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Sample records for levels diagnostic analysis

  1. Computized analysis of diagnostic level in breast diseases and frequency of their clinicoroentgenological symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babij, Ya.S.; Krakhmaleva, L.P.; Shumakov, A.G.

    1988-01-01

    A standardized chart with a list of clinicoroentgenological symptoms of the most frequent mammary gland diseases is developed. The data of computer analysis of the diagnostics level and the frequency of clinicoroentgenological symptoms of different diseases of the mammary gland are given. The data obtained can be used for conventional and computer diagnostics of mammary gland diseases, as well as as a basis for the further study of semiotics of different pathological processes in the mammary gland. 22 refs

  2. Wavenumber selection based analysis in Raman spectroscopy improves skin cancer diagnostic specificity at high sensitivity levels (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianhua; Zeng, Haishan; Kalia, Sunil; Lui, Harvey

    2017-02-01

    Background: Raman spectroscopy is a non-invasive optical technique which can measure molecular vibrational modes within tissue. A large-scale clinical study (n = 518) has demonstrated that real-time Raman spectroscopy could distinguish malignant from benign skin lesions with good diagnostic accuracy; this was validated by a follow-up independent study (n = 127). Objective: Most of the previous diagnostic algorithms have typically been based on analyzing the full band of the Raman spectra, either in the fingerprint or high wavenumber regions. Our objective in this presentation is to explore wavenumber selection based analysis in Raman spectroscopy for skin cancer diagnosis. Methods: A wavenumber selection algorithm was implemented using variably-sized wavenumber windows, which were determined by the correlation coefficient between wavenumbers. Wavenumber windows were chosen based on accumulated frequency from leave-one-out cross-validated stepwise regression or least and shrinkage selection operator (LASSO). The diagnostic algorithms were then generated from the selected wavenumber windows using multivariate statistical analyses, including principal component and general discriminant analysis (PC-GDA) and partial least squares (PLS). A total cohort of 645 confirmed lesions from 573 patients encompassing skin cancers, precancers and benign skin lesions were included. Lesion measurements were divided into training cohort (n = 518) and testing cohort (n = 127) according to the measurement time. Result: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) improved from 0.861-0.891 to 0.891-0.911 and the diagnostic specificity for sensitivity levels of 0.99-0.90 increased respectively from 0.17-0.65 to 0.20-0.75 by selecting specific wavenumber windows for analysis. Conclusion: Wavenumber selection based analysis in Raman spectroscopy improves skin cancer diagnostic specificity at high sensitivity levels.

  3. Dose area product measurement for diagnostic reference levels and analysis of patient dose in dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, S.; Lee, B.; Shin, G.; Choi, J.; Kim, J.; Park, C.; Park, H.; Lee, K.; Kim, Y.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) were suggested and patient doses were analysed through the dose-area product value in dental radiography. In intraoral radiography, at three sites, i.e. molar, premolar and incisor on the maxilla and acquired third quartile values: 55.5, 46 and 36.5 mGy cm 2 , respectively, were measured. In panoramic, cephalo-metric and cone beam computed tomography, the values were 120.3, 146 and 3203 mGy cm 2 (16 x 18 cm), respectively. It has been shown that, in intraoral radiography, the patient dose changes proportionally to the value of mA s, but the change in extra-oral radiography in response to mA s could not be confirmed. The authors could confirm, however, the difference in dose according to the manufacturer in all dental radiography examinations, except for panoramic radiography. Depending on the size of hospital, there were some differences in patient dose in intraoral radiography, but no difference in patient dose in extra-oral radiography. (authors)

  4. Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) Spacecraft Circuit Diagnostics by Analog and Complex Signature Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Wade, Raymond P.; Izadnegahdar, Alain

    2011-01-01

    The Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) project at the NASA Glenn Research Center is aimed at developing technologies that will enable space-flight crews to perform in situ component-level repair of electronics on Moon and Mars outposts, where there is no existing infrastructure for logistics spares. These technologies must provide effective repair capabilities yet meet the payload and operational constraints of space facilities. Effective repair depends on a diagnostic capability that is versatile but easy to use by crew members that have limited training in electronics. CLEAR studied two techniques that involve extensive precharacterization of "known good" circuits to produce graphical signatures that provide an easy-to-use comparison method to quickly identify faulty components. Analog Signature Analysis (ASA) allows relatively rapid diagnostics of complex electronics by technicians with limited experience. Because of frequency limits and the growing dependence on broadband technologies, ASA must be augmented with other capabilities. To meet this challenge while preserving ease of use, CLEAR proposed an alternative called Complex Signature Analysis (CSA). Tests of ASA and CSA were used to compare capabilities and to determine if the techniques provided an overlapping or complementary capability. The results showed that the methods are complementary.

  5. Analysis of data relative to the update of diagnostic reference levels in radiology and nuclear medicine. 2011-2012 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Applying the Order of 24 October 2011 on diagnostic reference levels, departments of radiology and nuclear medicine must send a sample of 'patient' dosimetric data to the IRSN each year. The results of the analysis of dosimetric data performed between the 1 January 2011 and the 31 December 2012 presented in this report should enable the authority to define the needs for updating regulations. Professional involvement in DRLs improved globally over the 2011-2012 period but is heterogeneous according to the imaging area considered. The participation of conventional radiology professionals is still low, with less than 30% against over 75% in CT and 85% in nuclear medicine. Data collection in pediatrics, considering all the fields of medical imaging, remains extremely limited. This shows almost no dose assessment for children by imaging departments, and has the effect of not allowing authorities to provide professionals with DRLs representative of pediatric practices. The analysis of radiology doses and nuclear medicine administered activities by IRSN shows an overall decrease of statistical indicators on which DRLs are indexed. These results lead to proposals for updating reference values for a large number of examinations. In addition to the analysis of data collected for examinations currently mentioned in regulatory texts, IRSN recommends to update DRLs in a more general way by changing the strategy for collecting and updating pediatric DRLs, by including interventional radiology - specialty in which the radiation protection presents a major challenge - by introducing a more ambitious indicator than the 75. percentile in conventional radiology and nuclear medicine - the 25. percentile statistical indicator, and by taking into account new technologies inducing additional exposures to the patient as CT-scan associated with the PET. (authors)

  6. Analysis of data relative to the update of diagnostic reference levels in radiology and nuclear medicine. 2013-2015 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-11-01

    Applying the Order of 24 October 2011 on diagnostic reference levels, departments of radiology and nuclear medicine must send a sample of 'patient' dosimetric data to the IRSN each year. The results of the analysis of dosimetric data performed between the 1 January 2013 and the 31 December 2015 presented in this report should enable the authority to define the needs for updating regulation. This assessment takes place in a national and international context particularly rich and active since the last years. More than 20 years after the official introduction of the DRL concept by ICRP and the first regulation requirements at a European level, the good and the bad sides of the DRLs systems implemented by several countries, including France, has shown the necessity of complementary actions regarding some specific practices (pediatrics, interventional radiology). On one hand, from a national point of view, the current collection and analysis system is highly efficient for evaluation of practices in France and for DRL update ability. On the other hand, as an optimization implementation tool, regarding the lack of professionals involvement, the current system should not be considered as fully effective in radiology. However, when the professionals carry out DRL data collection and analysis, optimization actions are implemented for nearly all the cases. During the 2013-2015 period, professionals involvement in DRLs globally improved but is heterogeneous according to the imaging area considered. The participation of conventional radiology professionals is still low, with less than 30% against about 80% in CT and more than 85% in nuclear medicine. From a dosimetric point of view, the national analysis shows an overall decrease of statistical indicators in radiology, computed tomography and nuclear medicine on which DRLs are indexed. These results lead to proposals for updating reference values for a large number of examinations. In addition to the analysis of data collected

  7. Cost-effectiveness analysis of malaria rapid diagnostic tests for appropriate treatment of malaria at the community level in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristian S; Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Magnussen, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    was a cost-effectiveness analysis of the introduction of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) performed by CHWs in two areas of moderate-to-high and low malaria transmission in rural Uganda. CHWs were trained to perform mRDTs and treat children with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT......) in the intervention arm while CHWs offered treatment based on presumptive diagnosis in the control arm. Data on the proportion of children with fever 'appropriately treated for malaria with ACT' were captured from a randomised trial. Health sector costs included: training of CHWs, community sensitisation, supervision...

  8. Diagnostic reference levels in medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenstein, M.

    2001-01-01

    The paper proposes additional advice to national or local authorities and the clinical community on the application of diagnostic reference levels as a practical tool to manage radiation doses to patients in diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. A survey was made of the various approaches that have been taken by authoritative bodies to establish diagnostic reference levels for medical imaging tasks. There are a variety of ways to implement the idea of diagnostic reference levels, depending on the medical imaging task of interest, the national or local state of practice and the national or local preferences for technical implementation. The existing International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) guidance is reviewed, the survey information is summarized, a set of unifying principles is espoused and a statement of additional advice that has been proposed to ICRP Committee 3 is presented. The proposed advice would meet a need for a unifying set of principles to provide a framework for diagnostic reference levels but would allow flexibility in their selection and use. While some illustrative examples are given, the proposed advice does not specify the specific quantities to be used, the numerical values to be set for the quantities or the technical details of how national or local authorities should implement diagnostic reference levels. (author)

  9. Radiation levels in nuclear diagnostic examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeulen, A.M.T.I.

    1987-01-01

    To estimate the risks for a pregnant radiological worker, radiation level measurements are executed for common nuclear diagnostic techniques. These measurements are combined with the time which the radiologic worker is present during the performance of the diagnostic techniques. It is concluded that a radiologic worker is receiving less than 5 mSv during pregnancy. This is the case with in vivo determination in a department of nuclear medicine with common diagnostic techniques. Reduction of radiation doses during pregnancy is possible by reduction of heart function examinations, skeletal examinations and brain scans. 1 figure; 13 tabs

  10. Establishing diagnostic reference levels in digital radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bana, Remy Wilson

    2016-04-01

    Medical application of radiation has gained wider study since diagnostic radiology plays a very important role in modern medicine. The need of the service seems to increase since the invention of digital radiology as a new technology that promises greater accuracy while minimizing patient dose. However, it is not exempted in the harmonization of doses delivered to the patient undergoing same radiologic examination in different institutions either regional or nationwide. The objective of this project was to review the establishment of Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs) in digital radiology at National level with the aim to reduce patient dose while maintaining appropriate image quality. A general discussion on digital radiology has been presented focusing on the optimization of patient dose as well as dosimetric quantities used for the establishment of DRLs. Recommendations have been provided for Rwanda to initiate steps to establish National Diagnostic Reference Levels for common procedures in digital radiology. (au)

  11. Guidance levels for diagnostic radiology in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacob, O.; Diaconescu, C.

    2002-01-01

    Over two decades surveys of radiological practice in Romania have demonstrated wide variations in patient dose levels between different hospitals. Local and national investigations revealed poor performances as well as of radiological equipment, darkroom procedure or technology of investigation. Hitherto, the annual collective effective dose to the population of Romania from diagnostic medical exposures attained a value of 13,820 manSv. Since the annual frequencies of radiological examinations remain unchanged over last ten years, this value is mostly attributed to the individual dose levels in different X-ray procedures. Notwithstanding the huge benefits to patients, the reduction of unnecessary exposures and individual doses are our principal concern and the establishment of national reference dose levels should solve this problem. British experience demonstrated that reference doses are a practical tool in this purpose and the adoption of national reference dose values indicated an overall improvement in patient exposure. Even the local of reference dose values proved a useful way to achieve patient dose reduction. In meantime the optimization of patient protection, each X-ray examination should be conducted with lowest necessary dose to achieve the clinical aim. This paper presents the first approach to establish local reference dose levels for some diagnostic examinations based on the measurements made in six (from the eighth of Eastern territory of Romania) districts, invited to cooperate in this end

  12. Analysis of acid-base misconceptions using modified certainty of response index (CRI and diagnostic interview for different student levels cognitive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Sadhu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The authors in this paper draw attention to the importance of an instrument that can analyze student’s misconception.This study described the kind of the misconception in acid-base theory, and the percentage students’ misconception occur in every subconcept of acid-base theory. The design of this study is a descriptive method, involved 148 of 11th grade science students from Senior High School, which divided into two classes are high cognitive and low cognitive. Further analysis of using Modified Certainty of Response Index (CRI as a diagnostic instrument is used to explore misconception which in that test included evaluating only content knowledge with considering the reason behind the students' choice of response and their certainty of response in every question. The result of data analysis has shown that misconception occurred in high cognitive class, gained 43,86% and misconception occurred in low cognitive class, gained 24,63%. Based on the diagnostic interview has shown that misconception occurred in students due to students does not understand the concept well and they related the one concept to the other concepts with partial understanding, the result students make the failed conclusions. The type of misconception occurred is a conceptual misunderstanding.  According to the data analysis showed that Modified Certainty of Response Index (CRI is effective used to analyze students’ misconceptions and the diagnostic interview is effective used to know the reasons that caused students which having misconceptions.

  13. Oil analysis in machine diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaehaeoja, P.

    2006-07-01

    This study concentrates on developing and tuning various oil analysis methods to meet the requirements of modern industry and environmental analytics. Oil analysis methods form a vital part of techniques used to monitor the condition of machines and may help to improve the overall equipment effectiveness value of a factory in a significant manner. Worm gears are used in various production machines, and their breakdowns may cause significant production losses. Wearing of these gears is relatively difficult to monitor with vibration analysis. Analysis of two indicator metals, copper and iron, may reveal wearing phenomena of worm gears effectively, and savings can be significant. Effective wear metal analysis requires good tools. ICP-OES with kerosene dilution is widely used in wear metal analysis, but purchasing and using of ICP-OES is expensive. A cheaper FAAS technique with similar pre-treatment of oil samples was tested and it proved to be useful especially in analyzing small amounts of samples. The accuracy of FAAS was sufficient for quantitative work in machine diagnostics and waste oil characterization. Solid debris analyses are useful in oil contamination control as well as in detection of wearing mechanisms. Membrane filtration, optical microscopy, SEM and automatic particle counting were applied in analysis of rolling and gear oils. Particle counting is an effective way to detect oil contamination, but in the studied cases even larger particles than those detected in normal ISO classes would be informative. However, membrane filtration and optical microscopy may reveal the wearing machine element exactly. Additives provide oils with desired properties thus they should be monitored intensively. A FTIR method for quantitative analysis of fatty alcohols and fatty acid esters in machinery oils was developed during this work. It has already been used successfully in quantitative and qualitative analysis of machinery oil samples. Various kinds of oils may be

  14. Cell Analysis and Early Diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subramaniam, Vinod; Jones, Val

    2006-01-01

    In an era of aging populations and rising health-care costs, the shift of medical paradigms towards rapid, accurate, early diagnoses of diseases is inevitable. In addition to further development of ultrasensitive in vitro tests, the focus of attention in both diagnostics and the early drug discovery

  15. Analysis of Vibration Diagnostics Methods for Induction Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Kalinov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of existing vibration diagnostics methods. In order to evaluate an efficiency of method application the following criteria have been proposed: volume of input data required for establishing diagnosis, data content, software and hardware level, execution time for vibration diagnostics. According to the mentioned criteria a classification of vibration diagnostics methods for determination of their advantages and disadvantages, search for their development and improvement has been presented in paper. The paper contains a comparative estimation of methods in accordance with the proposed  criteria. According to this estimation the most efficient methods are a spectral analysis and spectral analysis of the vibration signal envelope.

  16. The level of diagnostic assessment in severe asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Bulow, Anna; Backer, Vibeke; Bodtger, Uffe

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Systematic assessment of patients with severe asthma is pivotal to decide which patients are eligible to new biological therapies. However, the level of diagnostic work-up in patients with severe asthma is only poorly investigated. AIMS & OBJECTIVES: To describe the diagnostic work-...

  17. Diagnostic radiography dose and guidance levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuadros, M.; Augusto, A.

    2001-01-01

    This work shows a study done on conventional radiodiagnostic equipment. The evaluation was implemented throughout different areas of Bolivia, covering not only single equipment radiographs used in the cities, but also the ones used in rural areas. There have been more than 90 equipment pieces evaluated of which the dose received by a patient for a given exam has been considered an essential element. For this purpose two types of examinations have been selected, these being considered the more frequent. Not only the dose aspect was taken into consideration but the technique used as well. These elements that support very important information have been related to orientative levels. (author)

  18. Patient dose with quality image under diagnostic reference levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akula, Suresh Kumar; Singh, Gurvinder; Chougule, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Need to set Diagnostic Reference Level (DRL) for locations for all diagnostic procedures in local as compared to National. The review of DRL's should compare local with national or referenced averages and a note made of any significant variances to these averages and the justification for it. To survey and asses radiation doses to patient and reduce the redundancy in patient imaging to maintain DRLs

  19. Cloud-based CT dose monitoring using the DICOM-structured report. Fully automated analysis in regard to national diagnostic reference levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boos, J.; Rubbert, C.; Heusch, P.; Lanzman, R.S.; Aissa, J.; Antoch, G.; Kroepil, P.

    2016-01-01

    To implement automated CT dose data monitoring using the DICOM-Structured Report (DICOM-SR) in order to monitor dose-related CT data in regard to national diagnostic reference levels (DRLs). Materials and Methods: We used a novel in-house co-developed software tool based on the DICOM-SR to automatically monitor dose-related data from CT examinations. The DICOM-SR for each CT examination performed between 09/2011 and 03/2015 was automatically anonymized and sent from the CT scanners to a cloud server. Data was automatically analyzed in accordance with body region, patient age and corresponding DRL for volumetric computed tomography dose index (CTDI vol ) and dose length product (DLP). Results: Data of 36 523 examinations (131 527 scan series) performed on three different CT scanners and one PET/CT were analyzed. The overall mean CTDI vol and DLP were 51.3 % and 52.8 % of the national DRLs, respectively. CTDI vol and DLP reached 43.8 % and 43.1 % for abdominal CT (n = 10 590), 66.6 % and 69.6 % for cranial CT (n = 16 098) and 37.8 % and 44.0 % for chest CT (n = 10 387) of the compared national DRLs, respectively. Overall, the CTDI vol exceeded national DRLs in 1.9 % of the examinations, while the DLP exceeded national DRLs in 2.9 % of the examinations. Between different CT protocols of the same body region, radiation exposure varied up to 50 % of the DRLs. Conclusion: The implemented cloud-based CT dose monitoring based on the DICOM-SR enables automated benchmarking in regard to national DRLs. Overall the local dose exposure from CT reached approximately 50 % of these DRLs indicating that DRL actualization as well as protocol-specific DRLs are desirable. The cloud-based approach enables multi-center dose monitoring and offers great potential to further optimize radiation exposure in radiological departments.

  20. Diagnostic accuracy of routine blood examinations and CSF lactate level for post-neurosurgical bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Xiao, Xiong; Zhang, Junting; Gao, Zhixian; Ji, Nan; Zhang, Liwei

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of routine blood examinations and Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) lactate level for Post-neurosurgical Bacterial Meningitis (PBM) at a large sample-size of post-neurosurgical patients. The diagnostic accuracies of routine blood examinations and CSF lactate level to distinguish between PAM and PBM were evaluated with the values of the Area Under the Curve of the Receiver Operating Characteristic (AUC -ROC ) by retrospectively analyzing the datasets of post-neurosurgical patients in the clinical information databases. The diagnostic accuracy of routine blood examinations was relatively low (AUC -ROC CSF lactate level achieved rather high diagnostic accuracy (AUC -ROC =0.891; CI 95%, 0.852-0.922). The variables of patient age, operation duration, surgical diagnosis and postoperative days (the interval days between the neurosurgery and examinations) were shown to affect the diagnostic accuracy of these examinations. The variables were integrated with routine blood examinations and CSF lactate level by Fisher discriminant analysis to improve their diagnostic accuracy. As a result, the diagnostic accuracy of blood examinations and CSF lactate level was significantly improved with an AUC -ROC value=0.760 (CI 95%, 0.737-0.782) and 0.921 (CI 95%, 0.887-0.948) respectively. The PBM diagnostic accuracy of routine blood examinations was relatively low, whereas the accuracy of CSF lactate level was high. Some variables that are involved in the incidence of PBM can also affect the diagnostic accuracy for PBM. Taking into account the effects of these variables significantly improves the diagnostic accuracies of routine blood examinations and CSF lactate level. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donné, A.J.H.; Costley, A.E.; Barnsley, R.

    2007-01-01

    of the measurements—time and spatial resolutions, etc—will in some cases be more stringent. Many of the measurements will be used in the real time control of the plasma driving a requirement for very high reliability in the systems (diagnostics) that provide the measurements. The implementation of diagnostic systems...... on ITER is a substantial challenge. Because of the harsh environment (high levels of neutron and gamma fluxes, neutron heating, particle bombardment) diagnostic system selection and design has to cope with a range of phenomena not previously encountered in diagnostic design. Extensive design and R......&D is needed to prepare the systems. In some cases the environmental difficulties are so severe that new diagnostic techniques are required. The starting point in the development of diagnostics for ITER is to define the measurement requirements and develop their justification. It is necessary to include all...

  2. Establishment of local Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs) for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) is an essential optimization tool in radiography and radiological sciences. The objective of the study is to establish DRL for radiography examinations in north eastern Nigeria. A Prospective cross- sectional study conducted in two university teaching hospitals in north eastern Nigeria.

  3. Bayesian analysis of ion beam diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toussaint, U. von; Fischer, R.; Dose, V.

    2001-01-01

    Ion beam diagnostics are routinely used for quantitative analysis of the surface composition of mixture materials up to a depth of a few μm. Unfortunately, advantageous properties of the diagnostics, like high depth resolution in combination with a large penetration depth, no destruction of the surface, high sensitivity for large as well as for small atomic numbers, and high sensitivity are mutually exclusive. Among other things, this is due to the ill-conditioned inverse problem of reconstructing depth distributions of the composition elements. Robust results for depth distributions are obtained with adaptive methods in the framework of Bayesian probability theory. The method of adaptive kernels allows for distributions which contain only the significant information of the data while noise fitting is avoided. This is achieved by adaptively reducing the degrees of freedom supporting the distribution. As applications for ion beam diagnostics Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and particle induced X-ray emission are shown

  4. Nordic working group for medical x-ray diagnostics: Diagnostic reference levels within xray diagnostics - experiences in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitz, W.; Groen, P.; Servomaa, A.; Einarsson, G.; Olerud, H.

    2003-01-01

    Medical x-ray diagnostics is one of the few applications of ionising radiation where people are irradiated on purpose. The strategy for radiation protection is also different compared to that in other areas that have the zero-alternative as its ultimate goal, meaning that no human beings at all are exposed in these practices. The focus in x-ray diagnostics concerning radiation protection is justification and optimisation. Optimisation implies that the examination is performed in such a way that the radiation dose is as small as possible without jeopardising the diagnostic security. X- ray diagnostics is a complex method where many technical parameters and methodology factors together are interacting in the determination of radiation dose and image quality. The optimisation process is not a simple and uncomplicated procedure, this difficulty is reflected in many international and national surveys showing a large spread of patient doses for one and the same type of examination. The concept diagnostic reference levels (DRL) has been introduced as a tool for reducing this wide distribution that is obviously indicating a lack of optimisation, and for cutting the highest radiation doses. In this presentation the concept for DRL and the experience gained in the Nordic countries with DRL are described. (orig.)

  5. Microbial Diagnostic Array Workstation (MDAW: a web server for diagnostic array data storage, sharing and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Yung-Fu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarrays are becoming a very popular tool for microbial detection and diagnostics. Although these diagnostic arrays are much simpler when compared to the traditional transcriptome arrays, due to the high throughput nature of the arrays, the data analysis requirements still form a bottle neck for the widespread use of these diagnostic arrays. Hence we developed a new online data sharing and analysis environment customised for diagnostic arrays. Methods Microbial Diagnostic Array Workstation (MDAW is a database driven application designed in MS Access and front end designed in ASP.NET. Conclusion MDAW is a new resource that is customised for the data analysis requirements for microbial diagnostic arrays.

  6. Method of evaluation of diagnostics reference levels in computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, Walter Flores

    1999-04-01

    Computerized tomography is a complex technique with several selectable exposition parameters delivering high doses to the patient. In this work it was developed a simple methodology to evaluate diagnostic reference levels in computerized tomography, using the concept of Multiple Scan Average Dose (MSAD), recently adopted by the Health Ministry. For evaluation of the MSAD, a dose distribution was obtained through a measured dose profile on the axial axis of a water phantom with thermoluminescence dosemeters, TLD-100, for different exam technique. The MSAD was evaluated hrough two distinct methods. First, it was evaluated by the integration of the dose profile of a single slice and, second, obtained by the integration on central slice of the profile of several slices. The latter is in of accordance with the ionization chamber method, suggesting to be the most practical method of dose evaluation to be applied in the diagnostic reference level assessment routine for CT, using TLDs. (author)

  7. Statistical evaluation of diagnostic performance topics in ROC analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Zou, Kelly H; Bandos, Andriy I; Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Rockette, Howard E

    2016-01-01

    Statistical evaluation of diagnostic performance in general and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis in particular are important for assessing the performance of medical tests and statistical classifiers, as well as for evaluating predictive models or algorithms. This book presents innovative approaches in ROC analysis, which are relevant to a wide variety of applications, including medical imaging, cancer research, epidemiology, and bioinformatics. Statistical Evaluation of Diagnostic Performance: Topics in ROC Analysis covers areas including monotone-transformation techniques in parametric ROC analysis, ROC methods for combined and pooled biomarkers, Bayesian hierarchical transformation models, sequential designs and inferences in the ROC setting, predictive modeling, multireader ROC analysis, and free-response ROC (FROC) methodology. The book is suitable for graduate-level students and researchers in statistics, biostatistics, epidemiology, public health, biomedical engineering, radiology, medi...

  8. Application of diagnostic reference levels in medical practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourguignon, Michel [Faculty of Medicine of Paris, Deputy Director General, Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN), Paris (France)

    2006-07-01

    Diagnosis reference levels (D.R.L.) are defined in the Council Directive 97/43 EURATOM as 'Dose levels in medical radio diagnosis practices or in the case of radiopharmaceuticals, levels of activity, for typical examinations for groups of standards-sized patients or standards phantoms for broadly defined types of equipment. These levels are expected not to be exceeded for standard procedures when good and normal practice regarding diagnostic and technical performance is applied'. Thus D.R.L. apply only to diagnostic procedures and does not apply to radiotherapy. Radiation protection of patients is based on the application of 2 major radiation protection principles, justification and optimization. The justification principle must be respected first because the best way to protect the patient is not to carry a useless test. Radiation protection of the patient is a continuous process and local dose indicator values in the good range should not prevent the radiologist or nuclear medicine physician to continue to optimize their practice. (N.C.)

  9. Application of diagnostic reference levels in medical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourguignon, Michel

    2006-01-01

    Diagnosis reference levels (D.R.L.) are defined in the Council Directive 97/43 EURATOM as 'Dose levels in medical radio diagnosis practices or in the case of radiopharmaceuticals, levels of activity, for typical examinations for groups of standards-sized patients or standards phantoms for broadly defined types of equipment. These levels are expected not to be exceeded for standard procedures when good and normal practice regarding diagnostic and technical performance is applied'. Thus D.R.L. apply only to diagnostic procedures and does not apply to radiotherapy. Radiation protection of patients is based on the application of 2 major radiation protection principles, justification and optimization. The justification principle must be respected first because the best way to protect the patient is not to carry a useless test. Radiation protection of the patient is a continuous process and local dose indicator values in the good range should not prevent the radiologist or nuclear medicine physician to continue to optimize their practice. (N.C.)

  10. Decreased plasma prorenin levels in primary aldosteronism: potential diagnostic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Constance; Courand, Pierre-Yves; Harbaoui, Brahim; Paget, Vinciane; Khettab, Fouad; Bricca, Giampiero; Fauvel, Jean-Pierre; Lantelme, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Primary aldosteronism could exert a negative feedback on prorenin secretion, of possibly different magnitude, whether it is related to an aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) or an idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the level of prorenin in three subgroups: APA, IHA, and essential hypertension; and the performance of the aldosterone-to-prorenin ratio (APR) for the diagnosis of an APA. Seven hundred and forty-six hypertensive patients with a standardized work-up, including a prorenin measurement, were considered. Ninety-six patients without neutral treatment and 38 patients with other forms of secondary hypertension were excluded. APA and IHA were categorized according to computed tomography scan, adrenal venous sampling, pathological analysis and improvement of hypertension after surgery. Thirty-five patients had a diagnosis of APA, 57 of IHA and 504 of essential hypertension. Prorenin was lower in APA and IHA than in essential hypertension (32.9, 40.4 and 50.3  pg/ml, respectively; P < 0.001). APR was higher in patients with APA and IHA than in those with essential hypertension (24.0, 11.8, and 4.0  pmol/l per pg/ml, respectively; P < 0.001). The APR was more discriminant than the aldosterone-to-renin ratio to identify APA compared to IHA (area under the receiver operating curve at 0.750 and 0.639, respectively; P = 0.04). The optimal cut-off values were 22  pmol/l per pg/ml for APR (sensitivity 57.0%, specificity 93.0%) and 440  pmol/l per pg/ml for aldosterone-to-renin ratio (sensitivity 54.3%, specificity 82.5%). Primary aldosteronism and particularly its most caricatural form, that is APA, seems associated with a lower level of prorenin than essential hypertension. The APR could be included in the diagnostic strategy of APA.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF DIAGNOSTIC REFERENCE LEVELS (DRL OF PATIENTS X-RAY EXPOSURE IN DIAGNOSTIC RADIOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Vodovatov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a system of Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs for patients medical exposure for national health care practice implementation. DRLs are an effective way of the patient radiation protection through the optimization of the medical exposure. The paper discusses and compares different methods of determining the DRLs based on measured and/or calculated quantities of patient’s dose: dose area product (DAP, entrance surface dose (ESD and an effective dose. Distributions of different dose quantities in different Saint-Petersburg clinics are shown on the example of chest PA examinations. The results are compared with the data from other sources. Regional DRLs for Saint-Petersburg are proposed.

  12. Optical spectra analysis for breast cancer diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkov, S. A.; Kochemasov, G. G.; Lyubynskaya, T. E.; Maslov, N. V.; Nuzhny, A. S.; da Silva, L. B.; Rubenchik, A.

    2011-11-01

    Minimally invasive probe and optical biopsy system based on optical spectra recording and analysis seem to be a promising tool for early diagnostics of breast cancer. Light scattering and absorption spectra are generated continuously as far as the needle-like probe with one emitting and several collecting optical fibers penetrates through the tissues toward to the suspicious area. That allows analyzing not only the state of local site, but also the structure of tissues along the needle trace. The suggested method has the advantages of automated on-line diagnosing and minimal tissue destruction and in parallel with the conventional diagnostic procedures provides the ground for decision-making. 165 medical trials were completed in Nizhny Novgorod Regional Oncology Centre, Russia. Independent diagnoses were the results of fine biopsy and histology. Application of wavelet expansion and clasterization techniques for spectra analysis revealed several main spectral types for malignant and benign tumors. Automatic classification algorithm demonstrated specificity ˜90% and sensitivity ˜91%. Large amount of information, fuzziness in criteria and data noisiness make neural networks to be an attractive analytic tool. The model based on three-layer perceptron was tested over the sample of 29 `cancer' and 29 `non-cancer' cases and demonstrated total separation.

  13. Variance in total levels of phospholipase C zeta (PLC-ζ) in human sperm may limit the applicability of quantitative immunofluorescent analysis as a diagnostic indicator of oocyte activation capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashir, Junaid; Jones, Celine; Mounce, Ginny; Ramadan, Walaa M; Lemmon, Bernadette; Heindryckx, Bjorn; de Sutter, Petra; Parrington, John; Turner, Karen; Child, Tim; McVeigh, Enda; Coward, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    To examine whether similar levels of phospholipase C zeta (PLC-ζ) protein are present in sperm from men whose ejaculates resulted in normal oocyte activation, and to examine whether a predominant pattern of PLC-ζ localization is linked to normal oocyte activation ability. Laboratory study. University laboratory. Control subjects (men with proven oocyte activation capacity; n = 16) and men whose sperm resulted in recurrent intracytoplasmic sperm injection failure (oocyte activation deficient [OAD]; n = 5). Quantitative immunofluorescent analysis of PLC-ζ protein in human sperm. Total levels of PLC-ζ fluorescence, proportions of sperm exhibiting PLC-ζ immunoreactivity, and proportions of PLC-ζ localization patterns in sperm from control and OAD men. Sperm from control subjects presented a significantly higher proportion of sperm exhibiting PLC-ζ immunofluorescence compared with infertile men diagnosed with OAD (82.6% and 27.4%, respectively). Total levels of PLC-ζ in sperm from individual control and OAD patients exhibited significant variance, with sperm from 10 out of 16 (62.5%) exhibiting levels similar to OAD samples. Predominant PLC-ζ localization patterns varied between control and OAD samples with no predictable or consistent pattern. The results indicate that sperm from control men exhibited significant variance in total levels of PLC-ζ protein, as well as significant variance in the predominant localization pattern. Such variance may hinder the diagnostic application of quantitative PLC-ζ immunofluorescent analysis. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. French diagnostic reference levels in diagnostic radiology, computed tomography and nuclear medicine: 2004-2008 Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roch, P.; Aubert, B.

    2013-01-01

    After 5 y of collecting data on diagnostic reference levels (DRLs), the Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection French Inst. (IRSN) presents the analyses of this data. The analyses of the collected data for radiology, computed tomography (CT) and nuclear medicine allow IRSN to estimate the level of regulatory application by health professionals and the representativeness of current DRL in terms of relevant examinations, dosimetric quantities, numerical values and patient morphologies. Since 2004, the involvement of professionals has highly increased, especially in nuclear medicine, followed by CT and then by radiology. Analyses show some discordance between regulatory examinations and clinical practice. Some of the dosimetric quantities used for the DRL setting are insufficient or not relevant enough, and some numerical values should also be reviewed. On the basis of these findings, IRSN formulates recommendations to update regulatory DRL with current and relevant examination lists, dosimetric quantities and numerical values. (authors)

  15. Open Rotor - Analysis of Diagnostic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Envia, Edmane

    2011-01-01

    NASA is researching open rotor propulsion as part of its technology research and development plan for addressing the subsonic transport aircraft noise, emission and fuel burn goals. The low-speed wind tunnel test for investigating the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of a benchmark blade set at the approach and takeoff conditions has recently concluded. A high-speed wind tunnel diagnostic test campaign has begun to investigate the performance of this benchmark open rotor blade set at the cruise condition. Databases from both speed regimes will comprise a comprehensive collection of benchmark open rotor data for use in assessing/validating aerodynamic and noise prediction tools (component & system level) as well as providing insights into the physics of open rotors to help guide the development of quieter open rotors.

  16. Enhanced vibration diagnostics using vibration signature analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.; Shehzad, K.; Zahoor, Y.; Mahmood, A.; Bibi, A.

    2001-01-01

    Symptoms will appear in equipment, as well as in human beings. when 'suffering from sickness. Symptoms of abnormality in equipment are vibration, noise, deformation, temperature, pressure, electric current, crack, wearing, leakage etc. these are called modes of failure. If the mode of failure is vibration then the vibration signature analysis can be effectively used in order to diagnose the machinery problems. Much valuable information is contained within these vibration 'Spectra' or 'Signatures' but is only of use if the analyst can unlock its 'Secrets'. This paper documents a vibration problem in the motor of a centrifugal pump (Type ETA). It focuses mainly on the roll of modern vibration monitoring system in problem analysis. The problem experienced was the motor unstability and noise due to high vibration. Using enhanced vibration signature data, the problem was analyzed. which suggested that the rotor eccentricity was the cause of excessive noise and vibration in the motor. In conclusion, advanced electronic monitoring and diagnostic systems provide powerful information for machine's condition assessment and problem analysis. Appropriate interpretation and use of this information is important for accurate and effective vibration analysis. (author)

  17. Evolution of diagnostic reference levels in Spanish intraoral radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, M.; Velasco, F.; Martinez-Beneyto, Y.; Alcaraz-Saura, M.; Velasco, E.; Achel, G. D.; Canteras, M.

    2008-01-01

    A total of 16 175 official reports of quality assurance on dental radiodiagnostic surgeries from 16 Spanish autonomous regions compiled during 2002-09 were studied to determine the evolution of diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for obtaining a diagnostic image in the normal conditions of clinical practice in Spanish dental clinics. A DRL of 3.1 mGy was set in 2009, which represents a 35.4 % decrease compared with the dose determined in 2002 (4.8 mGy). During the same period, the mean dose fell by only 17.2 %. The DRL recommended by the European Union in 2004 for intraoral radiology is 4 mGy, and this study shows that 83.4 % of the installations used a dose below this. Of the installations using indirect or direct digital systems 1.1 and 1.2 %, respectively, used doses higher than those recommended, while 14.2 % of those using radiographic film exceeded this limit. (authors)

  18. Nordic Guidance Levels for Patient Doses in Diagnostic Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxebol, G.; Olerud, H.M.; Hjardemaal, O.; Leitz, W.; Servomaa, A.; Walderhaug, T.

    1998-01-01

    Within the framework of Nordic authoritative cooperation in radiation protection and nuclear safety, recommendations have been prepared dealing with dose constraints in diagnostic radiology. A working group with participants from all the Nordic countries has met and discussed possible implementations of the ICRP dose constraint for medical radiology. Dose constraints, expressed as guidance levels, were specified for six different radiological examinations, i.e. chest, pelvis, lumbar spine, urography, barium meal and enema in units of kerma-area product and entrance surface dose. The recommendations are described in report No 5 in the series 'Report on Nordic Radiation Protection Cooperation'. Examples of dose distributions and factors affecting the patient dose are described in the report. (author)

  19. Diagnostic reference levels in digital mammography: a systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suleiman, Moayyad E.; Brennan, Patrick C.; McEntee, Mark F.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to review the literature on existing diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in digital mammography and methodologies for establishing them. To this end, a systematic search through Medline, Cinahl, Web of Science, Scopus and Google scholar was conducted using search terms extracted from three terms: DRLs, digital mammography and breast screen. The search resulted in 1539 articles of which 22 were included after a screening process. Relevant data from the included studies were summarised and analysed. Differences were found in the methods utilised to establish DRLs including test subjects types, protocols followed, conversion factors employed, breast compressed thicknesses and percentile values adopted. These differences complicate comparison of DRLs among countries; hence, an internationally accepted protocol would be valuable so that international comparisons can be made. (authors)

  20. Application of noise analysis methods in nuclear reactor diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dach, K.

    1985-01-01

    By statistical evaluation of the fluctuation component of signals from selected detectors, noise diagnostics detects conditions of equipment which might later result in failure. The objective of early diagnostics is to detect the failed integrity of primary circuit components, failed detectors or anomalies of the thermohydraulic process. The commonest method of experimental data analysis is spectral analysis in the frequency range 0 to 50 Hz. Recently, expert diagnostic systems have been built based on artificial intelligence systems. Czechoslovakia participates in the experimental research of noise diagnostics in the context of the development of diagnostic assemblies for WWER-440 reactors. (M.D.)

  1. Diagnostic Value of Procalcitonin Levels in Acute Mesenteric Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Karaca

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI is a potentially fatal disease. Difficulties in diagnosis make it essential to find early biomarkers. Aims: This study investigated the diagnostic value of procalcitonin (PCT levels in AMI. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: Rats were divided into six groups of six animals each. In the experimental group, an experimental ischemia model was established by clamping the superior mesenteric artery from the aortic outflow tract. Blood and tissue specimens were collected from rats in the experimental mesenteric ischemia model at 30 min and 2 and 6 h, and these were compared with specimens from the respective control groups. PCT levels were compared at 30 min and 2 and 6 h. Results: PCT levels were 185.3 pg/mL in the control group and 219.3 pg/mL in the study group, 199.6 pg/mL in the control group and 243.9 pg/mL in the study group, and 201.9 pg/mL in the control group and 286.9 pg/mL in the study group, respectively, at 30 minute, 2 and 6 hours. Significant differences were determined between 6-h control group and ischemia group PCT levels (p=0.005. Conclusion: The absence of a significant increase in PCT levels in the early period, while a significant difference was detected in the later period (6 h, shows that PCT levels rise late in mesenteric ischemia and can be a marker in the late period.

  2. Battery Test Facility- Electrochemical Analysis and Diagnostics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electrochemical Analysis and Diagnostics Laboratory (EADL) provides battery developers with reliable, independent, and unbiased performance evaluations of their...

  3. Diagnostic accuracy of routine blood examinations and CSF lactate level for post-neurosurgical bacterial meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: The PBM diagnostic accuracy of routine blood examinations was relatively low, whereas the accuracy of CSF lactate level was high. Some variables that are involved in the incidence of PBM can also affect the diagnostic accuracy for PBM. Taking into account the effects of these variables significantly improves the diagnostic accuracies of routine blood examinations and CSF lactate level.

  4. Development of diagnostic test instruments to reveal level student conception in kinematic and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handhika, J.; Cari, C.; Suparmi, A.; Sunarno, W.; Purwandari, P.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a diagnostic test instrument to reveal students' conceptions in kinematics and dynamics. The diagnostic test was developed based on the content indicator the concept of (1) displacement and distance, (2) instantaneous and average velocity, (3) zero and constant acceleration, (4) gravitational acceleration (5) Newton's first Law, (6) and Newton's third Law. The diagnostic test development model includes: Diagnostic test requirement analysis, formulating test-making objectives, developing tests, checking the validity of the content and the performance of reliability, and application of tests. The Content Validation Index (CVI) results in the category are highly relevant, with a value of 0.85. Three questions get negative Content Validation Ratio CVR) (-0.6), after revised distractors and clarify visual presentation; the CVR become 1 (highly relevant). This test was applied, obtained 16 valid test items, with Cronbach Alpha value of 0.80. It can conclude that diagnostic test can be used to reveal the level of students conception in kinematics and dynamics.

  5. Analysis of licensed South African diagnostic imaging equipment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of licensed South African diagnostic imaging equipment. ... Pan African Medical Journal ... Introduction: Objective: To conduct an analysis of all registered South Africa (SA) diagnostic radiology equipment, assess the number of equipment units per capita by imaging modality, and compare SA figures with published ...

  6. Fluoroscopy in paediatric fractures - Setting a local diagnostic reference level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, A.; McAuley, A.; McMurray, K.; Jain, M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The ionizing radiations (Medical Exposure) Regulation 2000 has made it mandatory to establish diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for all typical radiological examinations. Objectives: We attempt to provide dose data for some common fluoroscopic procedures used in orthopaedic trauma that may be used as the basis for setting DRLs for paediatric patients. Materials and methods: The dose area product (DAP) in 865 paediatric trauma examinations was analysed. Median DAP values and screening times for each procedure type along with quartile values for each range are presented. Results: In the upper limb, elbow examinations had maximum exposure with a median DAP value of 1.21 cGy cm 2 . Median DAP values for forearm and wrist examinations were 0.708 and 0.538 cGy cm 2 , respectively. In lower limb, tibia and fibula examinations had a median DAP value of 3.23 cGy cm 2 followed by ankle examinations with a median DAP of 3.10 cGy cm 2 . The rounded third quartile DAP value for each distribution can be used as a provisional DRL for the specific procedure type. (authors)

  7. Diagnostic markers of urothelial cancer based on DNA methylation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chihara, Yoshitomo; Hirao, Yoshihiko; Kanai, Yae; Fujimoto, Hiroyuki; Sugano, Kokichi; Kawashima, Kiyotaka; Liang, Gangning; Jones, Peter A; Fujimoto, Kiyohide; Kuniyasu, Hiroki

    2013-01-01

    Early detection and risk assessment are crucial for treating urothelial cancer (UC), which is characterized by a high recurrence rate, and necessitates frequent and invasive monitoring. We aimed to establish diagnostic markers for UC based on DNA methylation. In this multi-center study, three independent sample sets were prepared. First, DNA methylation levels at CpG loci were measured in the training sets (tumor samples from 91 UC patients, corresponding normal-appearing tissue from these patients, and 12 normal tissues from age-matched bladder cancer-free patients) using the Illumina Golden Gate methylation assay to identify differentially methylated loci. Next, these methylated loci were validated by quantitative DNA methylation by pyrosequencing, using another cohort of tissue samples (Tissue validation set). Lastly, methylation of these markers was analyzed in the independent urine samples (Urine validation set). ROC analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of these 12 selected markers. Of the 1303 CpG sites, 158 were hyper ethylated and 356 were hypo ethylated in tumor tissues compared to normal tissues. In the panel analysis, 12 loci showed remarkable alterations between tumor and normal samples, with 94.3% sensitivity and 97.8% specificity. Similarly, corresponding normal tissue could be distinguished from normal tissues with 76.0% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Furthermore, the diagnostic accuracy for UC of these markers determined in urine samples was high, with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Based on these preliminary findings, diagnostic markers based on differential DNA methylation at specific loci can be useful for non-invasive and reliable detection of UC and epigenetic field defect

  8. Correlation electron cyclotron emission diagnostic and improved calculation of turbulent temperature fluctuation levels on ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creely, A. J.; Freethy, S. J.; Burke, W. M.; Conway, G. D.; Leccacorvi, R.; Parkin, W. C.; Terry, D. R.; White, A. E.

    2018-05-01

    A newly upgraded correlation electron cyclotron emission (CECE) diagnostic has been installed on the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak and has begun to perform experimental measurements of electron temperature fluctuations. CECE diagnostics measure small amplitude electron temperature fluctuations by correlating closely spaced heterodyne radiometer channels. This upgrade expanded the system from six channels to thirty, allowing simultaneous measurement of fluctuation level radial profiles without repeat discharges, as well as opening up the possibility of measuring radial turbulent correlation lengths. Newly refined statistical techniques have been developed in order to accurately analyze the fluctuation data collected from the CECE system. This paper presents the hardware upgrades for this system and the analysis techniques used to interpret the raw data, as well as measurements of fluctuation spectra and fluctuation level radial profiles.

  9. Diagnostic reference levels in intraoral dental radiography in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Kyung; Han, Won Jeong; Choi, Jin Woo; Jung, Yun Hoa; Yoon, Suk Ja; Lee, Jae Seo

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to survey the radiographic exposure parameters, to measure the patient doses for intraoral dental radiography nationwide, and thus to establish the diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in intraoral dental X-ray examination in Korea. One hundred two intraoral dental radiographic machines from all regions of South Korea were selected for this study. Radiographic exposure parameters, size of hospital, type of image receptor system, installation duration of machine, and type of dental X-ray machine were documented. Patient entrance doses (PED) and dose-area products (DAP) were measured three times at the end of the exit cone of the X-ray unit with a DAP meter (DIAMENTOR M4-KDK, PTW, Freiburg, Germany) for adult mandibular molar intraoral dental radiography, and corrections were made for room temperature and pressure. Measured PED and DAP were averaged and compared according to the size of hospital, type of image receptor system, installation duration, and type of dental X-ray machine. The mean exposure parameters were 62.6 kVp, 7.9 mA, and 0.5 second for adult mandibular molar intraoral dental radiography. The mean patient dose was 2.11 mGy (PED) and 59.4 mGycm2 (DAP) and the third quartile one 3.07 mGy (PED) and 87.4 mGycm 2 (DAP). Doses at university dental hospitals were lower than those at dental clinics (p 2 (DAP) as the DRLs in adult mandibular molar intraoral dental radiography in Korea.

  10. Analysis of the Astronomy Diagnostic Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogt, Erik; Sabers, Darrell; Prather, Edward E.; Deming, Grace L.; Hufnagel, Beth; Slater, Timothy F.

    2007-01-01

    Seventy undergraduate class sections were examined from the database of Astronomy Diagnostic Test (ADT) results of Deming and Hufnagel to determine if course format correlated with ADT normalized gain scores. Normalized gains were calculated for four different classroom scenarios: lecture, lecture with discussion, lecture with lab, and lecture…

  11. Immunochromatographic diagnostic test analysis using Google Glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Steve; Caire, Romain; Cortazar, Bingen; Turan, Mehmet; Wong, Andrew; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2014-03-25

    We demonstrate a Google Glass-based rapid diagnostic test (RDT) reader platform capable of qualitative and quantitative measurements of various lateral flow immunochromatographic assays and similar biomedical diagnostics tests. Using a custom-written Glass application and without any external hardware attachments, one or more RDTs labeled with Quick Response (QR) code identifiers are simultaneously imaged using the built-in camera of the Google Glass that is based on a hands-free and voice-controlled interface and digitally transmitted to a server for digital processing. The acquired JPEG images are automatically processed to locate all the RDTs and, for each RDT, to produce a quantitative diagnostic result, which is returned to the Google Glass (i.e., the user) and also stored on a central server along with the RDT image, QR code, and other related information (e.g., demographic data). The same server also provides a dynamic spatiotemporal map and real-time statistics for uploaded RDT results accessible through Internet browsers. We tested this Google Glass-based diagnostic platform using qualitative (i.e., yes/no) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and quantitative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests. For the quantitative RDTs, we measured activated tests at various concentrations ranging from 0 to 200 ng/mL for free and total PSA. This wearable RDT reader platform running on Google Glass combines a hands-free sensing and image capture interface with powerful servers running our custom image processing codes, and it can be quite useful for real-time spatiotemporal tracking of various diseases and personal medical conditions, providing a valuable tool for epidemiology and mobile health.

  12. DIAGNOSTICS OF LEVELS OF FORMATION OF FUTURE MUSIC TEACHERS’ ART REFLECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jingjing

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Features of diagnostics of levels of formation of art reflection are justified in the article. Four levels of future music teachers’ art reflection are defined. These levels are based on the research measures of desire to master art reflection; the degree of understanding the nature and characteristics of art reflection; measures of the emotional involvement into art reflection; degree of possession of the necessary skills for art reflection; formation of professionalism in music and performing activities. They are initial, satisfactory, sufficient and optimal. The importance of formation of future music teachers’ art reflection is considered as the basis for professional development, self-regulation on the acquisition of implementing art knowledge. The formation of art reflection requires the creation and implementation of specific methods of diagnostics of future music teachers’ art reflection. The article is dedicated to the problem of developing and testing diagnostic methods of formation of future music teachers’ art reflection. While writing the article there methods of analysis, synthesis, method of systematization of the material, the principles of objectivity and scientific character are being used. Diagnostics and analysis of the levels of future music teachers’ art reflection shows that the vast majority of students have art reflection at a satisfactory level (67.24%. 22.41% of students are found to have the initial level of formation of art reflection. Only 10.34% of students are found to have the sufficient level of art reflection. There are no students having the optimal level of art reflection. The author concluded that educational and behavior tasks, which the future music teachers have, are identified while testing the features of formation of future music teachers’ art reflection. They cause picking out the most appropriate areas and focus on the most prospective and effective methods of formation in the course of

  13. Cost-benefit analysis in decision making for diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Hilberg, A.W.

    1982-02-01

    This paper reviews certain current concepts and methods relating to benefit-risk analysis, in terms of economic costs and raidation risks to health, in relation to the benefits from diagnostic radiology in clinical medicine

  14. Development of ITER diagnostics: Neutronic analysis and radiation hardness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukolov, Konstantin, E-mail: vukolov_KY@nrcki.ru; Borisov, Andrey; Deryabina, Natalya; Orlovskiy, Ilya

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Problems of ITER diagnostics caused by neutron radiation from hot DT plasma considered. • Careful neutronic analysis is necessary for ITER diagnostics development. • Effective nuclear shielding for ITER diagnostics in the 11th equatorial port plug proposed. • Requirements for study of radiation hardness of diagnostic elements defined. • Results of optical glasses irradiation tests in a fission reactor given. - Abstract: The paper is dedicated to the problems of ITER diagnostics caused by effects of radiation from hot DT plasma. An effective nuclear shielding must be arranged in diagnostic port plugs to meet the nuclear safety requirements and to provide reliable operation of the diagnostics. This task can be solved with the help of neutronic analysis of the diagnostics environment within the port plugs at the design stage. Problems of neutronic calculations are demonstrated for the 11th equatorial port plug. The numerical simulation includes the calculations of neutron fluxes in the port-plug and in the interspace. Options for nuclear shielding, such as tungsten collimator, boron carbide and water moderators, stainless steel and lead screens are considered. Data on neutron fluxes along diagnostic labyrinths allow to define radiation hardness requirements for the diagnostic components and to specify their materials. Options for windows and lenses materials for optical diagnostics are described. The results of irradiation of flint and silica glasses in nuclear reactor have shown that silica KU-1 and KS-4V retain transparency in visible range after neutron fluence of 10{sup 17} cm{sup −2}. Flints required for achromatic objectives have much less radiation hardness about 5 × 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}.

  15. Applications of ROC analysis in diagnostic image evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    The need for Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis is indicated by a discussion of the limitations of accuracy and of sensitivity and specificity as indices of diagnostic detection or discrmination performance. The concept of a variable decision threshold is shown to lead in a natural way to the ROC curve as a means for specifying diagnostic performance. Practical techniques for measuring ROC curves are described, and directions for possible generalizations of conventional ROC analysis are indicated

  16. Trace element analysis: a diagnostic tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, I.H.; Cheema, M.N.

    1976-09-01

    The human mody continuously assimilates a variety of elements from the environment, and the concentration of these elements in the blood is regulated by means of various homeostatic mechanisms. Some of the elements, though present in very small amounts, have highly specialized functions in initiating many biochemical reactions. These elements, known as essential trace elements, are closely related to human diseases since their deficiency or excess induces physiological changes. Many diseases such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, etc., are related to an imbalance in trace element. The measurement of trace elements in body fluids and tissues can, therefore, be effectively employed for diagnostic tests

  17. Plasma diagnostics surface analysis and interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Auciello, Orlando

    2013-01-01

    Plasmas and their interaction with materials have become subjects of major interest because of their importance in modern forefront technologies such as microelectronics, fusion energy, and space. Plasmas are used in microelectronics to process semiconductors (etching of patterns for microcircuits, plasma-induced deposition of thin films, etc.); plasmas produce deleterious erosion effects on surfaces of materials used for fusion devices and spaceships exposed to the low earth environment.Diagnostics of plasmas and materials exposed to them are fundamental to the understanding of the physical a

  18. Diagnostic accuracy at several reduced radiation dose levels for CT imaging in the diagnosis of appendicitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Khatonabadi, Maryam; Kim, Hyun; Jude, Matilda; Zaragoza, Edward; Lee, Margaret; Patel, Maitraya; Poon, Cheryce; Douek, Michael; Andrews-Tang, Denise; Doepke, Laura; McNitt-Gray, Shawn; Cagnon, Chris; DeMarco, John; McNitt-Gray, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: While several studies have investigated the tradeoffs between radiation dose and image quality (noise) in CT imaging, the purpose of this study was to take this analysis a step further by investigating the tradeoffs between patient radiation dose (including organ dose) and diagnostic accuracy in diagnosis of appendicitis using CT. Methods: This study was IRB approved and utilized data from 20 patients who underwent clinical CT exams for indications of appendicitis. Medical record review established true diagnosis of appendicitis, with 10 positives and 10 negatives. A validated software tool used raw projection data from each scan to create simulated images at lower dose levels (70%, 50%, 30%, 20% of original). An observer study was performed with 6 radiologists reviewing each case at each dose level in random order over several sessions. Readers assessed image quality and provided confidence in their diagnosis of appendicitis, each on a 5 point scale. Liver doses at each case and each dose level were estimated using Monte Carlo simulation based methods. Results: Overall diagnostic accuracy varies across dose levels: 92%, 93%, 91%, 90% and 90% across the 100%, 70%, 50%, 30% and 20% dose levels respectively. And it is 93%, 95%, 88%, 90% and 90% across the 13.5-22mGy, 9.6-13.5mGy, 6.4-9.6mGy, 4-6.4mGy, and 2-4mGy liver dose ranges respectively. Only 4 out of 600 observations were rated "unacceptable" for image quality. Conclusion: The results from this pilot study indicate that the diagnostic accuracy does not change dramatically even at significantly reduced radiation dose.

  19. FISH analysis for diagnostic evaluation of challenging melanocytic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, A K; Hirschmann, A; Pfeiffer, D; Paredes, B E; Diebold, J

    2010-09-01

    The differential diagnosis of malignant melanomas and atypical melanocytic nevi is still a diagnostic challenge. The currently accepted morphologic criteria show substantial interobserver variability, likewise immunohistochemical studies are often not able to discriminate these lesions reliably. Techniques that support diagnostic accuracy are of the greatest importance considering the growing incidence of malignant melanomas and their increase in younger patients. In this study we analyzed the feasibility of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis for the discrimination of malignant and benign melanocytic tumors. A panel of DNA probes was used to detect chromosomal aberrations of chromosomes 6 and 11. On a series of 5 clearly malignant and benign melanocytic tumors we confirmed the applicability of the test. Then we focused on examination of ambiguous melanocytic lesions, where atypical cells are often difficult to relocalize in the 4',6-Diamidino-2-phenylindol (DAPI)-fluorescence stain. FISH analyses were conducted on destained H&E-stained slides. By comparison of the DAPI-image with photos taken from the H&E stain, unambiguous assignment of the FISH results to the conspicuous groups of cells was possible. The results of FISH analysis were consistent with the conventional diagnosis in 11 of 14 small ambiguous lesions. Of the remaining 3 cases, 2 showed FISH-results close to the cut-off level. Comparison of FISH results on thin and thick sections revealed that the cut-off values have to be adapted for 2 microm destained sections. In conclusion, FISH analysis is a useful and applicable tool for assessment of even smallest melanocytic neoplasms, although there will remain unclear cases that cannot be solved even after additional FISH evaluation.

  20. MOVES regional level sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The MOVES Regional Level Sensitivity Analysis was conducted to increase understanding of the operations of the MOVES Model in regional emissions analysis and to highlight the following: : the relative sensitivity of selected MOVES Model input paramet...

  1. Dosimetric methodology and reference system for diagnostic level X radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potiens, Maria da Penha Albuquerque

    1999-01-01

    Several methodologies for the calibration of diagnostic radiology instruments were developed and established at the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN. These established radiation qualities are recommended by international standards. The methods may be used in the calibration procedures of survey meters used in radiation protection measurements (scattered radiation), instruments used in direct beams (attenuated and non attenuated beams) and quality control instruments. A reference system was proposed using two identical ionization chambers developed at IPEN. They differ only by the collecting electrode material, one of aluminium and the other of graphite. The different energetic dependence of the chamber's response provided a ratio related to the tube potential. The variation of only 0.28%, from 14.3 to 111 keV, on the energetic dependence of the graphite electrode chamber, provided the possibility of air kerma rate determination in the studied radiation beams. (author)

  2. A new perspective into root-cause analysis and diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Inn Seock; Kim, Tae Kwon; Kim, Min Chull

    1998-01-01

    A critical review of diagnostic and root-cause analysis methods, developed in nuclear, chemical process, aviation industries, was made. Based on this review, the insights into both off-line and on-line diagnostics, and also root-cause analysis are preseted from a new perspective. This perspective may be applied for various purposes, including real-time on-line process diagnosis, root-cause analysis of reactor scrams, diagnosis of severe accidents, or situation identification of an on-going emergency at a nuclear site

  3. Plasma levels and diagnostic utility of VEGF, MMP-2 and TIMP-2 in the diagnostics of breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ławicki, Sławomir; Zajkowska, Monika; Głażewska, Edyta Katarzyna; Będkowska, Grażyna Ewa; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2017-03-01

    We investigated plasma levels and diagnostic utility of vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) in comparison to cancer antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3). Plasma levels of tested parameters were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) while CA 15-3 with chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA). The plasma levels of VEGF, TIMP-2 showed significantly higher than CA 15-3 values of the diagnostic sensitivity, the predictive values of positive and negative test results (PPV, NPV) and the area under the receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve (AUC) in early stages of breast cancer (BC). The combined use of the tested parameters with CA 15-3 resulted in the increase in sensitivity, NPV and AUC, especially in the combination with VEGF (83%; 72%; 0.888) and TIMP-2 (83%; 72%; 0.894). The highest values were obtained for combination of all three parameters (93%; 85%; 0.923). These findings suggest the usefulness of the tested parameters in the diagnosis of BC, especially VEGF and TIMP-2 with CA 15-3 in early stages of BC, which could be a new diagnostic panel.

  4. Environmental Perception as a Diagnostic Probe of Environmental Complexity Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Mirlaine R.; Macedo, Renato L. G.; Freitas, Matheus P.; Nunes, Cleiton A.; Venturin, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Educational methods to diagnose and improve the level of environmental conception are required. The present work reports a methodology based on studies about the environmental perception of a university public, divided into general students and those related to the forest sciences, who are involved with disciplines and researches related…

  5. Logical Entity Level Sentiment Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Niklas Christoffer; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    We present a formal logical approach using a combinatory categorial grammar for entity level sentiment analysis that utilizes machine learning techniques for efficient syntactical tagging and performs a deep structural analysis of the syntactical properties of texts in order to yield precise resu...

  6. Smoking affects diagnostic salivary periodontal disease biomarker levels in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Anna Maria; Sorsa, Timo; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Tervahartiala, Taina; Kari, Kirsti; Broms, Ulla; Koskenvuo, Markku; Meurman, Jukka H

    2010-09-01

    The effects of smoking on periodontal biomarkers in adolescents are unknown. This study investigates matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 and polymorphonuclear leukocyte elastase levels in saliva together with periodontal health indices accounting for body mass index and smoking in a birth cohort from Finland. The oral health of boys (n = 258) and girls (n = 243) aged 15 to 16 years was examined clinically. Health habits were assessed by questionnaire. Saliva samples were collected and analyzed by immunofluorometric and peptide assays for MMP-8 levels and polymorphonuclear leukocyte elastase activities, and investigated statistically with the background factors. Median MMP-8 values of male smokers were 112.03 microg/l compared to 176.89 microg/l of non-smokers (P = 0.05). For female smokers corresponding values were 170.88 microg/l versus 177.92 microg/l in non-smokers (not statistically significant). Elastase values in male smokers were 5.88 x 10(-3) Delta OD(405)/h versus 11.0 x 10(-3) Delta OD(405)/h in non-smokers (P = 0.02), and in female smokers 9.16 x 10(-3) Delta OD(405)/h versus 10.88 x 10(-3) Delta OD(405)/h in non-smokers (P = 0.72). The effect was strengthened by high pack-years of smoking (MMP-8, P = 0.04; elastase, P = 0.01). Both biomarkers increased with gingival bleeding. However, statistically significant associations were observed with bleeding on probing and MMP-8 (P = 0.04); MMP-8 was suggestively associated with probing depth (P = 0.09) in non-smoking boys. In smokers with calculus, MMP-8 increased after adjusting with body mass index (P = 0.03). No corresponding differences were seen in girls. Smoking significantly decreased both biomarkers studied. Compared to girls, boys seem to have enhanced susceptibility for periodontitis as reflected in salivary MMP-8 values.

  7. Neutronics analysis for integration of ITER diagnostics port EP10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colling, Bethany, E-mail: bethany.colling@ccfe.ac.uk [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Department of Engineering, Lancaster University, Lancashire LA1 4YR (United Kingdom); Eade, Tim [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Joyce, Malcolm J. [Department of Engineering, Lancaster University, Lancashire LA1 4YR (United Kingdom); Pampin, Raul; Seyvet, Fabien [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Turner, Andrew [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Udintsev, Victor [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2016-11-01

    Shutdown dose rate calculations have been performed on an integrated ITER C-lite neutronics model with equatorial port 10. A ‘fully shielded’ configuration, optimised for a given set of diagnostic designs (i.e. shielding in all available space within the port plug drawers), results in a shutdown dose rate in the port interspace, from the activation of materials comprising equatorial port 10, in excess of 2000 μSv/h. Achieving dose rates of 100 μSv/h or less, as required in areas where hands-on maintenance can be performed, in the port interspace region will be challenging. A combination of methods will need to be implemented, such as reducing mass and/or the use of reduced activation steel in the port interspace, optimisation of the diagnostic designs and shielding of the port interspace floor. Further analysis is required to test these options and the ongoing design optimisation of the EP10 diagnostic systems.

  8. Technical Analysis of the Slosson-Diagnostic Math Screener (S-DMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erford, Bradley T.; Klein, Lauren

    2007-01-01

    The Slosson-Diagnostic Math Screener (S-DMS) was designed to help identify students in Grades 1 to 8 at risk for mathematics failure. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, item analysis, decision efficiency, convergent validity, and factorial validity of all five levels of the S-DMS were studied using 20 independent samples of students…

  9. Space elevator systems level analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laubscher, B. E. (Bryan E.)

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. It involves new, untried technologies in most of its subsystems. Thus the successful construction of the SE requires a significant amount of development, This in turn implies a high level of risk for the SE. This paper will present a systems level analysis of the SE by subdividing its components into their subsystems to determine their level of technological maturity. such a high-risk endeavor is to follow a disciplined approach to the challenges. A systems level analysis informs this process and is the guide to where resources should be applied in the development processes. It is an efficient path that, if followed, minimizes the overall risk of the system's development. systems level analysis is that the overall system is divided naturally into its subsystems, and those subsystems are further subdivided as appropriate for the analysis. By dealing with the complex system in layers, the parameter space of decisions is kept manageable. Moreover, A rational way to manage One key aspect of a resources are not expended capriciously; rather, resources are put toward the biggest challenges and most promising solutions. This overall graded approach is a proven road to success. The analysis includes topics such as nanotube technology, deployment scenario, power beaming technology, ground-based hardware and operations, ribbon maintenance and repair and climber technology.

  10. Data analysis at Level-1 Trigger level

    CERN Document Server

    Wittmann, Johannes; Aradi, Gregor; Bergauer, Herbert; Jeitler, Manfred; Wulz, Claudia; Apanasevich, Leonard; Winer, Brian; Puigh, Darren Michael

    2017-01-01

    With ever increasing luminosity at the LHC, optimum online data selection is getting more and more important. While in the case of some experiments (LHCb and ALICE) this task is being completely transferred to computer farms, the others - ATLAS and CMS - will not be able to do this in the medium-term future for technological, detector-related reasons. Therefore, these experiments pursue the complementary approach of migrating more and more of the offline and High-Level Trigger intelligence into the trigger electronics. This paper illustrates how the Level-1 Trigger of the CMS experiment and in particular its concluding stage, the Global Trigger, take up this challenge.

  11. Diagnostic Reference Levels for Patient Radiation Doses in Pelvis and Lumbar spine Radiography in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang Yong; Lee, Byung Young; Lee, Jung Eun; Lee, Hyun Koo; Jung, Seunbg Hwan; Kim, Byung Woo; Kim, Hyeog Ju; Kim, Dong Sup [Radiation Safety Division National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Pelvis and lumbar spine radiography, among various types of diagnostic radiography, include gonads of the human body and give patients high radiation dose. Nevertheless, diagnostic reference levels for patient radiation dose in pelvis and lumbar spine radiography has not yet been established in Korea. Therefore, the radiation dose that patients receive from pelvis and lumbar radiography is measured and the diagnostic reference level on patient radiation dose for the optimization of radiation protection of patients in pelvis and lumbar spine radiography was established. The conditions and diagnostic imaging information acquired during the time of the postero-anterior view of the pelvis and the postero-anterior and lateral view of the lumbar spine at 125 medical institutions throughout Korea are collected for analysis and the entrance surface dose received by patients is measured using a glass dosimeter. The diagnostic reference levels for patient radiation dose in pelvis and lumbar spine radiography to be recommended to the medical institutes is arranged by establishing the dose from the patient radiation dose that corresponds to the 3rd quartile values as the appropriate diagnostic reference level for patient radiation dose. According to the results of the assessment of diagnostic imaging information acquired from pelvis and lumbar spine radiography and the measurement of patient entrance surface dose taken at the 125 medical institutes throughout Korea, the tube voltage ranged between 60-97 kVp, with the average use being 75 kVp, and the tube current ranged between 8-123 mAs, with the average use being 30 mAs. In the posteroanterior and lateral views of lumbar spine radiography, the tube voltage of each view ranged between 65-100 kVp (average use: 78 kVp) and 70-109 kVp (average use: 87 kVp), respectively, and the tube current of each view ranged between 10-100 mAs(average use: 35 mAs) and between 8.9-300 mAs(average use: 64 mAs), respectively. The measurements of

  12. Diagnostic Reference Levels for Patient Radiation Doses in Pelvis and Lumbar spine Radiography in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwang Yong; Lee, Byung Young; Lee, Jung Eun; Lee, Hyun Koo; Jung, Seunbg Hwan; Kim, Byung Woo; Kim, Hyeog Ju; Kim, Dong Sup

    2009-01-01

    Pelvis and lumbar spine radiography, among various types of diagnostic radiography, include gonads of the human body and give patients high radiation dose. Nevertheless, diagnostic reference levels for patient radiation dose in pelvis and lumbar spine radiography has not yet been established in Korea. Therefore, the radiation dose that patients receive from pelvis and lumbar radiography is measured and the diagnostic reference level on patient radiation dose for the optimization of radiation protection of patients in pelvis and lumbar spine radiography was established. The conditions and diagnostic imaging information acquired during the time of the postero-anterior view of the pelvis and the postero-anterior and lateral view of the lumbar spine at 125 medical institutions throughout Korea are collected for analysis and the entrance surface dose received by patients is measured using a glass dosimeter. The diagnostic reference levels for patient radiation dose in pelvis and lumbar spine radiography to be recommended to the medical institutes is arranged by establishing the dose from the patient radiation dose that corresponds to the 3rd quartile values as the appropriate diagnostic reference level for patient radiation dose. According to the results of the assessment of diagnostic imaging information acquired from pelvis and lumbar spine radiography and the measurement of patient entrance surface dose taken at the 125 medical institutes throughout Korea, the tube voltage ranged between 60-97 kVp, with the average use being 75 kVp, and the tube current ranged between 8-123 mAs, with the average use being 30 mAs. In the posteroanterior and lateral views of lumbar spine radiography, the tube voltage of each view ranged between 65-100 kVp (average use: 78 kVp) and 70-109 kVp (average use: 87 kVp), respectively, and the tube current of each view ranged between 10-100 mAs(average use: 35 mAs) and between 8.9-300 mAs(average use: 64 mAs), respectively. The measurements of

  13. The proposed Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory, Mississippi State University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to authorize Mississippi State University (MSU) to proceed with the detailed design, construction and equipping of the proposed Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL). DOE grant funds are available to the University for the limited purpose of performing preliminary studies, including analysis necessary to conduct this environmental assessment. The proposed facility would be located in the Mississippi Research and Technology Park, adjacent to the Mississippi Agriculture and Forestry Experiment Station campus in Starkville, Mississippi. Total project cost is estimated at $7,953,600. This proposed laboratory would be designed to conduct research into combustion devices related to waste management and environmental restoration that is of importance to industry and government. The proposed facility`s role would be to develop diagnostic instrumentation capabilities in the area of combustion and related processes.

