the MillionTreesNYC initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morani, Arianna [Institute of Agro-Environmental and Forest Biology (IBAF), National Research Council (CNR) Via Salaria km 29300, 00015 Monterotondo Scalo, Roma (Italy); Nowak, David J.; Hirabayashi, Satoshi [USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, 5 Moon Library, SUNY-ESF, Syracuse, NY 13210 (United States); Calfapietra, Carlo, E-mail: carlo.calfapietra@ibaf.cnr.it [Institute of Agro-Environmental and Forest Biology (IBAF), National Research Council (CNR) Via Salaria km 29300, 00015 Monterotondo Scalo, Roma (Italy)

    2011-05-15

    Highest priority zones for tree planting within New York City were selected by using a planting priority index developed combining three main indicators: pollution concentration, population density and low canopy cover. This new tree population was projected through time to estimate potential air quality and carbon benefits. Those trees will likely remove more than 10 000 tons of air pollutants and a maximum of 1500 tons of carbon over the next 100 years given a 4% annual mortality rate. Cumulative carbon storage will be reduced through time as carbon loss through tree mortality outweighs carbon accumulation through tree growth. Model projections are strongly affected by mortality rate whose uncertainties limit estimations accuracy. Increasing mortality rate from 4 to 8% per year produce a significant decrease in the total pollution removal over a 100 year period from 11 000 tons to 3000 tons. - Highlights: > The manuscript is part of the IUFRO Special section 'Adaptation of Forest Ecosystems to Air Pollution and Climate Change' (Elena Paoletti and Yusuf Serengil Eds.) approved by William J. Manning. > It has been already peer-reviewed and accepted outside EES. > The reference number of this manuscript is IUFRO49. - Carbon and air pollutant uptake by urban forests are highly influenced by mortality rates.

  16. Brain Activity Associated with Logical Inferences in Geometry: Focusing on Students with Different Levels of Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisman, Ilana; Leikin, Mark; Leikin, Roza

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical processing associated with solving short geometry problems requiring logical inference was examined among students who differ in their levels of general giftedness (G) and excellence in mathematics (EM) using ERP research methodology. Sixty-seven male adolescents formed four major research groups designed according to various…

  17. Illness-induced changes in thyroid hormone metabolism: focus on the tissue level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakkel, J.; Fliers, E.; Boelen, A.

    2011-01-01

    During illness changes in thyroid hormone metabolism occur, collectively known as the non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS). NTIS is characterised by low serum thyroid hormone levels without the expected rise in serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, indicating a major change in thyroid hormone feedback

  18. Exploring Association between Morphology of Tree Planting and User Activities in Urban Public Space; An opportunity of Urban Public Space Revitalisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qi; Liu, Yan

    2018-03-01

    This paper discusses the association between the morphology of tree planting in urban riverside brown field and user activities. With the growth of popularity, the revitalisation of urban public space is also promising. This research used drone photography and mapping to systematically surveys sample sites. An original observation study of user activities proceed in four sample public spaces in Sheffield. The study results found there are huge popularity and duration difference of user activities between various tree planting morphologies and typologies. The public space with lawn and rounded by mature trees attracted most users with the most activity types; the neat and silent public space is the favourite choice of lunch and reading, meanwhile it got the longest activity duration; but the space with sparse morphology and small trees are more likely be forgotten and abandoned. This finding offered a great opportunity for urban public space revitalisation in post-industrial cities.

  19. Investigation of Pupils' Levels of MVPA and VPA during Physical Education Units Focused on Direct Instruction and Tactical Games Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Stephen; Smith, Lindsey; Fairclough, Stuart; Savory, Louise; Kerr, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and vigorous physical activity (VPA) levels of pupils during coeducational physical education units focused on direct instruction and tactical games models (TGM). Thirty-two children (11-12 years, 17 girls) were randomly assigned to either a direct instruction (control) or TGM…

  20. High-level radioactive waste curriculum usage, evaluation, and customer focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, G.P.

    1994-01-01

    In August 1992, the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) issued for educator use, a secondary school resource curriculum entitled open-quotes Science, Society, and America's Nuclear Wasteclose quotes. This resource curriculum was developed in response to years and thousands of teacher, student, and general public requests for facts about nuclear waste -- specifically, what the United States was doing and why. The curriculum materials when issued were the result of six years of development and testing by science and social studies teachers as well as multi-state field-testing and international critique. The curriculum is provided only to educators who specifically request it; and in the first one-and-a-half years following its availability more than 500,000 curriculum documents have been requested. Of all the requests for information received by OCRWM for any information or materials, most requests received are from educators or students. So one might consider educators and students to be open-quotes customerclose quotes, that is, as the business world might define customers: anyone expecting a product or a service from us. To determine usefulness and content for future editions of open-quotes Science, Society, and America's Nuclear Wasteclose quotes, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has undertaken a usage evaluation to ensure that it focuses on the needs of the open-quotes customerclose quotes; that is, those who need and request it. This paper presents preliminary findings based on a formal evaluation provided to and requested from educators, unsolicited comments received from educator requesters of the material, and comments from others

  1. 23 March 2015 - Tree planting ceremony Chemin Auguer, by His Holiness the XIIth Gyalwang Drukpa and CERN Director-General, on the occasion of the event Connecting Worlds: Science Meets Buddhism Great Minds, Great Matters.

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2015-01-01

    23 March 2015 - Tree planting ceremony Chemin Auguer, by His Holiness the XIIth Gyalwang Drukpa and CERN Director-General, on the occasion of the event Connecting Worlds: Science Meets Buddhism Great Minds, Great Matters.

  2. Multi-focus and multi-level techniques for visualization and analysis of networks with thematic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossalter, Michele; Mengshoel, Ole J.; Selker, Ted

    2013-01-01

    Information-rich data sets bring several challenges in the areas of visualization and analysis, even when associated with node-link network visualizations. This paper presents an integration of multi-focus and multi-level techniques that enable interactive, multi-step comparisons in node-link networks. We describe NetEx, a visualization tool that enables users to simultaneously explore different parts of a network and its thematic data, such as time series or conditional probability tables. NetEx, implemented as a Cytoscape plug-in, has been applied to the analysis of electrical power networks, Bayesian networks, and the Enron e-mail repository. In this paper we briefly discuss visualization and analysis of the Enron social network, but focus on data from an electrical power network. Specifically, we demonstrate how NetEx supports the analytical task of electrical power system fault diagnosis. Results from a user study with 25 subjects suggest that NetEx enables more accurate isolation of complex faults compared to an especially designed software tool.

  3. Utilization of focused antenatal care in Zambia: examining individual- and community-level factors using a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chama-Chiliba, Chitalu M; Koch, Steven F

    2015-02-01

    We examine the individual- and community-level factors associated with the utilization of antenatal care, following the adoption of the focused antenatal care (FANC) approach in Zambia. Using the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey, linked with administrative and health facility census data, we specify two multilevel logistic models to assess the factors associated with (1) the inadequate use of antenatal care (ANC) (defined as three or fewer visits) and (2) the non-use of ANC in the first trimester of pregnancy. Although all women in the selected sample had at least one ANC visit, 40% did not have the minimum number required (four), whereas more than 80% of the initial check-ups did not occur in the first trimester. At the individual level, the woman's employment status, quality of ANC received and the husband's educational attainment are negatively associated, while parity, the household childcare burden and wealth are positively associated with inadequate utilization of ANC. Both individual- and community-level characteristics influence inadequate use and non-use of ANC in the first trimester; however, community-level factors are relatively stronger in rural areas. The results suggest that improving the content of care during ANC visits may foster adequate use of ANC and encourage early initiation of ANC visits. Furthermore, health promotion programmes need to further encourage male involvement in pregnant women's decision to seek ANC to encourage adequate use of services. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  4. Elementary physical education: A focus on fitness activities and smaller class sizes are associated with higher levels of physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Kirkham-King

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing physical activity during physical education is necessary for children to achieve daily physical activity recommendations. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among various contextual factors with accelerometer measured physical activity during elementary physical education. Data were collected during 2015–2016 from 281 students (1st–5th grade, 137 males, 144 females from a private school located in a metropolitan area of Utah in the U.S. Students wore accelerometers for 12 consecutive weeks at an accelerometer wear frequency of 3days per week during physical education. A multi-level general linear mixed effects model was employed to examine the relationship among various physical education contextual factors and percent of wear time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (%MVPA, accounting for clustering of observations within students and the clustering of students within classrooms. Explored contextual factors included grade level, lesson context, sex, and class size. Main effects and interactions among the factors were explored in the multi-level models. A two-way interaction of lesson context and class size on %MVPA was shown to be statistically significant. The greatest differences were found to be between fitness lessons using small class sizes compared to motor skill lessons using larger class sizes (β=14.8%, 95% C.I. 5.7%–23.9% p<0.001. Lessons that included a focus on fitness activities with class sizes that were <25 students associated with significantly higher %MVPA during elementary physical education. Keywords: Exercise, Physical education and training, Adolescents

  5. Daily Management System of the Henry Ford Production System: QTIPS to Focus Continuous Improvements at the Level of the Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarbo, Richard J; Varney, Ruan C; Copeland, Jacqueline R; D'Angelo, Rita; Sharma, Gaurav

    2015-07-01

    To support our Lean culture of continuous improvement, we implemented a daily management system designed so critical metrics of operational success were the focus of local teams to drive improvements. We innovated a standardized visual daily management board composed of metric categories of Quality, Time, Inventory, Productivity, and Safety (QTIPS); frequency trending; root cause analysis; corrective/preventive actions; and resulting process improvements. In 1 year (June 2013 to July 2014), eight laboratory sections at Henry Ford Hospital employed 64 unique daily metrics. Most assessed long-term (>6 months), monitored process stability, while short-term metrics (1-6 months) were retired after successful targeted problem resolution. Daily monitoring resulted in 42 process improvements. Daily management is the key business accountability subsystem that enabled our culture of continuous improvement to function more efficiently at the managerial level in a visible manner by reviewing and acting based on data and root cause analysis. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  6. Biosafety and Biosecurity in European Containment Level 3 Laboratories: Focus on French Recent Progress and Essential Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Pastorino

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Even if European Union (EU Member States are obliged to implement EU Directives 2000/54/EC on the protection of workers from risks related to exposure to biological agents at work, national biosafety regulations and practices varied from country to country. In fact, EU legislation on biological agents and genetically modified microorganisms is often not specific enough to ensure harmonization leading to difficulties in implementation for most laboratories. In the same way, biosecurity is a relatively new concept and a few EU Member States are known to have introduced national laboratory biosecurity legislation. In France, recent regulations have reinforced biosafety/biosecurity in containment level 3 (CL-3 laboratories but they concern a specific list of pathogens with no correlation in other European Members States. The objective of this review was to summarize European biosafety/biosecurity measures concerning CL-3 facilities focusing on French specificities. Essential requirements needed to preserve efficient biosafety measures when manipulating risk group 3 biological agents are highlighted. In addition, International, European and French standards related to containment laboratory planning, operation or biosafety equipment are described to clarify optimal biosafety and biosecurity requirements.

  7. Biosafety and Biosecurity in European Containment Level 3 Laboratories: Focus on French Recent Progress and Essential Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorino, Boris; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Charrel, Rémi

    2017-01-01

    Even if European Union (EU) Member States are obliged to implement EU Directives 2000/54/EC on the protection of workers from risks related to exposure to biological agents at work , national biosafety regulations and practices varied from country to country. In fact, EU legislation on biological agents and genetically modified microorganisms is often not specific enough to ensure harmonization leading to difficulties in implementation for most laboratories. In the same way, biosecurity is a relatively new concept and a few EU Member States are known to have introduced national laboratory biosecurity legislation. In France, recent regulations have reinforced biosafety/biosecurity in containment level 3 (CL-3) laboratories but they concern a specific list of pathogens with no correlation in other European Members States. The objective of this review was to summarize European biosafety/biosecurity measures concerning CL-3 facilities focusing on French specificities. Essential requirements needed to preserve efficient biosafety measures when manipulating risk group 3 biological agents are highlighted. In addition, International, European and French standards related to containment laboratory planning, operation or biosafety equipment are described to clarify optimal biosafety and biosecurity requirements.

  8. Effect of focused ultrasound stimulation at different ultrasonic power levels on the local field potential power spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Yi; Lu Cheng-Biao; Li Xiao-Li

    2015-01-01

    Local field potential (LFP) signals of the rat hippocampus were recorded under noninvasive focused ultrasound stimulation (FUS) with different ultrasonic powers. The LFP mean absolute power was calculated with the Welch algorithm at the delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma frequency bands. The experimental results demonstrate that the LFP mean absolute power at different frequency bands increases as the ultrasound power increases. (paper)

  9. [IMPACT OF CASPIAN SEA LEVEL FLUCTUATIONS ON THE EPIZOOTIC ACTIVITY OF THE CASPIAN SANDY NATURAL PLAGUE FOCUS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, N V; Udovikov, A I; Eroshenko, G A; Karavaeva, T B; Yakovlev, S A; Porshakov, A M; Zenkevich, E S; Kutyrev, V V

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that in 1923-2014 the sharp aggravations of the epizootic situation of plague in the area of its Caspian sandy natural focus after long interepizootic periods are in time with the ups of the Caspian Sea in the extrema of 11-year solar cycles. There were cases of multiple manifestations of plague in the same areas in the epizootic cycles of 1946-1954, 1979-1996, 2001, and 2013-2014. The paper considers the possible role of amebae of the genus Acanthamoeba and nematodes, the representatives of the orders Rhabditida and Tylenchida in the microfocal pattern of plague manifestations.

  10. Leaf water relations and sapflow in eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.) trees planted for phytoremediation of a groundwater pollutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Vose; Wayne T. Swank; Gregory J. Harvey; Barton D. Clinton; Christine Sobek

    2000-01-01

    Plants that remediate groundwater pollutants may offer a feasible alternative to the traditional and more expensive practices. Because its success depends on water use, this approach requires a complete understanding of species-specific transpiration patterns. The objectives of this study were (1) to quantify tree and stand-level transpiration in two age classes (whips...

  11. Focus on focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The discovery and impact of the principle of strong focusing was celebrated at a history Symposium at Stanford on 25 July in the course of the 1985 US Summer School on Particle Accelerators. Burt Richter, Stanford Linac Director, who introduced all the speakers with well chosen reminders about their various contributions related to the theme of the symposium, remarked that it was an appropriate time to be lauding the great contributions of accelerator physicists following the Nobel Prize award to Simon van der Meer for outstanding achievements in accelerator physics

  12. Focus on focusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1985-10-15

    The discovery and impact of the principle of strong focusing was celebrated at a history Symposium at Stanford on 25 July in the course of the 1985 US Summer School on Particle Accelerators. Burt Richter, Stanford Linac Director, who introduced all the speakers with well chosen reminders about their various contributions related to the theme of the symposium, remarked that it was an appropriate time to be lauding the great contributions of accelerator physicists following the Nobel Prize award to Simon van der Meer for outstanding achievements in accelerator physics.

  13. Credit Crisis with focus on level three valuations anFAS157: Analysis and Recommendations for Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph.D. candidate Arber H. Hoti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the effect of level three valuations and FAS 157 implications on investors, auditors’ work, valuation disclosures and gives recommendations for improvements based on best practices. The aim of this research is to demonstrate that the fair value measurements should not be suspended. The standards provide for measurement of fair value in all market conditions. Therefore, level 3 measurements or mark-to-model is an answer for many issuers that are not sure how to measure their assets and liabilities at the fair value. The paper concludes that fair value measurement has not caused the current crisis and has no pro-cyclical effect and suggests several recommendations for policy makers and regulators.

  14. Gender Rationales in Selecting a Major in Information Technology at the Undergraduate Level of a University Program: A Focus Group Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sushma; Draus, Peter; Caputo, Donald; Leone, Gregory; Kohun, Frederick; Repack, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Previous research studies of women applying to, enrolling and completing computing degrees at the undergraduate collegiate level suggest a significant underrepresentation of females in the Information Technology domain in the past decade. This study employs a focus group approach to the gender gap that encompasses forays into the qualitative…

  15. Household level tree planting and its implications for environmental management in the northwestern highlands of Ethiopia: A case study in the Chemoga watershed, Blue Nile Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bewket, W.

    2003-01-01

    The unsustainable exploitation and destruction of forests is a serious environmental concern in the developing countries of Africa. One of its main driving forces is the growing population causing a growing demand for fuelwood. In Ethiopia, as in many developing countries, there is a heavy

  16. Definition of a focus of reading and writing teaching in the process from preparatory to primary level at school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Doria Correa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results of a research exercise in order to define an approach of reading and writing’s teaching and learning in the process from preparatory to primary education in Asodesi’s school in the city of Monteria - Córdoba. This experience is a part of the investigation “classroom projects: an experience of action research in language teaching at school”, theoretically oriented from the study of various approaches about teaching reading and writing early, with a qualitative methodology (IA, by forming a study group work (SGW, within which teachers reflect on their teaching practices, in order to improve and transform them. The main results are: the definition of a comprehensive approach of teaching reading and writing, linked to the goals of training offered in classroom projects in primary and secondary levels and the development of skills incomprehension and textual production. 

  17. A guide to writing a scientific paper: a focus on high school through graduate level student research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselbach, Renee A; Petering, David H; Berg, Craig A; Tomasiewicz, Henry; Weber, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    This article presents a detailed guide for high school through graduate level instructors that leads students to write effective and well-organized scientific papers. Interesting research emerges from the ability to ask questions, define problems, design experiments, analyze and interpret data, and make critical connections. This process is incomplete, unless new results are communicated to others because science fundamentally requires peer review and criticism to validate or discard proposed new knowledge. Thus, a concise and clearly written research paper is a critical step in the scientific process and is important for young researchers as they are mastering how to express scientific concepts and understanding. Moreover, learning to write a research paper provides a tool to improve science literacy as indicated in the National Research Council's National Science Education Standards (1996), and A Framework for K-12 Science Education (2011), the underlying foundation for the Next Generation Science Standards currently being developed. Background information explains the importance of peer review and communicating results, along with details of each critical component, the Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. Specific steps essential to helping students write clear and coherent research papers that follow a logical format, use effective communication, and develop scientific inquiry are described.

  18. Plasma Focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, Alain; Jolas, Alain; Garconnet, J.-P.; Mascureau, J. de; Nazet, Christian; Coudeville, Alain; Bekiarian, Andre.

    1977-01-01

    The present report is the edition of the lectures given in a conference on the Focus experiment held at the Centre d'etudes de Limeil, on Oct. 1975. After a survey of the early laboratories one will find the main results obtained in Limeil concerning interferometry, laser scattering, electric and magnetic-measurements, X-ray and neutron emission and also the possible use of explosive current generators instead of capacitor banks at high energy levels. The principal lines of future research are given in the conclusion [fr

  19. Focusing ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woermann, Niklas

    2018-01-01

    underpinnings of focusing ethnographic research by comparing different schools of thought and suggesting a practice theory-based approach. It argues that many research projects are focused but do not reflect on the process of focusing, describes how to identify focal settings or practices, and introduces......Building theory with ethnography and filmic research increasingly requires focussing on key practices or settings, instead of painting a broad panorama of a culture. But few authors discuss why and how to focus. This article provides a systematic discussion of the theoretical and methodological...

  20. Titanium levels in the organs and blood of rats with a titanium implant, in the absence of wear, as determined by double-focusing ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarmiento-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Encinar, Jorge Ruiz; Marchante-Gayon, Juan M.; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo [University of Oviedo, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Oviedo (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    Titanium (Ti) has long been regarded as an inert and biocompatible metal, ideal for biomedical applications such as dental implants or joint replacements. However, concerns about the biocompatibility of Ti have lately arisen. Unfortunately, information on reliable Ti baseline physiological levels in blood and organ tissues is still pending and the real effects of physiological corrosion as opposed to wear processes of Ti or Ti alloys implants is controversial so far. In this work a previously developed and validated methodology, based on using double-focusing inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (DF-ICP-MS) has been used to establish Ti basal levels in blood and organs (heart, liver, spleen, kidneys, and lungs) of Wistar rats. These data were compared with the levels found in three Wistar rats implanted with a Ti wire embedded in their femur for 18 months, in order to assign possible Ti released purely due to non-wear physiological mechanisms. Results showed that Ti content in all the selected organ tissues and blood was higher than previously determined Ti basal levels, clearly showing both corrosion of the Ti implant and systemic Ti accumulation in target tissues. These results indicate that Ti metal corrosion occurs. This seems to be the only mechanism responsible in the long term for the observed passive dissolution of Ti of the implant in the absence of wear. A comparative study of the systemic distribution of the soluble and particulate Ti potentially released from Ti implants was also carried out by intraperitoneally injection of soluble Ti(citrate){sub 3} and insoluble TiO{sub 2} particles, respectively. Different systemic Ti storage was observed. Whereas soluble Ti was rapidly transported to all distal organs under study, TiO{sub 2} particles were only accumulated in lung tissue. (orig.)

  1. Focused Ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Knoblauch

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I focus on a distinctive kind of sociological ethnography which is particularly, though not exclusively, adopted in applied research. It has been proposed that this branch of ethno­graphy be referred to as focused ethnography. Focused ethnography shall be delineated within the context of other common conceptions of what may be called conventional ethnography. However, rather than being opposed to it, focused ethno­graphy is rather complementary to conventional ethnography, particularly in fields that are charac­teristic of socially and functionally differentiated contemporary society. The paper outlines the back­ground as well as the major methodological features of focused ethnography, such as short-term field visits, data intensity and time intensity, so as to provide a background for future studies in this area. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0503440

  2. The Association of Level of Internet Use with Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempts in South Korean Adolescents: A Focus on Family Structure and Household Economic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seo Yoon; Park, Eun-Cheol; Han, Kyu-Tae; Kim, Seung Ju; Chun, Sung-Youn; Park, Sohee

    2016-04-01

    To examine the association between the level of Internet addiction and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in South Korean adolescents, focusing on the roles of family structure and household economic status. Data from 221 265 middle and high school students taken from the 2008-2010 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey were used in this study. To identify factors associated with suicidal ideation/attempts, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed. The level of Internet use was measured using the simplified Korean Internet Addiction Self-assessment Tool. Compared with mild users of the Internet, high-risk users and potential-risk users were more likely to report suicidal ideation (nonuser, odds ratio [OR] 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05 to 1.15; potential risk, OR 1.49, 95% CI: 1.36 to 1.63; high risk OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.79 to 2.10) or attempts (nonuser, OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.42; potential risk, OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.38; high risk, OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.71 to 2.14). The nonuser group also had a slightly higher risk of suicidal ideation/attempts compared with mild users. This association appeared to vary by perceived economic status and family structure. Our study suggests that it is important to attend to adolescents who are at high risk for Internet addiction, especially when they do not have parents, have stepparents, or perceive their economic status as either very low or very high. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Without 'Focus'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Sevi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that a notion of 'focus', more or less as conceived of in Jackendoff (1972, must be incorporated into our theory of grammar, as a means of accounting for certain observed correlations between prosodic facts and semantic/pragmatic facts. In this paper, we put forth the somewhat radical idea that the time has come to give up this customary view, and eliminate 'focus' from our theory of grammar. We argue that such a move is both economical and fruitful.Research over the years has revealed that the correlations between prosody, 'focus', and the alleged semantic/pragmatic effects of focus are much less clear and systematic than we may have initially hoped. First we argue that this state of affairs detracts significantly from the utility of our notion of 'focus', to the point of calling into question the very motivation for including it in the grammar. Then we look at some of the central data, and show how they might be analyzed without recourse to a notion of 'focus'. We concentrate on (i the effect of pitch accent placement on discourse congruence, and (ii the choice of 'associate' for the so-called 'focus sensitive' adverb only. We argue that our focus-free approach to the data improves empirical coverage, and begins to reveal patterns that have previously been obscured by preconceptions about 'focus'.ReferencesBeaver, D. & Clark, B. 2008. Sense and Sensitivity: How Focus Determines Meaning. Blackwell.Beaver, D., Clark, B., Flemming, E., Jaeger, T. F. & Wolters, M. 2007. ‘When semantics meets phonetics: Acoustical studies of second occurrence focus’. Language 83.2: 245–76.http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/lan.2007.0053Beckman, M. & Hirschberg, J. 1994. ‘The ToBI Annotation Conventions’. Ms.,http://www.cs.columbia.edu/~julia/files/conv.pdf.Bolinger, D. 1972. ‘Accent is predictable (if you are a mind-reader’. Language 48.3: 633–44.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/412039Büring, D. 2006. ‘Focus projection and default

  4. Evaluating the Ergonomic Benefit of a Wrist Brace on Wrist Posture, Muscle Activity, Rotational Stiffness, and Peak Shovel-Ground Impact Force During a Simulated Tree-Planting Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheahan, Peter J; Cashaback, Joshua G A; Fischer, Steven L

    2017-09-01

    Background Tree planters are at a high risk for wrist injury due to awkward postures and high wrist loads experienced during each planting cycle, specifically at shovel-ground impact. Wrist joint stiffness provides a measure that integrates postural and loading information. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate wrist joint stiffness requirements at the instant of shovel-ground impact during tree planting and determine if a wrist brace could alter muscular contributions to wrist joint stiffness. Method Planters simulated tree planting with and without wearing a brace on their planting arm. Surface electromyography (sEMG) from six forearm muscles and wrist kinematics were collected and used to calculate muscular contributions to joint rotational stiffness about the wrist. Results Wrist joint stiffness increased with brace use, an unanticipated and negative consequence of wearing a brace. As a potential benefit, planters achieved a more neutrally oriented wrist angle about the flexion/extension axis, although a less neutral wrist angle about the ulnar/radial axis was observed. Muscle activity did not change between conditions. Conclusion The joint stiffness analysis, combining kinematic and sEMG information in a biologically relevant manner, revealed clear limitations with the interface between the brace grip and shovel handle that jeopardized the prophylactic benefits of the current brace design. This limitation was not as evident when considering kinematics and sEMG data independently. Application A neuromechanical model (joint rotational stiffness) enhanced our ability to evaluate the brace design relative to kinematic and sEMG parameter-based metrics alone.

  5. Extended focused assessment with sonography for trauma (EFAST) in the diagnosis of pneumothorax: experience at a community based level I trauma center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandipati, Kalyana C; Allamaneni, Shyam; Kakarla, Ravindra; Wong, Alfredo; Richards, Neil; Satterfield, James; Turner, James W; Sung, Kae-Jae

    2011-05-01

    Early identification of pneumothorax is crucial to reduce the mortality in critically injured patients. The objective of our study is to investigate the utility of surgeon performed extended focused assessment with sonography for trauma (EFAST) in the diagnosis of pneumothorax. We prospectively analysed 204 trauma patients in our level I trauma center over a period of 12 (06/2007-05/2008) months in whom EFAST was performed. The patients' demographics, type of injury, clinical examination findings (decreased air entry), CXR, EFAST and CT scan findings were entered into the data base. Sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were calculated. Of 204 patients (mean age--43.01+/-19.5 years, sex--male 152, female 52) 21 (10.3%) patients had pneumothorax. Of 21 patients who had pneumothorax 12 were due to blunt trauma and 9 were due to penetrating trauma. The diagnosis of pneumothorax in 204 patients demonstrated the following: clinical examination was positive in 17 patients (true positive in 13/21, 62%; 4 were false positive and 8 were false negative), CXR was positive in 16 (true positive in 15/19, 79%; 1 false positive, 4 missed and 2 CXR not performed before chest tube) patients and EFAST was positive in 21 patients (20 were true positive [95.2%], 1 false positive and 1 false negative). In diagnosing pneumothorax EFAST has significantly higher sensitivity compared to the CXR (P=0.02). Surgeon performed trauma room extended FAST is simple and has higher sensitivity compared to the chest X-ray and clinical examination in detecting pneumothorax. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Material focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Tomas; Vallgårda, Anna K. A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we build on the notion of computational composites, which hold a material perspective on computational technology. We argue that a focus on the material aspects of the technology could be a fruitful approach to achieve new expressions and to gain a new view on the technology's role...... in design. We study two of the computer's material properties: computed causality and connectability and through developing two computational composites that utilize these properties we begin to explore their potential expressions....

  7. Focus: Digital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Technology has been an all-important and defining element within the arts throughout the 20th century, and it has fundamentally changed the ways in which we produce and consume music. With this Focus we investigate the latest developments in the digital domain – and their pervasiveness and rapid...... production and reception of contemporary music and sound art. With ‘Digital’ we present four composers' very different answers to how technology impact their work. To Juliana Hodkinson it has become an integral part of her sonic writing. Rudiger Meyer analyses the relationships between art and design and how...

  8. Focusing horn

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    This was the first magnetic horn developed by Simon Van der Meer to collect antiprotons in the AD complex. It was used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). Making an antiproton beam took a lot of time and effort. Firstly, protons were accelerated to an energy of 26 GeV/c (protons at 26GeV/c, antiprotons at 3.6GeV/c) in the PS and ejected onto a metal target. From the spray of emerging particles, a magnetic horn picked out 3.6 GeV antiprotons for injection into the AA through a wide-aperture focusing quadrupole magnet. For a million protons hitting the target, just one antiproton was captured, 'cooled' and accumulated. It took 3 days to make a beam of 3 x 10^11 -, three hundred thousand million - antiprotons. The development of this technology was a key step to the functioning of CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron as a proton - antiproton collider.

  9. Evaluating Bang for the Buck: A Cost-Effectiveness Comparison Between Individual Interviews and Focus Groups Based on Thematic Saturation Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namey, Emily; Guest, Greg; McKenna, Kevin; Chen, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Evaluators often use qualitative research methods, yet there is little evidence on the comparative cost-effectiveness of the two most commonly employed qualitative methods--in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus groups (FGs). We performed an inductive thematic analysis of data from 40 IDIs and 40 FGs on the health-seeking behaviors of African…

  10. If you want to save, focus on the forest rather than on trees. The effects of shifts in levels of construal on saving decisions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Rudzinska-Wojciechowska

    Full Text Available Although financial decisions are expected to be rational, there is a growing body of experimental research indicating that small psychological changes in one's mind-set in the actual decision-making moment might affect saving ratios. In this article, another type of change in one's mind-set, which can influence saving decisions, is explored, namely the level of construal. Construal level is a key descriptor of people's cognitive representations of targets, and is a way of characterising the mental mind-sets people use. Building on recent advances in the link between construal levels and intertemporal choices, the present research evaluates the effect of shifts in levels of construal in the very moment of decision making on people's propensity to save money. It is suggested that triggering a high-level construal mind-set would influence individuals' financial decisions and result in greater willingness to save than triggering a low-level construal mind-set. This assumption is supported by the findings: across three experiments, those with an abstract mind-set showed an increased willingness to save when compared to those with a concrete mind-set. The first experiment demonstrated that people in an abstract mind-set are more willing to delay financial gratification than those in a concrete mind-set. In the second and third experiments, those with an abstract mind-set showed an increased willingness to save when compared to those with a concrete mind-set. The research provides further evidence that mental states, which can be evoked by previous, unrelated tasks, such as level of cognitive abstraction, can influence everyday financial decisions. It, thus, highlights the role of situational factors that consumers may be not aware of, which still affect their savings decisions.

  11. If you want to save, focus on the forest rather than on trees. The effects of shifts in levels of construal on saving decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzinska-Wojciechowska, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Although financial decisions are expected to be rational, there is a growing body of experimental research indicating that small psychological changes in one's mind-set in the actual decision-making moment might affect saving ratios. In this article, another type of change in one's mind-set, which can influence saving decisions, is explored, namely the level of construal. Construal level is a key descriptor of people's cognitive representations of targets, and is a way of characterising the mental mind-sets people use. Building on recent advances in the link between construal levels and intertemporal choices, the present research evaluates the effect of shifts in levels of construal in the very moment of decision making on people's propensity to save money. It is suggested that triggering a high-level construal mind-set would influence individuals' financial decisions and result in greater willingness to save than triggering a low-level construal mind-set. This assumption is supported by the findings: across three experiments, those with an abstract mind-set showed an increased willingness to save when compared to those with a concrete mind-set. The first experiment demonstrated that people in an abstract mind-set are more willing to delay financial gratification than those in a concrete mind-set. In the second and third experiments, those with an abstract mind-set showed an increased willingness to save when compared to those with a concrete mind-set. The research provides further evidence that mental states, which can be evoked by previous, unrelated tasks, such as level of cognitive abstraction, can influence everyday financial decisions. It, thus, highlights the role of situational factors that consumers may be not aware of, which still affect their savings decisions.

  12. FACTORS RELATED TO SELF-EDUCATIONAL POWER IN NURSING STUDENTS : With the Focus on the Level of Self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    酒井, 明子

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine how the level of self-esteem affects the ability to educate oneself. We researched the 89 students in a nursing school. The results were as follows; 1. Self-education IV was significantly related to self-esteem, which was an important concept as the psychological foundation of self-educational power. 2. Students with high levels of self-esteem tended to be highly capable of educating themselves, whereas students with lower of self-esteem tende...

  13. Top management team internationalization and firm-level internationalization : The moderating effects of home-region institutional diversity and firm global focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisani, Niccolò; Muller, Alan; Bogățan, Paula

    2018-01-01

    The factors that determine firms’ levels of internationalization remain a focal area of international business research. Within this research stream, studies building on the upper echelons theory have investigated the influence of the demographic characteristics of the top management team (TMT) on

  14. Collaboration of local government and experts responding to increase in environmental radiation level due to the nuclear disaster: focusing on their activities and latest radiological discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iimoto, T.; Nunokawa, J.; Fujii, H.; Takashima, R.; Hashimoto, M.; Fukuhara, T.; Yajima, T.; Matsuzawa, H.; Kurosawa, K.; Yanagawa, Y.; Someya, S.

    2015-01-01

    Activities were introduced in Kashiwa city in the Tokyo metropolitan area to correspond to the elevated environmental radiation level after the disaster of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. These were based on a strong cooperation between local governments and experts. Ambient dose rate and radioactivity of foodstuff produced inside of the city have been monitored. Representative ambient dose rates around living environments have almost already become their original levels of the pre-accident because of the decontamination activity, natural washout and effective half-lives of radioactivity. The internal annual dose due to radioactive cesium under the policy of 'Local Production for Local Consumption' is estimated as extremely low comparing the variation range due to natural radioactivity. Systematic survey around a retention basin has been started. All of these latest monitoring data would be one of the core information for the policy making as well as a cost-benefit discussion and risk communication. (authors)

  15. Radiographic Results of Single Level Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion in Degenerative Lumbar Spine Disease: Focusing on Changes of Segmental Lordosis in Fusion Segment

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sang-Bum; Jeon, Taek-Soo; Heo, Youn-Moo; Lee, Woo-Suk; Yi, Jin-Woong; Kim, Tae-Kyun; Hwang, Cheol-Mog

    2009-01-01

    Background To assess the radiographic results in patients who underwent transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF), particularly the changes in segmental lordosis in the fusion segment, whole lumbar lordosis and disc height. Methods Twenty six cases of single-level TLIF in degenerative lumbar diseases were analyzed. The changes in segmental lordosis, whole lumbar lordosis, and disc height were evaluated before surgery, after surgery and at the final follow-up. Results The segmental lordosi...

  16. Focus on Pivotal Role of Dietary Intake (Diet and Supplement) and Blood Levels of Tocopherols and Tocotrienols in Obtaining Successful Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Faliva, Milena Anna; Peroni, Gabriella; Moncaglieri, Francesca; Infantino, Vittoria; Naso, Maurizio; Perna, Simone

    2015-09-25

    Numerous specific age-related morbidities have been correlated with low intake and serum levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols. We performed a review in order to evaluate the extant evidence regarding: (1) the association between intake and serum levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols and age-related pathologies (osteoporosis, sarcopenia and cognitive impairment); and (2) the optimum diet therapy or supplementation with tocopherols and tocotrienols for the treatment of these abnormalities. This review included 51 eligible studies. The recent literature underlines that, given the detrimental effect of low intake and serum levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols on bone, muscle mass, and cognitive function, a change in the lifestyle must be the cornerstone in the prevention of these specific age-related pathologies related to vitamin E-deficient status. The optimum diet therapy in the elderly for avoiding vitamin E deficiency and its negative correlates, such as high inflammation and oxidation, must aim at achieving specific nutritional goals. These goals must be reached through: accession of the elderly subjects to specific personalized dietary programs aimed at achieving and/or maintaining body weight (avoid malnutrition); increase their intake of food rich in vitamin E, such as derivatives of oily seeds (in particular wheat germ oil), olive oil, hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, and cereals rich in vitamin E (such as specific rice cultivar rich in tocotrienols) or take vitamin E supplements. In this case, vitamin E can be correctly used in a personalized way either for the outcome from the pathology or to achieve healthy aging and longevity without any adverse effects.

  17. Focus on Pivotal Role of Dietary Intake (Diet and Supplement and Blood Levels of Tocopherols and Tocotrienols in Obtaining Successful Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Rondanelli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerous specific age-related morbidities have been correlated with low intake and serum levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols. We performed a review in order to evaluate the extant evidence regarding: (1 the association between intake and serum levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols and age-related pathologies (osteoporosis, sarcopenia and cognitive impairment; and (2 the optimum diet therapy or supplementation with tocopherols and tocotrienols for the treatment of these abnormalities. This review included 51 eligible studies. The recent literature underlines that, given the detrimental effect of low intake and serum levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols on bone, muscle mass, and cognitive function, a change in the lifestyle must be the cornerstone in the prevention of these specific age-related pathologies related to vitamin E-deficient status. The optimum diet therapy in the elderly for avoiding vitamin E deficiency and its negative correlates, such as high inflammation and oxidation, must aim at achieving specific nutritional goals. These goals must be reached through: accession of the elderly subjects to specific personalized dietary programs aimed at achieving and/or maintaining body weight (avoid malnutrition; increase their intake of food rich in vitamin E, such as derivatives of oily seeds (in particular wheat germ oil, olive oil, hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, and cereals rich in vitamin E (such as specific rice cultivar rich in tocotrienols or take vitamin E supplements. In this case, vitamin E can be correctly used in a personalized way either for the outcome from the pathology or to achieve healthy aging and longevity without any adverse effects.

  18. Promising neuroprotective strategies for traumatic spinal cord injury with a focus on the differential effects among anatomical levels of injury [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antigona Ulndreaj

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI is a devastating condition of motor, sensory, and autonomic dysfunction. The significant cost associated with the management and lifetime care of patients with SCI also presents a major economic burden. For these reasons, there is a need to develop and translate strategies that can improve outcomes following SCI. Given the challenges in achieving regeneration of the injured spinal cord, neuroprotection has been at the forefront of clinical translation. Yet, despite many preclinical advances, there has been limited translation into the clinic apart from methylprednisolone (which remains controversial, hypertensive therapy to maintain spinal cord perfusion, and early decompressive surgery. While there are several factors related to the limited translational success, including the clinical and mechanistic heterogeneity of human SCI, the misalignment between animal models of SCI and clinical reality continues to be an important factor. Whereas most clinical cases are at the cervical level, only a small fraction of preclinical research is conducted in cervical models of SCI. Therefore, this review highlights the most promising neuroprotective and neural reparative therapeutic strategies undergoing clinical assessment, including riluzole, hypothermia, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, glibenclamide, minocycline, Cethrin (VX-210, and anti-Nogo-A antibody, and emphasizes their efficacy in relation to the anatomical level of injury. Our hope is that more basic research will be conducted in clinically relevant cervical SCI models in order to expedite the transition of important laboratory discoveries into meaningful treatment options for patients with SCI.

  19. Effects of Crocin on Learning and Memory in Rats Under Chronic Restraint Stress with Special Focus on the Hippocampal and Frontal Cortex Corticosterone Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastgerdi, Azadehalsadat Hosseini; Radahmadi, Maryam; Pourshanazari, Ali Asghar; Dastgerdi, Hajaralsadat Hosseini

    2017-01-01

    Chronic stress adversely influences brain functions while crocin, as an effective component of saffron, exhibits positive effects on memory processes. This study investigated the effects of different doses of crocin on the improvement of learning and memory as well as corticosterone (CORT) levels in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of rats subjected to chronic stress. Forty male rats were randomly allocated to five different groups ( n = 8): Control, sham; stress (6 h/day for 21 days) groups, and two groups receiving daily intraperitoneal injections of one of two doses (30 and 60 mg/kg) of crocin accompanied by 21 days of restraint stress. Latency was evaluated as a brain function using the passive avoidance test before and one-day after a foot shock. CORT levels were measured in the homogenized hippocampus and frontal cortex. Results revealed that chronic stress had a significantly ( P effect on memory. Crocin (30 and 60 mg/kg), however, gave increase to significantly ( P effects than its higher (60 mg/kg) dose on learning and memory under chronic stress conditions. Moreover, it was speculated that different doses of crocin act on different neurotransmitters and biochemical factors in the brain.

  20. Risk factors and study designs used in research of youths' suicide behaviour-an epidemiological discussion with focus on level of evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik; Larsen, Kim Juul; Agerbo, Esben

    2014-01-01

    to level of evidence (LoE). Methods: We searched PubMed and psycINFO in order to identify relevant individual studies. Results: We included 36 studies of children and youth on suicidal behaviour and ideation-many rank low on LoE. For suicide, cohort design was often used, and mental illness (depression......Introduction: Many different epidemiology study designs have been used to analyse risk factors for suicide behaviour. The purpose of this study was to obtain an insight into the current study design used in research on youths' risk factors for suicide behaviour and to rank the studies according......, substance abuse and severity of mental illness) was the most common risk factor. Cohort studies are ranked 2b, which is high according to LoE. For suicide attempts, survey was often used, and psychopathology, substance abuse and being exposed to suicidal behaviour were the most common risk factors...