  14. The need for national diagnostic reference levels: entrance surface dose measurement in intraoral radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortazavi, S. M. J.; Shareghi, A.; Kavousi, A.; Ghiassi-Nejad, M.; Jafari-Zadeh, M.; Nazeri, F.; Mozdarani, H.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Intraoral radiographies are the most frequent X-ray examinations in humans. According to International Commission on Radiation Protection recommendations, the selection of a diagnostic reference level should be specific to a country or region. Critical organs such as thyroid gland are exposed to X-rays in intraoral radiography and these exposures should be kept as low as reasonably achievable. To assist the development of DRLs for intraoral radiography, a National Radiation Protection Department-sponsored pilot study was carried out. Materials and methods: thermoluminescent dosimetry is widely acknowledged to be the recommended method for measuring entrance surface doses. In this study, entrance surface doses was measured using LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters on the skin (either mandibular or maxillary arcs) of 40 patients. Three thermoluminescent dosimetry chips were placed on the skin of each patient. The doses were averaged for each radiography and mean entrance surface doses of all patients calculated. Results: the mean ±SD entrance surface dose at the center of the beam on the patient's skin in intraoral radiography was 1.173 ±0.606 mGy (ranged from 0.01 o 0.40 m Gy). The mean entrance surface doses for male and female patients were 1.380± 0.823, and 1.004± 0.258 respectively. No statistically significant difference was found between these means. Despite its necessity , in national level , there is no published data on the diagnostic reference levels for intraoral radiography. However, the results obtained in this study are lower than those reported by investigators in other countries. Conclusion: in IR Iran , due to lack of large scale studies, no diagnostic reference levels have been set for X-ray diagnostic procedures. Due to lack of national diagnostic reference levels, it is not possible to clarify whether in intraoral radiographies any dose reduction techniques are needed. We intend to perform similar nationwide studies to set the

  15. Diagnostic Reference Levels in the 1990 and 1996 Recommendations of the ICRP (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drexler, G.

    1998-01-01

    A review of and some comments on the paragraphs in the ICRP Publications 60 and 73 are presented, which are relevant to diagnostic reference doses. The content of the statements is traced back by approximately 50 years when ICRP's preoccupation with the future health and well-being of the population is reflected in guidance for characterisation of 'normal operational conditions'. The early ICRP levels of reference doses are compared with the values currently discussed to demonstrate the importance of diagnostic reference doses in the process of optimisation and to show the importance of a continuous review and update of these levels. (author)

  16. CSF lactate level: a useful diagnostic tool to differentiate acute bacterial and viral meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abro, Ali Hassan; Abdou, Ahmed Saheh; Ustadi, Abdulla M; Saleh, Ahmed Alhaj; Younis, Nadeem Javeed; Doleh, Wafa F

    2009-08-01

    To evaluate the potential role of CSF lactate level in the diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis and in the differentiation between viral and bacterial meningitis. This was a hospital based observational study, conducted at Infectious Diseases Unit, Rashid Hospital Dubai, United Arab Emirates, from July 2004 to June 2007. The patients with clinical diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis and who had CSF Gram stain/culture positive, CSF analysis suggestive of bacterial meningitis with negative Gram stain and culture but blood culture positive for bacteria and patients with clinical diagnosis suggestive of viral meningitis supported by CSF chemical analysis with negative Gram stain and culture as well as negative blood culture for bacteria were included in the study. CT scan brain was done for all patients before lumber puncture and CSF and blood samples were collected immediately after admission. CSF chemical analysis including lactate level was done on first spinal tap. The CSF lactate level was tested by Enzymatic Colorimetric method. A total 95 adult patients of acute meningitis (53 bacterial and 42 viral) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Among 53 bacterial meningitis patients, Neisseria meningitides were isolated in 29 (54.7%), Strept. Pneumoniae in 18 (33.96%), Staph. Aureus in 2 (3.77%), Klebsiell Pneumoniae in 2 (3.77%), Strept. Agalactiae in 1 (1.8%) and E. Coli in 1 (1.8%). All the patients with bacterial meningitis had CSF lactate > 3.8 mmol/l except one, whereas none of the patients with viral meningitis had lactate level > 3.8 mmol/l. The mean CSF lactate level in bacterial meningitis cases amounted to 16.51 +/- 6.14 mmol/l, whereas it was significantly lower in viral group 2.36 +/- 0.6 mmol/l, p < .0001. CSF lactate level was significantly high in bacterial than viral meningitis and it can provide pertinent, rapid and reliable diagnostic information. Furthermore, CSF lactate level can also differentiate bacterial meningitis from viral one in a quick

  17. Diagnostics of subtropical plants functional state by cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Belous

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an application example of statistical methods for data analysis on diagnosis of the adaptive capacity of subtropical plants varieties. We depicted selection indicators and basic physiological parameters that were defined as diagnostic. We used evaluation on a set of parameters of water regime, there are: determination of water deficit of the leaves, determining the fractional composition of water and detection parameters of the concentration of cell sap (CCS (for tea culture flushes. These settings are characterized by high liability and high responsiveness to the effects of many abiotic factors that determined the particular care in the selection of plant material for analysis and consideration of the impact on sustainability. On the basis of the experimental data calculated the coefficients of pair correlation between climatic factors and used physiological indicators. The result was a selection of physiological and biochemical indicators proposed to assess the adaptability and included in the basis of methodical recommendations on diagnostics of the functional state of the studied cultures. Analysis of complex studies involving a large number of indicators is quite difficult, especially does not allow to quickly identify the similarity of new varieties for their adaptive responses to adverse factors, and, therefore, to set general requirements to conditions of cultivation. Use of cluster analysis suggests that in the analysis of only quantitative data; define a set of variables used to assess varieties (and the more sampling, the more accurate the clustering will happen, be sure to ascertain the measure of similarity (or difference between objects. It is shown that the identification of diagnostic features, which are subjected to statistical processing, impact the accuracy of the varieties classification. Selection in result of the mono-clusters analysis (variety tea Kolhida; hazelnut Lombardsky red; variety kiwi Monty

  18. [Diagnostic value of baseline serum luteinizing hormone level for central precocious puberty in girls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou-Yang, Li-Xue; Yang, Fan

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of baseline serum luteinizing hormone (LH) level for central precocious puberty (CPP) in girls. A total of 279 girls with precocious puberty were subjected to assessment of growth and development, bone age determination, baseline LH test, and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) test, gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test, and other related examinations. Of the 279 patients, 175 were diagnosed with CPP and 104 with premature thelarche (PT). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic value of baseline LH and FSH levels and their peak levels for CPP, and the correlation between the baseline LH level and the peak LH level was analyzed. The CPP group had significantly higher bone age, baseline LH and FSH levels, peak LH and FSH levels, and ratio of peak LH level to peak FSH level than the PT group (Pbaseline LH level and peak LH level had good diagnostic values for CPP. Among the three bone age subgroups in the CPP group (7.0-9.0 years, 9.0-11.0 years, and >11.0 years), baseline LH level showed the best diagnostic value in the >11.0 years subgroup, with the largest area under the ROC curve. At a baseline LH level of 0.45 IU/L, the Youden index reached the peak value, and the sensitivity and specificity were 66.7% and 80% respectively, for the diagnosis of CPP. At a peak LH level of 9.935 IU/L, the Youden index reached the peak value, and the sensitivity and specificity were 74.8% and 100% respectively, for the diagnosis of CPP. The baseline LH level was positively correlated with the peak LH level (r=0.440, PBaseline LH level can be used as an primary screening index for the diagnosis of CPP. It has a certain diagnostic value for CPP at different bone ages, and may be used as a monitoring index during the treatment and follow-uP.

  19. Bayesian tomography and integrated data analysis in fusion diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Dong, Y. B.; Deng, Wei; Shi, Z. B.; Fu, B. Z.; Gao, J. M.; Wang, T. B.; Zhou, Yan; Liu, Yi; Yang, Q. W.; Duan, X. R.

    2016-11-01

    In this article, a Bayesian tomography method using non-stationary Gaussian process for a prior has been introduced. The Bayesian formalism allows quantities which bear uncertainty to be expressed in the probabilistic form so that the uncertainty of a final solution can be fully resolved from the confidence interval of a posterior probability. Moreover, a consistency check of that solution can be performed by checking whether the misfits between predicted and measured data are reasonably within an assumed data error. In particular, the accuracy of reconstructions is significantly improved by using the non-stationary Gaussian process that can adapt to the varying smoothness of emission distribution. The implementation of this method to a soft X-ray diagnostics on HL-2A has been used to explore relevant physics in equilibrium and MHD instability modes. This project is carried out within a large size inference framework, aiming at an integrated analysis of heterogeneous diagnostics.

  20. Diagnostic Value of Serum Adenosine Deaminase (ADA) Level for Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmanzadeh, Shokrollah; Tavakkol, Heshmatollah; Bavieh, Khalid; Alavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-03-01

    Diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) is not always easy, thus employing methods with a short duration and acceptable sensitivity and specificity is necessary to diagnose TB. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of serum adenosine deaminase (ADA) level for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. A total of 160 sex and age-matched subjects were included in this study, and were divided to four groups; forty patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) diagnosed based on the national TB program (NTP), forty patients with non-tuberculosis bacterial pneumonia, forty patients with lung cancer and forty people who were healthy in every respect. Serum adenosine deaminase activity in patients of each group was measured by the Giusti and Galanti calorimetry method using a commercial kit (Diazyme, USA). The ANOVA analysis was used to compare groups for quantitative variables. Mean serum ADA level in the PTB group was clearly higher than the mean serum ADA in the other three groups. Mean serum ADA was 26 IU/L in PTB patients, 19.48 IU/L in patients with pneumonia, 15.8 IU/L in patients with lung cancer, and 10.7 IU/L in the control group (P ADA in patients with PTB sensitivity and specificity was defined as 35% and 91%, respectively. Serum ADA activity with high specificity percentage may be a useful alternative test in restricted resource areas to rule out diagnosis of PTB. However, serum ADA activity is not a useful tool for TB diagnosis.

  1. Establishment of standard x-ray qualities to be used in diagnostic level at SSDLs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A-Aziz, R.O.

    2007-08-01

    The objective of the present work is to modify x-ray machine (used by the secondary standard dosimetry laboratory in Sudan) to produce x-ray qualities suitable for the calibration at diagnostic level. It based on experimental evaluations. The importance of this study appears in development of protocols to calibrate the instruments used in diagnostic radiology in by good response of the instruments and low cost. In particular, the half value layer (HVL) values for the following qualities 40, 60, 80, 100, 120 and 150 were determined using various attenuation layers. Ionization chamber was used to determine the free air kerma rate at a distance of 100 cm from the x-ray generator. The obtained HVL values were compared with standard values of diagnostic levels. It was observed that the HVL of the present x-ray machine in most qualities are smaller than the standard ones. An approved method (described in the standard IEC 61267) was applied to determine the amount of additional filtration required to meet the standard values. The results show that the available cupper layers were not suitable for this purpose as most of the x-ray was absorbed in the material. Aluminum layers, on the other hand , show good performances to reduce the beams to the desired levels. The amount of additional filtration (from aluminum layers) needed in order to establish standard x-ray qualities to be used in diagnostic level were determined.(Author)

  2. CAD-Based Shielding Analysis for ITER Port Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serikov Arkady

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation shielding analysis conducted in support of design development of the contemporary diagnostic systems integrated inside the ITER ports is relied on the use of CAD models. This paper presents the CAD-based MCNP Monte Carlo radiation transport and activation analyses for the Diagnostic Upper and Equatorial Port Plugs (UPP #3 and EPP #8, #17. The creation process of the complicated 3D MCNP models of the diagnostics systems was substantially accelerated by application of the CAD-to-MCNP converter programs MCAM and McCad. High performance computing resources of the Helios supercomputer allowed to speed-up the MCNP parallel transport calculations with the MPI/OpenMP interface. The found shielding solutions could be universal, reducing ports R&D costs. The shield block behind the Tritium and Deposit Monitor (TDM optical box was added to study its influence on Shut-Down Dose Rate (SDDR in Port Interspace (PI of EPP#17. Influence of neutron streaming along the Lost Alpha Monitor (LAM on the neutron energy spectra calculated in the Tangential Neutron Spectrometer (TNS of EPP#8. For the UPP#3 with Charge eXchange Recombination Spectroscopy (CXRS-core, an excessive neutron streaming along the CXRS shutter, which should be prevented in further design iteration.

  3. CAD-Based Shielding Analysis for ITER Port Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serikov, Arkady; Fischer, Ulrich; Anthoine, David; Bertalot, Luciano; De Bock, Maartin; O'Connor, Richard; Juarez, Rafael; Krasilnikov, Vitaly

    2017-09-01

    Radiation shielding analysis conducted in support of design development of the contemporary diagnostic systems integrated inside the ITER ports is relied on the use of CAD models. This paper presents the CAD-based MCNP Monte Carlo radiation transport and activation analyses for the Diagnostic Upper and Equatorial Port Plugs (UPP #3 and EPP #8, #17). The creation process of the complicated 3D MCNP models of the diagnostics systems was substantially accelerated by application of the CAD-to-MCNP converter programs MCAM and McCad. High performance computing resources of the Helios supercomputer allowed to speed-up the MCNP parallel transport calculations with the MPI/OpenMP interface. The found shielding solutions could be universal, reducing ports R&D costs. The shield block behind the Tritium and Deposit Monitor (TDM) optical box was added to study its influence on Shut-Down Dose Rate (SDDR) in Port Interspace (PI) of EPP#17. Influence of neutron streaming along the Lost Alpha Monitor (LAM) on the neutron energy spectra calculated in the Tangential Neutron Spectrometer (TNS) of EPP#8. For the UPP#3 with Charge eXchange Recombination Spectroscopy (CXRS-core), an excessive neutron streaming along the CXRS shutter, which should be prevented in further design iteration.

  4. Comparative analysis of diagnostic accuracy of different brain biopsy procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Deepali; Sharma, Mehar Chand; Sarkar, Chitra; Gupta, Deepak; Singh, Manmohan; Mahapatra, A K

    2006-12-01

    Image-guided procedures such as computed tomography (CT) guided, neuronavigator-guided and ultrasound-guided methods can assist neurosurgeons in localizing the intraparenchymal lesion of the brain. However, despite improvements in the imaging techniques, an accurate diagnosis of intrinsic lesion requires tissue sampling and histological verification. The present study was carried out to examine the reliability of the diagnoses made on tumor sample obtained via different stereotactic and ultrasound-guided brain biopsy procedures. A retrospective analysis was conducted of all brain biopsies (frame-based and frameless stereotactic and ultrasound-guided) performed in a single tertiary care neurosciences center between 1995 and 2005. The overall diagnostic accuracy achieved on histopathology and correlation with type of biopsy technique was evaluated. A total of 130 cases were included, which consisted of 82 males and 48 females. Age ranged from 4 to 75 years (mean age 39.5 years). Twenty per cent (27 patients) were in the pediatric age group, while 12% (16 patients) were >or= 60-years of age. A definitive histological diagnosis was established in 109 cases (diagnostic yield 80.2%), which encompassed 101 neoplastic and eight nonneoplastic lesions. Frame-based, frameless stereotactic and ultrasound-guided biopsies were done in 95, 15 and 20 patients respectively. Although the numbers of cases were small there was trend for better yield with frameless image-guided stereotactic biopsy and maximum diagnostic yield was obtained i.e, 87% (13/15) in comparison to conventional frame-based CT-guided stereotactic biopsy and ultrasound-guided biopsy. Overall, a trend of higher diagnostic yield was seen in cases with frameless image-guided stereotactic biopsy. Thus, this small series confirms that frameless neuronavigator-guided stereotactic procedures represent the lesion sufficiently in order to make histopathologic diagnosis.

  5. Strengthening the diagnostic capacity to detect Bio Safety Level 3 organisms in unusual respiratory viral outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asten, Liselotte; van der Lubben, Mariken; van den Wijngaard, Cees; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Verheij, Robert; Jacobi, Andre; Overduin, Pieter; Meijer, Adam; Luijt, Dirk; Claas, Eric; Hermans, Mirjam; Melchers, Willem; Rossen, John; Schuurman, Rob; Wolffs, Petra; Boucher, Charles; Bouchier, Charles; Schirm, Jurjen; Kroes, Louis; Leenders, Sander; Galama, Joep; Peeters, Marcel; van Loon, Anton; Stobberingh, Ellen; Schutten, Martin; Koopmans, Marion

    2009-07-01

    Experience with a highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreak in the Netherlands (2003) illustrated that the diagnostic demand for respiratory viruses at different biosafety levels (including BSL3), can increase unexpectedly and dramatically. We describe the measures taken since, aimed at strengthening national laboratory surge capacity and improving preparedness for dealing with diagnostic demand during outbreaks of (emerging) respiratory virus infections, including pandemic influenza virus. Academic and peripheral medical-microbiological laboratories collaborated to determine minimal laboratory requirements for the identification of viruses in the early stages of a pandemic or a large outbreak of avian influenza virus. Next, an enhanced collaborative national network of outbreak assistance laboratories (OAL) was set up. An inventory was made of the maximum diagnostic throughput that this network can deliver in a period of intensified demand. For an estimate of the potential magnitude of this surge demand, historical counts were calculated from hospital- and physician-based registries of patients presenting with respiratory symptoms. Number of respiratory physician-visits ranged from 140,000 to 615,000 per month and hospitalizations ranged from 3000 to 11,500 per month. The established OAL-network provides rapid diagnostic response with agreed quality requirements and a maximum throughput capacity of 1275 samples/day (38,000 per month), assuming other routine diagnostic work needs to be maintained. Thus surge demand for diagnostics for hospitalized cases (if not distinguishable from other respiratory illness) could be handled by the OAL network. Assessing etiology of community acquired acute respiratory infection however, may rapidly exceed the capacity of the network. Therefore algorithms are needed for triaging for laboratory diagnostics; currently this is not addressed in pandemic preparedness plans.

  6. Common faults in turbines and applying neural networks in order to fault diagnostic by vibration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoudifar, M.; AghaAmini, M.

    2001-01-01

    Today the fault diagnostic of the rotating machinery based on the vibration analysis is an effective method in designing predictive maintenance programs. In this method, vibration level of the turbines is monitored and if it is higher than the allowable limit, vibrational data will be analyzed and the growing faults will be detected. But because of the high complexity of the system monitoring, the interpretation of the measured data is more difficult. Therefore, design of the fault diagnostic expert systems by using the expert's technical experiences and knowledge; seem to be the best solution. In this paper,at first several common faults in turbines are studied and the how applying the neural networks to interpret the vibrational data for fault diagnostic is explained

  7. Aquifer test interpretation using derivative analysis and diagnostic plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Espriú, Antonio; Real-Rangel, Roberto; Cortés-Salazar, Iván; Castro-Herrera, Israel; Luna-Izazaga, Gabriela; Sánchez-León, Emilio

    2017-04-01

    Pumping tests remain a method of choice to deduce fundamental aquifer properties and to assess well condition. In the oil and gas (O&G) industry, well testing has been the core technique in examining reservoir behavior over the last 50 years. The pressure derivative by Bourdet, it is perhaps, the most significant single development in the history of well test analysis. Recently, the so-called diagnostics plots (e.g. drawdown and drawdown derivative in a log-log plot) have been successfully tested in aquifers. However, this procedure is still underutilized by groundwater professionals. This research illustrates the applicability range, advantages and drawbacks (e.g. smoothing procedures) of diagnostic plots using field examples from a wide spectrum of tests (short/long tests, constant/variable flow rates, drawdown/buildup stages, pumping well/observation well) in dissimilar geological conditions. We analyze new and pre-existent aquifer tests in Mexico, USA, Canada, Germany, France and Saudi Arabia. In constant flow rate tests, our results show that derivative analysis is an easy, robust and powerful tool to assess near-borehole damage effects, formation heterogeneity, boundaries, flow regimes, infinite-acting radial stages, i.e., valid Theisian framework, and fracture-driven flow. In step tests, the effectiveness relies on high-frequency drawdown measurements. Moreover, we adapt O&G analytical solutions to cater for the conditions in groundwater systems. In this context, further parameters can be computed analytically from the plots, such as skin factor, head losses, wellbore storage, distance to the boundary, channel-aquifer and/or fracture zone width, among others. Therefore, diagnostic plots should be considered a mandatory tool for pumping tests analysis among hydrogeologists. This project has been supported by DGAPA (UNAM) under the research project PAPIIT IN-112815.

  8. Global Assessment of the SMAP Level-4 Soil Moisture Product Using Assimilation Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichle, Rolf; Liu, Qing; De Lannoy, Gabrielle; Crow, Wade; Kimball, John; Koster, Randy; Ardizzone, Joe

    2018-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission Level-4 Soil Moisture (L4_SM) product provides 3-hourly, 9-km resolution, global estimates of surface (0-5 cm) and root-zone (0-100 cm) soil moisture and related land surface variables from 31 March 2015 to present with approx. 2.5-day latency. The ensemble-based L4_SM algorithm assimilates SMAP brightness temperature (Tb) observations into the Catchment land surface model. This study describes the spatially distributed L4_SM analysis and assesses the observation-minus-forecast (O-F) Tb residuals and the soil moisture and temperature analysis increments. Owing to the climatological rescaling of the Tb observations prior to assimilation, the analysis is essentially unbiased, with global mean values of approx. 0.37 K for the O-F Tb residuals and practically zero for the soil moisture and temperature increments. There are, however, modest regional (absolute) biases in the O-F residuals (under approx. 3 K), the soil moisture increments (under approx. 0.01 cu m/cu m), and the surface soil temperature increments (under approx. 1 K). Typical instantaneous values are approx. 6 K for O-F residuals, approx. 0.01 (approx. 0.003) cu m/cu m for surface (root-zone) soil moisture increments, and approx. 0.6 K for surface soil temperature increments. The O-F diagnostics indicate that the actual errors in the system are overestimated in deserts and densely vegetated regions and underestimated in agricultural regions and transition zones between dry and wet climates. The O-F auto-correlations suggest that the SMAP observations are used efficiently in western North America, the Sahel, and Australia, but not in many forested regions and the high northern latitudes. A case study in Australia demonstrates that assimilating SMAP observations successfully corrects short-term errors in the L4_SM rainfall forcing.

  9. Using Data Assimilation Diagnostics to Assess the SMAP Level-4 Soil Moisture Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichle, Rolf; Liu, Qing; De Lannoy, Gabrielle; Crow, Wade; Kimball, John; Koster, Randy; Ardizzone, Joe

    2018-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission Level-4 Soil Moisture (L4_SM) product provides 3-hourly, 9-km resolution, global estimates of surface (0-5 cm) and root-zone (0-100 cm) soil moisture and related land surface variables from 31 March 2015 to present with approx.2.5-day latency. The ensemble-based L4_SM algorithm assimilates SMAP brightness temperature (Tb) observations into the Catchment land surface model. This study describes the spatially distributed L4_SM analysis and assesses the observation-minus-forecast (O-F) Tb residuals and the soil moisture and temperature analysis increments. Owing to the climatological rescaling of the Tb observations prior to assimilation, the analysis is essentially unbiased, with global mean values of approx. 0.37 K for the O-F Tb residuals and practically zero for the soil moisture and temperature increments. There are, however, modest regional (absolute) biases in the O-F residuals (under approx. 3 K), the soil moisture increments (under approx. 0.01 cu m/cu m), and the surface soil temperature increments (under approx. 1 K). Typical instantaneous values are approx. 6 K for O-F residuals, approx. 0.01 (approx. 0.003) cu m/cu m for surface (root-zone) soil moisture increments, and approx. 0.6 K for surface soil temperature increments. The O-F diagnostics indicate that the actual errors in the system are overestimated in deserts and densely vegetated regions and underestimated in agricultural regions and transition zones between dry and wet climates. The O-F auto-correlations suggest that the SMAP observations are used efficiently in western North America, the Sahel, and Australia, but not in many forested regions and the high northern latitudes. A case study in Australia demonstrates that assimilating SMAP observations successfully corrects short-term errors in the L4_SM rainfall forcing.

  10. Serum Glutamine Levels as a Potential Diagnostic Biomarker in Sepsis following Surgery for Peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun-Ju; Huang, Ting-Shuo; Lee, Tung-Liang; Yang, Kang-Chung; Yuan, Shin-Sheng; Lu, Ruey-Hwa; Hsieh, Chung-Ho; Shyu, Yu-Chiau

    2017-12-31

    Few diagnostic biomarkers for sepsis after emergency peritonitis surgery are available to clinicians, and, thus, it is important to develop new biomarkers for patients undergoing this procedure. We investigated whether serum glutamine and selenium levels could be diagnostic biomarkers of sepsis in individuals recovering from emergency peritonitis surgery. From February 2012 to March 2013, patients who had peritonitis diagnosed at the emergency department and underwent emergency surgery were screened for eligibility. Serum glutamine and selenium levels were obtained at pre-operative, post-operative and recovery time points. The average level of pre-operation serum glutamine was significantly different from that on the recovery day (0.317 ± 0.168 vs. 0.532 ± 0.155 mM, P peritonitis. We recommend including glutamine as a biomarker for sepsis severity assessment in addition to the commonly used clinical indicators.

  11. Diagnostic Performance of Mammographic Texture Analysis in the Differential Diagnosis of Benign and Malignant Breast Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiming; Yu, Lan; Wang, Xin; Yu, Haiyang; Gao, Yuanxiang; Ren, Yande; Wang, Gang; Zhou, Xiaoming

    2017-11-09

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the diagnostic performance of mammographic texture analysis in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant breast tumors. Digital mammography images were obtained from the Picture Archiving and Communication System at our institute. Texture features of mammographic images were calculated. Mann-Whitney U test was used to identify differences between the benign and malignant group. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to assess the diagnostic performance of texture features. Significant differences of texture features of histogram, gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and run length matrix (RLM) were found between the benign and malignant breast group (P  .05). The AUROCs of imaging-based diagnosis, texture analysis, and imaging-based diagnosis combined with texture analysis were 0.873, 0.863, and 0.961, respectively. When imaging-based diagnosis was combined with texture analysis, the AUROC was higher than that of imaging-based diagnosis or texture analysis (P benign and malignant breast tumors. Furthermore, the combination of imaging-based diagnosis and texture analysis can significantly improve diagnostic performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. MIPAS level 2 operational analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Raspollini

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The MIPAS (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding instrument has been operating on-board the ENVISAT satellite since March 2002. In the first two years, it acquired in a nearly continuous manner high resolution (0.025 cm−1 unapodized emission spectra of the Earth's atmosphere at limb in the middle infrared region. This paper describes the level 2 near real-time (NRT and off-line (OL ESA processors that have been used to derive level 2 geophysical products from the calibrated and geolocated level 1b spectra. The design of the code and the analysis methodology have been driven by the requirements for NRT processing. This paper reviews the performance of the optimized retrieval strategy that has been implemented to achieve these requirements and provides estimated error budgets for the target products: pressure, temperature, O3, H2O, CH4, HNO3, N2O and NO2, in the altitude measurement range from 6 to 68 km. From application to real MIPAS data, it was found that no change was needed in the developed code although an external algorithm was introduced to identify clouds with high opacity and to exclude affected spectra from the analysis. In addition, a number of updates were made to the set-up parameters and to auxiliary data. In particular, a new version of the MIPAS dedicated spectroscopic database was used and, in the OL analysis, the retrieval range was extended to reduce errors due to uncertainties in extrapolation of the profile outside the retrieval range and more stringent convergence criteria were implemented. A statistical analysis on the χ2 values obtained in one year of measurements shows good agreement with the a priori estimate of the forward model errors. On the basis of the first two years of MIPAS measurements the estimates of the forward model and instrument errors are in general found to be conservative with excellent performance demonstrated for frequency calibration. It is noted that the total retrieval

  13. The establishment of local diagnostic reference levels for paediatric interventional cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFadden, S.; Hughes, C.; D'Helft, C.I.; McGee, A.; Rainford, L.; Brennan, P.C.; McCrum-Gardner, E.; Winder, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is a paucity of information worldwide on radiation exposure in paediatric interventional cardiology. At present Nationally established Diagnostic Reference Levels exist for adult interventional cardiology procedures in the UK but little data is available for paediatrics. In addition, interventional cardiology has been identified as one the highest contributors to medical exposure to ionising radiation and children are more radiosensitive than adults. Objective: This study sought to determine current radiation dose levels in paediatric interventional cardiology (IC) with a view to establishing local diagnostic reference levels (LDRL). Methods: Radiation dose and examination details were recorded for 354 paediatric patients examined by IC in a specialised paediatric centre in Europe. Radiation doses were recorded using a Dose Area Product meter along with examination details. Procedures were categorised as either diagnostic (A) or therapeutic (B). Data was further sub-divided into five age ranges; (1) newborn <1 year (2) 1 <5 years (3) 5 <10 years (4) 10 <15 years (5) 15 years and over. Proposed LDRL were calculated from the mean dose area product readings. Results: The mean patient age was 2.6 years (range 0.0 days–16 years) and weight was 14.9 kg (range 2.4–112 kg). LDRL for the five age groupings were calculated as 190, 421, 582, 1289 and 1776 cGycm² respectively. Conclusion: Local dose reference levels have been proposed for paediatric IC and can be used as a benchmark for other hospitals to compare against their own radiation doses

  14. Regional Diagnostic Reference Levels and Collective Effective Doses from Computed Tomography (CT) Scanners in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingstone, R.S.; Dinakaran, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Diagnostic examinations performed using computed tomography (CT) are on the increase, and the use of this modality needs to be monitored periodically. The aim of this study was to formulate regional diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) and assess collective effective doses from CT scanners in Tamil Nadu, India. In-site CT dose measurements were performed for 127 CT scanners in Tamil Nadu as a part of the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) funded project for a period of two years. Regional DRLs were formulated at third quartile level for three CT protocols such as thorax, abdomen and pelvis and were found to be 557 mGy.cm, 521 mGy.cm and 294 mGy.cm, respectively. The collective effective dose in Tamil Nadu was found to be 14.93 man Sv per day. (author)

  15. Estimates of diagnostic reference levels for common radiographic x-ray examinations in some sudanese hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awad, Ezdehar Mohammed Satti.

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study were to estimate patient dose in some common diagnostic x-ray examinations in Sudan with the aim to propose national diagnostic reference levels (DRLs). Radiation doses were estimated for the patients in 23 public hospitals in different town in Sudan (Wad-Madani, Kasala, Atbara Al obaid, Al nhod, Khartoum). Entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) was estimated in a three steps protocol: First, x-ray unit output Y (d) was measured at a distance at a distance (d) for different peak tube voltages and tube loading (mAs). Next, incident air kerma (k) was calculated from Y (d) using inverse square law combined with patient exposure factors. ESAK was calculated from k using backscatter factor, B. Mean ESAK values were comparable to those reported in other countries and are below reference dose levels. The estimated mean ESAK values were: 0.4, 1.9, 1.8, 3.2, 2.4, 3.5, and 8.4 mGy for chests . The estimated mean ESAK values were 0.4, 1.9, 1.8, 3.2, 2.4, 3,5, and 8.4 mGy for chest PA, Skull AP/PA, Skull LAT, Abdomen Pelvis AP, Lumber Spine AP and Lumber Spine LAT examination respectively. The results are used for dose optimization and to propose national diagnostic reference levels. (Author)

  16. Diagnostic serum vitamin D level is not a reliable prognostic factor for resectable breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrak Kaya, Dilsa; Ozturk, Bengi; Kubilay, Pinar; Onur, Handan; Utkan, Gungor; Cay Senler, Filiz; Alkan, Ali; Yerlikaya, Halis; Koksoy, Elif B; Karci, Ebru; Demirkazik, Ahmet; Akbulut, Hakan; Icli, Fikri

    2018-05-09

    There are inconsistent results about the effects of vitamin D level on breast cancer prognosis. We aimed to investigate the effect of vitamin D levels on the prognosis of resectable breast cancer in a patient group with highly different clothing styles. A total of 186 breast cancer patients were enrolled in the study. Vitamin D level was sufficient, insufficient and deficient in 17.2, 52.2 and 30.6% of patients, respectively. There was a significant relationship between clothing style and serum 25 (OH) D levels. We could not establish any relation between vitamin D level and tumor characteristics or survival. Vitamin D supplementation can be more important than diagnostic serum vitamin D level on prognosis of breast cancer.

  17. Electric probe data analysis for glow discharge diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    This report summarizes the development and application of digital computations for the analysis of data from an electric probe used for glow discharge diagnostics. The essential physics of the probe/discharge interaction is presented, along with formulations from modern electric probe theory. These results are then digitally implemented by a set of computer programs which both calculate discharge properties of electron temperature and density, and aid in the interpretation of these property estimates. The method of analysis, and the theories selected for implementation, are valid only for low pressure, collisionless sheath, and quiescent discharges where the single electric probe has a much smaller area than the discharge reference electrode. However, certain algorithms are included which, in some cases, can extend the analysis into intermediate pressure regimes. The digital programs' functional capabilities are demonstrated by the analysis of experimental probe data, collected using a laboratory glow discharge. Typical sources of error inherent in the electric probe method are discussed, along with an analysis of error induced by the computational methods of the programs. 27 refs., 49 figs., 20 tabs

  18. Free insulin-like growth factor I serum levels in 1430 healthy children and adults, and its diagnostic value in patients suspected of growth hormone deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Holm, K; Kastrup, K W

    1997-01-01

    fraction of the total IGF-I circulates in its free form, which is believed to be the biologically active form. However, our knowledge of the clinical or physiological value of determination of free IGF-I in serum is limited at present. In adults, the diagnostic value of total IGF-I and IGFBP-3......, commercially available immunoradiometric assay (Diagnostic Systems Laboratories) to establish valid normative data for this analysis. We studied the diagnostic value of free IGF-I in relation to total IGF-I and IGFBP-3 determinations in adults who were suspected of GHD. A GH provocative test, using oral...... determinations in patients suspected of GHD has only been reported in a few studies, whereas no previous reports on the diagnostic value of free IGF-I levels in adults suspected of GHD exist. Serum levels of free IGF-I were determined in 1430 healthy children, adolescents, and adults by a newly developed...

  19. Free insulin-like growth factor I serum levels in 1430 healthy children and adults, and its diagnostic value in patients suspected of growth hormone deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Holm, K; Kastrup, K W

    1997-01-01

    fraction of the total IGF-I circulates in its free form, which is believed to be the biologically active form. However, our knowledge of the clinical or physiological value of determination of free IGF-I in serum is limited at present. In adults, the diagnostic value of total IGF-I and IGFBP-3...... determinations in patients suspected of GHD has only been reported in a few studies, whereas no previous reports on the diagnostic value of free IGF-I levels in adults suspected of GHD exist. Serum levels of free IGF-I were determined in 1430 healthy children, adolescents, and adults by a newly developed......, commercially available immunoradiometric assay (Diagnostic Systems Laboratories) to establish valid normative data for this analysis. We studied the diagnostic value of free IGF-I in relation to total IGF-I and IGFBP-3 determinations in adults who were suspected of GHD. A GH provocative test, using oral...

  20. Full Life Cycle of Data Analysis with Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer (CMDA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Zhai, C.; Pan, L.; Tang, B.; Zhang, J.; Bao, Q.; Malarout, N.

    2017-12-01

    We have developed a system that supports the full life cycle of a data analysis process, from data discovery, to data customization, to analysis, to reanalysis, to publication, and to reproduction. The system called Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer (CMDA) is designed to demonstrate that the full life cycle of data analysis can be supported within one integrated system for climate model diagnostic evaluation with global observational and reanalysis datasets. CMDA has four subsystems that are highly integrated to support the analysis life cycle. Data System manages datasets used by CMDA analysis tools, Analysis System manages CMDA analysis tools which are all web services, Provenance System manages the meta data of CMDA datasets and the provenance of CMDA analysis history, and Recommendation System extracts knowledge from CMDA usage history and recommends datasets/analysis tools to users. These four subsystems are not only highly integrated but also easily expandable. New datasets can be easily added to Data System and scanned to be visible to the other subsystems. New analysis tools can be easily registered to be available in the Analysis System and Provenance System. With CMDA, a user can start a data analysis process by discovering datasets of relevance to their research topic using the Recommendation System. Next, the user can customize the discovered datasets for their scientific use (e.g. anomaly calculation, regridding, etc) with tools in the Analysis System. Next, the user can do their analysis with the tools (e.g. conditional sampling, time averaging, spatial averaging) in the Analysis System. Next, the user can reanalyze the datasets based on the previously stored analysis provenance in the Provenance System. Further, they can publish their analysis process and result to the Provenance System to share with other users. Finally, any user can reproduce the published analysis process and results. By supporting the full life cycle of climate data analysis

  1. Preliminary Diagnostic Reference Levels of Adult CT at Aristide Ledantec National Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagne, M.; Gning, F.; Dieng, M. M.; Gueye, L.

    2015-01-01

    The number of Computed Tomography (CT) procedures performed in Senegal has widely increased as the CT is a powerful tool for the accurate and effective diagnosis. CT is a diagnostic imaging modality giving higher patient dose in comparison with other radiological procedures. The establishing of diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) is a way to optimize the radiation arising from CT procedures to as low as reasonable (ALARA) and to ensure good practice. Objective: The purpose of this study is to establish Local Diagnostic Reference Levels (LDRLs) at the University Hospital of Aristide LeDantec for CT examinations and to compare these values with the international Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs) to benchmark the local practice. Materials/Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey carried out in HALD between August 2014 and January 2015. Demographic data and acquisition parameters of 700 CT scan examinations performed on adult patients were collected from request forms and CT scan consoles. The values of CTDIw, CTDIvol and DLP were calculated using ImPACT (Imaging Performance and Assessment of Computed Tomography) software for Siemens Definition AS scanner of HALD. This was done by correlating the measurements from the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB–R250) scanners with the effective dose calculated, using the CT–EXPO software. Data was analyzed using mean, range, 3rd quartile, as well as mean. Frequency tables and histogrammes were used to summarise the data. Results: The 3rd quartile doses in this study for head, chest, abdomen and pelvis were 89 mGy, 12 mGy, 16.5 mGy, and 15 mGy, respectively. These values were in good agreement with the values reported from the literature. (author)

  2. Tissue preservation with mass spectroscopic analysis: Implications for cancer diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, O Morgan; Peer, Cody J; Figg, William D

    2018-05-17

    Surgical intervention is a common treatment modality for localized cancer. Post-operative analysis involves evaluation of surgical margins to assess whether all malignant tissue has been resected because positive surgical margins lead to a greater likelihood of recurrence. Secondary treatments are utilized to minimize the negative effects of positive surgical margins. Recently, in Science Translational Medicine, Zhang et al describe a new mass spectroscopic technique that could potentially decrease the likelihood of positive surgical margins. Their nondestructive in vivo tissue sampling leads to a highly accurate and rapid cancer diagnosis with great precision between healthy and malignant tissue. This new tool has the potential to improve surgical margins and accelerate cancer diagnostics by analyzing biomolecular signatures of various tissues and diseases.

  3. SU-E-I-33: Establishment of CT Diagnostic Reference Levels in Province Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonkopi, E; Abdolell, M; Duffy, S [Dalhousie University and Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate patient radiation dose from the most frequently performed CT examinations and to establish provincial diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) as a tool for protocol optimization. Methods: The study investigated the following CT examinations: head, chest, abdomen/pelvis, and chest/abdomen/pelvis (CAP). Dose data, volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose-length product (DLP), were collected from 15 CT scanners installed during 2004–2014 in 11 hospital sites of Nova Scotia. All scanners had dose modulation options and multislice capability (16–128 detector rows). The sample for each protocol included 15 average size patients (70±20 kg). Provincial DRLs were calculated as the 75th percentile of patient dose distributions. The differences in dose between hospitals were evaluated with a single factor ANOVA statistical test. Generalized linear modeling was used to determine the factors associated with higher radiation dose. A sample of 36 abdominal studies performed on three different scanners was blinded and randomized for an assessment by an experienced radiologist who graded the imaging quality of anatomic structures. Results: Data for 900 patients were collected. The DRLs were proposed using CTDIvol (mGy) and DLP (mGy*cm) values for CT head (67 and 1049, respectively), chest (12 and 393), abdomen/pelvis (16 and 717), and CAP (14 and 1034). These DRLs were lower than the published national data except for the head CTDIvol. The differences between the means of the dose distributions from each scanner were statistically significant (p<0.05) for all examinations. A very weak correlation was found between the dose and the scanner age or the number of slices with Pearson’s correlation coefficients of 0.011–0.315. The blinded analysis of image quality demonstrated no clinically significant difference except for the noise category. Conclusion: Provincial DRLs were established for typical CT examinations. The variations in dose between the hospitals

  4. A study to establish international diagnostic reference levels for paediatric computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassileva, J.; Rehani, M.; Kostova-Lefterova, D.; Al-Naemi, H.M.; Al Suwaidi, J.S.; Arandjic, D.; Bashier, E.H.O.; Kodlulovich Renha, S.; El-Nachef, L.; Aguilar, J.G.; Gershan, V.; Gershkevitsh, E.; Gruppetta, E.; Hustuc, A.; Jauhari, A.; Hassan Kharita, Mohammad; Khelassi-Toutaoui, N.; Khosravi, H.R.; Khoury, H.; Kralik, I.; Mahere, S.; Mazuoliene, J.; Mora, P.; Muhogora, W.; Muthuvelu, P.; Nikodemova, D.; Novak, L.; Pallewatte, A.; Pekarovic, D.; Shaaban, M.; Shelly, E.; Stepanyan, K.; Thelsy, N.; Visrutaratna, P.; Zaman, A.

    2015-01-01

    The article reports results from the largest international dose survey in paediatric computed tomography (CT) in 32 countries and proposes international diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in terms of computed tomography dose index (CTDI vol ) and dose length product (DLP). It also assesses whether mean or median values of individual facilities should be used. A total of 6115 individual patient data were recorded among four age groups: <1 y, >1-5 y, >5-10 y and >10-15 y. CTDI w , CTDI vol and DLP from the CT console were recorded in dedicated forms together with patient data and technical parameters. Statistical analysis was performed, and international DRLs were established at rounded 75. percentile values of distribution of median values from all CT facilities. The study presents evidence in favour of using median rather than mean of patient dose indices as the representative of typical local dose in a facility, and for establishing DRLs as third quartile of median values. International DRLs were established for paediatric CT examinations for routine head, chest and abdomen in the four age groups. DRLs for CTDI vol are similar to the reference values from other published reports, with some differences for chest and abdomen CT. Higher variations were observed between DLP values, based on a survey of whole multi-phase exams. It may be noted that other studies in literature were based on single phase only. DRLs reported in this article can be used in countries without sufficient medical physics support to identify non-optimised practice. Recommendations to improve the accuracy and importance of future surveys are provided. (authors)

  5. Diagnostic reference levels for X-ray investigations in pain management units in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtherte, S.; Le Polain de Waroux, B.

    2008-01-01

    X-rays are commonly used in pain treatment centres where infiltrative techniques are performed. Although X-rays are useful in increasing the precision of infiltrative techniques, their use puts patients and staff at risk of radiation exposure. As a result, medical staff now have to obtain a certificate of training on the use of X-rays before being allowed to use X-rays in practice. This analysis was based on 373 detailed registrations of procedure-related parameters in the six centres that participated in this study between January 2009 and July 2009. Examinations chosen for inclusion in this study were the most commonly performed fluoroscopic imaging-guided procedures in a pain management unit: epidural (cervical/lumbar), facet joint nerve blocks (cervical/lumbar) and trans-foraminal (cervical/lumbar). The sample size, the dose-area product (DAP) range for whole population, the mean and the third quartile DAP corrected for patient size (DAP corr ), the screening time range, the mean and the third quartile screening time are presented. The proposed DRLs for epidural, facet joint nerve blocks and trans-foraminal are 0.5, 2.5 and 3 Gy cm 2 for DAP values and 12, 60 and 50 s for screening times, respectively. In the absence of national diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for pain management fluoroscopic procedures, these DAP and screening time values provide a possible way of establishing provisional DRLs for local use. The values for each examination type could be used as a baseline against which to monitor the effectiveness of dose reduction strategies as part of the optimisation process that is the goal of any quality control and patient dose monitoring system. (authors)

  6. Diagnostic value of adenosine deaminase in ascites for tuberculosis ascites: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Lin; Ning, Hong-Jian; Nie, Hai-Ming; Guo, Xiao-Yun; Qin, Shan-Yu; Jiang, Hai-Xing

    2014-05-01

    The diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) ascites using standard diagnostic tools is difficult. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to establish the overall diagnostic accuracy of adenosine deaminase (ADA) levels in ascites for diagnosing TB ascites. A systematic review was performed of English language publications prior to April 2013. Sensitivity, specificity, and other measures of the accuracy of ADA for the diagnosis of TB ascites using ascites fluid were summarized using a random-effects model or a fixed-effects model. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to summarize overall test performance. Seventeen studies involving 1797 subjects were eligible for the analysis. The summary estimates of sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, diagnostic odds ratio, and the area under cure of overall analysis were: 0.93, 0.94, 13.55, 0.11, 169.83, and 0.976, respectively; the results of sensitivity analysis of studies that used Giusti method were 0.94, 0.94, 12.99, 0.08, 183.18, and 0.977, respectively. Our results suggest that ADA in the ascites can be a sensitive and specific target and a critical criterion for the diagnosis of TB ascites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Computerized diagnostic data analysis and 3-D visualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuhmann, D.; Haubner, M.; Krapichler, C.; Englmeier, K.H.; Seemann, M.; Schoepf, U.J.; Gebicke, K.; Reiser, M.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To survey methods for 3D data visualization and image analysis which can be used for computer based diagnostics. Material and methods: The methods available are explained in short terms and links to the literature are presented. Methods which allow basic manipulation of 3D data are windowing, rotation and clipping. More complex methods for visualization of 3D data are multiplanar reformation, volume projections (MIP, semi-transparent projections) and surface projections. Methods for image analysis comprise local data transformation (e.g. filtering) and definition and application of complex models (e.g. deformable models). Results: Volume projections produce an impression of the 3D data set without reducing the data amount. This supports the interpretation of the 3D data set and saves time in comparison to any investigation which requires examination of all slice images. More advanced techniques for visualization, e.g. surface projections and hybrid rendering visualize anatomical information to a very detailed extent, but both techniques require the segmentation of the structures of interest. Image analysis methods can be used to extract these structures (e.g. an organ) from the image data. Discussion: At the present time volume projections are robust and fast enough to be used routinely. Surface projections can be used to visualize complex and presegmented anatomical features. (orig.) [de

  8. Flotation process diagnostics and modelling by coal grain analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ofori, P; O' Brien, G.; Firth, B.; Jenkins, B. [CSIRO Energy Technology, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia)

    2006-05-15

    In coal flotation, particles of different components of the coal such as maceral groups and mineral matter and their associations have different hydrophobicities and therefore different flotation responses. By using a new coal grain analysis method for characterising individual grains, more detailed flotation performance analysis and modelling approaches have been developed. The method involves the use of microscopic imaging techniques to obtain estimates of size, compositional and density information on individual grains of fine coal. The density and composition partitioning of coal processed through different flotation systems provides an avenue to pinpoint the actual cause of poor process performance so that corrective action may be initiated. The information on grain size, density and composition is being used as input data to develop more detailed flotation process models to provide better predictions of process performance for both mechanical and column flotation devices. A number of approaches may be taken to flotation modelling such as the probability approach and the kinetic model approach or a combination of the two. In the work reported here, a simple probability approach has been taken, which will be further refined in due course. The use of grain data to map the responses of different types of coal grains through various fine coal cleaning processes provided a more advanced diagnostic capability for fine coal cleaning circuits. This enabled flotation performance curves analogous to partition curves for density separators to be produced for flotation devices.

  9. System diagnostics using qualitative analysis and component functional classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reifman, J.; Wei, T.Y.C.

    1993-01-01

    A method for detecting and identifying faulty component candidates during off-normal operations of nuclear power plants involves the qualitative analysis of macroscopic imbalances in the conservation equations of mass, energy and momentum in thermal-hydraulic control volumes associated with one or more plant components and the functional classification of components. The qualitative analysis of mass and energy is performed through the associated equations of state, while imbalances in momentum are obtained by tracking mass flow rates which are incorporated into a first knowledge base. The plant components are functionally classified, according to their type, as sources or sinks of mass, energy and momentum, depending upon which of the three balance equations is most strongly affected by a faulty component which is incorporated into a second knowledge base. Information describing the connections among the components of the system forms a third knowledge base. The method is particularly adapted for use in a diagnostic expert system to detect and identify faulty component candidates in the presence of component failures and is not limited to use in a nuclear power plant, but may be used with virtually any type of thermal-hydraulic operating system. 5 figures

  10. Third-person Diagnostic Interview on the Cognitive Insight Level of Psychotic Patients with an Insight at the Denial Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdizadeh, Mahsa; Rezaei, Omid

    2016-01-01

    According to the previous findings, the third-person technique improved the clinical insight of psychotic patients, therefore the present study aims to examine the effect of a third-person interview compared to a first-person interview on the level of cognitive insight of psychotic patients with an insight at the denial level. In this study, using interviews and questionnaires, a total number of 44 patients of Razi Psychiatric Educational and Treatment Center with an insight at the denial level being assessed using diagnostic interviews were divided randomly into two groups. Then, the two groups of patients' cognitive insights were evaluated using Beck Cognitive Insight Scale. The findings indicated that in psychotic patients with an insight at the denial level, the third-person technique of interview compared to the first-person had little effect on the improvement of overall cognitive insight and its components, including self-reflection and self-assurance; however, this effect was not strong enough to make a significant difference between the two groups of patients. According to the study findings, we can conclude that the third-person interview compared to the first-person interview has no effect on the improvement of the cognitive insight of psychotic patients with an insight at the denial level. This finding is consistent with the previous studies indicating that although the theory of mind has some correlations with the clinical insight of patients, it has no effect on their cognitive insight.

  11. Recommended aerobic fitness level for metabolic health in children and adolescents: a study of diagnostic accuracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda Ra; Anderssen, Sigmund A; Froberg, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    Objective To define the optimal cut-off for low aerobic fitness and to evaluate its accuracy to predict clustering of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in children and adolescents. Design Study of diagnostic accuracy using a cross-sectional database. Setting European Youth Heart Study...... would be expected by chance (AUC >0.5) for all cut-offs. Conclusions Aerobic fitness is easy to measure, and is an accurate tool for screening children with clustering of cardiovascular risk factors. Promoting physical activity in children with aerobic fitness level lower than the suggested cut...

  12. A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR MANAGING RADIATION DOSE TO PATIENTS IN DIAGNOSTIC RADIOLOGY USING REFERENCE DOSE LEVELS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almén, Anja; Båth, Magnus

    2016-06-01

    The overall aim of the present work was to develop a conceptual framework for managing radiation dose in diagnostic radiology with the intention to support optimisation. An optimisation process was first derived. The framework for managing radiation dose, based on the derived optimisation process, was then outlined. The outset of the optimisation process is four stages: providing equipment, establishing methodology, performing examinations and ensuring quality. The optimisation process comprises a series of activities and actions at these stages. The current system of diagnostic reference levels is an activity in the last stage, ensuring quality. The system becomes a reactive activity only to a certain extent engaging the core activity in the radiology department, performing examinations. Three reference dose levels-possible, expected and established-were assigned to the three stages in the optimisation process, excluding ensuring quality. A reasonably achievable dose range is also derived, indicating an acceptable deviation from the established dose level. A reasonable radiation dose for a single patient is within this range. The suggested framework for managing radiation dose should be regarded as one part of the optimisation process. The optimisation process constitutes a variety of complementary activities, where managing radiation dose is only one part. This emphasises the need to take a holistic approach integrating the optimisation process in different clinical activities. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Diagnostic reference levels in intraoral radiology: From the laboratory to clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, M.; Velasco, E.; Martinez-Beneyto, Y.; Velasco, F.; Parra, C.; Canteras, M.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for obtaining a diagnostic image in the normal conditions of clinical practice and to explain the differences between the levels found and the DRLs obtained in other experimental conditions, suggesting that there has been a reduction in the European Union (EU) recommended levels. A total of 2296 official reports on dental surgeries from 16 Spanish autonomous regions compiled during 2008 were studied. A mean DRL of 3.3 mGy was determined: 2.6 mGy for installations using direct digital systems, 3.4 mGy for those using indirect systems, 4.4 mGy for those using Ultra-speed film and 3.7 mGy for those using Insight. The DRLs found in this survey are below the EU recommended values but far above previously described values, possibly because all the different systems were considered and because values refer to those of the normal work conditions of clinical practice. (authors)

  14. A conceptual framework for managing radiation dose to patients in diagnostic radiology using reference dose levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almen, Anja; Baath, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    The overall aim of the present work was to develop a conceptual framework for managing radiation dose in diagnostic radiology with the intention to support optimisation. An optimisation process was first derived. The framework for managing radiation dose, based on the derived optimisation process, was then outlined. The outset of the optimisation process is four stages: providing equipment, establishing methodology, performing examinations and ensuring quality. The optimisation process comprises a series of activities and actions at these stages. The current system of diagnostic reference levels is an activity in the last stage, ensuring quality. The system becomes a reactive activity only to a certain extent engaging the core activity in the radiology department, performing examinations. Three reference dose levels-possible, expected and established-were assigned to the three stages in the optimisation process, excluding ensuring quality. A reasonably achievable dose range is also derived, indicating an acceptable deviation from the established dose level. A reasonable radiation dose for a single patient is within this range. The suggested framework for managing radiation dose should be regarded as one part of the optimisation process. The optimisation process constitutes a variety of complementary activities, where managing radiation dose is only one part. This emphasises the need to take a holistic approach integrating the optimisation process in different clinical activities. (authors)

  15. DIAGNOSTIC VALUE OF GALECTIN-3 LEVEL IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEART FAILURE AND TYPE 2 DIABETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Snetkova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, a greater emphasis is placed on the search for additional biomarkers of chronic heart failure (CHF. Galectin-3, a marker of fibrosis and inflammation, has shown himself as a biomarker of CHF in many studies, but the dynamics of its levels in patients with concomitant diabetes mellitus (DM type 2 is not well-studied.Aim. To identify diagnostic significance of galectin-3 plasma level evaluation and its correlations with echocardiographic criteria for patients with CHF and DM type 2.Material and methods. The study included 33 patients with ischemic CHF (all patients had a history of myocardial infarction and DM type 2. The patients were divided into two groups according to the left ventricle (LV ejection fraction (EF: a group with CHF and preserved ejection fraction (PEF (EF≥50% and with CHF and reduced ejection fraction (EF<50%. Patients underwent clinical laboratory tests and Doppler echocardiography; moreover, the levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP and galeсtin-3 were measured.Results. The mean level of galectin-3 in blood plasma in the group with CHF and PEF was significantly higher than in the group with CHF and reduced EF (p=0.007. In the group with CHF and PEF a positive correlation between the level of galectin-3 and diastolic LV function E/E' was found (r=0.620, p=0.01. A significant correlation between galectin-3 level and LV systolic function was stated in the group with reduced EF (r=0.53; p<0.05, while in the group with PEF, the correlation was not significant (p=0.225. In the group of patients with reduced EF a negative correlation between galectin-3 and the volume of left atrium was revealed (r=-0.53; p<0.05.Conclusion. Galectin-3 can be used as a diagnostic biomarker primarily in patients with CHF and PEF.

  16. Molecular malaria diagnostics: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, Johanna M.; Korevaar, Daniël A.; Leeflang, Mariska M. G.; Mens, Pètra F.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of malaria is essential for identification and subsequent treatment of the disease. Currently, microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests are the most commonly used diagnostics, next to treatment based on clinical signs only. These tests are easy to deploy, but have a relatively high

  17. Decision analysis to complete diagnostic research by closing the gap between test characteristics and cost-effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, Joanna D.; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Rinkel, Gabriel J. E.; Buskens, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The lack of a standard methodology in diagnostic research impedes adequate evaluation before implementation of constantly developing diagnostic techniques. We discuss the methodology of diagnostic research and underscore the relevance of decision analysis in the process of evaluation of

  18. Advanced Diagnostic and Prognostic Testbed (ADAPT) Testability Analysis Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossenfort, John

    2008-01-01

    As system designs become more complex, determining the best locations to add sensors and test points for the purpose of testing and monitoring these designs becomes more difficult. Not only must the designer take into consideration all real and potential faults of the system, he or she must also find efficient ways of detecting and isolating those faults. Because sensors and cabling take up valuable space and weight on a system, and given constraints on bandwidth and power, it is even more difficult to add sensors into these complex designs after the design has been completed. As a result, a number of software tools have been developed to assist the system designer in proper placement of these sensors during the system design phase of a project. One of the key functions provided by many of these software programs is a testability analysis of the system essentially an evaluation of how observable the system behavior is using available tests. During the design phase, testability metrics can help guide the designer in improving the inherent testability of the design. This may include adding, removing, or modifying tests; breaking up feedback loops, or changing the system to reduce fault propagation. Given a set of test requirements, the analysis can also help to verify that the system will meet those requirements. Of course, a testability analysis requires that a software model of the physical system is available. For the analysis to be most effective in guiding system design, this model should ideally be constructed in parallel with these efforts. The purpose of this paper is to present the final testability results of the Advanced Diagnostic and Prognostic Testbed (ADAPT) after the system model was completed. The tool chosen to build the model and to perform the testability analysis with is the Testability Engineering and Maintenance System Designer (TEAMS-Designer). The TEAMS toolset is intended to be a solution to span all phases of the system, from design and

  19. Napsin A levels in epithelial lining fluid as a diagnostic biomarker of primary lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Akifumi; Samukawa, Takuya; Kumamoto, Tomohiro; Ohshige, Masahiro; Hatanaka, Kazuhito; Nakamura, Yoshihiro; Mizuno, Keiko; Higashimoto, Ikkou; Sato, Masami; Inoue, Hiromasa

    2017-12-12

    It is crucial to develop novel diagnostic approaches for determining if peripheral lung nodules are malignant, as such nodules are frequently detected due to the increased use of chest computed tomography scans. To this end, we evaluated levels of napsin A in epithelial lining fluid (ELF), since napsin A has been reported to be an immunohistochemical biomarker for histological diagnosis of primary lung adenocarcinoma. In consecutive patients with indeterminate peripheral lung nodules, ELF samples were obtained using a bronchoscopic microsampling (BMS) technique. The levels of napsin A and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in ELF at the nodule site were compared with those at the contralateral site. A final diagnosis of primary lung adenocarcinoma was established by surgical resection. We performed BMS in 43 consecutive patients. Among patients with primary lung adenocarcinoma, the napsin A levels in ELF at the nodule site were markedly higher than those at the contralateral site, while there were no significant differences in CEA levels. Furthermore, in 18 patients who were undiagnosed by bronchoscopy and finally diagnosed by surgery, the napsin A levels in ELF at the nodule site were identically significantly higher than those at the contralateral site. In patients with non-adenocarcinoma, there were no differences in napsin A levels in ELF. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve for identifying primary lung adenocarcinoma was 0.840 for napsin A and 0.542 for CEA. Evaluation of napsin A levels in ELF may be useful for distinguishing primary lung adenocarcinoma.

  20. Diagnostics for generalized linear hierarchical models in network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong; Hodges, James S; Carlin, Bradley P

    2017-09-01

    Network meta-analysis (NMA) combines direct and indirect evidence comparing more than 2 treatments. Inconsistency arises when these 2 information sources differ. Previous work focuses on inconsistency detection, but little has been done on how to proceed after identifying inconsistency. The key issue is whether inconsistency changes an NMA's substantive conclusions. In this paper, we examine such discrepancies from a diagnostic point of view. Our methods seek to detect influential and outlying observations in NMA at a trial-by-arm level. These observations may have a large effect on the parameter estimates in NMA, or they may deviate markedly from other observations. We develop formal diagnostics for a Bayesian hierarchical model to check the effect of deleting any observation. Diagnostics are specified for generalized linear hierarchical NMA models and investigated for both published and simulated datasets. Results from our example dataset using either contrast- or arm-based models and from the simulated datasets indicate that the sources of inconsistency in NMA tend not to be influential, though results from the example dataset suggest that they are likely to be outliers. This mimics a familiar result from linear model theory, in which outliers with low leverage are not influential. Future extensions include incorporating baseline covariates and individual-level patient data. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Preliminary results of the analysis of the administered activities in diagnostic studies of nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Bejerano, G.; Sed, L.J.

    2001-01-01

    The worldwide use of Nuclear Medicine diagnostic procedures and the tendency to its increment, infers an important exposure of the population to ionising radiation; it has motivated that the IAEA in the International Basic Safety Standards (BSS), emits recommendations for the establishment of guidance levels of activities administered to the patients in diagnostic procedures. Taking into account the above-mentioned and that in Cuba there exist 20 departments of Nuclear Medicine that in the majority possess equipment with more than 20 years of operation, which influences directly the medical exposure. A survey was designed and applied in 10 of these departments. The survey evaluates the compliance with the BSS requirements, and specifically, the activities administered to the patients in Nuclear Medicine diagnostic procedures are analysed. In the present work the obtained preliminary results of the statistical analysis carried out on the activity values used in Nuclear Medicine departments are presented, and comparisons made for a proposal of guidance levels for the national practice, which is compared with those recommended internationally. (author)

  2. On-line diagnostic techniques for air-operated control valves based on time series analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kenji; Matsuoka, Yoshinori; Minamikawa, Shigeru; Komatsu, Yasuki; Satoh, Takeshi.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this research is to study the feasibility of applying on-line diagnostic techniques based on time series analysis to air-operated control valves - numerous valves of the type which are used in PWR plants. Generally the techniques can detect anomalies by failures in the initial stages for which detection is difficult by conventional surveillance of process parameters measured directly. However, the effectiveness of these techniques depends on the system being diagnosed. The difficulties in applying diagnostic techniques to air-operated control valves seem to come from the reduced sensitivity of their response as compared with hydraulic control systems, as well as the need to identify anomalies in low level signals that fluctuate only slightly but continuously. In this research, simulation tests were performed by setting various kinds of failure modes for a test valve with the same specifications as of a valve actually used in the plants. Actual control signals recorded from an operating plant were then used as input signals for simulation. The results of the tests confirmed the feasibility of applying on-line diagnostic techniques based on time series analysis to air-operated control valves. (author)

  3. A systematic analysis of commonly used antibodies in cancer diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremel, Gabriela; Bergman, Julia; Djureinovic, Dijana; Edqvist, Per-Henrik; Maindad, Vikas; Bharambe, Bhavana M; Khan, Wasif Ali Z A; Navani, Sanjay; Elebro, Jacob; Jirström, Karin; Hellberg, Dan; Uhlén, Mathias; Micke, Patrick; Pontén, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry plays a pivotal role in cancer differential diagnostics. To identify the primary tumour from a metastasis specimen remains a significant challenge, despite the availability of an increasing number of antibodies. The aim of the present study was to provide evidence-based data on the diagnostic power of antibodies used frequently for clinical differential diagnostics. A tissue microarray cohort comprising 940 tumour samples, of which 502 were metastatic lesions, representing tumours from 18 different organs and four non-localized cancer types, was analysed using immunohistochemistry with 27 well-established antibodies used in clinical differential diagnostics. Few antibodies, e.g. prostate-specific antigen and thyroglobulin, showed a cancer type-related sensitivity and specificity of more than 95%. A majority of the antibodies showed a low degree of sensitivity and specificity for defined cancer types. Combinations of antibodies provided limited added value for differential diagnostics of cancer types. The results from analysing 27 diagnostic antibodies on consecutive sections of 940 defined tumours provide a unique repository of data that can empower a more optimal use of clinical immunohistochemistry. Our results highlight the benefit of immunohistochemistry and the unmet need for novel markers to improve differential diagnostics of cancer. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Software for 3D diagnostic image reconstruction and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taton, G.; Rokita, E.; Sierzega, M.; Klek, S.; Kulig, J.; Urbanik, A.

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in computer technologies have opened new frontiers in medical diagnostics. Interesting possibilities are the use of three-dimensional (3D) imaging and the combination of images from different modalities. Software prepared in our laboratories devoted to 3D image reconstruction and analysis from computed tomography and ultrasonography is presented. In developing our software it was assumed that it should be applicable in standard medical practice, i.e. it should work effectively with a PC. An additional feature is the possibility of combining 3D images from different modalities. The reconstruction and data processing can be conducted using a standard PC, so low investment costs result in the introduction of advanced and useful diagnostic possibilities. The program was tested on a PC using DICOM data from computed tomography and TIFF files obtained from a 3D ultrasound system. The results of the anthropomorphic phantom and patient data were taken into consideration. A new approach was used to achieve spatial correlation of two independently obtained 3D images. The method relies on the use of four pairs of markers within the regions under consideration. The user selects the markers manually and the computer calculates the transformations necessary for coupling the images. The main software feature is the possibility of 3D image reconstruction from a series of two-dimensional (2D) images. The reconstructed 3D image can be: (1) viewed with the most popular methods of 3D image viewing, (2) filtered and processed to improve image quality, (3) analyzed quantitatively (geometrical measurements), and (4) coupled with another, independently acquired 3D image. The reconstructed and processed 3D image can be stored at every stage of image processing. The overall software performance was good considering the relatively low costs of the hardware used and the huge data sets processed. The program can be freely used and tested (source code and program available at

  5. Chest X-ray : a cost-diagnostic benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, L.H.L.

    1991-01-01

    Although plain chest radiography is one of the most useful diagnostic tools available to the physician, this procedure has not evolved into a consistent method. Two Large Field of View Image Intensifiers (LFOV-II) became available; the large imaging area makes them suitable for chest imaging. Both modalities supply 100 mm images to the radiologist. In this thesis the 'diagnostic benefits and 'costs' of these modalities are evaluated and related to the 'gold' standard (conventional full-size). The emphasis is on diagnostic image quality using phantoms for observer performance qualities. (author). 170 refs.; 21 figs.; 47 tabs

  6. Diagnostic performance of semi-quantitative and quantitative stress CMR perfusion analysis: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, R; van Assen, M; Vliegenthart, R; de Bock, G H; van der Harst, P; Oudkerk, M

    2017-11-27

    Stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) perfusion imaging is a promising modality for the evaluation of coronary artery disease (CAD) due to high spatial resolution and absence of radiation. Semi-quantitative and quantitative analysis of CMR perfusion are based on signal-intensity curves produced during the first-pass of gadolinium contrast. Multiple semi-quantitative and quantitative parameters have been introduced. Diagnostic performance of these parameters varies extensively among studies and standardized protocols are lacking. This study aims to determine the diagnostic accuracy of semi- quantitative and quantitative CMR perfusion parameters, compared to multiple reference standards. Pubmed, WebOfScience, and Embase were systematically searched using predefined criteria (3272 articles). A check for duplicates was performed (1967 articles). Eligibility and relevance of the articles was determined by two reviewers using pre-defined criteria. The primary data extraction was performed independently by two researchers with the use of a predefined template. Differences in extracted data were resolved by discussion between the two researchers. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the 'Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies Tool' (QUADAS-2). True positives, false positives, true negatives, and false negatives were subtracted/calculated from the articles. The principal summary measures used to assess diagnostic accuracy were sensitivity, specificity, andarea under the receiver operating curve (AUC). Data was pooled according to analysis territory, reference standard and perfusion parameter. Twenty-two articles were eligible based on the predefined study eligibility criteria. The pooled diagnostic accuracy for segment-, territory- and patient-based analyses showed good diagnostic performance with sensitivity of 0.88, 0.82, and 0.83, specificity of 0.72, 0.83, and 0.76 and AUC of 0.90, 0.84, and 0.87, respectively. In per territory

  7. Molecular malaria diagnostics: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Johanna M; Korevaar, Daniël A; Leeflang, Mariska M G; Mens, Pètra F

    2016-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of malaria is essential for identification and subsequent treatment of the disease. Currently, microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests are the most commonly used diagnostics, next to treatment based on clinical signs only. These tests are easy to deploy, but have a relatively high detection limit. With declining prevalence in many areas, there is an increasing need for more sensitive diagnostics. Molecular tools may be a suitable alternative, although costs and technical requirements currently hamper their implementation in resource limited settings. A range of (near) point-of-care diagnostics is therefore under development, including simplifications in sample preparation, amplification and/or read-out of the test. Accuracy data, in combination with technical characteristics, are essential in determining which molecular test, if any, would be the most promising to be deployed. This review presents a comprehensive overview of the currently available molecular malaria diagnostics, ranging from well-known tests to platforms in early stages of evaluation, and systematically evaluates their published accuracy. No important difference in accuracy was found between the most commonly used PCR-based assays (conventional, nested and real-time PCR), with most of them having high sensitivity and specificity, implying that there are no reasons other than practical ones to choose one technique over the other. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification and other (novel) diagnostics appear to be highly accurate as well, with some offering potential to be used in resource-limited settings.