  1. The influences of scientific information on the growing in opinion for high level waste repository. Focusing on education in civil engineering course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amemiya, Kiyoshi; Chijimatsu, Masakazu

    2002-01-01

    In this research, survey of awareness and attitude to high level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal on 36 students of a postgraduate course was conducted. They have been studying civil and rock engineering, so they belong to 'the Group' that acquires high education, culture and faculty to understand the science in geological disposal of HLW. First of all the awareness of danger or safety to HLW disposal was examined. Some 23% regard HLW disposal as safe, on the contrary 60% feel danger. This is similar to the awareness of the average public. And some 72% think that HLW should be disposal, but only 6% agree the repository in their town. It shows that the Group of high education has a tendency of calmly understand the necessity of disposal, but they also have a nature so-called 'not in my back yard (NIMBY)'. After that, the students were divided in two groups. Then, one group received information from the promoter, and another received information from opponents. The result of second questionnaire shows that the awareness of danger is affected strongly by given information even in this Group, but they become thoughtful and prudent in their opinion and decision-making as increasing information. Finally in this paper it is studied that 'what is the role of education of civil engineering?' and 'what is key issue in R and D of HLW disposal?' considering Public Acceptance. (author)

  2. Produtividade e vigor do maracujazeiro-amarelo plantado em covas e plantio direto sob manejo orgânico Yield and vigor of the yellow passion fruit tree planted in holes and in no-tillage under organic cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Elviro de Araújo Neto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o vigor e a produtividade do maracujazeiro-amarelo plantado em diferentes tamanhos de cova e plantio direto sob manejo orgânico. O experimento foi conduzido de 2005 a 2007, no Setor de Agricultura Ecológica da Universidade Federal do Acre, em delineamento de blocos casualizados, constituídos de cinco tratamentos, quatro repetições e quatro plantas por parcela. Foram avaliados cinco tipos de preparo do solo: T1 cova do tamanho do torrão (0,19 x 0,063m com adubação em cobertura; T2 cova de 0,30 x 0,30 x 0,30m com adubação de plantio na cova; T3 cova de 0,30 x 0,30 x 0,30m com adubação de plantio em cobertura; T4 cova de 0,50 x 0,50 x 0,50m com adubação de plantio na cova; e T5 cova de 0,50 x 0,50 x 0,50m com adubação de plantio em cobertura. O tamanho da cova e o plantio direto não influenciaram o vigor da planta e a biomassa de raízes. O número de frutos por planta e a produtividade, na segunda e na somatória das duas safras, foram maiores com plantio direto e com covas cúbicas de 0,30m. Após dois anos de cultivo, a densidade do solo foi maior na camada de 0-5cm de profundidade num raio de 20cm da planta para o plantio em covas de 0,50m com adubação na cova e menor para o plantio direto, não havendo diferença entre os demais tratamentos. O plantio direto ou o plantio em covas pequenas com dimensões de 0,30 x 0,30 x 0,30m proporcionou maior produtividade de maracujá que o plantio em covas maiores, mesmo não influenciando o vigor das plantas e a massa seca de raízes.The objective of this research was to evaluate the yield and vigor of the yellow passion fruit tree planted in hole and no-tillage under organic system. The experiment was carried under experimental design in randomized blocks with five treatments and four replicates with four plants per plot. Five types of soil tillage: T1- hole of the size of the clod (0.19 x 0.063m with manuring in covering; T2- hole of 0.30 x 0.30 x

  3. Plasma focus breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Kazunari.

    1981-09-01

    Instead of using linear accelerators, it is possible to breed fissile fuels with the help of high current plasma focus device. A mechanism of accelerating proton beam in plasma focus device to high energy would be a change of inductance in plasma column because of rapid growth of plasma instability. A possible scheme of plasma focus breeder is also proposed. (author)

  4. Focused ultrasound in ophthalmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silverman RH

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ronald H Silverman1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Columbia University Medical Center, 2F.L. Lizzi Center for Biomedical Engineering, Riverside Research, New York, NY, USA Abstract: The use of focused ultrasound to obtain diagnostically significant information about the eye goes back to the 1950s. This review describes the historical and technological development of ophthalmic ultrasound and its clinical application and impact. Ultrasound, like light, can be focused, which is crucial for formation of high-resolution, diagnostically useful images. Focused, single-element, mechanically scanned transducers are most common in ophthalmology. Specially designed transducers have been used to generate focused, high-intensity ultrasound that through thermal effects has been used to treat glaucoma (via cilio-destruction, tumors, and other pathologies. Linear and annular transducer arrays offer synthetic focusing in which precise timing of the excitation of independently addressable array elements allows formation of a converging wavefront to create a focus at one or more programmable depths. Most recently, linear array-based plane-wave ultrasound, in which the array emits an unfocused wavefront and focusing is performed solely on received data, has been demonstrated for imaging ocular anatomy and blood flow. While the history of ophthalmic ultrasound extends back over half-a-century, new and powerful technologic advances continue to be made, offering the prospect of novel diagnostic capabilities. Keywords: ophthalmic ultrasound, ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU, ultrafast imaging, Doppler imaging 

  5. Space Focus Lead Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, Geoffrey D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-10

    The Space Focus team is tasked with the definition of the Space Focused Science Topics, and with the review and ranking of the CSES proposals received in all the program areas. This is achieved by dedicated meetings or a series of informal discussions and/or e-mail reviews.

  6. BrightFocus Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About BrightFocus Foundation Featured Content BrightFocus: Investing in Science to Save Mind and Sight We're here to help. Explore ... recognition is very important. Monday, November 6, 2017 New Diagnosis? Managing a mind and sight disease is a journey. And you’ ...

  7. FOCUS ON GRAPHENE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peres, N M R; Ribeiro, Ricardo M

    2009-01-01

    Graphene physics is currently one of the most active research areas in condensed matter physics. Countless theoretical and experimental studies have already been performed, targeting electronic, magnetic, thermal, optical, structural and vibrational properties. Also, studies that modify pristine graphene, aiming at finding new physics and possible new applications, have been considered. These include patterning nanoribbons and quantum dots, exposing graphene's surface to different chemical species, studying multilayer systems, and inducing strain and curvature (modifying in this way graphene's electronic properties). This focus issue includes many of the latest developments on graphene research. Focus on Graphene Contents The effect of sublattice symmetry breaking on the electronic properties of doped graphene A Qaiumzadeh and R Asgari Interfaces within graphene nanoribbons J Wurm, M Wimmer, I Adagideli, K Richter and H U Baranger Weak localization and transport gap in graphene antidot lattices J Eroms and D Weiss Electronic properties of graphene antidot lattices J A Fuerst, J G Pedersen, C Flindt, N A Mortensen, M Brandbyge, T G Pedersen and A-P Jauho Splitting of critical energies in the n=0 Landau level of graphene Ana L C Pereira Double-gated graphene-based devices S Russo, M F Craciun, M Yamamoto, S Tarucha and A F Morpurgo Pinning and switching of magnetic moments in bilayer graphene Eduardo V Castro, M P Lopez-Sancho and M A H Vozmediano Electronic transport properties of graphene nanoribbons Katsunori Wakabayashi, Yositake Takane, Masayuki Yamamoto and Manfred Sigrist Many-body effects on out-of-plane phonons in graphene J Gonzalez and E Perfetto Graphene zigzag ribbons, square lattice models and quantum spin chains Mahdi Zarea and Nancy Sandler On the universal ac optical background in graphene V P Gusynin, S G Sharapov and J P Carbotte Heat conduction in graphene: experimental study and theoretical interpretation S Ghosh, D L Nika, E P Pokatilov and A A

  8. Final focus nomenclature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, R.

    1986-01-01

    The formal names and common names for all devices in the final focus system of the SLC are listed. The formal names consist of a device type designator, microprocessor designator, and a four-digit unit number

  9. Final focus test beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    This report discusses the following: the Final Focus Test Beam Project; optical design; magnets; instrumentation; magnetic measurement and BPM calibration; mechanical alignment and stabilization; vacuum system; power supplies; control system; radiation shielding and personnel protection; infrastructure; and administration

  10. Facility Focus: Food Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    College Planning & Management, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Hawthorn Court Community Center at Iowa State University, Ames, and the HUB-Robeson Center at Pennsylvania State University. Focuses on the food service offered in these new student-life buildings. Includes photographs. (EV)

  11. Focus group discussions

    CERN Document Server

    Hennink, Monique M

    2014-01-01

    The Understanding Research series focuses on the process of writing up social research. The series is broken down into three categories: Understanding Statistics, Understanding Measurement, and Understanding Qualitative Research. The books provide researchers with guides to understanding, writing, and evaluating social research. Each volume demonstrates how research should be represented, including how to write up the methodology as well as the research findings. Each volume also reviews how to appropriately evaluate published research. Focus Group Discussions addresses the challenges associated with conducting and writing focus group research. It provides detailed guidance on the practical and theoretical considerations in conducting focus group discussions including: designing the discussion guide, recruiting participants, training a field team, moderating techniques and ethical considerations. Monique Hennink describes how a methodology section is read and evaluated by others, such as journal reviewers or ...

  12. Final focus nomenclature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, R.

    1986-08-08

    The formal names and common names for all devices in the final focus system of the SLC are listed. The formal names consist of a device type designator, microprocessor designator, and a four-digit unit number. (LEW)

  13. High harmonics focusing undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varfolomeev, A.A.; Hairetdinov, A.H.; Smirnov, A.V.; Khlebnikov, A.S. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    It was shown in our previous work that there exist a possibility to enhance significantly the {open_quote}natural{close_quote} focusing properties of the hybrid undulator. Here we analyze the actual undulator configurations which could provide such field structure. Numerical simulations using 2D code PANDIRA were carried out and the enhanced focusing properties of the undulator were demonstrated. The obtained results provide the solution for the beam transport in a very long (short wavelength) undulator schemes.

  14. The Individually Focused Interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Aksel Skovgaard

    2012-01-01

    relatively “strong” interviewees (interview persons: IPs) with diverse backgrounds; (2) thorough planning of the interview with well-focused themes; and (3) a thorough and repeated introduction to the interview. The omission of audio transcriptions is an obvious solution to the researcher who wants a breadth...... of range of statements stemming from the use of many more interviewees than is often possible. The Individually Focused Interview (TIFI) also provides more time for involvement in the field and further analysis....

  15. Plutonium focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure

  16. Plasma focus matching conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, H.M.; Masoud, M.M.; Elkhalafawy, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    A snow-plough and slug models have been used to obtain the optimum matching conditions of the plasma in the focus. The dimensions of the plasma focus device are, inner electrode radius = 2 cm, outer electrode radius = 5.5 cm, and its length = 8 cm. It was found that the maximum magnetic energy of 12.26 kJ has to be delivered to plasma focus whose density is 10 19 /cm 3 at focusing time of 2.55 μs and with total external inductance of 24.2 n H. The same method is used to evaluate the optimum matching conditions for the previous coaxial discharge system which had inner electrode radius = 1.6 cm, outer electrode radius = 3.3 cm and its length = 31.5 cm. These conditions are charging voltage = 12 kV, capacity of the condenser bank = 430 μf, plasma focus density = 10 19 /cm 3 focusing time = 8 μs and total external inductance = 60.32 n H.3 fig., 2 tab

  17. Verum focus and polar questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Giurgea

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We argue that some word order phenomena in Romanian and Sardinian are the result of a checking operation in the left periphery involving verum focus (i.e. focus on the polarity component of the sentence. In particular, this operation accounts for some word order patterns found in polar questions. In Romanian, polarity fronting is realized as head-movement of (V+T to a higher peripheral head which bears a Focus-probe. This licenses VS orders for predications in which VS is not allowed as a neutral order (i-level predicates, iteratives, generics. In Sardinian, an entire phrase headed by the lexical predicate (verbal non-finite form or non-verbal predicate is fronted before the auxiliary. We argue that this order is obtained by two movement operations, head-raising of Aux to Foc and movement of the predicate phrase to SpecFoc. We also present the semantics of polarity focus, distinguishing several types of focus (informational, emphatic, contrastive.

  18. The focus factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Frandsen, Tove Faber

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. We present a new bibliometric indicator to measure journal specialisation over time, named the focus factor. This new indicator is based on bibliographic coupling and counts the percentage of re-citations given in subsequent years. Method. The applicability of the new indicator....... To validate re-citations as caused by specialisation, other possible causes were measured and correlated (obsolescence, journal self-citations and number of references). Results. The results indicate that the focus factor is capable of distinguishing between general and specialised journals and thus...... effectively measures the intended phenomenon (i.e., journal specialisation). Only weak correlations were found between journal re-citations and obsolescence, journal self-citations, and number of references. Conclusions. The focus factor successfully measures journal specialisation over time. Measures based...

  19. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  20. Collective focusing ion accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldin, F.J.

    1986-01-01

    The principal subject of this dissertation is the trapping confinement of pure electron plasmas in bumpy toroidal magnetic fields, with particular attention given to the trapping procedure and the behavior of the plasma during the final equilibrium. The most important aspects of the equilibrium studied were the qualitative nature of the plasma configuration and motion and its density, distribution and stability. The motivation for this study was that an unneutralized cloud of electrons contained in a toroidal system, sufficiently dense and stable, may serve to electrostatically focus ions (against centrifugal and self space charge forces) in a cyclic ion accelerator. Such an accelerator, known as a Collective Focusing Ion Accelerator (CFIA) could be far smaller than conventional designs (which use external magnetic fields directly to focus the ions) due to the smaller gyro-radium of an electron in a magnetic field of given strength. The electron cloud generally drifted poloidally at a finite radius from the toroidal minor axis. As this would preclude focusing ions with such clouds, damping this motion was investigated. Finite resistance in the normally perfectly conductive vessel wall did this. In further preparation for a working CFIA, additional experiments studied the effect of ions on the stability of the electron cloud

  1. Plasma focus project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahlin, H.L.

    1975-12-01

    The primary objective of this project is to provide a relatively simple pulsed power source for high density pulsed fusion studies with a variety of DT and other fusion microexplosion targets. The plasma focus operated on DT at 1 MJ should produce greater than or equal to 10 15 DT neutrons per pulse corresponding to 2800 J of nuclear energy release and for low pressure operation and appropriately configured high Z anode center should yield an x-ray burst of about 1000 J with a substantial fraction of this x-ray energy concentrated in the 5-100 kV range. Because of its x-ray and neutron production potential, the operation of the focus as an x-ray source is also under study and an initial design study for a repetitively pulsed 1 MJ plasma focus as a pulsed neutron materials testing source has been completed. The plasma focus seems particularly appropriate for application as a materials testing source for pulsed fusion reactors, for example, based on laser driven fusion microexplosions. The construction status of the device is described

  2. Analysis and modeling of "focus" in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovy, Dirk; Anumanchipalli, Gopala; Parlikar, Alok

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses a crowd-sourced definition of a speech phenomenon we have called focus. Given sentences, text and speech, in isolation and in context, we asked annotators to identify what we term the focus word. We present their consistency in identifying the focused word, when presented with text...... or speech stimuli. We then build models to show how well we predict that focus word from lexical (and higher) level features. Also, using spectral and prosodic information, we show the differences in these focus words when spoken with and without context. Finally, we show how we can improve speech synthesis...

  3. Focusing of electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhayalan, V.

    1996-01-01

    The focusing of electromagnetic waves inside a slab has been examined together with two special cases in which the slab is reduced to a single interface or a single medium. To that end the exact solutions for the fields inside a layered medium have been used, given in terms of the outside current source in order to obtain the solutions for the focused electric field inside a slab. Both exact and asymptotic solutions of the problem have been considered, and the validity of the latter has been discussed. The author has developed a numerical algorithm for evaluation of the diffraction integral with special emphasis on reducing the computing time. The numerical techniques in the paper can be readily applied to evaluate similar diffraction integrals occurring e.g. in microstrip antennas. 46 refs

  4. Magnetic Focusing Horn

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    This magnetic focusing horn was used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). Its development was an important step towards using CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron as a proton - antiproton collider. This eventually led to the discovery of the W and Z particles in 1983. Making an antiproton beam took a lot of time and effort. Firstly, protons were accelerated to an energy of 26 GeV in the PS and ejected onto a metal target. From the spray of emerging particles, a magnetic horn picked out 3.6 GeV antiprotons for injection into the AA through a wide-aperture focusing quadrupole magnet. For a million protons hitting the target, just one antiproton was captured, 'cooled' and accumulated. It took 3 days to make a beam of 3 x 10^11 -, three hundred thousand million - antiprotons.

  5. An adiabatic focuser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, P.; Oide, K.; Sessler, A.M.; Yu, S.S.

    1989-08-01

    Theoretical analysis is made of an intense relativistic electron beam, such as would be available from a linear collider, moving through a plasma of increasing density, but density always less than that of the beam (underdense). In this situation, the plasma electrons are expelled from the beam channel and the electrons are subject to an ever-increasing focusing force provided by the channel ions. Analysis is made on the beam radiation energy loss in the classical, the transition, and the quantum regimes. It is shown that the focuser is insensitive to the beam energy spread behaviors in the nonclassical regimes, the radiation limit on lenses (the Oide limit) can be exceeded. The sensitivity of the system to the topic mismatch and the nonlinearity is also analyzed. Examples are given with SLC-type and TLC-type parameters. 9 refs., 1 tab

  6. Line broadening by focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, A.L. de; Jabs, A.

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that the spectral width of a quasi-monochromatic light beam broadens when the beam is focused. A quantitative formula for this broadening is derived from classical wave theory. The effect is shown to explain some experiments on laser beams done by E. Panarella which that author has explained under the ad-hoc hypothesis that the frequency of the photons changes along with the intensity of the light beam. The line broadening by focusing might also contribute to gas ionization by incident light when the ionization potential is well above the mean photon energy. Some remarks are made on some direct applications of the Heisenberg relations in comparison with our treatment. (Author) [pt

  7. Focus on Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasman, Kirsten; Barfoed, Anne

    Background: Compared to other Nordic countries, Denmark has a high incidence of anal sphincter injury. Recent studies indicate that a strict focus on prevention of severe perineal trauma has decreased the incidence (1). This has resulted in changed clinical procedures in several Danish labour wards...... (2). It is, however, not clarified which of the multifaceted aspects of preventing perineal injury that might explain the decrease (3). Aims: We hypothesized that the use of structured reflection on a clinical practice by midwives and midwifery students would increase both parts’ knowledge on how...... attended the delivery, facilitated the midwife’s and the student’s structured reflection. Further, the project midwife held daily simulation workshops with midwives and students. Two focus group interviews with students and midwives were conducted and analyzed using content analysis. Results and conclusion...

  8. Focus Group Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    home for the arrival of school- aged children. TIP: Do not conduct focus groups in a command conference room in the command group area. Doing so...organizational effectiveness and equal opportunity/equal employment opportunity/fair treatment and sexual assault and response factors (which are listed on the... Sexual Harassment (C) Sex Harassment Retaliation (D) Discrimination - Sex (E) Discrimination - Race (F) Discrimination - Disability (G

  9. Dialogicality in Focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The phenomenon which dialogism addresses is human interaction. It enables us to conceptualise human interaction as intersubjective, symbolic, cultural, transformative and conflictual, in short, as complex. The complexity of human interaction is evident in all domains of human life, for example, i......, because rather than applying dialogism to this or that domain, the present volume focuses on dialogicality itself to interrogate the concepts and methods which are taken for granted in the burgeoning literature. (Imprint: Nova Press)...

  10. Dense Plasma Focus Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Li, Shengtai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jungman, Gerard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-31

    The mechanisms for pinch formation in Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices, with the generation of high-energy ions beams and subsequent neutron production over a relatively short distance, are not fully understood. Here we report on high-fidelity 2D and 3D numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations using the LA-COMPASS code to study the pinch formation dynamics and its associated instabilities and neutron production.

  11. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites

  12. Particle Accelerator Focus Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, José; Rocha, Jorge; Redondo, Luís; Cruz, João

    2017-08-01

    The Laboratório de Aceleradores e Tecnologias de Radiação (LATR) at the Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, of Instituto Superior Técnico (IST) has a horizontal electrostatic particle accelerator based on the Van de Graaff machine which is used for research in the area of material characterization. This machine produces alfa (He+) and proton (H+) beams of some μA currents up to 2 MeV/q energies. Beam focusing is obtained using a cylindrical lens of the Einzel type, assembled near the high voltage terminal. This paper describes the developed system that automatically focuses the ion beam, using a personal computer running the LabVIEW software, a multifunction input/output board and signal conditioning circuits. The focusing procedure consists of a scanning method to find the lens bias voltage which maximizes the beam current measured on a beam stopper target, which is used as feedback for the scanning cycle. This system, as part of a wider start up and shut down automation system built for this particle accelerator, brings great advantages to the operation of the accelerator by turning it faster and easier to operate, requiring less human presence, and adding the possibility of total remote control in safe conditions.

  13. Particle Accelerator Focus Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes José

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Laboratório de Aceleradores e Tecnologias de Radiação (LATR at the Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, of Instituto Superior Técnico (IST has a horizontal electrostatic particle accelerator based on the Van de Graaff machine which is used for research in the area of material characterization. This machine produces alfa (He+ and proton (H+ beams of some μA currents up to 2 MeV/q energies. Beam focusing is obtained using a cylindrical lens of the Einzel type, assembled near the high voltage terminal. This paper describes the developed system that automatically focuses the ion beam, using a personal computer running the LabVIEW software, a multifunction input/output board and signal conditioning circuits. The focusing procedure consists of a scanning method to find the lens bias voltage which maximizes the beam current measured on a beam stopper target, which is used as feedback for the scanning cycle. This system, as part of a wider start up and shut down automation system built for this particle accelerator, brings great advantages to the operation of the accelerator by turning it faster and easier to operate, requiring less human presence, and adding the possibility of total remote control in safe conditions.

  14. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

  15. [Effects of Square-Stepping Exercise inducing activation of the brain's cognitive function in community-dwelling older Japanese females--Focus on the baseline cognitive function level and age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Takumi; Tsuji, Taishi; Kitano, Naruki; Muraki, Toshiaki; Hotta, Kazushi; Okura, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the degree of improvement in cognitive function achieved with an exercise intervention in community-dwelling older Japanese women is affected by the participant's baseline cognitive function and age. Eighty-eight women (mean age: 70.5±4.2 years) participated in a prevention program for long-term care. They completed the Square-Stepping Exercise (SSE) program once a week, 120 minutes/session, for 11 weeks. We assessed participants' cognitive function using 5 cognitive tests (5-Cog) before and after the intervention. We defined cognitive function as the 5-Cog total score and defined the change in cognitive function as the 5-cog post-score minus the pre-score. We divided participants into four groups based on age (≤69 years or ≥70 years) and baseline cognitive function level (above vs. below the median cognitive function level). We conducted two-way analysis of variance. All 4 groups improved significantly in cognitive function after the intervention. There were no baseline cognitive function level×age interactions and no significant main effects of age, although significant main effects of baseline cognitive function level (P=0.004, η(2)=0.09) were observed. Square-Stepping Exercise is an effective exercise for improving cognitive function. These results suggest that older adults with cognitive decline are more likely to improve their cognitive function with exercise than if they start the intervention with high cognitive function. Furthermore, during an exercise intervention, baseline cognitive function level may have more of an effect than a participant's age on the degree of cognitive improvement.

  16. Focus on Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Koningsbrugge, H.

    2008-01-01

    A few articles in this magazine focus on the developments and policies in Russia. The titles of some of the articles are 'Between state power and liberal reform' on the task of the new Russian president to find a new balance between government interference and market economy; 'Green light for green energy' on the willingness of the Russian government to stimulate renewable energy; 'Russian power play' on the role of Gazprom in the liberalization of the Russian power market; 'Gazprom's risky strategy' on it's pricing strategy

  17. Focus on Organic Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Uji, Takehiko Mori and Toshihiro Takahashi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic materials are usually thought of as electrical insulators. Progress in chemical synthesis, however, has brought us a rich variety of conducting organic materials, which can be classified into conducting polymers and molecular crystals. Researchers can realize highly conducting molecular crystals in charge-transfer complexes, where suitable combinations of organic electron donor or acceptor molecules with counter ions or other organic molecules provide charge carriers. By means of a kind of chemical doping, the charge-transfer complexes exhibit high electrical conductivity and, thanks to their highly crystalline nature, even superconductivity has been observed. This focus issue of Science and Technology of Advanced Materials is devoted to the research into such 'organic conductors'The first organic metal was (TTF(TCNQ, which was found in 1973 to have high conductivity at room temperature and a metal–insulator transition at low temperatures. The first organic superconductor was (TMTSF2PF6, whose superconductivity under high pressures was reported by J´erome in 1980. After these findings, the research on organic conductors exploded. Hundreds of organic conductors have been reported, among which more than one hundred exhibit superconductivity. Recently, a single-component organic conductor has been found with metallic conductivity down to low temperatures.In these organic conductors, in spite of their simple electronic structures, much new physics has arisen from the low dimensionality. Examples are charge and spin density waves, characteristic metal–insulator transitions, charge order, unconventional superconductivity, superconductor–insulator transitions, and zero-gap conductors with Dirac cones. The discovery of this new physics is undoubtedly derived from the development of many intriguing novel organic conductors. High quality single crystals are indispensable to the precise measurement of electronic states.This focus issue

  18. Rheological phenomena in focus

    CERN Document Server

    Boger, DV

    1993-01-01

    More than possibly any other scientific discipline, rheology is easily visualized and the relevant literature contains many excellent photographs of unusual and often bizarre phenomena. The present book brings together these photographs for the first time. They are supported by a full explanatory text. Rheological Phenomena in Focus will be an indispensable support manual to all those who teach rheology or have to convince colleagues of the practical relevance of the subject within an industrial setting. For those who teach fluid mechanics, the book clearly illustrates the difference be

  19. Catastrophe in plasma focus evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Kazunari.

    1984-07-01

    A theory of generating strong electric field in a dense plasma column in plasma focus is established by applying the formula for the electron thermal conductivity in destroyed magnetic surfaces like those in tokamaks. The origin of the electric field may be from abrupt rise of plasma resistivity when the irregularity of magnetic field is weak. However, the electric field can be from the inductive origin in case the irregularity attains a certain level. Both origin should be mixed up depending on the magnitude of the irregularity. (author)

  20. Focused detection logging technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcotte, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    In accordance with an illustrative embodiment of the present invention, a method and apparatus is disclosed for determining a characteristic of the media surrounding a borehole by emitting gamma radiation in at least one tightly collimated beam toward an earth formation adjacent a borehole, by detecting from a plurality of tightly collimated paths that are focused at a zone of intersection with and aligned to intersect with each emitted beam the gamma radiation scattered by the interaction of the emitted gamma radiation and the media at the zones of intersection, by misaligning the emitted beams and the tightly collimated paths to prevent their intersection, by detecting gamma radiation scattered by the interaction of the emitted gamma radiation and the media with the emitted beams and the tightly collimated paths misaligned and by determining from the detected gamma radiation a media characteristic. In one embodiment, the detection collimater used is formed of a material that is essentially opaque to gamma radiation at the energies of interest and includes a plurality of passageways that are spherically focused at a zone of intersection with one of the emitted beams of gamma radiation and that are arranged in a number of surfaces that are curved to be azimuthally symmetrical about the axis of the intersected beam. 14 figures

  1. High School Economics. Focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Michael; McCorkle, Sarapage; Meszaros, Bonnie; Smith, Robert F.; Highsmith, Robert J.

    This book opens with an exploration of the fundamental trilogy of economics - scarcity, choice, and cost. Students then examine the broad social goals of an economy in preparation for lessons treating many topics new to the precollege level such as the stock market, public choice, and aggregate supply and demand. The set of 20 lessons include: (1)…

  2. Doing focus group research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Laura Bang

    2014-01-01

    Scholars of ethnomethodologically informed discourse studies are often sceptical of the use of interview data such as focus group data. Some scholars quite simply reject interview data with reference to a general preference for so-called naturally occurring data. Other scholars acknowledge...... that interview data can be of some use if the distinction between natural and contrived data is given up and replaced with a distinction between interview data as topic or as resource. In greater detail, such scholars argue that interview data are perfectly adequate if the researcher wants to study the topic...... of interview interaction, but inadequate as data for studying phenomena that go beyond the phenomenon of interview interaction. Neither of these more and less sceptical positions are, on the face of it, surprising due to the ethnomethodological commitment to study social order as accomplished in situ...

  3. Focus on Succes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Slimák

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Editor wishes to present the need and form of turning the focus of individuals and organisations to success, based on evaluating understanding of the situation, on complex improving the quality of work, production and life, and on awareness of accountability for consequences of one’s actions in the given environment and time. Understood by success is sustained financial and non-financial prosperity, whilst decisive is the evaluating process, the key element is loyalty of natural and physical persons, and the priority is loyalty of external customers. The address is targeted to would-be authors and readers of our Journal interested in engineering and management of quality of mutually correlate entities.

  4. Cosmological Final Focus Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, J

    2004-01-01

    We develop the many striking parallels between the dynamics of light streams from distant galaxies and particle beams in accelerator final focus systems. Notably the deflections of light by mass clumps are identical to the kicks arising from the long-range beam-beam interactions of two counter-rotating particle beams (known as parasitic crossings). These deflections have sextupolar as well as quadrupolar components. We estimate the strength of such distortions for a variety of circumstances and argue that the sextupolar distortions from clumping within clusters may be observable. This possibility is enhanced by the facts that (1) the sextupolar distortions of background galaxies is a factor of 5 smaller than the quadrupolar distortion, (2) the angular orientation of the sextupolar and quadrupolar distortions from a mass distribution would be correlated, appearing as a slightly curved image, (3) these effects should be spatially clumped on the sky

  5. The FOCUS trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenthøj, Louise B; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Randers, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits are a distinct feature among people at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis and pose a barrier to functional recovery. Insufficient evidence exists on how to ameliorate these cognitive deficits in patients at UHR for psychosis and hence improve daily living and quality...... of life. The aim of the trial is to investigate whether cognitive remediation can improve cognitive and psychosocial function in patients at UHR for psychosis. METHODS: The FOCUS trial (Function and Overall Cognition in Ultra-high risk States) is a randomised, parallel group, observer-blinded clinical...... trial enrolling 126 patients meeting the standardised criteria of being at UHR for psychosis. Patients are recruited from psychiatric in- and outpatient facilities in the Copenhagen catchment area. Patients are randomised to one of the two treatment arms: cognitive remediation plus standard treatment...

  6. Focusing on customer service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This booklet is devoted to a consideration of how good customer service in family planning programs can generate demand for products and services, bring customers back, and reduce costs. Customer service is defined as increasing client satisfaction through continuous concern for client preferences, staff accountability to clients, and respect for the rights of clients. Issues discussed include the introduction of a customer service approach and gaining staff commitment. The experience of PROSALUD in Bolivia in recruiting appropriate staff, supervising staff, soliciting client feedback, and marketing services is offered as an example of a successful customer service approach. The key customer service functions are described as 1) establishing a welcoming atmosphere, 2) streamlining client flow, 3) personalizing client services, and 4) organizing and providing clear information to clients. The role of the manager in developing procedures is explored, and the COPE (Client-Oriented Provider-Efficient) process is presented as a good way to begin to make improvements. Techniques in staff training in customer service include brainstorming, role playing, using case studies (examples of which are provided), and engaging in practice sessions. Training also leads to the development of effective customer service attitudes, and the differences between these and organizational/staff-focused attitudes are illustrated in a chart. The use of communication skills (asking open-ended questions, helping clients express their concerns, engaging in active listening, and handling difficult situations) is considered. Good recovery skills are important when things go wrong. Gathering and using client feedback is the next topic considered. This involves identifying, recording, and discussing customer service issues as well as taking action on these issues and evaluating the results. The booklet ends by providing a sample of customer service indicators, considering the maintenance of a

  7. Is the population level link between drinking and harm similar for women and men?--a time series analysis with focus on gender-specific drinking and alcohol-related hospitalizations in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engdahl, Barbro; Ramstedt, Mats

    2011-08-01

    A question that has not been addressed in the literature is whether the population level association between alcohol and harm differs between men and women. The main aim of this article is to fill this gap by analysing recently collected time series data of male and female self-reported drinking in relation to gender-specific harm indicators in Sweden. Male and female per capita and risk consumption was estimated on the basis of self-reported data from monthly alcohol surveys for the period 2002-07. Overall per capita consumption including recorded sales and estimates of unrecorded consumption were also collected for the same period. Alcohol-related hospitalizations were used as indicators of alcohol-related harm. Data were aggregated into quarterly observations and analysed by means of time series analyses (ARIMA-modelling). Overall per capita consumption was significantly related to both male and female alcohol-related hospitalizations. Male per capita consumption and risk consumption were also significantly related to alcohol-related hospitalizations among men. Female per capita consumption and risk consumption had also a positive association with alcohol-related hospitalizations but statistical significance was only reached for alcohol poisonings where the association was even stronger than for men. Changes in alcohol consumption in Sweden was associated with changes in male and female alcohol-related hospitalizations also in analyses based on gender-specific consumption measures. There was no clear evidence that the population level association between alcohol and harm differed between men and women.

  8. Stress wave focusing transducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visuri, S.R., LLNL

    1998-05-15

    Conversion of laser radiation to mechanical energy is the fundamental process behind many medical laser procedures, particularly those involving tissue destruction and removal. Stress waves can be generated with laser radiation in several ways: creation of a plasma and subsequent launch of a shock wave, thermoelastic expansion of the target tissue, vapor bubble collapse, and ablation recoil. Thermoelastic generation of stress waves generally requires short laser pulse durations and high energy density. Thermoelastic stress waves can be formed when the laser pulse duration is shorter than the acoustic transit time of the material: {tau}{sub c} = d/c{sub s} where d = absorption depth or spot diameter, whichever is smaller, and c{sub s} = sound speed in the material. The stress wave due to thermoelastic expansion travels at the sound speed (approximately 1500 m/s in tissue) and leaves the site of irradiation well before subsequent thermal events can be initiated. These stress waves, often evolving into shock waves, can be used to disrupt tissue. Shock waves are used in ophthalmology to perform intraocular microsurgery and photodisruptive procedures as well as in lithotripsy to fragment stones. We have explored a variety of transducers that can efficiently convert optical to mechanical energy. One such class of transducers allows a shock wave to be focused within a material such that the stress magnitude can be greatly increased compared to conventional geometries. Some transducer tips could be made to operate regardless of the absorption properties of the ambient media. The size and nature of the devices enable easy delivery, potentially minimally-invasive procedures, and precise tissue- targeting while limiting thermal loading. The transducer tips may have applications in lithotripsy, ophthalmology, drug delivery, and cardiology.

  9. Tank Focus Area pretreatment activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnis, C.P.; Welch, T.D.; Manke, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    Plans call for the high-level wastes to be retrieved from the tanks and immobilized in a stable waste form suitable for long-term isolation. Chemistry and chemical engineering operations are required to retrieve the wastes, to condition the wastes for subsequent steps, and to reduce the costs of the waste management enterprise. Pretreatment includes those processes between retrieval and immobilization, and includes preparation of suitable feed material for immobilization and separations to partition the waste into streams that yield lower life-cycle costs. Some of the technologies being developed by the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to process these wastes are described. These technologies fall roughly into three areas: (1) solid/liquid separation (SLS), (2) sludge pretreatment, and (3) supernate pretreatment

  10. Focus on sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R J; Godiksen, L; Hansen, G; Gustafson, D J; Brinkerhoff, D W; Ingle, M D; Rounds, T; Wing, H

    1990-01-01

    In recent years, sustainability has become one of the most critical concepts in international development and is having a dramatic impact on the way development is conceptualized and carried out. The US Agency for International Development (USAID) is incorporating this concept into its programs and projects. Factors encouraging sustainability of projects and programs include host government policies that support or constrain program objectives, national and/or local commitment to project goals, managerial leadership that helps shape improved policies, collaboration at all staff levels in program management, financial resources that cover program operational costs, appropriate program technology, integration of the program with the social and cultural setting of the country, community involvement in the program, sound environmental management, technical assistance oriented to transferring skills and increasing institutional capacity, perception by the host country that the project is "effective," training provided by the project to transfer skill needed for capacity-building, integration of the program into existing institutional framework, and external political, economic and environmental factors. Impediments to sustainability are often inherent in the donor agency's programming process. This includes the implicit assumption that program objectives can be accomplished in a relatively short time frame, when in fact capacity-building requires a lengthy commitment. USAID professionals are pressured to show near-term results which emphasize outputs rather than purpose and goal-level accomplishments achievable only after extensive effort. The emphasis on obligating money and on the project paper as a sales document leads project designers to talk with a great deal more certainty about project results than is warranted by the complex development situation. Uncertainty and flexibility should be designed into projects so activities and objects can change as more

  11. Focus on Fotemustine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rossi, A; Rossi, L; Laudisi, A; Sini, V; Toppo, L; Marchesi, F; Tortorelli, G; Leti, M; Turriziani, M; Aquino, A; Bonmassar, E; De Vecchis, L; Torino, F

    2006-12-01

    Fotemustine is a cytotoxic alkylating agent, belonging to the group of nitrosourea family. Its mechanism of action is similar to that of other nitrosoureas, characterized by a mono-functional/bi-functional alkylating activity. Worth of consideration is the finding that the presence of high levels of the DNA repair enzyme O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) in cancer cells confers drug resistance. In different clinical trials Fotemustine showed a remarkable antitumor activity as single agent, and in association with other antineoplastic compounds or treatment modalities. Moreover, its toxicity is generally considered acceptable. The drug has been employed in the treatment of metastatic melanoma, and, on the basis of its pharmacokinetic properties, in brain tumors, either primitive or metastatic. Moreover, Fotemustine shows pharmacodynamic properties similar to those of mono-functional alkylating compounds (e.g. DNA methylating drugs, such as Temozolomide), that have been recently considered for the management of acute refractory leukaemia. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that this agent could be a good candidate to play a potential role in haematological malignancies.

  12. Focus On: Neurotransmitter Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, C. Fernando; Puglia, Michael P.; Zucca, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Neurotransmitter systems have been long recognized as important targets of the developmental actions of alcohol (i.e., ethanol). Short- and long-term effects of ethanol on amino acid (e.g., γ-aminobutyric acid and glutamate) and biogenic amine (e.g., serotonin and dopamine) neurotransmitters have been demonstrated in animal models of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Researchers have detected ethanol effects after exposure during developmental periods equivalent to the first, second, and third trimesters of human pregnancy. Results support the recommendation that pregnant women should abstain from drinking—even small quantities—as effects of ethanol on neurotransmitter systems have been detected at low levels of exposure. Recent studies have elucidated new mechanisms and/or consequences of the actions of ethanol on amino acid and biogenic amine neurotransmitter systems. Alterations in these neurotransmitter systems could, in part, be responsible for many of the conditions associated with FASD, including (1) learning, memory, and attention deficits; (2) motor coordination impairments; (3) abnormal responsiveness to stress; and (4) increased susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders, such as substance abuse and depression, and also neurological disorders, such as epilepsy and sudden infant death syndrome. However, future research is needed to conclusively establish a causal relationship between these conditions and developmental dysfunctions in neurotransmitter systems. PMID:23580048

  13. Recent developments: Washington focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Congress has made progress on key legislation this summer. The House of Representatives passed an appropriations bill which authorizes spending for DOE and the NRC for FY91. The Senate has yet to consider an energy appropriations bill, but as the House bill exceeds the administration request for funding by $575 million, it will likely experience substantial cuts before its final passage. At the end of the month, the Senate Energy ampersand Natural Resources Committee held a hearing on the Smith Barney report on the Uranium Enrichment Enterprise. Since the Senate has already passed a uranium enrichment restructuring bill, attention has shifted to the House where some Representatives have expressed interest in holding a hearing on the report. After almost a month's delay, the House has named its representatives to the Clean Air Act Conference Committee. The Senate will have nine committee members, and the House will have 142 conferees from seven committees. Final action on the clean air bill is likely before November's Congressional elections. Finally, although it appeared the utilities had a chance to hold their payment of NRC user fees at 45 percent of the NRC's budget level, President Bush's decision to discuss taxes as part of the budget negotiations increases the likelihood of higher user fees-possibly as high as 100 percent of the NRC budget. The American Nuclear Energy Council (ANEC) estimates that the President's proposal to recover 100 percent of the NRC's budget through user fees is the second largest revenue item among the user fees proposed

  14. Issues in focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    The issues worldwide that deserve attention pertain to international migration, the education of women, family planning, missing female children, and prevention and control of AIDS cases. Migration outside country borders has been increasing due to economic and social disparities, and uncounted and unrecognized refugees are fleeing environmental disasters. The educational status of women has increased over the past 30 years. For example, female illiteracy has declined among women aged 20-24 years from 19% to 8% in Latin America, from 38% to 12% in eastern and western Asia, and from 80% to 49% in Africa. These improvements are significant, but the problem remains, where, for instance in Africa, there is still extensive illiteracy (75% of females aged under 25 years). A 1993 Population Action International Report states that low female educational levels and weak family planning and health programs are related to large family size and high child death rates. During the 1980s family planning was linked with ecological concerns. Progress has been made in the increase in contraceptive users in developing countries from 14% to 53% during 1965-70. Fertility has declined from 6.1 children per woman in the 1950s to 3.7. Kenya is a good example of a country with high fertility that reduced fertility through its emphasis on family planning. Obstacles to increased prevalence of contraception still remain. In Mexico more than 50% of public birth control services are provided to women in secret due to fear of their husband's abuse. Population pressure can result in the loss of girl children through higher mortality, better nutrition, neglect, or gender preference in the early fetal stages. The challenge of AIDS will be in caring for the sick and adjusting to social changes due to the expected increases in orphaned children.

  15. A history of tree planting in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth L. Carvell

    2012-01-01

    West Virginia has often been described by botanists as “the most southern of the northern states, the most northern of the southern states, the most eastern of the western states, and the most western of the eastern states." Truly, West Virginia, "the Mountain State," is the cross roads for many species of trees and herbaceous vegetation, and even today...

  16. Soil carbon dynamics of tree plantings for woody biomass feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agroforestry practices are being considered for their bioenergy potential as the wood could be harvested for direct combustion, cellulose to ethanol conversion, or pyrolysis to bio-oils. The objective of this project was to use spatially-distributed soil sampling and soil profile descriptions to det...

  17. Tree Planting at the Bent Creek Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Barber

    1953-01-01

    Foresters everywhere are becoming increasingly conscious of the potentialities of tree selection and breeding. In the quest for suitable breeding material, many of the plantations of the past are assuming importance, for each plantation of introduced species may provide information on its adaptability to a certain area and the desirable and undesirable traits which...

  18. Focused labeled proof systems for modal logic

    OpenAIRE

    Miller , Dale; Volpe , Marco

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Focused proofs are sequent calculus proofs that group inference rules into alternating positive and negative phases. These phases can then be used to define macro-level inference rules from Gentzen's original and tiny introduction and structural rules. We show here that the inference rules of labeled proof systems for modal logics can similarly be described as pairs of such phases within the LKF focused proof system for first-order classical logic. We consider the syst...

  19. Focus on the Musa collection: Ploidy levels revealed

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubaláková, Marie; Doležel, Jaroslav; Van den Houwe, I.; Roux, N.; Swennen, R.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 14, - (2005), s. 34-36 ISSN 1023-0076 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6038204 Grant - others:IAEA res. contract No. 12230 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Musa * ploidy * flow cytometry Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  20. in_focus - Water: Local-level Management | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... in the availability and supply of fresh water are truly a matter of life and death, and ... David B. Brooks is a specialist in natural resources who works with the ... of Energy Conservation, Dr Brooks worked for 6 years with Friends of the Earth ...

  1. Focusators for laser-branding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doskolovich, L. L.; Kazanskiy, N. L.; Kharitonov, S. I.; Uspleniev, G. V.

    A new method is investigated for synthesis of computer-generated optical elements: focusators that are able to focus the radial-symmetrical laser beam into complex focal contours, in particular into alphanumeric symbols. The method is based on decomposition of the focal contour into segments of straight lines and semi-circles, following corresponding spacing out of the focusator on elementary segments (concentric rings or sectors) and solution of the inverse task of focusing from focusator segments into corresponding elements of the focal contour. The results of numerical computing of the field from synthesized focusators into the letters are presented. The theoretical efficiency of the focusators discussed is no less than 85%. The amplitude masks and the results of operational studies of synthesized focusators are presented.

  2. Prosodic Focus Marking in Bai.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Zenghui; Chen, A.; Van de Velde, Hans

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates prosodic marking of focus in Bai, a Sino-Tibetan language spoken in the Southwest of China, by adopting a semi-spontaneous experimental approach. Our data show that Bai speakers increase the duration of the focused constituent and reduce the duration of the post-focus

  3. Technology of focus detection for 193nm projection lithographic tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Chengliang; Yan, Wei; Hu, Song; Xu, Feng; Li, Jinglong

    2012-10-01

    With the shortening printing wavelength and increasing numerical aperture of lithographic tool, the depth of focus(DOF) sees a rapidly drop down trend, reach a scale of several hundred nanometers while the repeatable accuracy of focusing and leveling must be one-tenth of DOF, approximately several dozen nanometers. For this feature, this article first introduces several focusing technology, Obtained the advantages and disadvantages of various methods by comparing. Then get the accuracy of dual-grating focusing method through theoretical calculation. And the dual-grating focusing method based on photoelastic modulation is divided into coarse focusing and precise focusing method to analyze, establishing image processing model of coarse focusing and photoelastic modulation model of accurate focusing. Finally, focusing algorithm is simulated with MATLAB. In conclusion dual-grating focusing method shows high precision, high efficiency and non-contact measurement of the focal plane, meeting the demands of focusing in 193nm projection lithography.