  8. Diagnostic Utility of Pleural Fluid Adenosine Deaminase Level in Tuberculousis Pleural Effusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suleman, A.; Abbasi, M. A.; Anwar, S. A.; Kamal, M.; Khan, H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early diagnosis and management of tuberculosis is essential for decreasing the disease burden. Pakistan is one of the few countries of world with a very high burden of tuberculosis. Many diagnostic tests are available for detection of tuberculosis but each is fraught with certain limitations of its own. Methods: This study was a cross sectional validation study that sought to determine the validity of pleural fluid adenosine deaminase levels for diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion. Results: A total of 160 patients with exudative lymphocytic pleural effusions were enrolled in this study. The mean pleural fluid ADA level was 52.18±1.98 U/L. The mean pleural fluid ADA level in patients diagnosed to have tuberculosis on pleural biopsy/histopathology was higher as compared to patients who did not have tuberculous pleural effusion 52.16±2.4 U/L vs 38.6±3.14 U/L. The difference was found to be statistically significant between the two groups (p<0.05). The sensitivity, specificity, ppv and npv of pleural fluid ADA level were 88.88 percent, 77.04 percent, 86.28 percent and 81.04 percent respectively. Conclusion: Despite wide variations in the reported sensitivity and specificity of pleural fluid ADA level, it can be used as a surrogate for pleural biopsy when the latter is not feasible. (author)

  9. Cerebrospinal fluid adenosine deaminase levels as a diagnostic marker in tuberculous meningitis in adult Nepalese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Chander

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF adenosine deaminase (ADA levels in tuberculous meningitis (TBM and non-TBM -viral meningitis cases and to determine its diagnostic significance as a biochemical marker of TBM infection.Methods: The study population comprised two different patient groups. TBM - group I - 28 cases and non-TBM-viral meningitis - 22 cases. These were enrolled consecutively in the study and CSF specimens were collected from them. ADA estimation was carried out by spectrophotometry.Results: ADA levels (mean依 SD in the TBM and non-TBM groups were 16.46依6.24 U/L and 5.13依2.96 U/L, respectively (highly significant P10 IU/L, the test showed a good sensitivity of 82.14% (95% CI 64.41-92.12 and a high specificity of 90.91% (95% CI 72.19-97.47. Positive and negative predictive value and positive and negative likelihood ratios and accuracy of the test in TBM cases were 92% (95% CI 75.03-97.77, 80% (95% CI 60.86-91.13, 9.03 (95% CI 2.38- 34.25, 0.19 (95% CI 0.09-0.44 and 86%, respectively.Conclusion: CSF ADA levels are elevated in the TBM cases as compared to the non-TBM - viral meningitis cases with a good sensitivity and a high specificity. It is a simple and inexpensive diagnostic adjunctive test in the rapid and early diagnosis of TBM.

  10. Estimating the population dose from nuclear medicine examinations towards establishing diagnostic reference levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niksirat, Fatemeh; Monfared, Ali Shabestani; Deevband, Mohammad Reza; Amiri, Mehrangiz; Gholami, Amir

    2016-01-01

    This study conducted a review on nuclear medicine (NM) services in Mazandaran Province with a view to establish adult diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) and provide updated data on population radiation exposure resulting from diagnostic NM procedures. The data were collected from all centers in all cities of Mazandaran Province in the North of Iran from March 2014 to February 2015. The 75 th percentile of the distribution and the average administered activity (AAA) were calculated and the average effective dose per examination, collective effective dose to the population and annual effective dose per capita were estimated using dose conversion factors. The gathered data were analyzed via SPSS (version 18) software using descriptive statistics. Based on the data of this study, the collective effective dose was 95.628 manSv, leading to a mean effective dose of 0.03 mSv per capita. It was also observed that the myocardial perfusion was the most common procedure (50%). The 75 th percentile of the distribution of administered activity (AA) represents the DRL. The AAA and the 75 th percentile of the distribution of AA are slightly higher than DRL of most European countries. Myocardial perfusion is responsible for most of the collective effective dose and it is better to establish national DRLs for myocardial perfusion and review some DRL values through the participation of NM specialists in the future

  11. Diagnostic utility of daytime salivary melatonin levels in Smith-Magenis syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chik, Constance L; Rollag, Mark D; Duncan, Wallace C; Smith, Ann C M

    2010-01-01

    An inverted circadian rhythm of melatonin (MT) likely contributes to the sleep disturbance in patients with Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS). Plasma MT levels have documented this altered rhythm, but daytime levels of salivary MT has not been determined. Daytime measures of salivary MT might have utility in home/outpatient settings for assessing MT levels in undiagnosed patients with clinical features of SMS. The objective of this study was to determine the utility of daytime salivary MT as a diagnostic test in SMS. Thirty individuals with confirmed SMS [28 with del 17p11.2 and 2 with the retinoic acid induced 1 (RAI1) gene mutation] and five controls were studied. Single or serial daytime salivary MT levels were measured. The mean midday salivary MT level was 79.0 pg/ml in SMS patients, compared with 16.3 pg/ml in controls, with nine patients having values similar to controls. The median MT level in SMS patients was 49.0 pg/ml (first and third quartile values = 15.5 and 106.8 pg/ml). Twenty-six (90%) of 29 patients had at least one MT value >15.5 pg/ml, including 70 (78%) of 90 samples from patients with del 17p11.2 and one (20%) of five samples from the two patients with the RAI1 mutation. Neither the pattern of medication use nor age had an effect on daytime salivary MT levels. Although most SMS patients had elevated daytime salivary MT levels, multiple sampling appears necessary to distinguish patients with SMS from other conditions.

  12. A New Dual-purpose Quality Control Dosimetry Protocol for Diagnostic Reference-level Determination in Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Mehdi; Parsi, Masoumeh; Sina, Sedigheh

    2018-05-17

    A diagnostic reference level is an advisory dose level set by a regulatory authority in a country as an efficient criterion for protection of patients from unwanted medical exposure. In computed tomography, the direct dose measurement and data collection methods are commonly applied for determination of diagnostic reference levels. Recently, a new quality-control-based dose survey method was proposed by the authors to simplify the diagnostic reference-level determination using a retrospective quality control database usually available at a regulatory authority in a country. In line with such a development, a prospective dual-purpose quality control dosimetry protocol is proposed for determination of diagnostic reference levels in a country, which can be simply applied by quality control service providers. This new proposed method was applied to five computed tomography scanners in Shiraz, Iran, and diagnostic reference levels for head, abdomen/pelvis, sinus, chest, and lumbar spine examinations were determined. The results were compared to those obtained by the data collection and quality-control-based dose survey methods, carried out in parallel in this study, and were found to agree well within approximately 6%. This is highly acceptable for quality-control-based methods according to International Atomic Energy Agency tolerance levels (±20%).

  13. A Comparison of Salivary Steroid Levels during Diagnostic Tests for Adrenal Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Dušková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous diagnostic tests are used to evaluate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis. The gold standard is still considered the insulin tolerance test (ITT, but this test has many limitations. Current guidelines therefore recommend the Synacthen test first when an HPA axis insufficiency is suspected. However, the dose of Synacthen that is diagnostically most accurate and sensitive is still a matter of debate. We investigated 15 healthy men with mean/median age 27.4/26 (SD ±4.8 years, and mean/median BMI (body mass index 25.38/24.82 (SD ±3.2 kg/m2. All subjects underwent 4 dynamic tests of the HPA axis, specifically 1 μg, 10 μg, and 250 μg Synacthen (ACTH tests and an ITT. Salivary cortisol, cortisone, pregnenolone, and DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone were analysed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. During the ITT maximum salivary cortisol levels over 12.5 nmol/l were found at 60 minutes. Maximum cortisol levels in all of the Synacthen tests were higher than this; however, demonstrating that sufficient stimulation of the adrenal glands was achieved. Cortisone reacted similarly as cortisol, i.e. we did not find any change in the ratio of cortisol to cortisone. Pregnenolone and DHEA were higher during the ITT, and their peaks preceded the cortisol peak. There was no increase of pregnenolone or DHEA in any of the Synacthen tests. We demonstrate that the 10 μg Synacthen dose is sufficient stimulus for testing the HPA axis and is also a safe and cost-effective alternative. This dose also largely eliminates both false negative and false positive results.

  14. Diagnostic Cut-Off Levels of Plasma Brain Natriuretic Peptide to Distinguish Left Ventricular Failure in Emergency Setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Afridi, F. I.; Lutfi, I. A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the diagnostic cut-off values of brain natriuretic (BNP) peptide to establish left ventricular failure in patients presenting with dyspnoea in emergency department. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Ziauddin University Hospital, Karachi, from July to December 2011. Methodology: BNP estimation was done on Axysm analyzer with kit provided by Abbott diagnostics, while the Doppler echocardiography was done on Toshiba style (UICW-660A) using 2.5 MHz and 5.0 MHz probes. Log transformation was done to normalize the original BNP values. A receiver operating curve was plotted to determine the diagnostic cut-off value of BNP which can be used to distinguish CHF from other causes of dyspnoea. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS version 17. Results: A total of 92 patients presenting with dyspnoea in the emergency department were studied. There were 38/92 (41.3%) males and 54/92 (58.7%) females, and the average age of the study population was 64 A +- 14.1 years. These patients had BNP levels and Doppler echocardiography done. The average BNP was found to be 1117.78 A +- 1445.74 pg/ml. In log transformation, the average was found to be 2.72 A +- 0.58. BNP value of 531 pg/ml was found to be the cut off to distinguish between cardiogenic and non-cardiogenic causes of dyspnoea. Conclusion: BNP value of 531 pg/ml can distinguish CHF from other conditions as a cause of dyspnoea in emergency. (author)

  15. Human reliability analysis during PSA at Trillo NPP: main characteristics and analysis of diagnostic errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barquin, M.A.; Gomez, F.

    1998-01-01

    The design difference between Trillo NPP and other Spanish nuclear power plants (basic Westinghouse and General Electric designs) were made clear in the Human Reliability Analysis of the Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) for Trillo NPP. The object of this paper is to describe the most significant characteristics of the Human Reliability Analysis carried out in the PSA, with special emphasis on the possible diagnostic errors and their consequences, based on the characteristics in the Emergency Operations Manual for Trillo NPP. - In the case of human errors before the initiating event (type 1), the existence of four redundancies in most of the plant safety systems, means that the impact of this type or error on the final results of the PSA is insignificant. However, in the case common cause errors, especially in certain calibration errors, some actions are significant in the final equation for core damage - The number of human actions that the operator has to carry out during the accidents (type 3) modelled, is relatively small in comparison with this value in other PSAs. This is basically due to the high level of automation at Rillo NPP - The Plant Operations Manual cannot be strictly considered to be a symptoms-based procedure. The operation Group must select the chapter from the Operations Manual to be followed, after having diagnosed the perturbing event, using for this purpose and Emergency and Anomaly Decision Tree (M.O.3.0.1) based on the different indications, alarms and symptoms present in the plant after the perturbing event. For this reason, it was decided to analyse the possible diagnosis errors. In the bibliography on diagnosis and commission errors available at the present time, there is no precise methodology for the analysis of this type of error and its incorporation into PSAs. The method used in the PSA for Trillo y NPP to evaluate this type of interaction, is to develop a Diagnosis Error Table, the object of which is to identify the situations in

  16. Integrated data analysis of fusion diagnostics by means of the Bayesian probability theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, R.; Dinklage, A.

    2004-01-01

    Integrated data analysis (IDA) of fusion diagnostics is the combination of heterogeneous diagnostics to obtain validated physical results. Benefits from the integrated approach result from a systematic use of interdependencies; in that sense IDA optimizes the extraction of information from sets of different data. For that purpose IDA requires a systematic and formalized error analysis of all (statistical and systematic) uncertainties involved in each diagnostic. Bayesian probability theory allows for a systematic combination of all information entering the diagnostic model by considering all uncertainties of the measured data, the calibration measurements, and the physical model. Prior physics knowledge on model parameters can be included. Handling of systematic errors is provided. A central goal of the integration of redundant or complementary diagnostics is to provide information to resolve inconsistencies by exploiting interdependencies. A comparable analysis of sets of diagnostics (meta-diagnostics) is performed by combining statistical and systematical uncertainties with model parameters and model uncertainties. Diagnostics improvement and experimental optimization and design of meta-diagnostics will be discussed

  17. Evaluation of Analysis by Cross-Validation, Part II: Diagnostic and Optimization of Analysis Error Covariance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Ménard

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a general theory of estimation of analysis error covariances based on cross-validation as well as a geometric interpretation of the method. In particular, we use the variance of passive observation-minus-analysis residuals and show that the true analysis error variance can be estimated, without relying on the optimality assumption. This approach is used to obtain near optimal analyses that are then used to evaluate the air quality analysis error using several different methods at active and passive observation sites. We compare the estimates according to the method of Hollingsworth-Lönnberg, Desroziers et al., a new diagnostic we developed, and the perceived analysis error computed from the analysis scheme, to conclude that, as long as the analysis is near optimal, all estimates agree within a certain error margin.

  18. An approach to local diagnostic reference levels (DRL's) in the context of national and international DRL's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, A.T.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years there has been a greater focus on the management of patient doses. This effort has been driven by the realisation of both the increasing magnitude of patient doses and their variation both intra- and inter-nationally. Legislators and guidance-issuing bodies have developed the idea of 'Diagnostic Reference Levels' (DRL's). In particular, the European Union, in their Council Directive 97/43/Euratom, required Member States to develop DRL's. The UK Government, when consolidating this EU Directive into UK legislation, extended the concept of DRL's from a national to an employer level. However, the methodologies used for development of national and international DRL's do not translate to a local level and hence a new approach is required. This paper describes one particular approach made by a UK hospital to introduce 'Local DRL's' in such a manner as to aid the optimisation process. This approach utilises a dose index, based on the local patient population, which is monitored for trends. Any trend in patient dose triggers an investigation linked to the clinical audit system within the Clinical Radiology Department. It is the audit cycle that ensures a continuing move towards an optimised situation. Additional triggers may be employed such as large patient dose variations. (author)

  19. Diagnostic value of MRS-quantified brain tissue lactate level in identifying children with mitochondrial disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunsing, Roelineke J.; Strating, Kim [University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Department of Child Neurology, Groningen (Netherlands); Koning, Tom J. de [University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Department of Pediatric Metabolic Diseases, Groningen (Netherlands); Sijens, Paul E. [University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2017-03-15

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of children with or without neurometabolic disease is used for the first time for quantitative assessment of brain tissue lactate signals, to elaborate on previous suggestions of MRS-detected lactate as a marker of mitochondrial disease. Multivoxel MRS of a transverse plane of brain tissue cranial to the ventricles was performed in 88 children suspected of having neurometabolic disease, divided into 'definite' (n = 17, ≥1 major criteria), 'probable' (n = 10, ≥2 minor criteria), 'possible' (n = 17, 1 minor criterion) and 'unlikely' mitochondrial disease (n = 44, none of the criteria). Lactate levels, expressed in standardized arbitrary units or relative to creatine, were derived from summed signals from all voxels. Ten 'unlikely' children with a normal neurological exam served as the MRS reference subgroup. For 61 of 88 children, CSF lactate values were obtained. MRS lactate level (>12 arbitrary units) and the lactate-to-creatine ratio (L/Cr >0.22) differed significantly between the definite and the unlikely group (p = 0.015 and p = 0.001, respectively). MRS L/Cr also differentiated between the probable and the MRS reference subgroup (p = 0.03). No significant group differences were found for CSF lactate. MRS-quantified brain tissue lactate levels can serve as diagnostic marker for identifying mitochondrial disease in children. (orig.)

  20. Diagnostic value of MRS-quantified brain tissue lactate level in identifying children with mitochondrial disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunsing, Roelineke J.; Strating, Kim; Koning, Tom J. de; Sijens, Paul E.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of children with or without neurometabolic disease is used for the first time for quantitative assessment of brain tissue lactate signals, to elaborate on previous suggestions of MRS-detected lactate as a marker of mitochondrial disease. Multivoxel MRS of a transverse plane of brain tissue cranial to the ventricles was performed in 88 children suspected of having neurometabolic disease, divided into 'definite' (n = 17, ≥1 major criteria), 'probable' (n = 10, ≥2 minor criteria), 'possible' (n = 17, 1 minor criterion) and 'unlikely' mitochondrial disease (n = 44, none of the criteria). Lactate levels, expressed in standardized arbitrary units or relative to creatine, were derived from summed signals from all voxels. Ten 'unlikely' children with a normal neurological exam served as the MRS reference subgroup. For 61 of 88 children, CSF lactate values were obtained. MRS lactate level (>12 arbitrary units) and the lactate-to-creatine ratio (L/Cr >0.22) differed significantly between the definite and the unlikely group (p = 0.015 and p = 0.001, respectively). MRS L/Cr also differentiated between the probable and the MRS reference subgroup (p = 0.03). No significant group differences were found for CSF lactate. MRS-quantified brain tissue lactate levels can serve as diagnostic marker for identifying mitochondrial disease in children. (orig.)

  1. Neural network analysis of vibration signals in the diagnostics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article is devoted to the improvement of heat network calculation and diagnostics methods. Currently used instruments have many shortcomings for the diagnosis of pipelines, including low reliability of defect detection and subjective decision-making. The authors created an experimental stand, which allows to conduct ...

  2. Comparative analysis of two rapid diagnostic tests for diagnosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims at comparing the diagnostic efficiencies of two commercially available kits for detecting Plasmodium falciparum infection in urine and blood of febrile patients for malaria diagnosis. This was an observational study in which matched blood and urine from symptomatic patients were tested for malaria using two ...

  3. Cost analysis of breast cancer diagnostic assessment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honein-AbouHaidar, G N; Hoch, J S; Dobrow, M J; Stuart-McEwan, T; McCready, D R; Gagliardi, A R

    2017-10-01

    Diagnostic assessment programs (daps) appear to improve the diagnosis of cancer, but evidence of their cost-effectiveness is lacking. Given that no earlier study used secondary financial data to estimate the cost of diagnostic tests in the province of Ontario, we explored how to use secondary financial data to retrieve the cost of key diagnostic test services in daps, and we tested the reliability of that cost-retrieving method with hospital-reported costs in preparation for future cost-effectiveness studies. We powered our sample at an alpha of 0.05, a power of 80%, and a margin of error of ±5%, and randomly selected a sample of eligible patients referred to a dap for suspected breast cancer during 1 January-31 December 2012. Confirmatory diagnostic tests received by each patient were identified in medical records. Canadian Classification of Health Intervention procedure codes were used to search the secondary financial data Web portal at the Ontario Case Costing Initiative for an estimate of the direct, indirect, and total costs of each test. The hospital-reported cost of each test received was obtained from the host-hospital's finance department. Descriptive statistics were used to calculate the cost of individual or group confirmatory diagnostic tests, and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test or the paired t-test was used to compare the Ontario Case Costing Initiative and hospital-reported costs. For the 191 identified patients with suspected breast cancer, the estimated total cost of $72,195.50 was not significantly different from the hospital-reported total cost of $72,035.52 ( p = 0.24). Costs differed significantly when multiple tests to confirm the diagnosis were completed during one patient visit and when confirmatory tests reported in hospital data and in medical records were discrepant. The additional estimated cost for non-salaried physicians delivering diagnostic services was $28,387.50. It was feasible to use secondary financial data to retrieve the cost

  4. Systematic review of reliability and diagnostic validity of joint vibration analysis for diagnosis of temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sonia; Crow, Heidi C; McCall, W D; Gonzalez, Yoly M

    2013-01-01

    To conduct a systematic review of papers reporting the reliability and diagnostic validity of the joint vibration analysis (JVA) for diagnosis of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). A search of Pubmed identified English-language publications of the reliability and diagnostic validity of the JVA. Guidelines were adapted from applied STAndards for the Reporting of Diagnostic accuracy studies (STARD) to evaluate the publications. Fifteen publications were included in this review, each of which presented methodological limitations. This literature is unable to provide evidence to support the reliability and diagnostic validity of the JVA for diagnosis of TMD.

  5. Using Meta-Analysis to Inform the Design of Subsequent Studies of Diagnostic Test Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliffe, Sally R.; Crowther, Michael J.; Phillips, Robert S.; Sutton, Alex J.

    2013-01-01

    An individual diagnostic accuracy study rarely provides enough information to make conclusive recommendations about the accuracy of a diagnostic test; particularly when the study is small. Meta-analysis methods provide a way of combining information from multiple studies, reducing uncertainty in the result and hopefully providing substantial…

  6. Common pitfalls in statistical analysis: Understanding the properties of diagnostic tests - Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Priya; Aggarwal, Rakesh

    2018-01-01

    In this article in our series on common pitfalls in statistical analysis, we look at some of the attributes of diagnostic tests (i.e., tests which are used to determine whether an individual does or does not have disease). The next article in this series will focus on further issues related to diagnostic tests.

  7. Electromagnetic analysis of ITER diagnostic equatorial port plugs during plasma disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Y.; Feder, R.; Brooks, A.; Ulrickson, M.; Pitcher, C.S.; Loesser, G.D.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Disruption loads on ITER diagnostic equatorial port plugs are extracted. ► Upward major disruption produces the largest radial moment and radial force on diagnostic first walls and diagnostic shield modules. ► Large eddy currents on supporting rails, keys and water pipes are observed during disruption. -- Abstract: ITER diagnostic port plugs perform many functions including structural support of diagnostic systems under high electromagnetic loads while allowing for diagnostic access to the plasma. The design of diagnostic equatorial port plugs (EPP) are largely driven by electromagnetic loads and associate responses of EPP structure during plasma disruptions and VDEs. This paper summarizes results of transient electromagnetic analysis using Opera 3d in support of the design activities for ITER diagnostic EPP. A complete distribution of disruption loads on the diagnostic first walls (DFWs), diagnostic shield modules (DSMs) and the EPP structure, as well as impact on the system design integration due to electrical contact among various EPP structural components are discussed

  8. Levels of narrative analysis in health psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, M

    2000-05-01

    The past 10-15 years have seen a rapid increase in the study of narrative across all the social sciences. It is sometimes assumed that narrative has the same meaning irrespective of the context in which it is expressed. This article considers different levels of narrative analysis within health psychology. Specifically, it considers the character of health and illness narratives as a function of the personal, interpersonal, positional and societal levels of analysis. At the personal level of analysis narratives are portrayed as expressions of the lived experience of the narrator. At the interpersonal level of analysis the narrative is one that is co-created in dialogue. At the positional level of analysis the analysis considers the differences in social position between the narrator and the listener. The societal level of analysis is concerned with the socially shared stories that are characteristic of certain communities or societies. The challenge is to articulate the connections between these different levels of narrative analysis and to develop strategies to promote emancipatory narratives.

  9. Farm-level risk factors for Fasciola hepatica infection in Danish dairy cattle as evaluated by two diagnostic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takeuchi-Storm, Nao; Denwood, Matthew; Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup

    2017-01-01

    ) as a tool for diagnosis in Danish dairy cattle farms was assessed. This case-control study aimed to identify farm-level risk factors for fasciolosis in Danish dairy farms (> 50 animals slaughtered in 2013) using two diagnostic methods: recordings of liver condemnation at slaughter, and farm-level Fasciola...

  10. Sensitivity analysis for publication bias in meta-analysis of diagnostic studies for a continuous biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Satoshi; Zhou, Xiao-Hua

    2018-02-10

    Publication bias is one of the most important issues in meta-analysis. For standard meta-analyses to examine intervention effects, the funnel plot and the trim-and-fill method are simple and widely used techniques for assessing and adjusting for the influence of publication bias, respectively. However, their use may be subjective and can then produce misleading insights. To make a more objective inference for publication bias, various sensitivity analysis methods have been proposed, including the Copas selection model. For meta-analysis of diagnostic studies evaluating a continuous biomarker, the summary receiver operating characteristic (sROC) curve is a very useful method in the presence of heterogeneous cutoff values. To our best knowledge, no methods are available for evaluation of influence of publication bias on estimation of the sROC curve. In this paper, we introduce a Copas-type selection model for meta-analysis of diagnostic studies and propose a sensitivity analysis method for publication bias. Our method enables us to assess the influence of publication bias on the estimation of the sROC curve and then judge whether the result of the meta-analysis is sufficiently confident or should be interpreted with much caution. We illustrate our proposed method with real data. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Developing patient-specific dose protocols for a CT scanner and exam using diagnostic reference levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, Keith J.

    2014-01-01

    The management of image quality and radiation dose during pediatric CT scanning is dependent on how well one manages the radiographic techniques as a function of the type of exam, type of CT scanner, and patient size. The CT scanner's display of expected CT dose index volume (CTDI vol ) after the projection scan provides the operator with a powerful tool prior to the patient scan to identify and manage appropriate CT techniques, provided the department has established appropriate diagnostic reference levels (DRLs). This paper provides a step-by-step process that allows the development of DRLs as a function of type of exam, of actual patient size and of the individual radiation output of each CT scanner in a department. Abdomen, pelvis, thorax and head scans are addressed. Patient sizes from newborns to large adults are discussed. The method addresses every CT scanner regardless of vendor, model or vintage. We cover adjustments to techniques to manage the impact of iterative reconstruction and provide a method to handle all available voltages other than 120 kV. This level of management of CT techniques is necessary to properly monitor radiation dose and image quality during pediatric CT scans. (orig.)

  12. Nuclear medicine diagnostic experience for 25 patients with parathyroid disease accompanied elevated serum PTH level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Li; Huang Chenggang; Niu Wenqiang; Wu Liwen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore nuclear medicine diagnostic method for parathyroid disease accompanied elevated serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) level. Methods: The images of 25 patients with parathyroid disease were obtained by SPECT 99 Tc m -MIBI double-phase parathyroid imaging and 99 Tc m -methylene diphosphonate ( 99 Tc m -MDP) whole-body static bone imaging. All subject were measured serum PTH, calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase. Results: (1) Serum PTH level increased to varying degrees in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). (2) PHPT and SHPT showed significant change before and after surgery (t=6.24 and t=6.85, P 99 Tc m -MIBI were above 90%. (4) Whole-body bone imaging results of SHPT patients showed complex and diverse caused by high background, increased uptakes mainly. 99 Tc m -MIBI dual-phase parathyroid imaging showed hyperparathyroidism in varying degree, up to 56% or more. Conclusion: Determination of serum PTH combined SPECT for parathyroid and whole-body bone imaging showed high clinical value in diagnosis and treatment of parathyroid disease. (authors)

  13. Local diagnostic reference levels at the Portuguese Institute of oncology francisco gentil of coimbra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bras, S.; Sousa, M.C. de [Algarve Univ., LIP-Algarve, FCT (Portugal); Lopes, M.C. [IPOFG-CROC, S.A., Medical Physics Dept., Coimbra (Portugal)

    2006-07-01

    In the scope of medical radiological exposures and according to European recommendations and national legal requirements [14], the maximum responsible for an installation must assure the establishment of local dose levels for each type of radiological examination and also assure that they are available for the doctor who prescribes the examination. In the absence of national reference dose levels, the so called Local Diagnostic Reference Levels (L.D.R.L.) should be in agreement with the European Diagnostic Reference Levels published for the different types of medical exposures. The aim of this work was to establish a protocol of measurement for each type of more frequent examination, namely in conventional radiology, in CT and in mammography performed in our hospital. For each kind of examination the recommended dose descriptor was adopted and directly measured or derived from basic charge measurements. The patient sample corresponded in each case to at least a minimum of 10 standard-sized patients, as recommended, in order to obtain averages that constitute for each type of radiological examination the L.D.R.L. that could be compared with the European D.R.L.. The results obtained are in the large majority of the situations below the corresponding D.R.L.. Nevertheless we have identified some situations that deserve more attention.In conventional radiology all L.D.R.L. are below the reference levels. However we have detected some skull post anterior (skull P.A.) exposures where entrance skin doses exceeded the standard value. This may be due to equipment age problems but, as always, improvement of staff education will contribute to better practices and we hope that this work can contribute to this objective. In CT the L.D.R.L. that corresponds to single slice scan meet the standards whereas complete examinations described by dose length product (D.L.P.) values show a larger variation and also some situations where the reference level is exceeded. It is possible that

  14. Local diagnostic reference levels at the Portuguese Institute of oncology francisco gentil of coimbra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bras, S.; Sousa, M.C. de; Lopes, M.C.

    2006-01-01

    In the scope of medical radiological exposures and according to European recommendations and national legal requirements [14], the maximum responsible for an installation must assure the establishment of local dose levels for each type of radiological examination and also assure that they are available for the doctor who prescribes the examination. In the absence of national reference dose levels, the so called Local Diagnostic Reference Levels (L.D.R.L.) should be in agreement with the European Diagnostic Reference Levels published for the different types of medical exposures. The aim of this work was to establish a protocol of measurement for each type of more frequent examination, namely in conventional radiology, in CT and in mammography performed in our hospital. For each kind of examination the recommended dose descriptor was adopted and directly measured or derived from basic charge measurements. The patient sample corresponded in each case to at least a minimum of 10 standard-sized patients, as recommended, in order to obtain averages that constitute for each type of radiological examination the L.D.R.L. that could be compared with the European D.R.L.. The results obtained are in the large majority of the situations below the corresponding D.R.L.. Nevertheless we have identified some situations that deserve more attention.In conventional radiology all L.D.R.L. are below the reference levels. However we have detected some skull post anterior (skull P.A.) exposures where entrance skin doses exceeded the standard value. This may be due to equipment age problems but, as always, improvement of staff education will contribute to better practices and we hope that this work can contribute to this objective. In CT the L.D.R.L. that corresponds to single slice scan meet the standards whereas complete examinations described by dose length product (D.L.P.) values show a larger variation and also some situations where the reference level is exceeded. It is possible that

  15. Ignition analysis for burn control and diagnostic developments in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitarai, O.; Muraoka, K.

    1997-01-01

    The temporal evolutions of the operating point during the ignition access and ignited operation phases are analysed on the basis of zero dimensional (0-D) equations in order to clarify the requirements for safe control of ignited operation and for the development of diagnostic systems in ITER. A stable and safe method of reaching the ignited operating point is identified as the 'higher temperature access' method, being compatible with the H mode power threshold constraints. It is found that the ignition boundary can be experimentally determined by a 'thermonuclear oscillation' of the operating point without knowing the power balance equation. On the other hand, the ignition boundary determined by the power balance equation has a larger error bar depending on the accuracy of the diagnostic system. The plasma waveform response to sudden changes in the various plasma parameters during ignited operation is also calculated, and fusion power regulation is demonstrated by feedback control of the fuelling and auxiliary heating power. (author)

  16. Do blood tests cause anemia in hospitalized patients? The effect of diagnostic phlebotomy on hemoglobin and hematocrit levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavendiranathan, Paaladinesh; Bagai, Akshay; Ebidia, Albert; Detsky, Allan S; Choudhry, Niteesh K

    2005-06-01

    To determine whether phlebotomy contributes to changes in hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in hospitalized general internal medicine patients. Retrospective cohort study. General internal medicine inpatient service at a tertiary care hospital. All adult patients discharged from the Toronto General Hospital's internal medicine service between January 1 and June 30, 2001. A total of 989 hospitalizations were reviewed and 404 hospitalizations were included in our analysis. Mean (SD) hemoglobin and hematocrit changes during hospitalization were 7.9 (12.6) g/L (Phemoglobin and hematocrit were predicted by the volume of phlebotomy, length of hospital stay, admission hemoglobin/hematocrit value, age, Charlson comorbidity index, and admission intravascular volume status. The volume of phlebotomy remained a strong predictor of drop in hemoglobin and hematocrit after adjusting for other predictors using multivariate analysis (Phemoglobin and hematocrit of 7.0 g/L and 1.9%, respectively. Phlebotomy is highly associated with changes in hemoglobin and hematocrit levels for patients admitted to an internal medicine service and can contribute to anemia. This anemia, in turn, may have significant consequences, especially for patients with cardiorespiratory diseases. Knowing the expected changes in hemoglobin and hematocrit due to diagnostic phlebotomy will help guide when to investigate anemia in hospitalized patients.

  17. Diagnostic value of blood urea and bilirubin levels determination in patients with gastroduodenal zone diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B. Zhakun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of relationships of urea and bilirubin blood levels in patients with Helicobacter pylori associated gastroduodenal pathology (HP-aGDP has the considerable relevance for clinicians, since these indicators represent the status and function of the gastroduodenal zone. The aim of this study was to estimate changes of bilirubin and urea blood levels in patients with HP-aGDP before and after treatment. Materials and methods. Our study has included 59 patients of the main group with different HP-aGDP and 40 patients of the control group with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP. Results. In patients with HP-aGDP the doubly severe reduction of urea concentration was observed in significantly greater number of patients, while half of the patients in the controls had an increase of its level by 10.4 %. The bilirubin concentration decrease was more pronounced (37.1 % vs. 3.5 % and significant (p < 0.05 in patients with HP-aGDP. Its rate depended on the dynamics of urea exactly in patients with HP-aGDP and it was more pronounced in case of urea reduction (p < 0.05. Thus, the revealed association of bilirubin and urea levels changes, namely their decrease owing to the treatment, was inherent only to patients with HP-aGDP unlike to the patients with CAD. We also determined the involvement of lipid, carbohydrate and protein metabolism, electrolytes, composition of blood in the processes of local and systemic inflammation caused by HP and its relationship with adaptive reactions, which generally depended on other individual characteristics of patients in the study group (age, duration of disease, ulcer size, etc.. Conclusions. The monitoring of urea and bilirubin blood levels in patients especially with HP-aGDP during the eradication has a specific diagnostic and prognostic value. The bilirubin level in such cases reflects the severity of cholestasis, inflammatory lesions of the duodenal mucosa, comorbid hepatobiliary disease, while the urea level

  18. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography for deep vein thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodacre, Steve; Sampson, Fiona; Thomas, Steve; Beek, Edwin van; Sutton, Alex

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) has largely replaced contrast venography as the definitive diagnostic test for deep vein thrombosis (DVT). We aimed to derive a definitive estimate of the diagnostic accuracy of US for clinically suspected DVT and identify study-level factors that might predict accuracy. We undertook a systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression of diagnostic cohort studies that compared US to contrast venography in patients with suspected DVT. We searched Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Database of Reviews of Effectiveness, the ACP Journal Club, and citation lists (1966 to April 2004). Random effects meta-analysis was used to derive pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity. Random effects meta-regression was used to identify study-level covariates that predicted diagnostic performance. We identified 100 cohorts comparing US to venography in patients with suspected DVT. Overall sensitivity for proximal DVT (95% confidence interval) was 94.2% (93.2 to 95.0), for distal DVT was 63.5% (59.8 to 67.0), and specificity was 93.8% (93.1 to 94.4). Duplex US had pooled sensitivity of 96.5% (95.1 to 97.6) for proximal DVT, 71.2% (64.6 to 77.2) for distal DVT and specificity of 94.0% (92.8 to 95.1). Triplex US had pooled sensitivity of 96.4% (94.4 to 97.1%) for proximal DVT, 75.2% (67.7 to 81.6) for distal DVT and specificity of 94.3% (92.5 to 95.8). Compression US alone had pooled sensitivity of 93.8 % (92.0 to 95.3%) for proximal DVT, 56.8% (49.0 to 66.4) for distal DVT and specificity of 97.8% (97.0 to 98.4). Sensitivity was higher in more recently published studies and in cohorts with higher prevalence of DVT and more proximal DVT, and was lower in cohorts that reported interpretation by a radiologist. Specificity was higher in cohorts that excluded patients with previous DVT. No studies were identified that compared repeat US to venography in all patients. Repeat US

  19. Diagnostic accuracy of dual-source CT coronary angiography in patients with atrial fibrillation: Meta analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Gang, E-mail: cjr.sungang@vip.163.com [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinan Military General Hospital, No. 25, Shifan Road, Jinan, Shandong Province 250031 (China); Li, Min [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinan Military General Hospital, No. 25, Shifan Road, Jinan, Shandong Province 250031 (China); Jiang, Zhi-wei [Department of Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Fourth Military Medical University, No. 169, Changle West Road, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710032 (China); Xu, Lin [Department of Medical Cardiology, Jinan Military General Hospital, No. 25, Shifan Road, Jinan, Shandong Province 250031 (China); Peng, Zhao-hui; Ding, Juan; Li, Li [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinan Military General Hospital, No. 25, Shifan Road, Jinan, Shandong Province 250031 (China); Jin, Zhi-tao [Department of Cardiology, General Hospital of the Second Artillery, Beijing 100088 (China)

    2013-10-01

    Rationale and objective: To synthesize the available data to underscore the diagnostic accuracy of dual-source CT (DSCT) coronary angiography in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Materials and methods: We searched in the electronic databases of PubMed for all published studies that examined patients with AF using DSCT. We used an exact binomial rendition of the bivariate mixed-effects regression model to synthesize the diagnostic data. Results: The positive and negative likelihood ratios (LRs) at the patient level were 6.0 (CI, 3.6–10.1) and 0.03(CI, 0.004–0.2), respectively. The negative predictive values higher than 90% were available for a CAD prevalence <78%. The pooled vessel- and segment-level estimates showed higher positive and negative LRs than the patient-level estimates (15.3 [CI, 9.8–23.9] and 0.1 [CI, 0.07–0.3]; 25.1 [CI, 10.8–58.5] and 0.2 [CI, 0.2–0.3], respectively). No statistically significant heterogeneity between studies and publication bias were found at the patient level estimate. A sensitivity analysis showed that no study influenced the pooled results larger than 0.02. Conclusions: Cardiac angiography with DSCT can be applied as an imaging test for ruling out CAD in patient with AF. However, DSCT angiography may be not an effective tool for risk stratification for the high negative LR at the artery and segment levels.

  20. Automated System of Diagnostic Monitoring at Bureya HPP Hydraulic Engineering Installations: a New Level of Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musyurka, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the design, hardware, and software solutions developed and placed in service for the automated system of diagnostic monitoring (ASDM) for hydraulic engineering installations at the Bureya HPP, and assuring a reliable process for monitoring hydraulic engineering installations. Project implementation represents a timely solution of problems addressed by the hydraulic engineering installation diagnostics section.

  1. Automated System of Diagnostic Monitoring at Bureya HPP Hydraulic Engineering Installations: a New Level of Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musyurka, A. V., E-mail: musyurkaav@burges.rushydro.ru [Bureya HPP (a JSC RusGidro affiliate) (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    This article presents the design, hardware, and software solutions developed and placed in service for the automated system of diagnostic monitoring (ASDM) for hydraulic engineering installations at the Bureya HPP, and assuring a reliable process for monitoring hydraulic engineering installations. Project implementation represents a timely solution of problems addressed by the hydraulic engineering installation diagnostics section.

  2. Using the method of judgement analysis to address variations in diagnostic decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Hancock, Helen C; Mason, James M; Murphy, Jerry J

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Heart failure is not a clear-cut diagnosis but a complex clinical syndrome with consequent diagnostic uncertainty. Judgment analysis is a method to help clinical teams to understand how they make complex decisions. The method of judgment analysis was used to determine the factors that influence clinicians' diagnostic decisions about heart failure. Methods Three consultants, three middle grade doctors, and two junior doctors each evaluated 45 patient scenarios. The main out...

  3. Diagnostic value and timing of serum antichlamidial antibody level evaluation during infertility workup among infertile women in whom tubal factor was detected with diagnostic laparoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Kahyaoğlu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: With normal hysterosalpingography (HSG results, selecting suitable candidates for the laparoscopic treatment of probable pelvic adhesions following previous pelvic inflammatory disease, it would be wise to investigate serum antibody screening against chlamidia trachomatis. It is worth to evaluate whether it is useful to detect a negative antichlamidial antibody disease for cancelling laparoscopy for a while with abnormal HSG findings. These two subjects have been investigated in study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For detecting diagnostic value of serum antichlamidial antibody, in our infertility clinic, postoperative blood samples of 80 patients who were hospitalized for diagnostic laparoscopy to investigate infertility ethiology between May 2004 and November 2005 have been tested with microelisa method for antichlamidial IgM and IgG antibodies. HSG films of the patients performed at least one year were evaluated. Venous blood was drawn from these patients during postoperative early period for studying serum IgM and IgG antibodies of chlamidia trachomatis and the results were compared with operative findings. RESULTS: According to the antichlamidial antibody levels 60 (75% patients have not been infected with chlamidia and 20 (25% patients have been infected previously. When the patients were divided to two groups; normal and abnormal; based on preoperative HSG films; 18 (30% of the 60 patients with abnormal HSG films and 2 (10% of the 20 patients with normal HSG films had positive antichlamidial antibody levels respectively. CONCLUSION: The relationship between chlamidia trachomatis infection and tubal infertility has been demonstrated among 85% of patients with positive antichlamidial antibody levels and 46.7% of patients with negative levels who had tubal passage defects detected during diagnostic laparoscopy.

  4. Towards the definition of Institutional diagnostic reference levels in paediatric interventional cardiology procedures in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottou, S; Kollaros, N; Plemmenos, C; Mastorakou, I; Apostolopoulou, S C; Tsapaki, V

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate paediatric radiation doses in a dedicated cardiology hospital, with the objective of characterising patterns in dose variation. The ultimate purpose was to define Local (Institutional) Diagnostic Reference Levels (LDRLs) for different types of paediatric cardiac interventional procedures (IC), according to patient age. From a total of 710 cases performed during three consecutive years, by operators with more than 15 years of experience, the age was noted in only 477 IC procedures. The median values obtained for Fluoroscopy Time (FT), Number of Frames (N) and Kerma Area Product (P KA ) by age range were 5.8 min, 1322 and 2.0 Gy.cm 2 for definition of LDRLs presents challenges mainly due to the multiple clinical and technical factors affecting the outcome. On the other hand the lack of paediatric IC DRLs makes the identification of good practices more difficult. A consensus is needed on IC procedures nomenclature and grouping in order to allow a common assessment and comparison of doses. Copyright © 2018 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Radiation safety concerns and diagnostic reference levels for computed tomography scanners in Tamil Nadu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingstone, Roshan S.; Dinakaran, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation safety in computed tomography (CT) scanners is of concern due its widespread use in the field of radiological imaging. This study intends to evaluate radiation doses imparted to patients undergoing thorax, abdomen and pelvic CT examinations and formulate regional diagnostic reference levels (DRL) in Tamil Nadu, South India. In-site CT dose measurement was performed in 127 CT scanners in Tamil Nadu for a period of 2 years as a part of the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB)-funded project. Out of the 127 CT scanners,13 were conventional; 53 single-slice helical scanners (SSHS); 44 multislice CT (MSCT) scanners; and 17 refurbished scanners. CT dose index (CTDI) was measured using a 32-cm polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-body phantom in each CT scanner. Dose length product (DLP) for different anatomical regions was generated using CTDI values. The regional DRLs for thorax, abdomen and pelvis examinations were 557, 521 and 294 mGy cm, respectively. The mean effective dose was estimated using the DLP values and was found to be 8.04, 6.69 and 4.79 mSv for thorax, abdomen and pelvic CT examinations, respectively. The establishment of DRLs in this study is the first step towards optimization of CT doses in the Indian context. (author)

  6. Patient doses in CT examinations in Switzerland: Implementation of national diagnostic reference levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treier, R.; Aroua, A.; Verdun, F. R.; Samara, E.; Stuessi, A.; Trueb, P. R.

    2010-01-01

    Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) were established for 21 indication-based CT examinations for adults in Switzerland. One hundred and seventy-nine of 225 computed tomography (CT) scanners operated in hospitals and private radiology institutes were audited on-site and patient doses were collected. For each CT scanner, a correction factor was calculated expressing the deviation of the measured weighted computed tomography dose index (CTDI) to the nominal weighted CTDI as displayed on the workstation. Patient doses were corrected by this factor providing a realistic basis for establishing national DRLs. Results showed large variations in doses between different radiology departments in Switzerland, especially for examinations of the petrous bone, pelvis, lower limbs and heart. This indicates that the concept of DRLs has not yet been correctly applied for CT examinations in clinical routine. A close collaboration of all stakeholders is mandatory to assure an effective radiation protection of patients. On-site audits will be intensified to further establish the concept of DRLs in Switzerland. (authors)

  7. Establishment of diagnostic reference levels for dental panoramic radiography in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manousaridis, G.; Koukorava, C.; Hourdakis, C.J.; Kamenopoulou, V.; Yakoumakis, E.; Tsiklakis, K.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to present the national diagnostic reference levels (DRL) established for panoramic dental examinations in Greece. The establishment of DRL, as a tool for the optimisation of radiological procedures, is a requirement of national regulations. Measurements performed by the Greek Atomic Energy Commission on 90 panoramic systems have been used for the derivation of DRL values. DRL values have been proposed for exposure settings of different patient types (child, small adult and standard adult), both for film and digital imaging. The DRLs for different patient types are grouped in three categories: children, small adults (corresponding to female) and average adults (corresponding to male). Proposed DRLs for these groups are 2.2, 3.3 and 4.1 mGy, respectively. In order to investigate the correlation of DRLs with the available imaging modalities (CR, DR and film), this parameter was taken into account. DR imaging DRL is the lowest at 3.5 mGy, CR imaging the highest at 4.2 mGy and film imaging at 3.7 mGy. In order to facilitate comparison with other studies, kerma-width product values were calculated from K i , air and field size. (authors)

  8. Diagnostic reference levels and complexity indices in interventional radiology: a national programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Cruces, R.; Perez-Martinez, M.; Pastor-Vega, J.M.; Canete, S. [University of Malaga, School of Medicine, Malaga (Spain); Vano, E.; Fernandez-Soto, J.M.; Sanchez-Casanueva, R.; Gallego-Beuter, J.J. [Complutense University, San Carlos Hospital, Medical School, Madrid (Spain); Carrera-Magarino, F.; Moreno-Rodriguez, F.; Moreno-Sanchez, T. [Juan Ramon Jimenez University Hospital, Huelva (Spain); Soler-Cantos, M.M.; Canis-Lopez, M. [Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Hernandez-Armas, J.; Diaz-Romero, F.J. [University Hospital of Canary Islands, Tenerife (Spain); Rosales-Espizua, F.; Lopez-Medina, A.; Gonzalez-de-Garay, M. [Basurto Hospital, Bilbao (Spain); Martin-Palanca, A. [Virgen de la Victoria University Hospital, Malaga (Spain); Gil-Agudo, A.; Zarca-Diaz, M.A.; Zapata-Jimenez, J.C. [General University Hospital, Ciudad Real (Spain); Parra-Osorio, V.; Munoz Ruiz-Canela, J.J.; Moreno-Saiz, C.; Galan-Montenegro, P. [Carlos Haya University Hospital, Malaga (Spain)

    2016-12-15

    To propose national diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for interventional radiology and to evaluate the impact of the procedural complexity on patient doses. Eight interventional radiology units from Spanish hospitals were involved in this project. The participants agreed to undergo common quality control procedures for X-ray systems. Kerma area product (KAP) was collected from a sample of 1,649 procedures. A consensus document established the criteria to evaluate the complexity of seven types of procedures. DRLs were set as the 3rd quartile of KAP values. The KAP (3rd quartile) in Gy cm{sup 2} for the procedures included in the survey were: lower extremity arteriography (n = 784) 78; renal arteriography (n = 37) 107; transjugular hepatic biopsies (THB) (n = 30) 45; biliary drainage (BD) (n = 314) 30; uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) (n = 56) 214; colon endoprostheses (CE) (n = 31) 169; hepatic chemoembolization (HC) (n = 269) 303; femoropopliteal revascularization (FR) (n = 62) 119; and iliac stent (n = 66) 170. The complexity involved the increases in the following KAP factors from simple to complex procedures: THB x4; BD x13; UFE x3; CE x3; HC x5; FR x5 and IS x4. The evaluation of the procedure complexity in patient doses will allow the proper use of DRLs for the optimization of interventional radiology. (orig.)

  9. Multi-shot analysis of the gamma reaction history diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayre, D. B.; Bernstein, L. A.; Church, J. A.; Stoeffl, W.; Herrmann, H. W.

    2012-01-01

    The gamma reaction history diagnostic at the National Ignition Facility has the capability to determine a number of important performance metrics for cryogenic deuterium-tritium implosions: the fusion burn width, bang time and yield, as well as the areal density of the compressed ablator. Extracting those values from the measured γ rays of an implosion, requires accounting for a γ-ray background in addition to the impulse response function of the instrument. To address these complications, we have constructed a model of the γ-ray signal, and are developing a simultaneous multi-shot fitting routine to constrain its parameter space.

  10. Latent class analysis of diagnostic science assessment data using Bayesian networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steedle, Jeffrey Thomas

    2008-10-01

    longitudinal model in order to provide educators and curriculum developers with a sense of how students advance in understanding over the course of instruction. Results indicated that expected student response patterns rarely reflected the assumptions of the learning progression approach. That is, students tended not to systematically apply a coherent set of ideas across different problem contexts. Even those students expected to express scientifically-accurate understanding had substantial probabilities of reporting certain problematic ideas. The learning progression models failed to make as many substantively-meaningful distinctions among students as the facet models. In statistical comparisons, model-data fit was better for the facet model, but the models were quite comparable on all other statistical criteria. Studying the effects of test length revealed that approximately 8 items are needed to obtain adequate diagnostic certainty, but more items are needed to obtain adequate diagnostic reliability. The longitudinal analysis demonstrated that students either advance in their understanding (i.e., switch to the more advanced latent class) over a short period of instruction or stay at the same level. There was no significant relationship between the probability of changing latent classes and time between testing occasions. In all, this study is valuable because it provides evidence informing decisions about modeling and reporting on student understanding, it assesses the quality of measurement available from short clusters of diagnostic multiple-choice items, and it provides educators with knowledge of the paths that student may take as they advance from novice to expert understanding over the course of instruction.

  11. Fluoroscopy-guided insertion of nasojejunal tubes in children - setting local diagnostic reference levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitta, Lavanya; Raghavan, Ashok; Sprigg, Alan; Morrell, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the radiation burden from fluoroscopy-guided insertions of nasojejunal tubes (NJTs) in children. There are no recommended or published standards of diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) available. To establish reference dose area product (DAP) levels for the fluoroscopy-guided insertion of nasojejunal tubes as a basis for setting DRLs for children. In addition, we wanted to assess our local practice and determine the success and complication rates associated with this procedure. Children who had NJT insertion procedures were identified retrospectively from the fluoroscopy database. The age of the child at the time of the procedure, DAP, screening time, outcome of the procedure, and any complications were recorded for each procedure. As the radiation dose depends on the size of the child, the children were assigned to three different age groups. The sample size, mean, median and third-quartile DAPs were calculated for each group. The third-quartile values were used to establish the DRLs. Of 186 procedures performed, 172 were successful on the first attempt. These were performed in a total of 43 children with 60% having multiple insertions over time. The third-quartile DAPs were as follows for each age group: 0-12 months, 2.6 cGy cm 2 ; 1-7 years, 2.45 cGy cm 2 ; >8 years, 14.6 cGy cm 2 . High DAP readings were obtained in the 0-12 months (n = 4) and >8 years (n = 2) age groups. No immediate complications were recorded. Fluoroscopy-guided insertion of NJTs is a highly successful procedure in a selected population of children and is associated with a low complication rate. The radiation dose per procedure is relatively low. (orig.)

  12. The impact of diagnostic reference levels on patient doses from X-ray examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitz, W.; Almen, A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of diagnostic reference levels (DRL). For this study patient doses for the years 1999 and 2006 were available. Patient doses on a national level for eleven specified X-ray examinations were assessed. For the conventional examinations DRL have been used after the first survey in 1999, for computed tomography no DRL were used and for mammography DRL have been used for more than 20 years. Whereas the patient doses for conventional examinations were 30% lower in 2006 compared to 1999 the doses remained essentially the same for computed tomography and mammography. The widths of the dose distributions had only slightly decreased for conventional examinations and remained the same for computed tomography and mammography. This study has shown that after implementation of DRL a considerable dose reduction can be expected. Practices exceeding DRL will perform remedial actions with the aim to reduce dose, as demonstrated for the conventional examinations. Despite the fact that practices for computed tomography could compare doses with others practices, in the absence of DRL no actions to reduce doses were performed. The margin for further dose reductions in mammography is small due to the long term use of DRL. The impact of DRL on patient doses is changing with time. When introduced large dose reductions can be expected. After long term use DRL will counteract the introduction of new technique with unjustified high patient doses. Despite the merits in terms of dose saving it must be recognized that DRL has its limits - it has to be amended with other radiological protection activities. Other means and measures have to be developed, for example by the authorities, in order to ensure that optimisation is continued even when the patient doses are below the DRL. (author)

  13. Single-Level and Multilevel Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofighi, Davood; Thoemmes, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Mediation analysis is a statistical approach used to examine how the effect of an independent variable on an outcome is transmitted through an intervening variable (mediator). In this article, we provide a gentle introduction to single-level and multilevel mediation analyses. Using single-level data, we demonstrate an application of structural…

  14. SU-E-P-10: Establishment of Local Diagnostic Reference Levels of Routine Exam in Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, M; Wang, Y; Weng, H

    2015-01-01

    Introduction National diagnostic reference levels (NDRLs) can be used as a reference dose of radiological examination can provide radiation dose as the basis of patient dose optimization. Local diagnostic reference levels (LDRLs) by periodically view and check doses, more efficiency to improve the way of examination. Therefore, the important first step is establishing a diagnostic reference level. Computed Tomography in Taiwan had been built up the radiation dose limit value,in addition, many studies report shows that CT scan contributed most of the radiation dose in different medical. Therefore, this study was mainly to let everyone understand DRL’s international status. For computed tomography in our hospital to establish diagnostic reference levels. Methods and Materials: There are two clinical CT scanners (a Toshiba Aquilion and a Siemens Sensation) were performed in this study. For CT examinations the basic recommended dosimetric quantity is the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI). Each exam each different body part, we collect 10 patients at least. Carried out the routine examinations, and all exposure parameters have been collected and the corresponding CTDIv and DLP values have been determined. Results: The majority of patients (75%) were between 60–70 Kg of body weight. There are 25 examinations in this study. Table 1 shows the LDRL of each CT routine examination. Conclusions: Therefore, this study would like to let everyone know DRL’s international status, but also establishment of computed tomography of the local reference levels for our hospital, and providing radiation reference, as a basis for optimizing patient dose

  15. SU-E-P-10: Establishment of Local Diagnostic Reference Levels of Routine Exam in Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, M; Wang, Y; Weng, H [Chiayi Chang Gung Memorial Hospital of The C.G.M.F, Puzi City, Chiayi County, Taiwan (China)

    2015-06-15

    Introduction National diagnostic reference levels (NDRLs) can be used as a reference dose of radiological examination can provide radiation dose as the basis of patient dose optimization. Local diagnostic reference levels (LDRLs) by periodically view and check doses, more efficiency to improve the way of examination. Therefore, the important first step is establishing a diagnostic reference level. Computed Tomography in Taiwan had been built up the radiation dose limit value,in addition, many studies report shows that CT scan contributed most of the radiation dose in different medical. Therefore, this study was mainly to let everyone understand DRL’s international status. For computed tomography in our hospital to establish diagnostic reference levels. Methods and Materials: There are two clinical CT scanners (a Toshiba Aquilion and a Siemens Sensation) were performed in this study. For CT examinations the basic recommended dosimetric quantity is the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI). Each exam each different body part, we collect 10 patients at least. Carried out the routine examinations, and all exposure parameters have been collected and the corresponding CTDIv and DLP values have been determined. Results: The majority of patients (75%) were between 60–70 Kg of body weight. There are 25 examinations in this study. Table 1 shows the LDRL of each CT routine examination. Conclusions: Therefore, this study would like to let everyone know DRL’s international status, but also establishment of computed tomography of the local reference levels for our hospital, and providing radiation reference, as a basis for optimizing patient dose.

  16. Diagnostic value of soluble CD163 serum levels in patients suspected of meningitis: comparison with CRP and procalcitonin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Troels Bygum; Larsen, Klaus; Kristiansen, Thomas Birk

    2007-01-01

    CD163. However, sCD163 may be helpful in rapid identification of patients with systemic bacterial infection. If used as an adjunct to lumbar puncture, PCT and CRP had very high diagnostic accuracy for distinguishing between bacterial and viral infection in patients with spinal fluid pleocytosis. However......-operating characteristic AUCs (areas under curves). Patients were classified by 2 sets of diagnostic criteria into: A) purulent meningitis, serous meningitis or non-meningitis, and B) systemic bacterial infection, local bacterial infection or non-bacterial disease. An elevated serum level of sCD163 was the most specific......The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the diagnostic value of sCD163 serum levels with CRP and PCT in meningitis and bacterial infection. An observational cohort study was conducted between February 2001 and February 2005. The study population comprised 55 patients suspected...

  17. Diagnostic value of multislice computed tomography angiography in coronary artery disease: A meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zhonghua; Jiang Wen

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To perform a meta-analysis of the diagnostic value of multislice CT (MSCT) angiography in the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) when compared to conventional coronary angiography. Materials and methods: A search of PubMed and MEDLINE databases for English literature was performed. Only studies with at least 10 patients comparing MSCT angiography with conventional coronary angiography in the detection of CAD were included. Diagnostic value of MSCT angiography compared to coronary angiography was compared and analyzed at segment-, vessel- and patient-based assessment. Results: 47 studies (67 comparisons) met the criteria and were included in our study. Pooled overall sensitivity, specificity and 95% confidence interval for MSCT angiography in the detection of CAD were 83% (79%, 89%), 93% (91%, 96%) at segment-based analysis; 90% (87%, 94%), 87% (80%, 93%) at vessel-based analysis; and 91% (88%, 95%), 86% (81%, 92%) at patient-based analysis, respectively. Diagnostic accuracy of MSCT angiography in evaluating assessable segments was significantly improved with 64-slice scanners when compared to that with 4- and 16-slice scanners (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our meta-analysis showed that MSCT angiography has potential diagnostic accuracy in the detection of CAD. Diagnostic performance of MSCT angiography has been significantly improved with the latest 64-slice CT, with resultant high qualitative and quantitative diagnostic accuracy. 16-slice CT was limited in spatial resolution which makes it difficult to perform quantitative assessment of coronary artery stenoses

  18. MLS/Aura Level 2 Diagnostics, Geophysical Parameter Grid V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ML2DGG is the EOS Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) product containing geophysical diagnostic quantities pertaining directly to the standard geophysical data...

  19. Identification of candidate diagnostic serum biomarkers for Kawasaki disease using proteomic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yayoi; Yanagimachi, Masakatsu; Ino, Yoko; Aketagawa, Mao; Matsuo, Michie; Okayama, Akiko; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Oba, Kunihiro; Morioka, Ichiro; Imagawa, Tomoyuki; Kaneko, Tetsuji; Yokota, Shumpei; Hirano, Hisashi; Mori, Masaaki

    2017-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis and childhood febrile disease that can lead to cardiovascular complications. The diagnosis of KD depends on its clinical features, and thus it is sometimes difficult to make a definitive diagnosis. In order to identify diagnostic serum biomarkers for KD, we explored serum KD-related proteins, which differentially expressed during the acute and recovery phases of two patients by mass spectrometry (MS). We identified a total of 1,879 proteins by MS-based proteomic analysis. The levels of three of these proteins, namely lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein (LRG1), and angiotensinogen (AGT), were higher in acute phase patients. In contrast, the level of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) was decreased. To confirm the usefulness of these proteins as biomarkers, we analyzed a total of 270 samples, including those collected from 55 patients with acute phase KD, by using western blot analysis and microarray enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Over the course of this experiment, we determined that the expression level of these proteins changes specifically in the acute phase of KD, rather than the recovery phase of KD or other febrile illness. Thus, LRG1 could be used as biomarkers to facilitate KD diagnosis based on clinical features. PMID:28262744

  20. Integrating Research-Informed Teaching within an Undergraduate Level 4 (Year 1) Diagnostic Radiography Curriculum: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Robert; Hogg, Peter; Robinson, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the piloting and evaluation of the Research-informed Teaching experience (RiTe) project. The aim of RiTe was to link teaching and learning with research within an undergraduate diagnostic radiography curriculum. A preliminary pilot study of RiTe was undertaken with a group of level 4 (year 1) volunteer BSc (Hons) diagnostic…

  1. Use of the mini C-arm for wrist fractures - Establishing a diagnostic reference level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, G. J.; Pillai, A.; Gibson, S.

    2008-01-01

    The establishment of diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for all typical radiological examinations became mandatory following the implementation of the Ionising Radiations (Medical Exposure) Regulations Act 2000. At present, there are no national dosage guidelines in the UK regarding use of fluoroscopy in orthopaedic trauma. The increasing popularity of the mini C-arm image intensifier amongst surgeons has led to concerns regarding use of ionizing radiation by personnel who have not been trained in radiation protection. It is therefore essential to have formal protocols for use of the mini C-arm to comply with the law and to maintain safe clinical practice. It is attempted to provide dose data for wrist fracture manipulations that may be used as a basis for setting a DRL for this procedure. Screening times were recorded for 80 wrist manipulations in a fracture clinic setting using a mini C-arm image intensifier. A DRL was set using the third quartile value for screening time. The median screening time for wrist fractures was 20 s with a range from 1 to 177 s. The third quartile value for screening time was 34 s. This value can be used as a provisional DRL for wrist fracture manipulations. The DRL is a quantitative guide for the optimisation of radiological protection. IR(ME)R 2000 states that if it is consistently exceeded by an individual operator or a piece of equipment, investigation and remedial action must be taken. We recommend that trauma units establish their own local DRLs for common procedures as made mandatory by legislation. (authors)

  2. Establishment of local diagnostic reference levels for quality control in intraoral radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Maki; Harata, Yasuo; Shiba, Noriyoshi; Koizumi, Nobuhide; Ozawa, Tomonori; Takahashi, Nobutoshi; Okumura, Yasuhiko

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the dosage and imaging conditions for patients undergoing intraoral radiography at Meikai University Hospital and establish assurance and quality control data. Tube voltage, exposure time, and air kinetic energy released per unit mass (air kerma) of three intraoral radiography units were measured. To calculate the patient entrance dose (PED) for each radiograph using Insight film, we extracted data for 1063 patients from their exposure records. The PED was compared with the diagnostic reference level (DRL) from the European Commission and the UK. The tube voltage of the three units was maintained at 60 ± 2 kV. Differences in exposure time were less than 1.7 % for all units. The air kerma rates were well maintained within a 4.2 % error. Based on the patient data, there were no significant differences in the mean exposure times for males and females for all anatomical sites. The mean PED ranged from 1.09 ± 0.31 mGy for the mandibular incisors to 2.42 ± 0.33 mGy for the maxillary molars. The mean PED at the mandibular molars using InSight film was 1.59 ± 0.20 mGy, being less than the recommended value based on the DRL for intraoral radiography in the UK. We concluded that radiographic conditions at the hospital have been properly maintained. This basic quality control data may assist other dental radiation facilities to reduce patient dosage.

  3. MEDICAL DIAGNOSTICS BY MICROSTRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF BIOLOGICAL LIQUID DRIED PATTERNS AS A PROBLEM OF BIOINFORMATICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Vladimirovich Lebedev-Stepanov, Dr.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Motivation: It is important to develop the high-precision computerized methods for medical rapid diagnostic which is generalizing the unique clinical experience obtained in the past decade as specialized solutions for diagnostic problems of control of specific diseases and, potentially, for a wide health monitoring of virtually healthy population, identify the reserves of human health and take the actions to prevent of these reserves depletion. In this work we present one of the new directions in bioinformatics, i.e. medical diagnostics by automated expert system on basis of morphology analysis of digital image of biological liquid dried pattern. Results: Proposed method is combination of bioinformatics and biochemistry approaches for obtaining diagnostic information from a morphological analysis of standardized dried patterns of biological liquid sessile drop. We have carried out own research in collaboration with medical diagnostic centers and formed the electronic database for recognition the following types of diseases: candidiasis; neoplasms; diabetes mellitus; diseases of the circulatory system; cerebrovascular disease; diseases of the digestive system; diseases of the genitourinary system; infectious diseases; factors relevant to the work; factors associated with environmental pollution; factors related to lifestyle. The laboratory setup for diagnostics of the human body in pathology states is developed. The diagnostic results are considered. Availability: Access to testing the software can be obtained on request to the contact email below.

  4. Simplified diagnostic coding sheet for computerized data storage and analysis in ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, J; Lahav, M

    1987-11-01

    A review of currently-available diagnostic coding systems revealed that most are either too abbreviated or too detailed. We have compiled a simplified diagnostic coding sheet based on the International Coding and Diagnosis (ICD-9), which is both complete and easy to use in a general practice. The information is transferred to a computer, which uses the relevant (ICD-9) diagnoses as database and can be retrieved later for display of patients' problems or analysis of clinical data.

  5. Sci-Thur PM – Colourful Interactions: Highlights 07: Canadian Computed Tomography Survey: National Diagnostic Reference Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wardlaw, Graeme M; Martel, Narine [Consumer & Clinical Radiation Protection Bureau / Health Canada (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: The Canadian Computed (CT) Tomography Survey sought to collect CT technology and dose index data (CTDI and DLP) at the national level in order to establish national diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for seven common CT examinations of standard-sized adults and pediatric patients. Methods: A single survey booklet (consisting of four sections) was mailed to and completed for each participating CT scanner. Survey sections collected data on (i) General facility and scanner information, (ii) routine protocols (as available), (iii) individual patient data (as applied) and (iv) manual CTDI measurements. Results: Dose index (CTDIvol and DLP) and associated patient data from 24 280 individual patient exam sequences was analyzed for seven common CT examinations performed in Canada: Adult Head, Chest, Abdomen/Pelvis, and Chest/Abdomen/Pelvis, and Pediatric Head, Chest, and Abdomen. Pediatric examination data was sub-divided into three age ranges: 0–3, 3–7 and 7–13 years. DRLs (75th percentile of dose index distributions) were found for all thirteen groups. Further analysis also permitted segmentation of examination data into 8 sub-groups, whose dose index data was displayed along with group histograms – showing relative contribution of axial vs. helical, contrast use (C+ vs. C-), and application of fixed current vs. dose reduction (DR) – 75th percentiles of DR sub-groups were, in almost all cases, lower than whole group (examination) DRLs. Conclusions: The analysis and summaries presented in the pending survey report can serve to aid local CT imaging optimization efforts within Canada and also contribute further to international efforts in radiation protection of patients.

  6. Magnetic resonance colonography versus colonoscopy as a diagnostic investigation for colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purkayastha, S.; Tekkis, P.P.; Athanasiou, T.; Aziz, O.; Negus, R.; Gedroyc, W.; Darzi, A.W.

    2005-01-01

    AIMS: Magnetic resonance colonography (MRC) is emerging as a potential complementary investigation for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) and also for benign pathology such as diverticular disease. A meta-analysis reporting the use of MRC is yet to be performed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of MRC compared with the gold-standard investigation, conventional colonoscopy (CC). METHODS: A literature search was carried out to identify studies containing comparative data between MRC findings and CC findings. Quantitative meta-analysis for diagnostic tests was performed, which included the calculation of independent sensitivities, specificities, diagnostic odds ratios, the construction of summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curves, pooled analysis and sensitivity analysis. The study heterogeneity was evaluated by the Q-test using a random-effect model to accommodate the cluster of outcomes between individual studies. RESULTS: In all, 8 comparative studies were identified, involving 563 patients. The calculated pooled sensitivity for all lesions was 75% (95% CI: 47% to 91%), the specificity was 96% (95% CI: 86% to 98%) and the area under the ROC curve was 90% (weighted). On sensitivity analysis, MRC had a better diagnostic accuracy for CRC than for polyps, with a sensitivity of 91% (95% CI: 97% to 91%), a specificity of 98% (95% CI: 66% to 99%) and an area under the ROC curve of 92%. There was no significant heterogeneity between the studies with regard to the diagnostic accuracy of MRC for CRC. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis suggests that MRC is an imaging technique with high discrimination for cases presenting with colorectal cancer. The exact diagnostic role of MRC needs to be clarified (e.g. suitable for an elderly person with suspected CRC). Further evaluation is necessary to refine its applicability and diagnostic accuracy in comparison with other imaging methods such as computed tomography colonography

  7. Cost benefit analysis in diagnostic radiology: glossary and definitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golder, W.

    1999-01-01

    Cost efficiency analyses in clinical radiology require the application of methods and techniques that are not yet part of the academic qualifications of the specialists. The procedures used are borrowed from economics, decision theory, applied social sciences, epidemiology and statistics. Many expressions hail from the angloamerican literature and are presently not yet germanized unequivocally. This survey is intended to present main terms of cost efficiency analysis in the English version as well as a German translation, to give a clear definition and, if necessary, explanatory notes, and to illustrate their application by means of concrete radiologic examples. The selection of the terms is based on the hierarchical models of health technology assessment resp. clinical outcome research by Fryback and Thronbury resp. Maisey and Hutton. In concrete terms, both the differences between benefit, outcomes, and utility and the differences between effectiveness, efficacy and efficiency and the differences between direct, indirect, intangible, and marginal costs are explained. True cost efficiency analysis is compared with cost effectiveness analysis, cost identification analysis, cost minimization analysis, and cost utility analysis. Applied social sciences are represented by the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 and the QALY conception. From decision theory both the analysis of hypothetical alternatives and the Markov model are taken. Finally, sensitivity analysis and the procedures of combined statistical evaluation of comparable results (meta-analysis) are quoted. (orig.) [de

  8. Systematic Analysis of Painful Total Knee Prosthesis, a Diagnostic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Djahani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available   Remaining pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA is a common observation in about 20% of postoperative patients; where in about 60% of these knees require early revision surgery within five years. Obvious causes of this pain could be identified simply with clinical examinations and standard radiographs. However, unexplained painful TKA still remains a challenge for the surgeon. The management should include a multidisciplinary approach to the patient`s pain as well as addressing the underlying etiology. There are a number of extrinsic (tendinopathy, hip, ankle, spine, CRPS and so on and intrinsic (infection, instability, malalignment, wear and so on causes of painful knee replacement. On average, diagnosis takes more than 12 months and patients become very dissatisfied and some of them even acquire psychological problems. Hence, a systematic diagnostic algorithm might be helpful. This review article aims to act as a guide to the evaluation of patients with painful TKA described in 10 different steps. Furthermore, the preliminary results of a series of 100 consecutive cases will be discussed. Revision surgery was performed only in those cases with clear failure mechanism.

  9. ROC Analysis of Diagnostic Performance in Liver Scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Chul; Moon, Dyuk Hyuk; Koh, Chang Soon; Matumoto, Toru; Tateno, Yukio

    1988-01-01

    To evaluate diagnostic accuracy of liver scintigraphy we analysed liver scans of 143 normal and 258 patients with various liver diseases. Three ROC curves for SOL, liver cirrhosis and diffuse liver disease were fitted using rating methods and areas under the ROC curves and their standard errors were calculated by the trapezoidal rule and the variance of the Wilcoxon statistic suggested by McNeil. We compared these results with that of National Institute of Radiological Science in Japan. 1) The sensitivity of liver scintigraphy was 74.2% in SOL, 71.8% in liver cirrhosis and 34.8% in diffuse liver disease. The specificity was 96.0% in SOL, 94.2% in liver cirrhosis and 87.6% in diffuse liver disease. 2) ROC curves of SOL and liver cirrhosis approached the upper left-hand corner closer than that of diffuse liver disease. Area (± standard error) under the ROC curve was 0.868±0.024 in SOL and 0.867±0.028 in liver cirrhosis. These were significantly higher than 0.658±0.043 in diffuse liver disease. 3) There was no interobserver difference in terms of ROC curves. But low sensitivity and high specificity of authors' SOL diagnosis suggested we used more strict decision threshold.

  10. Diagnostic value of perinatal autopsies: analysis of 486 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neşe, Nalan; Bülbül, Yeşim

    2018-02-23

    Autopsy is a beneficial procedure to determine the cause of death and the frequency of anomalies in perinatal losses. Even in the event of an autopsy not providing any additional information, completion of the procedure confirming the clinical diagnoses gives reassurance to both clinicians and parents. Here we present a 15-year archival study based on findings of perinatal autopsies. Four hundred and eighty-six cases from our archive were reviewed and according to the findings they were divided into three subcategories; (1) miscarriages (MCF); (2) fetuses terminated (FTA) for vital anomalies detected by prenatal ultrasonography; (3) premature or term newborns died within first month of life (neonates: NN). Autopsies were documented and classified according to week/age of cases, anomalies and causes of abortion or death. Two hundred and twenty-six of 486 cases (46.5%) were in MCF group while 227 (46.7%) and 33 (6.8%) were of them in FTA and NN groups, respectively. In FTA group, the most frequent anomaly detected was neural tube defects. In NN group, prematurity related complications were the most common cause of death. The autopsy process was found valuable in 39.7% of all cases. We suggest that autopsy procedure is diagnostically valuable even in situations when there is USG findings that are confirming FTAs or there is no important major fetal or placental anomaly detected in MCFs.

  11. Foreign Policy: Approaches, Levels Of Analysis, Dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Šoljan

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of key issues related to foreign policy and foreign policy theories in the wider context of political science. Discussing the origins and development of foreign policy analysis (FPA), as well as scholarly work produced over time, it argues that today FPA encompasses a variety of theoretical approaches, models and tools. These share the understanding that foreign policy outputs cannot be fully explained if analysis is confined to the systemic level. Furthermore,...

  12. Analysis of Sea Level Rise in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, K. M.; Huang, T.; Quach, N. T.; Boening, C.

    2016-12-01

    NASA's Sea Level Change Portal provides scientists and the general public with "one-stop" source for current sea level change information and data. Sea Level Rise research is a multidisciplinary research and in order to understand its causes, scientists must be able to access different measurements and to be able to compare them. The portal includes an interactive tool, called the Data Analysis Tool (DAT), for accessing, visualizing, and analyzing observations and models relevant to the study of Sea Level Rise. Using NEXUS, an open source, big data analytic technology developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the DAT is able provide user on-the-fly data analysis on all relevant parameters. DAT is composed of three major components: A dedicated instance of OnEarth (a WMTS service), NEXUS deep data analytic platform, and the JPL Common Mapping Client (CMC) for web browser based user interface (UI). Utilizing the global imagery, a user is capable of browsing the data in a visual manner and isolate areas of interest for further study. The interfaces "Analysis" tool provides tools for area or point selection, single and/or comparative dataset selection, and a range of options, algorithms, and plotting. This analysis component utilizes the Nexus cloud computing platform to provide on-demand processing of the data within the user-selected parameters and immediate display of the results. A RESTful web API is exposed for users comfortable with other interfaces and who may want to take advantage of the cloud computing capabilities. This talk discuss how DAT enables on-the-fly sea level research. The talk will introduce the DAT with an end-to-end tour of the tool with exploration and animating of available imagery, a demonstration of comparative analysis and plotting, and how to share and export data along with images for use in publications/presentations. The session will cover what kind of data is available, what kind of analysis is possible, and what are the outputs.

  13. [Analysis of characteristics and influence factors of diagnostic delay of endometriosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, X T; Guo, H Y; Kong, D L; Han, J S; Zhang, L F

    2018-02-25

    Objective: To access the influence factors of diagnostic delay of endometriosis. Methods: We designed a questionnaire of diagnostic delay of endometriosis. From February 2014 to February 2016, 400 patients who had dysmenorrhea and diagnosed with endometriosis by surgery in Peking University Third Hospital were surveyed retrospectively. Time and risk factors of diagnostic delay were analyzed. Results: The diagnostic delay of 400 patients was 13.0 years (0.2-43.0 years), 78.5%(314/400) patients thought pain was a normal phenomenon and didn't see the doctor. Patients who suffered dysmenorrhea at menarche experienced longer diagnostic delay than those who had dysmenorrhea after menarche (18.0 vs 4.5 years; Z= 191.800, Pendometriosis (DIE) , family history of dysmenorrhea or endometriosis, previous surgical history of endometriosis, high stage, with infertility, adenomyoma or other symptoms, could help to shorten diagnostic delay with no significant difference ( P> 0.05) . By multiple logistic regression analysis, the results shown that whether have dysmenorrhea at menarche and clinical diagnosis time were the independent factors affecting delayed diagnosis ( Pendometriosis is common and the mean delay time is 13.0 years mainly due to the unawareness of dysmenorrhea. Dysmenorrhea at menarche, clinical diagnosis time and dysmenorrhea intensity are the factors affecting time of diagnostic delay.

  14. Diagnostic value of combined determination of serum CEA, CA72-4 and TSGF levels in patients with gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuyi; Gu Yan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the diagnostic value of combined determination of serum CEA, CA72-4 and TSGF levels for gastric cancer. Methods: Serum CEA, CA72-4(with RIA) and TSGF (with biochemistry)levels were measured in 31 patients with gastric cancer and 35 controls. Results: As a single tumor marker for diagnosis, the sensitivity of CEA, CA72-4 and TSGF was 23. 0%, 38.0%, 48.0% respectively and the specificity was 23.0%, 38.0%, 48.0% respectively with combined detection of the three markers and assuming two or more markers positive as diagnostic, the sensitivity would be 67.0% and specificity would be 88.0%. Conclusion: Combined determination of serum CEA, CA72-4 and TSGF levels could promote the clinical usefulness for diagnosis of gastric cancer. (authors)

  15. Evidence of dose saving in routine CT practice using iterative reconstruction derived from a national diagnostic reference level survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P; Hayton, A; Beveridge, T; Marks, P; Wallace, A

    2015-09-01

    To assess the influence and significance of the use of iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithms on patient dose in CT in Australia. We examined survey data submitted to the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) National Diagnostic Reference Level Service (NDRLS) during 2013 and 2014. We compared median survey dose metrics with categorization by scan region and use of IR. The use of IR results in a reduction in volume CT dose index of between 17% and 44% and a reduction in dose-length product of between 14% and 34% depending on the specific scan region. The reduction was highly significant (p sum test) for all six scan regions included in the NDRLS. Overall, 69% (806/1167) of surveys included in the analysis used IR. The use of IR in CT is achieving dose savings of 20-30% in routine practice in Australia. IR appears to be widely used by participants in the ARPANSA NDRLS with approximately 70% of surveys submitted employing this technique. This study examines the impact of the use of IR on patient dose in CT on a national scale.

  16. The Development of Expertise in Radiology: In Chest Radiograph Interpretation, "Expert" Search Pattern May Predate "Expert" Levels of Diagnostic Accuracy for Pneumothorax Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brendan S; Rainford, Louise A; Darcy, Sarah P; Kavanagh, Eoin C; Toomey, Rachel J

    2016-07-01

    Purpose To investigate the development of chest radiograph interpretation skill through medical training by measuring both diagnostic accuracy and eye movements during visual search. Materials and Methods An institutional exemption from full ethical review was granted for the study. Five consultant radiologists were deemed the reference expert group, and four radiology registrars, five senior house officers (SHOs), and six interns formed four clinician groups. Participants were shown 30 chest radiographs, 14 of which had a pneumothorax, and were asked to give their level of confidence as to whether a pneumothorax was present. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was carried out on diagnostic decisions. Eye movements were recorded with a Tobii TX300 (Tobii Technology, Stockholm, Sweden) eye tracker. Four eye-tracking metrics were analyzed. Variables were compared to identify any differences between groups. All data were compared by using the Friedman nonparametric method. Results The average area under the ROC curve for the groups increased with experience (0.947 for consultants, 0.792 for registrars, 0.693 for SHOs, and 0.659 for interns; P = .009). A significant difference in diagnostic accuracy was found between consultants and registrars (P = .046). All four eye-tracking metrics decreased with experience, and there were significant differences between registrars and SHOs. Total reading time decreased with experience; it was significantly lower for registrars compared with SHOs (P = .046) and for SHOs compared with interns (P = .025). Conclusion Chest radiograph interpretation skill increased with experience, both in terms of diagnostic accuracy and visual search. The observed level of experience at which there was a significant difference was higher for diagnostic accuracy than for eye-tracking metrics. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance arthrography of the shoulder: dependence on the level of training of the performing radiologist for diagnostic accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodoropoulos, John S. [University of Toronto, Division of Orthopaedics, Mount Sinai Hospital and the University Health Network, Toronto, ON (Canada); Andreisek, Gustav [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Mount Sinai Hospital and the University Health Network, Toronto, ON (Canada); University Hospital Zuerich, Institute for Diagnostic Radiology, Zuerich (Switzerland); Harvey, Edward J. [McGill University, Division of Orthopaedics, MUHC - Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Wolin, Preston [Center for Athletic Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Discrepancies were identified between magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and clinical findings in patients who had MR imaging examinations evaluated by community-based general radiologists. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of MR imaging examinations of the shoulder with regard to the training level of the performing radiologist. A review of patient charts identified 238 patients (male/female, 175/63; mean age, 40.4 years) in whom 250 arthroscopies were performed and who underwent MR imaging or direct MR arthrography in either a community-based or hospital-based institution prior to surgery. All MR imaging and surgical reports were reviewed and the diagnostic performance for the detection of labral, rotator cuff, biceps, and Hill-Sachs lesions was determined. Kappa and Student's t test analyses were performed in a subset of cases in which initial community-based MR images were re-evaluated by hospital-based musculoskeletal radiologists, to determine the interobserver agreement and any differences in image interpretation. The diagnostic performance of community-based general radiologists was lower than that of hospital-based sub-specialized musculoskeletal radiologists. A sub-analysis of re-evaluated cases showed that musculoskeletal radiologists performed better. {kappa} values were 0.208, 0.396, 0.376, and 0.788 for labral, rotator cuff, biceps, and Hill-Sachs lesions (t test statistics: p =<0.001, 0.004, 0.019, and 0.235). Our results indicate that the diagnostic performance of MR imaging and MR arthrography of the shoulder depends on the training level of the performing radiologist, with sub-specialized musculoskeletal radiologists having a better diagnostic performance than general radiologists. (orig.)

  18. Density-dependent lines of one- and two-electron ions in diagnostics of laboratory plasma. I. The rates of collision relaxation of excited levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevelko, V P; Skobelev, I Yu; Vinogradov, A V [Lebedev Physical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Moscow, USSR

    1977-01-01

    Plasma devices with inertial plasma confinement such as laser produced plasmas, exploding wires, plasma focus, etc., which have been rapidly developed during recent years., appear to be very intensive sources of spectral line radiation in far UV and X-ray regions. Analysis of this radiation provides a good tool for plasma diagnostics with very high electron densities up to 10/sup 22/cm/sup -3/. In this work, consisting of two parts, the authors consider the mechanism of the formation of spectral lines in hot and dense plasma. The key point for density diagnostics is the fact that for some ion levels the rate of collisional relaxation has the same order of magnitude as the radiative decay. Thus the intensities of spectral lines arising from these levels show a strong dependence on electron density which makes diagnostics possible. In this paper, emphasis is laid on the calculation of rates of transition between close ion levels induced by electron or ion impact, which usually gives the main contribution to the collisional relaxation constants. The influence of plasma polarization effects on the collision frequency in a dense plasma is also considered.

  19. Serum levels of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 as diagnostic markers of acute pyelonephritis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Mahyar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available &lt;b&gt;Purpose:&lt;/b&gt; Early diagnosis and treatment of acute pyelonephritis in children is of special importance in order to prevent serious complications. This study was conducted to determine the diagnostic value of serum interleukin (IL-6 and IL-8 in children with acute pyelonephritis. &lt;b&gt;Methods:&lt;/b&gt; Eighty seven patients between 1 month to 12 years old with urinary tract infection (UTI were divided into 2 groups based on the result of 99m-technetium dimercapto-succinic acid (DMSA renal scan: acute pyelonephritis (n=37 and lower UTI (n=50 groups. White blood cell (WBC count, neutrophil (Neutl count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, C-reactive protein (CRP concentration, platelet count, and serum IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations of both groups were measured and compared . &lt;b&gt;Results:&lt;/b&gt; There was a significant difference between two groups regarding WBC count, Neutl count, ESR, and CRP concentration (P&lt;0.05. In addition, the difference between the two groups regarding serum IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations was not significant (IL-6, 60 and 35.4 pg/mL and IL-8, 404 and 617 pg/mL, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of serum IL-6 and IL-8 for diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis were 73%, 42% and 78%, 32%, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values of serum IL-6 and IL-8 were less than those of acute phase serum reactants such as CRP. &lt;b&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/b&gt; This study showed that there was no significant difference between acute pyelonephritis and lower UTI groups regarding serum IL-6 and IL-8 levels. Therefore, despite confirming results of previous studies, it seems that IL-6 and IL-8 are not suitable markers for differentiating between acute pyelonephritis and lower UTI.

  20. Establishment of institutional diagnostic reference level for computed tomography with automated dose-tracking software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chong R; Chen, Priscilla X H; Kapur, Jeevesh; Ong, Michael K L; Quek, Swee T; Kapur, Subhash C

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to establish institutional diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) by summarising doses collected across the five computed tomography (CT) system in our institution. CT dose data of 15940 patients were collected retrospectively from May 2015 to October 2015 in five institutional scanners. The mean, 75th percentile and 90th percentile of the dose spread were calculated according to anatomic region. The common CT examinations such as head, chest, combined abdomen/pelvis (A/P), and combined chest/abdomen/pelvis (C/A/P) were reviewed. Distribution of CT dose index (CTDIvol), dose-length product (DLP) and effective dose (ED) were extracted from the data for single-phasic and multiphasic examinations. The institutional DRL for our CT units were established as mean (50th percentile) of CTDIvol (mGy), DLP (mGy.cm) and ED (mSv) for single and multiphasic studies using the dose-tracking software. In single phasic examination, Head: (49.0 mGy), (978.0 mGy.cm), (2.4 mSv) respectively; Chest: (6.0 mGy), (254.0 mGy.cm), (4.9 mSv) respectively; CT A/P (10.0 mGy), (514.0 mGy.cm), (8.9 mSv) respectively; CT C/A/P (10.0 mGy), (674.0 mGy.cm), (11.8 mSv) respectively. In multiphasic studies: Head (45.0 mGy), (1822.0 mGy.cm), (5.0 mSv) respectively; Chest (8.0 mGy), (577.0 mGy.cm), (10.0 mSv) respectively; CT A/P: (10.0 mGy), (1153.0 mGy.cm), (20.2 mSv) respectively; CT C/A/P: (11.0 mGy), (1090.0 mGy.cm), (19.2 mSv) respectively. The reported metrics offer a variety of information that institutions can use for quality improvement activities. The variations in dose between scanners suggest a large potential for optimisation of radiation dose. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australian Society of Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy and New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology.

  1. Level crossing analysis of growing surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahbazi, F; Sobhanian, S; Tabar, M Reza Rahimi; Khorram, S; Frootan, G R; Zahed, H

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the average frequency of positive slope ν + α , crossing the height α = h - h-bar in the surface growing processes. The exact level crossing analysis of the random deposition model and the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation in the strong coupling limit before creation of singularities is given

  2. Diagnostic value of soluble CD163 serum levels in patients suspected of meningitis: comparison with CRP and procalcitonin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Troels Bygum; Larsen, Klaus; Kristiansen, Thomas Birk

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the diagnostic value of sCD163 serum levels with CRP and PCT in meningitis and bacterial infection. An observational cohort study was conducted between February 2001 and February 2005. The study population comprised 55 patients suspected of meningi......The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the diagnostic value of sCD163 serum levels with CRP and PCT in meningitis and bacterial infection. An observational cohort study was conducted between February 2001 and February 2005. The study population comprised 55 patients suspected...... marker for distinguishing bacterial infection from non-bacterial disease (specificity 0.91; sensitivity 0.47). However, the overall diagnostic accuracy of CRP (AUC =0.91) and PCT (AUC =0.87) were superior (p... infection, the AUC of sCD163 (0.83) did not differ significantly from those of CRP or PCT. All markers had AUCs CRP and PCT had high diagnostic value and were superior as markers of bacterial infection compared to s...

  3. Receiver operating characteristic analysis of eyewitness memory: comparing the diagnostic accuracy of simultaneous versus sequential lineups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickes, Laura; Flowe, Heather D; Wixted, John T

    2012-12-01

    A police lineup presents a real-world signal-detection problem because there are two possible states of the world (the suspect is either innocent or guilty), some degree of information about the true state of the world is available (the eyewitness has some degree of memory for the perpetrator), and a decision is made (identifying the suspect or not). A similar state of affairs applies to diagnostic tests in medicine because, in a patient, the disease is either present or absent, a diagnostic test yields some degree of information about the true state of affairs, and a decision is made about the presence or absence of the disease. In medicine, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis is the standard method for assessing diagnostic accuracy. By contrast, in the eyewitness memory literature, this powerful technique has never been used. Instead, researchers have attempted to assess the diagnostic performance of different lineup procedures using methods that cannot identify the better procedure (e.g., by computing a diagnosticity ratio). Here, we describe the basics of ROC analysis, explaining why it is needed and showing how to use it to measure the performance of different lineup procedures. To illustrate the unique advantages of this technique, we also report 3 ROC experiments that were designed to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of simultaneous versus sequential lineups. According to our findings, the sequential procedure appears to be inferior to the simultaneous procedure in discriminating between the presence versus absence of a guilty suspect in a lineup.

  4. Diagnostics of the illuminance levels of building of EIE complying with the Standard INTECO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cubero Hernandez, Wargner

    2013-01-01

    An analysis detailed is performed in spaces comprising the Edificio de Ingenieria Electrica; the designs of lighting aforetime were made without use of standards or scientifically proven methods, could be that this building be the case. The Standard IESNA is considered both to perform the analysis, which has set the standard to perform the respective measurements of the areas indicated in the building. Also, the standard INTECO is used, this makes mention of the minimum values recommended that each space should have analyzed, and these values meet the visual needs that are necessary for visual comfort. The measurements are performed using the illuminance meter and where it was considered the proper distribution of luminaires; the simulation of the spaces without meet the minimum values established by the standard INTECO; tabulation and comparison between the values obtained; have been the three parts of the project. Not all areas could be measured. Deficiencies are found in most levels comprising the building; if there are spaces that have meet the values specified in the standard, with good maintenance of the lights and plan optimal replacement of damaged fittings, will do even more to improve lighting levels that present in the building. Technology installed at present has been not the best, from the point of view of efficiency, since a larger electric power flows without representing a better light intensity, otherwise the recommendation given to venture into the LED technology. (author) [es

  5. Quantitative evaluation of visual detection performance in medicine: ROC analysis and determination of diagnostic benefit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, C.E.; Starr, S.J.; Lusted, L.B.

    1976-01-01

    An ROC curve provides an empirical description of the trade-offs which are possible among the various types of correct and incorrect decisions as the human decision-maker varies one or more confidence thresholds. Conventional ROC curves measured in simple decision-making situations can, in some cases, be used to predict human decision performance in more complex situations. By considering both the consequences of the various types of diagnostic decisions and the overhead cost of a diagnostic study, one can use the ROC curve to evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of a study in any particular clinical context. Since the ROC curve describes the possible relationships among the probabilities of the various types of correct and incorrect decisions, it plays a central role in optimizing diagnostic strategies using the general techniques of decision analysis. Applications in radiographic image evaluation are described

  6. Analysis of Steel Wire Rope Diagnostic Data Applying Multi-Criteria Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrius Čereška

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Steel ropes are complex flexible structures used in many technical applications, such as elevators, cable cars, and funicular cabs. Due to the specific design and critical safety requirements, diagnostics of ropes remains an important issue. Broken wire number in the steel ropes is limited by safety standards when they are used in the human lifting and carrying installations. There are some practical issues on loose wires—firstly, it shows end of lifetime of the entire rope, independently of wear, lubrication or wrong winding on the drums or through pulleys; and, secondly, it can stick in the tight pulley—support gaps and cause deterioration of rope structure up to birdcage formations. Normal rope operation should not generate broken wires, so increasing of their number shows a need for rope installation maintenance. This paper presents a methodology of steel rope diagnostics and the results of analysis using multi-criteria analysis methods. The experimental part of the research was performed using an original test bench to detect broken wires on the rope surface by its vibrations. Diagnostics was performed in the range of frequencies from 60 to 560 Hz with a pitch of 50 Hz. The obtained amplitudes of the broken rope wire vibrations, different from the entire rope surface vibration parameters, was the significant outcome. Later analysis of the obtained experimental results revealed the most significant values of the diagnostic parameters. The evaluation of the power of the diagnostics was implemented by using multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM methods. Various decision-making methods are necessary due to unknown efficiencies with respect to the physical phenomena of the evaluated processes. The significance of the methods was evaluated using objective methods from the structure of the presented data. Some of these methods were proposed by authors of this paper. Implementation of MCDM in diagnostic data analysis and definition of the

  7. IR spectral analysis for the diagnostics of crust earthquake precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umarkhodgaev, R. M.; Liperovsky, V. A.; Mikhailin, V. V.; Meister, C.-V.; Naumov, D. Ju

    2012-04-01

    In regions of future earthquakes, a few days before the seismic shock, the emanation of radon and hydrogen is being observed, which causes clouds of increased ionisation in the atmosphere. In the present work the possible diagnostics of these clouds using infrared (IR) spectroscopy is considered, which may be important and useful for the general geophysical system of earthquake prediction and the observation of industrial emissions of radioactive materials into the atmosphere. Some possible physical processes are analysed, which cause, under the condition of additional ionisation in a pre-breakdown electrical field, emissions in the IR interval. In doing so, the transparency region of the IR spectrum at wavelengths of 7-15 μm is taken into account. This transparency region corresponds to spectral lines of small atmospheric constituents like CH4, CO2, N2O, NO2, NO, and O3. The possible intensities of the IR emissions observable in laboratories and in nature are estimated. The acceleration process of the electrons in the pre-breakdown electrical field before its adhesion to the molecules is analysed. The laboratory equipment for the investigation of the IR absorption spectrum is constructed for the cases of normal and decreased atmospheric pressures. The syntheses of ozone and nitrous oxides are performed in the barrier discharge. It is studied if the products of the syntheses may be used to model atmospheric processes where these components take part. Spectra of products of the syntheses in the wavelength region of 2-10 μm are observed and analysed. A device is created for the syntheses and accumulation of nitrous oxides. Experiments to observe the IR-spectra of ozone and nitrous oxides during the syntheses and during the further evolution of these molecules are performed. For the earthquake prediction, practically, the investigation of emission spectra is most important, but during the laboratory experiments, the radiation of the excited molecules is shifted by a

  8. Analysis of diagnostic calorimeter data by the transfer function technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delogu, R. S., E-mail: rita.delogu@igi.cnr.it; Pimazzoni, A.; Serianni, G. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti, 35127 Padova (Italy); Poggi, C.; Rossi, G. [Università degli Studi di Padova, Via 8 Febbraio 1848, 35122 Padova (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    This paper describes the analysis procedure applied to the thermal measurements on the rear side of a carbon fibre composite calorimeter with the purpose of reconstructing the energy flux due to an ion beam colliding on the front side. The method is based on the transfer function technique and allows a fast analysis by means of the fast Fourier transform algorithm. Its efficacy has been tested both on simulated and measured temperature profiles: in all cases, the energy flux features are well reproduced and beamlets are well resolved. Limits and restrictions of the method are also discussed, providing strategies to handle issues related to signal noise and digital processing.

  9. Diagnostic value of urinary kidney injury molecule 1 for acute kidney injury: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinghua Shao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Urinary Kidney Injury Molecule 1 (KIM-1 is a proximal tubular injury biomarker for early detection of acute kidney injury (AKI, with variable performance characteristics depending on clinical and population settings. METHODS: Meta-analysis was performed to assess the diagnostic value of urinary KIM-1 in AKI. Relevant studies were searched from MEDLINE, EMBASE, Pubmed, Elsevier Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar and Cochrane Library. Meta-analysis methods were used to pool sensitivity and specificity and to construct summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC curves. RESULTS: A total of 2979 patients from 11 eligible studies were enrolled in the analysis. Five prospective cohorts, two cross-sectional and four case-control studies were identified for meta-analysis. The estimated sensitivity of urinary KIM-1 for the diagnosis of AKI was 74.0% (95% CI, 61.0%-84.0%, and specificity was 86.0% (95% CI, 74.0%-93.0%. The SROC analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.86(0.83-0.89. Subgroup analysis suggested that population settings and detection time were the key factors affecting the efficiency of KIM-1 for AKI diagnosis. LIMITATION: Various population settings, different definition of AKI and Serum creatinine level used as the standard might have influence on AKI diagnosis. The relatively small number of studies and heterogeneity between them also affected the evaluation. CONCLUSION: Urinary KIM-1 may be a promising biomarker for early detection of AKI with considerable predictive value, especially for cardiac surgery patients, and its potential value needs to be validated in large studies and across a broader scope of clinical settings.

  10. Development of fault diagnostic technique using reactor noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Ho; Kim, J. S.; Oh, I. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Joo, Y. S.; Choi, S.; Yoon, D. B.

    1999-04-01

    The ultimate goal of this project is to establish the analysis technique to diagnose the integrity of reactor internals using reactor noise. The reactor noise analyses techniques for the PWR and CANDU NPP(Nuclear Power Plants) were established by which the dynamic characteristics of reactor internals and SPND instrumentations could be identified, and the noise database corresponding to each plant(both Korean and foreign one) was constructed and compared. Also the change of dynamic characteristics of the Ulchin 1 and 2 reactor internals were simulated under presumed fault conditions. Additionally portable reactor noise analysis system was developed so that real time noise analysis could directly be able to be performed at plant site. The reactor noise analyses techniques developed and the database obtained from the fault simulation, can be used to establish a knowledge based expert system to diagnose the NPP's abnormal conditions. And the portable reactor noise analysis system may be utilized as a substitute for plant IVMS(Internal Vibration Monitoring System). (author)

  11. Development of fault diagnostic technique using reactor noise analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Ho; Kim, J. S.; Oh, I. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Joo, Y. S.; Choi, S.; Yoon, D. B

    1999-04-01

    The ultimate goal of this project is to establish the analysis technique to diagnose the integrity of reactor internals using reactor noise. The reactor noise analyses techniques for the PWR and CANDU NPP(Nuclear Power Plants) were established by which the dynamic characteristics of reactor internals and SPND instrumentations could be identified, and the noise database corresponding to each plant(both Korean and foreign one) was constructed and compared. Also the change of dynamic characteristics of the Ulchin 1 and 2 reactor internals were simulated under presumed fault conditions. Additionally portable reactor noise analysis system was developed so that real time noise analysis could directly be able to be performed at plant site. The reactor noise analyses techniques developed and the database obtained from the fault simulation, can be used to establish a knowledge based expert system to diagnose the NPP's abnormal conditions. And the portable reactor noise analysis system may be utilized as a substitute for plant IVMS(Internal Vibration Monitoring System). (author)

  12. Diagnostic accuracy of dual-energy computed tomography in patients with gout: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Ho; Song, Gwan Gyu

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) for patients with gout. We searched the Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases, and performed a meta-analysis on the diagnostic accuracy of DECT in patients with gout. A total of eight studies including 510 patients with gout and 268 controls (patients with non-gout inflammatory arthritis) were available for the meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of DECT were 84.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 81.3-87.7) and 93.7% (93.0-96.3), respectively. The positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, and diagnostic odds ratio were 9.882 (6.122-15.95), 0.163 (0.097-0.272), and 78.10 (31.14-195.84), respectively. The area under the curve of DECT was 0.956 and the Q * index was 0.889, indicating a high diagnostic accuracy. Some between-study heterogeneity was found in the meta-analyses. However, there was no evidence of a threshold effect (Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.419; p = 0.035). In addition, meta-regression showed that the sample size, study design, and diagnostic criteria were not sources of heterogeneity, and subgroup meta-analyses did not change the overall diagnostic accuracy. Our meta-analysis of published studies demonstrates that DECT has a high diagnostic accuracy and plays an important role in the diagnosis of gout. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Aspect level sentiment analysis using machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubham, D.; Mithil, P.; Shobharani, Meesala; Sumathy, S.

    2017-11-01

    In modern world the development of web and smartphones increases the usage of online shopping. The overall feedback about product is generated with the help of sentiment analysis using text processing.Opinion mining or sentiment analysis is used to collect and categorized the reviews of product. The proposed system uses aspect leveldetection in which features are extracted from the datasets. The system performs pre-processing operation such as tokenization, part of speech and limitization on the data tofinds meaningful information which is used to detect the polarity level and assigns rating to product. The proposed model focuses on aspects to produces accurate result by avoiding the spam reviews.

  14. The diagnostic value of plasma N-terminal connective tissue growth factor levels in children with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Song, Xueqing; Xia, Jiyi; Li, Jing; Jia, Peng; Chen, Pengyuan; Zhao, Jian; Liu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of plasma N-terminal connective tissue growth factor in children with heart failure. Methods and results Plasma N-terminal connective tissue growth factor was determined in 61 children, including 41 children with heart failure, 20 children without heart failure, and 30 healthy volunteers. The correlations between plasma N-terminal connective tissue growth factor levels and clinical parameters were investigated. Moreover, the diagnostic value of N-terminal connective tissue growth factor levels was evaluated. Compared with healthy volunteers and children without heart failure, plasma N-terminal connective tissue growth factor levels were significantly elevated in those with heart failure (p0.05), but it obviously improved the ability of diagnosing heart failure in children, as demonstrated by the integrated discrimination improvement (6.2%, p=0.013) and net re-classification improvement (13.2%, p=0.017) indices. Plasma N-terminal connective tissue growth factor is a promising diagnostic biomarker for heart failure in children.

  15. Cerebrospinal fluid lactate level as a diagnostic biomarker for bacterial meningitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekitarian Filho, Eduardo; Horita, Sérgio Massaru; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; Nigrovic, Lise E

    2014-02-27

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactate is a potential biomarker for bacterial meningitis in children. To this end, we performed a single-center retrospective cohort study of children from Sao Paulo, Brazil, with CSF pleocytosis to evaluate the ability of CSF lactate to distinguish between children with bacterial and aseptic meningitis. We determined the optimum cutoff point for CSF lactate using receiver-operator curve (ROC) analysis. We identified 451 children of whom 40 (9%) had bacterial meningitis. Children with bacterial meningitis had a higher median CSF lactate level [9.6 mmol/l, interquartile range (IQR) 3.2-38.5 mmol/l bacterial meningitis vs. 2.0 mmol/l, IQR 1.2-2.8 mmol/l aseptic meningitis]. A CSF lactate cutoff point of 3.0 mmol/l had a sensitivity of 95% [95% confidence interval (CI) 83-99%), specificity of 94% (95% CI 90-96%) and negative predictive value of 99.3% (95% CI 97.7-99.9%) for bacterial meningitis. In combination with a validated meningitis clinical prediction rule, the CSF lactate level can be used to distinguish between bacterial and aseptic meningitis in children with CSF pleocytosis.

  16. Analysis of a quality assurance program in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goethlin, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Retake analysis before and after introduction of a quality assurance program showed a 45% reduction of the retake rate. The most important changes concerning equipment and organizing of labour were: (1) More detailed inspection of development machines and X-ray generators, (2) new cassettes and intensifying screens, (3) reduction of the number of film formats used, (4) information and instruction of personnel. Cost reductions and profit from increased examination rate amounted to 4.5% of the overall operating costs of the radiologic department. (author)

  17. Diagnostic value of tumor markers for lung adenocarcinoma-associated malignant pleural effusion: a validation study and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Mei; Zhu, Jing; Liang, Liqun; Zeng, Ni; Wu, Yanqiu; Wan, Chun; Shen, Yongchun; Wen, Fuqiang

    2017-04-01

    Pleural effusion is one of the most common complications of lung adenocarcinoma and is diagnostically challenging. This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic performance of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cytokeratin fragment (CYFRA) 21-1, and cancer antigen (CA) 19-9 for lung adenocarcinoma-associated malignant pleural effusion (MPE) through a validation study and meta-analysis. Pleural effusion samples were collected from 81 lung adenocarcinoma-associated MPEs and 96 benign pleural effusions. CEA, CYFRA 21-1, and CA19-9 were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. The capacity of tumor markers was assessed with receiver operating characteristic curve analyses and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. Standard methods for meta-analysis of diagnostic studies were used to summarize the diagnostic performance of CEA, CYFRA 21-1, and CA19-9 for lung adenocarcinoma-associated MPE. The pleural levels of CEA, CYFRA 21-1, and CA19-9 were significantly increased in lung adenocarcinoma-associated MPE compared to benign pleural effusion. The cut-off points for CEA, CYFRA 21-1, and CA19-9 were optimally set at 4.55 ng/ml, 43.10 μg/ml, and 12.89 U/ml, and corresponding AUCs were 0.93, 0.85, and 0.81, respectively. The combination of CEA, CYFRA 21-1, and CA19-9 increased the sensitivity to 95.06%, with an AUC of 0.95. Eight studies were included in this meta-analysis. CEA showed the best diagnostic performance with pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive/negative likelihood ratio, and diagnostic odds ratio of 0.75, 0.96, 16.01, 0.23, and 81.49, respectively. The AUC was 0.93. CEA, CYFRA 21-1, and CA19-9 play a role in the diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma-associated MPE. The combination of these tumor markers increases the diagnostic accuracy.

  18. The market trend analysis and prospects of cancer molecular diagnostics kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ju Hwan; Lee, Joon Woo; Cho, Daemyeong

    2018-01-01

    The molecular diagnostics market can be broadly divided into PCR (rt-PCR, d-PCR), NGS(Next Generation Sequencing), Microarray, FISH(Fluorescent in situ-hybridization) and other categories, based on the diagnostic technique. Also, depending on the disease being diagnosed, the market can also be divided into cancer, infectious diseases, HIV/STDs (herpes, syphilis), and women's health issues such as breast cancer, cervical cancer, ovarian cancer, HPV(human papillomavirus), and vaginitis.Chromosome analysis (including Fluorescent In-situ Hybridization) is one type of blood cancer diagnostic method, which involves the direct detection of individual cells with chromosomal translocation, but there have been problems of sensitivity when using this method. PCR targeting individual genes or the RT (reverse transcription)-PCR method offers outstanding sensitivity, but one drawback is the risk of false-positive reaction caused by contamination of samples, etc. Blood cancer molecular diagnostics kits allow us to overcome these shortcomings, and related products have been under development, with a focus on improving detection sensitivity, enabling multiple tests, and reducing the cost and diagnostic time. Blood cancer molecular diagnostics is usually performed based on platforms such as PCR. The global market for blood cancer molecular diagnostics kits is $ 335.9 million as of 2016 and is expected to reach $ 6980 million in 2026 with an average annual growth rate of 32.9%. The market in South Korea is anticipated to grow at an average annual rate of 28.9%, from $ 3.75 million as of 2016 to $ 60.89 million in 2026. The Market for blood cancer molecular diagnostics kits is judged to be higher in growth possibility due to the increase in the number of cancer patients.

  19. The Application of Cognitive Diagnostic Approaches via Neural Network Analysis of Serious Educational Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Richard L.

    Serious Educational Games (SEGs) have been a topic of increased popularity within the educational realm since the early millennia. SEGs are generalized form of Serious Games to mean games for purposes other than entertainment but, that also specifically include training, educational purpose and pedagogy within their design. This rise in popularity (for SEGs) has occurred at a time when school systems have increased the type, number, and presentations of student achievement tests for decision-making purposes. These tests often task the form of end of course (year) tests and periodic benchmark testing. As the use of these tests, has increased policymakers have suggested their use as a measure for teacher accountability. The change in testing resulted from a push by school districts and policy makers at various component levels for a data-driven decision-making (D3M) approach. With the data-driven decision making approaches by school districts, there has been an increased focus on the measurement and assessment of student content knowledge with little focus on the contributing factors and cognitive attributes within learning that cross multiple-content areas. One-way to increase the focus on these aspects of learning (factors and attributes) that are additional to content learning is through assessments based in cognitive diagnostics. Cognitive diagnostics are a family of methodological approaches in which tasks tie to specific cognitive attributes for analytical purposes. This study explores data derived from computer data logging (n=158,000) in an observational design, using traditional statistical techniques such as clustering (exploratory and confirmatory), item response theory and through data mining techniques such as artificial neural network analysis. From these analyses, a model of student learning emerges illustrating student thinking and learning while engaged in SEG Design. This study seeks to use cognitive diagnostic type approaches to measure student

  20. IR spectral analysis for the diagnostics of crust earthquake precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Umarkhodgaev

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Some possible physical processes are analysed that cause, under the condition of additional ionisation in a pre-breakdown electric field, emissions in the infrared (IR interval. The atmospheric transparency region of the IR spectrum at wavelengths of 7–15 μm is taken into account. This transparency region corresponds to spectral lines of small atmospheric constituents like CH4, CO2, N2O, NO2, NO, and O3. The possible intensities of the IR emissions observable in laboratories and in nature are estimated. The acceleration process of the electrons in the pre-breakdown electrical field before its adhesion to the molecules is analyzed. For daytime conditions, modifications of the adsorption spectra of the scattered solar emissions are studied; for nighttime, variations of emission spectra may be used for the analysis.

  1. Diagnostic accuracy of atypical p-ANCA in autoimmune hepatitis using ROC- and multivariate regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terjung, B; Bogsch, F; Klein, R; Söhne, J; Reichel, C; Wasmuth, J-C; Beuers, U; Sauerbruch, T; Spengler, U

    2004-09-29

    Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (atypical p-ANCA) are detected at high prevalence in sera from patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), but their diagnostic relevance for AIH has not been systematically evaluated so far. Here, we studied sera from 357 patients with autoimmune (autoimmune hepatitis n=175, primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) n=35, primary biliary cirrhosis n=45), non-autoimmune chronic liver disease (alcoholic liver cirrhosis n=62; chronic hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) n=21) or healthy controls (n=19) for the presence of various non-organ specific autoantibodies. Atypical p-ANCA, antinuclear antibodies (ANA), antibodies against smooth muscles (SMA), antibodies against liver/kidney microsomes (anti-Lkm1) and antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) were detected by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, antibodies against the M2 antigen (anti-M2), antibodies against soluble liver antigen (anti-SLA/LP) and anti-Lkm1 by using enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. To define the diagnostic precision of the autoantibodies, results of autoantibody testing were analyzed by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) and forward conditional logistic regression analysis. Atypical p-ANCA were detected at high prevalence in sera from patients with AIH (81%) and PSC (94%). ROC- and logistic regression analysis revealed atypical p-ANCA and SMA, but not ANA as significant diagnostic seromarkers for AIH (atypical p-ANCA: AUC 0.754+/-0.026, odds ratio [OR] 3.4; SMA: 0.652+/-0.028, OR 4.1). Atypical p-ANCA also emerged as the only diagnostically relevant seromarker for PSC (AUC 0.690+/-0.04, OR 3.4). None of the tested antibodies yielded a significant diagnostic accuracy for patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis, HCV or healthy controls. Atypical p-ANCA along with SMA represent a seromarker with high diagnostic accuracy for AIH and should be explicitly considered in a revised version of the diagnostic score for AIH.

  2. Diagnostic value of WIF1 methylation for colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Huang, Tianyi; Chen, Yuehong; Ji, Huihui; Pan, Ranran; Wang, Tiangong; Jiang, Danjie; Chen, Yanfei; Yang, Yong; Duan, Shiwei

    2018-01-01

    As a common antagonist of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (WIF1) plays an important role in the tumor progression. The aim of our meta-analysis was to summarize the diagnostic value of WIF1 methylation in colorectal cancer (CRC). Eligible studies were retrieved by a systemic search among PubMed, Embase, CNKI, and Wanfang literature databases. The diagnostic value of WIF1 methylation for CRC was assessed by the summary receiver operating characteristics (SROC) test. Our meta-analysis of 12 studies between 1420 CRC samples and 946 control samples showed that WIF1 hypermethylation was significantly associated with CRC (P < 0.001, OR = 30.10, 95% CI = 19.48-46.50). WIF1 hypermethylation, as a diagnostic biomarker for CRC, has a pooled sensitivity of 0.40 (95% CI: 0.37-0.42), a pooled specificity of 0.95 (95% CI: 0.93-0.96), a pooled positive-likelihood ratio (PLR) of 8.65 (95% CI, 4.47-16.73), and a pooled negative-likelihood ratio (NLR) of 0.41 (95% CI, 0.30-0.55), a diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) of 26.86 (95% CI: 15.73-45.89), and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.9115. In conclusion, our study established that WIF1 hypermethylation might be a promising diagnostic biomarker for CRC. PMID:29435185

  3. Sensitive KIT D816V mutation analysis of blood as a diagnostic test in mastocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielsgaard Kristensen, Thomas; Vestergaard, Hanne; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    The recent progress in sensitive KIT D816V mutation analysis suggests that mutation analysis of peripheral blood (PB) represents a promising diagnostic test in mastocytosis. However, there is a need for systematic assessment of the analytical sensitivity and specificity of the approach in order...... to establish its value in clinical use. We therefore evaluated sensitive KIT D816V mutation analysis of PB as a diagnostic test in an entire case-series of adults with mastocytosis. We demonstrate for the first time that by using a sufficiently sensitive KIT D816V mutation analysis, it is possible to detect...... the mutation in PB in nearly all adult mastocytosis patients. The mutation was detected in PB in 78 of 83 systemic mastocytosis (94%) and 3 of 4 cutaneous mastocytosis patients (75%). The test was 100% specific as determined by analysis of clinically relevant control patients who all tested negative. Mutation...

  4. Statistical analysis and interpretation of prenatal diagnostic imaging studies, Part 2: descriptive and inferential statistical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuuli, Methodius G; Odibo, Anthony O

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this article is to discuss the rationale for common statistical tests used for the analysis and interpretation of prenatal diagnostic imaging studies. Examples from the literature are used to illustrate descriptive and inferential statistics. The uses and limitations of linear and logistic regression analyses are discussed in detail.

  5. Three-layer poly(methyl methacrylate) microsystem for analysis of lysosomal enzymes for diagnostic purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwapiszewski, Radoslaw; Kwapiszewska, Karina; Kutter, Jörg P

    2015-01-01

    by statistical analysis including construction of a Bland-Altman plot. The approach presented can be an alternative for the currently used diagnostic procedures. The method developed has a potential for the implementation into complex microfluidic devices thus becoming a powerful tool for a high...

  6. Training for thorax diagnostics. Systematic cardiopulmonary image analysis; Trainer Thoraxdiagnostik. Systematische kardiopulmonale Bildanalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchner, Johannes [Allgemeines Krankenhaus Hagen gem.GmbH (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2010-07-01

    The training book on thorax diagnostics using image analysis is supposed to be a supplement to the usual textbooks based on comprehensive experiences of radiologists. The covered issues are the following: heart insufficiency, acute/ chronic bronchitis and pulmonary emphysema; pneumonia and tuberculosis; bronchial carcinoma; lung fibrosis, sarcoidosis and pneumoconiosis, pleural effusion and pneumothorax.

  7. DIII-D Thomson Scattering Diagnostic Data Acquisition, Processing and Analysis Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middaugh, K.R.; Bray, B.D.; Hsieh, C.L.; McHarg, B.B.Jr.; Penaflor, B.G.

    1999-01-01

    One of the diagnostic systems critical to the success of the DIII-D tokamak experiment is the Thomson scattering diagnostic. This diagnostic is unique in that it measures local electron temperature and density: (1) at multiple locations within the tokamak plasma; and (2) at different times throughout the plasma duration. Thomson ''raw'' data are digitized signals of scattered light, measured at different times and locations, from the laser beam paths fired into the plasma. Real-time acquisition of this data is performed by specialized hardware. Once obtained, the raw data are processed into meaningful temperature and density values which can be analyzed for measurement quality. This paper will provide an overview of the entire Thomson scattering diagnostic software and will focus on the data acquisition, processing, and analysis software implementation. The software falls into three general categories: (1) Set-up and Control: Initializes and controls all Thomson hardware and software, synchronizes with other DIII-D computers, and invokes other Thomson software as appropriate. (2) Data Acquisition and Processing: Obtains raw measured data from memory and processes it into temperature and density values. (3) Analysis: Provides a graphical user interface in which to perform analysis and sophisticated plotting of analysis parameters

  8. Network meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy studies identifies and ranks the optimal diagnostic tests and thresholds for health care policy and decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Rhiannon K; Cooper, Nicola J; Quinn, Terence J; Lees, Rosalind; Sutton, Alex J

    2018-07-01

    Network meta-analyses (NMA) have extensively been used to compare the effectiveness of multiple interventions for health care policy and decision-making. However, methods for evaluating the performance of multiple diagnostic tests are less established. In a decision-making context, we are often interested in comparing and ranking the performance of multiple diagnostic tests, at varying levels of test thresholds, in one simultaneous analysis. Motivated by an example of cognitive impairment diagnosis following stroke, we synthesized data from 13 studies assessing the efficiency of two diagnostic tests: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), at two test thresholds: MMSE accounting for the correlations between multiple test accuracy measures from the same study. We developed and successfully fitted a model comparing multiple tests/threshold combinations while imposing threshold constraints. Using this model, we found that MoCA at threshold decision making. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Diagnostic value of WIF1 methylation for colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Haochang; Li, Bin; Zhou, Cong; Ying, Xiuru; Chen, Min; Huang, Tianyi; Chen, Yuehong; Ji, Huihui; Pan, Ranran; Wang, Tiangong; Jiang, Danjie; Chen, Yanfei; Yang, Yong; Duan, Shiwei

    2018-01-01

    As a common antagonist of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (WIF1) plays an important role in the tumor progression. The aim of our meta-analysis was to summarize the diagnostic value of WIF1 methylation in colorectal cancer (CRC). Eligible studies were retrieved by a systemic search among PubMed, Embase, CNKI, and Wanfang literature databases. The diagnostic value of WIF1 methylation for CRC was assessed by the summary receiver operating characteristics (SROC) test. Our meta-a...

  10. Qualitative Analysis of Diagnostic Value of 24-h Proteinuria for Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zhuang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preeclampsia (PE is a serious idiopathic disease posing a threat to both mothers and fetuses′ lives during pregnancy, whose main diagnostic criteria include hypertension with proteinuria. However, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG updated the diagnostic criteria for PE and reduced the diagnostic value of proteinuria for patients with PE. Qualitative analysis of the diagnostic value of 24-h proteinuria for patients with PE in China was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic criteria value in the latest ACOG guideline. Methods: Complete clinical data of 65 patients with hypertensive disorder in pregnancy (HDP were collected. All patients were delivered to and hospitalized in Renji Hospital. Adverse outcome was defined in case of the emergence of any serious complication for a mother or the fetus. A retrospective study was conducted according to ACOG guideline, to analyze the relationship between each diagnostic criteria of ACOG guideline and maternal and perinatal outcomes. Spearman correlation test was used to detect the association between each diagnostic criterion, its corresponding value, and the adverse pregnancy outcome. Logistic regression was performed to verify the result of Spearman correlation test. Results: Of 65 HDP patients, the percentage of adverse pregnancy outcome was 63.1%. Adverse pregnancy outcomes constitute diversification. There were 55 cases with 24-h proteinuria value ≥0.3 g, of which the adverse outcome rate was 74.5%. While adverse pregnancy outcomes did not appear in the rest 10 HDP patients with proteinuria <0.3 g/24 h. The statistic difference was significant (P = 0.000. However, no significant difference was found in other criteria groups (impaired liver function: P = 0.417; renal insufficiency: P = 0.194; thrombocytopenia: P = 0.079; and cerebral or visual symptoms: P = 0.296. The correlation coefficient between 24-h proteinuria ≥0.3 g and adverse pregnancy outcomes was 0

  11. Portfolio Selection Using Level Crossing Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolgorian, Meysam; Shirazi, A. H.; Jafari, G. R.

    Asset allocation is one of the most important and also challenging issues in finance. In this paper using level crossing analysis we introduce a new approach for portfolio selection. We introduce a portfolio index that is obtained based on minimizing the waiting time to receive known return and risk values. By the waiting time, we mean time that a special level is observed in average. The advantage of this approach is that the investors are able to set their goals based on gaining return and knowing the average waiting time and risk value at the same time. As an example we use our model for forming portfolio of stocks in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE).

  12. [Methods of statistical analysis in differential diagnostics of the degree of brain glioma anaplasia during preoperative stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavatskiĭ, A Ia; Guzhovskaia, N V; Lysenko, S N; Kulik, A V

    2005-12-01

    The authors proposed a possible preoperative diagnostics of the degree of supratentorial brain gliom anaplasia using statistical analysis methods. It relies on a complex examination of 934 patients with I-IV degree anaplasias, which had been treated in the Institute of Neurosurgery from 1990 to 2004. The use of statistical analysis methods for differential diagnostics of the degree of brain gliom anaplasia may optimize a diagnostic algorithm, increase reliability of obtained data and in some cases avoid carrying out irrational operative intrusions. Clinically important signs for the use of statistical analysis methods directed to preoperative diagnostics of brain gliom anaplasia have been defined

  13. Scalable group level probabilistic sparse factor analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrich, Jesper Løve; Nielsen, Søren Føns Vind; Riis, Nicolai Andre Brogaard

    2017-01-01

    Many data-driven approaches exist to extract neural representations of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, but most of them lack a proper probabilistic formulation. We propose a scalable group level probabilistic sparse factor analysis (psFA) allowing spatially sparse maps, component...... pruning using automatic relevance determination (ARD) and subject specific heteroscedastic spatial noise modeling. For task-based and resting state fMRI, we show that the sparsity constraint gives rise to components similar to those obtained by group independent component analysis. The noise modeling...... shows that noise is reduced in areas typically associated with activation by the experimental design. The psFA model identifies sparse components and the probabilistic setting provides a natural way to handle parameter uncertainties. The variational Bayesian framework easily extends to more complex...

  14. System Level Analysis of LTE-Advanced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yuanye

    This PhD thesis focuses on system level analysis of Multi-Component Carrier (CC) management for Long Term Evolution (LTE)-Advanced. Cases where multiple CCs are aggregated to form a larger bandwidth are studied. The analysis is performed for both local area and wide area networks. In local area...... reduction. Compared to the case of reuse-1, they achieve a gain of 50∼500% in cell edge user throughput, with small or no loss in average cell throughput. For the wide area network, effort is devoted to the downlink of LTE-Advanced. Such a system is assumed to be backwards compatible to LTE release 8, i...... scheme is recommended. It reduces the CQI by 94% at low load, and 79∼93% at medium to high load, with reasonable loss in downlink performance. To reduce the ACK/NACK feedback, multiple ACK/NACKs can be bundled, with slightly degraded downlink throughput....

  15. Diagnostic accuracy of pleural fluid tumor necrosis factor-α in tuberculous pleurisy: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhen Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pleurisy is a common extra pulmonary complication of tuberculosis, but current methods for diagnosing it are fairly crude. Here we product a meta-analysis for the available evidence on the ability of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α in pleural fluid to serve as a diagnostic marker of tuberculous pleurisy (TP. Materials and Methods: We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases systematically for studies measuring sensitivity, specificity and other measures of diagnostic accuracy of pleural fluid TNF-α in the diagnosis of TP were meta-analyzed by Stata, version 12 and meta-disc. Results: A total of six publications reporting seven case-control studies were identified. Pooled results indicated that pleural fluid TNF-α showed a diagnostic sensitivity of 0.89 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.83-0.93; range, 0.42-1.0 and a diagnostic specificity of 0.82 (95% CI: 0.78-0.86; range, 0.58-0.98. The pooled positive likelihood ratio was 4.78 (95% CI: 3.32-6.89; the negative likelihood ratio, 0.16 (95% CI: 0.1-0.27; the diagnostic odds ratio, 32.43 (95% CI: 14.48-72.6; and the area under the curve was 0.8556 (standard error of mean 0.0559. Conclusion: Pleural fluid TNF-α levels shows relatively high sensitivity but insufficient specificity for diagnosing TP. Pleural fluid TNF-α measurement may be useful in combination with clinical manifestations and conventional tests such as microbiological examination or pleural biopsy.

  16. DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING IN A DIRECT-ACCESS SPORTS PHYSICAL THERAPY CLINIC: A 2-YEAR RETROSPECTIVE PRACTICE ANALYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Michael S; Dedekam, Erik A; Johnson, Michael R; Dembowski, Scott C; Westrick, Richard B; Goss, Donald L

    2016-10-01

    While advanced diagnostic imaging is a large contributor to the growth in health care costs, direct-access to physical therapy is associated with decreased rates of diagnostic imaging. No study has systematically evaluated with evidence-based criteria the appropriateness of advanced diagnostic imaging, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), when ordered by physical therapists. The primary purpose of this study was to describe the appropriateness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or magnetic resonance arthrogram (MRA) exams ordered by physical therapists in a direct-access sports physical therapy clinic. Retrospective observational study of practice. Greater than 80% of advanced diagnostic imaging orders would have an American College of Radiology (ACR) Appropriateness Criteria rating of greater than 6, indicating an imaging order that is usually appropriate. A 2-year retrospective analysis identified 108 MRI/MRA examination orders from four physical therapists. A board-certified radiologist determined the appropriateness of each order based on ACR appropriateness criteria. The principal investigator and co-investigator radiologist assessed agreement between the clinical diagnosis and MRI/surgical findings. Knee (31%) and shoulder (25%) injuries were the most common. Overall, 55% of injuries were acute. The mean ACR rating was 7.7; scores from six to nine have been considered appropriate orders and higher ratings are better. The percentage of orders complying with ACR appropriateness criteria was 83.2%. Physical therapist's clinical diagnosis was confirmed by MRI/MRA findings in 64.8% of cases and was confirmed by surgical findings in 90% of cases. Physical therapists providing musculoskeletal primary care in a direct-access sports physical therapy clinic appropriately ordered advanced diagnostic imaging in over 80% of cases. Future research should prospectively compare physical therapist appropriateness and utilization to other groups of providers and

  17. Bayesian analysis of longitudinal Johne's disease diagnostic data without a gold standard test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, C.; Turnbull, B.W.; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2011-01-01

    the posterior estimates of the model parameters that provide the basis for inference concerning the accuracy of the diagnostic procedure. Based on the Bayesian approach, the posterior probability distribution of the change-point onset time can be obtained and used as a criterion for infection diagnosis......-point process with a Weibull survival hazard function was used to model the progression of the hidden disease status. The model adjusted for the fixed effects of covariate variables and random effects of subject on the diagnostic testing procedure. Markov chain Monte Carlo methods were used to compute....... An application is presented to an analysis of ELISA and fecal culture test outcomes in the diagnostic testing of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) for a Danish longitudinal study from January 2000 to March 2003. The posterior probability criterion based on the Bayesian model with 4 repeated observations has...

  18. An update on the use of cerebrospinal fluid analysis as a diagnostic tool in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastaldi, Matteo; Zardini, Elisabetta; Franciotta, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Intrathecal B-lymphocyte activation is a hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS), a multi-factorial inflammatory-demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Such activation has a counterpart in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) oligoclonal IgG bands (OCB), whose diagnostic role in MS has been downgraded within the current McDonald's criteria. With a theoretico-practical approach, the authors review the physiopathological basis of the CSF dynamics, and the state-of-the-art of routine CSF analysis and CSF biomarkers in MS. Areas covered: The authors discuss pros and cons of CSF analysis, including critical evaluations of both well-established, and promising diagnostic and prognostic laboratory tools. New acquisitions on the CSF and cerebral interstitial fluid dynamics are also presented. The authors searched the PubMed database for English-language articles reported between January 2010 and June 2016, using the key words 'multiple sclerosis', 'cerebrospinal fluid', 'oligoclonal bands'. Reference lists of relevant articles were scanned for additional studies. Expert commentary: The availability of performing high-quality, routine CSF tests in specialized laboratories, the emerging potential of novel CSF biomarkers, and the trend for early treatments should induce a reappraisal of CSF analysis for diagnostic and prognostic purposes in MS. Further procedural and methodological improvements seem to be necessary in both research and translational diagnostic CSF settings.

  19. Analysis of Chronic Temporomandibular Disorders Based on the Latest Diagnostic Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svechtarov V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze the distribution of the most common diagnoses observed in patients with chronic temporomandibular disorders, based on the new diagnostic criteria (DC/TMD adopted in 2014. The previous Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC/TMD adopted in 1992, consisted of three main groups of eight diagnostic subgroups and is currently transformed into two main groups and twelve subgroups, respectively. All subgroups correspond to the nomenclature of the ICD-10. The new clinical diagnostic indices are also modified. The analysis showed a prevalence of Pain-Related TMD compared with that of intra-articular disorders in ratio 57.89% to 42.10%. In Pain-Related TMD arthralgia was represented in 55% of cases; local myalgia - in 12%, myofascial pain - in 18%, myofascial pain with referral - in 14%, headache attributed to TMD - in 1%. In Intra-articular TMD disc displacement with reduction was found in 23% of the cases, disc displacement with reduction with intermittent locking - in 3%, disc displacement without reduction with limited opening - in 25%, disc displacement without reduction and without limited opening - in 8%. Degenerative diseases were found in 14.28%, and hypermobility and subluxations - in 26.98%. These analyzes differ and can only partly be compared with previous analyzes based on RDC system. The changes in the diagnostic criteria require new clinical studies in order to refine the picture of temporomandibular pathology in accordance with the modern views on the matter.

  20. Admixture analysis of the diagnostic subtypes of social anxiety disorder: implications for the DSM-V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderka, Idan M; Nickerson, Angela; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2012-06-01

    Much controversy exists regarding diagnostic subtypes of social anxiety disorder (SAD). The present study used admixture analysis to examine whether individuals with generalized and nongeneralized SAD belong to the same or different populations of origin. This can inform diagnostic subtyping of SAD in the forthcoming DSM-V. Treatment-seeking individuals with generalized SAD (n = 154) and nongeneralized SAD (n = 48) completed a battery of questionnaires. Based on participants' responses to the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), we estimated log likelihood and chi-square goodness-of-fit for models with 1, 2, 3, or 4 populations of origin, and compared models using forward stepwise estimation and maximum likelihood ratio tests. Admixture analyses suggested that the two diagnostic subtypes of SAD belong to the same underlying population of origin. In addition, observable differences in depression, general anxiety, and comorbidity were no longer significant when controlling for social anxiety severity. Our sample was recruited in the U.S. and was a treatment-seeking sample. Future studies should examine whether our results generalize to different cultures, and community samples. Support for qualitative differences between SAD subtypes was not found. Rather, our findings support the notion that the diagnostic subtypes of SAD differ quantitatively, and that SAD exists on a continuum of severity. This finding informs diagnostic subtyping of SAD in the forthcoming DSM-V. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Diagnostic Performance of Narrow Band Imaging for Laryngeal Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Changling; Han, Xue; Li, Xiaoying; Zhang, Yayun; Du, Xiaodong

    2017-04-01

    Objective To evaluate the performance of narrow band imaging (NBI) for the diagnosis of laryngeal cancer and to compare the diagnostic value of NBI with that of white light endoscopy. Data Sources PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and CNKI databases. Review Methods Data analyses were performed with Meta-DiSc. The updated Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 tool was used to assess study quality and potential bias. Publication bias was assessed with the Deeks's asymmetry test. The protocol used in this article has been published on PROSPERO and is in accordance with the PRISMA checklist. The registry number for this study is CRD42015025866. Results Six studies including 716 lesions were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratio for the NBI diagnosis of laryngeal cancer were 0.94 (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.91-0.96), 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85-0.92), and 142.12 (95% CI: 46.42-435.15), respectively, and the area under receiver operating characteristics curve was 0.97. Among the 6 studies, 3 evaluated the diagnostic value of white light endoscopy, with a sensitivity of 0.81 (95% CI: 0.76-0.86), a specificity of 0.92 (95% CI: 0.88-0.95), and a diagnostic odds ratio of 33.82 (95% CI: 14.76-77.49). The evaluation of heterogeneity, calculated per the diagnostic odds ratio, gave an I 2 of 66%. No marked publication bias ( P = .84) was detected in this meta-analysis. Conclusion The sensitivity of NBI is superior to white light endoscopy, and the potential value of NBI needs to be validated in future studies.

  2. Diagnostic value of sputum adenosine deaminase (ADA) level in pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binesh, Fariba; Jalali, Hadi; Zare, Mohammad Reza; Behravan, Farhad; Tafti, Arefeh Dehghani; Behnaz, Fatemah; Tabatabaee, Mohammad; Shahcheraghi, Seyed Hossein

    2016-06-01

    Tuberculosis is still a considerable health problem in many countries. Rapid diagnosis of this disease is important, and adenosine deaminase (ADA) has been used as a diagnostic test. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of ADA in the sputum of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. The current study included 40 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (culture positive, smear ±) and 42 patients with non tuberculosis pulmonary diseases (culture negative). ADA was measured on all of the samples. The median value of ADA in non-tuberculosis patients was 2.94 (4.2) U/L and 4.01 (6.54) U/L in tuberculosis patients, but this difference was not statistically significant (p=0.100). The cut-off point of 3.1 U/L had a sensitivity of 61% and a specificity of 53%, the cut-off point of 2.81 U/L had a sensitivity of 64% and a specificity of 50% and the cut-off point of 2.78 U/L had a sensitivity of 65% and a specificity of 48%. The positive predictive values for cut-off points of 3.1, 2.81 and 2.78 U/L were 55.7%, 57.44% and 69.23%, respectively. The negative predictive values for the abovementioned cut-off points were 56.75%, 57.14% and 55.88%, respectively. Our results showed that sputum ADA test is neither specific nor sensitive. Because of its low sensitivity and specificity, determination of sputum ADA for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis is not recommended.

  3. Biomarkers and Molecular Analysis to Improve Bloodstream Infection Diagnostics in an Emergency Care Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loonen, Anne J. M.; de Jager, Cornelis P. C.; Tosserams, Janna; Kusters, Ron; Hilbink, Mirrian; Wever, Peter C.; van den Brule, Adriaan J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular pathogen detection from blood is still expensive and the exact clinical value remains to be determined. The use of biomarkers may assist in preselecting patients for immediate molecular testing besides blood culture. In this study, 140 patients with ≥ 2 SIRS criteria and clinical signs of infection presenting at the emergency department of our hospital were included. C-reactive protein (CRP), neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR), procalcitonin (PCT) and soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) levels were determined. One ml EDTA blood was obtained and selective pathogen DNA isolation was performed with MolYsis (Molzym). DNA samples were analysed for the presence of pathogens, using both the MagicPlex Sepsis Test (Seegene) and SepsiTest (Molzym), and results were compared to blood cultures. Fifteen patients had to be excluded from the study, leaving 125 patients for further analysis. Of the 125 patient samples analysed, 27 presented with positive blood cultures of which 7 were considered to be contaminants. suPAR, PCT, and NLCR values were significantly higher in patients with positive blood cultures compared to patients without (p molecular assays perform poorly when one ml whole blood is used from emergency care unit patients. NLCR is a cheap, fast, easy to determine, and rapidly available biomarker, and therefore seems most promising in differentiating BSI from non-BSI patients for subsequent pathogen identification using molecular diagnostics. PMID:24475269

  4. Potential diagnostic value of serum p53 antibody for detecting colorectal cancer: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Rongqin; Wang, Yang; He, Liang; He, Yuanqing; Du, Zedong

    2018-04-01

    Numerous studies have assessed the diagnostic value of serum p53 (s-p53) antibody in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC); however, results remain controversial. The present study aimed to comprehensively and quantitatively summarize the potential diagnostic value of s-p53 antibody in CRC. The present study utilized databases, including PubMed and EmBase, systematically regarding s-p53 antibody diagnosis in CRC, accessed on and prior to 31 July 2016. The quality of all the included studies was assessed using quality assessment of studies of diagnostic accuracy (QUADAS). The result of pooled sensitivity, pooled specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR) and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) were analyzed and compared with overall accuracy measures using diagnostic odds ratios (DORs) and area under the curve (AUC) analysis. Publication bias and heterogeneity were also assessed. A total of 11 trials that enrolled a combined 3,392 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Approximately 72.73% (8/11) of the included studies were of high quality (QUADAS score >7), and all were retrospective case-control studies. The pooled sensitivity was 0.19 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.18-0.21] and pooled specificity was 0.93 (95% CI, 0.92-0.94). Results also demonstrated a PLR of 4.56 (95% CI, 3.27-6.34), NLR of 0.78 (95% CI, 0.71-0.85) and DOR of 6.70 (95% CI, 4.59-9.76). The symmetrical summary receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.73. Furthermore, no evidence of publication bias or heterogeneity was observed in the meta-analysis. Meta-analysis data indicated that s-p53 antibody possesses potential diagnostic value for CRC. However, discrimination power was somewhat limited due to the low sensitivity.