  4. Focus Groups Help To Focus the Marketing Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashar, Hanna; Lane, Maureen

    1996-01-01

    A university-based degree completion program for adults conducted focus group research to refine market positioning and promotion. Focus groups averaged five current students and recent graduates who reflected, demographically, the current student population. Results gave insight into reasons for selecting the university, aspects of the program…

  5. Regulatory focus in groupt contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faddegon, Krispijn Johannes

    2009-01-01

    The thesis examines the influence of group processes on the regulatory focus of individual group members. It is demonstrated that the group situation can affect group members' regulatory focus both in a top-down fashion (via the identitiy of the group) and in a bottom-up fashion (emerging from the

  6. CTE's Focus on Continuous Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, John; Kelley, Patricia; Pritz, Sandy; Hodes, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Just one of the ways career and technical education (CTE) is revamping its image is through increased attention to data-driven instructional techniques as a means of improving and focusing instruction on what matters most. Accountability and data have increasingly become a core focus of research, news, and commentary about education in recent…

  7. On the Semantics of Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kess, Joseph F.

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses the semantics of the notion of focus, insofar as it relates to Filipino languages. The evolution of this notion is reviewed, and an alternative explanation of it is given, stressing the fact that grammar and semantics should be kept separate in a discussion of focus. (CLK)

  8. CY15 Livermore Computing Focus Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connell, Tom M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Cupps, Kim C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); D' Hooge, Trent E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fahey, Tim J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fox, Dave M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Futral, Scott W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gary, Mark R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Goldstone, Robin J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hamilton, Pam G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Heer, Todd M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Long, Jeff W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mark, Rich J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Morrone, Chris J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shoopman, Jerry D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Slavec, Joe A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Smith, David W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Springmeyer, Becky R [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Stearman, Marc D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Watson, Py C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-01-20

    The LC team undertook a survey of primary Center drivers for CY15. Identified key drivers included enhancing user experience and productivity, pre-exascale platform preparation, process improvement, data-centric computing paradigms and business expansion. The team organized critical supporting efforts into three cross-cutting focus areas; Improving Service Quality; Monitoring, Automation, Delegation and Center Efficiency; and Next Generation Compute and Data Environments In each area the team detailed high level challenges and identified discrete actions to address these issues during the calendar year. Identifying the Center’s primary drivers, issues, and plans is intended to serve as a lens focusing LC personnel, resources, and priorities throughout the year.

  9. Electric motors in the focus; Elektroantrieb im Focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilms, Jan

    2013-05-15

    In August 2013, the first electric series production model of Ford comes to the market: the Focus Electric. A 23-kWh lithium-ion battery supplies the 107 kilowatts (145 hp) electric motor of the Focus Electric with energy. This battery enables a range of 162 kilometers and a limited top speed of 136 kilometers per hour. However, with 40,000 Euro this electric-powered vehicles is too expensive.

  10. Plutonium focus area: Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to creation of specific focus areas. These organizations were designed to focus scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The focus area approach provides the framework for inter-site cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major focus areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG, EM-66) followed EM-50's structure and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). NMSTG's charter to the PFA, described in detail later in this book, plays a major role in meeting the EM-66 commitments to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB). The PFA is a new program for FY96 and as such, the primary focus of revision 0 of this Technology Summary is an introduction to the Focus Area; its history, development, and management structure, including summaries of selected technologies being developed. Revision 1 to the Plutonium Focus Area Technology Summary is slated to include details on all technologies being developed, and is currently planned for release in August 1996. The following report outlines the scope and mission of the Office of Environmental Management, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure

  11. Compact electron beam focusing column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Arun; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani

    2001-12-01

    A novel design for an electron beam focusing column has been developed at LBNL. The design is based on a low-energy spread multicusp plasma source which is used as a cathode for electron beam production. The focusing column is 10 mm in length. The electron beam is focused by means of electrostatic fields. The column is designed for a maximum voltage of 50 kV. Simulations of the electron trajectories have been performed by using the 2D simulation code IGUN and EGUN. The electron temperature has also been incorporated into the simulations. The electron beam simulations, column design and fabrication will be discussed in this presentation.

  12. Rentabilidade econômica do maracujazeiro-amarelo plantado em covas e em plantions direto sob manejo orgânico Economical rentability of the yellow passion fruit tree planted in holes and in no-tillage under organic cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Elviro de Araújo Neto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a rentabilidade econômica do maracujazeiro-amarelo plantado em covas e em plantio direto sob manejo orgânico no Acre. Avaliaram-se cinco tipos de preparo do solo: T1 plantio direto com cova do tamanho do torrão (0,19 m x 0,063 m, com adubação em cobertura; T2 - cova de 0,30 x 0,30 x 0,30 m, com adubação de plantio na cova; T3 - Idem T2, com adubação em cobertura; T4 - cova de 0,50 x 0,50 x 0,50 m, com adubação de plantio na cova, e T5 - Idem T4, com adubação em cobertura. Os custos econômicos e operacionais médios foram maiores para os sistemas com plantio em covas de 0,50 m, por apresentarem elevado custo total de produção e menor produtividade. A receita líquida foi maior nos sistemas de preparo com covas de 0,30 m, com adubação na cova (R$10.234,19/ha e em cobertura (R$11.501,44/ha e no plantio direto (R$8.925,08/ha. Em todos os tratamentos, a situação econômica foi de lucro supernormal, assim a tendência é de mais agricultores entrarem na atividade.The objective of this research was to evaluate the economical profitability of the yellow passion fruit tree planted in hole and no-tillage under organic cultivation in the state of Acre, Brazil. It was evaluated five types of preparation of the soil: T1- No tillage with a hole of the size of a clod (0.19 m x 0.063 m with covering; T2- hole of 0.30 m x 0.30 m x 0.30 m with fertilization in the hole of planting; T3- similar to T2 but with fertilization of coverage; T4- hole of 0.50 m x 0.50 m x 0.50 m with fertilization in the hole of planting; and T5- similar to T4 but with fertilization of coverage. The economical and operational costs medium were larger for the no-tillage and the planting systems in holes of 0.50 m, they present an elevated total cost of production and smaller yield. The liquid revenue was larger in the planting systems with holes of 0.30 m with fertilization in the hole (R$10,234.19/ha and of coverage (R$11

  13. Focusing liquid microjets with nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acero, A J; Ferrera, C; Montanero, J M; Gañán-Calvo, A M

    2012-01-01

    The stability of flow focusing taking place in a converging–diverging nozzle, as well as the size of the resulting microjets, is examined experimentally in this paper. The results obtained in most aspects of the problem are similar to those of the classical plate-orifice configuration. There is, however, a notable difference between flow focusing in nozzles and in the plate-orifice configuration. In the former case, the liquid meniscus oscillates laterally (global whipping) for a significant area of the control parameter plane, a phenomenon never observed when focusing with the plate-orifice configuration. Global whipping may constitute an important drawback of flow focusing with nozzles because it reduces the robustness of the technique. (paper)

  14. Wayside Teaching: Focusing on Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Sara Davis

    2011-01-01

    Wayside teaching focuses on building and maintaining positive relationships with students. Teachers can implement certain wayside teaching practices to end the year in a positive way and begin preparing for the next school year.

  15. A study of plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Katsumi; Majima, Kazuo

    1976-01-01

    The behavior of the plasma acceleration between electrodes, the phenomena due to the pinch effect at the top of the electrodes and the neutron emission mechanism were experimentally studied. The plasma focus device was a Mather type coaxial discharge device, and the instruments used for the present purpose were a Rogoski coil, an image converter camera, a scintillation detector and a silver foil activation counter. The results of the present experiment were as follows. Plasma focus was not definitely made under the same condition. When the focus was seen, a dip was observed in the discharge wave form, and the emissions of X-ray and neutrons were detected. The angular anisotropy of neutron emission was observed, and corresponds to a beam target model. The phenomena showing the occurrence of focus were seen, when the current sheet was produced at a delayed time after discharge, and arrived at the muzzle with large velocity. The relation between the number of emitted neutrons and the velocity of the current sheet was obtained, whereas no systematic relation exists between the number of emitted neutrons and the velocity of pinch. When the focus was not observed, no dip was seen in current wave form, and the emissions of X-ray and neutrons were not detected. The reason of no focus was considered. (Kato, T.)

  16. Focus groups reveal consumer ambivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    According to qualitative research, Salvadoreans are ambivalent about the use of contraceptives. Since complete responsibility for management of the CSM project was accepted by the Association Demografica Salvadorena (ADS), the agency which operates the contraceptive social marketing project in El Salvador, in November 1980, the need for decisions in such areas as product price increases, introduction of new condom brands, promotion of the vaginal foaming tablet, and assessment of product sales performance had arisen. The ICSMP funded market research, completed during 1983, was intended to provide the data on which such decisions by ADS could be based. The qualitative research involved 8 focus groups, comprised of men and women, aged 18-45, contraceptive users and nonusers, from the middle and lower socioeconomic strata of the city of San Salvador and other suburban areas. In each group a moderator led discussion of family planning and probed respondents for specific attitudes, knowledge, and behavior regarding the use of contraceptives. To assess attitudes at a more emotional level, moderators asked respondents to "draw" their ideas on certain issues. A marked discrepancy was revealed between respondents' intellectual responses to the issues raised in group discussion, as opposed to their feelings expressed in the drawings. Intellectually, participants responded very positively to family planning practice, but when they were asked to draw their perceptions, ambivalent feelings emerged. Drawings of both the user and the nonuser convey primarily negative aspects for either choice. The user is tense and moody toward her children; the nonuser loses her attractiveness and "dies." Figures also show drawings of some of the attitudes of single and married male participants. 1 drawing shows an incomplete and a complete circle, symbolizing a sterilized man (incomplete) and a nonsterilized man (complete). Another picture depicts a chained man who has lost his freedom

  17. Stability of expanded plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, H.M.

    1994-01-01

    In this study, the stabilization of the expanded plasma focus formed by 4.5 kJ plasma focus device of Mather type by magnetic field is presented. The experimental results of the induced axial magnetic field and electric probe measurements of the expanded plasma focus show that, the plasma consists of three plasmoids, electron temperature measurements off the plasmoids at a point close to the muzzle are 26 eV, 30 eV and 27 eV respectively and the electron densities are 6.6 x 10 14 , 6.1 x 10 14 / cm 3 respectively. The presence of external axial magnetic field (B 2 = 1.6 kg) at the mid distance between the breech and the muzzle has a less effect on the stability of expanded focus and it causes a restriction for the plasma motion. the electron temperature of the three plasmoids are found to increase in that case by 23%, 18.5% respectively. When this axial magnetic field is applied at the muzzle end, it leads to a more stable expanded plasma focus which consists mainly of one plasmoid with electron temperature of 39 eV and density of 3.4 x 10 14 / cm 3 . 5 figs

  18. Magnetically focused liquid drop radiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botts, Thomas E.; Powell, James R.; Lenard, Roger

    1986-01-01

    A magnetically focused liquid drop radiator for application in rejecting rgy from a spacecraft, characterized by a magnetizable liquid or slurry disposed in operative relationship within the liquid droplet generator and its fluid delivery system, in combination with magnetic means disposed in operative relationship around a liquid droplet collector of the LDR. The magnetic means are effective to focus streams of droplets directed from the generator toward the collector, thereby to assure that essentially all of the droplets are directed into the collector, even though some of the streams may be misdirected as they leave the generator. The magnetic focusing means is also effective to suppress splashing of liquid when the droplets impinge on the collector.

  19. Finding beam focus errors automatically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.J.; Clearwater, S.H.; Kleban, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    An automated method for finding beam focus errors using an optimization program called COMFORT-PLUS. The steps involved in finding the correction factors using COMFORT-PLUS has been used to find the beam focus errors for two damping rings at the SLAC Linear Collider. The program is to be used as an off-line program to analyze actual measured data for any SLC system. A limitation on the application of this procedure is found to be that it depends on the magnitude of the machine errors. Another is that the program is not totally automated since the user must decide a priori where to look for errors

  20. EDITORIAL: Focus on Plasma Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfill, G. E.; Kong, M. G.; Zimmermann, J. L.

    2009-11-01

    'Plasma Healthcare' is an emerging interdisciplinary research topic of rapidly growing importance, exploring considerable opportunities at the interface of plasma physics, chemistry and engineering with life sciences. Some of the scientific discoveries reported so far have already demonstrated clear benefits for healthcare in areas of medicine, food safety, environmental hygiene, and cosmetics. Examples include ongoing studies of prion inactivation, chronic wound treatment and plasma-mediated cancer therapy. Current research ranges from basic physical processes, plasma chemical design, to the interaction of plasmas with (i) eukaryotic (mammalian) cells; (ii) prokaryotic (bacteria) cells, viruses, spores and fungi; (iii) DNA, lipids, proteins and cell membranes; and (iv) living human, animal and plant tissues in the presence of biofluids. Of diverse interests in this new field is the need for hospital disinfection, in particular with respect to the alarming increase in bacterial resistance to antibiotics, the concomitant needs in private practices, nursing homes etc, the applications in personal hygiene—and the enticing possibility to 'design' plasmas as possible pharmaceutical products, employing ionic as well as molecular agents for medical treatment. The 'delivery' of the reactive plasma agents occurs at the gaseous level, which means that there is no need for a carrier medium and access to the treatment surface is optimal. This focus issue provides a close look at the current state of the art in Plasma Medicine with a number of forefront research articles as well as an introductory review. Focus on Plasma Medicine Contents Application of epifluorescence scanning for monitoring the efficacy of protein removal by RF gas-plasma decontamination Helen C Baxter, Patricia R Richardson, Gaynor A Campbell, Valeri I Kovalev, Robert Maier, James S Barton, Anita C Jones, Greg DeLarge, Mark Casey and Robert L Baxter Inactivation factors of spore-forming bacteria using low

  1. Depletion field focusing in semiconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.W.J.; Gelder, Van A.P.

    1996-01-01

    We calculate the three-dimensional depletion field profile in a semiconductor, for a planar semiconductor material with a spatially varying potential upon the surface, and for a tip-shaped semiconductor with a constant surface potential. The nonuniform electric field gives rise to focusing or

  2. Instabilities in the plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaeppeler, H.J.

    1975-03-01

    The plasma focus was studied by many research teams in view of a possible approach to controlled thermonuclear fusion. Though it is questionable whether the plasma focus will ever lead to a fusion reactor, it nevertheless constitutes a strong source of neutron, X- and gamma radiation for simulating fusion reactor conditions. Furthermore, the plasma focus yields very high temperatures (10 7 K) and densities (> 10 19 cm -3 ) and thus provides interesting conditions for the study of high density plasmas. This review paper starts with a description of the compression stage of the focussing plasma, using a snow-plough model. It is shown that sophisticated MHD calculations substantiate the snowplough theory, but are not suited to describe the phenomena in the final compressed stage. For this purpose, a particle-in-cell calculation is employed, yielding a beam-beam collision model for the neutron production. Experimental evidence indicates that neutron production is associated with the appearence of m = O instabilities and is the direct result of collisions between anomalously accelerated ions. One of the mechanisms of ion acceleration are strong local electric fields. Another possible mechanism can bee seen in beam-plasma instabilities caused by runaway electrons. The analytical derivation of the dispersion relation for plasma focus conditions including runaway effect is discussed (orig.) [de

  3. Focus group report, Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    The Waste Policy Institute, through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science and Technology (OST), conducted two focus groups with people who live or work near DOE sites. The purpose of the focus groups was to gain a better understanding of the general community's information needs about the development of innovative technologies that are used in the cleanup of the sites. The authors wanted to better understand of what role these people want to play in the development of new technologies, how OST communication products can help facilitate that role, and the usefulness of current OST communication products. WPI held the focus groups in communities near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Savannah River Site (SRS) because they are among the DOE sites that cannot be cleaned up before 2006. To include many facets of the communities, WPI randomly selected participants from membership lists of organized groups in each community including: elected officials, school boards, unions, chambers of commerce, economic development organizations, environmental organizations, health and human service organizations, and area clergy. While in the communities, WPI also interviewed stakeholders such as tribal representatives and a Citizens Advisory Board (CAB) member. Qualitative data gathered during the focus group sessions give some indication of general stakeholder opinions. However, the authors caution readers not to make broad assumptions about the general stakeholder audience based on the opinions of a limited number of general community stakeholders

  4. Technology for Education. IDRA Focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IDRA Newsletter, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue includes five articles that focus on technology for education to benefit all students, including limited-English-proficient, minority, economically disadvantaged, and at-risk students. "Coca-Cola Valued Youth Program Students Meet Peers Via Video Conference" (Linda Cantu, Leticia Lopez-De La Garza) describes how at-risk…

  5. Environmental Protection: a shifting focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. ir. Jan Venselaar

    2004-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a fundamental change in the way chemistry handles environmental issues. A shift in focus has occurred from 'end-of-pipe' to prevention and process integration. Presently an even more fundamental change is brought about by the need for sustainable development. It is

  6. Focus groups in organizational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kamfer

    1989-05-01

    Full Text Available Focus groups are commonly used in marketing research. In this article an application of the focus group technique within an organizational context is described. Nine focus groups were conducted during the planning stage of a survey intended to establish employee perceptions of advancement policies and practices in a major South African manufacturing company. Fourteen themes emerged from a content analysis of the discussions. Two of these reflected aspects requiring commitment decisions from management toward the survey. The others indicated areas of concern which should be included in the survey. In this way, the focus groups contributed useful information for the subsequent sample survey. Opsomming Fokusgroepe word algemeen in bemarkingsnavorsing aangewend. In hierdie studie word 'n toepassingvan die fokusgroeptegniek in die konteks van 'n opname binne 'n organisasie beskryf. Nege fokusgroepbesprekings is gevoer tydens die beplanningstadium van 'n opname wat binne 'n Suid-Afrikaanse vervaardigingsonderneming gedoen is. Die doel van die opname was om die persepsies van werknemers teenoor die bestaande personeel- en bestuursontwikkelingsbeleid en -praktyke van die maatskappy te bepaal. Veertien temas is deur middel van 'n inhoudontleding gei'dentifiseer. Twee hiervan het aspekte aangedui waaroor bestuur beginselbesluite t.o.v. die opname sou moes neem. Die ander het probleemareas aangedui wat by die ondersoek selfingesluit behoort te word. Sodoende het die fokusgroepe inligting verskafwat vir die latere vraelysopname belangrik was.

  7. Verum focus and polar questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Giurgea

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We argue that some word order phenomena in Romanian and Sardinian are the result of a checkingoperation in the left periphery involving verum focus (i.e. focus on the polarity component of the sentence.In particular, this operation accounts for some word order patterns found in polar questions. In Romanian,polarity fronting is realized as head-movement of (V+T to a higher peripheral head which bears a Focusprobe.This licenses VS orders for predications in which VS is not allowed as a neutral order (i-levelpredicates, iteratives, generics. In Sardinian, an entire phrase headed by the lexical predicate (verbal nonfiniteform or non-verbal predicate is fronted before the auxiliary. We argue that this order is obtained bytwo movement operations, head-raising of Aux to Foc and movement of the predicate phrase to SpecFoc. Wealso present the semantics of polarity focus, distinguishing several types of focus (informational, emphatic,contrastive.

  8. Work and Family. Special Focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Kathy, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This newsletter issue focuses on issues concerning families with both parents employed outside the home and describes several employer programs designed to help employees balance their work and family life. The newsletter includes the following articles: (1) "Work and Family: 1992"; (2) "Levi Strauss and Co.--A Work/Family Program…

  9. FOREWORD: Focus on Advanced Ceramics Focus on Advanced Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Naoki

    2011-06-01

    Much research has been devoted recently to developing technologies for renewable energy and improving the efficiency of the processes and devices used in industry and everyday life. Efficient solutions have been found using novel materials such as platinum and palladium-based catalysts for car exhaust systems, samarium-cobalt and neodymium-iron-boron permanent magnets for electrical motors, and so on. However, their realization has resulted in an increasing demand for rare elements and in their deficit, the development of new materials based on more abundant elements and new functionalities of traditional materials. Moreover, increasing environmental and health concerns demand substitution of toxic or hazardous substances with nature-friendly alternatives. In this context, this focus issue on advanced ceramics aims to review current trends in ceramics science and technology. It is related to the International Conference on Science and Technology of Advanced Ceramics (STAC) held annually to discuss the emerging issues in the field of ceramics. An important direction of ceramic science is the collaboration between experimental and theoretical sciences. Recent developments in density functional theory and computer technology have enabled the prediction of physical and chemical properties of ceramics, thereby assisting the design of new materials. Therefore, this focus issue includes articles devoted to theory and advanced characterization techniques. As mentioned above, the potential shortage of rare elements is becoming critical to the industry and has resulted in a Japanese government initiative called the 'Ubiquitous Element Strategy'. This focus issue also includes articles related to this strategy and to the associated topics of energy conversion, such as phosphors for high-efficiency lighting and photocatalysts for solar-energy harvesting. We hope that this focus issue will provide a timely overview of current trends and problems in ceramics science and

  10. Five focus strategies to organize health care delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltokorpi, Antti; Linna, Miika; Malmström, Tomi; Torkki, Paulus; Lillrank, Paul Martin

    2016-01-01

    The focused factory is one of the concepts that decision-makers have adopted for improving health care delivery. However, disorganized definitions of focus have led to findings that cannot be utilized systematically. The purpose of this paper is to discuss strategic options to focus health care operations. First the literature on focus in health care is reviewed revealing conceptual challenges. Second, a definition of focus in terms of demand and requisite variety is defined, and the mechanisms of focus are explicated. A classification of five focus strategies that follow the original idea to reduce variety in products and markets is presented. Finally, the paper examines managerial possibilities linked to the focus strategies. The paper proposes a framework of five customer-oriented focus strategies which aim at reducing variety in different characteristics of care pathways: population; urgency and severity; illnesses and symptoms; care practices and processes; and care outcomes. Empirical research is needed to evaluate the costs and benefits of the five strategies and about system-level effects of focused units on competition and coordination. Focus is an enabling condition that needs to be exploited using specific demand and supply management practices. It is essential to understand how focus mechanisms differ between strategies, and to select focus that fits with organization's strategy and key performance indicators. Compared to previous more resource-oriented approaches, this study provides theoretically solid and practically relevant customer-oriented framework for focusing in health care.

  11. EDITORIAL: Focus on Gravitational Lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Bhuvnesh

    2007-11-01

    progressed rapidly. That cosmic shear is now regarded as a key element of major missions aimed at probing dark energy is a feat of scientific persuasion—a decade ago not many believed it was realistic to even detect this tiny shear signal, let alone measure it with the percent-level accuracy needed to advance dark energy measurements. If weak lensing measurements deliver on their promise, then, in combination with other imaging and spectroscopic probes, they may well impact fundamental physics and cosmology. For example they may find evidence for an evolving dark energy component or signatures of departures from general relativity. These exciting prospects rest on new optical surveys planned for the next five years which will image a thousand square degrees or more of the sky to redshifts ~1 (compared to about a hundred square degrees imaged currently). Further, through photometric redshifts based on galaxy colors, lensing tomography methods will be applied to learn about the three-dimensional distribution of dark matter. Lensing measurements in other wavelengths, such as planned 21-cm surveys and CMB lensing, would add valuable diversity to measurement techniques. The case for the next generation optical surveys from the ground and space is compelling as well: they will produce another order of magnitude in data quantity and deliver images with minimal distortions due to the atmosphere and telescope optics. The coming decade therefore has the potential for exciting discoveries in gravitational lensing. Focus on Gravitational Lensing Contents A Bayesian approach to strong lensing modelling of galaxy clusters E Jullo, J-P Kneib, M Limousin, Á Elíasdóttir, P J Marshall and T Verdugo Probing dark energy with cluster counts and cosmic shear power spectra: including the full covariance Masahiro Takada and Sarah Bridle How robust are the constraints on cosmology and galaxy evolution from the lens-redshift test? Pedro R Capelo and Priyamvada Natarajan Dark energy constraints

  12. Plasma focusing in coaxial gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, H.M.; Masoud, M.M.; El-Khalafawy, T.

    1986-01-01

    A capacitor bank has been discharged between two coaxial electrodes of 6.6 cm outer diameter, 3.2 cm inner diameter and length of 31.5 cm. filled with hydrogen gas at pressure of 310 μHg. Results show that, the axial and radial plasma current reach a maximum value at a position adjacent to the gun muzzle, at which the plasma focus occurs. The measurement of the electron temperature and density and azimuthal electric field along the axis of the expansion chamber, gives a maximum value at z∼18 cm from the gun muzzle, while the axial plasma current and velocity has a minimum value at that position. These results indicate that a second point of a plasma focus has been formed at z∼18 cm from the gun muzzle, along the axis of the expansion chamber

  13. Focusing Telescopes in Nuclear Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Ballmoos, Peter von

    2007-01-01

    This volume is the first of its kind on focusing gamma-ray telescopes. Forty-eight refereed papers provide a comprehensive overview of the scientific potential and technical challenges of this nascent tool for nuclear astrophysics. The book features articles dealing with pivotal technologies such as grazing incident mirrors, multilayer coatings, Laue- and Fresnel-lenses - and even an optic using the curvature of space-time. The volume also presents an overview of detectors matching the ambitious objectives of gamma ray optics, and facilities for operating such systems on the ground and in space. The extraordinary scientific potential of focusing gamma-ray telescopes for the study of the most powerful sources and the most violent events in the Universe is emphasized in a series of introductory articles. Practicing professionals, and students interested in experimental high-energy astrophysics, will find this book a useful reference

  14. Reflectors to Focus Wave Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Wave Energy Converters (WEC’s) extract wave energy from a limited area, often a single point or line even though the wave energy is generally spread out along the wave crest. By the use of wave reflectors (reflecting walls) the wave energy is effectively focused and increased by approximately 30......-50%. Clearly longer wave reflectors will focus more wave energy than shorter wave reflectors. Thus the draw back is the increased wave forces for the longer wave reflectors. In the paper a procedure for calculating the energy efficiency and the wave forces on the reflectors are described, this by use of a 3D...... boundary element method. The calculations are verified by laboratory experiments and a very good agreement is found. The paper gives estimates of possible power benefit for different wave reflector geometries and optimal geometrical design parameters are specified. On this basis inventors of WEC’s can...

  15. Ion beam generation and focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, P.A.; Mendel, C.W.; Swain, D.W.; Goldstein, S.A.

    1975-01-01

    Calculations have shown that efficiently generated and focused ion beams could have significant advantages over electron beams in achieving ignition of inertially-confined thermonuclear fuel. Efficient ion beam generation implies use of a good ion source and suppression of net electron current. Net electron flow can be reduced by allowing electrons to reflex through a highly transparent anode or by use of transverse magnetic fields (either beam self-fields or externally applied fields). Geometric focusing can be achieved if the beam is generated by appropriately shaped electrodes. Experimental results are presented which demonstrate ion beam generation in both reflexing and pinched-flow diodes. Spherically shaped electrodes are used to concentrate a proton beam, and target response to proton deposition is studied

  16. Plasma-focused cyclic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondelli, A.A.; Chernin, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    The use of ambient plasma to neutralize the transverse forces of an intense particle beam has been known for many years. Most recently, the so-called ion-focused regime (IFR) for beam propagation has been used as a means of focusing intense electron beams in linear accelerators and suggested for injecting an electron beam across magnetic field lines into a high-current cyclic accelerator. One technique for generating the required background plasma for IFR propagation is to use a laser to ionize ambient gas in the accelerator chamber. This paper discusses an alternative means of plasma production for IFR, viz. by using RF breakdown. For this approach the accelerator chamber acts as a waveguide. This technique is not limited to toroidal accelerators. It may be applied to any accelerator or recirculator geometry as well as for beam steering and for injection or extraction of beams in closed accelerator configurations

  17. Optimum Design of Plasma Focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Ruben; Gonzalez, Jose; Clausse, Alejandro

    2000-01-01

    The optimum design of Plasma Focus devices is presented based in a lumped parameter model of the MHD equations.Maps in the design parameters space are obtained, which determine the length and deuterium pressure required to produce a given neutron yield.Sensitivity analyses of the main effective numbers (sweeping efficiencies) was performed, and lately the optimum values were determined in order to set a basis for the conceptual design

  18. Focus On Photoshop Elements Focus on the Fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Asch, David

    2011-01-01

    Are you bewildered by the advanced editing options available in Photoshop Elements? Do you want to get the most out of your image without going bleary-eyed in front of a computer screen? This handy guide will explain the ins and outs of using Photoshop Elements, without having to spend hours staring at the screen. Using a fabulous combination of easy-to-follow advice and step-by-step instructions, Focus On Photoshop Elements gives great advice on setting up, storing and sharing your image library and teaches you the basics of RAW image processing and color correction, plus shows you how to edi

  19. Focusing of Shear Shock Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammarinaro, Bruno; Espíndola, David; Coulouvrat, François; Pinton, Gianmarco

    2018-01-01

    Focusing is a ubiquitous way to transform waves. Recently, a new type of shock wave has been observed experimentally with high-frame-rate ultrasound: shear shock waves in soft solids. These strongly nonlinear waves are characterized by a high Mach number, because the shear wave velocity is much slower, by 3 orders of magnitude, than the longitudinal wave velocity. Furthermore, these waves have a unique cubic nonlinearity which generates only odd harmonics. Unlike longitudinal waves for which only compressional shocks are possible, shear waves exhibit cubic nonlinearities which can generate positive and negative shocks. Here we present the experimental observation of shear shock wave focusing, generated by the vertical motion of a solid cylinder section embedded in a soft gelatin-graphite phantom to induce linearly vertically polarized motion. Raw ultrasound data from high-frame-rate (7692 images per second) acquisitions in combination with algorithms that are tuned to detect small displacements (approximately 1 μ m ) are used to generate quantitative movies of gel motion. The features of shear shock wave focusing are analyzed by comparing experimental observations with numerical simulations of a retarded-time elastodynamic equation with cubic nonlinearities and empirical attenuation laws for soft solids.

  20. High efficiency focus neutron generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, H.; Amrollahi, R.; Zare, M.; Fazelpour, S.

    2017-12-01

    In the present paper, the new idea to increase the neutron yield of plasma focus devices is investigated and the results are presented. Based on many studies, more than 90% of neutrons in plasma focus devices were produced by beam target interactions and only 10% of them were due to thermonuclear reactions. While propounding the new idea, the number of collisions between deuteron ions and deuterium gas atoms were increased remarkably well. The COMSOL Multiphysics 5.2 was used to study the given idea in the known 28 plasma focus devices. In this circumstance, the neutron yield of this system was also obtained and reported. Finally, it was found that in the ENEA device with 1 Hz working frequency, 1.1 × 109 and 1.1 × 1011 neutrons per second were produced by D-D and D-T reactions, respectively. In addition, in the NX2 device with 16 Hz working frequency, 1.34 × 1010 and 1.34 × 1012 neutrons per second were produced by D-D and D-T reactions, respectively. The results show that with regards to the sizes and energy of these devices, they can be used as the efficient neutron generators.

  1. Focus group report - part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The Waste Policy Institute, through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science and Technology (OST) conducted a focus group with members of the Hanford Advisory Board (HAB), interviews with tribal government representatives, and a survey of Oak Ridge Local Oversight Committee (LOC) and Site Specific Advisory Board (SSAB) members. The purpose was to understand what members of the interested and involved public want to know about technology development and ways to get that information to them. These data collection activities were used as a follow-up to two previously held focus groups with the general public near Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Savannah River Site (SRS). Most participants from the first two focus groups said they did not have time and/or were not interested in participating in technology decision-making. They said they would prefer to defer to members of their communities who are interested and want to be involved in technology decision-making

  2. Plasma devices for focusing extreme light pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, J.; Gonoskov, A.A.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Nazarov, W.; Quere, F.; Sergeev, A.M.; Yan, X.Q.

    2014-01-01

    Since the inception of the laser, there has been a constant push toward increasing the laser peak intensity, as this has lead to opening the exploration of new territories, and the production of compact sources of particles and radiation with unprecedented characteristics. However, increasing the peak laser intensity is usually performed by enhancing the produced laser properties, either by lowering its duration or increasing its energy, which involves a great level of complexity for the laser chain, or comes at great cost. Focusing tightly is another possibility to increase the laser intensity, but this comes at the risk of damaging the optics with target debris, as it requires their placement in close proximity to the interaction region. Plasma devices are an attractive, compact alternative to tightly focus extreme light pulses and further increase the final laser intensity. (authors)

  3. The quest for customer focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Ranjay; Oldroyd, James B

    2005-04-01

    Companies have poured enormous amounts of money into customer relationship management, but in many cases the investment hasn't really paid off. That's because getting closer to customers isn't about building an information technology system. It's a learning journey-one that unfolds over four stages, requiring people and business units to coordinate in progressively more sophisticated ways. The journey begins with the creation of a companywide repository containing each interaction a customer has with the company, organized not by product, purchase, or location, but by customer. Communal coordination is what's called for at this stage, as each group contributes its information to the data pool separately from the others and then taps into it as needed. In the second stage, one-way serial coordination from centralized IT through analytical units and out to the operating units allows companies to go beyond just assembling data to drawing inferences. In stage three, companies shift their focus from past relationships to future behavior. Through symbiotic coordination, information flows back and forth between central analytic units and various organizational units like marketing, sales, and operations, as together they seek answers to questions like "How can we prevent customers from switching to a competitor?" and "Who would be most likely to buy a new product in the future"? In stage four, firms begin to move past discrete, formal initiatives and, through integral coordination, bring an increasingly sophisticated understanding oftheir customers to bear in all day-to-day operations. Skipping stages denies organizations the sure foundation they need to build a lasting customer-focused mind-set. Those that recognize this will invest their customer relationship dollars much more wisely-and will see their customer-focusing efforts pay offon the bottom line.

  4. A focused bibliography on robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergler, H. W.

    1983-08-01

    The present bibliography focuses on eight robotics-related topics believed by the author to be of special interest to researchers in the field of industrial electronics: robots, sensors, kinematics, dynamics, control systems, actuators, vision, economics, and robot applications. This literature search was conducted through the 1970-present COMPENDEX data base, which provides world-wide coverage of nearly 3500 journals, conference proceedings and reports, and the 1969-1981 INSPEC data base, which is the largest for the English language in the fields of physics, electrotechnology, computers, and control.

  5. Focus on topological quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachos, Jiannis K; Simon, Steven H

    2014-01-01

    Topological quantum computation started as a niche area of research aimed at employing particles with exotic statistics, called anyons, for performing quantum computation. Soon it evolved to include a wide variety of disciplines. Advances in the understanding of anyon properties inspired new quantum algorithms and helped in the characterization of topological phases of matter and their experimental realization. The conceptual appeal of topological systems as well as their promise for building fault-tolerant quantum technologies fuelled the fascination in this field. This ‘focus on’ collection brings together several of the latest developments in the field and facilitates the synergy between different approaches. (editorial)

  6. Focus on astronomical predictable events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Aase Roland

    2006-01-01

    At the Steno Museum Planetarium we have for many occasions used a countdown clock to get focus om astronomical events. A countdown clock can provide actuality to predictable events, for example The Venus Transit, Opportunity landing on Mars and The Solar Eclipse. The movement of the clock attracs...... the public and makes a point of interest in a small exhibit area. A countdown clock can be simple, but it is possible to expand the concept to an eye-catching part of a museum....

  7. Final focus system for TLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oide, K.

    1988-11-01

    A limit of the chromaticity correction for the final focus system of a TeV Linear Collider (TLC) is investigated. As the result, it becomes possible to increase the aperture of the final doublet with a small increase of the horizontal β function. The new optics design uses a final doublet of 0.5 mm half-aperture and 1.4 T pole-tip field. The length of the system is reduced from 400 m to 200 m by several optics changes. Tolerances for various machine errors with this optics are also studied. 5 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Focus on the Rashba effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihlmayer, G.; Rader, O.; Winkler, R.

    2015-05-01

    The Rashba effect, discovered in 1959, continues to supply fertile ground for fundamental research and applications. It provided the basis for the proposal of the spin transistor by Datta and Das in 1990, which has largely inspired the broad and dynamic field of spintronics. More recent developments include new materials for the Rashba effect such as metal surfaces, interfaces and bulk materials. It has also given rise to new phenomena such as spin currents and the spin Hall effect, including its quantized version, which has led to the very active field of topological insulators. The Rashba effect plays a crucial role in yet more exotic fields of physics such as the search for Majorana fermions at semiconductor-superconductor interfaces and the interaction of ultracold atomic Bose and Fermi gases. Advances in our understanding of Rashba-type spin-orbit couplings, both qualitatively and quantitatively, can be obtained in many different ways. This focus issue brings together the wide range of research activities on Rashba physics to further promote the development of our physical pictures and concepts in this field. The present Editorial gives a brief account on the history of the Rashba effect including material that was previously not easily accessible before summarizing the key results of the present focus issue as a guidance to the reader.

  9. Plutonium focus area. Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    The Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA) in October 1995. The PFA open-quotes...provides for peer and technical reviews of research and development in plutonium stabilization activities...close quotes In addition, the PFA identifies and develops relevant research and technology. The purpose of this document is to focus attention on the requirements used to develop research and technology for stabilization, storage, and preparation for disposition of nuclear materials. The PFA Technology Summary presents the approach the PFA uses to identify, recommend, and review research. It lists research requirements, research being conducted, and gaps where research is needed. It also summarizes research performed by the PFA in the traditional research summary format. This document encourages researchers and commercial enterprises to do business with PFA by submitting research proposals or open-quotes white papers.close quotes In addition, it suggests ways to increase the likelihood that PFA will recommend proposed research to the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG) of DOE

  10. Plasma-focused cyclic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondelli, A.A.; Chernin, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    The use of ambient plasma to neutralize the transverse forces of an intense particle beam has been known for many years. Most recently, the so-called ion-focused regime (IFR) for beam propagation has been used as a means of focusing intense electron beams in linear accelerators and suggested for injecting an electron beam across magnetic field lines into a high-current cyclic accelerator. One technique for generating the required background plasma for IFR propagation is to use a laser to ionize ambient gas in the accelerator chamber. For cyclic accelerators a technique is required for carrying the plasma channel and the beam around a bend. Multiple laser-generated channels with dipole magnetic fields to switch the beam from one channel to the next have been tested at Sandia. This paper discusses an alternative means of plasma production for IFR, viz. by using rf breakdown. For this approach the accelerator chamber acts as a waveguide. With a suitable driving frequency, a waveguide mode can be driven which has its peak field intensity on the axis with negligible fields at the chamber walls. The plasma production and hence the beam propagation is thereby isolated from the walls. This technique is not limited to toroidal accelerators. It may be applied to any accelerator or recirculator geometry as well as for beam steering and for injection or extraction of beams in closed accelerator configurations

  11. Where to Focus so Students Become College and Career Ready

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Donna

    2017-01-01

    In this Forum article, Curry focuses on a few ways math and numeracy instructors can assure their students are ready for college and/or a career. For example, when considering the math levels of so many adult learners, teachers might focus on teaching their students how to reason mathematically, and ensure that they have a solid conceptual…

  12. Radioactive tank waste remediation focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    EM's Office of Science and Technology has established the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to manage and carry out an integrated national program of technology development for tank waste remediation. The TFA is responsible for the development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat, concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in the underground stabilize and close the tanks. The goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to both the public and regulators. Within the DOE complex, 335 underground storage tanks have been used to process and store radioactive and chemical mixed waste generated from weapon materials production and manufacturing. Collectively, thes tanks hold over 90 million gallons of high-level and low-level radioactive liquid waste in sludge, saltcake, and as supernate and vapor. Very little has been treated and/or disposed or in final form

  13. Radioactive tank waste remediation focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    EM`s Office of Science and Technology has established the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to manage and carry out an integrated national program of technology development for tank waste remediation. The TFA is responsible for the development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat, concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in the underground stabilize and close the tanks. The goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to both the public and regulators. Within the DOE complex, 335 underground storage tanks have been used to process and store radioactive and chemical mixed waste generated from weapon materials production and manufacturing. Collectively, thes tanks hold over 90 million gallons of high-level and low-level radioactive liquid waste in sludge, saltcake, and as supernate and vapor. Very little has been treated and/or disposed or in final form.

  14. Focusing telescopes in nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Ballmoos, P.; Knodlseder, R.; Sazonov, S.; Griffiths, R.; Bastie, P.; Halloin, H.; Pareschi, G.; Ramsey, B.; Jensen, C.; Buis, E.J.; Ulmer, M.; Giommi, P.; Colafrancesco, S.; Comastri, A.; Barret, D.; Leising, M.; Hernanz, M.; Smith, D.; Abrosimov, N.; Smither, B.; Ubertini, P.; Olive, J.F.; Lund, N.; Pisa, A.; Courtois, P.; Roa, D.; Harrison, F.; Pareschi, G.; Frontera, F.; Von Ballmoos, P.; Barriere, N.; Rando, N.; Borde, J.; Hinglais, E.; Cledassou, R.; Duchon, P.; Sghedoni, M.; Huet, B.; Takahashi, T.; Caroli, E.; Quadrinin, L.; Buis, E.J.; Skinner, G.; Krizmanic, J.; Pareschi, G.; Loffredo, G.; Wunderer, C.; Weidenspointner, G.; Wunderer, C.; Koechlin, L.; Bignami, G.; Von Ballmoos, P.; Tueller, J.; Andritschke, T.; Laurens, A.; Evrard, J.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this workshop is to consider the next generation of instrumentation to be required within the domain of nuclear astrophysics. A small, but growing community has been pursuing various techniques for the focusing of hard X-rays and gamma-rays with the aim of achieving a factor of up to 100 improvement in sensitivity over present technologies. Balloon flight tests of both multilayer mirrors and a Laue lens have been performed and ideas abound. At present, implementation scenarios for space missions are being studied at Esa, CNES, and elsewhere. The workshop will provide a first opportunity for this new community to meet, exchange technological know-how, discuss scientific objectives and synergies, and consolidate implementation approaches within National and European Space Science programs. This document gathers the slides of all the presentations

  15. Focus on integrated quantum optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, Jeremy; Patton, Brian; Sasaki, Masahide; Vučković, Jelena

    2013-01-01

    A key goal of research into quantum information processing is the development of technologies that are scaleable in complexity while allowing the mass manufacture of devices that promise transformative effects on information science. The demonstration that integrated photonics circuits could be made to perform operations that exploit the quantum nature of the photon has turned them into leading candidates for practical quantum information processing technologies. To fully achieve their promise, however, requires research from diverse fields. This focus issue provides a snapshot of some of the areas in which key advances have been made. We are grateful for the contributions from leading teams based around the globe and hope that the degree of progress being made in a challenging and exciting field is apparent from the papers published here. (editorial)

  16. Focusing telescopes in nuclear astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Ballmoos, P; Knodlseder, R; Sazonov, S; Griffiths, R; Bastie, P; Halloin, H; Pareschi, G; Ramsey, B; Jensen, C; Buis, E J; Ulmer, M; Giommi, P; Colafrancesco, S; Comastri, A; Barret, D; Leising, M; Hernanz, M; Smith, D; Abrosimov, N; Smither, B; Ubertini, P; Olive, J F; Lund, N; Pisa, A; Courtois, P; Roa, D; Harrison, F; Pareschi, G; Frontera, F; Von Ballmoos, P; Barriere, N; Rando, N; Borde, J; Hinglais, E; Cledassou, R; Duchon, P; Sghedoni, M; Huet, B; Takahashi, T; Caroli, E; Quadrinin, L; Buis, E J; Skinner, G; Krizmanic, J; Pareschi, G; Loffredo, G; Wunderer, C; Weidenspointner, G; Wunderer, C; Koechlin, L; Bignami, G; Von Ballmoos, P; Tueller, J; Andritschke, T; Laurens, A; Evrard, J

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this workshop is to consider the next generation of instrumentation to be required within the domain of nuclear astrophysics. A small, but growing community has been pursuing various techniques for the focusing of hard X-rays and gamma-rays with the aim of achieving a factor of up to 100 improvement in sensitivity over present technologies. Balloon flight tests of both multilayer mirrors and a Laue lens have been performed and ideas abound. At present, implementation scenarios for space missions are being studied at Esa, CNES, and elsewhere. The workshop will provide a first opportunity for this new community to meet, exchange technological know-how, discuss scientific objectives and synergies, and consolidate implementation approaches within National and European Space Science programs. This document gathers the slides of all the presentations.