  5. DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS OF BANK PROFITABILITY LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Rozga

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Discriminant analysis has been employed in this paper in order to identify and explain key features of bank profitability levels. Bank profitability is set up in the form of two categorical variables: profit or loss recorded and above or below average return on equity. Predictor variables are selected from various groups of financial indicators usually included in the empirical work on microeconomic determinants of bank profitability. The data from the Croatian banking sector is analyzed using the Enter method. General recommendations for a more profitable business of banking found in the bank management literature and existing empirical framework such as rationalization of overhead costs, asset growth, increase of non-interest income by expanding scale and scope of financial products proved to be important for classification of banks in different profitability levels. A higher market share may bring additional advantages. Classification results, canonical correlation and Wilks’ Lambda test confirm statistical significance of research results. Altogether, discriminant analysis turns out to be a suitable statistical method for solving presented research problem and moving forward from the bankruptcy, credit rating or default issues in finance.

  6. Comparative Analysis of Students’ Media Competences Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fedorov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzed the results of survey of university students’ media literacy competence (on the base of a classification of indicators of media literacy competence of the audience as an effective tool for comparative analysis of the levels of development of media competence of students of the control and experimental groups: the level of media competence of students who have a one-year training course in the framework of media literacy education courses four times higher than in similar indicators in the control group. Analysis of the results of this survey confirmed the general trend of media contacts of student audience – its orientation to entertainment genres of audiovisual media, visually appealing; positive, active, unmarried, childless, educated, highly qualified characters (primarily – male characters aged 19 to 35 years. These heroes are characteristic optimism, independence, intelligence, emotion. They have an excellent command of the life situation and have a positive impact on the development progress of the plot of a media text.

  7. Current levels of gonadal irradiation from a selection of routine diagnostic X-ray examinations in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, B.F.; Fisher, E.S.; Shrimpton, P.C.; Rae, S.

    1980-07-01

    The gonadal doses from 13 types of diagnostic examination have been measured at 21 hospitals throughout the country in preparation for a new assessment of the genetically significant dose to the population of Great Britain from diagnostic radiology. Thermoluminescent dosemeters, consisting of lithium borate powder contained in adhesive polythene sachets, were used for the measurements. They were attached to patients to monitor the testes dose directly or the entrance skin dose at the level of the ovaries. Skin doses were converted to ovarian doses using factors obtained by measurements in an anthropomorphic phantom exposed to a range of typical diagnostic X-ray fields. The results indicate that for some types of examination there has been an increase and for others there has been a reduction in the mean gonadal dose delivered per examination since a similar survey was made 20 years ago. Individual gonadal doses for the same examination still ranged over 3 or 4 orders of magnitude throughout the country with distributions described by coefficients of variation that were no less than those found in the late 1950s. This large variability in patient exposure, together with the observation that examinations were satisfactorily conducted on children with a much higher degree of gonadal protection than that offered to young adults, indicates that many patients must be receiving doses that are unnecessarily high. (author)

  8. Bayesian Analysis of Individual Level Personality Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Cripps

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A Bayesian technique with analyses of within-person processes at the level of the individual is presented. The approach is used to examine if the patterns of within-person responses on a 12 trial simulation task are consistent with the predictions of ITA theory (Dweck, 1999. ITA theory states that the performance of an individual with an entity theory of ability is more likely to spiral down following a failure experience than the performance of an individual with an incremental theory of ability. This is because entity theorists interpret failure experiences as evidence of a lack of ability, which they believe is largely innate and therefore relatively fixed; whilst incremental theorists believe in the malleability of abilities and interpret failure experiences as evidence of more controllable factors such as poor strategy or lack of effort. The results of our analyses support ITA theory at both the within- and between-person levels of analyses and demonstrate the benefits of Bayesian techniques for the analysis of within-person processes. These include more formal specification of the theory and the ability to draw inferences about each individual, which allows for more nuanced interpretations of individuals within a personality category, such as differences in the individual probabilities of spiralling. While Bayesian techniques have many potential advantages for the analyses of within-person processes at the individual level, ease of use is not one of them for psychologists trained in traditional frequentist statistical techniques.

  9. The Diagnostic Efficacy of Cone-beam Computed Tomography in Endodontics: A Systematic Review and Analysis by a Hierarchical Model of Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Eyal; Taschieri, Silvio; Del Fabbro, Massimo; Beitlitum, Ilan; Tsesis, Igor

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) imaging in endodontics based on a systematic search and analysis of the literature using an efficacy model. A systematic search of the literature was performed to identify studies evaluating the use of CBCT imaging in endodontics. The identified studies were subjected to strict inclusion criteria followed by an analysis using a hierarchical model of efficacy (model) designed for appraisal of the literature on the levels of efficacy of a diagnostic imaging modality. Initially, 485 possible relevant articles were identified. After title and abstract screening and a full-text evaluation, 58 articles (12%) that met the inclusion criteria were analyzed and allocated to levels of efficacy. Most eligible articles (n = 52, 90%) evaluated technical characteristics or the accuracy of CBCT imaging, which was defined in this model as low levels of efficacy. Only 6 articles (10%) proclaimed to evaluate the efficacy of CBCT imaging to support the practitioner's decision making; treatment planning; and, ultimately, the treatment outcome, which was defined as higher levels of efficacy. The expected ultimate benefit of CBCT imaging to the endodontic patient as evaluated by its level of diagnostic efficacy is unclear and is mainly limited to its technical and diagnostic accuracy efficacies. Even for these low levels of efficacy, current knowledge is limited. Therefore, a cautious and rational approach is advised when considering CBCT imaging for endodontic purposes. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cost-risk-benefit analysis in diagnostic radiology: a theoretical and economic basis for radiation protection of the patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moores, B. Michael

    2016-01-01

    In 1973, International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 22 recommended that the acceptability of radiation exposure levels for a given activity should be determined by a process of cost-benefit analysis. It was felt that this approach could be used to underpin both the principle of ALARA as well for justification purposes. The net benefit, B, of an operation involving irradiation was regarded as equal to the difference between its gross benefit, V, and the sum of three components; the basic production cost associated with the operation, P; the cost of achieving the selected level of protection, X; and the cost Y of the detriment involved in the operation: B=V-(P+X+Y). This article presents a theoretical cost-risk-benefit analysis that is applicable to the diagnostic accuracy (Levels 1 and 2) of the hierarchical efficacy model presented by National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements in 1992. This enables the costs of an examination to be related to the sensitivity and specificity of an X-ray examination within a defined clinical problem setting and introduces both false-positive/false-negative diagnostic outcomes into the patient radiation protection framework. (author)

  11. COST-RISK-BENEFIT ANALYSIS IN DIAGNOSTIC RADIOLOGY: A THEORETICAL AND ECONOMIC BASIS FOR RADIATION PROTECTION OF THE PATIENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moores, B Michael

    2016-06-01

    In 1973, International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 22 recommended that the acceptability of radiation exposure levels for a given activity should be determined by a process of cost-benefit analysis. It was felt that this approach could be used to underpin both the principle of ALARA as well for justification purposes. The net benefit, B, of an operation involving irradiation was regarded as equal to the difference between its gross benefit, V, and the sum of three components; the basic production cost associated with the operation, P; the cost of achieving the selected level of protection, X; and the cost Y of the detriment involved in the operation: [Formula: see text] This article presents a theoretical cost-risk-benefit analysis that is applicable to the diagnostic accuracy (Levels 1 and 2) of the hierarchical efficacy model presented by National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements in 1992. This enables the costs of an examination to be related to the sensitivity and specificity of an X-ray examination within a defined clinical problem setting and introduces both false-positive/false-negative diagnostic outcomes into the patient radiation protection framework. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Continuous data acquisition with online analysis for the Wendelstein 7-X magnetic diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennig, Ch.; Werner, A.; Marquardt, M.; Bluhm, T.; Kroiss, H.; Kuehner, G.; Heimann, P.; Maier, J.; Riemann, H.; Zilker, M.

    2008-01-01

    The coupling of continuous data acquisition and continuous online analysis keeping up with the acquisition is one of the features the W7-X data acquisition system is designed for. As proof of principle of this concept the magnetic diagnostics have been implemented. The magnetic diagnostics measure time derivatives of the magnetic fluxes and the signals have to be time integrated accordingly. Both measurement and analysis tasks are executed on a single PC based system. The configuration of both hard- and software of the system is presented. Special focuses are the task of software integration of a user supplied online analysis function into the data acquisition system and the incorporation of the complete system into the W7-X segment concept in use by the control system. The complete installation has been tested at the WEGA Stellarator experiment. Because WEGA is capable of continuous steady state plasma operation the practical suitability of the installation for W7-X could be demonstrated successfully

  13. Diagnostics of oral lichen planus based on analysis of volatile organic compounds in saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistenev, Yury; Borisov, Alexey; Shapovalov, Alexander; Baydik, Olga; Titarenko, Maria

    2017-03-01

    The ability of diagnostics of oral lichen planus (OLP) based on spectral analysis of saliva using the THz spectroscopy is presented. The study included 8 patients with clinically proven OLP. The comparison group consisted of 8 healthy volunteers. Absorption spectra of the saliva was measured using time-domain spectrometer T-spec (EXPLA) in the range 0.2-3THz and have been considered as the feature vectors of the state. The spatial distribution of the objects under study in the feature space was analyzed using principle component analysis. The groups under study were shown to separate in full. Thus, the saliva analysis by the THz spectroscopy technique can be potentially used as a method of noninvasive diagnostics of the OLP.

  14. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Helicobacter pylori Diagnostic Methods in Patients with Atrophic Gastritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumio Omata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are several diagnostic methods for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection. A cost-effective analysis is needed to decide on the optimal diagnostic method. The aim of this study was to determine a cost-effective diagnostic method in patients with atrophic gastritis (AG. Methods. A decision-analysis model including seven diagnostic methods was constructed for patients with AG diagnosed by esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Expected values of cost and effectiveness were calculated for each test. Results. If the prevalence of H. pylori in the patients with AG is 85% and CAM-resistant H. pylori is 30%, histology, stool H. pylori antigen (SHPAg, bacterial culture (BC, and urine H. pylori antibody (UHPAb were dominated by serum H. pylori IgG antibody (SHPAb, rapid urease test (RUT, and urea breath test (UBT. Among three undominated methods, the incremental cost-effective ratios (ICER of RUT versus SHPAb and UBT versus RUT were $214 and $1914, respectively. If the prevalence of CAM-sensitive H. pylori was less than 55%, BC was not dominated, but its H. pylori eradication success rate was 0.86. Conclusions. RUT was the most cost-effective at the current prevalence of CAM-resistant H. pylori. BC could not be selected due to its poor effectiveness even if CAM-resistant H. pylori was more than 45%.

  15. Decision analysis to complete diagnostic research by closing the gap between test characteristics and cost-effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaafsma, Joanna D; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; Buskens, Erik

    2009-12-01

    The lack of a standard methodology in diagnostic research impedes adequate evaluation before implementation of constantly developing diagnostic techniques. We discuss the methodology of diagnostic research and underscore the relevance of decision analysis in the process of evaluation of diagnostic tests. Overview and conceptual discussion. Diagnostic research requires a stepwise approach comprising assessment of test characteristics followed by evaluation of added value, clinical outcome, and cost-effectiveness. These multiple goals are generally incompatible with a randomized design. Decision-analytic models provide an important alternative through integration of the best available evidence. Thus, critical assessment of clinical value and efficient use of resources can be achieved. Decision-analytic models should be considered part of the standard methodology in diagnostic research. They can serve as a valid alternative to diagnostic randomized clinical trials (RCTs).

  16. Farm-level risk factors for Fasciola hepatica infection in Danish dairy cattle as evaluated by two diagnostic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takeuchi-Storm, Nao; Denwood, Matthew; Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup

    2017-01-01

    ) as a tool for diagnosis in Danish dairy cattle farms was assessed. This case-control study aimed to identify farm-level risk factors for fasciolosis in Danish dairy farms (> 50 animals slaughtered in 2013) using two diagnostic methods: recordings of liver condemnation at slaughter, and farm-level Fasciola...... on wet pastures, dry cows grazing on wet pastures, herd size, breed and concurrent beef cattle production were identified as risk factors associated with being classified as a case farm. With the categorised BTM ELISA result as the response variable, heifers grazing on wet pastures, dry cows grazing...... on wet pastures, and purchase of cows were identified as risk factors. Within the case and control groups, 74.8 and 12.7% of farms were positive for fasciolosis on BTM ELISA, respectively. The differences are likely to be related to the detection limit of the farm-level prevalence by the BTM ELISA test...

  17. Study on the diagnostic value of plasma Adrenomedullin (AM) levels determination for differentiation of pulmonary cancer from pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Hua; Sun Shuhong; Xu Shuhua; Zhu Wenru; Yu Hui

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between plasma adrenomedullin (AM) levels and pulmonary cancer as well as the diagnostic value of AM levels determination for differentiation of pulmonary cancer from pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods: Plasma levels of AM in patients with pulmonary cancer (n=43), pulmonary tuberculosis (n=43) and 43 controls were determined with RIA. Results: Plasma levels of AM (98.46 ± 29.28 ng/ml) in patients with pulmonary cancer were significantly higher than those in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (61.46 ± 19.57 ng/ml) as well as those in controls (40.22 ± 8.23 ng/ml) (both P<0.01). Levels in patients with small cell carcinoma were significantly lower than those in patients with adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (both P<0.05). Positive correlation existed between the plasma levels of AM and the severity (grading 1 to 4) of the disease (P<0.05). Conclusion: Adrenomedullin could be regarded as a valuable plasma marker for differentiating lung cancer from tuberculosis. The plasma AM levels might be able to reflect the severity and predict the prognosis of the disease. Besides, high AM levels might suggest a tentative diagnosis of lung cancer in patients without pathologic evidence. (authors)

  18. Efficacy of a chairside diagnostic test kit for estimation of C-reactive protein levels in periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarale, Girish; Ravindra, S; Thakur, Srinath; Setty, Swati

    2010-10-01

    C-reactive protein [CRP] levels increase to hundreds of mg/mL within hours following infection. Studies have shown that serum CRP levels were elevated in periodontal disease. However, in all the previous studies, CRP levels were measured by using high-sensitivity CRP assay kits with minimal detection limits of 0.1 to 3 mg/L, which was much below the normal value of 10 mg/L. These high-sensitivity CRP assays need a proper laboratory setup, and these methods cannot be used as a routine chair-side test in the dental office. The purpose of this study was to investigate the serum CRP levels in subjects with periodontal disease by using a rapid chair-side diagnostic test kit with a lower detection limit of 6 mg/L and to compare the CRP levels before and after periodontal therapy. A total of 45 systemically healthy subjects were selected for the study. Subjects were divided into three groups: group A: healthy controls, group B: gingivitis, group C: periodontitis. Serum levels of CRP were determined by using a latex slide agglutination method with commercially available kit with lower detection limit of 6 mg/L. CRP was negative in all the 15 subjects in groups A and B at baseline, 7th and 30th day. CRP was positive only in 2 subjects in Group C at baseline and 7th day. Estimation of serum CRP by using a rapid chair-side diagnostic test kit is not of any significance in subjects with periodontitis.

  19. Calibration methodology for instruments utilized in X radiation beams, diagnostic level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penha, M. da; Potiens, A.; Caldas, L.V.E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. E-mail: mppalbu@ipen.br

    2004-07-01

    Methodologies for the calibration of diagnostic radiology instruments were established at the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN. The methods may be used in the calibration procedures of survey meters used in radiation protection measurements (scattered radiation), instruments used in direct beams (attenuated and non attenuated beams) and quality control instruments. The established qualities are recommended by the international standards IEC 1267 and ISO 4037-3. Two ionization chambers were used as reference systems, one with a volume of 30 cm{sup 3} for radiation protection measurements, and the other with a volume of 1 cm{sup 3} for direct beam measurements. Both are traceable to the German Primary Laboratory of Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). In the case of calibration of quality control instruments, a non-invasive method using the measurement of the spectrum endpoint was established with a portable gamma and X-ray Intertechnique spectrometer system. The methods were applied to survey meters (radiation protection measurements), ionization chambers (direct beam measurements) and k Vp meters (invasive and non-invasive instruments). (Author)

  20. Calibration methodology for instruments utilized in X radiation beams, diagnostic level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penha, M. da; Potiens, A.; Caldas, L.V.E.

    2004-01-01

    Methodologies for the calibration of diagnostic radiology instruments were established at the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN. The methods may be used in the calibration procedures of survey meters used in radiation protection measurements (scattered radiation), instruments used in direct beams (attenuated and non attenuated beams) and quality control instruments. The established qualities are recommended by the international standards IEC 1267 and ISO 4037-3. Two ionization chambers were used as reference systems, one with a volume of 30 cm 3 for radiation protection measurements, and the other with a volume of 1 cm 3 for direct beam measurements. Both are traceable to the German Primary Laboratory of Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). In the case of calibration of quality control instruments, a non-invasive method using the measurement of the spectrum endpoint was established with a portable gamma and X-ray Intertechnique spectrometer system. The methods were applied to survey meters (radiation protection measurements), ionization chambers (direct beam measurements) and k Vp meters (invasive and non-invasive instruments). (Author)

  1. Usage of Latent Class Analysis in Diagnostic Microbiology in the Absence of Gold Standard Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gul Bayram Abiha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of performance of various tests diagnostic tests in the absence of gold standard is an important problem. Latent class analysis (LCA is a statistical analysis method known for many years, especially in the absence of a gold standard for evaluation of diagnostic tests so that LCA has found its wide application area. During the last decade, LCA method has widely used in for determining sensivity and specifity of different microbiological tests. It has investigated in the diagnosis of mycobacterium tuberculosis, mycobacterium bovis, human papilloma virus, bordetella pertussis, influenza viruses, hepatitis E virus (HEV, hepatitis C virus (HCV and other various viral infections. Researchers have compared several diagnostic tests for the diagnosis of different pathogens with LCA. We aimed to evaluate performance of latent class analysis method used microbiological diagnosis in various diseases in several researches. When we took into account all of these tests' results, we suppose that LCA is a good statistical analysis method to assess different test performances in the absence of gold standard. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(4.000: 467-488

  2. Microbiopsy a first-level diagnostic test to rule out oral dysplasia or carcinoma in general dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentenero, M; Val, M; Rosso, S; Gandolfo, S

    2018-03-01

    Diagnostic delay in oral oncology could be improved if general dentists had a reliable and easy-to-use first-level diagnostic test to rule out the presence of oral dysplasia or carcinoma. Microbiopsy has been proved to have high sensitivity and high negative predictive value in a clinical setting characterized by high prevalence of disease. Moreover, it has been proved to be easily performed by general dentists. This study aimed to determine the negative predictive value of microbiopsy in routine dental practice: a clinical setting characterized by low prevalence of disease. Within the frame of a previous study, general dentists from the Metropolitan Area of Turin performed microbiopsy for each oral mucosal lesion detected during their practice. The clinical outcome of 129 lesions negative at microbiopsy was checked by a query performed through the database of the Piedmont Cancer Registry, covering the population of the Metropolitan Area of Turin, with particular reference to cancer involving the mouth (ICD-10:C03-06). This allowed us to define "true negative" cases and to calculate the negative predictive value of microbiopsy. In a mean follow-up of 7.5 years (range 7-9 years), with a dropout rate of 7.7%, no case of tumour involving the mouth was observed, thus revealing a negative predictive value approaching 100%. Microbiopsy represents an easy-to-use and reliable first-level test able to aid general dentists to select patients requiring an oral medicine assessment in a short time and definitely to avoid diagnostic delay in oncologically relevant oral mucosal lesions. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. L-carnitine plasma levels in dogs and cats. A diagnostic parameter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.

    1993-04-01

    The relation between levels of carnitine in plasma and lesions of organs should be demonstrated. 52 dogs and 58 cats examined in veterinary clinics for several reasons and routinely screened for blood chemistry also were analysed for free plasma carnitine by a radiocarbon method. Increased carnitine levels were observed in both species in case of heart, liver and kidney disorders. Additionally the influence of food intake on carnitine levels in dogs was studied. Postprandial changes were insignificant. Because of lack of information about carnitine levels in cats and changes with age plasma carnitine was determined in cats and kittens. The range of normal values was 8.2 to 24.2 μmol/l without any significance of age

  4. Diagnostic value of determination of serum pepsinogen and gastrin levels in patients with peptic ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Zhansen; Li Jingrong; Feng Jiandong; Wang Yuqiong; Fu Xiufeng; Zhang Lanfeng

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of changes of serum pepsinogen and gastrin levels in patients with gastric/duodenal ulcer. Methods: Serum pepsinogen I (PG I), pepsinogen II (PGII), gastrin levels and PG I/PG II ratio were determined with RIA in 100 controls, 61 patients with duodenal ulcer, 46 patients with gastric ulcer, 66 patients with gastric cancer and 101 patients with chronic gastritis. Results: In patients with peptic ulcer (gastric/duodenal), the serum levels of PG I, PG II and PG I/PG II ratio were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.001); the serum gastrin levels were also significantly higher than those in controls and patients with chronic gastritis (P<0.001), but lower than those in patients with gastric cancer (P<0.001). Among patients with peptic ulcer, the serum PG I level and PG I/PG II ratio were significantly higher in patients with duodenal ulcer than those in patients with gastric ulcer (P<0.001). Conclusion: Excessive high serum levels of PG I, PG II, gastrin and PG I/PG II ratio were some of the high risk factors for peptic ulcer. Those were useful serum markers for diagnosis and follow-up of the disease. (authors)

  5. The Accuracy of Diagnostic Methods for Diabetic Retinopathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Martínez-Vizcaíno

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the recommended glycemic measures for diagnosing diabetic retinopathy.We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and the Web of Science databases from inception to July 2015 for observational studies comparing the diagnostic accuracy of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, and 2-hour plasma glucose (2h-PG. Random effects models for the diagnostic odds ratio (dOR value computed by Moses' constant for a linear model and 95% CIs were used to calculate the accuracy of the test. Hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic curves (HSROC were used to summarize the overall test performance.Eleven published studies were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled dOR values for the diagnosis of retinopathy were 16.32 (95% CI 13.86-19.22 for HbA1c and 4.87 (95% CI 4.39-5.40 for FPG. The area under the HSROC was 0.837 (95% CI 0.781-0.892 for HbA1c and 0.735 (95% CI 0.657-0.813 for FPG. The 95% confidence region for the point that summarizes the overall test performance of the included studies occurs where the cut-offs ranged from 6.1% (43.2 mmol/mol to 7.8% (61.7 mmol/mol for HbA1c and from 7.8 to 9.3 mmol/L for FPG. In the four studies that provided information regarding 2h-PG, the pooled accuracy estimates for HbA1c were similar to those of 2h-PG; the overall performance for HbA1c was superior to that for FPG.The three recommended tests for the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in nonpregnant adults showed sufficient accuracy for their use in clinical settings, although the overall accuracy for the diagnosis of retinopathy was similar for HbA1c and 2h-PG, which were both more accurate than for FPG. Due to the variability and inconveniences of the glucose level-based methods, HbA1c appears to be the most appropriate method for the diagnosis diabetic retinopathy.

  6. Error tolerance analysis of wave diagnostic based on coherent modulation imaging in high power laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xingchen; Liu, Cheng; Zhu, Jianqiang

    2018-02-01

    Coherent modulation imaging providing fast convergence speed and high resolution with single diffraction pattern is a promising technique to satisfy the urgent demands for on-line multiple parameter diagnostics with single setup in high power laser facilities (HPLF). However, the influence of noise on the final calculated parameters concerned has not been investigated yet. According to a series of simulations with twenty different sampling beams generated based on the practical parameters and performance of HPLF, the quantitative analysis based on statistical results was first investigated after considering five different error sources. We found the background noise of detector and high quantization error will seriously affect the final accuracy and different parameters have different sensitivity to different noise sources. The simulation results and the corresponding analysis provide the potential directions to further improve the final accuracy of parameter diagnostics which is critically important to its formal applications in the daily routines of HPLF.

  7. The diagnostic value of the lactate level in the vaginal fluid for determining the premature rupture of membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadi, M.; Rafaei, F.; Nazari, N.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives:To determine the diagnostic value of the lactate concentration in vaginal secretions in determining the premature rupture of membranes. Subjects and Methods:One hundred 100 pregnant women with single pregnancy of gestational age 20--41 weeks were divided to two groups of 50 each. One group comprised of women with premature rupture of membranes, and the other (control group) of women with intact membranes. To verify the premature rupture of membranes in both groups, the speculum, fern, and nitrazine tests were done. Lactate Pro manual instrument was used to measure the lactate levels in vaginal fluid via enzymatic staining which was displayed on the instrument's liquid crystal display after 60 seconds. Descriptive analytic statistics and SPSS 17 software were used to analyze the data. Results The lactate concentration of 4.6 mM in the vaginal fluid was diagnostic for premature rupture of membranes. It had a sensitivity of 96%, specificity of 98.8%, accuracy of 97%, positive predictive value of 97.9%, and negative predictive value of 96%. Conclusions:Testing lactate levels in the vaginal fluid is an easy, rapid and reliable method for the diagnosis of premature rupture of membranes in pregnancy. (author)

  8. Urine microRNAs as biomarkers for bladder cancer: a diagnostic meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Y

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Yidong Cheng,* Xiaheng Deng,* Xiao Yang,* Pengchao Li, Xiaolei Zhang, Peng Li, Jun Tao, Qiang Lu, Zengjun Wang Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The diagnostic value of microRNA (miRNA detection in patients with bladder cancer (BCa is controversial. We performed a diagnostic meta-analysis to evaluate current evidence on the use of miRNA assays to diagnose BCa. Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science for studies published before March 31, 2015. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios, diagnostic odds ratio, and area under the curve (AUC were calculated to evaluate the overall test performance. Subgroup analyses were used to explore the between-study heterogeneity. Deeks’ funnel plot asymmetry test was used to test publication bias. We applied the software of RevMan 5.2 and Stata 11.0 to the meta-analysis. Results: A total of 23 studies from nine articles were included in the meta-analysis, with a total of 719 patients and 494 controls. The pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.75 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.68–0.80 and 0.75 (95% CI, 0.70–0.80, respectively. The pooled positive likelihood ratio was 3.03 (95% CI, 2.50–3.67; negative likelihood ratio was 0.33 (95% CI, 0.27–0.42; and diagnostic odds ratio was 9.07 (95% CI, 6.35–12.95. The pooled AUC was 0.81 (95% CI, 0.78–0.85. Subgroup analyses indicated that the multiple miRNAs assays and urine supernatant assays showed high accuracies in diagnosing BCa. Conclusion: The miRNA assays may serve as potential noninvasive diagnostic tool for the detection of BCa. However, the clinical application of miRNA assays for BCa diagnosis still needs further validation by large prospective studies. Keywords: microRNAs, bladder cancer, diagnostic accuracy, meta-analysis

  9. Plasma Lactate Dehydrogenase Levels Predict Mortality in Acute Aortic Syndromes: A Diagnostic Accuracy and Observational Outcome Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Fulvio; Ravetti, Anna; Nazerian, Peiman; Liedl, Giovanni; Veglio, Maria Grazia; Battista, Stefania; Vanni, Simone; Pivetta, Emanuele; Montrucchio, Giuseppe; Mengozzi, Giulio; Rinaldi, Mauro; Moiraghi, Corrado; Lupia, Enrico

    2016-02-01

    In acute aortic syndromes (AAS), organ malperfusion represents a key event impacting both on diagnosis and outcome. Increased levels of plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a biomarker of malperfusion, have been reported in AAS, but the performance of LDH for the diagnosis of AAS and the relation of LDH with outcome in AAS have not been evaluated so far.This was a bi-centric prospective diagnostic accuracy study and a cohort outcome study. From 2008 to 2014, patients from 2 Emergency Departments suspected of having AAS underwent LDH assay at presentation. A final diagnosis was obtained by aortic imaging. Patients diagnosed with AAS were followed-up for in-hospital mortality.One thousand five hundred seventy-eight consecutive patients were clinically eligible, and 999 patients were included in the study. The final diagnosis was AAS in 201 (20.1%) patients. Median LDH was 424 U/L (interquartile range [IQR] 367-557) in patients with AAS and 383 U/L (IQR 331-460) in patients with alternative diagnoses (P < 0.001). Using a cutoff of 450 U/L, the sensitivity of LDH for AAS was 44% (95% confidence interval [CI] 37-51) and the specificity was 73% (95% CI 69-76). Overall in-hospital mortality for AAS was 23.8%. Mortality was 32.6% in patients with LDH ≥ 450 U/L and 16.8% in patients with LDH < 450 U/L (P = 0.006). Following stratification according to LDH quartiles, in-hospital mortality was 12% in the first (lowest) quartile, 18.4% in the second quartile, 23.5% in the third quartile, and 38% in the fourth (highest) quartile (P = 0.01). LDH ≥ 450 U/L was further identified as an independent predictor of death in AAS both in univariate and in stepwise logistic regression analyses (odds ratio 2.28, 95% CI 1.11-4.66; P = 0.025), in addition to well-established risk markers such as advanced age and hypotension. Subgroup analysis showed excess mortality in association with LDH ≥ 450 U/L in elderly, hemodynamically stable and in nonsurgically

  10. MERRA 2D IAU Ocean Surface Diagnostic, Single Level, Time Avg 1-hr (2/3x1/2L1) V5.2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MAT1NXOCN or tavg1_2d_ocn_Nx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional ocean surface single-level diagnostics that is time averaged...

  11. MERRA 2D IAU Ocean Surface Diagnostic, Single Level, Monthly Mean (2/3x1/2L1) V5.2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MATMNXOCN or tavgM_2d_ocn_Nx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional ocean surface single-level diagnostics that is monthly mean...

  12. MERRA 2D IAU Diagnostic, Single Level Meteorology, Diurnal (2/3x1/2L1) V5.2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MATUNXSLV or tavgU_2d_slv_Nx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional atmospheric single-level diagnostics that is time averaged...

  13. MERRA 2D IAU Ocean Surface Diagnostic, Single Level, Diurnal (2/3x1/2L1) V5.2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MATUNXOCN or tavgU_2d_ocn_Nx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional ocean surface single-level diagnostics that is monthly mean...

  14. MERRA 2D IAU Diagnostic, Single Level Meteorology, Time Average 1-hourly (2/3x1/2L1) V5.2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MAT1NXSLV or tavg1_2d_slv_Nx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional atmospheric single-level diagnostics that is time averaged...

  15. An Evaluation of Serum Procalcitonin and C-Reactive Protein Levels as Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarkers of Severe Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szederjesi Janos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recommendations have been made, following the multicenter Surviving Sepsis Campaign study, to standardize the definition of severe sepsis with reference to several parameters such as haemodynamic stability, acid-base balance, bilirubin, creatinine, International Normalized Ratio (INR, urine output and pulmonary functional value of the ratio between arterial oxigen partial pressure and inspiratory oxigen concentration. Procalcitonin (PCT is considered to be a gold standard biomarker for the inflammatory response, and recent studies have shown that it may help to discover whether a seriously ill person is developing sepsis. C-reactive protein (CRP is also used as a marker of inflammation in the body, as its blood levels increase if there is any inflammation in the body. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum procalcitonin and C-reactive protein levels as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of severe sepsis.

  16. Serum Immunoglobulin G4 in Discriminating Autoimmune Pancreatitis From Pancreatic Cancer: A Diagnostic Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Cong; Cao, Qin; Jiang, Min; Sun, Ming-Jun

    2018-03-01

    Differentiation between autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) and pancreatic cancer (PC) is a clinical challenge. Emerging published data on the accuracy of serum immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) for the differential diagnosis between AIP and PC are inconsistent. The objective of our study was to perform a meta-analysis evaluating the clinical utility of serum IgG4 in the differential diagnosis between AIP and PC. We performed a systematic literature search of multiple electronic databases. The methodological quality of each study was assessed according to the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies checklist. Random-effects model was used to summarize the diagnostic odds ratio and other measures of accuracy. Eleven studies comprising 523 AIP patients and 771 PC patients were included in the meta-analysis. The summary estimates for serum IgG4 in distinguishing AIP from PC were as follows: diagnostic odds ratio, 57.30 (95% confidence interval [CI], 23.17-141.67); sensitivity, 0.72 (95% CI, 0.68-0.76); specificity, 0.93 (95% CI, 0.91-0.94). The area under the curve of serum IgG4 in distinguishing AIP from PC was 0.9200. Our meta-analysis found that serum IgG4 has high specificity and relatively low sensitivity in the differential diagnosis between AIP and PC. Therefore, serum IgG4 is useful in distinguishing AIP from PC.

  17. LOGICAL CONDITIONS ANALYSIS METHOD FOR DIAGNOSTIC TEST RESULTS DECODING APPLIED TO COMPETENCE ELEMENTS PROFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Freyman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.Representation features of education results for competence-based educational programs are analyzed. Solution importance of decoding and proficiency estimation for elements and components of discipline parts of competences is shown. The purpose and objectives of research are formulated. Methods. The paper deals with methods of mathematical logic, Boolean algebra, and parametrical analysis of complex diagnostic test results, that controls proficiency of some discipline competence elements. Results. The method of logical conditions analysis is created. It will give the possibility to formulate logical conditions for proficiency determination of each discipline competence element, controlled by complex diagnostic test. Normalized test result is divided into noncrossing zones; a logical condition about controlled elements proficiency is formulated for each of them. Summarized characteristics for test result zones are imposed. An example of logical conditions forming for diagnostic test with preset features is provided. Practical Relevance. The proposed method of logical conditions analysis is applied in the decoding algorithm of proficiency test diagnosis for discipline competence elements. It will give the possibility to automate the search procedure for elements with insufficient proficiency, and is also usable for estimation of education results of a discipline or a component of competence-based educational program.

  18. Investigation into diagnostic agreement using automated computer-assisted histopathology pattern recognition image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D Webster

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which histopathology pattern recognition image analysis (PRIA agrees with microscopic assessment has not been established. Thus, a commercial PRIA platform was evaluated in two applications using whole-slide images. Substantial agreement, lacking significant constant or proportional errors, between PRIA and manual morphometric image segmentation was obtained for pulmonary metastatic cancer areas (Passing/Bablok regression. Bland-Altman analysis indicated heteroscedastic measurements and tendency toward increasing variance with increasing tumor burden, but no significant trend in mean bias. The average between-methods percent tumor content difference was -0.64. Analysis of between-methods measurement differences relative to the percent tumor magnitude revealed that method disagreement had an impact primarily in the smallest measurements (tumor burden 0.988, indicating high reproducibility for both methods, yet PRIA reproducibility was superior (C.V.: PRIA = 7.4, manual = 17.1. Evaluation of PRIA on morphologically complex teratomas led to diagnostic agreement with pathologist assessments of pluripotency on subsets of teratomas. Accommodation of the diversity of teratoma histologic features frequently resulted in detrimental trade-offs, increasing PRIA error elsewhere in images. PRIA error was nonrandom and influenced by variations in histomorphology. File-size limitations encountered while training algorithms and consequences of spectral image processing dominance contributed to diagnostic inaccuracies experienced for some teratomas. PRIA appeared better suited for tissues with limited phenotypic diversity. Technical improvements may enhance diagnostic agreement, and consistent pathologist input will benefit further development and application of PRIA.

  19. Investigation into diagnostic agreement using automated computer-assisted histopathology pattern recognition image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Joshua D; Michalowski, Aleksandra M; Dwyer, Jennifer E; Corps, Kara N; Wei, Bih-Rong; Juopperi, Tarja; Hoover, Shelley B; Simpson, R Mark

    2012-01-01

    The extent to which histopathology pattern recognition image analysis (PRIA) agrees with microscopic assessment has not been established. Thus, a commercial PRIA platform was evaluated in two applications using whole-slide images. Substantial agreement, lacking significant constant or proportional errors, between PRIA and manual morphometric image segmentation was obtained for pulmonary metastatic cancer areas (Passing/Bablok regression). Bland-Altman analysis indicated heteroscedastic measurements and tendency toward increasing variance with increasing tumor burden, but no significant trend in mean bias. The average between-methods percent tumor content difference was -0.64. Analysis of between-methods measurement differences relative to the percent tumor magnitude revealed that method disagreement had an impact primarily in the smallest measurements (tumor burden 0.988, indicating high reproducibility for both methods, yet PRIA reproducibility was superior (C.V.: PRIA = 7.4, manual = 17.1). Evaluation of PRIA on morphologically complex teratomas led to diagnostic agreement with pathologist assessments of pluripotency on subsets of teratomas. Accommodation of the diversity of teratoma histologic features frequently resulted in detrimental trade-offs, increasing PRIA error elsewhere in images. PRIA error was nonrandom and influenced by variations in histomorphology. File-size limitations encountered while training algorithms and consequences of spectral image processing dominance contributed to diagnostic inaccuracies experienced for some teratomas. PRIA appeared better suited for tissues with limited phenotypic diversity. Technical improvements may enhance diagnostic agreement, and consistent pathologist input will benefit further development and application of PRIA.

  20. Systematic Internal Transcribed Spacer Sequence Analysis for Identification of Clinical Mold Isolates in Diagnostic Mycology: a 5-Year Study▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciardo, Diana E.; Lucke, Katja; Imhof, Alex; Bloemberg, Guido V.; Böttger, Erik C.

    2010-01-01

    The implementation of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing for routine identification of molds in the diagnostic mycology laboratory was analyzed in a 5-year study. All mold isolates (n = 6,900) recovered in our laboratory from 2005 to 2009 were included in this study. According to a defined work flow, which in addition to troublesome phenotypic identification takes clinical relevance into account, 233 isolates were subjected to ITS sequence analysis. Sequencing resulted in successful identification for 78.6% of the analyzed isolates (57.1% at species level, 21.5% at genus level). In comparison, extended in-depth phenotypic characterization of the isolates subjected to sequencing achieved taxonomic assignment for 47.6% of these, with a mere 13.3% at species level. Optimization of DNA extraction further improved the efficacy of molecular identification. This study is the first of its kind to testify to the systematic implementation of sequence-based identification procedures in the routine workup of mold isolates in the diagnostic mycology laboratory. PMID:20573873

  1. Systematic internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis for identification of clinical mold isolates in diagnostic mycology: a 5-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciardo, Diana E; Lucke, Katja; Imhof, Alex; Bloemberg, Guido V; Böttger, Erik C

    2010-08-01

    The implementation of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing for routine identification of molds in the diagnostic mycology laboratory was analyzed in a 5-year study. All mold isolates (n = 6,900) recovered in our laboratory from 2005 to 2009 were included in this study. According to a defined work flow, which in addition to troublesome phenotypic identification takes clinical relevance into account, 233 isolates were subjected to ITS sequence analysis. Sequencing resulted in successful identification for 78.6% of the analyzed isolates (57.1% at species level, 21.5% at genus level). In comparison, extended in-depth phenotypic characterization of the isolates subjected to sequencing achieved taxonomic assignment for 47.6% of these, with a mere 13.3% at species level. Optimization of DNA extraction further improved the efficacy of molecular identification. This study is the first of its kind to testify to the systematic implementation of sequence-based identification procedures in the routine workup of mold isolates in the diagnostic mycology laboratory.

  2. Colorado Upper-Division Electrostatics Diagnostic: A Conceptual Assessment for the Junior Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasteen, Stephanie V.; Pepper, Rachel E.; Caballero, Marcos D.; Pollock, Steven J.; Perkins, Katherine K.

    2012-01-01

    As part of an effort to systematically improve our junior-level E&M I course, we have developed a tool to assess student conceptual learning of electrostatics at the upper division. Together with a group of physics faculty, we established a list of learning goals for the course that, with results from student observations and interviews,…

  3. Item level diagnostics and model - data fit in item response theory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Item response theory (IRT) is a framework for modeling and analyzing item response data. Item-level modeling gives IRT advantages over classical test theory. The fit of an item score pattern to an item response theory (IRT) models is a necessary condition that must be assessed for further use of item and models that best fit ...

  4. Cross-national diagnostic analysis of patient empowerment in England and Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Lister

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different NHS patient empowerment policies have been adopted in England and Greece; the voluntary sector development and its influence also differ. Although various aspects of patient empowerment have been explored in England, the patient empowerment systems’ application is under-researched. In Greece, the few relevant attempts looking at patients’ experiences focus on patient satisfaction, with only one study exploring the public hospitals managers’ perspectives on user involvement. However, patient empowerment questions may be similar in both countries.Aims and Objectives:The study aimed to explore and compare the general patient empowerment settings in the two countries, with main objectives to:a. identify and explore the relationships of national voluntary and governmental organisations,b. explore the cross-national challenges and facilitators, and make cross-national recommendations.Methodology: This is a cross-national comparative research study. A ‘diagnostic analysis’ approach, an assessment of potential and actual barriers and facilitators, including the context and potential change, was chosen. The methods used were:a. a network analysis of national voluntary and governmental organisations;b. semi-structured interviews with key representatives of these, andc. documentary analysis.Results: The network analysis revealed the potential of English organisations to influence more people, withextensive memberships and stronger interrelationship between them than the Greek organisations. Different levels of awareness, knowledge and perceptions of application of the national patient empowerment policies, systems and mechanisms were identified; being generally good in England, limited in Greece. Variable generalinformation provision, with good verbal information in England, and limited, written and verbal, information in Greece was also identified. Although the commonest cross-national perceived challenges were

  5. Real-time measurement and control at JET signal processing and physics analysis for diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felton, R.; Joffrin, E.; Murari, A.

    2005-01-01

    To meet the requirements of the scientific programme, the EFDA JET real-time measurement and control project has developed an integrated set of real-time plasma measurements, experiment control and communication facilities. Traditional experiments collected instrument data during the plasma pulse and calculated physics data after the pulse. The challenge for continuous tokamak operation is to calculate the physics data in real-time, keeping up with the evolution of the plasma. In JET, many plasma diagnostics have been augmented with extra data acquisition and signal-processing systems so that they can both capture instrument data for conventional post-pulse analysis and calculate calibrated, validated physics results in real-time. During the pulse, the systems send sampled data sets into a network, which distributes the data to several destinations. The receiving systems may do further analysis, integrating data from several measurements, or may control the plasma scenario by heating or fuelling. The simplest real-time diagnostic systems apply scale factors to the signals, as with the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostic's 96 tuned radiometer channels, giving the electron temperature profile. In various spectroscopy diagnostics, spectral features are least-squares-fitted to measure spectra from several lines of sight, within 50 ms. Ion temperatures and rotation speed can be calculated from the line widths and shifts. For diagnostics using modulation techniques, the systems implement digital-signal processing phase trackers, lock-in amplifiers and filters, e.g., the far infrared (FIR) interferometer samples 15 channels at 400 kHz for 30 s, i.e., six million samples per second. Diagnostics have specific lines of sight, spatial channels, and various sampling rates. The heating/fuelling systems have relatively coarse spatial localisation. Analysis systems have been developed to integrate the basic physics data into smaller sets of controllable parameters on a

  6. Golgi protein 73 as a biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma: A diagnostic meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Li, Jingjing; Dai, Weiqi; Wang, Fan; Shen, Miao; Chen, Kan; Cheng, Ping; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Chengfen; Zhu, Rong; Zhang, Huawei; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Wang, Junshan; Xia, Yujing; Lu, Jie; Zhou, Yingqun; Guo, Chuanyong

    2015-04-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary malignancy of the liver and the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Conflicting results have been reported regarding the use of serum Golgi protein 73 (GP73) as a promising serum marker for the diagnosis of HCC; therefore, the aim of the present study was to provide a systematic review of the diagnostic performance of GP73 for HCC. Following a systematic review of the relevant studies, a number of indices associated with the accuracy of the diagnostic performance of GP73, including the sensitivity and specificity, were pooled using Meta Disc 1.4 software. Data were presented as forest plots, and summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve analysis was used to summarize the overall test performance. Eleven studies were included in this meta-analysis. The summary estimates for serum GP73 in diagnosing HCC were as follows: Sensitivity, 77% [95% confidence interval (CI), 75-79%]; specificity, 91% (95% CI, 90-92%); positive likelihood ratio, 4.34 (95% CI, 2.19-8.59); negative likelihood ratio, 0.30 (95% CI, 0.26-0.36) and diagnostic odds ratio, 15.78 (95% CI, 6.95-35.83). The area under the SROC curve was 0.8638, and the Q index was 0.7944. Significant heterogeneity was found. This meta-analysis indicates a moderate diagnostic value of GP73 in HCC; however, further studies with rigorous design, large sample size and multiregional cooperation are required.

  7. Intercomparison of ionization chambers in standard X-ray beams, at radiotherapy, diagnostic radiology and radioprotection levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessa, Ana Carolina Moreira de

    2007-01-01

    Since the calibration of radiation measurement instruments and the knowledge of their major characteristics are very important subjects, several different types of ionization chambers were inter compared in terms of their calibration coefficients and their energy dependence, in radiotherapy, diagnostic radiology and radioprotection standard beams. An intercomparison of radionuclide calibrators for nuclear medicine was performed, using three radionuclides: 67 Ga, 201 Tl and 99m Tc; the results obtained were all within the requirements of the national standard CNEN-NE-3.05. In order to complete the range of radiation qualities of the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN, standard radiation beam qualities, radiation protection and low energy radiation therapy levels, were established, according international recommendations. Three methodologies for the calibration of unsealed ionization chambers in X-ray beams were studied and compared. A set of Victoreen ionization chambers, specially designed for use in laboratorial intercomparisons, was submitted to characterization tests. The performance of these Victoreen ionization chambers showed that they are suitable for use in radioprotection beams, because the results obtained agree with international recommendations. However, these Victoreen ionization chambers can be used in radiotherapy and diagnostic radiology beams only with some considerations, since their performance in these beams, especially in relation to the energy dependence and stabilization time tests, did not agree with the international recommendations for dosimeters used in radiotherapy and diagnostic radiology beams. This work presents data on the performance of several types of ionization chambers in different X-ray beams, that may be useful for choosing the appropriate instrument for measurements in ionizing radiation beams. (author)

  8. Intercomparison of ionization chambers in standard X-ray beams, at radiotherapy, diagnostic radiology and radioprotection levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessa, Ana Carolina Moreira de

    2006-01-01

    Since the calibration of radiation measurement instruments and the knowledge of their major characteristics are very important subjects, several different types of ionization chambers were intercompared in terms of their calibration coefficients and their energy dependence, in radiotherapy, diagnostic radiology and radioprotection standard beams. An intercomparison of radionuclide calibrators for nuclear medicine was performed, using three radionuclides: 67 Ga, 201 Tl and 99m Tc; the results obtained were all within the requirements of the national standard CNEN-NE-3.05. In order to complete the range of radiation qualities of the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN, standard radiation beam qualities, radiation protection and low energy radiation therapy levels, were established, according international recommendations. Three methodologies for the calibration of unsealed ionization chambers in X-ray beams were studied and compared. A set of Victoreen ionization chambers, specially designed for use in laboratorial intercomparisons, was submitted to characterization tests. The performance of these Victoreen ionization chambers showed that they are suitable for use in radioprotection beams, because the results obtained agree with international recommendations. However, these Victoreen ionization chambers can be used in radiotherapy and diagnostic radiology beams only with some considerations, since their performance in these beams, especially in relation to the energy dependence and stabilization time tests, did not agree with the international recommendations for dosimeters used in radiotherapy and diagnostic radiology beams. This work presents data on the performance of several types of ionization chambers in different X-ray beams, that may be useful for choosing the appropriate instrument for measurements in ionizing radiation beams. (author)

  9. Study on the diagnostic values of changes of serum endometrium antibody (EMAb) and CA125 (CA125) levels in patients with endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jingxiu; Shi Shaohong; Wang Yuping

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the diagnostic values of changes of serum EMAb and CA125 levels in patients with endometriosis. Methods: Serum EMAb levels were measured with ELISA and CA125 levels with RIA in 54 patients with endometriosis and 35 controls. Results: Positive rate of serum EMAb was significantly higher in the patients with endometriosis than those in controls (P≤0.01). Serum CA125 levels were also significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01). Conclusion: Combined detection of serum EMAb positive rate and CA125 levels was of diagnostic value in patients with endometriosis. (authors)

  10. Diagnostic Systems and Resources utilization of the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Sidoti, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Ospanov, R

    2010-01-01

    Since the LHC started colliding protons in December 2009, the ATLAS trigger has operated very successfully with a collision rate which has increased by several orders of magnitude. The trigger monitoring and data quality infrastructure was essential to this success. We describe the software tools used to monitor the trigger system performance and assess the overall quality of the trigger selection during collisions running. ATLAS has broad physics goals which require a large number of different active triggers due to complex event topology, requiring quite sophisticated software structures and concepts. The trigger of the ATLAS experiment is built as a three level system. The first level is realized in hardware while the high level triggers (HLT) are software based and run on large PC farms. The trigger reduces the bunch crossing rate of 40 MHz, at design, to an average event rate of about 200 Hz for storage. Since the ATLAS detector is a general purpose detector, the trigger must be sensitive to a large numb...

  11. Combined assessment of DYRK1A, BDNF and homocysteine levels as diagnostic marker for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janel, N; Alexopoulos, P; Badel, A; Lamari, F; Camproux, A C; Lagarde, J; Simon, S; Feraudet-Tarisse, C; Lamourette, P; Arbones, M; Paul, J L; Dubois, B; Potier, M C; Sarazin, M; Delabar, J M

    2017-06-20

    Early identification of Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk factors would aid development of interventions to delay the onset of dementia, but current biomarkers are invasive and/or costly to assess. Validated plasma biomarkers would circumvent these challenges. We previously identified the kinase DYRK1A in plasma. To validate DYRK1A as a biomarker for AD diagnosis, we assessed the levels of DYRK1A and the related markers brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and homocysteine in two unrelated AD patient cohorts with age-matched controls. Receiver-operating characteristic curves and logistic regression analyses showed that combined assessment of DYRK1A, BDNF and homocysteine has a sensitivity of 0.952, a specificity of 0.889 and an accuracy of 0.933 in testing for AD. The blood levels of these markers provide a diagnosis assessment profile. Combined assessment of these three markers outperforms most of the previous markers and could become a useful substitute to the current panel of AD biomarkers. These results associate a decreased level of DYRK1A with AD and challenge the use of DYRK1A inhibitors in peripheral tissues as treatment. These measures will be useful for diagnosis purposes.

  12. Prediction of miscarriage in women with viable intrauterine pregnancy-A systematic review and diagnostic accuracy meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Rekha N; Konje, Justin C; Richardson, Matthew; Tincello, Douglas G; Potdar, Neelam

    2018-01-01

    Both ultrasound and biochemical markers either alone or in combination have been described in the literature for the prediction of miscarriage. We performed this systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the best combination of biochemical, ultrasound and demographic markers to predict miscarriage in women with viable intrauterine pregnancy. The electronic database search included Medline (1946-June 2017), Embase (1980-June 2017), CINAHL (1981-June 2017) and Cochrane library. Key MESH and Boolean terms were used for the search. Data extraction and collection was performed based on the eligibility criteria by two authors independently. Quality assessment of the individual studies was done using QUADAS 2 (Quality Assessment for Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2: A Revised Tool) and statistical analysis performed using the Cochrane systematic review manager 5.3 and STATA vs.13.0. Due to the diversity of the combinations used for prediction in the included papers it was not possible to perform a meta-analysis on combination markers. Therefore, we proceeded to perform a meta-analysis on ultrasound markers alone to determine the best marker that can help to improve the diagnostic accuracy of predicting miscarriage in women with viable intrauterine pregnancy. The systematic review identified 18 eligible studies for the quantitative meta-analysis with a total of 5584 women. Among the ultrasound scan markers, fetal bradycardia (n=10 studies, n=1762 women) on hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic showed sensitivity of 68.41%, specificity of 97.84%, positive likelihood ratio of 31.73 (indicating a large effect on increasing the probability of predicting miscarriage) and negative likelihood ratio of 0.32. In studies for women with threatened miscarriage (n=5 studies, n=771 women) fetal bradycardia showed further increase in sensitivity (84.18%) for miscarriage prediction. Although there is gestational age dependent variation in the fetal heart rate, a plot

  13. Mass spectrometry-based serum proteome pattern analysis in molecular diagnostics of early stage breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stobiecki Maciej

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mass spectrometric analysis of the blood proteome is an emerging method of clinical proteomics. The approach exploiting multi-protein/peptide sets (fingerprints detected by mass spectrometry that reflect overall features of a specimen's proteome, termed proteome pattern analysis, have been already shown in several studies to have applicability in cancer diagnostics. We aimed to identify serum proteome patterns specific for early stage breast cancer patients using MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry. Methods Blood samples were collected before the start of therapy in a group of 92 patients diagnosed at stages I and II of the disease, and in a group of age-matched healthy controls (104 women. Serum specimens were purified and the low-molecular-weight proteome fraction was examined using MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry after removal of albumin and other high-molecular-weight serum proteins. Protein ions registered in a mass range between 2,000 and 10,000 Da were analyzed using a new bioinformatic tool created in our group, which included modeling spectra as a sum of Gaussian bell-shaped curves. Results We have identified features of serum proteome patterns that were significantly different between blood samples of healthy individuals and early stage breast cancer patients. The classifier built of three spectral components that differentiated controls and cancer patients had 83% sensitivity and 85% specificity. Spectral components (i.e., protein ions that were the most frequent in such classifiers had approximate m/z values of 2303, 2866 and 3579 Da (a biomarker built from these three components showed 88% sensitivity and 78% specificity. Of note, we did not find a significant correlation between features of serum proteome patterns and established prognostic or predictive factors like tumor size, nodal involvement, histopathological grade, estrogen and progesterone receptor expression. In addition, we observed a significantly (p = 0

  14. Diagnostic indicators of non-cardiovascular chest pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-cardiovascular chest pain (NCCP) has a high healthcare cost, but insufficient guidelines exist for its diagnostic investigation. The objective of the present work was to identify important diagnostic indicators and their accuracy for specific and non-specific conditions underlying NCCP. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed. In May 2012, six databases were searched. Hand and bibliography searches were also conducted. Studies evaluating a diagnostic test against a reference test in patients with NCCP were included. Exclusion criteria were having diagnostic tests for acute cardiovascular disease. Diagnostic accuracy is given in likelihood ratios (LR): very good (LR+ >10, LR- diagnostic test sensitivity and specificity was performed by applying a hierarchical Bayesian model. Results Out of 6,316 records, 260 were reviewed in full text, and 28 were included: 20 investigating gastroesophageal reflux disorders (GERD), 3 musculoskeletal chest pain, and 5 psychiatric conditions. Study quality was good in 15 studies and moderate in 13. GERD diagnosis was more likely with typical GERD symptoms (LR + 2.70 and 2.75, LR- 0.42 and 0.78) than atypical GERD symptoms (LR + 0.49, LR- 2.71). GERD was also more likely with a positive response to a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) test (LR + 5.48, 7.13, and 8.56; LR- 0.24, 0.25, and 0.28); the posterior mean sensitivity and specificity of six studies were 0.89 (95% credible interval, 0.28 to 1) and 0.88 (95% credible interval, 0.26 to 1), respectively. Panic and anxiety screening scores can identify individuals requiring further testing for anxiety or panic disorders. Clinical findings in musculoskeletal pain either had a fair to moderate LR + and a poor LR- or vice versa. Conclusions In patients with NCCP, thorough clinical evaluation of the patient’s history, symptoms, and clinical findings can indicate the most appropriate diagnostic tests. Treatment response to high-dose PPI

  15. Participatory Rural Appraisal for Diagnostic Analysis of spate irrigation systems in Raya Valley, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Castelli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Spate irrigation is a complex and unique form of water management, which represent the main source of irrigation water in semi-arid river catchments. Water is diverted from seasonal rivers by using diversion structures made by stones, earth and brushwood, located within the river bed. The modernisation of spate irrigation realised in Raya Valley (northern Ethiopia resulted in disappointing performances. One of the main reasons for this failure was the poor consideration of the characteristics of seasonal catchments and local communities’ needs and preferences. Local farmers, who showed a deep knowledge of the river system, were involved only at the level of consultation. The aim of this research was to develop a participatory Diagnostic Analysis (DA for a traditional non-modernised spate irrigation system in Raya Valley, in order to involve local farmers within the development process, and to build a solid knowledge basis for effective improvements. A Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA of the Harosha spate irrigation system was undertaken. PRA techniques focusing on spatial, temporal, socio-economical and spatiotemporal aspects of the system were performed with local farmers in order to identify and rank main problems and constraints to development. Farmers recognised the need of more resistant diversion structures and gabion walls for the stabilisation of the river bank. The involvement of farmers also helped to highlight that not only irrigation-related problems, but also flood-related problems threaten agricultural production and rural livelihoods. Rather than an irrigation system approach, an approach integrating irrigation development and flood risk mitigation is suggested for framing future development strategies.

  16. Class imbalance in unsupervised change detection - A diagnostic analysis from urban remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichtle, Tobias; Geiß, Christian; Lakes, Tobia; Taubenböck, Hannes

    2017-08-01

    Automatic monitoring of changes on the Earth's surface is an intrinsic capability and simultaneously a persistent methodological challenge in remote sensing, especially regarding imagery with very-high spatial resolution (VHR) and complex urban environments. In order to enable a high level of automatization, the change detection problem is solved in an unsupervised way to alleviate efforts associated with collection of properly encoded prior knowledge. In this context, this paper systematically investigates the nature and effects of class distribution and class imbalance in an unsupervised binary change detection application based on VHR imagery over urban areas. For this purpose, a diagnostic framework for sensitivity analysis of a large range of possible degrees of class imbalance is presented, which is of particular importance with respect to unsupervised approaches where the content of images and thus the occurrence and the distribution of classes are generally unknown a priori. Furthermore, this framework can serve as a general technique to evaluate model transferability in any two-class classification problem. The applied change detection approach is based on object-based difference features calculated from VHR imagery and subsequent unsupervised two-class clustering using k-means, genetic k-means and self-organizing map (SOM) clustering. The results from two test sites with different structural characteristics of the built environment demonstrated that classification performance is generally worse in imbalanced class distribution settings while best results were reached in balanced or close to balanced situations. Regarding suitable accuracy measures for evaluating model performance in imbalanced settings, this study revealed that the Kappa statistics show significant response to class distribution while the true skill statistic was widely insensitive to imbalanced classes. In general, the genetic k-means clustering algorithm achieved the most robust results

  17. Limited diagnostic value of enzyme analysis in patients with mitochondrial tRNA mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wibrand, Flemming; Jeppesen, Tina Dysgaard; Frederiksen, Anja L

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic value of respiratory chain (RC) enzyme analysis of muscle in adult patients with mitochondrial myopathy (MM). RC enzyme activity was measured in muscle biopsies from 39 patients who carry either the 3243A>G mutation, other tRNA point mutations, or single, large......, respectively, in these three groups. The results indicate that RC enzyme analysis in muscle is not a sensitive test for MM in adults. In these patients, abnormal muscle histochemistry appears to be a better predictor ofMM....

  18. Diagnostic and therapeutic implications of genetic heterogeneity in myeloid neoplasms uncovered by comprehensive mutational analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. Choi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available While growing use of comprehensive mutational analysis has led to the discovery of innumerable genetic alterations associated with various myeloid neoplasms, the under-recognized phenomenon of genetic heterogeneity within such neoplasms creates a potential for diagnostic confusion. Here, we describe two cases where expanded mutational testing led to amendment of an initial diagnosis of chronic myelogenous leukemia with subsequent altered treatment of each patient. We demonstrate the power of comprehensive testing in ensuring appropriate classification of genetically heterogeneous neoplasms, and emphasize thoughtful analysis of molecular and genetic data as an essential component of diagnosis and management.

  19. Establishment of national diagnostic reference level for renal doses in nuclear medicine departments at Khartoum-Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alameen, Suhaib; Hamid, Alhadi; Rushdi, M. A. H.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we established a diagnostic reference level (DRL) for patient dose focusing on the investigation of activity to the kidneys during(99mTc-DTPA) kidney scan, selected two department nuclear medicine in main hospitals in Khartoum state. The DRLs is an investigational level used to identify unusually high radiation doses for common diagnostic medical in Nuclear Medicine procedures and suggested action levels above which a facility should review its methods and determine if acceptable image quality can be achieved at lower doses. The high specific activity of 99mTc makes it suitable as a first pass agent, for multiple or sequential studies, 99mTc diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is preferred to 99mTc-pertechnetate. Patients who had been prepared for the kidney scan 99mTc- DTPA were divided to three groups. The first group received dose less than 5 mCi, are represent (27.03%) from all patients, second group received dose 5 to 5.5 mCi are represent(66.67%) and the third group received dose from 5.6 to 6.2 mCi are represent (6.31%) from all patients 99mTc-DTPA. And according to the IAEA recommendation for adult doses(5-10mCi) this study show that about 93.1% of the sample examines by dose less than 5.5 mCi. The results presented will serve as a baseline data needed for deriving reference doses for renal examinations for nuclear medicine departments in Sudan.(Author)

  20. Assessment of effectiveness of ultrasonography in diagnosis of acute appendicitis: Correlation with level of initial clinical diagnostic confidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Soon Young; Koo, Ja Hong; Lee, Eun Ja; Lee, Jong In; Jung, Jin Ho; Kim, Jin Young; Oh, Hwa Eun; Moon, Won Jin; Kim, Sam Soo; Heon, Han

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate effectiveness of ultrasonography (US) in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis by comparing with initial level of clinical diagnostic confidence. Graded compression US of one hundred forty eight with clinically suspected of acute appendicitis were prospectively evaluated. General surgeons classified patients into three groups bases on the clinical probability before US examination: group 1 as cases with low probability ( 75%). Two radiologists performed US examination. Statistical significance of ultrasonographic results in each group was assessed. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy of sonography for all patients were 91.3%, 97%, 97.3%, 90.4%, and 93.9% respectively. Those of group 1 were 100%, 95.5%, 84.6%, 100%, and 96.4%, and those of group 2, 95.8%, 100%, 100%, 95%, and 97.7% while those of group 3, 86.4%, 100%, 100%, 50%, and 88%. There was no statistical difference in each parameter among three groups. The accuracy and NPV in group 3 was significantly higher than those in groups with the low and intermediate probability (group 1 and 2). Ultrasonography in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis is an useful and reliable method, especially in case of low clinical diagnostic confidence.

  1. THE LEVEL OF EXPERIENCE OF THE BODY WHOLE IN DEVELOPMENTAL DISPRAXIC AND DIAGNOSTIC DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoslav KOPACEV

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors aim is to processed the level of experience of body whole in children with praxic and Gnostics disharmony. The authors were observed 46 children with dispraxis and disgnosis, age from 8-12 years, from different sex and with average intellectual capabilities. They have been treated at our institute in the period of 1998-2000. The tests for neuro-psychological esteem have been used.Children with dispraxis showed failure on the tests of Body scheme (92.3% and on the tests of gesticulate imitation too. Especially they failure in the phase of constructor of the body figure.Children with disgnosis showed better results at the tests of Body scheme (70%. They did all praxical activities normally, but they showed problems in recognition of some body parts.The mental cognition was not developed properly, dominantly in children with dispraxy (for figurative symbolism. In children with disgnosy assymbolism on the level of lingual structures is dominated. The author's conclusion is that Body scheme experience is the base of all psychic functions. Because the body scheme is not properly build, it is fragile of the attacks from the environment, and different clinical manifestations could be showed.

  2. A Review of Frequency Response Analysis Methods for Power Transformer Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Alsuhaibani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Power transformers play a critical role in electric power networks. Such transformers can suffer failures due to multiple stresses and aging. Thus, assessment of condition and diagnostic techniques are of great importance for improving power network reliability and service continuity. Several techniques are available to diagnose the faults within the power transformer. Frequency response analysis (FRA method is a powerful technique for diagnosing transformer winding deformation and several other types of problems that are caused during manufacture, transportation, installation and/or service life. This paper provides a comprehensive review on FRA methods and their applications in diagnostics and fault identification for power transformers. The paper discusses theory and applications of FRA methods as well as various issues and challenges faced in the application of this method.

  3. Analysis Tools for the Ion Cyclotron Emission Diagnostic on DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Castillo, C. A.; Thome, K. E.; Pinsker, R. I.; Meneghini, O.; Pace, D. C.

    2017-10-01

    Ion cyclotron emission (ICE) waves are excited by suprathermal particles such as neutral beam particles and fusion products. An ICE diagnostic is in consideration for use at ITER, where it could provide important passive measurement of fast ions location and losses, which are otherwise difficult to determine. Simple ICE data analysis codes had previously been developed, but more sophisticated codes are required to facilitate data analysis. Several terabytes of ICE data were collected on DIII-D during the 2015-2017 campaign. The ICE diagnostic consists of antenna straps and dedicated magnetic probes that are both digitized at 200 MHz. A suite of Python spectral analysis tools within the OMFIT framework is under development to perform the memory-intensive analysis of this data. A fast and optimized analysis allows ready access to data visualizations as spectrograms and as plots of both frequency and time cuts of the data. A database of processed ICE data is being constructed to understand the relationship between the frequency and intensity of ICE and a variety of experimental parameters including neutral beam power and geometry, local and global plasma parameters, magnetic fields, and many others. Work supported in part by US DoE under the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship (SULI) program and under DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  4. Local diagnostic reference levels, approaches and compare the values in the South Bohemia Region in view of radiation protection inspector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemanova, E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares the value of local diagnostic reference levels(the LDRL)in health facilities of the South Bohemia Region. The work is motivated by questions of licensees, who would like to know their position in terms of the LDRL compared to other workplaces. Also by the activity of the inspector who can identify the problematic workplaces, where is necessary to increase attention to optimization, exposure, or justification. In connection with the ongoing internal audits in licensee workplaces the information about the status of the LDRL among others is current, motivating licensee to changes, optimization and verification of compliance with the recommendation of the National radiological standard of Ministry of Health (author)

  5. A Recombinant Multi-Stage Vaccine against Paratuberculosis Significantly Reduces Bacterial Level in Tissues without Interference in Diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Gregers; Thakur, Aneesh; Aagaard, C.

    , PPDj-specific IFN-γ responses or positive PPDa or PPDb skin tests developed in vaccinees. Antibodies and cell-mediated immune responses were developed against FET11 antigens, however. At necropsy 8 or 12 months of age, relative Map burden was determined in a number of gut tissues by quantitative IS900...... PCR and revealed significantly reduced levels of Map and reduced histopathology. Diagnostic tests for antibody responses and cell-mediated immune responses, used as surrogates of infection, corroborated the observed vaccine efficacy: Five of seven non‐vaccinated calves seroconverted in ID Screen......-γ assay responses from 40 to 52 weeks compared to non-vaccinated calves. These results indicate the FET11 vaccine can be used to accelerate eradication of paratuberculosis while surveillance or test-and-manage control programs for tuberculosis and Johne’s disease remain in place. Funded by EMIDA ERA...

  6. Importance of the assessment of intracellular Ca2+ level as diagnostic tool of dysfunctional sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wardah Alasmari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sperm functions are an important factor for fertility/pregnancy to be achieved. Sperm dysfunction is the most common cause of male infertility. The best option to help couples with such male factor to achieve a pregnancy, is using Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART, without defining the underlying cause of sperm dysfunction or male-factor infertility in general at the cellular and molecular levels. Thus, the limited success of ART in a proportion of male infertility cases is unsurprising. Ca2+ signalling plays a fundamental role in the regulation of sperm function. Interestingly, it appears that the potential exists to diagnose abnormalities in the Ca2+ channels that underlie sperm dysfunction. This raises the potential for future drug discovery to try to correct this defect by augmenting Ca2+ signalling such as Ca2+ store mobilisation or activating CatSper, as possible rational treatments for sperm dysfunction that may temporarily increase the capacity to interact with the egg. Such a pharmacological agent may provide a useful way of increasing the effectiveness of IUI or IVF over conventional IUI and IVF procedures.

  7. Patient grouping for dose surveys and establishment of diagnostic reference levels in paediatric computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassileva, J.; Rehani, M.