  17. Focus: Asian migration to Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, A

    1988-01-01

    This collection of 5 short essays on Asian migration to Canada focuses on the relationships between individual migrants and their social contexts, both Asian and Canadian. Papers by Anderson and Kobayashi adopt research perspectives of outsider and insider, respectively. Vibert provides a historical overview against which the substantive issues introduced in the other 3 papers can be understood, and he illustrates the links between circumstances of migration and the larger issues by which the course of Canadian social progress has been steered. Mercer provides an introduction to issues that dominate the agenda of contemporary research, to show that Canadian communities of Asian heritage continue to grow in size, diversity, and complexity, as they become more established on the Canadian landscape. This collection is as much about the geography of racism as it is about migration.

  18. Intensity dependence of focused ultrasound lesion position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney, Paul M.; Cahill, Mark D.; ter Haar, Gail R.

    1998-04-01

    Knowledge of the spatial distribution of intensity loss from an ultrasonic beam is critical to predicting lesion formation in focused ultrasound surgery. To date most models have used linear propagation models to predict the intensity profiles needed to compute the temporally varying temperature distributions. These can be used to compute thermal dose contours that can in turn be used to predict the extent of thermal damage. However, these simulations fail to adequately describe the abnormal lesion formation behavior observed for in vitro experiments in cases where the transducer drive levels are varied over a wide range. For these experiments, the extent of thermal damage has been observed to move significantly closer to the transducer with increasing transducer drive levels than would be predicted using linear propagation models. The simulations described herein, utilize the KZK (Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov) nonlinear propagation model with the parabolic approximation for highly focused ultrasound waves, to demonstrate that the positions of the peak intensity and the lesion do indeed move closer to the transducer. This illustrates that for accurate modeling of heating during FUS, nonlinear effects must be considered.

  19. Epileptogenic focus localization: a new approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, Vânia [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Sciences of the University of Lisbon, Lisboa (Portugal); Ribeiro, André Santos [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Sciences of the University of Lisbon, Lisboa (Portugal); Centre for Neuropsychopharmacology, Division of Brain Sciences, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Capela, Carlos; Cerqueira, Luís [Department of Neuroradiology, Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Central, Lisbon (Portugal); Ferreira, Hugo Alexandre [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Sciences of the University of Lisbon, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-05-18

    Epilepsy is one of the most important chronic neurological disorders worldwide affecting more than 50 million people of all ages. Among these, almost 20% of epilepsy cases are uncontrollable and have an unknown source of this abnormal electrical activity. Present techniques for the detection of epileptogenic foci include electroencephalography (EEG), positron emission tomography, and multimodal EEG/functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), all with limitations in terms of spatial and temporal resolutions. In order to overcome some of those limitations a novel approach using fMRI alone was developed based on the hypotheses that the epileptogenic focus shows Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) temporal profiles distinct from the remaining brain parenchyma during interictal activity and that the epileptogenic focus BOLD signals show lower complexity than healthy parenchyma. In this novel approach, bi-dimensional temporal clustering analysis, a data-driven technique, was used to identify brain regions with similar temporal profiles. Then, the BOLD signals of these regions were assessed regarding complexity using detrended fluctuation analysis and also using a modified multiscale entropy algorithm in order to identify which of those regions corresponded to epileptogenic tissue. In order to demonstrate the applicability of the developed method three epileptic patients were analyzed comprising two types of epilepsy: unilateral and bilateral temporal lobe epilepsies. The results showed that this method is able to detect the brain regions associated with epileptogenic tissue. The results also showed that the epileptogenic focus influences the dynamics of related brain networks. This could be a key factor in the applicability of this method to other epilepsy cases. Finally, new perspectives are envisioned concerning the use of this method in the medical care of epilepsy. In particular, by improving this method using simultaneous structural, functional, and metabolic

  20. Epileptogenic focus localization: a new approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Vânia; Ribeiro, André Santos; Capela, Carlos; Cerqueira, Luís; Ferreira, Hugo Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most important chronic neurological disorders worldwide affecting more than 50 million people of all ages. Among these, almost 20% of epilepsy cases are uncontrollable and have an unknown source of this abnormal electrical activity. Present techniques for the detection of epileptogenic foci include electroencephalography (EEG), positron emission tomography, and multimodal EEG/functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), all with limitations in terms of spatial and temporal resolutions. In order to overcome some of those limitations a novel approach using fMRI alone was developed based on the hypotheses that the epileptogenic focus shows Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) temporal profiles distinct from the remaining brain parenchyma during interictal activity and that the epileptogenic focus BOLD signals show lower complexity than healthy parenchyma. In this novel approach, bi-dimensional temporal clustering analysis, a data-driven technique, was used to identify brain regions with similar temporal profiles. Then, the BOLD signals of these regions were assessed regarding complexity using detrended fluctuation analysis and also using a modified multiscale entropy algorithm in order to identify which of those regions corresponded to epileptogenic tissue. In order to demonstrate the applicability of the developed method three epileptic patients were analyzed comprising two types of epilepsy: unilateral and bilateral temporal lobe epilepsies. The results showed that this method is able to detect the brain regions associated with epileptogenic tissue. The results also showed that the epileptogenic focus influences the dynamics of related brain networks. This could be a key factor in the applicability of this method to other epilepsy cases. Finally, new perspectives are envisioned concerning the use of this method in the medical care of epilepsy. In particular, by improving this method using simultaneous structural, functional, and metabolic

  1. Focus on quantum Einstein gravity Focus on quantum Einstein gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambjorn, Jan; Reuter, Martin; Saueressig, Frank

    2012-09-01

    The gravitational asymptotic safety program summarizes the attempts to construct a consistent and predictive quantum theory of gravity within Wilson's generalized framework of renormalization. Its key ingredient is a non-Gaussian fixed point of the renormalization group flow which controls the behavior of the theory at trans-Planckian energies and renders gravity safe from unphysical divergences. Provided that the fixed point comes with a finite number of ultraviolet-attractive (relevant) directions, this construction gives rise to a consistent quantum field theory which is as predictive as an ordinary, perturbatively renormalizable one. This opens up the exciting possibility of establishing quantum Einstein gravity as a fundamental theory of gravity, without introducing supersymmetry or extra dimensions, and solely based on quantization techniques that are known to work well for the other fundamental forces of nature. While the idea of gravity being asymptotically safe was proposed by Steven Weinberg more than 30 years ago [1], the technical tools for investigating this scenario only emerged during the last decade. Here a key role is played by the exact functional renormalization group equation for gravity, which allows the construction of non-perturbative approximate solutions for the RG-flow of the gravitational couplings. Most remarkably, all solutions constructed to date exhibit a suitable non-Gaussian fixed point, lending strong support to the asymptotic safety conjecture. Moreover, the functional renormalization group also provides indications that the central idea of a non-Gaussian fixed point providing a safe ultraviolet completion also carries over to more realistic scenarios where gravity is coupled to a suitable matter sector like the standard model. These theoretical successes also triggered a wealth of studies focusing on the consequences of asymptotic safety in a wide range of phenomenological applications covering the physics of black holes, early

  2. Safety climate and firefighting: Focus group results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJoy, David M; Smith, Todd D; Dyal, Mari-Amanda

    2017-09-01

    Firefighting is a hazardous occupation and there have been numerous calls for fundamental changes in how fire service organizations approach safety and balance safety with other operational priorities. These calls, however, have yielded little systematic research. As part of a larger project to develop and test a model of safety climate for the fire service, focus groups were used to identify potentially important dimensions of safety climate pertinent to firefighting. Analyses revealed nine overarching themes. Competency/professionalism, physical/psychological readiness, and that positive traits sometimes produce negative consequences were themes at the individual level; cohesion and supervisor leadership/support at the workgroup level; and politics/bureaucracy, resources, leadership, and hiring/promotion at the organizational level. A multi-level perspective seems appropriate for examining safety climate in firefighting. Safety climate in firefighting appears to be multi-dimensional and some dimensions prominent in the general safety climate literature also seem relevant to firefighting. These results also suggest that the fire service may be undergoing transitions encompassing mission, personnel, and its fundamental approach to safety and risk. These results help point the way to the development of safety climate measures specific to firefighting and to interventions for improving safety performance. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigation of a staged plasma-focus apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.; McFarland, D.R.; Harries, W.L.

    1978-01-01

    A new staged plasma-focus geometry combining two Mather-type plasma-focus guns has been constructed, and the current-sheet dynamics investigated. The production of simultaneous pairs of plasma foci has been achieved. The intensities of X-ray and fusion-neutron emission were measured and found to agree with the scaling law for a plasma focus. Advantages of this new geometry include the possibility of using plasma-focus type pinches in multiple arrays at power levels beyond the validity regime of the current scaling law for a single gun. (author)

  4. Patient satisfaction: focusing on "excellent".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Koichiro; Waterman, Brian; Faulkner, Kelly M; Boslaugh, Sarah; Burroughs, Thomas E; Dunagan, W Claiborne

    2009-01-01

    In an emerging competitive market such as healthcare, managers should focus on achieving excellent ratings to distinguish their organization from others. When it comes to customer loyalty, "excellent" has a different meaning. Customers who are merely satisfied often do not come back. The purpose of this study was to find out what influences adult patients to rate their overall experience as "excellent." The study used patient satisfaction data collected from one major academic hospital and four community hospitals. After conducting a multiple logistic regression analysis, certain attributes were shown to be more likely than others to influence patients to rate their experiences as excellent. The study revealed that staff care is the most influential attribute, followed by nursing care. These two attributes are distinctively stronger drivers of overall satisfaction than are the other attributes studied (i.e., physician care, admission process, room, and food). Staff care and nursing care are under the control of healthcare managers. If improvements are needed, they can be accomplished through training programs such as total quality management or continuous quality improvement, through which staff employees and nurses learn to be sensitive to patients' needs. Satisfying patients' needs is the first step toward having loyal patients, so hospitals that strive to ensure their patients are completely satisfied are more likely to prosper.

  5. Magnetic tearing in plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharkawy, W.

    1994-01-01

    A plasma focus device used is Mather type filled with hydrogen gas at pressure between 0.1 and 1 torr. When connected to a large capacitor ≤10 KV a discharge is started with peak current 100 KA. Under the influence of the radial electric field E r , due to the potential between electrodes, and B φ the plasma will drift in the axial direction with velocity cE r /B φ . An induced axial magnetic field B z has been detected which due to sheath velocity. A propagation of magnetosonic wave has been observed with velocity ≅10 3 m sec -1 . Such a wave might be excited when the magnetic pressure is much greater than the plasma kinetic pressure B 2 /8π>nKT. Assuming (MHD) to be stable, Tearing model was driven which generally has smaller growth rates than (MHD) modes. Using the designed theoretical model and the plasma parameters the electron energy dΦ/dt=Ba 2 /τ R was calculated to be 2.22 KeV, which is comparable with that detected from X-ray measurements. (author)

  6. Focus issue introduction: nonlinear photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmediev, Nail; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2012-11-19

    It is now 23 years since the first Topical Meeting "Nonlinear Guided Wave Phenomena" (Houston, TX, February 2-4, 1989) has been organised by George Stegeman and Allan Boardman with support of the Optical Society of America. These series of the OSA conferences known as NLGW, continued under the name "Nonlinear Photonics" starting from 2007. The latest one, in Colorado Springs in June 17-21, 2012 has been a great success despite the fierce fires advancing around the city at the time of the conference. This Focus issue is a collection of several papers presented at the conference with extended content submitted to Optics Express. Although this collection is small in comparison to the total number of papers presented at the conference, it gives a flavor of the topics considered at the meeting. It is also worthy to mention here that the next meeting "Nonlinear Photonics" is planned to be held in Barcelona - one of the main European centers on this subject.

  7. Findings: LANL outsourcing focus groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannotta, M.J.; McCabe, V.B.

    1996-12-31

    In March 1996, a series of 24 3-hour dialog focus groups were held with randomly selected Laboratory employees and contractors to gain their perceptions regarding potentials and problems for privatization and consolidation. A secondary goal was to educate and inform the workforce about potentials and issues in privatization and consolidation. Two hundred and thirty-six participants engaged in a learning session and structured input exercises resulting in 2,768 usable comments. Comments were categorized using standard qualitative methods; resulting categories included positive and negative comments on four models (consolidation, spin offs, outsourcing, and corporate partnering) and implications for the workforce, the Laboratory, and the local economy. Categories were in the areas of increasing/decreasing jobs, expertise, opportunity/salary/benefits, quality/efficiency, and effect on the local area and economy. An additional concern was losing Laboratory culture and history. Data were gathered and categorized on employee opinion regarding elements of successful transition to the four models, and issues emerged in the areas of terms and conditions of employment; communication; involvement; sound business planning; ethics and fairness; community infrastructure. From the aggregated opinion of the participants, it is recommended that decision-makers: Plan using sound business principles and continually communicate plans to the workforce; Respect workforce investments in the Laboratory; Tell the workforce exactly what is going on at all times; Understand that economic growth in Northern New Mexico is not universally viewed as positive; and Establish dialog with stakeholders on growth issues.

  8. Workshop on crystals and focusing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berreman, D. W.

    1980-12-01

    The purpose of the workshop on crystals and focusing was to exchange and pool the experience and information that the participants could contribute on the design and construction of monochromators for EXAFS with optimum speed, resolution and versatility. The panel was chaired by D.W. Berreman of BTL and included G. G. Cohen of NBS, S. Heald of Brookhaven National Labs and Lu Kun-quan of U. of Washington. Written contributions for the workshop were made by R. J. Emrich and J. R. Katzer of U. of Delaware, R. C. Gamble of Cal. Tech., J. Crane of Cal. Tech., and T. Matsushita of S. S. R. L. G. Bunker of U. of Washington was recording secretary, G. G. Cohen and S. Heald gave invited papers on the main program that were relevant to the workshop. Other contributors were R. Hänsel of U. of Kiel, W. Germany, G. Christoff of Ohio State and D. Hempstead of Rigaku/USA Inc., J. Holben of Marconi Avionics, Hertfordshire, England and J. Hastings of Brookhaven N. L.

  9. EDITORIAL: Focus on Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    The study of carbon nanotubes, since their discovery by Iijima in 1991, has become a full research field with significant contributions from all areas of research in solid-state and molecular physics and also from chemistry. This Focus Issue in New Journal of Physics reflects this active research, and presents articles detailing significant advances in the production of carbon nanotubes, the study of their mechanical and vibrational properties, electronic properties and optical transitions, and electrical and transport properties. Fundamental research, both theoretical and experimental, represents part of this progress. The potential applications of nanotubes will rely on the progress made in understanding their fundamental physics and chemistry, as presented here. We believe this Focus Issue will be an excellent guide for both beginners and experts in the research field of carbon nanotubes. It has been a great pleasure to edit the many excellent contributions from Europe, Japan, and the US, as well from a number of other countries, and to witness the remarkable effort put into the manuscripts by the contributors. We thank all the authors and referees involved in the process. In particular, we would like to express our gratitude to Alexander Bradshaw, who invited us put together this Focus Issue, and to Tim Smith and the New Journal of Physics staff for their extremely efficient handling of the manuscripts. Focus on Carbon Nanotubes Contents Transport theory of carbon nanotube Y junctions R Egger, B Trauzettel, S Chen and F Siano The tubular conical helix of graphitic boron nitride F F Xu, Y Bando and D Golberg Formation pathways for single-wall carbon nanotube multiterminal junctions Inna Ponomareva, Leonid A Chernozatonskii, Antonis N Andriotis and Madhu Menon Synthesis and manipulation of carbon nanotubes J W Seo, E Couteau, P Umek, K Hernadi, P Marcoux, B Lukic, Cs Mikó, M Milas, R Gaál and L Forró Transitional behaviour in the transformation from active end

  10. Focused conformational sampling in proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacci, Marco; Langini, Cassiano; Vymětal, Jiří; Caflisch, Amedeo; Vitalis, Andreas

    2017-11-01

    A detailed understanding of the conformational dynamics of biological molecules is difficult to obtain by experimental techniques due to resolution limitations in both time and space. Computer simulations avoid these in theory but are often too short to sample rare events reliably. Here we show that the progress index-guided sampling (PIGS) protocol can be used to enhance the sampling of rare events in selected parts of biomolecules without perturbing the remainder of the system. The method is very easy to use as it only requires as essential input a set of several features representing the parts of interest sufficiently. In this feature space, new states are discovered by spontaneous fluctuations alone and in unsupervised fashion. Because there are no energetic biases acting on phase space variables or projections thereof, the trajectories PIGS generates can be analyzed directly in the framework of transition networks. We demonstrate the possibility and usefulness of such focused explorations of biomolecules with two loops that are part of the binding sites of bromodomains, a family of epigenetic "reader" modules. This real-life application uncovers states that are structurally and kinetically far away from the initial crystallographic structures and are also metastable. Representative conformations are intended to be used in future high-throughput virtual screening campaigns.

  11. Design of a new type synchronous focusing mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jintao; Tan, Ruijun; Chen, Zhou; Zhang, Yongqi; Fu, Panlong; Qu, Yachen

    2018-05-01

    Aiming at the dual channel telescopic imaging system composed of infrared imaging system, low-light-level imaging system and image fusion module, In the fusion of low-light-level images and infrared images, it is obvious that using clear source images is easier to obtain high definition fused images. When the target is imaged at 15m to infinity, focusing is needed to ensure the imaging quality of the dual channel imaging system; therefore, a new type of synchronous focusing mechanism is designed. The synchronous focusing mechanism realizes the focusing function through the synchronous translational imaging devices, mainly including the structure of the screw rod nut, the shaft hole coordination structure and the spring steel ball eliminating clearance structure, etc. Starting from the synchronous focusing function of two imaging devices, the structure characteristics of the synchronous focusing mechanism are introduced in detail, and the focusing range is analyzed. The experimental results show that the synchronous focusing mechanism has the advantages of ingenious design, high focusing accuracy and stable and reliable operation.

  12. Focusing on Cause or Cure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Lauren C.; Cho, Mildred K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Biomedical research is influenced by many factors, including the involvement of stakeholder groups invested in research outcomes. Stakeholder involvement in research efforts raise questions of justice as their specific interests and motivations play a role in directing research resources that ultimately produce knowledge shaping how different conditions (and affected individuals) are understood and treated by society. This issue is highly relevant to child psychiatry research where diagnostic criteria and treatment strategies are often controversial. Biological similarities and stakeholder differences between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) provide an opportunity to explore this issue by comparing research foci and stakeholder involvement in these conditions. Methods A subset of ADHD and ASD research articles published between 1970-2010 were randomly selected from the PubMed database and coded for research focus, funding source(s), and author-reported conflicts of interest (COIs). Chi-square analyses were performed to identify differences between and within ADHD and ASD research across time. Results The proportion of ADHD research dedicated to basic, description, and treatment research was roughly similar and remained stable over time, while ASD research showed a significant increase in basic research over the past decade. Government was the primary research funder for both conditions, but for-profit funders were a notable presence in ADHD research, while joint-funding efforts between non-profit and government funders were a notable presence in ASD research. Lastly, COIs were noted more frequently in ADHD than in ASD research. Conclusions Our study shows significant differences in research foci and funding sources between the conditions, and identifies the specific involvement of for-profit and non-profit groups in ADHD and ASD, respectively. Our findings highlight the relationship between stakeholders

  13. Keep the focus on emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, C.; Benson, S. M.; Peterson, P.; Long, J. C. S.

    2016-12-01

    Most think that the major battle over climate is between those that want to solve the climate problem and the climate deniers. But there is another conflict, perhaps equally significant between people who all agree climate is a problem but who disagree radically about what they think the solution is. The imperative for stopping further climate change is to stop GHG emissions and the first energy sector of importance is electricity. Every major plan to eliminate emmissions from energy requires a carbon-free electricity system. The most popular idea about how to do this is to use all renewable energy, i.e. solar and wind power. But no one has ever built a large scale 100% renewable energy system and the few examples we have about regions that have tried are not encouraging. As the percentage of renewable energy goes up, ensuring a reliable supply often requires a fossil-based back-up system, so emissions can actually increase. Also, 100% renewable systems rely on massive deployment rates, far beyond any historical precident and often assume that adequate energy storage will "happen" through a combination of currently unavailable technologies. This approach is about adding renewable capacity, not about reducing emissions. Sweden provides a counter example that relies entirely on nuclear power and hydro and has an emission-free, reliable energy system. Likewise, biofuel is often cited as a climate-friendly substitute for petroleum-based fuels. Life-cycle analsyis indicates biofuels are often worse than petroleum-based fuels. We focus efficiency measures on buildings, but efficiency in transportation is even more important because we don't really have the fuel that is carbon neutral. Vehicle efficiency and reductions in vehicle miles traveled does better to address emissions. As mitigation is so important, climate advocates used to think discussion of adaptation was a distraction that should be avoided. But losing track of the need to eliminate emissions is the real

  14. The sporting body: body image and eating disorder symptomatology among female athletes from leanness focused and nonleanness focused sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peiling; Harris, Lynne M

    2015-01-01

    Female athletes experience pressure to conform to social and sporting norms concerning body weight. This study compared general and sporting body dissatisfaction and disordered eating symptomatology among 320 elite, recreational, and noncompetitive female athletes aged 17 to 30 years competing in leanness focused sports and nonleanness focused sports. Participants completed an online questionnaire including demographic questions, the Eating Attitudes Test, and the Figure Rating Scale. Athletes from leanness focused sports reported higher levels of body dissatisfaction and greater disordered eating symptomatology regardless of participation level. Elite athletes reported higher levels of body dissatisfaction and greater disordered eating symptomatology regardless of sport type, and differences between recreational and noncompetitive athletes were not found. More than 60% of elite athletes from leanness focused and nonleanness focused sports reported pressure from coaches concerning body shape. The findings have important implications for identifying risk factors for eating disorders among female athletes, where athletes who compete at elite level and those who compete in leanness focused sports at any level may be at higher risk for developing eating disorders.

  15. Tanks focus area. Annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, J.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management is tasked with a major remediation project to treat and dispose of radioactive waste in hundreds of underground storage tanks. These tanks contain about 90,000,000 gallons of high-level and transuranic wastes. We have 68 known or assumed leaking tanks, that have allowed waste to migrate into the soil surrounding the tank. In some cases, the tank contents have reacted to form flammable gases, introducing additional safety risks. These tanks must be maintained in the safest possible condition until their eventual remediation to reduce the risk of waste migration and exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. Science and technology development for safer, more efficient, and cost-effective waste treatment methods will speed up progress toward the final remediation of these tanks. The DOE Office of Environmental Management established the Tanks Focus Area to serve as the DOE-EM's technology development program for radioactive waste tank remediation in partnership with the Offices of Waste Management and Environmental Restoration. The Tanks Focus Area is responsible for leading, coordinating, and facilitating science and technology development to support remediation at DOE's four major tank sites: the Hanford Site in Washington State, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory in Idaho, Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee, and the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. The technical scope covers the major functions that comprise a complete tank remediation system: waste retrieval, waste pretreatment, waste immobilization, tank closure, and characterization of both the waste and tank. Safety is integrated across all the functions and is a key component of the Tanks Focus Area program

  16. SIAM Workshop: Focus on Diversity 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-01-01

    The Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (SIAM) held a workshop focused on underrepresented minorities--graduate and undergraduate students, postdocs, and recent Ph.D's--in the mathematical and computational sciences on July 11, 2001, as part of the SIAM Annual Meeting in San Diego, California. The workshop was intended to accomplish several goals: (1) to a provide workshop focused on careers for and retention of minority students in the mathematical and computational sciences; (2) to bring together a mixture of people from different levels of professional experience, ranging from undergraduate students to senior scientists in an informal setting in order to share career experiences and options; (3) to provide an opportunity for minority graduate students, postdocs, and recent Ph.D's to present their research at an international meeting; (4) to expose undergraduate students to the many professional opportunities resulting from graduate degrees in science and mathematics; and (5) to encourage undergraduate and graduate students to speak frankly with each other about personal issues and experiences associated with pursuing a scientific career.

  17. Focus of attention and automaticity in handwriting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMahon, Clare; Charness, Neil

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the nature of automaticity in everyday tasks by testing handwriting performance under single and dual-task conditions. Item familiarity and hand dominance were also manipulated to understand both cognitive and motor components of the task. In line with previous literature, performance was superior in an extraneous focus of attention condition compared to two different skill focus conditions. This effect was found only when writing with the dominant hand. In addition, performance was superior for high familiarity compared to low familiarity items. These findings indicate that motor and cognitive familiarity are related to the degree of automaticity of motor skills and can be manipulated to produce different performance outcomes. The findings also imply that the progression of skill acquisition from novel to novice to expert levels can be traced using different dual-task conditions. The separation of motor and cognitive familiarity is a new approach in the handwriting domain, and provides insight into the nature of attentional demands during performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. EDITORIAL: Focus on Attosecond Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandrauk, André D.; Krausz, Ferenc; Starace, Anthony F.

    2008-02-01

    future involve using overdense plasmas. Electronic processes on sub-atomic spatio-temporal scales are the basis of chemical physics, atomic, molecular, and optical physics, materials science, and even some life science processes. Research in these areas using the new attosecond tools will advance together with the ability to control electrons themselves. Indeed, we expect that developments will advance in a way that is similar to advances that have occurred on the femtosecond time scale, in which much previous experimental and theoretical work on the interaction of coherent light sources has led to the development of means for 'coherent control' of nuclear motion in molecules. This focus issue of New Journal of Physics is centered on experimental and theoretical advances in the development of new methodologies and tools for electron control on the attosecond time scale. Topics such as the efficient generation of harmonics; the generation of attosecond pulses, including those having only a few cycles and those produced from overdense plasmas; the description of various nonlinear, nonperturbative laser-matter interactions, including many-electron effects and few-cycle pulse effects; the analysis of ultrashort propagation effects in atomic and molecular media; and the development of inversion methods for electron tomography, as well as many other topics, are addressed in the current focus issue dedicated to the new field of 'Attosecond Physics'. Focus on Attosecond Physics Contents Observing the attosecond dynamics of nuclear wavepackets in molecules by using high harmonic generation in mixed gases Tsuneto Kanai, Eiji J Takahashi, Yasuo Nabekawa and Katsumi Midorikawa Core-polarization effects in molecular high harmonic generation G Jordan and A Scrinzi Interferometric autocorrelation of an attosecond pulse train calculated using feasible formulae Y Nabekawa and K Midorikawa Attosecond pulse generation from aligned molecules—dynamics and propagation in H2+ E Lorin, S

  19. FOCUS ON MAGNESIUM BASED DRUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Esenova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium deficiency in the organism is one of the most common human deficiency states. The prevalence of magnesium deficiency is about 15%, and suboptimal magnesium level is observed more than in 30% of people in the general population. Clinical signs of hypomagnesaemia are observed in 40% of patients in general care hospitals, in 70% of patients - in intensive care units, and magnesium deficiency occurs in 90% of patients with acute coronary syndrome. Magnesium metabolic disorders in the organism accelerate significantly development of complications of coronary heart disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, asthma and a number of neurological and psychiatric diseases. The value of this macro in the body is well studied, and its daily need is identified depending on age and sex. It is known that magnesium intake with the food does not cover an organism need. It is a rationale for preventive and therapeutic use of magnesium based drugs in various diseases. Organic salts of magnesium are recommended for these purposes. Magnesium metabolic disorders, approaches to pharmacotherapeutic correction of magnesium deficiency, advantages of magnesium salts of orotic acid are reviewed.

  20. Diagnosis - the limiting focus of taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturmberg, Joachim P; Martin, Carmel M

    2016-02-01

    The focus on the diagnosis is a pivotal aspect of medical practice since antiquity. Diagnostic taxonomy helped to categorize ailments to improve medical care, and in its social sense resulted in validation of the sick role for some, but marginalization or stigmatization for others. In the medical industrial complex, diagnostic taxonomy structured health care financing, management and practitioner remuneration. However, with increasing demands from multiple agencies, there are increasing unintended and unwarranted consequences of our current taxonomies and diagnostic processes resulting from the conglomeration of underpinning concepts, theories, information and motivations. We argue that the increasing focus on the diagnosis resulted in excessive compartmentalization - 'partialism' - of medical practice, diminishing medical care and being naively simplistic in light of the emerging understanding of the interconnected nature of the diseasome. The human is a complex organic system of interconnecting dynamics and feedback loops responding to internal and external forces including genetic, epigenetic and environmental attractors, rather than the sum of multiple discrete organs which can develop isolated diseases or multiple morbidities. Solutions to these unintended consequences of many contemporary health system processes involve revisiting the nature of diagnostic taxonomies and the processes of their construction. A dynamic taxonomic framework would shift to more relevant attractors at personal, clinical and health system levels recognizing the non-linear nature of health and disease. Human health at an individual, group and population level is the ability to adapt to internal and external stressors with resilience throughout the life course, yet diagnostic taxonomies are increasingly constructed around fixed anchors. Understanding diagnosis as dissecting, pigeonholing or bean counting (learning by dividing) is no longer useful, the challenge for the future is to

  1. Ion Motion in the Adiabatic Focuser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henestroza, E.; Sessler, A.M.; Yu, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we numerically study the effect of ion motion in an adiabatic focuser, motivated by a recent suggestion that ion motion in an adiabatic focuser might be significant and even preclude operation of the focuser as previously envisioned. It is shown that despite ion motion the adiabatic focuser should work as well as originally envisioned

  2. Korean delegation focuses on women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Among the opportunities and challenges facing the ESCAP region in the 21st century is the full and equal participation of women in all sectors of society, stated one of the representatives of the Republic of Korea at the Senior Officials segment of the 53rd session of the Commission. As a follow-up to the Fourth World Conference on Women, held at Beijing in 1995, her country passed the Women's Development Act, which entered into force in July 1996, she explained. It "provides a strong legal basis for adequate institutional and financial support towards the achievement of gender equality," which is also one of the goals of the Program of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development held at Cairo in 1994. In tandem with domestic efforts, enhancing cooperation at the regional and international levels is essential, she added. In a separate intervention, another member of the Korean delegation elaborated on the comments of his colleague. He pointed out that, "for the past 30 years, the Republic of Korea as a nation has done its best to alleviate the pressure of absolute poverty and has improved the quality of life through continued economic growth." He admitted, though, that rapid economic growth has brought about its own side effects -- "unsolved problems still remain such as residual absolute poverty and increasing relative poverty." Poverty alleviation policies aimed at creating equal opportunities must address four aspects, he noted: 1) maintenance and enhancement of health, 2) promotion of educational opportunities, 3) vocational training, and 4) employment promotion. full text

  3. High-level verification

    CERN Document Server

    Lerner, Sorin; Kundu, Sudipta

    2011-01-01

    Given the growing size and heterogeneity of Systems on Chip (SOC), the design process from initial specification to chip fabrication has become increasingly complex. This growing complexity provides incentive for designers to use high-level languages such as C, SystemC, and SystemVerilog for system-level design. While a major goal of these high-level languages is to enable verification at a higher level of abstraction, allowing early exploration of system-level designs, the focus so far for validation purposes has been on traditional testing techniques such as random testing and scenario-based

  4. Night Vision Goggles Objectives Lens Focusing Methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pinkus, Alan; Task, H. L

    2000-01-01

    ...: interpupillary distance, tilt, eye relief, height, eyepiece and objective lens focus. Currently, aircrew use a Hoffman 20/20 test unit to pre-focus their NVG objective lenses at optical infinity before boarding their aircraft...

  5. Adaptation of four Amorpha shrubs to four light levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadia E. Navarrete-Tindall; J. W. Van Sambeek; Steven D. Kirk; Robert L. McGraw

    2003-01-01

    Native legumes can play an important role in natural ecosystems and in tree plantings as a source of nitrogen through their symbiosis with rhizobial bacteria. The genus Amorpha of the subfamily Papilionoideae within the Fabaceae contains 20 to 25 shrubby species native to North America (Wilbur 1975). Several species are documented as nodulated by...

  6. Self-focusing in laser produced spark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakos, J.S.; Foeldes, I.B.

    1983-05-01

    The self-focusing effect appearing in different phases of development of laser produced breakdown plasma in air is investigated. Self-focusing during the ionization process is demonstrated. Thermal self-focusing was observed in the later stage of the plasma development at moderate light intensities. Plasma development was investigated by forward and side scattering of the laser light in the plasma. A crossed beam experiment gave evidence of the thermal mechanism of self-focusing. (author)

  7. Near-field flat focusing mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Chieh; Staliunas, Kestutis

    2018-03-01

    This article reviews recent progress towards the design of near-field flat focusing mirrors, focusing/imaging light patterns in reflection. An important feature of such flat focusing mirrors is their transverse invariance, as they do not possess any optical axis. We start with a review of the physical background to the different focusing mechanisms of near- and far-field focusing. These near-field focusing devices like flat lenses and the reviewed near-field focusing mirrors can implement planar focusing devices without any optical axis. In contrast, various types of far-field planar focusing devices, such as high-contrast gratings and metasurfaces, unavoidably break the transverse invariance due to their radially symmetrical structures. The particular realizations of near-field flat focusing mirrors including Bragg-like dielectric mirrors and dielectric subwavelength gratings are the main subjects of the review. The first flat focusing mirror was demonstrated with a chirped mirror and was shown to manage an angular dispersion for beam focusing, similar to the management of chromatic dispersion for pulse compression. Furthermore, the reviewed optimized chirped mirror demonstrated a long near-field focal length, hardly achieved by a flat lens or a planar hyperlens. Two more different configurations of dielectric subwavelength gratings that focus a light beam at normal or oblique incidence are also reviewed. We also summarize and compare focusing performance, limitations, and future perspectives between the reviewed flat focusing mirrors and other planar focusing devices including a flat lens with a negative-index material, a planar hyperlens, a high-contrast grating, and a metasurface.

  8. Toric focusing for radiation force applications using a toric lens coupled to a spherically focused transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, Bastien; Nguyen, Thu-Mai; O'Donnell, Matthew

    2014-12-01

    Dynamic elastography using radiation force requires that an ultrasound field be focused during hundreds of microseconds at a pressure of several megapascals. Here, we address the importance of the focal geometry. Although there is usually no control of the elevational focal width in generating a tissue mechanical response, we propose a tunable approach to adapt the focus geometry that can significantly improve radiation force efficiency. Several thin, in-house-made polydimethylsiloxane lenses were designed to modify the focal spot of a spherical transducer. They exhibited low absorption and the focal spot widths were extended up to 8-fold in the elevation direction. Radiation force experiments demonstrated an 8-fold increase in tissue displacements using the same pressure level in a tissue-mimicking phantom with a similar shear wave spectrum, meaning it does not affect elastography resolution. Our results demonstrate that larger tissue responses can be obtained for a given pressure level, or that similar response can be reached at a much lower mechanical index (MI). We envision that this work will impact 3-D elastography using 2-D phased arrays, where such shaping can be achieved electronically with the potential for adaptive optimization.

  9. Synthetic focusing in ultrasound modulated tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Kuchment, Peter; Kunyansky, Leonid

    2010-01-01

    Several hybrid tomographic methods utilizing ultrasound modulation have been introduced lately. Success of these methods hinges on the feasibility of focusing ultrasound waves at an arbitrary point of interest. Such focusing, however, is difficult to achieve in practice. We thus propose a way to avoid the use of focused waves through what we call synthetic focusing, i.e. by reconstructing the would-be response to the focused modulation from the measurements corresponding to realistic unfocused waves. Examples of reconstructions from simulated data are provided. This non-technical paper describes only the general concept, while technical details will appear elsewhere. © 2010 American Institute of Mathematical Sciences.

  10. Synthetic focusing in ultrasound modulated tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Kuchment, Peter

    2010-09-01

    Several hybrid tomographic methods utilizing ultrasound modulation have been introduced lately. Success of these methods hinges on the feasibility of focusing ultrasound waves at an arbitrary point of interest. Such focusing, however, is difficult to achieve in practice. We thus propose a way to avoid the use of focused waves through what we call synthetic focusing, i.e. by reconstructing the would-be response to the focused modulation from the measurements corresponding to realistic unfocused waves. Examples of reconstructions from simulated data are provided. This non-technical paper describes only the general concept, while technical details will appear elsewhere. © 2010 American Institute of Mathematical Sciences.

  11. Landfill stabilization focus area: Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    Landfills within the DOE Complex as of 1990 are estimated to contain 3 million cubic meters of buried waste. The DOE facilities where the waste is predominantly located are at Hanford, the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Landfills include buried waste, whether on pads or in trenches, sumps, ponds, pits, cribs, heaps and piles, auger holes, caissons, and sanitary landfills. Approximately half of all DOE buried waste was disposed of before 1970. Disposal regulations at that time permitted the commingling of various types of waste (i.e., transuranic, low-level radioactive, hazardous). As a result, much of the buried waste throughout the DOE Complex is presently believed to be contaminated with both hazardous and radioactive materials. DOE buried waste typically includes transuranic-contaminated radioactive waste (TRU), low-level radioactive waste (LLW), hazardous waste per 40 CFR 26 1, greater-than-class-C waste per CFR 61 55 (GTCC), mixed TRU waste, and mixed LLW. The mission of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area is to develop, demonstrate, and deliver safer,more cost-effective and efficient technologies which satisfy DOE site needs for the remediation and management of landfills. The LSFA is structured into five technology areas to meet the landfill remediation and management needs across the DOE complex. These technology areas are: assessment, retrieval, treatment, containment, and stabilization. Technical tasks in each of these areas are reviewed.

  12. Landfill stabilization focus area: Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    Landfills within the DOE Complex as of 1990 are estimated to contain 3 million cubic meters of buried waste. The DOE facilities where the waste is predominantly located are at Hanford, the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Landfills include buried waste, whether on pads or in trenches, sumps, ponds, pits, cribs, heaps and piles, auger holes, caissons, and sanitary landfills. Approximately half of all DOE buried waste was disposed of before 1970. Disposal regulations at that time permitted the commingling of various types of waste (i.e., transuranic, low-level radioactive, hazardous). As a result, much of the buried waste throughout the DOE Complex is presently believed to be contaminated with both hazardous and radioactive materials. DOE buried waste typically includes transuranic-contaminated radioactive waste (TRU), low-level radioactive waste (LLW), hazardous waste per 40 CFR 26 1, greater-than-class-C waste per CFR 61 55 (GTCC), mixed TRU waste, and mixed LLW. The mission of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area is to develop, demonstrate, and deliver safer,more cost-effective and efficient technologies which satisfy DOE site needs for the remediation and management of landfills. The LSFA is structured into five technology areas to meet the landfill remediation and management needs across the DOE complex. These technology areas are: assessment, retrieval, treatment, containment, and stabilization. Technical tasks in each of these areas are reviewed

  13. P3: a practice focused learning environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Paul W.; Obsniuk, Michael J.; Caballero, Marcos D.

    2017-09-01

    There has been an increased focus on the integration of practices into physics curricula, with a particular emphasis on integrating computation into the undergraduate curriculum of scientists and engineers. In this paper, we present a university-level, introductory physics course for science and engineering majors at Michigan State University called P3 (projects and practices in physics) that is centred around providing introductory physics students with the opportunity to appropriate various science and engineering practices. The P3 design integrates computation with analytical problem solving and is built upon a curriculum foundation of problem-based learning, the principles of constructive alignment and the theoretical framework of community of practice. The design includes an innovative approach to computational physics instruction, instructional scaffolds, and a unique approach to assessment that enables instructors to guide students in the development of the practices of a physicist. We present the very positive student related outcomes of the design gathered via attitudinal and conceptual inventories and research interviews of students’ reflecting on their experiences in the P3 classroom.

  14. Strategies for osteochondral repair: Focus on scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seog-Jin Seo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Interest in osteochondral repair has been increasing with the growing number of sports-related injuries, accident traumas, and congenital diseases and disorders. Although therapeutic interventions are entering an advanced stage, current surgical procedures are still in their infancy. Unlike other tissues, the osteochondral zone shows a high level of gradient and interfacial tissue organization between bone and cartilage, and thus has unique characteristics related to the ability to resist mechanical compression and restoration. Among the possible therapies, tissue engineering of osteochondral tissues has shown considerable promise where multiple approaches of utilizing cells, scaffolds, and signaling molecules have been pursued. This review focuses particularly on the importance of scaffold design and its role in the success of osteochondral tissue engineering. Biphasic and gradient composition with proper pore configurations are the basic design consideration for scaffolds. Surface modification is an essential technique to improve the scaffold function associated with cell regulation or delivery of signaling molecules. The use of functional scaffolds with a controllable delivery strategy of multiple signaling molecules is also considered a promising therapeutic approach. In this review, we updated the recent advances in scaffolding approaches for osteochondral tissue engineering.

  15. Mixed Waste Focus Area - Waste form initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaoka, R.; Waters, R.; Pohl, P.; Roach, J.