    2015-01-01

    There has been confusion in literature on whether paediatric patients should be grouped according to age, weight or other parameters when dealing with dose surveys. The present work aims to suggest a pragmatic approach to achieve reasonable accuracy for performing patient dose surveys in countries with limited resources. The analysis is based on a subset of data collected within the IAEA survey of paediatric computed tomography (CT) doses, involving 82 CT facilities from 32 countries in Asia, Europe, Africa and Latin America. Data for 6115 patients were collected, in 34.5 % of which data for weight were available. The present study suggests that using four age groups, <1, >1-5, >5-10 and >10-15 y, is realistic and pragmatic for dose surveys in less resource countries and for the establishment of DRLs. To ensure relevant accuracy of results, data for >30 patients in a particular age group should be collected if patient weight is not known. If a smaller sample is used, patient weight should be recorded and the median weight in the sample should be within 5-10 % from the median weight of the sample for which the DRLs were established. Comparison of results from different surveys should always be performed with caution, taking into consideration the way of grouping of paediatric patients. Dose results can be corrected for differences in patient weight/age group. (authors)

  8. Comparative Evaluation for Assessing Oratest as a Diagnostic Tool for Evaluation of Plaque Levels & Gingivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahasweta Joshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims & Objectives: Periodontal disease comprises a group of inflammatory conditions of the supporting tissues of the teeth that are caused by bacteria. The present study was undertaken to evaluate whether Oratest could be used as a sensitive indicator of plaque levels and gingivitis. Material and Methods: Hundred caries free patients visiting the out-patient department of A.E.C.S. Maaruti College of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Banglore were selected according to predetermined selection criteria. The study consisted of two clinical stages: Stage 1. Recording of Plaque Index (Loe, 1967 and Gingival Index (Loe & Silness 1963 in the subjects. Stage 2. Performance of the Oratest and recording the scores in the same subjects. The Oratest was performed by rinsing the mouth with sterilized UHT (Ultra high temperature milk. About 3 ml of expectorated milk was added to a test tube containing the 0.12 ml of 0.1% methylene blue. The time required for colour change from blue to white attained at the bottom of the tube was recorded. Plaque Index, Gingival Index and Oratest scores were compared using Student t test. Pearson correlation test was applied to assess correlation between the indices and Oratest scores. Results:The results of the study showed that as age increased plaque and Gingival Indexes also increased whereas Oratest scores decreased. No significant difference between males and females was found in mean values of Plaque Index, Gingival Index and Oratest scores. Negative correlation was seen between Plaque Index and Oratest scores (r = 0.724 and also between Gingival Index and Oratest scores (r = 0.728. Conclusions: The study showed high correlation between the plaque and gingival indices and Oratest scores. This study validates Oratest as a predictable & sensitive test to assess periodontal disease.

  9. Diagnostic Stability of ICD/DSM First Episode Psychosis Diagnoses: Meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Cappucciati, Marco; Rutigliano, Grazia; Heslin, Margaret; Stahl, Daniel; Brittenden, Zera; Caverzasi, Edgardo; McGuire, Philip; Carpenter, William T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Validity of current International Classification of Disease/Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (ICD/DSM) first episode psychosis diagnoses is essential in clinical practice, research, training and public health. Method: We provide a meta-analytical estimate of prospective diagnostic stability and instability in ICD-10 or DSM-IV first episode diagnoses of functional psychoses. Independent extraction by multiple observers. Random effect meta-analysis conducted with the “metaprop,” “metaninf,” “metafunnel,” “metabias,” and “metareg” packages of STATA13.1. Moderators were tested with meta-regression analyses. Heterogeneity was assessed with the I 2 index. Sensitivity analyses tested robustness of results. Publication biases were assessed with funnel plots and Egger’s test. Findings: 42 studies and 45 samples were included, for a total of 14 484 first episode patients and an average follow-up of 4.5 years. Prospective diagnostic stability ranked: schizophrenia 0.90 (95% CI 0.85–0.95), affective spectrum psychoses 0.84 (95% CI 0.79–0.89), schizoaffective disorder 0.72 (95% CI 0.61–0.73), substance-induced psychotic disorder 0.66 (95% CI 0.51–0.81), delusional disorder 0.59 (95% CI 0.47–0.71), acute and transient psychotic disorder/brief psychotic disorder 0.56 (95% CI 0.62–0.60), psychosis not otherwise specified 0.36 (95% CI 0.27–0.45, schizophreniform disorder 0.29 (95% CI 0.22–0.38). Diagnostic stability within schizophrenia spectrum psychoses was 0.93 (95% CI 0.89–0.97); changes to affective spectrum psychoses were 0.05 (95% CI 0.01–0.08). About 0.10 (95% CI 0.05–0.15) of affective spectrum psychoses changed to schizophrenia spectrum psychosis. Across the other psychotic diagnoses there was high diagnostic instability, mostly to schizophrenia. Interpretation: There is meta-analytical evidence for high prospective diagnostic stability in schizophrenia spectrum and affective spectrum psychoses

  10. Time-dependent analysis of visible helium line-ratios for electron temperature and density diagnostic using synthetic simulations on NSTX-U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz Burgos, J. M., E-mail: jmunozbu@pppl.gov; Stutman, D.; Tritz, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Barbui, T.; Schmitz, O. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Helium line-ratios for electron temperature (T{sub e}) and density (n{sub e}) plasma diagnostic in the Scrape-Off-Layer (SOL) and edge regions of tokamaks are widely used. Due to their intensities and proximity of wavelengths, the singlet, 667.8 and 728.1 nm, and triplet, 706.5 nm, visible lines have been typically preferred. Time-dependency of the triplet line (706.5 nm) has been previously analyzed in detail by including transient effects on line-ratios during gas-puff diagnostic applications. In this work, several line-ratio combinations within each of the two spin systems are analyzed with the purpose of eliminating transient effects to extend the application of this powerful diagnostic to high temporal resolution characterization of plasmas. The analysis is done using synthetic emission modeling and diagnostic for low electron density NSTX SOL plasma conditions by several visible lines. Quasi-static equilibrium and time-dependent models are employed to evaluate transient effects of the atomic population levels that may affect the derived electron temperatures and densities as the helium gas-puff penetrates the plasma. The analysis of a wider range of spectral lines will help to extend this powerful diagnostic to experiments where the wavelength range of the measured spectra may be constrained either by limitations of the spectrometer or by other conflicting lines from different ions.

  11. Meta-Analyst: software for meta-analysis of binary, continuous and diagnostic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid Christopher H

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meta-analysis is increasingly used as a key source of evidence synthesis to inform clinical practice. The theory and statistical foundations of meta-analysis continually evolve, providing solutions to many new and challenging problems. In practice, most meta-analyses are performed in general statistical packages or dedicated meta-analysis programs. Results Herein, we introduce Meta-Analyst, a novel, powerful, intuitive, and free meta-analysis program for the meta-analysis of a variety of problems. Meta-Analyst is implemented in C# atop of the Microsoft .NET framework, and features a graphical user interface. The software performs several meta-analysis and meta-regression models for binary and continuous outcomes, as well as analyses for diagnostic and prognostic test studies in the frequentist and Bayesian frameworks. Moreover, Meta-Analyst includes a flexible tool to edit and customize generated meta-analysis graphs (e.g., forest plots and provides output in many formats (images, Adobe PDF, Microsoft Word-ready RTF. The software architecture employed allows for rapid changes to be made to either the Graphical User Interface (GUI or to the analytic modules. We verified the numerical precision of Meta-Analyst by comparing its output with that from standard meta-analysis routines in Stata over a large database of 11,803 meta-analyses of binary outcome data, and 6,881 meta-analyses of continuous outcome data from the Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews. Results from analyses of diagnostic and prognostic test studies have been verified in a limited number of meta-analyses versus MetaDisc and MetaTest. Bayesian statistical analyses use the OpenBUGS calculation engine (and are thus as accurate as the standalone OpenBUGS software. Conclusion We have developed and validated a new program for conducting meta-analyses that combines the advantages of existing software for this task.

  12. Factors that affect the level of detectability of objects of low contrast in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuniga Vargas, F.

    2001-01-01

    The diagnosed imageneologia is every day more used by the medical staff to obtain diagnoses of diverse illnesses. In this branch, the conventional equipments of tubes of X Rays, equipments with fluoroscopic, angiographos, on-line tomographos, ultrasound equipment of magnetic resonance are used. All of them finally produce an image which will be used for the radiologist to evaluate the structures and pathology with in order to give to emit a good and precise diagnosis. From the total of radiation that the man receives annually, the medical irradiations are the main contributors after natural radiations. The applications of the ionized radiations in the medical area have as an objective to provide diagnosis or treatment to the ill patient. To obtain an image of good quality is fundamental, so that the doctor carries out a good diagnosis. The images depend on many physical factors, such as the type of the used equipment, ability of the operator that takes the badge, maintenance of the equipment, badge quality, etc. The images in which the diagnosis is based on are a gathering of gray different tones that draw the anatomy of interest. Therefore, an injury should have different physical characteristics (grosor, density) to stand out from its environment. This notable capacity is known as radiological contrast. Studies which allow the quantification of the radiation levels' effect, the optic badge densities and the observers' physical particularities for the detection of low-contrast objects have not been done in Costa Rica The physician is the one responsible of implementing the quality programs that lead to the gathering of better images. From now on, the asserted diagnosis falls right into the radiologist's experience, who receives the theoretical training and practices of the different diagnosed modalities during his or her residence's years. Besides, the radiologist can collaborate with the improvement of the accuracy of the diagnosis, if he or she recommends the

  13. Diagnostic tests’ decision-making rules based upon analysis of ROC-curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л. В. Батюк

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose the model which substantiates diagnostics decision making based on the analysis of Receiver Operating Characteristic curves (ROC-curves and predicts optimal values of diagnostic indicators of biomedical information. To assess the quality of the test result prediction the standard criteria of the sensitivity and specificity of the model were used. Values of these criteria were calculated for the cases when the sensitivity of the test was greater than specificity by several times, when the number of correct diagnoses was maximal, when the sensitivity of the test was equal to its specificity and the sensitivity of the test was several times greater than the specificity of the test. To assess the significance of the factor characteristics and to compare the prognostic characteristics of models we used mathematical modeling and plotting the ROC-curves. The optimal value of the diagnostic indicator was found to be achieved when the sensitivity of the test is equal to its specificity. The model was adapted to solve the case when the sensitivity of the test is greater than specificity of the test.

  14. Diagnostic value of combined determination of serum tumor markers (NSE, CA-242, TPA, CEA) levels in patients with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Juzhen; Cai Tietie; Qin Shana

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of combined determination of serum NSE, CA242, tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) and CEA levels in patients with primary lung cancer. Methods: Serum NSE, CA242, TPA and CEA levels were determined with ELISA in (1) 102 patients with various types of primary lung carcinoma (adenocarcinoma 38, squamous cell carcinoma 32, small cell lung carcinoma 32) (2) 33 patients with open lung T. B. and (3) 30 controls. Results: (1) In patients with lung cancer, serum levels of all the four markers were increased and significantly higher than their respective values in patients with open lung T.B. and controls. (2) Positive rate of combined any two markers were 75% for adenocarcinoma, 50% for squamous cell carcinoma and 65% for small cell lung carcinoma, while false positive rate was only 9% for T.B patients and none for the controls. (3) The most appropriate single marker for each specific type of lung cancer was: NSE for SCLC (sensitivity 72%, specificity 97%, CA242 for adenocarcinoma sensitivity 62%, specificity 90%). Conclusion: Combined determination of these tumor markers would improve the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of primary lung carcinoma. (authors)

  15. Diagnostic value of combined determination of serum AFP, CEA, CA199, SF levels in patients with primary hepatic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jiaming; Rui Zhilian

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of combined detection of four tumor markers in patients with possible malignant change in liver disorders. Methods: Serum AFP, CEA, CA199 and SF levels were determined with chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) in 49 patients with primary liver carcinoma, 7 patients with metastatic liver carcinoma, 40 patients with hepatic cirrhosis, 47 patients with HBV hepatitis and 30 controls. Results: The serum levels of AFP, CEA, SF in patients with primary hepatic cancer and serum levels of AFP, SF in patients with hepatic cirrhosis were all significantly higher than those in controls (P 0.05). Moreover, positive rate of combined determination of AFP, CEA, CA199, SF in patients with primary hepatic cancer was significantly higher than that in patients with metastatic liver cancer. Conclusion: With combined determination of these four tumor markers, the detection rate of primary hepatic carcinoma could be enhanced to above 95%. Also, differential diagnosis between primary and metastatic hepatic cancers could be facilitated. (authors)

  16. Differential diagnostic value of combined detection of serum CA153, CEA and TPA levels in patients with breast tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Wei

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the differential diagnostic value of combined detection of serum CA153, CEA and TPA levels in patients with breast tumor. Methods: Serum levels of CA153, CEA and TPA were measured with RIA in 269 patients with breast tumor and 150 controls. Results: The serum levels of CA153, CEA and TPA in patients with breast cancer were significantly higher than those in the patients with benign breast tumor and controls. The positive rate of CA153 was 63.8% in the patients with breast cancer and that of CEA and TPA was 22.4% and 62.1% respectively, with combined detection of CA153 and CEA, the positive rate was 69.8%, with CA153 and TPA combined, the positive rate was 87.1%, with the three marker combined, the positive rate was 90.5%. The specificity was 77.9% with CA153, 77.9% with CA153 and CEA, 71.9% with CA153 and TPA, and 73.4% with all the three markers combined. Conclusion: The positive rate was increased remarkably with combined detection of CA153, CEA and TPA, however the specificity was not much changed, so the combined detection was valuable for differential diagnosis. (authors)

  17. Towards a research informed teaching experience within a diagnostic radiography curriculum: The level 4 (year 1) student holistic experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, Robert; Hogg, Peter; Robinson, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    Aim: This article discusses the level 4 (year 1) diagnostic radiography student holistic experience of the Research-informed Teaching experience (RiTe) at the University of Salford, UK. The purpose of RiTe is to expose undergraduate radiography students to more formal research, as part of their normal teaching and learning experience. Method: A grounded theory approach was adopted and a focus group with eight level 4 students was used to explore and evaluate the student experience and perception of RiTe. Results: Open coding defined categories and sub-categories, with axial and selective coding used to interrogate and explore the relationships between the focus group data. A number of insights were gained into the student holistic experience of RiTe. The issue of leadership for level 4 students was also identified. Discussion: The focus group participants found RiTe to be an extremely positive learning experience. RiTe also facilitated their translation of learnt theory into clinical skills knowledge alongside their understanding of and desire to participate in more research as undergraduates. The article also highlights areas for future research.

  18. The diagnostic accuracy of multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis in diagnosing dehydration after stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafri, Mohannad W.; Myint, Phyo Kyaw; Doherty, Danielle; Wilson, Alexander Hugh; Potter, John F.; Hooper, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-invasive methods for detecting water-loss dehydration following acute stroke would be clinically useful. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA) against reference standards serum osmolality and osmolarity. Material/Methods Patients admitted to an acute stroke unit were recruited. Blood samples for electrolytes and osmolality were taken within 20 minutes of MF-BIA. Total body water (TBW%), intracellular (ICW%) and extracellular water (ECW%), as percentages of total body weight, were calculated by MF-BIA equipment and from impedance measures using published equations for older people. These were compared to hydration status (based on serum osmolality and calculated osmolarity). The most promising Receiver Operating Characteristics curves were plotted. Results 27 stroke patients were recruited (mean age 71.3, SD10.7). Only a TBW% cut-off at 46% was consistent with current dehydration (serum osmolality >300 mOsm/kg) and TBW% at 47% impending dehydration (calculated osmolarity ≥295–300 mOsm/L) with sensitivity and specificity both >60%. Even here diagnostic accuracy of MF-BIA was poor, a third of those with dehydration were wrongly classified as hydrated and a third classified as dehydrated were well hydrated. Secondary analyses assessing diagnostic accuracy of TBW% for men and women separately, and using TBW as a percentage of lean body mass showed some promise, but did not provide diagnostically accurate measures across the population. Conclusions MF-BIA appears ineffective at diagnosing water-loss dehydration after stroke and cannot be recommended as a test for dehydration, but separating assessment by sex, and using TBW as a percentage of lean body weight may warrant further investigation. PMID:23839255

  19. Comparative analysis of diagnostic significance of biomarkers’ panels in cardiac recipients in the long term period after transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Shevchenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To perform comparative analysis of the diagnostic efficacy of sCD40L, PDGF-BB, VEGF-A and ST2 in recipients with cardiac rejection in different periods after transplantation. Materials and methods. The study included 144 cardiac recipients aged from 12 to 71 (mean age 44 ± 14 years old, among those 112 were men. Venous blood plasma taken on the same day with endomyocardial biopsy was used for the study. The concentrations of soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB were measured using xMAP technology. The concentrations of ST2 were measured by ELISA. Results. Men had significantly higher levels of ST2 and VEGF-A compared to women (p = 0.03. No correlation was found between the levels of biomarkers (sCD40L, PDGF-BB, VEGF-A, ST2 and age, diagnosis before transplantation, presence of arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Comparative analysis of the biomarkers’ levels didn’t show significant difference between patients with heart transplant rejection and without it in the first month and in the first year after transplantation. The ST2 level was significantly higher in patients with heart rejection (p = 0.01 in the long term period (1–5 years after transplantation compared to patients without rejection. Relative risk of cardiac transplant rejection was significantly higher in patients with high (>22.8 ng/ml ST2 level (RR = 2.59 ± 0.33; Se – 35%, Sp – 93%. However, its combination with other biomarkers improved their diagnostic value. Relative risk for panel including ST2, VEGF-A and PDGF-BB 3.47 ± 0.55, Se – 57%, Sp – 91%; relative risk for panel including ST2, sCD40L and PDGF-BB was 3.75 ± 0.59, Se – 50%, Sp – 92%. The highest diagnostic efficacy for the heart transplant rejection was reached by a panel of biomarkers that included ST2 and PDGF-BB (RR = 5.0 ± 0.56 [95% CI 1.68–14.92], Se – 63%, Sp – 94%. Conclusion. ST2 had the biggest

  20. Lectin-induced agglutination method of urinary exosomes isolation followed by mi-RNA analysis: Application for prostate cancer diagnostic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonov, Roman; Shtam, Tatiana; Burdakov, Vladimir; Glotov, Andrey; Tsyrlina, Evgenia; Berstein, Lev; Nosov, Alexander; Evtushenko, Vladimir; Filatov, Michael; Malek, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men. Prostate-specific antigen has, however, insufficient diagnostic specificity. Novel complementary diagnostic approaches are greatly needed. MiRNAs are small regulatory RNAs which play an important role in tumorogenesis and are being investigated as a cancer biomarker. In addition to their intracellular regulatory functions, miRNAs are secreted into the extracellular space and can be found in various body fluids, including urine. The stability of extracellular miRNAs is defined by association with proteins, lipoprotein particles, and membrane vesicles. Among the known forms of miRNA packaging, tumour-derived exosome-enclosed miRNAs is thought to reflect the vital activity of cancer cells. The assessment of the exosomal fraction of urinary miRNA may present a new and highly specific method for prostate cancer diagnostics; however, this is challenged by the absence of reliable and inexpensive methods for isolation of exosomes. Prostate cancer (PC) cell lines and urine samples collected from 35 PC patients and 35 healthy donors were used in the study. Lectins, phytohemagglutinin, and concanavalin A were used to induce agglutination of exosomes. The efficiency of isolation process was evaluated by AFM and DLS assays. The protein content of isolated exosomes was analysed by western blotting. Exosomal RNA was assayed by automated electrophoresis and expression level of selected miRNAs was evaluated by RT-qPCR. The diagnostic potency of the urinary exosomal miRNA assessment was estimated by the ROC method. The formation of multi-vesicular agglutinates in urine can be induced by incubation with lectin at a final concentration of 2 mg/ml. These agglutinates contain urinary exosomes and may be pelleted by centrifugation with a relatively low G-force. The analysis of PC-related miRNA in urinary exosomes revealed significant up-regulation of miR-574-3p, miR-141-5p, and miR-21-5p associated with PC. Lectin-induced aggregation is a

  1. Farm-level risk factors for Fasciola hepatica infection in Danish dairy cattle as evaluated by two diagnostic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi-Storm, Nao; Denwood, Matthew; Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup; Halasa, Tariq; Rattenborg, Erik; Boes, Jaap; Enemark, Heidi Larsen; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2017-11-09

    The prevalence of bovine fasciolosis in Denmark is increasing but appropriate guidelines for control are currently lacking. In order to help develop a control strategy for liver fluke, a risk factor study of farm management factors was conducted and the utility of bulk tank milk (BTM ELISA) as a tool for diagnosis in Danish dairy cattle farms was assessed. This case-control study aimed to identify farm-level risk factors for fasciolosis in Danish dairy farms (> 50 animals slaughtered in 2013) using two diagnostic methods: recordings of liver condemnation at slaughter, and farm-level Fasciola hepatica antibody levels in BTM. A case farm was defined as having a minimum of 3 incidents of liver condemnation due to liver fluke at slaughter (in any age group) during 2013, and control farms were located within 10 km of at least one case farm and had no history of liver condemnation due to liver fluke during 2011-2013. The selected farmers were interviewed over telephone about grazing and control practices, and BTM from these farms was collected and analysed by ELISA in 2014. The final complete dataset consisting of 131 case and 63 control farms was analysed using logistic regression. Heifers grazing on wet pastures, dry cows grazing on wet pastures, herd size, breed and concurrent beef cattle production were identified as risk factors associated with being classified as a case farm. With the categorised BTM ELISA result as the response variable, heifers grazing on wet pastures, dry cows grazing on wet pastures, and purchase of cows were identified as risk factors. Within the case and control groups, 74.8 and 12.7% of farms were positive for fasciolosis on BTM ELISA, respectively. The differences are likely to be related to the detection limit of the farm-level prevalence by the BTM ELISA test, time span between slaughter data and BTM, and the relatively low sensitivity of liver inspection at slaughter. Control of bovine fasciolosis in Denmark should target heifers and

  2. Farm-level risk factors for Fasciola hepatica infection in Danish dairy cattle as evaluated by two diagnostic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nao Takeuchi-Storm

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of bovine fasciolosis in Denmark is increasing but appropriate guidelines for control are currently lacking. In order to help develop a control strategy for liver fluke, a risk factor study of farm management factors was conducted and the utility of bulk tank milk (BTM ELISA as a tool for diagnosis in Danish dairy cattle farms was assessed. Methods This case-control study aimed to identify farm-level risk factors for fasciolosis in Danish dairy farms (> 50 animals slaughtered in 2013 using two diagnostic methods: recordings of liver condemnation at slaughter, and farm-level Fasciola hepatica antibody levels in BTM. A case farm was defined as having a minimum of 3 incidents of liver condemnation due to liver fluke at slaughter (in any age group during 2013, and control farms were located within 10 km of at least one case farm and had no history of liver condemnation due to liver fluke during 2011–2013. The selected farmers were interviewed over telephone about grazing and control practices, and BTM from these farms was collected and analysed by ELISA in 2014. The final complete dataset consisting of 131 case and 63 control farms was analysed using logistic regression. Results Heifers grazing on wet pastures, dry cows grazing on wet pastures, herd size, breed and concurrent beef cattle production were identified as risk factors associated with being classified as a case farm. With the categorised BTM ELISA result as the response variable, heifers grazing on wet pastures, dry cows grazing on wet pastures, and purchase of cows were identified as risk factors. Within the case and control groups, 74.8 and 12.7% of farms were positive for fasciolosis on BTM ELISA, respectively. The differences are likely to be related to the detection limit of the farm-level prevalence by the BTM ELISA test, time span between slaughter data and BTM, and the relatively low sensitivity of liver inspection at slaughter. Conclusions

  3. Diagnostic accuracy of quantitative 99mTc-MIBI scintimammography according to ROC curve analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. H.; Lee, H. K.; Seo, J. W.; Cho, N. S.; Cha, K. H.; Lee, T. H.

    1998-01-01

    99mTc-sestamibi scintimammography (SMM) has been shown to be a useful diagnostic test in the detection of breast cancer and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis provides detailed information of a diagnostic test. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of quantitative indices of SMM in the detection of malignant breast lesions according to ROC analysis. Prone anterior, lateral planar and supine SPECT imagings were performed on 75 female patients (mean age=43.4 yr) with breast mass (size≥0.8cm) after intravenous injection of 20-30 mCi 99mTc-sestamibi. 45 Malignant (Invasive ductal ca(36), Inv lobular ca(5), Inv duc + lob (1), Inv tubular ca (3)) and 30 benign (fibroadenoma (13), fib cyst(12), Fat necrosis(3), papilloma(1), paraffinoma (1)) lesions were histologically proven. Data were analyzed by creating three regions of interest (ROIs) over designated areas: lesion, normal breast and right chest wall. Lesion to normal (L/NL) and lesion to chest wall (L/CW) ratios were calculated for each patient both on the planar and SPECT. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was calculated and compared among four semiquantitative indices and an average scintimammographic index (SMM(mean)) from arithmatic mean. ROC curve analysis revealed planar L/N, SPECT L/N and L/CW ratios provide comparable better diagnostic accuracies for detection of breast cancer than planar L/CW ratio (p<0.05), respectively. For quantitative SMM of 75 lesions, malignancy rate was 60%, and Sensitivity, Specificity, Positive Predictive Value, Negative Predictive Value and Accuracy were 0.78, 0.77, 0.84, 0.72 and 0.77, respectively. Quantitative SMM is an useful objective method for differentiating malignant from benign breast lesions

  4. Feature-tracking myocardial strain analysis in acute myocarditis. Diagnostic value and association with myocardial oedema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luetkens, Julian A.; Schlesinger-Irsch, Ulrike; Kuetting, Daniel L.; Dabir, Darius; Homsi, Rami; Schmeel, Frederic C.; Sprinkart, Alois M.; Naehle, Claas P.; Schild, Hans H.; Thomas, Daniel; Doerner, Jonas; Fimmers, Rolf

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the diagnostic value of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) feature-tracking (FT) myocardial strain analysis in patients with suspected acute myocarditis and its association with myocardial oedema. Forty-eight patients with suspected acute myocarditis and 35 control subjects underwent CMR. FT CMR analysis of systolic longitudinal (LS), circumferential (CS) and radial strain (RS) was performed. Additionally, the protocol allowed for the assessment of T1 and T2 relaxation times. When compared with healthy controls, myocarditis patients demonstrated reduced LS, CS and RS values (LS: -19.5 ± 4.4% vs. -23.6 ± 3.1%, CS: -23.0 ± 5.8% vs. -27.4 ± 3.4%, RS: 28.9 ± 8.5% vs. 32.4 ± 7.4%; P < 0.05, respectively). LS (T1: r = 0.462, P < 0.001; T2: r = 0.436, P < 0.001) and CS (T1: r = 0.429, P < 0.001; T2: r = 0.467, P < 0.001) showed the strongest correlations with T1 and T2 relaxations times. Area under the curve of LS (0.79) was higher compared with those of CS (0.75; P = 0.478) and RS (0.62; P = 0.008). FT CMR myocardial strain analysis might serve as a new tool for assessment of myocardial dysfunction in the diagnostic work-up of patients suspected of having acute myocarditis. Especially, LS and CS show a sufficient diagnostic performance and were most closely correlated with CMR parameters of myocardial oedema. (orig.)

  5. Feature-tracking myocardial strain analysis in acute myocarditis. Diagnostic value and association with myocardial oedema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luetkens, Julian A.; Schlesinger-Irsch, Ulrike; Kuetting, Daniel L.; Dabir, Darius; Homsi, Rami; Schmeel, Frederic C.; Sprinkart, Alois M.; Naehle, Claas P.; Schild, Hans H.; Thomas, Daniel [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology, Bonn (Germany); Doerner, Jonas [University Hospital Cologne, Department of Radiology, Cologne (Germany); Fimmers, Rolf [University of Bonn, Department of Medical Biometry, Informatics, and Epidemiology, Bonn (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    To investigate the diagnostic value of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) feature-tracking (FT) myocardial strain analysis in patients with suspected acute myocarditis and its association with myocardial oedema. Forty-eight patients with suspected acute myocarditis and 35 control subjects underwent CMR. FT CMR analysis of systolic longitudinal (LS), circumferential (CS) and radial strain (RS) was performed. Additionally, the protocol allowed for the assessment of T1 and T2 relaxation times. When compared with healthy controls, myocarditis patients demonstrated reduced LS, CS and RS values (LS: -19.5 ± 4.4% vs. -23.6 ± 3.1%, CS: -23.0 ± 5.8% vs. -27.4 ± 3.4%, RS: 28.9 ± 8.5% vs. 32.4 ± 7.4%; P < 0.05, respectively). LS (T1: r = 0.462, P < 0.001; T2: r = 0.436, P < 0.001) and CS (T1: r = 0.429, P < 0.001; T2: r = 0.467, P < 0.001) showed the strongest correlations with T1 and T2 relaxations times. Area under the curve of LS (0.79) was higher compared with those of CS (0.75; P = 0.478) and RS (0.62; P = 0.008). FT CMR myocardial strain analysis might serve as a new tool for assessment of myocardial dysfunction in the diagnostic work-up of patients suspected of having acute myocarditis. Especially, LS and CS show a sufficient diagnostic performance and were most closely correlated with CMR parameters of myocardial oedema. (orig.)

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of quantitative 99mTc-MIBI scintimammography according to ROC curve analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. H.; Lee, H. K.; Seo, J. W.; Cho, N. S.; Cha, K. H.; Lee, T. H. [Gachon Medical College, Gil Medical Center, Inchon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-07-01

    99mTc-sestamibi scintimammography (SMM) has been shown to be a useful diagnostic test in the detection of breast cancer and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis provides detailed information of a diagnostic test. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of quantitative indices of SMM in the detection of malignant breast lesions according to ROC analysis. Prone anterior, lateral planar and supine SPECT imagings were performed on 75 female patients (mean age=43.4 yr) with breast mass (size{>=}0.8cm) after intravenous injection of 20-30 mCi 99mTc-sestamibi. 45 Malignant (Invasive ductal ca(36), Inv lobular ca(5), Inv duc + lob (1), Inv tubular ca (3)) and 30 benign (fibroadenoma (13), fib cyst(12), Fat necrosis(3), papilloma(1), paraffinoma (1)) lesions were histologically proven. Data were analyzed by creating three regions of interest (ROIs) over designated areas: lesion, normal breast and right chest wall. Lesion to normal (L/NL) and lesion to chest wall (L/CW) ratios were calculated for each patient both on the planar and SPECT. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was calculated and compared among four semiquantitative indices and an average scintimammographic index (SMM(mean)) from arithmatic mean. ROC curve analysis revealed planar L/N, SPECT L/N and L/CW ratios provide comparable better diagnostic accuracies for detection of breast cancer than planar L/CW ratio (p<0.05), respectively. For quantitative SMM of 75 lesions, malignancy rate was 60%, and Sensitivity, Specificity, Positive Predictive Value, Negative Predictive Value and Accuracy were 0.78, 0.77, 0.84, 0.72 and 0.77, respectively. Quantitative SMM is an useful objective method for differentiating malignant from benign breast lesions.

  7. Substantia nigra fractional anisotropy is not a diagnostic biomarker of Parkinson's disease: A diagnostic performance study and meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, Fabiana C.C.; Vieira, Gilson; Lucato, Leandro T.; Leite, Claudia C.; Pastorello, Bruno F.; Otaduy, Maria C.G.; Chaim, Khallil T.; Campanholo, Kenia R. [University of Sao Paulo, LIM-44, Department of Radiology, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sato, Joao R. [University of Sao Paulo, LIM-44, Department of Radiology, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Universidade Federal do ABC, Center of Mathematics, Computation and Cognition, Santo Andre (Brazil); Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson; Novaes, Natalia P. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo (Brazil); University of Sao Paulo, Department of Neurology, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Magalhaes Melo, Luciano; Goncalves, Marcia R.; Reis Barbosa, Egberto [University of Sao Paulo, Department of Neurology, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Pereira do Nascimento, Felipe Barjud; Amaro, Edson [University of Sao Paulo, LIM-44, Department of Radiology, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Jacobsen Teixeira, Manoel [University of Sao Paulo, Department of Neurosurgery, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Cardoso, Ellison Fernando [University of Sao Paulo, LIM-44, Department of Radiology, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Institute of Mathematics and Statistics University of Sao Paulo (IME-USP), Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2017-06-15

    Our goal was to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of substantia nigra fractional anisotropy (SN-FA) for Parkinson's disease (PD) diagnosis in a sample similar to the clinical setting, including patients with essential tremor (ET) and healthy controls (HC). We also performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate mean change in SN-FA induced by PD and its diagnostic accuracy. Our sample consisted of 135 subjects: 72 PD, 21 ET and 42 HC. To address inter-scanner variability, two 3.0-T MRI scans were performed. MRI results of this sample were pooled into a meta-analysis that included 1,432 subjects (806 PD and 626 HC). A bivariate model was used to evaluate diagnostic accuracy measures. In our sample, we did not observe a significant effect of disease on SN-FA and it was uninformative for diagnosis. The results of the meta-analysis estimated a 0.03 decrease in mean SN-FA in PD relative to HC (CI: 0.01-0.05). However, the discriminatory capability of SN-FA to diagnose PD was low: pooled sensitivity and specificity were 72 % (CI: 68-75) and 63 % (CI: 58-70), respectively. There was high heterogeneity between studies (I{sup 2} = 91.9 %). SN-FA cannot be used as an isolated measure to diagnose PD. (orig.)

  8. MOVES2010a regional level sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    This document discusses the sensitivity of various input parameter effects on emission rates using the US Environmental Protection Agencys (EPAs) MOVES2010a model at the regional level. Pollutants included in the study are carbon monoxide (CO),...

  9. Cosmological reconstruction and Om diagnostic analysis of Einstein-Aether theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasqua, Antonio [Department of Physics, University of Trieste, Via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Chattopadhyay, Surajit [Pailan College of Management and Technology, Bengal Pailan Park, Kolkata-700 104 (India); Momeni, Davood; Myrzakulov, Ratbay [Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of General and Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan); Raza, Muhammad [Department of Mathematics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan); Faizal, Mir, E-mail: toto.pasqua@gmail.com, E-mail: surajcha@iucaa.ernet.in, E-mail: d.momeni@yahoo.com, E-mail: mraza@zju.edu.cn, E-mail: rmyrzakulov@gmail.com, E-mail: mirfaizalmir@gmail.com [Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, University of British Columbia—Okanagan, Kelowna, British Columbia V1V 1V7 (Canada)

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we analyze the cosmological models in Einstein-Aether gravity, which is a modified theory of gravity in which a time-like vector field breaks the Lorentz symmetry. We use this formalism to analyse different cosmological models with different behavior of the scale factor. In this analysis, we use a certain functional dependence of the Dark Energy (DE) on the Hubble parameter H . It will be demonstrated that the Aether vector field has a non-trivial effect on these cosmological models. We also perform the Om diagnostic in Einstein-Aether gravity and we fit the parameters of the cosmological models using recent observational data.

  10. Diagnostic imaging for chronic plantar heel pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrett Joanna T

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic plantar heel pain (CPHP is a generalised term used to describe a range of undifferentiated conditions affecting the plantar heel. Plantar fasciitis is reported as the most common cause and the terms are frequently used interchangeably in the literature. Diagnostic imaging has been used by many researchers and practitioners to investigate the involvement of specific anatomical structures in CPHP. These observations help to explain the underlying pathology of the disorder, and are of benefit in forming an accurate diagnosis and targeted treatment plan. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the diagnostic imaging features associated with CPHP, and evaluate study findings by meta-analysis where appropriate. Methods Bibliographic databases including Medline, Embase, CINAHL, SportDiscus and The Cochrane Library were searched electronically on March 25, 2009. Eligible articles were required to report imaging findings in participants with CPHP unrelated to inflammatory arthritis, and to compare these findings with a control group. Methodological quality was evaluated by use of the Quality Index as described by Downs and Black. Meta-analysis of study data was conducted where appropriate. Results Plantar fascia thickness as measured by ultrasonography was the most widely reported imaging feature. Meta-analysis revealed that the plantar fascia of CPHP participants was 2.16 mm thicker than control participants (95% CI = 1.60 to 2.71 mm, P P = 0.01. CPHP participants were also more likely to show radiographic evidence of subcalcaneal spur than control participants (OR = 8.52, 95% CI = 4.08 to 17.77, P Conclusion This systematic review has identified 23 studies investigating the diagnostic imaging appearance of the plantar fascia and inferior calcaneum in people with CPHP. Analysis of these studies found that people with CPHP are likely to have a thickened plantar fascia with associated fluid collection, and that

  11. Diagnostic value of polymerase chain reaction analysis of skin biopsies in purpura fulminans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beau, Caroline; Vlassova, Natalia; Sarlangue, Jean; Brissaud, Olivier; Léauté-Labrèze, Christine; Boralevi, Franck

    2013-01-01

    Even though prompt diagnosis and treatment of purpura fulminans (PF) is essential to reduce mortality, early administration of antibiotics may preclude identification of the causative agent by standard bacterial cultures and thus render definitive diagnosis impossible. Here we present a case of an infant with PF and negative bacterial cultures for whom polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of a cutaneous biopsy specimen obtained 4 days after initiation of antibiotics identified the genomic sequence of Neisseria meningitidis genogroup C. When bacterial cultures fail to provide useful information, PCR of skin biopsy specimens can be a valuable diagnostic tool in PF. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Local patient dose diagnostic reference levels in pediatric interventional cardiology in Chile using age bands and patient weight values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubeda, Carlos, E-mail: cubeda@uta.cl [Medical Technology Department, Radiological Sciences Center, Health Sciences Faculty, Tarapaca University, Arica 1000000 (Chile); Miranda, Patricia [Hemodynamic Department, Cardiovascular Service, Luis Calvo Mackenna Hospital, Santiago 7500539 (Chile); Vano, Eliseo [Radiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Complutense University and IdIS, San Carlos Hospital, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: To present the results of a patient dose evaluation program in pediatric cardiology and propose local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for different types of procedure and age range, in addition to suggesting approaches to correlate patient dose values with patient weight. This study was the first conducted in Latin America for pediatric interventional cardiology under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Methods: Over three years, the following data regarding demographic and patient dose values were collected: age, gender, weight, height, number of cine series, total number of cine frames, fluoroscopy time (FT), and two dosimetric quantities, dose-area product (DAP) and cumulative dose (CD), at the patient entrance reference point. The third quartile values for FT, DAP, CD, number of cine series, and the DAP/body weight ratio were proposed as the set of quantities to use as local DRLs. Results: Five hundred and seventeen patients were divided into four age groups. Sample sizes by age group were 120 for <1 yr; 213 for 1 to <5 yr; 82 for 5 to <10 yr; and 102 for 10 to <16 yr. The third quartile values obtained for DAP by diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and age range were 1.17 and 1.11 Gy cm{sup 2} for <1 yr; 1.74 and 1.90 Gy cm{sup 2} for 1 to <5 yr; 2.83 and 3.22 Gy cm{sup 2} for 5 to <10 yr; and 7.34 and 8.68 Gy cm{sup 2} for 10 to <16 yr, respectively. The third quartile value obtained for the DAP/body weight ratio for the full sample of procedures was 0.17 (Gy cm{sup 2}/kg) for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Conclusions: The data presented in this paper are an initial attempt at establishing local DRLs in pediatric interventional cardiology, from a large sample of procedures for the standard age bands used in Europe, complemented with the values of the ratio between DAP and patient weight. This permits a rough estimate of DRLs for different patient weights and the refining of these values for the age bands when there

  13. Local patient dose diagnostic reference levels in pediatric interventional cardiology in Chile using age bands and patient weight values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubeda, Carlos; Miranda, Patricia; Vano, Eliseo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To present the results of a patient dose evaluation program in pediatric cardiology and propose local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for different types of procedure and age range, in addition to suggesting approaches to correlate patient dose values with patient weight. This study was the first conducted in Latin America for pediatric interventional cardiology under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Methods: Over three years, the following data regarding demographic and patient dose values were collected: age, gender, weight, height, number of cine series, total number of cine frames, fluoroscopy time (FT), and two dosimetric quantities, dose-area product (DAP) and cumulative dose (CD), at the patient entrance reference point. The third quartile values for FT, DAP, CD, number of cine series, and the DAP/body weight ratio were proposed as the set of quantities to use as local DRLs. Results: Five hundred and seventeen patients were divided into four age groups. Sample sizes by age group were 120 for <1 yr; 213 for 1 to <5 yr; 82 for 5 to <10 yr; and 102 for 10 to <16 yr. The third quartile values obtained for DAP by diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and age range were 1.17 and 1.11 Gy cm 2 for <1 yr; 1.74 and 1.90 Gy cm 2 for 1 to <5 yr; 2.83 and 3.22 Gy cm 2 for 5 to <10 yr; and 7.34 and 8.68 Gy cm 2 for 10 to <16 yr, respectively. The third quartile value obtained for the DAP/body weight ratio for the full sample of procedures was 0.17 (Gy cm 2 /kg) for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Conclusions: The data presented in this paper are an initial attempt at establishing local DRLs in pediatric interventional cardiology, from a large sample of procedures for the standard age bands used in Europe, complemented with the values of the ratio between DAP and patient weight. This permits a rough estimate of DRLs for different patient weights and the refining of these values for the age bands when there may be large differences

  14. T-scan III system diagnostic tool for digital occlusal analysis in orthodontics - a modern approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trpevska, Vesna; Kovacevska, Gordana; Benedeti, Alberto; Jordanov, Bozidar

    2014-01-01

    This systematic literature review was performed to establish the mechanism, methodology, characteristics, clinical application and opportunities of the T-Scan III System as a diagnostic tool for digital occlusal analysis in different fields of dentistry, precisely in orthodontics. Searching of electronic databases, using MEDLINE and PubMed, hand searching of relevant key journals, and screening of reference lists of included studies with no language restriction was performed. Publications providing statistically examined data were included for systematic review. Twenty potentially relevant Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) were identified. Only ten met the inclusion criteria. The literature demonstrates that using digital occlusal analysis with T-Scan III System in orthodontics has significant advantage with regard to the capability of measuring occlusal parameters in static positions and during dynamic of the mandible. Within the scope of this systematic review, there is evidence to support that T-Scan system is rapid and accurate in identifying the distribution of the tooth contacts and it shows great promise as a clinical diagnostic screening device for occlusion and for improving the occlusion after various dental treatments. Additional clinical studies are required to advance the indication filed of this system. Importance of using digital occlusal T-Scan analysis in orthodontics deserves further investigation.

  15. Image acquisition and analysis for beam diagnostics, applications of the Taiwan photon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, C.Y.; Chen, J.; Cheng, Y.S.; Hsu, K.T.; Hu, K.H.; Kuo, C.H.; Wu, C.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Design and implementation of image acquisition and analysis is in proceeding for the Taiwan Photon Source (TPS) diagnostic applications. The optical system contains screen, lens, and lighting system. A CCD camera with Gigabit Ethernet interface (GigE Vision) will be a standard image acquisition device. Image acquisition will be done on EPICS IOC via PV channel and analysis the properties by using Matlab tool to evaluate the beam profile (sigma), beam size position and tilt angle et al. The EPICS IOC integrated with Matlab as a data processing system is not only could be used in image analysis but also in many types of equipment data processing applications. Progress of the project will be summarized in this report. (authors)

  16. Pain in diagnostic hysteroscopy: a multivariate analysis after a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzon, Ivan; Favilli, Alessandro; Grasso, Mario; Horvath, Stefano; Bini, Vittorio; Di Renzo, Gian Carlo; Gerli, Sandro

    2014-11-01

    To study which variables are able to influence women's experience of pain during diagnostic hysteroscopy. Multivariate analysis (phase II) after a randomized, controlled trial (phase I). Endoscopic gynecologic center. In phase I, 392 patients were analyzed. Group A: 197 women with carbon dioxide (CO2); group B: 195 women with normal saline. In phase II, 392 patients were assigned to two different groups according to their pain experience as measured by a visual analogue scale (VAS): group VAS>3 (170 patients); group VAS≤3 (222 patients). Free-anesthesia diagnostic hysteroscopy performed using CO2 or normal saline as distension media. Procedure time, VAS score, image quality, and side effects during and after diagnostic hysteroscopy. In phase I the median pain score in group A was 2, whereas in group B it was 3. In phase II the duration of the procedure, nulliparity, and the use of normal saline were significantly correlated with VAS>3. A higher presence of cervical synechiae was observed in the group VAS>3. The multivariate analysis revealed an inverse correlation between parity and a VAS>3, whereas the use of normal saline, the presence of synechiae in the cervical canal, and the duration of the hysteroscopy were all directly correlated to a VAS score>3. Pain in hysteroscopy is significantly related to the presence of cervical synechiae, to the duration of the procedure, and to the use of normal saline; conversely, parity seems to have a protective role. NCT01873391. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Diagnostic assessment of intraoperative cytology for papillary thyroid carcinoma: using a decision tree analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, J-S; Sohn, J H; Kang, G

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the cytological characteristics and the diagnostic usefulness of intraoperative cytology (IOC) for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). In addition, using decision tree analysis, effective features for accurate cytological diagnosis were sought. We investigated cellularity, cytological features and diagnosis based on the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology in IOC of 240 conventional PTCs. The cytological features were evaluated in terms of nuclear score with nuclear features, and additional figures such as presence of swirling sheets, psammoma bodies, and multinucleated giant cells. The nuclear score (range 0-7) was made via seven nuclear features, including (1) enlarged, (2) oval or irregularly shaped nuclei, (3) longitudinal nuclear grooves, (4) intranuclear cytoplasmic pseudoinclusion, (5) pale nuclei with powdery chromatin, (6) nuclear membrane thickening, and (7) marginally placed micronucleoli. Nuclear scores in PTC, suspicious for malignancy, and atypia of undetermined significance cases were 6.18 ± 0.80, 4.48 ± 0.82, and 3.15 ± 0.67, respectively. Additional figures more frequent in PTC than in other diagnostic categories were identified. Cellularity of IOC significantly correlated with tumor size, nuclear score, and presence of additional figures. Also, IOCs with higher nuclear scores (4-7) significantly correlated with larger tumor size and presence of additional figures. In decision tree analysis, IOCs with nuclear score >5 and swirling sheets could be considered diagnostic for PTCs. Our study suggests that IOCs using nuclear features and additional figures could be useful with decreasing the likelihood of inconclusive results.

  18. THE ROLE AND PLACE OF LOGISTIC REGRESSION AND ROC ANALYSIS IN SOLVING MEDICAL DIAGNOSTIC TASK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Grigoryev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostics, equally with  prevention and  treatment, is a basis of medical science and practice. For its history the medicine  has accumulated a great variety  of diagnostic methods for different diseases and  pathologic conditions. Nevertheless, new  tests,  methods and  tools are being  developed and recommended to application nowadays. Such  indicators as sensitivity and  specificity which  are defined on the basis  of fourfold contingency  tables   construction or  ROC-analysis method with  ROC  – curve  modelling (Receiver operating characteristic are used  as the  methods to estimate the  diagnostic capability. Fourfold  table  is used  with  the purpose to estimate the method which confirms or denies the diagnosis, i.e. a quality indicator. ROC-curve, being a graph, allows making the estimation of model  quality by subdivision of two classes  on the  basis  of identifying the  point  of cutting off a continuous or discrete quantitative attribute.The method of logistic regression technique is introduced as a tool to develop some  mathematical-statistical forecasting model  of probability of the event the researcher is interested in if there are two possible variants of the outcome. The method of ROC-analysis is chosen and described in detail as a tool to estimate the  model  quality. The capabilities of the named methods are demonstrated by a real example of creation  and  efficiency estimation (sensitivity and  specificity of a forecasting model  of probability of complication development in the form of pyodermatitis in children with  atopic dermatitis.

  19. Analysis of Low Level DNA Mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slovák, Dalibor; Zvárová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2013), s. 63-63 ISSN 1805-8698. [EFMI 2013 Special Topic Conference. 17.04.2013-19.04.2013, Prague] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : forensic DNA interpretation * low level samples * allele peak heights * dropout probability Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  20. Diagnostic accuracy of refractometry for assessing bovine colostrum quality: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczinski, S; Vandeweerd, J M

    2016-09-01

    Provision of good quality colostrum [i.e., immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration ≥50g/L] is the first step toward ensuring proper passive transfer of immunity for young calves. Precise quantification of colostrum IgG levels cannot be easily performed on the farm. Assessment of the refractive index using a Brix scale with a refractometer has been described as being highly correlated with IgG concentration in colostrum. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of Brix refractometry to diagnose good quality colostrum. From 101 references initially obtain ed, 11 were included in the systematic review meta-analysis representing 4,251 colostrum samples. The prevalence of good colostrum samples with IgG ≥50g/L varied from 67.3 to 92.3% (median 77.9%). Specific estimates of accuracy [sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp)] were obtained for different reported cut-points using a hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic curve model. For the cut-point of 22% (n=8 studies), Se=80.2% (95% CI: 71.1-87.0%) and Sp=82.6% (71.4-90.0%). Decreasing the cut-point to 18% increased Se [96.1% (91.8-98.2%)] and decreased Sp [54.5% (26.9-79.6%)]. Modeling the effect of these Brix accuracy estimates using a stochastic simulation and Bayes theorem showed that a positive result with the 22% Brix cut-point can be used to diagnose good quality colostrum (posttest probability of a good colostrum: 94.3% (90.7-96.9%). The posttest probability of good colostrum with a Brix value <18% was only 22.7% (12.3-39.2%). Based on this study, the 2 cut-points could be alternatively used to select good quality colostrum (sample with Brix ≥22%) or to discard poor quality colostrum (sample with Brix <18%). When sample results are between these 2 values, colostrum supplementation should be considered. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The diagnostic test accuracy of ultrasound for the detection of lateral epicondylitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, S K; Smith, T O

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic test accuracy of ultrasound for the detection of lateral epicondylitis. An electronic search of databases registering published (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, Cochrane Library, ScienceDirect) and unpublished literature was conducted to January 2013. All diagnostic accuracy studies that compared the accuracy of ultrasound (index test) with a reference standard for lateral epicondylitis were included. The methodological quality of each of the studies was appraised using the QUADAS tool. When appropriate, the pooled sensitivity and specificity analysis was conducted. Ten studies investigating 711 participants and 1077 elbows were included in this review. Ultrasound had variable sensitivity and specificity (sensitivity: 64%-100%; specificity: 36%-100%). The available literature had modest methodological quality, and was limited in terms of sample sizes and blinding between index and reference test results. There is evidence to support the use of ultrasound in the detection of lateral epicondylitis. However, its accuracy appears to be highly dependent on numerous variables, such as operator experience, equipment and stage of pathology. Judgement should be used when considering the benefit of ultrasound for use in clinical practice. Further research assessing variables such a transducer frequency independently is specifically warranted. Level II. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. An analysis of cancer death risk among medical diagnostic X-ray workers in China, 1950-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongcheng; Wang Jixian; Zhang Wei; Li Benxiao; Fan Tiqiang; Zhang Jingyuan

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate effects of occupational radiation exposure on cancer death among medical diagnostic X-ray workers. Methods: A cohort study on medical diagnostic X-ray workers and non-X-ray medical workers was carried out and a risk analysis of cancer death between 1950 and 1995 was conducted with the O/E system. Results: A significant enhancement in cancer death risk for X-ray workers was found, especially those engaged in X-ray work in early calendar years. The overall cancer RR was 1.26, (95 % CI: 1.14 - 1.38), for leukemia it was 2.48, (95% CI: 1.68-3.51 ); for esophagus cancer, 3.18, (95% CI: 2.02 -4.77); for liver cancer, 1.54, (95 % CI: 1.27 - 1.86); and for bone cancer, 2.48, (95 % CI: 1.00 - 5.40). In the late calendar year cohort a significant enhancement of cancer death was seen only in esophagus cancer (RR = 4.19, 95 % CI: 1.80 - 8.25) and lung cancer (RR = 1.60, 95% CI:1.10-2.25). Conclusion: Long-term occupational X-ray irradiation can enhance the risk of cancer death when the cumulative dose reached a certain level. The significant enhancement of cancer death for leukemia and some solid cancers may be related to the occupational exposure to X-rays

  3. Combining principles of Cognitive Load Theory and diagnostic error analysis for designing job aids: Effects on motivation and diagnostic performance in a process control task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Annette; Grauel, Britta; Burkolter, Dina

    2013-03-01

    Two studies are presented in which the design of a procedural aid and the impact of an additional decision aid for process control were assessed. In Study 1, a procedural aid was developed that avoids imposing unnecessary extraneous cognitive load on novices when controlling a complex technical system. This newly designed procedural aid positively affected germane load, attention, satisfaction, motivation, knowledge acquisition and diagnostic speed for novel faults. In Study 2, the effect of a decision aid for use before the procedural aid was investigated, which was developed based on an analysis of diagnostic errors committed in Study 1. Results showed that novices were able to diagnose both novel faults and practised faults, and were even faster at diagnosing novel faults. This research contributes to the question of how to optimally support novices in dealing with technical faults in process control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Music Video: An Analysis at Three Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Gary

    This paper is an analysis of the different aspects of the music video. Music video is defined as having three meanings: an individual clip, a format, or the "aesthetic" that describes what the clips and format look like. The paper examines interruptions, the dialectical tension and the organization of the work of art, shot-scene…

  5. Period analysis at high noise level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, G.

    1980-01-01

    Analytical expressions are derived for the variances of some types of the periodograms due to normal-distributed noise present in the data. The equivalence of the Jurkevich and the Warner and Robinson methods is proved. The optimum phase cell number of the Warner and Robinson method is given; this number depends on the data length, signal form and noise level. The results are illustrated by numerical examples. (orig.)

  6. Diagnostic Performance of Narrow Band Imaging for Nasopharyngeal Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Changling; Zhang, Yayun; Han, Xue; Du, Xiaodong

    2018-03-01

    Objective The purposes of this study were to verify the effectiveness of the narrow band imaging (NBI) system in diagnosing nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) as compared with white light endoscopy. Data Sources PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, CNKI, and Wan Fang databases. Review Methods Data analyses were performed with Meta-Disc. The updated Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 tool was used to assess study quality and potential bias. Publication bias was assessed with a Deeks asymmetry test. The registry number of the protocol published on PROSPERO is CRD42015026244. Results This meta-analysis included 10 studies of 1337 lesions. For NBI diagnosis of NPC, the pooled values were as follows: sensitivity, 0.83 (95% CI, 0.80-0.86); specificity, 0.91 (95% CI, 0.89-0.93); positive likelihood ratio, 8.82 (95% CI, 5.12-15.21); negative likelihood ratio, 0.18 (95% CI, 0.12-0.27); and diagnostic odds ratio, 65.73 (95% CI, 36.74-117.60). The area under the curve was 0.9549. For white light endoscopy in diagnosing NPC, the pooled values were as follows: sensitivity, 0.79 (95% CI, 0.75-0.83); specificity, 0.87 (95% CI, 0.84-0.90); positive likelihood ratio, 5.02 (95% CI, 1.99-12.65); negative likelihood ratio, 0.34 (95% CI, 0.24-0.49); and diagnostic odds ratio, 16.89 (95% CI, 5.98-47.66). The area under the curve was 0.8627. The evaluation of heterogeneity, calculated per the diagnostic odds ratio, gave an I 2 of 0.326. No marked publication bias ( P = .68) existed in this meta-analysis. Conclusion The sensitivity and specificity of NBI for the diagnosis of NPC are similar to those of white light endoscopy, and the potential value of NBI for the diagnosis of NPC needs to be validated further.

  7. Multi-complexity ensemble measures for gait time series analysis: application to diagnostics, monitoring and biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrishchaka, Valeriy; Senyukova, Olga; Davis, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we have proposed to use complementary complexity measures discovered by boosting-like ensemble learning for the enhancement of quantitative indicators dealing with necessarily short physiological time series. We have confirmed robustness of such multi-complexity measures for heart rate variability analysis with the emphasis on detection of emerging and intermittent cardiac abnormalities. Recently, we presented preliminary results suggesting that such ensemble-based approach could be also effective in discovering universal meta-indicators for early detection and convenient monitoring of neurological abnormalities using gait time series. Here, we argue and demonstrate that these multi-complexity ensemble measures for gait time series analysis could have significantly wider application scope ranging from diagnostics and early detection of physiological regime change to gait-based biometrics applications.

  8. Nuclear reactor pump diagnostics via noise analysis/artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyvan, S.; Rabelo, L.C.

    1991-01-01

    A feasibility study is performed on the utilization of artificial neural networks as a tool for reactor diagnostics. Reactor pump signals utilized in a wear-out monitoring system developed for early detection of degradation of pump shaft are analyzed as a semi-benchmark test to study the feasibility of neural networks for pattern recognition. The Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART 2) paradigm of artificial neural networks is applied in this study. The signals are collected signals as well as generated signals simulating the wear progress. The wear-out monitoring system applies noise analysis techniques, and is capable of distinguishing between these signals and providing a measure of the progress of the degradation. This paper presents the results of the analysis of these data via the ART 2 paradigm

  9. Diagnostic and Prognostic Utility of Fluorescence In situ Hybridization (FISH) Analysis in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Patrick R; Mikhail, Fady M

    2017-12-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a hematologic neoplasia consisting of incompletely differentiated hematopoietic cells of the myeloid lineage that proliferate in the bone marrow, blood, and/or other tissues. Clinical implementation of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in cytogenetic laboratories allows for high-resolution analysis of recurrent structural chromosomal rearrangements specific to AML, especially in AML with normal karyotypes, which comprises approximately 33-50% of AML-positive specimens. Here, we review the use of several FISH probe strategies in the diagnosis of AML. We also review the standards and guidelines currently in place for use by clinical cytogenetic laboratories in the evaluation of AML. Updated standards and guidelines from the WHO, ACMG, and NCCN have further defined clinically significant, recurring cytogenetic anomalies in AML that are detectable by FISH. FISH continues to be a powerful technique in the diagnosis of AML, with higher resolution than conventional cytogenetic analysis, rapid turnaround time, and a considerable diagnostic and prognostic utility.

  10. Development of Multi-perspective Diagnostics and Analysis Algorithms with Applications to Subsonic and Supersonic Combustors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickersham, Andrew Joseph

    There are two critical research needs for the study of hydrocarbon combustion in high speed flows: 1) combustion diagnostics with adequate temporal and spatial resolution, and 2) mathematical techniques that can extract key information from large datasets. The goal of this work is to address these needs, respectively, by the use of high speed and multi-perspective chemiluminescence and advanced mathematical algorithms. To obtain the measurements, this work explored the application of high speed chemiluminescence diagnostics and the use of fiber-based endoscopes (FBEs) for non-intrusive and multi-perspective chemiluminescence imaging up to 20 kHz. Non-intrusive and full-field imaging measurements provide a wealth of information for model validation and design optimization of propulsion systems. However, it is challenging to obtain such measurements due to various implementation difficulties such as optical access, thermal management, and equipment cost. This work therefore explores the application of FBEs for non-intrusive imaging to supersonic propulsion systems. The FBEs used in this work are demonstrated to overcome many of the aforementioned difficulties and provided datasets from multiple angular positions up to 20 kHz in a supersonic combustor. The combustor operated on ethylene fuel at Mach 2 with an inlet stagnation temperature and pressure of approximately 640 degrees Fahrenheit and 70 psia, respectively. The imaging measurements were obtained from eight perspectives simultaneously, providing full-field datasets under such flow conditions for the first time, allowing the possibility of inferring multi-dimensional measurements. Due to the high speed and multi-perspective nature, such new diagnostic capability generates a large volume of data and calls for analysis algorithms that can process the data and extract key physics effectively. To extract the key combustion dynamics from the measurements, three mathematical methods were investigated in this work

  11. Diagnostic value of MR analysis of cartilaginous lesions compared with intraoperative arthroscopy in calcaneal fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, R.J.; Nekwasil, S.J.; Felix, R.; Hidajat, N.; Boack, D.H.; Haas, N.P.; Martus, P.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the diagnostic value of MRI in preoperative analysis and classification of cartilaginous lesions - especially of the posterior facet - in traumatic calcaneal fractures compared with intraoperative arthroscopy. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four consecutive patients with traumatic calcaneal fractures underwent prospective MRI of the subtalar joint surface using T1- and T2-weighted spin echo sequences and fat suppressed 3D gradient echo sequences in semicoronal slice orientation (1.5 T MRI). After randomization, the images were analyzed by two blinded and independent readers experienced in MRI. The results were compared with the intraoperative arthroscopic findings as to location and depth of the defects using the Outerbridge classification. Results: We examined 12 calcaneal fractures of type 2, 8 of type 3 and 4 of type 4 according to the Sanders classification. With respect to principal detection and exact classification, 67 to 96 (69.8%) of all arthroscopic verified cartilaginous defects were diagnosed correctly by MRI. Disregarding the degree of the defects, 38 of 44 (86.4%) chondral lesions were detected (sensitivity: 86.4%, specificity: 86.5%, diagnostic accuracy: 86.5%). Considering the chondral lesions of degrees 3 and 4 together, the sensitivity was 86.0%, the specificity 86.8%, and the diagnostic accuracy 86.5%. Assessing these degrees separately, the sensitivity was only 33.3% for degree 3 and 58.1% for degree 4, whereas the specificity was definitely higher with 82.1% for degree 3 and 89.2% for degree 4. (orig.)

  12. ADAM: An Accident Diagnostic,Analysis and Management System - Applications to Severe Accident Simulation and Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavisca, M.J.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.; Esmaili, H.; Schulz, R.

    2002-01-01

    The Accident Diagnostic, Analysis and Management (ADAM) computer code has been developed as a tool for on-line applications to accident diagnostics, simulation, management and training. ADAM's severe accident simulation capabilities incorporate a balance of mechanistic, phenomenologically based models with simple parametric approaches for elements including (but not limited to) thermal hydraulics; heat transfer; fuel heatup, meltdown, and relocation; fission product release and transport; combustible gas generation and combustion; and core-concrete interaction. The overall model is defined by a relatively coarse spatial nodalization of the reactor coolant and containment systems and is advanced explicitly in time. The result is to enable much faster than real time (i.e., 100 to 1000 times faster than real time on a personal computer) applications to on-line investigations and/or accident management training. Other features of the simulation module include provision for activation of water injection, including the Engineered Safety Features, as well as other mechanisms for the assessment of accident management and recovery strategies and the evaluation of PSA success criteria. The accident diagnostics module of ADAM uses on-line access to selected plant parameters (as measured by plant sensors) to compute the thermodynamic state of the plant, and to predict various margins to safety (e.g., times to pressure vessel saturation and steam generator dryout). Rule-based logic is employed to classify the measured data as belonging to one of a number of likely scenarios based on symptoms, and a number of 'alarms' are generated to signal the state of the reactor and containment. This paper will address the features and limitations of ADAM with particular focus on accident simulation and management. (authors)

  13. A Meta-Analysis of the Diagnostic Accuracy of Circular RNAs in Digestive System Malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Long; Han, Guoyong; Zuo, Xueliang; Zhang, Yao; Zhu, Qin; Wu, Jindao; Wang, Xuehao

    2018-01-01

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs), a novel class of noncoding RNAs, have been found to be dysregulated in various cancers. However, the clinical application value of these circRNAs in digestive system cancers remains to be clarified. We aimed to comprehensively explore the potential role of circRNAs as diagnostic indicators in digestive system malignancies. Relevant studies were systematically retrieved from PubMed, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library. The data that were required to complete 2 × 2 contingency tables were obtained from the included studies. Stratified analyses by cancer type, sample size and publication year were performed. Thirteen studies with 2,276 individuals were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of circRNAs in the diagnosis of digestive system malignancy were 0.72 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.65-0.77] and 0.77 (95% CI: 0.72-0.81), respectively. The overall positive likelihood ratio was 3.09 (95% CI: 2.64-3.62), and the overall negative likelihood ratio was 0.37 (95% CI: 0.31-0.44). The pooled diagnostic odds ratio was 8.38 (95% CI: 6.86-10.25), and the overall area under the curve was 0.81 (95% CI: 0.77-0.84), indicating good discriminative ability of circRNAs as biomarkers for digestive system malignancy. circRNAs distinguish patients with digestive system cancer from controls with relatively high diagnostic accuracy. circRNAs may be used as potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of digestive system malignancy. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Diagnostic accuracy of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in gallbladder cancer: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annunziata, Salvatore; Pizzuto, Daniele Antonio; Caldarella, Carmelo; Galiandro, Federica; Sadeghi, Ramin; Treglia, Giorgio

    2015-10-28

    To meta-analyze published data about the diagnostic accuracy of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) in the evaluation of primary tumor in patients with gallbladder cancer (GBCa). A comprehensive literature search of studies published through 30(th) June 2014 regarding the role of (18)F-FDG PET and PET/CT in the evaluation of primary gallbladder cancer (GBCa) was performed. All retrieved studies were reviewed. Pooled sensitivity and specificity of (18)F-FDG PET or PET/CT in the evaluation of primary GBCa were calculated. The area under the summary receiving operator characteristics curve (AUC) was calculated to measure the accuracy of these methods. Sub-analyses considering the device used (PET vs PET/CT) were carried out. Twenty-one studies comprising 495 patients who underwent (18)F-FDG PET or PET/CT for suspicious GBCa were selected for the systematic review. The meta-analysis of 13 selected studies provided the following results: sensitivity 87% (95%CI: 82%-92%), specificity 78% (95%CI: 68%-86%). The AUC was 0.88. Improvement of sensitivity and specificity was observed when PET/CT was used. (18)F-FDG-PET and PET/CT demonstrated to be useful diagnostic imaging methods in the assessment of primary tumor in GBCa patients, nevertheless possible sources of false-negative and false-positive results should be kept in mind. PET/CT seems to have a better diagnostic accuracy than PET alone in this setting.

  15. Diagnostic imaging for chronic plantar heel pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Chronic plantar heel pain (CPHP) is a generalised term used to describe a range of undifferentiated conditions affecting the plantar heel. Plantar fasciitis is reported as the most common cause and the terms are frequently used interchangeably in the literature. Diagnostic imaging has been used by many researchers and practitioners to investigate the involvement of specific anatomical structures in CPHP. These observations help to explain the underlying pathology of the disorder, and are of benefit in forming an accurate diagnosis and targeted treatment plan. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the diagnostic imaging features associated with CPHP, and evaluate study findings by meta-analysis where appropriate. Methods Bibliographic databases including Medline, Embase, CINAHL, SportDiscus and The Cochrane Library were searched electronically on March 25, 2009. Eligible articles were required to report imaging findings in participants with CPHP unrelated to inflammatory arthritis, and to compare these findings with a control group. Methodological quality was evaluated by use of the Quality Index as described by Downs and Black. Meta-analysis of study data was conducted where appropriate. Results Plantar fascia thickness as measured by ultrasonography was the most widely reported imaging feature. Meta-analysis revealed that the plantar fascia of CPHP participants was 2.16 mm thicker than control participants (95% CI = 1.60 to 2.71 mm, P plantar fascia thickness values greater than 4.0 mm (OR = 105.11, 95% CI = 3.09 to 3577.28, P = 0.01). CPHP participants were also more likely to show radiographic evidence of subcalcaneal spur than control participants (OR = 8.52, 95% CI = 4.08 to 17.77, P plantar fascia and inferior calcaneum in people with CPHP. Analysis of these studies found that people with CPHP are likely to have a thickened plantar fascia with associated fluid collection, and that thickness values >4.0 mm are diagnostic of

  16. Diagnostic and prognostic value of carcinoembryonic antigen in pancreatic cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Q

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Qingcai Meng,1–3,* Si Shi,1–3,* Chen Liang,1–3,* Dingkong Liang,1–3 Wenyan Xu,1–3 Shunrong Ji,1–3 Bo Zhang,1–3 Quanxing Ni,1–3 Jin Xu,1–3 Xianjun Yu1–3 1Department of Pancreatic Surgery, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, 2Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, 3Pancreatic Cancer Institute, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA is one of the most widely used tumor markers and is increased in 30%–60% of patients with pancreatic cancer. Although carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9 is the most important serum biomarker in pancreatic cancer, the diagnostic and prognostic value of CEA is gradually being recognized.Materials and methods: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases were searched for related literature published until January 2017. Diagnostic accuracy variables were pooled using the Meta-Disc software. The pooled hazard ratios (HRs for prognostic data were calculated and analyzed using Stata software.Results: A total of 3,650 participants enrolled in 19 studies met our inclusion criteria. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio of a CEA-based panel were 0.45 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41–0.50, 0.89 (95% CI, 0.86–0.91, 5.39 (95% CI, 3.16–9.18, and 0.55 (95% CI, 0.41–0.72, respectively. The area under the curve (AUC, 0.90 and Q-value (0.84 of the CEA-based panel indicated a significantly higher diagnostic accuracy compared with CEA or CA19-9 alone. Moreover, there was also a significant association between high levels of CEA and worse overall survival (HR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.31–1.56.Conclusion: Our meta-analysis indicated that elevated serum CEA level, as a vital supplementary to CA19-9, can play an important role in the clinical diagnosis of pancreatic cancer patients and predict poor prognosis. Keywords: carcinoembryonic

  17. A leading-edge hardware family for diagnostics applications and low-level RF in CERN's ELENA ring

    CERN Document Server

    Angoletta, M E; Jaussi, M; Leiononen, P; Levens, T E; Molendijk, J C; Sanchez-Quesada, J; Simonin, J

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Extra Low ENergy Antiproton (ELENA) Ring is a new synchrotron that will be commissioned in 2016 to further decelerate the antiprotons transferred from the CERN’s Antiproton Decelerator (AD). The requirements for the acquisition and treatment of signals for longitudinal diagnostics are very demanding, owing to the revolution frequency swing as well as to the digital signal processing required. The requirements for the Low-Level Radio-Frequency (LLRF) system are very demanding as well, especially in terms of revolution frequency swing, dynamic range and low noise required by the cavity voltage control and digital signal processing to be performed. Both sets of requirements will be satisfied by using a leading-edge hardware family, developed to cover the LLRF needs of all synchrotrons in the Meyrin site; it will be first deployed in 2014 in the CERN’s PSB and in the medical machine MedAustron. This paper gives an overview of the main building blocks of the hardware family and of th...