    1998-01-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is to provide acceptable technologies that enable implementation of mixed waste treatment systems which are developed in partnership with end-users, stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators. To accomplish this mission, a technical baseline was established in 1996 and revised in 1997. The technical baseline forms the basis for determining which technology development activities will be supported by the MWFA. The primary attribute of the technical baseline is a set of prioritized technical deficiencies or roadblocks related to implementation of mixed waste treatment systems. The Waste Form Initiative (WFI) was established to address an identified technical deficiency related to waste form performance. The primary goal of the WFI was to ensure that the mixed low-level waste (MLLW) treatment technologies being developed, currently used, or planned for use by DOE would produce final waste forms that meet the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) of the existing and/or planned MLLW disposal facilities. The WFI was limited to an evaluation of the disposal requirements for the radioactive component of MLLW. Disposal requirements for the hazardous component are dictated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and were not addressed. This paper summarizes the technical basis, strategy, and results of the activities performed as part of the WFI

  16. Treatment of Movement Disorders With Focused Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S Fishman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the use of ultrasound as a potential therapeutic modality in the brain has been under study for several decades, relatively few neuroscientists or neurologists are familiar with this technology. Stereotactic brain lesioning had been widely used as a treatment for medically refractory patients with essential tremor (ET, Parkinson disease (PD, and dystonia but has been largely replaced by deep brain stimulation (DBS surgery, with advantages both in safety and efficacy. However, DBS is associated with complications including intracerebral hemorrhage, infection, and hardware malfunction. The occurrence of these complications has spurred interest in less invasive stereotactic brain lesioning methods including magnetic resonance imaging–guided high intensity–focused ultrasound (FUS surgery. Engineering advances now allow sound waves to be targeted noninvasively through the skull to a brain target. High intensities of sonic energy can create a coagulation lesion similar to that of older radiofrequency stereotactic methods, but without opening the skull, recent Food and Drug Administration approval of unilateral thalamotomy for treatment of ET. Clinical studies of stereotactic FUS for aspects of PD are underway. Moderate intensity, pulsed FUS has also demonstrated the potential to safely open the blood-brain barrier for localized delivery of therapeutics including proteins, genes, and cell-based therapy for PD and related disorders. The goal of this review is to provide basic and clinical neuroscientists with a level of understanding to interact with medical physicists, biomedical engineers, and radiologists to accelerate the application of this powerful technology to brain disease

  17. Mixed waste focus area alternative technologies workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Palmer, B.A.; Pendergrass, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    This report documents the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA)-sponsored Alternative Technology Workshop held in Salt Lake City, Utah, from January 24--27, 1995. The primary workshop goal was identifying potential applications for emerging technologies within the Options Analysis Team (OAT) ''wise'' configuration. Consistent with the scope of the OAT analysis, the review was limited to the Mixed Low-Level Waste (MLLW) fraction of DOE's mixed waste inventory. The Los Alamos team prepared workshop materials (databases and compilations) to be used as bases for participant review and recommendations. These materials derived from the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR) data base (May 1994), the Draft Site Treatment Plan (DSTP) data base, and the OAT treatment facility configuration of December 7, 1994. In reviewing workshop results, the reader should note several caveats regarding data limitations. Link-up of the MWIR and DSTP data bases, while representing the most comprehensive array of mixed waste information available at the time of the workshop, requires additional data to completely characterize all waste streams. A number of changes in waste identification (new and redefined streams) occurred during the interval from compilation of the data base to compilation of the DSTP data base with the end result that precise identification of radiological and contaminant characteristics was not possible for these streams. To a degree, these shortcomings compromise the workshop results; however, the preponderance of waste data was linked adequately, and therefore, these analyses should provide useful insight into potential applications of alternative technologies to DOE MLLW treatment facilities

  18. [Pre-verbality in focusing and the need for self check. An attempt at "focusing check"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masui, T; Ikemi, A; Murayama, S

    1983-06-01

    Though the Focusing process is not entirely non-verbal, in Focusing, careful attention is paid by the Focuser and the Listener to the pre-verbal experiential process. In other words, Focusing involves attending to the felt sense that is not easily expressed in words immediately. Hence, during the process of learning to Focus, the Focusing teacher attempts to communicate the experiences of Focusing to the student which are not easily done by words. Due to such difficulties, the Focusing student may (and quite frequently does) mistake the experiential process in Focusing with other processes. Often, the felt sense can be confused with other phenomena such as "autogenic discharge". Also the Focuser may not stay with the felt sense and drift into "free association" or frequently, certain processes in "meditation" can be confused with Focusing. Therefore, there is a need for a "check" by which the Focusing student can confirm the Focusing experience for himself. For the Focusing student, such a "check" serves not only to confirm the Focusing process, but also an aid to learning Focusing. We will report here a "Focusing Check" which we developed by translating Eugene Gendlin's "Focusing Check" and making several modifications in it so that it will be more understandable to the Japanese. Along with the "Focusing Check" we developed, the authors discuss the need for such a check.

  19. Lathe leveler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovelady, III, Michael W.J.

    2018-03-06

    A lathe leveler for centering a cutting tool in relation to a cylindrical work piece includes a first leveling arm having a first contact point disposed adjacent a distal end of the first leveling arm, a second leveling arm having a second contact point disposed adjacent a distal end of the second leveling arm, a leveling gage, and a leveling plate having a cutting tool receiving surface positioned parallel to a horizontal axis of the leveling gage and on a same plane as a midpoint of the first contact point and the second contact point. The leveling arms and leveling plate are dimensioned and configured such that the cutting tool receiving surface is centered in relation to the work piece when the first and second contact points are in contact with one of the inner surface and outer surface of the cylindrical work piece and the leveling gage is centered.

  20. Characterization of a focusing parabolic guide using neutron radiography method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kardjilov, Nikolay; Boeni, Peter; Hilger, Andre; Strobl, Markus; Treimer, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to test the focusing properties of a new type of focusing neutron guide (trumpet) with parabolically shaped walls. The guide has a length of 431mm with an entrance area of 16x16mm 2 and an output area of 4x4mm 2 . The interior surfaces were coated with a supermirror-surface m=3 and due to their parabolic shape it was expected that an incident parallel beam can be focused in the focal point of the parabolas. To prove this statement the neutron intensity distribution at different distances behind the guide was recorded by means of a standard, high-resolution radiography detector. The experiments were performed at the V12b instrument at HMI with different levels of beam monochromatization demonstrating maximum intensity gains of about 25. The consideration for using the focusing guide for the purposes of cold neutron radiography will be presented

  1. Student Satisfaction and the Customer Focus in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Eddie

    2013-01-01

    Advocating a customer focus, the Total Quality Management model of leadership has led to success in raising performance levels throughout various manufacturing and service industries. Many education stakeholders, however, are resistant to the notion that postsecondary students benefit from being treated like customers. While many critics oppose…

  2. Assessment of Outcome-Focused Library Instruction in Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Timothy K.; Carter, Elizabeth W.

    1997-01-01

    A sample of 49 non-psychology majors taking a course integrating library research skills with social science research showed increases in skill level, efficiency, and positive attitudes toward the library after a semester of outcome-focused instruction. The results suggest that co-development between course and library faculty can be an effective…

  3. Trends in Exiting Physics Master's. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Patrick J.; Nicholson, Starr

    2014-01-01

    A physics master's degree provides the recipient with a variety of career options. Some master's recipients will continue their education at the graduate level in physics or another field, where others enter the workforce pursuing a wide range of employment opportunities. This "Focus On" provides an in-depth analysis of physics…

  4. Canada's International Education Strategy: Focus on Scholarships. CBIE Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embleton, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    Based on a survey of approximately 40 professionals involved in various disciplines associated with international education across Canada, this study examines Canada's (federal, provincial, and territorial government) offering of scholarships to international students. Focused at the university level, the study elaborates on relevant international…

  5. Sustainability Management Beyond the Corporate Boundaries Focus on hazardous substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, A.; Ustailieva, E.

    2012-01-01

    The need for government, business and society to address the global sustainability challenges is becoming increasingly urgent. Companies function and compete progressively more on a supply chain level, in specific networks with their suppliers and service providers. So a focus on supply chains is a

  6. Fulbright project focuses on rehabilitation technician education and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rehabilitation technician education and physiotherapy practice 272. Fulbright project focuses on ... particularly those qualified to mentor and teach entry-level learners, there are ... to reinforce classroom didactic knowledge as ongoing learning .... utilization of limited resources, and development of linkages with professional ...

  7. Thermal self-focusing at oblique incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craxton, R.S.; McCrory, R.L.

    1984-03-01

    Thermal self-focusing at oblique incidence has been investigated in two-dimensional line-focus geometry using the Eulerian hydrodynamics simulation code SAGE. The laser beam interacts with a long-scale-length preformed plasma with an expontial density profiele. Questions to be addressed include: (1) What happens when a self-focusing channel reaches the turning point of the incident rays, and (2) Does the unabsorbed light return in the specular direction or back along the channel. A comparison is also made between thermal self-focusing at normal incidence in cylindrical and line-focus geometries: in cylindrical geometry the self-focusing mechanism is enhanced by the relative ease with which plasma may be expelled from a small cylindrical channel

  8. Needs of Non Energy-Focused Contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaukus, C.

    2012-12-01

    To better understand the informational needs of non energy-focused contractors, including what information they need to motivate them to become energy-focused, the BARA team studied the type of information provided by the national programs, trade associations, and manufacturers that were researched for the related technical report: Effective Communication of Energy Efficiency. While that report focused on the delivery method, format, and strategy of the information, this study examines the content being put forward.

  9. Needs of Non-Energy Focused Contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liakus, C. [Building Media and the Building America Retrofit Alliance (BARA), Wilmington, DE (United States)

    2012-12-01

    To better understand the informational needs of non-energy focused contractors, including what information they need to motivate them to become energy-focused, the BARA team studied the type of information provided by the national programs, trade associations, and manufacturers that were researched for the related technical report: Effective Communication of Energy Efficiency. While that report focused on the delivery method, format, and strategy of the information, this study examines the content being put forward.

  10. Suppression of radiation excitation in focusing environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z.; Ruth, R.D.

    1996-12-01

    Radiation damping and quantum excitation in an electron damping ring and a straight focusing channel are reviewed. They are found to be the two limiting cases in the study of a general bending and focusing combined system. In the intermediate regime where the radiation formation length is comparable to the betatron wavelength, quantum excitation can be exponentially suppressed by focusing field. This new regime may have interesting applications in the generation of ultra-low emittance beams

  11. Thermal self-focusing with multiple beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craxton, R.S.; McCrory, R.L.

    1986-07-01

    Self-focusing in underdense plasmas in the presence of overlapping beams is of interest for multibeam laser-irradiation systems. The hydrodynamics/ray-tracing simulation code SAGE is used to model thermal self-focusing in two-dimensional line-focus geometry with beams incident obliquely at different angles. The conjecture that multiple overlapping beams may suppress self-focusing is investigated for parameters appropriate to reactor-sized targets; in particular, the dependence upon intensity, scale length and pulse width is examined. While the full problem is three-dimensional, insight may be gained from two-dimensional simulations

  12. Automatic focusing system of BSST in Antarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Peng-Yi; Liu, Jia-Jing; Zhang, Guang-yu; Wang, Jian

    2015-10-01

    Automatic focusing (AF) technology plays an important role in modern astronomical telescopes. Based on the focusing requirement of BSST (Bright Star Survey Telescope) in Antarctic, an AF system is set up. In this design, functions in OpenCV is used to find stars, the algorithm of area, HFD or FWHM are used to degree the focus metric by choosing. Curve fitting method is used to find focus position as the method of camera moving. All these design are suitable for unattended small telescope.

  13. Regulatory focus affects physician risk tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veazie, Peter J; McIntosh, Scott; Chapman, Benjamin P; Dolan, James G

    2014-01-01

    Risk tolerance is a source of variation in physician decision-making. This variation, if independent of clinical concerns, can result in mistaken utilization of health services. To address such problems, it will be helpful to identify nonclinical factors of risk tolerance, particularly those amendable to intervention-regulatory focus theory suggests such a factor. This study tested whether regulatory focus affects risk tolerance among primary care physicians. Twenty-seven primary care physicians were assigned to promotion-focused or prevention-focused manipulations and compared on the Risk Taking Attitudes in Medical Decision Making scale using a randomization test. Results provide evidence that physicians assigned to the promotion-focus manipulation adopted an attitude of greater risk tolerance than the physicians assigned to the prevention-focused manipulation (p = 0.01). The Cohen's d statistic was conventionally large at 0.92. Results imply that situational regulatory focus in primary care physicians affects risk tolerance and may thereby be a nonclinical source of practice variation. Results also provide marginal evidence that chronic regulatory focus is associated with risk tolerance (p = 0.05), but the mechanism remains unclear. Research and intervention targeting physician risk tolerance may benefit by considering situational regulatory focus as an explanatory factor.

  14. FEMP Focus: 2011 Volume 20 Issue 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-04-05

    Department of Energy (DOE); Federal Energy Management Program; FEMP Focus Newsletter; December 2010; Alternative Financing, Guidance Documents, Recovery Act Technical Assistance, Training, Energy Awareness

  15. PREFACE: Focus section on superconducting power systems Focus section on superconducting power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardwell, D. A.; Amemiya, N.; Fair, R.

    2012-01-01

    This focus section of Superconductor Science and Technology looks at the properties, technology and applications of (RE)BCO and MgB2 based superconductors for power engineering systems. Both bulk and conductor forms of material are addressed, including elements of materials fabrication and processing, and the measurement of their applied properties for various levels of system application. The areas of research include ac losses in type II materials in power devices, cables and coated conductors, the development of high current dc cables and the application of superconductors in levitation devices, motors and fault current limiters. This focus section presents a broad cross-section of contemporary issues, that represent state-of-the-art for power applications of superconductors, and highlights the areas that require further development if commercial applications of these rapidly emerging materials are to be realised. It contains papers from some of the major groups in the field, including contributions from Europe, the USA and Japan, and describes devices that are relatively close to market.

  16. The 1998 annual: Focusing on asset quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Operational and financial activities of Newport Petroleum Corporation during fiscal year 1998 are reviewed. Despite the low oil prices, and the consequent reduction in industry activity and financial results, the Company continued to focus on high quality assets. The Company improved its proved and probable reserves by 21.3 million barrels of oil equivalent, increasing its reserve life index to over 10 years. Reserve addition costs in 1998 were a competitive $ 7.08 per barrel of oil equivalent. The Company produced more than 20,000 barrels of oil equivalent per day, generating revenue of $ 141 million. The Company acquired an interest in the Caroline Gas Unit for $ 165 million late in 1998 and experienced success with the drilling of two wells. At year end, reserves of approx. 575 bcf of raw gas in place were attributed to this area. New light oil discoveries were made in the Rigel area of northern British Columbia and the Shiningbank area of west-central Alberta. Both properties have significant development potential. While share price performance was essentially flat for the year, the target remains to add value on a per share basis over the long term. The outlook for natural gas appears to be positive, with markets expected to be robust with prices tracking supply/demand fundamentals. The completion of additional pipeline capacity from Alberta into U.S. markets has resulted in a lowering of the differential to U.S. prices, and as a result, it appears that pricing in western Canada will improve in the next several years. Although the outlook for oil prices remains uncertain, with recent OPEC commitments to curtail volumes, there is reason for cautious optimism. Overall, the Company is confident that it has the financial strength to not only weather an extended period of oil price weakness, but to continue to expand its activity levels and prosper

  17. Reducing Current Spread using Current Focusing in Cochlear Implant Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberger, David M.; Padilla, Monica; Srinivasan, Arthi G.

    2012-01-01

    Cochlear implant performance in difficult listening situations is limited by channel interactions. It is known that partial tripolar (PTP) stimulation reduces the spread of excitation (SOE). However, the greater the degree of current focusing, the greater the absolute current required to maintain a fixed loudness. As current increases, so does SOE. In experiment 1, the SOE for equally loud stimuli with different degrees of current focusing is measured via a forward-masking procedure. Results suggest that at a fixed loudness, some but not all patients have a reduced SOE with PTP stimulation. Therefore, it seems likely that a PTP speech processing strategy could improve spectral resolution for only those patients with a reduced SOE. In experiment 2, the ability to discriminate different levels of current focusing was measured. In experiment 3, patients subjectively scaled verbal descriptors of stimuli of various levels of current focusing. Both discrimination and scaling of verbal descriptors correlated well with SOE reduction, suggesting that either technique have the potential to be used clinically to quickly predict which patients would receive benefit from a current focusing strategy. PMID:22230370

  18. Using Focus Group Research in Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunig, Larissa A.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes a recent instance of focus group research applied to a public relations case (rather than a marketing case). Reviews the advantages and disadvantages of this qualitative method, and describes the case of a county department of mental health relying on focus group research to help plan a program aimed at reducing the stigma of mental…

  19. Identifying Information Focuses in Listening Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-yan

    2011-01-01

    The study explains the process of learners' listening comprehension within Halliday's information theory in functional grammar, including the skills of identifying focuses while listening in college English teaching. Identifying information focuses in listening is proved to improve the students' communicative listening ability by the means of a…

  20. Plasma lenses for focusing relativistic electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govil, R.; Wheeler, S.; Leemans, W.

    1997-01-01

    The next generation of colliders require tightly focused beams with high luminosity. To focus charged particle beams for such applications, a plasma focusing scheme has been proposed. Plasma lenses can be overdense (plasma density, n p much greater than electron beam density, n b ) or underdense (n p less than 2 n b ). In overdense lenses the space-charge force of the electron beam is canceled by the plasma and the remaining magnetic force causes the electron beam to self-pinch. The focusing gradient is nonlinear, resulting in spherical aberrations. In underdense lenses, the self-forces of the electron beam cancel, allowing the plasma ions to focus the beam. Although for a given beam density, a uniform underdense lens produces smaller focusing gradients than an overdense lens, it produces better beam quality since the focusing is done by plasma ions. The underdense lens can be improved by tapering the density of the plasma for optimal focusing. The underdense lens performance can be enhanced further by producing adiabatic plasma lenses to avoid the Oide limit on spot size due to synchrotron radiation by the electron beam. The plasma lens experiment at the Beam Test Facility (BTF) is designed to study the properties of plasma lenses in both overdense and underdense regimes. In particular, important issues such as electron beam matching, time response of the lens, lens aberrations and shot-to-shot reproducibility are being investigated

  1. Cortisol level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enable JavaScript. The cortisol blood test measures the level of cortisol in the blood. Cortisol is a ... in the morning. This is important, because cortisol level varies throughout the day. You may be asked ...

  2. Triglyceride level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003493.htm Triglyceride level To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The triglyceride level is a blood test to measure the amount ...

  3. Attentional Focusing Instructions and Force Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Marchant

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research progress assessing the role of attentional focusing instructions on skill acquisition and performance has lead researchers to apply this approach to force production tasks. Initial converging evidence indicates that force production tasks are sensitive to verbal instruction; externally focused instructions (onto movement outcomes, or onto the object force is being exerted against are shown to be more beneficial than internally focused instructions (focusing attention onto the movements being executed. These benefits are observed for maximal and accurate force production, as well as the maintenance of force production in prolonged tasks. A range of mechanisms are identified supporting the proposal that an external focus promotes movement efficiency in line with energy and effort conservation. Future research is required to assess how this developing body of work interacts with the broader understanding of psychological and physiological factors implicated in the effective production, maintenance and limitation of maximal or sub-maximal forces.

  4. Final focus systems for linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, R.A.

    1987-11-01

    The final focus system of a linear collider must perform two primary functions, it must focus the two opposing beams so that their transverse dimensions at the interaction point are small enough to yield acceptable luminosity, and it must steer the beams together to maintain collisions. In addition, the final focus system must transport the outgoing beams to a location where they can be recycled or safely dumped. Elementary optical considerations for linear collider final focus systems are discussed, followed by chromatic aberrations. The design of the final focus system of the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) is described. Tuning and diagnostics and steering to collision are discussed. Most of the examples illustrating the concepts covered are drawn from the SLC, but the principles and conclusions are said to be generally applicable to other linear collider designs as well. 26 refs., 17 figs

  5. Organizational change, patient-focused care: an Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, J

    1995-08-01

    Hospitals throughout the world are attempting to improve organizational performance through a variety of means. The focus in this paper is on a leading teaching hospital in Australia for a review of current management strategy. In a time of shrinking resources, management adopted a multi-faceted change management program including restructuring the organization, becoming more patient-focused via a product-line management approach and emphasising efficiency and cost-reduction measures. The next stage in management thinking is to place greater emphasis on patient-focused care. It is concluded this has the propensity to yield substantial further benefits, including improved financial and quality of care outcomes, in the Australian as well as the British and wider Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) context. 'Professionally, we have committed ourselves to creating caring environments that promote healing. We cannot meet this goal until we make a commitment to be patient-focused and give up being nurse-focused or facility-focused' (Kerfort and LeClair, 1991). 'In a customer-driven [organization], the distribution of roles is different. The organization is decentralized, with responsibility delegated to those who until now have comprised the order-obeying bottom level of the pyramid. The traditional, hierarchical corporate structure, in other words, is beginning to give way to a flattened, more horizontal structure' (Carlzon, 1987).

  6. Assessing microscope image focus quality with deep learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Samuel J; Berndl, Marc; Michael Ando, D; Barch, Mariya; Narayanaswamy, Arunachalam; Christiansen, Eric; Hoyer, Stephan; Roat, Chris; Hung, Jane; Rueden, Curtis T; Shankar, Asim; Finkbeiner, Steven; Nelson, Philip

    2018-03-15

    Large image datasets acquired on automated microscopes typically have some fraction of low quality, out-of-focus images, despite the use of hardware autofocus systems. Identification of these images using automated image analysis with high accuracy is important for obtaining a clean, unbiased image dataset. Complicating this task is the fact that image focus quality is only well-defined in foreground regions of images, and as a result, most previous approaches only enable a computation of the relative difference in quality between two or more images, rather than an absolute measure of quality. We present a deep neural network model capable of predicting an absolute measure of image focus on a single image in isolation, without any user-specified parameters. The model operates at the image-patch level, and also outputs a measure of prediction certainty, enabling interpretable predictions. The model was trained on only 384 in-focus Hoechst (nuclei) stain images of U2OS cells, which were synthetically defocused to one of 11 absolute defocus levels during training. The trained model can generalize on previously unseen real Hoechst stain images, identifying the absolute image focus to within one defocus level (approximately 3 pixel blur diameter difference) with 95% accuracy. On a simpler binary in/out-of-focus classification task, the trained model outperforms previous approaches on both Hoechst and Phalloidin (actin) stain images (F-scores of 0.89 and 0.86, respectively over 0.84 and 0.83), despite only having been presented Hoechst stain images during training. Lastly, we observe qualitatively that the model generalizes to two additional stains, Hoechst and Tubulin, of an unseen cell type (Human MCF-7) acquired on a different instrument. Our deep neural network enables classification of out-of-focus microscope images with both higher accuracy and greater precision than previous approaches via interpretable patch-level focus and certainty predictions. The use of

  7. Emotion-driven level generation

    OpenAIRE

    Togelius, Julian; Yannakakis, Georgios N.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter examines the relationship between emotions and level generation. Grounded in the experience-driven procedural content generation framework we focus on levels and introduce a taxonomy of approaches for emotion-driven level generation. We then review four characteristic level generators of our earlier work that exemplify each one of the approaches introduced. We conclude the chapter with our vision on the future of emotion-driven level generation.

  8. To elaborate and implement a brochure of reading strategies with a focus on andragogy “Reading is learning” in order to enhance Reading skills in ESL students of the B1+ level of the Language Centre at Universidad Técnica de Ambato, academic period 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Hidalgo Camacho, Cynthia Soledad

    2016-01-01

    This research work: to elaborate and to implement a brochure with Reading strategies “Reading is learning”, aims to enhance Reading comprehension in students from the B1+ level of English, at the languages center in Universidad Técnica De Ambato. The students’ population groups found here are adults from 18 to 40 years of age. Although reading can definitely be affected by some personal factors such as formal educational background, frequency of reading, types of texts used, attitude of th...

  9. Level 1 - level 2 interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boneham, P.

    2003-01-01

    The Plant Damage States (PDS) are the starting point for the level 2 analysis. A PDS is group of core damage sequences that are expected to have similar severe accident progressions. In this paper an overview of Level 1/Level 2 interface, example PDS parameters, example PDS definitions using codes and example Bridge Tree are presented. PDS frequency calculation (identification of sequences for each PDS in level 1,split some CD sequences which have different level 2 progressions), code calculations providing support for grouping decisions and timings as well as PDS frequencies and definitions input to level 2 are also discussed

  10. Tanks Focus Area annual report FY2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continues to face a major radioactive waste tank remediation effort with tanks containing hazardous and radioactive waste resulting from the production of nuclear materials. With some 90 million gallons of waste in the form of solid, sludge, liquid, and gas stored in 287 tanks across the DOE complex, containing approximately 650 million curies, radioactive waste storage tank remediation is the nation's highest cleanup priority. Differing waste types and unique technical issues require specialized science and technology to achieve tank cleanup in an environmentally acceptable manner. Some of the waste has been stored for over 50 years in tanks that have exceeded their design lives. The challenge is to characterize and maintain these contents in a safe condition and continue to remediate and close each tank to minimize the risks of waste migration and exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. In 1994, the DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM) created a group of integrated, multiorganizational teams focusing on specific areas of the EM cleanup mission. These teams have evolved into five focus areas managed within EM's Office of Science and Technology (OST): Tanks Focus Area (TFA); Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area; Nuclear Materials Focus Area; Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area; and Transuranic and Mixed Waste Focus Area

  11. Tanks Focus Area annual report FY2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continues to face a major radioactive waste tank remediation effort with tanks containing hazardous and radioactive waste resulting from the production of nuclear materials. With some 90 million gallons of waste in the form of solid, sludge, liquid, and gas stored in 287 tanks across the DOE complex, containing approximately 650 million curies, radioactive waste storage tank remediation is the nation's highest cleanup priority. Differing waste types and unique technical issues require specialized science and technology to achieve tank cleanup in an environmentally acceptable manner. Some of the waste has been stored for over 50 years in tanks that have exceeded their design lives. The challenge is to characterize and maintain these contents in a safe condition and continue to remediate and close each tank to minimize the risks of waste migration and exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. In 1994, the DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM) created a group of integrated, multiorganizational teams focusing on specific areas of the EM cleanup mission. These teams have evolved into five focus areas managed within EM's Office of Science and Technology (OST): Tanks Focus Area (TFA); Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area; Nuclear Materials Focus Area; Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area; and Transuranic and Mixed Waste Focus Area.

  12. Deep-Focusing Time-Distance Helioseismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvall, T. L., Jr.; Jensen, J. M.; Kosovichev, A. G.; Birch, A. C.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Much progress has been made by measuring the travel times of solar acoustic waves from a central surface location to points at equal arc distance away. Depth information is obtained from the range of arc distances examined, with the larger distances revealing the deeper layers. This method we will call surface-focusing, as the common point, or focus, is at the surface. To obtain a clearer picture of the subsurface region, it would, no doubt, be better to focus on points below the surface. Our first attempt to do this used the ray theory to pick surface location pairs that would focus on a particular subsurface point. This is not the ideal procedure, as Born approximation kernels suggest that this focus should have zero sensitivity to sound speed inhomogeneities. However, the sensitivity is concentrated below the surface in a much better way than the old surface-focusing method, and so we expect the deep-focusing method to be more sensitive. A large sunspot group was studied by both methods. Inversions based on both methods will be compared.

  13. Technology of a small plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews plasma focus technology, including the underlying dynamic and energy balance theory, scaling of the neutron yield, cost effectiveness of the design, as well as the main subsystems, e.g., capacitor bank, spark-gap switch and triggering electronics, the plasma focus tube, some simple diagnostics, and a high-voltage charger. It discusses the range of densities and temperatures available with a small plasma focus, and the type of experiments and applications that can be carried out with it. 61 refs, 21 figs

  14. Designing focusing solenoids for superconducting RF accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, G.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Page, T.; Terechkine, I.; Tompkins, J.; Wokas, T.; /Fermilab

    2006-08-01

    The design of a focusing solenoid for use in a superconducting RF linac requires resolving a range of problems with conflicting requirements. Providing the required focusing strength contradicts the goal of minimizing the stray field on the surfaces of adjacent superconducting RF cavities. The requirement of a compact solenoid, able to fit into a gap between cavities, contradicts the need of mechanical support necessary to restrain electromagnetic forces that can result in coil motion and subsequent quenching. In this report we will attempt to address these and other issues arising during the development of focusing solenoids. Some relevant test data will also be presented.

  15. Revenue Sources and Social Media Engagement Among Environmentally Focused Nonprofits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. McCaskill

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines social media efforts among environmentally focused nonprofits. A survey of environmentally focused nonprofits revealed that more than half of these organizations receive government funding. Prior research demonstrates social media is an efficient medium in which to simultaneously communicate with multiple stakeholders. However, stakeholder engagement is likely tied with the need to raise funds. From that basis, we discuss social media use among nonprofits and develop hypotheses about differences in social media use among organizations receiving government funds and those not receiving government funds. Our hypotheses are rooted in resource dependency theory (RDT and dialogic communication theory (DCT. We test our hypotheses on data from environmentally focused nonprofits by comparing the levels of social media engagement with varying levels of their total funding provided by government grants to determine if there is a correlation with the level of public engagement via social media. We find the level of engagement on the social media site Facebook is lower for government-funded environmental nonprofits than privately funded ones. The findings of reduced social media engagement and the dependence upon government funding versus private funding supports the precepts of resource dependency theory.

  16. Applications of focused ion beams in microelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broughton, C.; Beale, M.I.J.; Deshmukh, V.G.I.

    1986-04-01

    We present the conclusions of the RSRE programme on the application of focused ion beams in microelectronics and review the literature published in this field. We discuss the design and performance of focused beam implanters and the viability of their application to semiconductor device fabrication. Applications in the areas of lithography, direct implantation and micromachining are discussed in detail. Comparisons are made between the use of focused ion beams and existing techniques for these fabrication processes with a strong emphasis placed on the relative throughputs. We present results on a novel spot size measurement technique and the effect of beam heating on resist. We also present the results of studies into implantation passivation of resist to oxygen plasma attack as basis for a dry development lithography scheme. A novel lithography system employing flood electron exposure from a photocathode which is patterned by a focused ion beam which can also be used to repair mask defects is considered. (author)

  17. Focus Cities : Reducing the Vulnerability, Poverty and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Focus Cities : Reducing the Vulnerability, Poverty and Environmental Load in ... 000 lives in closely constructed houses built right up to the edge of the Rimac River. ... and the Lima Metropolitan Urban Plan will be updated in light of the results.

  18. Focusing on ADHD - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... September 2014 Print this issue Focusing on ADHD Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder En español Send us your comments ... might be signs of a developmental disorder called attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD. ADHD is a common ...

  19. Spatial filters for focusing ultrasound images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gori, Paola

    2001-01-01

    , but the approach always yields point spread functions better or equal to a traditional dynamically focused image. Finally, the process was applied to in-vivo clinical images of the liver and right kidney from a 28 years old male. The data was obtained with a single element transducer focused at 100 mm....... A new method for making spatial matched filter focusing of RF ultrasound data is proposed based on the spatial impulse response description of the imaging. The response from a scatterer at any given point in space relative to the transducer can be calculated, and this gives the spatial matched filter...... for synthetic aperture imaging for single element transducers. It is evaluated using the Field II program. Data from a single 3 MHz transducer focused at a distance of 80 mm is processed. Far from the transducer focal region, the processing greatly improves the image resolution: the lateral slice...

  20. Structural Analysis of Extended Plasma Focus Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Azhar Ahmad; Abdul Halim Baijan; Siti Aiasah Hashim

    2016-01-01

    Accelerator Development Centre (ADC) of Nuclear Malaysia intends to upgrade the plasma focus device. It involves the extension part placed on top of the existing plasma focus vacuum chamber. This extended vacuum chamber purposely to give an extra space in conducting experiments on the existing plasma focus chamber. The aim of upgrading the plasma focus device is to solve the limitation in research and analysis of sample due to its done in an open system that cause analysis of samples is limited and less optimal. This extended chamber was design in considering the ease of fabrication as well as durability of its structural. Thus, this paper discusses the structural analysis in term of pressure loading effect in extended chamber. (author)

  1. FOCUS AND CONSTITUENT QUESTION FORMATION IN DAGBANI

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Issah

    Key words: SpecFoc, focus marker, clause initial, constituent interrogatives, information ... 1Throughout this work, I use the phrase interrogative words in a general way to refer to the ...... Wh-Questions and extraction asymmetries in Malagasy.

  2. Symmetric lens with extended depth of focus

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Sung Nae

    2008-01-01

    The lens surface profile is derived based on the instantaneous focal length versus the lens radius data. The lens design based on instantaneous focal length versus the lens radius data has many useful applications in software assisted image focusing technology.

  3. Social Work Intervention Focused on Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-19

    Study Focus: 30-day Rehospitalizations Among At-risk Older Adults Randomized to a Social Work-driven Care Transitions Intervention; Heart Disease; Diabetes; Hypertension; Cancer; Depression; Asthma; Chronic Heart Failure; Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; Stroke

  4. Nonverbal communication in the focus-group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Simona TECĂU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the process of analysing the information obtained through focus group qualitative marketing research, a very important source of data is represented by non-verbal communication. Although the literature reveals an abundance of published material that describes how data obtained through focus group should be analysed, one of the least addressed issue is the interpretation of signals from participants: gestures, posture, dynamic and rhythm of speech or even the silence. This Article addresses precisely aspects of non-verbal communication in the focus group's and although not intended to examine in detail the results of a focus group, it shows how some of signals transmitted by participants of such research have been analysed and interpreted.

  5. Niger institute focuses on financial accountability | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-28

    Apr 28, 2016 ... Niger institute focuses on financial accountability ... on renewing outdated financial management systems that impeded effective management and reporting on its activities. ... Canada-Africa grants spur novel ideas, networks.

  6. Plasma focus as a pulsed power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahlin, H.; McFarland, G.; Barlett, R.; Gullickson, R.

    1975-01-01

    The plasma focus is a remarkable natural phenomena that achieves significant space-time compression of both particle and field energy. Depending on the mode of operation, about 20 percent of the bank energy can be concentrated into the kinetic energy of a thin, dense, cylindrically convergent gas shell, or into a small-diameter, high-ν/γ relativistic electron burst and oppositely directed ion burst. The kinetic energy of the fast ions and electrons can exceed the applied voltage by a factor of greater than 100. The different modes of energy concentration by the plasma focus are presented and discussed both in terms of their role in the direct yield of the focus and for the case of a plasma focus supplemented by various fusionable targets

  7. Focused ion beam machining and deposition for nanofabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, S T; Khamsehpour, B [Warwick Univ., Coventry (United Kingdom). Dept. of Engineering

    1996-05-01

    Focused ion beam micromatching (FIBM) and focused ion beam deposition (FIBD) enable spatially selective, maskless, patterning and processing of materials at extremely high levels of resolution. State-of-the-art focused ion beam (FIB) columns based on high brightness liquid metal ion source (LMIS) technology are capable of forming probes with dimensions of order 10 nm with a lower limit on spot size set by the inherent energy spread of the LMIS and the chromatic aberration of ion optical systems. The combination of high lateral and depth resolution make FIBM and FIBD powerful tools for nanotechnology applications. In this paper we present some methods of controlling FIBM and FIBD processes for nanofabrication purposes and discuss their limitations. (author).

  8. Superconducting quadrupoles for the SLC final focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, R.; Fieguth, T.; Murray, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    The final focus system of the SLC will be upgraded by replacing the final quadrupoles with higher gradient superconducting magnets positioned closer to the interaction point. The parameters of the new system have been chosen to be compatible with the experimental detectors with a minimum of changes to other final focus components. These parameter choices are discussed along with the expected improvement in SLC performance

  9. Superconducting quadrupoles for the SLC final focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, R.; Fieguth, T.; Murray, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    The final focus system of the SLC will be upgraded by replacing the final quadrupoles with higher gradient supperconducting magnets positioned closer to the interaction point. The parameters of the new system have been chosen to be compatible with the experimental detectors with a minimum of changes to other final focus components. These parameter choices are discussed along with the expected improvement in SLC performance

  10. The final focus test beam project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, D.

    1991-05-01

    An overview is given of the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) that is being constructed as a prototype final focus system for a future electron-positron linear collider. This beam line will use as input the 50 GeV electron beam from the SLC linac, and is designed to reduce the transverse dimensions of the beam spot at the focal point to 1 μm. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  11. Draft of textbook focused on indirect taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Nováková, Hana

    2012-01-01

    The diploma thesis is about draft of textbook which is focused on indirect taxes for business school. The thesis is divided into theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part is focused on teaching tax issues at business school. Readers are introduced with basic studying documents, for example framework educational program and school educational program. In the following part I have conducted didactic analysis of curriculum and textbook of economics for business schools. The draft of t...

  12. EDITORIAL: Focus on Heart and Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Wolf, Fred

    2008-01-01

    tractable to support a comprehensive analysis of functional performance at the systems level. Analogously, experimental work increasingly probes the system dynamics simultaneously at multiple levels from cell to whole organ. Here an invaluable contribution of physics to the experimental characterization of large scale activity in cardiac and neuronal tissues is the currently emerging high level of quantitative precision and control. Long-term high precision recording of large scale activity patterns of neural and cardiac tissues increasingly supports the formulation of quantitative phenomenological theories of complex dynamical states as well the realization of algorithms for manipulating and controlling them. Both quantitative phenomenology and control are not only essential for bridging theory and experiment in complex systems; they are also indispensable for turning scientific insight into diagnostic progress and improved treatment for the affected heart and mind. The present Focus Issue in New Journal of Physics reflects well the richness and excitement of this currently rapidly evolving field. It combines theoretical and experimental approaches and covers analyses ranging from the organ level over investigations of model systems to the biophysics of individual cells. The articles below represent the first contributions to this collection and further additions will appear in the near future. Focus on Heart and Mind Contents 'Heart' contributions Spiral wave drift and complex-oscillatory spiral waves caused by heterogeneities in two-dimensional in vitro cardiac tissues Sung-Jae Woo, Jin Hee Hong, Tae Yun Kim, Byung Wook Bae and Kyoung J Lee Epicardial wavefronts arise from widely distributed transient sources during ventricular fibrillation in the isolated swine heart J M Rogers, G P Walcott, J D Gladden, S B Melnick, R E Ideker and M W Kay Efficient control of spiral wave location in an excitable medium with localized heterogeneities J Schlesner, V S Zykov, H Brandtst

  13. Microflow Cytometers with Integrated Hydrodynamic Focusing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Schmidt

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the suitability of microfluidic structures for high throughput blood cell analysis. The microfluidic chips exploit fully integrated hydrodynamic focusing based on two different concepts: Two-stage cascade focusing and spin focusing (vortex principle. The sample—A suspension of micro particles or blood cells—is injected into a sheath fluid streaming at a substantially higher flow rate, which assures positioning of the particles in the center of the flow channel. Particle velocities of a few m/s are achieved as required for high throughput blood cell analysis. The stability of hydrodynamic particle positioning was evaluated by measuring the pulse heights distributions of fluorescence signals from calibration beads. Quantitative assessment based on coefficient of variation for the fluorescence intensity distributions resulted in a value of about 3% determined for the micro-device exploiting cascade hydrodynamic focusing. For the spin focusing approach similar values were achieved for sample flow rates being 1.5 times lower. Our results indicate that the performances of both variants of hydrodynamic focusing suit for blood cell differentiation and counting. The potential of the micro flow cytometer is demonstrated by detecting immunologically labeled CD3 positive and CD4 positive T-lymphocytes in blood.

  14. Veselago focusing of anisotropic massless Dirac fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Hui; Yang, Wen; Peeters, F. M.

    2018-05-01

    Massless Dirac fermions (MDFs) emerge as quasiparticles in various novel materials such as graphene and topological insulators, and they exhibit several intriguing properties, of which Veselago focusing is an outstanding example with a lot of possible applications. However, up to now Veselago focusing merely occurred in p-n junction devices based on the isotropic MDF, which lacks the tunability needed for realistic applications. Here, motivated by the emergence of novel Dirac materials, we investigate the propagation behaviors of anisotropic MDFs in such a p-n junction structure. By projecting the Hamiltonian of the anisotropic MDF to that of the isotropic MDF and deriving an exact analytical expression for the propagator, precise Veselago focusing is demonstrated without the need for mirror symmetry of the electron source and its focusing image. We show a tunable focusing position that can be used in a device to probe masked atom-scale defects. This study provides an innovative concept to realize Veselago focusing relevant for potential applications, and it paves the way for the design of novel electron optics devices by exploiting the anisotropic MDF.

  15. Some optical diagnostics for the plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korzhavin, V.M.

    1980-01-01

    Some aspects of studying plasma focus dynamics are reported. Particular efforts were made to develop an infrared (IR) diagnostics. The plasma focus is formed in a discharge chamber, when shock waves and plasma sheath cumulate on the axis as a result of the break-down of filling gas by the application of high voltage. The current J was measured with a Rogovsky coil, and the voltage U was measured with a capacitor divider. The current derivative was measured with magnetic probes, and X-ray and neutron emission intensities were measured with a plastic scintillator. The total neutron yield were measured by the activation method. The time-integrated soft X-ray pictures of plasma focus were taken with a pin-hole camera. The formation and disruption of plasma focus were studied by multi-picture speed photography. Laser interferometry was used to study the time-space distribution of plasma density. For the study of turbulence phenomena in plasma focus, a new type IR detector was employed. The results of measurements suggest that there exists some superthermal radiation during the second compression of plasma focus, but it is not so strong. (Kato, T.)

  16. Focus is key: Panic-focused interpretations are associated with symptomatic improvement in panic-focused psychodynamic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, John R; Solomonov, Nili; Derubeis, Robert J; Phillips, Alexander C; Busch, Fredric N; Barber, Jacques P; Chambless, Dianne L; Milrod, Barbara L

    2018-04-18

    This study examines whether, in panic-focused psychodynamic psychotherapy (PFPP), interpretations of conflicts that underlie anxiety (panic-focused or PF-interpretations) are specifically associated with subsequent panic disorder (PD) symptom improvement, over and above the provision of non-symptom-focused interpretations. Technique use in Sessions 2 and 10 of a 24-session PFPP protocol was assessed for the 65 patients with complete outcome data randomized to PFPP in a two-site trial of psychotherapies for PD. Sessions were rated in 15-min segments for therapists' use of PF-interpretations, non-PF-interpretations, and PF-clarifications. Robust regressions were conducted to examine the relationship between these interventions and symptom change subsequent to the sampled session. Interpersonal problems were examined as a moderator of the relationship of PF-interpretations to symptom change. At Session 10, but not at Session 2, patients who received a higher degree of PF-interpretations experienced greater subsequent improvement in panic symptoms. Non-PF-interpretations were not predictive. Patients with more interpersonal distress benefitted particularly from the use of PF-interpretations at Session 10. By the middle phase of PFPP, panic-focused interpretations may drive subsequent improvements in panic symptoms, especially among patients with higher interpersonal distress. Interpretations of conflict absent a panic focus may not be especially helpful.

  17. Epizootic pertussis focus of hamadryad baboons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Medkova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The absence of an adequate experimental animal model makes difficult study of immunity against whooping cough and its pathogenesis. Experimental whooping cough reported by us earlier in pubescent non-human primates of the Old World was accompanied by specific clinical and laboratory marks in the absence of cough. The possibility of pertussis modelling while experimental whooping cough in impuberal hamadryad baboons was investigated. In the process of selection of monkeys for the further studies for perfecting of experimental model for pertussis research unexpectedly were detected specific pertussis antibodies in impuberal hamadryad baboons.The aim of the study: revealing of source of infection and transmission of pertussis to hamadryad baboons and investigation of response of antibody-positive impuberal hamadryad baboons to secondary contagion by B. pertussis bacteria while experimental infection.Results. 18 veterinary checked, somatically healthy hamadryad baboons of various gender managed in two neighboring cages. Specific pertussis IgM and IgG antibodies were found in blood serum of all the animals and one of the monkey keepers. By real-time PCR in nasopharyngeal swabs of the monkey keeper and three 7- and 9-month-old hamadryad baboons were registered single B. pertussis genom equivalents. Seropositive impuberal hamadryad baboons were experimentally challenged by virulent B. pertussis 475 strain. Quantity of B. pertussis genom equivalents and percentage of IgM and IgG antibodies in impuberal hamadryad baboons after experimental infection were detected. These results were comparable with such received after secondary experimental challenge of monkeys by B. pertussis. Humoral immuneresponse was characterized by booster effect and rapid B. pertussis elimination.Conclusion. The case of transmission of B.pertussis bacteria to hamadryad baboons by natural contagion and epizootic focus of pertussis in apery conditions

  18. Level densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatyuk, A.V.

    1998-01-01

    For any applications of the statistical theory of nuclear reactions it is very important to obtain the parameters of the level density description from the reliable experimental data. The cumulative numbers of low-lying levels and the average spacings between neutron resonances are usually used as such data. The level density parameters fitted to such data are compiled in the RIPL Starter File for the tree models most frequently used in practical calculations: i) For the Gilber-Cameron model the parameters of the Beijing group, based on a rather recent compilations of the neutron resonance and low-lying level densities and included into the beijing-gc.dat file, are chosen as recommended. As alternative versions the parameters provided by other groups are given into the files: jaeri-gc.dat, bombay-gc.dat, obninsk-gc.dat. Additionally the iljinov-gc.dat, and mengoni-gc.dat files include sets of the level density parameters that take into account the damping of shell effects at high energies. ii) For the backed-shifted Fermi gas model the beijing-bs.dat file is selected as the recommended one. Alternative parameters of the Obninsk group are given in the obninsk-bs.dat file and those of Bombay in bombay-bs.dat. iii) For the generalized superfluid model the Obninsk group parameters included into the obninsk-bcs.dat file are chosen as recommended ones and the beijing-bcs.dat file is included as an alternative set of parameters. iv) For the microscopic approach to the level densities the files are: obninsk-micro.for -FORTRAN 77 source for the microscopical statistical level density code developed in Obninsk by Ignatyuk and coworkers, moller-levels.gz - Moeller single-particle level and ground state deformation data base, moller-levels.for -retrieval code for Moeller single-particle level scheme. (author)

  19. EPA Region 7 Aquatic Focus Areas (ECO_RES.R7_AQUATIC_FOCUS_AREAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This shapefile consists of 347 individual Aquatic Ecological System (AES) polygons that are the Aquatic Conservation Focus Areas for EPA Region 7. The focus areas...