  18. A comparison of the suitability of patient dosimetry methods for establishing diagnostic dose reference levels and optimisation strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gfirtner, Hans; Moores, B. Michael; Stieve, Friedrich E.

    2008-01-01

    For 50 adult patients referred for chest radiography, air kerma at the diaphragm KD, dose area product and entrance skin dose were measured. The air kerma at the diaphragm and the dose area product were determined using Diamentor M4KDK(PTW) which allows measuring air kerma and dose area product simultaneously. For the measurement of entrance skin dose TLDs are used. A 50% variation in dose, incident dose as well as entrance skin dose, was registered for the same patient thickness. The recommendation of ICRP to perform the measurements for DRLs at 'representative patients' and that of the CEC to use 'standard-sized patients' seem to make little sense in the case of chest radiography. It could be demonstrated, that the dose area product is the least appropriate dose quantity for patient measurements and to define dose reference levels. For some radiological examinations like chest, pelvis and lumbar spine the dose area product is even sex dependent. Incident dose and entrance surface dose are of equal quality for patient dose measurements in diagnostic radiography. (author)

  19. Diagnostic reference levels for common computed tomography (CT) examinations: results from the first Nigerian nationwide dose survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekpo, Ernest U; Adejoh, Thomas; Akwo, Judith D; Emeka, Owujekwe C; Modu, Ali A; Abba, Mohammed; Adesina, Kudirat A; Omiyi, David O; Chiegwu, Uche H

    2018-01-29

    To explore doses from common adult computed tomography (CT) examinations and propose national diagnostic reference levels (nDRLs) for Nigeria. This retrospective study was approved by the Nnamdi Azikiwe University and University Teaching Hospital Institutional Review Boards (IRB: NAUTH/CS/66/Vol8/84) and involved dose surveys of adult CT examinations across the six geographical regions of Nigeria and Abuja from January 2016 to August 2017. Dose data of adult head, chest and abdomen/pelvis CT examinations were extracted from patient folders. The median, 75th and 25th percentile CT dose index volume (CTDI vol ) and dose-length-product (DLP) were computed for each of these procedures. Effective doses (E) for these examinations were estimated using the k conversion factor as described in the ICRP publication 103 (E DLP  =  k × DLP ). The proposed 75th percentile CTDI vol for head, chest, and abdomen/pelvis are 61 mGy, 17 mGy, and 20 mGy, respectively. The corresponding DLPs are 1310 mGy.cm, 735 mGy.cm, and 1486 mGy.cm respectively. The effective doses were 2.75 mSv (head), 10.29 mSv (chest), and 22.29 mSv (abdomen/pelvis). Findings demonstrate wide dose variations within and across centres in Nigeria. The results also show CTDI vol comparable to international standards, but considerably higher DLP and effective doses.

  20. National high-level waste systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristofferson, K.; O'Holleran, T.P.

    1996-01-01

    Previously, no mechanism existed that provided a systematic, interrelated view or national perspective of all high-level waste treatment and storage systems that the US Department of Energy manages. The impacts of budgetary constraints and repository availability on storage and treatment must be assessed against existing and pending negotiated milestones for their impact on the overall HLW system. This assessment can give DOE a complex-wide view of the availability of waste treatment and help project the time required to prepare HLW for disposal. Facilities, throughputs, schedules, and milestones were modeled to ascertain the treatment and storage systems resource requirements at the Hanford Site, Savannah River Site, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and West Valley Demonstration Project. The impacts of various treatment system availabilities on schedule and throughput were compared to repository readiness to determine the prudent application of resources. To assess the various impacts, the model was exercised against a number of plausible scenarios as discussed in this paper

  1. Cancer risk analysis among medical diagnostic X-ray workers in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jixian; Li Benxiao; Gao Zhiwei; Xu Jun; Zhang Jingyuan; Aoyama, Takashi; Sugahara, Tsutomu

    1997-01-01

    To provide the evidence and related rules of human malignant tumors produced by prolonged exposure to low level ionizing radiation. The cancer incidence (1950-1990) among 27011 medical diagnostic X-ray workers was compared with that among 25782 other medical specialists employed between 1950 and 1980 in China by means of O/E system. A significantly elevated risk of cancer was seen among diagnostic x-ray workers (RR = 1.1,95%Cl:1.0-1.2,P <0.05). Significantly elevated risks were seen for leukemia and cancers of skin, female breast, liver and esophagus, the RR being 2.3, 5.0, 1.6, 1.3 and 4.4 respectively. The RR for leukemia was higher for X-ray workers who began employment before 1970 and also for those who were young when employment began. The patterns of risk associated with length of service and with age and calendar year of initial employment suggest that the excesses of leukemia, skin cancer and female breast cancer were due to occupational exposure to X-rays. The ERR and EAR for leukemia and solid cancer were calculated roughly. (author)

  2. Clinical diagnostic evaluation for scaphoid fractures: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mallee, Wouter H.; Henny, Erik P.; van Dijk, C. Niek; Kamminga, Sjoerd P.; van Enst, Wynanda A.; Kloen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    To provide an overview of available clinical evaluation tests for scaphoid fractures and to compare their diagnostic accuracies. PWe performed a systematic review of all studies assessing diagnostic characteristics of clinical evaluation in scaphoid fractures by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane,

  3. Analysis of errors during medical and computerized diagnostics of spherical lung neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozmogov, A.I.; Petruk, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    Reasons for errors in medical and computerized diagnostics of spherical lung neoplasms are studied based on material of 212 case records and clinicoroentgenological data; it should promote improvement of their diagnostics

  4. A Meta-analysis for the Diagnostic Performance of Transient Elastography for Clinically Significant Portal Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Myung-Won; Kim, Kyung Won; Pyo, Junhee; Huh, Jimi; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Lee, So Jung; Park, Seong Ho

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the correlation between liver stiffness measurement using transient elastography (TE-LSM) and hepatic venous pressure gradient and the diagnostic performance of TE-LSM in assessing clinically significant portal hypertension through meta-analysis. Eleven studies were included from thorough literature research and selection processes. The summary correlation coefficient was 0.783 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.737-0.823). Summary sensitivity, specificity and area under the hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were 87.5% (95% CI, 75.8-93.9%), 85.3 % (95% CI, 76.9-90.9%) and 0.9, respectively. The subgroup with low cut-off values of 13.6-18 kPa had better summary estimates (sensitivity 91.2%, specificity 81.3% and partial AUC 0.921) than the subgroup with high cut-off values of 21-25 kPa (sensitivity 71.2%, specificity 90.9% and partial AUC 0.769). In summary, TE-LSM correlated well with hepatic venous pressure gradient and represented good diagnostic performance in diagnosing clinically significant portal hypertension. For use as a sensitive screening tool, we propose using low cut-off values of 13.6-18 kPa in TE-LSM. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A study on the fault diagnostic techniques for reactor internal structures using neutron noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Ryong; Jeong, Seong Ho; Park, Jin Ho; Park, Jin Suk

    1994-08-01

    The unfavorable phenomena, such as flow induced vibration and aging process in reactor internals, cause degradation of structural integrity and may result in loosing some mechanical binding components which might impact other equipments and components or cause flow blockage. Since these malfunctions and potential failures change reactor noise signal, it is necessary to analyze reactor noise signal for early fault diagnosis in the point of few of safety and plant economics. The objectives of this study are to establish fault diagnostic and TS(thermal shield), and to develop a data acquisition and signal processing software system. In the first year of this study, an analysis technique for the reactor internal vibration using the reactor noise was proposed. With the technique proposed and the reactor noise signals (ex-core neutron and acceleration), the dynamic characteristics of Ulchin-1 reactor internals were obtained, and compared with those of Tricastin-1 which is the prototype of Ulchin-1. In the second year, a PC-based expert system for reactor internals fault diagnosis is developed, which included data acquisition, signal processing, feature extraction function, and represented diagnostic knowledge by the IF-THEN rule. To know the effect of the faults, the reactor internals of Ulchin-1 is modeled using FEM and simulated with an artificial defect given in the hold-down spring. Trend in the dynamic characteristics of reactor internals is also observed during one fuel cycle to know the effect of boron concentration. 100 figs, 7 tabs, 18 refs. (Author)

  6. Measuring diagnostic and predictive accuracy in disease management: an introduction to receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Ariel

    2006-04-01

    Diagnostic or predictive accuracy concerns are common in all phases of a disease management (DM) programme, and ultimately play an influential role in the assessment of programme effectiveness. Areas, such as the identification of diseased patients, predictive modelling of future health status and costs and risk stratification, are just a few of the domains in which assessment of accuracy is beneficial, if not critical. The most commonly used analytical model for this purpose is the standard 2 x 2 table method in which sensitivity and specificity are calculated. However, there are several limitations to this approach, including the reliance on a single defined criterion or cut-off for determining a true-positive result, use of non-standardized measurement instruments and sensitivity to outcome prevalence. This paper introduces the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis as a more appropriate and useful technique for assessing diagnostic and predictive accuracy in DM. Its advantages include; testing accuracy across the entire range of scores and thereby not requiring a predetermined cut-off point, easily examined visual and statistical comparisons across tests or scores, and independence from outcome prevalence. Therefore the implementation of ROC as an evaluation tool should be strongly considered in the various phases of a DM programme.

  7. Searching for New Biomarkers and the Use of Multivariate Analysis in Gastric Cancer Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Radek; Smid, David; Topolcan, Ondrej; Karlikova, Marie; Fiala, Ondrej; Slouka, David; Skalicky, Tomas; Treska, Vladislav; Kulda, Vlastimil; Simanek, Vaclav; Safanda, Martin; Pesta, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The first aim of this study was to search for new biomarkers to be used in gastric cancer diagnostics. The second aim was to verify the findings presented in literature on a sample of the local population and investigate the risk of gastric cancer in that population using a multivariant statistical analysis. We assessed a group of 36 patients with gastric cancer and 69 healthy individuals. We determined carcinoembryonic antigen, cancer antigen 19-9, cancer antigen 72-4, matrix metalloproteinases (-1, -2, -7, -8 and -9), osteoprotegerin, osteopontin, prothrombin induced by vitamin K absence-II, pepsinogen I, pepsinogen II, gastrin and Helicobacter pylori for each sample. The multivariate stepwise logistic regression identified the following biomarkers as the best gastric cancer predictors: CEA, CA72-4, pepsinogen I, Helicobacter pylori presence and MMP7. CEA and CA72-4 remain the best markers for gastric cancer diagnostics. We suggest a mathematical model for the assessment of risk of gastric cancer. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  8. Diagnostic performance of computed tomography for parathyroid adenoma localization; a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kluijfhout, Wouter P., E-mail: WPKluijfhout@gmail.com [Department of Surgery, University of California San Francisco (United States); Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands); Pasternak, Jesse D. [Department of Surgery, University Health Network Toronto (Canada); Beninato, Toni; Drake, Frederick Thurston; Gosnell, Jessica E.; Shen, Wen T.; Duh, Quan-Yang [Department of Surgery, University of California San Francisco (United States); Allen, Isabel E. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California San Francisco (United States); Vriens, Menno R. [Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands); Keizer, Bart de [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands); Hope, Thomas A. [Department of Radiology, University of California San Francisco (United States); Suh, Insoo [Department of Surgery, University of California San Francisco (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • CT performs well in localizing pathological parathyroid glands. • Performance of CT is less in patients with inconclusive ultrasound and sestamibi. • Addition of a third contrast phase seems to have little added value. - Abstract: Abstract purpose: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of CT for preoperative parathyroid localization in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT), and subsequently compare the different protocols and their performance in different patient groups. Materials and methods: We performed a search of the Embase, Pubmed and Cochrane Library databases to identify studies published between January 1, 2000 and March 31, 2016 investigating the diagnostic value of CT for parathyroid localization in patients with biochemical diagnosis of pHPT. Performance of CT was expressed in sensitivity and PPV with pooled proportion using a random-effects model. Factors that could have affected the diagnostic performance were investigated by subgroup analysis. Results: Thirty-four studies evaluating a total of 2563 patients with non-familial pHPT who underwent CT localization and surgical resection were included. Overall pooled sensitivity of CT for localization of the pathological parathyroid(s) to the correct quadrant was 73% (95% CI: 69–78%), which increased to 81% (95% CI: 75–87%) for lateralization to the correct side. Subgroup analysis based on the number of contrast phases showed that adding a second contrast phase raises sensitivity from 71% (95% CI: 61–80%) to 76% (95% CI: 71–87%), and that adding a third phase resulted in a more modest additional increase in performance with a sensitivity of 80% (95% CI: 74–86%). Conclusion: CT performs well in localizing pathological glands in patients with pHPT. A protocol with two contrast phases seems to offer a good balance of acceptable performance with limitation of radiation exposure.

  9. Army Intelligence Analysis and Interpretation: Assessing the Utility and Limitations of Computational Diagnostic Reasoning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Powell, Gerald M

    2004-01-01

    .... For fusion in the Army, little has been published reflecting an elaboration of functionality on levels 2 and 3 of this model, both of which are viewed as critical elements of intelligence analysis and interpretation. Walsh (2002...

  10. Assessment Stability and Informative of Diagnostic Matrix in Analysis States of Reinforced Concrete Slab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolov Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article was examined the issues of sustainability and informative of diagnostic matrix, which are used when it is necessary to determinate the technical condition of constructions. Determination based on the mathematical instrument of technical diagnostics. One of the most widespread methods of technical diagnostics – a statistical method of Bayes is used.

  11. Analysis of baseline gene expression levels from ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of gene expression profiling to predict chemical mode of action would be enhanced by better characterization of variance due to individual, environmental, and technical factors. Meta-analysis of microarray data from untreated or vehicle-treated animals within the control arm of toxicogenomics studies has yielded useful information on baseline fluctuations in gene expression. A dataset of control animal microarray expression data was assembled by a working group of the Health and Environmental Sciences Institute's Technical Committee on the Application of Genomics in Mechanism Based Risk Assessment in order to provide a public resource for assessments of variability in baseline gene expression. Data from over 500 Affymetrix microarrays from control rat liver and kidney were collected from 16 different institutions. Thirty-five biological and technical factors were obtained for each animal, describing a wide range of study characteristics, and a subset were evaluated in detail for their contribution to total variability using multivariate statistical and graphical techniques. The study factors that emerged as key sources of variability included gender, organ section, strain, and fasting state. These and other study factors were identified as key descriptors that should be included in the minimal information about a toxicogenomics study needed for interpretation of results by an independent source. Genes that are the most and least variable, gender-selectiv

  12. ANALYSIS OF THE PUBLIC MANAGEMENT ADMINISTRATION IN ROMANIA BASED ON DIAGNOSTICS AND SWOT ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    ANCA JARMILA GUŢĂ

    2015-01-01

    The paper identifies the strengths and weaknesses points existing in a public organization at the five management functions : planning, organization, coordination, training and control. It also done a PEST analysis of public management in Romania and it proposes a global model diagnosis and SWOT analysis for a public service.

  13. ANALYSIS OF THE PUBLIC MANAGEMENT ADMINISTRATION IN ROMANIA BASED ON DIAGNOSTICS AND SWOT ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA JARMILA GUŢĂ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies the strengths and weaknesses points existing in a public organization at the five management functions : planning, organization, coordination, training and control. It also done a PEST analysis of public management in Romania and it proposes a global model diagnosis and SWOT analysis for a public service.

  14. High-Level Overview of Data Needs for RE Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Anthony

    2016-12-22

    This presentation provides a high level overview of analysis topics and associated data needs. Types of renewable energy analysis are grouped into two buckets: First, analysis for renewable energy potential, and second, analysis for other goals. Data requirements are similar but and they build upon one another.

  15. CAPITAL STRUCTURE ANALYSIS OF THE MEDICAL DIAGNOSTIC-CONSULTATIVE CENTERS IN VARNA (absolute indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubomira Koeva-Dimitrova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The capital structure analysis of medical institutions is related to the assessment of their financial sustainability. The degree of their financial sustainability indicates the extent to which the medical institution is exposed to financial risk. This financial risk is related to the use of foreign capital (debts, loans, etc. and it is defined as the probability of insolvency and possible bankruptcy due to the existence of debts which could not be repaid at some point in the foreseeable future. Objective: To analyze the capital structure of the medical diagnostic-consultative centers in Varna city and on this basis to assess their long-term solvency and existence of financial risk. Materials and Methods: The materials for the study are the published annual financial statements (up to 05. 01. 2016 in the Commercial Register for the period from year 2008 to 2014 of all MDCCs (Medical Diagnostic Consultative centers, registered in Varna - 9 in total. In the study are applied logical-mathematical methods (comparison, grouping, detail, graphical method; financial and accounting analysis (balance sheet analysis; analysis of absolute ratios for financial sustainability. Results: Upon analysis of the capital structure of MDCC's are studied the main absolute indicators characterizing the conditions for financial sustainability and the existence of financial risk regarding the solvency. A table represents the overall assessment of the degree of financial sustainability of the companies according to the type and structure of the fulfilled criteria. It was ascertained that for year 2014, DCC 3, 4, 5 and 8 have met all the conditions and according to them these hospitals have very high financial sustainability. DCC 7 has an average financial sustainability, DCC 1 and 2 are in a financial crisis and DCC 6 and 9 are facing bankruptcy. It must be emphasized that nearly half of the studied health care organizations (DCC 1, 2, 6 and 9 need urgent intervention by

  16. Diagnostic staging laparoscopy in gastric cancer treatment: A cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kevin; Cannon, John G D; Jiang, Sam Y; Sambare, Tanmaya D; Owens, Douglas K; Bendavid, Eran; Poultsides, George A

    2018-05-01

    Accurate preoperative staging helps avert morbidity, mortality, and cost associated with non-therapeutic laparotomy in gastric cancer (GC) patients. Diagnostic staging laparoscopy (DSL) can detect metastases with high sensitivity, but its cost-effectiveness has not been previously studied. We developed a decision analysis model to assess the cost-effectiveness of preoperative DSL in GC workup. Analysis was based on a hypothetical cohort of GC patients in the U.S. for whom initial imaging shows no metastases. The cost-effectiveness of DSL was measured as cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. Drivers of cost-effectiveness were assessed in sensitivity analysis. Preoperative DSL required an investment of $107 012 per QALY. In sensitivity analysis, DSL became cost-effective at a threshold of $100 000/QALY when the probability of occult metastases exceeded 31.5% or when test sensitivity for metastases exceeded 86.3%. The likelihood of cost-effectiveness increased from 46% to 93% when both parameters were set at maximum reported values. The cost-effectiveness of DSL for GC patients is highly dependent on patient and test characteristics, and is more likely when DSL is used selectively where procedure yield is high, such as for locally advanced disease or in detecting peritoneal and superficial versus deep liver lesions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The nuclear interaction analysis methods for diagnostics of high power ion beam technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryzhkov, V A; Grushin, I I; Remnev, G E [Nuclear Physics Inst., Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The complex of Nuclear Interaction Analysis Methods including charged particle activation analysis (CPAA and HIAA), spectrometry of ion induced gamma-emission (PIGE and HIIGE) , characteristic X-ray emission (PIXE), and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), have been used for diagnostics of the High Power Ion Beam (HPIB) assisted technologies. Accelerated ion beams from the EG-2.5 electrostatic generator and U-120 cyclotron were used for implementation of the techniques. The complex allows a lot of problems of elemental and isotopic analysis to be addressed. First, it is the determination of micro- and macrocomponents of modified materials; second, determination of surface density of thin films, multilayers and coatings, total surface gaseous contamination and amounts of the elements implanted in specimens; third, measurement of concentration depth profiles of the elements. Experiments have shown that the preferable application of nuclear analysis methods allows us to avoid the considerable errors arising when the concentration depth profiles of elements are measured by SIMS or AES in studies of mass transfer processes induced by HPIBs. (author). 1 tab., 2 figs., 3 refs.

  18. Vulnerability analysis of DT fusion diagnostics for laser Megajoule facility. A new tool: Diacad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'hose, C.; Baggio, J.; Musseau, O.

    1999-01-01

    The Megajoule laser (LMJ) project is a major component of the French simulation program to study inertial confinement. This new facility will provide an energy 60 times greater than the largest lasers presently available (Phebus, Nova, Omega). Many diagnostic links will have to be developed in order to acquire complementary knowledge in this domain. A computer based tool has been defined. This paper presents the most recent developments of this new CAD (computer assisted diagnosis) tool. We first describe LMJ context, and then the analysis methodology developed to address the sensitivity to transient radiation of nuclear diagnosis links. This tool takes into account the vulnerability of individual parts and the global structure of the link. (A.C.)

  19. Data and Analysis from a Time-Resolved Tomographic Optical Beam Diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frayer, Daniel K.; Johnson, Douglas; Ekdahl, Carl

    2010-01-01

    An optical tomographic diagnostic instrument developed for the acquisition of high-speed time-resolved images has been fielded at the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The instrument was developed for the creation of time histories of electron-beam cross section through the collection of Cerenkov light. Four optical lines of sight optically collapse an image and relay projections via an optical fiber relay to recording instruments; a tomographic reconstruction algorithm creates the time history. Because the instrument may be operated in an adverse environment, it may be operated, adjusted, and calibrated remotely. The instrument was operated over the course of various activities during and after DARHT commissioning, and tomographic reconstructions reported verifiable beam characteristics. Results from the collected data and reconstructions and analysis of the data are discussed.

  20. Risk analysis for working with an analyzer for gamma cameras diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oramas Polo, Ivon; Figueroa del Valle, Diana G.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, an analysis of the risks for working with an analyzer for gamma cameras diagnostic was made. The method employed is based on determining the Hazard Rating Number (HRN). The results showed that the risks with higher value of HRN are electrocution with 100 and touch source container with hands with 75. These risks were classified as 'Very High' and 'High' respectively. The following risks were classified as 'Important': Fall of the source container (HRN = 25), high dose of the sample in the container (HRN = 20) and fracture of glass detector (HRN = 30). The wrong shielding of the source container (HRN = 10) is a risk that was classified as L ow . Safety rules for use of the system are indicated. An action plan for risk management is also presented. (author)

  1. Cost-effectiveness analysis of introducing malaria diagnostic testing in drug shops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Clarke, Siân E.; Lal, Sham

    2017-01-01

    Background Private sector drug shops are an important source of malaria treatment in Africa, yet diagnosis without parasitological testing is common among these providers. Accurate rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (mRDTs) require limited training and present an opportunity to increase access...... to correct diagnosis. The present study was a cost-effectiveness analysis of the introduction of mRDTs in Ugandan drug shops. Methods Drug shop vendors were trained to perform and sell subsidised mRDTs and artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) in the intervention arm while vendors offered ACTs...... following presumptive diagnosis of malaria in the control arm. The effect on the proportion of customers with fever ‘appropriately treated of malaria with ACT’ was captured during a randomised trial in drug shops in Mukono District, Uganda. Health sector costs included: training of drug shop vendors...

  2. The diagnostic value of power spectra analysis of the sleep electroencephalography in narcoleptic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Julie Anja Engelhard; Munk, Emil Gammelmark Schreiner; Peppard, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Manifestations of narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC) include disturbed nocturnal sleep – hereunder sleep–wake instability, decreased latency to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and dissociated REM sleep events. In this study, we characterized the electroencephalography (EEG) of various sleep...... show (1) increased alpha power in REM sleep, (2) decreased sigma power in wakefulness, and (3) decreased delta power in stage N1 versus wakefulness. Sensitivity of these features ranged from 4% to 10% with specificity around 98%, and it did not vary substantially with and without treatment. Conclusions......: EEG spectral analysis of REM sleep, wake, and differences between N1 and wakefulness contain diagnostic features of NC. These traits may represent sleepiness and dissociated REM sleep in patients with NC. However, the features are not sufficient for differentiating NC from controls, and further...

  3. The potential diagnostic power of circulating tumor cell analysis for non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kirsty; Pailler, Emma; Faugeroux, Vincent; Taylor, Melissa; Oulhen, Marianne; Auger, Nathalie; Planchard, David; Soria, Jean-Charles; Lindsay, Colin R; Besse, Benjamin; Vielh, Philippe; Farace, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    In non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), genotyping tumor biopsies for targetable somatic alterations has become routine practice. However, serial biopsies have limitations: they may be technically difficult or impossible and could incur serious risks to patients. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) offer an alternative source for tumor analysis that is easily accessible and presents the potential to identify predictive biomarkers to tailor therapies on a personalized basis. Examined here is our current knowledge of CTC detection and characterization in NSCLC and their potential role in EGFR-mutant, ALK-rearranged and ROS1-rearranged patients. This is followed by discussion of the ongoing issues such as the question of CTC partnership as diagnostic tools in NSCLC.

  4. Data Analysis of the Gated-LEH X-Ray Imaging Diagnostic at the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Matthew; Chen, Hui

    2017-10-01

    The Gated Laser Entrance Hole (G-LEH) x-ray imaging diagnostic in use at the NIF offers a desirable combination of spatial and temporal resolution. By looking inside of NIF hohlraums with time resolution, G-LEH measures target features including LEH size and capsule size. A framework is presented for automated and systematic analysis of G-LEH images that measures several physical parameters of interest and their evolution over time. The results from these analyses enable comparisons with hohlraum models and allow model validation of LEH closure velocity and the extent of capsule blow-off. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  5. Outcomes of non-invasive diagnostic modalities for the detection of coronary artery disease: network meta-analysis of diagnostic randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siontis, George Cm; Mavridis, Dimitris; Greenwood, John P; Coles, Bernadette; Nikolakopoulou, Adriani; Jüni, Peter; Salanti, Georgia; Windecker, Stephan

    2018-02-21

    To evaluate differences in downstream testing, coronary revascularisation, and clinical outcomes following non-invasive diagnostic modalities used to detect coronary artery disease. Systematic review and network meta-analysis. Medline, Medline in process, Embase, Cochrane Library for clinical trials, PubMed, Web of Science, SCOPUS, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and Clinicaltrials.gov. Diagnostic randomised controlled trials comparing non-invasive diagnostic modalities in patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of low risk acute coronary syndrome or stable coronary artery disease. A random effects network meta-analysis synthesised available evidence from trials evaluating the effect of non-invasive diagnostic modalities on downstream testing and patient oriented outcomes in patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Modalities included exercise electrocardiograms, stress echocardiography, single photon emission computed tomography-myocardial perfusion imaging, real time myocardial contrast echocardiography, coronary computed tomographic angiography, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Unpublished outcome data were obtained from 11 trials. 18 trials of patients with low risk acute coronary syndrome (n=11 329) and 12 trials of those with suspected stable coronary artery disease (n=22 062) were included. Among patients with low risk acute coronary syndrome, stress echocardiography, cardiovascular magnetic resonance, and exercise electrocardiograms resulted in fewer invasive referrals for coronary angiography than coronary computed tomographic angiography (odds ratio 0.28 (95% confidence interval 0.14 to 0.57), 0.32 (0.15 to 0.71), and 0.53 (0.28 to 1.00), respectively). There was no effect on the subsequent risk of myocardial infarction, but estimates were imprecise. Heterogeneity and inconsistency were low. In patients with suspected stable coronary artery disease, an initial diagnostic strategy of stress echocardiography or

  6. Outcomes of non-invasive diagnostic modalities for the detection of coronary artery disease: network meta-analysis of diagnostic randomised controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siontis, George CM; Mavridis, Dimitris; Greenwood, John P; Coles, Bernadette; Nikolakopoulou, Adriani; Jüni, Peter; Salanti, Georgia

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate differences in downstream testing, coronary revascularisation, and clinical outcomes following non-invasive diagnostic modalities used to detect coronary artery disease. Design Systematic review and network meta-analysis. Data sources Medline, Medline in process, Embase, Cochrane Library for clinical trials, PubMed, Web of Science, SCOPUS, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and Clinicaltrials.gov. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Diagnostic randomised controlled trials comparing non-invasive diagnostic modalities in patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of low risk acute coronary syndrome or stable coronary artery disease. Data synthesis A random effects network meta-analysis synthesised available evidence from trials evaluating the effect of non-invasive diagnostic modalities on downstream testing and patient oriented outcomes in patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Modalities included exercise electrocardiograms, stress echocardiography, single photon emission computed tomography-myocardial perfusion imaging, real time myocardial contrast echocardiography, coronary computed tomographic angiography, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Unpublished outcome data were obtained from 11 trials. Results 18 trials of patients with low risk acute coronary syndrome (n=11 329) and 12 trials of those with suspected stable coronary artery disease (n=22 062) were included. Among patients with low risk acute coronary syndrome, stress echocardiography, cardiovascular magnetic resonance, and exercise electrocardiograms resulted in fewer invasive referrals for coronary angiography than coronary computed tomographic angiography (odds ratio 0.28 (95% confidence interval 0.14 to 0.57), 0.32 (0.15 to 0.71), and 0.53 (0.28 to 1.00), respectively). There was no effect on the subsequent risk of myocardial infarction, but estimates were imprecise. Heterogeneity and inconsistency were low. In patients with

  7. The diagnostic performance of CT-derived fractional flow reserve for evaluation of myocardial ischaemia confirmed by invasive fractional flow reserve: a meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, S.; Tang, X.; Peng, L.; Luo, Y.; Dong, R.; Liu, J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To review the literature on the diagnostic accuracy of CT-derived fractional flow reserve (FFR CT ) for the evaluation of myocardial ischaemia in patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease, with invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR) as the reference standard. Materials and methods: A PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane cross-search was performed. The pooled diagnostic accuracy of FFR CT , with FFR as the reference standard, was primarily analysed, and then compared with that of CT angiography (CTA). The thresholds to diagnose ischaemia were FFR ≤0.80 or CTA ≥50% stenosis. Data extraction, synthesis, and statistical analysis were performed by standard meta-analysis methods. Results: Three multicentre studies (NXT Trial, DISCOVER-FLOW study and DeFACTO study) were included, examining 609 patients and 1050 vessels. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), positive likelihood ratio (LR+), negative likelihood ratio (LR−), and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) for FFR CT were 89% (85–93%), 71% (65–75%), 70% (65–75%), 90% (85–93%), 3.31 (1.79–6.14), 0.16 (0.11–0.23), and 21.21 (9.15–49.15) at the patient-level, and 83% (78–63%), 78% (75–81%), 61% (56–65%), 92% (89–90%), 4.02 (1.84–8.80), 0.22 (0.13–0.35), and 19.15 (5.73–63.93) at the vessel-level. At per-patient analysis, FFR CT has similar sensitivity but improved specificity, PPV, NPV, LR+, LR−, and DOR versus those of CTA. At per-vessel analysis, FFR CT had a slightly lower sensitivity, similar NPV, but improved specificity, PPV, LR+, LR−, and DOR compared with those of CTA. The area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curves for FFR CT was 0.8909 at patient-level and 0.8865 at vessel-level, versus 0.7402 for CTA at patient-level. Conclusions: FFR CT , which was associated with improved diagnostic accuracy versus CTA, is a viable alternative to FFR for detecting coronary ischaemic lesions

  8. Deconstructing Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia: A cross-diagnostic cluster analysis of cognitive phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junghee; Rizzo, Shemra; Altshuler, Lori; Glahn, David C; Miklowitz, David J; Sugar, Catherine A; Wynn, Jonathan K; Green, Michael F

    2017-02-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SZ) show substantial overlap. It has been suggested that a subgroup of patients might contribute to these overlapping features. This study employed a cross-diagnostic cluster analysis to identify subgroups of individuals with shared cognitive phenotypes. 143 participants (68 BD patients, 39 SZ patients and 36 healthy controls) completed a battery of EEG and performance assessments on perception, nonsocial cognition and social cognition. A K-means cluster analysis was conducted with all participants across diagnostic groups. Clinical symptoms, functional capacity, and functional outcome were assessed in patients. A two-cluster solution across 3 groups was the most stable. One cluster including 44 BD patients, 31 controls and 5 SZ patients showed better cognition (High cluster) than the other cluster with 24 BD patients, 35 SZ patients and 5 controls (Low cluster). BD patients in the High cluster performed better than BD patients in the Low cluster across cognitive domains. Within each cluster, participants with different clinical diagnoses showed different profiles across cognitive domains. All patients are in the chronic phase and out of mood episode at the time of assessment and most of the assessment were behavioral measures. This study identified two clusters with shared cognitive phenotype profiles that were not proxies for clinical diagnoses. The finding of better social cognitive performance of BD patients than SZ patients in the Lowe cluster suggest that relatively preserved social cognition may be important to identify disease process distinct to each disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Automatic Decision Support for Clinical Diagnostic Literature Using Link Analysis in a Weighted Keyword Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuqing; Sun, Ying; Soergel, Dagobert

    2017-12-23

    We present a novel approach to recommending articles from the medical literature that support clinical diagnostic decision-making, giving detailed descriptions of the associated ideas and principles. The specific goal is to retrieve biomedical articles that help answer questions of a specified type about a particular case. Based on the filtered keywords, MeSH(Medical Subject Headings) lexicon and the automatically extracted acronyms, the relationship between keywords and articles was built. The paper gives a detailed description of the process of by which keywords were measured and relevant articles identified based on link analysis in a weighted keywords network. Some important challenges identified in this study include the extraction of diagnosis-related keywords and a collection of valid sentences based on the keyword co-occurrence analysis and existing descriptions of symptoms. All data were taken from medical articles provided in the TREC (Text Retrieval Conference) clinical decision support track 2015. Ten standard topics and one demonstration topic were tested. In each case, a maximum of five articles with the highest relevance were returned. The total user satisfaction of 3.98 was 33% higher than average. The results also suggested that the smaller the number of results, the higher the average satisfaction. However, a few shortcomings were also revealed since medical literature recommendation for clinical diagnostic decision support is so complex a topic that it cannot be fully addressed through the semantic information carried solely by keywords in existing descriptions of symptoms. Nevertheless, the fact that these articles are actually relevant will no doubt inspire future research.

  10. Analysis of conservativity analysis for clearance levels. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deckert, A.; Thierfeldt, S.

    1997-07-01

    When deriving clearance levels for material from nuclear installations it is necessary to proceed with a certain degree of conservativity. This can, however, differ between various sets of clearance levels leading to inconsistencies between clearance pathways. The aim of the work therefore is to compare levels of conservativity for the following two sets of clearance levels: clearance levels for disposal as conventional waste and for metallic materials for recycling/reuse. A method was developed to quantify the degree of conservativity and make it comparable. The actual and future situation for disposal of (conventional) wastes in Germany was analysed. In addition, the masses, nuclide vectors, geographical distribution etc. for slightly radioactive material being cleared for conventional disposal was analysed and modelled and the resulting dose distributions were calculated. The values for the clearance levels were taken from the 1995 recommendation by the German Commission on Radiation Protection (SSK). By using realistic scenarios, the exposure was calculated for the personnel on the landfills and for persons of the general public being exposed via groundwater pathways. It could be shown that the trivial dose range will not be exceeded even if the masses of cleared material per landfill site exceed 100 Mg/a. Because of the types and distribution of nuclear installations in Germany and because of the nuclide vectors it is therefore not necessary to limit the masses per landfill sites. Clearance levels that are determined by the exposure pathways external exposure to and the inhalation of dust by the landfill personnel show a similar level of conservativity as those for metal scrap. This means that the clearance levels for gamma emitting nuclides are not overly restrictive. Although radiologically justified, raising the clearance levels would not lead to an increase of the material quantities because other nuclides of the respective nuclide vectors are limiting. In

  11. The Level of Diagnostic Tests' Preparation Skills among the Teachers of the First Three Elementary Grades' Teachers at the Directorate of Education of Bani Kinana District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghmour, Kholoud Subhi; Obaidat, Luai Taleb; Hamadneh, Qaseem Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at exploring the level of Diagnostic Tests' Preparation Skills among the teachers of the first Three Elementary Grades at the Directorate of Education of Bani Kinana District, and its relationship to the variables of gender, academic qualification, and years of experience. The sample of the study consisted of (264) male and female…

  12. MO-FG-CAMPUS-IeP1-03: Establishment of Provincial Diagnostic Reference Levels in Pediatric Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonkopi, E; O’Brien, K

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To establish provincial diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in pediatric general radiography and computed tomography (CT) as a tool for the optimization of exposure parameters. Methods: Patient dose survey was conducted in the only pediatric hospital in the province of Nova Scotia. The DRLs were established as the 75th percentile of patient dose distributions in different age groups. For routine radiography projections the DRLs were determined in terms of entrance surface dose (ESD) calculated from the radiation output measurements and the tube current-exposure time product (mAs) recorded for each examination. Patient thickness was measured by the technologist during the examination. The CR and DR systems, employing respectively a fixed technique and phototiming, were evaluated separately; a two-tailed Student’s t-test was used to determine the significance of differences between the means of dose distributions. The CT studies included routine head, chest, abdomen/pelvis, and chest/abdomen/pelvis. The volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose-length product (DLP) values were extracted retrospectively from PACS. The correction factors based on the effective diameter of the patient were applied to the CT dosimetry metrics based on the standard phantoms. Results: The provincial DRLs were established in the following age groups: newborn, 1, 5, 10, and 15 year olds. In general radiography the DR systems demonstrated slightly lower dose than the CR for all views, however the differences were not statistically significant (p > 0.05) for all examinations. In CT the provincial DRLs were lower than the published data, except for head DLPs in all age categories. This might be due to the small patient sample size in the survey. Future work will include additional CT data collection over an extended period of time. Conclusion: Provincial DRLs were established in the dedicated children’s hospital to provide guidance for the other facilities in examinations of pediatric

  13. Quality assurance in CT: implementation of the updated national diagnostic reference levels using an automated CT dose monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, E; Kröpil, P; Bethge, O T; Aissa, J; Thomas, C; Antoch, G; Boos, J

    2018-03-20

    To evaluate the implementation of the updated computed tomography (CT) diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) from the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection into clinical routine using an automatic CT dose monitoring system. CT radiation exposure was analysed before and after implementing the updated national DRLs into routine clinical work in 2016. After the implementation process, institutional CT protocols were mapped to the anatomical regions for which DRLs were provided. Systematically, protocols that exceeded the thresholds were optimised and analysed in detail. The CT radiation output parameters analysed were volumetric CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose-length product (DLP). Three radiologists evaluated subjective image quality using a three-point Likert scale. The study included 94,258 CT series (from 27,103 CT examinations) in adult patients performed in 2016. When averaged over all body regions with available DRL, institutional CTDIvol/DLP values were always below the DRLs (65.2±32.9%/67.3±41.5% initially; 59.4±32%/60.5±39.9% after optimisation). Values exceeding the national DRLs were found for pelvis (n=268; CTDIvol 107.7±65.7%/DLP 106.3±79.3%), lumbar spine (n=91; 160.8±74.7%/175.2±104.1%), and facial bones (n=527; 108±39%/152.7±75.7%). After optimisation, CTDIvol and DLP were 87.9±73%/87.8±80.8% for the pelvis, 67.8±33.2%/74.5±50.6% for the lumbar spine and 95.1±45.8%/133.3±74.6% for the viscerocranium. An automatic CT dose monitoring system enabled not only comprehensive monitoring of a DRL implementation process but can also help to optimise radiation exposure. Copyright © 2018 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Local patient dose diagnostic reference levels in pediatric interventional cardiology in Chile using age bands and patient weight values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubeda, Carlos; Miranda, Patricia; Vano, Eliseo

    2015-02-01

    To present the results of a patient dose evaluation program in pediatric cardiology and propose local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for different types of procedure and age range, in addition to suggesting approaches to correlate patient dose values with patient weight. This study was the first conducted in Latin America for pediatric interventional cardiology under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Over three years, the following data regarding demographic and patient dose values were collected: age, gender, weight, height, number of cine series, total number of cine frames, fluoroscopy time (FT), and two dosimetric quantities, dose-area product (DAP) and cumulative dose (CD), at the patient entrance reference point. The third quartile values for FT, DAP, CD, number of cine series, and the DAP/body weight ratio were proposed as the set of quantities to use as local DRLs. Five hundred and seventeen patients were divided into four age groups. Sample sizes by age group were 120 for bands used in Europe, complemented with the values of the ratio between DAP and patient weight. This permits a rough estimate of DRLs for different patient weights and the refining of these values for the age bands when there may be large differences in child size. These DRLs were obtained at the largest pediatric hospital in Chile, with an active optimization program, and could be used by other hospitals in the Latin America region to compare their current patient dose values and determine whether corrective action is appropriate. © 2015 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  15. MO-FG-CAMPUS-IeP1-03: Establishment of Provincial Diagnostic Reference Levels in Pediatric Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonkopi, E [Dalhousie University (Canada); Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Ctr (Canada); O’Brien, K [Dalhousie University (Canada); IWK Health Centre, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To establish provincial diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in pediatric general radiography and computed tomography (CT) as a tool for the optimization of exposure parameters. Methods: Patient dose survey was conducted in the only pediatric hospital in the province of Nova Scotia. The DRLs were established as the 75th percentile of patient dose distributions in different age groups. For routine radiography projections the DRLs were determined in terms of entrance surface dose (ESD) calculated from the radiation output measurements and the tube current-exposure time product (mAs) recorded for each examination. Patient thickness was measured by the technologist during the examination. The CR and DR systems, employing respectively a fixed technique and phototiming, were evaluated separately; a two-tailed Student’s t-test was used to determine the significance of differences between the means of dose distributions. The CT studies included routine head, chest, abdomen/pelvis, and chest/abdomen/pelvis. The volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose-length product (DLP) values were extracted retrospectively from PACS. The correction factors based on the effective diameter of the patient were applied to the CT dosimetry metrics based on the standard phantoms. Results: The provincial DRLs were established in the following age groups: newborn, 1, 5, 10, and 15 year olds. In general radiography the DR systems demonstrated slightly lower dose than the CR for all views, however the differences were not statistically significant (p > 0.05) for all examinations. In CT the provincial DRLs were lower than the published data, except for head DLPs in all age categories. This might be due to the small patient sample size in the survey. Future work will include additional CT data collection over an extended period of time. Conclusion: Provincial DRLs were established in the dedicated children’s hospital to provide guidance for the other facilities in examinations of pediatric

  16. Combined diagnostic performance of coronary computed tomography angiography and computed tomography derived fractional flow reserve for the evaluation of myocardial ischemia: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiao Wei; Zheng, Qishi; Shi, Luming; Gao, Fei; Allen, John Carson; Coenen, Adriaan; Baumann, Stefan; Schoepf, U Joseph; Kassab, Ghassan S; Lim, Soo Teik; Wong, Aaron Sung Lung; Tan, Jack Wei Chieh; Yeo, Khung Keong; Chin, Chee Tang; Ho, Kay Woon; Tan, Swee Yaw; Chua, Terrance Siang Jin; Chan, Edwin Shih Yen; Tan, Ru San; Zhong, Liang

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the combined diagnostic accuracy of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and computed tomography derived fractional flow reserve (FFRct) in patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease (CAD). PubMed, The Cochrane library, Embase and OpenGray were searched to identify studies comparing diagnostic accuracy of CCTA and FFRct. Diagnostic test measurements of FFRct were either extracted directly from the published papers or calculated from provided information. Bivariate models were conducted to synthesize the diagnostic performance of combined CCTA and FFRct at both "per-vessel" and "per-patient" levels. 7 articles were included for analysis. The combined diagnostic outcomes from "both positive" strategy, i.e. a subject was considered as "positive" only when both CCTA and FFRct were "positive", demonstrated relative high specificity (per-vessel: 0.91; per-patient: 0.81), high positive likelihood ratio (LR+, per-vessel: 7.93; per-patient: 4.26), high negative likelihood ratio (LR-, per-vessel: 0.30; per patient: 0.24) and high accuracy (per-vessel: 0.91; per-patient: 0.81) while "either positive" strategy, i.e. a subject was considered as "positive" when either CCTA or FFRct was "positive", demonstrated relative high sensitivity (per-vessel: 0.97; per-patient: 0.98), low LR+ (per-vessel: 1.50; per-patient: 1.17), low LR- (per-vessel: 0.07; per-patient: 0.09) and low accuracy (per-vessel: 0.57; per-patient: 0.54). "Both positive" strategy showed better diagnostic performance to rule in patients with non-significant stenosis compared to "either positive" strategy, as it efficiently reduces the proportion of testing false positive subjects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Elementary study on γ analysis software for low level measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan Guanglin; Huang Xianguo; Xing Shixiong

    2001-01-01

    The difficulty in using fashion γ analysis software in low level measurement is discussed. The ROI report file of ORTEC operation system has been chosen as interface file to write γ analysis software for low-level measurement. The author gives software flowchart and applied example and discusses the existent problems

  18. Leveling the playing field: bringing development of biomarkers and molecular diagnostics up to the standards for drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poste, George; Carbone, David P; Parkinson, David R; Verweij, Jaap; Hewitt, Stephen M; Jessup, J Milburn

    2012-03-15

    Molecular diagnostics are becoming increasingly important in clinical research to stratify or identify molecularly profiled patient cohorts for targeted therapies, to modify the dose of a therapeutic, and to assess early response to therapy or monitor patients. Molecular diagnostics can also be used to identify the pharmacogenetic risk of adverse drug reactions. The articles in this CCR Focus section on molecular diagnosis describe the development and use of markers to guide medical decisions regarding cancer patients. They define sources of preanalytic variability that need to be minimized, as well as the regulatory and financial challenges involved in developing diagnostics and integrating them into clinical practice. They also outline a National Cancer Institute program to assist diagnostic development. Molecular diagnostic clinical tests require rigor in their development and clinical validation, with sensitivity, specificity, and validity comparable to those required for the development of therapeutics. These diagnostics must be offered at a realistic cost that reflects both their clinical value and the costs associated with their development. When genome-sequencing technologies move into the clinic, they must be integrated with and traceable to current technology because they may identify more efficient and accurate approaches to drug development. In addition, regulators may define progressive drug approval for companion diagnostics that requires further evidence regarding efficacy and safety before full approval can be achieved. One way to accomplish this is to emphasize phase IV postmarketing, hypothesis-driven clinical trials with biological characterization that would permit an accurate definition of the association of low-prevalence gene alterations with toxicity or response in large cohorts.

  19. Synchronous Analysis for Diagnostics of Rolling Bearings in the Turbojet Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosiewski Zdzisław

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Designed in the Aviation Institute, the K-15 turbojet engine has got rolling bearings, which answers with frequency 5.87 × ω r the unbalance excitation. The signal with such frequency indicates a fault of the outer race of the rolling bearing. A set of the digital synchronous filters was used for the K-15 vibration spectrum analysis. A procedure of filtration was performed by the computer software. The sychronous summation of the measured signals was carried out before the spectrum analysis. Two cases were considered: the engine with a small force due to unbalance (a small angular velocity of the rotor, and the engine with a big unbalance force (high angular velocity. In the first case, the outer race frequency was not observed, despite the existence of the vibration amplitude (caused by unknown disturbances with such frequency before the synchronous summation. In the second case, the outer race frequency after synchronous summation has enlarged amplitude while other spectrum components in its vicinity have been damped. It underlines the usefulness of the synchronous analysis in the vibration diagnostics of the rotating machinery.

  20. Multi-method analysis of MRI images in early diagnostics of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Wolz

    Full Text Available The role of structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is becoming more and more emphasized in the early diagnostics of Alzheimer's disease (AD. This study aimed to assess the improvement in classification accuracy that can be achieved by combining features from different structural MRI analysis techniques. Automatically estimated MR features used are hippocampal volume, tensor-based morphometry, cortical thickness and a novel technique based on manifold learning. Baseline MRIs acquired from all 834 subjects (231 healthy controls (HC, 238 stable mild cognitive impairment (S-MCI, 167 MCI to AD progressors (P-MCI, 198 AD from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI database were used for evaluation. We compared the classification accuracy achieved with linear discriminant analysis (LDA and support vector machines (SVM. The best results achieved with individual features are 90% sensitivity and 84% specificity (HC/AD classification, 64%/66% (S-MCI/P-MCI and 82%/76% (HC/P-MCI with the LDA classifier. The combination of all features improved these results to 93% sensitivity and 85% specificity (HC/AD, 67%/69% (S-MCI/P-MCI and 86%/82% (HC/P-MCI. Compared with previously published results in the ADNI database using individual MR-based features, the presented results show that a comprehensive analysis of MRI images combining multiple features improves classification accuracy and predictive power in detecting early AD. The most stable and reliable classification was achieved when combining all available features.

  1. Programme level implementation of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) use: outcomes and cost of training health workers at lower level health care facilities in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyabayinze, Daniel J; Asiimwe, Caroline; Nakanjako, Damalie; Nabakooza, Jane; Bajabaite, Moses; Strachan, Clare; Tibenderana, James K; Van Geetruyden, Jean Pierre

    2012-04-20

    The training of health workers in the use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) is an important component of a wider strategy to improve parasite-based malaria diagnosis at lower level health care facilities (LLHFs) where microscopy is not readily available for all patients with suspected malaria. This study describes the process and cost of training to attain competence of lower level health workers to perform malaria RDTs in a public health system setting in eastern Uganda. Health workers from 21 health facilities in Uganda were given a one-day central training on the use of RDTs in malaria case management, including practical skills on how to perform read and interpret the test results. Successful trainees subsequently integrated the use of RDTs into their routine care for febrile patients at their LLHFs and transferred their acquired skills to colleagues (cascade training model). A cross-sectional evaluation of the health workers' competence in performing RDTs was conducted six weeks following the training, incorporating observation, in-depth interviews with health workers and the review of health facility records relating to tests offered and antimalarial drug (AMD) prescriptions pre and post training. The direct costs relating to the training processes were also documented. Overall, 135 health workers were trained including 63 (47%) nursing assistants, a group of care providers without formal medical training. All trainees passed the post-training concordance test with ≥ 80% except 12 that required re-training. Six weeks after the one-day training, 51/64 (80%) of the health workers accurately performed the critical steps in performing the RDT. The performance was similar among the 10 (16%) participants who were peer-trained by their trained colleagues. Only 9 (14%) did not draw the appropriate amount of blood using pipette. The average cost of the one-day training was US$ 101 (range $92-$112), with the main cost drivers being trainee travel and per

  2. Programme level implementation of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs use: outcomes and cost of training health workers at lower level health care facilities in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyabayinze Daniel J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The training of health workers in the use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs is an important component of a wider strategy to improve parasite-based malaria diagnosis at lower level health care facilities (LLHFs where microscopy is not readily available for all patients with suspected malaria. This study describes the process and cost of training to attain competence of lower level health workers to perform malaria RDTs in a public health system setting in eastern Uganda. Methods Health workers from 21 health facilities in Uganda were given a one-day central training on the use of RDTs in malaria case management, including practical skills on how to perform read and interpret the test results. Successful trainees subsequently integrated the use of RDTs into their routine care for febrile patients at their LLHFs and transferred their acquired skills to colleagues (cascade training model. A cross-sectional evaluation of the health workers’ competence in performing RDTs was conducted six weeks following the training, incorporating observation, in-depth interviews with health workers and the review of health facility records relating to tests offered and antimalarial drug (AMD prescriptions pre and post training. The direct costs relating to the training processes were also documented. Results Overall, 135 health workers were trained including 63 (47% nursing assistants, a group of care providers without formal medical training. All trainees passed the post-training concordance test with ≥ 80% except 12 that required re-training. Six weeks after the one-day training, 51/64 (80% of the health workers accurately performed the critical steps in performing the RDT. The performance was similar among the 10 (16% participants who were peer-trained by their trained colleagues. Only 9 (14% did not draw the appropriate amount of blood using pipette. The average cost of the one-day training was US$ 101 (range $92-$112, with the

  3. The diagnostic dilemma of tumor induced osteomalacia: a retrospective analysis of 144 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Juan; Jiang, Yan; Wang, Ou; Li, Mei; Xing, Xiaoping; Huo, Li; Li, Fang; Yu, Wei; Zhong, Ding-Rong; Jin, Jin; Liu, Yong; Qi, Fang; Lv, Wei; Zhou, Lian; Meng, Xun-Wu; Xia, Wei-Bo

    2017-07-28

    Diagnostic delay of tumor induced osteomalacia (TIO) is common in clinic practice. To investigate the diagnostic condition of TIO in China and raise clinicians' awareness of TIO, we retrospectively analyzed clinical manifestations, biochemical features, and specially evaluated missed diagnoses and misdiagnoses among 144 TIO patients from Peking Union Medical College Hospital during December 1982 to December 2014. Clinical presentations of TIO mainly included bone pain, difficulty in walking, pathological fractures, muscle weakness, and height loss. TIO patients demonstrated hypophosphatemia (0.48±0.13 mmol/L), elevated serum alkaline phosphatase (277.9±152.6 U/L), reduced tubular maximum for phosphorus/glomerular filtration rate (0.39±0.14) and markedly elevated serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) (median level 302.9 pg/mL). The average time from onset to a correct diagnosis was 2.9±2.3 years while the mean duration from onset to tumor resection was 5.4±4.2 years. The initial misdiagnosis rate was 95.1% (137/144) and 240 case-times of misdiagnoses occurred among the 144 cases. The most frequent misdiagnoses were intervertebral disc herniation, spondyloarthritis (including ankylosing spondylitis) and osteoporosis. A total of 43.1% (62/144) cases with hypophosphatemia presented on their laboratory sheets were neglected and missed diagnosed. Our study showed that TIO was frequently misdiagnosed and missed diagnosed due to its rarity, insidious onset, nonspecific clinical manifestations and clinicians' poor recognition. It is necessary to test serum phosphorus in patients with musculoskeletal symptoms and difficulty in walking. The measurement of serum FGF23 is rather valuable. Once hypophosphatemia is discovered, TIO should be suspected and it is highly recommended to search for tumors and perform curative surgery.

  4. Diagnostic values of FibroScan and FibroTouch for liver fibrosis: a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Na

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo compare the diagnostic values of FibroScan and FibroTouch for liver fibrosis. MethodsA total of 962 patients who visited Department of Hepatology, The First Hospital of Jilin University from September 2013 to March 2014 were enrolled. FibroScan and FibroTouch were performed among these patients. Thirty-three cases underwent liver biopsy, and Aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI was calculated in 66 patients (chronic hepatitis B (CHB: 53 cases; chronic hepatitis C (CHC: 13 cases. Spearman rank correlation test was used to analyze the correlation between the results measured by FibroScan and FibroTouch. The diagnostic values of FibroScan and FibroTouch for liver fibrosis were analyzed and compared by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve. ResultsThe analysis of liver stiffness measured by FibroScan and FibroTouch among all patients showed that the correlation coefficient between FibroScan and FibroTouch was 0.866 (P<0.05, n=962. FibroScan and FibroTouch were significantly correlated with APRI (r=0.58 and 0.63, P<0.05, n=66 and pathological stage determined by liver biopsy (r=0.67 and 0.74, P<0.05, n=33. Among patients with CHB, for the diagnosis of APRI ≥2 (liver cirrhosis, the areas under the ROC curve (AUCs of FibroScan and FibroTouch were 0.761 vs 0.728 (P=0.61; among patients with CHC, for the diagnosis of APRI ≥1 (liver cirrhosis, the AUCs of FibroScan and FibroTouch were 0.810 vs 0.893 (P=0.38. For pathological stages ≥S1, ≥S2, ≥S3, and ≥S4, the AUCs of FibroScan and FibroTouch were 0.830 vs 0.889 (P=0.15, 0.841 vs 0.835 (P=0.90, 0.888 vs 0.920 (P=0.43, and 0.964 vs 0.979 (P=0.45, respectively. ConclusionFibroScan and FibroTouch have comparable diagnostic values for liver fibrosis. However, the number of cases undergoing liver biopsy in this study was relatively small, and investigation of more cases is needed to make further confirmation.

  5. Diagnostic Performance of Magnifying Endoscopy for Helicobacter pylori Infection: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Qi

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection using magnifying endoscopy offers advantages over conventional invasive and noninvasive tests.This meta-analysis aimed to assess the diagnostic performance of magnifying endoscopy in the prediction of H. pylori infection.A literature search of the PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, Science Direct and the Cochrane Library databases was performed. A random-effects model was used to calculate the diagnostic efficiency of magnifying endoscopy for H. pylori infection. A summary receiver operator characteristic curve was plotted, and the area under the curve (AUC was calculated.A total of 18 studies involving 1897 patients were included. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of magnifying endoscopy to predict H. pylori infection were 0.89 [95% confidence interval (CI 0.87-0.91] and 0.82 (95%CI 0.79-0.85, respectively, with an AUC of 0.9461. When targeting the gastric antrum, the pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.82 (95%CI 0.78-0.86 and 0.72 (95%CI 0.66-0.78, respectively. When targeting the gastric corpus, the pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.92 (95%CI 0.90-0.94 and 0.86 (95%CI 0.82-0.88, respectively. The pooled sensitivity and specificity using magnifying white light endoscopy were 0.90 (95%CI 0.87-0.91 and 0.81 (95%CI 0.77-0.84, respectively. The pooled sensitivity and specificity using magnifying chromoendoscopy were 0.87 (95%CI 0.83-0.91 and 0.85 (95%CI 0.80-0.88, respectively. The "pit plus vascular pattern" classification in the gastric corpus observed by magnifying endoscopy was able to accurately predict the status of H. pylori infection, as indicated by a pooled sensitivity and specificity of 0.96 (95%CI 0.94-0.97 and 0.91 (95%CI 0.87-0.93, respectively, with an AUC of 0.9872.Magnifying endoscopy was able to accurately predict the status of H. pylori infection, either in magnifying white light endoscopy or magnifying chromoendoscopy mode. The "pit plus vascular pattern

  6. Multivariate analysis of diagnostic parameters derived from whole-kidney and parenchymal time-activity curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, H.; Mostbeck, A.; Samal, M.; Nimmon, C.C.; Staudenherz, A.; Dudczak, R.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: In a previous work, we have confirmed earlier reports that time-activity curves of renal cortex provide additional useful diagnostic information. The aim of this experiment was to support the finding quantitatively using multiple regression. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective study, we have analyzed MAG3 renal data (90 kidneys in 57 children). Whole-kidney (WK) and parenchymal (PA) time-activity curves were extracted from 20 min pre-diuretic phase using standard WK and parenchymal fuzzy ROIs. Using multiple regression analysis, peak time, mean transit time, output efficiency, and four additional indices of residual activity in WK and PA ROIs were related to the maximum elimination rate (EM) of urine after the diuretic. The kidneys were divided into four groups according to the WK peak time (WKPT): WKPT longer than 0 (all kidneys), 5, 10, and 15 min. Results: Multiple correlation coefficients between the set of WK, PA, and WK+PA curve parameters (independent variables) and the log EM (dependent variable) for each group are summarized. Conclusions: Using pre-diuretic time-activity curves, it is possible to predict diuretic response. This can be useful when interpreting dubious results. Parenchymal curves predict diuretic response better than the whole-kidney curves. With increasing WKPT the whole-kidney curves become useless, while the parenchymal curves are still useful. Using both WK and PA curves produces the best results. This demonstrates that both WK and PA curves carry independent diagnostic information. The contribution obtained from the parenchymal curves certainly worth the difficulties and time required to draw additional ROIs. However, substantial efforts have to be given to the accurate and reproducible definition of parenchymal ROIs

  7. Software architecture and design of the web services facilitating climate model diagnostic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, L.; Lee, S.; Zhang, J.; Tang, B.; Zhai, C.; Jiang, J. H.; Wang, W.; Bao, Q.; Qi, M.; Kubar, T. L.; Teixeira, J.

    2015-12-01

    Climate model diagnostic analysis is a computationally- and data-intensive task because it involves multiple numerical model outputs and satellite observation data that can both be high resolution. We have built an online tool that facilitates this process. The tool is called Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer (CMDA). It employs the web service technology and provides a web-based user interface. The benefits of these choices include: (1) No installation of any software other than a browser, hence it is platform compatable; (2) Co-location of computation and big data on the server side, and small results and plots to be downloaded on the client side, hence high data efficiency; (3) multi-threaded implementation to achieve parallel performance on multi-core servers; and (4) cloud deployment so each user has a dedicated virtual machine. In this presentation, we will focus on the computer science aspects of this tool, namely the architectural design, the infrastructure of the web services, the implementation of the web-based user interface, the mechanism of provenance collection, the approach to virtualization, and the Amazon Cloud deployment. As an example, We will describe our methodology to transform an existing science application code into a web service using a Python wrapper interface and Python web service frameworks (i.e., Flask, Gunicorn, and Tornado). Another example is the use of Docker, a light-weight virtualization container, to distribute and deploy CMDA onto an Amazon EC2 instance. Our tool of CMDA has been successfully used in the 2014 Summer School hosted by the JPL Center for Climate Science. Students had positive feedbacks in general and we will report their comments. An enhanced version of CMDA with several new features, some requested by the 2014 students, will be used in the 2015 Summer School soon.

  8. The meaning of diagnostic test results: A spreadsheet for swift data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacEneaney, Peter M.; Malone, Dermot E.

    2000-01-01

    AIMS: To design a spreadsheet program to: (a) analyse rapidly diagnostic test result data produced in local research or reported in the literature; (b) correct reported predictive values for disease prevalence in any population; (c) estimate the post-test probability of disease in individual patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Microsoft Excel TM was used. Section A: a contingency (2 x 2) table was incorporated into the spreadsheet. Formulae for standard calculations [sample size, disease prevalence, sensitivity and specificity with 95% confidence intervals, predictive values and likelihood ratios (LRs)] were linked to this table. The results change automatically when the data in the true or false negative and positive cells are changed. Section B: this estimates predictive values in any population, compensating for altered disease prevalence. Sections C-F: Bayes' theorem was incorporated to generate individual post-test probabilities. The spreadsheet generates 95% confidence intervals, LRs and a table and graph of conditional probabilities once the sensitivity and specificity of the test are entered. The latter shows the expected post-test probability of disease for any pre-test probability when a test of known sensitivity and specificity is positive or negative. RESULTS: This spreadsheet can be used on desktop and palmtop computers. The MS Excel TM version can be downloaded via the Internet from the URL ftp://radiography.com/pub/Rad-data99.xls CONCLUSION: A spreadsheet is useful for contingency table data analysis and assessment of the clinical meaning of diagnostic test results. MacEneaney, P.M., Malone, D.E. (2000)

  9. Co-inheritance of α0 -thalassemia elevates Hb A2 level in homozygous Hb E: Diagnostic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singha, K; Srivorakun, H; Fucharoen, G; Fucharoen, S

    2017-10-01

    Differentiation of homozygous hemoglobin (Hb) E with and without α 0 -thalassemia is subtle on routine hematological ground. We examined in a large cohort of homozygous Hb E if the level of Hb A 2 is helpful. A total of 592 subjects with homozygous Hb E were recruited from ongoing thalassemia screening program. Additionally, five couples at risk of having fetuses with Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis who were homozygous Hb E were also investigated. Hb analysis was performed using capillary electrophoresis system. Globin genotypes were defined by DNA analysis. Subjects were classified into four groups including pure homozygous Hb E (n=532), homozygous Hb E/α 0 -thalassemia (n=48), Hb Constant Spring EE Bart's disease (n=8), and Hb EE Bart's disease (n=4). The levels of Hb A 2 were found, respectively, to be 4.97±0.69, 6.64±1.02, 4.86±0.87, and 7.60±1.04%. Among five couples at risk, α 0 -thalassemia was identified in three subjects with Hb A 2 >6.0%. Increased Hb A 2 level is a useful marker for differentiation of homozygous Hb E with and without α 0 -thalassemia. This should lead to a significant reduction in number of referral cases of homozygous Hb E for molecular testing of α 0 -thalassemia in routine practice. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Diagnostic value of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide for pleural effusion due to heart failure: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Q; Ye, Z J; Su, Y; Zhang, J C; Shi, H Z

    2010-08-01

    N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is a biomarker useful in diagnosis of pleural effusion due to heart failure. Thus far, its overall diagnostic accuracy has not been systematically reviewed. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to establish the overall diagnostic accuracy of the measurement of pleural NT-proBNP for identifying pleural effusion due to heart failure. After a systematic review of English-language studies, sensitivity, specificity, and other measures of accuracy of NT-proBNP concentrations in pleural fluid in the diagnosis of pleural effusion resulting from heart failure were pooled using fixed-effects models. Summary receiver operating characteristic curves were used to summarise overall test performance. Eight publications met the inclusion criteria. The summary estimates for pleural NT-proBNP in the diagnosis of pleural effusion attributable to heart failure were: sensitivity 0.95 (95% CI 0.92 to 0.97), specificity 0.94 (0.92 to 0.96), positive likelihood ratio 14.12 (10.23 to 19.51), negative likelihood ratio 0.06 (0.04 to 0.09) and diagnostic OR 213.87 (122.50 to 373.40). NT-proBNP levels in pleural fluid showed a high diagnostic accuracy and may help accurately differentiate cardiac from non-cardiac conditions in patients presenting with pleural effusion.

  11. Diagnostic yield of ink-jet prints from digital radiographs for the assessment of approximal carious lesions: ROC-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, Ralf K.W.; Grimm, Stefanie; Schulze, Dirk; Voss, Kai; Keller, Hans-Peter; Wedel, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the diagnostic quality of different quality, individually calibrated ink-jet printers for the very challenging dental radiographic task of approximal carious lesion detection. Materials and methods: A test-pattern evaluating resolution, contrast and homogeneity of the ink-jet prints was developed. 50 standardized dental radiographs each showing two neighbouring teeth in natural contact were printed on glossy paper with calibrated, randomly selected ink-jet printers (Canon S520 and iP4500, Epson Stylus Photo R2400). Printing size equalled the viewing size on a 17'' cathode-ray-tube monitor daily quality-tested according to German regulations. The true caries status was determined from serial sectioning and microscopic evaluation. 16 experienced observers evaluated the radiographs on a five-point confidence scale on all prints plus the viewing monitor with respect to the visibility of a carious lesion. A non-parametric Receiver-Operating Characteristics (ROC-) analysis was performed explicitly designed for the evaluation of readings stemming from identical samples but different modality. Significant differences are expressed by a critical ratio z exceeding ±2. Diagnostic accuracy was determined by the area (Az) underneath the ROC-curves. Results: Average Az-values ranged between 0.62 (S520 and R2400) and 0.64 (monitor, iP4500), with no significant difference between modalities (P = 0.172). Neither significant (range mean z: -0.40 (S520) and -0.11 (iP4500)) nor clinically relevant differences were found between printers and viewing monitor. Conclusions: Our results for a challenging task in dental radiography indicate that calibrated, off-the-shelf ink-jet printers are able to reproduce (dental) radiographs at quality levels sufficient for radiographic diagnosis in a typical dental working environment.