  20. System level ESD protection

    CERN Document Server

    Vashchenko, Vladislav

    2014-01-01

    This book addresses key aspects of analog integrated circuits and systems design related to system level electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection.  It is an invaluable reference for anyone developing systems-on-chip (SoC) and systems-on-package (SoP), integrated with system-level ESD protection. The book focuses on both the design of semiconductor integrated circuit (IC) components with embedded, on-chip system level protection and IC-system co-design. The readers will be enabled to bring the system level ESD protection solutions to the level of integrated circuits, thereby reducing or completely eliminating the need for additional, discrete components on the printed circuit board (PCB) and meeting system-level ESD requirements. The authors take a systematic approach, based on IC-system ESD protection co-design. A detailed description of the available IC-level ESD testing methods is provided, together with a discussion of the correlation between IC-level and system-level ESD testing methods. The IC-level ESD...

  1. Mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal focus area. Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This paper presents details about the technology development programs of the Department of Energy. In this document, waste characterization, thermal treatment processes, non-thermal treatment processes, effluent monitors and controls, development of on-site innovative technologies, and DOE business opportunities are applied to environmental restoration. The focus areas for research are: contaminant plume containment and remediation; mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal; high-level waste tank remediation; landfill stabilization; and decontamination and decommissioning

  2. WESTERN BALKANS’ COUNTRIES IN FOCUS OF GLOBAL ECONOMIC CRISIS

    OpenAIRE

    Engjell PERE; Albana HASHORVA

    2011-01-01

    The paper intends to analyze the impact of global economic crisis on the economies of Western Balkan Region. Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia (FYROM), Montenegro, Serbia, and Kosovo are part of this Region. The purpose of the paper is not to analyze the global crisis impact on specific sectors of the economies of the Western Balkan Countries, indeed, it focuses mainly on the macroeconomic level, identifying and analyzing fluctuations of major macroeconomic indicators of the e...

  3. Mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal focus area. Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This paper presents details about the technology development programs of the Department of Energy. In this document, waste characterization, thermal treatment processes, non-thermal treatment processes, effluent monitors and controls, development of on-site innovative technologies, and DOE business opportunities are applied to environmental restoration. The focus areas for research are: contaminant plume containment and remediation; mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal; high-level waste tank remediation; landfill stabilization; and decontamination and decommissioning.

  4. Scenario Focus Group Workshop Report (2nd SFG Meeting)

    OpenAIRE

    Water Futures and Solution Initiative, (WFaS)

    2016-01-01

    The Scenario Focus Group (SFG) is comprised of water policy and planning decision makers at the national and international level who collaborate within the Water Futures and Solutions Initiative, primarily by identifying key water management challenges, priorities, trends, options, and trade-offs within their regions and advising on where further systems analysis and investigation would be most helpful for understanding externalities and guiding planning decisions. The SFG guides the developm...

  5. Probing LINEAR Collider Final Focus Systems in SuperKEKB

    CERN Document Server

    Thrane, Paul Conrad Vaagen

    2017-01-01

    A challenge for future linear collider final focus systems is the large chromaticity produced by the final quadrupoles. SuperKEKB will be correcting high levels of chromaticity using the traditional scheme which has been also proposed for the CLIC FFS. We present early simulation results indicating that lowering β*у in the SuperKEKB Low Energy Ring might be possible given on-axis injection and low bunch current, opening the possibility of testing chromaticity correction beyond FFTB level, similar to ILC and approaching that of CLIC. CLIC – Note – 1077

  6. Phase analysis and focusing of synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Chubar, O; Snigirev, A

    1999-01-01

    High accuracy calculations of synchrotron radiation (SR) emitted by a relativistic electron show that the phase of the frequency domain electric field of SR differs from the phase of radiation of a virtual point source. These differences may result in the reduction of focusing efficiency of diffraction-limited SR, if the focusing is performed by conventional optical components optimised for point sources. We show that by applying a phase correction locally, one may transform the phase of SR electric field at a desired polarisation to that of a point source. Such corrections are computed for undulator radiation (planar and helical) and bending magnet radiation (central part and edges). The focusing of the corrected SR wavefront can result in the increase of peak intensity in the focused spot up to several times compared to the focusing without correction. For non-diffraction-limited radiation, the effect of the phase corrections is reduced. Due to this reason, the use of the proposed phase corrections in exist...

  7. The Realization of Focus in Asturian Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Covadonga Sánchez-Alvarado

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Spanish was classified as a language that only exploits syntactic mechanisms to mark focus. Recent experimental studies, nonetheless, have shown that speakers of different dialects are also able to use prosody to different degrees. This study aims to provide further understanding on the role played by prosody in the realization of focus in Spanish by looking at Asturian Spanish, a dialect in contact with another Romance language, Asturian. The data from a contextualized sentence completion task revealed that a phonological distinction between specific pitch categories (L+focus being elicited (i.e., informational/non-corrective vs. contrastive/corrective. Nonetheless, it also showed that speakers exploit different prosodic features (i.e., pitch range, alignment, and duration to mark focus constituents, although their use differs as a result of that constituents’ function. These findings provide further support for the consideration of languages and specific dialects in a continuum based on the degree to which they use prosody to mark focus and to explore more in detail the phonetic implementation of focal accents.

  8. Axial sheath dynamics in a plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, H.M.; El-Khalafawy, T.A.; Masoud, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the result of investigation with a 10 kJ Mather type plasma focus. It is operated in hydrogen gas at ambient pressure of 0.15--1 torr and charging voltage of 8--11 kV. Radial distribution of the current sheath density with axial distance has been estimated. Plasma rotation in the expansion chamber in the absence of external magnetic field has been detected. A plasma flare from the plasma focus region propagating in the radial direction has been observed. Streak photography shows two plasma streams flowing simultaneously out of the muzzle. The mean energy of the electron beam ejected from the pinch region of the focused plasma, was measured by retarding field analyzer to be 0.32 keV. The electron temperature of the plasma focus at peak compression was determined by measuring the X-ray intensity as a function of absorber thickness at a distance of 62 cm from the focus. The electron temperature has been found to 3 keV

  9. [Aerodynamic focusing of particles and heavy molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de la Mora, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    By accelerating a gas containing suspended particles or large molecules through a converging nozzle, the suspended species may be focused and therefore used to write fine lines on a surface. Our objective was to study the limits on how narrow this focal region could be as a function of particle size. We find that, for monodisperse particles with masses m p some 3.6 x 10 5 times larger than the molecular mass m of the carrier gas (diameters above some 100 angstrom), there is no fundamental obstacle to directly write submicron features. However, this conclusion has been verified experimentally only with particles larger than 0.1 μm. Experimental, theoretical and numerical studies on the defocusing role of Brownian motion for very small particles or heavy molecules have shown that high resolution (purely aerodynamic) focusing is impossible with volatile molecules whose masses are typically smaller than 1000 Dalton. For these, the minimal focal diameter after optimization appears to be 5√(m/m p ) times the nozzle diameter d n . But combinations of focused lasers and aerodynamic focusing appear as promising for direct writing with molecular precursors. Theoretical and numerical schemes capable of predicting the evolution of the focusing beam, including Brownian motion effects, have been developed, although further numerical work would be desirable. 11 refs

  10. Task-focused modeling in automated agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriesenga, Mark R.; Peleg, K.; Sklansky, Jack

    1993-01-01

    Machine vision systems analyze image data to carry out automation tasks. Our interest is in machine vision systems that rely on models to achieve their designed task. When the model is interrogated from an a priori menu of questions, the model need not be complete. Instead, the machine vision system can use a partial model that contains a large amount of information in regions of interest and less information elsewhere. We propose an adaptive modeling scheme for machine vision, called task-focused modeling, which constructs a model having just sufficient detail to carry out the specified task. The model is detailed in regions of interest to the task and is less detailed elsewhere. This focusing effect saves time and reduces the computational effort expended by the machine vision system. We illustrate task-focused modeling by an example involving real-time micropropagation of plants in automated agriculture.

  11. Focusing properties of cylindrical vector vortex beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoqiang, Zhang; Ruishan, Chen; Anting, Wang

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, following Richards and Wolf vectorial diffraction theory, the focusing properties of cylindrical vector vortex beams (CVVB) are investigated, and a diffractive optical element (DOE) is designed to spatially modulate the amplitude of the CVVB. Simulated results show that the CVVB focused by an objective also carry orbital angular momentum (OAM), and the optical fields near the focal region can be modulated by changing the topological charge of the CVVB. We numerically simulate the focus properties of radially and azimuthally polarized beams with topological charge equal to 0, 1, 2 and 10 respectively. As a result, a dark channel with a length about 20 λ can be obtained. These new properties have the potential applications such as particle acceleration, optical trapping and material processing.

  12. Final focus systems for linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helm, R.; Irwin, J.

    1992-08-01

    Final focus systems for linear colliders present many exacting challenges in beam optics, component design, and beam quality. Efforts to resolve these problems as they relate to a new generation of linear colliders are under way at several laboratories around the world. We will outline criteria for final focus systems and discuss the current state of understanding and resolution of the outstanding problems. We will discuss tolerances on alignment, field quality and stability for optical elements, and the implications for beam parameters such as emittance, energy spread, bunch length, and stability in position and energy. Beam-based correction procedures, which in principle can alleviate many of the tolerances, will be described. Preliminary results from the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) under construction at SLAC will be given. Finally, we mention conclusions from operating experience at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC)

  13. Final focus systems for linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helm, R.; Irwing, J.

    1992-01-01

    Final focus systems for linear colliders present many exacting challenges in beam optics, component design, and beam quality. Efforts to resolve these problems as they relate to a new generation of linear colliders are under way at several laboratories around the world. We outline criteria for final focus systems and discuss the current state of understanding and resolution of the outstanding problems. We discuss tolerances on alignment, field quality and stability for optical elements, and the implications for beam parameters such as emittance, energy spread , bunch length, and stability in position and energy. Beam-based correction procedures, which in principle can alleviate many of the tolerances, are described. Preliminary results from the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) under construction at SLAC are given. Finally, we mention conclusions from operating experience at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). (Author) 16 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs

  14. Nova frequency conversion and focusing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, M.A.; Seppala, L.G.; Williams, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    New developments in crystal array technology provided significant improvements in the mechanical design and optical performance of the Nova 2 omega/3 omega array hardware. The final Nova array configuration was tested on the Novette laser and on the first arm of Nova. Ten Nova 2 omega/3 omega crystal arrays were assembled and tested for crystal alignment and wave front distortion before installation on the Nova target chamber. Ten Nova focus lens positioners were assembled and tested last year. The positioning accuracy and repeatability of each assembly were evaluated before installation on the target chamber. A cylindrical focusing system was also developed for installation in the Nova lens positioner assembly. Finally, 10 completed frequency conversion and focusing systems were activated

  15. Radiation damping in focusing-dominated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zhirong; Chen, Pisin; Ruth, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    A quasi-classical method is developed to calculate the radiation damping of a relativistic particle in a straight, continuous focusing system. In one limiting case where the pitch angle of the particle θ p is much larger than the radiation opening angle 1/γ, the radiation power spectrum is similar to synchrotron radiation and the relative damping rate of the transverse action is proportional to the relative energy loss rate. In the other limiting case where θ p much-lt 1/γ, the radiation is dipole in nature and the relative damping rate of the transverse action is energy-independent and is much faster than the relative energy rate. Quantum excitation to the transverse action is absent in this focusing channel. These results can be extended to bent systems provided that the focusing field dominates over the bending field

  16. Focus Groups as Transformative Spiritual Encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Moloney PhD

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Focus groups are a valuable method for exploring the construction and negotiation of meanings. In her doctoral research the author explored how Australian women's experiences of menstruation, birth, and spirituality are invested with meaning and how that meaning influences and shapes those experiences. The focus group has been described as a potentially liminal space, which enables the discussion of taboo subjects by breaking the ice and giving people permission to comment. In addition, she discovered that the groups could be occasions of empowerment and transformation for both participants and researcher. In a way that far exceeded her expectations, the group format was ideally suited to feminist research and the organic inquiry methodology she used. Some groups became deeply spiritual encounters that were nourishing and transformative for all. This article explores how focus groups can be vehicles of spiritual transformation, examining one group in particular to highlight the points raised.

  17. Bringing customer focus to power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, J.V. [USGen Power Services (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The restructuring of the power generation industry and the impact it will have on a company`s success was discussed. Some companies are following one of three distinct strategies for survival, the GENCO, MARKETCO and TRADECO. The GENCO focuses on aggregating low cost, kick butt generation assets that could be either regionally concentrated or geographically distributed. The TRADECO invests in few, or even no, assets. Its only objective is to maximize net income. The MARKETCO structure focuses on understanding and meeting customers` needs. The MARKETCO puts as much value in aggregating `load` as it does on assets. It was suggested that the MARKETCO was the quickest path to success in the restructured electric industry, since it is plainly evident that in the New Millenium the customer will be king, and companies will not survive unless they focus the majority of their efforts on the customer.

  18. Final Focus Systems in Linear Colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raubenheimer, Tor

    1998-01-01

    In colliding beam facilities, the ''final focus system'' must demagnify the beams to attain the very small spot sizes required at the interaction points. The first final focus system with local chromatic correction was developed for the Stanford Linear Collider where very large demagnifications were desired. This same conceptual design has been adopted by all the future linear collider designs as well as the SuperConducting Supercollider, the Stanford and KEK B-Factories, and the proposed Muon Collider. In this paper, the over-all layout, physics constraints, and optimization techniques relevant to the design of final focus systems for high-energy electron-positron linear colliders are reviewed. Finally, advanced concepts to avoid some of the limitations of these systems are discussed

  19. The plasma focus - numerical experiments leading technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saw, S.H.; Lee, S.

    2013-01-01

    Numerical experiments on the plasma focus are now used routinely to assist design and provide reference points for diagnostics. More importantly guidance has been given regarding the implementation of technology for new generations of plasma focus devices. For example intensive series of experiments have shown that it is of no use to reduce static bank inductance L0 below certain values because of the consistent loading effects of the plasma focus dynamics on the capacitor bank. Thus whilst it was thought that the PF1000 could receive major benefits by reducing its bank inductance L 0 , numerical experiments have shown to the contrary that its present L 0 of 30 nH is already optimum and that reducing L 0 would be a very expensive fruitless exercise. This knowledge gained from numerical experiments now acts as a general valuable guideline to all high performance (ie low inductance) plasma focus devices not to unnecessarily attempt to further lower the static inductance L 0 . The numerical experiments also show that the deterioration of the yield scaling law (e.g. the fusion neutron yield scaling with storage energy) is inevitable again due to the consistent loading effect of the plasma focus, which becomes more and more dominant as capacitor bank impedance reduces with increasing capacitance C 0 as storage energy is increased. This line of thinking has led to the suggestion of using higher voltages (as an alternative to increasing C 0 ) and to seeding of Deuterium with noble gases in order to enhance compression through thermodynamic mechanisms and through radiation cooling effects of strong line radiation. Circuit manipulation e.g. to enhance focus pinch compression by current-stepping is also being numerically experimented upon. Ultimately however systems have to be built, guided by numerical experiments, so that the predicted technology may be proven and realized. (author)

  20. Focus measurement of electron linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Zhijun; Xin Jian; Jia Qinglong

    2007-01-01

    Many personal factors would influence the result of the focus measurement of linear accelerator using the conventional sandwich method. This paper presents a modified method which applies a film scanning meter to scan the X-ray image film got by sandwich method for obtaining a greyscale distribution, then the full width at half maximum value of greyscale distribution represents the focus size. The method can eliminates disadvantage influence from accelerator radiant field asymmetry by quadratic polynomial fitting and measures peak width at half height instead of stripe statistic. (authors)

  1. Foil focusing of relativistic electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekdahl, Jr., Carl August [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-26

    When an intense relativistic electron beams (IREB) passes through a grounded metal foil, the transverse electric field due to the beam space charge is locally shorted out, and the beam is focused by the magnetic field of its current. The effect can be treated as focusing by a thin lens with first order aberration. Expressions for the focal length and aberration coefficient of the equivalent thin lens are developed in this note. These are then applied to practical examples representative of IREB research at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  2. ECONOMIC STRATEGY CREATED THROUGH THEORY FOCUSED PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru-Alexandru Bodislav

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The research done for this article is following the elaboration of a moldable model on the actual economic context, in which there are considered continuous learning elements on facts and commercial niches, evaluating a business starting from causality diagram and structuring its processes. Analyzing the evolution of a business and on the market in which they are deploying their activity through quantitative and qualitative measurement methods focused on trends. Testing hypotheses and business suppositions that are the main engine of theory focused on planning, a model of creating a strategic management process that will be developed in this article.

  3. SKEW QUADRUPOLE FOCUSING LATTICES AND APPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, B.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we revisit using skew quadrupole fields in place of traditional normal upright quadrupole fields to make beam focusing structures. We illustrate by example skew lattice decoupling, dispersion suppression and chromatic correction using the neutrino factory Study-II muon storage ring design. Ongoing BNL investigation of flat coil magnet structures that allow building a very compact muon storage ring arc and other flat coil configurations that might bring significant magnet cost reduction to a VLHC motivate our study of skew focusing

  4. A self-focusing mercury jet target

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, C

    2002-01-01

    Mercury jet production targets have been studied in relation to antiproton production and, more recently, pion production for a neutrino factory. There has always been a temptation to include some self-focusing of the secondaries by passing a current through the mercury jet analogous to the already proven lithium lens. However, skin heating of the mercury causes fast vaporization leading to the development of a gliding discharge along the surface of the jet. This external discharge can, nevertheless, provide some useful focusing of the secondaries in the case of the neutrino factory. The technical complications must not be underestimated.

  5. Neutron emission from deuterium plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antanasijevic, R.; Banjanac, R.; Dragic, A.; Djordjevic, D.; Joksimovic, D.; Maric, Z.; Udovicic, V.; Vukovic, J.

    1998-01-01

    The anisotropy of emitted neutrons is investigated on a small 'Mather-type' plasma focus device (PF). This problem is of importance for determining the nature of the fusion reaction mechanisms. Mica detectors together with thick uranium foils were used for both detection and angular distribution measurements of the neutrons. Previously, the annealing of the detectors was done and measured after the irradiation with neutrons from Am-Be source. Also, annealing ability of H-plasma focus has been tested. Geometry of detectors in both experiments was the same. (authors)

  6. Radiation reaction in a continuous focusing channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z.; Chen, P.; Ruth, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    We show that the radiation damping rate of the transverse action of a particle in a straight, continuous focusing system is independent of the particle energy, and that no quantum excitation is induced. This absolute damping effect leads to the existence of a transverse ground state to which the particle inevitably decays and yields the minimum beam emittance that one can ever attain, γε min =ℎ/2mc, limited only by the uncertainty principle. Because of adiabatic invariance, the particle can be accelerated along the focusing channel in its ground state without any radiation energy loss

  7. International Focus: Highlighting APPA Members Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazner, Steve, Comp.

    2011-01-01

    While most APPA member institutions are located in the United States and Canada, there are also 45 of member institutions located internationally--from Australia and New Zealand to Southeast Asia to the Middle East to Europe. This article focuses on four of its international members: (1) American University of Kuwait (AUK); (2) American University…

  8. Content-Focused Coaching: Five Key Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Lynsey K.; Cobb, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Many districts are using content-focused coaching as a strategy to provide job-embedded support to teachers. However, the current coaching literature provides little guidance on what coaches need to know and be able to do to engage teachers in activities that will support their development of ambitious instructional practices. Furthermore, little…

  9. Magnetohydrodynamic studies of the strong Focus device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vezin, Robert

    1971-01-01

    The POTTER magnetohydrodynamic code is used. It consists of a two-dimensional fluid model with two temperatures Te, Ti and transverse transport coefficients for a fully ionized plasma. Applied to the FOCUS geometry used at Limeil, it gives temperatures consistent with the BENNETT law but much lower than those evaluated experimentally by the X-ray absorbing foils technique. (author) [fr

  10. Training Manual. Focused Observations: Nonverbal Teaching Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Banks; And Others

    Nonverbal teacher behavior is recognized as an important factor in establishing a positive social climate in the classroom. A feedback and analysis instrument is presented focusing on specific nonverbal teacher behaviors. These behaviors--facial expressions, gestures, body movements, and idiosyncratic characteristics--are categorized as either…

  11. Science Education at Arts-Focused Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, W. Wyatt; Ritchie, Aarika; Murray, Amy Vashlishan; Honea, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Many arts-focused colleges and universities in the United States offer their undergraduate students coursework in science. To better understand the delivery of science education at this type of institution, this article surveys the science programs of forty-one arts-oriented schools. The findings suggest that most science programs are located in…

  12. Careers in focus library and information science

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    Careers in Focus: Library and Information Science, Second Edition profiles 19 careers for professionals interested in this field. Job profiles include:. -Acquisitions librarians. -Book conservators. -Children's librarians. -Corporate librarians. -Film and video librarians. -Law librarians. -Library assistants. -Library media specialists. -Medical librarians. -Research assistants.

  13. The stabilisation of final focus system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The StaFF (stabilisation of final focus) system will use interferometers to monitor the relative ... quadrupole magnets will be the most demanding application, where mutual and beam- ... interferometers to measure lines of a geodetic network to record relative motion between two beam ... coupled interferometer design.

  14. GRI: focusing on the evolving violent universe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knodlseder, J.; von Ballmoos, P.; Frontera, F.

    2009-01-01

    The gamma-ray imager (GRI) is a novel mission concept that will provide an unprecedented sensitivity leap in the soft gamma-ray domain by using for the first time a focusing lens built of Laue diffracting crystals. The lens will cover an energy band from 200-1,300 keV with an effective area reach...... processes in the universe....

  15. Accelerating and focusing structures for PIGMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, D.A.; Bush, E.D. Jr.; Holsinger, R.F.; Manca, J.J.; Saito, N.; Stovall, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute is supporting a program of accelerator development at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory aimed at the extension of proton linac technologies to produce the most suitable Pion Generator for Medical Irradiations (PIGMI). An optimized design of a pion generator suitable for a radiotherapy program at a major medical center has been established, consisting of a 250-keV injector, followed by a 35-meter-long drift-tube linac that accelerates the proton beam to 150 MeV, and an 85-meter-long coupled-cavity linac that accelerates the beam to its final energy of 650 MeV, where the average beam current of 100 microamperes impinges on one or more targets producing abundant quantities of π - mesons for radiotherapeutic applications. A number of extensions to proton linac technology are being pursued under the PIGMI program at LASL. A discussion is given of recent developments in three areas relevant to the acceleration and focusing of proton beams, namely, the alternating phase focused (APF) linac structure, the disk and washer linac structure, and small permanent magnet quadrupole lenses. The APF linac structure is being developed for the acceleration and focusing role from the injection energy of 250 keV to a few MeV, where a transition is made to a permanent magnet quadrupole focused linac structure. The disk and washer linac structure is under consideration for the high velocity portion of the design

  16. Gas ionization by focused laser beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, A.L. de.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that the effect of line broadening by focusing may considerably contribute to the observed laser-induced ionization of gases when the ionization energy of the gas molecules is well above the mean photon energy of the laser radiation. (Author) [pt

  17. Focal CT abnormality and epileptogenic focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, Kazuichi; Mihara, Tadahiro; Tottori, Takayasu; Matsuda, Kazumi; Watanabe, Yutaka; Seino, Masakazu

    1989-01-01

    In 31 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, the precise site of epileptogenic focus was determined by means of a depth EEG recording as one of the presurgical evaluations. In 13 patients, a CT scan revealed focal lesions; 7 in the left temporal lobe and 6 in the right temporal lobe. In 5 of the 7 patients and in 5 of the 6 patients the epileptogenic foci were determined in the temporal lobe on the side of a CT lesion. However, in 2 of the patients with a CT lesion in the left temporal lobe, independent epileptogenic foci were found in both the temporal lobes, and in the other patient with a CT lesion in the right temporal lobe, they were found in the right frontal and left temporal lobes. Thus, the CT lesions agreed in lateralization and focality with the epileptogenic foci in 10 of the 13 patients (77%), but they disagreed in 3 (23%). A CT lesion disclosed in the temporal lobe does not necessarily indicate the side and/or site where the epileptogenic focus may be localized. Although exceptions may be made, spatial disagreement was exemplified between the CT lesion and epileptogenic focus. Therefore, extreme caution has to be taken on the side and/or site of the epileptogenic focus when functional surgical indication is to be made. (author)

  18. Proximity focusing RICH with TOF capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korpar, S.; Adachi, I.; Fujita, K.; Fukushima, T.; Gorisek, A.; Hayashi, D.; Iijima, T.; Ikado, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Kawai, H.; Kozakai, Y.; Krizan, P.; Kuratani, A.; Mazuka, Y.; Nakagawa, T.; Nishida, S.; Ogawa, S.; Pestotnik, R.; Seki, T.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Tabata, M.; Unno, Y.

    2007-01-01

    A proximity focusing RICH counter with a multi-channel micro-channel plate (MCP) PMT was tested as a time-of-flight counter. Cherenkov photons emitted in the radiator medium as well as in the entrance window of the PMT were used for the time-of-flight measurement, and an excellent performance of the counter could be demonstrated

  19. Fundamental Movement Skills: An Important Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lisa M.; Stodden, David; Cohen, Kristen E.; Smith, Jordan J.; Lubans, David Revalds; Lenoir, Matthieu; Iivonen, Susanna; Miller, Andrew D.; Laukkanen, Arto; Dudley, Dean; Lander, Natalie J.; Brown, Helen; Morgan, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Recent international conference presentations have critiqued the promotion of fundamental movement skills (FMS) as a primary pedagogical focus. Presenters have called for a debate about the importance of, and rationale for teaching FMS, and this letter is a response to that call. The authors of this letter are academics who actively…

  20. Shape from focus for large image fields

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlíček, Pavel; Hamarová, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 33 (2015), s. 9747-9751 ISSN 1559-128X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-12301S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : shape from focus * large image fields * optically rough surface Subject RIV: BH - Optics , Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.598, year: 2015

  1. X-ray focusing using capillary arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nugent, K.A.; Chapman, H.N.

    1990-01-01

    A new form of X-ray focusing device based on glass capillary arrays is presented. Theoretical and experimental results for array of circular capillaries and theoretical and computational results for square hole capillaries are given. It is envisaged that devices such as these will find wide applications in X-ray optics as achromatic condensers and collimators. 3 refs., 4 figs

  2. SERPUKHOV: Focusing particles by a crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    With several Laboratories having shown how bent crystals can be used to steer particle beams, a team working at the Institute for High Energy Physics (IHEP) at Serpukhov, near Moscow, has shown how these crystals can also be used to focus particle beams

  3. Optimizing Monochromatic Focusing on ThALES

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermák, P.; Boehm, M.; Kulda, J.; Roux, S.; Hiess, A.; Steffens, P.; Šaroun, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 82, A (2014), SA026 ISSN 0031-9015 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Monte Carlo ray-tracing * inelastic neutron scattering * Triple-Axis spectrometer * monochromatic focusing Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.585, year: 2014

  4. Revitalize Electrical Program with Renewable Energy Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karns, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Starting a renewable energy technology (RET) program can be as simple as shifting the teaching and learning focus of a traditional electricity program toward energy production and energy control systems. Redirecting curriculum content and delivery to address photovoltaic solar (PV solar) technology and small wind generation systems is a natural…

  5. Capability, Governance and Nanotechnology : Focus on India ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Nanotechnology is the study and manipulation of matter on an ultra-small scale, generally in the range of 1-100 nanometres (1 metre = 1 billion nanometres). Like biotechnology, nanotechnology has the potential to bring huge benefits to the poor, but also huge costs. Focusing on India, this project will examine the ...

  6. Summary report on focusing HTGR technology programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The program effort to focus technology development activities consists of work in three areas: the identification of Reference Plant Options; the identification of design data needs and supporting program requirements for these plants; and the development of management plans and tools consistent with the execution of candidate systems

  7. Beam acceleration in plasma focus device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antanasijevic, R.; Banjanac, R.; Dragic, A.; Maric, Z.; Stanojevic, J.; Udovicic, V. E-mail: udovicic@atom.phy.bg.ac.yu; Vukovic, J

    2001-06-01

    The proton beam emission from the small 8 kJ plasma focus device operated with the H{sub 2} filling was analyzed. Maximum energy and yield were obtained using NTD. The fast protons were registered with the energy up to 500 keV using the polycarbonate absorbers with the different thickness.

  8. Beam acceleration in plasma focus device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antanasijevic, R.; Banjanac, R.; Dragic, A.; Maric, Z.; Stanojevic, J.; Udovicic, V.; Vukovic, J.

    2001-01-01

    The proton beam emission from the small 8 kJ plasma focus device operated with the H 2 filling was analyzed. Maximum energy and yield were obtained using NTD. The fast protons were registered with the energy up to 500 keV using the polycarbonate absorbers with the different thickness

  9. Welcome Families by Focusing on Strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkel, Justin

    2017-01-01

    Families of struggling students, this teacher in a high-poverty school knows, feel defensive and hurt when communications with their child's school focus mainly on that child's deficits. This is especially true for families from poverty or immigrant backgrounds--and affirming the latter families is important in the current climate of hostility…

  10. Invited paper: Plasma focus in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinji, Y.

    1983-01-01

    Plasma focus research in China began in the seventies. There are now 3 devices in two institutions, Tsinghua University in Beijing and the Institute of Mining and Metallurgy in Changsha. The research works can be divided into two groups: the engineering problems related to plasma focus devices and the plasma phenomena and process of the focus. Under the first subject, insulation and plasma spark gaps are studied. By casting silicon rubber onto the ends of the transmission cable, the length of insulation can be appreciably reduced. With the method of simulating charges, the electric field distribution of a field distortion type spark gap was calculated. Comparison of the field distribution before and after triggering was represented. It shows that the electric field strength of the gap after triggering may reach 14-80 times as high as that before triggering. Thus the characteristic of the gap may be improved remarkably. In respect of the phenomena of the plasma focus, neutron emission and X-ray emission were measured. It was shown that the proportion of X-ray with higher energy depends upon the material of the inner electrode. Two kinds of stud materials, tungsten and molybendum, were adopted. Measured results of the distribution of X-ray energy were represented respectively for the two materials used. Evidently, the distribution changed with the inserted materials

  11. Organisational Change: A Solution-Focused Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of a solution-focused approach to organisational change. Planning Alternative Tomorrows with Hope (PATH) is an intervention more commonly applied to individuals. In this study the intervention is used with groups of people working in educational organisations to help manage the change process. The approach…

  12. Professional Development: Focusing on Transition. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azúa, Ramón L.; Keleher, Julia

    2017-01-01

    In 2017, the National Technical Assistance Center for the Education of Neglected or Delinquent Children and Youth (NDTAC) released its first in a series of professional development briefs that focus on the professional development needs and interests of Neglected or Delinquent (N or D) State coordinators, correctional educators, and providers of…

  13. Synthesis of focusing-and-deflection columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szilagyi, M.; Mui, P.H.

    1995-01-01

    Szilagyi and Szep have demonstrated that focusing lenses of high performances can be constructed from a column of circular plate electrodes. Later, Szilagyi modified that system to include dipole, quadrupole, and octupole components by partitioning each plate into eight equal sectors. It has already been shown that the additional quadrupole components can indeed bring about substantial improvements in the focusing of charged particle beams. In this article, that design procedure is expanded to construct columns capable of both focusing and deflecting particle beams by just introducing additional dipole components. In this new design, the geometry of the system remains unchanged. The only extra complication is the demand for more individual controls of the sector voltages. Two sample designs, one for negative ions and one for electrons, are presented showing that in both cases a ±2.3 mrad diverging beam can be focused down to a spot of less than 50 nm in radius over a scanning circular area of radius 0.25 mm. The details of the two systems are given in Sec. IV along with the source conditions. The performance of the negative ion system is found to be comparable to the published data. For the relativistic electron system, the interaction of individual components to reduce various aberrations is investigated. copyright 1995 American Vacuum Society

  14. Focus: Composition and Language Study, K-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Donald, Ed.

    1974-01-01

    This issue of "Kansas English" focus on composition and language study, kindergarten through grade six. The articles and authors are "Evaluating Process and Product in Children's Writing" by Robert L. Hillerich, "Written Language Development and Instruction of Elementary School Children" by Lester S. Golub, "From a Reading Desk" by Myrline…

  15. Computational numerical modelling of plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brollo, Fabricio

    2005-01-01

    Several models for calculation of the dynamics of Plasma Focus have been developed. All of them begin from the same physic principle: the current sheet run down the anode length, ionizing and collecting the gas that finds in its way.This is known as snow-plow model.Concerning pinch's compression, a MHD model is proposed.The plasma is treated as a fluid , particularly as a high ionized gas.However, there are not many models that, taking into account thermal equilibrium inside the plasma, make approximated calculations of the maximum temperatures reached in the pinch.Besides, there are no models which use those temperatures to estimate the termofusion neutron yield for the Deuterium or Deuterium-Tritium gas filled cases.In the PLADEMA network (Dense Magnetized Plasmas) a code was developed with the objective of describe the plasma focus dynamics, in a conceptual engineering stage.The codes calculates the principal variables (currents, time to focus, etc) and estimates the neutron yield in Deuterium-filled plasma focus devices.It can be affirmed that the code's experimental validation, in its axial and radial stages, was very successfully. However, it was accepted that the compression stage should be formulated again, to find a solution for a large variation of a parameter related with velocity profiles for the particles trapped inside the pinch.The objectives of this work can be stated in the next way : - Check the compression's model hypothesis. Develop a new model .- Implement the new model in the code. Compare results against experimental data of Plasma Focus devices from all around the world [es

  16. Opposing effects of expectancy and somatic focus on pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie E Johnston

    Full Text Available High-pain expectancy increases pain and pain-related brain activity, creating a cycle of psychologically maintained pain. Though these effects are robust, little is known about how expectancy works and what psychological processes either support or mitigate its effects. To address this, we independently manipulated pain expectancy and "top-down" attention to the body, and examined their effects on both a performance-based measure of body-focus and heat-induced pain. Multi-level mediation analyses showed that high-pain expectancy substantially increased pain, replicating previous work. However, attention to the body reduced pain, partially suppressing the effects of expectancy. Furthermore, increased body-focus had larger pain-reducing effects when pain expectancy was high, suggesting that attempts to focus on external distractors are counterproductive in this situation. Overall, the results show that attention to the body cannot explain pain-enhancing expectancy effects, and that focusing on sensory/discriminative aspects of pain might be a useful pain-regulation strategy when severe pain is expected.

  17. Opposing Effects of Expectancy and Somatic Focus on Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wager, Tor D.

    2012-01-01

    High-pain expectancy increases pain and pain-related brain activity, creating a cycle of psychologically maintained pain. Though these effects are robust, little is known about how expectancy works and what psychological processes either support or mitigate its effects. To address this, we independently manipulated pain expectancy and “top-down” attention to the body, and examined their effects on both a performance-based measure of body-focus and heat-induced pain. Multi-level mediation analyses showed that high-pain expectancy substantially increased pain, replicating previous work. However, attention to the body reduced pain, partially suppressing the effects of expectancy. Furthermore, increased body-focus had larger pain-reducing effects when pain expectancy was high, suggesting that attempts to focus on external distractors are counterproductive in this situation. Overall, the results show that attention to the body cannot explain pain-enhancing expectancy effects, and that focusing on sensory/discriminative aspects of pain might be a useful pain-regulation strategy when severe pain is expected. PMID:22723896

  18. Numerical experimentation on focusing time and neutron yield in GN1 plasma focus machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Arwinder; Lee, Sing; Saw, S.H.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we have shown how we have fitted Lee's six phase model code to analyze the current waveform of the GN1 plasma focus machine working in deuterium gas. The Lee's 6-phase model codes was later configured to work between 0.5 to 6 Torr and the results of both focusing time and neutron yield was then compared with the published experimental results. The final results indicate that Lee's code, gives realistic plasma dynamics and focus properties together with a realistic neutron yield for GN1 plasma focus, without the need of any adjustable parameters, needing only to fit the computed current trace to a measured current trace. (author)

  19. Magnetic focusing in triangular electron billiards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøggild, Peter; Kristensen, A.; Lindelof, Poul Erik

    1999-01-01

    The classical ballistic magnetotransport in triangular electron billiards fabricated in a high mobility GaAs heterostructure has been studied at 4.2 K. The sample geometry may be viewed as a double-slit structure with a skewed injection angle. We observe a striking cancellation of the magnetic...... focusing spectrum compared to the case of a perpendicular injection angle. From numerical and analytical analysis, we confirm that the quenching is a fundamental geometrical effect, and identify two mechanisms responsible for the anomaly. The focusing spectrum of the considered skewed geometry...... is remarkably sensitive to the angular distribution of injected electrons as well as the overall injection angle. [S0163-1829(99)06619-9]....

  20. Dense plasma focus - a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tendys, J.

    1976-01-01

    The dense plasma focus (DPF) is a convenient source of short, intense neutron pulses, and dense, high temperature plasma. This review of the literature on the DPF indicates that its operation is still not understood, and attempts to show where the present data is either inadequate or inconsistent. Because the plasma conditions and neutron and x-ray fluxes vary from shot to shot, it is maintained that, to resolve inconsistencies in the present data, spectra need to be measured with energy and time resolution simultaneously, and cannot be built up from a large number of shots. Time resolutions of the order of 1 nsec for pulse lengths of about 100 nsec make these requirements especially difficult. Some theoretical models are presented for the neutron output and its spectrum, but no self-consistent description of the plasma in the focus region is likely for some time. (author)

  1. Missing data imputation: focusing on single imputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongheng

    2016-01-01

    Complete case analysis is widely used for handling missing data, and it is the default method in many statistical packages. However, this method may introduce bias and some useful information will be omitted from analysis. Therefore, many imputation methods are developed to make gap end. The present article focuses on single imputation. Imputations with mean, median and mode are simple but, like complete case analysis, can introduce bias on mean and deviation. Furthermore, they ignore relationship with other variables. Regression imputation can preserve relationship between missing values and other variables. There are many sophisticated methods exist to handle missing values in longitudinal data. This article focuses primarily on how to implement R code to perform single imputation, while avoiding complex mathematical calculations.

  2. Energy coupling in the plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wainwright, T.E.; Pickles, W.L.; Sahlin, H.L.; Price, D.F.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments have been performed with a 125-kJ plasma focus to investigate mechanisms for rapid coupling of inductively-stored energy into plasmas. The coupling can take place through the formation of an electron or ion beam that deposits its energy in a target or directly by the penetration of the magnetic field into a resistive plasma. Some preliminary results from experiments of both types are described. The experiments use a replaceable conical anode tip that is intended to guide the focus to within a few millimeters of the axis, where it can suddenly deliver energy either to a small target or to particles that are accelerated. X-ray and fast-ion diagnostics have been used to study the effects

  3. Plasma focus system: Design, construction and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alacakir, A.; Akguen, Y.; Boeluekdemir, A. S.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work is to construct a compact experimental system for fusion research. The design, construction and experiments of the 3 kJ Mather type plasma focus machine is described. This machine is established for neutron yield and fast neutron radiography by D-D reaction which is given by D + D→ 3 He (0.82 MeV) + n (2.45 MeV) . Investigation of the geometry of plasma focus machine in the presence of high voltage drive and vacuum system setup is shown. 108 neutron per pulse and 200 kA peak current is obtained for many shots. Scintillator screen for fast neutron imaging, sensitive to 2.45 MeV neutrons, is also manufactured in our labs. Structural neutron shielding computations for safety is also completed

  4. Compression Models for Plasma Focus Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Jose; Calusse, Alejandro; Ramos, Ruben; Rodriguez Palomino, Luis

    2003-01-01

    Using a numerical model that calculates the dynamics of Plasma Focus devices, we compared the results of three different compression models of the plasma pinch.One of the main objectives in this area is to develop a simplified model to calculate the neutron production of Plasma Focus devices, to study the influence of the main parameters in this neutron yield.The dynamics is thoroughly studied, and the model predicts fairly well values such as maximum currents and times for pinch collapse.Therefore, we evaluate here different models of pinch compression, to try to predict the neutron production with good agreement with the rest of the variables involved.To fulfill this requirement, we have experimental results of neutron production as a function of deuterium filling pressure in the chamber, and typical values of other main variables in the dynamics of the current sheet

  5. Slice through an LHC focusing magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    Slice through an LHC superconducting quadrupole (focusing) magnet. The slice includes a cut through the magnet wiring (niobium titanium), the beampipe and the steel magnet yokes. Particle beams in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have the same energy as a high-speed train, squeezed ready for collision into a space narrower than a human hair. Huge forces are needed to control them. Dipole magnets (2 poles) are used to bend the paths of the protons around the 27 km ring. Quadrupole magnets (4 poles) focus the proton beams and squeeze them so that more particles collide when the beams’ paths cross. Bringing beams into collision requires a precision comparable to making two knitting needles collide, launched from either side of the Atlantic Ocean.

  6. Self-focusing of whistler waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpman, V. I.; Kaufman, R. N.; Shagalov, A. G.

    1992-01-01

    The theory of axially symmetric self-focusing of whistler waves, based on the full system of Maxwell equations, is developed. The plasma is described by the magnetohydrodynamic equations including the ponderomotive force from RF field. The nonlinear Schrodinger equations (NSE) for arbitrary azimuthal modes of whistler waves are derived. It is shown that they differ from the NSE for a scalar field; this is connected with an intrinsic angular momentum due to the rotating polarization of whistlers. It is shown that the self-focusing, as described by the NSE, differs in its final stage from the results following the full set of Maxwell equations. The latter gives defocusing after sufficient narrowing of the initial wave beam, due to transformation of the trapped wave into a nontrapped branch which is not contained in the NSE description. The oscillatory character of the defocusing is demonstrated.

  7. Raman Amplification with a Flying Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, D.; Bucht, S.; Davies, A.; Haberberger, D.; Kessler, T.; Shaw, J. L.; Froula, D. H.