  12. Alternative diagnostic strategies for coronary artery disease in women: demonstration of the usefulness and efficiency of probability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melin, J.A.; Wijns, W.; Vanbutsele, R.J.; Robert, A.; De Coster, P.; Brasseur, L.A.; Beckers, C.; Detry, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Alternative strategies using conditional probability analysis for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) were examined in 93 infarct-free women presenting with chest pain. Another group of 42 consecutive female patients was prospectively analyzed. For this latter group, the physician had access to the pretest and posttest probability of CAD before coronary angiography. These 135 women all underwent stress electrocardiographic, thallium scintigraphic, and coronary angiographic examination. The pretest and posttest probabilities of coronary disease were derived from a computerized Bayesian algorithm. Probability estimates were calculated by the four following hypothetical strategies: SO, in which history, including risk factors, was considered; S1, in which history and stress electrocardiographic results were considered; S2, in which history and stress electrocardiographic and stress thallium scintigraphic results were considered; and S3, in which history and stress electrocardiographic results were used, but in which stress scintigraphic results were considered only if the poststress probability of CAD was between 10% and 90%, i.e., if a sufficient level of diagnostic certainty could not be obtained with the electrocardiographic results alone. The strategies were compared with respect to accuracy with the coronary angiogram as the standard. For both groups of women, S2 and S3 were found to be the most accurate in predicting the presence or absence of coronary disease (p less than .05). However, it was found with use of S3 that more than one-third of the thallium scintigrams could have been avoided without loss of accuracy. It was also found that diagnostic catheterization performed to exclude CAD as a diagnosis could have been avoided in half of the patients without loss of accuracy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Diagnostic yield of ink-jet prints from digital radiographs for the assessment of approximal carious lesions: ROC-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, Ralf K.W., E-mail: rschulze@mail.uni-mainz.de [Poliklinik fuer Zahnaerztliche Chirurgie, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University, Augustusplatz 2, D-55131 Mainz (Germany); Grimm, Stefanie, E-mail: StefanieGrimm@gmx.de [Poliklinik fuer Zahnaerztliche Chirurgie, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University, Augustusplatz 2, D-55131 Mainz (Germany); Schulze, Dirk, E-mail: dirk.schulze@uniklinik-freiburg.de [Klinik fuer Mund,- Kiefer- und Gesichtschirurgie, Sektion Roentgen, Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg, Hugstetterstr. 55, D-79106 Freiburg (Germany); Voss, Kai, E-mail: zahnarzt@drvoss.eu [Zahnaerztekammer Schleswig-Holstein, Vorstand fuer Praxisfuehrung, Westring 496, D- 24106 Kiel (Germany); Keller, Hans-Peter, E-mail: hans-peter.keller@din.de [NA Dental (NADENT) im DIN, Alexander-Wellendorff-Str. 2, D-75172 Pforzheim (Germany); Wedel, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.wedel@siemens.com [Siemens AG, Medical Solutions, Postfach 32 60, D-91050 Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    Aims: To investigate the diagnostic quality of different quality, individually calibrated ink-jet printers for the very challenging dental radiographic task of approximal carious lesion detection. Materials and methods: A test-pattern evaluating resolution, contrast and homogeneity of the ink-jet prints was developed. 50 standardized dental radiographs each showing two neighbouring teeth in natural contact were printed on glossy paper with calibrated, randomly selected ink-jet printers (Canon S520 and iP4500, Epson Stylus Photo R2400). Printing size equalled the viewing size on a 17'' cathode-ray-tube monitor daily quality-tested according to German regulations. The true caries status was determined from serial sectioning and microscopic evaluation. 16 experienced observers evaluated the radiographs on a five-point confidence scale on all prints plus the viewing monitor with respect to the visibility of a carious lesion. A non-parametric Receiver-Operating Characteristics (ROC-) analysis was performed explicitly designed for the evaluation of readings stemming from identical samples but different modality. Significant differences are expressed by a critical ratio z exceeding {+-}2. Diagnostic accuracy was determined by the area (Az) underneath the ROC-curves. Results: Average Az-values ranged between 0.62 (S520 and R2400) and 0.64 (monitor, iP4500), with no significant difference between modalities (P = 0.172). Neither significant (range mean z: -0.40 (S520) and -0.11 (iP4500)) nor clinically relevant differences were found between printers and viewing monitor. Conclusions: Our results for a challenging task in dental radiography indicate that calibrated, off-the-shelf ink-jet printers are able to reproduce (dental) radiographs at quality levels sufficient for radiographic diagnosis in a typical dental working environment.

  14. Diagnostic Performance of Serum IgG4 Levels in Patients With IgG4-Related Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kuang-Hui; Chan, Tien-Ming; Tsai, Ping-Han; Chen, Ching-Hui; Chang, Pi-Yueh

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study is to study the clinical features and diagnostic performance of IgG4 in Chinese populations with IgG4-related diseases (IgG4-RDs). The medical records of 2901 adult subjects who underwent serum IgG4 level tests conducted between December 2007 and May 2014 were reviewed. Serum concentrations of IgG4 were measured in 2901 cases, including 161 (5.6%) patients with IgG4-RD and 2740 (94.4%) patients without IgG4-RD (non-IgG4-RD group). The mean age of the IgG4-RD patients was 58.4 ± 16.1 years (range: 21–87), and 48 (29.8%) were women. The mean serum IgG4 level was significantly much higher in IgG4-RD patients than in non-IgG4-RD (1062.6 vs 104.3 mg/dL, P IgG4 >135 mg/dL, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), likelihood ratio (LR)+, and LR− were 86%, 77%, 18%, 99%, 3.70, and 0.19, respectively. When the upper limit of normal was doubled for an IgG4 >270 mg/dL, the corresponding data were 75%, 94%, 43%, 98%, 12.79, and 0.26, respectively. For IgG4 >405 mg/dL (tripling the upper limit of normal), the corresponding data were 62%, 98%, 68%, 98%, 37.00, and 0.39, respectively. When calculated according to the manufacturer's package insert cutoff (>201 mg/dL) for the diagnosis of IgG4-RD, the corresponding sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, LR+, and LR− were 80%, 89%, 29%, 99%, 7.00, and 0.23, respectively. For IgG4 >402 mg/dL (>2× the upper limit of the normal range), the corresponding data were 62%, 98%, 68%, 98%, 36.21, and 0.39, respectively. For IgG4 >603 mg/dL (>3× the upper limit of the normal range), the corresponding data were 50%, 99%, 84%, 97%, 90.77 and 0.51, respectively. The optimal cutoff value of serum IgG4 (measured by nephelometry using a Siemens BN ProSpec instrument and Siemens reagent) for the diagnosis of IgG4-RD was 248 mg/dL, the sensitivity and specificity were 77.6% and 92.8%, respectively. The present study demonstrated that 2 or

  15. Exploring the utility of narrative analysis in diagnostic decision making: picture-bound reference, elaboration, and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, John C; Coggins, Truman E; Carmichael Olson, Heather; Astley, Susan J

    2007-04-01

    To evaluate classification accuracy and clinical feasibility of a narrative analysis tool for identifying children with a fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Picture-elicited narratives generated by 16 age-matched pairs of school-aged children (FASD vs. typical development [TD]) were coded for semantic elaboration and reference strategy by judges who were unaware of age, gender, and group membership of the participants. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to examine the classification accuracy of the resulting set of narrative measures for making 2 classifications: (a) for the 16 children diagnosed with FASD, low performance (n = 7) versus average performance (n = 9) on a standardized expressive language task and (b) FASD (n = 16) versus TD (n = 16). Combining the rates of semantic elaboration and pragmatically inappropriate reference perfectly matched a classification based on performance on the standardized language task. More importantly, the rate of ambiguous nominal reference was highly accurate in classifying children with an FASD regardless of their performance on the standardized language task (area under the ROC curve = .863, confidence interval = .736-.991). Results support further study of the diagnostic utility of narrative analysis using discourse level measures of elaboration and children's strategic use of reference.

  16. Diagnostic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, C.F.; Brisson, D.A.; Greco, S.E.

    1978-01-01

    During the past year the far-infrared or submillimeter diagnostic research program resulted in three major developments: (1) an optically pumped 0.385-μm D 2 O-laser oscillator-amplifier system was operated at a power level of 1 MW with a line width of less than 50 MHz; (2) a conical Pyrex submillimeter laser beam dump with a retention efficiency greater than 10 4 was developed for the ion temperature Thompson scattering experiment; and (3) a new diagnostic technique was developed that makes use of the Faraday rotation of a modulated submillimeter laser beam to determine plasma current profile. Measurements of the asymmetric distortion of the H/sub α/ (6563 A) spectral line profile show that the effective toroidal drift velocity, dv/sub two vertical bars i/dT/sub i/, may be used as an indicator of plasma quality and as a complement to other ion temperature diagnostics

  17. Analysis and Interpretation of the Plasma Dynamic Response to Additional Heating Power using different Diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manini, A.

    2002-07-01

    development of this work, the Electron Cyclotron Emission system (ECE) of ASDEX Upgrade is crucial since it allows local measurements of the electron temperature with high temporal and spatial resolutions. The analysis and interpretation of perturbative MECH discharges for power deposition localisation using different diagnostics, such as ECE and SXR measurements, are presented. The most important problem is related to the phase locking between the MECH and the sawtooth activity of the plasma, which disturbs both ECE and SXR measurements. Several techniques have been adopted to circumvent this difficulty. In particular, the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and the Generalised Singular Value Decomposition (GSVD) have been tested in both TCV and ASDEX Upgrade discharges. However, both methods are incapable of treating the problem correctly, which leads to potential misinterpretation of the results. A new method based on system identification using the SVD (SI-SVD) is developed and applied. This method, within reasonable limits induced by the assumption of linearity, is capable of simultaneously separating the MECH from the sawtooth contributions to both ECE electron temperature measurements and SXR emission measurements. Such a method is in particular applied to a NBI heated ASDEX Upgrade discharge in which MECH is added in order to analyse electron heat transport in a mostly ion-heated plasma. Since the NBI heating is also partly modulated with short pulses, which coincide with the sawtooth crashes to improve their stability, both the MECH and the NBI deposition profiles are determined. Moreover, treating the signals with the SI-SVD procedure enables a study of the plasma dynamic response also at higher MECH harmonic numbers. The procedure is then used to analyse MECH discharges in TCV using different diagnostics. The profiles determined using the ECE and soft X-ray measurements are compared and interpreted, demonstrating in particular that line integrated soft X

  18. Development of a diagnostic expert system for eddy current data analysis using applied artificial intelligence methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyaya, B.R.; Yan, W.; Henry, G.

    1999-01-01

    A diagnostic expert system that integrates database management methods, artificial neural networks, and decision-making using fuzzy logic has been developed for the automation of steam generator eddy current test (ECT) data analysis. The new system, known as EDDYAI, considers the following key issues: (1) digital eddy current test data calibration, compression, and representation; (2) development of robust neural networks with low probability of misclassification for flaw depth estimation; (3) flaw detection using fuzzy logic; (4) development of an expert system for database management, compilation of a trained neural network library, and a decision module; and (5) evaluation of the integrated approach using eddy current data. The implementation to field test data includes the selection of proper feature vectors for ECT data analysis, development of a methodology for large eddy current database management, artificial neural networks for flaw depth estimation, and a fuzzy logic decision algorithm for flaw detection. A large eddy current inspection database from the Electric Power Research Institute NDE Center is being utilized in this research towards the development of an expert system for steam generator tube diagnosis. The integration of ECT data pre-processing as part of the data management, fuzzy logic flaw detection technique, and tube defect parameter estimation using artificial neural networks are the fundamental contributions of this research. (orig.)

  19. Development of a diagnostic expert system for eddy current data analysis using applied artificial intelligence methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyaya, B.R.; Yan, W. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Behravesh, M.M. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Henry, G. [EPRI NDE Center, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    1999-09-01

    A diagnostic expert system that integrates database management methods, artificial neural networks, and decision-making using fuzzy logic has been developed for the automation of steam generator eddy current test (ECT) data analysis. The new system, known as EDDYAI, considers the following key issues: (1) digital eddy current test data calibration, compression, and representation; (2) development of robust neural networks with low probability of misclassification for flaw depth estimation; (3) flaw detection using fuzzy logic; (4) development of an expert system for database management, compilation of a trained neural network library, and a decision module; and (5) evaluation of the integrated approach using eddy current data. The implementation to field test data includes the selection of proper feature vectors for ECT data analysis, development of a methodology for large eddy current database management, artificial neural networks for flaw depth estimation, and a fuzzy logic decision algorithm for flaw detection. A large eddy current inspection database from the Electric Power Research Institute NDE Center is being utilized in this research towards the development of an expert system for steam generator tube diagnosis. The integration of ECT data pre-processing as part of the data management, fuzzy logic flaw detection technique, and tube defect parameter estimation using artificial neural networks are the fundamental contributions of this research. (orig.)

  20. Some methods of analysis and diagnostics of corroded components from nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogosan, S.; Radulescu, M.; Fulger, M.; Stefanescu, D.

    2010-01-01

    In Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) it is necessary to ensure a longer and safe operation as difficult and expensive it is the maintenance of these very complex installations and equipment. In this regard, The Analysis and Diagnostic Laboratory Corroded Metal Components in Nuclear Facilities-LADICON; was authorized RENAR and CNCAN (National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control) notified as a testing laboratory for nuclear-grade materials. As part of the investigation and evaluation of corrosion behavior for these materials two types of test methods are used i.e. longer corrosion tests such as: autoclaving at high temperature and pressure in different chemical media-specific patterns in NPP and accelerated methods like: electrochemical techniques, accelerated chemical tests, etc. This paper presents some methods of analysis for materials corrosion; methods of assessment of corrosion of structural materials exposed to specific operating conditions and environment in NPPs. The electrochemical measurements show the following advantages: a) Allowing a direct method to accelerate the corrosion processes without altering the environment, b) It can be used as an nondestructive tool for assessing the rate of corrosion and c) Offers the possibility of conducting such investigations in - situ and ex- situ. Corroborating the environmental chemistry that was born on samples movies investigation results obtained by the methods above, it is possible to identify the types of corrosion of the materials and sometimes even those processes and mechanisms of corrosion. (authors)

  1. The diagnostic value of intraocular fluid analysis by polymerase chain reaction in Thai patients with uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathanapitoon, Kessara; Kongyai, Natedao; Sirirungsi, Wasna; de Groot-Mijnes, Jolanda D F; Leechanachai, Pranee; Choovuthayakorn, Janejit; Kunavisarut, Paradee; Rothova, Aniki

    2011-11-01

    Uveitis is a major cause of severe visual impairment throughout the world and can be initiated by various infectious and non-infectious causes. Early recognition of specific infections is important as the treatment with antimicrobial agents might stop the progression or even cure the eye disease. To determine the infectious causes of uveitis in Thailand, intraocular fluid samples of 100 HIV-negative patients and 47 HIV-positive patients with uveitis were examined using real-time PCR analysis for herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, cytomegalovirus and Toxoplasma gondii. Positive PCR results were found in 33/100 (33%) HIV-negative patients and in 33/47 (70%) HIV-positive patients with uveitis. In Thailand, cytomegalovirus was identified as the most frequent cause of infectious uveitis in both HIV-negative and HIV-positive patients (49 and 91%, respectively). PCR analysis of intraocular samples in uveitis was a valuable diagnostic assay. The pattern of uveitis observed in the Far East differs from that found in the West. Copyright © 2011 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Diagnostic value of immunoglobulin κ light chain gene rearrangement analysis in B-cell lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokovic, Ira; Jezersek Novakovic, Barbara; Novakovic, Srdjan

    2015-03-01

    Analysis of the immunoglobulin κ light chain (IGK) gene is an alternative method for B-cell clonality assessment in the diagnosis of mature B-cell proliferations in which the detection of clonal immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) gene rearrangements fails. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the added value of standardized BIOMED-2 assay for the detection of clonal IGK gene rearrangements in the diagnostic setting of suspected B-cell lymphomas. With this purpose, 92 specimens from 80 patients with the final diagnosis of mature B-cell lymphoma (37 specimens), mature T-cell lymphoma (26 specimens) and reactive lymphoid proliferation (29 specimens) were analyzed for B-cell clonality. B-cell clonality analysis was performed using the BIOMED-2 IGH and IGK gene clonality assays. The determined sensitivity of the IGK assay was 67.6%, while the determined sensitivity of the IGH assay was 75.7%. The sensitivity of combined IGH+IGK assay was 81.1%. The determined specificity of the IGK assay was 96.2% in the group of T-cell lymphomas and 96.6% in the group of reactive lesions. The determined specificity of the IGH assay was 84.6% in the group of lymphomas and 86.2% in the group of reactive lesions. The comparison of GeneScan (GS) and heteroduplex pretreatment-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (HD-PAGE) methods for the analysis of IGK gene rearrangements showed a higher efficacy of GS analysis in a series of 27 B-cell lymphomas analyzed by both methods. In the present study, we demonstrated that by applying the combined IGH+IGK clonality assay the overall detection rate of B-cell clonality was increased by 5.4%. Thus, we confirmed the added value of the standardized BIOMED-2 IGK assay for assessment of B-cell clonality in suspected B-cell lymphomas with inconclusive clinical and cyto/histological diagnosis.

  3. Study on the diagnostic value of determination of changes of serum CA125 and CA19-9 levels in patients with endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Aimin

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the diagnostic value of determination of changes of serum CA125 and CA19-9 levels in patients with endometriosis. Methods: Serum CA125 and CA19-9 levels were determined with RIA in 45 patients with endometriosis and 40 controls. Results: Serum levels of CA125 and CA19-9 in patients with endometriosis (89.63 ± 30.16u/ml and 95.62±43.67u/ml respectively) were significantly higher than those (16.26±6.37u/ml and 20.26±8.25u/ml respectively) in controls (P<0. 001). Sensitivity of CA125 for diagnosis of endometriosis was 77.78% and that of CA19-9 was 62.22%, while the specificity was 92.50% and 90.00% respectively. If we only took the patients with both markers elevated as being diagnostically positive, the sensitivity would naturally be lower (57.78%) but the specificity would be 100%. Levels of the markers were significantly higher in stage III, IV patients than those in patients with stage I, II disease (P<0.01). Conclusion: Combined determination of serum CA125 and CA19-9 levels were of highly specific diagnostic value in patients with endometriosis. (authors)

  4. Preanalytical blood sample workup for cell-free DNA analysis using Droplet Digital PCR for future molecular cancer diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ginkel, Joost H.; van den Broek, Daan A.; van Kuik, Joyce; Linders, Dorothé; de Weger, Roel; Willems, Stefan M.; Huibers, Manon M.H.

    2017-01-01

    In current molecular cancer diagnostics, using blood samples of cancer patients for the detection of genetic alterations in plasma (cell-free) circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is an emerging practice. Since ctDNA levels in blood are low, highly sensitive Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCR) can be used for

  5. Computed Tomography (CT) radiation dose in children: A survey to propose regional diagnostic reference levels in Greater Accra-Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addo, Patience

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the doses delivered to paediatric patients during computed tomography (CT) examinations of the head, chest and abdomen, and establishing regional diagnostic reference levels (RDRLs) for four age groups. The patient data, technique parameters and dose descriptors collected include: age, sex, tube voltage, tube current, rotation time, slice thickness, scan length, volume CT dose index (CTDI_v_o_l) and dose length product (DLP). Currently, paediatric CT examinations account for 11% of radiation exposure. For the paediatric age groups; < 1 year, (1-5 years), (6-10 years) and (11-15 years), the proposed RDRLs for head in terms of CTDI_v_o_l are (28, 38, 48 and 86 mGy) and in terms of DLP; (395, 487, 601, 1614 mGy cm) respectively. For Chest examinations, proposed RDRLs in terms of CTDI_v_o_l are (1 and 5 mGy) and in terms of DLP; (18 and 110 mGy cm) for age groups; < 1 year and (1-5 years) respectively. For Abdomino-pelvic examinations, proposed RDRLs in terms of CTDI_v_o_l are (3, 3 and 10 mGy) and in terms of DLP; (71, 120 and 494 mGy cm) for age groups; < 1 year, (1-5 years) and (6-10 years) respectively. For abdomen examinations, proposed RDRLs in terms of CTDI_v_o_l are (3, 5 and 5 mGy) and in terms of DLP; (83, 124 and 233 mGy cm) for age groups; < 1 year, (1-5 years) and (11-15 years) respectively. RDRLs have been proposed for CTDI_v_o_l and DLP for head, chest, abdomen and Abdomino-pelvic paediatric CT examinations in this study. An optimisation is required for 11-15 years age group for the DLP values which was higher than their corresponding international DRLs. For an effective optimization of patient protection a trade-off between image quality and patients doses studies should be investigated. (au)

  6. Problem Representation, Background Evidence, Analysis, Recommendation: An Oral Case Presentation Tool to Promote Diagnostic Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Cristina; Akar-Ghibril, Nicole; Sestokas, Jeff; Dixon, Gabrina; Bradford, Wilhelmina; Ottolini, Mary

    2018-03-01

    Oral case presentations provide an opportunity for trainees to communicate diagnostic reasoning at the bedside. However, few tools exist to enable faculty to provide effective feedback. We developed a tool to assess diagnostic reasoning and communication during oral case presentations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. The Application of Strength of Association Statistics to the Item Analysis of an In-Training Examination in Diagnostic Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, James J.; McCormick, Janet

    1986-01-01

    Using item responses from an in-training examination in diagnostic radiology, the application of a strength of association statistic to the general problem of item analysis is illustrated. Criteria for item selection, general issues of reliability, and error of measurement are discussed. (Author/LMO)

  8. Molecular tools for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis: systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, C. M.; van der Veer, C.; Leeflang, M. M. G.; Deborggraeve, S.; Lucas, C.; Adams, E. R.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular methods have been proposed as highly sensitive tools for the detection of Leishmania parasites in visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients. Here, we evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of these tools in a meta-analysis of the published literature. The selection criteria were original studies that

  9. The Diagnostic Value of Capillary Refill Time for Detecting Serious Illness in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Susannah; Gill, Peter; Jones, Caroline; Taylor, James A.; Van den Bruel, Ann; Heneghan, Carl; Roberts, Nia; Thompson, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Importance Capillary refill time (CRT) is widely recommended as part of the routine assessment of unwell children. Objective To determine the diagnostic value of capillary refill time for a range of serious outcomes in children. Methods We searched Medline, Embase and CINAHL from inception to June 2014. We included studies that measured both capillary refill time and a relevant clinical outcome such as mortality, dehydration, meningitis, or other serious illnesses in children aged up to 18 years of age. We screened 1,265 references, of which 24 papers were included in this review. Where sufficient studies were available, we conducted meta-analysis and constructed hierarchical summary ROC curves. Results Meta-analysis on the relationship between capillary refill time and mortality resulted in sensitivity of 34.6% (95% CI 23.9 to 47.1%), specificity 92.3% (88.6 to 94.8%), positive likelihood ratio 4.49 (3.06 to 6.57), and negative likelihood ratio 0.71 (0.60 to 0.84). Studies of children attending Emergency Departments with vomiting and diarrhea showed that capillary refill time had specificity of 89 to 94% for identifying 5% dehydration, but sensitivity ranged from 0 to 94%. This level of heterogeneity precluded formal meta-analysis of this outcome. Meta-analysis was not possible for other outcomes due to insufficient data, but we found consistently high specificity for a range of outcomes including meningitis, sepsis, admission to hospital, hypoxia, severity of illness and dengue. Conclusions Our results show that capillary refill time is a specific sign, indicating that it can be used as a “red-flag”: children with prolonged capillary refill time have a four-fold risk of dying compared to children with normal capillary refill time. The low sensitivity means that a normal capillary refill time should not reassure clinicians. PMID:26375953

  10. The diagnostic performance of CT-derived fractional flow reserve for evaluation of myocardial ischaemia confirmed by invasive fractional flow reserve: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S; Tang, X; Peng, L; Luo, Y; Dong, R; Liu, J

    2015-05-01

    To review the literature on the diagnostic accuracy of CT-derived fractional flow reserve (FFRCT) for the evaluation of myocardial ischaemia in patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease, with invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR) as the reference standard. A PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane cross-search was performed. The pooled diagnostic accuracy of FFRCT, with FFR as the reference standard, was primarily analysed, and then compared with that of CT angiography (CTA). The thresholds to diagnose ischaemia were FFR ≤0.80 or CTA ≥50% stenosis. Data extraction, synthesis, and statistical analysis were performed by standard meta-analysis methods. Three multicentre studies (NXT Trial, DISCOVER-FLOW study and DeFACTO study) were included, examining 609 patients and 1050 vessels. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), positive likelihood ratio (LR+), negative likelihood ratio (LR-), and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) for FFRCT were 89% (85-93%), 71% (65-75%), 70% (65-75%), 90% (85-93%), 3.31 (1.79-6.14), 0.16 (0.11-0.23), and 21.21 (9.15-49.15) at the patient-level, and 83% (78-63%), 78% (75-81%), 61% (56-65%), 92% (89-90%), 4.02 (1.84-8.80), 0.22 (0.13-0.35), and 19.15 (5.73-63.93) at the vessel-level. At per-patient analysis, FFRCT has similar sensitivity but improved specificity, PPV, NPV, LR+, LR-, and DOR versus those of CTA. At per-vessel analysis, FFRCT had a slightly lower sensitivity, similar NPV, but improved specificity, PPV, LR+, LR-, and DOR compared with those of CTA. The area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curves for FFRCT was 0.8909 at patient-level and 0.8865 at vessel-level, versus 0.7402 for CTA at patient-level. FFRCT, which was associated with improved diagnostic accuracy versus CTA, is a viable alternative to FFR for detecting coronary ischaemic lesions. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sea level rise and the geoid: factor analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Sadovski

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Sea levels are rising around the world, and this is a particular concern along most of the coasts of the United States. A 1989 EPA report shows that sea levels rose 5-6 inches more than the global average along the Mid-Atlantic and Gulf Coasts in the last century. The main reason for this is coastal land subsidence. This sea level rise is considered more as relative sea level rise than global sea level rise. Thus, instead of studying sea level rise globally, this paper describes a statistical approach by using factor analysis of regional sea level rates of change. Unlike physical models and semi-empirical models that attempt to approach how much and how fast sea levels are changing, this methodology allows for a discussion of the factor(s that statistically affects sea level rates of change, and seeks patterns to explain spatial correlations.

  12. Bibliometric analysis of journal of clinical and diagnostic research (dentistry section; 2007-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Swati; Basavaraj, P; Singla, Ashish; Singh, Khushboo; Kundu, Hansa; Vashishtha, Vaibhav; Pandita, Venisha; Malhi, Ravneet

    2015-04-01

    The role of scientific journals in diffusion of data concerning researches in the field of Public Health Dentistry is of premier importance. Bibliometric analysis involves analysis of publications reflecting the type of research work. The present study was conducted with an aim to determine the number and trends of published articles in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) from Feb. 2007 to Oct.2014. A retrospective observational study was conducted for JCDR. All issues of JCDR were electronically searched for the parameters : study design, area of interest of research, state /college where research was conducted, authorship pattern, source of articles published each year, changing study trends, disease under study and publication bias. The data was organized and analyzed using software SPSS - version 21.0; descriptive statistics was used. Bibliometric analysis was done for 601 articles of JCDR published from Feb. 2007 to Oct. 2014. The total number of articles published under Dentistry section have tremendously increased from mere 2 articles in 2007 to 328 articles in 2014.Majority of the study designs published in both the journal were case reports (42.6%) followed by cross sectional studies (24.8%). 96.3% of the articles were from India. Majority of the articles published were of multi authors (65.2%) and from Educational institutes (98.4%). The trends of the articles published indicated that the case reports/series formed the major bulk (others=59.1%) followed by research studies (21.3%). It was concluded that most articles published were case reports followed by researches indicating an inclination towards better quality methodology. The SJR and the citation count of the articles published also indicated the quality of the scientific articles published.

  13. Cost-effectiveness analysis of rapid diagnostic test, microscopy and syndromic approach in the diagnosis of malaria in Nigeria: implications for scaling-up deployment of ACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onwujekwe Obinna E

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis and treatment of malaria is often based on syndromic presentation (presumptive treatment and microscopic examination of blood films. Treatment based on syndromic approach has been found to be costly, and contributes to the development of drug resistance, while microscopic diagnosis of malaria is time-consuming and labour-intensive. Also, there is lack of trained microscopists and reliable equipment especially in rural areas of Nigeria. However, although rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs have improved the ease of appropriate diagnosis of malaria diagnosis, the cost-effectiveness of RDTs in case management of malaria has not been evaluated in Nigeria. The study hence compares the cost-effectiveness of RDT versus syndromic diagnosis and microscopy. Methods A total of 638 patients with fever, clinically diagnosed as malaria (presumptive malaria by health workers, were selected for examination with both RDT and microscopy. Patients positive on RDT received artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT and febrile patients negative on RDT received an antibiotic treatment. Using a decision tree model for a hypothetical cohort of 100,000 patients, the diagnostic alternatives considered were presumptive treatment (base strategy, RDT and microscopy. Costs were based on a consumer and provider perspective while the outcome measure was deaths averted. Information on costs and malaria epidemiology were locally generated, and along with available data on effectiveness of diagnostic tests, adherence level to drugs for treatment, and drug efficacy levels, cost-effectiveness estimates were computed using TreeAge programme. Results were reported based on costs and effects per strategy, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Results The cost-effectiveness analysis at 43.1% prevalence level showed an incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER of 221 per deaths averted between RDT and presumptive treatment, while microscopy is dominated

  14. Malignant pleural mesothelioma: diagnostic value of medical thoracoscopy and long-term prognostic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li-Li; Yang, Yuan; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Tong, Zhao-Hui; Shi, Huan-Zhong

    2018-04-03

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is marked by its difficult diagnosis and poor prognosis. Medical thoracoscopy (MT) is an effective and safe procedure for the diagnosis of exudative pleural effusions and many factors associated with poor prognosis of MPM. We conducted this study to investigate the value of MT for diagnosing of MPM and to identify prognostic factors for MPM patients. From July 2005 through June 2014, a total of 833 patients with undiagnosed pleural effusions underwent MT and pleural biopsies were taken. Clinical data of all patients with MPM were retrospectively analyzed, and those with complete follow-up data were analyzed for prognostic factors. Eventually, MPM was the final diagnosis in 40 patients. Diagnostic efficiency of MT for MPM was 87.5%, since diagnosis of MPM failed to be established in 5 patients during the initial MT. Median survival was 17.1 mo (95% confidence interval: 13.6-20.7 mo). MT findings of pleural adhesion and plaques were adverse prognostic factors for MPM. In addition, old age, male gender, smoking history, histological type, poor staging, no treatment, low total protein level in pleural fluid, and computed tomographic findings such as pulmonary consolidation or infiltration, mediastinal lymphopathy, pulmonary mass or nodules, and pleural nodularity were also poor prognostic factors for MPM. MT is safe with a high positive rate in the diagnosis of MPM, and pleural adhesion and plaques seen under MT may be the adverse prognostic factors for MPM. Multiple clinical characteristics can affect the survival of MPM patients.

  15. ANALYSIS AND QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT FOR RESULTS OF EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS APPLICATION BY MEANS OF DIAGNOSTIC TESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Kon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.The problem actuality for creation, control and estimation of results for competence-oriented educational programs is formulated and proved. Competences elements and components, assembled in modules, course units and parts of educational program, are defined as objects of control. Specific tasks of proficiency examination for competences and their components are stated; subject matter of the paper is formulated. Methods of Research. Some adapted statements and methods of technical science are offered to be applied for control tasks solution, decoding and estimation of education results. The approach to quantitative estimation of testing results with the use of additive integrated differential criterion of estimation is offered. Main Results. Statements, defining conditions of certain and uncertain (indeterminacy decision-making about proficiency examination for elements of discipline components controlled by test according to test realization results, are formulated and proved. Probabilistic characteristicsof both decision-making variants are estimated. Variants of determinate and fuzzy logic mathematic methods application for decreasing decision-making indeterminancy are offered; further research direction is selected for development of methods and algorithms for results decoding of diagnostic tests set realization. Practical Relevance. It is shown, that proposed approach to quantitative estimation of testing results will give the possibility to automate the procedure of formation and analysis for education results, specified in the competence format.

  16. Diagnostic prediction of renal failure from blood serum analysis by FTIR spectrometry and chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanmohammadi, Mohammdreza; Ghasemi, Keyvan; Garmarudi, Amir Bagheri; Ramin, Mehdi

    2015-02-01

    A new diagnostic approach based on Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrometry and classification algorithm has been introduced which provides a rapid, reliable, and easy way to perform blood test for the diagnosis of renal failure. Blood serum samples from 35 renal failure patients and 40 healthy persons were analyzed by ATR-FTIR spectrometry. The resulting data was processed by Quadratic Discriminant Analysis (QDA) and QDA combined with simple filtered method. Spectroscopic studies were performed in 900-2000 cm-1 spectral region with 3.85 cm-1 data space. Results showed 93.33% and 100% of accuracy for QDA and filter-QDA models, respectively. In the first step, 30 samples were applied to construct the model. In order to modify the capability of QDA in prediction of test samples, filter-based feature selection methods were applied. It was found that the filtered spectra coupled with QDA could correctly predict the test samples in most of the cases.

  17. Comparative analysis of cytological findings and diagnostic categories of independent сytopathologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G V Semkina

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the relevance of the application of the Bethesda classification system of interpretation of FNA in practice. In this study was investigated 104 cytological specimens of the thyroid gland from patients with var ious diseases of the thyroid gland. Revision of the cytological results was carried out by four highly qualified cytopathologists, working on the basis of three leading medical centers in the Russian Federation. Also, the respons es of each cytopathologist by diagnostic categories Bethesda Classification were compared. Statistical analysis showed that by the revision of the biopsy specimens there were no statistically significant differences between the ini tial cytologic findings and the results of independent cytopathologists. In analyzing the data, it was found that the fundamental error of cytological diagnosis were papillary carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, as well as “follicular neoplasm”. Comparing the results of histological examination with the responses of the cytopathologists was found that the major fault was the definition of papillary carcinoma and “follicular neoplasm”. The results suggest that Bethesda Classification allows to achieve the best results in the interpretation of the results of FNA, which leads to a more elaborate tactics of treatment of the patient.

  18. Pilot project for a commercial buildings Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Center (EADC) program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capehart, B.L.

    1996-02-01

    Commercial energy use costs businesses around $70 billion annually. Many of these businesses are small and medium sized organizations that do not have the resources to help themselves, or to pay for professional engineering services to help reduce their energy costs and improve their economic competitiveness. Energy cost reduction actions with payback times of around two years could save the commercial sector 15--20%, or $10--$15 billion per year. This project was initially intended to evaluate the feasibility of performing commercial energy audits as an adjunct to the industrial audit program run by the US Department of Energy Industrial Office. This program is housed in 30 universities throughout the United States. Formerly known as Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Centers (EADC`s), the university programs are now called Industrial Assessment Centers (IAC`s) to reflect their expansion from energy use analyses to include waste and productivity analyses. The success of the EADC/IAC program in helping the manufacturing sector provides an excellent model for a similar program in the commercial buildings sector. This project has investigated using the EADC/IAC approach to performing energy audits for the commercial sector, and has determined that such an approach is feasible and cost effective.

  19. Analysis of pfhrp2 genetic diversity in Senegal and implications for use of rapid diagnostic tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The Senegalese National Malaria Control Programme has recommended use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) that target the histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2), specific to Plasmodium falciparum, to diagnose malaria cases. The target antigen has been shown to be polymorphic, which may explain the variability in HRP2-based RDT results reported in field studies. The genetic diversity of the pfhrp2 gene has not been investigated in depth in many African countries. The goal of this study is to determine the extent of polymorphism in pfhrp2 among Senegal, Mali and Uganda parasite populations, and discuss the implications of these findings on the utility of RDTs that are based on HRP2 detection. Methods Sequencing data from the pfhrp2 locus were used to analyze the genetic diversity of this gene among three populations, with different transmission dynamics and malaria parasite ecologies. Nucleotide diversity (π) and non-synonymous nucleotide diversity (πNS) were studied in the pfhrp2 gene from isolates obtained in Senegal. Amino acid repeat length polymorphisms in the PfHRP2 antigen were characterized and parameters of genetic diversity, such as frequency and correlation between repeats in these populations, were assessed. Results The diversity survey of the pfhrp2 gene identified 29 SNPs as well as insertion and deletion polymorphisms within a 918 bp region. The Senegal pfhrp2 exhibited a substantial level of diversity [π = 0.00559 and πNS = 0.014111 (πS = 0.0291627)], similar to several polymorphic genes, such as msp1, involved in immune responses, and the gene encoding the SURFIN polymorphic antigen, which are surface exposed parasite proteins. Extensive repeat length polymorphisms in PfHRP2, as well as similar patterns in the number, organization and the type of predicted amino acid repeats were observed among the three populations, characterized by an occurrence of Type 2, Type 4 and Type 7 repeats. Conclusions These results warrant deeper

  20. Characteristic parameters analysis on diagnostic X-ray beams for dosemeter calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Paulo Marcio Campos de

    2008-01-01

    Ionizing radiation metrology is the base to achieve reliable dose measurements in ali areas; it is also part of the framework that is established to assure radiation protection procedures in order to avoid or minimize the harmful biological effect that may be caused by ionizing radiation. A well done metrology means the use of reliable instruments that comply with standard performance requirements worldwide accepted. Those instruments are expected to be calibrated by Metrology Laboratories under well defined conditions. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) in Standard 61267 established the reference radiations for medical diagnostic x-ray equipment that are recommended to be used for calibrating dosimetric systems for diagnostic dosimetry. In this work, X-ray beam qualities were established in a Calibration Laboratory and their characteristics were analyzed through the measurement of beam parameters like inherent tube filtration, beam uniformity and field size, energy spectra and peak voltage for additional filtration with 94.425 por cent and 99.999 por cent purity filters. Also, the first half-value layer and the homogeneity coefficient were measured for the three RQR 2, RQR 6 and RQR 10 IEC beam qualities and they were analyzed according to the IEC standard. Air-kerma measurements were carried out with an ionization chamber that had its reliability confirmed through repetition and reproducibility reading tests. In 50 sets of measurements the maximum standard deviation found of 10 successive readings was 0.19 %; the maximum shift of the reading mean value at a fixed geometry condition was 0.80 % with an overall standard deviation of 0.23 %. Results showed that the use of different purity filters did not cause a relevant influence on the beam energy spectra. An ionization chamber was also calibrated against a standard dosimeter in ali implemented reference radiations and the relevant sources of uncertainties were estimated. Calibration could be done

  1. Method of evaluation of diagnostics reference levels in computerized tomography; Metodo de avaliacao de niveis de referencia de radiodiagnostico em tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, Walter Flores

    1999-04-01

    Computerized tomography is a complex technique with several selectable exposition parameters delivering high doses to the patient. In this work it was developed a simple methodology to evaluate diagnostic reference levels in computerized tomography, using the concept of Multiple Scan Average Dose (MSAD), recently adopted by the Health Ministry. For evaluation of the MSAD, a dose distribution was obtained through a measured dose profile on the axial axis of a water phantom with thermoluminescence dosemeters, TLD-100, for different exam technique. The MSAD was evaluated hrough two distinct methods. First, it was evaluated by the integration of the dose profile of a single slice and, second, obtained by the integration on central slice of the profile of several slices. The latter is in of accordance with the ionization chamber method, suggesting to be the most practical method of dose evaluation to be applied in the diagnostic reference level assessment routine for CT, using TLDs. (author)

  2. Comparative cost analysis -- computed tomography vs. alternative diagnostic procedures, 1977-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gempel, P.A.; Harris, G.H.; Evans, R.G.

    1977-12-01

    In comparing the total national cost of utilizing computed tomography (CT) for medically indicated diagnoses with that of conventional x-ray, ultrasonography, nuclear medicine, and exploratory surgery, this investigation concludes that there was little, if any, added net cost from CT use in 1977 or will there be in 1980. Computed tomography, generally recognized as a reliable and useful diagnostic modality, has the potential to reduce net costs provided that an optimal number of units can be made available to physicians and patients to achieve projected reductions in alternative procedures. This study examines the actual cost impact of CT on both cranial and body diagnostic procedures. For abdominal and mediastinal disorders, CT scanning is just beginning to emerge as a diagnostic modality. As such, clinical experience is somewhat limited and the authors assume that no significant reduction in conventional procedures took place in 1977. It is estimated that the approximately 375,000 CT body procedures performed in 1977 represent only a 5 percent cost increase over use of other diagnostic modalities. It is projected that 2,400,000 CT body procedures will be performed in 1980 and, depending on assumptions used, total body diagnostic costs will increase only slightly or be reduced. Thirty-one tables appear throughout the text presenting cost data broken down by types of diagnostic procedures used and projections by years. Appendixes present technical cost components for diagnostic procedures, the comparative efficacy of CT as revealed in abstracts of published literature, selected medical diagnoses, and references

  3. Evaluating the accuracy of molecular diagnostic testing for canine visceral leishmaniasis using latent class analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela da Silva Solcà

    Full Text Available Host tissues affected by Leishmania infantum have differing degrees of parasitism. Previously, the use of different biological tissues to detect L. infantum DNA in dogs has provided variable results. The present study was conducted to evaluate the accuracy of molecular diagnostic testing (qPCR in dogs from an endemic area for canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL by determining which tissue type provided the highest rate of parasite DNA detection. Fifty-one symptomatic dogs were tested for CVL using serological, parasitological and molecular methods. Latent class analysis (LCA was performed for accuracy evaluation of these methods. qPCR detected parasite DNA in 100% of these animals from at least one of the following tissues: splenic and bone marrow aspirates, lymph node and skin fragments, blood and conjunctival swabs. Using latent variable as gold standard, the qPCR achieved a sensitivity of 95.8% (CI 90.4-100 in splenic aspirate; 79.2% (CI 68-90.3 in lymph nodes; 77.3% (CI 64.5-90.1 in skin; 75% (CI 63.1-86.9 in blood; 50% (CI 30-70 in bone marrow; 37.5% (CI 24.2-50.8 in left-eye; and 29.2% (CI 16.7-41.6 in right-eye conjunctival swabs. The accuracy of qPCR using splenic aspirates was further evaluated in a random larger sample (n = 800, collected from dogs during a prevalence study. The specificity achieved by qPCR was 76.7% (CI 73.7-79.6 for splenic aspirates obtained from the greater sample. The sensitivity accomplished by this technique was 95% (CI 93.5-96.5 that was higher than those obtained for the other diagnostic tests and was similar to that observed in the smaller sampling study. This confirms that the splenic aspirate is the most effective type of tissue for detecting L. infantum infection. Additionally, we demonstrated that LCA could be used to generate a suitable gold standard for comparative CVL testing.

  4. Diagnostic value of serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen for hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Wang, Zhao-Juan; Chen, Long-Hua; Dong, Wen-Zhu

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the diagnostic value of serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) and SCCA-IgM for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). After a comprehensive search of PubMed and Web of Science databases, we identified eligible studies on the diagnostic value serum SCCAs for HCC. The quality of the eligible studies was assessed using the revised Quality Assessment for Studies of Diagnostic Accuracy (QUADAS-2) tool. The overall diagnostic value of SCCAs for HCC was pooled using a bivariate model. Twelve studies were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivities for SCCA and SCCA-IgM were 0.61 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37-0.81) and 0.70 (95% CI, 0.55-0.82), respectively. The corresponding specificities were 0.80 (95% CI, 0.52-0.94) and 0.62 (95% CI, 0.51-0.72), respectively. The areas under summary receiver operating characteristic (sROC) curves for SCCA and SCCA-IgM were 0.76 (95% CI, 0.72-0.80) and 0.70 (95% CI, 0.66-0.74), respectively. Major design deficiencies of the included studies were two-gate design and partial verification bias. Therefore, we concluded that both serum SCCA and SCCA-IgM have a fair diagnostic value for HCC.

  5. Systematic review and meta-analysis of studies evaluating diagnostic test accuracy: A practical review for clinical researchers-Part II. general guidance and tips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Won; Choi, Sang Hyun; Huh, Jimi; Park, Seong Ho; Lee, June Young

    2015-01-01

    Meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy studies differs from the usual meta-analysis of therapeutic/interventional studies in that, it is required to simultaneously analyze a pair of two outcome measures such as sensitivity and specificity, instead of a single outcome. Since sensitivity and specificity are generally inversely correlated and could be affected by a threshold effect, more sophisticated statistical methods are required for the meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy. Hierarchical models including the bivariate model and the hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic model are increasingly being accepted as standard methods for meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy studies. We provide a conceptual review of statistical methods currently used and recommended for meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy studies. This article could serve as a methodological reference for those who perform systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy studies

  6. Levels and Patterns in the Analysis of the Organizational Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Aida Cimpeanu

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge and analysis of the component elements of the organizational culture helps us greatly understand the respective culture, establish the main guidelines of the company values and understand the behaviours and attitudes of the employees. M. Thevenet indentifies two levels at which the culture manifests itself: the external level – the outside culture (which refers to local, regional or national culture), and the inner level –the internal culture (including organizational culture, profe...

  7. Wavelet and Spectral Analysis of Some Selected Problems in Reactor Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunde, Carl

    2004-12-01

    Both spectral and wavelet analysis were successfully used in various diagnostic problems involving non-stationary core processes in nuclear power reactors. Three different problems were treated: two-phase flow identification, detector tube impacting and core-barrel vibrations. The first two problems are of non-stationary nature, whereas the last one is not. In the first problem, neutron radiographic and visible light images of four different vertical two-phase flow regimes, bubbly, slug, chum and annular flow, were analysed and classified with a neuro-wavelet algorithm. The algorithm consists of a wavelet part, using the 2-D discrete wavelet transform and of an artificial neural network. It classifies the different flow regimes with up to 99% efficiency. Detector tubes in a Boiling Water Reactor may execute vibrations and may also impact on nearby fuel-assemblies. Signals from in-core neutron detectors in Ringhals-1 were analysed, for detection of impacting, with both a classical spectral method and wavelet-based methods. The wavelet methods include both the discrete and the continuous 1-D wavelet transform. It was found that there is agreement between the different methods as well as with visual inspections made during the outage at the plant. However, the wavelet technique has the advantage that it does not require expert judgement for the interpretation of the analysis. In the last part two analytical calculations of the neutron noise, induced by shell-mode core-barrel vibrations, were carried out. The results are in good agreement with calculations from a numerical simulator. An out-of-phase behaviour between in-core and ex-core positions was found, which is in agreement with earlier measurements from the Pressurised Water Reactor Ringhals-3. The results from these calculations are planned to be used when diagnosing the shell-mode core-barrel vibrations in an operating plant.

  8. Wavelet and Spectral Analysis of Some Selected Problems in Reactor Diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunde, Carl

    2004-12-01

    Both spectral and wavelet analysis were successfully used in various diagnostic problems involving non-stationary core processes in nuclear power reactors. Three different problems were treated: two-phase flow identification, detector tube impacting and core-barrel vibrations. The first two problems are of non-stationary nature, whereas the last one is not. In the first problem, neutron radiographic and visible light images of four different vertical two-phase flow regimes, bubbly, slug, chum and annular flow, were analysed and classified with a neuro-wavelet algorithm. The algorithm consists of a wavelet part, using the 2-D discrete wavelet transform and of an artificial neural network. It classifies the different flow regimes with up to 99% efficiency. Detector tubes in a Boiling Water Reactor may execute vibrations and may also impact on nearby fuel-assemblies. Signals from in-core neutron detectors in Ringhals-1 were analysed, for detection of impacting, with both a classical spectral method and wavelet-based methods. The wavelet methods include both the discrete and the continuous 1-D wavelet transform. It was found that there is agreement between the different methods as well as with visual inspections made during the outage at the plant. However, the wavelet technique has the advantage that it does not require expert judgement for the interpretation of the analysis. In the last part two analytical calculations of the neutron noise, induced by shell-mode core-barrel vibrations, were carried out. The results are in good agreement with calculations from a numerical simulator. An out-of-phase behaviour between in-core and ex-core positions was found, which is in agreement with earlier measurements from the Pressurised Water Reactor Ringhals-3. The results from these calculations are planned to be used when diagnosing the shell-mode core-barrel vibrations in an operating plant

  9. GRABGAM Analysis of Ultra-Low-Level HPGe Gamma Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winn, W.G.

    1999-01-01

    The GRABGAM code has been used successfully for ultra-low level HPGe gamma spectrometry analysis since its development in 1985 at Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). Although numerous gamma analysis codes existed at that time, reviews of institutional and commercial codes indicated that none addressed all features that were desired by SRTC. Furthermore, it was recognized that development of an in-house code would better facilitate future evolution of the code to address SRTC needs based on experience with low-level spectra. GRABGAM derives its name from Gamma Ray Analysis BASIC Generated At MCA/PC

  10. GRABGAM Analysis of Ultra-Low-Level HPGe Gamma Spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winn, W.G.

    1999-07-28

    The GRABGAM code has been used successfully for ultra-low level HPGe gamma spectrometry analysis since its development in 1985 at Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). Although numerous gamma analysis codes existed at that time, reviews of institutional and commercial codes indicated that none addressed all features that were desired by SRTC. Furthermore, it was recognized that development of an in-house code would better facilitate future evolution of the code to address SRTC needs based on experience with low-level spectra. GRABGAM derives its name from Gamma Ray Analysis BASIC Generated At MCA/PC.

  11. Pilot Dependence on Imperfect Diagnostic Automation in Simulated UAV Flights: An Attentional Visual Scanning Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wickens, Christopher; Dixon, Stephen; Goh, Juliana; Hammer, Ben

    2005-01-01

    An unmanned air vehicle (UAV) simulation was designed to reveal the effects of imperfectly reliable diagnostic automation a monitor of system health parameters on pilot attention, as the latter was assessed via visual scanning...

  12. Exercise echocardiography or exercise SPECT imaging? - A meta-analysis of diagnostic test performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleischmann, KE; Hunink, MGM; Kuntz, KM; Douglas, PS

    1998-01-01

    Context.-Cardiac imaging has advanced rapidly, providing clinicians with several choices for evaluating patients with suspected coronary artery disease, but few studies compare modalities directly. .-To review the contemporary literature and to compare the diagnostic performance of exercise

  13. Delirium diagnosis defined by cluster analysis of symptoms versus diagnosis by DSM and ICD criteria: diagnostic accuracy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Esteban; Franco, José G; Trzepacz, Paula T; Gaviria, Ana M; Meagher, David J; Palma, José; Viñuelas, Eva; Grau, Imma; Vilella, Elisabet; de Pablo, Joan

    2016-05-26

    Information on validity and reliability of delirium criteria is necessary for clinicians, researchers, and further developments of DSM or ICD. We compare four DSM and ICD delirium diagnostic criteria versions, which were developed by consensus of experts, with a phenomenology-based natural diagnosis delineated using cluster analysis of delirium features in a sample with a high prevalence of dementia. We also measured inter-rater reliability of each system when applied by two evaluators from distinct disciplines. Cross-sectional analysis of 200 consecutive patients admitted to a skilled nursing facility, independently assessed within 24-48 h after admission with the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 (DRS-R98) and for DSM-III-R, DSM-IV, DSM-5, and ICD-10 criteria for delirium. Cluster analysis (CA) delineated natural delirium and nondelirium reference groups using DRS-R98 items and then diagnostic systems' performance were evaluated against the CA-defined groups using logistic regression and crosstabs for discriminant analysis (sensitivity, specificity, percentage of subjects correctly classified by each diagnostic system and their individual criteria, and performance for each system when excluding each individual criterion are reported). Kappa Index (K) was used to report inter-rater reliability for delirium diagnostic systems and their individual criteria. 117 (58.5 %) patients had preexisting dementia according to the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly. CA delineated 49 delirium subjects and 151 nondelirium. Against these CA groups, delirium diagnosis accuracy was highest using DSM-III-R (87.5 %) followed closely by DSM-IV (86.0 %), ICD-10 (85.5 %) and DSM-5 (84.5 %). ICD-10 had the highest specificity (96.0 %) but lowest sensitivity (53.1 %). DSM-III-R had the best sensitivity (81.6 %) and the best sensitivity-specificity balance. DSM-5 had the highest inter-rater reliability (K =0.73) while DSM-III-R criteria were the least

  14. A Meta-Analysis of Typhoid Diagnostic Accuracy Studies: A Recommendation to Adopt a Standardized Composite Reference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen L Storey

    Full Text Available Novel typhoid diagnostics currently under development have the potential to improve clinical care, surveillance, and the disease burden estimates that support vaccine introduction. Blood culture is most often used as the reference method to evaluate the accuracy of new typhoid tests; however, it is recognized to be an imperfect gold standard. If no single gold standard test exists, use of a composite reference standard (CRS can improve estimation of diagnostic accuracy. Numerous studies have used a CRS to evaluate new typhoid diagnostics; however, there is no consensus on an appropriate CRS. In order to evaluate existing tests for use as a reference test or inclusion in a CRS, we performed a systematic review of the typhoid literature to include all index/reference test combinations observed. We described the landscape of comparisons performed, showed results of a meta-analysis on the accuracy of the more common combinations, and evaluated sources of variability based on study quality. This wide-ranging meta-analysis suggests that no single test has sufficiently good performance but some existing diagnostics may be useful as part of a CRS. Additionally, based on findings from the meta-analysis and a constructed numerical example demonstrating the use of CRS, we proposed necessary criteria and potential components of a typhoid CRS to guide future recommendations. Agreement and adoption by all investigators of a standardized CRS is requisite, and would improve comparison of new diagnostics across independent studies, leading to the identification of a better reference test and improved confidence in prevalence estimates.

  15. Diagnostic value of fecal tumor M2-pyruvate kinase for CRC screening: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Liu, Jianjun; Xue, Huiping; Huang, Gang

    2012-10-15

    The measurement of fecal tumor M2-pyruvate kinase (PKM2), overexpressed in tumor cells, has been proposed as a novel tool for detecting colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the sensitivity and specificity of this test varied among studies. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of fecal PKM2 for CRC and to evaluate its utility in the CRC screening. It was compared to guaiac fecal occult blood test (gFOBT) or immunological fecal occult blood test (iFOBT). Through comprehensive literature search, 10 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included. Summary estimates for sensitivity and specificity were calculated by using the bivariate random effect model. The hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic curve was also undertaken. The overall sensitivity and specificity of fecal PKM2 for detecting CRC were 79% (95% CI = 75-83%) and 81% (95% CI = 73-87%), respectively. The summary positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 74% (95% CI = 56-87%) and 86% (95% CI = 79-91%), respectively. The pooled diagnostic odds ratio was 16 (95% CI = 10-26). In head-to-head comparison, the diagnostic odds ratio of PKM2 and gFOBT for CRC were 10.167 (95% CI = 5.992-17.250) and 6.557 (95% CI = 3.467-12.403), respectively. The diagnostic odds ratio of PKM2 and iFOBT for CRC were 9.542 (95% CI = 5.893-15.452) and 67.248 (95% CI = 16.194-279.26), respectively. The fecal PKM2 test was a diagnostic tool with moderate sensitivity and specificity for detecting CRC. Its diagnostic efficiency was similar to that of gFOBT. Because of its relatively low specificity and positive predict value, fecal PKM2 was not recommended used alone as a screening tool for CRC. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  16. High-performance pickups for beam diagnostics. Design, analysis, characterization and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelovski, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    This work introduces the design, analysis, characterization and implementation of high-performance pickups for two beam diagnostic instruments, a Bunch Arrival-time Monitor (BAM) and an Energy Beam Position Monitor (EBPM) at the European XFEL. As a part of the BAM the cone-shaped pickups are proposed along with the corresponding RF-frontend. The designed pickups deliver a beam induced signal with a slope steepness of around 400 mV/ps and a bandwidth of 40 GHz. These signal characteristics are well inside the design requirements, i.e., a slope steepness of 300 mV/ps and more than ten times better compared to the signal from the state-of-the-art pickups. The pickups are installed and commissioned at three accelerator facilities, FLASH at DESY, the quasi-CW SRF accelerator ELBE at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf and the SwissFEL injector test facility at Paul Scherrer Institute. The obtained measurement results from the installed pickups are in good agreement with the simulations. A comparison between the signal measurements with the cone-shaped pickup and the state-of-the-art is performed at ELBE showing an improvement by a factor of ten. The potential of the pickups for sub-10 fs arrival-time measurements for bunch charges of 20 pC is demonstrated at ELBE and at SwissFEL injector test facility. The introduced coneshaped pickups are the first commercially available pickups with a bandwidth of up to 40 GHz. For the EBPM, a modular pickup structure with two types of planar pickups, microstrip transmission line and grounded coplanar waveguide with perpendicular connectors is investigated. The transition region between the connector and the line is optimized for two substrate materials, alumina and glass with a reflection coefficient better than -20 dB up to 6 GHz.

  17. Single Center Retrospective Analysis of Conventional and Radial TIG Catheters for Transradial Diagnostic Coronary Angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorpahl, Marc; Koehler, Till; Foerst, Jason; Panagiotopoulos, Spyridon; Schleiting, Heinrich; Koss, Klaus; Ziegler, Gunda; Brinkmann, Hilmar; Seyfarth, Melchior; Tiroch, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Current guidelines favor the radial approach for coronary angiography. Therefore, specialty radial diagnostic catheters were designed to engage both coronary arteries with a single device. However, it is unclear if single catheters are superior to conventional catheters. A retrospective analysis was performed of consecutive right radial coronary angiographies to determine catheter use, fluoroscopy time, radiation dosage, and consumption of contrast. Procedures were performed with a single TIG catheter or conventional catheters (CONV). Procedures with coronary artery bypass grafts or ventricular angiographies were excluded. 273 transradial procedures were performed successfully. 95 procedures were performed with CONV and 178 procedures with a TIG. Crossover to additional catheters was higher in TIG (15.2%) compared to CONV (5.3%, p = 0.02). Fluoroscopy time was comparable between CONV and TIG, without crossover (2.2 ± 1.2 min versus 2.3 ± 1.2 min; n.s.), however, greater in the case of crossover for CONV (5.8 ± 0.7) and TIG (7.6 ± 3.0; p = 0.0001). Radiation dosage was similar in CONV and the TIG, without crossover (1419 ± 1075, cGy∗cm(2) versus 1690 ± 1138; n.s.), however, greater for CONV (2374 ± 620) and TIG (3733 ± 2281, p = 0.05) with crossover. Overall, the amount of contrast was greater in TIG (56 ± 13 mL) versus CONV (48 ± 3 mL; p = 0.0003). CONV femoral catheters may be the primary choice for radial approach.

  18. Diagnostic Value of Manual and Computerized Methods of Dental Casts Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rahimi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of computerized and manual methods of dental cast analysis.Materials and Methods: Twenty set-ups of upper and lower casts using artificial teeth corresponding to various malocclusions were created for a diagnostic in vitro study. Values of tooth size were calculated from the isolated artificial teeth out of the set-ups, results were considered as a gold standard for the tooth size. Arch width was calculated from the existing set-ups on the dentins.Impressions were taken of the casts with alginate and duplicated with dental stone. Models were measured with digital caliper manually. Then images were taken from the occlusal views of the casts by a digital camera. Measurements were done on digital images with the AutoCAD software.The results of the computerized and manual methods were compared with the gold standard.Intra class correlation coefficient of reliability was used to measure the accuracy ofthe methods and the Friedman technique used to evaluate the significance of differences.Results: Results indicated that all measurements were highly correlated, e.g. gold standard and manual (0.9613-0.9991, gold standard and computerized (0.7118-0.9883, manual and computerized (0.6734-0.9914. Statistically significant differences were present between these methods (P<0.05, but they proved not to be clinically significant.Conclusion: Manual measurement is still the most accurate method when compared to the computerized measurements and the results of measurement by computer should be interpreted with caution.

  19. Diagnostic Accuracy of Rating Scales for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ling-Yin; Wang, Mei-Yeh; Tsai, Pei-Shan

    2016-03-01

    The Child Behavior Checklist-Attention Problem (CBCL-AP) scale and Conners Rating Scale-Revised (CRS-R) are commonly used behavioral rating scales for diagnosing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents. To evaluate and compare the diagnostic performance of CBCL-AP and CRS-R in diagnosing ADHD in children and adolescents. PubMed, Ovid Medline, and other relevant electronic databases were searched for articles published up to May 2015. We included studies evaluating the diagnostic performance of either CBCL-AP scale or CRS-R for diagnosing ADHD in pediatric populations in comparison with a defined reference standard. Bivariate random effects models were used for pooling and comparing diagnostic performance. We identified and evaluated 14 and 11 articles on CBCL-AP and CRS-R, respectively. The results revealed pooled sensitivities of 0.77, 0.75, 0.72, and 0.83 and pooled specificities of 0.73, 0.75, 0.84, and 0.84 for CBCL-AP, Conners Parent Rating Scale-Revised, Conners Teacher Rating Scale-Revised, and Conners Abbreviated Symptom Questionnaire (ASQ), respectively. No difference was observed in the diagnostic performance of the various scales. Study location, age of participants, and percentage of female participants explained the heterogeneity in the specificity of the CBCL-AP. CBCL-AP and CRS-R both yielded moderate sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing ADHD. According to the comparable diagnostic performance of all examined scales, ASQ may be the most effective diagnostic tool in assessing ADHD because of its brevity and high diagnostic accuracy. CBCL is recommended for more comprehensive assessments. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Patient Dose During Carotid Artery Stenting With Embolic-Protection Devices: Evaluation With Radiochromic Films and Related Diagnostic Reference Levels According to Factors Influencing the Procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Ercole, Loredana; Quaretti, Pietro; Cionfoli, Nicola; Klersy, Catherine; Bocchiola, Milena; Rodolico, Giuseppe; Azzaretti, Andrea; Lisciandro, Francesco; Cascella, Tommaso; Zappoli Thyrion, Federico

    2013-01-01

    To measure the maximum entrance skin dose (MESD) on patients undergoing carotid artery stenting (CAS) using embolic-protection devices, to analyze the dependence of dose and exposure parameters on anatomical, clinical, and technical factors affecting the procedure complexity, to obtain some local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs), and to evaluate whether overcoming DRLs is related to procedure complexity. MESD were evaluated with radiochromic films in 31 patients (mean age 72 ± 7 years). Five of 33 (15 %) procedures used proximal EPD, and 28 of 33 (85 %) procedures used distal EPD. Local DRLs were derived from the recorded exposure parameters in 93 patients (65 men and 28 women, mean age 73 ± 9 years) undergoing 96 CAS with proximal (33 %) or distal (67 %) EPD. Four bilateral lesions were included. MESD values (mean 0.96 ± 0.42 Gy) were FR ) were 269 Gy cm 2 , 28 minutes, and 251, respectively. Only simultaneous bilateral treatment was associated with KAP (odds ratio [OR] 10.14, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1–102.7, p FR overexposures (OR 10.8, 95 % CI 1.1–109.5, p FR overexposure (OR 2.8, 95 % CI 1.1–7.4, p = 0.040). At multivariable analysis, stenosis ≥ 90 % (OR 2.8, 95 % CI 1.1–7.4, p = 0.040) and bilateral treatment (OR 10.8, 95 % CI 1.1–109.5, p = 0.027) were associated with overexposure for two or more parameters. Skin doses are not problematic in CAS with EPD because these procedures rarely lead to doses >2 Gy.

  1. Moderation analysis using a two-level regression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ke-Hai; Cheng, Ying; Maxwell, Scott

    2014-10-01

    Moderation analysis is widely used in social and behavioral research. The most commonly used model for moderation analysis is moderated multiple regression (MMR) in which the explanatory variables of the regression model include product terms, and the model is typically estimated by least squares (LS). This paper argues for a two-level regression model in which the regression coefficients of a criterion variable on predictors are further regressed on moderator variables. An algorithm for estimating the parameters of the two-level model by normal-distribution-based maximum likelihood (NML) is developed. Formulas for the standard errors (SEs) of the parameter estimates are provided and studied. Results indicate that, when heteroscedasticity exists, NML with the two-level model gives more efficient and more accurate parameter estimates than the LS analysis of the MMR model. When error variances are homoscedastic, NML with the two-level model leads to essentially the same results as LS with the MMR model. Most importantly, the two-level regression model permits estimating the percentage of variance of each regression coefficient that is due to moderator variables. When applied to data from General Social Surveys 1991, NML with the two-level model identified a significant moderation effect of race on the regression of job prestige on years of education while LS with the MMR model did not. An R package is also developed and documented to facilitate the application of the two-level model.

  2. Clinical Diagnostic Utility of IP-10 and LAM Antigen Levels for the Diagnosis of Tuberculous Pleural Effusions in a High Burden Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dheda, Keertan; Van-Zyl Smit, Richard N.; Sechi, Leonardo A.; Badri, Motasim; Meldau, Richard; Symons, Gregory; Khalfey, Hoosein; Carr, Igshaan; Maredza, Alice; Dawson, Rodney; Wainright, Helen; Whitelaw, Andrew; Bateman, Eric D.; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2009-01-01

    Background Current tools for the diagnosis of tuberculosis pleural effusions are sub-optimal. Data about the value of new diagnostic technologies are limited, particularly, in high burden settings. Preliminary case control studies have identified IFN-γ-inducible-10kDa protein (IP-10) as a promising diagnostic marker; however, its diagnostic utility in a day-to-day clinical setting is unclear. Detection of LAM antigen has not previously been evaluated in pleural fluid. Methods We investigated the comparative diagnostic utility of established (adenosine deaminase [ADA]), more recent (standardized nucleic-acid-amplification-test [NAAT]) and newer technologies (a standardized LAM mycobacterial antigen-detection assay and IP-10 levels) for the evaluation of pleural effusions in 78 consecutively recruited South African tuberculosis suspects. All consenting participants underwent pleural biopsy unless contra-indicated or refused. The reference standard comprised culture positivity for M. tuberculosis or histology suggestive of tuberculosis. Principal Findings Of 74 evaluable subjects 48, 7 and 19 had definite, probable and non-TB, respectively. IP-10 levels were significantly higher in TB vs non-TB participants (p<0.0001). The respective outcomes [sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV %] for the different diagnostic modalities were: ADA at the 30 IU/L cut-point [96; 69; 90; 85], NAAT [6; 93; 67; 28], IP-10 at the 28,170 pg/ml ROC-derived cut-point [80; 82; 91; 64], and IP-10 at the 4035 pg/ml cut-point [100; 53; 83; 100]. Thus IP-10, using the ROC-derived cut-point, missed ∼20% of TB cases and mis-diagnosed ∼20% of non-TB cases. By contrast, when a lower cut-point was used a negative test excluded TB. The NAAT had a poor sensitivity but high specificity. LAM antigen-detection was not diagnostically useful. Conclusion Although IP-10, like ADA, has sub-optimal specificity, it may be a clinically useful rule-out test for tuberculous pleural effusions. Larger multi

  3. Empirical likelihood-based confidence intervals for the sensitivity of a continuous-scale diagnostic test at a fixed level of specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gengsheng Qin; Davis, Angela E; Jing, Bing-Yi

    2011-06-01

    For a continuous-scale diagnostic test, it is often of interest to find the range of the sensitivity of the test at the cut-off that yields a desired specificity. In this article, we first define a profile empirical likelihood ratio for the sensitivity of a continuous-scale diagnostic test and show that its limiting distribution is a scaled chi-square distribution. We then propose two new empirical likelihood-based confidence intervals for the sensitivity of the test at a fixed level of specificity by using the scaled chi-square distribution. Simulation studies are conducted to compare the finite sample performance of the newly proposed intervals with the existing intervals for the sensitivity in terms of coverage probability. A real example is used to illustrate the application of the recommended methods.

  4. Comparison of exercise perfusion and ventricular function imaging: an analysis of factors affecting the diagnostic accuracy of each technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osbakken, M.D.; Okada, R.D.; Boucher, C.A.; Strauss, H.W.; Pohost, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Exercise thallium-201 perfusion scans and gated equilibrium blood pool scans were performed in 120 catheterized patients with a chest pain syndrome. Eighty-six patients had coronary artery disease and 34 patients did not. The effects of gender, propranolol, exercise level, exercise ischemia, history of typical angina, history of previous myocardial infarction, electrocardiographic Q waves, number of diseases vessels and extent of coronary artery obstruction on diagnostic accuracy were evaluated. Thallium scans and anginal history were less sensitive for detecting coronary disease in women (men: thallium 79%; angina 77%; women: 54 and 46%, respectively; p less than 0.05). Exercise level did not significantly affect the diagnostic accuracy of either scan. Thallium and gated scans were both highly sensitive (95%) in detecting disease in 20 patients with a prior myocardial infarction, angina and a positive electrocardiogram. The sensitivity of the thallium scan significantly decreased as the number of diseased vessels decreased. Both thallium and gated scans were less frequently positive in patients with atypical angina or no Q waves, but were not significantly influenced by electrocardiographic ischemia. The sensitivity and specificity of both scans were low in 57 patients with the combination of atypical angina, no history of infarction and equivocal stress electrocardiogram thallium. When stress thallium scan evaluation included the electrocardiogram and thallium scan interpretation, the diagnostic accuracy was 81%. When all the information from gated scans (wall motion, ejection fraction, pulmonary blood volume) was combined for final gated scan evaluation, the diagnostic accuracy was 83%. When electrocardiographic data were added to all three gated scan variables, diagnostic accuracy was 77%

  5. Biomedical visual data analysis to build an intelligent diagnostic decision support system in medical genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuru, Kaya; Niranjan, Mahesan; Tunca, Yusuf; Osvank, Erhan; Azim, Tayyaba

    2014-10-01

    In general, medical geneticists aim to pre-diagnose underlying syndromes based on facial features before performing cytological or molecular analyses where a genotype-phenotype interrelation is possible. However, determining correct genotype-phenotype interrelationships among many syndromes is tedious and labor-intensive, especially for extremely rare syndromes. Thus, a computer-aided system for pre-diagnosis can facilitate effective and efficient decision support, particularly when few similar cases are available, or in remote rural districts where diagnostic knowledge of syndromes is not readily available. The proposed methodology, visual diagnostic decision support system (visual diagnostic DSS), employs machine learning (ML) algorithms and digital image processing techniques in a hybrid approach for automated diagnosis in medical genetics. This approach uses facial features in reference images of disorders to identify visual genotype-phenotype interrelationships. Our statistical method describes facial image data as principal component features and diagnoses syndromes using these features. The proposed system was trained using a real dataset of previously published face images of subjects with syndromes, which provided accurate diagnostic information. The method was tested using a leave-