    2018-01-01

    We propose a new laser amplifier scheme utilizing stimulated Raman scattering in plasma in conjunction with a "flying focus"—a chromatic focusing system combined with a chirped pump beam that provides spatiotemporal control over the pump's focal spot. Pump intensity isosurfaces are made to propagate at v =-c so as to be in sync with the injected counterpropagating seed pulse. By setting the pump intensity in the interaction region to be just above the ionization threshold of the background gas, an ionization wave is produced that travels at a fixed distance ahead of the seed. Simulations show that this will make it possible to optimize the plasma temperature and mitigate many of the issues that are known to have impacted previous Raman amplification experiments, in particular, the growth of precursors.

  8. Self-focusing in SF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerhalt, J.R.; Galbraith, H.W.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown by explicit calculation of previously published quasicontinuum model that the molecular susceptibility rapidly approaches zero as higher excited states of the molecule become populated. Hence the overtones of the ν 3 -pumped mode are totally responsible for the self focusing effects in SF 6 . The ν 3 ladder contribution to the susceptibility is calculated. The vibrational model is a classical triply degenerate anharmonic oscillator in the Cartesian basis with the anharmonicity parameters chosen to be consistent with the latest spectroscopic analysis of the 3ν 3 overtone spectrum. The rotational structure is represented by a distribution of these oscillators where the distribution is chosen to correspond to the spectrum of the ν 3 fundamental. Good agreement is found with the 300 0 in self-focusing data of Nowak and Ham at CO 2 P(28), P(20) and P(10) in SF 6

  9. Focused-laser interferometric position sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, Stephen J.; Barwick, Brett; Batelaan, Herman

    2005-01-01

    We describe a simple method to measure the position shifts of an object with a range of tens of micrometers using a focused-laser (FL) interferometric position sensor. In this article we examine the effects of mechanical vibration on FL and Michelson interferometers. We tested both interferometers using vibration amplitudes ranging from 0 to 20 μm. Our FL interferometer has a resolution much better than the diffraction grating periodicities of 10 and 14 μm used in our experiments. A FL interferometer provides improved mechanical stability at the expense of spatial resolution. Our experimental results show that Michelson interferometers cannot be used when the vibration amplitude is more than an optical wavelength. The main purpose of this article is to demonstrate that a focused-laser interferometric position sensor can be used to measure the position shifts of an object on a less sensitive, micrometer scale when the vibration amplitude is too large to use a Michelson interferometer

  10. Radio frequency focused interdigital linear accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Donald A.; Starling, W. Joel

    2006-08-29

    An interdigital (Wideroe) linear accelerator employing drift tubes, and associated support stems that couple to both the longitudinal and support stem electromagnetic fields of the linac, creating rf quadrupole fields along the axis of the linac to provide transverse focusing for the particle beam. Each drift tube comprises two separate electrodes operating at different electrical potentials as determined by cavity rf fields. Each electrode supports two fingers, pointing towards the opposite end of the drift tube, forming a four-finger geometry that produces an rf quadrupole field distribution along its axis. The fundamental periodicity of the structure is equal to one half of the particle wavelength .beta..lamda., where .beta. is the particle velocity in units of the velocity of light and .lamda. is the free space wavelength of the rf. Particles are accelerated in the gaps between drift tubes. The particle beam is focused in regions inside the drift tubes.

  11. New focusing analyser on IN12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, W.; Faak, B.

    1999-01-01

    Among several improvements and modifications the IN12 three-axis spectrometer for cold neutrons has been equipped with a new graphite analyzer with variable horizontal and fixed vertical focusing features. With this analyzer we could drastically improve the instrument performance and also meet the standards of a modern three-axis spectrometer. In this report we show construction details as well as experimental results which demonstrate the improvements. (author)

  12. SCIENTIFIC COMMUNICATION WITH A FOCUS ON SESAME

    CERN Document Server

    ahmad, sameem

    2017-01-01

    Scientific communication, the representation of CERN and raising awareness about science to a wide range of audiences is very important for the CERN communication teams. Having a physics background and an interest in science administration, communication and research, I was based in the International Relations sector, working in various groups and focusing on written communication. I gained experience in many aspects of scientific communications by finding out how CERN in represented in the press and media, other online forums and in outreach.

  13. Vision Trainer Teaches Focusing Techniques at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Based on work Stanford Research Institute did for Ames Research Center, Joseph Trachtman developed a vision trainer to treat visual focusing problems in the 1980s. In 2014, Trachtman, operating out of Seattle, released a home version of the device called the Zone-Trac. The inventor has found the biofeedback process used by the technology induces an alpha-wave brain state, causing increased hand-eye coordination and reaction times, among other effects

  14. A lumped parameter model of plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Jose H.; Florido, Pablo C.; Bruzzone, H.; Clausse, Alejandro

    1999-01-01

    A lumped parameter model to estimate neutron emission of a plasma focus (PF) device is developed. The dynamic of the current sheet is calculated using a snowplow model, and the neutron production with the thermal fusion cross section for a deuterium filling gas. The results were contrasted as a function of the filling pressure with experimental measurements of a 3.68 KJ Mather-type PF. (author)

  15. Project Management with IT Security Focus

    OpenAIRE

    Felician Alecu; Paul Pocatilu; Sergiu Capisizu

    2011-01-01

    The paper focus on the main key points related to the IT security project management. The most important lifecycle stages are identified: IT security project proposal definition, project organization, project planning, quality planning, project team organization, IT security project activities management and project closing. The most important success factors for IT security projects are the support of top-management, customer satisfaction, prevention over remediation and continuous progress....

  16. Simulation Of Gas Focused Liquid Jets

    OpenAIRE

    Zahoor, Rizwan

    2018-01-01

    The main aim of dissertation is to develop an experimentally verified computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model of micron-sized liquid jet, produced by an injection molded Gas Dynamic Virtual Nozzle (GDVN). In these nozzles, liquid jets are efficiently orientedly transporting mass and momentum. They are produced by intelligently projecting hydrodynamic focusing effect from a high-speed stream of a co-flowing lower density and lower viscosity gas on a stream of liquid from a feeding capillary. L...

  17. Charmed baryons photoproduced in FOCUS at Fermilab

    CERN Document Server

    Ratti, S P

    2001-01-01

    FOCUS collected over 7 * 10/sup 7/ triggers and more than 10/sup 6/ fully reconstructed charm particles in a photoproduction experiment at Fermilab. The experimental setup is an upgraded version of a multiparticle spectrometer used in the previous experiment E687. Data on charmed meson spectroscopy have been presented by F.L Fabbri in this Section. Here data on photoproduction of charmed baryons are presented.

  18. Architecture and Energy. Towards a broader Focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Michael; Marsh, Rob

     Architecture and Energy. Towards a broader focus. By Michael Lauring and Rob Marsh   In typical new Danish dwellings build according to the standards of the Building Regulations 2008 approximately 35% of the primary energy use is related to heat consumption divided into 23% room heating and 12% ...... & Hacker (2008): Bygninger, Energi, Klima. Mod et nyt paradigme.  Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut (Danish Building Research Institute). [2] Marsh, Larsen, Lauring & Christensen (2006): Arkitektur og energi. Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut (Danish Building Research Instititute)....

  19. Focusing magnets for HIF based on racetracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martovetsky, N N; Manahan, R R

    2000-09-11

    Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) is considered a promising path to a practical fusion reactor. A driver for a HIF reactor will require a large number of quadrupole arrays to focus heavy ion beams. A conceptual design, and trade off studies of the quadrupole array based on racetracks are presented. A comparison with a conventional shell magnet is given and advantages and disadvantages are discussed. A more detailed design of a single quadrupole for the High Current experiment (HCX) is presented and discussed.

  20. Results of Final Focus Test Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walz, Dieter R

    2003-06-13

    The beam experiments of Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) started in September 1993 at SLAC, and have produced a 1.7 {micro}m x 75 nm spot of 46 GeV electron beam. A number of new techniques involving two nanometer spot-size monitors have been developed. Several beam diagnostic/tuning schemes are applied to achieve and maintain the small spot. This experiment opens the way toward the nanometer world for future linear colliders.

  1. Ion Distribution Measurement In Plasma Focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryadi; Sunardi; Usada, Widdi; Purwadi, Agus; Zaenuri, Akhmad

    1996-01-01

    Measurement of the Argon ion distribution in plasma focus by using Faraday cup has been done. The intensity of ion beam followed the I Rn rule, n=1,02. In the operation condition of 0,8 mbar and 12,5 kV the current sheath spen 2.2 to 2.4 μsecond in the rundown phase. Cu ion was also been observed in the Faraday cup

  2. The Upgraded Plasma Focus Installation > - The Installation >

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krokhin, O.N.; Nikulin, V.Ya.; Babenko, B.A.; Gorbunov, D.N.; Gurei, A.E.; Kalachev, N.V.; Kozlova, T.A.; Malafeev, Yu.S.; Polukhin, S.N.; Sychev, A.A.; Tikhomirov, A.A.; Tsybenko, S.P.; Volobuev, I.V.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the upgraded plasma focus installation > - the installation > and some preliminary experimental results. The total energy stored in capacity bank is now 400 kJ, current - 5 MA with the rise time 3.5 μs. The investigation is targeted on the study of near electrode processes and its influence on plasma dynamics in a special operating regime of Filippov type PF - Hard X-ray regime. (author)

  3. Understanding weight stigmatization: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossrow, N H; Jeffery, R W; McGuire, M T

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate, in a nonclinical sample of adults, thoughts on and experiences with weight stigmatization. Focus groups were used to collect information. Participants were recruited through a newspaper advertisement and flyers posted in public places in Minneapolis and St. Paul. During the focus groups, participants were led in a discussion about their thoughts on weight stigmatization and personal experiences of being treated differently or poorly because of their weight. Six gender-specific focus groups consisted of 31 adult volunteers (17 women and 14 men). Perceptions of weight-based stereotypes and weight stigmatization and personal reports of having been treated differently or poorly owing to weight were measured. Participants reported a variety of experiences of being treated differently or poorly because of their weight. These included teasing, harassment, slurs and insults, negative judgments and assumptions, and perceived discrimination. Participants reported that such experiences occurred at home, among friends and strangers, at work, and in health care settings. Women reported a greater number and a greater variety of negative experiences than men. The results indicated that participants experienced weight-based stigmatization in many aspects of their lives. Awareness of these experiences may assist in the development of treatments for overweight individuals.

  4. Safety, training focus of combined organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toop, L.

    2006-03-15

    This article presented details of Enform, a company that coordinates safety programs and training for new employees in the oil and gas industry. Enform was created when the Petroleum Industry Training Services merged with the Canadian Petroleum Safety Council. The aim of Enform is to ensure continuous improvements in health and safety within the industry by reducing working injuries and promoting health and safety practices. The companies merged to eliminate duplication of services and allow associates further opportunities for advanced training. In 2005, Enform trained an estimated 155,000 students, and a number of new courses were introduced and updated. A franchise program was extended and a training council was formed to offer direction and guidance to the oil industry. Enform focuses on sharing information among companies, as well as working to harmonize safety regulations across provincial borders. A task force was recently created by the company with a specific focus on drug and alcohol abuse. Other concerns include driver safety and driver interactions with wildlife. Enform is mainly focused on the traditional oil industry, and has had little entry into the oil sands industry. It was concluded that increased activity in the oil and gas industry will remain Enform's biggest challenge in the next few years. Plans for Enform's increased involvement in the offshore oil and gas industry were also discussed. 4 figs.

  5. Forest biomass and tree planting for fossil fuel offsets in the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mike A. Battaglia; Kellen Nelson; Dan Kashian; Michael G. Ryan

    2010-01-01

    This study estimates the amount of carbon available for removal in fuel reduction and reforestation treatments in montane forests of the Colorado Front Range based on site productivity, pre-treatment basal area, and planting density. Thinning dense stands will yield the greatest offsets for biomass fuel. However, this will also yield the greatest carbon losses, if the...

  6. Factors influencing smallholder commercial tree planting in Isabel Province, the Solomon Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteeg, Stephanie; Hansen, Christian Pilegaard; Pouliot, Mariéve

    2017-01-01

    and multiple regression models, and qualitative analysis were used to generate results. The study finds that a market for existing planted timber resources, improved extension services and, in the longer-term, more livelihood-appropriate small-scale (agro)forestry systems are critical to facilitate the ongoing...

  7. Tree plantings in depression wetland restorations show mixed success (South Carolina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca R. Sharitz; Christopher D. Barton; Diane De Steven

    2006-01-01

    Studies of bottomland forest restoration in the southeastern United States indicate that success can be improved by protecting planted tree seedlings from herbivores and controlling competing vegetation. Reforesting “isolated” depressional wetlands may present different challenges: growing-season ponding may expose seedlings to flooding stress, and competition control...

  8. Contrasting natural regeneration and tree planting in fourteen North American cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak

    2012-01-01

    Field data from randomly located plots in 12 cities in the United States and Canada were used to estimate the proportion of the existing tree population that was planted or occurred via natural regeneration. In addition, two cities (Baltimore and Syracuse) were recently re-sampled to estimate the proportion of newly established trees that were planted. Results for the...

  9. It's not easy going green: Obstacles to tree-planting programs in East Baltimore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Battaglia; Geoffrey L. Buckley; Michael Galvin; Morgan. Grove

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, government officials in Baltimore announced plans to double the city's tree canopy over the next thirty years. While the effort has already produced positive results, many parts of the city still lack trees. In this paper we consider whether two neighborhoods in East Baltimore — Berea and Madison-Eastend — are suitable locations for tree...

  10. Planting and care of fine hardwood seedlings: Designing hardwood tree plantings for wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian J. MacGowan

    2003-01-01

    Woody plants can be of value to many wildlife species. The species of tree or shrub, or the location, size, and shape of planting can all have an impact on wildlife. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the benefits of trees and shrubs for wildlife and how to design tree and shrub plantings for wildlife. Some of the practices may conflict with other management...

  11. Tree planting in Haiti: How to plant and care for your nursery grown seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrstan Hubbel; Yvonne Barkley; Jeremiah R. Pinto; R. Kasten Dumroese; Sabine Deristin; Raymond Joseph; Randy Brooks; Anthony S. Davis

    2016-01-01

    Seedlings need the right amounts of sunlight, water and nutrients to live and grow into healthy trees. Different types of trees have different requirements, so seedlings will need planting sites that meet all of their requirements. For example, pine trees need full sun, a moderate amount of water and a certain combination of nutrients to grow into healthy trees. If you...

  12. Portable linear-focused solar thermal energy collecting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. G.; Pohl, J. G. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A solar heat collection system is provided by utilizing a line-focusing device that is effectively a cylindrically curved concentrator within a protected environment formed by a transparent inflatable casing. A target, such as a fluid or gas carrying conduit is positioned within or near the casing containing the concentrator, at the line focus of the concentrator. The casing can be inflated at the site of use by a low pressure air supply to form a unitary light weight structure. The collector, including casing, concentrator and target, is readily transportable and can be used either at ground level or on rooftops. The inflatable concentrator can be replaced with a rigid metal or other concentrator while maintaining the novel advantages of the whole solar heat collection system.

  13. Optimal wave focusing for seismic source imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazargani, Farhad

    In both global and exploration seismology, studying seismic sources provides geophysicists with invaluable insight into the physics of earthquakes and faulting processes. One way to characterize the seismic source is to directly image it. Time-reversal (TR) focusing provides a simple and robust solution to the source imaging problem. However, for recovering a well- resolved image, TR requires a full-aperture receiver array that surrounds the source and adequately samples the wavefield. This requirement often cannot be realized in practice. In most source imaging experiments, the receiver geometry, due to the limited aperture and sparsity of the stations, does not allow adequate sampling of the source wavefield. Incomplete acquisition and imbalanced illumination of the imaging target limit the resolving power of the TR process. The main focus of this thesis is to offer an alternative approach to source imaging with the goal of mitigating the adverse effects of incomplete acquisition on the TR modeling. To this end, I propose a new method, named Backus-Gilbert (BG) source imaging, to optimally focus the wavefield onto the source position using a given receiver geometry. I first introduce BG as a method for focusing waves in acoustic media at a desired location and time. Then, by exploiting the source-receiver reciprocity of the Green function and the linearity of the problem, I show that BG focusing can be adapted and used as a source-imaging tool. Following this, I generalize the BG theory for elastic waves. Applying BG formalism for source imaging requires a model for the wave propagation properties of the earth and an estimate of the source location. Using numerical tests, I next examine the robustness and sensitivity of the proposed method with respect to errors in the earth model, uncertainty in the source location, and noise in data. The BG method can image extended sources as well as point sources. It can also retrieve the source mechanism. These features of

  14. Finding focus: a study of the historical development of focus in English

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komen, E.R.

    2013-01-01

    This study reveals how two important focus articulations change over time in written English. Constituent focus, often accompanied by contrast, makes use of the clause-initial position in the oldest stages of English, but as this position comes to be used for the grammatical subject over time, the

  15. A new electrophoretic focusing principle: focusing of nonamphoteric weak ionogenic analytes using inverse electromigration dispersion profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Petr; Malá, Zdena; Bocek, Petr

    2010-03-01

    This contribution introduces a new separation principle in CE which offers focusing of weak nonamphoteric ionogenic species and their inherent transport to the detector. The prerequisite condition for application of this principle is the existence of an inverse electromigration dispersion profile, i.e. a profile where pH is decreasing toward the anode or cathode for focusing of anionic or cationic weak analytes, respectively. The theory presented defines the principal conditions under which an analyte is focused on a profile of this type. Since electromigration dispersion profiles are migrating ones, the new principle offers inherent transport of focused analytes into the detection cell. The focusing principle described utilizes a mechanism different from both CZE (where separation is based on the difference in mobilities) and IEF (where separation is based on difference in pI), and hence, offers another separation dimension in CE. The new principle and its theory presented here are supplemented by convincing experiments as their proof.

  16. Measuring site-level success in brownfield redevelopments: a focus on sustainability and green building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedding, G Christopher; Crawford-Brown, Douglas

    2007-10-01

    This research has met the following four objectives within the broader research topic of characterizing and quantifying success in brownfield revitalization: (1) to define 40 total indicators that define and determine the success of brownfield redevelopments in four categories: environment-health, finance, livability, and social-economic; (2) to use these indicators to develop a partially automated tool that stakeholders in brownfield redevelopment may use to more easily assess and communicate success (or failures) in these projects; (3) to integrate "green" building as an important aspect of successful brownfield redevelopments; and (4) to develop this tool within the framework of a specific multi-attribute decision method (MADM), the analytical hierarchical process (AHP). Future research should include the operationalization and application of this tool to specific sites. Currently, no such indicator framework or automated tool is known to exist or be in use. Indicators were chosen because of their ability to reduce data into comprehensible measurements and to systematically measure success in a standardized fashion. Appropriate indicators were selected based on (1) interviews with prominent private developers and national leaders in brownfield redevelopment, (2) a review of the relevant literature, (3) objective hierarchies created in this project, and (4) the ability for each indicator to serve goals in more than one of the four categories described above. These were combined to form the Sustainable Brownfields Redevelopment (SBR) Tool. A survey was conducted to serve as a preliminary assessment and proposed methodology for judging the validity of the SBR Tool. Professionals in the academic, private, and public sector were asked to provide an evaluation of the management tool and a weighting of the relative importance of each indicator and each of the four categories listed previously. Experts rated the tool at 7.68 out of 10 suggesting that this framework will be useful in evaluating these redevelopments upon completion and in formulating initial site plans and building design.

  17. Digital multi-level laminography on the basis of a micro-focus device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schors, J.; Ewert, U.; Nockemann, C.; Bellon, C.

    1993-01-01

    The starting point for the work is the coplanar rotation laminography, as it has a spatial resolution higher by a factor of π. By using modern technique, particularly X-ray picture digitalisation and computerized reconstruction with powerful computers, one can shorten the measurement time and obtain a higher resolution of the pictures. The principle of classical coplanar rotation laminography is explained. (orig./DG) [de

  18. Involved and Focused? Students' Perceptions of Institutional Identity, Personal Goal Orientation and Levels of Campus Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Joseph R.; McCarthy, Brendan J.; Milner, Lauren A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study explores the relationship between students' perception of their institution's mission identity, personal goal orientation tendencies, and the extent to which they engage in mission-driven activities. Goal orientation research categorizes student motivations in three ways: mastery orientation (MO), performance-approach (PAp)…

  19. Problems in siting low level radioactive wastes: A focus on public participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bord, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Public participation programs must develop a means to enlist meaningful public feedback. Besides the traditional public meetings, which generally mobilize the opposition, careful surveys can be done of a representative spectrum of the public getting their judgments about specific criteria. These judgments can be used to shape siting policy. Such an approach would help avoid the criticism that public input is not taken into account. While the suggestions included in this paper go far in dealing with public fear and distrust they cannot guarantee siting success. There are a number of uncontrollable contingencies that can affect any siting program. Another energy crises, for example, may increase the prestige of the nuclear industry and make LLRW siting less onerous. Or, new broadcasts of waste site failures or of nuclear accidents could make LLRW siting more problematic. The problems of waste siting will not disappear nor are the solutions easy ones. They demand serious consideration by talented scientists of all kinds. Waste siting difficulties certainly rank near the top of challenges facing advanced industrial societies. Attempts to site wastes of all kinds have foundered because of strong public opposition. LLRW siting attempts are certain to meet similar problems. Local communities tend to see little or no benefits but high costs in hosting waste sites. Fear of pollution, the unknown aspects of radiation risks, a lack of confidence in governmental agencies, are all factors promoting public resistance. Compounding these problems has been the failure of citizen participation programs to fulfill the functions for which they were designed. Instead of fostering more open communication, regulating conflict, and generating better ideas, participation programs dealing with waste siting tend to generate more conflict and mobilize determined opposition

  20. Optical fibres bringing the LHC into focus

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    New components are being added to CERN's optical fibre network, which will transport the torrents of data produced by the LHC. 1500 kilometres of cables will be installed in the tunnels and at ground level.

  1. GRI: focusing on the evolving violent universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knödlseder, Jürgen; von Ballmoos, Peter; Frontera, Filippo; Bazzano, Angela; Christensen, Finn; Hernanz, Margarida; Wunderer, Cornelia

    2009-03-01

    The gamma-ray imager (GRI) is a novel mission concept that will provide an unprecedented sensitivity leap in the soft gamma-ray domain by using for the first time a focusing lens built of Laue diffracting crystals. The lens will cover an energy band from 200-1,300 keV with an effective area reaching 600 cm2. It will be complemented by a single reflection multilayer coated mirror, extending the GRI energy band into the hard X-ray regime, down to ˜10 keV. The concentrated photons will be collected by a position sensitive pixelised CZT stack detector. We estimate continuum sensitivities of better than 10 - 7 ph cm - 2s - 1keV - 1 for a 100 ks exposure; the narrow line sensitivity will be better than 3 × 10 - 6 ph cm - 2s - 1 for the same integration time. As focusing instrument, GRI will have an angular resolution of better than 30 arcsec within a field of view of roughly 5 arcmin—an unprecedented achievement in the gamma-ray domain. Owing to the large focal length of 100 m of the lens and the mirror, the optics and detector will be placed on two separate spacecrafts flying in formation in a high elliptical orbit. R&D work to enable the lens focusing technology and to develop the required focal plane detector is currently underway, financed by ASI, CNES, ESA, and the Spanish Ministery of Education and Science. The GRI mission has been proposed as class M mission for ESAs Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. GRI will allow studies of particle acceleration processes and explosion physics in unprecedented detail, providing essential clues on the innermost nature of the most violent and most energetic processes in the universe.

  2. The combination of electrospray and flow focusing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gañán-Calvo, Alfonso M.; López-Herrera, José M.; Riesco-Chueca, Pascual

    2006-11-01

    An ultra-fine liquid atomization procedure combining the advantages of electrospray and flow focusing is presented. Both techniques are known to produce strikingly small and steady liquid micro-jets issuing from menisci held by capillary forces. Such menisci take the form of a cusp-like drop attached to the feeding tube (flow focusing: FF) or a Taylor cone (electrospray: ES). The issuing micro-jets are forced or ‘sucked’ from the parent meniscus either by pressure or electrohydrodynamic forces. Subsequent capillary breakup of the jet leads to fine sprays of remarkable quality. Here we describe the joint effect of pressurization and electrification in a flow focusing device, and the subsequent coupling of both ES and FF phenomena. For any given liquid and flow rate, the combined procedure gives rise to significantly smaller droplet sizes than observed in any of the source techniques. The co-flowing gas stream removes space charges; in addition, the perforated plate facing the feed tube provides an electric barrier, shielding the jet-meniscus or ‘production’ area from the spray or ‘product’ area. As a result, space charges and electrified droplets are removed from the production area, thus avoiding the ambient electric saturation which becomes a limiting factor in ES-spraying: a significantly enhanced spraying stability ensues, with a much wider operation range than FF or ES. Other unexpected outcomes from the combination are also shown. A theoretical model is developed to predict the emitted droplet size: a first integral of the momentum equation yielding a generalized Bernoulli equation, and an explicit approximation for the jet diameter and droplet size, accurate within a broad parametrical band.

  3. Direction of attentional focus in biofeedback treatment for /r/ misarticulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister Byun, Tara; Swartz, Michelle T; Halpin, Peter F; Szeredi, Daniel; Maas, Edwin

    2016-07-01

    Maintaining an external direction of focus during practice is reported to facilitate acquisition of non-speech motor skills, but it is not known whether these findings also apply to treatment for speech errors. This question has particular relevance for treatment incorporating visual biofeedback, where clinician cueing can direct the learner's attention either internally (i.e., to the movements of the articulators) or externally (i.e., to the visual biofeedback display). This study addressed two objectives. First, it aimed to use single-subject experimental methods to collect additional evidence regarding the efficacy of visual-acoustic biofeedback treatment for children with /r/ misarticulation. Second, it compared the efficacy of this biofeedback intervention under two cueing conditions. In the external focus (EF) condition, participants' attention was directed exclusively to the external biofeedback display. In the internal focus (IF) condition, participants viewed a biofeedback display, but they also received articulatory cues encouraging an internal direction of attentional focus. Nine school-aged children were pseudo-randomly assigned to receive either IF or EF cues during 8 weeks of visual-acoustic biofeedback intervention. Accuracy in /r/ production at the word level was probed in three to five pre-treatment baseline sessions and in three post-treatment maintenance sessions. Outcomes were assessed using visual inspection and calculation of effect sizes for individual treatment trajectories. In addition, a mixed logistic model was used to examine across-subjects effects including phase (pre/post-treatment), /r/ variant (treated/untreated), and focus cue condition (internal/external). Six out of nine participants showed sustained improvement on at least one treated /r/ variant; these six participants were evenly divided across EF and IF treatment groups. Regression results indicated that /r/ productions were significantly more likely to be rated accurate post

  4. Electron density measurements on the plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueckle, B.

    1976-01-01

    The paper presents a determination of the maximum electron density in a plasma focus, produced with the NESSI experimental setup, by the method of laser beam deflection. For each discharge a time-resolved measurement was performed at four different places. Neutron efficiency as well as the time of the initial X-ray emission was registrated. The principle and the economic aspects of the beam deflection method are presented in detail. The experimental findings and the resulting knowledge of the neutron efficiency are discussed. (GG) [de

  5. Focusing experiments with light ion diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.L.

    1978-01-01

    A review of recent experimental and theoretical work at Sandia Laboratories on magnetically insulated single stage ion diodes for inertial confinement fusion experiments is presented. The production, focusing, and numerical simulation of a 0.5 TW annular proton beam using the Proto I dual transmission line generator is described. The modular magnetically insulated ion diode for the Hydra generator is also described along with recent experimental results. A brief description of how an array of modular diodes similar to the Hydra magnetically insulated diode could be used on the EBFA I generator for breakeven fusion experiments is presented

  6. Focusing over Optical Fiber Using Time Reversal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piels, Molly; Porto da Silva, Edson; Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel

    2015-01-01

    A time-reversal array in multimode fiber is proposed for lossless remotely controlled switching using passive optical splitters. The signal to be transmitted is digitally pre-distorted so that it is routed through the physical layer in order to arrive at only one receiver in an array. System...... performance in the presence of additive white gaussian noise, modal group delay, and timing error is investigated numerically for single-mode and 10-mode fiber. Focusing using a two-transmitter array and 44 km of single- mode fiber is demonstrated experimentally for 3 GBd QPSK signals with a bit error rate...

  7. Focus point from direct gauge mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Sibo [Chongqing University, Department of Physics, Chongqing (China)

    2015-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the reconciliation of the tension between the theoretic expectation from naturalness and the present LHC limits on the superpartner mass bounds. We argue that in supersymmetry models of direct gauge mediation the focusing phenomenon appears, which dramatically reduces the fine tuning associated to the 126 GeV Higgs boson. This type of model is highly predictive as regards the mass spectrum, with a multi-TeV third generation, the A{sub t} term of order 1 TeV, gluino mass above LHC mass bound, and the light neutralinos and charginos below 1 TeV. (orig.)

  8. Triplet Focusing for Recirculating Linear Muon Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Keil, Eberhard

    2001-01-01

    Focusing by symmetrical triplets is studied for the linear accelerator lattices in recirculating muon accelerators with several passes where the ratio of final to initial muon energy is about four. Triplet and FODO lattices are compared. At similar acceptance, triplet lattices have straight sections for the RF cavities that are about twice as long as in FODO lat-tices. For the same energy gain, the total lengths of the linear accelerators with triplet lattices are about the same as of those with FODO lattices.

  9. Orbiter radiator panel solar focusing test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, H. R.; Rankin, J. G.

    1983-01-01

    Test data are presented which define the area around the Orbiter radiator panels for which the solar reflections are concentrated to one-sun or more. The concave shape of the panels and their specular silver/Teflon coating causes focusing of the reflected solar energy which could have adverse heating effects on equipment or astronaut extravehicular activity (EVA) in the vicinity of the radiator panels. A room ambient test method was utilized with a one-tenth scale model of the radiator panels.

  10. Mixed Waste Focus Area program management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitel, G.A.

    1996-10-01

    This plan describes the program management principles and functions to be implemented in the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA). The mission of the MWFA is to provide acceptable technologies that enable implementation of mixed waste treatment systems developed in partnership with end-users, stakeholders, tribal governments and regulators. The MWFA will develop, demonstrate and deliver implementable technologies for treatment of mixed waste within the DOE Complex. Treatment refers to all post waste-generation activities including sampling and analysis, characterization, storage, processing, packaging, transportation and disposal

  11. Virtual Focus Groups: New Frontiers in Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyn Turney

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available New information and communication technologies in the form of learning management systems provide unique and inventive opportunities for qualitative researchers. Their intrinsic ability to record discursive data in text format accurately and to provide safe, secure, and anonymous environments for participants makes them amenable for use as advanced research tools. In this article, the authors report on a collaborative project that tested the potential of online discussion boards for use in virtual focus groups. What the researchers found was that not only was the method theoretically sound, it actually enhanced their ability to connect with difficult-to-access populations that were disparately spread.

  12. Centroid motion in periodically focused beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, J.S.; Pakter, R.; Rizzato, F.B.

    2005-01-01

    The role of the centroid dynamics in the transport of periodically focused particle beams is investigated. A Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij equilibrium distribution for an off-axis beam is derived. It is shown that centroid and envelope dynamics are uncoupled and that unstable regions for the centroid dynamics overlap with previously stable regions for the envelope dynamics alone. Multiparticle simulations validate the findings. The effects of a conducting pipe encapsulating the beam are also investigated. It is shown that the charge induced at the pipe may generate chaotic orbits which can be detrimental to the adequate functioning of the transport mechanism

  13. The Final Focus Test Beam laser referene system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bressler, V.E.; Ruland, R.E.

    1993-05-01

    The original design for the SLAC linac included an alignment reference system with 270 diffraction gratings situated along the 3000 meter linac. These gratings have provided SLAC with a global reference line repeatable to within 200 micro meters. For the Final Focus Test Beam, this laser system has been extended and 13 new diffraction gratings have been installed. Improvements targets and the availability of new instruments allows us to evaluate the performance of the laser reference system at the 510 micro meter level. An explanation of the system and the results of our evaluation are presented

  14. Implementing a least cost and risk focused maintenance process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darling, S.S.

    1996-01-01

    The paper will focus on the vital role maintenance, big ''M'' (spares, PM program, planning and scheduling, turning the wrench), has in preserving return of investment, and safety in operation of high risk high value facilities/platforms. The maintenance process of today and for the future must utilize risk assessment and reliability engineering techniques to prioritize plant resources. The new process must provide for high levels of safety assurance yet allow for improved generation and transmission capacity while maintaining adequate system reliability. This approach ultimately leads to continuous and sustained reduction in operating cost, improved production capacity, and a safety culture based upon a risk determent cost-beneficial decision process

  15. Lexical Complexity of Decision-Making Writing Tasks: Form-focused Guided Strategic Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdavirad, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    The present study is an attempt to investigate the effect of form-focused guided strategic planning on lexical complexity of learners’ performance in writing tasks. The twenty intermediate level participants of the study performed an unplanned and then a planned decision-making task. In the planned task condition, the participants were provided with form-focused guided strategic planning which contained detailed instructions about how to plan, by being instructed to focus on form. The guidanc...

  16. Public participation in a DOE national program: The mixed waste focus area's approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The authors describe the Mixed Waste Focus Area's approach to involving interested Tribal and public members in the mixed waste technology development process. Evidence is provided to support the thesis that the Focus Area's systems engineering process, which provides visible and documented requirements and decision criteria, facilitates effective Tribal and public participation. Also described is a status of Tribal and public involvement at three levels of Focus Area activities

  17. BIOENERGIA - Focus on wood in bioenergy research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D. [Jyvaeskylae Science Park, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The most important area of research on wood fuel production is the development of various methods, machines and systems connected to this area, in order to produce economically competitive fuels. The integrated harvesting methods, which supply both raw material to wood products industry and wood fuel for energy production, have been chosen the main research area because they seem to be most promising. The growing amount of small-sized trees ant the need of their first thinnings have created a demand for new harvesting methods. At the moment the economical aspects restrict the harvesting of the first thinning trees either for industrial use or energy production. Research on peat production focuses on the complete use of a bog and on the development of peat production methods and machines. Development work in this area aims at decreasing production costs and also at reducing the drainage water and other elements in environmental load around the peat production sites. The use of bioenergy research will be focused on the small-scale (<20 MW{sub th},) applications. In the long term, the increase of bioenergy in heating of small houses and farms and buildings, as well as in the production of heat and power has been estimated. Research into the conversion of biomass is concentrated on the production of biomass-based liquid fuels

  18. Resonant Varifocal Micromirror with Piezoresistive Focus Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Nakazawa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS resonant varifocal mirror integrated with piezoresistive focus sensor. The varifocal mirror is driven electrostatically at a resonant frequency of a mirror plate to obtain the wide scanning range of a focal length. A piezoresistor is used to monitor the focal length of the varifocal mirror. The device is made of a silicon-on-insulator (SOI wafer and a glass wafer. A mirror plate and a counter electrode are fabricated by a top silicon layer of the SOI wafer and on the glass wafer, respectively. The piezoresistor is fabricated by ion implantation on a supporting beam of the mirror plate. The stress variation of the beam, which is detected by the piezoresistor, correspond the focal length of the varifocal mirror. The focus length varies from −41 to 35 mm at the resonant frequency of 9.5 kHz. The focal length of the varifocal mirror is monitored by the piezoresistor in real time.

  19. Focusing on the essentials: learning for performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Catherine J

    2008-12-10

    As The World health report 2006 emphasized, there is increasing consensus that training programmes should focus on "know-how" instead of "know-all." Health workers need to know how to do the job they will be expected to do. IntraHealth International's Learning for performance: a guide and toolkit for health worker training and education programs offers a step-by-step, customizable approach designed to develop the right skills linked to job responsibilities. Using Learning for performance (LFP) yields more efficient training that focuses on what is essential for health workers to do their jobs and on effective learning methods, while addressing the factors that ensure application of new skills on the job. This brief communication describes the Learning for performance approach and initial findings from its application for pre-service education and in-service training in three countries: India, Mali and Bangladesh. Based on IntraHealth's experiences, the author provides thoughts on how LFP's performance-based learning approach can be a useful tool in training scale-up to strengthen human resources for health.

  20. Focused sound: oncological therapy for transformed tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mares, C. E.; Cordova F, T.; Hernandez, A.

    2017-10-01

    The restlessness of the human being involves observing and being critical through their senses, in particular a disturbance in the environment cause vibrations that can be registered by the sense of hearing through the eardrum, if what it produces is in the frequency of the audible sound. The distinction of the sound of the other forms of energy transfer is that the waves of the same quickly involve the progressive return of displacements or vibrations of the molecules in the medium that propagates. In this work a sweep of frequencies was made from infra sound to ultrasound in plants of different types with different thicknesses and two people in order to find the resonance of each of them and compare it with the resonances registered in text, which allowed evaluate the secondary effect of sound focused on the tissue of the leaves and in particular of people. We consider that there is potential for this focused sound modality if it is at the resonance frequency of the transformed tissue as a means of oncological therapy without affecting the neighboring cells. (Author)

  1. Focusing on the essentials: learning for performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy Catherine J

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As The World health report 2006 emphasized, there is increasing consensus that training programmes should focus on "know-how" instead of "know-all." Health workers need to know how to do the job they will be expected to do. IntraHealth International's Learning for performance: a guide and toolkit for health worker training and education programs offers a step-by-step, customizable approach designed to develop the right skills linked to job responsibilities. Using Learning for performance (LFP yields more efficient training that focuses on what is essential for health workers to do their jobs and on effective learning methods, while addressing the factors that ensure application of new skills on the job. This brief communication describes the Learning for performance approach and initial findings from its application for pre-service education and in-service training in three countries: India, Mali and Bangladesh. Based on IntraHealth's experiences, the author provides thoughts on how LFP's performance-based learning approach can be a useful tool in training scale-up to strengthen human resources for health.

  2. Plant status control - with an operational focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, L.A.

    2000-01-01

    In the Nuclear industry, we have done a very good job of designing, developing, constructing, and improving our nuclear facilities. We have, however, often been inconsistent in documenting the details of our facilities, clearly addressing the rules around facility operation, and controlling and tracking the temporary, or permanent changes to our facilities. The reality is, that once we build a facility, we then must operate the facility, for it to be viable. Further we must operate it safely and efficiently for the facility to produce its product, and be acceptable to the public. Unfortunately, when we design and build these large, complicated facilities, we cannot project all the nuances of facility operation, although we can recognize this potential gap, and prepare for it. In order to allow for the complexities of the real world, we must provide the individuals who are tasked with operating our nuclear facilities, with the tools and processes to deal with 'all the nuances' of facility operation. This discussion will focus on the concepts behind a key process for ensuring that we meet our design and operating needs for our facilities, as well as recognizing and dealing with the potential gaps. The key process is 'Plant Status Control', and the discussion will have a primary focus on the needs of the end users, that being the individuals that have the immediate and current accountability for control and safety of the facility, the equipment, the staff, and ultimately the public, that being our Operations staff, and the Shift Manager. (author)

  3. Focused ion beam milling of carbon fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huson, Mickey G.; Church, Jeffrey S.; Hillbrick, Linda K.; Woodhead, Andrea L.; Sridhar, Manoj; Van De Meene, Allison M.L.

    2015-01-01

    A focused ion beam has been used to mill both individual carbon fibres as well as fibres in an epoxy composite, with a view to preparing flat surfaces for nano-indentation. The milled surfaces have been assessed for damage using scanning probe microscopy nano-indentation and Raman micro-probe analysis, revealing that FIB milling damages the carbon fibre surface and covers surrounding areas with debris of disordered carbon. The debris is detected as far as 100 μm from the milling site. The energy of milling as well as the orientation of the beam was varied and shown to have an effect when assessed by Raman spectroscopy. - Highlights: • Focused ion beam (FIB) milling was used to mill flat surfaces on carbon fibres. • Raman spectroscopy showed amorphous carbon was generated during FIB milling. • The amorphous debris is detected as far as 100 μm from the milling site. • This surface degradation was confirmed by nano-indentation experiments.

  4. Focusing on reproductive health for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    JOICFP is producing a still photo video consisting of three segments from photos shot in Bangladesh (April 22 - May 2), Thailand (May 2-15), and Mexico (June 29 - July 7) in 1995. The first segment highlights the daily life of a husband, aged 20, and his wife, Moni, aged 14. Moni married at age 13, before the onset of menstruation, and now serves and feeds her husband's large extended family. The Family Planning Association of Bangladesh (FPAB), the local implementing agent of the Sustainable Community-based Family Planning/Maternal and Child Health (FP/MCH) Project with Special Focus on Women, which is supported by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and executed by JOICFP, introduced Moni to the concept of reproductive health and encouraged her to join other women in activities designed to improve their health and raise their economic status. The second segment depicts the life of a former commercial sex worker who is undergoing occupational skill development training promoted by the Population and Community Development Association. The girl is now a leader of teenagers in her village; she works to change attitudes that sent her to work as a prostitute with an estimated 150,000 other poor rural teenage women. The third segment focuses on teen pregnancy and the efforts of the Mexican Foundation for Family Planning (MEXFAM) in the areas of health care and education for adolescents.

  5. Drawing road networks with focus regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haunert, Jan-Henrik; Sering, Leon

    2011-12-01

    Mobile users of maps typically need detailed information about their surroundings plus some context information about remote places. In order to avoid that the map partly gets too dense, cartographers have designed mapping functions that enlarge a user-defined focus region--such functions are sometimes called fish-eye projections. The extra map space occupied by the enlarged focus region is compensated by distorting other parts of the map. We argue that, in a map showing a network of roads relevant to the user, distortion should preferably take place in those areas where the network is sparse. Therefore, we do not apply a predefined mapping function. Instead, we consider the road network as a graph whose edges are the road segments. We compute a new spatial mapping with a graph-based optimization approach, minimizing the square sum of distortions at edges. Our optimization method is based on a convex quadratic program (CQP); CQPs can be solved in polynomial time. Important requirements on the output map are expressed as linear inequalities. In particular, we show how to forbid edge crossings. We have implemented our method in a prototype tool. For instances of different sizes, our method generated output maps that were far less distorted than those generated with a predefined fish-eye projection. Future work is needed to automate the selection of roads relevant to the user. Furthermore, we aim at fast heuristics for application in real-time systems. © 2011 IEEE

  6. An ultra miniature pinch-focus discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, L.; Pavez, C.; Moreno, J.; Pavez, C.; Barbaglia, M.; Clausse, A.

    2004-01-01

    As a way to investigate the minimum energy to produce a pinch plasma focus discharge, an ultra miniature device has been designed and constructed (nano focus NF: 5 nF, 5-10 kV, 5-10 kA, 60-250 mJ, 16 ns time to peak current). Sub-millimetric anode radius covered by a coaxial insulator were used for experiments in hydrogen. Evidence of pinch was observed in electrical signals in discharges operating at 60 mJ. A single-frame image converter camera (4 ns exposure) was used to obtain plasma images in the visible range. The dynamics observed from the photographs is consistent with: a) formation of a plasma sheath close to the insulator surface, b) fast axial motion of the plasma sheath, c) radial compression over the anode, and d) finally the plasma is detached from the anode in the axial direction. The total time since stage a) to d) was observed to be about 30 ns. X ray and neutron emission is being studied. Neutron yield of the order of 10 3 neutrons per shot is expected for discharges operating in deuterium at 10 kA. (authors)

  7. Focused Wind Mass Accretion in Mira AB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karovska, Margarita; de Val-Borro, M.; Hack, W.; Raymond, J.; Sasselov, D.; Lee, N. P.

    2011-05-01

    At a distance of about only 100pc, Mira AB is the nearest symbiotic system containing an Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) star (Mira A), and a compact accreting companion (Mira B) at about 0.5" from Mira A. Symbiotic systems are interacting binaries with a key evolutionary importance as potential progenitors of a fraction of asymmetric Planetary Nebulae, and SN type Ia, cosmological distance indicators. The region of interaction has been studied using high-angular resolution, multiwavelength observations ranging from radio to X-ray wavelengths. Our results, including high-angular resolution Chandra imaging, show a "bridge" between Mira A and Mira B, indicating gravitational focusing of the Mira A wind, whereby components exchange matter directly in addition to the wind accretion. We carried out a study using 2-D hydrodynamical models of focused wind mass accretion to determine the region of wind acceleration and the characteristics of the accretion in Mira AB. We highlight some of our results and discuss the impact on our understanding of accretion processes in symbiotic systems and other detached and semidetached interacting systems.

  8. Focusing an antimatter beam with matter

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    An experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center has recently focused positron beams by means of a plasma lens. This is the first time this process has been observed. The process started with a positron beam from the SLAC PEP-II positron source. This was sent through a damping ring and then accelerated to 28.5 GeV in the SLAC linac with a bunch intensity of 1-2*10/sup 10/. The beam was delivered to the Final Focus Test Beam Facility (FFTB) at a rate of 1 or 10 Hz. At the focal point of the FFTB transport, a special plasma chamber contains a 3 mm diameter pulsed gas nozzle through which either hydrogen or nitrogen gas is "puffed" into the ultrahigh vacuum system at plenum gas pressures up to 75 atm with a discharge time of 800 mu s. The gas is pumped off by a Roots-type pump. On either side of the central chamber are differential pumping sections semi- isolated from each other by thin titanium windows with small (2-5 mm diameter) apertures for the positron beams to pass through. These sections are evacu...

  9. Targeted therapy using nanotechnology: focus on cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Vanna; Pala, Nicolino; Sechi, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in nanotechnology and biotechnology have contributed to the development of engineered nanoscale materials as innovative prototypes to be used for biomedical applications and optimized therapy. Due to their unique features, including a large surface area, structural properties, and a long circulation time in blood compared with small molecules, a plethora of nanomaterials has been developed, with the potential to revolutionize the diagnosis and treatment of several diseases, in particular by improving the sensitivity and recognition ability of imaging contrast agents and by selectively directing bioactive agents to biological targets. Focusing on cancer, promising nanoprototypes have been designed to overcome the lack of specificity of conventional chemotherapeutic agents, as well as for early detection of precancerous and malignant lesions. However, several obstacles, including difficulty in achieving the optimal combination of physicochemical parameters for tumor targeting, evading particle clearance mechanisms, and controlling drug release, prevent the translation of nanomedicines into therapy. In spite of this, recent efforts have been focused on developing functionalized nanoparticles for delivery of therapeutic agents to specific molecular targets overexpressed on different cancer cells. In particular, the combination of targeted and controlled-release polymer nanotechnologies has resulted in a new programmable nanotherapeutic formulation of docetaxel, namely BIND-014, which recently entered Phase II clinical testing for patients with solid tumors. BIND-014 has been developed to overcome the limitations facing delivery of nanoparticles to many neoplasms, and represents a validated example of targeted nanosystems with the optimal biophysicochemical properties needed for successful tumor eradication.

  10. Art exhibit focuses on African astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-07-01

    Connections between Africans and astronomy are the focus of a new exhibition in the National Museum of African Art in Washington, D. C. "African Cosmos: Stellar Arts," which includes artwork, cultural items, and scientific displays from ancient to contemporary times, is the first major exhibit "that brings together arts and science focused on Africa's contribution to keen observations of the heavens over time," curator Christine Mullen Kreamer said at a 20 June news briefing. Among the exhibit's nearly 100 objects are an ancient Egyptian mummy board that includes a representation of the sky goddess Nut, sculptures by the Dogon people of Mali depicting figures in relation to the cosmos, a video that uses data from two square degrees of the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Evolution Survey, and a nearly floor-to-ceiling "Rainbow Serpent" constructed of plastic containers by Benin artist Hazoume. An untitled acrylic painting (Figure 1) by South African Gavin Jantjes evokes a myth of the Khoi San people of southern Africa, as it portrays a girl throwing evening fire embers into the night sky, where they remained as the Milky Way.

  11. Promising Practices in Citywide Afterschool Initiatives. CityWorks: Focus on Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Georgia

    This brief is the first in a series featuring promising practices in city-wide after-school initiatives, with a focus at the infrastructure level, focusing on the infrastructure representing the underlying elements or framework that hold a system or initiative together. The brief identifies practices to support the public relations function and…

  12. Emotional intelligence and job performance: The role of enactment and focus on others’ emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pekaar, K.A. (Keri A.); D. van der Linden (Dimitri); A.B. Bakker (Arnold); M.Ph. Born (Marise)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe link between emotional intelligence (EI) and job performance was examined focusing on the interplay between self- and other-focused EI dimensions. Two diary studies were conducted among divorce lawyers and salespersons. We adopted a two-level perspective including individual

  13. The Grammar of History: Enhancing Content-Based Instruction through a Functional Focus on Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleppegrell, Mary J.; Achugar, Mariana; Oteiza, Teresa

    2004-01-01

    In K-12 contexts, the teaching of English language learners (ELLs) has been greatly influenced by the theory and practice of content-based instruction (CBI). A focus on content can help students achieve grade-level standards in school subjects while they develop English proficiency, but CBI practices have focused primarily on vocabulary and the…

  14. Buyer-focused operations as a supply chain strategy : Identifying the influence of business characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vaart, T; van Donk, DP

    2006-01-01

    Purpose - Buyer-focused operations aim at a high level of supply chain alignment by singling out resources for one buyer in order to serve this buyer optimally. The purpose of this paper is to identify what business characteristics make suppliers choose buyer-focused operations as a supply chain

  15. Hotspots in trauma memories and their relationship to successful trauma-focused psychotherapy: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijdam, Mirjam J.; Baas, Melanie A. M.; Olff, Miranda; Gersons, Berthold P. R.

    2013-01-01

    Imaginal exposure is an essential element of trauma-focused psychotherapies for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Exposure should in particular focus on the "hotspots," the parts of trauma memories that cause high levels of emotional distress which are often reexperienced. Our aim was to

  16. Optical fiber plasmonic lens for near-field focusing fabricated through focused ion beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloyan, Karen; Melkonyan, Henrik; Moreira, Paulo; Dahlem, Marcus S.

    2017-02-01

    We report on numerical simulations and fabrication of an optical fiber plasmonic lens for near-field focusing applications. The plasmonic lens consists of an Archimedean spiral structure etched through a 100 nm-thick Au layer on the tip of a single-mode SM600 optical fiber operating at a wavelength of 632:8 nm. Three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain computations show that the relative electric field intensity of the focused spot increases 2:1 times when the number of turns increases from 2 to 12. Furthermore, a reduction of the intensity is observed when the initial inner radius is increased. The optimized plasmonic lens focuses light into a spot with a full-width at half-maximum of 182 nm, beyond the diffraction limit. The lens was fabricated by focused ion beam milling, with a 200nm slit width.

  17. Radiosynoviorthesis in the treatment of chronic synoviorthesis. Multidisciplinary focuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin Zorrilla, Jose

    2006-01-01

    Those near 50 years of application of the radiosinovectomy like effective alternative in the treatment of the chronic synovitis of different origin, indicate the convenience and in cause the necessity to integrate focuses, knowledge and technologies in order to reach satisfactory results. In the marks of a brunch project of the Agency of Nuclear Energy and Technologies of Advanced the efforts of several institutions are joined with the purpose of introducing in Cuba this useful one and in certain cases obligatory therapeutic modality. The work talks about the problem, the boarding multidisciplinary, the global focuses, the advances and the challenges are indicated that has this modality of the metabolic radiotherapy. In the experience of the development of radiopharmaceutical for radiosinovectomy, is considered that it is not possible to reach the level of excellence that the treatment with open sources requires without the active participation of specialists of different profiles as vectors of the integration of institutions that give their experience and the focus of their institution (Author)

  18. Radioactive Tank Waste Remediation Focus Area. Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    In February 1991, DOE's Office of Technology Development created the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID), to develop technologies for tank remediation. Tank remediation across the DOE Complex has been driven by Federal Facility Compliance Agreements with individual sites. In 1994, the DOE Office of Environmental Management created the High Level Waste Tank Remediation Focus Area (TFA; of which UST-ID is now a part) to better integrate and coordinate tank waste remediation technology development efforts. The mission of both organizations is the same: to focus the development, testing, and evaluation of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat, concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in USTs at DOE facilities. The ultimate goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to both the public and regulators. The TFA has focused on four DOE locations: the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) near Idaho Falls, Idaho, the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina

  19. RF phase focusing in portable x-band, linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.H.; Deruyter, H.; Fowkes, W.R.; Potter, J.M.; Schonberg, R.G.; Weaver, J.N.

    1985-01-01

    In order to minimize the size and weight of the x-ray or neutron source for a series of portable radiographic linear accelerators, the x-ray head was packaged separately from the rest of the system and consists of only the linac accelerating structure, electron gun, built-in target, collimator, ion pump and an RF window. All the driving electronics and cooling are connected to the x-ray head through flexible waveguide, cables, and waterlines. The x-ray head has been kept small and light weight by using the RF fields for radial focusing, as well as for longitudinal bunching and accelerating the beam. Thus, no external, bulky magnetic focusing devices are required. The RF focusing is accomplished by alternating the sign of the phase difference between the RF and the beam and by tapering from cavity to cavity the magnitude of the buncher field levels. The former requires choosing the right phase velocity taper (mix of less than vp = c cavities) and the latter requires the right sizing of the cavity to cavity coupling smiles (irises)

  20. RF phase focusing in portable X-band, linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.H.; Deruyter, H.; Fowkes, W.R.; Potter, J.W.; Schonberg, R.G.; Weaver, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    In order to minimize the size and weight of the x-ray or neutron source for a series of portable radiographic linear accelerators, the x-ray head was packaged separately from the rest of the system and consists of only the linac accelerating structure, electron gun, built-in target, collimator, ion pump and an RF window. All the driving electronics and cooling are connected to the x-ray head through flexible waveguide, cables, and waterlines. The x-ray head has been kept small and light weight by using the RF fields for radial focusing, as well as for longitudinal bunching and accelerating the beam. Thus, no external, bulky magnetic focusing devices are required. The RF focusing is accomplished by alternating the sign of the phase difference between the RF and the beam and by tapering from cavity to cavity the magnitude of the buncher field levels. The former requires choosing the right phase velocity taper (mix of less than vp=c cavities) and the latter requires the right sizing of the cavity to cavity coupling smiles (irises)

  1. Parametric studies in a small plasma focus device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuaqui, H.; Favre, M.; Silva, P.; Wyndham, E.

    1996-01-01

    Very high temperature and density plasmas can be produced in modest size plasma focus devices at the kJ level. Much of the scaling parameters on the plasma focus have been evaluated, though many questions still remain. The modest cost and simple construction allows easy modification to the device and the discharge parameters. In this paper the authors report on a small plasma focus device, which is set-up to investigate the effect of some of those modifications on the plasma, with detailed experimental diagnostics. Experiments have been carried out in various gases and with mixtures of different ratios. Extended operating range from below 0.5 torr upwards has been achieved with the implementation of the auxiliary discharge circuit. Despite the low voltage and low energy operation, energetic beam formation has been observed at the time of the final compression, prior to disruption. Current sheath formation and evolution has been characterized using the magnetic probes array, in correlation with beam formation and plasma emission. The relationship of the current sheath structure and that of the pinched plasma, as shown by the filtered X-ray pinhole camera, has been investigated

  2. Focus, locus, and sensus: the three dimensions of virtual experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterworth, E L; Waterworth, J A

    2001-04-01

    A model of virtual/physical experience is presented, which provides a three dimensional conceptual space for virtual and augmented reality (VR and AR) comprising the dimensions of focus, locus, and sensus. Focus is most closely related to what is generally termed presence in the VR literature. When in a virtual environment, presence is typically shared between the VR and the physical world. "Breaks in presence" are actually shifts of presence away from the VR and toward the external environment. But we can also have "breaks in presence" when attention moves toward absence--when an observer is not attending to stimuli present in the virtual environment, nor to stimuli present in the surrounding physical environment--when the observer is present in neither the virtual nor the physical world. We thus have two dimensions of presence: focus of attention (between presence and absence) and the locus of attention (the virtual vs. the physical world). A third dimension is the sensus of attention--the level of arousal determining whether the observer is highly conscious or relatively unconscious while interacting with the environment. After expanding on each of these three dimensions of experience in relation to VR, we present a couple of educational examples as illustrations, and also relate our model to a suggested spectrum of evaluation methods for virtual environments.

  3. Robotics Focused Capstone Senior Design Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios-Gutierrez, Fernando; Alba-Flores, Rocio

    2017-01-01

    This work describes the educational experiences gained teaching the Senior Design I & II courses, a senior level, two-semester sequence in the Electrical Engineering (EE) program at Georgia Southern University (GSU). In particular, the authors present their experiences in using robotics as the main area to develop the capstone senior design,…

  4. System safety education focused on flight safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, E.

    1971-01-01

    The measures necessary for achieving higher levels of system safety are analyzed with an eye toward maintaining the combat capability of the Air Force. Several education courses were provided for personnel involved in safety management. Data include: (1) Flight Safety Officer Course, (2) Advanced Safety Program Management, (3) Fundamentals of System Safety, and (4) Quantitative Methods of Safety Analysis.

  5. Adaptive Visualization for Focused Personalized Information Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jae-wook

    2010-01-01

    The new trend on the Web has totally changed today's information access environment. The traditional information overload problem has evolved into the qualitative level beyond the quantitative growth. The mode of producing and consuming information is changing and we need a new paradigm for accessing information. Personalized search is one of…

  6. Stretchable Binary Fresnel Lens for Focus Tuning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Wei, L.; Poelma, R.H.; Vollebregt, S.; Wei, J.; Urbach, Paul; Sarro, P.M.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a tuneable binary amplitude Fresnel lens produced by wafer-level microfabrication. The Fresnel lens is fabricated by encapsulating lithographically defined vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) bundles inside a polydimethyl-siloxane (PDMS) layer. The composite lens material

  7. Focus on Balance, Not Black Swans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rodnie; Peterson, Josh

    2012-01-01

    The speed and access of information today has increased the scrutiny level facing risk managers in higher education. It is true that a more complex, more connected world has created new risks and new issues for university leadership. However, a lot of the same issues have remained constant for campuses: (1) emergency management; (2) campus safety;…

  8. PREFACE: Focus section on Hadronic Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Craig; Swanson, Eric

    2007-07-01

    Hadronic physics is the study of strongly interacting matter and its underlying theory, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). The field had its beginnings after World War Two, when hadrons were discovered in ever increasing numbers. Today, it encompasses topics like the quark-gluon structure of hadrons at varying scales, the quark-gluon plasma and hadronic matter at extreme temperature and density; it also underpins nuclear physics and has significant impact on particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology. Among the goals of hadronic physics are to determine the parameters of QCD, understand the origin and characteristics of confinement, understand the dynamics and consequences of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking, explore the role of quarks and gluons in nuclei and in matter under extreme conditions and understand the quark and gluon structure of hadrons. In general, the process is one of discerning the relevant degrees of freedom and relating these to the fundamental fields of QCD. The emphasis is on understanding QCD, rather than testing it. The papers gathered in this special focus section of Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics attempt to cover this broad range of subjects. Alkofer and Greensite examine the issue of quark and gluon confinement with the focus on models of the QCD vacuum, lattice gauge theory investigations, and the relationship to the AdS/CFT correspondence postulate. Arrington et al. review nucleon form factors and their role in determining quark orbital momentum, the strangeness content of the nucleon, meson cloud effects, and the transition from nonperturbative to perturbative QCD dynamics. The physics associated with hadronic matter at high temperature and density and at low Bjorken-x at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), the SPS at CERN, and at the future LHC is summarized by d'Enterria. The article of Lee and Smith examines experiment and theory associated with electromagnetic meson production from nucleons and

  9. Focus: Global histories of science. Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasundaram, Sujit

    2010-03-01

    An interest in global histories of science is not new. Yet the project envisioned by this Focus section is different from that pursued by natural historians and natural philosophers in the early modern age. Instead of tracing universal patterns, there is value in attending to the connections and disconnections of science on the global stage. Instead of assuming the precision of science's boundaries, historians might consider the categories of "science" and "indigenous knowledge" to have emerged from globalization. New global histories of science will be characterized by critical reflection on the limits of generalization, as well as a creative adoption of new sources, methods, and chronologies, in an attempt to decenter the European history of science. Such a project holds the promise of opening up new conversations between historians, anthropologists, philosophers, and sociologists of science. It is of critical importance if the discipline is not to fragment into regional and national subfields or become dominated by structural frameworks such as imperialism.

  10. Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In support of its vision for technological excellence, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA) has identified three strategic goals. The three goals of the SCFA are: Contain and/or stabilize contamination sources that pose an imminent threat to surface and ground waters; Delineate DNAPL contamination in the subsurface and remediate DNAPL-contaminated soils and ground water; and Remove a full range of metal and radionuclide contamination in soils and ground water. To meet the challenges of remediating subsurface contaminants in soils and ground water, SCFA funded more than 40 technologies in fiscal year 1997. These technologies are grouped according to the following product lines: Dense Nonaqueous-Phase Liquids; Metals and Radionuclides; Source Term Containment; and Source Term Remediation. This report briefly describes the SCFA 1997 technologies and showcases a few key technologies in each product line

  11. The heating of plasma focus electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeli, E; Frignani, M; Mannucci, S; Rocchi, F; Sumini, M; Tartari, A

    2006-01-01

    Plasma focus (PF) technology development today is strictly related to the possibility of a high frequency repetitive working regime. One of the more relevant obstacles to this goal is the heating of structural components due to direct interaction with plasma. In this paper, temperature decay measurements of the inner electrode of a 7 kJ Mather type PF are presented. Data from several series of shots at different bank energies are analysed and compared with theoretical and numerical models. Two possible scale laws are derived from the experimental data to correlate thermal deposition with bank energy. It is found that a fraction of about 10% of total energy is released to the inner electrode. Finally, after some considerations about the cooling and heating mechanisms, an analysis on maximum temperature sustained by materials is presented

  12. Current scaling of plasma focus devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiuma, C.; Herold, H.; Kaeppeler, H.J.; Shakhatre, M.; Auluck, S.K.H.

    1990-03-01

    In continuation of the work by G. Decker et al. on current and neutron yield scaling of plasma focus devices an analytical solution for the circuit equation (with resistance R = 0) in the compression phase was derived. Together with the solution for the rundown phase from G. Decker et al, which was extended for finite resistance (R ≠ 0), there follows an analytical scaling theory for maximum and pinch currents. At the same time there exists the possibility to discuss the influence of finite resistance on current variation and scaling parameters. The model solutions were checked out by numerical integrations of the current equation. While at the beginning of the rundown phase the ohmic resistance cannot be neglected (the magnitude R/L plays an important role), its influence at the end of the rundown phase and in the compression phase is negligible. The theoretically determined values are compared with the results of numerous probe measurements. (orig.)

  13. Norwegian focus on new energy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bull-Hansen, Eivind

    2001-01-01

    Norsk Hydro Technology Ventures, a venture capital fund recently set up by Norsk Hydro, will raise equity capital to companies that are developing promising new projects on new energy technology or to investment funds promoting such projects. Norsk Hydro will withdraw from the investments when the projects have reached commercialization or are listed on the stock exchange. There is a well-developed market for venture capital in the energy sector and a strong international competition for investments in good projects. The sharp environmental focus on fossil fuels and climate gases has boosted the research on new energy technologies. Another and more important factor is the fact that modern society with its heavy dependence on the computer is vulnerable to power failure

  14. Ion acceleration in the plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, R.

    1982-09-01

    Experimental informations are used to estimate the time dependence of the current density in the plasma focus and the electromagnetic field is determined from the Maxwell equations. The acceleration of the ions in these fields is studied. A detailed analysis of the acceleration in the compression phase, in the expansion phase and during the evolution of the m=O instability is made. It is shown, that the appearance of fast selffocused quasineutral electron beams, as a result of the betatron acceleration, has a decisive importance in the ion acceleration during the m=O constriction. Models for electromagnetic ion acceleration are described for each phase. A concordance with many experimental results can be observed. (orig.)

  15. The IAEA Focuses on Global Nutritional Needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Yukiya

    2014-01-01

    For over fifty years, the IAEA has been helping its Member States to harness peaceful nuclear science and technology to bring demonstrable benefits to their people. Nutrition is one area in which the IAEA’s partnership with Member States has steadily deepened. This issue of the IAEA Bulletin focuses on the IAEA’s work in nutrition. Topics include our initiatives to measure human milk intake in breastfed infants, lean body mass (muscle mass) in lactating mothers, and the bioavailability of iron in infants and young children. We also look at the paradox of the simultaneous occurrence of both undernutrition and overnutrition that is often found within communities, and even households, across the globe. The IAEA is committed to doing everything it can to make peaceful nuclear technology available to help give all the children of the world a brighter future

  16. Focus on energy conservation: a project list

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    The Urban Land Institute (ULI) has prepared the following list of outstanding energy conserving projects for the US Department of Energy. As requested by the Department, the list includes descriptions of land developments and individual buildings suggested by members of ULI and by other sources. The projects have been selected to exemplify the major energy saving techniques in use today, with emphasis on those strategies most significant for people engaged in the business of land development. To make the list a useful reference for developers and public officials, ULI has attempted to cover energy conservation in the broadest sense from overall site planning to the functioning of individual building components. Focusing too closely on the myriad types of hardware available has been avoided and examples of the basic considerations important to energy-conscious planning and design are provided. Details on some heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems are provided in order to acquaint readers with major innovations in the field.

  17. Deterministic dynamics of plasma focus discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratton, J.; Alabraba, M.A.; Warmate, A.G.; Giudice, G.

    1992-04-01

    The performance (neutron yield, X-ray production, etc.) of plasma focus discharges fluctuates strongly in series performed with fixed experimental conditions. Previous work suggests that these fluctuations are due to a deterministic ''internal'' dynamics involving degrees of freedom not controlled by the operator, possibly related to adsorption and desorption of impurities from the electrodes. According to these dynamics the yield of a discharge depends on the outcome of the previous ones. We study 8 series of discharges in three different facilities, with various electrode materials and operating conditions. More evidence of a deterministic internal dynamics is found. The fluctuation pattern depends on the electrode materials and other characteristics of the experiment. A heuristic mathematical model that describes adsorption and desorption of impurities from the electrodes and their consequences on the yield is presented. The model predicts steady yield or periodic and chaotic fluctuations, depending on parameters related to the experimental conditions. (author). 27 refs, 7 figs, 4 tabs

  18. The IAEA Focuses On Global Nutritional Needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Yukiya

    2014-01-01

    For over fifty years, the IAEA has been helping its Member States to harness peaceful nuclear science and technology to bring demonstrable benefits to their people. Nutrition is one area in which the IAEA’s partnership with Member States has steadily deepened. This issue of the IAEA Bulletin focuses on the IAEA’s work in nutrition. Topics include our initiatives to measure human milk intake in breastfed infants, lean body mass (muscle mass) in lactating mothers, and the bioavailability of iron in infants and young children. We also look at the paradox of the simultaneous occurrence of both undernutrition and overnutrition that is often found within communities, and even households, across the globe. The IAEA is committed to doing everything it can to make peaceful nuclear technology available to help give all the children of the world a brighter future

  19. Focus on uranium research in Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanoute, M.

    2014-01-01

    Two periods stand out in the history of mining exploration for uranium in Senegal: • 1957 - 1965 in the context of a general inventory of the uranium potential of Africa, which is also the time that the large deposits of Niger and Gabon were discovered; • 1973 to the present, is characterized by surveys more focused on specific topics such as Birrimian Superior Precambrian Sedimentary, Secondary and Tertiary Phosphates. The collapse of uranium price that began since 1980 calls into question the validity of these surveys on areas away from the coast that lack infrastructure and forces the elimination of targets where there is little hope of finding high enough concentrations of uranium for possible mining.

  20. Bursting of filaments in the plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratton, F.T.L.

    1976-01-01

    Photographs of the current sheath of (low energy) plasma focus show a disruption of the filaments. This phenomenon is interpreted as a vortex breakdown. Physical parameters which support this hypothesis are obtained from measurements, from the theoretical thickness of the current sheath given by Nardi and from some models of the plasma flow. The widening of a vortex due to axial velocity increase is analyzed by means of magnetohydrodynamic collinear models. The main results are: (1) the existence of a limit separating supercritical from subcritical regimes (their character changes with the ratio between kinetic and magnetic energy); (2) the existence of flow regimes where the vortex radius remains approximately constant for moderate increments of the external velocity; (3) the structure of the vortex may change substantially for a sufficiently large increment of the external velocity, even in subcritical states; (4) the possibility that a burst of the vortex may occur when the external velocity suffers a slowdown

  1. Electron beam production by a plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.R.; Luo, C.M.; Schneider, R.F.; Rhee, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Operation of a plasma focus as a Compact Pulsed Accelerator (CPA) for ions has been previously reported. The CPA consists of: (1) a 15 μF, 3 kJ capacitor, (2) a triggered spark gap, (3) a coaxial transmission line, and (4) a Mather geometry plasma gun. Recently the authors have investigated application of the CPA as an accelerator for electrons. In the previously reported work using the standard Mather plasma gun geometry, ions were accelerated away from the plasma gun and were therefore conveniently extracted for analysis, but electrons were directed into the hollow anode where extraction is blocked by the coaxial transmission line. For investigation of accelerated electrons a new plasma gun design which allows extraction of electrons has been developed. Details of the new plasma gun design and further results of beam diagnostics are discussed

  2. Focusing mechanisms in the Pulselac CU accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.J.; Lockner, T.R.

    1986-06-01

    The post-acceleration of a 400 keV, 10 kA proton beam by a 200 kV magnetically insulated gap is investigated. The deflection from self and applied E and B fields are measured and compared to calculated values. We find that the beam is inadequately space-charge neutralized without gas puffs in regions of applied-B field to allow efficient transport. The beam is also non-current neutralized in these regions leading to self-magnetic deflection. The applied-B field is used to focus the beam both directly as a solenoidal lens and indirectly by defining the equipotential surfaces in the accelerating gap. It is also pointed out how azimuthal asymmetries in the beam current density and cathode plasma cause beam self-field asymmetries that lead to emittance growth. 4 refs., 4 figs

  3. Review of reasearch and technical development focused

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavkovský Marián

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of flotation tetrahedrite concentrates produced from the of ore mined in the Rudňany and Rožňava ore deposits is a very complex technological problem. This problem has not been solved succesfuly so far. The presence and quality of undesired metal components such as antimony and mercury in the product of a wet ore dressing is a limiting factor for subsequent metalurgical process to obtain pure metal copper and/or silver in copper smelter plants. This factor has been the principal reason of a great effort provided in this respects by both, manufacturers and reaserchers mainly in the last 25 years. This article is focused on the summary of mentioned activities.

  4. Focus and domain of sustainability values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten; Madsen, Ena Alvarado; Lauring, Jakob

    The increasing trend of globalization and environmental challenges make the understanding of sustainability issues in international business a growing challenge throughout the world. This study illustrates the challenge of an organization as it becomes larger and more diverse to keep the core val...... and trigger new ways of thinking and to facilitate corporate culture change through coordination and configuration of the system of values and beliefs regarding sustainability among employees in the company....... values alive. We focused a multinational with more than 30 years experience with sustainability. It is one of the worlds' top manufacturers of renewable energy equipment. We found an extreme diversity in understanding sustainability. This exploratory study is based on a very broad sample within one...

  5. Consumer focus can spur group practice turnaround.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, M S; Draper, A

    2001-06-01

    Many healthcare organizations have lost money on their employed group practices. The solution to this dilemma is not necessarily divestment of the group practices. Instead, some healthcare organizations should view their physicians as an asset. Healthcare organizations and physicians need to develop a new framework for their relationship to optimize their competitive advantage. Three guiding principles that will help accomplish this objective are to recast the healthcare organization-physician relationship to focus on the consumer, reconfigure the economic model to exceed consumer demands, and restructure the group practice to encourage fiscal and service excellence. In developing a new relationship framework, the stakeholders need to define the group practice's mission, strategic direction, composition, infrastructure, compensation model, and structure.

  6. Literature in Focus Perspectives on LHC Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The CERN Library invites you to a book presentation, a Literature in Focus event. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be the world’s largest, highest energy and highest intensity particle accelerator. This is a timely book with several perspectives on the hoped-for discoveries from the LHC. This book provides an overview of the techniques that will be crucial for finding new physics at the LHC, as well as perspectives on the importance and implications of the discoveries. Among the accomplished contributors to this book are leaders and visionaries in the field of particle physics beyond the Standard Model, including two Nobel Laureates (Steven Weinberg and Frank Wilczek). With its blend of popular and technical contents, the book will have wide appeal, not only to physical scientists but also to those in related fields. Perspectives on LHC Physics (World Scientific Publishing) Gordon Kane and Aaron Pierce (eds.) Tuesday 12 August, 4.30pm Council Chamber Refresh...

  7. Focused ion beam technology and ultimate applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierak, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    In this topical review, the potential of the focused ion beam (FIB) technology and ultimate applications are reviewed. After an introduction to the technology and to the operating principles of liquid metal ion sources (LMIS), of ion optics and instrument architectures, several applications are described and discussed. First, the application of FIB for microcircuit inspection, metrology and failure analysis is presented. Then, we introduce and illustrate some advanced patterning schemes we propose as next generation FIB processing examples. These patterning schemes are (i) local defect injection or smoothing in magnetic thin film direct patterning, (ii) functionalization of graphite substrates to guide organization of clusters, (iii) local and selective epitaxy of III–V semiconductor quantum dots and (iv) FIB patterned solid-state nanopores for biological molecules manipulation and analysis. We conclude this work by giving our vision of the future developments for FIB technology. (topical review)

  8. Kinetics of cesium lead halide perovskite nanoparticle growth; focusing and de-focusing of size distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolyk, Miriam; Amgar, Daniel; Aharon, Sigalit; Etgar, Lioz

    2016-03-01

    In this work we study the kinetics of cesium lead halide perovskite nanoparticle (NP) growth; the focusing and de-focusing of the NP size distribution. Cesium lead halide perovskite NPs are considered to be attractive materials for optoelectronic applications. Understanding the kinetics of the formation of these all-inorganic perovskite NPs is critical for reproducibly and reliably generating large amounts of uniformly sized NPs. Here we investigate different growth durations for CsPbI3 and CsPbBr3 NPs, tracking their growth by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and size distribution analysis. As a result, we are able to provide a detailed model for the kinetics of their growth. It was observed that the CsPbI3 NPs exhibit focusing of the size distribution in the first 20 seconds of growth, followed by de-focusing over longer growth durations, while the CsPbBr3 NPs show de-focusing of the size distribution starting from the beginning of the growth. The monomer concentration is depleted faster in the case of CsPbBr3 than in the case of CsPbI3, due to faster diffusion of the monomers, which increases the critical radius and results in de-focusing of the population. Accordingly, focusing is not observed within 40 seconds of growth in the case of CsPbBr3. This study provides important knowledge on how to achieve a narrow size distribution of cesium lead halide perovskite NPs when generating large amounts of these promising, highly luminescent NPs.In this work we study the kinetics of cesium lead halide perovskite nanoparticle (NP) growth; the focusing and de-focusing of the NP size distribution. Cesium lead halide perovskite NPs are considered to be attractive materials for optoelectronic applications. Understanding the kinetics of the formation of these all-inorganic perovskite NPs is critical for reproducibly and reliably generating large amounts of uniformly sized NPs. Here we investigate different growth durations for CsPbI3 and CsPbBr3 NPs, tracking

  9. Tree-level formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandhuber, Andreas; Spence, Bill; Travaglini, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    We review two novel techniques used to calculate tree-level scattering amplitudes efficiently: MHV diagrams, and on-shell recursion relations. For the MHV diagrams, we consider applications to tree-level amplitudes and focus in particular on the N=4 supersymmetric formulation. We also briefly describe the derivation of loop amplitudes using MHV diagrams. For the recursion relations, after presenting their general proof, we discuss several applications to massless theories with and without supersymmetry, to theories with massive particles, and to graviton amplitudes in general relativity. This article is an invited review for a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to 'Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories'. (review)

  10. Macroeconomics correlations focused on foreign direct investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora ALECU

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is meant to reveal the way in which the theory of interconnections between systems and sub-systems partici-pating to the creation of economic value, which have been described by professor Paul Bran in his book Economics of Value is outlined in practice and how its analysis may help us to control the effects of the policies applied at the level of each macroeconomic sub-system.

  11. Medical tourism private hospitals: focus India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotman, Billie Ann

    2010-01-01

    This article examines demand factors for sophisticated medical treatments offered by private hospitals operating in India. Three types of medical tourism exist: Outbound, Inbound, and Intrabound. Increased profitability and positive growth trends by private hospital chains can be attributed to rising domestic income levels within India. Not all of the chains examined were financially solvent. Some of the hospital groups in this sample that advertised directly to potential Inbound medical tourists appear to be experiencing negative cash flows.

  12. Competitive mindsets, creativity, and the role of regulatory focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bittner, Jenny; Heidemeier, Heike

    2013-01-01

    We examined how regulatory focus and intentions to compete rather than cooperate with group members relate to creativity. Study 1 showed that a promotion focus (i.e., a focus on ideals) activated a cooperative mindset, whereas a prevention focus (i.e., a focus on responsibilities) activated a

  13. Foreword: Focus on Superconductivity in Semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiko Takano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of superconductivity in diamond, much attention has been given to the issue of superconductivity in semiconductors. Because diamond has a large band gap of 5.5 eV, it is called a wide-gap semiconductor. Upon heavy boron doping over 3×1020 cm−3, diamond becomes metallic and demonstrates superconductivity at temperatures below 11.4 K. This discovery implies that a semiconductor can become a superconductor upon carrier doping. Recently, superconductivity was also discovered in boron-doped silicon and SiC semiconductors. The number of superconducting semiconductors has increased. In 2008 an Fe-based superconductor was discovered in a research project on carrier doping in a LaCuSeO wide-gap semiconductor. This discovery enhanced research activities in the field of superconductivity, where many scientists place particular importance on superconductivity in semiconductors.This focus issue features a variety of topics on superconductivity in semiconductors selected from the 2nd International Workshop on Superconductivity in Diamond and Related Materials (IWSDRM2008, which was held at the National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS, Tsukuba, Japan in July 2008. The 1st workshop was held in 2005 and was published as a special issue in Science and Technology of Advanced Materials (STAM in 2006 (Takano 2006 Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 7 S1.The selection of papers describe many important experimental and theoretical studies on superconductivity in semiconductors. Topics on boron-doped diamond include isotope effects (Ekimov et al and the detailed structure of boron sites, and the relation between superconductivity and disorder induced by boron doping. Regarding other semiconductors, the superconducting properties of silicon and SiC (Kriener et al, Muranaka et al and Yanase et al are discussed, and In2O3 (Makise et al is presented as a new superconducting semiconductor. Iron-based superconductors are presented as a new series of high

  14. CATE 2016 Indonesia: Optics and Focus Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, M. A.; Jenson, L.; Kovac, S. A.; Bosh, R.; Mitchell, A. M.; Hare, H. S.; Watson, Z.; Penn, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    The 2017 solar eclipse will be a natural phenomenon that will sweep across the United State would provide an excellent opportunity to observe and study the solar corona. The Citizens Continental Astronomical Telescopic Eclipse (CATE) Experiment directed my Matt Penn, intends to take advantage of this scientific opportunity by organizing 60 sites along the path of totality from Oregon to South Carolina to observe the eclipse and make a 90 min continuous video of the solar corona. The preliminary observation was done with the 2016 eclipse in Indonesia, with 5 sites along the path of totality. The sites were provided with an 80mm diameter Telescope with a 480mm focal length with an extension tube, Celestron equatorial mount, a CMOS camera, a Dell dual processor running Windows, GPS and an Arduino box, more details will be provided. I observed at the furthest east site in Ternate, Indonesia, with Dr. Donald Walter. The day of the eclipse we had clouds but still had a successful observation. The observation was successful with 4 out of the 5 sites collected eclipse data, due to weather the other site was not able to observe. The data was then collected and processed over the summer. To prepare for the observation in 2017, the 60 sites will be provided with the equipment, software and training. The groups will then practice by doing solar and lunar observations, where they will follow an almost identical procedure for the eclipse to do their observations. These test will increase our chances to have a successful observation among all sites. The focus will play a crucial role in this observation to provide a high quality image. Currently, a new focusing method using an image derivative method to provide quantitative feedback to the user is being developed. Finally, a Graphical User Interface is also being developed using the codes produces from the summer 2016 data analysis, to process the images from each site with minimal effort and produce quality scientific images

  15. Anode plasma and focusing reb diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, S.A.; Swain, D.W.; Hadley, G.R.; Mix, L.P.

    1975-01-01

    The use of electrical, optical, x-ray, and particle diagnostics to characterize the production of anode plasma and to monitor its influence on beam generation and focusing is reviewed. Studies using the Nereus accelerator show that after cathode turn-on, deposition of several kJ/gm on the anode is necessary before ions from hydrocarbons, adsorbed gases, and heavier metallic species are detected. The actual time at which ions are liberated depends on several factors, one of which is the specific heat of the anode substrate. Once formed, anode ions cross the A-K gap (with an energy equal to the diode voltage) and interact with the cathode to produce an axially peaked beam profile, a ''pinch'' which does not follow the critical current criterion. Experiments with externally generated anode plasma show that this type of pinch can be attracted to localized areas on the anode. Preliminary observations on Hydra indicate the anode plasma composition is similar to that on Nereus. The effect of this plasma on pinch dynamics currently is under investigation

  16. Kinetic Simulations of Dense Plasma Focus Breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, A.; Higginson, D. P.; Jiang, S.; Link, A.; Povilus, A.; Sears, J.; Bennett, N.; Rose, D. V.; Welch, D. R.

    2015-11-01

    A dense plasma focus (DPF) device is a type of plasma gun that drives current through a set of coaxial electrodes to assemble gas inside the device and then implode that gas on axis to form a Z-pinch. This implosion drives hydrodynamic and kinetic instabilities that generate strong electric fields, which produces a short intense pulse of x-rays, high-energy (>100 keV) electrons and ions, and (in deuterium gas) neutrons. A strong factor in pinch performance is the initial breakdown and ionization of the gas along the insulator surface separating the two electrodes. The smoothness and isotropy of this ionized sheath are imprinted on the current sheath that travels along the electrodes, thus making it an important portion of the DPF to both understand and optimize. Here we use kinetic simulations in the Particle-in-cell code LSP to model the breakdown. Simulations are initiated with neutral gas and the breakdown modeled self-consistently as driven by a charged capacitor system. We also investigate novel geometries for the insulator and electrodes to attempt to control the electric field profile. The initial ionization fraction of gas is explored computationally to gauge possible advantages of pre-ionization which could be created experimentally via lasers or a glow-discharge. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  17. KEY FACTORS IN MARKETING FOCUSED SERVICES BUSINESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Yohanna Martínez Castrillón

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to identify the key success factors in the marketing area and describe them as managerial allies for companies that wish to position themselves in the market under a good sustainable performance , for it has been consulted theoretical references of Marketing as a management partner with collection and integration of data. Methodologically, it is located within the type of descriptive research field, with a design of transactional non-experimental, with an intentional non-probabilistic stratified sample of four reporting units. The findings established fifteen (15 points of influence called "key success factors (FCE in the area of marketing, and managerial allies of service companies in the security, surveillance and protection sector in industrial, commercial and residential sectors. Finally, it is intended that the actions of marketing service companies should focus to the welfare of both the organization, such as users, both in the environment, and economic, social and technological, characterized by ethics, sustainable development and transparency to respond appropriately.

  18. A process for risk-focused maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lofgren, E.V.; Cooper, S.E.; Kurth, R.E.; Phillips, L.B.

    1991-03-01

    This report presents a process for focusing maintenance resources on components that enable nuclear plant systems to perform their essential functions and on components whose failure may initiate challenges to safety systems, so as to have the greatest impact in decreasing risk. The process provides criteria, based on risk, for deciding which components are critical to risk and determining what maintenance activities are required to ensure reliable operation of those risk-critical components. Two approaches are provided for selection of risk-critical components. One approach uses the results of a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA); the other is based on the methodology developed for this report, which has a basis in PRA although it does not use the results of a PRA study. Following identification of risk-critical components, both approaches use a single methodology for determining what maintenance activities are required to ensure reliable operation of the identified components. The report also provides demonstrations of application of the two approaches to selection of risk-critical components and demonstrations of application of the methodology for determining what maintenance activities are required to an active standby safety system, a normally operating system, and passive components. 5 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  19. A flexible cell concentrator using inertial focusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Chunglong; Zhou, Jian; Liang, Yitao; Huang, Bobo; Fang, Yifeng; Liang, Xiao; Ye, Xuesong

    2017-09-11

    Cell concentration adjustment is intensively implemented routinely both in research and clinical laboratories. Centrifuge is the most prevalent technique for tuning biosample concentration. But it suffers from a number of drawbacks, such as requirement of experienced operator, high cost, low resolution, variable reproducibility and induced damage to sample. Herein we report on a cost-efficient alternative using inertial microfluidics. While the majority of existing literatures concentrate on inertial focusing itself, we identify the substantial role of the outlet system played in the device performance that has long been underestimated. The resistances of the outlets virtually involve in defining the cutoff size of a given inertial filtration channel. Following the comprehensive exploration of the influence of outlet system, we designed an inertial device with selectable outlets. Using both commercial microparticles and cultured Hep G2 cells, we have successfully demonstrated the automated concentration modification and observed several key advantages of our device as compared with conventional centrifuge, such as significantly reduced cell loss (only 4.2% vs. ~40% of centrifuge), better preservation of cell viability and less processing time as well as the increased reproducibility due to absence of manual operation. Furthermore, our device shows high effectiveness for concentrated sample (e.g., 1.8 × 10 6 cells/ml) as well. We envision its promising applications in the circumstance where repetitive sample preparation is intensely employed.

  20. Bioprospecting Archaea: Focus on Extreme Halophiles

    KAUST Repository

    Antunes, André

    2016-12-12

    In 1990, Woese et al. divided the Tree of Life into three separate domains: Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea. Archaea were originally perceived as little more than “odd bacteria” restricted to extreme environmental niches, but later discoveries challenged this assumption. Members of this domain populate a variety of unexpected environments (e.g. soils, seawater, and human bodies), and we currently witness ongoing massive expansions of the archaeal branch of the Tree of Life. Archaea are now recognized as major players in the biosphere and constitute a significant fraction of the earth’s biomass, yet they remain underexplored. An ongoing surge in exploration efforts is leading to an increase in the (a) number of isolated strains, (b) associated knowledge, and (c) utilization of Archaea in biotechnology. They are increasingly employed in fields as diverse as biocatalysis, biocomputing, bioplastic production, bioremediation, bioengineering, food, pharmaceuticals, and nutraceuticals. This chapter provides a general overview on bioprospecting Archaea, with a particular focus on extreme halophiles. We explore aspects such as diversity, ecology, screening techniques and biotechnology. Current and future trends in mining for applications are discussed.